HANDBOOK FOR PROJECTS

:
DEVELOPMENT MANAGEMENT AND FUNDRAISING

Prepared by Dr Anne Touwen Convener IFUW Special Committee on Project Development 2001
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PLANNING PROJECTS .................................................................................................................1 PROJECT PLANNING CYCLE......................................................................................................4 PROJECT IMPLEMENTATION ..................................................................................................18 EVALUATION ..............................................................................................................................23 FUNDRAISING IS FRIENDRAISING ........................................................................................26 VARIOUS SOURCES OF FUNDING .........................................................................................31 PROJECT PROPOSAL WRITING ..............................................................................................38

International Federation of University Women 8, rue de l’Ancien-Port, 1201 Geneva, Switzerland Tel: (41 22) 731 23 80; Fax: (41 22) 738 04 40 E-mail: ifuw@ifuw.org; internet: http://www.ifuw.org

FROM THE IFUW PRESIDENT . . .
Project development is an integral part of IFUW’s programme in carrying out its mission to improve the status of women and girls, promote lifelong education and enable graduate women to use their expertise to effect change. Over the years IFUW has promoted and supported project development and training in numerous ways. It was, in 1919, a small group of IFUW members that established the Virginia Gildesleeve International Fund for Women designed to support projects world-wide focusing on women’s educational activities, leadership training and community development. This Fund enabled IFUW to hold special training workshops in conjunction with IFUW Triennial Conferences as well as providing grants for many development projects initiated by IFUW affiliates as well as resources materials such as this handbook. The Counterpart Aid Programme which started in 1978 and which has evolved into the present Bina Roy Partners in Development Programme, has assisted many IFUW affiliates in the development of sustainable community projects as well as enabling affiliates in developing countries and countries in transition to be part of IFUW. In 1980-81 IFUW began its partnership with four other major women’s organizations with the establishment of Project Five-0 dedicated to joint development of projects to provide training in income generation and general welfare of communities. In 1980 IFUW established a Special Committee on Projects to “work with national federations and associations on projects requiring funding from outside agencies” It is interesting to note that this first Committee developed criteria for a “good” project: • • • • • • A project should arise from a genuine, identified need A project should usually originate from the grass-roots, and/or be innovative in character A project should aim to improve the educational, social and economic position of women, girls and children A project should be within the capability of the affiliate, either alone or in cooperation with other organizations A project should be managed, implemented, evaluated, and reported on by the affiliate’s members, or, in part, by persons designated to do so by the affiliate and A project should increase the self-reliance of the recipients and beneficiaries.

Since 1980 special workshops on project development have been held in conjunction with a number of IFUW Triennial Conferences and Councils as well as at the regional and national levels. The residential training provided by the “Base Camp” programmes held in conjunction with the IFUW Triennial Conferences in Graz,1997, and in Ottawa, 2001, illustrate IFUW’s continuing emphasis on the importance of training in project development In 1995 a handbook on organizational development was produced "Planning for Change"; it included a section on Project Development. IFUW is grateful to Dr. Anne Touwen for developing and producing this Handbook for Project Development and Management and Fundraising. It builds on previous experience and work while providing a comprehensive resource with concrete examples on project development and fundraising. It is our hope that this resource will assist IFUW members to develop projects that meet community and organizational needs and further the mission of IFUW world-wide. Linda Souter, IFUW President 1998-2001

Introduction
Project development always was and still is an important activity for many IFUW affiliates. These projects may vary in content or scope but not in dedication and commitment shown by associations, branches and individual members. To strengthen this activity IFUW organized in 1998 (Graz) and 2001 (Ottawa) at its Triennial Conference a major training event under the name Base Camp. Participants from all affiliates were staying in the same residence and received training in project development and management, proposal writing and fundraising. The training also included a practical work assignment. As Base Camp coordinator and trainer I have been delegated by the IFUW Board of Officers to prepare a handbook in order to consolidate the training and offer a reference book for future project development and management in IFUW’s affiliates. IFUW is grateful to the publishers of the Worldwide Fundraiser’s Handbook (The Directory for Social Change, London) and The International Donor Directory (International Partnership for Human Development, London) for the permission to use materials on fundraising and proposal writing, as indicated in the text. IFUW would also like to express its sincere thanks to UNESCO* for their grant enabling it to publish this handbook. Together with the grant from the Virginia Gildersleeve Fund Inc., and CIDA* the UNESCO money enabled us to partly cover travel costs of Base Camp participants as well. The Handbook provides a comprehensive overview of the project planning procedure with many concrete examples. It also gives an overview of the most important skills for fundraising and describes in detail how proposals should be written. And last but not least, various sources of funding are discussed. I hope that you find it useful.

Dr Anne Touwen

* UNESCO: CIDA:

United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization Canadian International Development Agency

NB As some of the materials in this Handbook are reproduced from other textbooks, by kind permission of the publishers as indicated in the text, this Handbook is for internal use only.

Project Development & Management
Project Cycle

Baseline Data and Assessing Needs

Evaluation

Planning

Implementation and Monitoring

1 1
1.1

PLANNING PROJECTS
Introduction

Experience shows that when projects are being planned, the task of establishing a sound basis for goals and objectives, and defining them properly, is not given sufficient attention. Yet, these are the most fundamental elements of planning. A good plan alone is no guarantee for a good project. However, a plan which builds on a weak foundation can lead to a good project idea developing into a poor project. Project proposals and plans differ in style and in degree of detail on specific activities. The differences depend on the type of project, but many are also matters of choice. Some prefer a loose framework plan with details to be filled in along the way. Others prefer a more detailed master plan. When one considers applying for donor funding then certainly a well written, detailed project proposal has to be made. Regardless of what is chosen, the essential elements described below will make up the basis for the project document. Important aspects which should be considered in all development-related project proposals are gender, the impact on the environment and sustainability. They ensure greater viability and impact/effect of our efforts. Before describing the various steps in the planning process I first will discuss these issues in some more detail. 1.2 Integrating Gender in Community Related Project Planning

The community development approach, designed to create conditions of economic and social progress, emphasises the significance of people's participation, needs orientation, self-reliance, consciousness-raising, bottom-up approach to development, and empowerment of communities, and thus of both women and men. Integration and sustainability are keywords in this approach which is based on the ideal situation that women and men organise themselves in a democratic manner to: (a) define their needs, problems and issues; (b) develop plans and strategies to meet these needs, and (c) implement such plans with maximum community participation to reap the benefits. "Participation" of women and men provides an effective means to mobilise resources, to tap knowledge and energy, and above all provides legitimacy to the project or activity, and promotes commitment and ownership, and thus sustainability. "Empowerment" is a concept that goes beyond participation. It is a process which promotes the sharing of power. Therefore, empowerment helps people to liberate themselves from mental and physical dependence. It is the ability to stand independently, think progressively, plan and implement changes, and accept the outcomes. Empowerment of women is a crucial aspect of any community development programme/project. Gendered community development, therefore, takes women's interests and needs as a starting point as much as those of men. And, consequently, integrates gender in all phases of the project cycle, from planning to implementation to evaluation.

• Strengthen the women's confidence in themselves. 1. for instance. The sustainable use of natural resources is impossible without consideration of gender relations and issues. To involve women in a local planning process a few basic rules apply: • Meet the women where they are. • Stimulate associations or encourage them to join existing organisations that promote the interests of women and open up channels for funding. • Do a gender sensitive needs assessment. our environment is the planet.3 Environmental Considerations By environment is understood the totality of conditions. • Arrange small self-governing groups and provide the necessary skills training. circumstances and influences surrounding and affecting the development of any organisms. • Start with issues concerning everyday life (their practical needs). • Recognise the importance of face-to-face contact. • Underline the "all win" situation of the participation of women. making use of whatever resources are available. At the global scale. our environment is made up of both natural and humanly created or built environments. • Move from dreams to visions to plans to action: make all your planning action-oriented and use strategic alliances to strengthen your position. It is women who very often manage this economy. at the local level it is the surrounding natural ecosystem. In gender-sensitive project planning we. they provide the labour. from the collection of data for a situational analysis and needs assessment to the evaluation of the project at the end. have to: • Collect gender-sensitive data and do a gender-sensitive situational analysis. Too often better environmental management does not benefit women. therefore. 1992. • Develop projects which take into account the different needs and interests of women and men. includes the rights of women to use land in order to have a means of livelihood either from natural resources or from income generating activities. Urbanisation places a burden on these already vulnerable households in that the environment in which people live is extremely unhealthy and the possibilities for food production are extremely limited. ensure that their voices are heard and that their input is taken seriously. therefore. The fundamental human right to subsistence. . industrial economy develop adaptive strategies making use of a combination of natural environment resources and income from work to buy the necessities of life. on the contrary. Projects should always be screened on possible environmental impacts from a gender-sensitive perspective. This was recognised by the UN when the Women's Action Agenda 21 was drawn up for the UN Conference on Environment and Development in Rio de Janeiro. without gaining the benefit. Households in societies in transition to an urban. it is sometimes at the expense of women. • Perform gender-sensitive monitoring and evaluation. organise meetings at a time which is convenient to them (not when they are busy harvesting).2 Gender-sensitive Project Planning Gender-sensitive planning requires that gender is integrated into all the planning steps. and communities. In the case of human individuals.

Services and Equipment Budget Implementation Coordination Monitoring Contingency Management Evaluation .3 Community Project Development Model Baseline Study Needs Assessment Goals and Objectives Feasibility Study (Resources&Constraints) Planning Project Activities Activity Plan Time Frame Responsibilities Facilities.

Often. On the other hand. extraneous. All planning must therefore be based upon knowledge of the real situation. The findings should guide and -define the content of the project formulation. However. Collecting enough relevant information to shed perfect light on every aspect of a problem is a virtual impossibility. The project partners must therefore seek to find a balance between too much and too little information. a feasibility study 4. and what is implemented was not planned. and charting the local resources available to do something about them. traditions. and relationships. Goals. There is no region or group of people totally devoid of resources. A good initial situation analysis is necessary for good project implementation. there are too many projects based solely on information gathered during a short visit by a donor organisation. Reports often contain too much information or have significantly different objectives and perspectives. It is essential to find out what is perceived as the real problem locally. Research in the traditional sense is not always relevant to planning. Every group has a history. Implementation. Evaluation In this chapter the first three phases are discussed. The Design phase: developing an action plan. There will always be unclear aspects about which more data can be obtained. in light of new information.4 2 PROJECT PLANNING CYCLE The project cycle consists of five distinct phases: 1. Too much irrelevant information is a common problem. and of the various factors which have formed it. an NGO (non-governmental organisation) comes to an area because overwhelming problems have come to the attention of the outside world. and thereby to the implementation of the project. values. supplement and complement locally available resources should be a prime concern. . how problems interrelate. Needs Assessment 3. including monitoring progress 5. and which of the problems are considered most urgent. Collecting Baseline data: a situation analysis and resource charting 2. The attitude that everything needs to be supplied from outside should be avoided.1 A Baseline Study and Situational Analysis The situation analysis aims at describing problems and needs within an area. a way of coexisting with nature. a social structure. Sometimes a short conversation is all. how they have evolved. Finding ways to use. and issues that can be assessed differently. not all types of data and information are equally useful. and resource inputs are all meaningless without understanding the context of the target group: the environment. out-dated or distorted information is of limited use. capital etc. Research can be too expensive or take too long to carry out. activities. An outsider often experiences difficulties in getting a complete picture of such locally available resources. Inaccurate. 2. The situation analysis is an activity which can firmly link planning to the realities in the field. It is important to identify the resources available locally. Plans and decisions must be based on knowledge. equipment. knowledge and skills. and leads to a project plan and a budget. If this does not happen. a situation easily develops where what was planned is not implemented.

2 How to Gather Information One must seek to optimise the knowledge and experience gain from the information gathered (its relevance. relationships. the target group itself has taken the initiative. General information on the local context and the local community as a whole. In some investigations. accuracy and suitability). it is often necessary to contribute by extending the perspective of the planning process to include regional and national factors. demands courage. and processes to focus upon (such as children. regional and local levels. Certain principles are fundamental: . Before beginning. and attitudes of the initiators influence the choice and use of information from the field. analyses and recommends. The principles. on the other hand.1. should always be included. When the project idea is formulated by local groups or organisations which themselves are not part of the target group. links and causal relationships to other problems and issues must be made evident. Project activities often run into conflict with such constraints. co-operatives.1 What Kind of Information? Every analysis is coloured by the conscious and unconscious assumptions and suppositions held by the person who reports. It is therefore important to clarify what causes are within range of the project activities and which ones are not at least at the outset. ecology etc. A wellfounded situation analysis can make possible a flow of influence in the other direction -from the field to the agency. labour unions. The project partners' principal fields of interest greatly influence the choice of issues. it is therefore important to clarify the following: What information is not needed? Deciding that certain information is neither wanted nor necessary. far too much information is gathered just in case it might become useful. the handicapped. Where. In describing particular problems. unless the constraints are acknowledged and taken into consideration during planning. traditions. and its attitudes. and then extend the perspective gradually. in relation to the investments made to gather it (the time and money spent).1. Doing something about some causes at one or more levels may be within reach of the planned project.). preconceived "knowledge of local conditions" can be a problem: It can lead to quick and easy conclusions which do not take into account the target group's unique characteristics and possibilities. 2. Several problems may have overlapping causes. If the target group is a local community. it may be more appropriate to start with a defined administrative or geographical area. Factual information from the field can help the organisation correct its perspective. If the target group is harder to identify at this early stage in planning.5 Obtaining just enough balanced and well-founded information always requires careful consideration. It is important to clarify what type of external constraints of a more structural character the project must relate to at national. it will most often be appropriate to begin the situation analysis right there. This type of clarification allows for a more realistic view of what can be expected from a project. The level of ambition (quantity and quality). 2.

by the route taken by the team. World Bank). colleges. How. Observation is important and necessary. In many developing countries. Don't believe that a particular approach is the only right one. Try to clarify on which assumptions statements are being made.3 Methods of Gathering Information The following describes various methods of gathering data and information. one should evaluate critically which one(s) will be most appropriate. large amounts of research material and lots of reports exist. Preparing a checklist of what is important to look into. For most others. but not sufficient alone. but the knowledge gained is at best superficial. Good places to look are universities. Observing in an unstructured manner. like when the observer aimlessly wanders round talking with people. Finding specific data relevant to small local areas is often difficult. or is perhaps just a spectator. etc. and can in the course of a brief field visit grasp (and later on express) the essential details in a situation while retaining a clear overall view. by the time of year the project area was visited. Allow the local people to express themselves. and needs to be assessed. "Field visits" are most often quick visits to the field by one or more representatives of the project partners (increasingly by consultants as well) with the aim of gaining personal impressions on which to found recommendations. and where possible pitfalls are hidden. for instance. Clarify your assumptions. is in general far less effective than structured observation.1. a) Use of available documentary evidence It is not necessary to re-invent the wheel. Listen and learn. b) Observation Observation includes all forms of direct presence in the project area. The approach taken by an external organisation which is just starting up work in a new partner country will naturally differ from that of a local organisation which is already established and in operation. The most relevant statistics can often be found in the appropriate government ministry or planning office. and then observing the same conditions in. Assume that they possess important information. This tends to correct and enhance the picture. or in an office of national statistics. Consider them teachers and yourself a student. is the situation analysis coloured by the sex of team members or of informants. research centres. several villages. field visits may seem to have been efficient. Observation can be more or less efficient. Try to approach each question in many different ways. In cases where the more complex and expensive methods must be used. but are hardly made use of Identifying possible sources of such information is an important task.6 Spending time on the first phase of planning is a good investment. is an example of a way to structure observation to improve its value. more information is usually available than one expects. c) Interviews and seminars . The quality can vary. Combine several approaches. However. 2. A select few master this form. and sometimes completely wrong. and larger development assistance organisations and multilateral bodies (such as UN organisations. The reasonably priced and straight-forward ones should be preferred. WHO.

Investigations of this type can have an informal and qualitative nature. 2. accurate. decide upon a clear approach to the problem. is an example of how this type of investigation can meaningfully be used. A situational analysis is a database for the project and should . animals. Important questions should be properly formulated beforehand. The "community diagnosis" (a much used starting point in the planning of primary health services). teachers or researchers. students. their demands.planning process itself. or panels with representatives of different groups can also meaning. or a more formal questionnaire can be utilised. local and central authorities. the group often has a correcting and controlling influence. They allow for contact with more people. or in order to analyse particular problem areas in depth. Panels of experts. etc. Another advantage is that when trying to obtain sensitive data. This will increase the level of accuracy and help make the use of the data more consistent. and the . It is also important to bring the time plan for the investigations into agreement with the time plan for the rest of the planning process. They know the country. and for more in-depth discussion on particular areas of concern. perhaps involving other local co-operating partners. Finding and getting in touch with local key figures can be of vital importance. and can help answer many of the questions which are connected to the planning phase. etc. Useful resource people are representatives of other organisations. social and cultural traditions. both to highlight important issues.1. is therefore very important. interviews can be more or less structured. Like observation.7 The use of interviews is a common way of collecting information. To be useful. soil conditions. and limit the scope according to the particular need. Interviews should also at tempt to identify conflicts (of interest and otherwise) and differing sets of values in the area. d) Field studies and investigations There are many ways of conducting field studies: Local ad hoc investigations can be undertaken in direct co-operation with the potential target group. depending on the type of information that is required.4 Summing Up A systematic understanding of the current situation in a given community sets the stage and provides the basis for any community project.fully be used. and their interpretation of the situation. Particularly in the planning of local community projects. Group interviews are often advantageous. often including special expertise. Finding and meeting with people who are in the centre of the local network in one way or another. formally or informally. may be necessary to find relevant. farming methods. care must be taken to define a precise objective. the results from investigations must be ready in time to aid further planning. A general checklist of issues to be discussed should always be prepared in planning for interviews. the people and the area. access to the experience possessed by the local population is essential. Better methods and more resources. and up to date information on people's understanding of themselves and their living conditions. This will usually mean supplementing other information available by consciously seeking out groups and individuals who do not ordinarily have the opportunity to express their wishes. teachers. They have a unique and superior knowledge of the plants. It helps to consider how changes can be made to achieve certain goals and ideas. In the case of larger and more expensive investigations. social workers.

. On the basis of these data a community profile can be developed. interviews and observations.8 contain gender-disaggregated data. * The most common techniques are questionnaires. Data collection for a community profile Data: * political/administrative structure * demographic features and population characteristics * economic activities * social stratification and power relations * organisations and their functions and activities * leadership pattern and its influence * cultural facets or traditions * critical issues and problems Sources of information are: * documents or files in government offices/NGOs * reports of surveys * community members * informal leaders in the community * government officials or formal leaders * NGO personnel * politicians or local representatives of the area Methods: * document review * questionnaires * discussions * interviews * observations and informal conversations * listening to people * brainstorming sessions Important points to remember: * There is no single technique that is appropriate to get information from all sources. * Group discussions are frequently used. * The best option is to use a variety of techniques.

Women's needs often are different from the men's needs and if not taken into account project planning has a false start.2. Needs Assessment Identification of Needs Prioritization of Needs Deciding on what needs to be addressed Levelling of Needs . Moreover. consulting the people will stimulate the sense of ownership when the project will be implemented. 2. 2.2 Prioritising Needs No one can address all identified needs in one project.2. priorities have to be set.2 Needs Assessment Needs assessment deals with the question: Who needs what as defined by whom. See sheet for prioritising needs 2. Then a negotiating process should bring consensus on which priorities should first be addressed. men and women.3 Levelling of Needs Stakeholders may have different priorities.9 2.2. This has to be done with all stakeholders concerned. Women and men should be consulted throughout the process so that both perspectives can be taken into account. accurate and usable information is needed that reflects the ideas articulated by representative groups of the target population and other stakeholders in the community. Reliable.1 Needs Identification Needs assessment is one of the critical stages in the project development process. Therefore.

for whom. Local society is seldom homogeneous. the following issues need to be addressed: • Who should the target group be for real changes in the desired direction to take place? • What conflicts may arise? • What structures are already there. and why. This seems self evident. and "those we have contact with". In light of the problems and causal relationships revealed by the situation analysis. to enable broad communication with the target group. are usually the most important factors behind the choices made and the limits decided upon.3. their nutritional status. Choosing not to relate consciously to any particular target group means giving priority to those who for one reason or another are able to get into contact with the project. geographical area. Example definitions are "those who come". or membership of a particular social class or other group. Being conscious of the target group helps focus and concentrate the project effort. sex. power blocs. happens rarely. or can be mobilised. and contradictory opinions and needs are part of almost every society. income group. Care must therefore be taken in making the choice.2 Goals and Objectives Defining goals is an important part of the planning process.1 The Target Group(s) The project plan must define clearly the target group(s) for the project. occupation. Other possible criteria are for instance peoples level of access to particular services. "the poor of the village" or "the poorest of the poor'). The statement of goals for the project should answer the question: Where do we want to go with the project? . but have no place in concrete project planning. the target group is somewhat diffuse and sometimes seems nearly arbitrary.10 2. The situation analysis attempts to broadly outline what the problem is. and can in some cases erect new social barriers and improve the situation for some at the expense of others. and taking into account the type of assistance the organisation can offer. and to deal with potential conflicts? 2.The demand for services itself creates the target group. Broad. In many real-life projects. The choice of target group defines limits. and the prevalent understanding of causal relationships and how they can be influenced. Conflicts.3 Project Design 2. and in assessing its consequences. Defining the target group is to ask: Towards whom can we direct our efforts to do something about the problem? The target group can be defined according to age. can be meaningful in policy papers. and ready for discussions and negotiations about objectives and the means for self development. This leaves no time nor resources for those who do not come. general terms used to define the target group (i.3. The project ideology of the project partners. Finding target groups already organized at the outset. but is nevertheless often given little attention. etc. Health projects often fall into this category .e.

the planners must share their knowledge and the plans they make with the local community. Certain causes are immediately obvious to planners. For example: To reduce child mortality by 30% in 3 years. then go back and review the causal relationships. it is possible to shed light on how they are linked up and interact. Achieving meaningful interaction through the exchange of views between the different parties involved. The proposed strategies also need to be reassessed in light of the findings. and in finding causal relationships between various problems. and the constraints and limitations found. the goals and objectives are re-formulated. Example problem: Many children die before the age of 5 in the Bhagari Region. This is often easier said than done. Finally. is particularly important at this stage. In fact. A rough draft of goals and objectives can often be obtained by simply re-formulating the description of a chain of problems. the target group should by this stage already have been involved in the situation analysis. A possible approach is to first make a rough draft of goals and objectives. the assumptions made. and should take into consideration inherent constraints. Further research and analysis can reveal others. Defining goals and objectives means deciding what problems are to be given priority. The work of formulating goals must therefore be given the attention it deserves. making them more concrete and more realistic (See also our example). By considering all the problems and needs together (as identified in the situation analysis). Including something on how much in what time frame makes the goal more specific. To be able to do something about the problem. Some causes and the connections between them can only be understood by members of the local community. Areas of agreement need to be clarified. one must find the causal relationships behind it.11 Development goals. . The goals should as far as possible be realistic. project objectives and intermediate objectives must relate to the problems which have been identified in the situation analysis and to the causal relationships described there. and are as of disagreement must be found and properly related to. Therefore. both as causes and consequences of each other. and the local community must be encouraged to share its knowledge with the planners. The target group must play an important role all through the planning process for real participation to be possible. Goal: To reduce child mortality in the Bhagari Region.

respiratory infections. polluted surface water. The underlying causes seem to be: • • • • • Lack of available basic services ( water supply. A rough draft of goals and objectives might look like this: . tetanus during early infancy. arabIe land is being contracted out for cultivation of cash crops. Long queues and high prices at the 3 health centres in the region. Unemployment. a whole range of problems need to be identified. health services. Some possible factors: • • • • • • The long distance to water. attitudes. unemployment forces the men to leave the area. Taboos regarding food and disease. Little opportunity to produce food for yourself. education). Infectious diseases and under nourishment amplify each other mutually as causes of death. To make a good choice of goals and strategy for this project. Very few girls attend school long enough or regularly enough to learn to read and write. the immediate causes of the high rate of infant mortality can be identified as: • • Diarrhoea. measles. one would need to know which of the identified causal factors are given the highest priority by the target and which ones it would be realistic to try to change. options) preventing the use of new knowledge full utilisation of established services. with its high rate of child mortality. In this case. Unstable and vulnerable nutritional situation due to dependency on outside and poor use of limited choices with regard to local production. Barriers (economic.12 Example: In the case of the "Bhagari Region". under nourishment. Many mothers being responsible for their families alone. Widespread under nourishment among children and adults.

2 Establishment of 2 production cooperatives. The suggested activities are therefore only outlines. Activities under B: 1 Establishing opportunities to borrow money for small-scale production initiatives. Comment: Intermediate goal B is still not sufficiently well formulated. very broadly. To increase the production and availability of nourishing food. To establish basic health services for mothers and children making them available to 75% of the population. They set the direction of the project and are the terms of reference for monitoring progress and the final evaluation. 3 Contact with 75% of pregnant women at least twice during each pregnancy. Etc. To make better water available within 10 minutes walk to 75 % of the population. This reflects too poor knowledge about the causal relationships in the field of food production in the area. disease and local understanding in 3 pilot villages. Project Objective: To reduce the infant mortality rate in the Bhagari Region by 30% within 3 year Intermediate Objectives: A. Objectives have to be: • Related to needs . 3 Educational program on water hygiene for a total of 25 women's groups. Activities under A: 1 Group work on health. Activities under C 1 The construction of 10 new small-scale water supply systems. Etc. 2 Vaccination of children ages 0-3 years with 75% coverage within 3 years. what is expected of a project and is made up of several objectives all leading to the achievement of the goal. It is not specific enough to make the measurement of progress possible. and about opportunities to change them. 2 Improving 15 existing wells. A goal defines. 3 Nutrition education as part of all activities. and the whole issue would need to be looked closer at during the starting up phase of the project Summing up: Determining goals and objectives based on prioritised needs is essential for the successful completion of a project. Etc. B.13 Example Development Goal: To improve the living conditions and the quality of life for children and their families in the Bhagari Region. C.

Example Problem: Qualified personnel are needed for a church-related hospital Project Idea: Building a nurses training college Project Objective: Establishing a nurses training college with the capacity to graduate 15 nurses per year Assumptions made: a) There must be an adequate supply of qualified students who would like to start nurses training. and likely possibilities. As part of this reconsideration it is necessary to look at the causal relations which have been demonstrated. b) That a sufficient number of the trainees will (1) complete their training.e. and (3) want to work at the church hospital. There are likely to be other constraints in the situation as well.3. However. Identifying and assessing the assumptions made and the inherent constraints. makes it possible to adapt goals and to choose the strategies with the best chance of success. getting sufficient qualified personnel for the church hospital to ensure high quality nursing care. practical constraints. Or there may be a national quota system for posting trained nurses. The risks can be properly assessed. One must find out what external conditions and developments beyond the control of the project have been assumed at the various levels.14 • • • • • • Specific Clear Measurable or quantifiable Appropriate Achievable/feasible Time-bound 2. This might for instance limit the range of choices with regard to the qualifications required of applicants.3 A Feasibility Study: Assumptions and Constraints The situation analysis is meant to give all involved parties an overview of actual needs. The problems as they relate to the chosen target group were the main consideration in formulating goals. (2) continue working as nurses. All the assumptions create uncertainty as to whether the final goal will be reached. This might mean that the mission hospital's needs might not in the end be satisfied. . Identifying them at the outset. National approval of the nurses training college may be required. The nurses training college project has little control over these factors. it is important to reconsider them in the light of identified assumptions and constraints to make sure they are feasible in the given situation. and how they might come to influence the success of the project. i. makes it possible to examine them closely. and possible measures to reduce the risks can be considered.

combining preventive and curative medicine is the trend. More recently. Social services were once considered important to improve the living conditions and the quality of life of the poorest population groups. . If this can be done. More recently. all of which will lead to the desired objective. Cultural concepts about gender relations could. This type of strategy carries with it a whole range of inherent assumptions and consequences. adult literacy training for school leavers. 2. it is possible to assert with a high degree of certainty that if the required resources are invested. There are usually several different choices of strategy available. institutional). It also constitutes a good basis for choosing what factors to monitor closely during the implementation of the project. etc. integrated services mainly focused on primary health.4 Main Strategies Whereas the goals and objectives spell out where we want to go. The process is as follows: After determining goals and objectives on the basis of prioritised needs. etc. A strategy for community development which has become popular in the 1980's is characterised by decentralisation of initiative. and to find out which are the most critical risks. The popularity of strategies changes with time and place: Examples from different sectors: In agriculture. be a constraint for the successful implementation of the project. concentrated efforts directed towards mother and childcare. Examples are malaria control. Most strategies are based on accumulated experience from real project situations. family planning. for instance. A description of goals does not necessarily suggest a way of reaching them. and the assumptions hold. it is essential to take stock of the needed and available resources (human. activities and responsibility. then the project objectives will be attained.15 Ideally. there was a time when centres with demonstration plots were common. material. This involves a feasibility study to decide whether the necessary human. strategies and activities together show how we plan to get there. institutional and financial resources are available and what constraints could negatively influence the project. At present. If so. all assumptions should be identified which may influence whether or not the principal objectives of the project will be attained. preventive medicine has been emphasised. financial. the main strategy used to be to improve medical facilities.3. as well as the constraints that may be encountered in attempting to achieve the objectives. Possible choices in health include: Institutional and mainly curative medicine. More recent projects have often chosen to emphasise decentralised farm advisory services In health. this constraint should be dealt with first. This kind of analysis makes it possible to accurately analyse the feasibility of the project goals. already during the planning phase. stimulating entrepreneurship to increase economic activity has often been favoured. The term "vertical project" has been used to describe sector inputs consisting of single components within a given sector.

should therefore participate in the process of choosing strategy. or cross sectoral) which actively interact. taking into consideration the resources and constraints. economically.ecologically. men and women. It has important implications for the priority given to different means and project components. target groups and inputs for individual projects. and thereby help ensure continuity. attempting to predict both the short term and the long-term effects of project inputs into the local society . In describing the project's main strategy. socially and culturally. The components are seen as a functional and administrative whole (e. The choice of strategy is important. but should only be made consciously. and should be well founded in relation to the initial terms' reference for the project. and the consequences of the strategies employed to deal with them. the project document should specifically clarify: • strategies in relation to women's participation • strategies in relation to environment and sustainability These two concerns.5 Action Plan Planning project activities involves the following steps: 1) Identifying activities. a nutrition program might benefit from an integrated strategy. The choice between them should be made according to the project goals and according to the general context of the project. are considered so important to the sustainability of the development process that they always need to be addressed carefully. and the choice of goals. It is often fruitful to discuss alternative strategies in order to find the one which offers the best chance of success. "integrated rural development"). Changes of main strategy along the way must be possible. All the project partners. 3) Determining human. The project strategies will help bridge the gap between the basic development philosophies and principles of the organisations. in a participatory way. financial and material resources.3. whereas leprosy might best be dealt with through a vertical project -of course co-ordinated with other health services.g. For example. The activities should be based on the objectives. including the target group. 2. Identifying project activities is the most important step in the project planning phase and should involve all the stakeholders. The description of goals and the analysis of assumptions and constraints both contain valuable background information for making these choices. The choice of a main strategy should be described in the project document. 2) Sequencing activities. Most project strategies have both strengths and weaknesses. and should harmonise with what is generally emphasised by the different parties involved (including the future project management). All strategies should be analysed with sustainability in mind. and should be considered carefully.16 "Integrated projects" include a whole range of components (within a specific sector. .

ownership is reinforced. see chapters 5-7. and materials that can be contributed by the beneficiaries (both in-kind and financial contributions). 5) Monitoring and Evaluation To help you develop an action plan use the following checklist: • What are the activities to accomplish the objectives? • Why is the activity taking place? • For Whom is the activity? • Who is doing the activity? Which human resources do we use? • Where is the activity taking place? • When is the activity taking place? • Who is responsible for coordination/implementation? • How is monitoring and evaluation assured? • What is the budget? After the design has been made it should be written down as a project plan and. The budget should include an estimate of the services. including a detailed budget. equipment. a project proposal should be prepared.17 4) Developing a time frame for activities. donor agencies can see how much the beneficiaries are contributing. because they often require matching funds. . facilities. when external funding is needed. For guidelines on funding and proposal writing. so that: the community knows the value of its own contribution. The time frame should include a monitoring schedule.

• To promote better relationships among organisations. including the political leadership. institutions. The responsibility for co-ordination may be assigned to a single individual or a team/group of individuals. Project management includes various management functions as summed up on page 19.1 Co-ordination Co-ordination is the process whereby two or more people/organisations work together to deal collectively with a shared task. co-ordination of activities. • to communicate information so that people have the information they need to perform their work effectively and efficiently. departments and individuals connected with the project and to harmonise resources and activities for the achievement of project objectives. The rationale for co-ordination is: • To achieve the objectives of the project with a minimum amount of constraints.18 3 PROJECT IMPLEMENTATION Project implementation involves a number of activities. heading a project team. Coordination would the major responsibility of a project coordinator. • To establish cordial relationships between the target population of a project and all the other sections. in consultation with all the parties concerned. Among the major activities are securing community participation for launching the project. . team-building and monitoring progress. • To take immediate corrective action for problems encountered in the implementation of the project. Project co-ordinators should be flexible and able to adapt to changes within and outside the organisation and manage change to encourage creativity and flexibility in achieving program objectives. These activities are usually the responsibility of a project manager/ coordinator or a project management committee. and taking care of contingencies. • to delegate and assign responsibilities to people • to manage conflict to make sure that differences are addressed and effective working relationships are developed. This requires certain leadership qualities: • to motivate people in such a way that they feel positive about their responsibilities. The following questions should be asked: 1) Co-ordination among whom? 2) What problems could come up in attempting to co-ordinate activities? 3) What needs to be done or what mechanisms should be set up to prevent such problems and promote co-ordination? Co-ordinators should have leadership qualities because they need to encourage people to act purposefully toward realisation of the project's goals and objectives. Of all these management activities three will be singled out: co-ordination. monitoring. 3.

• Submitting reports to account for project activities and finances. 1996: 5/6 . c) Staffing Staffing is filling positions within the organizational structure. • Adjusting plans to respond to changes in the internal and external organizational environment. • Establishing standards to ensure continued quality of services and products. informal basis. • Preparing budgets to determine the cost of using resources. the relationships within the organization. including positive feedback and constructive criticism. It includes the following activities: • Establishing objectives to determine the end result. It includes the following activities: • Recruiting people with appropriate qualifications for positions in the organization. • Providing feedback to people on a regular. • If the project employs staff regular performance appraisals should be organized to formally assess the way people work and extent to which they produce results. • Determining staff activities to carryout work plans. • Establishing job descriptions to ensure that roles and responsibilities are clear. Supervision. • Developing strategies to determine how to reach objectives.19 Project management1 a) Planning Planning is making decisions about which courses of action to follow. • Providing training when necessary to upgrade people's skills. and by whom. It includes the following activities: • Developing organizational structure to establish accountability within the • organization through clear reporting and supervising relationships. by when. b) Organising Organizing is developing relationships and allocating responsibilities within the organisation. • Orienting new people to their positions to help them learn about their responsibilities. d) Controlling Controlling means managing activities to ensure progress toward the program objectives. and to give them feedback about their work. It includes the following: • Measuring progress of project by comparing the current situation with established goals and objectives. • Establishing teams that work together to reach objectives. the organization 's goals and objectives. and the culture of the organization. • Establishing policies to have standing decisions on recurring situations. • Monitoring performance to document the way people carry out their responsibilities. 1 Source: CEDPA.

Team members are sensitive in how they communicate to their team mates. In a team. Constructive feedback is information that a person can use to solve problems. but they are only effective if the feedback is given and received in a constructive manner.20 3. honest communication based on trust and caring. sometimes making a positive comment and sometimes criticizing what they have done. The challenge and capacity to achieve results.2 Team-building A team is an energetic group of people (two or more) who are committed to achieving common goals. The team is more than just the sum of individual efforts. 7. who work well together and enjoy doing so. The two most universal characteristics of teams are: • the production of outstanding results and success in spite of difficulties. and who produce high quality results. Individual goals and objectives align with team goals to ensure balance in meeting team and individual needs. trust and support which allows individuals to take risks and challenge their abilities. with the needs of individuals (team members) and thirdly. make decisions and produce results efficiently. The team combines the individual talents with a positive team spirit to achieve results. 3. and to celebrate successes and share failures together. The enjoyment of working together based on team spirit. Both positive and negative feedback are important to effective communication and group work. improve performance. The ability to take strength and energy from each other. An understanding of and commitment to a common purpose and goals. Important also is the way of dealing with conflict or non-achievers. the whole is more than the sum of its parts. 4. The leader is faced with the need to balance the accomplishments of results. 8. rituals and symbols. 5. 1. 6. 2. or work more effectively with others. Giving and Receiving Feedback We naturally give feedback to other people when we interact with them on any project or activity. A complimentary blend of skills and talent that allows the team to work cooperatively together. Open. Team leaders have to be skilful at balancing different functions. These characteristics can be broken down into the successful ingredients of a team. with the need for members of the team to work together as a group. particularly in difficult or conflict situations. An efficient and flexible structure and leadership which allows the team to work toward achieving results without confusion of roles and responsibilities. Conflict is neither good nor bad. pride. building interdependence among the members. A high degree of tolerance. She/he can enhance the team spirit by developing a shared purpose and positive work climate in the group. The shifting roles between leaders and followers exemplify this characteristic. . but can get out of hand of we do not handle them constructively. mutual respect. and • members feel responsibility for the team and work to resolve problems and clear difficulties out of their way.

A monitoring system should be in place before project start-up and should be scheduled on the project work plan. if any. • To know whether the unexpected issues/problems are occurring. Monitoring can be carried out through field visits. • State the methods of monitoring the activities. The project managers are responsible for monitoring the staff and tasks under them. financial. and material resources. One also has to point out any changes in the original goals. and the project co-ordinator is responsible for monitoring all aspects of the project. • State the barriers confronted. and still maintain mutual respect. • To know whether materials and other inputs are reaching the specific places in due time. Whatever form is chosen monitoring reports always record any problem the project team has and plans to correct these problems. • State the current progress on steps taken so far. See annex 2 for tools for team assessment and giving and receiving feedback. Monitoring is the process of routinely gathering information on all aspects of the project. • Suggest solutions to overcome them. Monitoring is continuous. the donor monitors progress and measures performance. . Through field visits and routine reports from the project manager. First Level Monitoring The first level of monitoring is done by project staff. Monitoring provides managers with information needed to: • Analyse the current situation • Identify problems and find solutions • Discover trends and patterns • Keep project activities on schedule • Measure progress towards objectives and formulate/revise future goals and objectives • Make decisions about human. objectives or activities and explain this change in direction. 3. Summing up: The rationale for monitoring a project is: • To know whether the various activities are undertaken as specified in the project plan. This includes financial reporting. be direct about what you think. A monitoring report should: • Contain a list of the activities to be monitored (derived from the plan).21 It is not easy to give and receive constructive feedback. • List the duration and deadlines for completion of different activities. The principles presented here will help you manage potential (or existing) conflict. Second Level Monitoring The second level of monitoring is done by the donor(s). review of service delivery and commodities records.3 Monitoring An important part of the work of a project co-ordinator is monitoring progress.

. the project should be implemented within an if -then framework. It is a product of the 1970s which were characterized by turbulence and uncertainty due to economic. To know alternative courses of action. or preparing in advance a course of action to meet an emergency situation which cannot be totally foreseen. why and to decide what corrective action has to be taken. and diagnose the important contingency situations that could occur so that the best decisions can be made. In implementing community projects. The word 'contingency' means different things to different people. Contingency management involves preparing a plan to take effect in case an emergency occurs.22 • • • To know whether the outcomes match predetermined targets.4 Contingency Management The contingency approach to managing projects is a relatively recent development in the field of management. Contingency management emerged as an attempt to find solutions to the highly complex problems of the operating environment. then an appropriate managerial action should be taken in order to respond to that situation. it is necessary to identify. To know what should be done to change course from the original plan. if the unexpected happens. given the new circumstances. it is something that happens by chance without a warning. The contingency design is the total process of determining the degree of environmental uncertainty and adapting the measures to meet the demands of the operating environment. or emergency. and if not. a possible future event. If certain scenarios occur in an unexpected manner. The contingency approach to project implementation is to ensure that the community group is oriented and prepared to meet the unexpected demands of the situation. and mitigate them. uncertainty. an unforeseen occurrence. That is. The approach enables managers to encounter the uncertainties that affect planning processes by visualizing probable uncertainties and planning how to respond. assess. In essence. political and social upheavals. 3. accident.

strategies and work plans. and is done less frequently. Some of the most important results of internal review are team building. Therefore.23 4 EVALUATION Evaluation generally implies measurement. Program review covers a variety of elements related to the program or organization' s goals and priorities. including a review of goals.1 Process Evaluation It may be helpful to think of process evaluations on two levels: In an internal project review the team conducts a periodic self . beneficiaries. and benefits to the target community. using a variety of methods. It can also be used for reviewing a country program of an international development agency. Example of questions to be asked in this kind of evaluation: • What is the basic approach of the project organization to community development? How has the organization changed through this experience? Is there clarity of organizational goals and work methodology? • What is the quality of the relationships between the technical team and the community? Are the field staff accepted by the community? How do the community leaders and the project team work together? • How well has the project organization done in reporting and communicating? What problems need attention? • How are the community organizations working? How democratic are they? How well is the leadership functioning? What parts of the community are represented in the cooperative membership? How sustainable is it? • What are the criteria and/ or expectations of the funding organization? How well has the project fulfilled these? Are the criteria/expectations appropriate to priorities and goals of this project? . evaluation looks more at long-term effects of project objectives. but it may be helpful to have the services of an outside consultant. A consultant for this kind of evaluation should be skilled at organization development and team building. usually without the help of an external consultant. effectiveness.evaluation of the project. Sometimes it is important to look at decision making and communication within the organization or project staff. and re-planning of yearly goals. improved communication. Evaluation will determine a project's relevance. 4. This is usually a larger undertaking than project review. evaluation questions whether the project is on the right track. perhaps every three or four years. Usually this is an internal process. Monitoring checks whether the project is on track. Evaluation is different from monitoring. We can discern two types of evaluation: process evaluation and impact evaluation. Or there may be a need to evaluate the organization's goals and structure. Many organizations do yearly program evaluations. appraisal. One of the main purposes of an internal project review is to document progress and problems as a basis for planning the next phase of work (usually the next year). or making judgements on the output and impact of the project in terms of the objectives. Possible areas of focus might include relationships between program staff. and management. Program review takes a broader look at multiple aspects of a program or an organization.

A clear statement of purpose should result. Many international development organizations have increasingly emphasized this type of evaluation in order to improve overall results of their programs and to better report to their constituents. the evaluation is first and foremost for the benefit of those closest to the project. the training program. the . Usually a team. Very importantly. The emphasis is on measuring if sustainable development has taken place as a result of the project. helps the project organization gain more ownership of the results. it is a good time to decide whether an outside facilitator (consultant) is needed. In fact.3 The Evaluation Design Most evaluations call for the writing of a scope of work. Step 1. Several methods can be used. The evaluation design proposed in this handbook is flexible. if possible. an important by-product of participatory impact evaluation is that the staff learns the process of evaluation by participating in it. There are six essential parts of this design. Define the PRIORITY AREAS to be evaluated. and the local project organization. i. In this step you will decide on the most important areas to evaluate.2 Impact Evaluation Impact evaluation is the last step in the project cycle and assesses the outcome of the project sometime after the completion of the project. a well-defined scope of work should be the result. and require information from outside the project. In addition. a plan for carrying out the evaluation. those who are involved in the implementation of the project are given a chance to have input in the design of the evaluation. It is often used as the basis for expansion of the project. Impact evaluations require collecting and analysing data.e. or surveys. If so. The scope of work in traditional external evaluations is usually written and agreed upon by a limited number of persons interested in the project. will conduct impact evaluations. if possible. Evaluations are usually more comprehensive than monitoring. The participatory approach advocated in this manual. including case studies.” Once the purpose is decided. or in the case of a pilot project.. 4. representation and participation of beneficiary community should also be sought. Define the PURPOSE of the evaluation.24 4. discuss and decide on the role of this person. If all of these parts are adequately thought out. the project's impact on the community and participants. Who wants the evaluation? Why do they want it? How are they going to use the results? What assumptions do the various parties have about this evaluation? The answers to these questions will help define the purpose of the evaluation. Based on the purpose of the evaluation. These "stakeholders" will normally include the donor agency. what is the focus? In other words. this person can be involved in choosing the priority areas. In an impact evaluation one measures whether or not a project achieved its goals and attempts to look at what impact the project had on its participants. the international cooperating agency and their in-country representative. Step 2. technical aspects of the project. for the scaling up of the project. rapid rural appraisal. though more time consuming. including an independent consultant. aiming to be more objective than in routine reporting. The scope of work should be agreed upon by the several parties who have the most at stake in the outcome. what exactly will be evaluated? Possible areas include the project's progress toward reaching its goals and objectives. The following synopsis should be helpful to conceptualise the evaluation process. essentially. This is. including community participants. cost-benefit analysis. so that. “The purpose of this evaluation is…. especially from the funding agency. In participatory evaluation. steps that are not always as sequential as they appear here.

If instruments (interviews. Step 3. A follow-up plan should include a) an agreement on specific tasks/actions that must be taken by the donor agency. Decide who will participate. The IMPLEMENTATION plan. . these can be designed immediately after the planning session. and what limits of time and other resources affect the work of tabulation. including a target date for report completion. Looking at the project's key vulnerabilities. including who needs to receive reports. strengths and opportunities can help to define specific focus areas. Step 6. Step 5. and field-tested according to the plan. the project implementer.e. ANALYSE and ORGANISE the information. c) an estimate of dates for implementing each activity. Here it is important to use the focus areas and list a) What key factors (indicators) will be researched on each area. and d) the date when the activity is to be completed. surveys. Who will make up the evaluation team and which team members are responsible for each task? Also. and communications. the data collection tool and where that information is to be found).25 structure of the project organization. the evaluation' s results and recommendations are systematized into the project's normal procedures. and a budget for the evaluation. b) designation of persons to do each follow-up activity. The use of evaluation results for re-planning are better assured if this step is followed. the result of the third step will be: a list of participants. etc. and the beneficiary organization to meet the evaluation's recommendations. you will need to make a budget. and b) The source of information (i. The INFORMATION COLLECTION plan.UP PLANS. Decide how much data will be needed. After the evaluation is implemented. A welljustified decision to ignore a particular recommendation is also possible. it is important to schedule a meeting to discuss results and decide on follow-up plans. In summary.) are needed. COMMUNICATING the FINDINGS and MAKING FOLLOW. By holding this meeting and designing a follow-up plan. How is the information to be analysed and by whom? Who will develop the final conclusions and recommendations? Make an outline of the final report. a detailed calendar of tasks and responsibilities. Step 4.

. You will surely become a success if you paint with love and friendship. which is better than. Moscow You have to ask A piece of research commissioned by a major charity asked non-supporters what was their main reason for not giving.26 5 FUNDRAISING IS FRIENDRAISING 2 This section covers some of the key aspects of fundraising.. The Directory of Social Change.. the attitudes and the approaches that you will need to get a successful fundraising programme under way. but do not do so effectively. And they must make it as easy as possible for the donor to respond. tel. This is not the most effective way of asking. having regard to the donor's ability and willingness to give when deciding what to ask for. The whole purpose of fundraising is to raise money. from where copies may be purchased by post.” Ekaterina Kim. 2 .1 Some Key Principles of Fundraising "Fundraising is a science.. Reproduced from Worldwide Fundraiser’s Handbook by Michael Norton. which is better than. the punch-line asking people to give. which is better than. Sending a circular letter to lots of people.. The personal approach The general rule is that the more personal you can make your approach. Contacts-I. or by taking along some of the people you are working with to fundraising meetings. • Giving a presentation at a meeting to a group of people. Many fundraisers prefer to work by sending letters asking for support. and it is often forgotten that the call to action. • Telephoning someone to ask for support. or with photographs. by kind permission of the publishers. the more effective you will be. 0171 209 5151. London NW1 2DP.. 24 Stephenson Way. Two other factors are worth considering: A meeting at your project where the prospective donor can see your work and meet some of the beneficiaries is often the most effective of all.. Some fundraisers do not exploit the opportunities that exist to raise money. If that can't be managed. and you may need to think carefully about how to make your approach. They may also need to repeat the message to emphasise the point. Others ask.. 5. So: • Asking in person at a face-to-face meeting is better than. You need to paint with the most delicate shades of colours and moods. you can try to illustrate your work with a short video. It will help identify the people. The good fundraiser must ask clearly for exactly what they want. • Writing a personal letter to someone. The answer was simple -the main reason for not giving was that they had never been asked. But its rules are more like a rainbow than a formula. is the essential piece of the message.

showing what you have done to create a better environment. and showing reasons why the work is important. One way of doing this is through case studies -illustrating your work with actual examples of the people you have been able to help. and if you can show them how some extra support could be used to do even better -then asking for money becomes easy. will make some difference. In supporting your cause. and if they agree that your organisation is doing something significant to make a difference. getting endorsements about the quality of your work from experts and prominent figures can all encourage people to realise the importance of what you are doing and have the confidence that . trumpeting your successes in the newsletters you send to supporters. and that something should be done. a whole range of feelings and thoughts may be aroused in the donor. Fundraising is also more about 'selling' than 'telling'. the community publishing programme that is getting underway. Faith that the fundraiser truly represents the cause and will act as an efficient conduit for the donor's money. that you hope will transform people's lives. Fundraising is more about selling an idea that the donor can make a difference than about asking for money. hope and charity. It is about persuading people to give. Your job as a fundraiser is to show how you are helping do this. The act of giving includes elements of faith. Charity as an act of altruism. Part of the skill in fundraising is knowing the best person to do the asking. They give to help people or to do something to create a better world. In this way you can show donors how their money can make a difference. Fundraising is selling Fundraising is a two-stage process. Once people have been sold the idea. People may want to support a cancer charity. Hope that the gift. however small. If they agree that the need is important. through fear that they might get the disease. Your success depends on your ability to get people to do something to help. Press coverage of your work. then they will want to give. It is also important for the fundraiser to understand that the donor might have some personal reason for wanting to give. Understanding the donor's viewpoint In making a decision to give. where you are all full of enthusiasm and excitement about its potential. They may feel strongly about an issue -such as the environment -and want to do something about it. for example. a gift without the expectation of any material return. or because a close friend has recently died of it. By focusing on specific projects rather than the overall work of the organisation. They do not give to abstract concepts. This means that the organisation's credibility and good public relations are extremely important. and to build on that interest. doing something that they feel needs doing and that they want to see done. Credibility and PR People prefer to give to organisations and causes that they have heard of.27 A request from someone who has given or from someone important (such as a business leader or expert in the field) can often be more effective than a request from a fundraiser or from the project director. it is easier to excite and enthuse your donors. Fundraising is a people business People do not give to organisations. The first stage is showing people that there is an important need which you can do something useful about. etc. they are also supporting their cause. showing how you have been able to change their lives. It is important for the fundraiser to understand this process. Another is to focus your fundraising on particular aspects of your work: the income generation project you are planning to introduce in the village.

To achieve this means getting them involved with the work of the organisation and committed to its success. and set about obtaining the necessary training or experience. Failure to do this is a breach of trust. All the effort to find a donor and persuade them to give will really only bear fruit if they continue to give over many years an maybe increase their level of giving. you can: • Assess your strengths. • The money is well spent and actually achieves something. Donors don't know how much to give One problem is that donors don’t know how much they are expected to give. they may not want to give too little. Long-term involvement and commitment What you really want are people who will give to you regularly and substantially. • Find ways of compensating for your weaknesses by mobilising others to help you where appropriate. it is good fundraising practice -as an enthusiastic donor who has seen the money make a difference may consider becoming a more committed supporter. This is not only polite. • Learn what skills you need to acquire. Accountability and reporting back When you take money from somebody. The ability to ask Many people feel uncomfortable with the notion of actually asking for money. It recognises and values the donor’s generosity. then that’s an added bonus. But you will want to do this anyway to show them that you have used their money effectively.28 you are doing a worthwhile and successful job -which makes it much easier for them to support you. If you understand what skills are required. If the cause does not seem important to you. you are responsible for seeing that: • The money is spent on the purposes for which it was raised. Saying thank you Saying thank you is extremely important. Commitment to the cause Commitment is one of the most important attributes that a fundraiser can bring to the job. It makes the donor feel that their money is actually having some impact. Those who say thank you on every appropriate pretext will see this investment repay itself handsomely in donor loyalty and may well be surprised at the level of repeat giving that can be stimulated by this process.2 The skills required in fundraising There are a number of important skills that you will need if you are to be successful. so that you concentrate on doing those things you are good at. You may be obliged to report back to the donor as a condition of the grant. On the other hand. 5. Anyone who has this difficulty will not be a natural fundraiser -whether the task in hand is to write a four-page . and so seem mean. And if they are then prepared to ask their friends to help you or to put in long hours as a volunteer. then how can you convey to others the importance and urgency of doing something about it? You must really believe in the cause you are addressing and in the work that your organisation is doing. They may not want to give an enormous amount. Your enthusiasm and commitment will encourage others to become equally committed through their giving.

You then start acting as if nobody wants to support you. telephone a business to ask for an in-kind donation. Many approaches will be unsuccessful. or find some other thing that they might like to support. create a sense of excitement through your enthusiasm. you need to radiate confidence. You will find that persistence really does pay. This is as true for people with physical disabilities as it is for refugee families. Persistence Most fundraisers give up too soon. Since more people are likely to say "no" than say "yes" -that's a fact of fundraising life -it is very easy to get downhearted. to be able to write letters which excite interest. In particular you need to be able to marshal compelling arguments. The need to persuade people creates a pressure to tell only partial truths and to claim more for your work than is the case. simply because of the enormous competition for funds. . You need to make a really good case and to present it in a persuasive way. People often take "no" to mean "no" . If you are apologetic or hesitant. and be offended at how the cause is being presented. Your job is to persuade them that supporting your organisation is a really worthwhile 'investment' of their hard-earned money. talk fluently and interestingly about the cause in public or in private. The beneficiary may see the fundraising material and even be represented on the boards of organisations. make a speech at a meeting of the Rotary Club. organise a committee to run a fundraising event. It makes it easier to elicit sympathy and support. The very complex socioeconomic factors that create poverty today are a good example. You become apologetic and you talk as if you expect to be refused. A good fundraiser has to be able to cope with rejection. Confidence and dealing with rejection When you are asking for money. If you feel that they really should be interested in supporting you. and to be prepared to learn from experience. however unattractive or contentious that may be to the donor? There is also a tendency to present the beneficiary as a victim. or pay a personal visit to seek the support of a major donor. and share your hopes and visions for the future. One of the biggest problems is maintaining your confidence in the face of rejection. They have competing demands on what to spend it on. or just through bad luck. whilst making it powerful enough to persuade donors to give. can cause conflicts within the organisation. you really begin to believe that nobody wants to support you. You have approached them in the first place because you need support and you feel that they might potentially be interested in giving it. All this requires an ability to ask effectively for what you need. If you give up immediately. then you will try to find a way of getting them to change their mind. To resolve this demands sensitivity and understanding from the fundraiser.so as not to be rejected. starting each fresh approach as if it were the first. This requires good selling and communications skills. then there's no chance at all. how can you hope to describe what lies behind the poverty? And can you give a proper explanation without straying into the politics of the situation.rather than as a challenge to try to convert the "no" into a "yes". If we are to raise funds by writing a short letter to a potential supporter. The need to present a sensitive but truthful case. Persuasiveness People have choices as to what to do with their money.29 appeal letter. And maybe you even avoid asking. people will not give to you. Truthfulness The fundraiser has to be truthful at all times. After a couple of rejections. Don't just give up at the first setback.

the ability to make new contacts and the good sense to ask others to do the asking for you. Confidence. A good memory for faces helps too. A good alternative is to have the confidence to ask anybody for what is needed. then consider taking an advertisement to ask for support or better still. Or to present your work in an exciting and imaginative way. For example in Christian communities. Organisational skills Fundraising often involves keeping in touch with thousands of supporters. Having contacts does not necessarily mean that they will be the right people for the organisation. So if you know you are going to get coverage. should your letter asking for support not be in their in-tray next morning? Or if a leading company has just announced a major hike in profits or has been awarded a major construction contract in your area. Patience. The clearest examples of opportunistic fundraising are to be found in newspaper coverage.30 Social skills A good fundraiser needs confidence. All this must be organized so that no past event or piece of generosity is forgotten. all of whom imagine that they are special and that you have some personal relationship with them. If. The annual calendar provides opportunities at different times of the year. for example. Contacts and the ability to make contacts The fundraiser who already has a number of existing contacts in an area or sector will be at an enormous advantage. then the results of any advertising placed in the paper on the same day may be substantial (provided of course that the editorial coverage is supportive of what you are doing). But this is not a prerequisite. when they ask to hear about the income ratios of the organisation for the third time). to deal with the particular concerns of donors (for example. Fundraisers have to keep accurate records of correspondence and information on donation history for each donor. because a confident appeal is harder to refuse. with a reply address where donations can be sent. Good organisation is essential. when a well-known supporter is awarded libel damages. to ask a supporter face to face for a legacy. Christmas and the New Year provide extremely good fundraising opportunity. there is a feature in the paper focusing on your cause. Tact and sincerity. Circumstances are continually changing and new opportunities emerging. For example. or to suggest a variation in a will. patience and tact. Opportunism You need to grasp every opportunity that presents itself. get the journalist to add this request at the end of the article. . The task may be to dream up new activities that will inspire existing supporters and to create events that the public is going to be enthused by. A good fundraiser should also like meeting and dealing with people. Imagination and creativity Fundraisers who come afresh to an organisation will find that imagination is an invaluable asset. then a cleverly constructed appeal for funds might just succeed. so fundraisers need to identify new approaches and not simply rely on what has been done in the past. and other faiths have similar points in the year.

they may step in to help. e) Setting up an endowment fund. but they have little if any local success. external donors themselves have discouraged local generation of funds. strategies for generating local resources will need to be developed and tried. There should always be a concern about dependency on external aid. That’s why we say fundraising is friendraising. Fund raising efforts also educate the person targeted. about your organization and its activities. Negotiating for in-kind support from government agencies (space. for example: in the first year. local donated materials and similar items as local matching inputs for projects. but often technical. It might be wise in the future for them to require at least 50 percent of the local input in funds. Part of this may come from the ease of raising external funds. Self-funding goals can be set incrementally. b) Overhead or indirect cost rates on projects. or experiences from other local NGOs. etc. by International Partnership for Human Development. Many development organizations and groups are very successful in raising project funds from external donors. even decades to be self-reliant. Ideally. As competition becomes stronger for scarce donor funds. It is a way of avoiding fund-raising.31 6 6. and it is unfortunate that boards and executive staffs give this aspect so little attention compared to project fund-raising. but sometimes when external donors see the efforts being made. Some 50 percent of the budget might be raised from local and capital generating sources. an organization should be able to raise enough local funds to fund its administrative and fund raising costs for one to two years. f) Community events. Often one hears the expression or version thereof that local fund-raising will not work since the people are too poor to contribute. h) Mass media appeals. g) Interest articles about your work. but there are always local consultants to help. 3 Partly reproduced from The International Donor Directory. Sometimes the idea is rejected on social or cultural terms. often seen as tedious and unproductive. . by kind permission of the publishers. and he or she may become a future supporter.) c) Sale of your materials and services. energy and money to try to generate local funds when project money is so easy to find. NGOs might have to leave the development business unless they begin to generate local funding. and in the third year -40 percent.1 VARIOUS SOURCES OF FUNDING 3 Generating Local Resources A burning question of many NGOs is: How to generate local resources. Most so-called "Southern" NGOs and other private development groups are dependent on external aid and many would collapse within a year or so if foreign aid was stopped. Since many external donors are willing to accept the value of local volunteer inputs.10 percent. d) Projects that generate income for your organization. Some of the ways to raise funds locally are: a) Membership contributions. Moreover. It may take years. We have often heard development organization leaders say that it is a waste of time. in the second year -20 percent. professionals. Dependency is not only financial. However. few development organization leaders have experience in this area.

These funds are used to defray costs such as rent. For some organizations.32 Ad a) Membership fees increase the commitment of members to the organization and they can help stimulate new funding from others in the community. such as at an airport or next to a tourist hotel can lead to a profitable undertaking Increasingly. Some publishing companies may even allow you to sell other people's books for a small profit.000 copies of a scientific book and ten years later still had over 3. home builders. smaller community enterprises. However. we know one organization that published 5. Contracts are signed with the group requesting these skills. and even business. plus their travel. we have found that handicrafts do poorly compared to mass-produced products. Try not to do so. thrift and other shops where products from many countries are sold. and if any products are to be developed. Generally. Credit is provided at an interest rate above the projected inflation rate. undertake research and evaluations. from family planning. There is a temptation at times to use these funds for projects. the amount is minimal but important because it helps pay some of the administrative costs. Periodicals are sometimes sold. there needs to be a steady supply of quality produced items. A good location. Some NGOs have gone into selling products. other NGOs. per diem and other costs. One needs to be careful that all management costs are covered from the return of capital and that there is still a surplus. There are many examples of projects that are income generating.000 copies -giving away many of the 2. and so on). sometimes it is 10 percent. small enterprise development. telephone. . sanitation. Others hold training seminars. Percentages vary. and assess an organization charge. Local NGOs should seek to cover the salaries of their staff for the time they are used as consultants. They stipulate the kind of activity to be undertaken.000 copies because it failed to spend money on marketing the book. but rarely should one go as high as 25 percent of the project cost. but below commercial rates. such fees annually bring in a sizeable amount. Local NGOs often have developed an expertise in certain areas (water development. Government funding sources often permit this. Ad b) Sometimes donors will allow the applicant to include an indirect cost on the project budget. land reform and settlement. Moreover. • Using a truck to market farmer produce in an area and bringing products on the return trip for sale. Some of these are: • Establishing revolving funds. For others. One needs to do a market analysis of the products intended for sale. Some have developed "How To Do It" or self-study books and materials on a wide range of topics. Ad d) Projects can also generate income for the local NGO. community groups. terms of payment. and so forth. secretarial services and basic administration. Most of us have also encountered Third World. to appropriate technology and to soil testing kits. electricity. These funds can be created for farmers. we find organisations selling their services as consultants to governments. which are in demand. there may be a profit. or provide management skills. Ad c) Many local NGOs are finding it lucrative to sell their materials and services. After deducting operating costs.

33 • • • • An organization's volunteers. literacy campaigns. Ad f) Creating an endowment fund is another route to financial self-support. holding them. bake sales. and similar projects. In some countries.2 Government Grants One of the best ways of obtaining funds locally is to interest the government in your services. There are many examples of local NGOs being given grants for training. Ad h) Mass media appeals are much harder and more costly to develop. but still with a profit to the organization. pioneered in Britain under Mrs Thatcher. There are many other ways of raising money. For some organisations government funding is the mainstay of their work. Establishing chicken raising. and so forth. nutrition education. but there must be a structure for collection. The article should carry your address and telephone number at the end of it. donor NGOs and government have also shown an interest. used clothing. All of these require some investment and organization. if well planned. Ad g) If you can get a human interest article in a newspaper or magazine. 6. seeds. plays. and many other ways for raising money. This process of 'privatisation' of service provision. house cleaning. newspapers. special music events. and is likely to increase steadily as government moves away from providing services directly to the purchase of services from another body (often under some form of contract). Purchasing grains or other products when the price is low. Recently. We have sometimes been surprised by the large amounts of money this might bring in. municipal. For others it is marginal or just one of several sources. most Third World NGOs cannot afford to use mass media like television and radio. however. and then selling them when the price is high. Ad e) Local NGOs have also used garage sales. have shown it over cable television and have received large contributions. buying and selling used clothing. metal and other items that can be sold for reprocessing. Establishing community stores to make everyday items available to the community at a reasonable cost. dinners. tools. they can be very profitable. people might come forth to support your work. teachers. As a result. Funds might come from all levels of the government: national. The scale of the funds available from government sources is potentially extremely large. We wanted to touch on this topic in order to let you know that how important it is to avoid a dependency on external aid. district. we know of small NGOs in the United States and Europe that have used simple low-cost movie cameras to film their work and after professionally putting the film together. and other development workers can be selfsustaining and even have some income by growing and selling vegetables. Wealthy contributors might be asked to help set up the fund. festivals. lotteries (these can be more of a problem than one thinks). water systems development. However. fish farms. block making. or to carry out development activities such as reforestation. local NGOs collect tin cans. vaccination campaigns. community. is now an accepted . state or province. car washes. and many other items.

with government seeking to create an environment where voluntary organisations are able to thrive. 6.34 mechanism in many countries for the delivery of a wide range of services. watershed management.1 National Government National government will relate largely to national organisations in a number of different ways: It may want to offer funding to support national organisations dealing with issues of concern -for example population.2 Local Government Local authorities will be responsible for the delivery of a wide range of local services. including: • A grant. As such. rural development. • Voluntary organisations may be seen as being part of a 'civil society'. which is work that the local authority is responsible for. environmental conservation and community development.as a matter of expediency (because the structure is there) or of efficiency (they are more cost effective). perhaps containing elements of all three approaches. 6. • Government may see voluntary organisations as a mechanism for delivering services efficiently and with the added benefit of drawing in outside money. transport and housing. Support might be given in a number of ways. Voluntary organisations as part of civil society The availability of funding from government for voluntary organisations depends in part on the relationship between the two sides: • Government may see voluntary organisations as a threat. It is in the areas of their own particular responsibilities that they are most likely to make grants for many of the same reasons that national government supports voluntary organisations. As such. It may wish to bring voluntary organisations into policy formation . Giving support may also provide good publicity for government and a feeling 'that something is being done' about an issue of public concern. whether at state. regional or city level. their objectives may run counter to government. Often the relationship between the two sides is complex. It may seek to deliver national development programmes using the voluntary organisation to undertake the delivery . The functions for which local and regional government is responsible will vary from country to country. but are likely to include health.to draw on their expertise and their experience of mobilising people and creating change. . including social welfare programmes. where it has decided that it is more cost-effective to pay a voluntary organisation to undertake the work programme. Here the money is related to the work done. social services. In India the strengthening of local democracy through the 'panchayati raj' reforms which encourage organisation at the village and community level and the establishment of a government-voluntary sector forum at national level are both manifestations of the civil society dimension.2. recreation and leisure services.2. the voluntary sector may become a valued partner. environment. whether or not they criticise or show up the failings of government. • A fee for a service provided under a contract. education. In this way it will benefit from the energy and ideas that voluntary organisations will bring to discussions on policy. since some exist to expose need and failings in society and to campaign for change. The local authority may have an established programme of offering grants to voluntary organisations.

Book Aid International. Specialist charities which are dealing with such things as intermediate technology. Radda Barnen. water management. Support groups for local projects. Sometimes there is child sponsorship. but will be raising money from foundations and international aid sources for their work. Brot fur die Welt. offer technical and infrastructural support to their project partners alongside the financial support that is being provided. some are connected either closely or loosely with a religious denomination. There are also a number of agencies which send young people on short-term assignments. many of these agencies now send people with those specialist skills that are requested by local NGOs. Local authorities can assist in many ways. This may start as a fundraising committee. community sponsorship or project sponsorship. ActionAid. These are often set up by someone visiting your project or a volunteer who has worked with you on their return home. but can develop into a charitable institution. StommestifteIsen. leprosy relief. these are 'gap year schemes' for young people after they have left school and before university or a job. deafness. etc. Voluntary Service Overseas (UK) or the Peace Corps (USA). where the benefit is likely to be more for the young person than for the receiving organisation. for example through the provision of premises or property. The support given to project partners is often long-term. Typically. which provides retired executives looking for a new challenge. these include Oxfam. When these programmes started the aim was to send usually younger people overseas to 'give service'. Save the Children. simply because of their small size. and where the donor expects to be kept in touch with progress. Arid Lands Initiative. Action on Disability and Development show the diversity of the sorts of initiatives that are being developed. But these will be used as 'demonstration projects' to demonstrate new approaches and possibilities.3 There are enormous numbers of foreign donor agencies. National and global charities which raise money from the public to support development projects in 'the third world'. participate in policy analysis and development. An interesting scheme from the UK is BESO. Organisations such as Farm Africa. They will usually have a country office or even a regional infrastructure in the countries where they provide support. Today. Overseas Donors and Donor Agencies 6. whose function it is to identify 'project partners'. blindness. these organisations will have no fundraising base of their own. Some of these are generalist agencies. a cultural education programme for tribal minorities provided alongside the mainstream curriculum education in schools. Send a Cow.35 • • The giving of services or support in kind. some have a particular perspective (children or the elderly). a particular community or even a particular family or child. assess project applications. Mother Theresa in Calcutta . In Europe. Some form of partnership with the voluntary service being run alongside a statutory service adding to it or complementing it -for example. Smaller specialist charities usually set up through the vision and enthusiasm of one individual to pursue a particular idea or address a particular need. Aide et Action. who are often required to contribute something towards the cost of the assignment. They set up a fundraising initiative to support your work by raising money and channelling it to you. Tools for Self Reliance. family planning. where the individual donor providing funds to the donor agency ties their support to a particular project. account to head office for the money that is donated. Typically. which might be divided into the following categories: Volunteer sending agencies such as Médecins Sans Frontières (France). For example. Green Deserts. Christian Aid. Their work will usually be confined to one or two projects.

You can also talk to 'umbrella organisations' operating in your sector. 2 Application Procedures and Deadlines Find out about the application procedure: when you need to apply by (there may be an annual cycle for the submission of applications. Sometimes this aid is purely for welfare. 3 Submit your Proposal Write a confident and well argued proposal in the format that is required. and what referees you will need). and how your work can advance their agenda. and statements made by government and politicians on particular issues. 4 Lobbying and Publicity Back up your application with lobbying. Be as factual as you can.4 The Five Stages of a Successful Application 1 Research Research the structure and responsibilities of government. links you have had previously with any statutory authorities.36 has many local support groups raising money for her work across the world. and get to know as much as you can about how they function. Government and politicians respond to pressure. Find out about current policies and priorities. You need to know who is responsible for what. One strategy for raising money is to get enthusiasts to set up support groups for you. In some countries. what information you will need to supply. Find out what's currently on offer and what sort of funding has been made to voluntary organisations in previous years. and how decisions are made before deciding your approach. its work and the ideas behind your proposal. Approach possible funders to discuss their requirements and how you might be able to meet their objectives cost. how the work will be evaluated. Make sure that everyone important knows about your application and the benefits that it will bring. published reports. and how to apply (whether there is an application form. and whether any of your trustees or members have good personal contacts with any likely funding sources. Find out what. Sometimes there is an evangelistic agenda or religious objective behind the provision of the aid. directories of government funding are produced. And the Karuna Trust in the UK supports an orphanage in Pune. or it can come from public subscription. 6. Get experts and important people on your side. Identify and match possible funding programmes with various aspects of your organisation's work. Show that you will be effective and efficient in the use of their money. Get media coverage for your organisation. This includes official policy. The money can come from the religious body itself and the foundations it controls.effectively. and if you miss the deadline you will have to wait until the next year). The donor agency is publicly accountable to see that their money is well spent. Find out who is responsible for making the decision. Denominational initiatives. Try to reach everyone who will play a part in coming to a decision on your application. education and development. Many religious denominations channel support to the developing world through their affiliate churches and religious institutions across the world. if any. .

and be accountable for the money you are spending. Sometimes this will be specified as a condition of grant. . then don't give up. Report back regularly. and what you could do to improve your chances of success. Think about how you might approach them next time. If you fail. Give them as much good publicity as you can for the support that they have given you. then say thank you enthusiastically and frequently.37 5 Say thank you If you succeed in getting support.

4 We thank International Partnership for Human Development. Title pages need to be well laid out. Problem Statement IV. Objectives V. for the permission to use pages 5-16 of The International Donor Directory (1997) for this project proposal outline. We find that it is not necessary to include the full budget. it can lead them to study the proposal closer. Summary Since donor personnel have many proposals to review. a summary is helpful in telling them what the project is about quickly. • Problem statement. However. • Project manager(s). some donors require projects to follow their guidelines. Title Page The title should be short and evoke the donor's attention. In the summary. Project Context or Justification III. Project Budget IX. • Description of your organization in one paragraph. We find it useful to put the date of submittal in one of the corners at the bottom of the title page.38 7 PROJECT PROPOSAL WRITING 4 A project proposal should contain the following sections: Title Page Table of Contents Summary I. Project Sustainability Appendices. A summary also makes the proposal appear more professional. Introduction II. It should be kept to one page. If properly presented. one should include the following: • Organization or group making the request: address. The total amount and one or two lines of what the money will be used for suffices. this is not necessary. • Amount requested. . e-mail. Some applicant organizations use official stationary for the title page. Work scope or Implementation Plan VII. telephone. Project Evaluation VIII. There are variations of this outline. including timetable for activities. Anticipated Outcomes or Results VI. However. fax. London. let us look at what each section in our outline contains. • Goal and objectives. and as noted previously. Table of Contents A table of contents can be helpful to donors in reviewing a project. Titles can tell the donor what kind of project it is and sometimes who the target group will be.

It should be no longer than half a page. While some people put a description of their organization and their partner group in this section. if it does not detract from presenting the project context with its concerns and problems. It is suggested to always state why this problem has priority over other problems. health and other pertinent conditions. • Describe social. we prefer it the other way since it identifies the conditions surrounding the problem. health. Obviously. if the project problem relates to organizational and administrative concerns. The Summary section should be short. 2 Project Context Some project proposal writers put the problem statement before the project context. you should present your organization's involvement in the project or region. economic. Keep it to two pages.39 You might add a paragraph on the partner organisation: name. the social. If data is available. If necessary. highlighting those that the project will impact on.e. Either approach seems effective. we prefer to put it in the Introduction. address. it should be used (i. and then you can later present the problem statement in a more concise fashion. For example. how the problem impacts the lives of the people who are the project's target group. but the description of the organization itself (mission. documentation or other material can be annexed. This section should present a brief history of the region. but never longer than two pages. and why your organization has a particular role in addressing this problem. however. a family planning project may address concerns of training supervisors or of service contract management. You might find it easier to write the summary last. 70% of the target group of children under 5 years of age suffer from at least one form of parasite infection . the people. two-line description. objectives. Main Part of the Application Form 1 Introduction Normally. Apart from describing your organization. and other conditions. An outline to follow is: • Describe history of area and people. which was done earlier.name source). and set the stage for linking the project to your organization's mission and program goals/strategies. Only if needed. economic. in previously addressing this or other problems (achievements) with the target group and/or other groups. this becomes a part of the project context. we repeat the project title at the top of this page. The Introduction should describe in more detail your organization. can one describe the organization in more detail here. telephone. preferably one page. One should be extremely careful not to make this section too long. • What has been your organization's involvement in this region: what achievements? • What is the government doing to address these problems? Private sector groups and churches? What plans do these have to address these problems? 3 Problem Statement This should be a short and concise descriptive statement of the problem(s) and need(s) to be addressed.) should be in the Introduction. etc. .

number of children treated in clinics or health posts who have been treated previously (the number should decrease).000 people in El Quiche. For a parasite treatment project. It can be presented in a step by step fashion of activities. formation of a water committee. However. would the water table be lowered to the point that it will effect other water supplies. Intangible results would be improved health. cannot easily be measured. would it later cause environmental problems. 5 Anticipated Results and Assumptions Some project proposal developers feel this section is not necessary since it repeats the objectives or results stated earlier. collection of water fees. number of community water tanks. reduced parasite infection. most donors insist on this section. Objectives should state in measurable terms who will benefit. Anticipated are tangible results or those that are measurable and found in the objectives.000 children under 5 years of age with parasite treatment in El Quiche Department (Guatemala) in the first year. etc. measurable. etc. If they are in your objectives. realistic and timed. into primary or major. tangible results would be 10 wells in 10 villages by the end of one year. Intangible results would be improved health and hygiene. 6 • Work Plan (Implementation) A detailed implementation plan should be presented. Intangible results. attainable. savings from carrying water. The work scope or implementation plan that follows later will be designed in order to achieve these objectives. if there are multiple ones. "the project will improve the health of children under 5 years of age in the northern two states of the country". Objectives should be SMART: specific. cause the saline level to increase. Some examples. For example. etc. the anticipated and tangible results would be the number of children treated in one year. amount of water available to the community or home daily. better absorption of nutrients. This is one of the most important sections of any proposal. more energy and more alert children. A statement might be made concerning the environmental impact of the project. • To provide 10. Some points to consider are: . In the case of a water project. for a water project. One should also look carefully at a project in regard to soil erosion and deforestation. or for irrigation and home gardens. decreased bouts of diarrhoea (although this is harder to measure). For ourselves it enables us to take a closer look at our objectives and allows us to analyse them in terms of tangible and intangible results. increase in weights. the time frame needed to achieve it.40 4 Project Goal(s) and Objectives Try to present a simple one sentence goal statement. • To train 50 family planning workers in 6 months for northern Para. and may not be contained in the objectives. and secondary objectives. It lets the donor know what your organization intends to do to address the problem. and so forth. Objectives can be separated. For example. While the project may bring a benefit to the people. and the development units or outputs. Brazil. • To construct 10 water systems in one year to benefit 10 villages with about 5. Many donors want to know if you have considered environmental impact. the number of treatments per child. number of household taps. on the other hand. try to make them measurable. amount of water flow.

and so forth. Provide their qualifications. target villages. and presented. Describe this role along with their inputs. • Criteria for evaluating outcomes or achievements. This section should include: • Person(s) who will undertake the monitoring/evaluation. • • • Basically. • How evaluations will be used by the project. monitoring should take place at least every six months. Try to stay away from mentioning funds. In a 2. The project should be evaluated at certain points during its implementation. Evaluations should be reviewed by agency boards or persons designated by them. For example. and how they would be recruited. pipe. Always try to quantify resource needs. • How data or information will be recorded.e. We describe resources in terms of pipe. after hiring a water technician and mobilizing the community. i. The number and kind of personnel needed to carry out the project. and how will they participate in its implementation? Many donors want the local population involved from the planning stage. Selection criteria should be presented. training manuals. 3 supervisors. Technical assistance inputs should be described. and so on. and project holder (if different than implementer). . since this information has a bearing (usually) on the NGO's mission and development strategies. It is important to feed back to the project staff and community the results of the evaluation. It also gives them encouragement when achievements are on schedule. What administrative and supervisory responsibilities does each have? Describe your action plan or methods -how you will implement the project. cement and other materials will need to be purchased. It tells the donor how and when the project will be evaluated. • How and to whom evaluations will be presented. but first they must understand them.e. Materials will need to be inventoried and stored (how and where. How long will this start up phase take? Try to present your project in phases or stages. with a final evaluation at the end of the project. for a water project. Describe how and why you selected your target group. or report to. 7 Monitoring and Evaluation This section is very important. space or locale for courses. the implementing agency.41 • • • • Was the local population involved in planning the project. this is the section of the project where you will describe how you are going to carry out the project to achieve your outputs and project objectives. which is better kept for the Budget section. many project writers fail to describe how they will identify and select candidates for training. Mention who they would be responsible to. and progress made toward achieving objectives. i.or 3-year project. • Time periods for the evaluation. 10 kilometres of plastic piping. In describing educational and training activities. whether they are available locally. through implementation and evaluation. 50 new family planning promoters. seeds. and by whom). Describe at each step what resources are needed. Describe the relationship for this project between the applicant and the implementing or field agency. They must take part in solving problems. The evaluation should be designed to determine how well the objectives are being achieved. 100 training manuals. and other items. tools. analysed. every 6 months or at the end of each project stage. vehicles. pumps. Try to show what alternatives there are to your plan of action or methods and why you did not choose them. the community.

and the kind of project presented. Some agencies try to calculate cost. • When showing the costs of materials. but for most projects we do not recommend such a complicated exercise. 8 Project Budget Projects generally under-budget rather than over-budget. • Always divide expenditures into major sections. . • Show local inputs. modifications of objectives. the more attractive the budget and project itself becomes to the donor NGO.effectiveness. tractor. Educational materials that have already been developed and will be used for your project can also be given a value. Certainly. telephone. We sometimes add 5 to 10 percent to the cost of the project for these items (Contingencies). and for unforeseen costs. times the minimum established wage in the country or region of it. land travel. and other pertinent data. and other. remember to depreciate them at 20 to 25 percent per year. maintenance. stationary. Budgets should: • Be expressed on a yearly basis. technical assistance. resources. fax. besides other benefits. travel.42 The evaluation section should also address problems. Show line items for: air travel. some countries have a 13th to a 15th month bonus. The more local inputs/value one has. and so on. with a last column for totals. • When purchasing equipment such as a vehicle. wood. office costs. The exchange rate used should be indicated below the budget. office equipment. and similar items. and administration. • Under office expenses: show separate line items for rent. recommended changes in outputs. Project applicants often forget that when volunteers are involved in a project. Remember. • Allow for inflation or other currency fluctuations. Use of vehicles and office space can be calculated as local inputs as well. one might add a paragraph on cost/benefit ratios. other travel. • Always show what local funds and other resources are available. One is often surprised by how large this input can be. vocational shop machinery. per diem or hotel and meals. For a 3-year project. their input has a local value. • Show costs in dollars and local currency. how they were solved or what can be done to solve them. A simple statement can be made in the project proposal that these points would be addressed. • Separate travel costs. Budgets must be realistic to cover project inputs or costs to achieve outputs. course costs. each year's budget can be shown in separate columns. vehicle maintenance. equipment and materials. sand and hand tools donated by a village for a water project. such as personnel. communication (postage. computer. Many donors like to see a 20-50 percent local input. such as the gravel. ambitious. internet). You should also indicate how these would be maintained and replaced. It depends on the country. It is a good idea to set up an equipment replacement fund if your project generates income. and if maintenance is available locally. It can be calculated easily by determining the number of hours weekly or monthly they will work on the project over the project's lifespan. calculate the monthly salary x 12 months to arrive at one year’s salary • Show fringe benefits in a separate line item from salaries. Estimates can be made for donated local materials. At the end of the budget section. Some tips: • When presenting salary costs. high cost budgets are sometimes presented. indicate the per unit cost.

Try to keep notes to a minimum. Etc. Subtotal E. Subtotal D. Contingencies (Unforeseen and inflation). no more than 2 or 3 notes. Office Rent: $100 per month X 12 months. insurance and maintenance Per diem: 10 days per month at $15 per day x 12 months Bus fare Subtotal C.10 X 1. Materials ORT salts: $0. Subtotal TOTAL . Registration. An example of a budget format is the following: Line Item (Expenditures: In US$) A. Stationary.00 each. Course Costs Five nutrition courses: 30 people in each at $10 per day per person X 30 X 5 courses. Etc. Travel Purchase of motorbike Gasoline: $20 per month X 12 months. Subtotal F. Communication: $125 per month X 12 months.43 Some projects contain a full page or more of budget notes. Personnel Salaries (list and calculate) Fringe Benefits Subtotal B. Estimate: 10% per year.000 packets Printing of 500 posters: $1.

If there are too many appendices. Technical Sustainability: Indicate that the target group can provide technical inputs to the project after donor funding ends. There are at least three kinds of sustainability: Financial Sustainability: the proposal should indicate how the project can continue or be sustained after donor funds are expended. i. through the use of locally generated funds. information highlighting problems to be addressed. staff credentials.e. . This shows by month or quarter year what activities will be undertaken. 9 Project Sustainability Increasingly. Others might be a map of the project region. that they have the training. the document is unattractive and turns away donors. Managerial Sustainability: The proposal should show that the local target group and/or applicant will continue to provide organizational or managerial inputs after donor funding. skills and materials to continue to sustain the project. government funding.44 In the budget. etc. Can the community or target group itself reach a level where it can manage the project and organize for expanded or new activities? What will local leadership and organization be like at the end of the project? Appendices There should be very few appendices. We suggest that only pertinent and very important documents or information be appended. It is a good idea to address this point in every project. letter from responsible government official. donors want to know how the activity will be continued once their grant is expended. and what kind of accounting system you have. One such appendix might be a time line of activities. one should show other grants that are anticipated. Sometimes donors want to know how and who will manage the funds. letter of support from another donor. etc.

5 It is very important that everybody. on their own experiences. Methodology The trainer should employ a participatory. From this they can learn how stereotypes. Another important point is that the learning experience should be as practice-oriented as possible. Lack of participation in decision-making. D. 20036. knowledge. has to start with introducing the major gender concepts and have participants reflect. Washington. and rounded off by the trainer who highlights important points. with the use of handouts. including those who already received some gender sensitisation should learn that gender planning is more than just adding a women's component to projects. This methodology draws on the participants' experiences and encourages active problem-solving and critical and analytical thinking. Suite 200. Each session follows a pattern of evolving understanding. values. sustainable development through the empowerment of men and women. Fax : +1 202 332-4496. followed by group work and group work presentation. therefore. 5 CEDPA: 1717 Massachusetts Avenue N. First a short introduction of the topic by the trainer. The focus in GAD. volume 3. the planning process as such has to be discussed and it should be emphasised that gender must be integrated in all the planning phases: from problem identification (situational analysis and needs assessment). is on reaching equitable. land. Tel : +1 202 667-1142. but also on the differences in power between the sexes. Gender has to be related to real life experiences for recognition by the participants. lack of access to resources (information. A very useful one is the gender training manual Gender and Development.org . norms and traditions influence our perception of gender relations.45 ANNEX 1 GENDER-SENSITIVE PROJECT DEVELOPMENT NOTES FOR THE PROJECT COORDINATOR Introduction When you consider encouraging gender-sensitive project development it is a good idea to organise a workshop in gender-integrated planning. Explaining gender planning After an introduction to the major concepts in mainstreaming gender. etc.W. published by the Centre for Development and Population Activities in their CEDPA Training Manual Series. There are various handbooks on gender planning. through participatory exercises and group work.). At the end of the day the participants should have learned that the major concept for formulating strategies and measures is empowerment. e-mail : cmail@cedpa. therefore. The lessons they learn can then be used to generalise the insights to a higher level which is needed for gender planning. benefits and opportunities are crucial factors causing the disadvantaged position of women. experiential methodology based on the principles of adult learning. It is a very important concept in the Gender and Development (GAD) approach and focuses not only on the participation of women in the development process. USA.C. Individual participants are encouraged to manage their own learning and share responsibility with the trainer(s). property.. for instance.. For those participants that did not attend a gender workshop before it is essential that they first have a basic understanding of the issues concerned. The day.

An example checklist is provided. One also has to emphasise that women have to take part on an equal basis with men in all the planning and project activities. therefore. Goals and Objectives In the discussion on goals and objectives one should point out that one sometimes has to set priorities after the formulation of goals/objectives. because often not all objectives can be implemented at once. The lack of reliable baseline data on both men's and women's situation is one of the major reasons for negative results of projects. Monitoring and Evaluation Quality assessment is an instrument for policy makers to check whether gender is integrated in project proposals. In the discussion of the various phases of the planning process it should be again and again be emphasised how important the collection of gender disaggregated data is for the planning process. One should also discuss the need to collect qualitative data. One. In monitoring the activities one should focus on the process as well as on the impact of the interventions. Too often workshops are dead ends because people do not commit themselves to implement what they have learnt. implementation. The sessions on planning can be rounded off with a recap of the whole planning process. has to end the workshop with the question "How and where are we going from here?" . Monitoring and evaluation are topics which often are new to participants. such as sitting on management committees. monitoring and evaluation to the end-evaluation.g. Another issue for discussion is the fact that objectives are not always measurable. a project to increase women's awareness of their legal rights or to encourage their leadership is often not quantifiable. on decision-making at household and community level. This instrument can be used as a final screening of the project proposal before it is sent to a donor agency or a government official for approval. It is important that they acquire a basic knowledge of what is involved and which tools one can use. A Personal Action Plan It is very important to attach an action component to your workshops. This is a waste of time and energy and a major constraint on moving forward with the integration of gender in all development efforts. It is exactly these perceptions and role expectations which are so difficult to change. see Handout. A quality assessment is a form of evaluation asking specific questions as to gender. Especially when one is working within the empowerment approach qualitative data are needed to identify underlying values and perceptions which influence behavioural patterns and power relations between men and women. One has to develop qualitative indicators for measuring changes in attitudes and perceptions and use a longer time frame. Quality Assessment. on reasons for nonparticipation of women.46 through design. etc. When discussing monitoring and evaluation it has to be emphasised again that both men and women have to take part in these activities. e. For instance.

THOU SHALT SHARE MUTUAL RESPECT WITH THY EMPLOYEES From: CEDPA/Supervision.47 ANNEX 2 THE TEN COMMANDMENTS OF LEADERSHIP 1. THOU SHALT ALWAYS PROVIDE FOR FEEDBACK 6. 1996 . THOU SHALT DELEGATE 10. THOU SHALT PLAY A SUPPORTIVE AND NOT A PUNITIVE ROLE 7. THOU SHALT ALWAYS MONITOR PROGRESS OF ACTIVITIES 5. THOU SHALT BE IN TOUCH WITH YOUR STAFF AND COMMITTEE ON A REGULAR BASIS 9. AND LET EVERYBODY KNOW WHAT IS EXPECTED FROM THEM 4. THOU SHALT PROVIDE FOR ON-THE-JOB TRAINING WHERE NECESSARY 8. THOU SHALT ASSIGN RESPONSIBILITIES. THOU SHALT COMMUNICATE PLANS WITH ALL CONCERNED 3. THOU SHALT INVOLVE THY PEOPLE IN PLANNING THEIR WORK 2.

When you have given a rating for each indicator. The facilitator makes sure that everyone has an opportunity to contribute to discussions. The group designates a facilitator for meetings and discussions. Never 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Always 10 . circle the number that corresponds to your assessment of the group (1 is the lowest rating. acknowledges disagreements when they occur. add the total of the numbers you have circled. For each indicator. goals and objectives are clear. Divide the total by 11 to determine the overall average score you have given your group. Members ask clarifying questions or use paraphrasing to make sure they understand each other. The group tolerates differences. Never 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Always 10 6. An agenda is presented before a meeting begins. Never Always 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 3. and addresses them openly. Never 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Always 10 2. Never 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Always 10 5. Each member speaks for him/herself and allows others to speak for themselves. 10 is the highest rating).48 A TOOL FOR TEAM ASSESSMENT Use the following indicators of team effectiveness to assess the extent to which your group works as a team. 1. Never 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Always 10 4.

1996 .49 7. Never 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Always 10 TOTAL SCORE: AVERAGE SCORE: From: CEDPA/Supervision. Members show trust and cooperation and allow for creativity and compromise. Never 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Always 10 11. The group accomplishes its task with a satisfying product or output. the knowledge and experiences of members) are used effectively. The group evaluates the way it functions. Never 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Always 10 10. working well together). The group establishes an effective balance between task orientation (reaching the objective or accomplishing the task) and process orientation (communicating effectively.. Resources within the group (i.e. Never 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Always 10 9. Never 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Always 9 10 8.

For example. You could say: "I really felt embarrassed when our donor pointed out to me some mistakes in our last two reports". you should give feedback as close to the event (the problem or the behaviour) as possible." This will help avoid making the other person feel defensive. your supervisors. the person will feel a greater sense of responsibility for changing the behaviour. however. choose a time or an occasion that indicates how important it is. you will want to remain on good (if not better) terms with the person. you value what he/she does. begin by showing respect for the other person. the easier it will be for the person to understand what needs to be changed . you should probably cool off first! Talk about the situation in relation to yourself-not the other person Use "I" as the subject. If you accuse people. On the other hand. if it is important. This helps the person see the consequences of his/her behaviour and not simply the behaviour itself. rather than saying: "you always make mistakes in our reports". The more recent the event. Choose the right moment Avoid giving feedback only when it is convenient for you-make sure0 that the time is right for the other person to hear what you have to say.50 HOW TO GIVE CONSTRUCTIVE FEEDBACK Agree that feedback is important It is important for both parties to understand the purpose for giving and receiving feedback in the organization. Agree with your colleagues. Talk about something positive the person has done. they might say you are wrong. If you are too angry. Be descriptive and specific It is more useful to discuss specific events than general behaviour. the less likely it is that you will disagree about what really happened. but they cannot say that your own feelings are wrong. Start on a positive note When you are about to criticize what someone has done. Positive feedback is welcome at almost any time. then you probably will not improve anyone's situation. not "you. In that way. Discuss with others in your organization how feedback might be helpful to improve communication-not only when things go wrong but also when things are going well. before both of you forget what happened or disregard it as unimportant. Most likely. in general. and your supervisees that it is both appropriate and useful to give and to ask for feedback. and so let that person know that. If the other person does not listen to you. The more specific you are. you should be able to say something nice. No matter how poorly the person has behaved.

. even if you disagree.. "Nobody likes the way you do these reports. not things that can't be changed." or. if you listen to what the other person thinks about the situation. It shows that you are listening to and showing respect for the other person. make sure you understand what you're reacting to by asking. Don't make broad generalisations It is not useful (and probably not even true) to make broad generalizations such as.51 and why. Remember. you will help to focus the discussion on the real issue. Likewise.." If you say something specific... but usually they feel better once they have talked about the situation from their own point of view. Remember that you are not trying to change who the person is. you are simply trying to improve the way that person behaves or interacts in a given situation. "In other words." This is known as paraphrasing what the other person has said.. then he or she will be in a better position to act. you will better understand the difficulties (if there are any) in changing behaviour. "Do you mean to say that. Let's look at them.. criticise what the person has done Focus on the person's specific behaviour(s). you feel that." Another generalization to avoid is. The other person should see that you are trying to be objective about what has happened. " You 're always making mistakes in these reports! " What you really mean to say is "You have made similar mistakes in the last two reports. Sometimes people just need to vent their feelings before they can really enter into a more rational dialogue. just because you listen to someone doesn't mean you have to agree with them! . HOW TO RECEIVE FEEDBACK CONSTRUCTIVELY Relax Take a deep breath to help your body relax. Let the other person say as much as possible without intervening People give and react to feedback in different ways." What you really mean to say is "I don't like the way you do these reports because.. you may be setting yourself up for resistance." or. from your own perspective. Let them vent first! Ask questions to clarify what you have heard Before you react. "What I hear you say is that. Don't criticise the person. If you help the person see something the way you perceive it. Let them do that so that they know you are willing to listen to them. If you pretend to be all-knowing.

and make sure that appointment is kept.52 Look first for areas of agreement Finding some common ground will help move your discussion toward resolution.1996 . Give yourself some time to think about it Don 't try to solve everything on the spot. You will begin to feel better about each other that much sooner. The best way to reach an agreement in conflict is to acknowledge those areas where you feel the same way. Be sure to set up a time in the near future when you both will continue your discussion. Give each other some time to think about your discussion and to check facts. From : CEDPA/Supervision.

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