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Atlas of Rock-Forming Minerals in Thin Section

Atlas of Rock-Forming Minerals in Thin Section

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Published by: niccilo on Jan 17, 2012
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_' -

HAc:.. ~


Iturpdrit:tjon v lIr'h!Irl'ngmcf (·{wri.



Analcite X3



Gedrire Grunerite 46 44 RlitHe Perovskite Spinel Brucite Calcite Dolomite Apatite Fluorite Dl.:c[itc· I Iuw ieite
l;Ll~:smaL1ik HS




A I'lthDpbyll itt'

C~~I),mlr'lldilq_~ jI}[l;)i;,'!Il 6


Hornblende Kaersutlte

Fe r~'rIil !]n~~li c I~'
4t'i 50




8 10 1.2

Glau:::;(~rliil,j'I<t~' ·~9


V(!'~'1j'fli)]itc (ldocrase)

Arfvedson ite
ALI1 i{1'rnarite Asrrophyllrte


'Sillillmnil~ MIIIII~

I 52-






PWd::lII.l.~:i I¢!" 8.: Silliman LIC i1'1 te rf.tIJW th


Muscovite Uitl:1ilc. 5~ Stilpnomclunc

57 S~ 6U 62 (.] M *6 6£,

l'QPf.lZ .\llaLl'r:t)l~k 17


Yoderitc '~I(A'x 'J8


I ¢J





Su,pphi r1Ji\~
,Eu:dialy le lO"i",ite



Serperuirrc Prchnitc Mi~rodillt !);-Lnod i lit! PI',) g_i ~ lase


J'irmlflilli I~ 24 ,,,!'Illmile- (Orl '1'1 ite) L,:lill.'S(ffli te

Perq"Fli~c& Mieropcrthdic
/\ tl~)Fl hO(lla~t~


Pum pcllyitc
McliJ.it(' £,;Clrd ierite
A:l:iJlI[f 34


My r ruek ite G ra n ophyric Tridymite 3:;

,,,, '"
[C,"" I tl





Jh :J, 7

Nephel m!;: Leucite N osean Cuncrinite


San ld n!l10c l\,lerjlu~Ji' &

C1lIJOpyro:KclJc & Orthopyroxene il~tergr~lwlh





The purpose of this book is to ill~IM,~i~ lileappL';;~lnmC€ of man}' pHhc common 1'fjc:k.-fOJJ:I1liJ1~ minerals in ~hih section under the microscope .. 11 i~ j'J01 our inllcllIiOl.l that i( 8hollUd be used as a snb:;Iil ute for ~I TIIbn~ralog}' textbook but r<11h~r as a l;iJbl)r~!.lor.y ha:nclitJ.li'lllo. for use ill practical d,I!'l~e.. (ogt:l!lit;;1' wmth QIlI: ~1'r the standard textbooks .. or} The idea of p:md,.cinf.a series or phQl@gnl,'[1h~ J,n~9J;l.;'riJ11:o IF. thin of section came frum two ..ourees. '1'I101l:!j,Qll of nile of the uurhors, I. R MacKenzie, 11~el1in his second year .~ a student 1.)1" g.eology. ~LIM.c'stoo I,hat lbese would be; a useful ,ait1 in n::coglJ,t:r.ltIg minerals under the mi:croscopc, On questloning IPI'!,Jeq?.raduak,;;, ill seo;:DIUJ-,Yl!J!!" Geology d'I,S,~~ in Mb!!lL.::~~~stBr. L1ivl;"n;it}', ,",,'113"~hl;:yr1mfernid ~:t:r~,ail1 U tcxtbeoks to eltht.'rc:, the answer was illvar.iably i h;'ll' they found those I~H,l()kswhich contained illuslrntions aocornpanymg the I~),I particularty 1I:!itlfLI1. espee ...I]y when they C,l,u.ild rc:cogni?~ under t'he microscope features whic:h equid be: seen in the phvlngf.aph:;. Sume of the lC:'il~}()ob which, in our- opinion, contairr ~hiil best phoromicrographs 01' ,drl.lwln g::; ,of n~ i ncrab are ruther 01«;1 "rtc'l <l re no; ra;.,ild.ily a'l'aitiahla;:,to the SLudc;nl: of tocl~~.YRo~e.l1blJscb·~Mikro:;J.::f)r· i:\'.d:t~ Pf'rogri:Ip.l'!J·~ dn /i,1id1R~'uJiC1r rin(i .G{':\,t~itid·. publis her I in 1,905. has ;;..ome cxc~lIenr rlriQt,omil..'[ogl'aphs printed in _black "i!d white. 'i\'hik Teall's Brjii,~11 Petrography, puhlish>l;,!d ~Ii g88, ha::::heautifu] drawing:-! which i1PI1<l~rto l;iu.ve been hJim:LL.ct~lm.Ll'€dIbcfu,n: reproductfon b)i 'P~·fr!lillg. t-I. G. S'mi,II';<i "Millct(i1!> and the Microscope", firsl printed in 1914. has been fou nd useful oJ gmlt:r~.tiomi of :o't Lldent5: of elemenrary m:i1Ier;llQgy bt.'1;'HI~e fthe hi.ghqualily of the iI1LL~tr.tli{)n:;. o It seeme.l In 11M.that if we could n;prmiuce faii,hr~!'II:" boy colour 1'l1lOlognlpfly, tb.1; .<'I ppenrance of run nerals uader the ru ieroscope bql:ll ill phll),f"'f!Olarizcl.i light and under eros-sed polurs, tile uscfu~n.r-~s Of
photomicrogli~pl'I.~' as a l<::m;iLiTlg md would beincreased

mincrej'l'l;1gy _

who l}'flfd the text, II:()I:once btll innumcrabje tlmes, until we fIJ wtra~ we considered to be a cornpro 111~S:lIbet -.yeefl toe tk: laile.d and Dri~f desc riptions of t he: plio lugl"j~l~hl.s" We shouJ 111i be H'Ithank !he- f;·raff of •.he puh Ilshcr5,p.o1Tticub r.ly .~ Bobbi Gouge, ror their ceusidcration nnd belfl'fulm:3s 'in prepa.Ta,IJ Otj of this work.

'I'hc mr:tjt.tri!), OftJlC photographs were made from Ihitl sections of rocks- in the teaching eollections of Ihe GcolO'gy r~epaItThlcn'l in Man~hesl,el' llnlvcrl:ii!Y· '111d are gn~Le:fu] '1.0 mau) of {JUt,colhll::~~le~ \1,'C III liI!·imLdl~S,leTf-or pm;"idin~ us w ith thin sections, We arc p~lrlklJlarly i:'mjt:l'i:l'~d. to Profu'::!::'~I'.L ZllSb"lIJj~~TI or his cIIth[lsi!I.::ml ami V!l(Oti'l'age l ment to us Lu undertake this wOl"k and Ik S. O, Agrel'l of the Departmcat of Mll'1cndogy lIlld l'etl"ology of Cambriu:g~ Untvcrs-ily who ~iCI}' k.iru11y found. fn:lln the, Harker C~ll1octi,on ill Cmnb.ridg'C, ~I mlm[ocr uf .. .dditional ,hh~ M:ChOI1S. Dr. A,grell and I'ro"fcssur W·. A. Deer very [!ie:nef(Ju:s!y :1:\!,rcco 1.0 look ~, 111m!of ~~l~photograflh~ ~. h,uJ [[Ja~e and hetped ua 1.0 tl-ecidc whilllher they w.e,rEl; suitable or could be improved, The authors' alone are responsible for uny l'ienciencjo:-:s. wlll,ell arc.~ iIll'iTl t'il'esC-I'Il in the plwtog.r,a,pn;'L W~~!realso.g.n~teful to Dr, ,'. 'Wad!-l'worth or. Ih!': M.auc~lW~f-l::rDepartrnerrt for m~",l'.lng 3. llul1Iher of uscfu] ~tl@el$liooi> !"or lmpruving the .desoriptions flf the phutcrnict ogmr-h:'ii 'blH OI.gain w~ ~li()ne an: responsible lor any errors which ftr.ly -appc~trhere. FioaUy we am much indebted to MbSS. P.alr~C'i<J Crook


Introd uction

The minerals represented Iiere.are ulrrani;gcdi in the sameorder in which l:bo:~y r~pt=II;:(lr in Deer. Howle' and 1,u~·:sin:Jl::r·\;; lntro(!rinft!i'J ttl !~()f'k' .I-}))'ft!il;g Mil'wra!s [relevant page Ill.imh~r;:i gi ven at the 'end nl"em;b rm1fl hll ~!l;lI-e hl"'l~ki.!'l!>.), except .O!· a I'ew minerals which are LWi' d,;:scribc.:d by these fl III h ors, · ·jt_ deerite, hfi.1kietl'e, IlJti~ma ni L,.;._ ... yoderire and' Iamprophyllise. The dec:is.io~1 ,IS to whichminerals !(I ind\ide has ~t~~L based mainly on [WO consideratious, firstly. bow ffeqU:~El~~y lh~)' occur o!n~'! sl;;(.'oIldJy whether ':J. j)liolog:r;.~pll t"hUl be a useful ~Id in ~demilk~ii 01'i. r rdhe headi rlg~ r~;. miners I. we have Ii:;;;. L~j (hI;;chemicalformul 11 each (;;,imrliJiled [[1 s,!ltlle ~at\c~). erys[aJ sy~[E! m, o pl;tf:' sign, the v a lues' of t he i3 l'err:;;Cillve index fur biaxial minerals and tile W 'lfl~1 r.: T!:l}' refractive iildiocs for uniaxial miIH:~'r~l~ ~(lgl;;lher with th-e hij'e.rricl·.~.!:[OIl~I,;.These llgur~ hevc been quoted fr~mj Deer, Howie and ZUSSlnal1':>: he-ok with their pennission The rock type and '1~,ql'lrl}', of the &'pOCiI!11~tl;; are ~lIak~ where these ,~rt:hlown, and tJ),nuag!lL1Tt;<llioll~ u~t;!~ in t~kkins Lbc-photQ~ra'Phfi a re ~!"e;t! Each photograph is ;l-c~ol'rlp,~rni~d !J.!/ a brief" J'.~.:nptl'OlJ. of tJH:nel.d or ...ew illustrated but, il1 general, only i ,Ilrrr..~jlil/::';whic[je.ul be seenin the phrJwgnlph!>.arc discussed, Th!JI:> ~'e IHIVoIh-l['rljH&;J teferene ..e to optic 3:1:1 1 angle, sign of elongation •• 811\! dlsperslen. ln tllo:;.l OlSCS atleast t.. o pbotngr<ltih!> have been made {()f v !:;j.t)l rn lneral, one t IJ plane- pokl.l'lzed ligh~ ~~td ~he ether the.same ...I~· · ~mdere;mfise(i !J'O]IiTIi. H the mineral is ple(I'Chwk: W~ have reproduced , two ·pi'lOh')~f;).r:hs.i01 plane-polarized lighf w:id, the pil)hrri;,;:cr in two unhogonal posit in n~_ r fI (he ~~!S(;; of isotropic Ininerals we rw."..~ tended !,il (llTdl the ~'il:w taken undercrossed p.ob.I-cs. Wl,h l~l,Iiexeepliens the PQlru'lzer has been SoIt'L parallel to the edg~ !l.\.f ~bcphotogr,'i.phb LIt ' ...'e ha'i'c not m ade much U!>C of this filet since ~f~Ll5s[on of extinctson angles is omitted excepT in the ease of the p!<L!lloCli:t8t:: dds.paL';, because f chi::. wNrlJ: necessitate renn.1du(.:inrg ::l .![.LlmiW:r'Q'i' phoiogmpJl:S taken under c ros .. sed polars .. ttl order b, show pleIKhtoil.iti:l. WI,'; have used rotation of the polarizer rather tl'HH1. fa(a~.l(l[)-n'f the stage of the llJ6CrQSCOpe for Iwu reasons .. Firstly. tbli=-. makes it ea$ler 10 compare the phorographs .f,! !l'lj I) bservc the ch aage i 11 ~1}161!rshowtl by ail)' oI,lnecl:.y~taL~md'soc.m1.dly il IUrS ix:cn done. lQ! ,f_Cli;)lHu,agc lise 01' th i's CJ1~'lhoJ fi_ir dr::tccting weak pleochr~i~m. the Aillrou~h ~'i'eha,,'e adopt¢d Ihe- proccdm'l? of retaining l,~IC ~hin !e(uon in !he ~me orientatioo !'orrlll ~hrc,.. pnot.ognrphs. tt'lis iUI,;' on~ 'isallivan I"IJ&,\-J;: IT thcre are only a few cI'Y~1 1.i:\ in !hcfiidd oh·jeW, 'Ol' [.h.e .. crystals: na'l'e a :>iU;'O!'lg prdi)f1-cd orientation in tht:; r(lt:k ~crtion used, we bilYi; OCcn'llCl\lhle ,'n ~h(loW lhc ma-ximlllJ1 clW.oge. 111~I :,;orptio,II co]om b I'IMml.~1~9i1of the r)o]1i.riJ.er -rhr'lll!lgfu '90" since tfrte exl remt:' ~b:mrptioll .;:okH~rS':iI 5howI'l bya crystai v,'ht:n its vibration di recti()l1s a;'re mlfi;ldlel rt: to;lUld ptlrpemlicLLlar tD Uu: pokuizer, hI' chc~t: posjtion.~ the. Cj·j·SI.i!:l i'i'mI1d. ftC~:1.1 be It'lc-lion When ''ii'ue>~'edLll'Ide, Cf1)S~t.'lJ p!ll .. r:s aIld .ideally wO-\'!'Lshto; shmv lhe (:Ii.).n;!dc[]sli'c intcr{e·rerrc.e i.)~'1.our~[lc<!r [() tb.dr ' ma:l:imum il1tel,~~ity_ Well<p,-e not sp·cr.ified. ~n which 01' Ihe lVl'D

orthogonal positions the rnl~fizn is set in the photographs t~b:w p:I'oi{lepoj~ ri tell ligtt[. As melll:io:rtf:>Jj abo ... we have qll(licd the numerical value of I ·~ bircfringeuce rUT' each mineral, hut ill the description ofl jphtlwgraph we have generally referred to the order Q1' 1Ill!.::rat'C):feIcl i i;:()I~i~H, To enablethe rt;m!~r L·{~translate 'lwefri!lget!lJt W;;L parti 'u colour we have included on p. ,,'i ;1 pho Logmr"l of ,1 q uartz ~,,-ed.ge· W .1 birefringence <stale along irs length. 1'hi.~ .~lwuldnlll be u:!''ed a: l'vfkh~jt-LeI!J Chatlllincetf-ie Ihicklllcs:s of the seerion rs no!' f<ll\eii it ll.~0 un 1,1'1bei I'l,g' assureed UM( the ~e(:1j m Q1;:. ~f~tand ard t laic kness, , O·01l"r'Ji·n.Thus the mineral names are n:proJlll.ied against the h.ighll order colour which they show in a tl1.i[1 secrion d'!;*~mhlId thickn rather tll.1DI D 1'1'P'L'l$i a'l:!radial lines 'Nfukh show the "a.riilllo!1 in (:,Ql~ wi[h lllic:bl<;:>~ and hitefril'l~fmt:~ ()f 'Iht, mineral mitl1 ~r M·ic..:.lwl-U chart The falIhrl~1 reproducficn of'rhe rmerference colours Q( min_.r;Tals thl n sec •.inn L'I r In,~~(j 1.1 ariz wedge ..as seen under .;:rl]~-~\::" polars, doper to [1 large extent on rJi,t!o lyp.~ of film 'Used and also on. Ilu: printi precess. Kame: of t be M.idlel-I,ev)' chart ~ th~r~ have been p'LIhlt'lh dep-arl ~lighth' from tile true wlcf!IJn; ;mtl one- fault which is rai commonconcerns the middle of die second-order c.::OIOUlf!ii when broad band of brighl gn:en is som.;?l~irne~ ~'!'g{Jwrl '!?~(\"'et:11 blue a: yellow, Obse(\>'ot:i(lll II a qliwrlz wedge under cr.oMed polar:. reve that 11118 second-order ~Jiollr between blue and yellow r:;; ,1 rather p: green in contrast to the r~id)' deep gI,~'nl in the third order, 'Only minerals which are cotn'\1rlt;:~ anu. have negligible dhpeni!)11 is p-!:.):s:;ibk to distinguish the..~od two greens and even then (ljbly aJ c(}fl:>,I~I.m~bk e .... pericnoc. In some of We phnhJg;l'tlphtl of mintrah;: moderate birefrit~g-=ii1t:C the edlgt of the crpthl~ (:,IF! be seen to ..... ·t:(.lg,c.~haped and thus the order of rhe interference colour (lam determined fairly read r~y. S-.gI'JJ~ ofthe common minerals \!"11ict~ure w:iL.lilll)'considered diffk:i to i.de~1AHy (Iit;.:g. l?llnlierit~)~r\1 represented hy n)ll~ than om" ro section if lh'e' considered that additional pl1otogni.phs would gi..... ( better idEa, the .....rhllion:s .ill appcatiCj!nce wlnkh Oia)' 1,1;:' t:';lJ:~~I~,j d.iff-m·i?1lt f()ch Or Wi'~ w!-!s·.impo~~ib:~(".in onIB.field. .L')f \'~ew.to iIi Ll::;'n I.hl;; cliffe-renl pl'opef~je~ \\'lhch w!: wished [0 show_ . In 8;- few .cases the photographii l_,':r.kc:o. ill. plaIl@'.-pcJlafize-d !ight sh~ .~it;; pink ;;tlId b>IDEi:Icolour~ due to 0$1r}' po.4lru!itLon pl'oouoed .i rl'l: n phOWgI"'dpruC equipment ,>"hen SU,dl ~{,.i)I-J'("S 'liI~ PI'csc;n'l we ha ViZ; !!loOt ! tbis tn the J!es,ctiptitm of ~he pbO'Eograph_


Birefringence chart

Aipl!ltl~fI MictDc\lnt!"




Anol1hDc~ ClH'UI'Idum C!hIDritll, AndaliJli'" .. Arf",!Hillcr!!l'W ,Jadait .. Staurmita

V",liWlllftita Eudlillltro




54rpgntil'll!! Cllrdlllrtto


Cancrlnite, Hornbl&i'ldfl


Trlii'i\lilltfl-Far~lIaetlnollt.e Anlhophvm~Glldf;ito ""Ulroil!)

Howio!10 Chlloorodiw


Forllterito ~Uanitl:!

" O.'().iW




MU:l.Qovlta Taill!

Aeo"lrlna-AQllit"1I1 P'I',gph"yllite


en ..


I '6,')1-1·~6jl'


.~ (



() 'O.~'2

The oli\'IJ1CS form a \:OH1[.}ll:IC :;e>ii<.l solutiou bel'Wl',iell me m~Il1.,:~jan end-member, 1:1iQ;11~i'i!~~ and the iron endlIl~riip:rfay.:J:li'tc_ These photosraphs show n'l,),'~) olivine phenocrysts in Pl Oiil:-gf"incd groundmass 01' pl~.glOdtls{'fcldspat", pyrLlX€1)~und iron ore, The lJ{lP~~' pl'l~lo~:.r,{ph, lak.cTiil1 ~1:!!-;le-Pll~~1 li gh L. !th ow, 'Llle tyjii CJlI ~h,iPC :01' ali vine, ri t.'t-'(J crystals: the lrregutar '.:laclI;,!-t and sli~IH ulteratiue ulung the cracks are cl1 •.u;u;:~el'l~lj~01' this ID][lCraJ: there are d~m. (I f !':J~-iI"'~ ge lLlengthe len gtl'l i,~f 1,1 oi' fht' crystals, rl" ~11 '11~e-l~~I.,;er jJhologm-ph: taken under ~~~o!,>:i(:d polurs, one of the crystals IS I:;lI' '''(:T}' nearly perpendicular tu all .;:!pLLI;~l::<:jS und flO :l;11L1W~, verv 10\ ..'- interference cnl .Illr~;1I~ u ,In nnornalou ~ brown ca,mr;;'l~i, di ~lJeiJ'~lQIl ' uf the (;6i: ic by, flxe~ The other crystal :'.h':I\!,o~ ,I seeoud-ordcr blue on the nfJl whereas the main part of the cry lUl shows a ;,;l.i~I1tI.y. Itlli'er L:(jILlii.r, The higher bir""fl'illgeI1L~~ on therim uf the 4!11'f1;!J:l i~ 1m p(ldi~,:~L~iQn ul"uhlgl~'er h'(,Hl (.:()l1h~I:H, TIle reverse effecr, viz, lowering of the b'ii'",il'gi~!!,'eil';(;! olour c l.hi~ ILl the wedge ~._h~p~or the ny:;(al boundary. call he 'fen 011 the bo LL edge of ~., e 1.1 r 11:1~ oli vine ;:;T}';,;t'-ll~ and ()m n flliIt'l Iln ;:j dirl()p}'roX~~l{~ phenocryst pm'! 0:1' 'which just wpe;),I's ;lll h,~ bou om 0 r the field, [I],

rdtiOJ! x 43.


No:m ulnlc.:r.,.{.(I;ul~t!, i~hwml' Ketf.


Hm<'aiL In(lf~f'iil1.-





+) (-)



i ,o::H-J. ·K6S1
'il-O J~(l·()52

nir~fiil~lf~n I;¢

The fI~j'fi:ne;;;form a complerc solid' aolution b'("[ we ma-g)J!(>.s·iall end-member, ['ur:>~qtle, ~.pd Ihi;; ~!'(;r

member fayali teo ' The upp~:r ph~':lDgraph. l;~ke~!In pj (lIl,(}-flL)-i::lirl7.ed 811 ;W~ i;.,] iv,ine (h ri';!wn,if1h-gr~n iC:0.1t~UI', occupyln g, It O the fj.eld) i]ite~'groW!l Witth a-calcic p.~a,g'iOi:hii;.t_ Th) relid of the olivine against the: fcldsp~t is, no ticea p,ale colour in o~iviD;r,; ~CL;):li.JJ ])1.Imi::-p.~!I'Hi'.'lt.d Ji ~0mn1{1:n but i1 ~ioe:;;noL show rleuchr~i~m- 'tile il'u~H'ir:h jTie:~nhe,f:'lL;If. the ~I'iM ~J10W ;r~n>Dwfsh.-1 .a colour" Thecracks in the crysht!s arc quite charact as is the -r.. lighta.~tcr~~lial1q.f ~h~ J11in..;;:ral·~:~on~ !11;::or c

In ~:h.elower pho~Qg:n!"ph, l;lKen Hflder¢IU~;';~~ I the .i!H£:rli.l;rellf~ lxiln'EJr,; ;He· 111Lwtl'r' second fmdli:

h.l.ghest oolot'!.r~h(lwit:lg lrn·thls V.l~ is the yellm ... snrall w·t}·stal .i'Il~t above 'thecerttre of thq ~icld c(lJ{lur~i:ndic-atG';;t f:ll~g.tleSo"iIl!TI.rich clivi ne since bi: ·g£nC€colotl[~. well into the third order are oldy ~ .olivincs with hig!1 iron contents. ll].

Sflf'f-iJ1"Ii?n jJ'tJIn gabbro pi(Tih:, JiJol't,lj~r (j1"'?~IP s Ska« iIHnrs.i@i1, East Gr:(·~nhu~d ..m{Jgn.I'f(catin~ ;<.13.



Or'th l~r'b'!;.)lnb.lc(



j -MM-! -h64'



;).il,;-ite, In pI4tl¢-poia.rized J~g,11IIht: calcite can b~ ceoo·gnizc.rl hy its gc n(j cleavage and iwin lamellae. The high relief of the monucellite a,g~i:J'll>1 tha' mounting S)1::W:!tJiIJ~1I be seen ill .~ ::;rr.dl~ hale near the top edge l1f theslide, ln the lower photograph, In!,;el1 under {'ms~d polars, Ibemtcrfcrence colours urc seen l~; !~ 1Q'w firstorder; Ib:r: I~ig~<;sl colour .seen here i:s the oi'ange-yeUow colour. 11 iibl1uid be remembered Ui4!l1 in rocks without quartz or fdd~];lli!'pr¢.Seli I it is ~()I'(~etiule~ difflcu [I' u ~ j~idg'e the ecrreet thickuess ur ~1sectlua a ruJ this 'section may be ~lfgMly thin, [J OJ,

III t~(; upper pnoLogl:ap.lli, tak~TI planc'poifu'il!Al light, \l~ dominant mineral is .ll:'H1nl.iG:ellik with subordinate


,!lyl?dmefl from m(mticdli!t~-·.\·'flinf:'.J-phfogopili! rock, Bar1!Phl.~'.f_<, C(I!:imgford, Eire, fl1(1g1Iijiwf.wn x 32,


l\ig(O,H ..F)2·2 Mg;l SiO_~

M oncclinic ( + ) "002-1-627 O·02~-OlIJ4

AIllH.lUgI1 members of the humiie g,(J1.ip, ru' wbi,cl' ehrmdrodite is-Due, are fn:"'!li~JlI!)'J·ellov.~il'ill in colour, it thJ~ ease. Lb.e,-cho,ci(h;",lm'l,e: i:-. ILearly colourless ja lhir ;soc100n.· In the ~gp.pel: photograph, taken in pl.tlne pula,riLed li~ht. the hIgh "die! is distinctive, as ~~lrois fllt hg,;k a good clea vagliL Here ~t is shown iii t't:rg'rol,!,tll wi'll ..:.;~dcjl:e('hn'lw.f;li!;~, colour) LUlU. I'I'IQ crysl<l:h.1Yf muscovite, In. the lower photograph, raken 1,iJl1d~I' crossed polars 'the muscovite e""stals show <l blui:.\h-'r'eUowiutcrfl;;rr.;m:~ colour, ~~'hdle tl1~ €alC{t-c i!i grey Qf diti-k 1In::y, ~iilHirl~ ['I,'iirming i:, "b~lwn If:i two (If the l:rYfJ!'c\I~ 11 f. chondred i~i and Lhilii:;. ~icharacteristi: .. oj' the monoclinic members (i the hum he group, lt may be- truH Ibis secuon l~slighUy thin because th! highest interference colour in this £i~ld 1:;; tb., fir~t~ar(l& nod shown in the crystalin the lop right part of thtl field and lrom the birefringence we should expect to se colo lin; il&J tl) second-order red (see photographs 01




·Sped~M.{~!'J"m~1 f

x 21)_


i'i~'II..' Jel-'S,c}-', (lSA ,; .rlwglli!



{\'-hnl!ncljrliL~ (+)

HiM !·cJ_, (1,018 0·034 In lll~. :secfiOJ! H conecntrution of cht1t1drl.!d·il~, pale ~'I!l'IfJwish colou I' under pl~n.I);:-PQlari.zcd Ii g.lu \Ll!lPC r ~hoH~J:!mpb). 'is ~hClwn ~tll~Tgr\l)wTi wilh a gltr~llel ,[tJ.roVl'Il). The ydl'owldl {'Q]OU.I: whicb characterizes the members Dr ,h~ ~)lJmi~!.: group I~ ,<,cry pale hen! ~('l I bell ~I separate T)h(l~(~fl.r'i!phi(~ shew tJH:' rlE:Ddll-(~i~T1:i h;-.!~ IH.H hem mo::l.i.i.cLe-i."I Some of the ct"y';.ral~ -:;hl_)\;~; il!l'l;' of pour ~


111111.i;; "jJ.;1\' tinder crossed POI.3i"$ (l.m~'~1 phH1C)!.~rl'[J'h). the tv,tjnniflg which chl.l.rm;:t~ri/i\.~i>he monoclinic member t of thLuci.ie~ j swell :i llustrated ,1111j r he j n terfercncc COIOlLJ"~' extend i.i[1I.I> l'nod(ll¢ second-order. The g;:11 netm lIl.~~wok is u srm.smJu!' H.Jl d iL can be $1,;~11 to be ~ljgh[Jy b,j ej'l'mg.::li. r hi addition to ehendrodite lhi:s reek -also conta-ltl'f! ~jlil~)lnmllh:: but, since -It::, b.lrE!frlnge.jqe~' i:r ill the same tM~e ;~~11ml {lr .;.;hcmdwdi[c, thC)" can QIl'I~ be ~li~tirJgllj~biM"by [he rifCI [bill theelinehumitc has a 'li~h~r rell,lI.cth'-e index. 11 3l:,

~YJI'i/111 ):

.$'jJirflll{ljljr[l1lJ !lNltn/e •. 1/~'lm',,!, S,k,I't'" ,'-;mtlwul.: m(,Igr1ifiIN,




Tetragonal ~+ P 1-923-1,950 1·\l.63,_2'015 ~Hl42:.-U'O{' ~



;!;ir~i'1n wmlll(}t'lly OC'CU:I'~ ~ath\::r ·~n1;;.lnt:rY::Hal::., bui i: ill easily notj:coo becanse: of d:l very high reliel, Ttl!':" 11ppel f!,flOtograrl~, taken ill j;)~~:mC-Jlok-lril.e·d!j~ht. sh (lWS; rathe: lil~ge lir~QtiJcty~L~ Is 1i,~:>(~,i?l~:ed wjHl~pJlfme in a tint, graill~d gtul~mkrrijt~;5 tll FI'11offe!df:pllf_ SpJlemi aha h~;:;,, TIl !"!<;;ry high relief f.!lld II'Lthis pno:togmph i'l [5 vcrydifti.ct!h h: ~lMi'Tlg'JL1"h 'tn)m th~ zircon, ,Tbe g.ood~le>t\'~,ge:> .;::i~c@t in, a re well dtSp~:JYcdill S()FJlc -,oftru:p,<ty~Lal:,..

1!Ir.:ti!:Jes lite r.pt-te axis -andheneethc 'I"" l.ow hlf{':rfer-enCi colours, the sphene cl")ltltalsmmperhblp:, be mare eaflj~ ldentl fied in this photogn~;ph because of'rhelr much high.: bLmfr.ingl::rtoo and by- Ute;:[:l'It:SCIl'Ct:o FrwillniJ1g (top of fi~~ of view 11:1 centre $mQ '1:(1 tbe 'right zircon sb.ot"·~llglev lvil'el:r i ~)&ellli~ ). lU},

I fl. [he J ("i\t'~J'ph(JitO~r:ltph5; takl:.l1 un d-fr ~Ii'Ofi:'iedi po.b18 ofthe zircon ("''TY s Lfll8~bvw 11 iuterfereuee nolou r: ~&Il ~Wl':1PUht 111(: rystal to the left of ceutrc which·:;i1uw.:,; lw~ c del:tYH~ ~L right iwg!e},Tbj~ cr;c~U~is"cU11Ijmtl~"l 3[. ri~1t


S,W'Cfml::'11 }rom

r~'nir1,r'lIta, U8S R,- i!!tlt:,rdfj01/.i{;!!

,~egrt);r,1 (i~I.11 in .i':Y''''',i-j 'ilt'--lifgriu!1t lie, x :IN_.


CaTiSi04(OH, f'.)

MonncliJ\ic H~I'O 1·034
I). l n'l1-(}'

l~ )


'Sipheoo IS. It relatr v cly e~tsy nuneral to identify because ie 'Q6mmollly [orms diamond-shaped crystals of very high rd~rh.wi [~g bWWTJ ur n'(l -brow ~ I;;.jlQU r. These ~I,';'~ t u n;:s 't 'inc weH :!':iI('f\:\I11.in the llfi'~r and middle phO((Jogl'apJl~' ULkil'Q plaue-polaeized tighL These crystals 1IIJC 1'1130in ebr()li~und t)im.plc I wi nni ng it; eornm on, The mineral inrtrgrnwn with sphene in this section ~sulkali fc]d:;Pill[ The h)wc.l' photograph .. taken under crossed polars, ~l\"1> u !H!ml~I'r j)rtry'~!<Ih neu.r '!.ilt." extiuctkm position h'tJl those whicb show double rt:fntc:tinn have II ·.,-,lour ''ilr~'i>ll1'llbr lL) the ansnrptlon cnlour seen under planefK1\1~trJl.ili:I ~ighl. This isdue to the extreme hircfhngenee of ~pb"::[J~·:;ll(:.!ii [he imcrfercuec colours are n;!,)' 'ru.giJ Lha'! o·fd,~r.i.e fl~I'nll~l white ligil~- In crY"'1.<!i:;: l1<'ilhmH Ihi.'t dl1r<tGterisnc: shape dw~ n~Cl i.~ useful for id~I,ml]... :1 lion ,


!Jpi'!/"tlU:'n/r'(HI,1 ,"1J·JU?tw-I"'i('!1/;·(u:k. ,lh'i!!ll1,ifi~ C!!iml x ]lJ.

Kola P(>niliilUlrJ,




(.M'g., Fe, Mn)lAI2SiJOI i almandine group Ca_~{Al,Fe. n, Cr)~8i.~O'.2 andradite group

Cubic RI

1,714 l·:!l:;}iT

A considerable m.ng,c of compmrtiD!]l1 i!ol [!'!"ls::;ible if gn,n1et8 .,jJli.(i hence the- range of rdl'aet[.'c indices quoted They ure very commenly t_u.h~J:r-itl(]:r subhedral in ~hapc Tile Ifl[lf!'fl' paH)log"~ph ~h(lw!-o~! nurnber uf t;ijoh~'ljIl'f guructerystuls, of tl'ae .alfu.a:nd1.n.e :i:el'ies,'"i nJ~t~r(lWfi wi U qU<Jrlz and m.ic:.'I. iu a lucta.luorpLllc rock. Th~ga.l~lle stands lI~l 41U.ilc cl.¢Rdy [rom the oih!:'" mine:r<JJ~ boc<lLlifo: of lt~h~ghreiief.~ t:l brownish colour, H~how~inclusiom 11 of the grol;llldirnas¥ mine-rn]s ~m~ ~ili~ very OOmru.OJ h1f fta:tun~. The r:I'Iiddle pllqtngmpl-! show;,. ~hc ·~amt:' ... 1t:'w ~l:tIill (;rO<l:i~t;AJ polars ::I'ne! the g;!rnels' ~[l[l seen to he 1.~otf'Cip. (~OTW~' ~mnLltl;S·aK:ibi:n}frJ:lJg(::nL and .tnay~how zoning. am 1'111' in ni ng revealed ini he luy,' biIJ;:'fhlllf;;(';t:ilC(: roJO'Ui":S" ,'liC~ lower pJiQt.(lgf:arll, tl.5). . The I~w(;r ph()lograpn, taken 111 plaFie-pO]il.ri7.~ light shows a mdanhc.g~Jnci. (Ti-rich andr·adltc).ill. 11m :;r1k.aHI.h ig!l~ol!s r~cl¢. lts d'C(!'j:! brown ~!uh)~r- i::ll1lth~r ul1~/I'en di!ltri hllt.ec.1 btl! it t>~w'i'~ £:allil1g 11l. !:h~" .dgc.s -af the cry1it.a,[; ~ the eta:,hel;h'.!1 s..htipe is. \;~ry characterrstic. The'- othCf fIli!'!~I';lllfti this sectiueis aheredalkali fdd!>par,


UVf;'fJ" lI.iiJ middle ,~pa-ji;nen front p,'l1rfJ(·r. i£a sebin. m {'machry, .,)'CY)r:!ami, rn(w!W~'.atif,)lt:;.,; I}, [J(HNrm Jpl!.(;.Ull.fiI, lr~m Sl'.wr:giltrf)~l fpJ IIi'fp(utllll~' ilIY(,lJttf. A~.~Jf:r{, ,Vvt:l(J.ll~



Vesuvilanite (Idocra.se)


Vesuvillliirt& (Idocra~eJ

s.:y;mJn~~r~ It I
t; III


J ,700--1 ,74(, I-7tH- I, 75~ ()-UCH

[tl ltl!: lIfif!€:[ phuwgra;ph. L~k~l~ '1:1J p~;],m:-Dt.'~larizoo ~:i;Slhl, I)tJ~ (:r%tal of i(l.()!i;;r.i~ occupies most of Ihefield view,

IIll ~lig1lt ycllmvj1)h-brown .;-olour eall be ~OO[l ][1. conunst ~(lII!fe\l,'bolc~; the section, I ts VI::ry high re'llC'f can f~'I!>t) 00 ill. mt1R~~'1 ells mounti"llg med.iru.m,


'The k~""e,·pnOlogn;rh under crossed polars shows the Jihafll~leristiclow atU)ltlalou~ in "e.rfercnoe c()lours·alJld ihe '~!l!:;~ .:8:i:gLll> of haf.ld:s In frn:: 'ImerferC:L'l!ct.' colours is also a. fn,trly common fe-a'Lun: I)t"argt: crysrals and Is- an intlie!!LiulI(,f.zoni.llg. The rei~ no ~ig~i (If the poor elea ",":a,gl::' m.lli~ cQ'~fal.The aeomalous interferenee 'COI01.11 15 due La&tro!lgdls(X:n::i~m and is Ihemnst ilsef'!-IIprope:rLy for j~a1tifyiD:g this iulner"ttl, it eommoub.l. OCC[!Tl> with _g!\\'l3Ular g:;lIlnel \lihichrrnll.t illf,Q show Im~' birefringence '1l01o::!<lIfS,lInd. sometimes ~hetwo mimemls. ~\ru oiJilficlllt to d!§Wl~llih, ~te~ncr)':;.l;:dsa~:"tflclo""~i edge of tilt: field of "i~w an" t:Ill'; ~hl.II;m'~1 g:1'een inel ~lstM~ in ~he ves IJ',," j·<tfLite are rublinc amphibole. [321.



KymmeVy fU

Orthm:liarnlbic 1:c5~:::'-h)6~

( I)


.0-·020,...0 ,022

I n the upper pl'lot>!1gr,l[lil ;Eak~nll1 ptalli~·pDla[lwd light. nll file crJstals .wh~~hstand out in relicf [UI.!silliIi:H'II:tik Wllle:!l ·.~hov;:s dC1!rdy <fIgaiUl:~;:t lht ~,[!lr..ah:,ri~c with whiQIl it 1~ i[l.lngIown: at tim 'to'p k::U-h~:md ~Or'fiet·ol'the rb.otogr,~ph a yello'W 1111110m:~ be seen ~IIIlw ~rdiel'!te ~ {q, VJ- .hl t:!~is ~~li~lli I ht:i [i;illiH'i ~JI~ ~d)t.iOli; n 1i[i'.j}I~g l ~p:~Effl"fed {~riE;rtta:Hbll ~jKh n;ir~fi'!lD~t: the ery.~m:18arecur at [i,v.d.aIl~I(l.3 to hf t!l~irleugthand !;l11JW dialnOJ,lld-~hapcW cross-seetiens iltJ'c 'tQ Ihe r",~:,; d_' the { 1i I)} form; the {OW} d~H\'~gc i::; w~U !jispl;tyed it'ii semeof the erystals, ThE mrerfcrence
CO[L1UT:> ..s]]Owilirn

graph a;reg(,"~t["1 ~].y low' 1>i flee- the h,1gh.~~t eelcursare shown iii cry:>tlli!8 cut 'l]:Jc;mg the~~ngttb: of the pri~m~~trc ~I'Y:>Id" (1iee p.'! 1 j" Crysla~s cut ~o U:nrt L~~~0 I0) ~lea\'m.ge f ( i s S;1~a:rpnd well definedsho lIld be '111 'exth~Clioa w~~em! a panlHel to ,the edges 01' the ph~.il'ugi"~.pb, ii::w crYKta!s cut to. ral';J.lh:lm . their k'llgth ;shuw .~y\::rllli-iiHd;er oolqlJltoi_ [34J. .

me- lower


S'p'Cc:imenfrmp Ka1'fS,l'l-CfJrdil!ftr-ce ,<:iltimt1I;T;J~! gflHH, l'hcJW. 1,J(;/da.,grJ~'tur-; mr1gniiinrrl()prx 40,





Orthorhombic ( -1- ) ~
1·051::-'1·662 O·()1H.... 4}0Z2


llLIIl!~ pnoh.lgn'l,pru; show lath-like cl"ystals. of sillimanite wbl13'hsl'fllIll (JUlin ml!1:h relief agains; lh~ Gardie[,~Lcw:iith 'f\'~ld\ jt b ini:Br~o.wu, "will.hiE! t.:hol;clJroicri k un: nlrlt!l~['41ll", sI:Th!lJlll.ligd.l<!~like crystals w:hieh are also 01-" slllimarrire: hiitb~ ()f ~'~' long. TliIrJCiW crysrals oir ,~HHI"r}:[ltlll.eo al"e ~i:rmcd fibml.t!.C but t:lleconceli!tr,at~t):rIof' needles h:: iifJ~ylliit1ietil I) ju>stify t~.e 'usc" of this term here. ~ 10the 1!JWt:f phol:Qgr.apl!Jl. taken under GfoO:SSOO polars,

iJl" I;ri;ood-br~l~r ptlf'Plil:ih-Mu,e in(erfcn..\nl,;c.c'.()l~u,[s near i

.0 tb~ n1<l,:dmlll!1 C9-11}~!Tfi wnl)j' S

sfllhna:nil·i;;'. Sillimanite di!l.tlli£,wtlh from Inull lte .(q. '1,' .. ) hut m ulllte ~O~j:i I ellen oO~C!H III ,!;;ry;s.tttb as large as those 1"10 Ill~~ii.iiUld here and i:i: restricted 'lO \'(;I:)' higb tempera LI..iTC eennct r~~t~rTl(~rph!c; f()\;:b·, l~4J.



1~·fii'I~·~ff,iltJrlti;( fQIth1:tltf!~\·mii1i.lmUf' grlds.I' r I km,Wl~/h


h\\H', M'l1d~c:ar,




Orthorhombic 1-641-1' 67 5
{HH 2'--~~'()2:K'

t +)

Mul~iH] U~IHl.l:Iy occurs ii:l 'i!"eJ")' SI)KIH n,eedL~lik;.@ cll's!Jlls The upper ph1i.1tngraph, 'lakcn il'l pl!lne-p,ola!~~z.ed ligJl1'1 Ill:!ow::;. lnullit!]]- cly,stids w:ithin <J.' bJ~ crystal of aHortbite1 (nm.;icc tile .hjgh m:1gni.ilCiil:li OTJ 1J800, for this p.hoh)~JlIl~l-tl These -ct}'l'il.:ti5 .hlll"ien very p;i~epillk_co.loHr:i1l ~b:is:sectial] but Ihc pCll't pi~~ in ~b.~ biLckground is p"'l"lihahly dll~I(1 ·!i.n-ilill('i,I:'I i7.8111)t:I, Tbe F(1t!ik~~·.ll r buchite 4n1".:lHle two ".er~ dJ;l.rkbrown patches in the field (ll"'i!i~'w are of-gktss_ ln the j,uw;erphu'ltl'gmph ,I aken U ndll;!x (;ro:s~J puh' [~! '~h:re blf.1(;k li j\,~$ p<irfiJleJ ro rhe ",.ertjbl ~ ~d~ ~If !Mf p:bh1to£:;r''l]l~1 pJ.'lgiodfl;;;elwin tire limella€i rJ. the exli !1ci':i~!i positlon and in t l~]~p;hoto~I'21Fh these eeuld easily b~ .i;onftLse"d w'ith mullitc needles, The. iIltt[fcri1:n~~ c,ol,oli:~ '!it!Ciwn by !i1I:::St: 1;l"1""j'6/lN h lJii" mulllte lire Tlt:ll as bi~h "'~ expected and dli:;. is C<'i\lSed h)" the 1~,!I;t~1):fHtile c!1:s;talS <!:f!' lhil1llJ~.r t.han the tOilal th ickn.em~ of ,flu:: !'!.CCi:EOIl.. Tilf Inl(:.Ffc[cm,;::: QO.]:Ollr.l o:tM~LIIHc .~!11 1:1 sttthtil (I-(}.3 mm thitk .~J:l!.i)~I]db~ ahr),lI.l LM same ~~ tllo:se Of sHhrnanilc. [37[,

5'pecfmCfl.lrrll:n h~(hiu!.( Rw;!h' a' C1:r:rOJ:UOfll ~i!!, J"'hdl, SCoJ.lcmd, fmtf!!1ifi!·~jthm x !til;',






Orthorhom bic ( -) 1-6J3-I',6:;3, 0·.009

n·m I

Till;) iln.~f pholognlph, lal:.Tu in planc-polarlzed lighl, Slb~''''Hlnet«:UlII~~~~jHporp-nynJblat!t ofn[Lduln~:ite III a :mllc-pai r:lc(I'gMIJtKCIfl~SS" TI':I~ I:wO clea vages
I!Il:tllli1)' at ngllt •.anglf:sE.o one -



the IJiI' tne crystal tUi{HI.~, [s :i_ recl.,~:t~uJ[!r areu full of il1~li,!~i(lt1:;~! d ~ating towards the corners of the C'r')'sta i ndra tbc~ 3J~.eonceatratioas of inclusions, This V(] I'iel:y nf Q:ndi!IU,'i<ite i$ kr!4)W!1 as ehiastolilc because on tile 'rlEit~I'1JlrmU!:'fTl formed hy rhe iflciUl:iioDIl and it is fairly commoo in low-grade metamn rphlc rocks, 10 lhe iU'i'1-urpho!ogmph. taken under crossed p'().l::irs. the C:l:ll~furm rMU~rri ·i 5 Min .... sible and U1C cha racteristic i i'llW"order Il]tE-rtCfe!1Ct.' colo ur' is seen, [IR],
:SL.':!I.:1h III



S:{~tLJfrrt!J~ I,m F

~llifii.\1rilm x 44.

~~hi~J.!/mlit(J slase. J .tik.I(. [h':Mrid . .E..nr;I.anJ.



AlSiO ~.s 2'

OtthOTh(J-rrtl~ii:; ( RIi3' Bn:efrlng~'1l(.-e HS3J-H'i5J


O'Q(l9 0-'0011

.1,11thin section ~Iidalusite sometimes snows n pale pill pleech roism and if seen i's.rai rly ili~gM'stk:_ A p.;'l browntsh-pmk ~olo:ur !"'~fJ he i«en In the upper phnt( sraph. liil,k',:m i!l plane-polarised .I.igrl: and irs Un.Il\IG:: distrihu'lionbchilHlct.erislic.. The l\igl],[l;:lief ag~tin qua:r(z is n(ltJ.cetd;li~. There i~.a large area in I.ht: sl i de tn I,t right of eentrc O-ftile I'l.tl!~wgrap.h \\'llcH; rhe reliefo]' U aadalusite is <tho 'tltnl'iOU5 - tb s is a hole in the ik'!

colour ,affects ~be h1W fiisl-ord rfCI'CI!I.:e colour ,:<>~ tbil.t the :;umf: patch); rJj,$Ld burien visible under crossed polars (lowe, pbotograph). Anti lusite has h... 'ogU(.a d.clH'ageR, flIO) aLid tUO,. and ~ most sections :;hCHNallt!!.:'I. tJ ne goo,d cJea ..'a,gc. The fr.~ig imeefcrcnr.:.ceolours in 111os' flho,lug"':J,ph are dlJo;:.lL'J SI1l~ CIl"YMAIR' (lfn:m~o\'i,e" [3B1,

The absorption




lrel{1f~d; mJI'~gl!ifi(t'lUon x


ro.{:&. Ardam





Arndalusite &.

Snnmanite int,ergrowth

phQfDgr-aph, taken in plane-polari zed light, mos.t or [he field is 'occupied" by one ~rys.hll of andalusite wid]..,", fel.l.' inclusions of biotite and .of quartz, The' {11ft} ct~a"'Il&esof the andalusit« i,;uli be seen .~pprox imatel]' at nghl."angJes to- each other ;fl!1d parallel tOU1C edges of the ~it'l!it~I!i11,J)h,'Imeq~r·own wlth 11m andalusitc are numer~5 ~i~mood.·~t'laped ar~~tals of silliman ite wi th Ln~ (0 L0J cl~a.\f~e bisecting the an!;!#; between clea~'i,gBs. The two minerals were probably

In the' ypper

n\i.~ andah.!sUe

same rimcnnd Ihe.coi

md(LILI~i'le; es.pile the fu.c·t tQ_at sillimanite has-a greater d 'bfi,"efrlI1g·e~t:e#,-,il:l andalusitc (thld. vibration .din::ctions of wth miller,al;; tife at 4.5 to ihe edge'S 01' the rliotogl'ap h). rll th~s ade.n.~.t.[(ln both minerals 'show cetlltrcd acuee bist;:l.tri~ 'inh::d-en:m.:e-s fl&iJfe~, [:1..4] [J&l

~ni; ftfl'<tdi ve 'lilclICe5 of the 1'",,"0 rni 11erals ii'i not su fficientlv ~rtat to show mnch d iIIe.rence I n relief in th is photograph. Under cros:o;e<;i. polars (lower photograph) both the lufda:luslteand si.llimalll he show low j nterference colours hut [he eoleur of the sillimanite is lower than thar ~(

z <l xes of the c r}'s.ml~ m&l«11lIhe ililltll.ariJ~\I (If tbe! r structurei.., The d iffere nee

formed arthe

idl':;l1G~{,If the

~JWtjIfJt?l~ Jrom' consaa



Jill/I., Scot!rlJJd; ma;,rr1f{itatitm x 52,

(,·(.ma,;c_ Ross f?f .






Tr.il,;iinic {-) j·72J

IHH1,..O ,01 6

:I n LI1£1>(;' photographs kYilI.ni·!1;: ceurs <t.lI"H1_g witil 'lluart .. o , and biotite. In lhc tlPPCi' I"hIJw~'Ta.ph taken in plar~ poJ~H'i~\!(1 lig!:it;ky,ultlc ls ~afjil~ recognized hy ~'l..!:i hig;1: n::licf cllmpitrud with quartz and by lh..:: l'aeL that Iht! W~~· developed cleavage appears ,\·-eT}' {notrk. It. h;L~ b~{! .slIKI;;{'S.t~ Ihal the appearanoc orl,!,.alll~t: resembles ,LGtt~ ruler with bl~ck cngruvmg marks, since 1'lll.;pmmJnelll patti 11~ paralle I to (M I )i_~ frel[ II~n II y \' i ~il~h:lL~most al riJ.lbt-;HI~lc!S 1.0 the length CJ;ftlle crY::"~'Lls, ·J'll the IO~'''-1;T phorugraph. tabm Lmdur crossed pol~11:l\ the hngll1 iill.~uft:r<:nce_coJl_lur:l of'the biotite eoutrast \'IIiL~ those of k>'~nlk. Unfonullakly 1:1111>e ..nion is,_ ''''~r1' s ;;t-rgh'lly·thic;-k ~I,I lhat qLlaJ·t1.i~ -sllOwrflg a yellowish "liMit(: hence 011 the other _~I',)H:lSn: l'ihowll'l~ slightly high, a interference eolours tll'.tl expected: one h.llf (.If a t\lIii:ll'tedJ..:Y~l!iitl) crvstal MI()w:s ;J.' colour Chl~I.' to LD~ !>I,!n:,ilivc titf::

red, !41"\."





jffJ'f!i,s;~, UII!I~ [lNfuhCl_l'r,


\'Ilirt;!, Scotland. moglIiJiU{MIO'fl

x 16.




A 1,2 S'i(J:rJ0 Ii, ,F)2



(+ I


IIPf'::r phoiograph,

since. tol')il7 is Irequcntly .t~r~'llc.[45].

taken ill plane-polarizedlight, is quartz is 'full of rnany tiny incITI~ij}tl:;;whereas the LOp.aL, which stands nut in Ij'f:jief (I!!lIiLl:.t thequartz, dsrei<nlo.'cl}' Irce trcm inclusions, 'I'he p!:'rfl~[ {OOll cleavage of to.~.i., is visible in one of the !I.'1)JtHls, [D thclewer photr gnlpll, taken undercrossed pt~hu:::i. iL 1~'Jlflk!1j:t distingulsh illc l0P3Z from the quartz ::;irl'Jl.,: to ,be!l' bilTt:Il"i~lgCrJt::Cis. almost id~l1~i(,;tl.l The: narrow wlli~e ~~J\~ tI ii l"l! borders of t he loptiz oerY:!;'l!l arc muscovite h: R!1d tili, c(mlcl ll'i an jndjcatibu of the l)r.;;$l;."ni;~: f [upa£: o

fir II l'I~J9<iJk-"i!J.(Irj:-t'1;)cll, The




Sp~y;ml!nlrom topar-taurmalinc qU!J'rt~!'o(·k. 8,l(lckpQoi C1fif Pif. Com'~'(JU, .E1i.gla11.d:wagr!f,Yiw[lwl :.; -9-





{p.~,i;":n~1{1-·OtLf'iorh (H~1 hi,o)

{-I- )





·74J 1171J

0-01 ].-0 ·1)·1 ~

Tlle;upper O1Hd.t)lirld]~ pbnt()g(.\p~~ show pl~,phYI:Qb]a.<.,t~ of staurolttc witl} bjo,tih.'; ina-fine- &~'1in~cl! mass o.f q ULlJ.( and fEldspar:, Pleochrelsm of the ~laUin_";~itcfrom ,ydlot'" Ie, pH]';: ydhiwi!.i sh.OWili in-H. f~w or thl,::Cil"'5t~b. The l0i4!:."llg>l :JJi1 pe of ~Q]ncof nbt: siau roli I.t; IZ}'::; tals.is lypi'N ~ and I'h~ high Idief I~.g~-J I he l~ltllJn(!t~Jln.:)ll is wei ~ i~ll.~tn~ted hl ~)Sl · ~he.alallOf:l hbck edig:es. {lflbe crystals, 111 the ~ower r!l()tclgrapkta~ef! lImdier. crossed p~lan, the 1(Jf'I'I! i:Ll:lt" rlcrencc cp~onrfj. can be. seen, the. .l.arge br-ov;ll' oolo~:r0d 'CI:J~l,f~~. mf(." UWI;: i~ celcur ~o11 eonsbination 0! HIe absorpt i (lr~C(~~ou:r md ani rst-o rderred ...r nclusie [l~ as a seenhere are "re~:y c.{)mmqflii)~ta.uMlit~, {49],

Spl:':r:l'nu.m jml'Xf ,\"t~lw'nli!~~ ,w:hi..:l, rij/afidy Lak«, 1I:!l<?wim. Canoda, map,n.Wt:(!.Iir:m }(: 21~_ 'iI·8·



Munoclinic 1''111},-1-7::14


triclinic (-)

or (-)

Th'\l l!J,lr~r ~nJ. mi~klk photographs, taken [I) plane(l~i:u'2:~ll.gl' I, KhIJ'I'. <I. number ~rulh·;,:.- glN:cn' ItL")'Oi L~tls Qt .chloritoid ill wh~C:lj '~h6!1t~L1ng.r.leol~tlr~}i l..tl~1 pale $-m :;~Uo'''''' colour eaa he seen I~y CL~nlPJJ'ing the two ~i~:~ ... s iI;'ilh lhd polartzer ill orthogonal positicns. hI til is. rock uft.liJl~itQi!j,i~ inlergrown Wl1 HInu seovitc and quart7.;':1 few r gil.rne1 crystals m'~ alse visible, The highrelief' of the cbloru(titi .it(l'\1;.s ~lp aga ifl~t the micahut it 111S.IOWlL relief .. Ilian [he garner, These .:.eL;[i~)tIS have ,a preferred orient:iti'flllland are cut.nearly ~ltI':ight-fmgl~' LOIht' pr;::Tr~l basal ' ~t.zll\'ai}c and hence the. 8(,I'()ng I~i~ocf"lmq~r[', Set.::LiOn:';~IH IJ1;1U'1Jld (01) I) have only weak pleoch rolsen, 10 In the kl\!i'?i pb.Olt1:g~-l:Iph, 'l~kt;I1 under crossed POhl£S, th~ jiLte~reeetl"C~· olou r,~ <ire ~1ig.hHy IlHom~lu'll:" fur two c );I:aSiJll~. viz. the ·abw rpti O'r! C()I,OUliS aed tai r Iy 8h"::II~g cllJ:lp;:r~.km, twinning 1.~ visible in lHl.y of these.cryst ... ~o als ~l'II>QIISh chloritcid is eommonly multiplytwillnied.


~dfm!~1 from .1·{:MSf. !ilik!t!·f~Car.ioll x <Ii.



(imL~ ..








MOl10diniv ( - ,i LX I+ ) 1,70)-]-71's.

In the UP~f -ami middk; phorogruphs '[hI;: !>,)ppbirlll~ crystals ar .. P;;l;OgL~i.:::cd by their ~:010111'. wljich iuthiscas, • is plt:l)(l.hrI1k ("-;,lTIi .. r! illttlgL~-hltle to ;1 hr(w.'ni8h-ydlo";!' !;~II'.IW, [II t.bh jj(1~1< t'ts hi~1.1 rdicf shows up quill: well hili there are-other high relief minerals LIJlhe jidcl, .... garll",1 ~7.. (large crystal at top len-hand corner of the th~~d);mod orthopyroxene (pinKish ...:n!;:i[a_[~ <II h(lllltll nghr). Tlu ccntrul parl of the ~it:ld '!~r.. dew ~s ,"rf:.Y·lupl'rctitl intcrgrowth ".:)1" curdierire ~111 1orthopyroxene. Biotite HUl lIlllll."ll are lh¢ OlGlel' minerals present. l!llde:I' crossed polars t[mv'..;r ph(HO~~nlph) 1.1~BIll.•.I:! r ferenee colours 8{',CLJ jn the ~ pphi rin ~ are l nrl uenced ~ "he absosption colours and Iht< low birefringcnc 1:: pro..
du ces anemu

10 IU::;


Car';.;J'ul ~Ll.ld~·nf the clear 1!I·e;.L~ l'EV':":.lIsyellow plel~ d][L)i~ tmlne., III the !l::ordii:ri!!;" ;lad the sapphirine Cl'YS!i1, ir1 II Ie '1 L1W>l!r left pan 01'1 11~. tield oJ) r 'o! ie w :i ~ 51,1rrouuded b~
jPlllltlply-lw]nn~~d coriherlte (q.v.), [57J,

SjJt'cimen catior: x




171.11 (' 'odera,





(I"~4.!F~~ f~a)fIZI'S~.Ou~(OH.Cl}

Trigona! [I


or ( -) "



... _

\ \

(HmO to Q,Ol 0

TM inW<til' ~h01.D,[Faph, 't;3!i;;:en undee crossed polars, tfwW6' i'fiif~([~JfJh~'J,i'HJslic It-,:;:~un!s 'of cud ia Iyte wh ic h. <Ire fa) afti: l!1!i)lil'!iil JLiisiriltNJh(l(tior .~ow-.in'tcJ:.fcrencofl eolours, ~; dj~flJ\hg~i(Jll,wllich i:s IlIQi ~lwOlt.:Y'1:i cle,~rly tdaH..iJ t,oa H,'ll'J,1..~·tt.nmt;\'!.~ a.,.d ([I) the l.l.ait vehlO'of an ~\te['i'ihOIJ1 ro~\l£!,a1;Ld!~~yt~l~~:;lo.<:U)'n(lfLCed trt t!.~ITd ~~UI~e~\ ~Cl'II!J~ ~li's.ii.l~~1.:a;!wa~.n>ed or brnwn "in colour lm~in r lIThl wcr[lNl the cdlolU', .urpt6!ioCii t. i:s gm~'l'a.lly. pale, The ('.r~":\hJ ;1t lhe IiOp leff-h and comer of ~hefi~elodi;s dlkal:~ !'~M~P~1 1!I.'llich Il(:!re· shows OJ p,Hcny ¢;\.tlm:,:WULJ not ~js~miJar 19 that of tlre eudislyte ~ the: three gn~,eni$h .r~~i n the field' of view .• e of an a~l.;'i.1i H I'lfiiP.-hllK)k. [59],

nuitlhe:r '~fEi~jjieill:r4L Ci!"y'~·t~:ls. Clu"!iaJyte ~h(Jw up i.1ill of {'cl'ii/1f{;ta.tJf>(.'l!.m;r..lrM,c I(!dth wja !en It IS surrounded. 1rr this ~ft\~p:h l1t~ 8iil!iJs.lage diApn ragm has bOCH left faj rly. Wtoli~~Jfflll-'fft[ 1mt{/::j'e~moro tl..lUydo:'led rhe rel!'ef,u-f l ~1&JiJJt.rtC' !~'ili.ilflshow mOH; :HFQftg~y agai nsr rhe ,m~lc'itc,

!~j iIDP~.pb,*ogt.;l,ph,,tt.lKetf in p~l!I1e-p((lJlJ!rJ7.Ll.Ifjgh~ [~e'







.t'¥:!fIJlJ&.>!/r-jYi1 ~f.4J: f,~~,or·tok IIi.fil,;rI<!c\·,~ul,1.fl1m,\Irm., d.!!:, f1M'!~,'lfIra:m%'J~fictUimf x 42.:




SYfflI netry

Orl h(I'I'h om bic I+ )



1' 6&8-1-7 10


Tlile upperphotegraph, taken ill plane-polarized m shows :!I. number of sh on prisma nc crystals ef ?f lntergrown witn quartz and ~i~rri,lll amount ~f fel.rl" I.'hl':high relil;;fnftL~f;zoisj!c t:i~;:iiMt thequart> iN eb ..'. Th~jJ1.,is ;1.~'I.l,p.r;\e~tioll ul' ~tcleavage ~nrralld l (1 lheJf:l'Ig nne crystal ~Hdll;l bottom lef], U nder !,;'f{)s:;.ed polar'S. (10 wer phQ.tflg[aph) theze trY:dtU';' shnw lin .~i.nom~L1flmibhu:: imerferenee er -su[niewh at unevenly djsvi buted and this i:;' eharactc nf both zoisiteand the monoclinic mineral c.li1lQ7U they are Ji.:;tin.gui~h·cd bll U:il; tact thal 'lousil,~ straightextlnctlon in all £~,:i~1mL- This sample i:<: 2;( alLbou£h none of the l;i)·;;tal:-> shown here ~I'f ex p<lin.;lIel m the edges (jof' 'h~ 1)hc;.lo~mph. 1G q,


Spf."(.'imetlJfWfi' zaisite schist, Gten Roy, 1.I~venre.fS'· .
.')~:ot((ilfd;'mag~l~ficalitm x


.. Epidote


M onocl inic ( - )


The;colour 91'cpklol:C in [hi II section (]'~Ilow 0"[ greenishyt:l~!Jw)H a 1~111~'which ,erjOl~)le~.l III he kl~l1ltl"fied !:',urly i Mj;iJjJy ~iIrt~I'NIL~ number 01' ~·mm()n li~~llel'a~,~, wh.icl1 a(e ~JJow in dlin secnon i$ I'!Q[ great 1 he pleo'i::hl'rt-isrnill ~lLn'«.'1I comparison 1;.)' ofthe uppfr and middle photogi"lJpli~taken ill plane-polarized IJgM ill which some ~f)'stu~s chan.L{C"fL"OIII colourless '10 ycllcw. The pn::;:I}.'TI~;C (If agoed I;lcl'va~c'('an be 5C(,'TIin a Iew erystals, 111c. rcliel' vi' I:JIld libows against lhe quartz in the uppc r ri ghl pan 0 ore t:M ficlu bru the wb-st"3gc diaphragm was rather wide (lPI;[I, 'when these p~HJ t"lEf-HpL1G WI;H.' iaken. t He low-er p'hntop_raph. :dlOW~ the flame Vgew taken under crossed pola rs ami the bright .!rl'tcr:fcrellC€ colcucs, itJ:th~r UJJ,C'~'C:lll~' dist riiY.I!l'lcdi, :J re V'G:ry (,:~,amctcr~.stic,


srw:r.im(mfp'omepido,iize.d basalt, M iihiRmr, lJ SA. nf{l,;n~fi~
(-lTJirJIJ lo!



Monoclh.ic ( +) ~.'750-1-3(17 0·02.1 lH)gg

A 111'10 ~~g,Il11o.t a.vcry common rill nerul it i1.;i~d uded bh"Ti; because L~S. ~peC.L~lt<Quhl pleoch m.iccola.ull'!,v.i;l._ ydlvw, r Cafl'll~ ue-red and viold 01" ~J.' rl~lh yS,L lhj,~ j s wen shown iL1 tbc uppc.r and mi(Mle i'.lh)togr~\p.h.s..L,Lkcrl~'ilbU1~ p~ku~tzcr iII {J rthcgoru •. positirl11:;: illlp:l\'m!;:-polari; ...cL~~igM1 . the p~:rI~l ~lerl"l'<•. e d'bes· 1.101 g show up well It! Ill!:> ll'lll'lpl~. nor -dOC8 lI1L~'l<mden£:fhw the ctyl;it~b I;u l:l~dlJng;rted" Ttl~ lower photograph sh ows lhOit the intcr:rer-cru,:1.;' oolnun, nre f(l<:li:;;kcJJ by lhc ~lb~OfPti(l"ri colours and int. I hns dritn.1Jlia.ntly roo _l'Wt') l:r~n,la!l> shQw simple tWir):l"ling ~ "Id £I nother sh ClWS (!ne'lhi 11twin lamclta, The ]Eltt:!l!rtl' .... i T on nera] (s:howi ng dI.lc -c 11:.1 l.Cterl:Hie ,U'n:phlboh,: d~'a";ag~s N is a pa.le coloured !])aqg~I1c~ ~JTIP.tt1ibo~t; which it I'!htHJ!l;I, plnkiu hand ':sp~iml;:IU 'is (}ol~!!I.dcsi; hl thin M:l.'l.i~~!!. 'n~i:;, ist11.~Cli"ije ~~;I@dHOi8n:i'is nut ~1i1 in(llctJIi~J n I)(a d pal'ilcubJ'ly Iligh eontcnt of manganese: ~ ~~I~!:! nesehe I,~" ~)f:I.rilJlgY:lrlely of cpidou- ~ali~'(j thuljte :"~H)W:<; tire I;OImli caleurs as pi~In~f]ti;L(:,. 163]-.


Sp(J~'bnen jhwr

TmIZ(JIf<i(i: !t1(.lJ(n{/ie(,f{iotr

piwmmtiU!--qrl{'}I'I;:' x 1'2.

rm;:k" l.,fmH{r!/ 8rt"


tUlanite (Or1h i1:13

Allan'it'e (Orthiite)


MUflOClilltC ~ =} or (-I- l '·7110 1'l'i15' (j-OLH)-036




L,I' the rrl'ill~p!I, wnkhr is ~rieleri~ti'C as are the dark cracks, Tl1er.u1iti'H~~~'~~ e~I'Qgl]is '-~lltai!'lcd in thls nuneral cause a hmwfI 11'f'lJu il! lb~~EL'T~Ul1k1,i r.lg rook d uc to. radiaticn dam age but thet~ i,;, 110 .siJ..u of this ill the thin section, Allanite .I!oO generally

~l!l:Iw~ the browl'! eoleur

1'hc:'~Jlp\:r r~ht'Jn!I:§J';ljrth, r,~ik~i~

p'lunc-pl..\lm:i;,xu ljgh],

~~ih~Jy leochroic in. ShH(I~ of brown. p

Tile Inwer riln'l(igra,ph, t,akf:n under crossed polars, ~hO~'h,a...:rysl;:l,1{)f biotlre enclosed ill nile h!,~¥-er HLlanih: cTf~raLThese allanite cry~lill:;; -are .Ill uch larger rh;.] I] are commonly Jeund, The other two minerals visible in thls ~~o:niW microcline (turtan twinning] and ~1iI1;fflJ:. ,(~J,

$p"ecmwnfr'OIIJ gruuite, ~~~il'jificfIJimf. 28. X

WN11' M(mria{'lll.y,


"', ,'>~






, .~

Symmetry RI Birefringence

Orthorhombic 1·674 0·020


The upper and middle photographs are of the same field of view, one in plane-polarized light, the other in crossed polars. The field is almost entirely occupied by lawsonite and the feint pleochroism is shown by the slight difference in colour of the crystals in different orientations with respect to the polarizer: many of the crystals show one 01 the two good cleavages. The birefringence is moderate sc the interference colours extend up to second-order ant this is shown in the photograph under crossed polars. The lower photogra ph made from the same thin sectioi was taken under crossed polars to show multiple twinnin] in lawsonite (large crystal in the centre of the field). Tb mineral at the top right comer of this photograph i glaucophane and it is shown here since the occurrence 0 lawsonite is restricted to glaucophane-schist facie rocks. [70].

Specimen from glaucophane schist, Valley Ford, Califo nia, USA. Upper and middle specimen; magnification x 2 Lower specimen with twinning; magnification x 27. 26



Symmetry RI ~ Birefringence

Monoclinic ( +) 1,675-1,715 0·012--0·022



.. -




.,.~ ...., ..

The whole field of view is occupied by pumpellyite except for the clear areas which are voids between crystals and here the high relief of the mineral shows up clearly. The upper and middle photographs, taken in plane-polarized light, show that the mineral is slightly pleochroic from yellowto pale green and this is fairly characteristic of this mineral- the more iron-rich specimens being more deeply coloured. There are signs of cleavages in most of the crystals since pumpellyite has one perfect and one good cleavage. In the lower photograph, taken under crossed polars, theinterference colours range up to second-order blue but thefeature which is most noticeable in this photograph is the 'oak leaf shape formed by the crystals lying diagonally across the centre of the field. This habit is foundmainly in vein occurrences of the mineral but when it isseen it is diagnostic. [71].



Specimen/romglaucophane schist, Tiburon Pass, California,USA; magnification x 44. 27









) or


-I- l


t -=

.I. --0::;8-1-640

IiiHl f:ringtl!1':e,



The tlppel' and middle phorographs arc of melilite, lnu lll'lcolJlp(l;hgrit'IJ. ~ rather rare rnelilito-rich rock, 0JJ p'llulncgfapb LHk~n in plane-polarized ligh; 'and the ()l~!'( under crossed polars. 111lhi.' rock the opaque mineral rna,gnotiH:-l'lnd mostof.lb~ 1'i1:st Uu: lield is. QCIi,mpi6il nf b meliliu::, IIi "bJ}~:.pol:Hi1.ed light Lh~':te is' nothing vel d~stinC:li\i~ about LhcmiHfl'a.1 and there are s~gn:;of at lea om: d.:avage., Under crosacd 1J'I]Icl,r~ however th(:,.~ tcrference colour [!> ~'~.-ych",ract.ell'lstic:illy sn llin,~a(.l1l h)lU,e eolourand when lhis (:;;m D(J f>L~ef] Lt is a ll;!l:)f dlagnostic property taken ~doW:' with the ~11~iJ,xi cJlar<ti(;U:i[ of'the mineral. Zq11ing urlhe colou r ar the e~ of the. crystals i~tlh~)fairly 'l:;rp'i,c,·ll. . The lower photograph hi ltlkerr rmd~J' crossed pol., and i,s fre,m u ':okarn. Here ~he zoniIl-g [r'V1 (I an ti]l{)ITJ<llti blue. toan anomalOlls brown eelour i~ obvious, Tlu; refractive Indices quoted ab(,n'I;l''fJre for the' l..... n'en Hl~m'bcT:i oj" Ihe ntelilitc series-but the bhe.fdngCI'IO::: o)'~..f 'i!! for a l1Ie"E) I hi!! I' of the 801,0 soluuon containing, all:l:l( eq.urt~arnnunts of the twn cnd-mt;tn bers, ,72j"

Vppn (mil mMdfp sW,J,"/tj~eJ1S.lKQm rmciJ1l'rpahgrip~" U"I'~~r pahgrt', ('olmw4(), .uSA: "mf{lIr/i(:(~ti(m X 4}, .r ,(H'.'!"f' -'pi n'lf'PIj,-om mC'lilile-ph/o;qapik-(Jltl()p,l'ro,";mll: triG/(, Gm [r-icrh, CarUngfi,mi, l.rf!tmrd: "fj'lrilgllifirr:rffon X 72,





T ctragonal .(- ) I)~ ( -I- ')
I, 6()'! I ,632




L"(l5S 1.-(,40 O' ()OO---{J'O l:l

"be lWO l')n{)tQgrl'!ph~ ~llOWJl here Me onf melilileiH an oljI/IHiJ.mdil.itite, the 'llppl1: f photograph taken under plane-polarlzed l.i~llt. ln tht .. V·jfilYII the mellfite crystals [$i€,llible laths of plagiod,!.sc. in the. J:l;w undmass of a. h:i~iI [with microphcnocrysts \li" olivine] except lJull. Lho:.:. mcli1i.lecrystals WIll.lliol1ly huveu dark line .a!U!I~ ~he CIi;JI"e uf Hie I;~! '1 ,- :i¢~[.1011])' III a. few cl'Yi:!'ab II) l~h::> v ie.v. r 1s - (tl1~ tfj IMhlded gl'nmid mass, Under CI"'ll~~OOpolars [lower p31Oto~.raph) the anom .. a30U5 blue colour zoned to'a white celour j5 quite. ~1,i.nC.lll/ti<Lrld is a t:bl ir bi' cen a iii .j ndicu W.~l!Ulf rneli lit~. Tholl 6}'S1alii. h~~w~ll~ ~ yelkl\v, red and 8. normal blue iit-· turfCtl'::n!;Ceoleur ure oii· v ine, The. hn.l"wn crystuls, best ~~lIlil tht:· '~'i~w n plan~-PDI~irlzoo light, a t the bottom len i dlh$!·Jjdd iir~ olperovskite. TilclJLC:s.CIlCC o.f'pe·j'l'"Ivskile i", :I dtJ~10"lhi; (t.;~l:llnt!K:e ulmelilile und vice-versa, p2J. •

. 'J}f!f.ifHr!n /ilJli'J


mi1!lUWtf::, Katunga,


1)1Qkl~i.(jlallmJ· (3.


Ortherhcmbic ( .1-514-1'~7~

) or (+)



'fhe upper Jl:bntograph, taken in phI1c~po~lIrittJ lighl, .sl~ows eordierite iutcrgrewn with .'llkali fe!dSpa.!\ T11 COTdu()li'~c: can be tTI.:o!]gl1iL~l~ in ~hi~ ~et UUr:1 by i l'S tLmii~ uppcarancc whereas l:h~ n.':ld5:p~~t 18 !~l;fi!M~'ely clear, ri) H(ldi:ti.u'll ihereure irregutar Ci"tlCI\':-'l 1lllid v,eru~ at theedges [If Hie I,;!.IOOlc'.:ri'le¢!·yr.L=l1>i wtli,!;:h i'J.!I'(:ly~Jk·"#~shin colour, l"jl ese.are composectl.. of a mincralwbish is gc.rl'1tf'd.ll.y QqiL~"" putite and this ··(l.1terrt tionis.very 601"l1m~nttl ~~_m;h!:"'d(~. In tJn: Iower p.lJ.()lOgnlpn, l<t1:(;t~ !JHdt:T cro:->!;.ed ]'l.(HP.!.I·~ the hirefringence ufl he r,;~~~'i!,;; isseen t(~· e ,,;ery similar ri.l~ h lu L.ht1,!of the..flik,~H reklsJ~@'I' hut rn~my QJ the COI(Ji.cri1~ t;~)'s-t.(ll,f;sh ~\" I..me II.$!' t.\'i'i rtri i.n.g andthis cuuxes il tc ~ cQnfusfldwltb p.IL~~,i{)cb~l~ (t£ii: pli-uW"!;,:nrphs mi [l3!~-r8:4J_

5;.pe,NIJ1efl' (ram .!dmlf((;mrtP-{(;J.rdi,niw Mac.kw{.tscar,' nr.ain (li.MI im1 x .z0.·

x.nt-'"~\:N, for!







On!wdY~)!,litJit:: l

). 1' I 0

! -5::!4-1-574


The upper photograpb. taken In plane-polarized light, ~~fJW~ most of the held occupied cry cordicritc, with a ITI.i~nbo;:.;T f ±tldndt::~.lt rniIi,!;'raf;;: :sht""ij'~lg up. iIi I"(:ij;cf ~.L.ht:. o ~ri~lci.rde~ areulr bHl1hle::. ,mfi 1101riiirl.eru~ in elusion '>}, 1\1'f)li~d.()ne two ol'l~emcli,lsh)rlS are yellow ha II,)~s ~It)d 01' rhM6 are pleochroic, [he mi 11e ral f (ll'm i['IS theh ;:11,0~llll'l():'.r lnthe centrc.of'the photograph was not ill. U1e plane cifthe thin section, The lower photograph, taken under crossed .polars, Ml0WS ~h~11 .r!hl ... 1)1' ~h!; liekl is taken 1 up 'by (I lamellar 1!~liil-rlecl cordiertte. The i!'lChLf;j(1 liS ~\'Etidl ~th}w ;.! secondorder -bI.UI2 inre rference 1:;0 lou I' are -nf si ili mani te and t hese de> 1101 produce ycllcw pleochroic haloes. Thl.': v.rl;!~n~t: 1).1" yellow pll~~(.!I:u:Q,ic halues, frtq uently ~(l11 in f~(II'di.edle, i:;; l~jl'e ~)fthe "1"110<;1 selul diugt!oS'lit: u ~pl'{lp'e!1~B8" ur these III ay nor he com m un .HI (0 rrlieri I es in b oont.;l.minOlted ig;neouf; rocks ill which cycii,t.: IWi,ll.Ilit"lg!5o llsefu.1d:i.ll£lHx~tic feature. 1&41L





;,min1i.i.IIi/r~ K." 2_ 7

giifi.~.\:, 1"I("£lr



T,ourma,1 ine

Symmelry RI, Birclrin
I: w


r -)

,1-6'10-1-(60 ! ,635-1 '075
iH)21 O'(,H~

The photographs -on thu:> p<lg-e and Ihi;l OIi,Ptl~i.fe' p~,g€ are of thin sccticns from the ~I\1Qlt: n);.4: f>pedm!':.t'L Comperison 01' these h'i~ pl,o~'o~raph>lT cabin i,1I] planepolarized Iiglu wllfl the polariver in orthogonal positions, t;hU\;"l> [he Ji~Lii~C:l pleochroism and. zoning of Ilw ubsorplion (:OiUH1'_ In Lhe lov;"er photograph the polariz.c:r »:~IS onemed: parallel to till: short dimension or the photograph since the maximum ubso 'p'~[VIJ C;;(liOlll I~ shown when the len gth uf L'h~ crysta lift, 1. ri!!:Itt-11t1gle); (Q lhe plane ~)'I"pol"lriz1lLictn of the light. (T11l" crystals were 1'1.01 oriented to show the maximum '1XirlH1:ion ih fjJbsor-, ption colour, otherwise in thlolphotograph taken Lm~l: c:r~s;;;o(] ~JD1:m;- see TI!;!;;;,~ p~,I~~ - U'!ey "",'.:mki be in the cxlinetion posilion.] Th6, other minerals present arc quariz and alkali Ieldspar wilh crystals of rmiscovite at the lop lell ami at ~h(::ri'gh'l edge of the field. Cornpa ri s{m ;'\ilh lhe '~i!Hll::! view, taken 'Onder crossed polars, QII 1111': oppusi L{~ .r);'1 ge 1:<: ·J1e(les~iL '10 idcnt lfy the In uscovite f'Y

Tourmaline shows u wide range



in haad

specimen: a brl.'Wlll:;:h-yeiio~, green or blue are the most com !TII,111 c()k) urs seeo lit th i~'section, I,IIiignco us rocks j t is I!::;Li'111~i restricted to laic-stage acid vnrietics butis very COlt11U6n lIJ minor amounts ill meuunorphused.sednnent» The f~!v.l llial nl¢ rn.iXJDIJ.Ilm ;lO;;;fl!'p~IO.lt cnlour ls shown ,'<'Iu.:T! ~h~, L~I!g'Lh ,rr tilt c I'~,:,;tal ls 'at righJ:.,:'u1.glc!> Lli~ s te plal"l~ '-'if polarization o-f the liglit is ,[I. parlicularJy useful . d1ugrlO;;t[c leature wbCJI tourmaline is presenl ill ftlirly

8m~.u Cr},Sl..:r1S,




Symmerry RJ





I ,(';I0- j,{i50 1··f,~5-i:675

n' 02 I


TI'•.;: photog raphs on this pl1i:!e and the opposi te rage ,1I'e ·M thin sections from the same n.l'I,:k ~pecimen .. Compa I: isnn of these LlAo I) ph 1.1 1.1I!:~I·aph~, taken ~n plane. polarized lighll with the pl118 nzer in orthogonal positions, shews the ui:.linl,;:l pleot:h1'()lml and zoning of the absorption ~.llltlllr, !II the I I,we.r photograph the polarizer was Ofit;I];I.-~d parallel to the .short dimension of ~ILI; pt;oI)Iog,raph :-;ine€ the IlKlXIIUlIffi absorption L,:HI "1.111' is shown whenthe length 01' lh . !;f),,;t;!!1'i~;',11 l'i:gln·angJes 11:) the plane of pelari« ..~[i~)·!I. [he light. {The crystals wen; (}f iJiJ'[ oriented [(I show the maximum 'lari<!H}ml in ~Lh~)~I}lln [1 CO~OIl r; otherwise .in the ph(;[ogF'·p'h lot).: en ueder crossed polars - ser ric::-;'l p~g~ - .1Ie), W~·J·uLdbe. j_t~ tb~ extinction posit ion ..) The orlrer mi l.~eriliR present are quartz, and .:a lkali J."ddspllr. wi lt1 f.:l·)'St",'ll.s of muscovite fl L the.cop kr~. al the rjghi if;dj!.e ,:'if [he field. (\)L'TlFiart51)'1] and with lhc same view, takeri under creased polurs, OJ'], Hl~ oppesit . ~n~~ei~ necessary co identify the 1II1.1:s('o\'ih~, Tourmaline shows a wide Hmgo; oj" culonrs ill hand specimen: .a brownish-yetlov ... g:r-eenor' blue are the most , eomrnen L:uh IUT'S see: Li il 111 sectinu, I II ign~~u~ .I."od:.<.:: is in it l~;WfLU}'restncted tel Iate-stasc acid varieties bu l is '\i'cr~ com InD 11i n minor umo 1I1Il.t::.; me lilm:orphlJsed sedl uiems, in l'h c fact th';'l.l I:h~~llW ximu rn d b!;orpl;i (.,rl Co I L,lll r L~ ~111,1,111. 0 wlW!;i, thelength 01' tlte ",:~·y:s.wl:,; 'i~ ,~l righHIrlf!J-e~ to 'tJl@ plane of pola ri I ~!.Li~,II nf the Ii,ght :k;,'] particularly useful i:hagTH.):>lc fen ~lire w hen tourm al lne i~ i present {n [<lid~ ::'ni :l]b c 1':y~t:JI.~.. 1901.




roc«, lJlurR[1()di X 2:fJ.


Plt, CLlf11W('f{f. E'lglrm(i, ilw~IT{fin.llimT





Trigonal (-)


r w

i-sro I f~~O
1-635--H'!~ ~1°0t.l-Q·035

TIle uppe.!· phutogrupb, taken under crossed pnbr:o. iJwl'.'s the: snme [i,cld of view a~ illu s.~ml ~~Jn the rrev iLlL.I.i o f'~>1!lI.:, This.,shm\';!l tf,¢ moderate bil'eTI'irn:efl(;e "f lourmaline, i.e, up to rmddle.second-order C;:)!onr':>, 'S!1B;1Ct; the crystals dll '11i~ «pecimcn sho ... 'l.lllll'ly :.Iw,l'lg vs prefe~ted orientatloe a 1~()1 l'bin section ~'a~ 'lil iiH her 'nghl"'i)t;lgl.e::; 10 the fir~t and IIIL~ is shown in the 111~'!i,\,:1" pll{1itograph q;.1 ken in plam:·p'lia.r'i;;,ed light. ThE:'! vie ... ", H~I~""'~ the; tfig(H~ii!r cross-scctioua] nuiJir.le ul [he- LOllF1m!i ti~crystal s an d ag;~ ~ h uw:> zoniug of tile Hb~l,lrp I:ion I in f;o.lf!urs, .SO;;~011'1 cut ill [11 i~ f.Jri'I:!IHU,lDOH can be lI$t~,d 10 ti ·d.~~rmin ["I h e 11iiiCI xi:! 1 tI':~~~.t l'haracter 0 th e rI1!]Iivc


5:rHdM1::71 jrlJffl wpu=-wrll'n'Ul{in~', (Jjlwrl:t 'l'od. B lackpoo! Om' Pit, V r01'ii!'I'tJ.!f, 1~'lll{fr~lu( /'! maenilica: ion 2V_ .r
-.1 I~



l'nclinle ( ,1-681-1·701 Birefri ngencc l'he u[1f1el fH109~ll1ll taken 1[1 plat~().pobrizcci light,


~hrfws aJmo!;r the who I,r.ield ~:fvl~ 1::; oteri pii;!ij hy ax in ite f wh ieh has ct pale brownish c 010~rin lhi:;, :::p~'>;.;i 1I'~tr hut rid

detectable pleochroism, l\..J.os!.()If 'I:i:v,ry~_ltJb :;hl.l'W one 1)[' more cleavages anti this is characteristic since il h;~s fo'Ur cleavagvs. Thl': lri~iI n::ii~rllnh'\: rnineriil fH IW~ up ag;.litt~r a f~w holes itt the slide. In Ih~l(1wel' photogrnph under crossed polars, the bl refringence IS seen t D be low, The axe-bead ~hd'-P" oI)J (h!; crystals can bcmorc clearly 'SC-C"t1 under L:rl)1;~cdrvlj~n::~llld lhis shape is nlirl)' dia.~~HJ:"li~ wli:~rl lh~[' alnnp. wlth tile h high reliel, low hi!'el'r-ir1g{:II,r:;e ;1liLJ. presence of more th-.aJI
une ~teaV1ig¢ LII mosr CI-:r·S_t<I.I~..rt.;l71-

.)/uzcimeil frat~1 exinite-acrinoitte Efrf!,/and, maRtI/iirat/on x 31.

rock, lit.

"'e:~·.'o.mw(JII. [



. '"' ~ .... .... : J



Ortlnrrhern hie ( + ) or ( - ) I '653 '1'7"7.0. 1'-00"7 ~}OlO If] UI~ liPI):.;r :m~ middle phNrlgra~~lls. taken 1M plclIU?plliam:ed Ii~hr. l tie colou red 1.1·i ~h-rcliof min eral 1'<; ,0') fi f,lt~hI)r h~)111hi~; PYLl.}l'IC[l1,; lind the most freq ucntly ,JCC'lI r_. rm@. -;i;lrrlr,lO:.~lwn ]~ hypersthene, The churacteristic pk{)l!t.roj~~m from green to pin~ is.!l. good. iiWlicl'!l,n01! 9r! he. pn;~'--'TIoc orthopyroxene ..The change ill en lour l1uy JI nl of
btl veryinlcnse bill (;,UI bc dceected most casrly h~..rotatlng l.h~ poll] rizer Ll1 rnllgh 90"" ~I~ h.l\- heen dum' hen. The lower photograph, mkei'l under TV~St;d pnlars, ;n{J,ws f:firl~· I.t;iw·infe-rfej'ell"_~e colours. S·jrllX Ute fI.:lg-rich members of'Ihis series have the lowest hiref'nngence thls 1:0>
:J, $\..~\~ll~~ lUI,,!




I .1'-'




1'.lLr1y M~-Tic.ll specimen, Ti:J{~ pthl1:-f minerals ill this ql,.l~ lz, alkali I"CltJ$p~r_ plagioclase and. one .• l;;I1I~ral (Jr bio I ire, I~~h,L11J 1£1btt MJ¢d 11-1<II wh i'le. the pleoch ruism :i:; H U;:j~fll ~ diagli,o~tic property it -j,:; trot- ;tl",8)'~p-n;.!.t:1Jl il' Nlhopy-





S,t'roPl.in-wl'r/mm cbarnockite, near Pm'1 I)wiphin .....(ulaf!:a,~l rur.: rnalJlli:.fi,:·{J1 iWl x ]I!,



Ca{Mg, Fe,Si:.\Ofj

MnTloL;]irli~ (.-)
1,(;7(J J -]4·1

nil:: U Ii pci:tp~ III

LLlgC'aph. LfJh~Hi D\' plil.rl~-po!!~.t ii.!:td Ii!! lrt. nurn be,1 L'1I'phell()~n'o;,ll';: nt nU~,!~J~~ngetf:r,~r ·..-iU! .. r some small Ceklf;l'Ol(;f., [Ind. fl. few altered OI4~'illes (3!e.ll~wbrown t[1':-;t~J5 with bLack .td_g:cs) and w~ndcd' pscu· .doleueitcs Zoning in the hHJ!P phenocrysts or 8qgitc is \,~;,:jbk!il1 pl,lm~-1J;0la:r:i~d li.ghlQOl!at!BI;) of -l;l]gb:t dij:r~:r~ ~iIL;.e:,. ill i1.b";iJrp~11)n(,;(jl~11I find dl.o:l!~ip" or ,:oJlll~iI i!!dll~bM, -,
~flj,~W;; ;1

L L~defcrossed p()hrf:'~! II ~\~el'r !.~uH11\r<t(~f~ ! he ?~~ni11 g !~ J sccu more c:h('a)'ly~t::id l~t1tb~h'llple and 1~';(I1.fi.lb.r twifii)ir~S urc obvious. The l(:mgeJ~'s1aJ at the.llppedef[ (lHh,~ ,field !ibows h.Q'LI r-gla ~~;.(ollil1~ :i~ well as, conccmriczeniug. The: iB1H,'!rl~re[ll,;~ colours- nmgt up ['(1' middle second-order hlne, ' 11~l: N~ck: circular rl1:gions WCf~ pl'(~h1lJhly .I~uclt'i!! crysiul ...origilHuly but ,ut now ffir:dl1lran<l'I'clte_ The g'()od cleavage usually associatedwith P:'f'Q,'wn(';> ~vt:~ H'\.ll ;:;hU'~'I tJP lJl Ih~ 1.;[ Jsl~ i:,;, Then I Hlbu truc ef the
r)'ro\'~HI::?Iii lTM:tly 1,11'1he luuar rl)"~'~,


.)~M:.:irncn /r(Jnr: 1)!jf3I,1,d()b!.l~f.il t;-b£.udi1lft m(f,/I~' pn'mwifk', .t-lI,(!:i/'wor)(1. ;10/1,)" M()man{1 USA' magHU/('tlilu"1 k\ JO


Titai1aug ite

t\1l.@ljll.<:which an: rich 'in titanium u~.lwlh have a purptlsh or hrflWn colour in thin secnon. The tippel' and middle l)no.tograpbs show crvstals of'tltanangite takcn in planoP]Jhi[,i7i;.-d light: lh. 'Y ba'\-e a sornewhat darkcrcolo'if than i!l1!o'Liril. The pleochroism is- quite distinct asalso i~,..,_mollg ...{!:be ,I hso l'l}li (1-(1 CD lour, The ,(;0] ou rless minerals in th i~ iQd:<I!'e sauidinc _ncphcllne nnd Ieuci l~. Uo~e r er~;n;:sedp'!.:.lar:,; (J I,wier tiJl'01"flgrap!1) the j [I. terferancc uolours ~~~, 10 s.nr~le exrem, Illaflk:cdJ hv the

'field v-i.;;w :"hIJ ......:at third-order grcen colour and Ihis 1:>}! :higl:!,;:.n;lllou.r than-expected fro~ a normal all~il.;: siuce jl Ili:pre~t:j1I_~ bi refri ngence 0 f abo ut c} 04 iI the ~';:l>l_i Is of a (In $li'i,naafd. thkkncss 1.1] this 'iJ~W 1'tIt: wilite area is almost ~efitire]y sanitlim: but the Lhlrl ,I-e,gi()ll ~n the top k:ft Dt'.thl' phctogra ph it< part 0 r a Ieucrte crystnl. J ~OU-





~H the bottom.

;1' the




d(tlerii~ l'1If.MJU:'J,', rOJ?d~I'-


Gf':!'In(m,'l: nU:lJ{rri/i('£li irnj' )( ;ZO,


C I i,nqpyro,xOIilEl & 0 rth()pvrox:elil~ inle rorowth

Cllinopyroxene Orthopyroxene interg rowth


II! the upper pbll~llgr·(lp~!. l?!hn i,1i ~1'J.;,I:lle-pl.1I;lri;>.e~lliglH, the dark crystals are Pywx,enes and the liglll: CI}'i1l';ll:).

plagioclusc feldspars. In some of the pyroxene crystals ,l l~~liL:HfLT structure Gill be seen but 'Lhi:;; i,1) more dC'<lrly
vi~'ihl,l: iTi Ih~ hJWL·r plnni Oi:';nlpn, la~~n IlTItkr crossed

po!ars. The. lal'g.e I.:ir~'sLtLl,u:-::t ,abl}Ve the centre nf rhe field of' view W"L~" .o,riglLlJJi.Jy a pigeonire "iJ:.IKl il]":'cT(.cd to !111
erthopyroxcnc (dark-brown interference colcurt COf.ltaLJ1

ing lai';;c:llac of elinopyrcxenc {grcrJl) p,aralk] to (0U1, of ~hl' original pigconitc: lim' lamellae of diJlopyrmclJ.1; (while) ure ur ientcd parallel l.:..' (HID) ol' nIL;' orrgiuul plg~qml~_ The cry.stat <II ~he !Of' lelt-hanrl corner of ~b't! jJI10m,gI';lph IS ;,1,ilJnula:r inverted p,igeonlle the coarse

are blue


Lh~ tine: Jamdldt'


onl.:_v j u:.l visible Tile simply-twinned crystal ill Lh~lower part (f(' lhe-tiehl of view (,,~ok:'l and rt~ddi::;b-)'dj,.,w inleilereuce c()I('11I;;:11~ ;J. elinopjru :-"CIlI;: ~ w inn ltd un l 'I(l(f) f:1I1~l s IIG\', I.ll~eX:'ltl! ution l~mi,c'lh:: (,r~frl.h~)rj'["fl.,~~le pigconltc, 01' r I. 10111241-


SpecImen fh'in notite, Bu,./nddl x 24,

r11l rusion .Soutt:


(Na, Ca) {Fit Mg)SilO()


Aeg.i rine· 8ugitte

1\,·1 '-'flo{;lirli~~ ( - ') or ,. ]·710 !·7Nt)


0·03..0 0,050 The [1hnln!:.\r;~!"~~n!;~k~l! In pl.u'e.. ~h(~wthe greel) tfi brownlsh-yellow CQ]Ol.lJ and FI.em~lll\,.i;'iTil which urc diagnostic of'sodium-bcaring py:ro'l<<:m:1;. Zonin g shown b'y varia Li 01], in the uhsorpuon colour is'f~icrly commou in such pyroxenes, i\.lmL of the crystals show enly one of the 'Pl:r(CCl i 11.0~ d,;tl..,.~gu::: bu~ a small crystul embedded m 'llUt;g~·cl1 rMI.:i.I~l lhe riglll "I' the field shows both cleavages clenrly The 10","'o;T phol{)gri~.pk taken under crossed polur», ~bQ\Ii~'tl~: ir~ffin.gel'Ke associated with IhLfimineru I. ne h dt:;,1 lncriun between a pyrexene ,..... ~(liHf! c!f dH::,ac~i_l"ine illl rnnl'K~u~~ (Na:H::SiiO(j) and Nl~ vi~tlla high prnportioc ef t~e molecule is rml d( ~I! the h;~~~:;; (If refract: ve iIr(rgQl;:~, P!lt:i~ ~xjal ,1I'l!:lle~"r:l~! ex.Lil1'ClioT! angle ill ~n (0 W) ':i~!'!!ln so lhtlt iI i:-; III 1'1.~H'1::;:';1 le from these phoi ogrt1pl1:;. ,11{HlIi! to b ud"trmIIH': whether tlli;; mineral l"U!::J u ::.w'II' or laJ'gC <lifll)\Jll! (lflrne ae,gi.ri:nLmok~l..d,e ll.~~j


~_ml middle


S'pu:1me1J ,fi'm~1s(J.daNh~,1Jend(!, 1'l:Ltid, mlI,~n~'!jcatioll~ 3).

lUrnrn~:>5(1(r. H;>;"s,1 rnnG




S ymmot R]


M'.:!lluchnie ,(+)


i '66J

0.·012 0'01 3 III theupper ph.(ltogl'flph. taken in plane-polarized light, IW() lkav;,t,gc.s can be seen iu surue c.[!r·s~.,tl:,j. the others show OIIt: .l';[~i:migi. There 'is -;'J,!;lighl dillerence in colour between gr.l.iilS iei. 'lhi!~ section kim rhls i~ d Lie to ~lra:, polarlzation in 1he photographic eq IlLpmet"l"C andi s not .1 property of t"i1i" mi f'lct~d. The lower ph(}IO.g1"i:l:pli. taken under crossed polars, shows the JD\'" hil'eJ'ril;genl;;t; characteristic of ju.deitC' which StT\'CS {O distmg-Lllsh it from other elinopyroxenes whki, have moderate to higll bil'eftiilgylice, This section is from-a vein j;jl u serpentinite and HlI;~ whole jj~;lu ·js occupied by jaderte, II J7J.

Spt:n'/'11C:fi Il'om {iJI1!P',

/ad(lii"" .\·~rp('11.uRil(', San Brnilo Calilomfa, (.ISA. maglji_;lr"r.Hif'll xj.,~_




rncl:lnlc (-) Hi2a Birefringence 1·65n O'013-~}0J4

T~~ upper phm.og:rapll, tJ kefi 111 pl<l!1~-p61~.rb/~d light. ~1iD\i;'Sa man be I' oh,,·cJ llaston i re 8:rr~:I;;J.Il':I~'~Ig su !"'P:J.!'fllit!i F to the length of the plmt0gr:1pb, The other colourless crystals ;lJJr{: f nepheline and a. few dC!E:l.-j, o green aegirine t:r::r'it.ti:lb~lre a.b;;:;v'i::;tiblol,:;, The few i>lighl~ycloudy I'Cgil))oll~ (one is almost in !.he centre ol the tickl) an: d 1.I~ 'to holes in tht;. shde. Wu.iJa:-;'lumk crystals are elongate .. along the y d crystallograpbie -axe:,; ::1.IKl h;:lve t!I('e¢ cleavages, ~IH which mc parallel to the )' :lX.IS: S~) that most erystals f;hQ\v .at least one good. cleavage. m Ute lower photograph, t<!,kcounder crossed polars, 'Ih~ hrterfereuce C[,1110U.f!> t;:\;!t;:'nd up L~'1 Ilrst-erder orange Dot to red, thts ls a nSe!ful d~a_gllns.ti:~ pwper!,;:.- taken !"()",p''''itl\ tfie tendency 1'~)r rhe ~!'}'~hlb to be elongated, ~-simip-II<; twinD.LI"l]! is tom mo n ,tud is fijl0\!iTl 'in Utt! .I ongcsi ~~t::lL [Mal




,rilttl(',r" /r(.Jm rJI!P/J~.ffne 1~IJ.lht\,ttmH" l~,,!ga,J'.T(lw;:cmiu, m~rp:JlincC(ttnn )( l:l.




Symmetry RI ~, nir;.:rringcnec

Triclinic 4 +)
'I -sus

. ] -(11 ;'i

o ·():~OIHB I{

d:e11 \jtlg~!.

In the upper 1}lll-I~L'I_grtlph.aken in plam':'-p'plartu;d light, t colourless C I'y::::tal::; 01' pecrol ite 51.111,:1 ,0 (1'1 h. relief H~f1iru.1 Ihe other colourless minera 1:<., lz. a ~od.~c; 1)1'1,~llkil<1~ v leldspar and micrec Lim: 1"cc1ol"iw. h:lL~ '[WO J'l<!,(I"«·1 , dr;M v~~:; lind !;O l he large crystals ;;;110Vr' at Ieas1 L1U!:.

l tl I h~ IOW'cr photograph, [akcn uudcr crossed polnrs, 'the pectelite cr'Y~IHls ."how up clearly because of their bright interference colnurs ~xl~rHli&l:S into second-order, L~~ l1ighc-sl coleur in LIlliSv lew h-e.in,g, :'I !<-eCLtll<:l-or.d{:l' blue The mineral with a ~LighL!;'~r1?BIl hI brm!,o'i'l1;61L1U1 ill this r'i.')clo;:<: eckermarrniu- ~Ir:u.rJy uncommon j amphibole; and OJ 'grnup n!' !lot·H'111 ,tckul,lr o:.:r:Yi>lal5 of sodic p}' IO.).;,(,llC. r 1441-

SfJeciln~l! ./r{ml})('1·wlil f:_{'('k{,'Hnmnit'(~I1(,'phehm!


Noera Karr, ,"':I1i.·d~n. ~1~agn~';;(f~tJ(in . Jot 5.~ 42:


- Godrit~

(Mg. Fe)?Si't)'02z(OIl, 1'")2 (Mg, Fe)sAl"Si(,Ol2(OH.


Orthorhombic ( I'M~-1'7JO Ri refrlll g,mc~ 0;0.13 U,t~2~




'Ihe name an1hoph}~II,j~:it' used forthe Al-poor members 01' this series ami gi:ldrtl'e ler ~ht" Al-rielr minerals, Th~ 1.!P'P~iJphotograph. in pJ'B,l.le-~K~ltITi~{!~ l'i~bl, 5hc,Wf; ~TltlH'l)tI llil.c. hi ad lc and cord i eri c e. The UTI Uloph~'lite y l ~hL1""r's ~)E1"jc.lt:r;,] bIt· rei icf ~lg,l i 1b.1 the cord icri lc wi til v;'hich 1'1 L~ int 'rgn..noin and the tYE)ii.41 amphibole clcaVllfe.'l at 1?,Ii''> il re :';1:'';:11 so me crvstats, in



II)'W'er photogra



Lhlll Clfrnl)f.~ "Irlpllib-l~ik:~.

take n LInnet ern ~;I)t,':d polurs, :I ow j n CQI~lj[la'I·I8.~)11 h wi~ Mcm'bc-r.s of tbe ;;lmh"'11~llynik-


g~drile series arc orthorhombic in symmetry and in thi:..' l'e~p.td dillcr from other amphiboles, The absence of t't1ihlllifl~ i~~111 indication thar rhis may be an orthorhombie amphih.t;li{: nllhC)LlgJl (.'If CQUfSC' LIl~:'i i~ 11~,)1 LlhiJgnt1~uc: [l%i,

SpeC;·'.lJeri jlom ,clJJ'JiN'il" ".'lHh(J(lhylllrL' Jite!I'fJSww.lndhJ. mll~nifll:·wi(}l" ){ 61.





(Mg, Fe),)SigOn(OH)l

(Fe. M g).)"Si80V;(OH


Monoclimc (+"}

Of (-,

'he name arunente if; used. for U1!l.': trnn-rieh membersef tlL'i:;. :>ofdc~- whe'rea~ cumrningtonitc I::; L1::;l;)l1 for the

members, No' pure ),iIg




Tho upper phott)gT~ph. taken iu pume-polarlzed ligJn, showscummiaglouite c:rystal:'. intergrown with 1.1 p~ai;i.oK clase n~td:,p·il.l· a nd a few crystals oWbiotite. LT nfortu m!lC:ly the characteristic amphibok' ..cl'ocH. ..·<I;t;"t: does uo1 i':h~Wr'!J~ well in. this thin section. The dad:.t(bge~ 1"0 f;ome Dr the crystals have 1.1 deep eli v e-green ~O·IO.ll... wlnch is plcochroic and these ,I"r~ prIJh;lh·'y due to a common horn bit::ndr;. h'l [lie:. 11),,\{trp'ho1n!l;r,Lcph, taken under crossed pol ars, lnterference CQlrll:.ir~"I'an:@e up to middle second order the blue-coloured crystals in the centre of the hdd show lilt· ~i~lles.t colour in iliill view, i~L~ second-rmler blue, ~II lhal Ihisi:> <I l~lqrl)1 f\·1g-rticn cumrnlngtonitc sinec lIM: Ok~Uf.<;. ~h.own by grunerites extend well into lhe third order, Lhe 'fact that the miacral has only \:~I"y JY<lle colour III planc-polanzcd jjghilli ~Il:,oan irldic;niltTllh,ll it ls H(}[<l gruncritc since they tend lo be hrowni ..h it) ,WI,HJ1. Multiple twinning is I,::h;lr .. cteristic of members of this series un d can be :;,(!!;!"J] ; [I ~lHfle II!' 1 he crystals near La the, '\;[;"[HI'e of !h~~ lil:!Jd I,ll" view, 1'1(10].


~)ft lJt1~·fl.lI·,m! {·wmnf17!:{(mil.· FIO(.lIu:e;


Lrl l'u1il't./·,'wa6,


Y _~(j,


Tmmolite - Fcrnur.ctinolite

Tremolite -Ferroactinoli't,e

Monoclinic ( 1-612-1 ;697 Hircf[il1~erice 1)·0 I 7--0· 02. 7

The upper .::md middle photographs, taken In ~~hlLL~ [,>(')1" 'I'i::-.edl ighl ~ show u gr~uv of . act ill.olhe, cd')':o;~alSo shnwi:llg Imm.oul'~IXl. :rjj,;.bl.'hl"oi.sm, M.os'l of thE: crystah show one good cle01.Vil"1;e none of them are cut 'to show tHH the angle hetweenthe -U :I O} d~ll.'t'fI!l:~' The Im1;'cr photo,gfi.l.ph, taken under crossed polars, ,-!;lrow:; twinninz in one or two of the CJv~I::'~h and thisis lairlv (;OLUmO;' The interference co]nul::O; a.re,,-i.0·fnin~lh!cjJ bvg~lXnl> and browns but thi s .is due to t he add iuon 01) J' {he'
·~bSMp~i;~'Ull;o!O{lr~, . This is, actll1(llit<e 1'8'h~'Ii' 'lh.J11lremelitu because of its. , ~~[1 coleuration since ·he moli re ·i~ coloerless.

Since the ,!;'oIILIL1'On twin !,;:L'W fa I' the nl():11I);li~li( .. am rhi.tl~'l..::.~~.eflection 3C~05~ uoo ),~l(m gated crystals r '~!lOv.'in.~ 11. :;;11 f).I'rl:y lll;;fiIli~d twinjunction an:: the ~l'l~St .sultable cl)':'>ta-I So ft:'lt' nteasurl flg • he e x b nell 011 H;Jlgk: y ; 2 since these must be nearly (UH)} ~clkm:>. The l~lD"gl.: twinned crystal showing rme half (If the C['y'::;,I·.,,1 it! lb.!.; :~·.l:,dndion positionis not in a sultable.orientntlou, since the (100) plene i~quite oblique to the lengrh ofthe secnou :lindlih!)""~ up ;1;S a while band in thj's photogra ph, [I 63).




Symmetry RJ Birefringence 1'1"11;'I!,['v~r tmd

Monoclinic ( 1-6J~-I'?'l4 IHJ.l40'H26

) 01'

t I )-

mi!.hl1c phocogruphs,

taken ,in plane--.

brown whereas the rl~n.chr(lL:<:,m of che hlouteis trem ~I brown to a pale hrQ.w n, A few L ~f i he nnrn hlt:ml~ crystals show the- characteristic shape and twocleavages III 1:::0". IJ'IJerl:wl>~(1 [191:lrs (lower photograph) twiuning can be seen In a few of the hor 11"1~1lde cl'ysn a i:" Mid lbe highes; inrerfercnce colcur ~CLl in tl'lii. view ls 'a second-order h Iue, The (I iIl~ft!:[']o:.;l: lween biotite and hornblende cal] be be seen ilL thi:,. nIILf~lll:\r;'!f)h hI'I he fT,IOLI iCbf appearance M the iJlt.erkrenoeto~(m!'~~.11! tie ~:lr.Y;e hi9'1-i~e!,;"'Y:::;t~Ll wmio;,;!l'Ls neu r L o its ext i !lJcti l'lr.l ~~)'S'ili~sn. 1167 I

~~Gtar lzed Ij.g.l'l1, :"h'I~W hum blende and bio lib: t ogJi>tllcr \;,'ith quartz, alkali 'l'ekl::::pi! ~ wid "~ sodium-rich pllgj(J. clasc. The h [Wit blends ~~1n w~,pleochroism Jrorn green 'I,u

Spr:l'imrm Forti granise. mtlHnt/in:lft m x 2(),


(if Rannach,





MonOl'lirLlt: ( - ~ or of -I- ) !.fI J1j.-+ 71 4 0, 0 l4 0:~26


The llppt:r and middle phologplpb~ show brownish phei1(:';:'J'y~18 of b(,rrnbknd:.; ulong with pJ'l~iDd~H~ phcnucry·~I.~i[1 u .n ne- gr,) in t',~Jgn I~J!)daJtl s[" main bo' or" l~ll.~Il.i: f~ld~P:L!', The 1,v:rk:.. J ;J"[l"iphi Ib~'lle~ ~ tr.w.: Miid d~il y,~!.!>:.:: l'itHl be aeen l[) ;1 few cr)'s.taJ.; .,uH;l the ple0c.hr('i.~w i~ quite p:p;:rP(ulIlc.Qd, The opaque! rilns are pmbably due to the r.onmll ~c.L1o.f lTIaguctil<: hv Qxid!\li{JU \::..f i'I'0I1" :.I nd "J 1'1'1 rtiirlr eemmon iL1 flornbk'-n:lc."i. in V(;I';:~H:riC" rock!>. '


rI11'~rfiilr¢II~~1;(J.INir~ (ig\vtTpho~6gr;Lph) tend

to be

Oll<KU.rreri by the absorpllu.i! (1)11 Hlt1:i: III.:: f)irr.rrlrl:g>:.::n~~ common hornblende 1.5low to nr ...Jsr~H6"~ r 147]-






x. 32_

i..I1Clp.1~'MI,', ML






S}'ml111:' try

f\'1m1Lxlini.; -(-)
HJ'ilU 1'"141



(j·01o}·O,mU The LJPper and middle pl Io hJ!!;nrphs, taken in planepolarized light, show [~1I:: su OQ£; p1e.(~.hwq~rn and foshn1WJj i.;OJVLlT whicl'! ls characteristic of!.l1i~ Initl¢JOal. TIJ= ;arnph:ibo!:lle &!i~pt: ~llJiJ cleavages arc w~1I dIsplayed in Ih,. crvstal ill die een tre uf the field. 'The lower pfl111ugruph IlIke!] \LlH.'ICT crossed POI,'!:fS, ~hQWS that the ab~()rpll un colours ure strong cnengh 1~1 mask partly the interference colours, but the bircfriLl· ~t:I1;;;~;of ltiJi:; mineral has.a "Verylarge range and is not a lJ.,;tll'ul dilll!!I1o:stic property. It is difficult 1"0 dl~thimli:>l kaersutire CnJ!"!l ther brown am phi boles, Tb<l iHllp!;ibliJ.,. o j n 11.'Ii!'; 1'0!:k WaR previe Iish k n own as barkevikite. [17((1.

:;''p!2(fml'!fl [rom ir~gudi(~,Lugar Silt. Ayr,~/dre. , .. . :mtlturd; magn!"!'it.:atW!1 :l( 20.




Ml1IH'tclLnk (


l '622~ 1,60"' o·OW.;.-tH)l]. The uprer aud middle "hot,Q~r..;.tph~. raken in planeF(ll.r.rizcd 11.1l~L, shoW HElinl;...' glaucopha He 'c:r)'~lals wi L1 H fr.:'!!>' small t! ua r~ l.t:ry:st'Us:,. The l ..... pri :-:'Tnati I! cleu ~'fj i1:~~ ..H 0 .I 20''''are cll!arly seen ~I d Lb.{~ l rik.iug i l,b:::01'11D 10n t:n lu urs n ~ I'I'hi,]I '\"~II')" lrum bhLfl 1'0 .1 lave nder- blue ;;j. re ryp le·;11 f()'J' !1l1i~rnit1~r;I.1. 'l he <.' 0) ir) Ill':" are zcm€J uern the l"l'l<:u'gim; (',f WTll.eerysta ls. In thi2 lowerphotogruph, taken under-crossed polars, .the intcr!erencc colours are 10\.,. order, but annrnalous bc~~i«~t;; .(Ji' 111<;: S!!'[_III~ ~i ~~)'rplklri h .L(~~I)UI'h. Th~ 7:i'!llitl£, iii: even more ea.,dly· seen under crossed pobrs.. . The only minerals which SJU.1W; comparable absorpuon colours arc CCkl:.L"JmHl ni lc whichma Y :;jho\,'i a p~ lela vender (;J~~(JLir and j'{)J~'ri~J;: (i.t.v.) hli,l, bofh H'll:' '~'t!ri r;'H~ in 0u;um~lj~~·L~. ~li.s :-;·,.11r1t'.Jt: T :th01:II,d. 'p(,.~~W~li btl d·e$;cl·ihed I'nQI"f: cnrrecdy as-crossrte since tJ.tI!:I:C Ii', generally some fil2 '.~ substituting for AI and the name gl.auc-oph.mc ];S' rcstrlctcd to ruincrals with rather ]0\\' cements or Fe :!_ 1791 '


,\m'( imen
rtulon»: ,::'YJ..








~·1().110e1mic (


.H:i79 1:109
fH1~15-()'01:2 hi the upper and middle phntogruphs. taken iii] planonrtvedsonhc is. lec"0f.rli-7Cl~! hyit~ absorptici'I1 CO!('IUi";i; which wlr~' ltom ~I. deep Pf'L.il'~f:j;;,mt-I'!IJ~ Iv brownlsh-graee m~I)ILl·. TIle hlu\:' 111a}' be so dark rhnt the crystals appear opaque NOm: vf these crystals, show the lypic,Ll amphibt:)1e eleu ....cg_e hUI I he L'~'JoUT and pkochroismuru cbnruetcristi .. _lr) ihls rock lhl;;"!rrv.e~bljniLI! is ~
pol;:l[·i .... _r;dlighl,

~hc arfvedso i I ,i I:t. shows hIH)TI1 [1 lcus i111C rference C.~).I~ mrs, because tile sll\')llg absurptico colours. The bir~fi'1I1genec is low S8 that b['i;?il,~ c(llo~lr~ an.: not to !be expected, I( i~Jiflkulllo dis~.mgLli\11 arfvedsonlte 1"0111 ri{:b;;;rki!o:;' slece hnl h m~.y 5110W Q.hl'! eejr blue iLh~Llni! iun coluur d illusrmred ltere, lJIIl ricbcckitc dnc~ not :-;Iln~' l'll~ brownish.colour seen in lilL::;:;'~!1lIpk ll~7].

illlergr~l ~~'Ji with ~~~ lkuli fdd spar. r~agi cl ;).%:. fl.tid. l.J kJtlrl~, o Ill. die 111'w~r pbi,.~l()graph, taken under 01f"+):';:';ed rml:m,






U}('SI Grt:l'fl-

magl1ifl(trti{1fl -.:: ]_ 3




T riclinic {-I-)

Biecfriugeacc Il07

In l~ .! upper aml middle photographs, .. ihe bmwrl canusually be seen

taken in planeIhr.· edges the

p"l.l'rji.<.Id li[:\~!I '. I 1-1~' "'1,;'["1' 1.I.ak brtrw n l'I"y~ t tJ,b l'lrt acnigr milli te.. ~[ i:-; ~n'm~~ hlll~' so d~1 ~I:> I u \~ rk Iil'p~:t!ropuq He bu l
0::01("1111" ;11'

crystuls. A fl.·...• of 'tile ctist<i.11'>.5ho\l,ocleavages and nne cry~tLi] ~I.L lhc bottom ctlge of-thefield I]:i:.~ two cleavages <11 ~lpproJi.i:rlwl,l.!ly !2if: in this respect it ....oukl he mistaken ["N' un ;JHlphi bole, That it b pleochroic can be seen by oi:otnparul~ 1111:=~~eIWU photographs, Under L:r(ls.~ed rmI91'!;C (11.m'~1" photograph) the brown colour masks any interference colours ~o thul 'iL i::; no! po,ss.ib]c to cstnnate the birefrlngence, nlt: I~~rgt: T'c:;:;.l~Ilgul.tr l'r~~L~,I::,: irl th]'~ vicwurc sodizun-rich o1:lbli j~1tl~r;:ll·)i;. O~B or ~h>li!nlblC'ing 0[1 the extinction position. 11118 remainder of Ihe [ield i~ ~)(;"(l~pi.¢.d by ~: bnJ' ... nish i~i~\>. I' j I


ttllit)!~ X


[rorn pallk[f';;'r1'!f,


ltai». n1t1.iVt1fl"



Triclinic (



o· 0(; (apl'

rox ,)

A stro P Il}'U.it€ usua lly oceurs i n needle-shaped crystals lu radiatin~ gn:l'tLp~, but iu this section it OCCt11"":Sl~ rather l shupeless trry~·l.t!~ ~111'1 iTId'm ..iun~ in ;I Ilnl;',.-gr..r~11I;:(1 I [Jf g_mull,:I,ma.;is: The Ltppe>r and, Irdddle plml;('I.gmrl~~ !'ilmw the pleochroism WhLCbis from brown to :t yellow colour, SOIl.K~GDj'!>l.a]sare much mere distinctly ydk.l~'" than Lhtj!o'\l

:;110\\1 O1J.~d ·<lV'~lo;e the strung absurp: ion '~111(lIIr'\. II is dl11icull If:

Judge the order of the interference colours shown in the lower photograph. t.. kcn under crossed pelnrs, b.ul 1J:II:a Iargc c.rY::fLal ~~t the lor oftfue llekl ~h~lW;;-; lIiild-vr,r.;;(· ;1 ~1;~;i!1 t:('IIOI.IT which imllc;·flle~· h~·I'eri'.iIlg.eiloe L)f at least a o 'i 14:;;,)\... '"k now that the bi rc frl,n gencc 10;; faIrly high. ~ Tile groundmass of this rock ~'nn;,;i~l;;;1;)1" 11 !>Qtiil.lm-rl!Jb pl.i :,:;i1'J0bst; le hlspar. L Il}2J,

~'pecimen frrmJ cat ion :;;20,

mtcrosJ..',,!lJiU', Eass J;Pl!rJIJ/alJd,











Hire rri t~gel1(:.~·

flHfl rn I~e:r:J.:I. Included because It OCl:t1I'!; In some of tbe IS rocks from the Pilanaberg compkix and tJ1C Bcarpaw Mmll~lal[l.,<;_j11. ""to[rlana .. nd these Ina), be represented in a .rr1(tJlY tr.;·~chil1fg c(Jo~k~chon~. Larnprophy Ilite i~the paw- brown mirrer ;~I,w hieh shows ~i.igJiIlllt;tl.c:luoli:)Iri (~)I1TT1pilrp UjJpel ,lilt! mid.d'r::; ph~tta.. ·grapns). "\. te\~ euhedral crystals can he seen and. Oil. cleavage isibl€ in a number of crystals. (The greenishCO.lOLLICd r.nil1cr~'lIs are aegirlac-augirc amJ arfvcdsonitc: tbc (... olourless mineral is mainly alkali (feldspar), Lnder crossed poJarii (lower photograph) a few oh.he ]3:l11pJophyllite crystala show very ~Jigbll}' anomalous im.I(}UI"~ and om:' showing hour-gluss zoning has H. diLiin;;;'LI Y lIJl'O:lJiHlluu:.r"!owrlc~:l10 ur Ttl i~ ~;ry:'l:.11 l.'l cu I m.':';u]_}: perpendicular l.o lUI optic u.iis. tlTltll he :Hllltll~lkrHR colour is due to dispersionol lh~oI:l[.1lk ~P;~~" Twinrung Ci1H. ~ seenin (.m~ of lilt. crvstals, Th;J~ !11f:: blue huerferencs I.:(liL III I' IA II F-eC"(llld-()I'cte-r nl.il.f: can be readily seen at the I\lotl!£~olik.:lierrnlnarion of one of the crystals,




'\f onoclinic 'I ,747-1-75<1 (HB2-!.HHS

( 1)

Th~5 mineral Isln;;lutkd because lr I)OClm in SOIDe of the rocks from I,lie, Pil;.'Iri:;bcrg complex and the Bcarpaw MOUnlll.iJl~ in Mon~'Hri<land these may tJ.e' represented in 1J1,1rJ y tC<lt:hing_ co Ue~l iltrls, l.arnprophyllite ~stbepale-brown mineral which sho .... '~ ,~Ugh1 .t'iI¢~'l;l:tr~i;;'FI1,(compare li,l1:[.itlr ~mdlTIidd,le P flo1 0~mpb;,;)_ A 'reV.' euhcdral ery~caIG, ea 1.1 be :gCClli .and cleavage [l'.,v1;;;ibh~ tl number ofCry~lfl,ls., (The greenishif! (;oJo:llrcd ml nera 1$ ;,L re m!!glrinc-a I:lgt.te anti a rrvtd~oni tc: Iht: colourless min,erai itlm'1inly .a1'f;.aLi [feldspar), Under CI'(I'~,:;e.l poiers (lower ph.0togr,~p,h) u rcw of the larupropbvlllee crysurls show very ,,'II,gilli),' anornalcus. colours and one ,~ht)wirlg hour-glass ?-:QfllfIg II~]::; a (ij:~li1Lcllyanomalous hf~IWIi i.:{11(}~1.r, 'Ibi.~, cryst;JI i:<. ,c~11 !lei;!r ly pcrpcnd i cu lar to M optic axis ~111 J the- an oma lou ~ t.:Oi,I1IJr j:. due 100 dispcrsronofthe optic ~I~CS, Twinningcan bt~11 if] one oJ tile crvstals, Th,!'1 the blJ:.IG m1cr.fi;';I'CL1Ce colour ls !~:>o:;!c~lrH.I-'.l;rU~~rblue ean be rei'ldiiv SL::-t'!Jl :aL the wedge-like Itl'1nirwlioIl or one of the crysi ~d~_


~p('r'linr.'/J fro.m gr~~'n, /JJ:j'aiu. J'ifmt~bng.
~!iJgn~fi{'cHion'>< 44._






Symmcny RJ

_\1 onocl inic (


1,:582- 1·6J 0 0·,030--'0-049

Birefri n genet:

A '1(;.1:'), sligbt g1'€r;mi'Nh rlnt (Up~f p!]OfOtp·.,l.rdt) can he ~ .in In'il:. nrusoovlto i1g..'l.:iJl::;'~ the quartz with wh lch ~I intergrown: thi::; ce L1.1tl be due to the minera] being phcngitc ruther than muscovite but. 1(1'this case i.t ls due I slight stray ptll.:iIizahol'l in the photcmicroscopc, Mo~ll ll!~ ~~rY'~l;1L.;,,,1101..; ......the .~,;:rt:~,,::( basal cleavage. II, the 'II:1,\'er phol0g: .ipll, taken umler {:.fos.seLi polar similar interference colours are shown hy 1IIIOS.~ crysl~ due to a preferred orientation III the rock; one crystal ne. the urp right-hand GOmer of the photograph is cut ncur parallel 10 ~hl;; basal (,:MI;;~I.VHge ~mtl so !;1;.jvc~ I\gO(; nterference tlg:u-re. 1"1fll!Y of the ';I)'~wl,; "h~·)~· l ..... ir'inlr and l':l"ys.ti1I:>;which are tW,U' .tQo the e:)djl1C'~ir.m poslrie show the 111otrlcd appearanCG which is characteristic of ~ nncus, [2Q~.],

,Sj)ec.rmerr tF'~ml kr(1iJ1U ,\'c/Ji,I'1 Hhmmi~ IIJ .':;rwr,rrn'!jlt. Uns S11ellanri, Scotland; "wf!n~ficatim'r x 44_



"'·lnH0ciinic ~. It!


I '60j-11 :69:6

n~uhlt:. is ill'.'<H'ldbly 'brown. urgreen Incolour, The UPP~I and rnidd.ie pllow_gni.phs, t,lken in plai'l.e-puI3.riz~dlighl. ~h(H"" u lido almos: entirely m... "Cllpj~.d hy biotite-- with numerous dark brown (,), b.lack plcCK:hmic haloes. The perfect ctica \'(l,ge can be. 51;.'1:1:1 in IW:WY of the crystals, The ma;.;i'I'llUIl1 absorption colour 'is ShuWII when the p(;.llari.7.er I::; paralfe] to the cleavage, in the lower l~hologTaph, taken under crossed pelars, the C!')"$'L;:ds in tile ce ntse.of the ~i~dtlam fa.irl}'close to tlJ~ extinctiun position, and this h,<lsbeen done ,(I emphas i:t.e the mottled appearance w~ich is charactel'iiJ'~ic 01' all micas.and is. most clearly seen when dose to extinction. The gwen i:t; tl C rystal at the IiKlHoll1 lei"i-hand corner of the fkld. jl'.. tourmaline. [2111,'

'Sperimf;'fI .In/In 1,;io/lI'(.'-I,I."rmillj-;J{-l1eLu· .fhm lUJ.~s j\i 1If.1, Smli(.md, magrJij'-r::ation X 5], l~1

f1W~ (.\<61n(




M Qnm::11

[1il,_~ [ -


I -605 J ·(i9.6 O-Q4-..0' 03 These pIioJ.llographs· colours 011 photographs)
Sl:h1W I)j'!~wrl pncnocrystl:. of biotite in · :l,n111~-iY~Hi'i'l~J gWllnd:rmls:'., TIn; change ill. :;tbmf'j')li'!JJ] W(1IliTIl"b:;,

the pohri.'t'l! (upper and Jt:Iid,d~'l zoning of the abserption colours is dearly seen. T1d:- :;-,uuungis probably dl.it: to .... ,~r.i~L.iOI] in tl'nn. ~:Ui~ ritanium contents, In thl::lower photograph, l"tlk.nL under crossed pv'l~m, zoning nC!hl; birefringencecolours nIT! also be seen, n!1.! long erysta I to 111{: righ I 0.1' CCl1 t Fe S IlOw~ t;1 ues .':lIlt! ~"'G:1IDws ~\Jhi~harc second-ordercolours. Ill'; ot-hF minerals III therock arc feldspars and ~I ji;:w mierophenocrysts of PYI'(loXt:ilC {high relief). (21IJ.

S'pfJdmp.!t jr'()'rn tamprf)phJ.r~'.P~(ffifl htand.~_.m~~ll~hmfi(m X ..lZ

Rtl)-, Ht'ffnC,

.( -(u'l'I'm:ft/



Monoctinlc ( 1'~76-1'7'45
IJi rt:fringcllI::c


The browu l• .uh-:.htlpl;d crystals En these phnl~)~raph::; am (.)r 5~,ilpl;)omda.tlc and the pronounced pleochroism i,~ dli.'-lIrly ilh1strat€d~ hy the IJPpCr- ~nd middle pi:J!ytL"IQ;i'f) t')h~ with Lbepolarizer muued thmugh 90". It [nay he brown, Ill}lin this example, OJ'gree:tl uudso can be confused wuh hDOIiI~~ the de:.fvJige.l;l; !1~)!,l1~aIly if::: wdJ de v eloped as bill in bioti res, This sample showa a da rk er I:vroWII COIOUT thal\ ~i;, expected il! ,l ji't::;ih sample because it I~partly oxidized. The iutcrference CUklllT;-; ~Ioc gC,m:ral.iy nnn,s;l:ed b}1 lilt: hrown bscrption colour as ~L'1I1 in ihc lower pbl)[o.gnl.ph. enken under crossed polars, There ~,~ :sli~h'l signs of ,lUlotrncr de~v:-l,&<: at right-angle» to the leal~lh of the i.T):SLaI~ and whenthts is elear it is •• useful ohs-eI'ValiO!1 to Ji;;~~l1gtLish ~tilr IUllne:hU1C:'. hom biotite. The chemical for.mula giV~tl above i~ sinrpljfled fl.dld Doe!'>tlot show the wide variation ill composition which tl-Mfi mluerul nJUY have. pn].



CdJ~Iarma,USA, m(~~11f(icarfOll:x 1':,




PyrophV'1 rite




MOl IL.H.Ji 111(; i. j




-586 I;:>8~

Mi5Q The:
ell tl

I;JP.r'~1 pi·IL.H.Oi:!iPIJ;!t ~l·iI)WD u riel~l (If "ieo; ... ciiflH rel ~ occ IIJ'~eld h.y j)J' ,~()phY llite bu r 1: here a 1"611!.') tea tur vi f.<l hle ...... tlLch pcrmite.a·s·yd.inlnc1i"-l1l between PYfop,b)'Jl: and muscovite. Under crossed pol~rs. . lower photograph, thu :rmm.l· appcuruncc js also similar to [hal Qj" musco ...tu, 'H i section ·WhlS chosen bccuuse -it shows rt;:!i1li'.:i;.,L)' lar 0ry~lab ofpyroph¥llite3rIlJ un imerlerence IL~.Iir~ ~how rru..I;:n~1\:l \)plk 'lx.i;11 lUl~l,e tu ~(l1l.Ha.<;l the low val L\t seen in muscovlres, Lsually pyrophyllirn occurs iL1811 SimI11 crystal-, that it is ~mpo;l~i.blc[0 obtain un j (ef.l"~r.m;J:liguro ("rnm lhern, Ll~5j.





MIHh)(!linic ( - ) 1,589 i '594 {I-05




MO::ltof the ~iekl of vsew is occupied hy tHk: in a MgJ1iy d,.;ftirmt:'d l'fx,:k, I'l i3 mucb easier to jd.ellfify I,a"k:in hand 5l,'I6t.;imCIl than ill thin ;;;~ti~!'I because it feels slippery, wberexs ill tlun section j[ can tte confused wi'lh 11 white III ~ca.The change in relief of [liIlrt:nm~ parts L).f ILht: higl~I'i ~Qtlt{)fl;li:d bands L1 !'elk.iswell iJ I.usl ra It;J by the 11peper and r middle fih0~ogr~:lpJ1S, aken with the p.Qhui.lcr in onnot gunal po!>itlons, The lower photograph, taken under crossed polars shews ~'corld-(lord~r interference celoura over almcst the' ",'!'lole ,lid,j ['xcepE fin illlall areas of chlorite wh.i(;h is J1i:ergfo-wIlw]th the tale. The cI,Jm~l~ shows tl first-order ~l'"Cy whire COIOUl'. or [1l7].

=p.r.'{TmmIr(l'm .'''''(u)~~m .~4~.,unitJin. Mf:!mh,:'f:_'~' .fassfj: So.wh } Vest Turke}'. rtwt'!!finUil.m )( 2.7,


WOIl(ldi!!i,~{-I-) Of ( -}
1,;)7 1·67

~} fJO""o.{l.I

i be term cMnrite colter:;. a w lde r,ange oJmlu,era:l 20m po~ i~ti.on s hUl rril~[oii merubera of tb LS grm.Jp ~trC L:'lthct

colourless 01" gH;GU in colnar and \l,'h~n Ill, gr.e<in mineral j:l;, obse rvcd inu;rg1"o::JiwTI with a brown biotite 1U;:Ln the pb.otog.ftlpll adj~oI;;Cl.Il ,t'l I::;;likr;:lly 'to be s;:h!oril~', The upper rJl'O~'I',)gT~Ph, .lHktin inNan~·-p.olklt~~e(1 lil!!:h1..~hol)W3 <I biQttte f)neiluug dow 1'1 to ~1 ~'1 ~lo!'i!:e ~y th,x! fe~tdu,li 'b !,()W!1 lhkes of bl()~IFe'al'~'surrounded by pale,gn,:e.n chlonte: h i s 1,J~I,p,ll}' eochrni c. C b I nri [ell as: a ["f!rt£:ct basa l clea va,ge pi hut it b viiiibk: in: mrly.~ fc.wt!;l'yt;tal~, in thi:s. ",'l!l:W, L"ndu t:W38oi:dpohL£5 (lower r:HiNUgI<l!ptl} ~tle i"i!1 om " <!:lIJLn;ir.ll.crferellce CQI(j~!t::; which Me chaeactenstscoi' ;':ullLe (;1'IJ] on tt~ ;U'e cle~I.• y ~,I~e, /!dthV,,!!',~l al I cMr)r i lei; do ,'1 n nor 1).'1 ve aiH'IIflll lonsen leurs, (Il!eir hi rehi [l_gcn~e if. -al~~:lIy~ low. l2J.lJ

(_',atilJrI x

Sp.a /nlom .{(~iM micu-dion Ie. 58_

G/Cll L(:FI',

SC'otJ.cmd. !jf,a~rI~li-





Mo noclinic { +J or (



Only one photograph tupper) Lake]] in pbne-po!arized light [:il dlOwn here because there arc enough crystuls ill diIJc[i,)nt Oil'l~~lt<lUfJm to. ""how the pleochroistn from ptlilc yello,,,.i5h to green, The perfect eleavage call be de\lriy seen in many tlf [he' cry:,;hl~s and ()Ult'i-!> arc (Jut n~.rry parallel 10 the b... ·dea ... isal ,age and. of course, show n() cleavage. In the lowl;["phot·Og.I"lpf~, I,~cn under e rlilS~t::dpolars, the low gl't¥ an(l anomalous ~mJ'wncolours are characterlSliuof some chlori res. There are a15Q s-igil s of t,\, iI-I wng in some crystals. The mineral wiu~ wb.kh the. cj,IQrll<:- is int'~r~g-roWtl i~ .~tI:I.IIJJ.liil:i,.,(l K_·.L'lch feldAp'<ir formed In 1(~"'~lcfilporli.:~!1l'e ""\Jill:', rnlj,


.\'[Jel'!nw~·1 .fJ't)i"'llldJifr~rla-qw.1I'!': l'ein, ."~/·, altal'd, ,'{1.1·-iZ('tG i m(l.rniJ'ic..(Hir~i'l x 7:, .






Mon~)diIlio:..: t -)1 1- 54-1·56c)'


n· OU4-I}O


ohrysotile, Ill", uppeJ' photograph ili0Y;'S serpentine which~;<:.pi yellowish in coJOUI' to~:elher will, an l1PN(]UC iron oxic tki~ f.i.~gr~l;;:~L.e undoubtedly the l'esulL ~f breakdown is an Qlivine (if pYr.(Hetlc'. although relict crystal :'Ihflpe,,;j not eloa rly defined as .i1"1~I)'rr.it: I,;:;tamplcs. Tilt: lower photograph, taken un der crossed pola shows lhc tow first-order colours ttl:ilrn~'l~ril>~il; of t ~IVf'nUn~ minerals and it also show:'> Il mesh lextu wh lch i 8 a cormnon ft<tL ure of this mi neral and is j:tlU oia_gl,f}stic_ l242j,

This 1:peclmei1 is probably

The name serpentine COVEhl three polynrorphs ""'11 cannoi easily fbI;; distinguished o pti.l..:aUy, and nia speclmens contain more than one,p[)iYlliorphi(.l for:

a mixture

of ll:r<1rdilJi; ,II:





C-or-;J wfJN. EJi.~-Ial'J


X 2fi.





Orth orhombjc i( +- " 1-6J5 I·M2 0·012-0·035



'1:o8t of'the field i-s occupied by prchnlte i1llh<mgh .01 re·w eryst,als of calcite C<iD be seen in the.top part or the upper photograph, take fl in plane .prl!<1ru~J light. The pale pink and !):11e(;\lH,:o!0l.iJ5are ~Iray:rol.ar:ill',~~ioill oloureproduced c in tile photographic equipment, On!:.! (lJ the characterisuc features .01' this rninera] is ip. tendency 1,0 form .m.diuling gr.Oll.P!'. .of crystals and ~his 'is best seen in the iow·er p'hotograph, l<L..kt'lJ. under c:mS!;Cti pelars. Prehnitc -ci1a.r<lctvrb[ieaJJlI shows very J'lrig_hl secondand third-order colours ..and! since Ihc mineral ill thin secti nil 1:;almos; ..dt ho 1,I!1 colcu I" these inle!f"fc:p~nce colours are usually '.'~I"Y pure. [2:77J.


I, ~.




Specimen iT'lIm rutioe x 16,

m.f1rbJe. unknown




M icrocliine


Triclinic (



Thetwo photographs SJlOW ;~ perthiuc microcllne G[y~tl~l ClI! ~ljJ'Pmximatel, p'lI'U lle I 10 (001) with the trace o[{OlO} parallel 10 lhc long dimension Qf'[iJJl':: photograph. The upper pho rograph was.. raken in plano-pole riml. light\!,o"l_h Itt!;! substage d.la.p'hrag~)j closed to accentuate the relief if'I tli 1 mill parts of tile ~eL.:tion.ParalIcJ if) the Ie short edge ~"Ifthe rruJlo.gr::apb ",,:1'1;:. ~maL1!,:l;inlt)l~ditF;,:tiTI.!\\ ill relief fm.1TI the bost - these are .mic,rope,rtbiliC' albite lamellae. At an an·gl e n r~Ibou I 2Y' to tl~e sam e edee 1)[ the pbrl:LL'lgl'1jpb there ..n::" three 01' f(l~jr thick ",'elm o.fpertllitj,; ; albite wlli.en ~il-::i'l..) diner in relief rrfltll 10-- surrounding material. The IOI.\'CI !lliotA)graE-lb, taken under c-tos:;;e(1 pelars, sll'(~w~the cross-hatcbed i,wilH'Iinl;! (ulbits and.per.cline !a">'H) whj~h is "(2I:\~ eharacteristic Dr microclinc, 1he.: perthitlc albrte vci~, Lit 25° to the: s.hllr[ edge of the photograph are rather dark herr? bur show !\\.ojlIj]illg ;c('1ii·din,g.to [he '.It)~ld;1''''' - the composltlon plaue (010) m:s parallel t() chat of ilht albite twinned IameHflf' in, the rnicrocline. The twin lamellae- ic1 lilt: rnicrocline are most !':h.;Irpt~ defin W dQ~ 'to the' albite ve ins ;':l,rHJ tJJey are of variable wi;o[[Jt. -j his mineral should 'r:Jot be contused with anorthoclase (q. v.), ll~51,

:-'''rh'<.:il''i:(f[.(j ..fFi~II·1 pt'![fllat ii«, DI(lJ~Qnr):U ine, l'up..!tfial'l'l, Ma"m~, USA, magr~~'l7~'ali,rJi! 4:1, x


Porthite I. Mic.rnparthi1:e·

M,icro'perth i,te
(1<. Na)A,JSi,30s

Pert,hi'te &.

Perthite is jhe nume gi.\'~fI W an :io[et,growth of ;.1 p()Jt~~l';i1lm-:ridJ. a iiodium-I'icll feldspar when the host and material I~ the potassunn-rich fek:l.r;r>ar. W'llen the host material i;;'1;1 rl~gi0dase the name annpert hite is used and when the aodrum-rich and f,ml<fssilHxHici1 phases are in eqUf~Jurnonnrs riLl.? term rnesopert hitc js userl. Pt:r~hite ii" u:red, when the m'!O;lj'gl'Owth can be seen in harn] specimen mtd microperthrte' when jr i~ \'i~i'blt only under tbe microscope. These '1 brea,;photographs wert' taken under crossed ,[,ohr:::. The upper r~h~~C1gr;;ll)ll'shows mos):_'OrnLt: ~idd occupied hJ';:I mineral wi!l'I.tl very cia dt grt:y interfer~[")cl.:' colour ::lJld .srnall.whitc blebs of'micropertlntic.albitc fairly unilutrnly i1isr::ri bured thrcngho ul., Two elea vages 'H'C·.'] sible almost ill right-angles Ld"OUe- another 511 thai. illis sectioo IS 1;\11 JJ(.'i,\!T"l.r'Pc!;p~jj.Lli!/ular to H1e x axis. Nu twinning j"~ 'visJh!.a:: ~IJ it is likely TIl have monoclinic :,:ymmNI'y mit! the name IX! hi_K;I<tsc-micr, 'E..erlhi"l-tl is ttpprll priutc. .\ 11":: rly \;C11 tred •. acme bisectrix :111I.~d'~'-rcnoCc figure i~,obtained rrum this secnon ..vith an 0rtl.il, axial angle ilf." "omit 45 a valuo;=; appro p d'lt~ for orthocla se-rnicroperth tte. The middle photogruplt is !l coarse perlbik Q'UI nearly parallel to vOl OJ The while Hn:;'lb arc sodmm-Jeldspru' ,tile! Ih~ dark areas are u[;potas:-;.iiJ ru-leklspa 1'_Wilhili the dark are.aS are fine IIg.hl"";o]Qmed l:m~dl.~II':of microperthitic albite which li~ on H!! angle of approximately 7S' to the trace ,'Il' the ((I()! ) cleavagewhich i:-, paraljcltn the long t:Jgc of the photograph, Allbough no I_\"i:o.nillj!: can h~ ~~rdl1 ci the i' I he SOd.l!J m-rrcl I or, po tassrurn-rich phases, .r Mhill' lwilllilirf We're present II" would not I~~ seen in 8, section ClI( r1eall~ parallel [('I (1.)10). 11:1 ddirlou pericliue u tWI,lliIIJL!:i wi!1 not h~'w~nin a Saer:lU)TJ!cQlll"xacdY':-H right angtes m lhe twin axis, 1m: J' cf)'f'1allut":raph.i:c aXI:;'. and will rJ~lfr(':llll to detect in ,l secuon I,;}u:;.c to this orientation. lrorn this i;.t:!clilln alone it ill l1(ji po!i-.<;ihl,e hi ~ilY whether the petasslam-rlch phase I:'; orthoclase or
1 ),


microel inc..
Tlltt lower
:CJd~ft;iiT ~n the S:Ll1)(':

JUt 11.Cf~11rl'I)'I11~l'rop.l:rtlll'[lrbeut 75'"'rh 1h~
/Tfflf:r vpt:ril'flfH 'Ira;.:c

p'n~")lo~Tr'iph al~41 c,j" a rnicroperthitic is ori e n l;i tion <if: 'II re til i ddle pho-tognl rh,



alblte IS 'ii1)''!,blL;, oriented Il'k.ava!J.i::- [1.8.\].


'ioaJ'uTI'_ Mr~rJ<if1.mci:11·, mugnftlcdtir.'n x ;:! Miildlr' ,o,;P{(('f11I."'J1I.o:m 1,Ulkt}o'n'1l l,kIlJi!),: fnjlJl,nl!inHlnr(x ~7. l.tjfl"~'I' ,!N'("lm('1"I.!'t'r~i~J pq~nw!ih', Kmlal'ma, Ellw,. Jmtia. rJ!df:!w'fi'dtitm x: .7.5_


.!l~'//"m.!t gramJNf.~'.

1+-•.'\" (1/ .1m-


(K, Na)AiSi10tj


.\1.:ri"loclil1ic 1 '522.- 1-52:8fHJO(!-(V007


Then arne ~:111 kl:irlG is used for monoclinlc al ~n~i rcldB]}arS whicb occur Jn ... lcanic ru~kg~ they are usually faJjr.ly o PQta8si~m1~.ricn.Tilt: 'upper pno:LogT1tph taken ill planepo!uized light slJow'S 31 few phenocrysts of sanidinc in a groundmass also 'omp0!;t:J majnl}' [J samdlrltl. The [tlgu!ar arll'AngcInen~ of il1clusil_l11S al bo.'[li ends of Uti.:: lai'.J:;t;:s crystal uti tlines rhe shape n f ihe gl'owi rig crj-stal, l S i mple twi 11 t~ia1g. as seea j [M tbe lower photograph taken under cressed p~lali1, is v ery Cc(J:rn,mol1 1,11 monocli n lc ~!lkl~Jj feldspars and this serves 1'() distinguish them trom Plagioclase'> since the latter Y.':iuallY :<:hu'i\.' lamellar twinning as 'W~U as Slt\lp£t; lwilln'lng. The n,·in l~l,Win tfli:. case; is the Cartsbad law which. is the most 'Irt:-tluCtltly observed twin 1."1"'"n monoclinic feldspars. i [2:-;5].


Spe-~:i/j!F.'~ from p Iron I.'ili It:, $lm ilnge!o. x 24_

tschi«, !tal.>,;,




Il'idil!ilC ( -)
].528, J-53:2

IH107-.0·00e is used I'm' !"I'j,g:linil; ;,?tliuJIi-.rich i leldspar which occur In volcaruc rocks, 11 Lt:' upper photographtaken in plane-pula f'.i~ed IngtH";·diUW~ a gr0L1P .~( erysiuls or anorthoclase in afine-gralned gU~IlJ.nl:lr'n<l$;:; III.'::JI.II,'II leklspur und quartz. There' are sliglll l';ii:\i'l:' of €lea v ages because 1he I;.,gr;::s crystulis c lit uhn ostat rijglltr l :mglt:s. to both (IO'!) and t'll 0) elea ~'~tp;~, The lower photograph, taken under CnjSst:lj pelars,
The name-anorthoclase
~I lkal

, iii


shows alhile ~lrH.I perieline

~\v in lamellae




Of '[:lrl,rn-

pauern which

first ~igllt resembles

the texture seen In microcline, J n ~lw_iI"EhQ'l.:]at!r.:however the knnelluc arc seen in ~CW:lt'l';'{!'JI tH~'.ldy perperrdtcular L0 I hi;" x G;y::;:M.lo~rapll.k a,;~ as. It1 ~h~s L~:r~ and, iII this i' I'i~~l~ Iiun, u i]~r,rdy centred acute bisectnx n i ntertereace


<':,11"1 I)i~ obtained.


"p~'(:/:m("~}fOIn !..'arilitl x.3"7_


f'amdl ... us, rialy.: rnagmJi" r



Trichnie (+
J '532:-l'SS5



Hi re fringt:n ee
1i1l".';1!l p·ll'~togrl:l phs

O-(Hr;;' IN)l3

lifo! nf a [hi ~1 :,;r.::d.i-L~ or a Iubrado nr.oi: n cut ~-Jlrnil$l exactly 'II rlghi-unglcs ~o· the x t.:0' s.ta!lf'l~r:iph h: ii, ls, and 3"11 Ir{!l~exposures \;,.·ei'e !F(ddl' IJ under t:1'O::ISCUpo lars, In Lb~ llprer ph()togmpjl the ((J 10) clea ..agubtL·:> been so; parallel ro the· long edge of :Ih~ p.I~()to_l!.raptJ which is perpendicular 10 Ihe y1l;JI:ab(JJ! direction 011' the polar] ... 'lhe (("IOn ,c:'IC'-I."tl.g(: i:; n~'~ ,et', pai·" 11,,1 1'1') In;: shorl (~(Lf!C' of the pIWI,I.t!.... pb I1tll·~l1oW) 1 Rlight chnngcsin ~lirC!;:,iO-Il ~L the bt)l;UlldUI'!e~of lilt: albite twin hHIIt:JI1~e Sl~~fI III the [WIJ [o:,Iwer r1hotQ!!raf1h~ .. , h~ middle ,Iud 1,~'I,\·el'phologrO:lt'i·111'i :o;I10W Lbc ~.IJ[J~·fi,·:.mre ·~f the ''iL:.~1 aftcr routtion I,) i be extinction P(l~"(10m;of'thc il~i"I LI.\'u sets of twin lamellae. Tbc ungle of r,)hILI(f[J tn eurh C,'I<:i~t~ :y,-<l; from H !:;r;!pi) nfcmnposililiii iE! the rbtgiodtl~1: leldspur s.cTr~'"'l ;~g;.ilIIM extinction Iltgl;c it) a ;,ll'dj~)!"I 1!111 pcrp(;i1.JiI;:LDI~I" hi the _\'axis, lhe C{f!'l] positon o['lhii:i cry,l;]I is about A.hj~;ll.fI".. J31~J.





Triclinic r

+) 01' (


~HJ~ITuo IJ. These ph o 109.l' 01 p h.s shew :1 number of phenoc rysts ,HI d mierophcnocrysts .91' r~·,~jL..r<l,:hl::;~·· in the fjn~-_~r03jHed
tI.n:cle::rik (~ few phcnocrvsts

~wLl:rLtlma:ssc of an


orthopyroxene are also vI:;'il/le) 1n plune-polarired llfbt ~tlPPkli photograph] 7.nliin~ ea n h~ $1;;~i1 by lhl,; ..:.uraqgc· menl ufinclusions ln the tTQtlP 01' f'eltl!-:J1<1f ~1·Yi>tr.lb in lh&.: ,Ct,!lIln; of lh~: liel •. . Within I I'bis ;lg._Q,J'egaLl: 111(;brown
rnateclal rs q'yph),"r}'~lallllnc J~mLllldmas:'i iIKru'll~lf1ii,lcd in l!h;;: grn ..,ri II g ~I yl1l.<l h,. Linder crossed polar;;::' (Iowel' photograph) lamellar ,\,...nniugis visible In most oJ the C'I,y_HnJ:.: i i;J1'I(] oscillatory

7,()nircltl i:-; ubvious iI'I the crystals which are near llJ their extinctlon p"l>i~i~Ir')';. The krw gl:C), interference coJ'riur~ .are ~'Iightly :Ulrlr.n;1IlHl'9 ~lklC lO dispersion ..a feature which
u;' not


r:\ I 81.


j~.! s)lugiQda::;(:"!i, from

.... olcanic

jjl('dmefJ frmlJ I} l'rti_'H_'ti~ !Huip,w(!, H ,11 nt B~rdtlP'(:'.I'l.Hungarv, nllp.f1i!h't~1i1111 x .?fL




gymm~rry RIw £"

Trigonal ( ~ , 1-544 1..55) O··OO~


Quartz is ~hil! most common 01'all minerals and I:;;fl:lJrty ~-<is:ily di1>l.inglli!'<hed! rn;;1ut Ieldsparin 'hi'~ section bec'ill!;i~ it i1! g,enc'.f.dy unaltered "lila bel:; visible 'lwinn~I]E Dr cleavage, (It may contain. fluId. bflcllJs~un:) and ;1" these aee verysmal] 1Hld numerous they may glve 1111t qili:utz .it.

The upper photograph, taken inplane-polarized If,gllt, shuwij, cle"1f quartz phenocrysts In i:I veksrnic rock ,:lm~ lhe~e. have I.:lllbaYIl1t".r.I.L!i agai nst ~he S;FI)undl:rl<1s:;; of 'tillii rock: l!:iis j:;: n,L}t All uncommon feature and HIU1!)ugl\. sumetimcs Interpreted as due to resorption nf thecrystajs it m,lil·Ybe '0 1JIf; to lh6 rapid]): !wwil1,g cry5tal cnclos.inl]!, [h~ grcundtnass material, - In rhe lower 'p hotograph, ra ken under -noo:soo pelars, :<:(lme -I,;fyst<lb show the w~ite interference colours e haracte ri sric uf crystals cut nearly l,,..ra lid to the optie axis, Signs, L)f a yeilvINish interference c(ilm~r ~ indication rhat the thin 'soction is :;lis;IiUy too thick, l]'4(}J-


$J_f,f(:rmfll /h.1I'11 auart: /Wr'llfi_Ft_.r. .....'fll/~id; ( maguf!i arion '[(11'_

/JJemJuM. Isle I~l A rrC;!'1




TI'i~mi;11 (-~






1·55.' n·r)09

sillimanne, ['11 the lower l'lhm, )~e'i.rh, rf!ken Im{k~r crossed polurs,

Tbcse pllO.log! ;Jph~ ~110wql_J~l-rlL tIL II tnetamerphic mr:k. [11 Lite upper ph!H()g!·~lJlI.7 taken ITI [,litl [l~~-pol.arll('dlfght. DJl!::i~ \)f the field 01" vlew uppears Ie) 11'~occupied by d':irr quunz crys [~l!;':'IN irh a few S!1'laU ind usion ~. I'll ~ rn i r]~T~1 h ;]1 !h~'orllL~'r~ of the photograph arc biorhe ·8.n.d. individuul crystals ofquartz can bt":seen hUI, ·, ·ii bin these, the extinctlon i~not unlform and thls.shado )· .;:qilld·iun i~f;'lirl~" WlTliJJl<..\IL deformed rocks, Clll;;~.I· 11lf;1't::..:"H)!~ 01" 10 Llii~ viev,.' ·rt;~··,w~ ,Ih.,.!. ~tl the top right LOII1.:)r and the .. bottom left co "1 ~e, ,n r the J i t'!1 ~I[" view ~ there ure ["(.';gi.I?)]j:; d • 'hich d iffcr in []] al' tile .:r~':';hi. h. h<ll t: ~Ii r.k burJ~·(~. 1HLJ .... v I I hirl \~iILlcJit, pend I.~~ lcngi L1tl~th e crystal: ,.It! I'l~lt~rt hHfiJ h.(liIMlll cOrnt;"r tbere ure !ii:t;!n.~ nf twin lamellae in one \)f the CI'Y:;;lflls. These tin; cerdicrtte crystals and they have been included itl 1I'll,; ji~l,J of view to show thai the rchcf and hirdrillgenGe 01 c"ftlir,>,r'ilt: may depending 011 its



the ~ oro ic ri t~.1'! ra iL1s,

I,K~'\'e!r1 sunilar 10 Ih;J1 ol"·II".11"(L but can be by <iig_IB l:tf ~tll"'n.lill)I'~ pinitc <tl lhecdgcs ro



~~f!L:dmt'lI f.r.OJ"I.' rorshcrn« ~i~;riHl~H"W M.I~(Jl.H. J Ilr hl4J1y, iU";('W.7.~l·"lr, m~lgIUIN:t:J/lmi r 4J


no 11r(Jf'


iJ)LCT~roWtJl of pb£,lOci;I~L~ an ! tll!;lrl·{: 11!'l; IlW··\.,..hi"h L:.d~~frl.y seen 111the kn .... ~I· phOl('''f!_nLpll, 1.;1 ken urulur I..:YV:'':K:dpolurs. This ~hf),Lll,1 Iif: !,;onl~K1l1OJ with ~ralwp:hyl'':;''- 1e-:.;1ILTI;: .~.'.)' I'D the upper eq ],'1IIJ ..logruph, r taken under p~;H1t:-.p(JhlTl;r.~'ll light, till: i!rl~j'gn)w~~ is almost invisible heC;;]I-i~ I ~h'[1IH~j.r.I~'bb'': :.U1:d the iEI[f!rg_r'lllc';o:JJ ql~<Ql'!L tw.... ulmost 'c the saruc ~'I whereas the. FoNHOI.lnder1.1I'[b" fidd, cxecpt fQl[ au apaute I.:ry~ldl I!l ti1~ centre, I~ 11cnl~rj~11 by ulkuli fcklspur wnh Iowur RI. The alkall reldspar Il"·~ 1! rnicroperlhitic texture wuh oriented inclusions lihlgll'd<l';~
r11i:- C<),il:-i;;;j:' :'t





Uhi r


S~'.l'Cfll".'1I ,f.i"ow


::5 ~'I/l


lJ~r1!I.JhiFl, !Ha(i'offtJ;;"Cm', magllf;tic<lrftllJ

",. 5':.



G r.anophyric


Granophyric tex,ture

These photographs. sbow all mtergH'iw111 of qllilrL;f unrl ,,!kill, f'ddsr;~.r, Even iJ1 planc-polartzcd iigll[ fu.p~j' piwlng,I..lph! 111l:! irnergrewth L:::: visible because of ,'11(6
difference ill r~fl'illg-e!!c:e ol"Ulr.: !"it;; minerals ~L1dthe fact

thai the alk,ali fcldspnr is hmwfl. due 10 alteration. wh:.;n':;;1~ [be an-as p,t' quartz arc clear, lJ 11de,r -=1-'f~~~LI pol,1 r:.. (lo\",!;:r rhl,ll u,gr.aph)wha'l appear. t \I be tb ... outlmes 'uf lndi\'-'i~il"tl~·r"i:'lab' v,isible. Wbllt i:~{not knnwl1 i;;, ure W!Y@.[ rn ,del'l;) I I fi(;$;~ sh a lXl~ rcprcscn t since each -c-r:',<·:st.;.li' 'L'(1II.:;.i~~~ ,I hO!I~ O::lIu~!l mounts l~f a ...f quartz and feldspar i ulthough lr I" p1'rfhilh11; rhnl 11'1.: rystal (HII]im,~ is that of c [,dd~pal;_


S~Od)jll:d, l.l11;1I n r/irrlJiOlJ





R!'{I fldb_

.... W' -~,

x 32




~ )1'I1HW!\')rnbi 1,,:(";"(,1,






Bi rc fri ng~l1('e



'The upper photograph. taken In plaee-polanzed hghi. !~ l~f;'1l!i]{!.-gl·;lill:":.J f0'::1:.in which thvreisan dtiJlg'Hcd.Cil~'I1)' 01' ~'Ci.J1w.llldl is H'll~il!ly.rill';d \;,,'i"lh I rid:.-'milt-_To the righr 0:1'[h~"pl1o t 11 .mph 1.11 e 'I. r i{j), rnire shu ...... up ttl L,J:icJ ~I~~Iinst p 's the ruountiua medium \"'hen:~ i.ller~ <m~:':[!I,I]I h~)k:> iTI the ~[jdc: .,


rhVlo~~l'aph, lJ.k~.il under r.:ro:lis~~J. polars,
hi:j'en-ill,g~m;t;:: the

IbaL the '11'1';!~'llIile il;l!=. 'I'E~'ry luw

\,iC(}gc-;,:h~lp~dmllUl.C'd.crystals are charaeterrsuc 01" tlns mineral, AHh 'llgh (be name Iridymircimplics thrcc-Iold ~rouf~~ ni" twius, I W~'-I wiJ]lll.;d individuals liT!.: prcbably more cummon. I H~~J


dacite, lhl/"/JiJi..'


.Ill (JUf"I,maxn~l!

ceH/OIl »: 7J. 74



Te-lr:aglJn.11 (- )





Ili retri ngcn cc 1)h'm,~g;rhl~h, 1.tl.k~iI i~l lllnt:~p~d;'l'n7.h~18:l1l. p 1 WI t11 p~roxene {brr,wl~}. Jil'1f!,~n. C:1~1~(, feldspur (,eol,(mrlc~;:ll and opaque crystals \'!ihicb iJ..FE: probably mainlyilmenite. The eristobaliteshewa moderate relielaguinsl the pltLg.iochl~ feldspars because of'thc k,,,.qntie); ll!' the crissobalitc. II is cburucrerlzcd by what i:o; I.. rll\,\·jj ;,!,:. 'rile; !>1'n,1"llttl;l, i.~ resernhl.mce 10 curv ..,;.:j 1*:; o un Ll rcor, Lnder crossed !'hfhtri; {I(iv.'e<rp~lnl(f!:!r;lJ:'h), Ihl,: cristohalitc shows ... ·cry low frey colours wlHdi ;JI'f! chu nil.;I,; rJ~ lie The d'iiITi:;n;m orien la I ions shewn bv the ditl~reneo=:-. 111 hil'el'ri'i!!lnce .rre p;~nly d 1I~ to ',h~ ~ik structure hut mulriple twinning i~nl:\i(}pt'esenl.. 134Hj..
c risr 0 bal itc is r ntcrprowu

In the

J;'.',;!tei'r.'W!!fI .li·m1!






~iIl'ltl"Ii!, ma)mitlf.'o{f,m

x. 164.



l Iexagonul ( 1'52(1 1·542
1'529 ] ·546




Tli'i' L:oh}~lrk':>!'.lniMf;·II,~ in the .upper photogruph, rakcn.in pl.!rle-r'o~.::n'i·i1:.r.:tlligh[, are rnalnly 11C1JlmHne ~1j1rJ '~il1>;;:' nuite. A slight difference In relre-i' 1,;.10 just be detected n'llL It i~ (l~C~\"<lry to look at ! he lower photograph (t::lk~i:1 under erossed polars) to see tle<LI'I'l' Ihril lhc lU\:;i1S with hrigh; interference colours ,,-~on~$~r cancrinite q,.... o _) whitt: lhl" very dark :1l'l'!,H ,11'1;; of nepheline: ~L' 'L"-l~~!~';:qgc~ ht'e' vi:-,i.hlt:;"o ~ha tthcre ls un lik dy l (if !:>G ~U1 al kah felds}ltll' Y in tlli, ~jeid of \'i",~.... C~li1('I'jl\iLe r:<ivery afton as:;;o('I'~le..l , with nepbelinc purticularly jn pJutl.ll~~ H.i'!..i.:s ',u,l1d thj~ ~\,'L:;j a clue 1:0 the presence of nepheline. The gF.~I;Jl mineral iii i he:,.\; photographs ~s;'le.gidll~';.1 ilg i L{~ ;Hl\l lilt" OU;:;:U I' re nee l~ r an ~llka1L pyroxene 111 i~": d ucs thai the rock is rich in ~dl'i1Ii,; hul is not ncc:e~~.!lil~ ncphcline-beanng. l3~bl-

~)'tlFlJJlh-/rml!. Iw!-,h~r;n\' ,\'.n'~I.I"I!, Kha/)'l:::e.l'o.
IlJ'U;{II~.fi(,rH·ifm x


Kula, US.SR:



Ileo;;,jglln;-11( ,RI E

I '51{, 1,542 I '5':'::'1,J l,j46

ph!2I]00r3'~~& in the g 1'0 un drna ~~c~nt~"ln.j I}g a I~O small !£T..r,.;:n cr'~'SCfll,of aegirinc-augirc uud u rc~, crysruls of ::,plJ~n~", It v i~common ro find nephclisn; phC110c11'Y!loL!'> tu:;dhcr with ,al.k.a:lj l'ekhpar phenocrysts in the i>~ITIW ruck urul it is somcurne« ditllcuh kl (Ji;:;lirl~ui'llllll '1[1(.;.;t: pi; IILIl!,i'flj)ll:-' P!1 [1,7;>1.), All l'lll'I'~Jrh:;;;:o; filll~nl'(:l'y~I;1; IiI [l.li$ field L1f vic~\, .n'e [11' neplieline ;;J Itbnuflll there are ~~OI11(! smnll sunidlucs in the grouudmass. The crystul ut the top I,d'! ofl he licld 01' view with the indu~i(_lUl of ~~~&ji';nc-;I!l1:.·il~· "h'I\\!~ ;1 l11;."i;~gOoI'l ul 0 u tliru .. 17[1 1 i~; r1(';01Tl r'l'll': 1'<:. : I'bese, pbL'rL'lgli'aph~ ~lh)W nephellne
I'; I


i ned

I'll the '''lwei' phnh)gl'})ph. tnken under crossed polar ... , I'll eire:.. :1th~f1;d ."h':1 ped rrysju I i~ fai r I~' dark .1 [1d i~t-li~ !tell!' I ~ pe r pendicular to the r.;.pr.,ic: .L~ ~ fl' w small E;-O; sanidinc ,cr}'~lolIl~'-',i,mbe f<';":O,g]li;,:~tl ill the groundrnass b}'


o r s]rnple

I wmui


L ~ 56 j,

-"Ypl"r)nlf'/i ,11'("1111 J!Jrorw'ii~c, ojevted I '11!_~1t(a, Iwgnlj'lf{1 r roN ;.: J 2, t

h(,,~'r,. Olcloi;1j"1J Le~rgm,

Sani,din,e& Nepheli:ne

The 1iI1'I=K;r photograph, mke.i~ III rl{J~'I"':-[iul~ll·i<~J ll~lU. shnw:<. pilt:l:l'11CTY~lS of nepheline and ~:.\llldin~lt~ N gn)llnd.l1)~l~~ J:0I1:'I[W:<:t\{Ii"rMrn]y the same two minerals with ~C.l.1:1l';:: ·py.r()~e~H~ "I.lleJ,i r~\'"tTlinU:L~';JT}'~L~h ofncsoan. Il~!;H II S<:; [h r;i n,,:licf und h i.l'.crl'l I:lg€:I1De· l ;'1;: V~i"Y sirn il;u' iI. .i~ r dinlcLJI~ to ~1i~llILgll.hh nrphcline from ·:;';1nidme.Cr:r::~f!l.lj which ;;.til1W <I good \,!lc~.Lv~g:eor ·~jt1tpl~~\yiI1l:'lii1g ,)tI; ;i.l.m{"l~tcertai nJ}' "'~In i d iri~·· basal 3.c·:.;tiolUii 'Q f [lltp.ilf: li ill: fll~ ht\xa).tD11aI imd rii'i~r!H.I~k sections ·arc .Lls·uailv near!v .;,:.q aic so thact he [\',\) n:;; o-IN dUllgtL led l'Tyst~l, i n tl~~ ~i n (li:nLn:JJ[ ahe field <I.I.e=>;IH!din~~, whcreus tllC·{tfO);IP of L::.tY.S·lf.ll:;:·u'" right of tile 11i'!:ld.~i·H the IW·!flg [,l1If!ly huxagonul ~ll APL:Mil nepheline. l) nder Cr~)8~~~~ I r!~,'luf'.'.l!Qwcr p hot 0 g:r,arf~}:11 of!\!, .(!.I'_Y:<i[";JI s :;;how ~iJllP le 1.~,i [·L;: llit::~,.; "tit snn id inc!"; tl,.,·rJ1.n~d rll the IrlV~JlU la\ ...·_ lnj he ~1'~Up ,Y!' ;,:;,y~l,fIH W,l lb.:.: rig[1l (:)1- thedl~ld. one !]ll' ;.;r}:;:~al~ :o;r.owinJg 11.~~ag{)nfll ~I~;·mi,:: s i ;1 lruost bl,v/k a~1Gl ~\.'o nephellne cut i~Jm0~le"11.~lhl 1')"'3rpe.Il.,.l:iL~J.br Iii 1hl,; ()]~ii,; '-'1X i::! , ~h,_: other i;s, l:.LIt~I.~Ij[I~' obl.i'-t uc to the () pl·i~';I:;: i S II rld ~I~'l' \'~TY low blTdri.ngocrtOi; W);




ne.11 the Ir1:~q{iH:::,


.s/wdm(Jn fi:~JI,N IW,~v.rll1 p/.IUI'JVti{~V, FnghlW); mar,IJ1/icmi(}11 X 21,

JI~'o~f UtiCA,





.1. etl';~;gl~fi,11(Pseudocuhlcl RI 1-508 1,511


The u-pper pnottJ'gr;"'l'i!. taken in plane-polanzedHght, s!'lltW~ celcurless phonQC:I'y"~1 ol' It:llcite. together wit~l ~ ml.C:Hlj:lh.enoci'y~15of a<!girrne·a.U.I!.i l·l!JIecIii§b~bn'{)wn} and IlO:;,eUfI (1.um;d brown crystals) 11, a Ilnc-gruined gn,)lmd:ma~;; mamly ~,~f" lagioclase hut ~.Mlflif!·ir!g ::::maU p lr;uiJjt~' und I1IOf:ei:!11 cryslals, Lcueite ~(m\etiin.t'::s has .radially or concentrically arranged jli]c.lmi(1n~ 01" 1:l1~1:'~' but thi~is nul ,~ppaJfmt here, lJlller <CHJ,.S1SI.:-U polars (In.""I:[ phol,ograpll) the il,p~. pcarance 01" multiple lwiLmiiig in It~nn: than one onemanon i~verv -ch';'lr;'l..:L(·l[itltic of leucue: ....r ..,. small lcucite e ~HStll15 in the gl\)luIJm,t1J:J appear i,SOli'()I!ic. i ,c;;Lll:ik is s.(1111~lim!.';" replaced by .JIl II~leri!::lOwtl1 of ulkall j'el.d~piH· and llef1hel'ir~ewhile retaining [hi:! S;hHP~ of the Ieucire cr~'5lans and 1'111:'; lermed pscudoleuerte. Il:i L:l67],


_ti"om Je''ld/aph.~'j'e '1"~''f.fJijir-mll)ll l<, ZO.

R.1(,d~~I'I, ,E1]d,





J ·495 These Jlhm\~g~·;.!,pl!::uu"CIrorn ~Ji.(fi.:TCn[rocks and both ,l~re lakcn Lil pbnc-pnl,.!r.l7.f:d 'li;!.lhL onl.'!". The upper p~ot~gr;ll'~1 :o;h\~w:l. !W(c) W::i::":":R[Jpbel.Ci!ocIJ~~~ W Illl d a dL ~'lhILm;t black, ri nl:'l d ~H! tui rOil ():>;.iUt; il1l>lll:::iu.n;s:·· l·h!·mlgh ... 'H rhe cores ~ tho c.ry:;"tJ\.ls 1'11E-l"e ;.I!"t:: IHHIJC;roll";; orientated il1L:I!15i()!i:'. A. J"nv mlG::r().pl:iI":i1()Cry~i~ ill!t:lIi.'iktIl':'; visible In rile field mlt1 this is ~h(' ~llnh:: rock as IH~d:Ill



~l nil ~C" lcucite {q .v, J;.tht"! n~~'Ir\~HLu microp·l'lcl'l

noseun, dark brown with



the rims



~l'flLi[~d !11ac-, rnui n l.y or pJa~ i oclase w.i U, :;'WII~ to ..stray p~~1::i i:;':cl'l In the microseepe the c~kin~ r lon dll)w~ wcal> .intcn;e-rent"f! C:fJlqHy~ if' Ihili jJll0tugr.'l.pb. The Io ...... photogl'll,h cr ~t,;!!~~,;; !wSo:;:aTi crystals. lull M. ·il)dl.iSol~)'I:"i:;,inlergeown with sarudine ~""hitl~ is 1l:\:t from. inclusions; nit; ~l!b-;:,:lifgt aperture ba$ heel"! 'tlle~!,-d 'hid:; but closiua ~1.;lil~lw,; nne lu ;Q~ the diflerence in rell~f "bl'lWl\!1!l U~~ nOHk~H ;::in.:l IJ,~ "'~Hli.21~n,.;I'l,(}t(':dn ha.8·~l mueh '~"w~rRI ;JTId isisotroprc. [J75J

Ul~ pJ:I~·n(:)(,::TY::;ls~.g\:Cell to



iu 1I [l.D~ ':;tl kilt:: 0,[10:1


U/"I'jJi'I' n1t.III)';


,hNll .lc--1)r.it[}plJJ'n·,




tJ·II'~JWr/:ir.:.{[n(m ~ 27.l.tJu~!;'t .VIN:ilI1('1~j'rom r!{M'~'mJ s'~lIid';/Jlfl', 1,(,/(1( See, Gel'11J.:1lI)'. !1·jljf!.nU~·w.1rtlft .;-::,'iJ.




HeXfJ,g~)11~I r







Jnihc upper phl)l..Ograpb. mken in planc-poiarlzedlight. 11'It:objective ~';IS raised ~ri,gh[Jy to show the Becke I~jill;.:, The minerals which have tbe Becke line within their IiHII rid aries ~HC nephel i ne lIJTd ~dkJdI feld ~P'~,I!' which j n 1:1'1 i:-. roek tm..,'~ almost i d-e111i'~d~ relracti .... indil;~:- - lhe low e refractive indcx mineral is caucrmi tc, Under C{O~!)Cu polars (1IIw~'j photcgraph] rh~ cunefinite ,,110'Wl1 li!l':;Hmlcr CO!QUI"l':, evcept for the 10I.1·¥1;! .;,:r'y~IJtlo the len nf' I he ikld wlm:h i~~1 low second-order t i,}luhh-red ~'Q1Qu:r.In nepheline.syenites the ::IPllt:~r~m-.;cof 4 c()kmde~~' rniuerul with lirst- ur second-order inlerfcrcncc coln~u'!> and a verv low relraetive i.lu[e,;.: If, [l~uaH~it good II1.dlC~<!Ii Vf.I Q!' Lh~presecce tlh:~mcri;}i reand !!l'IIml Ibis loCad~ tile ()h~n'el' to look for 1he presence of
nepheline, [381].

Sfi!f.im~~n.from nephdill"

x lJ,

,\·_l:"nrll'. unknown

lot w'iry,


3{N aA1S130aJ' NaCl- 3(CaAI:!S.E208}CaC~


-~ ""


"t{y' "




Tetr.;lgonitJ ~
1-540- ['.504· 1<516-1 ·600





pklne.-pni.;H'i .... .eci!igf,,.. i LQ~£t I'l.e! """ict! ~I.PJI~~ 'grf''¢i! l='1i:riO:pyw.>(enot IIrid one t:fystal of biolitC: il!! the '';~Iltrc ·of fhe 'riel(L /it cr:('~1tl ~I. ~hl: JiJW!i;:I- Jr.fl r~i'l ofthe Ji~ld shows !\0,'0 ',:,.lls .of d.:;~:wag.~s_ill fi'ght-Hllgks. w; one The upper pha1Qgrapl}. taken

~!!lfW ~ HHlinl1' ~l:LPO~:I~('.(~elou:rics.s

;'!:il~i[lnoi;':i' M@·::.i ol'

'h~ 9th.:!'

",~Y;o)l~lb shoW J,H l>\;a~1 Cl'fH1

cle.rvage. rn the lawn photogra.ph, mk@ll under crossed po'l~r1f_ some QI' the crysrals sno w aeeend- order.celo urs but those l>i1nwir1g Lwu9h;av~1g~~have I~w irl!.t:rfIo:T~I1t:.Io:-C'olou·r::,; :1ml
are ell! iie.;1Ii·ly f!! righHl1I.gk:s lil\ (h~~ "P! i{: w~r:'l

~ IUD } dL;.~.'i"ges ~>Iri:l f';w)Jld h~ 11115 npli:t axL,>,.'lhe DtlmfIL'iS i [1()Jl 1n the tlc.~.ttf1I,lte: se r i es, I'.r()m lbe !l1Irria Iite end-m I1:.I1Lt,,:il n.. .,j",'l·"Lcb)to t be nacioni Ll': end -membe r, is obta i n~d from ~jtl1c:r~ I'{;i"raro;::tl \'C I ndexdeterurina lion measurenrent (}j' bircfrin ~..:no~.1 J ii'l, I

;'ii:'~~;'" U;I~


·)1.)f't ttnrn jl'fllH 'U~~;f 'oj pMo.:.'I9i)pllr-'\Lw!Y((ui~(!. M r;}j1hl'l ; :H CII!u!j.lIc\:r',1r; ir1llFI'1!fi~ ·,11 im1"<: 20






I,·479 1'493.

The upper phn[ogmph. taken in plane-polarized Iigh}, t>hiJ"'~'~·;1Ina!l_g;ubr a.rc-a 01",:IHi.. IL:·i~~ hounded by d01l{,l....ed l ·(:ry~l.ill::; ~Jrrla!!i(,K:lat:;::. 11l<: re-fl:;:II.:.u v e iud '.\ (")f :.I Il?l iri te i{ \'ea'y low so 1110:1.l. ni/L~ :='NJIH;t.aJ;~ diuphrugm ~I(j~~l, II with Sl.mdf: out lIT I"{:] i;,;1" :1 gai 11:'[ ill e surround ing TIl iII~ I";.-.I~. [he lower pti<.i!ugnlrh, taken under cws:-t:(,f p,)brs. shows llml lhe ~iilldcit~ i:s isotropic; :;;vmsrim<l;ol ~makih; shows ~liJf'l gl'ey interference L:·olnl.lf;land complex i wln"ILln_g,and III ~uch eases il t;.;u' he mistaken i'"lT 1t::I.~dle, :111 SOIllI:.': rocks lcucite w,~yhe:enti rcl1' r.jpk~c\;:d hy analeit ... ~ bui rarely ure lhe IwLl' minerals seen Q.ogC·llll:r. 11 !l1;Jj' he necessary ~() m~;·.LSUI'C the rc.fraG~i ... : 111'.i.€xto di!;linglai'h ~ amlk-l'l;: rrmrl leucitc, 13891,

,';'Pi'd:il)Jj!n irom (Tt!'ll~nltfl, H(,mlf2~rd Brr:d:r.,f'. A I rnhir~'_. 81.'<1!ltmd, JrltogrllJiul(FOil X 61.

C.ortl ndu m


1 ri,f',l -nal , - I


[ U.l

.1 7r~D I· 7~I:~ 1-768 ]·77.2

B'i refringence The LlIP.P~Tphotograph shows -a number. of L:~)nln·lIlJm erystak e 1"1 t'i!d L Ir.d ~11 rc1tl::::~ar. Its I1I.gb relief ~scI'~arw~ri!rbL;ic and when it ,,11o:W":;:I :;Ii~:dil bl'li'i::;h colour, <IS it does I here, this I:;; ill'lindiC;J(iol"l tiT lhe presence of sapphire tblue variety ofcnnllUiUlI1}; The <lillIlo:;~ b~.. ck material IS gla~;t full 0 r inc lmi on s. In !h:.: lower photograph, ra ken 1111(1t:[ ~r{l,;:s!>Cdolars, p rlle-liiEJI(~!"1' colours !ill'CCl] arc- 'f1in+()fder y~Ho"i, Bt';I.:lUl i:! (}r its extreme hardness corundum crystals may he Ihid.ti

thf:'Hll'J'(jlJ.tldiri~': minerals ~lIT1.d show s!jglllly htgl';t;:1 so 'uhLt'r~ It",,1.11 the birefringence Imlk;:'l1I;!;-;. r;..·11J1~Dpk·wint Illr.l,g i..; quite common in corundum but Is lIol presemin , -k.~1y(l f these cIY SLl.lS. L"'\I~J.


Spf!dme(l [com buchlt», Rudh'

;tfldr. S,'()(imuf. 84


t.1; ·crll'omuil'J X 52_

Sill. ,ROM i?.t



Te1m.g, lJl;ll ~ I )
L.{105-2··6l3 ]."S91'-~·9(11 O·2R6 Wl~6



Tho:;! npp<lf ·,md middle photographs !;hQ\~ ~NLlo:'; f,llrly la I'ge ... '!r.ys(~LI~ ~1r rut Ill: In .a rna ~,~ ,Ij I" bl 'Il~:nt".1 rl,l gi L loC'I:~se
tcldspur, One ofthe (;r}~Lah tlh\w/f:,·I'WL.I

ungle of appcoxirmuely 6W, Tb~ oeer guldell-Or{)""'H colour ls fairly charactenstlc or rLIII:11~_ Under crossed polan (miJill~ [Jll~l.ng!'lL['iilJ lt C<lH he SNI11hat there :i:fi:i IwirL hnnellne l';-LI',illel. to the traces o] the two clca v ,~g{':e:;, .....il'i.:;il are P' rd,abl,),\ 0.11,'" TIllS crystal hus IX;~~I1!:1 ·lIt;}I.!'" 5 I~) the cxtincuon position [Q shew the Iwint~illJ:\' Beca.l1'H~ L.,r the str e ng ubsurru i~nl colnl"" il ~:': possible to nut ~~timak lh~ hirel'nngenee which is very higb nor W be :"'.", ,.1re 0;1"111 e ve I')' high rcfraonvc LIl d !Ot:';:l, The ()I her .:,;ry~! ,II which dCI[:~ not ~bo\~· twinning ,IPP~I-<J In h~~I be saine cllhmr II) plane ligM .ClUJunder ,;w~::;\~l4 F.H d'l1":'._ The lower photograph, mk~11 ill plune-polurized l1p'ht, show:,; rl~'{;dk~ ~lJ rurrle '\'Iklhln hlonte, l he DC(:'LJIT[;Ll.C": of rutile us IIc~,!Ie,; ill hi,()'1ire arul quurtz i.~ Ftlil'J~1 common but wllw I he needles are :I.S flnc us those illustrated here there is ~'L~I)I.ilde [hat can be done optically to -siablish Lind '11111:): nre lndced nuilc. llJ.l5!

guud ,-~II!lJagc" .....



{wd !llidd/~' ,V!N:m'riH .fr{m~ r~It('Y'erl ul/.oy/}ml'Hl', U(N!i{~i1d, Virginia, U:... ml~~II(fi!:'i1!imr X 20_ Lower :".t, ~1~tXlrt1l'Jf..1h:mJ unknoIVn Incalirv. 1·lj{)F!;II~!inltf.(Itf ;< 72_

Pero .... skite



Ilk:' (pseudo-cubic)





l·lO 2·38

The Il]'lpt:[ ph<.)"i,l.;'gl.:lliptl, taken iLl plane-polsmzed hgbl. (,how~:1Ie.wd:lI'k brown !,;r}'!;:til.1~of'perovskire.intergrown \'vili:t meliJitt; couurrlcssj :111d u'ou ore (1lI~ldq. mrin,g Ii Z '!h~ brown ~o]QUI' L~rlhe pero v ;:.;~ir.e 1.:<111 be seen. The relief i;.; very lIigb b III the stn"lng ,i bsorpt ion ':I)! our tend ~ tel Ob'<:CIH-': ihls, J nihc lower phntugraph , 1~t~1l II nder ern .".~ -rrdnr.s, .d . IhL.:p::'J'o,,·:sk.ite: ct)'~ttlls are bire fi' 111 gent nrul show complex nudtiple twinning. Ihj:'l crosa-hau.lrcd i winning is a cn'.lql!.'lcrif;rk of perovskire mJd serves to di::'li.l1!!lti~h it Jrom QUlf.lC 1,11 her dl1rk brown minerals .. ltF. occarrencc ~IJong with nler~luicis eummen {SCi,; descrlpucn ~lr rr~c:·lili1e.



Slh·,:~·m('lJ fhm~ n1eti}iff' r(~(':k.. '':ir'I.1!.l.'! Hilt. I~efatl,i.ma.fd,IiUi'·(lJ,irJl~ x 4.?.




(Fe. '\lg) .. C\1:_04

Cllhio:.: JRI n 1·719 !·:H5

I he -, pinel .:!l:roup l'o\-.{'.i·~ s


r~m,gr:: III"" dll~rni~;'ll

;,Gmp'q;';i lion h ut ~he comrnu n va T;...l i~:; :'Lr~ a h..lJi)i '11 Oli.;.. wi lh Fe und Mg s ['1b:.~j IIJI i o i i .• Hle ra Ilg_", of I{ I gi ven d od 'lloll:0H!r I he I~rrk iH'tE"i ;l.,.~.d:dll'mnlLdnH'Jc!h vurictlcs: The ~UilT~u.:ll;'"ri::'lGI,1.:.doHrs are dark :f!"e:e:ll .JJ dark. brown und !111.·[ Init::i\~phl1l(l.gl·;1ph~. both taken in plane-polarised \\.(? liuht. ~lio ......Wl.l dliffe,'en1: occurrences. i _.l'he upper photograph sJ1D"VS d irk .gr~\~·Qlspine] w~0tller with oli vinc, The l-pindcry ,tIll!'!" ~IT# ~Ilhh~fh'll ln ~htl"p~ ai"IL1111l:ir wlll\lr jf,' zoned $0 'tha1. some of Lh;.-; ';1')'fi[;j.l~"5h('I\v brownlsh c-or cis. In tile- I wcr photogrnpb 'h~ ~p'itt~li~ till . .:·v~11 darker .olivc-grc cn colour. The lihtlpt:;-. ,~I· the crystals Me U0l..:nl1i11 l:Q hy 'n, e 1,:: II~L';:. I.~[I gi Lie Ia!i.Q wi t 11 which it is I iliL¢["I(.]\'Wil :)ome (~nhe d,H"t E"otgk.t'lS- in this tidd of ... ·:[:::w J..\~1)1>r. 1 '~f~!..,,~ C"rL:I\\'tied with j].}~lusj(;ri~ but I.h,,:~c·cun l~~' .. I'M(lil~ di~[ill::.mi:;.llqd from the spine] bOCG1USC::: lhl;." high of rDIi.~f.r..f thcs pi ncl, r424l

LIPPI"" ,~p~dl /rrJ1H !Jpirrd-;,) ~1.'1I 10.

r.~len','e' l • .'I'rw'i.i IJ. r/'e."J'~'iu.~. lrrl(('; rH/J};ni/ii·,rli1m :>c 43. fAJil"""( 1'lw.cil'rIl'H frmn buchite, I?r~;-/h" (CfN'Ofl,!(lin ."l:m, R""s ~1l'-flili. Scatiand: ma.[!.I1[fi,





1·56U-J·590 1';)~O-I-!'iHf)
lH~12 I) 02:0

taken in plmle"poJ:.tn;red J,i~11~, h!,!!;;:in" (dl;:[lr ~r~a:::) uucrgro ....n with dolomite {d'~.fkeJ: O! !·e:rj.~).Tln:::-.c- u rt" pnJh"lhly 10'%11 om crphs ilfr.11 d pCT.i.C'I'l~ t MgO), II) the view under cl,<)~~d l)(~t,Lr;; (I'JWo!.';r photograph), the 'hT1il:il'c' urcns CO IlS i.., I: c1"1i" f,lg1!.~94~:'; Ilr Ii bres Wll11'kf.1': birc-n'i 1!~Clio:.;c. A l~w region, which show aIKlllll!llIu~ blue Cl ~l<II.1:',.:;M~ II!' ~"'I'fl<;:111 in~: H3 d,].
rh:f! l.I·[lP~' pbufugrapn,

,'>'r'f.nIH{'II./nm r hruc, rei i'ICI,h!L~, L(~.dbe{!" A .\·_~l'm, Sro; !'1WI,
1I'i{1~1..i/;I'iJlirll'· ;< 72_


Symmclry ,RJ Birefri
1.l1 I.1gcn.~t;

'l'risonal ( - ~ 1-41::6 ]-65:-1 n'17 ..,

MOJ;l uf lhe Held of view ts occupied hy ealciu, and -I,hlo: upper ;:!iNJ!11iddlE! photo'gnl.:tb~Illk~1l ~Il plane-polarised ligl1L show the-change in n;Jit"f ~~nH"lLTei!d y I"fll::Hirl,,' the b pol<lri:.':..:r ~1H'(I'lJflh 9fi<', This 1:0 referred to as "w'illkhng' >In(ll~ HlOf,t easily. ~crn h) rll'l;Hinp the pt,hli·i".t!T' 3:. ha:s been ~if"ln,e here, BCl:mJ~ uf rile:: perfect fh~lillrlLd~edra!
d..:a';',\g(: moM cryshlr:;':,hl,.lW (11 least nne- g"oull cleavage. UII,~tei' crossed polurs (hn'i.'~r phOWl::1f;!~~h) the


Ierlerenee colours qlll he seen to .t..tl,r very hb~b ()L'd~r' 1, i', ':_;;~dit1nrt!N y IJI~ ;;.llghtly less I bw I [11 rio rrual 0' 03 rnrn h e in [1.1i.{.!kn~~rs-; II~ ill sections ol standard thidl:fieSs. the : interference colour prodtlL:o:dlS !-! bi,gh-order white_ T:Wi'tl n h~g C;J,IJ]' be loc'elJ iu! ,.q Ie", CTlr,::;t~li$ .m'!.!1 'Ih i~ CRt:! be useful in dis-lillr.!!.j~hing calcite trum dolomite (q-~'.), r47() I,

Spec ... messfrom di&ps(de~j(n·,\'It:,ril'" S;'cflttw'ul; nWgt! (Ii( (1'/ i1m x 44~

11Tf.{.d!~, l.rlc};




Tri!;u.md ~ R1
(; l!!J

1'50(1 .I·(tP-i



Thi~ ~t~Lj,on contums hul h calcirc and dolomite and, sil\;,.'C the t,~I" minerals nra ~tin!~~IJJtel di!inii~uj~h the lhl'lI t section ha~ 1tt:~IJ siuined. M0~1 urLbe~.;[aiFliil~ :1!:~hi]1queS used depen d (J[] the fact 111;'I!ca kilt ESread iIY soluble i I] d,jlw.L.:Hel \\'hcirc:':H~ dulcrnire 17; uot, 'i>~) that the material which i~slaincd red il1·1 hcsc pho1.;')'gl'a ph:.- i~the euleire, lIT the upper and middle pbotographs. I,.•ken ill planepolarized li¥,bl.. It can he,~~:l1 that there '.11~~ hmdb.c or ilnlornite Wi.!!1 iI~ ! he s l,1 tued l.:'IIJ.:i te. The ch an &J:: ! II 1"1':]icf oi the dolomite caLI:';t;~1 by I:OlU[I.!1,1S 111~ polarizer tllwu~h 911" I;;' cl~;HI}' shown. J. he!. lower photogs ;.IQ}h (lllik.m] lll~de[' crossed Vi,)IJ]J'~) i:!how:-; the h ~!!h hi I'cf'rin&eH'I~~II~5(Hjjt!i?~J \"! I ti d olom ite. The crvstnl-shcv ..il1'k i .cllow colour L\I lilt! flllill 'Iell' lhe '1it: ill o ~'ic:w I 'ii. I"i H:::I ~'rlh.:. r 4<19j . ~


Sp,.',r:iJ~1('11 f i'lim fl~r,~.wrf1!! marbl«, Sri' t .(,lrnh.l; J7i()J:J[(fr~'~1 tlo« x






T"ignIMlc I·:mll





Tlrcsephotogruph ...... mken fruman unstained scetiun ~'~r::: of LILl: same j;0l',k. ~j~:d fttf the previous pi18tograph:. (_j!" JoJumi 1/", iii \ he IJNIoilI' pJwto;!!rapb. (taken under planer~)"ll"i/~d light) LWL1 rhombohedral de.l"Ivagcti cuu be seen at 11(j~in the!crystal in l.ht upper P;II"I. ~Ir [he field, In l.h~ lowl:r·phull)~'.r;·lph. I"lkld~-'- nuder crossed pobr-1i_ I,c"illl ]IlHldl;,!~ are seen to bis,cet the obtuse unglet o;.:-\W~~tl It! ~l.:aH'<I.g·es; i .e, parallc 1 t ( the shu rl diugunal (l ! he rl1L!r!'!hshape fmrncd or)' 11K dca>'~':fi,;~" BUi h d"lolrlile:.a;nd entcire may have twin tl[[bl"[lm: rH.,.~dtel [fl the- lnll.~




and parallel



themsclv .... hut only dolrrrnitc ,~. posl 1 i oushcwn here, 1:~:'\9 I

rlmj'!!hl'l,beriTal clci.j"""age;~ JI;n, 11'>'111 la rneilnc In tho


Ca~(P04)iOH F. Cl)

I h~"\ IllU11.d <

~- )



1-624 1'666 ! '619-1'(,67 IH)(l1-0'007

Bl refrm gcncc

ihnenjte, )fl[iii:: ~ht: ilruernte cry~1111,> hevlngrlms !:lr sphene. The lower pllotog_r;!I;t1l tukun Lintl~l' CI' ;;.~\~,;II.TU];UJ. :<;h()w~hul rhc blrefriugenee ofupatirc is about tile same t as tbat ,'jf'll!i: Ilot:plwLil'(I.:_ ",'n{]l Lhi~I:-lkt~!r1 "ll)iiV wirh the high RI Ii; U~dLlII~,)I' id~!!!~i(icilliml_ TI~eime J:!,I',jii[ :$!Jl,lwing ~.
1)"1 Irl·-gn~(m ill Wrfei'l;lllce 'L~I) lour is aegi ri mHHJI~.1 H:, l5!)4]

lL1 the ~lpp~r rh01Ggru.pi.1,1 aken in p·IHnc.'P0bl.-i~~d I.iglll, need les: b!'it! 91WbU IU.:-X:1,!,."'Cllla I Cl'y:<:l~l ls of upu ti tc stand l"'l.1~ in rellef ng<tic!~l nepheline (clear): (h:.: Opa{ILLe mirtera] ts


~'jJ:l-'{'flll~'11II'DIN "/J'!'.I.l/ LJ-Ni!{J.JI, 'lfll.':' 1..... ...R; nI'(It!,liifi('(JIi(J1? x .#i, ,;, ·









These ! Wil photographs were hlul1 raken in pluneT11.i Il&ii zed l ighL.Tbt upper pi W l L fij 1';1 Jl 11 ;,;hciw~if. number of PLJi'I~!e crystals o! lluorite i·lw~rg.n~wn WiLI.~·~1 rare minO;!".f;I~ webl.~~I:;:tc_A r~·w \.;rJ::;,!,~I:, ,~!111<ltop of the ptWI~·)gr.~ph _~h slgn 1>.0 I" the perl ect ,[ 11 I :- L h:avl'lgc_ HI! ~~ri'I. 11,1" j he f):W luwcst relruutive Jilctfl);m ull [he common 111111~1';il:<; and hence shov v :,; c;fml1id~l"t1.l'>lc relief Ui§,~II"I.s1 mosr other inlnei ;1~1i_ In this case the purplt: ~:()!.~)Ill' _gi\-~s:.i useful ~ht~·

The' lower

its it..icmi iy

polloi '111f!,nph shows

fluorite a~ ::;.In;.I}1 anhedral

grains iurergrewn ...... muscovite ilb. lien: agaln du; pule [.1I.lrp1o;l G('tl()u:r which is Lln~"'~III". di:-;lI'.lbut~d, l:-:useful Lur idell; rficannn: il::., isot i"o;lriJ: character and very low refract i 1/C j Ll UCX won kl cun fi 1'111 th C identificat ion [5 i 1J,


U,rJjwr ,''f!"c'l'illfm ll'r)1n ('n;oJin' di;jHnfl", JW'glw _ W·~'\·! r- X :11, Loj.re~' .vpt'rlmr:lr ji-(N'"Ii



("lmH~'f.I/i, b'ng/aHa;



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