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rate of increase that is important. The geothermal gradient measures the rate at which temperature increases within the Earth.
Roughly 25-30°C per kilometer. This gradient must "flatten out" or lessen with increasing depth.
Pressure increases at a rate of about 333 bars per kilometer in the crust. A bar is about one atmosphere. Therefore the pressure gradient is about one-third of a kilobar (1000 bars) per kilometer.
Diamonds require about 100 kilobars to form, what depth of burial is required?
Partial Melting: Most rocks are mixtures of minerals and each mineral has its own set of physical characteristics. Quartz melts at about 1725°C at one atmosphere total pressure; here, melting is defined as the temperature at which solid and liquid of the same composition are in equilibrium. In general we must specify the pressure in order to state a unique melting point. If Quartz is mixed with Alkali Feldspar in some proportion (e.g. 70% feldspar and 30% quartz) melting occurs but not in the same way that the melting of a pure compound occurs. In general, there is no single temperature at which any mixture of minerals goes from solid to liquid. Rather, there is a range of temperatures at which liquid and solid are present. This is the interval of partial melting or partial crystallization. 1000°C all liquid 900°C less solid + more liquid 800°C solid + liquid 700°C more solid + less liquid 600°C all solid
. In general. Classification of Igneous Rocks Why do we classify things? • • Identify important attributes Efficiently communicate information. Texture refers to the size. This mixture would be 100% liquid until a temperature of about 1000°C. Two properties of igneous rocks that we will focus on are texture and mineralogy. Cooling is the reverse. Essentially all magmas are formed by partial melting which did not reach the temperature at which all of the parent material was molten. In a mixture of crystals and liquids the liquid (less dense) will attempt to migrate upwards whereas the crystals may sink. shape and arrangement of the grains in the rock. At about 700° all of the liquid is gone. The concept of partial melting plays a crucial role in igneous processes. Plate Tectonics Review the relationships between plate boundaries and igneous activity. Magmas that cool at the surface of the Earth are extrusive whereas those that cool within the Earth are intrusive. Here partial melting is initiated at about 700 degrees Centigrade and completed by 1000°C. When magma reaches the surface it is called lava. the addition of water (a bond breaker) to a hot rock can cause melting to begin.The amount of liquid decreases as the temperature drops until all of the liquid is used up in producing solids. liquids tend to be less dense than the solids that crystallize from them. Similarly. Crystallization begins and the amount of solids increase and the amount of liquid decreases as the temperature cools. Initiation of Melting Melting temperatures rise with increasing pressure: • • Therefore a relatively sudden reduction in pressure on an already hot rock can initiate melting.
alkali feldspar and quartz. the other phases represent solid solution series.fine grained . Mineralogy . pyroxene and Ca-rich plagioclase. Minerals crystallize and compete for space. intermediate temperature .small Minerals in igneous rocks have an interlocking texture.big grains and small grains phenocryst .amphibole. and low temperature .you can see the individual crystals aphanitic . left side of Bowen’s reaction series are minerals rich in iron and magnesium: high temperature olivine pyroxene amphibole biotite . high temperature .muscovite. Bowen's Reaction Series Here • • • • • • • With the exception of quartz. The viscosity (resistance to flow) of a melt (magma/lava) increases with decreasing temperature.• • • phaneritic . On the discontinuous.Remember that the most abundant mineral groups in the crust are the plagioclase and alkali feldspars. The complexity (amount of sharing of the oxygens of the silicon-oxygen tetrahedrons) increases with decreasing temperature. Norman Bowen (about 1915) proposed the following sequences of crystallization of silicates from a magma.big groundmass . Bowen's Reaction Series points out that there are commonly occurring mineral assemblages (based on similar temperatures of formation/crystallization). For example. biotite and Na-rich plagioclase. Slower cooling in an intrusive mass (lower temperature contrast with surroundings) should lead to a phaneritic texture.olivine. Rapid cooling leads to fine-grained aphanitic rocks — extrusive. quartz and olivine (at least the magnesium-rich variety) are not expected to occur together as an equilibrium assemblage.you can't see the individual crystals or grains porphyritic .coarse grained .
Temperature estimated by the feldspar(s) present Cooling rate (and thus extrusive vs intrusive) estimated from the texture Alkali Feldspar Sodium Plagioclase Calcium Plagioclase .low temperature On the continuous side of Bowen’s reaction series: high temperature calcium-rich plagioclase calcium-sodium plagioclase sodium-rich plagioclase low temperature On the bottom portion of Bowen’s reaction series the following minerals crystallize: high temperature muscovite alkali feldspar quartz low temperature Generalize from the feldspars: high temperature calcium-rich plagioclase sodium-rich plagioclase alkali feldspar (a solid solution between K and Na feldspars) low temperature Classification scheme for igneous rocks using texture and mineralogy.
Shapes of Igneous Bodies • • • • • • Tabular Bodies . around the Library Mall fountain and the base of the Lincoln statue .bodies that "dome up" the overlying rocks Pipes and Necks .tabular bodies that are oriented parallel to the "structure of the enclosing rock".the fossil remnant of the plumbing system under a volcano Irregular bodies include stocks and batholiths that typically were formed from highly viscous (silica-rich) melts.Phaneritic Aphanitic Silica Content Granite Rhyolite >65 % Diorite Andesite 53-65% Gabbro Basalt 45-52% Granite is a coarse grained igneous rock which contains abundant alkali feldspar. Think about the analogous relationships between Diorite and Andesite and Gabbro and Basalt.relatively low viscosity to allow magma to follow relatively narrow openings. Laccoliths .tabular bodies that cut across the "structure" of the enclosing rock.these effects are both in the same direction for igneous melts and make basalts much more fluid than rhyolites. Viscosity is a measure of "resistance to flow". Sills . as the temperature of the liquid increases the viscosity of the liquid decreases and the liquid flows more easily. . Magmas with lower silica contents also flow more readily . This is a low-temperature assemblage. Granites also contain quartz. A liquid with high viscosity flows with difficulty. Rhyolite is the mineralogical equivalent of granite but it formed as a result of rapid cooling giving the rock the fine-grained texture. It if is a rhyolite but with a porphyritic texture it would be a rhyolite porphyry. Dikes . In general.what name would you give these rocks? If the rock is a granite but with a porphyritic texture it would be a granite porphyry. Remember the steps on the west side of the Memorial Library.
Columbia flood basalts Pyroclastic sheet eruptions: welded tuffs Features of extrusive igneous rocks: • • • • • Columnar joints Pahoehoe and aa flows Pillow lavas Pyroclastics: ash. Extrusive Igneous Activity and Features Volcanoes • • • • • • • Craters vs. bombs May contain xenoliths — samples from lower crust or mantle Magma-forming Environments • • • • • Subduction zones Frictional heating Circulation of the asthenosphere Addition of water Rifting . this heat can result in temperature increases sufficient to initiate partial melting. cinders. Th 232 and K40) decay giving off heat. Each decay gives off a very small amount of heat but over long time periods.Pacific NW Cinder cones: up to 33° slopes (angle of repose) Lava domes: Mt. Pelee. calderas Shield volcanoes: 2-10° slopes. U238.Mechanics of Batholith Emplacement • • • • Granitization: NO in almost every case .local phenomena if at all Forceful injection: driven by density variations and possibly tectonic forces Diapirs: analogy to salt dome formation Stoping: commonly good evidence for this Source of Heat to Partially Melt Solid Rock Radioactive elements (U235. low viscosity magmas Composite cones: layers of lava and ash . nuee ardente Fissure eruptions: basalt plateaus .
calcium and sodium Fe-Mg minerals weather chemically to produce iron oxide and dissolved silica. and sodium. otherwise they will be eroded again.chemical reactions in presence of water. 19) . and sodium. o o o One such deep hole is the deep ocean basin (or abyss).deepest water depth where sediments are moved by wave action Wave base is determined by the largest storms . magnesium.sediments must be deposited in a deep hole (or a hole that is deepening). Basalt (mostly pyroxene + feldspar + olivine): pyroxene weathers chemically to produce iron oxide and dissolved silica. feldspar weathers chemically to produce clay and dissolved silica. calcium. magnesium. calcium and sodium olivine weathers chemically to produce iron oxide and dissolved silica and magnesium Formation of sedimentary rocks . oxygen and carbon dioxide Examples: Granite (mostly quartz + feldspar + amphibole or biotite mica): quartz weathers mechanically to produce sand feldspar weathers chemically to produce clay and dissolved silica. 15.• • Pressure release melting Hot spots Sedimentary Rocks Mechanical and chemical weathering o o Definitions: Mechanical weathering . at the edge of continents (Fig 6. calcium.13) Dissolved load Redistribution of sediments by waves Concept of wave base: (see Waves in Chap.5) Delivery of sediments to the sea by rivers (Table in Lecture 5) Bed load and suspended load (Fig.reduction into physically smaller particles Chemical weathering .
like an avalanche (Figs.19.below wave base Often some distance from shore Examples: Prodelta sediments Marsh environments Deep water deposits Coarse clastics Higher energy environments . deposited by corals and other organisms that make limey shells. wind deposits Examples: Delta mouth bar Point bar Beach deposits . shallow water. Form mainly where there is little clastic deposition (clear water) Florida Keys and Bahama Banks are two areas of the US where limestone are being laid down Corals may be ground up and reworked into lime sand before deposition Environments of deposition o o o Biogenic Carbonate deposits (Limestone) Warm.g.Delivery of sediments to the abyss o o o o Turbidites: rapid flow of sediments down submarine canyons. Examples: Florida shelf Yucatan shelf Bahama banks map symbol: brick pattern Fine-grained sediments (shale) (e. 11. 6.near shore.15) Deposited in quiet water .above wave base. absence of clastics. 6. Fig.10) Coarse sediments moved quite far off shore Telephone cable breakage after the Grand Banks earthquake (1929) indicated that the flow velocity was about 80 km/hr Suspended sediment: fine particles Wind blown sediment: fine clay brought to the middle of the ocean Dissolved sediments: especially limestone.
6. Cenozoic) cover only the most recent 12% of the earth's age. Earliest rocks are limestones.g. pressure. as a consequence of one (or a combination) of three agents: heat.16) Idea first developed by Nikalaus Stensen (Steno 17th century) Fossils . US).their evolution provides a unidirectional vector in time William Smith (early 18th century) showed that the ages of rocks could be characterized by the fossils that they contained Called the law of Faunal succession The Geologic Column (see Fig.more detail in upcoming lecture on Geologic Time Lithology . Mesozoic.paleoenvironments Superposition of sediments .o o Desert deposits: fine material blown away by dunes History in the sequence of sediments . In other words. Epochs The major geologic Eras (Paleozoic. 8. but this time is important because it spans the time when multicellular life has flourished. since streams tend to flow away from high topography of bulge Shallow water limestones now at several kilometers depth Imply subsidence Due to cooling in this case Metamorphic Rocks Metamorphism refers to a set of processes that result in changes in mineralogy and texture accompanying changes in temperature and pressure. Fig. usually beneath the Earth's surface.a sequence in time (e. transformation of existing rock.2) Division of the geologic record Eons. Eras. Why? Thermal bulge at the beginning of the opening of the ocean caused high elevations at edge of rift Little clastics deposited. Similar sediment sequence on the two sides of the Atlantic Oldest sediments: Triassic-Jurassic Why are there no earlier sediments? (There was no ocean then). . Africa and Maryland. and fluids. Periods.facies . You should learn the Eons and Eras and the ages of the boundaries of each. Age of ocean margin sediments Discussion of sediment cross-sections from the two sides of the Atlantic (near Senegal.
The boundary between diagenesis (sedimentary process) and the onset of metamorphism is one of semantics.no obvious.increasing depth of burial plus deformation results in an increase in temperature and pressure Remember the geothermal gradient Dynamic Metamorphism . Metamorphic Types Contact Metamorphism .often associated with fault zones Commonly reduces grain size High Pressure .blueschists Effects of Metamorphism Increasing Grain Size: Increasing Temperature and Pressure may aid in the recrystallization of minerals in the rock Small grains become larger .nearby heat source .heat flows from the intrusive body into the country rock May also involve fluid flow or exchange Regional Metamorphism . local heat source .variable pressure at relatively low temperatures . older rock .associated with subduction zones Characterized by unusual minerals .oriented with respect to direction of applied pressure(s) stress Clay minerals are often enlarged with increasing metamorphism .an intrusive igneous body is injected into a colder.Low Temperature Metamorphism .
fine .Growth of New Minerals: New minerals may grow during metamorphism CaCO3 + SiO2 = CaSiO3 + CO2 The presence of wollastonite can be used as an indicator of the degree of metamorphism ISOGRAD . Schist. rock fabric .clay mineral rich parent Metamorphic Facies .coarse flakes Phyllite .attempts to deduce degree of metamorphism by looking at index minerals.a metamorphosed quartz sandstone Degree of Metamorphism A function of the pressure.a line on a map connecting points of equal degrees of metamorphism Classification Is the rock banded? .had a parent rich in carbonate Quartzite .the Protolith Marble .very fine If the rock is neither foliated nor banded it is called a granofels if it is coarse grained or a hornfels if it is fine grained Marble . temperature and composition of the parent rock . shiny surface Slate .GNEISS Does the rock exhibit foliation . Gneiss .parallelism of the cleavage of micas? Schist .each band is often a single mineral .a metamorphosed limestone Quartzite .barely visible flakes.quartz sandstone parent Slate.
Plate Tectonics and Metamorphism Divergent Boundaries: contact metamorphism.dynamic metamorphism . dikes in contact with host rock Convergent Boundaries: Subduction Zones: high pressure/low temperature metamorphism Convergent Boundaries: Continent/Continent collision .regional metamorphism Transform boundaries: two plates sliding past one another can generate higher pressures without much heat . basaltic lavas in contact with sediments.
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