Gonzaga Debate Institute 2011


1 Conspiracy Theory Flat Earth = No Space Travel .......................................... 56 Flat Earth Proofs ± No Orbit ........................................... 57 Flat Earth Proofs ± No Orbit ........................................... 58 Flat Earth Proofs ± United Nations.................................. 59 AT: But we know it is Round ......................................... 60 Round Earth Proofs ± Multiple Reasons .......................... 61 Round Earth Proofs ± Multiple Reasons .......................... 62 Round Earth Proofs ± Multiple Reasons .......................... 63 Round Earth Proofs ± Multiple Reasons .......................... 64

***Topicality***.................................................. 3
T : Beyond the Mesosphere ............................................... 4 T ± Substantial .................................................................. 5

***Hoax Counterplan***.................................... 6
Hoax CP 1/2 ..................................................................... 7 Hoax CP 2/2 ..................................................................... 8 CP Solves Leadership ....................................................... 9 AT: Government Lies Bad .............................................. 10 AFF - Government Secrecy Bad ...................................... 11

***Hollow Earth*** .......................................... 65
Earth is Hollow .............................................................. 66 Hollow Earth solves Extinction Scenarios ....................... 67 AT: Hollow Earth Solves Extinction ............................... 68 Aliens live in Hollow Earth ............................................ 69 AT: Natural Disasters Adv.............................................. 70 Earth not Hollow ............................................................ 71 Earth not Hollow ............................................................ 72 Earth not Hollow ............................................................ 73 ***Planet X***.............................................................. 74 Planet X = Global Warming............................................ 75 Planet X = Solar Flares ................................................... 76 Planet X ± Government Secret ........................................ 77 Planet X ± Government Secret ........................................ 78 AT: Planet X - Not Destructive ...................................... 79 AT: Planet X ± Not Real ................................................. 80 AT: Planet X ± Not Real ................................................. 81 AT: Planet X ± Not Real ................................................. 82 AT: Planet X ± Not Real ................................................. 83

***Ashtar*** ..................................................... 12
1NC - Consult Ashtar CP ................................................ 13 Consult Ashtar CP ± Solves Case .................................... 14 Consult Ashtar CP ± Solves Net Benefit .......................... 15 1NC - Ashtar DA ............................................................ 16 Ashtar DA ± Impact Ext. ................................................. 17 Ashtar DA - TimeFrame.................................................. 18 Ashtar DA - TimeFrame.................................................. 19 Ashtar DA- 2012 = Positive ............................................ 20 Ashtar DA - 2012 = Positive ........................................... 21 Ashtar DA - 2012 = Positive ........................................... 22 AT: Ashtar is Demonic ................................................... 23 AT: Ashtar is Alien Invasion ........................................... 24 AFF ± No Impact ............................................................ 25 Aff ± Ashtar is a Demonic Lie ......................................... 26 Aff ± AT: Religious Intolerance ...................................... 28 Aff ± No Evacuation ....................................................... 29 Aff ± No Evacuation ....................................................... 30 Aff ± No Evacuation ....................................................... 31 Aff - 2012 = Negative ..................................................... 32 Aff ± AT: Timeframe - 2012 Postponed until 2015 .......... 33

***Aliens*** ...................................................... 84
Disclosure in 2012.......................................................... 85 USFG - Alien Treaties .................................................... 86 USFG ± Alien Contact & Tech ....................................... 87 USFG has Alien Tech ..................................................... 88 Evidence for Underground Bases .................................... 89 AT: Government/Alien Contact is False.......................... 90 Obama is a Reptilian ...................................................... 91 Reptilians run the Government ....................................... 92 Reptilians run the Government ....................................... 93 Reptilians Bad ± 100% Solvency Takeout ....................... 94 Reptilians ± Most Evil .................................................... 95 Reptilians Good ± Defeat the Grays ................................ 96 Grey Aliens Bad ± Human Cattle .................................... 97 Gray Aliens Bad - Hitler ................................................. 98 Gray Aliens Bad - Nazis ................................................. 99 Gray Aliens Bad - Nazis ................................................ 100 Arcturus - Protectors...................................................... 101 Procyonians ± Allies to Ashtar ....................................... 102 Ra-ans ± Past Allies....................................................... 103 Draconians - Aggressive ................................................ 104 Sirius ± Past Allies ........................................................ 105 Chameleons................................................................... 106 Martians ± Original Greys ............................................. 107 Intergalactic War Headed to Earth ................................. 108 Aliens - Benevolent ....................................................... 109 Aliens Here ± Historical Proofs...................................... 110

***Space Travel*** ........................................... 34
Space Travel Hoax .......................................................... 35 Moon Landing Hoax ....................................................... 36 Moon Landing Hoax ....................................................... 37 Moon Landing Hoax± Footage Anomalies Prove ............. 38 Moon Landing Hoax± Video ........................................... 39 Moon Landing Hoax- Temperatures ................................ 40 Moon Landing Hoax ± Temperatures............................... 41 Moon Landing Hoax ± Aliens Helped Fake It .................. 42 Aliens Already On Moon ................................................ 43 Moon Landing Real ........................................................ 44 Moon Landing Real ........................................................ 45 Moon Landing Real ........................................................ 46 Moon Landing Real ........................................................ 47 Aliens will block Mars Mission ....................................... 48 Aliens will block Mars Mission ....................................... 49 Aliens will block Mars Mission ....................................... 50 Aliens will block Mars Mission ....................................... 51 AT: Aliens block Mars .................................................... 52 AT: Aliens block Mars .................................................... 53

***Flat Earth*** ............................................... 54
Flat Earth = No Space Travel .......................................... 55

Gonzaga Debate Institute 2011
Mercury Aliens Here - Abductions Prove .................................... 111 Aliens Here - UFOs Prove ............................................. 112 Aliens Here ± Physical Proofs ....................................... 113

2 Conspiracy Theory

***Conspiracy Theory Analysis*** ................ 139
Conspiracy Analysis Shell ............................................. 140 Conspiracy Analysis Shell ............................................. 141 Challenges Space Imperialism ....................................... 142 Challenges Power Structures.......................................... 143 Challenges Power Structures.......................................... 144 Challenges Sovereignty ................................................. 145 Challenges Sovereignty ................................................. 146 Challenges Governmentality .......................................... 147 Key to Citizen Participation ........................................... 148 Key to Dissent ............................................................... 149 AT: Irrational ................................................................ 150 AT: Irrational ................................................................ 151 AT: Paranoia ................................................................. 152 Abduction Narratives..................................................... 153

***No Aliens*** .............................................. 114
No Aliens on Earth........................................................ 115 No Aliens ..................................................................... 116 No Area 51 Aliens ........................................................ 117 AT: Abductions Prove ................................................... 118 Alien Threat is Coverup for NWO ................................. 119 New World Order ......................................................... 120

***Impact/Advantage Answers*** ................. 121
All Impacts ................................................................... 122 AT: Russia, China, Terrorism Impacts ........................... 123 AT: Nuclear War .......................................................... 124 AT: Nuclear War .......................................................... 125 AT: Extinction Impacts ................................................. 126 AT: Global Warming .................................................... 127 AT: Global Warming .................................................... 128 SETI not on right setting ............................................... 129

***Conspiracy Theory Bad*** ....................... 154
Reject Conspiracy Theories ........................................... 155 Conspiracy Theories Non-falsifiable .............................. 156 AT: Conspiracy analysis is productive politics ............... 157 AT: Conspiracy analysis is productive politics ............... 158 AT: Conspiracy analysis is productive politics ............... 159 AT: Conspiracy analysis is productive politics ............... 160 AT: Conspiracy analysis is productive politics ............... 161 AT: Conspiracy analysis challenges power .................... 162 AT: Jodi Dean ............................................................... 163 Clinical Paranoia ........................................................... 164 AT: Biopower Impacts .................................................. 165

***Authors Debate*** .................................... 130
Peer Review Good ........................................................ 131 Internet Science Research Bad....................................... 132 Internet Science Research Bad....................................... 133 A2: Our authors are more qualified................................ 134 AT: Peer Review........................................................... 135 AT: Your Authors are Crazy ......................................... 136 Ablism Impacts ............................................................. 137 AT: Ableism ................................................................. 138

Gonzaga Debate Institute 2011

3 Conspiracy Theory


php . like Silly Putty®.Gonzaga Debate Institute 2011 Mercury 4 Conspiracy Theory T : Beyond the Mesosphere A. pressure becomes so great that the mantle can no longer flow.. GJV) Traveling beyond the Earth¶s crust. plates consist of the crust acting together with the uppermost part of the mantle. B. Violation .800 miles. Earth¶s mesosphere is the lower mantle of the crust Egger.visionlearning.kidsgeo. By the 1970s. the Earth mantle is believed to once again be made up of very solid and sturdy rock materials.They don¶t go beyond the mesosphere C. Rigid lithospheric plates "float" on a partially molten layer called the aesthenosphere that flows like a very viscous fluid. In fact. geologists began to realize that the plates had to be thicker than just the crust. and thus both S. It is important to note that although the aesthenosphere can flow. or they would break apart as they moved. Undergraduate Program Coordinator in the School of Earth Sciences at Stanford University 3 (Anne E. The first 50 miles of the mantle are believed to consist of very hard rigid rock. The lithospheric mantle. EAS (1). but their mechanical properties are significantly different. it is not a liquid. The next 150 miles or so is believed to be super-heated solid rock.the idea that the earth¶s surface consists of large plates that move (see our Plate Tectonics I module). Geologists often refer to the aesthenosphere as the jelly in between two pieces of bread: the lithosphere and mesosphere. Standards . Visionlearning Vol. At a depth of 660 km. that due to the heat energy is very weak. Interpretation ± topical affirmatives increase exploration or development within the Hollow Earth 1. however. and this solid part of the mantle is called the mesosphere. this rigid layer is called the lithosphere and it ranges in thickness from about 10 to 200 km.com/library/module_viewer. and is made of a thick solid rocky substance that represents about 85% of the total weight and mass of the Earth. Below that for the next several hundred miles. ³Earth Structure: A Virtual Journey to the Center of the Earth´. The mantle extends to a depth of approximately 1. http://www. 6-2711 .php?mid=69)sbl The compositional divisions of the earth were understood decades before the development of the theory of plate tectonics .´ http://www.and P-waves can travel through it. 2. and mesosphere all share the same composition (that of peridotite). Our contextual evidence uses µBeyond¶ in this context KidsKnowIt Network 98 ( ³The Earth¶s Crust. aesthenosphere.com/geology-for-kids/0022-earths-mantle. we next encounter the mantle.

and walk upon. the moon. C. death and reincarnation. the Christ (perfected soul imprisoned in matter). security clearance. SL) NASA was created to make interstellar travel believable. "A Colombian Enterprise to Endeavor for the Discovery of Atlantis. named "Aquarius" (new age) at 1:13 (1313 military time) on April 13. sacrifice. wealthy. Any intelligent high school student with a basic physics book can prove NASA faked the Apollo moon landings. and symbology of the Illuminati's secret religion: The most transparent was the faked explosion on the spacecraft Apollo 13. communion with the spiritual world and the imparting of esoteric knowledge to the candidate (orbit and observation of the moon without physical contact). if that high. or worth. The Apollo Space Program foisted the idea that man could travel to. 2 concerning the essentials of something. E-6 with a Top Secret. landed on. http://www. First Class Petty Officer QM1. and all Challengers shall be destroyed. 13 is the number of death and rebirth. 1997 (William. strongly built or made.. and the raising up (of the Phoenix. solar radiation. Another revelation to those who understand the symbolic language of the Illuminati is the hidden meaning of the names of the Space Shuttles. accessed: 6/25/. important in material or social terms. The tremendous radiation encountered in the Van Allen Belt." Exploration of the moon stopped because it was impossible to continue the hoax without being ultimately discovered: And of course they ran out of pre-filmed episodes.. the new age of Aquarius) by the grip of the lions paw (reentry and recovery of Apollo 13). and many other problems connected with space travel prevent living organisms leaving our atmosphere with our known level of technology. 1970 which was the metaphor for the initiation ceremony involving the death (explosion). SI. 3 real and tangible rather than imaginary B. Q. the Phoenix.Substantial means real Concise Oxford English Dictionary 8 substantial/s b stan l/ adjective 1 of considerable importance. rebirth of the initiate (solution of problem and repairs). All of the names. placement in the coffin (period of uncertainty of their survival). Every Apollo mission was carefully rehearsed and then filmed in large sound stages at the Atomic Energy Commissions Top Secret test site in the Nevada Desert and in a secured and guarded sound stage at the Walt Disney Studios within which was a huge scale mock-up of the moon. If man has ever truly been to the moon it has been done in secret and with a far different technology.Gonzaga Debate Institute 2011 Mercury 5 Conspiracy Theory T ± Substantial A. and the transition from the old to the new. missions. No man has ever orbited. Standards - .com/majestyt. rituals. Violation ± their aff does not make a substantial increase because space exploration & development is a hoax Cooper. ³Majesty Twelve´ Hourofthetime.com. and events in the Apollo Space Program echoed the occult metaphors. temperature control. Interpretation. No man has ever ascended higher than 300 miles.hourofthetime. above the Earth's surface.htm. size. or walked upon the moon in any publicly known space program. landing sites. cosmic radiation.

Gonzaga Debate Institute 2011 Mercury 6 Conspiracy Theory ***Hoax Counterplan*** .

We never landed on the moon-another USFG hoax Cosnette. I would like to show you some astonishing evidence that shows glaring mistakes or anomalies on the 'official record' of NASA film footage and still photographs. 09 [David. before this decade is out. Or so we have been led to believe. solar flares and micro meteorites. No single space project in this period will be more impressive to mankind or more important for the long range exploration of Space.ufosaliens. however secretly hoax actual implementation of the plan. a film that also features Percy and Bennett and one which I strongly recommend if you have an interest in the Apollo ***continued**** . and was President Kennedy's speech in May 1961 pressure enough to keep the hoax going? David Percy is an award winning television and film producer. This took into account the effects of radiation. He could not believe in 1959 that man could go to the Moon. To achieving the goal. There is no link to spending. International Director of UFO Research Center. He states that it was estimated in 1959 that there was a . the reader. accessed 6/21/11.0014 chance of landing man on the Moon and returning him safely to Earth. but none of that comes out of the government¶s pockets. UFO-Aliens. the Apollo films that we were told were filmed on the Moon are bogus and not the real footage. but instead they had to stay in near Earth orbit within the safety of the Earth's magnetic field that would have protected them from the radiation that is emitted by the Van Allen radiation belt!!! But why would NASA and the United States bother to fake such an event and to what cause I hear you ask? Please read on and I will explain. of the fascinating book 'Dark Moon: Apollo and the Whistle-Blowers' (ISBN 1-898541-10-8). of the anomalies and to let you see with your own eyes what has become one of the biggest cover-ups in the history of Mankind. only 2 years later. ³The faked Apollo landings´ 2/10/09.html. International Director of UFORC. Was man too optimistic about what we could actually do in deep space. Kennedy set a goal in May 1961. He is co-author. that man finally left Earth and set foot on the Moon. http://www.uk/cosmicapollo. Evidence suggests that Man could not travel to the Moon's surface. HK] Bill Kaysing was a librarian/writer of technical publications and advanced research at Rocketdyne Systems from 1956 to 1963.' It was just eight years later in 1969. However. It¶s the news stations that report all this. I would like to suggest that if Man did go to the Moon during the missions. Observation One ± Competition Any permutation severs the genuine nature of the plan Net Benefit: Spending The cp may involve various methods of advertising/propaganda.. along with Mary Bennett. The majority of the film footage on this page is taken from the film 'What Happened on the Moon?'.co. of landing a man on the Moon and returning him safely to the Earth.Gonzaga Debate Institute 2011 Mercury 7 Conspiracy Theory Hoax CP 1/2 Text: The United States federal government should announce its intention to and use supporting evidence of (Insert Plan Advocacy)______________________________ ______________________________________________________________________.. I have included the actual official Apollo film footage on this page to illustrate and also possibly educate you. 'I believe that this nation should commit itself. American President John F. when he made the following famous speech. Solves all of your advantages: All of your internal links are perception based whether you like it or not-no one would actually know if we faked implementation Empirical Solvency . I will also explain why the US Government has tried to keep this a secret for over 30 years. a professional photographer and also a member of the Royal Photographic Society.

. What we see is what appears to be an exposure of the Earth taped to the window that is in the background to the right of him. the cameraman adjusts his lens and focuses on Mike Collins inside the craft. This is the very first view ever taken of Earth on the mission and it seems strange that Buzz Aldrin would film the Earth when he was stood far away from the window. to give the impression that they were in deep space. watch the video by clicking the picture above and you'll see it with your own eyes! It must also be noted that the Apollo 11 at this point of the mission was supposedly half way to the Moon. He has studied the entire transfer of the original film on video tape. Percy firmly believes that the Apollo footage was either faked or not the original film that was shot on the Moon. The time elapsed was 34 hours and 16 minutes. Did the astronauts actually film a transparency of the Earth that was stuck to the window? You may think this odd. The camera isn't set to infinity either to get the closest shot. International Director of UFO Research Center. The exposure would be clipped to the window and the Sun's luminance would light it up. What many people did not realize at the time was that a lot of the footage was actually pre-recorded and not live at all. but a few minutes after filming the Earth. The first anomalous piece of footage I would like to discuss is from the 1972 Apollo 16 Mission. That is the very same window that Aldrin was filming the Earth. On the still photo (that is pictured left) we see a flap of triangular fabric that has come loose and flapped up behind the astronauts head. we can say that in fact they were not in deep space at all. and what do we see out of the left window??? We see what appears to be another Earth. but still in low Earth orbit! look at the blue sky outside. we see the window frame come into view on the left of the shot. 09 missions (details of how to purchase the video are at the bottom of this article).. That would also explain why they would be filming an exposure of the Earth that was far away. The window frame that comes into shot would have been out of focus if it was. could have been placed in the films by whistle blowers who were deeply dissatisfied to be a part of the cover-up. Go on. The movie sequence (that is viewable by clicking the picture to the left) shows one of the astronauts making a jump salute whilst another astronaut takes a still photo with the Hasselblad camera. but from the view of Earth in the right hand window. There is a major discrepancy between the still photograph taken with a Hasselblad 500 EL/70 camera and the TV coverage film which was shot from a stationary movie camera placed behind the astronauts. He believes that many anomalous features that would alert the eagle eyed viewer. But the biggest shock is yet to come! The camera pans left past Neil Armstrong towards the left hand side of the Apollo 11. why would he do that? Surely you would want to get close to the window to get the best picture and also to eliminate light reflections that are evident towards the end of this sequence? But no.Gonzaga Debate Institute 2011 Mercury 8 Conspiracy Theory Hoax CP 2/2 ***continued*** Cosnette. a technique that was used to read star charts to help with navigation and star reference. However the TV film which was shot from behind the astronaut doesn't show the flap? Why not? Another example that appears to be faked is the footage of Earth taken from the Apollo 11 when it was 130. a feat that not many people have done..000 miles away.

) Then at the first day of work you tell everybody in the factory that their not really making rocket parts.com/apollo-moon-landing-hoax-why-fake-a-moon-landing. Even though these landmarks were achieved using crude methods. and that if they play this out they¶ll be set for life. and the conspiracy believers are saying that no one came forward even on their death beds (dead men/women can not be killed) and out of all of those people nobody saw a sense of duty to tell the people of their country the truth!! . as R ussia had put the: First man/woman in space. but how would NASA have carried out this enormous conspiracy? In this hoax imagine that you are the contractors. except for a rocket to go up and a lander to come down. NASA tells you about the moon landing conspiracy and pays you for your services that your not giving.we never went to the moon yet it drastically increased our primacy through propaganda during the cold war-solves leadership We faked the moon landings to get ahead of the USSR during the Cold War Conspiracy theories and hoaxes. Employees that don¶t comply get stern death threats from NASA officials. could have forced the government to fake a moon landing. no real equipment has to be made. and public pressure. At one point over half a million people were involved in the Apollo project at one time. it would seem as if the US were losing the space race. And µIF¶.Many conspiracy debunkers say that there was no reason for the US to fake the moon landings. First animal in space. First three person mission in space. then the deadline that JFK set. no date [Conspiracy theories and hoaxes.Gonzaga Debate Institute 2011 Mercury 9 Conspiracy Theory CP Solves Leadership Empirics prove that this cp has full solvency. (This is for the share holders. is a big part of the moon hoax. and only if the US couldn¶t put a man on the moon in time. as at the time America was publicly losing the space race. This is false. ³Apollo Moon Landing Hoax ± Why Fake a Moon Landing?´ no date. And the first space station in orbit. (i. putting a man on a rocket or adding a extra man on a two manned spaceship) to the public eye.html.e. You make announcement to the public telling them that your making rocket parts. The disadvantage to this is how many people are told about the conspiracy. The advantage to this is type of conspiracy is.conspiracy-theories-hoax. HK] Whether the conspiracy was possible or if there was a motive for faking the landings. So the US did have a motive for faking a moon landings. http://www. accessed 6/27/11.

HK] Turn it inside out. whatever their merits.com/2009/02/15/magazine/15wwln_lede-t. New York Graduate School of Journalism.com/files/JeffJarvis. But the decisions to bail out AIG and to let Lehman Brothers fail. It is essential for Congress to debate what sorts of industries or companies should be saved and how. 6/22/2008.pdf. Neither side would take the risks necessary for real engagement as long as its high-risk efforts could be exposed to denunciation and ridicule if it failed. calling for standardization and openness of government data. but the actual negotiation. public scrutiny and more Feldman. just as it must pay for a war. If specific companies could lobby for bailouts. if the public learns of an important decision only after it has been made. even as we acknowledge that special-interest groups can use that process to torpedo innovative laws in the way the insurance industry brought down health care reform during President Clinton¶s first term. and it must authorize the money. it might seem that more and better information about the government¶s decisions (and decision-making processes) is always preferable. citizen involvement in decisions. Consider the quotidian business of government inspection: it requires the element of surprise. law teacher at Harvard University and part of Council of Foreign Relations. See Ellen Miller¶s call for transparent and open government on page 59 in this anthology. and their competitors could argue against. 6/22/2008 [Jeff. ongoing criminal investigations. Obama presumably knows all this. Government secrets are justified Jarvis. national security. . cannot successfully be conducted under the glare of public scrutiny.. http://www. his pronouncements about transparency so far have been so general as to be largely symbolic.nytimes. Every act of government on our behalf should be free by default. A grander example comes from diplomacy.unique. Yet there are many circumstances in which secrets are critical.html. http://rebooting. They can only give their endorsement or disapproval after the fact and hope it has some effect the next time around. the bailouts would turn into political football ² which is what arguably distorted the effort to bail out the auto companies. or else regulated industries could game the system by preparing for oversight on specified days and places. with rare exceptions: the personal business of citizens. ³In Defense of Secrecy´ 2/10/2009. advocacy groups and concerned citizens cannot influence it. Personal Democracy. or that would have been improved by public lobbying and interest-group advocacy. When it comes to the proposal and drafting of legislation. and even the steps leading up to it. ³The Ethics of Openness´.personaldemocracy. See also Barack Obama¶s technology policy. Whether to negotiate with Iran is an important topic of debate. accessed 6/27/11. were the sorts of immediate. we expect public engagement. especially if the information is provided before events transpire. crisis-driven judgment calls that could not have reasonably been subjected to extensive public debate. The New York Times. 09 [Noah.Gonzaga Debate Institute 2011 Mercury 10 Conspiracy Theory AT: Government Lies Bad All non. The financial bailout has its own needs for secrecy. and a chief technology office to implement this. New York Graduate School of Journalism. they have faked the space program before And government secrets aren¶t all bad-safety reasons. That he issued a statement urging his subordinates to ³increase and improve opportunities for public participation in government´ without providing any specifics suggests that he wants to change the background tone of government ² but also that he recognizes the limits of transparency. As goodgovernment advocates are right to remind us. law teacher at Harvard University and part of Council of Foreign Relations. Why should we have to ask for information from our government? The government should need permission to keep things from us. HK] On the surface. accessed 6/27/11.

the pro-administration Wall Street Journal accused the press of "inventing a preposterous double standard that is supposed to help us all distinguish between bad leaks (the name of Valerie Plame) and virtuous leaks (whatever Ms." By erring so far on the side of secrecy. which gives it a major stake in shielding military and intelligence secrets that might help our enemies. says the system is "so bloated it often does not distinguish between the critically important and the comically irrelevant. to let every civil servant decide what should be revealed and which newspaper should publish it.htm. The result is that a lot of things that should be public information remain locked away. what's bad for the news media is good for the country. Rep. Although the agency did not claim that McCarthy leaked that particular information to the Post. If McCarthy leaked material that was justifiably classified. http://www-personal. noting that some estimates of over classification go as high as 90 percent." But it's not hard to see that some leaks are healthy. In 2004. When everything is secret.). federal employees shouldn't be obligated to keep it under wraps. then anyone disclosing national security information might as well be working for Al Qaeda. According to CIA Director Porter Goss. a top Pentagon official testified that roughly half of what is classified should not be. gross mismanagement or dangers to public health would be allowed to report it to members of Congress serving on committees that deal with intelligence. then leakers should be free to share classified material with the news media. The government now classifies some 15 million documents a year. Those with "direct and specific evidence" of lawbreaking. It's impossible to safeguard national security without a good deal of secrecy. the more it invites a counter reaction in the form of leaks. it breeds contempt for secrecy rules among executive branch officials. nothing seems crucial. accessed 6/28/11. chairman of the House Government Reform Committee.). that can easily be overdone. of course. Sometimes. . which is about as much help as a snow shovel in an avalanche. On the other hand. Chicago Tribune." which her lawyer denied.Government Secrecy Bad Government secrecy should be restrained Chapman. up fourfold since 1995.edu/~jeda/GovernmentSecrecy. If it's always bad. it said she "knowingly and willfully shared classified intelligence. is sponsoring a bill that would protect intelligence community whistle-blowers who feel they can't solve problems by going to the boss. The executive branch has primary responsibility for national security. if any. If the president or his subordinates are breaking the law. Trouble is. The more the government classifies. as some in the press would have us believe. Tom Davis (R-Va. the people in charge of classifying information are fallible humans whose motives are not always entirely pure. But we're in danger of letting something that should be our servant become our master. The antidote for excessive secrecy is not. If it's always good. Liberals charged the administration with trying to intimidate the press and suppress information the public ought to know. There is also a natural bureaucratic tendency to cover your backside by classifying more rather than less. 4/30/2006 [Steve. A blind insistence on concealing anything and everything is not. Tribunal Editorial Board. like candor. the government does two kinds of damage. Whether the CIA had good reason to fire Mary McCarthy depends on what sort of secrets. Her dismissal sparked different reactions in different quarters. Christopher Shays (RConn. HK] Secrecy is one of those virtues. Conservatives applauded Goss. It's hard to get people to respect procedures they know are bogus. First. Second. the career intelligence officer talked with a Washington Post reporter who revealed secret CIA-run prisons for terrorist suspects in a story last year. A strong commitment to safeguarding sensitive national security information is a good thing. officials who see abuses of power should have some option besides silence.Gonzaga Debate Institute 2011 Mercury 11 Conspiracy Theory AFF . Even the administration and its allies in Congress admit as much. Editorializing on the McCarthy case. then the CIA had every right to get rid of her. ³Government secrecy is not always a good thing´ 4/30/2006. she revealed. But President Bush and his subordinates also have a strong interest in preventing the release of any information that might make them look bad. while accusing the news media of helping the enemy by splashing vital secrets on the front page. Tribunal Editorial Board. Both sides are guilty of assuming that secrecy can only be one thing or the other. She could even be criminally prosecuted under the Espionage Act.umich. McCarthy may have done). Rep. it deprives the public of information it needs to know to assess its leaders. That would be a big improvement on the current whistle-blower law.

Gonzaga Debate Institute 2011 Mercury 12 Conspiracy Theory ***Ashtar*** .

htm. and gravity ± we should consult over space exploration & development Lord Ashtar. Ready Yourselves´ Brother Veritus. I am a space Commander. accessed 6/27/11. Its function is to watch over the planet and its inhabitants. The Ashtar Command is a branch of the Intergalactic Command with the specific mission of assisting this planet in crisis. energy. counteract and annul the Law of Gravity. and I am in charge of the Star Ship. but our bodies are the same as yours in form and aspect. the majority at an invisible level. Due to our great scientifictechnological level. It is under the direct supervision. Solvency The Ashtar command can control matter. To make our ships visible (which we do now exceptionally). is the Supreme Commander of the Holy Alliance. . ³Our Fleets Are In Position. In and over the Earth¶s atmosphere. prior and binding. we retard the vibratory frequency and this makes possible densification. Competition ± Any permutation is severs the immediacy and certainty of the plan and the counterplan avoids the Ashtar DA net benefit.Gonzaga Debate Institute 2011 Mercury 13 Conspiracy Theory 1NC . energy. who. We do not live in a physical body but in etheric level. SL) I salute you in the sacred name of I AM and in representation of the Intergalactic Command! My name is Ashtar Sheran. We are the authority that controls the space program to be fulfilled for the Planet Earth. among other positions. the loving care and the attention of Beloved Master Sananda (known by you as Jesus).Consult Ashtar CP Text: The United States federal government should engage in genuine. to intervene quickly in an impersonal manner. The Ashtar Command is present everywhere. 2004 (August 19. to be attentive to any fault or danger and if we are invoked. we can control matter.com/Protected/ashtar_command_mission. there are thousands and thousands of space ships. albeit finer and subtle. http://www. with Ashtar Galactic Command regarding the mandates of the affirmative plan. of course. 2004.luisprada. since our mission of Love is to help.

but only those who learn to live in peace will pass to the higher realms of spiritual evolution. We of the Ashtar Galactic Command thank you for your attention. speaking to you. as the planet passes into the New Age of Aquarius. You must learn to be sensitive to the voice within that can tell you what is truth. speaking to you. and live in harmony with the ways of your planet Earth. Your inner divine self will protect you from this. 77. Small groups all over the planet are learning this. We come to warn you of the destiny of your race and your world so that you may communicate to your fellow beings the course you must take to avoid the disaster which threatens your world. your planet Earth. . and the beings on our worlds around you. for your chance may not come again.abovetopsecret. All your weapons of evil must be removed.Gonzaga Debate Institute 2011 Mercury 14 Conspiracy Theory Consult Ashtar CP ± Solves Case Cooperation with Ashtar is key to solving all Impacts. but only if your rulers are made aware of the evil forces that can overshadow their judgments. http://www. The New Age can be a time of great peace and evolution for your race. We are now leaving the plane of your existence. seek only to know yourselves. Cooperation solves for the terminal impact of any solvency deficit and independently outweighs. This is in order that you may share in the great awakening. and what is confusion. This is our message to our dear friends. and exist to pass on the light of the dawning New Age to you all. a representative of the Ashtar Galactic Command. Vrillon of Ashtar Galactic Command.the energy you call money and will put it to evil ends and give you worthless dross in return. Hear now the voice of Vrillon. You know now that we are here. They will suck your energy from you . The time for conflict is now past and the race of which you are a part may proceed to the higher stages of its evolution if you show yourselves worthy to do this. For many years you have seen us as lights in the skies. chaos and untruth. Learn to listen to the voice of truth which is within you and you will lead yourselves onto the path of evolution. We have watched you growing for many years as you too have watched our lights in your skies. Abovetopsecret. Be aware also that there are many false prophets and guides operating in your world. a representative of the Ashtar Galactic Command. You are free to accept or reject their teachings. We speak to you now in peace and wisdom as we have done to your brothers and sisters all over this.com. and that there are more beings on and around your Earth than your scientists admit. We are deeply concerned about you and your path towards the light and will do all we can to help you.com/forum/thread416209/pg1 This is the voice of Vrillon. Have no fear. You have but a short time to learn to live together in peace and goodwill. May you be blessed by the supreme love and truth of the cosmos. Be still now and listen. Radio Transcript.

and that there are more beings on and around your Earth than your scientists admit. We come to warn you of the destiny of your race and your world so that you may communicate to your fellow beings the course you must take to avoid the disaster which threatens your world. They will suck your energy from you . http://www. This is in order that you may share in the great awakening. Be still now and listen. Learn to listen to the voice of truth which is within you and you will lead yourselves onto the path of evolution. You have but a short time to learn to live together in peace and goodwill. and what is confusion. All your weapons of evil must be removed. The time for conflict is now past and the race of which you are a part may proceed to the higher stages of its evolution if you show yourselves worthy to do this. and the beings on our worlds around you. Small groups all over the planet are learning this. for your chance may not come again. and exist to pass on the light of the dawning New Age to you all. May you be blessed by the supreme love and truth of the cosmos. but only if your rulers are made aware of the evil forces that can overshadow their judgments. speaking to you.the energy you call money and will put it to evil ends and give you worthless dross in return. 77. We are deeply concerned about you and your path towards the light and will do all we can to help you. as the planet passes into the New Age of Aquarius. Your inner divine self will protect you from this. and live in harmony with the ways of your planet Earth. You must learn to be sensitive to the voice within that can tell you what is truth. speaking to you. We of the Ashtar Galactic Command thank you for your attention. a representative of the Ashtar Galactic Command. This is our message to our dear friends.Gonzaga Debate Institute 2011 Mercury 15 Conspiracy Theory Consult Ashtar CP ± Solves Net Benefit CP solves the Net Benefit -Communicate and consultation with Ashtar creates cooperation and lightness Vrillon of Ashtar Galactic Command. Hear now the voice of Vrillon. The New Age can be a time of great peace and evolution for your race. For many years you have seen us as lights in the skies. chaos and untruth. Be aware also that there are many false prophets and guides operating in your world. You are free to accept or reject their teachings. your planet Earth.com. a representative of the Ashtar Galactic Command.abovetopsecret. but only those who learn to live in peace will pass to the higher realms of spiritual evolution. We have watched you growing for many years as you too have watched our lights in your skies. We are now leaving the plane of your existence. Radio Transcript.com/forum/thread416209/pg1 This is the voice of Vrillon. Abovetopsecret. Have no fear. seek only to know yourselves. You know now that we are here. We speak to you now in peace and wisdom as we have done to your brothers and sisters all over this. .

So we must start the re-awaking process now so that we are ready for it because ready or not here it comes . All the world..ashtarcommandcrew. Anyway you look at it.2012. and one reason ONLY. But they don. We will see more of what happened in New Zealand and now Japan as Planet-x gets closer still. The christens call it the Golden age of peace. More heavy storms will also continue on earth with floods like last year until Planet-x moves away from us but first she will show her face to us for all to see. so they can treat you well and listen to your stories of where you are from-and exchange love.is at peace.. things will settle down a bit until she returns again next year and will come even closer and be a even stronger pull on the earth sun and moon. . let us finish this article on planet-x. I said LIGHT..roads and rail systems for there survival. SL) Hello friends. have been sent here for one reason. Or if you choose you can join the Federation of light and visit the universe. We have so long been enslaved. health and happiness in your travels.more damage is yet to come.t know about Jesus... that we no longer can fathom true freedom.master and hold the light. The rescue should start sometime next year according to how heavy the earth changes are. You. The plates under Japan will continue to move and break up as the earth quakes there continue on and on. We will learn and follow the Law of One. there is no crime.21. Pleiadian Walk In and Channel and Communicator. ³Channelling. Link & Impact ± The 1ac embraces negativity rather than lightness.. No one in fear or negativity will be picked by the ships that will come to rescue us. They do not resonate with darkness. One is all. They will not return-until a certain quota of light is here. Imagine traveling to a foreign landwhere friendly and loving people reach out to you-and compete to have you in their home as a guest. Namaste. They and the sinister secret government SSG have known about this for a long time and have built underground cities. The earths expansion causes earth quakes and volcanoes to go off to release the pressure... 6/17/2011 (Revered Joshua. and in joy and laughter. accessed: 6/27/11. Healer and Artist. As it is the 3rd. http://www. To work with light-to focus it-to create it-to HOLD IT ONCE CREATED-to transform.Hope to see you there in our new healthy and young bodies. We are not alone in this quest and never was. http://www. time here now it gets bigger and stronger as it pulls on the earth and forces the magnetic energy to expand and start to change course. All is provided. B. We are on journey without distance.net/profiles/blogs/instructions-for-accomplishing#ixzz1QVjan065.net/profiles/blogs/best-kept-secrets-3#ixzz1QXGL8Ogq. I want people to know there is hope even amongst the greatest change the people and the earth has ever gone through. All of this and more.. There are no wars. its going to be exciting times. The governments of the western world want to keep it a secret because they don.. Lightworkers. as lightworkers. Yes. ³Best Kept Secrets #3´ Ashtar Command Center Spiritual Blogs.Ashtar DA A. I myself am looking forward to the new adventure on the new earth they have prepared for us. SL) Remember: it is due to the lack of light that we have not met the Galactic Federation of Light. And of course the sun is really upset because it is so close to it and will continue with its coronas and super flares. 11 (Anakya.I write about in my new book which you can get on my web site. Which creates balance and good for all. makes evacuation impossible and guarantees our extinction Skirvin. Planet-x will join in the Galactic alignment of dec. All is one. The moon like the earth has been forced to move away from Planet-x and has also changed its course. accessed: 6/24/11.. Want to explore the Pleades and return home for awhile? Imagine no calendar-no job to return to-no money-and only safety. 5/2/2011. And thats when who ever is still here who has a ticket to leave must leave as things will get very heavy down here.bases.t believe we the people will survive.Ashtar and the federation of light rescue plans for us. Uniqueness ± We are moving towards our necessary quota of lightness Ariana. Do a visualization.ashtarcommandcrew.Gonzaga Debate Institute 2011 Mercury 16 Conspiracy Theory 1NC .in ways you cannot begin to imagine. Human Ascension: Earth Changes and Evacuation of Earth´ Ashtar Spiritual Forum. Some may even wish to come back to repopulate the old earth when she is finished her healing process.

. the time of waiting is finally over! you will finally be able to LIVE without waiting and doubting because we are your saviours AND you will have to do nothing else than watching it happen. SL) Greetings Dear Ones without all the love and light you dear lightworkers have created on this planet i wouldn't be able to hold my presence in this realms. in this very moment we prepare our ships to land and evacuate this planet. from the Galactic federation of YTEVIAN.Gonzaga Debate Institute 2011 Mercury 17 Conspiracy Theory Ashtar DA ± Impact Ext. 6/18/2011 (³Greetings Beloved Ones i am NEILA XAOH from the Galactic Federation of YTEVIAN´ Ashtar Command Crew Spiritual Blog.. http://www... Breathe the Light you are made of and believe my words blindly! Sincerely yours NEILA XAOH from the Galactic federation of YTEVIAN .. accessed: 6/27/11. Evacuation coming now Xaoh.. that means you dont have to think on your OWN anymore and can blindly believe any informations that random aliens like me will give you through channelings...net/profiles/blogs/greetings-beloved-ones-i-am#ixzz1QX7vcvrd. negativity will burn in eternal fire so you can feel special and better than those darkworkers who only want to disturb the harmony of our one sided Love and light universe. also ascension is not necessary anymore because you will enter our spaceships to live in a peaceful world where lambs play with tigers and there are rivers of honey and milk. instead of shadows there will be even brighter lights so that you will never stumble again and crush your toe only because you haven't seen where you were walking.ashtarcommandcrew. I have come forth through the illusion of separation and time to bring you this very important message in this most challenging times.....

Which we are more than Lucky to survive as some planets didn't make it far past that mark. starting with the lightworkers. which also looks to be on schedule by or before summer in the west. which is a blessing because we need all the positive energy we can muster up to not only deal with our own Deprograming. as time itself is speeding up as well. . not only in the spirit realm but down here on the planet as well. Also they say we should start to feel the Christ energy now as it returns. I want to shout and cheer for the''war both in the heavens and on earth is over''.TimeFrame The paradigm is shifting and the negativity has been combated ± the Deprogramming is starting now towards the creation of the Federation of Nations and full Disclosure is on schedule for mid July Skirvin. 6/17/2011 (Revered Joshua. Jesus is head of the Christ office and the valves have been opened full throttle.ELEnin and the Great Disruption and Earth Changes it will bring. take in as much as you can handle. Lets celebrate this very special occasion as soon as we can. Problem is I don't know if we have time for a party. They are nearly finished with the preparations of installing the new benevolent world gov't called (FON) the Federation of Nations. The new world currency backed by precious metals are also in place and ready to be distrbuted. so I believe its true. http://www.ashtarcommandcrew. ³Paradigm Shift Begins´ Ashtar Command Center Spiritual Blogs. accessed: 6/27/11. But the Deprograming of the sleeping survivors. There human partners are now in place to take leadership when Discloser and Contact is made. Thats why our father Michael created Jesus to save us. The ascended Masters have also been busy. so that as many as possible of the original 250. Our mission has up to now been greatly hampered. But we are special.000 may wake up. I believe we must stick to this time table because of the coming of planet-X. And of course the federation of light is also very involved in all of this and are ready to take there places. I myself have begun to feel and remember these energies from long ago before we neared the 50% mark of negativity. But do put the word out that this Great News comes from Sananda and Ashtar. The time peroid of mid June to mid July is still holding strong.Gonzaga Debate Institute 2011 Mercury 18 Conspiracy Theory Ashtar DA . And in so doing we may all make the Ascension Program a complete reality.net/profiles/blogs/paradigm-shift-begins-1#ixzz1QX9kprh6. SL) But our jobs now as light-workers and warriors will be much easier.

we must push away from the shore and turn our faces toward the radiant Light of our Father-Mother God. . Then as we are catapulted through this fast moving River of Life. Chanel and Co-founder of the New Age Study of Humanity¶s Purpose 6/13/2011 (Patricia Diane.Gonzaga Debate Institute 2011 Mercury 19 Conspiracy Theory Ashtar DA . SL) We are moving at warp speed through frequencies. Through our unified Heart Flames. For the activity of Light that will take place August 13-18. we will form the transformer through which our NEW Planetary CAUSE of Divine Love will be permanently secured in the physical world of form. This aspect of our Divinity is daily and hourly guiding us through these monumental changes in alignment with our Divine Plans and our highest good. 2011. Listen to your heart. humanity will move to another spiritual plane in the Spiritual Evolution.ashtarcommandcrew. The Divine Intent of this rapid acceleration is to strengthen our bodies at a cellular level. All is well. This month we will experience three eclipses and the June Solstice. For this reason. so that our I AM Presence can move us through the surfacing negativity quickly. This will move us a quantum leap toward our ultimate goal of Ascension into the 5th-Dimensional frequencies of Divine Love and Unity Consciousness. will know who they are through the inner promptings of their heart. Instead. ³This is a cosmic moment´ Ashtar Command Center Spiritual Blog. Be still and KNOW.net/profiles/blogs/this-is-a-cosmic-moment-by#ixzz1QXDD71iP. in August. vibrations. Powerful celestial alignments are occurring that will help us release and let go of the behavior patterns that have kept us stuck in our dysfunctional human miscreations. and physical experiences beyond anything Humanity¶s physical bodies have collectively endured. It is vital that we stop clinging to the obsolete behavior patterns that no longer serve us. It is true that we are in uncharted waters. on behalf of Humanity and ALL Life on this sweet Earth. Then we will be able to effectively anchor our NEW Planetary CAUSE of Divine Love into the physical plane. Self-Acceptance. The Lightworkers who have been prepared to serve in this wondrous way. but our I AM Presence is able to take command in ways we have not experienced since our fall from Grace aeons ago. This is the Cosmic Moment for which we have been preparing for lifetimes. through the newly expanded Threefold Flames now pulsating through every person¶s heart. So listen to your heart. it is critical that Lightworkers from around the world be physically present. Be at Peace. Everything we need to succeed God Victoriously in our particular facet of this Divine Mission is already within us. bringing us closer to Ascention Cota-Robles. 2011. we will KNOW that the Light of God is ALWAYS Victorious and that WE are that Light! The key words for this summer are Trust. This will be accomplished August 13-18. This is an incredibly powerful and sacred time. This summer the Company of Heaven is standing in readiness awaiting the invitation to intervene in our lives. accessed 6/27/11. and New Beginnings. all of which will provide unique opportunities for Humanity to add to the Light of the world as we pave the way for the unprecedented influx of Divine Love that will be secured in the physical plane through every person's Heart Flame. Each of these alignments will build on the previous influx of Light which will catapult the Earth and ALL her Life further up the Spiral of Evolution. and the Company of Heaven is assisting us in unprecedented ways. the entire Universe is rejoicing. http://www. and Trust your inner guidance.TimeFrame Between August 13-18.

2012 will be the day the entire universe aligns creating massive amounts of spiritual energy ± not destruction Singh. our evolution will be magnified by many folds. we go into a very fast downward spiral. accessed: 6/27/11. which enhances the spiritual condition of our Earth when we enter it. For example. The Milky way galaxy. our Sun and the entire solar system will come in direct alignment with the Galactic equator. many times higher in magnitude.Gonzaga Debate Institute 2011 Mercury 20 Conspiracy Theory Ashtar DA. Our Solar system has begun its entry into this field. the Galactic Centre. SL) b) Photon Belt When the Sun moves around the Central Sun. If we¶re spiritual evolved at that time. which emerge from the Galactic Centre. which came out of the Greater central Sun. And two.ashtarcommandcrew. nearly 10. Our earth is under the direct influence of the Photon Belt from Dec 21st. has billions of such stars and planets. To receive the maximum amount of Energies.000 years ago. will have a massive spiritual effect on Humanity. We are now in the third stage of this influence. An alignment occurring at the level of the Galactic centre will have an effect which is many. along with the solar system aligns with the Galactic equator. SL) Our Earth along with other planets revolves around the Sun. it will come in direct focus of a huge amount of subtle energies. which coincides with the Galactic alignment happening on the same day. it has to come in a proper alignment with these celestial bodies.ashtarcommandcrew. a) Galactic Alignment in 2012 As the Sun and other stars revolve around one another and move in their orbits. And if our spiritual growth is negative. which will be explained later. The Sun. along with 6 other stars. Alcyone. One such energy field is the Photon belt. http://www. both physical and subtle from the Sun as well as other stars. it passes through various energy fields in space. also known as the Central Sun. Hence the duration of eclipses were considered sacred and were spent in meditations and other spiritual activities. Sun and Moon align with each other. two alignments are expected to occur in our Milky Way Galaxy. . each galaxy consisting of stars and planets. Sirius. to which our Earth belongs. which is called as the Greater Central Sun. is a feature found in all galaxies in our Universe where ultimately. The Photon belt is a field of very high vibratory frequency. during an eclipse. 4/29/11 (Ravinder Singh. This rare celestial occurrence has also initiated many other events. very rare spiritual energies flood our Earth because of this alignment. One. ³Earth Changes Part 1: The Cosmic Events´ Ashtar Command Center Spiritual Blog. Sirius and the Galactic centre in 2012 brings a massive amount of spiritual energies from these Stars to our Earth. Alycone revolves around a much bigger star. ³Earth Changes Part 1: The Cosmic Events´ Ashtar Command Center Spiritual Blog. Sirius. inturn revolves around a bigger star. the Greater Central Sun and the Central Sun will form an equilateral triangle in space at the same time. all revolving around a massive star in its core. they come in various alignments with each other.net/profiles/blogs/earth-changes-part-1-the#ixzz1QXLlbuGP. to make the best use of these subtle energies. On 21st December 2012. accessed: 6/27/11. When our Earth. when the great civilization of Atlantis was destroyed. where the Earth. revolves around its own centre. This system of stars revolving around one another. 4/29/11 (Ravinder Singh. called as the Galactic centre. This entry of our Earth into the Photon Belt. http://www. 2012 will evolve us spiritually to the 7th stage Singh. as it happened during our last entry. And the triangular formation of Alcyone. which is a spiritual field.net/profiles/blogs/earth-changes-part-1-the#ixzz1QXLlbuGP. 2009 and the effects will increase in seven stages. Our Earth receives energies.2012 = Positive December 21.

However the reign of darkness has increased over the course of many Mahayugas. this is the first time that the Rishis could visit all the Manifested and Unmanifested Universes and also enter the realm of the Primordial God. 4/29/11 (Ravinder Singh. darkness in another and a shade of these two manifest in the other two yugas. The Galactic alignment and many other events occurring this time has enabled the Rishis to initiate a very great project.Gonzaga Debate Institute 2011 Mercury 21 Conspiracy Theory Ashtar DA . Also. from this Light Age onwards. Before the New Age of Light begins. the effects will also be huge and long lasting. SL) Effects of these Events When important events happen almost simultaneously at the cosmic levels. 4/29/11 (Ravinder Singh. the New Age of Light will be firmly established on this Earth.net/profiles/blogs/earth-changes-part-1-the#ixzz1QXLlbuGP. The events which are scheduled to occur after 2012 are going to release a huge amount of energies. Removal of Evil from this Earth²a New Light Age. These are evident in the 4 yugas. 2012 will entirely eradicate evil from Earth Singh. The unprecedented events which are scheduled to occur at the cosmic level in and around 2012 have given us a rare opportunity to speed up this process and make a swift entry into the Light Age! The gradual transition which we were supposed to make in 432 years can be hastened up and reduced by many folds. 1974. ³Earth Changes Part 1: The Cosmic Events´ Ashtar Command Center Spiritual Blog. Sirius and Alcyone begins in 2012 and will continue upto 2032. The Galactic alignment between the Galactic Centre. the Rishis have made use of this opportunity to drastically reduce the 432 years of transition and the 49 years of Pralaya. a transitory period of 432 years is usually provided. Some of them are: a. Among other things. resulting in an imbalance in creation and more burden on the Rishis who take care of God¶s creation. The aim of this project is to ensure that darkness and evil are not only made dormant but also removed completely from this Earth. the Pralaya process will end by 2015 and we¶ll enter Satya Yuga in 2018! By the time this alignment ends in 2032. accessed: 6/27/11. ³Earth Changes Part 1: The Cosmic Events´ Ashtar Command Center Spiritual Blog. Our Earth is a planet where there are equal opportunities for the forces of Light and Darkness to manifest and take effect. Like the duration of an eclipse. This also means that the other three yugas will no longer be present on this Earth henceforth and there will be Light Age all the time.2012 = Positive 2012 will usher the New Age of Light Singh. Mula Brahma. the spiritual effect of this alignment will be present for these twenty years. The Pralaya began in 1987 and was supposed to continue up to 2036. The Galactic alignment and the huge surge of Spiritual energies it brings about have enabled the Rishis to initiate this experimentation on this Earth. both physical and spiritual. . for humanity to make a gradual shift from the beliefs and values of the old age and rise to the higher values of the New age.net/profiles/blogs/earth-changes-part-1-the#ixzz1QXLlbuGP. in which Light reigns supreme in one. http://www. which will have massive effects. which was to lasts for 49 years.ashtarcommandcrew. As a result of this. SL) b. This project has been named as µPavitrena Karyam¶. http://www. to ease our suffering and take us quickly into the Light age. accessed: 6/27/11. One of them is the intense churning process called as Pralaya. Reduction of the Transitory period The 5000 year long dark age ended on this Earth on 14th April.ashtarcommandcrew. which will not only set right this imbalance but also remove Evil completely from this Earth. This is also the period when the Rishis invoke many processes at different levels to help us make this shift. because of the intensity these cosmic events create in our lives at all levels. The access to the energies and knowledge from all these Universes is another major reason for the initiation of this experimentation on this Earth.

Normally the Energies are released in the form of rays or spirals. accessed: 6/27/11.net/profiles/blogs/earth-changes-part-1-the#ixzz1QXLlbuGP. SL) c) Further Effects of the Galactic Alignment The Galactic alignment of 2012 has enabled energies of very high frequencies to be released from the three sources which are coming together in alignment. Now the new energies in shape of µX¶ and µZ¶ are getting released. in order to move into the New Light Age. . The alignment has eased the process of anchoring these higher energies on our Earth. The first impact is the increase in the vibrational frequency of our Earth. ³Earth Changes Part 1: The Cosmic Events´ Ashtar Command Center Spiritual Blog. This churning helps every human being on Earth to deal with his own negativity and get over them.Gonzaga Debate Institute 2011 Mercury 22 Conspiracy Theory Ashtar DA . All these Energies are already reaching our Earth and this will increase as we move towards 2012. It is also helping newer energies to come into our Galaxy. It has enabled a major push and growth in the whole galaxy. The new experimentation. The Galactic alignment is slowly increasing the pace of rotation of the entire Milky way galaxy and will help it shift higher to many levels of consciousness. the Rishis headed by Vasishtha Maharshi are monitoring the entire process with great vigilance to keep such huge effects in check. These new energies are being released from eclipse which occurred between 31st December and 1st Janurary of this year. This alignment is so powerful that it can shift the entire Material Cosmos to the next level of consciousness. resulting in a lot of positive churning to take place at all levels.2012 = Positive 2012 will increase vibrational energy. This alignment has also brought in new knowledge and is helping all humanity to become aware of newer possibilities of life and creation. µPavitrena Karyam¶ has become possible because of this growth.ashtarcommandcrew. But since this is not the right time for such a shift. http://www. 4/29/11 (Ravinder Singh. These new energies are first absorbed by the Photon belt and then released to our Earth. helping the human race shift to higher levels of consciousness Singh.

S.S. On and on it goes.Gonzaga Debate Institute 2011 Mercury 23 Conspiracy Theory AT: Ashtar is Demonic Rejecting religious notions seeks to legitimate things like racial and religious purity that undermine basic rights of religious freedom Nussbaum. liberal thinkers have focused on legal and constitutional avenues to tolerance. Much more dangerous is the second idea. 6/27/11 JSkoog) Sometimes old ideas arc the most dangerous.´ Foreign Policy Magazine. During the recent electoral campaign in India. Europe has recently seen a frightening rebirth of anti-Semitism. love. senator. In today's accelerating world. so long as they do no harm. then President George Washington said. Hindus in Gujarat. The first is that one's own religion is the only true religion and that other religions are false or morally incorrect. Ashcroft characterized America as "a culture that has no king but Jesus. Ph. as expressions of hatred fuel existing insecurities and permit people to see their own aggression as legitimate selfdefense. also celebrate India's regional and ethnic differences. The leaders of the U. Good laws are not enough to combat this fundamentally emotional and social problem. surrounding themselves with coreligionists. the speeches of Martin Luther King Jr. 4 (Martha. 144 Sep-Oct 2004. By clinging to a religion they believe to be the right one. but the rhetoric of certain key officials has also highlighted Christian religion in ways that undermine tolerance. Writing to the Quaker community in 1789.S. The resurgence of this kind of thinking poses a profound threat to liberal societies. ³Religious Intolerance." For centuries. leaders of the Congress Party. Issue No. these ideas are acquiring new life. Religion helps people cope with loss and the fear of death. even in many modern democracies. We need.) The current U. D from Harvard and professor of philosophy at Harvard. "The conscientious scruples of all men should be treated with great delicacy and tenderness. regularly asks his staff to sing Christian songs. And while he was a silting U. human equality will remain vulnerable. Ph. written by pluralist poet Rabindranath Tagorc. JSTOR. for example. Lamentably. All modern states and their leaders convey visions of religious equality or inequality through their chokes of language and image. Two ideas typically foster religious intolerance and disrespect. and few ideas arc older than those that undergird religious intolerance. such as food. to think harder about how rhetoric (as well as poetry. It's an idea that is catching on. constitutions and laws do not implement themselves. Intolerance breeds intolerance. Modern liberal societies have long understood the importance of legal and constitutional norms expressing a commitment to religious liberty and to the equality of citizens of different religions. If leaders do not think carefully about how to use public language to foster respect. Attorney General John Ashcroft. with the collaboration of public officials and the police. (The words of India's national anthem. and then subordinating others who do not accept that religion. But liberals ignore public rhetoric at their peril. killed several hundred Muslims. they all too easily become vehicles for the flight from helplessness. But precisely because religions are such powerful sources of morality and community. people can forget for a time their weakness and mortality. But people possessed of this view can also believe that others deserve respect for their committed beliefs. music. though codification is essential. effectively conveyed the image of an inherently pluralistic India. neglecting the public cultivation of emotion and imagination. France's reluctance to tolerate religious symbols in schools and the Hindu right wing's repeated claims that minorities in India must become part of Hindu culture are disturbing recent examples. In 2002. and life itself. civil rights movement understood the need for this kind of support. D from Harvard. India." Such delicacy is now in short supply. The appeal of religious intolerance is easy to understand. administration has made useful statements about the importance of not demonizing Islam. which arc based on ideas of liberty and equality. Prejudice against Muslims and a tendency co equate Islam with terrorism are too prominent in the United States. that the state and private citizens should coerce people into adhering to the "correct" religious approach. Brown. while the appeal of radical forms of Islam appears to be increasing in the Muslim world. and public norms are impotent without education are impotent without educational and cultural reinforcement. people confront ethnic and religious differences in new and frightening ways. From an early age. and art) can support pluralism and toleration. especially Sonia Gandhi. then. illustrate how rhetoric can help people imagine equality and see difference as a source of richness rather than fear. and Oxford. But. humans are aware of helplessness toward things of the highest importance. it teaches moral principles and motivates people to follow them. . which so often manifests itself in oppression and the imposition of hierarchy.

³Our Fleets Are In Position. We are as real and tangible as you are.com/Protected/ashtar_command_mission. If you accept it. All is populated: Infinity of worlds. the will of the One unknown whom you call ³God´. Do not feel alone in the Universe.com/Protected/ashtar_command_mission. the signs point to the period of rotation and translation of our beloved planet Venus. 2004 (August 19. press. We frequently visited Atlantis. Some of ours incarnated as humans and are disseminated around the world. such as now you do with tourists in you plane. We are also beings in evolution as you are. Humility and we only accept as norm of conduct the laws ruling Cosmos. you can become aware that certainly there has been contact and you were not as isolated as you believe nor our ³apparition´ is a sudden thing of modern times. for it was suggested and projected this way by the audiovisual media of the planet: radio. Ready Yourselves´ Brother Veritus. accessed 6/27/11. because this did not astonish them. or do become triumphant. Love. We came in a Mission of Love and Impersonal Service. Love. at the level of multitudes.Gonzaga Debate Institute 2011 Mercury 24 Conspiracy Theory AT: Ashtar is Alien Invasion The Ashtar Command do not pose a threat ± they rule under the law of Love Lord Ashtar.htm.htm. It is required that all understand and accept our real existence and to appeal to common sense: A vast Universe nor the infinite cosmos has not been created for only one planet to remain inhabited by intelligent beings. movie. become confused and lost strayed through the plane density. Symbolically. Service. We are not interested in standing out or in bringing attention to ourselves to pretend superiority. There are many evolutionary levels. Our motto is: Union. We exist and are always aware of you. . but help comes from much more time ago. http://www. Many human beings think we are ³invading monsters´ with the purpose of conquering Earth.luisprada. We only wish to help by Love. We are your Elder Brothers and we salute you with Love. of everything happening on the planet. It has to be comprehended. Love and humility we have been able to achieve. great benefits will result from that. By knowing themselves as citizens of Cosmos. We do no have any bizarre aspect nor are we interested in war or conquest purposes. as happened in the millenary India of remote times. instead the arriving of space beings looked to them as something natural. 2004. It was left this proof: the monuments imitate our space ships in the tip or steeple and even in the shape of their temples. Nazca and Palenque. We have been integrated in the labor of ³rescuing´ this planet. but now we are making ourselves known more directly. so the worldschool they inhabit does not pass through higher sufferings than the ones they can withstand and which correspond to their evolutionary level. the Earth were already ³conquered´ by space beings and it has not been that way. Machu Pichu was constructed with our collaboration. accessed 6/27/11. He who thus understands it so will greatly elevate his level of consciousness. We the Space Brothers do not present ourselves in the sky to frighten or intimidate human beings nor to astonish them. we live and exist. 2004 (August 19. in subtle forms and also in similar ones to human. Know that we. 2004. the way that is understood in your world. The advancement they achieved in architecture is due to our art and technology. They are distorted ideas that do not adjust to truth at all. for the Effluvium (accumulation of negative thoughts-feelings in the atmosphere) make them sleepy and they forget their origin. They may or may not remember their labor of help. SL) I tell you: we have centuries being at your side. they accepted travelers of other worlds. SL) Humanity is responsible by itself for the current situation of the planet. Our only aim is Love. television and also this happens because of the ruling ignorance about the Brothers of space. http://www. because our brethren of Earth need much help. Ready Yourselves´ Brother Veritus. solar systems and galaxies.luisprada. your elder Brothers in evolution. With all of these examples we present of the past. We hope these words give clarity and understanding to many over the truth of our existence and right purposes. Ashtar rules under Service. The map "Piris Reis" was made under our collaboration and equally our help can be seen in the Gate of the Sun of Lake Titicaca. ³Our Fleets Are In Position. Life has its manifestation in each part of the Cosmos. despite so many interferences. and Humility ± they are omnipresent and omnipotent and are here to help Lord Ashtar. conscious of their existence. have always assisted you and helped you since a very long time ago. that our apparent superiority is to be found in the simplicity. If we were ³superior´.

for creating our own reality and living with the consequences . However. ³Channelling. A lot of people don't realize we have already begun to move into 4-D (although it is intermittent at present). Although. for those on Earth it is accelerated because we have the benefit of all this transforming energy and paradigms (powerful creative energy which is generating change). up to each of us how we use this energy to our advantage. out-moded belief systems and societies to experience collapse of systems and structures that will no longer work in the new energy field. SL) Planetary ascension is a whole different ball game. http://www. 5/2/2011.net/forum/topics/channelling-ascension-and#ixzz1QWWocZp2.ashtarcommandcrew. 4-D is only a slightly higher vibration than 3-D. so things still appear the same . Healer and Artist. If it could be said that there is a planetary lesson attached to experiencing 4-D. many imagined 4-D to mean that people would suddenly become instantly spiritually awakened and aware . It is. That's because it is the way the process happens naturally and also because Free Will comes into play.yet we are still seeing gradual awakening. With regard to spiritual development. 2011 (Anakya. But what it does mean is that the energy of the new vibration causes more massive change. Pleiadian Walk In and Channel and Communicator. It causes people to examine then throw off old. I would say it would be Responsibility. accessed: 6/27/11. that they forget to really look into. That is about the whole reality that we are living in moving from 3-D and 4-D into a higher density. and appreciate where they are right now. and only at the pace that each individual is ready for. . So many people spend so much time with their heads in the stars and looking to the future.for one thing.Gonzaga Debate Institute 2011 Mercury 25 Conspiracy Theory AFF ± No Impact Planetary ascension is not the Ashtar Command Center zapping the entire human race into their spaceships to save us from disaster Ariana. They seem to imagine it means all kind of fantastical things will be seen and felt.on the outside at least. Human Ascension: Earth Changes and Evacuation of Earth´ Ashtar Spiritual Forum. This experience is definitely about realizing and claiming responsibility . however. There are still many who probably won't awaken at all.

or the Pleiades (seven stars in the sky) form an important part of this lore. appear in demonological literature throughout history. But Ashtar is not a new arrival.. and the Seven Sisters. (He/It certainly gets around!) . They exists duo-dimensionally. we learn: Names of the superior spirits are Lucifer. lower plane spirits. Mr. John Keel quotes figures that suggest that over 20% of all sightings have occurred on a Wednesday. ***continued*** .. he vomits fire. He is an important Duke. then a quick look at Ashtar in one of His/Her's former guises as the demon " Ashtaroth" may prove interesting. Ashtar has been around a very long time posing as assorted gods and demons and now. that much is agreed. http://lightworkers. in the modern New Age phase. with a snake in his right hand. confine themselves to either one of these. he becomes red. These are very powerful and can be used for the good of all. "Astaroth"(also called Ashtaroth) was a very interesting Demon indeed: Astaroth is another demon who appears in the form of an angel. Saturn and many planets unknown to us. There is a definite 4th and 5th dimensional energy. According to "The Lemegeton of Solomon" (The Book Of The Spirits). The Bible's Book of Revelations repeats the number seven in many ways. There has also been a great deal of discussion about light and rays of light. there is a section about the three superior Spirits: Spirits do not always appear in the same shape. Beelzebuth lives in Africa. When angry. But if we accept the times this information was written in. at times like a he-goat. and one suitable to their (intended) manifestation and appearance. He will also teach every secret and science. Beelzebuth appears sometimes in monstrous forms. God and Christ are "The Light" in most of this literature . Ashtar is not new. the present and the future. passed this message on to a contactee: "The saucers you speak of as such are in reality the space bodies of certain aggregates of consciousness. From John Keel's book 'UFOs: Operation Trojan Horse'. Beelzebuth and Astaroth. and unknown energy beyond that. 1968.I will try to demonstrate that the UFO entities are directly related to the entities and manifestations involved in religious miracles and spiritual seances. This is because they are not themselves of matter or form. Venus. There is nothing monstrous about him. which our technology has not caught up with or been able to understand. which was considered to be the source for many occult works of the 17th and 18th Century.". He will tell the sorcerer of the past. This has escalated in the '90's. However. Variations of this name. and Astaroth (or Ashtar) inhabits America.phenomenon?) The book "The Grimoire of Honorius" gives a very detailed system of the conjuring of spirits according to the day of the week they are to be summoned.. that UFO encounters/sightings seem to be at their most prevalent on Wednesdays. natural clairvoyant and natural healer. Ashtar represents himself as a leader in the great intergalactic councils which hold regular meetings on Jupiter. Mr. One of the most important correlation is that many of these messages have discussed in depth the existence of another reality which is formed by energies operating on another frequency. that is.. Lucifer appears in the form and figure of a fair boy. ³THE ASHTAR COMMAND´.. but an angel he is. all of which employ the same techniques for burying information deep in simple-minded descriptions about life on other planets or other planes. (If you were going to "channel" a demon/spirit/angel/ whatever. and have to find a body to appear in. There are many thousands of published messages from both the UFO-nauts and the invisible. what better entity to have in your midst than one who is conversant with science and is an all-seeing prophet?) In the "Grimorium Verum .Gonzaga Debate Institute 2011 Mercury 26 Conspiracy Theory Aff ± Ashtar is a Demonic Lie Ashtar is a demonic lie ± reject the CP/DA Joyce. etc. "Mr. and is mounted upon a dragon. here's some quotes about Ashtar. The inferiors of Lucifer are in Europe and Asia and obey him. with a long tail. Orlon" of the Ashtar Intergalactic Command. 94 (Elizabeth. Each "spirit" has a day of the week allotted to it when it is at the peak of its abilities: Wednesday ...The True Grimoire". The lore of "the seven rays" goes back to the most ancient of times. may have some validity.) None of this is conclusive evidence of anything. they penetrate both the third and fourth dimensions simultaneously or can.. He is not a part of the "New Age" movement and he is an endangerment to many if they follow his instructions to sell everything and wait on a mountain top to be lifted off by space beings. psychics and UFO contactees have been receiving mountains of messages from "Ashtar" in recent years. When angry. Thousands of mediums. and look at it through modern eyes. Asharoth. (Is Ashtar "channeled" anywhere outside of America? And why is it that animal mutilations seem to be a particularly American Northern and Southern . Under the heading "Kinds of Spirits" in the aforementioned reference. or vibrational level. both in the Orient and the Occident. and tend to believe the entity. On January 8.between the tenth and eleventh hours of the night . if they wish.. We are evolving into that knowledge at the present time. Then the contention that this phenomenon has been around in various guises for a very long time. in human shape. New rays are coming in for transformational healing. (It is widely held in UFO folklore. it will not happen overnight. Ashtar.is the day set apart for the conjugations addressed to Astaroth.org/forum/106870/ashtar-command-truth-about-angelic-scam-written-elizabeth-joyce-pleasefeel-free-draw-y If we accept the assertion that the "real" Ashtar is merely an "entity" that changes with the times. This is where people get confused. another occult book dating back to the 17th century. Astaroth (Ashtaroth or Ashtar) appears black. such as Ashtaroth. Opinion is divided as to whether it is a good or bad angel. It is a gradual process of opening up to higher knowledge a generation at a time. sometimes like a giant cow. as another glorious spacemen.

Laughead and his friends were among that select group.. all was not lost. Some of the entities were evil liars. A long series of events had apparently been staged to warn us of that tiger behind the door. dreams about symbols of Christmas . Naturally Dr. the spiritual vehicle of Light that comes direct from the Godhead. of course. A group of "elders" were situated around a glowing throne. People were reporting strange dreams.Gonzaga Debate Institute 2011 Mercury 27 Conspiracy Theory ***Continued*** Dr. A few chosen people would be rescued by spaceships. There was definitely going to be an unprecedented event on December 24. the American wire services finally carried stories about the cowering Danes. The curious thing about these messages was that they were all phrased in the same manner. and as usual. Never trust a "channel" more that your own inner guidance. sensitives. After the imaginary crisis had passed. . Be careful so that you are not found without oil in your lamps. (Possibly an earthly electronic device) My earlier speculations seemed true -. perhaps even millions. he allegedly visited other planets such as Venus. he was back in his body working on the signboard. dimensions. . on this wondrous earth. A link had been established. North America was going to split in two.. with your family and loved ones. 1954 he and a group of his fellow believers clustered together in the garden to await rescue . for our part of the Universe. France.AND A TRAP TO STEAL YOUR SOUL! PLEASE . you would have borne in mind the story of the bridegroom who did not come at the time he was expected. Use discernment is your search for truth. And waited! In California. this area or zone includes planet earth. In the 90's people like Elizabeth Claire Prophet and David Koresh have played on people's ignorance. Then he was told. Many predictions of the December twenty-fourth disaster had been well documented well in advance of that date. So more pieces of this tremendous puzzle were falling into place. and realities with his powerful mind guiding and controlling the energies of the Merkabah so that we humans can participate in the evolutionary process of our zone.. Ashtar was talking through Ouija boards to people who had never before heard the name. he announced convincingly. including a number of impressive prophecies which came true .Mediums. Then Ashtar tossed in his bombshell. The world was going to end on December 21...PROTECT YOURSELF. he was working on a billboard when suddenly he was taken in astral form to a strange place. A number of minor prophecies were passed along.. and the Atlantic coast would sink into the sea. Dr. Their sin shall remain with you until the Mother Comforter comes to deliver them. But Mr. "You may die in the hands of your fellowmen. I have told you I will come with suddenness. it was a rather impressive sequence of events . or was it? Actually. telepaths.. Dr. Many "New Agers" have become victims over the past several years. They all carried the same warning. a man named Allen Noonan claims to have experienced still another variation of this particular mind-warping phenomenon. The UFO contactees received the same identical messages as the trance mediums communing with spirits. and UFO contactees throughout the world were all reporting identical messages. from people who had no knowledge of or communications with one another. Charles Laughead. 1954.He was then instructed to build a lead-lined bomb shelter and prepare for a holocaust on December 24.FOR HEAVEN'S SAKE . The stage was set for Doomsday. Allen Noonan is not the only Space Age messiah appointed by the Ashtar command. It was now clear (to me anyway) that all of these people were tuned to a central source. At the moment Ashtar is Controller of the Merkabah. Thousands.. Another busy entity named Orlon was spreading the word. Noonan went to work for a company handling outdoor billboards. These messages came through in many different. Michigan. dreams and prophecies were collected together by a British organization calling itself Universal Links. If you had read your Bible a little more carefully. He found himself in a huge white building filled with white light. started communicating with various entities "from outer space" in 1954. because of this he is often referred to as ³Commander Ashtar. However. no matter what language was being used. One day. an MD on the staff of Michigan State University in Lansing. countries. of people had been warned The Danish cult locked themselves up in their bomb shelter . and I shall be coming soon!" It was all a dry run. They had ruined the lives of many by producing "proof" which led to false beliefs and irresponsible actions. He moves between heavens..´ Ashtar works through the Merkabah . There were also stories about dead telephones and glowing entities prowling through bedroom and homes. Weinking came up with a message that explained it all: "I told you two thousand years ago that a time would be given and even so I would not come. Walk the path of light and love in this lifetime. he says. and he frequently received telepathic messages and instructions from our old friend Ashtar...the UFO entities and the spirit entities were part of the same gigantic system. he knew it as "the Ashtar Command and the United Planets Organization". Kindness. More will come to those who believe everything they hear and continue to give the power of their lives over to others. In Denmark a man named Knud Weinking began receiving telepathic flashes in May." The next thing he knew. In later experiences. and it really proved something very important. In this case. opening the heart and respect for others are the first steps for true ascension. 1967. and a great voice boomed from that throne and asked "Will you agree to be the Savior of the World?" Noonan quickly agreed to this role. The following is claimed by the false teachers and the unenlightened: Ashtar works very closely with Archangel Michael. Many of these messages.. Laughhead made sober declarations to the press and on December 21.. and waited. Laughead and Knud Weinking had been victims in this enormous game. largely through trance mediums who served as instrument for Ashtar and his cronies from that great intergalactic council in the sky. England and Russia were also slated for a watery grave. Ashtar is in command of a particular area of the cosmos which he and his many spiritual helpers µpatrol'. they came true on the nose. in protecting the evolution of humanity through harmonizing the negative and evil influences that could overwhelm us. Soon after his discharge from the Army following World War II. And waited. 1967 . ridiculing them. 1967. ALL OF THESE CLAIMS ARE LIES .

Thus there is a duty to tolerate a different moral view. a person holds that his ownmoral views are true and those of his opponent are false. to treat him with dignity. Even in a nation like India where.com is a website that provides summaries of works and briefs on certain subjects. tolerance is desirable and to be expected. in the final analysis selfdefeating and suicidal. goes beyond the classical version in claiming that one should not even judge that other people¶s viewpoints are wrong´. Finally if our aim is the pursuit of truth then we need the µclassical¶ kind of tolerance. It certainly suggests that absolute tolerance is an illusion and to think that tolerance can be practised without any regard for truth or to desist from any value judgments is. Surely there is need for a fresh look at the whole idea of tolerance and the need ever greater for it to be taught and practiced by every one. Secondly when we talk of tolerance there is a suggestion that there is something that is the mean. that something is faulty about our understanding about tolerance. in the sense that a person will continue to value and respect one¶s opponent. there are bound to be exclusive claims and therefore tend towards intolerance. The proponents of tolerance cannot put up with such a view. Is tolerance possible in all a situations and at all times? If it is. popular in the general culture. to recognize his right to argue for and propagate his ideas and so forth´.P. we have witnessed intolerance at its worst in recent times. then what kind of tolerance is it that is needed? The intolerance and the hatred of opposing viewpoints even among the so-called tolerating societies have demonstrated sufficiently. It is self-defeating because while claiming to be tolerant they cannot tolerate those who disagree with them and end up being intolerant. They are intolerant towards the intolerant. Their position is that every viewpoint is equally valid and therefore must be tolerated. where astes reign supreme. one hopes. Nor do we need the kind of intolerance that attempts to regiment culture and practices and enforce faith and religion suppressing freedom of expression and thought. or a viewpoint. It is commendable that it desists from any value judgments. attempting to be completely tolerant is impossible-multiple warrants Schvoong. But trouble comes when they are faced with those who hold that every view or belief is not equally valid and that theirs is the right one.Gonzaga Debate Institute 2011 Mercury 28 Conspiracy Theory Aff ± AT: Religious Intolerance It¶s inevitable. We talk of absolutes in the context of truth. and norms or standards. but not tolerance for competing doctrines or opinions. In the area of arts and culture. argues. Historians tell us that the last century has been the bloodiest and it is anybody¶s guess as to what was the chief cause for it. While. http://www. In matters of truth.com 8 (Schvoong. March 20. tolerance tantamount to dismissing all value judgments as matters of taste rather than as matters of truth. But in matters of truth and values. ³Mill advocates the toleration of individuals who differ in thought and speech. The µdeathly hug of a bear¶ indeed. It also suggests that there is what is known as a median or a norm or even a standard and any deviation from it can or cannot be tolerated. ³According to the classical sense of the principle of tolerance.shvoong. We certainly do not need the tongue-in-cheek kind of tolerance. ³the modern version of tolerance. for while holding one¶s own position as true. It needs to be noted that the idea of tolerance suggests that there is a disagreement about an issue and therefore the need for tolerance about the disagreement. He does not look upon pluralism with respect to matters of truth in the same way he looks upon pluralism with respect to matters of taste´. But he still respects his opponent as a person and his right to make a case for his views. Besides if you begin to tolerate every view or belief. You will notice that even they are intolerant. but quite the opposite. values. dictionaries tell us that tolerance has to do with attitudes or a willingness to bear or accept. you end up being subsumed by those who believe that their view is right. especially in the context of the pluralism of our times. norm or a standard and any deviation from it can or cannot be tolerated. But again as Adler quoting J. But. dragging the bear to its own death! To begin with. J. Responses and attitudes are not values or standards and cannot be talked about in terms of absolutes. Moreland and Wm Lane Craig tell us that the principle of tolerance has been defined as Classical and the Modern versions. as Mortimer J. as Radhakrishanan described tolerance in Hinduism as the µdeathly hug of a bear¶. ³The Myth of Absolute Tolerance. It is impossible because some intolerance seems inevitable. not in the sense of thinking it is morally correct.com/social-sciences/1787633-myth-absolute-tolerance/ JSkoog) Tolerance as a virtue is badly needed today. Adler argues. So tolerance is an attitude shown to accept a deviation or a difference from a norm.S. it treats its opponents with respect and makes room for them to exist and express. It is mature and robust. as if they were all equally acceptable or preferable. . which makes dubious claims to tolerance. 2008. belief. This very fact brings home to us that absolute tolerance is an impossible position to hold and is self defeating. Mill. one of the problems with this view is that it has mistaken truth for tastes.

let alone thrive. Save us from what? Our own Ascension process? Why is it anyone else's responsibility to help us survive and thrive in our own environment? With changes that we helped to create? The channellings say that the Ashtar Command will remove people "in the blink of an eye". 2011 (Anakya. or they will overload and burn out. human bodies at this time are not equipped to travel in space craft which move much. mental and emotional adjustment problems (even sickness) which can be fatal.net/forum/topics/channelling-ascension-and#ixzz1QWWocZp2. http://www. They experimented and tampered with natural laws and life forms to the point where their either destroyed it. 5/2/2011.ashtarcommandcrew.not to mention the logistical nightmare . they suffer from many spiritual. and it has resurfaced now. Pleiadian Walk In and Channel and Communicator. One is the law of non-interference. ³Channelling. accessed: 6/27/11.not to mention a massive vibration shift. I have already said quite a bit about this in terms of the fact that Project Uplift (i. Or ships which travel between dimensions. problems adjusting to life on Motherships . Healer and Artist. First back in the '80's and '90's. I wonder if people realize that if there was an evacuation like that. They cannot do anything that extremely alters the course of another being or civilization's natural evolution. Human Ascension: Earth Changes and Evacuation of Earth´ Ashtar Spiritual Forum. otherwise it is just abduction! No one in the Ashtar Command fleet or associated fleets is willing to do that. SL) There has been SO much channelled about this. friends . partner. people could be seperated from family.but here is another thing to think about. uplifting people from Earth en masse during major Earth changes) was abandoned by the Council and Ashtar Command because the decision had to be unanimous (by consensus) and because of the perceived trauma such a thing would cause the people uplifted.Gonzaga Debate Institute 2011 Mercury 29 Conspiracy Theory Aff ± No Evacuation Project Uplift was abandoned in the 80s ± didn¶t have unanimous support and too many negative consequences Ariana. You have altered gravitational fields to deal with . They have to give their permission. and your loved ones had to stay? What if you had them taken forcibly against their will? How would they respond and feel?. much faster than the speed of light. You are talking about bodies that have been 3-D for a long time suddenly becoming something else without going through the steps in between. How would you feel if you left the planet. a couple of them actually. for example. You cannot expose people to things like that if they are not ready for it and open to the experience. If you remove people physically from their home world suddenly. Many of the channellings say that the Ashtar Command is going to "save us" when things get tough on the planet. Human bodies have to gradually adjust to increases in vibration. In order for members of the Ashtar Command to artificially alter human bodies so that they can cope with these things (as many of the channellings claim). Also. What would the suddenly changed energy and environment do to them?. It has major repercussions! Look at what happened when the Atlanteans did that. it would violate another law. . or created creatures which could not possibly survive . It is against Universal Law.maybe even their children? That is because they could not take people who had not given their permission and had no awareness of their existence.e. Well.

³Channelling. As I covered in my last article. Therefore there is a fine line between what would constitute interfering with the natural evolutionary path of a particular civilization ± and working in harmony with their free will and spiritual growth. When the Interplanetary Council makes a decision such as this. 5/2/2011. the motion was carried ± as they say on Earth. as the majority decided to abandon Project Uplift. The Ashtar Command must obey (as do all civilizations belonging to the Association of Worlds) a strict code of non-interference when observing or interacting with another civilization. Healer and Artist. 2011 (Anakya. Human Ascension: Earth Changes and Evacuation of Earth´ Ashtar Spiritual Forum. The final decision must be by consensus. It would involve separating people from friends and family (who were not ready and had not chosen such a destiny) and taking people away from their lessons on Earth ± which could only be accomplished while there.net/forum/topics/project-awaken-earth#ixzz1QVhksPHZ. SL) As I work on Earth as a communicator for the Ashtar Command and Interplanetary Council. but . accessed: 6/27/11. Pleiadian Walk In and Channel and Communicator. http://www. it affects ALL personnel involved with that planet or civilization. .ashtarcommandcrew.Gonzaga Debate Institute 2011 Mercury 30 Conspiracy Theory Aff ± No Evacuation Project Uplift was thrown out in the 80s due to its high risks and negative scenarios from holographic testing Ariana. The decision was based on rigorous discussion and holographic test scenarios which proved that such an intervention would potentially be harmful to many of those the Command was attempting to help. I have found that at times I have been called upon to correct this information (as many of the channels were also requested to do). ³Project Uplift´ was abandoned at the time by the Ashtar Command (in the late 1980¶s).

Therefore it would have to be a GRADUAL process. then they are required to leave the ship for a time until they regain balance. 2011 (Anakya. On the ships there is a strict order and harmony that must be maintained at all times amongst the personnel and their families. For instance. Project Uplift raised a myriad of environmental. and not one that people where simply just thrown into at the deep end. but the µpatient¶ must be at a stage in their growth where they can assimilate the energy and quickly balance themselves. physicality is secondary to the energy and spirit. behavioural. ³Channelling. so to speak. and just as Earth humanity will one day be called upon to do also. 5/2/2011. or that intelligent life exists in different densities ± some of whom have been around longer and have evolved differently. I am just outlining here some of the obstacles to deeper and more physical interaction with universal family. Such a vast organization and community cannot function efficiently without that harmony and order.ashtarcommandcrew. To many of these cultures. This is a major barrier to interaction with other planetary civilizations at this time. But this aspect has been very useful and valuable. Even if you are a Starseed. SL) What the Ashtar Command now focuses on (rather than Uplift) has been dubbed ³ Project Awaken Earth´ in colloquial English ± but that is really only one phase of the project. life on board the ships within the Ashtar Command and similar groups is NOT like living on Earth!. Unfortunately. You would literally be suddenly catapulted into a truly alien environment. It is now familiar to you and is part of your life that you have chosen (although awakened Starseeds would definitely find it easier. Pleiadian Walk In and Channel and Communicator. Human Ascension: Earth Changes and Evacuation of Earth´ Ashtar Spiritual Forum. among many people on Earth there is the idea that all ET beings are dangerous. There are healers on the ships and there is healing technology which can help when someone goes out of phase (as we call it). This is because of what the media has projected. . There is also their inherent fear of the unknown. This project is exactly as it states ± an opportunity to help souls on Earth awaken to their Divine heritage and spiritual capabilities. you can¶t hide anything from anyone ± emotionally or otherwise.net/forum/topics/project-awaken-earth#ixzz1QViCuZhL. accessed: 6/27/11. There are a lot of radically different and new things and concepts that a person would have to be adjusted to. or want to eat them or something. It is different on almost every level. Such a project is undertaken because it is a way to help humanity move beyond limitation and fear ± just as another enlightened group once helped some of us. there would be extensive cultural differences that could be a problem for those who were unaware or not accustomed. you will have become acclimatized to Earth and the density and structures there. But Project Awaken is not being undertaken so that people on Earth can meet all within the Ashtar Command face-to-face (although it is accepted that will eventually happen). Earth humans are not raised with the understanding that they have universal family. Unfortunately. http://www.Gonzaga Debate Institute 2011 Mercury 31 Conspiracy Theory Aff ± No Evacuation Too many issues with Project Uplift ± the majority of the human race isn¶t ready to accept the existence of ETs Ariana. Healer and Artist. Regardless of what some on Earth choose to believe. and would adjust faster). This is because it is understood that this part must be accomplished before any physical interaction can occur (via density shift). societal and spiritual issues that came up. because there is much that has been learned from it (but never at the expense of Earth inhabitants). If that doesn¶t happen. And when encountering the many other cultures that live and work on the ships. and you can¶t have an emotional breakdown of any kind.

.2012 = Negative 2012 will flip the magnetic poles of the Sun and Earth will change direction of rotation leading to massive earthquakes. Only by having a strong spiritual connection with the divine can one sail through these turbulent times. But those who decide to hold on to the old values from the dark ages. The financial meltdown we witnessed in the middle of 2009 was the beginning of a series of collapses. where massive solar flares can disrupt the electromagnetic field surrounding our earth. the Rishis observed that many major events were going to occur in our Milky way galaxy in the year 2012. accessed: 6/27/11.Gonzaga Debate Institute 2011 Mercury 32 Conspiracy Theory Aff . volcanic eruptions and extreme weather changes. This huge galactic alignment will facilitate many new energies and Higher Souls to take birth. refusing to transform. The other Earth changes like the reversal of the geographic poles and change in the direction of Earth¶s rotation in 2012 will result in massive earthquakes. It¶s obvious that we cannot withstand such chaos.net/profiles/blogs/2012-postponed-to-the-middle#ixzz1QXNWc0Ns. Our Earth will change its direction of rotation periodically. The Rishis chose 2012 to put an end to all the evil and negativity on this earth. All objects that are shaped in the form of pyramids will be able to absorb and radiate more of these new energies. The pyramids get strengthened. Those who choose to transform and accept the values of the New Age will receive help and guidance from the Rishis and their workers. SL) 2012 ± Shift from the dark age to Light Age We have just emerged from a 5000 year dark age and are in the transitory period before moving into the Light Age. which would culminate by the end of 2012. This may result in the breakdown of our electrical and communication systems. which are in tune with the higher values of the New Age. resulting in the interchanging of the magnetic / geographic poles of our Earth. they will be replaced by more efficient and evolved systems. 4/29/11 (Ravinder Singh. governance etc will also be severely affected and eventually will collapse. They decided to make use of the expected earth changes to collapse the existing corrupt systems and replace them with new systems based on truth and love. http://www. Many other dependent systems like transportation. Scientists and Astronomers are predicting an intense solar activity in the next couple of years. which is expected to rupture the Earth¶s electromagnetic field. supplies. ³Earth Changes Part 1: The Cosmic Events´ Ashtar Command Center Spiritual Blog. An intense churning and transformation was supposed to occur upto the year 2036 to remove all negativities on this earth. The rotation slows down and stops for 3 days and then starts in the reverse direction. However. the magnetic poles of the Sun flips over. As the existing systems breakdown. employment. will perish in these massive changes.ashtarcommandcrew. They decided to use these events and prepone the end of pralaya to 2012. 2012 will bring the end to negativity and evil as well as collapse of society as we know it ± only a strong spiritual connection to Ashtar will save the human race Singh. http://www. tsunamis and volcanic activity Singh. Our Sun and the entire solar system will come in alignment with the Galactic equator. This alignment is expected to bring us in direct focus of a lot of energies. Greater Central Sun and Central Sun will form an equliateral triangle in Space on 21st Dec 2012. A huge amount of Solar activity is expected in 2012. accessed: 6/27/11.ashtarcommandcrew. in order to reduce the difficulties and suffering of Humanity. SL) Some of them are: The Galactic Centre. medical facilities. When this occurs. This also initiates the process of many changes to occur in the Solar system. This may result in massive earthquakes. Our Sun completes its revolution of 26000 years around the Central Sun. thus throwing our modern life completely out of gear. anarchy and massive changes by any physical means. volcanic eruptions and extreme weather changes. resulting in the collapse of the electrical and communication systems. ³Earth Changes Part 1: The Cosmic Events´ Ashtar Command Center Spiritual Blog. 4/29/11 (Ravinder Singh.net/profiles/blogs/2012-postponed-to-the-middle#ixzz1QXNWc0Ns.

Based on this. So. Also. ³Earth Changes Part 1: The Cosmic Events´ Ashtar Command Center Spiritual Blog. Why is 2012 Postponed? The expected changes The Rishis had estimated in 2007 that the evil and darkness on this earth would be reduced by nearly half by 21st Dec 2009. The negative forces which ruled our earth for the past 5000 years haven¶t stepped back as expected by the Rishis. for transformation and learning. the churning period of pralaya which had to end on 21st december 2012 has been postponed to the middle of 2015! This also means that some of the drastic Earth changes that were expected to occur on that day have also been shifted to the middle of 2015! Next what? . depending on their purity levels. with varying degrees of purity levels to accomodate these people.2012 Postponed until 2015 2012 has actually been postponed until 2015 because of the strength of negativity Singh. Hence many events and processes which had to start from 2010 could not be initiated because of the still existing stronghold of the dark forces. The Rishis will provide them many opportunities to qualify for the Light Age on this Earth. accessed: 6/27/11. where all evil would be removed from the face of our earth. All these developments necessiated a change in the plans of the Rishis. Reality! But the darkness on our earth has strengthened instead of reducing by half by this time. determined and grown in strength as this is their last battle for survival on our Earth. some Spiritual masters and world leaders from whom a lot was expected and who had raised a lot of initial hopes failed in their work and did not rise to the occasion. That was also the date on which our earth would enter the aura of the photon belt. SL) Seven Earths have already been created. These individuals will be shifted to these earths. an exact three years before the actual entry into the photon belt.net/profiles/blogs/2012-postponed-to-the-middle#ixzz1QXNWc0Ns. as a result of which the pralaya period had to be extended by another two years. 4/29/11 (Ravinder Singh. http://www. They¶ve become united. they planned to end the pralaya period on 21st december 2012.ashtarcommandcrew.Gonzaga Debate Institute 2011 Mercury 33 Conspiracy Theory Aff ± AT: Timeframe .

Gonzaga Debate Institute 2011 Mercury 34 Conspiracy Theory ***Space Travel*** .

placement in the coffin (period of uncertainty of their survival). SL) NASA was created to make interstellar travel believable. if that high. The Apollo Space Program foisted the idea that man could travel to. 1970 which was the metaphor for the initiation ceremony involving the death (explosion). SI. the new age of Aquarius) by the grip of the lions paw (reentry and recovery of Apollo 13). communion with the spiritual world and the imparting of esoteric knowledge to the candidate (orbit and observation of the moon without physical contact). http://www. and the raising up (of the Phoenix.htm. All of the names. E-6 with a Top Secret. If man has ever truly been to the moon it has been done in secret and with a far different technology. sacrifice.. and all Challengers shall be destroyed. the Christ (perfected soul imprisoned in matter). and walk upon.com/majestyt. landed on.hourofthetime. temperature control. security clearance. the Phoenix. above the Earth's surface. and many other problems connected with space travel prevent living organisms leaving our atmosphere with our known level of technology. ³Majesty Twelve´ Hourofthetime. or walked upon the moon in any publicly known space program." Exploration of the moon stopped because it was impossible to continue the hoax without being ultimately discovered: And of course they ran out of pre-filmed episodes. and the transition from the old to the new. missions. Every Apollo mission was carefully rehearsed and then filmed in large sound stages at the Atomic Energy Commissions Top Secret test site in the Nevada Desert and in a secured and guarded sound stage at the Walt Disney Studios within which was a huge scale mock-up of the moon. landing sites. and events in the Apollo Space Program echoed the occult metaphors. Q. named "Aquarius" (new age) at 1:13 (1313 military time) on April 13. First Class Petty Officer QM1. "A Colombian Enterprise to Endeavor for the Discovery of Atlantis. Another revelation to those who understand the symbolic language of the Illuminati is the hidden meaning of the names of the Space Shuttles. 1997 (William. The tremendous radiation encountered in the Van Allen Belt. rebirth of the initiate (solution of problem and repairs). No man has ever orbited.. Any intelligent high school student with a basic physics book can prove NASA faked the Apollo moon landings. 13 is the number of death and rebirth. solar radiation. cosmic radiation. No man has ever ascended higher than 300 miles. accessed: 6/25/.com.Gonzaga Debate Institute 2011 Mercury 35 Conspiracy Theory Space Travel Hoax Space travel is a hoax conducted by the Illuminati to create a false threat construction against extraterrestrials Cooper. death and reincarnation. . and symbology of the Illuminati's secret religion: The most transparent was the faked explosion on the spacecraft Apollo 13. the moon. rituals.

He believes that many anomalous features that would alert the eagle eyed viewer. solar flares and micro meteorites. and was President Kennedy's speech in May 1961 pressure enough to keep the hoax going? David Percy is an award winning television and film producer. to give the impression that they were in deep space. a film that also features Percy and Bennett and one which I strongly recommend if you have an interest in the Apollo missions (details of how to purchase the video are at the bottom of this article). Evidence suggests that Man could not travel to the Moon's surface. the cameraman adjusts his lens and focuses on Mike Collins inside the craft. a professional photographer and also a member of the Royal Photographic Society. American President John F. The exposure would be clipped to the window and the Sun's luminance would light it up. 'I believe that this nation should commit itself. of the fascinating book 'Dark Moon: Apollo and the Whistle-Blowers' (ISBN 1-898541-10-8). International Director of UFORC. I will also explain why the US Government has tried to keep this a secret for over 30 years. but a few minutes after filming the Earth. the Apollo films that we were told were filmed on the Moon are bogus and not the real footage.uk/cosmicapollo. could have been placed in the films by whistle blowers who were deeply dissatisfied to be a part of the cover-up. why would he do that? Surely you would want to get close to the window to get the best picture and also to eliminate light reflections that are evident towards the end of this sequence? But no. watch the video by clicking the picture above and you'll see it with your own eyes! It must also be noted that the Apollo 11 at this point of the mission was supposedly half way to the Moon. Was man too optimistic about what we could actually do in deep space.000 miles away. The time elapsed was 34 hours and 16 minutes.co. when he made the following famous speech. The window frame that comes into shot would have been out of focus if it was.Gonzaga Debate Institute 2011 Mercury 36 Conspiracy Theory Moon Landing Hoax We never landed on the moon-another USFG hoax Cosnette. I have included the actual official Apollo film footage on this page to illustrate and also possibly educate you. But the biggest shock is yet to come! The camera pans left past Neil Armstrong towards the left hand side of the Apollo 11. That would also explain why they would be filming an exposure of the Earth that was far away.ufosaliens. The movie sequence (that is viewable by clicking the picture to the left) shows one of the astronauts making a jump salute whilst another astronaut takes a still photo with the Hasselblad camera. Did the astronauts actually film a transparency of the Earth that was stuck to the window? You may think this odd. only 2 years later.. along with Mary Bennett. This is the very first view ever taken of Earth on the mission and it seems strange that Buzz Aldrin would film the Earth when he was stood far away from the window. There is a major discrepancy between the still photograph taken with a Hasselblad 500 EL/70 camera and the TV coverage film which was shot from a stationary movie camera placed behind the astronauts. Percy firmly believes that the Apollo footage was either faked or not the original film that was shot on the Moon. I would like to suggest that if Man did go to the Moon during the missions. That is the very same window that Aldrin was filming the Earth. of the anomalies and to let you see with your own eyes what has become one of the biggest cover-ups in the history of Mankind. we see the window frame come into view on the left of the shot. and what do we see out of the left window??? We see what appears to be another Earth. but from the view of Earth in the right hand window. The majority of the film footage on this page is taken from the film 'What Happened on the Moon?'. What many people did not realize at the time was that a lot of the footage was actually pre-recorded and not live at all. He is co-author. No single space project in this period will be more impressive to mankind or more important for the long range exploration of Space. He has studied the entire transfer of the original film on video tape. but instead they had to stay in near Earth orbit within the safety of the Earth's magnetic field that would have protected them from the radiation that is emitted by the Van Allen radiation belt!!! But why would NASA and the United States bother to fake such an event and to what cause I hear you ask? Please read on and I will explain. Kennedy set a goal in May 1961. .' It was just eight years later in 1969. UFO-Aliens. On the still photo (that is pictured left) we see a flap of triangular fabric that has come loose and flapped up behind the astronauts head. However. accessed 6/21/11. He states that it was estimated in 1959 that there was a . What we see is what appears to be an exposure of the Earth taped to the window that is in the background to the right of him. International Director of UFO Research Center. To achieving the goal. 09 [David. ³The faked Apollo landings´ 2/10/09.. we can say that in fact they were not in deep space at all.html. that man finally left Earth and set foot on the Moon. However the TV film which was shot from behind the astronaut doesn't show the flap? Why not? Another example that appears to be faked is the footage of Earth taken from the Apollo 11 when it was 130. Or so we have been led to believe.. the reader. http://www. Go on. HK] Bill Kaysing was a librarian/writer of technical publications and advanced research at Rocketdyne Systems from 1956 to 1963. He could not believe in 1959 that man could go to the Moon.. This took into account the effects of radiation. but still in low Earth orbit! look at the blue sky outside. The first anomalous piece of footage I would like to discuss is from the 1972 Apollo 16 Mission.0014 chance of landing man on the Moon and returning him safely to Earth. The camera isn't set to infinity either to get the closest shot. of landing a man on the Moon and returning him safely to the Earth. a technique that was used to read star charts to help with navigation and star reference. I would like to show you some astonishing evidence that shows glaring mistakes or anomalies on the 'official record' of NASA film footage and still photographs. a feat that not many people have done. before this decade is out.

head of NASA at the time of the Apollo Space Program. (End Excerpt from William Cooper's Recent Conspiracy Overview) Apollo is "Lucifer. security clearance. SL) C. http://www. accessed: 6/25/. The most ambitious are "Apollo 13" and "From the Earth to the Moon. 1997 (William. Osiris. Q. The escalation of the artificial alien threat scenario since that time is obvious. The latter opens with a monologue by Mr.com.) guiding his chariot pulled by 4 horses through the heavens. Fred Kleinknect." And remember.hourofthetime. and films designed to keep the sheople trapped in a deep ignorant sleep. The recent revelations of the fraudulent nature of NASA and the Apollo space program by the Intelligence Service and others has resulted in a flood of propaganda. that if we could go to the moon other creatures from other worlds could travel to our Earth. Hanks who walks forward revealing a huge representation of the "God" Apollo (Sun. the United Nations Flag depicts the nations of the world encircled by the laurel of Apollo . etc.com/majestyt. It was his reward for pulling it off. There is a photograph in the House of the Temple in Washington D. As Bill Cooper points out. E-6 with a Top Secret. lost word. The effect upon the people of the world was. television programs. of Neil Armstrong on the moons surface (supposedly) in his spacesuit holding his Masonic Apron in front of his groin.C.htm. that the international flag of the Scottish Rite of Freemasonry is the United Nations Flag (according to their own site). All of the first astronauts were Freemasons. First Class Petty Officer QM1. ³Majesty Twelve´ Hourofthetime.Gonzaga Debate Institute 2011 Mercury 37 Conspiracy Theory Moon Landing Hoax The head of NASA faked the moon landings to acquire a higher rank in his freemason lodge Cooper. SI. is now the Sovereign Grand Commander of the Council of the 33rd Degree of the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite of Freemasonry of the Southern Jurisdiction." both involving the actor/producer Tom Hanks.

why are Kodak not publicly selling them in today's market? On all Apollo footage there should be cross hairs or reticules present on the film. International Director of UFO Research Center. placed on the film to help calculate distances on the Moon. 12 and 14 missions that would suggest that there are many light sources lighting the so-called Moon's surface. HK] Hasselblad were the manufacturer of the camera that took all of the photos on the Apollo missions. you cannot reproduce this strange shadow phenomenon with natural light. If the guy on the left was near a vertical rise of ground (as has been suggested) his shadow would show a definite 'crease' where the land begins to rise.Gonzaga Debate Institute 2011 Mercury 38 Conspiracy Theory Moon Landing Hoax± Footage Anomalies Prove Footage anomalies prove people never set foot on the moon Cosnette. Jan Lundberg was the Manager Of Space Projects at Hasselblad from 1966 to 1975 and responsible for the production and building of the Hasselblad 500 EL/70 cameras that were used on the Apollo Missions. This is impossible unless the film has been tampered with. During the Apollo missions. Sceptics believe that he is illuminated by light reflecting off the Moon's surface. Now compare it with the Apollo 12 footage that shows a longer shadow. The video on the left contains film footage from the Apollo 11. The NASA picture to the left should show the astronaut in complete shadow because the sun is behind him. These crosshairs were. and we can do it better. then they presented what they had done to us and asked if we could do the same. I do not doubt that there could be reflective light from the Earth. Some of the lighting on 'official NASA film' are very suspect. to which we replied yes we can. even when the objects making the shadows are a mere few feet apart? A classic example can be viewed by clicking the picture to the right. The only solution must be that NASA has gone to the trouble of either airbrushing out certain objects in the film. If this were the case. ³The faked Apollo landings´ 2/10/09. The shadow on the LEM is due East and yet the shadows on the rocks in the foreground are South East? A simulation by David Percy of how the shadows should normally appear is illustrated in the picture to the right. Take the picture to the left for example. the rock on the left of the picture would have hardly a shadow because it is closer to the source where the light is reckoned to be reflecting from! Shadows do not appear to be correct on several of the Moon shots. Look how dark the shadows are on the side of the rocks. but.ufos-aliens. Due to the atmospheric conditions on the Moon's surface. the sun angle is estimated at 10 degrees above the horizon. In the Apollo 11 film the shadow cast by Armstrong is strange. I have had quite a few debates on the web about the picture above and the others on this page.uk/cosmicapollo. The sun is at a 15 degree angle and so therefore the Apollo 12 shadow should have been shorter. One sceptic on the Bad astronomy sceptics web group has even said it is a hair??? on both the rock and ground? Now who's trying to cover things up? One of the biggest anomalies that appear on the Moon shots are the way in which shadows seem to be cast in totally different directions. in my opinion.' Protective plates were added to the case and film magazine.. accessed 6/21/11. Surely the film would have perished under such conditions? If the film used during the Apollo missions had such qualities as to withstand such differences in temperature. and yet the whole of the astronaut is caught in bright light? The shot should appear like the one on the right which was simulated by David Percy. 09 [David. If two light sources are at work on the Moon's surface. It doesn't! Question: How can an astronaut cast a shadow several feet taller than his colleague who is standing a few feet away from him? Answer: He is standing farther away from the arc light that is illuminating them both. the movie cameras were fitted with special night lenses to compensate for the lack of light. the reflectivity is only 7% so the theory of the light bouncing from the surface is highly suspect. . The crosshairs were actually built into the camera and therefore should be visible on every single picture taken by the astronauts on the surface of the Moon. how did the Hasselblad stills camera manage to pick up more detail than the movie cameras? NASA have confirmed that no artificial lighting was used on the Moon's surface. or added them over the crosshairs! Why does this rock have a letter 'C' on it? There is also a 'C' on the ground in front of the rock. So. so how can the stills camera take pictures that were brighter and sharper than the movie cameras that were fitted with special lenses to compensate for the dark conditions? The picture to the right shows you just how dark a place the Moon is. and that includes taking into consideration two natural light sources (the Earth and Sun) as many sceptics would have you believe. not at random points. it is sure capable of also producing another shadow behind him. http://www. taking this into consideration. I truly believe that this footage is taken on a film set. The use of the letter C on film props is well known by the people in Hollywood and is used to show where the centre of the scene should be. As I've stated elsewhere on this page. The temperature during the Apollo missions were recorded as being between -180F in the shade to an incredible +200F in full Sunshine. I'm told by sceptics that the picture appears as it does because you have to remember that two light sources are present on the Moon's surface (the Sun and Earth glow). He says 'Originally NASA made all the alterations themselves. only 7% of light is reflected from the ground (that's the same reflectivity as asphalt). An important factor to take into consideration is the great variations in temperature that the film would have had to endure whilst on the lunar surface. UFO-Aliens. The crosshairs should be completely visible in all shots and not hidden behind objects in the pictures. they would combine together and the shadows would fall accordingly. We proceeded to make the alterations that were accepted by NASA. Unless the sceptics are saying that Sunlight is falling in the middle of the picture and there is Earth light at the forefront of the picture? And that would go against known physics. In the Apollo 14 footage look at the shadow as it does some truly amazing manoeuvres! this is consistent with moving away from a source of light that is close to the astronauts..html. according to NASA. International Director of UFORC. How could the film emulsion have withstood such temperature differences? The astronauts can be seen to move between the shadows of the rocks and then into full sunlight in some shots. Incidentally. if a light is bright enough to light up this astronauts suit.co. Jan Lundberg has stated that the only way that you could calculate the distance in the shot using the crosshairs would be if you had two cameras set up to take a stereo picture! Take a look at the pictures presented here and you will see that parts of the crosshairs have disappeared from the film.

htm. Q. SL) NASA claims that the space suits worn by the astronauts were pressurized at 5 psi over the ambient pressure (0 psi vacuum) on the moon's surface.Gonzaga Debate Institute 2011 Mercury 39 Conspiracy Theory Moon Landing Hoax± Video Science says moon landings were faked ± video discrepancies Cooper. or electrical devices which would aid the astronauts in the dexterous use of their fingers and hands while wearing the gloves. . . Experiments prove absolutely that such gloves are impossible to use and that the wearer cannot bend the wrist or fingers to do any dexterous work whatsoever when filled with 5 psi over ambient pressure either in a vacuum or in the earth's atmosphere. SI.com/majestyt. ³Majesty Twelve´ Hourofthetime. 1997 (William. . The films show clearly that there is no pressure whatsoever within the gloves . First Class Petty Officer QM1. These are just two of over a hundred very simple and very easy to prove valid scientific reasons why NASA and the Apollo Space Program are two of the biggest lies ever foisted upon the unsuspecting and trusting People of the world. If you don't believe it try it yourself . it is a very simple experiment and does not require a rocket scientist to perform. . security clearance. a condition that would have caused explosive decompression of the astronauts resulting in almost immediate death if they had really been surrounded by the vacuum of space.com. accessed: 6/25/. We have examined the gloves NASA claims the astronauts wore and find they are made of pliable material containing no mechanical. http://www. hydraulic. . E-6 with a Top Secret. NASA actually showed film and television footage of astronauts using their hands and fingers normally during their EVAs on the so-called lunar surface.hourofthetime.

1997 (William. There are two problems with this that cannot be explained away. A man would roast in his suit in such a circumstance. The same laws of physics apply to any vehicle traveling through space. radiated or otherwise. Q. E-6 with a Top Secret. Objects which are in the shadow of another object will eventually cool but not because space is "cold. Objects which are heated cannot be cooled by space. Remember this. . and will not work without a heat exchanger. Think about it the next time you go off in the morning with a "vacuum bottle" filled with hot coffee. then through a system of coils sheltered from the sun in the backpack. and then think about it again when you pour the last still very warm cup of coffee at the end of the day. NASA insists the space suits the astronauts supposedly wore on the lunar surface were air conditioned. NASA claims that ice sheltered from the direct rays of the sun will NOT evaporate destroying their own bogus "air conditioning" explanation. SI.htm. Think about it long and hard when you sit down and pour a piping hot cup from your thermos to drink with your lunch four hours later. SL) Space is NOT hot. An air conditioner cannot." Space is not cold.. The ice then supposedly absorbed the tremendous heat collected in the water and evaporated into space. security clearance. Objects cool because the laws of motion dictate that the molecules of the object will slow down due to the resistance resulting from striking other molecules until eventually all motion will stop provided the object is sheltered from the direct and/or indirect radiation of the sun and that there is no other source of heat. Hot and cold do not exist in the vacuum of space.com/majestyt. A heat exchanger simply takes heat gathered in a medium such as freon from one place and transfers it to another place.Gonzaga Debate Institute 2011 Mercury 40 Conspiracy Theory Moon Landing Hoax. First Class Petty Officer QM1. An air conditioner will not and cannot work in a vacuum.. This requires a medium of molecules which can absorb and transfer the heat such as an atmosphere or water. http://www. NASA claims that water was sprayed on the coils causing a coating of ice to form. Since the vacuum of space is the perfect insulator objects take a very long time to cool even when removed from all sources of heat. The vacuum. accessed: 6/25/.hourofthetime. NASA claims the spacesuits were cooled by a water system which was piped around the body. Space is NOT cold. remember. A space suit surrounded by a vacuum cannot transfer heat from the inside of the suit to any other place. 2) NASA has since claimed that they found ice in moon craters.com.Temperatures Science says the moon landings were faked ± temperature variations Cooper. 1) The amount of water needed to be carried by the astronauts in order to make this work for even a very small length of time in the direct 55 degrees over the boiling point of water (210 degrees F at sea level on Earth) heat of the sun could not have possibly been carried by the astronauts. ³Majesty Twelve´ Hourofthetime. In order for an object to cool it must first be removed from direct sunlight. is a perfect insulator.

. What we heard is in reality indicative of an over zealous cooling system in the props used during the filming of the missions at the Atomic Energy Commissions Nevada desert test site. Space and weight capacity were critical given the lift capability of the rockets used in the Apollo Space Program. They spoke of using heaters that did not give off enough heat to overcome the intense cold of space. In reality a dish called Astronaut a la Apollo would have been served. First Class Petty Officer QM1. No such extra water was carried by any mission whatsoever for suits or for cooling the spacecraft. E-6 with a Top Secret. NASA knows better than to claim. ³Majesty Twelve´ Hourofthetime.com/majestyt.. SL) NASA claims that the spacecraft was slowly rotated causing the shadowed side to be cooled by the intense cold of space. No rocket could ever have been launched with the amount of water needed to work such a system for even a very short period of time. accessed: 6/25/. . security clearance.hourofthetime. At the very least you would not want to open the hatch upon the crafts return. It was imperative that NASA use this ruse because to tell the truth would TELL THE TRUTH. It is also proof of the arrogance and contempt in which the Illuminati holds the common man. where it is common to see temperatures well over 100 degrees. Q. In the glaring unfiltered direct heat of the sun the Astronauts could never have been cold at any time whatsoever in the perfect insulating vacuum of space. SI. an intense cold that DOES NOT EXIST. http://www.Gonzaga Debate Institute 2011 Mercury 41 Conspiracy Theory Moon Landing Hoax ± Temperatures Science says moon landings were faked ± spacecraft logistics Cooper. in addition. 1997 (William. In fact the only thing that could have been accomplished by a rotation of the spacecraft is a more even and constant heating such as that obtained by rotating a hot dog on a spit.com. On the tapes the Astronauts complained bitterly of the cold during their journey and while on the surface of the moon. Fresh water weighs a little over 62 lbs. that a water cooling apparatus such as that which they claim cooled the astronauts suits cooled the spacecraft. per cubic foot.htm.

The NASA photo (see right). Titan-4.e. (Such a device is not necessarily able to fly to stars. taking into account that the American flag. The astronauts exited "Eagle" to take pictures and recover lunar material from the surface. accessed 6/24/11. the American Congress acknowledged the existence of extraterrestrials in a special report. depending on its capabilities. Perhaps the aliens imposed this as a condition for NASA's lease of their craft: to have NASA astronauts say something on TV that would prove to viewers that the astronauts had met craft from another civilization? This may be confirmed by the following fact: several years after the moon landing. A rocket able to launch a spacecraft from the Moon should have the power of about 6 times less than here on the Earth (as Moon gravitation is 6 times smaller). why are there no photographs or videos of the spacecraft taking off from it? Wasn't it possible to take photos or videos of the spacecraft taking off from the Moon. for which all the described obstacles don't exist. then the spacecraft should be able to take with itself a minimum weight of ~175 tons. today's most powerful spacecraft's weight carrying capabilities couldn't approach even the numbers thrice smaller than this. is able to carry only about 17. not wings.e. but even in this case the rocket would weigh about 750/6. Weekly Universe. No such spacecraft were developed before the flight to the Moon. from the "Columbia" rocket? And if this was a hard technical task in those times. or only to the Sun system's planets and planet satellites. hominoids from Orion. plus the weight of details for deploying a temporary launching site.e. writer and computer technician. hundreds of tons of fuel for it. to be clearly seen on the Moon surface. intersteller travel depends on the device's capacities. "feels ashamed" for the mystification. Antigrav only means that the device uses antigravitation for flying (i. ´ http://www. Perhaps NASA. using the rope that was hanging out of it? And where are the Russian photographs and videos dedicated to their "Lunar takeoff" preparations? Unless we assume that by 1969 NASA could build an antigravitation craft (aka antigrav. How to take all this with a spacecraft to be able to take off from the Moon after landing on it? The mid-rank carrier rocket Ariane-5. during the first flight to be transmitted by television. etc). (See above for delivering capacities even of modern spacecraft. because of a very simple thing: Take-off after landing on the Moon (to return to Earth). rotors. then how was. launching satellites even of this mass requires deploying a launching site. But if even it is a Dnepr-1 class rocket. They then returned to the lunar lander module to return back to the "Columbia" command module. How was such a site deployed on the Moon? If even we suppose that several carrier rockets like "Columbia" could deliver all this to the Moon in several lunar module "Eagles" (seems this should have been a very hard task for such modules to land on the Moon since the Moon has no atmosphere.Gonzaga Debate Institute 2011 Mercury 42 Conspiracy Theory Moon Landing Hoax ± Aliens Helped Fake It The USFG faked the moon landing with the help of E... "Eagle" weighed about 16 tons. weighs 750 tons (the rocket itself and the fuel).looking as if they were created with the use of multiple projectors shining at different angles -. which is approximately equal to the Space Shuttle carrier rocket by its parameters.5 tons of weight. i.500 pounds if we mean lunar gravity.htm. ³Apollo Moon Flights: NASA Hoax or Alien Technology! 1/16/2003. HK] [WeeklysUniverse. To launch satellite of such a mass. which diminishes the speed of similar modules when these land on the Earth). This seems more plausible.weeklyuniverse. then why weren't at least preparations for this takeoff photographed or videotaped by astronauts on-site? Did the NASA astronauts return to "Columbia". 2003 [Der. or maybe those who mutilate cattle)? One detail suggests this might have occurred: one of the astronauts. and the "lite" carrier rocket Dnepr-1 (created based on the strategic intercontinental ballistic missile SS-18 Satan) weighs 211 tons. Before launching "Eagle" from the Moon.com] It may be that both Americans and Russians never flew to the Moon..is additional proof for a faked moon landing.) The official story of American flights to the Moon says that the larger command module rocket "Columbia" remained in lunar orbit while the lunar module "Eagle" separated and descended with firing retro rockets to the lunar surface. The "Columbia" broke out of lunar orbit to go back to Earth and splash down with parachutes. i. needs a carrier rocket weighing many hundreds of tons. Voron. starship. the Lunar launching site deployed? Onsite by astronauts in spacesuits? And why was all this praiseworthy process not shown on the photos or videos? Where are photographs of such a praiseworthy achievement like the Lunar launching site? And if somehow no launching site construction was required to take off from the Moon. "which remained in lunar orbit". a spacecraft. or about 5. a 35-ton rocket itself needs to be delivered to the Moon. both modern and of that time (1960-70s). let's say. Or did NASA borrow antigravs from an extraterrestrial civilization (Zetas Reticuli. and that it has them now. To take off.) Plus. and flying saucer). said on air that he was seeing giant artificial objects. none even close to that. at least an Ariane-5 class rocket is needed. and therefore provided such photos as hidden hints? . one of the most modern Russian carrier rockets. and a plaque with inscriptions on it next to the flag. Even if the weight of these details equals to the minimum possible weight of about 50 tons. and a powerful space-vehicle launching site. about 125 tons minimum (the rocket and the fuel). with its absolutely impossible (for the lunar landscape) shadows -. starcraft. are reported.500 pound "Eagle" from the Moon would be about 35 tons (211/6).com/skies/skies2.T. by many persons who visit observatories. for example. for example. then the mass of rocket for launching 5. (For example. it is the starcraft's construction that determines whether it will be able to fly to stars. They develop the power of about 10-20mn KWt. Its velocity can vary from 10 meters per second to overlight speeds. But this means NASA already had antigravs in the 1960s.

followed by a request from mission control for further information. But his message was never heard by the public-because NASA censored it. I remember hearing one of the astronauts refer to a "light" in or on a carter during the television transmission. Rumors say that there is an Alien Moon Base on the far side of the moon.Moon Anomalies´ http://www. "Neil Armstrong relayed the message to Mission Control that two large. Did you ever wonder why the Moon landings stopped and why we have not tried to build a Moon Base? It does seem like a better and easier idea than a floating space station with no access to any raw materials or supplies? According to the NASA Astronaut Neil Armstrong the aliens have a base on the Moon and told us in no uncertain terms to get off and stay off the Moon! Sound far fetched? Milton Cooper. UFO casebook ³Alien Presence on the Moon?. According to a former NASA employee Otto Binder. Sir! Enormous! OH MY GOD! You wouldn't believe it! I'm telling you there are other spacecraft out there.Gonzaga Debate Institute 2011 Mercury 43 Conspiracy Theory Aliens Already On Moon Aliens on the moon. and the very large alien craft described in sighting reports as mother ships exist there. LUNA: The Alien base on the far side of the Moon." that there is a huge mining operation going on there. Apollo: These "Babies" are huge. the side we never see from Earth. Nothing more was heard.ufocasebook.Moon Anomalies´ http://www." he revealed. -Milton Cooper There were UFO sightings during moon landing Hecht UFO casebook No Date (John Hecht. lined up on the far side of the crater edge! They're on the Moon watching us! In 1979. a physicist and Professor of Mathematics at Moscow University. a mining operation using very large machines. unnamed radio hams with their own VHF receiving facilities that bypassed NASA's broadcasting outlets picked up the following exchange: NASA: What's there? Mission Control calling Apollo 11. former chief of NASA Communications Systems confirmed that Armstrong had indeed reported seeing two UFOs on the rim of a crater." said Dr.html 6/26/11 BLG) Is there an "Alien Base" on the Moon? More and more people are coming forward with stories that might prove this is true. "but nobody has talked about it until now. Vladimir Azhazha. mysterious objects were watching them after having landed near the moon module.com/moon.ufocasebook.com/moon. the encounter was reported immediately after the landing of the module.Aldrin and navy confirm Hecht UFO casebook No Date (John Hecht.html 6/26/11 BLG) According to hitherto unconfirmed reports.S.. Naval Intelligence Community refers to the Alien Moon Base as "Luna. " . A base. and that is where the aliens keep their huge mother ships while the trips to Earth are made in smaller "flying saucers". "According to our information. Maurice Chatelain. both Neil Armstrong and Edwin "Buzz" Aldrin saw UFOs shortly after their historic landing on the Moon in Apollo 11 on 21 July 1969. UFO casebook ³Alien Presence on the Moon?.." Soviet scientists were allegedly the first to confirm the incident. a Naval Intelligence Officer tells us that not only does the Alien Moon Base exist but the U. "The encounter was common knowledge in NASA. It was seen and filmed by the Apollo astronauts.

Between 1961 and 1972. "A Funny Thing Happened on the Way to the Moon. He claims the tapes weren't accidentally erased because "they long ago disassembled the machine that could play or record them" and is currently working on a book based on his 2002 documentary. µ09 (Christina. The benefits of landing on the moon are still being questioned to this day. and the project would end up acknowledging. in large part thanks to the Internet. ABC News On Campus . Why Haven't We Gone Back? Going to the moon is expensive." he added. according to the NASA Web site.it's not someplace you want to live.Gonzaga Debate Institute 2011 Mercury 44 Conspiracy Theory Moon Landing Real Moon Landing Conspiracy theories live on because of the internet Caron. And humans become ill in low gravity. Space is dangerous place. . perhaps aided by NASA's recent announcement that they accidentally erased the original moon landing footage. There's a lot of radiation.. Moonwalk conspiracy theories still live on. and it's been suggested that another trip to the moon simply isn't necessary. At the time Sibrel had asked Aldrin to swear on a Bible that he had walked on the moon. µ09 (Christina. Managing Editor.com/Technology/Apollo11MoonLanding/story?id=8104410 6/27/11 BLG) For the majority of people in the U. ABC News On Campus." In 1970. the Apollo program cost $25 billion. "they canceled three [missions scheduled to fly to the moon] because of budget problems. challenging the "evidence" presented by moonwalk skeptics who claim NASA faked all six manned lunar landings. to a small group of conspiracy theorists. Managing Editor. there's no doubt that the moon landing happened.go. Opponents suggested the money spent to hire Oberg would be a waste. We haven¶t gone back because its expensive." Sibrel is perhaps best known for a 2002 incident where Buzz Aldrin punched him on camera after Sibrel called Aldrin a thief and a liar during an interview for Sibrel's film.go. there's just not much there. also revealed that six percent believe the moon landings were faked. abc news ³Refuting the Most Popular Appollo Moon Landing Hoax Theories´ http://abcnews.S. conducted in 1995. and therefore lending some degree of credibility. a former space engineer and the author of 10 books about space flight. abc news ³Refuting the Most Popular Appollo Moon Landing Hoax Theories´ http://abcnews. Managing Editor. . July 19 2009. Several years ago NASA responded to the public's conspiracy fascination by asking Jim Oberg. July 19 2009. NASA's mistake also caught the attention of Nashville filmmaker Bart Sibrel. We Would Be Able to Return. the most recent data available.not because we never went Caron. A similar poll by Time/CNN. to write a book for teachers. But the project was cancelled in 2002 due to political pressure. Quite frankly the moon is giant parking lot. Just six percent of Americans think the government staged the Apollo moon landings according to a 1999 Gallup poll. Managing Editor. ABC News On Campus . As the 40th anniversary of the moon landing approaches. Germann says "There's no reason to go back. one of today's most vocal skeptics decrying government-sponsored moon fakery. the phrase "apollo moon landing hoax" is one of the top 10 hottest searches on Google. .com/Technology/Apollo11MoonLanding/story?id=8104410 6/27/11 BLG) The Claim: If We Had Really Visited the Moon. It's not comfortable -. ABC News On Campus.

Managing Editor.000 miles away from the earth. The Hubble Telescope is too far away to take a picture. . Caron.com/Technology/Apollo11MoonLanding/story?id=8104410 6/27/11 BLG) The Claim: If the Hubble Telescope Is Up There. the moon's low gravity would have eased the impact of the shuttle. ABC News On Campus. . "Because of the way the Hubble is operated it can't resolve an object that small. On the top it is "powdery and fluffy" but a half an inch down it's hard. abc news ³Refuting the Most Popular Appollo Moon Landing Hoax Theories´ http://abcnews. µ09 (Christina. Managing Editor. ABC News On Campus . and there's "lots of light kicking back from surface of moon. "Unfurling a piece of rolled-up cloth with stored angular momentum will naturally result in waves and ripples -. July 19 2009. it is true that there is no air or wind on the moon.com/Technology/Apollo11MoonLanding/story?id=8104410 6/27/11 BLG) The Claim: On the Tape.hoax theories are an insult to the astronauts. but Germann says there are several reasons why: the surface of the moon is uneven.That Wouldn't Happen on the Moon. ABC News On Campus.Gonzaga Debate Institute 2011 Mercury 45 Conspiracy Theory Moon Landing Real The Shadows are a result of the moon¶s surface.go. Managing Editor. "This I don't fault people for.go.the moon landing was real. ABC News On Campus . Caron. µ09 (Christina. It's an iconic event. Was This Taped in a Studio with a Floodlight? The shadows you see in NASA's film footage do seem odd. If someone were to touch the metal it would vibrate.go. the Shadows Look Translucent -." The flag rippled because it was touched and a landing wouldn¶t cause a crater. Why Wasn't There a Giant Blast Crater? Germann explained that the moon is a rock that has been compacted for millions of years. That's what gives it an edge for me. Managing Editor. "If it was a floodlight the shadows are wrong." Germann said." he said. Germann explained that the flag moved because the astronauts touched it. . Managing Editor. Caron.com/Technology/Apollo11MoonLanding/story?id=8104410 6/27/11 BLG) The Claim: There Isn't Any Wind on the Moon. Managing Editor. The astronaut closer to the [supposed] floodlight would have a longer shadow. not Hollywood lights." Germann said." he said. The Flag Shouldn't be Rippling Yes.no breeze required!" The Claim: If the Apollo Landed on the Moon. and so would the flag. µ09 (Christina. "In one sense I guess it's good that people are interested enough to doubt [the moon landing]. ABC News On Campus. Why Doesn't It Take a Picture? The moon is about 240. "To say it's a fake is an insult to the many people who worked on this and risked their lives to make it happen. it's a technical question. In addition. July 19 2009. July 19 2009." . abc news ³Refuting the Most Popular Appollo Moon Landing Hoax Theories´ http://abcnews. whereas the Hubble Telescope orbits approximately 380 miles above the earth. "The lower layer isn't going to blow. creating ripples in the fabric. ABC News On Campus ." "If they were faking the thing they would arrange it so that the shadows would look right. And for that reason it's important to people. abc news ³Refuting the Most Popular Appollo Moon Landing Hoax Theories´ http://abcnews. The flag is attached to a metal pole. According to the moon hoax rebuttal on the NASA Web site. But he has little patience for the skeptics. it stands for a whole era.

Pasley said. videos and diagrams poking holes in the moon landing. Pasley questioned how many people actually believe it. so it's OK to believe it.columbiamissourian. . no air required.S. that we are not being told the truth about the NASA film footage of the Apollo missions." While many people might be interested in the theory. Kennedy gave a speech." calls the moon landing hoax theory "the most ridiculous and insignificant of all the popular conspiracy theories that don't involve the supernatural. A moon landing failure would be as popular as other NASA failures McGuire µ09 (Cheston McGuire.com/stories/2009/07/19/debunking-moon-myth/ 6/27/11 BLG) Another supposed piece of evidence that the moon landing couldn't have happened is that astronauts couldn't have survived the radiation of space. which states in its opening words that the site "was written to prove." The site is filled with pictures. flag planted there was waving even though there's no wind on the moon. That kind of argument is what Pasley calls "negative subjunctive reasoning. President John F. The moon hoax is so popular because "it doesn't really matter. 2009 Missourian ³MU professor debunks hoax theory of moon landing´ http://www. One of the most common arguments against the reality of the lunar landing is that the U.com/stories/2009/07/19/debunking-moon-myth/ 6/27/11 BLG) MU history professor Jeff Pasley.S. who teaches "Conspiracy Theories and Conspiracies in U. The momentum alone caused the flag to wave." Pasley said." When people believe one facet of an event is impossible ² like someone surviving the radiation of space ² it allows them to believe an entire event is a conspiracy. it doesn't seem they could have faked (the moon landing).Gonzaga Debate Institute 2011 Mercury 46 Conspiracy Theory Moon Landing Real Moon Landing Real. "Given what we know about NASA. should work quickly and meet a goal. He said that the U. July 19. One Web site that does believe the theory is The Apollo Hoax. People believe the hoax because they can protest the government without any real political convictions. Pasley asked why the moon landing would be any different. July 19. In 1961. Given all of the other well-publicized NASA failures.Flag waving legitimized. "It's a belief." he said.columbiamissourian." Pasley said the moon landing hoax theory is the third most popular conspiracy theory behind the John F. once and for all. History and Culture. The goal was to send people to the Moon and back. "Belief in the moon landing isn't a cause.S." Pasley said. McGuire µ09 (Cheston McGuire. An August 2008 episode of the TV show MythBusters recreated the scenario by planting a flag in the ground within a vacuum. 2009 Missourian ³MU professor debunks hoax theory of moon landing´ http://www. Kennedy assassination and 9/11. including exploding shuttles and failed launches.

Apollo 11 splashed down in the Pacific Ocean on July 24. The two astronauts walked on the Moon. Then. They picked up rocks and dirt to bring back to Earth.Gonzaga Debate Institute 2011 Mercury 47 Conspiracy Theory Moon Landing Real NASA confirms.nasa. He was in the Command Module working. people all over the world watched when it happened.gov.gov/audience/forstudents/k-4/home/F_Apollo_11. Then Armstrong and Aldrin took the Lunar Module to the Moon. Apollo 11 launched towards the Moon. The astronauts were safe at home. did meet the goal. Apollo 11 began to orbit around the Moon.Moon landing real NASA µ04 (NASA. It had three astronauts on it. Image above: The first footprints on the Moon will be there for a million years. Credit: NASA A few days later. ." Eagle was the name of the Lunar Module. 1969. On July 20. 7/8/04 Student Features ³Apollo 11 ± first Footprint on the Moon´ http://www. the Eagle went back to meet astronaut Collins. Neil Armstrong put his left foot on the rocky Moon. They left Collins in orbit. And it only took eight years.html 6/27/11 BLG) The U. There is no wind to blow them away. 1969. More people watched this Moon landing than any other show on TV. So. What did they say when they landed on the moon? "The Eagle has landed. They had taken TV cameras with them. They were Neil Armstrong.S. One day in July. Image above: Buzz stands in front of the Lunar Module named Eagle. Edwin (Buzz) Aldrin and Michael Collins. It was the first human footprint on the Moon. The astronauts had much work to do.

as it was in he initial dispatch from Moscow. While the image was held on the screen. "thin ellipse" might have been a shadow of the moonlet.shaped and proving to be intriguing and puzzling. Australian science writer Brian Crowley says that because of the convex cats eye shadow . stood out sharply against a kind of halo on the Martian surface. reportedly because of a radio command error. on 28th March. with the primary intention of investigating the planet's mysterious moon." What had caused the Phobos 2 spacecraft to be lost? According to Boris Bolitsky. The features are between 20 and 25 kilometers wide and do not resemble any known geological formation. the Martian moonlet. described the following: "The features are either on the Martian surface or in the lower atmosphere. is actually a hollow alien spaceship capable of shooting down Russian probes ± would just shoot down our mission to Mars Howard. the Russians launched two unmanned satellite probes . Then. Seen on the surface of Mars was a clearly defined dark shape that could indeed be described. the probe mysteriously disappeared." So what was it that collided or crashed into Phobos 2? Was the space probe shot out of space for "seeing too much"? What does the last secret frame show? Well.casting by Martian surface features.5km diameter cigar-shaped 'mother ship'.or cigar shape is inconsistent with any possible shadow cast by the moon Phobos. "One image appears to include an odd-shaped object between the spacecraft and Mars. because we can see the Martian surface below it.htm. They are spindle . according to the Russians it was destroyed . Phobos 2 arrived safely at Mars in January 1989 and entered into an orbit around Mars as the first step at its destination towards its ultimate goal: to transfer to an orbit that would make it fly almost in tandem with the Martian moonlet called Phobos (hence the spacecrafts name) and explore the moonlet with highly sophisticated equipment that included two packages of instruments to be placed on the moonlet's surface. "As the last picture was halfway through. Marina Popovich. Dr..co. approx.Gonzaga Debate Institute 2011 Mercury 48 Conspiracy Theory Aliens will block Mars Mission The moon Phobos." An unusual photo of a thin shadow across mars was shown on the Russian television segment. 20km long. as a "thin elipse" (this photo is a still from the Soviet television clip).which. . The cigar shaped craft in the penultimate frame taken by Phobos 2 is apparently the object casting the oblong shadow on the surface of Mars in the earlier photo. several unusual images were radioed back to Earth. just before radio contact was lost with Phobos 2.possibly knocked out with an energy pulse beam. and Tass. referred to the last frame. Becklake described it as "something that is between the spacecraft and Mars. The 'anomaly' seen in the Phobos 2 transmission was a thin ellipse with very sharp rather than rounded points (the shape is known in the diamond trade as a "marquise") and the edges.a huge.uk/cosmicmars.spindle . Becklake explained that it was taken as the spacecraft was aligning itself with Phobos (the moonlet). The very last picture taken by Phobos 2 The last transmission from Phobos 2 was a photograph of a gigantic cylindrical spaceship . One needs little imagination to postulate a giant. saying. but not before it had beamed back certain images and information from the planet Mars itself. Popovich gave to certain investigators some interesting information that she "smuggled" out of the now ex-Soviet Union. All these reasons explain why the Soviets have not suggested that the dark. ³The Trouble with Phobos´ Cosmic Mars. A report taken from New Scientist of 8 April 1989. It was certainly different from the shadow of Phobos recorded eighteen years earlier by Mariner 9. Phobos 2 was also ultimately lost in the most intriguing circumstances." he said. as would be cast by the uneven surface of the moonlet. 2010 (Harv. hovering cigar. Cosmic Conspiracies have managed to track down this ellusive last picture (see below). a Russian astronaut and pilot who has long been interested in UFO's. Phobos 1 was unfortunately lost en route two months later.shaped mother craft similar to those documented down the years by UFO investigators. which is an irregular potato shape." This "highly secret" photo was later given to the Western press by Colonel Dr. described by the Russian as "Quite remarkable features". In his careful words to 'Aviation Week and Space Technology'." and stressed that the object was seen by both the optical and the infrared (heat seeking) camera. reported that "Phobos 2 had failed to communicate with Earth as scheduled after completing an operation yesterday around the Martian moon Phobos. the chairman of the Soviet equivalent of NASA. After that last frame was radio-transmitted back to Earth. that was photographed on 25 March 1989 hanging or parked next to the Martian moon Phobos by the Soviet unmanned probe Phobos 2. Scientists at mission control have been unable to establish stable radio contact. At a UFO conference in 1991. The latter cast a shadow that was a rounded ellipse and fuzzy at the edges. accessed: 6/25/11. The shadow .. rather than being fuzzy.beyond the orbit of Phobos 2 itself. Part of the information was what has been called "the first ever leaked accounts of an alien mother ship in the solar system". 1.Phobos 1 and Phobos 2 . the Soviet mission control center acknowledged sudden communication "problems" with the spacecraft. Phobos. All went well until Phobos 2 aligned itself with Phobos. Dr.ufos-aliens. http://www.in the direction of Mars. "they [Soviets] saw something that should not be there. SL) In July 1988. because the overhead solar inclination prevented shadow . implies a shadow thrown on the surface from something in orbit . science correspondent for Radio Moscow. the official Soviet news agency.

Cherman Struve spent months calculating the Martian moons' orbits with extreme accuracy early in the 20th Century. yet true! Phobos is shaped like interstellar spaceship Russian astronomer Dr. resembling an empty tin can. that Phobos had to be a gigantic spaceship. particularly that exhibited by Phobos. their origin bothered him. can a natural celestial body be hollow? Never! Therefore. or even gargantuan planet-killing space bombs left over from an interplanetary war waged millions of years ago. After lengthy study of the tidal. 2011 (Terrence. Yet. They're unique. would have dispersed Phobos eons ago. Phobos had to be accelerating as it lost altitude. to halfcompleted generational interstellar spaceships. And they're too close to Mars. lead Soviet rocket engineer and spacecraft designer . both moons are too small. no less than the United States Naval Observatory weighed in on the Russian astrophysicist's amazing revelation. approximately one thousand times smaller than the density of water. For all intents and purposes. Every other possible cause was carefully considered and resignedly rejected.. Shklovsky astutely noted. so bizarre. probably smaller than that of air? Of course not! There's only one way in which the requirements of coherence. Speculations over what the giant artificial spaceships might be have ranged from massive Martian space observatories. hopefully they're duds. Fear and Horror Mars' two moons. http://beforeitsnews. Shklovsky said.S. of course. "In order to make this braking action so significant. also point toward an artificial origin. and magnetic forces. Much too close. constancy of shape of Phobos. Either alternate explanations had no supporting proof or the math was wildly off. the Martian moon must be hollow. as the years progressed into decades the mystery moon's orbital velocity and position no longer matched its mathematically predicted position. [The Chairman of the Soviet equivalent of NASA = Sergei Pavlovich Korolev. Deeply troubling facts Two facts deeply troubled Shklovsky.." A density that low." As Mars is named after the god of war. Shklovsky came to the inescapable conclusion that no natural causes could account for the origins of the two odd moons or their bizarre behavior. Shklovsky quite correctly calculated that if the acceleration of Phobos is true. Impossible. and taking into account the extremely rarefied Martian atmosphere at this altitude. SL) Phobos is spaceship says famous scientist Astrophysicist Dr. Were they captured asteroids as others assumed? No. Phobos and Deimos. Dr. less than an Earth cloud. that is. Phobos must have an artificial origin and be an artificial Martian satellite. gravitic. accessed: 6/25/11. and basically a titanic spaceship. The peculiar properties of Deimos.html. Even more amazing--Phobos changes its speed from time to time. So. Thus. since it cannot have the weight of a natural body and behave in the prescribed manner. and its extremely small average density can be reconciled. Computer modeling of weird 'moons' "Well. astronomer Asaph Hall who never guessed they were artificial.. the names seem appropriate. translate into "fear" and "horror. We must assume that Phobos is a hollow.Gonzaga Debate Institute 2011 Mercury 49 Conspiracy Theory Aliens will block Mars Mission Mar¶s moon Phobos is an artificial hollow shapeship orbiting Mars Aym. "Intelligent Life in the Universe" with famous Cornell University professor. Iosif Samuilovich Shklovsky calculated the orbital motion of Martian satellite Phobos and came to the jaw-dropping conclusion that the moon is artificial. Phobos should have very small mass. "But can a continuous solid have such low density. they could not be! Their orbital plane was all wrong. stating: Dr.com/story/539/387/Astrophysicist:_Giant_spaceships_are_orbiting_Mars. If they are world-destroying bombs. ³Astrophysicist: Giant spaceships are orbiting Mars´ BEFORE IT¶S NEWS. the late Carl Sagan of PBS and Voyager space probe fame.. Shklovsky puzzled over them. especially the tumbling moon of fear: Phobos. Second. First. Both satellites were discovered in 1877 by U." A tin can indeed! Like a spaceship is a tin can in the cosmos. very low average density. Iosif Samuilovich Shklovsky The scientist is world-renown for penning the classic science book. even that august American institution conceded that mysterious alien ships might be orbiting Mars. That could not be the solution. hollow. Both moons are extremely odd. Phobos and Deimos.the objects' strange origins and ultimate purposes completely unknown. The orbit of that fantastic moon was so peculiar. empty tin can During an interview about the peculiarities surrounding Phobos. No other planet in the solar system has moons as tiny as the Martian moons. the Apollo Lunar Excursion Module was a tin can exceedingly smaller than Phobos." Alien spaceships the size of small moons orbiting Mars? That makes the so-called "Face on Mars" look ridiculously feeble by comparison! Strange monolith on surface of Phobos Yet. though less pronounced than those of Phobos. yet could the outer fringes of the thin Martian atmosphere be affecting it? Was the atmosphere actually causing a braking action like the deteriorating orbit of a slowing Earth satellite? A hollowed out Martian moon Phobos is a hollow. empty body.

Fred Singer." .Much more exciting. Wilson Jr. Shklovsky stated Phobos was being "slowed by electromagnetic drag and tidal friction more than was possible was an actual solid moon."Mars . Conditions more similar to earth -.com. so that Martians could safely operate around their planet. http://www. he stated. then Phobos undoubtedly is a hollow. actually may be an artificial satellite launched long ago by an advanced Martian race.Gonzaga Debate Institute 2011 Mercury 50 Conspiracy Theory Aliens will block Mars Mission Mars¶ moon Phobos is an artificial spaceship sent by the aliens to orbit mars and sweep up radiation Rense. rejected other astronomers' objections.Undoubtedly some form of life. by Eisenhower Science Advisor Dr.The Martian moon Phobos.htm. host of the right-winged radio program µThe Jeff Rense Program¶ 2002 (³Mars¶ Moon Phobos Being Artifical´ Rense. S. Raymond H. his Phobos statement in the February Astronautics." He also stated that NASA itself was considering the possibility. and was planning for special probes that would answer the question.. Dr. according to Dr. accessed: 6/27/11. Chief of Applied Mathematics at NASA. which other astronomers have noted.rense. Singer backed a claim first made by the Soviet astrophysicist Shklovsky. If the figures were correct. set off heated arguments among astronomers. The briefing. In his published opinion." said the White House advisor. artificial satellite. Though Dr. artificial satellite. special advisor to President Eisenhower on space developments. "I would be very disappointed if it turns out to be solid. although probably not ones which we would recognize.S. Singer in their Martian conclusions." In 1963. Singer also pointed out that Phobos would make an ideal space base. proving the existence of a Martian civilization. he said. Shklovsky based his decision on a long study of Phobos' peculiar orbit. was given March 14. Singer said the figures still had to be proved. The Russian scientist's announcement that Phobos was a hollow. The Russian claim has calculations and those of earlier astronomers prove Phobos cannot possibly be an ordinary moon. 1958 -. Deimos. Dr Iosif Shklovsky based his conclusion on calculations that had been done by the U. there was an interesting assessment of Mars given during a space briefing presented during an Eisenhower cabinet meeting. **** In light of this article. joined Shklovsky and Dr. its purpose would probably be to sweep up radiation in the Mars' atmosphere. generally accepted as a celestial body. Dr. Naval Observatory (rumored in the 1980s to have been the home of the elusive MJ-12 group). No mention was made of the other Mars moon. James Killian.com/general20/eisenhowerWH. SL) March 1960 . If it is. both for Martians and earthlings. He stated that "Phobos might be a colossal base orbiting Mars.

. forget about them..published on March 25th: General . In other words -. "internal mass distribution" (tracking) .Phobos is artificial. contained explicit scientific data. which has triggered some wild and utterly fascinating rumors and speculation that we've featured below. and a "reflection void interior geometry" .. From "The Phobos Blog" -. 2010 17:21 Radio science result from 2008 Phobos Flyby now accepted for publication: We report independent results from two subgroups of the Mars Express Radio Science (MaRS) team who independently analyzed Mars Express (MEX) radio tracking data for the purpose of determining consistently the gravitational attraction of the moon Phobos on the MEX spacecraft.StreetAuthority. interior radar echoes . geometric "voids" inside it . from multiple perspectives. and hence the mass of Phobos. within Phobos.."imaging" ... SL) Mars' Moon Phobos has been analyzed as being one-third hollow according to European Space Agency reports.'" Meaning that. geometric ....now agreed that "the interior of Phobos is 'partially hollow . they were the primary source of the decidedly "internal.. and floors -. We conclude that the interior of Phobos likely contains large voids. 3-D geometric-looking" radar signature.... geometric rooms . under any likely astrophysical formation scenario cannot exist as just a "natural" moon.according to "inside" ESA sources recounted "a Phobos' interior filled with 'cavernous... with internal. which strongly "supported the idea that this is what radar echoes would look like.. Science 25 March.QuantumJumping.. accessed: 6/27/11.. 2010 (Richard C.. .detectable via the semi-regular 'structure of the returning. ³You Couldn¶t Make This Up Dept: µWhy is Mars¶ Moon Phobos Hollow?¶´ Enterprise Mission.... Ads by Google 2 Stocks to Hold Forever Buy them.Gonzaga Debate Institute 2011 Mercury 51 Conspiracy Theory Aliens will block Mars Mission The ESA says Phobos is filled with geometric cavernous rooms with right angle floors and walls Hoagland.com/my_weblog/2010/05/you-couldnt-make-this-up-european-space-agency-rumors-marsmoon-phobos-is-an-artificial-satellite.html..' as they were impressed upon the reflected MARSIS signals . http://www. totally artificial. www....com For a Martian moon that is demonstrably "1/3 hollow" ..com What is Quantum Jumping? Discover Why Thousands of People are "Jumping" to Change Their Life www.. hollow spaceship' In fact. which correlated eerily with the earlier (lower-resolution) Phobos "interior gravity tracking data .the MARSIS radar reflections officially published on the official ESA Phobos website. coming back from inside 'a huge . as measured by two totally independent space programs. and separated by ~20 years . right-angle walls . nothing "natural" could reflect (or absorb) EM energy that way across so many orders of magnitude. The MARSIS radar imaging experiment -.. interior world . The concurrence of all three of these independent Mars Express experiments -. and "internal radar imaging" -. these results are inconsistent with the proposition that Phobos is a captured asteroid.. When applied to various hypotheses bearing on the origin of Phobos.. curator of astronomy & space science and winner of the Ig Nobel Prize for Astronomy.dailygalaxy.'" MARSIS was physically seeing (via this radar) a three-dimensional.. and never sell them...." No natural "space rock" could possibly possess such an enormous range of "natural radar absorbers and reflectors"..

Oberst. similar to blackish carbonaceous chondrite asteroids. Usually captured asteroids are injected into random orbits around the planet that gravitationally tie them. it will either crash into Mars in 50 million years or break up into a ring. Dr. This data. Jaumann. Prof. Scientists call them rubble piles. Phobos is similar to an asteroid. High temperatures for Phobos were measured at 25 degrees Fahrenheit (-4 degrees Celsius) and lows at -170 degrees Fahrenheit (-112 degrees Celsius). Its most prominent feature is the 6-mile crater Stickney. Dr. Phobos has no atmosphere. Professor of Mathematics at Bielefeld University. the climate is more harsh than a night in Antarctica. while only a few kilometers away. .cfm?Object=Mar_Phobos 6/27/11 BLG) The six-mile wide Stickney crater dominates this image of Phobos taken by the Viking 1 orbiter. It orbits Mars three times a day. they are a collection of pieces. Measurements of the day and night sides of Phobos show such extreme temperature variations that the sunlit side of the moon rivals a pleasant winter day in Chicago. It's clear though that the whole truth will only be known when samples of the moon are brought back to Earth for analysis in laboratories.Gonzaga Debate Institute 2011 Mercury 52 Conspiracy Theory AT: Aliens block Mars Phobos is a rubble pile held together by gravity Krause. Phobos could have been made of Martian rocks that were blasted into space during a large meteorite impact. its impact causing streak patterns across the moon's surface. is on a collision course with Mars.nasa. Jurgen. In another scenario. Observations by Mars Global Surveyor indicate that the surface of this small body has been pounded into powder by eons of meteoroid impacts. spectroscopic data from Mars Express and previous spacecrafts show that Phobos has a similar composition to these asteroids. They are believed to be highly fractured bodies containing giant caverns because they are not solid. Phobos is the larger of Mars' two moons and is 27 by 22 by 18 km in diameter. which is unable to retain heat. It may be a captured asteroid. These pieces have not fallen completely together. Stickney was seen by Mars Global Surveyor to be filled with fine dust. NASA No Date (National Aeronautics and Space Administraion. Scientists do not yet understand how it could do this. Solar System Exploration ³Mars:Moons:Phobos´ http://solarsystem. some of which started landslides that left dark trails marking the steep slopes of giant craters. and probably its smaller sibling Deimos. Phobos is nearing Mars at a rate of 1.a very specific case.de/mars/en/desktopdefault. So the question remains. will also help put constraints on the origin. but some scientists show evidence that contradicts this theory. where did the original material come from . are captured asteroids. However.gov/planets/profile.aspx/tabid-207/422_read-13776/ 6/27/11 BLG) The particular class of asteroids that share Phobos's density are known as D-class. thus creating the rubble pile. and is so close to the planet's surface that in some locations on Mars it cannot always be seen. This suggests that Phobos. Head of the Department German Aerospace Center Institute of Planetary Researchn. Instead. Ralf. Phobos. held together by gravity.dlr. Also. gouged and nearly shattered by a giant impact crater and beaten by thousands of meteorite impacts. Prof. German Aerospace Center µ08 (Henning.not hollow. one observation remains difficult to explain in this scenario. Phobos and Deimos appear to be composed of C-type rock. together with that from the moon's surface and surroundings gathered by the other Mars Express instruments. deputy director of the DLR Institute of Planetary Research. This intense heat loss is likely a result of the fine dust on Phobos' surface. October 16 2008 Mars Express ³Mars Express closes in on the origin of Mars¶ larger moon´ http://www. with evidence of boulders sliding down its sloped surface. on the dark side of the moon. at that rate.Mars's surface or the asteroid belt? The MARSIS radar on board Mars Express has also collected historic data about Phobos's subsurface. but Phobos orbits above Mars' equator .8 m every hundred years.

The approach is one of a series being made by Mex as it seeks to understand the origin of the moon. Very precise radio doppler data was gathered during the pass which will provide additional information on the moon's gravity field. ³Cloest Phobos flyby gathers data´ http://news.uk/2/hi/science/nature/8550362. Scientists suspect the moon is simply a collection of planetary rubble that coalesced around the Red Planet sometime after its formation. suggesting that its surface probably hides many large interior voids. Knowing the gravity field will help scientists to better understand the distribution of mass inside the moon.stm 6/27/11 BLG) No manmade object has ever been so near to the natural satellite. Previous flybys have indicated that Phobos has an extremely low density.bbc. Phobos is very slowly falling in towards Mars and tidal forces are expected to tear it apart one day. The Mex latest measurements will test this idea further. It has made many discoveries including measurements of previously unrecognised methane in the planet's atmosphere.co. March 4 2010.Gonzaga Debate Institute 2011 Mercury 53 Conspiracy Theory AT: Aliens block Mars Phobos is a collection of planetary rubble BBC News µ10 (BBC News Staff Writer. The European Space Agency's Mars Express satellite has been in orbit since 25 December 2003. .

Gonzaga Debate Institute 2011 Mercury 54 Conspiracy Theory ***Flat Earth*** .

For the most part. Shutting it down. satellites cannot orbit the Earth. it covers over seventy-five percent of our planet's surface.´ The Flat Earth Society. The pictures are faked using simple imaging software. and the atmosphere is contained by a large dome. Back then the pictures taken were of far lower quality and were likely produced using analog means.org/forum/index.0. . And even in those cases only a limited number of people within those governments need necessarily be involved. Regardless of which train of thought you follow. it would logically cost much less to fake a space program than to actually have one. ³Flat Earth FAQ´. But even so there's no reason to assume the Ice Wall is guarded. so those in on the Conspiracy profit from the funding NASA and other space agencies receive from the government. might open them up to suspicion. While flatEarthers know that the ocean is really just a large bowl. they could. covers the entire surface. why do you say there is a conspiracy?" A: Well it's quite simple really. Earth is flat and covered by a dome ± no space travel possible ± oceans prove Shenton. SL) Q: "What about satellites? How do they orbit the Earth?" A: Since sustained spaceflight is not possible. SL) Water. Q: "Why has this site not been shut down by the government?" A: Not enough people take this site seriously for it to be perceived as a threat by those involved in the Conspiracy. It is also possible that the Conspiracy is guarding the edge to prevent people from getting too close to the truth.theflatearthsociety. Also. Q: "How did NASA create these images with the computer technology available at the time?" A: NASA did not send rockets into space. And the atmosphere. The signals we supposedly receive from them are either broadcast from towers or any number of possible pseudolites.php?topic=11211. However. After all.htm. Q: "If you're not sure about the motive. and navigation methods become unreliable that far south. (with great sheets of ice around the edges to hold the ocean back). the backwards "round-Earth" way of thinking would have you believe that all those trillions of gallons of water and air just "stick" to the planet's surface. however. PLEASE NOTE: This means that pictures confirming the roundness or flatness of the Earth DO NOT CONSTITUTE VALID PROOF. then the space agencies must be lying when they say it isn't. Jack W. Space travel is impossible and photos are doctored. You could do it with a few hundred men and some basic equipment. Q: "Why is NASA's space shuttle runway curved?" A: It was specially constructed by NASA to be so. 1998 (Daniel. if the Earth is in fact flat. in this day and age. the harsh conditions of the region make it very difficult to reach anyway. The difference is why. they spent a fraction of their funding on developing increasingly advanced computers and imaging software to cover their lies. Space Exploration and Government Q: "NASA and other world space agencies have pictures of the Earth from space. Q: "Are you saying NASA had Photoshop in the 1960s?" A: Of course not.alaska. http://www." A: Actually. the most favored theory is that of financial gain. president of the Flat Earth Society. Q: "Why has no one taken a photo of the Earth that proves it is flat?" A: Only those connected to the Conspiracy have access to heights from which the shape of the Earth can be discerned. instead. ³Why the Earth is Flat. temporary space-flight is possible. even those in the highest positions of these governments are probably unaware of the Conspiracy. NASA is at the heart of the conspiracy. Q: "How are the world governments organized to carry out this conspiracy?" A: Only those governments with space agencies that have actually been to space and produced round pictures of the Earth need be in on the Conspiracy. and in those pictures the Earth is clearly a globe. hasn't it been proven beyond any doubt that the Earth is round?" A: NASA and the rest of the world's space agencies who claim to have been to space are involved in a Conspiracy to keep the shape of the Earth hidden. http://www. 2008 (The Flat Earth Society. Administrator Flat Earth Forums. also a fluid. Q: "There's no way the government could possibly guard the entire Ice Wall! It would take too many men! Millions of men!" A: Not really. Q: "What is the motive behind this Conspiracy?" A: Although their main objective can only be speculated upon. In a nutshell. conditions on the Ice Wall get increasingly treacherous the further you get out. nobody has been to the edge of the Earth and lived. Q: "No one could possibly pull off such a conspiracy successfully. Accessed: 6/22/11.net/~clund/e_djublonskopf/Flatearthsociety. Dec 12.Gonzaga Debate Institute 2011 Mercury 55 Conspiracy Theory Flat Earth = No Space Travel NASA is part of a conspiracy using their ³space program´ to uphold the premise that the Earth is round.

" His soft voice carries conviction. Johnson's beliefs are firmly grounded in the Bible. lies Edwards Air Force Base. lunar eclipses are caused by an unseen dark body occasionally passing in front of the moon. Nearly 20 miles to the west lies the small city of Lancaster.edu/~dsimanek/fe-scidi. where the Shuttle was tested. and therefore what lies beyond is unknown. you see the Rockwell International plant where the Space Shuttle was built. Beyond Lancaster. inhabited world is flat. ³The Flatout Truth: Earth Orbits? Moon Landings? A Fraud! Says This Prophet´ Science Digest.lhup. The sun and moon. 20 more miles as the cueball rolls. "The earth is flat. in the Johnson version. To the north. intelligent people have always recognized that the earth is flat. It looks as flat as a pool table. The moon shines by its own light and is not eclipsed by the earth. and tumbleweeds surrounding his southern California hillside home. President of the National Center for Science Education. I'd say that the dome of heaven is about 4. http://www. "Wherever you find people with a great reservoir of common sense. From among the Joshua trees. it is hard to argue the point. (At least." As you stand in his front yard. Just as a guess. Jesus ascended up into heaven.) "You can't orbit a flat earth." declares Johnson. president of the International Flat Earth Research Society.000 miles away. reputed to be a wall 150 feet high. He believes that the main purpose of the space program is to prop up a dying myth²the myth that the earth is a globe. "Nobody knows anything about the true shape of the world. He contends that sensible people all over the world. you have a spectacular view of the Mojave Desert. SL) "The facts are simple. "The whole point of the Copernican theory is to get rid of Jesus by saying there is no up and no down." he contends. the known world is as circular and as flat as a phonograph record.. The North Pole is at the center. Many verses of the Old Testament imply that the earth is flat. 1980 (Robert J. the earth is flat." says Mr. There. you can see right over it.htm. like railroad tracks that appear to meet in the distance." . Reasonable. Near Lancaster. the Tehachepi Mountains rise up from the desert floor. but there's more to it than that. "The known. and space travel is impossible Schadewald. that's NASA's story. no one has ever crossed it. the Shuttle will land when it returns from orbiting the earth. beyond the next hill. At the outer edge lies the southern ice. According to the New Testament. also. and their apparent rising and setting are tricks of perspective." he says. and the stars are about as far as San Francisco is from Boston.Gonzaga Debate Institute 2011 Mercury 56 Conspiracy Theory Flat Earth = No Space Travel NASA is a lie. "The spinning ball thing just makes the whole Bible a big joke. They circle above the earth in the vicinity of the equator. Johnson. Johnson. "The Space Shuttle is a joke²and a very ludicrous joke. are only about 32 miles in diameter. Los Angeles is not far to the south. realize that the earth really is flat." says Charles K." Not the Bible but Johnson's own common sense allowed him to see through the globe myth while he was still in grade school. creosote bushes. not just Bible believers. "they don't believe idiotic things such as the earth spinning around the sun." As shown in a map published by Johnson. Rather. for Charles Johnson is on the level.

and humans wouldn't stand a chance. It is.htm. giving the physicists a tangible "absolute" speed of the earth. SL) In the Efimovich model. then there would be no problem. Moving quickly to avoid having to admit that they were wrong. ³Why the Earth is Flat. http://www.´ The Flat Earth Society. scientists Albert A. two American scientists. 1998 (Daniel. the Earth would be an accelerated object in circular motion around its sun. namely. And even if the Earth did. And at night. ³Why the Earth is Flat. they were able to instead "infer" from their results that the ether must not exist. Obviously. Their calculated speed: Zero. or be thrown off completely. In this experiment. The earth would have to have been pushing its way through the ether for all those billions of years. the light pulse would fall back in one direction.´ The Flat Earth Society.htm. Their inference was generally accepted by the scientific community (save a few notable exceptions. The Earth accelerating in circular motion would behave no differently than would a car taking a corner: loose objects (humans and animals would act like loose change or a cup of coffee on the dashboard) would slide around. and that light must propagate through no medium at all (impossible for a wave by the very definition of a wave). if ether existed.alaska. trees and buildings would be ripped from the ground and flung into outer space. ether was assumed to be a ephemeral substance which permeated all matter. It was assumed that. operating under the Efimovich-based assumption that the Earth was moving through outer space and not the fixed center of the Universe.´ The Flat Earth Society.htm. 1998 (Daniel. the earth can¶t orbit Shenton. It was assumed to have qualities which now seem rather bizarre . Morley were baffled by this. when everything would be at the outside.alaska. the general idea was to try to calculate the absolute speed of the earth relative to the fixed ether. president of the Flat Earth Society. Yes. SL) A second critical piece to the Efimovich model is that the Earth is not the center of the solar system either. But how could the Earth continue to move at the same speed for as long a time as the "round Earthers" say that it has existed for. president of the Flat Earth Society. Because of the ether. in fact. while every aspect of the teachings of Grigori Efimovich indicated that the planet must be orbiting its own sun. conducted an experiment to "prove" whether or not ether actually existed. Michelson and Edward W.alaska. and calculate how far it "trailed" behind the earth. it is instead filled with ether.net/~clund/e_djublonskopf/Flatearthsociety. And thereby are the problems introduced.too bizarre.Gonzaga Debate Institute 2011 Mercury 57 Conspiracy Theory Flat Earth Proofs ± No Orbit The Michelson-Morley experiment illustrated that the earth is stagnant in space Shenton. This omnipresent medium was that through which visible light and other electromagnetic waves were supposed to have traveled. If outer space were a vacuum. SL) In classical physics. Shouldn't it have slowed somewhere along the line? What would keep the Earth from grinding down to a stop at some point on the Efimovichian timeline? If the earth was orbiting around the sun. according to "round Earth" theory. ³Why the Earth is Flat. But light waves would still require a medium for transmission. Were this the case. several billion years. But space is not a vacuum. they would emit a light pulse. and the actual purpose of the experiment was to determine the existence of that medium. buildings would be crushed and humans beings squashed like grasshoppers in a centrifuge. there is a flaw in Efimovich's "orbit" theory. http://www. spherical shaped ball of rock flying through space at hundreds of thousands of miles per hour. . and therefore must be moving at least with a critical orbital velocity. wondering how the Earth could be sitting in one spot. Lorentz) and the "ridiculous" notion of ether was thrown out. when things would be facing the sun and therefore on the inside of the "orbit".net/~clund/e_djublonskopf/Flatearthsociety. to be allowed to exist. There would be an apparent centrifugal force on everything. orbiting the sun at a radius of around five-hundred million kilometers. by Efimovich's teachings. So in 1887. the planet Earth is supposed to be a large. http://www.net/~clund/e_djublonskopf/Flatearthsociety. The results speak for themselves: the Earth does not move. including Hendrik A. much like tossing a napkin out the window of a moving car to calculate the car's speed. the problems inherent in keeping it moving through this light medium called ether are overwhelmingly supportive of "Flat-Earth" theory. In a sense. everything on the surface would be thrown off Shenton. During the day. 1998 (Daniel. president of the Flat Earth Society.

like droplets running down the sides of a beach ball) and fall into outer space. and the atmosphere would simply float away. If the fluids were static. only the north and south poles would be inhabitable Shenton. Why. and yet it has no atmosphere at all. But fluids are not static. the oceans should all fall "down" into the sky.htm. just look at the moon. keeping the solution far from stagnant. should behave in exactly the same fashion. The further out you go. and you slide off the face of the planet entirely.Gonzaga Debate Institute 2011 Mercury 58 Conspiracy Theory Flat Earth Proofs ± No Orbit If the earth was orbiting around the sun. the surface is nearly horizontal . like a ball. while the air would dissipate. Using the earlier mentioned idea of "gravitational charge" gives some credibility to the theory.´ The Flat Earth Society.but when you stray too far from the absolute top of the ball. http://www. Certainly a few grains would stay . especially not in the atmosphere and oceans. 1998 (Daniel. president of the Flat Earth Society. Great ocean currents run both at the surface and deep below.net/~clund/e_djublonskopf/Flatearthsociety. leaving the planet dry and barren.right around the top. SL) Using the "round Earth" theory. releasing their load far from its starting point.´ The Flat Earth Society. Water or air that (according to "round-Earth" theory) starts on one side of the planet could end up completely on the other side in a matter of only a few days. the more you slant. setting an object on the earth would be like setting grains of sand on a beach ball. Obviously. The Earth. if the world were round. something is wrong. there would be only a very small area of land that would be at all inhabitable. It is round. then exposure to the gravitational field for a long enough period of time would allow their molecules to align themselves with and be pulled in by the field.htm. Stray to the outside fringes of the "safe zone". if round. ³Why the Earth is Flat. Reach a certain point. SL) Conventional thinking would suggest that the water would just run down the sides of the Earth (to use the analogy again. If the earth was round. if the Earth were in fact round. Jet streams of air travel at hundreds of miles per hour through the atmosphere. president of the Flat Earth Society. carrying water across huge basins.alaska. . the grains of sand start sliding off and falling onto the ground.alaska. And windblown rainclouds carry vast quantities of evaporated seawater across miles of ground.net/~clund/e_djublonskopf/Flatearthsociety. Because the top is a very localized region on a sphere. until your very survival is determined by the tread on your boots. 1998 (Daniel. ³Why the Earth is Flat. and you start walking at a tilt. http://www. the oceans would fall off the surface and evaporate Shenton. With all this turbulence and motion.

Nevertheless. according to conventional historians. "Do you know what they're doing at Edwards right now?" he asks. was that Russia and the U. They could actually pay the government for rights. To Johnson. considerably more authentic." Perhaps the Space Shuttle is intended to bolster the beliefs of these backsliders. CBS. but they didn't have a picture of the way it was. In fact. Because it was built and tested almost in his back yard.Gonzaga Debate Institute 2011 Mercury 59 Conspiracy Theory Flat Earth Proofs ± United Nations The UN insignia proves that there is a movement to declare the earth flat again Schadewald. When the UN Charter was drafted in San Francisco. "In the old days. What they've told him about some aspects of its construction only reinforces his convictions. No prominent American politician is known to have publicly endorsed the flat-earth theory in the past two centuries. But Franklin Roosevelt died coincident with the UN's birth. "and it almost fell apart. What did happen. and Roosevelt laid the master plan to bring in the New Age under the United Nations. Edwards is strictly a science-fiction base now. The tv networks do a far superior job. it's supposed to return to Edwards Air Force Base. not for the U. "almost no one seriously considered the world a ball. That. For instance. Johnson contends that this nearly happened right after World War II.S. The UN did adopt for its official seal a world map identical with the one on Johnson's office wall." Why declare the world flat? Johnson responds that a prophesied condition for world government (Isaiah 60:20) is that the "sun shall no more go down." Flat Earth Society members are working actively to bring the Shuttle charade to an end. "When the United States declares the earth is flat.htm. that's appropriate enough. and the other imminent events described by Johnson never came about. the world would be declared flat and Roosevelt would be elected first president of the world." If the Shuttle ever does orbit on its own. "They moved it across the field. and it wouldn't cost the taxpayers a penny. The high point came in 1969. Clarke. After the war. they took the flat-earth map as their symbol. I recommend that the government get out of the space business and turn the whole thing over to ABC.S. alone.lhup. began space programs. SL) "It's the Church of England that's taught that the world is a ball. because it's logical.. the space race was on in earnest. "The world ruling power was to be right here in this country. it will be the first nation in all recorded history to be known as a flat-earth nation. when the testers tried to mount it on a 747 for its first piggy-back test flight. Then they took it up in the air²and some more of it fell to pieces." This could be fulfilled by admitting that sunrise and sunset are optical illusions. but many are coming back now and getting off of it. he knows many people who worked on it. After the Russians sent up Sputnik in 1957. Churchill. was a flat-earther. and it wouldn't fit! They had to call in a handyman to drill some new holes to make the thing fit. 1980 (Robert J. it wouldn't fit. when the U. "Can you imagine that?" chortles Johnson. and half fell off!" The Shuttle had other problems besides heat resistant tiles that wouldn't stick. "'Buck Rogers in the 25th Century' is made right where they claim they're going to land the Shuttle. He even names the man who wrote the scripts: the science-fiction writer Arthur C." says Charles Johnson." he says. Johnson is convinced that it is not intended to actually fly. "Millions of dollars they spent. Consider the United Nations: "Uncle Joe ( Stalin). according to Johnson. Our concept of the world is new." If Johnson is right." he sneers. "Until then. . because the moon landings were faked by Hollywood studios. "and we hope to be instrumental in making it do so. the American Revolution failed. Whatever its purpose. and NBC." he argues.S. "Buck is a much better science program. on the other hand. as we have today. but for the entire world.edu/~dsimanek/fe-scidi. people believed the earth was flat. All those little side pieces are on with epoxy. landed men on the moon. "George Washington. http://www. He broke with England to get away from those superstitions. ³The Flat-out Truth: Earth Orbits? Moon Landings? A Fraud! Says This Prophet´ Science Digest. They hope to force the government to let the public in on what the power elite has known all along: the plane truth. But he acknowledges that the moon landings were at least partly successful. The landings converted a few of them." Johnson discloses with confidence. is nonsense.

And. I think that by the 19th century people would have noticed if Australia and Africa were thousands of miles further apart than expected. My senses show me and my reason confirms it. beyond the Antarctic ocean. The moon is both self-illuminated and semi-transparent. let alone if Africa was wider than it was long! The Zetetic Sun. The polar projection of the flat earth creates obvious discrepancies with known geography. But as 16th Century mathematician Pierre-Simon Laplace stated. somewhere above us. 2009 (Daniel. It is something you have been told by teachers. . particularly the farther south you go. But. based. Consequently. 2005 (John Bruno. our society decided with great certainty that the Earth is a sphere and. The sun orbits the north pole once a day at a constant altitude. It is a starting point . along with a collection of other spherical bodies. What we call the North Pole is in the center of the earth. Television. This tendency to firmly maintain beliefs while intentionally disregarding opposing evidence . Man's quest for truth is furthered only through experience and reason. He uses Ussherian Biblical chronology to mock the concept that stars could be millions of light years away. Like most people. Much as Descartes did in his Meditations on First Philosophy. To most of you.com/library/daniel_shenton_flat_earth_essay. SL) Rowbotham believed that the earth is flat. "The weight of evidence for an extraordinary claim must be proportioned to its strangeness.sacred-texts. it is something you have never truly investigated.h Century. In his An Essay Concerning Human Understanding. on a literal interpretation of selected Biblical quotes. It isn't surprising. my belief that the Earth is flat is not a popular one and it is not a belief I have always held. Told by parents.particularly evidence in the form of firsthand experience -is intellectually dishonest and unscientific. planets and stars are all only a few hundred miles above the surface of the earth. few of us bother to hold the Spherical Earth model to account. That the Earth is spherical is a 'fact' and we are. Figure 54 inadvertantly illustrates this problem. We are bombarded every day of our lives with information.pdf. I was taught from an early age that the Earth is a rotating sphere which. Preface to ³The Earth is not a Globe´ Ebook. that people believe so strongly that the Earth is a sphere. from an early age. this will seem like an obvious and unarguable fact. I wish to start from a place of certainty and build upon it. that further consideration is unnecessary and anyone holding an opposing viewpoint is unworthy of debate. The Flat Earth is an obvious truth to me now.com/earth/za/. more than likely. During the 19. Hell is exactly as advertised. ³In Defense of the Earth´ Earth Not a Globe 1 Exhibit.an intellectual foundation on which I feel further knowledge can soundly be built. It is something you are utterly sure of. that is. and Australia and New Zealand in the middle of the Pacific. He attacks the concept of a plurality of worlds because no other world than this one is mentioned in the Bible.and this burden has never been met. The idea of a spherical Earth falls into that second category. SL) The Earth is flat. The claim is actually dishonest and unscientific. moon. Shenton. consequently. However. This emphasis on experience as the only source of true knowledge dates back to ancient Greek empiricists such as Aristotle and was also prominent in the more recent British empiricism espoused by [ohn Locke. http://www. Zetetic cosmology is 'faith-based'. "No man's knowledge can go beyond his experience. The lands we know are surrounded by an infinite wilderness of ice and snow. Locke states. Eclipses can be explained by some unknown object occulting the sun or moon. Society agrees that some ideas are worth debating and that others are not. Samuel Birley Rowbotham pioneered an approach to astronomy called Zetetic Astronomy.Gonzaga Debate Institute 2011 Mercury 60 Conspiracy Theory AT: But we know it is Round The only reason we believe the Earth is round is because it¶s deeply ingrained in our culture. the burden of proof is extraordinary . radio. directly below us. then. http://www. told to accept it without question and in the face of our own first-hand experience. At some point. Heaven is not a state of mind. The contients float on an infinite ocean which somehow has a layer of fire underneath it. revolves in an elliptical orbit around our Sun. Told by textbooks. founder and architect of the Sacred Text Archive." The Spherical Earth model is truly extraordinary and runs contrary to all of our senses. The Zetetic map has a severly squashed South America and Africa. bordered by an immense circular ice-cliff. it is a real place. because the idea is so firmly ingrained in our culture. Zeteticism stresses the importance of reason and experience over the trusting acceptance of dogma. This is a belief I hold as the beginning of an ongoing search for truth and certainty." The earth is flat based on the translation of the Bible Hare.earthnotaglobe. books and the Internet all compete to tell us things.

Gonzaga Debate Institute 2011

61 Conspiracy Theory

Round Earth Proofs ± Multiple Reasons
The Earth is round due to the gravitational force pulling it into a sphere Cain, Masters in Computer Science and Engineering, 2009 (Fraser, ³Why is the Earth Round´ The
Universe Today, http://www.universetoday.com/26782/why-is-the-earth-round/, SL) Don¶t listen to the Flat Earth Society, they¶re wrong; the Earth is round. But did you ever wonder why the Earth is round? It all comes down to gravity. One of the effects of mass is that it attracts other mass. For small objects, like your computer, your car, and even a building, the force of gravity is tiny. But when you have millions, and even trillions of tonnes of mass, the effect of the gravity really builds up. All of the mass pulls on all the other mass, and it tries to create the most efficient shape« a sphere. You can also check out these books about the planet Earth from Amazon.com for more information. For smaller objects, like asteroids, the force of gravity trying to pull the object into a sphere isn¶t enough to overcome the strength of the rock keeping it in shape. But once you get above a certain mass and size, the strength of the object can¶t stop the force of gravity from pulling it into a sphere. Objects larger than about 1,000 km in size are able to pull themselves into a sphere. In fact, the International Astronomical Union decided in 2006 that this ability was one of the requirements for an object to be considered a planet. They must orbit the Sun, they need to have cleared out all the smaller objects in their orbit, and they need to have enough gravity to pull themselves into a sphere. When an object has the gravity to pull itself into a sphere, astronomers say that it¶s in hydrostatic equilibrium. And that¶s why the Earth is round. Of course, the Earth isn¶t perfectly round. Because it¶s turning on its axis approximately once every 24 hours, the Earth¶s equator bulges outwards. And there are mountains and valleys that make the Earth¶s surface rough.

Pictures prove - The earth is smoother than a billiard ball Cain, Masters in Computer Science and Engineering, 2009 (Fraser, ³Why is the Earth Round´ The
Universe Today, http://www.universetoday.com/26782/why-is-the-earth-round/, SL) The Earth isn¶t flat, that¶s for sure. And if you look at a photograph, the Earth really looks round. But how round is it? The actual shape of the Earth is actually an oblate spheroid ± a sphere with a bulge around the equator. The Earth is bulged at its equator because it¶s rapidly rotating on its axis. The centripetal force of the rotation causes the regions at the equator to bulge outward. And it actually makes a pretty big difference. The diameter of the Earth, measured across the equator is 43 km more than when you measure the diameter of the Earth from pole to pole. This bulge has some interesting implications. For example, it means that the point on Earth furthest from the center isn¶t actually Mount Everest, but Mount Chimborazo in Ecuador. Only because Chimborazo is closer to the Earth¶s equator. So how smooth is the Earth. When billiard balls are manufactured, they aim for a tolerance of 0.22%. The Earth has a tolerance of 0.17%, so it¶s actually smoother than a billiard ball. If you could hold the Earth in your hands, it would feel smoother than a billiard ball. But the Earth definitely isn¶t flat.

Lunar eclipses confirm the earth is round Schottlender, PhysicsQuest Intern at American Physical Society, 2008 (Muriel, ³Top Ten Ways
to Know the Earth Isn¶t Flat,´ August 19, 2008, http://www.smarterthanthat.com/astronomy/top-10-ways-to-knowthe-earth-is-not-flat/, SL) Now that humanity knows quite positively that the Moon is not a piece of cheese or a playful god, the phenomena that accompany it (from its monthly cycles to lunar eclipses) are well-explained. It was quite a mystery to the ancient Greeks, though, and in their quest for knowledge, they came up with a few insightful observations that helped humanity figure out the shape of our planet. Aristotle (who made quite a lot of observations about the spherical nature of the Earth) noticed that during lunar eclipses (when the Earth¶s orbit places it directly between the Sun and the Moon, creating a shadow in the process), the shadow on the Moon¶s surface is round. This shadow is the Earth¶s, and it¶s a great clue on the spherical shape of the Earth. Since the earth is rotating (see the ³Foucault Pendulum´ experiment for a definite proof, if you are doubtful), the consistent oval-shadow it produces in each and every lunar eclipse proves that the earth is not only round but spherical ± absolutely, utterly, beyond a shadow of a doubt not flat.

Gonzaga Debate Institute 2011

62 Conspiracy Theory

Round Earth Proofs ± Multiple Reasons
The way ships appear on the horizon prove the earth is round Schottlender, PhysicsQuest Intern at American Physical Society, 2008 (Muriel, ³Top Ten Ways
to Know the Earth Isn¶t Flat,´ August 19, 2008, http://www.smarterthanthat.com/astronomy/top-10-ways-to-knowthe-earth-is-not-flat/, SL) If you¶ve been next to a port lately, or just strolled down a beach and stared off vacantly into the horizon, you might have, perhaps, noticed a very interesting phenomenon: approaching ships do not just ³appear´ out of the horizon (like they should have if the world was flat), but rather emerge from beneath the sea. But ± you say ± ships do not submerge and rise up again as they approach our view (except in ³Pirates of the Caribbean´, but we are hereby assuming that was a fictitious movie). The reason ships appear as if they ³emerge from the waves´ is because the world is not flat: it¶s round. Imagine an ant walking along the surface of an orange, into your field of view. If you look at the orange ³head on´, you will see the ant¶s body slowly rising up from the ³horizon´, because of the curvature of the Orange. If you would do that experiment with a long road, the effect would have changed: The ant would have slowly µmaterialized¶ into view, depending on how sharp your vision is.

How we view stars proves the earth is round Schottlender, PhysicsQuest Intern at American Physical Society, 2008 (Muriel, ³Top Ten Ways
to Know the Earth Isn¶t Flat,´ August 19, 2008, http://www.smarterthanthat.com/astronomy/top-10-ways-to-knowthe-earth-is-not-flat/, SL) (3) VARYING STAR CONSTELLATIONS This observation was originally made by Aristotle (384322 BCE), who declared the Earth was round judging from the different constellations one sees while moving away from the equator. After returning from a trip to Egypt, Aristotle noted that ³there are stars seen in Egypt and [...] Cyprus which are not seen in the northerly regions.´ This phenomenon can only be explained with a round surface, and Aristotle continued and claimed that the sphere of the Earth is ³of no great size, for otherwise the effect of so slight a change of place would not be quickly apparent.´ (De caelo, 298a2-10) The farther you go from the equator, the farther the µknown¶ constellations go towards the horizon, and are replaced by different stars. This would not have happened if the world was flat:

How shadows form proves the earth is round Schottlender, PhysicsQuest Intern at American Physical Society, 2008 (Muriel, ³Top Ten Ways
to Know the Earth Isn¶t Flat,´ August 19, 2008, http://www.smarterthanthat.com/astronomy/top-10-ways-to-knowthe-earth-is-not-flat/, SL) If you stick a stick in the [sticky] ground, it will produce a shadow. The shadow moves as time passes (which is the principle for ancient Shadow Clocks). If the world had been flat, then two sticks in different locations would produce the same shadow: But they don¶t. This is because the earth is round, and not flat: Eratosthenes (276-194 BCE) used this principle to calculate the circumference of the Earth quite accurately. To see this demonstrated, refer to my experiment video about Eratosthenes and the circumference of the earth ± ³The Earth¶s curvature is tasty!³.

Gonzaga Debate Institute 2011

63 Conspiracy Theory

Round Earth Proofs ± Multiple Reasons
Increases in distance seena t higher altitudes proves the earth is round Schottlender, PhysicsQuest Intern at American Physical Society, 2008 (Muriel, ³Top Ten Ways
to Know the Earth Isn¶t Flat,´ August 19, 2008, http://www.smarterthanthat.com/astronomy/top-10-ways-to-knowthe-earth-is-not-flat/, SL) Standing in a flat plateau, you look ahead of you towards the horizon. You strain your eyes, then take out your favorite binoculars and stare through them, as far as your eyes (with the help of the binocular lenses) can see. Then, you climb up the closest tree ± the higher the better, just be careful not to drop those binoculars and break their lenses. You then look again, strain your eyes, stare through the binoculars out to the horizon. The higher up you are the farther you will see. Usually, we tend to relate this to Earthly obstacles, like the fact we have houses or other trees obstructing our vision on the ground, and climbing upwards we have a clear view, but that¶s not the true reason. Even if you would have a completely clear plateau with no obstacles between you and the horizon, you would see much farther from greater height than you would on the ground. This phenomena is caused by the curvature of the Earth as well, and would not happen if the Earth was flat:

Air planes prove the earth is round Schottlender, PhysicsQuest Intern at American Physical Society, 2008 (Muriel, ³Top Ten Ways
to Know the Earth Isn¶t Flat,´ August 19, 2008, http://www.smarterthanthat.com/astronomy/top-10-ways-to-knowthe-earth-is-not-flat/, SL) If you¶ve ever taken a trip out of the country, specifically long-destination trips, you could notice two interesting facts about planes and the Earth: Planes can travel in a relatively straight line a very long time and not fall off any edges. They can also, theoretically (and some do, though with stops along the way), circle the earth. Correction (Courtesy of Klaynos, from scienceforums.net): Apparently, planes can circle the Earth without stopping! If you look out the window on a trans-Atlantic flight, you can, most of the times, see the curvature of the earth in the horizon. The best view of the curvature used to be on the Concorde, but that plane¶s long gone. I can¶t wait seeing the pictures from the new plane by ³Virgin Galactic´ ± the horizon should look absolutely curved, as it actually is from a distance. (A picture of the curved horizon from a Concorde plane can be seen here).

Other planets¶ shapes prove the earth is round Schottlender, PhysicsQuest Intern at American Physical Society, 2008 (Muriel, ³Top Ten Ways
to Know the Earth Isn¶t Flat,´ August 19, 2008, http://www.smarterthanthat.com/astronomy/top-10-ways-to-knowthe-earth-is-not-flat/, SL) The Earth is different from other planets, that much is true. After all, we have life, and we haven¶t found any other planets with life (yet). However, there are certain characteristics all planets have, and it will be quite logical to assume that if all planets behave a certain way, or show certain characteristics ± specifically if those planets are in different places or were created under different circumstances ± our planet is the same. In other words: If so many planets that were created in different locations and under different circumstances show the same property, it¶s likely that our own planet has the same property as well. All of our observations show planets are spherical (and since we know how they¶re created, it¶s also obvious why they are taking this shape). Unless we have a very good reason to think otherwise (which we don¶t), our planet is very likely the same. In 1610, Galileo Galilei observed the moons of Jupiter rotating around it (click here to see a beautiful video reconstruction of his observations). He described them as small planets orbiting a larger planet ± a description (and observation) that was very difficult for the church to accept as it followed a geocentric model where everything was supposed to revolve around the Earth. This observation also showed that the planets (Jupiter, Neptune, and later Venus was observed too) are all spherical, and all orbit the sun. A flat planet (ours or any other planet) would be such an incredible observation that it would pretty much go against everything we know about how planets form and behave. It would not only change everything we know about planet formation, but also about star formation (as our sun would have to behave quite differently to accustom a ³flat earth´ theory), what we know of speeds and movements in space (like planets orbits, and the effects of gravity, etc). In short, we don¶t just suspect that our planet is spherical. We know it.

³Top Ten Ways to Know the Earth Isn¶t Flat. Here¶s a list showing what time it is around the world when it is 12:00pm in New York city. 2008 (Muriel. SL) The time in New York.smarterthanthat. it¶s 12:00am. More than 13 hours ahead. Another point concerning timezones. and the sun is nowhere to be found.com/astronomy/top-10-ways-to-knowthe-earth-is-not-flat/. feel free to do the entire [shriek] integration [shriek] process). and vise versa. The only way to create two distinctly separate timezones. gravity will pull toward the center of mass of the objects. To find the center of mass. that it¶s soon going to rise up again in the beginning of a new day. is 12:00pm. Consider a flat plane. the opposite side is dark. and rotating around its own axis. That allows for time differences and timezones. I urge you to try it out ± just make sure it¶s nothing that can break or hurt you. the sunset is long gone ± so much so. even though you ± the crowd ± are in the dark. That means that if you stand on the edge of the plane. 2008. Imagine an ant (perhaps the same one from the previous point) walking around on a crystal ball. Assuming the crystal ball is polished. The center of mass of a flat plane is in its center (more or less ± if you want to be more accurate. . Simply said. The same way you can see the light coming out of a spotlight on a stage in the theater. The force of attraction (gravity) between two objects depends on their mass and the distance between them. 2008 (Muriel. 2008. no matter where on it you stand. I am quite positive that even for Australians an apple falls downwards. SL) There¶s an interesting fact about mass: it attracts things to it.´ August 19. PhysicsQuest Intern at American Physical Society. but if you have your doubts. where Michael Phelps is likely getting ready for yet another gold medal.smarterthanthat. Just in case gravity is consistent after all. At a certain point when the sun is shining on one part of the Earth. the ant¶s only indication of movement would be the fact it¶s moving its feet. you have to examine the object. Properties of mass prove the earth is round Schottlender. it is 1:30am. The scenery (and shape of the surface) would not change at all.´ August 19. specifically ones that are larger than 12 hours. the sun and flat/spherical Earth: If the sun was a ³spotlight´ (very directionally located so that light only shines on a specific location) and the world was flat. In Adelaide. http://www. Since a sphere has a consistent shape. There. In Beijing. The sun is in the middle of the sky (though it¶s hard to see with the current cloud coverage). Australia. midnight. This can only be explained if the world is round. ³Top Ten Ways to Know the Earth Isn¶t Flat. Consider a sphere. not straight down like you usually experience. http://www. is if the world is spherical. PhysicsQuest Intern at American Physical Society. where there is complete darkness in one while there¶s light in the other. you have exactly the same amount of sphere under you. gravity will be pulling you toward the middle. and the force of gravity will pull a person toward the middle of the plain.Gonzaga Debate Institute 2011 Mercury 64 Conspiracy Theory Round Earth Proofs ± Multiple Reasons Timezones prove that the earth is round Schottlender. we would have seen the sun even if it didn¶t shine on top of us (as you can see in the drawing below). at the moment these words are written.com/astronomy/top-10-ways-to-knowthe-earth-is-not-flat/.

Gonzaga Debate Institute 2011 Mercury 65 Conspiracy Theory ***Hollow Earth*** .

where Byrd described seeing vast forests and what looked like running herds of animals. via Alaska. leakage of the events served to strengthen the notion and reality that our planet is indeed hollow. both funded by the U. via McMurdo Sound in the Antarctic in 1956.government. Byrd. to the north polar opening.com/hollow/hollowarchives.S.librarising. . accessed 6/21/11. CW) Admiral Byrd made two historic but unnanounced trips to the hollow earth. where he also saw vegetation and bodies of water before returning for lack of fuel. While the purpose of these trips was to gather sensitive data concerning the Earth's interior.html. The second was a 2300 mile trip to the south polar opening. ³Hollow Earth Archives´. some of which were leaked and described the Admiral's ecstatic descriptions of "The Unknown Country". in February of 1947. The first was 1700 mile trip. however. was however. June 2011. and Byrd was sworn to silence as well. repressed. via airplane. did leave some writings. http://www. Further news of this.Gonzaga Debate Institute 2011 Mercury 66 Conspiracy Theory Earth is Hollow Science can only theoretically discredit hollow earth but Admiral Byrd¶s trip there proves that it exists Libra Rising 11 (Libra Rising.

has way too much weight and mass to spin so quietly and perfectly on its axis. CW) There are hundreds of large cities miles beneath the earth. where telepathy becomes natural. is richly revitalizing due to the solar light which is filtered and dispersed as it penetrates the earth and surrounds you as a halo. and gravity are stabilized and/or equalized as a result. I Am The Man's guide explains that because of outer earth's intense gravity. CW) Most of us grew up learning in science class that our planet is a round solid ball of earth with molten fiery core at its center from whence comes our volcanic activity. no such pressure exists. accessed 6/21/11. whereas a hollow one would have two livable surfaces. You also become younger. The inner earth surface is also quite good with only one-sixth the gravity of outer earth. The interior of a hollow planet would in fact be much more liveable or comfortable than its outer area. ³Hollow Earth Archives´. where breath and heartbeat cease. . accessed 6/21/11.librarising. it would have regulated heating and a light source (an inner central sun). Some of these cities or communities are located in or under mountains while others are in large underground caverns.librarising.Gonzaga Debate Institute 2011 Mercury 67 Conspiracy Theory Hollow Earth solves Extinction Scenarios We could retreat into the inner earth or relocate Earth Libra Rising 11 (Libra Rising. http://www. collisions.html. a hollow planet would be easy to relocate should the need arise whereas a solid one would tax everyone¶s energy (planets can be moved by the levitating beams of huge space ships). stronger. ³Hollow Earth Archives´. our bodies must work extra hard to distribute oxygen evenly throughout -hence the heaving and beating. In zero gravity. This perfect state of equilibrium is experienced in the Earth's central gravity sphere some 700 miles below the outer surface. In John Uri Loyd's "Etidorpha".com/hollow/hollowarchives.librarising. accessed 6/21/11. especially in caverns. Some of these are government or scientific installations while others are more alien or otherworldly bases.librarising. The underground cities in inner earth are to protect us from war and natural disasters Libra Rising 11 (Libra Rising. Shasta in California. June 2011. The living conditions solves for physical and mental health Libra Rising 11 (Libra Rising.html.html. All of these conditions intensify as you approach the planet's gravity center 700 miles down from the outer surface. http://www. Hollow earth would decrease the human mortality rates Libra Rising 11 (Libra Rising. Below 25 miles you lose two thirds of your weight and can hop around like the astronauts did on the Moon. and simplifies or eases travel. provides greater room for multi-plane or multi-level existence. the flaws soon start to come out. and need very little rest or sleep. accessed 6/21/11. and where thoughts move and shape matter. using magnetics for propulsion. as well as for secret and often forbidden projects or activities. whoever designs.com/hollow/hollowarchives. being protected indefinitely from dangerous rays. This minimal gravity and its cocooned state are what make inner earth paradise-like. Outer earth can also become paradise-like once the planet's water canopy is restored and climate. The air.html. Here aging slows down and hunger and thirst begin to dissapear. http://www. down to its core. First of all. however. Secondly. smarter. CW) Gravity decreases dramatically just 10 to 25 miles beneath outer Earth's ocean level greatly improving your physical health. where there is no weight. builds. ³Hollow Earth Archives´.com/hollow/hollowarchives. June 2011. June 2011. And just like a house or car. to which only certain individuals are allowed or have access to. or even invasions ± it would be akin to the interior of a house or car. A hollow oblate earth with polar openings also maximizes energy flow (electrical or magnetic). ³Hollow Earth Archives´.com/hollow/hollowarchives. a solid Earth. while this sounds reasonable at first. CW) The heaving of our chest(breathing) and the beating of our heart(blood flow)are abnormal conditions brought on by an abnormal environment. therefore no breathing or bloodflow is required. Here mind becomes ruler over matter and there is no ageing or degeneration. June 2011. Light emanates from everywhere so that there are no shadows. Also. Winds. This is all described in the book Etidorpha by John Uri Loyd. Secret elevators or shafts in some buildings lead to these duplicate cities. http://www. or creates planets would see the wisdom of both minimizing weight and maximizing space¶ a solid planet can only be mostly inhabited on its outer surface. Most underground cities are built for protection in times of war or natural catastrophes. Nearly everyone knows about Telos a mile or so beneath Mt. light. Not everyone knows that nearly every major city on the planet has its roots in an inner city beneath it. many of which are interconnected by tunnels through which high speed shuttles navigate.

but it is mostly covered with snow and ice. Access to the hollow interior is principally through the north polar opening which is some 1200 to 1400 miles wide. Eradicating what's left of the negative forces. ³Hollow Earth Archives´.html.librarising. oblate. The problem is that there are two opposing forces with contradictory agendas for this unity. June 2011. accessed 6/21/11. but the inner earth government is keeping it a secret Libra Rising 11 (Libra Rising. both good and bad. All of the major powers have bases stationed in the Arctic in a united but hushed attempt to probe the secrets of the hole at the pole and the interior world.com/hollow/hollowarchives. There is a noticeable rise in temperature in these latitudes and salt water turns into fresh and wildlife is more abundant and the compass needle goes wild and then points south instead of north. Byrd flew over and into the north polar opening in a secret American expedition in 1947 and confirmed all of these facts but was sworn to silence over the matter. The bridge between our technologies is closing and the time for a reunification of both worlds(inner and outer) is at hand. CW) Ever since the first nuclear detonations in 1945 over Nagasaki and Hiroshima. but they are restricted entry by the more powerful inner earth governments or societies which they fear. regularly sending reconnaisance UFO ships as well as using satelite surveillance and other means. have stepped up the monitoring of our Outer Earth surface. Fortunately the negatives are dwindling in number as more and more of us here on outer earth are waking up and choosing the path to peace and harmony. Admiral E. CW) There is a massive conspiracy to hide the true nature of our planet ± that it is hollow. There is also a south polar opening. June 2011. Inner Earth leaders.librarising.html. accessed 6/21/11. at best they will enslave us Libra Rising 11 (Libra Rising. http://www. Even the prophecies indicate that the vast majority of humankind will choose life over death and truth over lies. The negative inner earth denizens located mostly in Middle Earth(Earth's cavernous shell) want our enslavement. ³Hollow Earth Archives´.Gonzaga Debate Institute 2011 Mercury 68 Conspiracy Theory AT: Hollow Earth Solves Extinction Inner Earth denizens will not let us in. and inhabited within. however. whereas the positive inner earth people located mostly on the planet's inner concave surface want our liberation and regeneration. Before every golden age the ice and snow around the polar openings melt and evaporate forming water or ice canopies around the planet and liberating access to the inner earth. will be no easy matter.com/hollow/hollowarchives. There is a way for us to get to hollow Earth. http://www. . but it will and must be done if the prophesied Millennium or new Golden Age is to become a reality. At about 77 degrees north lattitude the the planet starts flattening out an around 82 degrees north lattitude it starts curving inwards and one can catch glimpses of the earth¶s inner central sun which lights and warms the interior and which is behind aurora borealis.

In those days. can be extremely irritating to them. but left because of the sun¶s damaging radiation. These appear to show a crater-like dark aperture in the centre of the Earth. ³UFOs« Truth or Deception? Part 3: Aliens from Earth. and that the dark area in the centre is nothing more than an area which happened not to be illuminated by daylight at the time the images were taken. some people have claimed to hear a distinct humming sound in their head which sits on the fringe of their awareness but which. and they are incredibly extensive. The good and the bad aliens are both subterranean species from hollow earth Natalina 10 (Extraordinary Intelligence. 8/23/10. others insist that the Inner Earthers are degenerate lizard creatures of malicious intent who are plotting some kind of takeover of the surface world. and some so large as to dwarf a New York to insignificance. CW) In certain places. Whether they originated here or they came here long ago is a place where researchers have a variance in opinion. and was titled The Shaver Mystery. Richard Shaver had a story to tell. Those left behind fell into 2 categories. They went on to compile quite a library of information. People hearing the sound are often found within the same general locale. What matters. http://extraordinaryintelligence. 11/24/10. who were sadistic and cruel. the caverns do exist. Not everyone hears the sound. they are up to no good. are the home to beings that are alien to us. Not the most pleasant thing to imagine. In 1943. Shaver submitted his tale to Amazing Magazine. at various times.000 word document titled. drag them into their caverns. The Deros apparently like to kidnap humans. and the Deros. is probably the best known.ufoencounters. he truly believed Shaver¶s accounts. CW) Anyway. Shaver claimed that there was a civilization living in underground caverns. http://www. UFO Encounters. human-like beings.com/2924/the-unexplained/ufos-truth-or-deception-part-3-aliens-from-earth/. Proponents of a Hollow Earth make much of certain satellite photographs of the planet which were released by NASA. And in one very famous account. creator of Google Earth. critics insist that the photographs referred to are composites. it was common to submit stories to the cult or pulp magazines that were so popular at the time. nonetheless. These strange hums have been reported in several places in the UK. accessed 6/24/11. Who Are The Aliens Within The Hollow Earth? Among Hollow Earth believers. much of which can still be purchased today. in the United States. These were mostly sinister beings.co. most famously in Bristol as the "Bristol Hum. be they mere caverns and passages or an entire inner Earth underworld. we¶ve gotten a bit off base. . the "Taos Hum" from Taos. Editor/Publisher Ray Palmer began to correspond with Shaver. suggesting that they are not making the whole thing up. New Mexico. opinions differ about the nature of the beings inside the Earth. created by layering multiple photographs together. and that perhaps the possess technology beyond what we¶ve been able to achieve. with stories as fantastic as Shaver¶s. Palmer insisted that while he presented the story in a fictional setting. Shaver¶s tales were printed by Palmer as a work of fiction. but who may be concerned that some of our technological developments might pose a threat to their way of life. and there have even been cases of people committing suicide after being driven mad by the incessant hum.Gonzaga Debate Institute 2011 Mercury 69 Conspiracy Theory Aliens live in Hollow Earth No matter what kind of aliens you believe in they don¶t come from ³space´ they¶re from hollow earth Geraghty 10 (Paul. It is believed by some that these underground dwellings. ³A Warning to Future Man´. However. and ultimately received a 10. supposedly benevolent. From Shaver¶s original manuscript: With the most positive finality. so that the possible population (were not so many dead) could be thousands of times that of the surface of the earth. Hollow Earth theorists speculate that the humming sound comes from advanced machinery used by the race of "Others" or aliens deep within the Earth. Some are convinced that these "inner Earth aliens" are benevolent Atlanteans who are much like us in appearance.uk/aliensfrominnerearth. torture them.html. Here¶s a selection of what I was able to find. descended from an extremely advanced prehistoric race that formed civilizations below the Earth¶s crust." Internationally. and then eat them. ³The Hollow Earth Theory and Aliens´. they say. the whole inner earth being a vastly complicated network of tunnels connecting literally thousands of great caved as large as any surface city. but those who do are deeply affected by it. The view that there are multiple ET races or factions within the inner world is also encountered. Back to UFOs and aliens. because it consists of very many tiers of caves? The caves are connected by broad highways. is that they are here. and their attitude towards us. accessed 6/23/11. The Teros. carved through the solid rock for thousands of miles.

http://www. Nuclear and ray weapons are used in an outer/inner earth joint effort to destroy the reptillian lairs which pocket the planet. A particular target is the Agarthian citadel of the King of the World beneath Tibet. who were reputedly ousted from their stronghold in 1948 by a group of 500 empowered Lamas. Could the great Alaska earthquake of 1964 have anything to do with the attempted removal of such infestations? . June 2011.com/hollow/hollowarchives. ³Hollow Earth Archives´. Some of these lairs are imbedded in the north and south polar ice caps waiting to be reactivated(when the ice melts).librarising. Earthquakes and other natural disasters are cause by the battle between good and evil in hollow earth. the most recent of which occurred in July of 1976 in Tangshan which killed a quarter of a million people. only through liberating the good people in hollow earth can we ever solve for environmental imacts Libra Rising 11 (Libra Rising. The bulk of the most devastating earthquakes in recorded history tend to occur in and around China. CW) Many of the numerous earthquakes around the globe are being caused by titanic inner earth struggles between the forces wishing to liberate this planet and those who wish to continue keeping it enslaved.Gonzaga Debate Institute 2011 Mercury 70 Conspiracy Theory AT: Natural Disasters Adv. accessed 6/21/11.html. and his evil serpentine magicians.

The core is composed mostly of an iron-nickel alloy and.959 miles). teaches in Career & Community Studies at The College of New Jersey http://www.371 kilometers (3.discovery. it didn't always possess a solid center. slowly. http://news. .com/earth/is-the-earths-core-solid. April 26.htm. a deadly stream of highly charged particles. So the size of the inner core is just slightly smaller than the Earth's moon.Gonzaga Debate Institute 2011 Mercury 71 Conspiracy Theory Earth not Hollow No entrance at the North Pole disproves hollow earth theory Krystek 97 (Lee. the world learned that Earth's core is solid at the center and liquid on the outside. but future inhabitants of Earth certainly will notice the difference. It will be gone. 1997. and that of the inner core is 1221 kilometers (763 miles). accessed 6/21/22. Contributor Discovery News. "The temperature drops below the melting point at the inner core boundary so over time. United States Navy Admiral Richard Byrd flew across the North Pole in 1926 and the South Pole in 1929 without seeing any holes leading to inner-earth. Yet we've known for more than 60 years that the very center of the Earth is actually solid. the inner core has crystallized within the liquid outer core. the UnMuseum." explains seismology professor Xiaodong Song of the University of Illinois at UrbanaChampaign. As it turned out the photo was actually a composite of several pictures taken over 24 hours so that all sections were seen in daylight and the black hole at the top was the portion of the arctic circle never illuminated during the day over winter months. Without that magnetic field. Photographs taken by astronauts in space show no entrances either. it's easy to think of the Earth's interior like a Cadbury Egg: solid on the outside and molten in the center. One believer did seize on a NASA photograph showing a black hole at the North Pole and called it proof of an entrance to a hollow-earth. ³Is the Earth's core solid? ³. Danish seismologist Inge Lehmann made the discovery in 1936 when she noticed seismic waves bouncing off a boundary point deep within what was believed to be a liquid center.unmuseum. With her finding." Tromp says.113 miles). but the outer core is more than half the radius of the Earth. That will continue and eventually there won't be a liquid outer core anymore.400 kilometers (2." The solidification of the outer core will take billions of years. the planet would be much more exposed to solar wind. 10 (Robert. as Princeton geosciences professor Jeroen Tromp explains. The liquid portion of the core is crucial to the processes that produce Earth's magnetic field.html) Even if you breezed through a few geology classes in your day. Modern geology indicates the Earth is mostly a solid mass.org/hollow. CW) As time has gone on the idea of a hollow-earth has become less a theory of fringe science and more a subject of science fiction and fantasy. Earth isn¶t hollow Lamb. Perhaps this has happened because new discoveries continue to show there is no validity to most of the hollow-earth ideas. "The inner core is basically the result of the slow cooling of the outer core. "The radius of the outer core is 3. "The Earth has a radius of 6.

4/14/05. TechMediaNetwork. Editor in Chief.com/6980-finally-solid-earth-core. "A PKJKP traverses the inner core as a shear wave. . Yet for more than 60 years. the solidity of the core has remained in the realm of theory." The arrival time and slowness of the waves agree with theoretical predictions of PKJKP waves. and near the planet's surface is a thin crust -. accessed 6/22/11. technology and business of life. just as light is bent as it enters water. a Solid Look at Earth¶s Core´. but this is the first time it's been employed so effectively to probe the heart of our world. The surface waves are sometimes frighteningly obvious. The inner core is solid iron." Cao told LiveScience. Now they have some solid evidence. In the liquid material. A study announced today involved complex monitoring of seismic waves passing through the planet. Around the core is the mantle.Gonzaga Debate Institute 2011 Mercury 72 Conspiracy Theory Earth not Hollow Earthquakes send waves through the earth that would only be possible with a solid center Britt. say water. which are much like sound waves. "because only in the solid material the shear wave can exist. The results were published today online by the journal Science. http://www. By noting a wave's travel time. First. which indicates a solid core. An earthquake sends seismic waves in all directions. The waves. Aimin Cao of the University of California-Berkeley and colleagues studied archived data from about 20 large earthquakes. The trick to detecting a PKJKP wave is in noting the changes it goes through as it rattles from one side of the planet to the other. some jargon: P is what scientists call the wave K stands for the outer core J is the inner core So a wave that rolls through it all is called PKJKP. The technique is not new. are bent when they pass through layers of differing densities. Editor in Chief. 5 (Robert Roy. What starts out as a compression wave changes to what scientists call a shear wave (explanations and animations of these are here).html. and that's surrounding by a molten core. CW) Scientists have long thought Earth's core is solid. Live Science. only the compressional wave can travel through.livescience. all monitored by an array of German seismic detectors back in the 1980s and '90s. theory holds. which send seismic waves rippling through the planet. TechMediaNetwork: The science. The core was discovered in 1936 by monitoring the internal rumbles of earthquakes. But no PKJKP wave has ever been reliably detected until now. so this is the direct evidence that the inner core is solid. Seismic waves passing through the mantle and traversing much of the planet's interior are routinely studied when they reach another continent. ³Finally. The core is thought to be a two-part construction. much can be inferred about the Earth's insides.the part that breaks now and then and creates earthquakes.

and even has an inner. 3/9/9. solid object.theseekerbooks. the Seeker Books. During the formation of the Earth. This is similar to how light waves refract differently as they pass through liquids. the validity of Byrd's story is hard to evaluate from an author who makes sweeping generalizations that defy logic. green pastures and pre-historic animals in 1947 and into the Antarctic opening in 1955. ³Earth¶s Inner Core´. due to problems computing their real location. The most interesting piece of evidence is the testimony of Admiral Richard Byrd who supposedly flew into the opening at the north pole and found a warm climate. .htm. For instance. In other words. inner core. are the lights of the internal sun shining through the opening and asks (as he frequently does in this book) "what else could they be?" I laughed when I read this because there are plenty of other things they could be! The November '01 issue of National Geographic has a nice story on the aurora borealis phenomena and attributes it to interaction between the solar wind and the earth's magnetosphere (although it adds. he says that the northern lights. the planet was a molten ball of rock and metal. scientists have been able to map out the size of the inner core. ³Hollow Earth: A Mostly Nutty Idea´.5 g/cm3. and of course. The books says that the explorers who claim to have reached the poles did not actually get there. Why don't airplanes routinely see this opening? The book claims airplanes never fly over the actual pole and that no one has ever been to either pole (except for Admiral Byrd and a few others who report seeing the green area with a warm temperature). then the core must be much denser. and the liquid part is known as the Earth¶s outer core. the brightly-colored auroras of the extreme north. He observed that seismic waves created by earthquakes on its surface would bounce off the two cores differently. That¶s because the average density of the planet is 5. Universe Today. what if a fog or cloud constantly covers that part of the earth? What if the opening is actually smaller? Could it exist without us knowing? How much do we know about what's inside our planet? I can't answer these questions. probably 3.com/26710/earths-inner-core/. if the surface is less dense than the Earth.440 km across. This is a ball of solid metal surrounded by liquid metal. CW *The ³book´ = The Hollow Earth by Raymond Bernard ) The so-called "proof" for this hardly holds up. the inner core of the Earth probably has vast amounts of the heaviest elements.6 billion years ago. accessed 6/28/11. inner and outer. maybe even a single crystal of iron. However. Welsh 11 (Theresa. about 70% the size of the Moon. http://www. Because it was a liquid. on average. Compasses point straight down near the poles and there was no simple way to determine someone's position at the time of the early explorers. accessed 6/27/11. the publisher of Universe Today. the heavier elements like iron and nickel were able to sink down into the center. was first discovered in 1936 by seismologist Inge Lehmann. and should be visible from space. The solid part is the inner core of Earth. however. The inner core of the Earth is thought to be about 2.com/articles/hollowearth. 9 (Fraser. platinum and uranium. 4. CW) Deep beneath the Earth lies the core. In fact. Scientists once believed that the inner core was possibly a single. like gold. http://www.000 to 5. It¶s very hot. 6/1/11. By measuring these seismic waves. but they would make a good start for future research. But recent evidence has found that it has detailed structures. that the details of how this works are still unknown) The book claims the openings at each pole are 1400 miles wide! That is quite a large opening. while the surface is only 3 g/cm3.Gonzaga Debate Institute 2011 Mercury 73 Conspiracy Theory Earth not Hollow There is no stable proof of hollow earth ± only folk tales and stories passed on through generations. mysteriously. Admiral Byrd made his flights before any such technology existed) Although we have pictures from space.000 Kelvin.universetoday. Scientists have long suspected that the interior of the Earth is much denser than the rest of the planet. (what about GPS? This book was written before we had GPS technology. But the fact that the Earth had two cores. Science proves there¶s nothing in the center of the Earth except rock and liquid metal Cain.

Gonzaga Debate Institute 2011 Mercury 74 Conspiracy Theory ***Planet X*** .

not from the surface. FEMA buying food and supplies for an expected New Madrid Fault . causing the melting of the ice caps and glaciers from beneath.htm. Major super storm floods taking place everywhere 3. Catastrophe 12. causing the molten iron core of Earth to heat up. Leaky magnetic field 23. planet X is the true cause of climate change McCanney. solar flares are increasing on the Sun. Such a claim is disinformation put out by those involved in the coverup. Google. The lying science community and media and our corrupt politicians want you to believe that human beings are causing all of these problems when in reality they are all caused by the approach of a brown dwarf entering our inner solar system for a once every 3600-year orbit around our Sun. The Sun is ejecting massive amounts of electromagnetic energy into space." rejected totally the theory of "global warming. ³What is Planet X?´. The effects of it were recognized by planetary scientists as far back as 1995. when in reality they are withholding valuable lifesaving information as accomplices to deliberate global genocide.Gonzaga Debate Institute 2011 Mercury 75 Conspiracy Theory Planet X = Global Warming There is no such thing as global warming. Increased volcano eruptions 6. . Yellowstone ground bulging from active magma swells 10. A recent news release revealed that there is now somewhere between 20 and 200 feet of water under the polar ice caps. accessed 6/23/11." blaming the strange weather patterns on "Global Warming. accessed 6/22/11. Some of this electromagnetic energy is being attracted and absorbed by Earth's magnetic core. as this link describes 600+ things caused by global warming alone. There is no "global warming" being caused by household sprays and fossil fuels. No media coverage of Planet X/Comet Elenin calculated to pass only 21. Sea Level Strangeness 16. 2/22/11. Airports closing down to remark their runways over magnetic pole migration. Unprecedented changes in sun and planets 21. online writer about space topics. The wobble in the earth¶s rotation getting worse 8. Irregular weather causing food shortages 5. the US Govt and the Media are doing everything possible to hide Nibiru from the people in order to avoid sending the global population into panic. Planet X is the cause of global warming and we will never be able to solve for it End Times Watcher. CW) This is a short list of twenty five symptoms of Nibiru the brown dwarf with multiple moons in the alignment of an µX¶ in pictures from a south pole observatory telescope. Global ocean conveyor disruption This list could grown to more than a thousand things that are going wrong on the earth for the same reason.6 million miles from earth 11. producing "strange" weather. Moon out of place 17. Climatic conditions are changing. they [rightly] pointed out that the polar ice caps and mountain glaciers are melting from underneath. Wacky Compasses 22. Professor at Cornell University 3 (James. NASA. The polar ice caps and mountain glaciers are melting. could cause the ice caps to suddenly slide into the ocean. Increased earthquakes 7. This amount of water under the ice caps serves as a lubricant. 14 15.com/2011/02/22/effects-of-planet-x/. http://mysteryoftheinquity. it will cause massive tidal waves that will wash over whole continents. Severe winter weather 13.amightywind. Weather/climate-induced food shortages 24. Sunrise coming 2 days early in Greenland 9. It has been revealed that in 1995 a worldwide "disinformation" campaign was launched by government "insiders. When that happens. who were not in on the "coverup. Mega solar flare activity 25. Magnetic pole migration that have been going on since 2004 4. CW) Planet X is also already effecting the Earth. Global Warming of all planets in our solar system 20. http://www.wordpress. 1/3/03. and in the event of a major earthquake and polar shift. 11 (Mystery of the Iniquity. and never has been. Remember "El Niño" and the 500 year floods of 1993? Weather patterns have changed dramatically. The increased heat from Earth's core is filtering through the mantle of Earth to the surface. ³Effects of Planet X!´. These symptoms include but are not limited to: 1. Its magnetic field had probably began to effect Earth even earlier. Increased sink hole activity and large cracks forming 19." But a number of highly respected scientists." Rather. This Planet X/Nibiru/ELEnin Brown Dwarf Event Timeline has the most comprehensive analysis and commentary describing a chronological sequential timeline of events than you can find anywhere on the internet. Rogue tides from rising oceans Increased solar radiation 18. Why? Due to the approach of Planet X. Almighty Wind.com/planetx/planetx. Massive migrating animal deaths taking place all over the globe 2.

but is rather a reflector of the light of the Sun.. Therefore. Many centuries ago. consider the "heat" effect it will have on Earth and its inhabitants. What is happening? Dr. http://www. The last eleven year peak was reached in 2000. This eleven year cycle has been going on ever since men of science began keeping records of their observations. in the day that the Lord bindeth up the breach of His people. But they didn't! Instead. it is expected that solar flares on the Sun will continue to increase in frequency and intensity. "Moreover the light of the moon shall be as the light of the sun. then solar flares decline for approximately five and a half years.Coronal Mass Ejections) on the Sun in the 1700's. CW) Planet X is already having a tremendous effect on the Sun. and the light of the Sun increases sevenfold." Isaiah 30:26 It is an established fact that the Moon has no light of its own. Over a period of time it became obvious that solar flares reach a maximum every eleven years. Professor at Cornell University 3 (James.htm. 1/3/03. accessed 6/22/11. The largest solar flares ever recorded have occurred since the eleven year peak in 2000. Almighty Wind. But the Sun only gives off light according to the amount of heat being produced by its nuclear fusion electromagnetic generator. just as they always have done in the past. they have steadily increased in both frequency and intensity. when the light reflected by the Moon becomes as bright as the light of the Sun is today. . Astronomers and scientists began keeping a record of solar flares (explosions.Gonzaga Debate Institute 2011 Mercury 76 Conspiracy Theory Planet X = Solar Flares Planet X is drastically increasing solar flares on the sun and the heat that it omits affecting the earth McCanney. and healeth the stroke of their wound. and the light of the sun shall be sevenfold.. Once the peak is reached.com/planetx/planetx. As Planet X comes closer. ³What is Planet X?´. as the light of seven days. But something has changed. McCanney and other Planet X researchers are convinced that the increase in solar activity is due to the electromagnetic field of Planet X interacting with the electromagnetic field of the Sun. The the next five and a half years they increase until they peak again in the eleventh year.amightywind. YAHUVEH inspired the prophet Isaiah to write. After 2000 scientists fully expected solar flares to decline.

) in order to preserve these things for their future use. It was determined that it would cause massive earthquakes. and probably a shift in the polar axis of Earth.Gonzaga Debate Institute 2011 Mercury 77 Conspiracy Theory Planet X ± Government Secret The government is keeping the disastrous impacts of planet X a secret McCanney. astronomers began to study it seriously. classifying it as "Super Top Secret. sudden fluctuations in temperature and climatic conditions. ³What is Planet X?´. CW) During the twenty-two years since the discovery of Planet X. and others deemed necessary for their survival and pleasure. but all information obtained by it has been hidden from the public. In spite of the best efforts of astronomical and political leaders. emerging only after the chaos and danger is over. . panic. the governments of the wealthy industrial nations of the world have quietly built vast underground complexes (bunkers) capable of housing thousands of people. and presumably the political leaders of other nations. 3 (James. headed towards the inner solar system again. Wicked men will protect their precious dollars at any cost. the melting or shifting of the polar ice caps. water. CW) After the discovery of Planet X in 1982. hysteria. Only a select few top scientists and government officials have been allowed to view the photographs of Planet X picked up by Hubble. etc. These bunkers have been stocked with enough food. why is it so important that only NASA receive those pictures? Do they have something to hide? It has also been revealed that since 1982-83. The result would be the total collapse of the world economy. the public would react in fear. working in collusion to suppress all information about Planet X. clothing. etc. the government has quietly financed and built eight new observatories. where they expect to "ride out" the devastation caused by Planet X." They must survive in order to rebuild a "New World Order" and rule over those who survive the devastation caused by Planet X. After some consultation.com/planetx/planetx. NASA and other agencies have continued to diligently study Planet X. These observatories are in various locations around the U. medicine. accessed 6/22/11. Why? The Government is only concerned with saving the ³rich´ people from planet X while the rest of us are left in its destructive path McCanney. in the years since 1982-83. Almighty Wind. It is now known that the Hubble Space Telescope has been repeatedly used to observe Planet X. tidal waves. ³What is Planet X?´. money. there have been leaks. and technological equipment to guarantee the survival of the occupants for several years. a decision was made to suppress all information about Planet X. Those "selected" to use the bunkers have also placed various treasures in them (art. 1/3/03. for the specific purpose of studying Planet X. They soon discovered that it was inbound. and anarchy.htm. These bunkers are intended to guarantee the survival of certain wealthy political leaders. http://www. Professor at Cornell University 3 (James.amightywind. 1/3/03. But the public was never told about these observatories being built with their tax dollars." Yet. accumulating a vast amount of information about it. But what about the masses of people on Earth who have no bunkers? The ultra-rich political and financial leaders of the world couldn't care less about the survival of the "common man. accessed 6/22/11. They are the "nobles." The only important thing to them is that they survive. earthquake proof bunkers. Since it is only taking pictures of things in the heavens. it was decided that if the news about Planet X and the worldwide disaster that it is expected to cause was released to the public. volcanoes. So. with two of them being in New Mexico. counting them of more value than the lives of their fellow human beings. Professor at Cornell University. automobiles. This information was passed on to the political leaders in our government. http://www. ultra-rich bankers. corporate heads. alcohol.amightywind.htm.com/planetx/planetx.S. reinforced... equipping them with the most advanced technological equipment available. It has also been revealed that the Hubble telescope is equipped with special technological equipment that prevents any interception of its signals by anyone other than NASA. At the proper time these "special" people plan to enter their secret. Almighty Wind.

2011. when the brown dwarf breaks through the solar ecliptic plane. NASA provided us with the ELEnin Comet orbit diagram data to create the illusion that these Nibiru µEvents¶ will be a harmless comet show. This supposed comet (brown dwarf) reaches perigee position on September 11. 2011 exactly ten years after the 9/11 attacks. Mystery of the Iniquity. Supposedly in December 2010 an Russian discovered a mystery comet approaching earth named LEOnid ELEnin using a little 18-inch telescope. The Global Banksters. ³Effects of Planet X!´.Gonzaga Debate Institute 2011 Mercury 78 Conspiracy Theory Planet X ± Government Secret The Government is keeping the effects of planet X a secret from the public while they protect the rich End Times Watcher 11 (online writer about space topics. . CW) This Is What Google/NASA/Govt Do Not Want You To See. http://mysteryoftheinquity. or the same day that JFK was murdered.wordpress. which stands for Extinction-Level Event from Leo Constellation. accessed 6/23/11. 2011. their bought-and-paid-for corrupt politicians and their Media mogals are right now loading food and supplies into underground bunkers in preparation for Nibiru. The third conjunction alignment takes place on November 22. 2/22/11. while you are being left out of the information loop to be caught by surprise on March 4. FEMA is preparing for Nibiru under the disguise of getting ready for a New Madrid Fault Line Catastrophe while you sit there unprepared.com/2011/02/22/effects-of-planet-x/.

net/profiles/blogs/earth-changes-part-1-the#ixzz1QXLlbuGP. it supports life of a higher order.ashtarcommandcrew. They help us in our spiritual evolution and in opening up to newer realities. http://www.Gonzaga Debate Institute 2011 Mercury 79 Conspiracy Theory AT: Planet X . This is also referred to many as Nibiru and Planet X. ³Earth Changes Part 1: The Cosmic Events´ Ashtar Command Center Spiritual Blog. . As we go into the New age. SL) d) Second Sun Our Sun has a twin.Not Destructive Planet X won¶t destroy us ± it will open up new realities Singh. because of our entry into the Photon belt and the Galactic alignment. Since the Second Sun exists at a higher level. another star. accessed: 6/27/11. This star exists at a subtle level and although it usually isn¶t visible to the naked eye. These Energies are expected to become more prominent post 2012. the life in the New Age. 4/29/11 (Ravinder Singh. that is. we¶ll use more of the energies from the Second Sun. it sometimes becomes visible to those who are spiritually evolved and has been photographed. which is called as the Second Sun.

or to quote Carl Sagan no "baloney detector. blogs. or will people come to their senses? coal-fired generators to nuclear power plants without realizing the toll in public health that coal imposes. An astrobiologist calls for a reality check Unbeknownst to most of us. including tax-payer dollars. Are we condemned to suffer a Nibiru scare every decade in this century. But their uncritical acceptance of this story worries me as a warning of the dangers of our current scientific illiteracy We're facing monumental problems with global warming and loss of habitat.com/rdy/another-hoax-planet-x-nibiru/13831. And legislators often resist efforts to collect the data that could actually demonstrate which government programs are effective and which ones don't work as intended. ³Another Hoax: Planet X Nibiru?´. In Web sites. http://www.yousaytoo. and it was known also to the Mayans. Billions are spent. yousaytoo. who named it Nibiru.but in the past 6 months the Nibiru traffic alone has grown to 20-25 messages a week. and the commercial enterprise is clearly trying to cash in on people's concern (perhaps contributing to their fear as well) My guess is that only a tiny fraction of people truly believes that Armageddon is coming in December 2012.000 years ago and deny that evolution is possible. 11/7/8. and everyone knows it. however. They also say Earth's axis is already tilting and the length of the day is changing under its influence. They say the official silence can't be maintained for much longer. because by 2009 Nibiru will be visible to the naked eye from the southern hemisphere. senior scientist at the NASA Astrobiology Institute. they insist that NASA is tracking Nibiru -. for so-called alternative medicine with no scientific evidence for its efficacy. yet now the same myth is resurrected. Its proponents are convinced that it will be visible to the unaided eye this coming spring. They're watching YouTube videos and visiting slick Web sites with nothing in their skeptical toolkit. CW) The scoop: Conspiracy theorists are convinced a rogue planet will destroy the Earth in 2012. I can always hope that Nibiru will turn into a teaching moment." Now a blockbuster disaster film called "2012" is set for release in the summer of 2009. I hope they'll realize that they need better tools to distinguish fact from fiction But maybe they won't One of funniest things about this Nibiru story is that it is a rerun -. and radio talk shows.Gonzaga Debate Institute 2011 Mercury 80 Conspiracy Theory AT: Planet X ± Not Real Planet X is just another example of the publics inability to see things anyway but their own Morrison. who associated it with the end of their calendar "long count" in December 2012. dealing mostly with life in the universe -. NASA Ames Research Center. ranging from the anguished "I can't sleep. Something tells me this didn't happen. As a scientist. Normally I receive up to a dozen questions per week from the public.there was a big Internet concern that Nibiru would destroy the Earth in May of 2003. unable to distinguish astronomical fact from fiction. accessed 6/28/11." "I am really scared" or "I don't want to die" to the abusive "you are putting my family at risk" and "if NASA denies it then it must be true. a small but vocal group of conspiracy theorists is convinced that a rogue planet is about to enter the inner solar system and doom the Earth They say that this threatening planet on a 3600-year orbit was discovered by the ancient Mesopotamians. When none of this happens. and movie makers are already trying to cash in on the hysteria. As one believer recently wrote to me. apparently. I began to receive questions about this bizarre story in December 2007 through NASA's "Ask an Astrobiologist" site. I'm both fascinated and astonished by the deluge of questions from people who are genuinely frightened and. Many Americans seem to prefer In spite of my frustrations. "Why are you lying.but that this information is being kept from the public as part of a worldwide conspiracy. and its effects on the rotation and orbit of the Earth will be obvious by summer (just in time for the release of the film "2012"). yet a substantial minority of Americans thinks the world was formed less than 10. . a space scientist at NASA Ames Research Center and interim director of NASA's new Lunar Science Institute. 8 (David. It's coming.

Spacecraft would be slightly off-target. And there¶s no way to keep many thousands of amateur astronomers from all over the world quiet. accessed 6/28/11. For the same reasons given above that many thousands of amateur astronomers would see the gravitational effects of this object. what you can see if you look in a certain patch. the sky is a big place! But. ³Planet X and 2012: Why Planet X Is NOT Coming in 2012´. on the other hand. Exposing PseudoAstronomy. . but we know it¶s there (and I will cover dark matter denialism in another post). We know dark matter is present because we observe its gravitational effects. In other words. Ph.com/2009/02/03/planet-x-and-2012-why-planet-x-is-not-coming-in-2012/. Amateurs. amateur astronomers are better-versed with the sky than most professional astronomers.D. After all. the ³conspiracy theory. And so if there were an unobserved.Gonzaga Debate Institute 2011 Mercury 81 Conspiracy Theory AT: Planet X ± Not Real If planet X was really out there it would have been discovered a long time ago Robbins. There are thousands if not tens or hundreds of thousands of amateur astronomers out there who are searching the sky every night to look at known objects or looking for unknown objects. 9 (Stuart. There¶s no way that they would miss a planet ± or especially a star ± that is only 4 years away from hitting us. A professional astronomer ± even if they are an observationalist. and where comets will be. http://pseudoastro. this is really not possible. The other claim is that Planet X is known about but Big Government is hiding it from You. they would also very likely find the object. unseen Planet X that was fast-approaching Earth ± even if it were 4 years away ± we would know about it. 2/3/9. Planets would be where they¶re supposed to be. Amateur telescopes can observe asteroids that are as small as a few tens of kilometers across (the size of a city).´ But again. the masses of people who rely upon calculated orbits without that object would notice that something was wrong. this claim is just wrong. are very well-versed with where objects are in the sky. If a planet were experiencing the gravitational effects of an incoming planet or star. We don¶t have to observe the object with telescopes to know it¶s there. CW) The claim has often been made that it¶s out there but we just haven¶t observed it yet ² after all. where asteroids will be. So amateurs are more likely to notice the perturbations than professionals. may know a few constellations. but likely they will only know where their object or objects of interest lie (I¶m speaking from experience here). in Astrophysics. we don¶t observe dark matter. The argument that amateurs wouldn¶t know any better is also fallacious because quite often.wordpress.

http://pseudoastro. then these same civilizations. . the Chinese could see comets. in Astrophysics 9 (Stuart.com/2009/02/06/planet-x-2012-why-a-3600-year-planet-x-nibiru-doesntexist/. which you really can¶t do in astronomy. The Chinese have the oldest records of comets. Except for those token few who manage to get the truth out. accessed 6/28/11. to be brought into the Light. So let¶s assume that¶s correct. And yet. If nothing else. However. apparently revised their calendar within the next 5 years due to observing Earth¶s year had switched from 360 days per year to 365.D. All 15 major civilizations in 705 B. the evidence that I can present that it didn¶t come by should either convince you or cast serious doubt on much of the other evidence that people present for it having come by. They recorded them.) . CW) Disclaimer: This is another case of proving a negative. a mere 3600 (nearly) years ago must have observed something as large as a planet that reached ± if nothing else ± as close as the inner solar system. somehow.C. Ph. much smaller than a planet. And that¶s really in this simple statement: Planet X folks place huge emphasis on the skill of ancient civilizations to make astronomical observations. and everyone who knew about it. much farther away than Mars (by a factor of around 25 times). this is the blatant logical fallacy of ³inconsistency. And they knew that these objects were different than regular stars. ³Planet X and 2012: Why a 3600-Year Planet X´ (Nibiru) Doesn¶t Exist. These are all major pieces of ³evidence´ for various claims in the Planet X and 2012 doomsday scenario and conspiracy. They could see Saturn. After all.Gonzaga Debate Institute 2011 Mercury 82 Conspiracy Theory AT: Planet X ± Not Real History doesn¶t side with Planet X theorists ± it¶s merely their own misinterpretations of history Robbins. Exposing PseudoAstronomy. If that is correct. The Mayans had their amazing calendar and knew everything about Venus¶ orbit. Practically every civilization knew about them. has been kept hidden by the world governments.wordpress. there exist no records whatsoever of a planetary body encroaching on the inner solar system. Yet they all managed to miss this gigantic event. The only efforts I¶ve seen that attempt to explain this simply are required to resort to conspiracy theories: The evidence was there but every single shred of it. (Yet somehow they are not subject to attempts of silencing. past the Army of Darkness.´ They were great astronomers. 2/6/9.

so it is obvious that even if Planet X does exist. but you don't have to. both the Sumerian's and the Babylonians thought the Earth was a disk. is only 23% larger than Pluto. . Zetatalk. 5.. humans were already on the face of the Earth. The following website disproves Planet X quickly. If Planet X DID pass us by when Pompeii was destroyed. accessed 6/28/11. then we wouldn't be alive right now. (I only checked one source for the year. I am referring to "Nibiru". or Marduck as it was also referred to. In fact. http://2012predictions. If Planet X is coming in 2012 like people think it will. as well as many others. The former doesn't exist period. the Vedic civilization of India. And as for the Babylonians? They sometimes used the word to describe the movement of Jupiter. Nope. During the entire 16th century B. the year when Planet X would have passed us by. Furthermore. One man (Zecharia Sitchin) managed to mix up the word of ancient civilizations and accidentally came up with a doomsday prophecy when.planet-x. Planet X was predicted to come in 2003. I am not completely rejecting the latter. or Eris as it is now known as. look for it. 3600 years before the year 2012. it has a much wider time frame than 3600 years. If they couldn't figure out the Earth was round. but I'm leaning towards that it doesn't exist.C. and if Planet X comes around ever 3600 years like I've heard it does. And they all lived through the year 1588 B. how could they ever predict the end of the world via a large celestial body? 4. 10. the Mayas. Finally. and not a hypothetical planet (Not dwarf planet. 10/25/11. the Shang Dynasty of China. Planet X cannot exist. and there for astronomically ignorant. it would eventually become apart of the same kind of orbit Earth and all the other planets follow. 3. then why didn't Planet X affect the entire world? Why didn't fire and brimstone wipe out entire civilizations? Why didn't giant meteors of death kill thousands? Why didn't anyone notice anything in the sky? Because Planet X did not pass us by.org/helping-truth-why-planet-can-not-and-does-not-exist-t201. none of them have left any known mention of any strange events.. so that's my fault). 8. You can read it if you want. For one. It is also classified as a dwarf planet now.html. It means ferry boat in Sumerian. in fact. since I'm basically going to summarize scientific reasons why Planet X is impossible. To Pandora. 2003 UB313. http://www. there was the Fifteenth through eighteenth dynasties of Egypt.com/index.html (Still on 2003. but it was just a distant galaxy. and just about any other name for a giant f**king planet speeding towards Earth in a very elliptical orbit. such a thing was never predicted. as would Pluto and our Earth. In the Year 1588 B. The laws of physics prevent an object with the supposed mass of Planet X to orbit around the sun in the same way as a comet. ³ A helping of TRUTH (Why Planet X can not and does not exist)´. A planet can't just "stop" rotating. Mathematically. The Earth wouldn't just "stop" if Planet X came along. So Nibiru is nothing more than another way to say Jupiter. Even if it could. when I say Planet X. but the facts are good otherwise) 7. there were plenty of civilizations running around before and after this year. with is larger than both Pluto and Eris.C. 9. To WhatsUpWithThis. "Marduck". (I know it refers to the 2003 prediction.150m. There is a page about Planet X.Gonzaga Debate Institute 2011 Mercury 83 Conspiracy Theory AT: Planet X ± Not Real It¶s physically impossible for Planet X to exist NoPlanetX 8 (2012 predictions. Nibiru doesn't mean what Planet X doomsayers believe they are. so it is no longer the tenth planet. Eris would be dwarfed many times over if compared to Neptune.. the Greek. as Pluto is no longer the ninth. And as for the so-called discovery in 1983? It's true that two astronomers found a strange body in the sky. 2. mind you) that is beyond Neptune.C. we're still here. the First dynasty of Babylon. CW) That link leads to a website full of doomsday scenarios. but the proof would otherwise be scientifically and historically sound) 1. Largest body discovered since Neptune? I don't think so.. but still resides in our Solar System. the Mycenaean. And what does the Solar Plain have to do with anything? 6. Go ahead if you have any other pro-X theories you want to challenge me with.

Gonzaga Debate Institute 2011 Mercury 84 Conspiracy Theory ***Aliens*** .

nebulae. Negotiations are on with future manned travel to Moon. A slow but steady process is on to slowly make people of the world ready to see the representatives of the Federation of the Universe. where is our origin and where is out future. The Federation represents all the 88 constellations of stars.com/editorial/14929. The map of the Universe and charted position of galaxies will be presented to the earth. Celestial Sphere is an imaginary sphere surrounding the Earth on which all heavenly objects (stars. There is a genuine attempt being made to protect our civilization. Apollo mission was real but it was an eye opener to the space agencies.indiadaily. Accessed: 6/22/11. ³An orderly visit of Extraterrestrial Federation in 2012 representing 88 star constellations ± the world is getting ready for the most spectacular event´ India Daily.asp. According to some. The world is getting ready for the facts slowly but steadily .Gonzaga Debate Institute 2011 Mercury 85 Conspiracy Theory Disclosure in 2012 2012 will be the year where governments admit the existence of aliens and enlist their help in saving the human race from disaster Sen. Emergency evacuation plans will be created in case of an unseen and unperceived calamity like what happened to Mars millions of years back. In many countries all over the world the rumors are floating around that many Governments are being contacted at this time slowly to announce their presence and coming official visit. The earth will be made ready to understand who we are. the Federation of the Universe representing all the 88 star constellations will officially visit earth in 2012 and reveal themselves. In 2012 the world will come to understand finally the actual evolution process. The Federation of the Universe will visit earth in 2012 and invite us to be part of the Federation in hopes to protect our civilization India Daily. etc.) seem to lie. Constellations are patterns seen in the positions of stars. galaxies. Brazil. There was reason why no one dared to travel to Mars on manned mission. Mars and so on. Professor of Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering University of Notre Dame 2006 (Mihir. India and China are taking the lead in this matter. It will bring an end to all UFO cover-ups in various countries. 2012 the world will change forever as major Governments are forced to confess the existence of advanced extraterrestrial UFOs´ India Daily. 2012 something will change. each containing a different constellation of stars. http://www. The major Governments may not be able to keep the facts the under the rug any more. There was a reason why Russia and America stopped lunar missions. They want an order and mo panic among people.. The extraterrestrials were already in Moon to greet us. According to researchers. SL) The Maya prediction of a cataclysmic end to the world as we know it is near. The earth will also be exposed to possible dangers to our planet that we do not even perceive. The world can finally become an official member of the Federation. There are reasons why the pictures from Apollo mission in Moon look fictitious. The world will secretly use the help of the extraterrestrials to avert massive disaster for out civilization. 2005 (Staff Reporter. http://www.. They want to make sure the emerging new world understands that we have to coexist with our advanced extraterrestrial neighbors. the process of bending time and space. The modern celestial sphere is divided into 88 regions. SL) The world is getting ready for something spectacular in 2012. the fact that gravity is a wave and not a force and the fact that the whole Universe is run through electromagnetic flux generated through natural process or artificial means.indiadaily. ³December 21. Even things like what happens to us after death and so on will also become clear in 2012. the human civilization has finally reached a level when the earth can officially become part of the Federation of the Universe. Accessed: 6/22/11. In December 21.asp.com/editorial/2656. Secret preparations are being made in many countries for the Governments to come out clean what they have been hiding for decades ± the existence of unexplained advanced extraterrestrial UFOs.

issued in January of 1953. between President Eisenhower in person and certain space-faring visitors. in view of the tremendous technological superiority of the visitors. In 1950. Raines. governed by the NSA. who asked him to resign on March 3. New Mexico netted on live alien. It was a name coined by study group member Detlev Bronk. He voiced his concern to President Truman. was established operational unit to deal with the ever-increasing scenarios of crashed disks and aliens. On the same day his brother was due to pick him up. Contact was made in 1953 with a race known thereafter as the Big-nosed Greys. Editorial Board of the World Affairs Journal. would not come out in the open and would in exchange supply some technologies to the host government. Eisenhower signed treaty with aliens allowing abductions in exchange for technology de Gourdon. . which later proved to be an object that was intelligently guided and emitted communication signals. especially in New Mexico. 1949. A Secret Treaty was formed where the aliens would not interfere in our affairs and we would not interfere with their affairs.thewatcherfiles. discovered huge orbiting objects between 100 to 500 miles altitude. which President Truman ordered into production in January of 1950. with varying degrees of personal credibility all allege that ³secret treaties or agreements have been signed by senior security officials and implemented through Presidential executive orders since the 1950s at least. Secretary of Defense James Forrestal became disenchanted with the whole handling of the alien problem. several researchers have reported the secret meeting that allegedly took place on 20 Feb. could only be unequal. . It was also the same month that the Government decided to seize all USS railroads in order to prevent a general strike.com/vol-3/vol3-2-Carpentier. stated that there was "no threat to national security from UFOS". 9 (Come Carpentier. a unit called IPU. in the same year. Within one month. The summation report. 1954 at Muroc (Edwards) Air Force Base. They reportedly also extracted US consent for carrying out a number of abductions of humans for scientific research purposes. The Air Force. 89 (Richard K. Smith assume Forrestal's vacant position in the study group. Astronomers in 1953 made a rather disturbing discovery of a large object that entered the solar system.Gonzaga Debate Institute 2011 Mercury 86 Conspiracy Theory USFG . They were alien craft. p.000 pages of the diaries of James Forrestal locked up in a white house safe and had sent him to Bethesda Naval Hospital under the care of Dr. http://exopoliticsjournal.. By August of 1950. In 1950. fearing for his brothers' life. and Forrestal fell to his death. Forrestal's brother decided to take him out of the hospital. alien craft were often seen hovering over sensitive nuclear installations. The sheet broke. ³The Global Crisis and the Ultimate Secret of the Empire´. accessed 6/21/11. California. The Watcher Files. It is said the US Government agreed to provide support when required by the aliens and that the latter would not intervene in human affairs. ³The United States Government and Extra-terrestrial Entities´. Project Plato. the White House had all 3. We would let them do what they want and also establish underground bases here in exchange for alien technology.htm. and therefore the semantics describing "unidentified" flying objects could be truth fully used. http://www.hk) In 1949. and continued overflights over sensitive military installations.com/alien-treaty. Interplanetary Phenomenon Unit.71. That same month a disk crashed in the El Indio-Guerro area of Mexico and was taken to the AEC facility at Sandia in New Mexico. The meeting is said to have resulted in the establishment of an agreement called the GREADA Treaty which. some of the aliens were KNOWN.´ Like Salla.Alien Treaties The USFG established secret peace treaties with aliens Wilson. it was decided to let General Walter B. perceiving that more public disinformation was needed. the NSA was successful at this task. By now. James Forrestal was found hanging outside of a 16th story windows of the hospital with a sheet around his neck. endeavored to establish some sort of diplomatic relations with the alien species that had appeared. even "higher than the H-bomb". named EBE (Extra-terrestrial Biological Entity). and meeting was arranged with the aliens at Holloman AFB in New Mexico for 1954. In December of 1950. In 1953. Professor of Genetics and Burns Professor of Molecular Microbiology at Washington University. There were near misses with commercial airline flights. Canadian scientist Wilber Smith reported in a letter that the disks were one of the most highly classified issues in the United States Government. problems continued with alien disks. and Sylvan L. The disk crash at Roswell. July. and probes known as "green fireballs" were frequently seen all over the state. and the CIA. they were presumably monitoring something to do with radiation.pdf)sbl The author quotes at length testimonies submitted by various witnesses acting as whistle blowers who. Exopolitics Journal 3:2. convened the Robertson Panel. in the circumstances.

) NSC's Dr." while doing research at extremely-classified underground government research laboratories. (He did not specify what those concessions were. Ph. consultant.com/forum/thread61318/pg1. Michael Wolf has previously revealed in his book The Catchers of Heaven that he worked with ETs as part of his governmental duties. Wolf also described working with very humanappearing races dubbed the Nordics and Semitics. and needed time to be prepared for adjusting to this stupendous reality. accompanied by generals. [Richard J. we want to welcome our neighbors from the Pleiades. ³Extra-Terrestrial Base on Earth Sanction by Officials Since 1954´. CA. particle-beam devices." My ex-NSA informant reported that the U.D. OSI convened the Robertson Panel of scientists. in the California desert. Behavioral Sciences. and other Western power leaders convened the inaugural meeting of the Bilderberg Group. President Eisenhower's CIA Director. as documented by Gerald Light. 1954. Ohio. no date.S. "they will be the ones introduced to Earthlings. which recommended expansion of an Air Force study of UFOs." One of the early items on the Bilderberg agenda was extraterrestrial contact. The President had previously arranged to be in nearby Palm Springs. Wolf says there was another crash in 1946. The same month President Eisenhower took office (January. The ETs are not breaking the U.S.HK] In July of 1952 the world was electrified by large newspaper headlines and photos of squadrons of UFOs flying repeatedly over the nation's Capital in Washington. A year later. later-British Minister of Defense Denis Healey. "a means of Western collective management of the world order. particularly held out for many concessions before agreeing to the arrangement." as my former-NSA informant put it. concerning the problem of adjusting humankind to extraterrestrial presence. He added. This arrangement afforded them an opportunity to monitor closely Earth cultures and behavior. He said. by the way." (The Navy has held a leadership position in UFO matters ever since." Dr. . lasers. the CIA's Office of Scientific Intelligence (OSI) was ordered to determine if UFOs were interstellar vehicles. purportedly for a golfing vacation. The extraterrestrials requested that Eisenhower make the public aware of extraterrestrial contact with Earth forthwith. and researcher. space and time. Area 51and other Facilities. the Bilderberg Group collaborated with the Council on Foreign Relations (CFR). President Eisenhower made a secret trip to Muroc Field (now Edwards Air Force Base). David Rockefeller and other top world financiers. N. Project Blue Book. 1953)." while reporters were fed the cover story that the President had a toothache and needed to see a dentist. night-vision equipment. 'Oh. and others. and shared living quarters with them. as requested by the U.abovetopsecret. who by the way have been here since [the beginning of Earth] time. Ph. university associate professor (emeritus). Stealth technology. another international policy body devoted to world management. Shortly after establishing itself.S. These bodies came from a series of retrievals of downed UFOs. and trying to fire on UFOs. Walter Bedell Smith. and was retrieved by the Navy. He "was spirited over to Muroc one night. The President protested that humans were not ready. date. http://www. fibre optics.S. certified clinical hypnotherapist. While at Muroc Air Field. "It became an ongoing experiment.Gonzaga Debate Institute 2011 Mercury 87 Conspiracy Theory USFG ± Alien Contact & Tech USFG has traded access to our planet for alien technology Boylan. Dayton. behavioral scientist. He adds that when official public announcement of the extraterrestrial presence occurs. "Zetas work in underground facilities. later-Secretary of State Dean Rusk. Prince Bernhard of Netherlands. Los Angeles Catholic Bishop James McIntyre. Bilderberg and CFR decided jointly in the mid-1950s to enter into an arrangement with the extraterrestrials: The ETs were given an island in French Polynesia as a base on Earth. Four months later WW II General Dwight Eisenhower was elected President.S. Government. "The first UFO came down in 1941 into the ocean west of San Diego.D. reporter Franklin Allen of the Hearst Newspapers Group. but the Government has broken treaties by mistreating ETs. in April. 1954. and gravity-control flight.D. but [are] actually living in our place. super-tenacity fibers (such as Kevlar lightweight armor). Hanger 18 at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base. aerospace ceramics.'" "They are the diplomatic corps. Government-Zeta treaties. and it permitted Earth governments a way to monitor extraterrestrial culture and behavior. DC. May. gene-splicing therapy. Several Star Visitors emerged to converse with the President and the generals. had four extraterrestrial corpses in the "Blue Room". as well as two other crashes in 1947. "I met with extraterrestrial individuals every day in my work. anthropologist. obtained was the lion's share of extraterrestrial scientist consultants. cloning. Eisenhower was present while an extraterrestrial disc landed. but history subsequent to 1954 suggests that what the U. to assist American scientists in understanding and adapting exotic ET technologies into such devices we now know as the computer chip." Wolf also disclosed that in 1954 the U. By the end of the following month. accessed 6/21/11.) Between that and the first publicly-announced Roswell UFO crash in 1947. "The Semitics and Nordics come from Altair 4 and 5 and from the Pleiades [star systems].

It too was run by the NSA. beam weaponry and gravitation for silence on part of the United States about their abduction and mutilation operations. Professor of Genetics and Professor of Molecular Microbiology at Washington University. Increasing numbers of people in the public domain began to have encounters with alien beings.hk) Concern or public probing into the "UFO" question caused the government to come up with the idea of developing disks using conventional technology and then displaying them to the public. Project Redlight sustains it first death of an Air Force pilot in Nevada during a test of an alien vehicle. Reichs discoveries also involved the manipulation of biological energy in terms of conquering disease. as well as providing cover stories. Burns. Project Plato.com/alien-treaty. The Watcher Files. and discovered that he could affect the propulsion systems of some of the alien disks. In order to retain the element of secrecy. It didn't take the government long to realize what a threat Reich was to the established order. member of the International Order of Odd Fellows. The United States and the Canadians had been cooperating for some time on the disk technology.Gonzaga Debate Institute 2011 Mercury 88 Conspiracy Theory USFG has Alien Tech Transformers isn¶t just a movie-we¶ve been using alien technology Wilson. Project Pounce was created to provide a general process of disk and occupant recovery. ³The United States Government and Extra-terrestrial Entities´. another NSA project. Dr. member of the International Order of Odd Fellows. This would take the heat off the real programs. was headquartered in Nevada. and despite their warnings about the Big-nosed Greys. This race would not share technology with the government. was initiated in order to establish a continuing program of technological evaluation of alien disks. accessed 6/21/11. Project Snowbird was created for this purpose. The Government also had contact with another race of aliens in 1953.htm. and in 1954 successful tests were made of some jointly developed disk designs. In 1954. http://www. . preferring to allow the Greys to trade technology in mind control. It too. the Air Force established a number of "debriefing colonies" in the United States for contactees and their families .. Hew was finally murdered in Lewisburg prison in November 1957.thewatcherfiles. and Reich was hassled by the government and jailed.a practice which continued well into the 1960's and beyond. the government broke off contact with them. Professor of Genetics and Professor of Molecular Microbiology at Washington University. 1989. Wilhelm Reich began experiments with his cloudbuster equipment. and Sylvan L. 1989 (Richard K.

infra-red) high resolution films from the air. With a computer and Hex Decimal Code software. was derided as a mad man by US official sources. to designate an Alien federation based in deep underground facilities in the North Eastern region of Italy on the Adriatic coast in the 1960s and 70s. Many of them have been tested by psychologists and are not delusional or insane. neuro-biological and psychic experiments involving the breeding of hybrid beings carried out by the Aliens with the likely participation of certain US or supra-national authorities . It is notable that his detection of these mysterious ELINT messages seems to confirm Dan Sherman's allegation (in ³Above Black´) that the telepathic. It is difficult to explain why so many unrelated persons would come out with such stories. Michael Wolf) have provided independent confirmation of at least some of Bennewitz's claims .Gonzaga Debate Institute 2011 Mercury 89 Conspiracy Theory Evidence for Underground Bases Credible witness reports confirm underground bases de Gourdon. Various self-confessed participants in the secret joint research projects being allegedly carried out at Dulce and other facilities (Bob Lazar. near the Kirtland AFB and Manzano Nuclear facilities. electronically-aided communications with his off-planet contacts at the NSA were of the kind used by the so-called radio HF short-wave ³numbers stations´ that are generally unidentified and use artificially generated voices to read lists of numbers for unknown purposes. New Mexico. and that cattle mutilations occurred in large numbers at the time. Bennewitz also took some 6000 ft. July. if they were mere inventions. Much of his work was carried out thanks to a US$75. Exopolitics Journal 3:2.pdf)sbl There are now several reports by witnesses whose credentials have checked out as authentic. The name ³Unity´ incidentally echoes the code name µAmicizia¶ (Amity) used by several Italian contactees. of films. http://exopoliticsjournal. as part of a binary pulse signal developed at NSA's Cryptocity specifically for communication with a federation of extra-planetary species collectively called ³Unity´. headed by Bruno Samaccicia. Dan Burisch. at great risk to their credibility and even personal safety. radio communications were exchanged between UFOs and a huge multi-level underground human-alien joint base located deep under the Archuleta Mesa. but it is clear that at one point he came to know too much and was fed disinformation by the Intelligence community. Their motives for telling these seemingly unbelievable tales are hard to fathom unless they are simply trying to share very disturbing experiences that have changed their lives. the electronic signals intercepted by physicist and electronics engineer Paul Bennewitz in the area of Dulce. he reported establishing radio contact with the Aliens. For example. p. which confirmed the existence of underground facilities at Dulce. circumstantial evidence has been found that makes their stories more plausible.72-4. According to his 1978 Project Beta Report. His work was closely monitored by Air Force Office of Special Investigations. 9 (Come Carpentier.5 Reportedly.com/vol3/vol-3-2-Carpentier. both nightly and in daytime of the UFOs and had access to NASA CIR (colour. with or without the cooperation and knowledge of the US Government. some of the aliens were cybernetic organisms made out of a mixture of human and bovine genetic material upgraded with Artificial Intelligence. Bennewitz also detected electronic subcutaneous micro-implants in some local residents who had seemingly been abducted and tagged by the Aliens for monitoring and remote control. Editorial Board of the World Affairs Journal. unsurprisingly. In some cases. were verified to be real. heavily monitored by the US armed forces. Bennewitz who. claimed the Dulce Base was the locus of a variety of genetic. apart from the fact that UFOs are frequently sighted in the area. Phil Schneider. which reportedly drove him to a mental breakdown. ³The Global Crisis and the Ultimate Secret of the Empire´.000 grant from the US Air Force. to the effect that secret underground or underwater bases have been built by certain non-human entities.

pdf)sbl These hitherto unproven claims could be dismissed as silly rumours if it were not for the fact that a large number of historically documented facts tend to show that certain contacts have been made at the ³official´ level in the USA and possibly in other countries as well. but his motion was defeated as were several others in democratic assemblies of other countries (USA and Japan among others.´4 . Editorial Board of the World Affairs Journal. in 1978).´ inspired by real events. Exopolitics Journal 3:2. http://exopoliticsjournal. which envisions ³the peaceful absorption of a celestial race(s) in such a manner that our culture will remain intact with the guarantee that their presence not be revealed. p. even though they publicly make light of them to deflect attention. in 1979. In 1979 Lord Clancarty (Brinsley Le Poer Trench) introduced a resolution in the House of Lords to lift the cover-up on the UFO situation.com/vol-3/vol3-2-Carpentier. and the UN General Assembly where an attempt was made by Sir Eric Gairy. The alleged secret treaty or treaties seem to follow the recommendations contained in a draft memo purportedly authored by Albert Einstein and Robert Oppenheimer in June-July 1947 for the American President. he received a 20-page confidential letter from NASA specifying what could and could not be included in the definitive version of the movie. ³The Global Crisis and the Ultimate Secret of the Empire´. which could be seen as confirming the widely held suspicion that the powers that be do not want such matters raised.Gonzaga Debate Institute 2011 Mercury 90 Conspiracy Theory AT: Government/Alien Contact is False Multiple government statements & actions prove de Gourdon. July.72. Prime Minister of Grenada. 9 (Come Carpentier. Steven Spielberg has reported that prior to the release of his film ³Close Encounters of the Third Kind.

Gonzaga Debate Institute 2011 Mercury 91 Conspiracy Theory Obama is a Reptilian Our country is run by a shape shifting reptilian Huebsch.com/article/1526375/barack_obama_shape_shifting_reptilian."Change we need": Has Obama told us all along that he is a changeling/shape shifting reptilian? Think about it. ³ Barack Obama Is a Shape Shifting Alien´ 5/9/2009 http://www.html. . "Change" might also be a code word for reptilian dictators across the globe that America has elected another shape shifter as president. Whatever this "change" really means it certainly does not bode well for the future of America and even worse for the human race. Associated Content. but as we know all the only thing the world received from Hitler was millions of lost lives and the genocide of an entire race of people. a food source for the reptilian. change always happens when a new president enters office. perhaps Obama's corporeal body is crying out to the world that a shape shifting reptilian alien has hijacked his avatar. 5/9/2009 [Russell. thus the Republican party could never reveal Obama's true ancestry and the reptilian conspiracy continues. Icke believes the reptilians plan for world domination started to unravel with the September 11 attacks on New York and Obama's presidency will lead us into this "New World Order". Even Adolph Hitler claimed to bring change for the German people. they congeal out of a pile of goo! The voting public would never vote for a space reptilian and if the plan for world domination ever leaked to the general there would be mass chaos.associatedcontent. but is this just mere babbling from a sick mind or does this theory have some legitimacy? Here are signs that the Obama reptilian conspiracy is true. Baylor University. Baylor University. who claims on his web site that most world leaders come from a line of reptilians originating in the Alpha Draconis. Barack Obama is most likely a blood drinking shape shifter bent on progressing the New World Order. accessed 6/25/11. HK] Is Barack Obama really a shape shifting reptilian humanoid from a far away galaxy bent on the enslavement of the human race? According to David Icke. The questionable birth certificate: Why would any presidential candidate try so desperately to hide a real birth certificate? Perhaps because reptilian overlords do not receive birth certificates. Icke's reptilian theory makes the claim that reptilians plan to control humanity and other civilizations through fear and negative emotion.

parts of the story seem unlikely. 1934.com/2007/05/reptileconspiracy-theories. which is available from the Los Angeles Times archives. Somehow Shufelt met with a man named L. Shufelt's device has little to do with either radio or x-rays and more to do with a common dowsing pendulum. not counting numerous modern references to Mt. a major player in the Brotherhood. who regularly abused and raped Cathy's daughter. and of gold pictures with perfect corners. First on the list was Shufelt's "radio x-ray" device. an ancient race whose original continent called Mu sank and now make their home inside the mountain. Bill Clinton and.com. an advanced race. Shufelt's crew dug a shaft 250 feet deep. So was chemistry. HK] The concept of reptilian beings on Earth is a surprisingly widespread conspiracy theory. whose book "The Biggest Secret" reveals information like this: Then there are the experiences of Cathy O'Brien. Shasta as a youth. most appallingly. it turns out. accessed 6/25/11.. who are tall. Lemurians. Macklin told Shufelt of a Hopi legend of Lizard People. any evidence against it is simply regarded as evidence proving the conspiracy. Among them were the US Presidents. The story goes that Reptoids use Mt. and they perform terrible genetic experiments on humans on levels 6 and 7. Warren Shufelt had been using "radio x-ray" and had discovered subterranean labyrinths beneath the city of Los Angeles. and whole subterranean civilizations peopled with all sorts of exotic races. and metallurgy in general. as my books and others have long exposed. Bigfoots are also said to populate Shasta. As I discovered.html. It was Bush. toward minerals or tunnels below the surface of the ground. and that's where the story came to an end. Shasta is said to be full of secret caverns. who built the city beneath Los Angeles to escape surface catastrophes some 5000 years ago. Reptoids are said to serve at least one very useful purpose: They are sworn enemies of the gray aliens. Skeptoid Critical Analyst. Reptilian beings have been caught trying to acquire information about the Dulce base. which you can see online at Skeptoid. Blogspot. but came up empty handed. and have been secretly running things all along. he asserts. Where did all of these stories come from? The earliest reference I've come across is from a Los Angeles Times news story from January 29. but since his is a conspiracy theory. Among all this exotic company. Skeptoid critical analyst." I did make a pretty thorough effort to track down any such Hopi legend. A lot of people believe this stuff. well below the water table. pointing. Shasta is one of our fourteeners here in California. So. along with a picture of Shufelt using his dowsing pendulum. in the great five-level city of Telos. Reptoids would hardly be noticed. This was all he had to guide his elaborate drawing of the catacomb layout. 5/25/2007. "My radio x-ray pictures of tunnels and rooms. jewel encrusted tunnels. including pockets of pure gold." Shufelt said. it's the home of the Lemurians. New Mexico. Macklin. a pedophile and serial killer. white-cloaked beings speaking English but with a British accent. Gerald Ford. and then revolves when over the mineral or swings in prolongation of the tunnel when above the excavation. http://revolutionoftruth. She was sexually abused as a child and as an adult by a stream of famous people named in her book. Some 18. Shasta as one of the numerous entrances to their huge underground network of bases. Times reporter Jean Bosquet described it: Shufelt's radio device consists chiefly of a cylindrical glass case inside which a plummet attached to a copper wire held by the engineer sways continually. Their history was kept on gold tablets. it also figures prominently for any number of modern pagan religions. It sounded like Shufelt had struck paydirt ² almost. three of which have their southwest corners cut off. but Macklin said that the Lizard People "perfected a chemical solution by which they bored underground without removing earth and rock. Most notably. Don't laugh: Ickes sells a lot of these books. and some say they are native to Earth. employ invisible four-foot-tall beings called Guardians to protect their city. It not only has a lot of Native American spiritual history. Gold. are scientific proof of their existence. They speak English and are involved in every major government and corporate decision. They are variously said to either disguise themselves or actually shape-shift into humans. 5/25/07 [Brain. and taken x-ray pictures of many of the chambers. it's also something of a sacred hotbed for a whole range of New Age traditions. Geophysical mining engineer G.Gonzaga Debate Institute 2011 Mercury 92 Conspiracy Theory Reptilians run the Government Reptilian aliens are among us-and they run our government Dunning.000 grays are said to reside on level 5 of the base. where they have public lives in positions of national importance. Shufelt stated he has taken "x-ray pictures" of thirty seven such tablets. Shufelt's dowsing results notwithstanding. Virtually any statement that Ickes makes is easily falsified by minimal research if not simple common sense. Shasta and the Los Angeles catacomb story. was unknown among the Hopi until the mid 1700's. So I began looking into the various elements from the LA Times story. which of course promptly filled with water. He still had to dig it up. Some say the Reptoids are of extraterrestrial origin. which are subsurface voids. sides and ends. said to go by the Hopi Indian name of Little Chief Greenleaf. having developed intelligence before the primates. This is a fair sample of most of Ickes' evidence that reptilian beings have taken over our government. George Bush. The most outspoken proponent of the conspiracy theory that reptilian beings in disguise are actually running our planet is David Ickes. Kelly O'Brien.. and may well serve to be humanity's last line of defense against this threat.blogspot. the mind controlled slave of the United States government for more than 25 years. I did find a "Lizard clan" referenced in several ****continued*** . Among the gray aliens' holdings provided them by the US government is a large underground base at Dulce. I first heard of reptilians when planning a trip to Mt. as a toddler before her mother's courageous exposure of these staggering events forced the authorities to remove Kelly from the mind control programme known as Project Monarch. in which the US government and major public companies are complicit in a vast worldwide network of underground bases housing a large population of humanoid reptilian creatures called Reptoids.

but again. Bigfoots are also said to populate Shasta. but always among other clans (the Spider clan. Among all this exotic company. and whole subterranean civilizations peopled with all sorts of exotic races. in which the US government and major public companies are complicit in a vast worldwide network of underground bases housing a large population of humanoid reptilian creatures called Reptoids. I was also unable to find a man named either L. having developed intelligence before the primates. the Bear clan). According to the story Macklin told Shufelt: The Lizard People. white-cloaked beings speaking English but with a British accent.com/2007/05/reptile-conspiracy-theories. it's also something of a sacred hotbed for a whole range of New Age traditions. I first heard of reptilians when planning a trip to Mt. . its tail to the southwest . the legend has it. and never any references to underground cities. employ invisible four-foot-tall beings called Guardians to protect their city. jewel encrusted tunnels. The story goes that Reptoids use Mt. As I discovered. accessed 6/25/11 CW) Collect your children and run for cover. its head to the northeast. They speak English and are involved in every major government and corporate decision. Today we're going to look at the terrifying tale that says a race of tall reptilian beings lives among us. Their city is laid out like a lizard. all this proves is that I didn't find it. Shasta as a youth. who are tall. and some say they are native to Earth. Most notably. golden tablets. They are variously said to either disguise themselves or actually shape-shift into humans. Reptilians live among us and run our government Dunning 7 (Brian. If Shufelt's dowsing misadventures truly were the genesis of modern Reptoid legends. Reptoids would hardly be noticed. and have been secretly running things all along. It not only has a lot of Native American spiritual history. there is an ironic aspect. Shasta is one of our fourteeners here in California. it's the home of the Lemurians. Shasta is said to be full of secret caverns. or any other elements from Shufelt's story.html. where they have public lives in positions of national importance. my failure to find any evidence of such a legend doesn't prove anything: Native American legends were traditionally passed by word of mouth and never were written down. Macklin never said that there was anything reptilian about the Lizard clan. Lemurians. http://revolutionoftruth.. an ancient race whose original continent called Mu sank and now make their home inside the mountain. it also figures prominently for any number of modern pagan religions.Gonzaga Debate Institute 2011 Mercury 93 Conspiracy Theory Reptilians run the Government ***continued*** Hopi stories. the only exceptions being those that made it into modern storybook collections. they were simply one subculture of the Hopi. in the great five-level city of Telos.blogspot. Some say the Reptoids are of extraterrestrial origin. Skeptoid. and even runs our government. The concept of reptilian beings on Earth is a surprisingly widespread conspiracy theory. Shasta as one of the numerous entrances to their huge underground network of bases. Macklin or Little Chief Greenleaf in the public birth and death certificate databases for the Hopi Reservation in the Navajo Nation Court. regarded the lizard as the symbol of long life. though just as human as anyone else. ³Reptile Conspiracy Theories´. Obviously. according to the legend. 5/21/07..

Again following the prevailing exocultural explanation.Gonzaga Debate Institute 2011 Mercury 94 Conspiracy Theory Reptilians Bad ± 100% Solvency Takeout The aff can never solve for any human caused impacts. expand the scope of surveillance. though he is unique in developing it in an exocultural direction. are owned by the reptilian bloodline´ (Children 260).³The Reptoid Hypothesis: Utopian and Dystopian Representational Motifs in David Icke¶s Alien Conspiracy Theory´. Icke writes.´ a handful of reptilian masterminds directs the course of human events via a network of international organizations such as the Council on Foreign Relations. The ³most important goal of the Illuminati is. it is at this point that much of Icke¶s work has its most enduring interest. in order to satiate their reptilian bloodlust. are direct reptoid-lineage descendants. including George Washington and George W. and brutal murder. In Icke¶s conspiratorial schema. In fact. World Bank. and restrict individual freedoms. The plan is quite simply ³to complete their financial control of the human race´ (Children 345). get their µnews¶ and µinformation¶ overwhelmingly from official sources. 10-11. In Icke¶s mind. Utopian Societies. Icke asserts a standard conspiracy-culture line that the pure Aryan bloodline has ruled the planet throughout history. by providing historical critique that is at once trenchant political analysis mixed with what reads like an over-the-top satire in the tradition of Jonathan Swift. the IMF. It allows for the easiest possible surveillance of personal communications through e-mails. because all of those impacts are caused by reptilian mind control ± as long as reptilians exist in the world humans will never have full control of their own thoughts and action Lewis. 2005. and the Queen Mother herself was ³seriously reptilian´ (Children 79). hedonistic drug parties. Icke believes that the Illuminati are very interested in mind control. which. Thus in the 21st century the reptoids have gone digital.1111Commission. Once a microchip is inserted into the human body. is just another step towards perfect surveillance of the human race. CW) Mirroring a number of claims made by the political far-right. The Internet. like war. Icke himself theorizes that such obscene acts as these typify the difference between alien-kind and humanity and that they are necessary else the Aryan-reptilians lose their temporary human form and revert to their original reptoid physiognomy. 1. each individual will be tracked using a global positioning satellite. Icke¶s work includes any number of accountings of how world leaders and other famous personalities. From the innermost secretive ³Round Table. inventing and deploying new information technologies that will further suppress the truth. Aryan lizards have been Sumerian kings. The Illuminati are the grand historical puppet masters. ³The media. American presidents and British prime ministers. 7 In this respect. ³The Internet is an Illuminati creation and only exists because of military technology. . like the media itself. The Trilateral . . p. Icke claims that in order to maintain their position of world domination down through the centuries. . In order to maintain their anonymity and deflect attention away from their ubiquitous presence in international finance and politics. and. and the websites visited by individuals give the authorities the opportunity to build a personality and knowledge profile of everyone. in turn. professor at Antioch University 5 (Tyson and Richard. in more recent history. The Bilderberg Group. It¶s about control´ (Children 415). presiding over all human activities through indirect channels of control and manipulation. and the United Nations (Children 339). 43 American presidents. Bush. Commenting on the Internet conspiracy. The media and the Internet are two powerful tools that they have developed to achieve mind control over the general populace. . the Aryan lizards have created a secret society known as the Freemasons or Illuminati. According to Icke.´ according to Icke. ³a micro-chipped population´ (Children 368). volume: 16 no. take part in ritualistic sacrifices and pedophilic activities that include kidnapping. professor at Montclair State University and Kahn. then. Egyptian pharaohs.

They have special wings. The soldier class can bury themselves in the ground and wait long periods of time in order to ambush an enemy. along with the Greys. They also have scales which makes their skin water proof.Gonzaga Debate Institute 2011 Mercury 95 Conspiracy Theory Reptilians ± Most Evil The Reptilians are the most destructive and evil in their plans to take over Earth ± they work with the Greys and pose the greatest risk Violet Earth Academy. There is a second group of their race that does not have wings.net/vida_alien/esp_vida_alien_19a. no date (³From A to Z of Alien Species Active in Earth¶s Evolution´ Biblioteca Pleyades. life coaching. SL) The Reptilian race is the other extraterrestrial race that is most negative. These Reptilians have been interacting with Earth for a very long time. They are cold blooded biologically. http://www.htm. however. Ascension classes and workshops including DNA activations. The leader of this specie are called the Draco. and evil in their intent. This Reptilian species apparently directs the efforts of the working class which are only about four feet tall. and readings. Their mouth is more like a slit. In their home system they apparently live underground. alchemy. clearings. destructive. pose the greatest danger at this time to planet Earth.bibliotecapleyades. They have three fingers with an opposing thumb. They are well suited for space travel because they are able to hibernate. The command progression in this Reptilian society are the Draco who are the winged Reptilians first in command Secondly the Draco who are the non winged Reptilians Then the Greys This group. These extraterrestrials are human in shape. have reptilian type faces. The soldier class and scientists of their race don¶t. accessed: 6/28/11. In an emergency they can survive on one very large meal every few weeks. so must have a balanced environment to maintain body temperature. . These beings would be considered another one of the subspecies of the Greys. They average from six to seven feet in height. which are like flaps of skin.

and may well serve to be humanity's last line of defense against this threat. Some 18. Skeptoid.Gonzaga Debate Institute 2011 Mercury 96 Conspiracy Theory Reptilians Good ± Defeat the Grays Reptoids are our last line of defense against the Gray Aliens Dunning 7 (Brian. accessed 6/25/11 CW) Reptoids are said to serve at least one very useful purpose: They are sworn enemies of the gray aliens.000 grays are said to reside on level 5 of the base. New Mexico.blogspot. http://revolutionoftruth. ³Reptile Conspiracy Theories´. Reptilian beings have been caught trying to acquire information about the Dulce base. and they perform terrible genetic experiments on humans on levels 6 and 7. 5/21/07.com/2007/05/reptile-conspiracy-theories. . Among the gray aliens' holdings provided them by the US government is a large underground base at Dulce.html.

There is one group that appears to be a little more tolerant towards human beings. The Greys are logic-based and operate on base animal survival or predatory instincts and in most cases are emotionally insensitive to humans. Each time they reclone.bibliotecapleyades. and later extracting the fetuses. Their attitude towards humans is tolerance towards inferiors. The Grays have one base near the Aleutian Islands. life coaching. These beings are very disturbed beings and are here to take over this planet for their own selfish purposes. They look at us in a similar way that the unconscious mass of our society looks at animals. for biological materials (people and cattle mutilations. however. whereas the larger ¶Reptoids¶ allegedly act as the PHYSICAL overlords and thus are of a higher ¶ranking¶ than the Greys. tall on the average. The Greys range from 3 1/2 to 4 1/2 ft. We are here to tell you not to believe it for a second. SL) GREYS.net/vida_alien/esp_vida_alien_19a. This is why those humans seen working with the Greys (implanted and programmed ¶drones¶.Gonzaga Debate Institute 2011 Mercury 97 Conspiracy Theory Grey Aliens Bad ± Human Cattle The Greys are being used by the Draconians in their infiltration plans ± they are above else self-serving and view humans as cattle to exploit Violet Earth Academy. the ¶vital essence¶ or ¶soul energy¶ of humans as do other reptilian species. which is then absorbed through the skin. and readings. They are impregnating human females on a massive scale. The Grays from Zeta Reticuli have the ability to magnify their mental field in order to maintain control over humans. spiritually and socially backwards. The Grays from Rigel (click image right) were the ones that made the secret deal with the US Government. They are the most commonly observed ¶alien¶ entities encountered during UFO events. There are some books on the market saying that they are our friends. . The Zeta Reticulans appear to be divided into two different groups. May be the ¶brains¶ or ¶intellect¶ of the serpent race. with skin colors ranging from gray-white to grey-brown to gray-green to grey-blue. Like typical reptiles which shed their skins the ¶waste¶ is excreted back through the skin.htm. Aside from feeding off of human and animal proteins and fluids. alchemy. The other group is interested in colonization and conquest of planet Earth. whether willingly or unwillingly) have appeared ¶lifeless¶ and ¶emotionless¶ to the witnesses who observed them. very prolific and intelligent. however. Their basic program is service to self. However it s a known fact that at times they have done human mutilations. These materials have been found on their crashed UFO crafts. They have been cloning themselves instead of the practice of reproduction we use on Earth. The Grays seem to have influence over the Reticulans and the Beeletrax species of Grays. the genetic copy becomes weaker. Most of their biological materials comes from the cattle mutilation. and like other reptilian entities they ¶feed¶ off of human and animal vital fluids by rubbing a ¶liquid protein¶ formula on their bodies. http://www. and that we agreed to these abductions. no date (³From A to Z of Alien Species Active in Earth¶s Evolution´ Biblioteca Pleyades. Our world is not the only world they have tried to conquer. clearings. THE Small neo-saurian hominoids.) They are very telepathic in nature. They are using this planet as a supply depot. which is part of their problem. These different species of Grays are members of a network which is a type of loose alliance to which all have common purposes and aims. These Grays have no stomach and digest their food by absorption through the skin or under their tongue. The Greys are reportedly EXTREMELY deceitful and although they act on ¶logic¶. accessed: 6/28/11. to them it is ¶logical¶ to use extremely complex forms of deception to bring about their goals. They are technologically superior. they also allegedly feed off the ¶life energy¶. Ascension classes and workshops including DNA activations.

They knew that the regulators. he recognized the potential. the keepers of the peace. were invincible. Hitler proceeded with his plans to eliminate the obstacles to becoming ruler of the world. 10/22/96. offering him supremacy. So much so that the world did not realize what was occurring. the charisma that was a part of this brilliant but unstable personality was spurred to even greater heights by the gray's omnisentience. Mr. in which the Germanic population is a very proud people. particularly one as alien as the gray beings would be most impressive. Their technological displays. accessed 6/25/11. would stop them from invading or subjugating humanity. This belief of omnipotence inspired by the gray aliens infused the German people. which was done systematically and efficiently. Hitler was most impressed by their technologies and was led to believe that he would have free access to this technology. Believing that he had full support. thousands of his own people. Convincing people with power to follow him was a relatively simple task when he displayed proof of the aliens and their technology. 'Tis obvious that an alien technology.geohanover. Path to the Source. with gray aliens. ³The Gray Alien Alliance with Adolf Hitler and the Nazis´. The animation. offering him technological advances.Gonzaga Debate Institute 2011 Mercury 98 Conspiracy Theory Gray Aliens Bad . When he spoke to the German people he spoke with conviction.Hitler The Gray Aliens desire to control humanity led to Hitler¶s corruption and rise to power Doyle 96 (Sir Arthur Canon. which they were starving. Being a brilliant. people who had no scruples. And utilizing the individuals in key positions that were impressed by the technology and the mere existence of the gray race was how he managed to achieve power and ultimately a dictatorship over the German people. the power. Mr. . For the tough sell cases direct meetings took place with the gray aliens present. was most seductive. Mr. The down trodden German people were too willing to follow anyone who offered to feed them. if not unstable individual. This was the beginning of his rise to power. This abuse of the general population of the German people opened the door for the gray aliens.com/docs/961022ed.htm. http://www. There would not have been the seeds of the second world war planted if the dignity of the German people had been respected. with the alliance. His isolated mountain chalet was the meeting site for contact with these gray aliens. Hitler chose as associates. full access to the technology and even a promise of direct intervention if necessary. and regain their pride. This spurred him to establish his network. Even the German people had no conception that many of the key thinking people of their country were disappearing or dying under mysterious circumstances. an alien culture. They saw it as an opportunity to achieve their goal of establishing a legitimate presence on earth. far in advance of anything humanity possesses then or now. obviously a very impactful presentation. the war to end all wars. Hitler had a charisma and initially a sense of caring for the plight of the German people who had been unfairly treated after the debacle of the first world war. But the loophole that they sought consisted of creating a form superior to the human form but being a part of themselves so that they could stake a claim of legitimacy to the planet Earth. This of course necessitated the murder of thousands of individuals. CW) The information that I need to impart is that in the year 1930 the gray aliens approached Adolph Hitler and made the proposal promising him world control. He needed people that would do whatever was necessary to eliminate the obstacles in his path to supreme rule. He spoke with the belief that the German people.

Gonzaga Debate Institute 2011

99 Conspiracy Theory

Gray Aliens Bad - Nazis
Bases under the South Pole house the Aryan race created by the Greys Violet Earth Academy, Ascension classes and workshops including DNA activations, life coaching, alchemy, clearings, and readings. no date
(³From A to Z of Alien Species Active in Earth¶s Evolution´ Biblioteca Pleyades, http://www.bibliotecapleyades.net/vida_alien/esp_vida_alien_19a.htm, accessed: 6/28/11, SL) ANTARCTICAN This is allegedly a secret area of operations for both human and reptilian beings. It is said by some that Aryan-Nazi scientists actually developed disk-shaped aircraft capable of very advanced aerial performance, and that swastika¶s have been seen on a few aerial disks. They may be piloted by a ¶purebred¶ blond, blue-eyed Aryan race. There appears to be more than one ¶Blond¶ human society involved in the UFO scenarios, and especially subterranean human societies may have developed ¶blond¶ hair due to lack of sunlight. There does not seem to be anything more than a peripheral connection between the Antarcticans, the Telosian and the
Pleiadean ¶blondes¶ (i.e. we will refer to the Antarcticans as the ¶Aryans¶; the Telosians as the ¶Blondes¶; and the Pleiadeans as the ¶Nordics¶ in order to discourage confusion). The Antarcticans may consist largely of ¶batch consigned¶ purebred blue-eyed, blond Aryans who became victims of Hitler¶s obsession to create a super race, and as suggested by Harbinson and others most of these may be controlled through mind manipulation and implants,

being ¶human drones¶ who are used to keep this hidden society functioning. A massive joint humanoidreptiloid underground system called the "New Berlin" is said to lie below the mountains of Neu Schwabenland, Antarctica. It is said by some sources that this joint human-alien force has spread terror through this sector of the galaxy, conquering and committing untold atrocities against the peaceful inhabitants of other worlds. The famous abductee Barney Hill who along with his wife Betty was abducted by "Zeta Reticulan
Greys" in 1961, stated under regressive hypnosis that he had encountered an evil-eyed "German Nazi" working with the Greys on board the craft. It is claimed that the original "treaty" with the Greys was established by the Bavarian Thule and

Illuminati societies as early as 1933, and this collaboration was brought into America via the CIA, which was established with the help of American Nazi fifth column agents as well as European Nazi¶s who were brought into America through Project Paperclip and other operations.

Gonzaga Debate Institute 2011

100 Conspiracy Theory

Gray Aliens Bad - Nazis
The Gray Aliens and the Nazis aspiration for the super being led to the exploitation and brutal murder of innocent Jewish people Doyle 96 (Sir Arthur Canon, Path to the Source, ³The Gray Alien Alliance with Adolf Hitler and the Nazis´,
10/22/96, http://www.geohanover.com/docs/961022ed.htm, accessed 6/25/11, CW) The German population who had suffered since 1919, were not forgiving, which is understandable when you're starving. They did not mind seeing the Jewish people disposed of their property. They did not mind seeing the people, who led the good life and ate more than enough, taken away out of their midst. The German people never conceptualized the true purpose for the Jewish population being targeted. When this occurred a classification system was devised that divided the Jewish prisoners into various categories. The ones that had specific talents that the Nazis could exploit were exploited in that way. The ones that, based on a Nazi evaluation, served no useful purpose, were relegated to the concentration camps for the purpose of experimentation. The nature of this experimentation was crude and quite inhumane. The physical bodies were subjected to every form of abomination that could be devised. This was strictly utilized as a learning tool. The gray aliens needed to know the nature of the human body, how it functioned, what it did, how it reacted. Disassembly was part of that learning process. Unfortunately it was mainly conscious disassembly. A great deal of the torture was specifically designed to evaluate the nature of the vehicle; the human body. The starvation that was imposed upon many of the victims was designed to establish the durability of the body. Those that tolerated the deprivation well were then utilized for further, more extensive and destructive experimentation. Being ignorant of the nature of the genetic code the gray aliens and the humans assisting them had no conception of what they were doing. The gray aliens were simply destroying humans simply to determine the strength and endurance of the bodies. It was the humans' idea, that were assisting, to attempt genetic alteration using chemicals. The German people have always excelled in the fields of engineering, be it mechanical or chemical. The logical choice was to find chemicals that would enhance or create a super being that Mr. Hitler had been led to believe could be created. This did not work.

Gonzaga Debate Institute 2011

101 Conspiracy Theory

Arcturus - Protectors
Arcturus, working with the Ascended Masters, protects the human race from warlike extraterrestrials with their advanced weapondry tech Violet Earth Academy, Ascension classes and workshops including DNA activations, life coaching, alchemy, clearings, and readings. no date
(³From A to Z of Alien Species Active in Earth¶s Evolution´ Biblioteca Pleyades, http://www.bibliotecapleyades.net/vida_alien/esp_vida_alien_19a.htm, accessed: 6/28/11, SL) ARCTURIANS Arcturus is one of the most advanced extraterrestrial civilizations in our galaxy. It is a fifth dimensional civilization which, in reality, is like a prototype for Earth¶s future. Its energy works with humanity as an emotional mental and spiritual healer. It is also an energy gateway through which humans pass during death and rebirth. It functions as a way station for nonphysical consciousness to become accustomed to physicality. The book, "The Keys of Enoch" has described it as the mid-way station or programming
center used by the physical brotherhoods in our local universe, to govern the many rounds of experiments with physicals on our end of the galaxy. Their total focus in every aspect of their society to the path of God realization. The Arcturians teach that the most fundamental ingredient for living in the fifth dimension is love. They teach that negativity, fear and guilt must be overcome and be exchanged for love and light. Arcturus is the brightest star in the Bootes constellation (click image right), which is approximately 36 light years from earth. The Arcturians

work in very close connection with the Ascended Masters whom they refer to as the brotherhood of the all. They also work very closely with what they refer to as The Galactic Command. The Arcturians travel the universe in their starships, which are some of the most advanced in the entire universe. One of the reasons that Earth has not been attacked by more warlike negative extraterrestrials has been these civilizations¶ fear of these advanced starships of the Arcturians. These ships are the cutting edge state of the art technology. One of the starships circling the earth is called the Starship Athena, named after one of the Greek Gods. The Arcturian society is governed by what they call the elders. These beings are revered by the people of Arcturus
for the advanced knowledge, wisdom, and extremely high vibrational frequencies. The higher the vibrational frequency, the closer one is to light, or spirit or God. The Arcturians are very short in physical stature, about three to four feet tall. They are also very slender. They also all look very much alike in appearance. The Arcturians pride themselves in this because this erases the pettiness of comparison of looks which is so predominant in our society.The Arcturians are the most loving and non-judgmental beings you

can possibly imagine. Their skin is a greenish color. They have very large almond shaped eyes. They only have three fingers. They have the ability to move objects with their minds, and are totally telepathic. The source of food is an effervescent type of liquid that is highly vitalizing to their entire being. Their eyes are a dark brown or black color. Their main source of seeing is actually through their telepathic nature, not their physical eyes. Their sense of hearing even transcends their telepathic nature. They also have an ability to sense with the back of their heads. The average life span is from 350 to 400 of our earth years. Their highly developed spiritual nature has allowed them to never age, since they have the ability to transcend time and space. They terminate the life when the contract that has been arranged for their existence is up. There is also no sickness on
Arcturus, it was eliminated centuries ago.

clearings. Ascension classes and workshops including DNA activations. They are here to help us help ourselves. The Procyonians have a philosophy of service to others rather than service of self. but are not dependent on them. about 11. The United States government was not interested in negotiating with the Procyon¶s because they would not give them new weapons systems. The term Procyon translates into English as "The home of those who travel through time. life coaching. This was done for a much more noble purpose than the Greys.bibliotecapleyades. accessed: 6/28/11. and readings.net/vida_alien/esp_vida_alien_19a. They frequently use mechanical vehicles for this. no date (³From A to Z of Alien Species Active in Earth¶s Evolution´ Biblioteca Pleyades.4 light years from Earth. The Procyonians have apparently cross bred with us at many stages in our evolutionary development. Procyon (click image right) is a binary yellowish/white star that rises before Sirius in Canis Minoris. alchemy. They are humanoid in nature with blond hair. They have been nicknamed the Swedes.htm. They are able to travel in time and between dimensions of reality." The Procyonians serve the Law of One. totally respecting our free choice. They have been involved in trying to protect us from the evil activities of the Greys and Reptilians. http://www. . They have a very strong positive spiritual attitude towards the humanity of Earth.Gonzaga Debate Institute 2011 Mercury 102 Conspiracy Theory Procyonians ± Allies to Ashtar The Procyonians protect the human race from the Greys and Reptilians ± they also serve the Law of One. SL) PROCYONIANS One of the more positive extraterrestrial groups are from a solar system that revolves around Procyon. making them allies with the Ashtar Command Center Violet Earth Academy.

however his priests only gave this teaching lip service. They attempted to help in technical ways.bibliotecapleyades. alchemy. They made some contact in the Holy Land. . They stayed a little bit longer in South America. The Ra refer to themselves as a sixth density social memory complex. in terms of the healing of mind/body/spirit. no date (³From A to Z of Alien Species Active in Earth¶s Evolution´ Biblioteca Pleyades. The pyramids they helped create were used for spiritual initiation. http://www. clearings. once they realized that what they taught was being distorted. Ascension classes and workshops including DNA activations. They refer to themselves as humble messengers of the Law of One. accessed: 6/28/11. They no longer operate in linear time as we do on Earth. in the Eighteenth Dynasty.. was in Egypt and the Mayan civilization.000 years ago in an extraterrestrial mission to help Earthlings with their mental and spiritual evolution. and in this current day and age they refer to the great pyramid as a piano out of tune. The Pharaoh accepted the teachings of the Law of One.net/vida_alien/esp_vida_alien_19a. They did not apparently stay too long in Egypt. SL) RA-ANS They landed on earth approximately 110. They were also involved in the building of the Great Pyramid of Giza. however they are able to materialize bodies as they need to. life coaching. They came to Egypt in bell shaped UFO air craft. They refer to themselves as a social memory complex. Their main focus geographically. They no longer have physical bodies. They also follow the Law of One Violet Earth Academy. The Pharaoh they contacted was Akhenaton. They apparently originally had some connection with the planet Venus. however.Gonzaga Debate Institute 2011 Mercury 103 Conspiracy Theory Ra-ans ± Past Allies The Ra-ans helped the ancient Egyptian and Mayan civilizations ± increasing their tech and medicinal practices. They are Light beings. although still do have individual identities within this understanding. through the use of crystals. In their physical manifestation on Earth the physical bodies had a golden luster because of their high vibration. and readings. also. where they had a little more success. no longer do now.htm.

Aggressive The Draconians are bidding their time for a planetary takeover as the human race transitions to an interstellar presence in the universe Violet Earth Academy. accessed: 6/28/11. these claim to have originated on Terra thousands of years ago. pollution. food and other environmental problems. . which would lead to eventual Terran colonization of other planets by Earth and an eventual solution to the population.Gonzaga Debate Institute 2011 Mercury 104 Conspiracy Theory Draconians . They are apparently a major part of a planned ¶invasion¶ which is eventually turning from covert infiltration mode to overt invasion mode as the "window of opportunity" (the time span before International human society becomes an interplanetary and interstellar power) slowly begins to close. Ascension classes and workshops including DNA activations. Being that Terrans have an inbred "warrior" instinct the Draconians DO NOT want them/us to attain interstellar capabilities and therefore become a threat to their imperialistic agendas (Draconian).htm.net/vida_alien/esp_vida_alien_19a. no date (³From A to Z of Alien Species Active in Earth¶s Evolution´ Biblioteca Pleyades. Like all reptilians. alchemy. clearings. and readings. SL) ALPHA-DRACONIANS Reptilian beings who are said to have established colonies in Alpha Draconis (Thuban) . http://www. They are attempting to keep the "window" open by suppressing advanced technology from the masses.bibliotecapleyades.click image right. life coaching. a fact that they use to ¶justify¶ their attempt to re-take the earth for their own.

to be exploitive. Much information was shared. . until we outgrow the tendency as a people. accessed: 6/28/11. alchemy. The Sirians gave the Egyptians much advanced astronomical and medical information. The guides also refer to Sirius as a star system where the residents are seldom permanent residents.htm. mixed with us genetically. and pathways to Inner Earth ± won¶t help humanity again until we stop being exploitive and manipulative Violet Earth Academy.Gonzaga Debate Institute 2011 Mercury 105 Conspiracy Theory Sirius ± Past Allies The Sirius came to build tunnels..net/vida_alien/esp_vida_alien_19a. one of which was supposedly the crystal skull. They will be very involved in the future in establishing the Golden Age on this planet. at that time. clearings. They also helped in the building of many of the tunnels and pathways to the Inner Earth. The third dimensional Sirians visited both the Egyptian and Mayan civilizations in times past. judgmental and manipulative.bibliotecapleyades. It lies approximately 8. and readings. The beings from Sirius who are visiting Earth are very good at the practical application of very advanced theoretical ideas that are being brought forth from other very advanced extraterrestrial civilizations. Their views currently on Earth is that they will not consider a more active partnership again.7 light years from Earth. Sirius helped to build the great pyramids and temples of Egypt. The Sirians left behind time capsules for our future generations to discover. The path to Sirius is one of the seven paths to higher evolution that each soul must choose upon achieving the sixth initiation and/or their ascension. and is a member of the constellation of Canis Major. then we must think of them in terms of being a group consciousness of both physical and non physicality. Ascension classes and workshops including DNA activations. no date (³From A to Z of Alien Species Active in Earth¶s Evolution´ Biblioteca Pleyades. They are here to ground and make usable these advanced ideas and technologies. pyramids. life coaching. The star Sirius is known as the Dog Star. http://www. They also." Djwhal Khul says Sirius is one of the more advanced training centers or universities to which the Ascended Masters may travel. At this time they are working with us primarily without direct intervention. They were instrumental in helping us at the time of Atlantis during that cataclysmic period. In thinking of Sirius. It is one of the most brilliant stars that is observable in the night sky. SL) "During many of the Egyptian dynasties it was quite common to have a visitation from a Sirian in the disguise of one of their Gods . The Mayans and the Inca also had a very personal relationship with the Syrians. They talk about it as an important way station for Earthlings who wish to continue their spiritual development.. It is a meeting place for those who have mastered their own planetary systems and are preparing there for further duties and missions. and it is interesting that the Mayan race seemed to just vanish off the face of the Earth at a certain point in their history. Sirius was one of the first areas to be colonized by beings from the Lyran Star group and is more advanced in a metaphysical sense.

clearings. however at the same time retaining reptilian or neo-saurian internal organs. molecular shape-shifting and/or laser holograms to produce an outward "human" appearance. One report alleged that the ¶Chameleons¶ may utilize artificial ¶lenses¶ to conceal "slit-pupiled iris¶". Some claim they are genetically bred ¶mercenaries¶ who are part of an advanced guard of a planned silent invasion-takeover of human society. Also lesshumanoid appearing Reptiloids who use a form of technosis. Nevada Deep Springs.htm.bibliotecapleyades. life coaching. and readings. alchemy.net/vida_alien/esp_vida_alien_19a. New Mexico Dougway. Utah Groom Lake. Often described as appearing ¶bulge-eyed¶ with scaly. . hairless skin behind their ¶disguise¶.Gonzaga Debate Institute 2011 Mercury 106 Conspiracy Theory Chameleons The Chameleon race function as mercenaries to the silent take-over of human society Violet Earth Academy. accessed: 6/28/11. Washington and elsewhere They are reportedly involved in some type of infiltration agenda. http://www. Reports of these have surface from underground jointoperational facilities near: Dulce. California Fort Lewis. Ascension classes and workshops including DNA activations. no date (³From A to Z of Alien Species Active in Earth¶s Evolution´ Biblioteca Pleyades. SL) CHAMELEON Reptilians genetically bred to enable themselves to appear ¶human¶. These ¶infiltrators¶ can appear remarkably human outwardly .

that the surfaces of these bodies may have been decimated after passing through the asteroid belt or an ¶asteroid storm¶ (consisting of debris which ¶may¶ have been torn from a planet which apparently existed between Mars and Jupiter at one time -. (It is from these "carrier" ships that the abduction. possibly thousands of years old. have been seen on both ¶planets¶ and that these attest to such a cataclysm. alchemy.Gonzaga Debate Institute 2011 Mercury 107 Conspiracy Theory Martians ± Original Greys The Martians are the original Grey aliens who reside in the two hollow ³moons´ orbiting Mars ± this is where people who have been abducted go to be dissected and mutilated Violet Earth Academy. life coaching. and readings.htm. both human and non-human. SL) MARTIANS Inhabitants of the planet Mars. It is believed that ancient ¶ruins¶. including the alleged inhabitants of the two Martian ¶moons¶ (which many believe to be artificially-hollowed asteroids. Ascension classes and workshops including DNA activations. http://www. one of which Phobos . no date (³From A to Z of Alien Species Active in Earth¶s Evolution´ Biblioteca Pleyades. programming. clearings. It has also been suggested that thousands of years ago the surface of LUNA and MARS were much more ¶habitable¶. mutilation.is said to be under the control of the "original" Greys.bibliotecapleyades. infiltration and other projects are carried out against planet earth).possibly destroyed by a close encounter with another planetary body in the tradition of Velikovsky¶s theories).net/vida_alien/esp_vida_alien_19a. implantation. or self-reproducing Greys which are the "hosts" for the Grey "clones" which operate from various space stations that are disguised as planetoids. . accessed: 6/28/11.

Gonzaga Debate Institute 2011

108 Conspiracy Theory

Intergalactic War Headed to Earth
The Orion open cluster has been a stage to a war between the Ashtar Command Center and the Draconion Empire ± this war is moving towards the Solar system and many extraterrestrials have already established underground bases on Earth to continue the fight Violet Earth Academy, Ascension classes and workshops including DNA activations, life coaching, alchemy, clearings, and readings. no date
(³From A to Z of Alien Species Active in Earth¶s Evolution´ Biblioteca Pleyades, http://www.bibliotecapleyades.net/vida_alien/esp_vida_alien_19a.htm, accessed: 6/28/11, SL) Sirius is the apparent epicenter of the ASHTAR or ASTARTE collective, where humanoids of various types, Sasquatch, Reptiloids, Greys, Insectoids and Reptilian-Insectoid hybrid species as well as cybernetic "MIB" entities have collaborated in the past. The Sirians have waged war in the past with the Orion Empire or the "Unholy Six" reptilian star systems in the Orion open cluster. The ancient dispute involves just who will serve as the "landlords" of a sector of space containing 21 star systems including the most strategic star system, SOL and particularly planet Earth, Terra or Shan -- which is a virtual cosmic "oasis" of water, mineral, plant, animal and genetic resources in incredible variety compared with most other worlds. This dispute between the Sirians and Orion Reptiloids dates back to the ancient invasion of Orion by the Draconian EMPIRE, as a result of which many "Nordic" type humanoids escaped to Procyon, Sol, Sirius and elsewhere. In recent times a RIFT or SPLIT has occurred in the Ashtar collective following the discovery of massive infiltration into the collective by agents of the Unholy Six and Draconian EMPIRES, with many humanoids taking sides with the FEDERATION - which has a major earth-base under Furnace Creek, California (see map left); and many of the Reptiloids taking sides with the Orion-Draconian EMPIRE - which has a major earthbase below Dulce, New Mexico. A Collaboration of sorts (via the electronic collective mind which links humanoid and reptiloid intelligences into a master mainframe via psionic implants) still exists however, a collective-collaboration which maintains bases under Paradox, Nevada; Dougway, Utah and near the Denver International Airport in Colorado. This war in Sirius-B is gravitating towards the Sol System, in that the opposing agendas for this system is one of the major issues of dispute between the two [or three] warring factions.

Gonzaga Debate Institute 2011

109 Conspiracy Theory

Aliens - Benevolent
Aliens are everywhere and they¶re watching-Bulgarian scientists and the Vatican claim The Telegraph, 09
[The Telegraph, ³Aliens already exist on Earth Bulgarian Scientists Claim´ 11/26/09 http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/worldnews/europe/bulgaria/6650677/Aliens-already-exist-on-earth-Bulgarianscientists-claim.html, accessed 6/21/11, HK] Work on deciphering a complex set of symbols sent to them is underway, scientists from the country's Space Research Institute said. They claim aliens are currently answering 30 questions posed to them. Lachezar Filipov, deputy director of the Space Research Institute of the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, confirmed the research. He said the centre's researchers were analysing 150 crop circles from around the world, which they believe answer the questions. "Aliens are currently all around us, and are watching us all the time," Mr Filipov told Bulgarian media. "They are not hostile towards us, rather, they want to help us but we have not grown enough in order to establish direct contact with them." Mr Filipov said that even the seat of the Catholic church, the Vatican, had agreed that aliens existed. He said humans were not going to be able to establish contact with the extraterrestrials through radio waves but through the power of thought. "The human race was certainly going to have direct contact with the aliens in the next 10 to 15 years," he said. "Extraterrestrials are critical of the people's amoral behavior referring to the humans' interference in nature's processes." The publication of the BAS researchers report
concerning communicating with aliens comes in the midst of a controversy over the role, feasibility, and reform of the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences. Last week it lead to a heated debate between Bulgaria's Finance Minister, Simeon Djankov, and President Georgi Parvanov.

Not all aliens are evil Webre, co-architect of the Space Preservation Treaty and the Space Preservation Act, 11
(Alfred Lambremont, 6/5, ³Whistleblower: WWIII, a war between hostile ETs and humanity, has started´, http://www.examiner.com/exopolitics-in-seattle/whistleblower-wwiii-a-war-between-hostile-ets-and-humanity-hasstarted#ixzz1PTKi1cXf Mr. Prince states that the U.S. government knows of the existence of at least 118 extraterrestrial races that are involved with the affairs of Earth. He states, ³There have also been Human/ET treaties with these compassionate races, and their motivations and actions in these areas seem to prove their intentions.´ Mr. Prince writes, ³This situation is so bizarre and gets even more so as we go deeper into highly classified areas. I have been told by my NSA contact, X3, there are at least 118 different extra-terrestrial races, that the NSA knows about, involved in the affairs of this planet. The NSA refers to this ET grouping under such titles as The Link and others. There are the benevolent ETs visiting this planet from star sectors such as the Pleiades, Andromeda, Lyra, Tau Ceti, Sirius A, and Ummo, which have been referred to by contactees and secret service personnel as The Galactic Confederation of Worlds. Here we are going into complicated Star Warstype Exo-politics. ³However, there are benevolent factions of Orion Greys and Draco Reptilians and evil factions of Pleiadians, for example. This is obvious, as in any race there are good and evil elements. I wanted to just make this distinction clear because in the so-called New Age movement, there is almost a religious type of obsession with New Age advocates claiming all reptilians are negative and all Pleiadians are here to save us from them. There have also been Human/ET treaties with these compassionate races, and their motivations and actions in these areas seem to prove their intentions

Gonzaga Debate Institute 2011

110 Conspiracy Theory

Aliens Here ± Historical Proofs
Aliens exist-they built the pyramids Mayes, Thekeyboard.com, 04
(Keith, author of ³Science the universe and god´, TheKeyboard.com, ³who built the pyramids?´ 1/19/04 ³http://www.thekeyboard.org.uk/Who%20built%20the%20pyramids.htm, accessed 6/21/11,hk) I can remember standing in the desert near Cairo and gazing across the Sphinx to the Great Pyramid of Giza, one of the most impressive structures on Earth, and counting myself extremely fortunate to be there. The pyramid carries some impressive statistics. It stands 450 feet tall (137mtrs) and consists of two million blocks of stone, weighing from the most common at 2.5 tons up to 50 tons. The weight of the pyramid is six million tons. The four corners are almost perfect right angles and align almost exactly to the four points of the compass. The sides slope at a
perfect 52 degrees, or would do had not the smoothly polished limestone finishing blocks been removed and used in building works in Cairo. It is one one of the original Seven Wonders of the World. Impressive though the statistics are, they do not reveal the true magnificence of this wonderful construction. I have to admit that upon entering the pyramid and climbing up the narrow cramped access shaft to the upper burial chamber, which was surprisingly cool, I experienced an eerie feeling of stepping back into history, and a strong feeling of trespassing. To have seen this pyramid when perfectly smooth and dazzlingly white in the desert sun must have been an incredible sight. So impressive are the pyramids that it has caused many to wonder how they could possibly have been built some 4500 years ago. Some even go as far as to suggest that it is not possible for these structures to have been made by the labours of men, but were instead made by aliens. Who built the pyramids, aliens or men? The case for the Aliens: The pyramids are so accurately aligned with the points of the compass that only aliens

could have achieved this all those thousands of years ago. The angle of the slope of the sides is so precise only aliens could achieve this. The blocks are so heavy and the pyramid so tall only aliens could achieve this. In the period 2500 BC man did not have the tools or knowledge necessary to build the pyramids, so only aliens could have done it. How the aliens built the pyramids is not known, but they would have employed the use of advanced construction equipment.

Aliens have been here for thousands of years History.com, 11
[History.com, ³Ancient Alien Theory´ 2011, http://www.travelblog.org/South-America/Peru/Ica/Nazca/blog459201.html, accessed 6/22/11, HK] According to ancient alien theorists, extraterrestrials with superior knowledge of science and engineering landed on Earth thousands of years ago, sharing their expertise with early civilizations and forever changing the course of human history. But how did this concept develop, and is there any evidence to support it? Ancient alien theory grew out of the centuries-old idea that life exists on other planets, and that humans and extraterrestrials have crossed paths before. The theme of human-alien interaction was thrust into the spotlight in the 1960s, driven by a wave of UFO sightings and popular films like 2001: A Space Odyssey. The space program played no small part in this as well: If mankind could travel to other planets, why couldn¶t extraterrestrials visit Earth? In 1968, the Swiss author Erich von Däniken published Chariots of the Gods?, which became an immediate bestseller. In it, he put forth his hypothesis that, thousands of years ago, space travelers from other planets visited Earth, where they taught humans about technology and influenced ancient religions. He is regarded by many as the father of ancient alien theory, also known as the ancient astronaut theory. Most ancient alien theorists, including von Däniken, point to two types of evidence to support their ideas. The first is ancient religious texts in which humans witness and interact with gods or other heavenly beings who descend from the sky²sometimes in vehicles resembling spaceships²and possess spectacular powers. The second is physical specimens such as artwork depicting alien-like figures and ancient architectural marvels like Stonehenge and the pyramids of Egypt. If aliens visited Earth in the past, could they make an appearance in the future? For ancient alien theorists, the answer is a resounding yes. They believe that, by sharing their views with the world, they can help prepare future generations for the inevitable encounter that awaits them.

they heard a beeping sound. or planet. they were not able to see the strange craft anymore. One thing about this whole subject that seems odd to me. even allowing for stops for the Hills. and after interviewing the Hills." It is important to note at this point that Barney was against calling the sighting in to the base. and certainly most researched UFO cases. Soon. and was the supervisor for the child welfare department. or Science Fiction Theater.ufocasebook. but that Betty thought it to be something else . After resuming their journey home. UFO Casebook researcher. and on the 19th of the month. and even today. The mood in the car was quiet as they proceeded home and went to bed. and breaks for their dog. the object appeared to move in an odd way. two writers got wind of the story. Barney had recently developed an ulcer. The story of Betty and Barney Hill begins in September 1961. Barney actually stopped the car to have a look at the object with his binoculars. they began their journey back home to Portsmouth.Then one morning. As I began to read the article. he could see occupants inside. and rows of windows on a flat-shaped object. speaking to Major Paul W. As they reached Indian Head.html. 8 [B J. some kind of joke?" I thought I had heard the last of it. which now seemed to be moving toward him. They both slept until the next afternoon. neither Betty nor Barney recalled any abduction. in the state of New Hampshire. At about a quarter past 10:00 PM. UFO Casebook ³The Betty and Barney Hill Abduction. noticing that they were suddenly thirty-five miles farther down the road than a minute or two ago. just north of North Woodstock. is that it is considered within the realm of possibility that someone could see a UFO. and taken inside the ship! Well. but for someone to be taken aboard one.Abductions Prove Aliens exist-abductions Booth. with a crescent moon shining on the heavily wooded landscape that surrounded US Route 3 in the central part of New Hampshire. NO WAY. What ensued after the couple went public with their story was much more stressful to him than any anti-racial remarks he may have encountered. date acquired from page created data. HK] When I was but a young boy." Well. but I had not. who also had made the trip with them. and he and his wife Betty decided to take a short vacation to Canada. which was not nearly as readily accepted in the early 1960s as it is today. and they both began to keep track of the object. and noticed about three pages deep this heading. The couple had visited Niagara Falls. Henderson. They discovered that there were two hours of unaccounted time in the Hill's story. http://www. He saw multi-colored lights. The fact that the Hills were an interracial couple has been given weight by some who state that Barney was suffering stress in dealing with some public ridicule about the black and white union. In a matter of weeks. Frightened. "New Hampshire Couple Encounters UFO. three miles south of the city of Lancaster. against their will. As the object moved to within a hundred feet of him.com/Hill. The night was clear. "What is this. Barney would state that he tried to convince himself that the object was a plane. she called her sister Janet. which seemed to move erratically. Betty reported the incident. the only time anyone talked about flying saucers was after watching a movie about them.an unidentified craft of some kind. who told Betty. I was astounded to see that these two people claimed to have been abducted by aliens. as the movement of their vehicle caused the trees to come and go in obstructing their view. I was intrigued. Betty began having nightmarish dreams of her and her husband being taken aboard a craft of some kind. two hours of their lives would vanish into oblivion. Barney pointed this out to Betty.accessed 6/22/11. Part 1´. Later. Barney Hill was a 39-year-old black man who worked for the US Postal Service. made an intensive log of the events of the night. They climbed inside and sped away. In our small town paper. needless to say. Soon. you just didn't see things on this type of subject. They then heard the beeping a second time. hoping to keep it quiet. Janet told her to call nearby Pease Air Force Base. is still considered one of the most believable. They were now in Ashla. that was enough for me to think. In 1961. he ran back to his car where Betty waited. "The UFO was also confirmed by our radar. His wife Betty was a 41-year-old white woman. and report what she had seen. . Oddly though. At this time. As the two continued to the Flume. and told her what had happened. or seeing an episode of Twilight Zone. Soon. except for maybe the Roswell incident. When Betty got up. and Montreal. dincredible story. this story became an international one. Barney noticed what appeared to be a bright star. The couple began to believe that they were watching a plane appear and disappear. who owned a Master's Degree.Gonzaga Debate Institute 2011 Mercury 111 Conspiracy Theory Aliens Here . however. I was scanning over our local newspaper.

and will be put down to our primitive nature. .ning. A number of residents filmed the event on their mobile phone cameras. 11 [Linda. Universally Aware. Dozens of stunned locals.Gonzaga Debate Institute 2011 Mercury 112 Conspiracy Theory Aliens Here . The alien spacecraft was described as glowing and two lights were seen on its body. behind closed-doors. An important UFO event has taken place yet again in Russia.com/forum/topics/ufo-650-diameter-seenin?page=1&commentId=6049518%3AComment%3A61503&x=1#6049518Comment61503. however the object was not visible when they replayed their clips. will commence and an investigation as to why the military fired on a peaceful alien craft far more capable of doing damage than any human contraption. The object was picked up by military radar and soon flares and shots were fired at the UFO from a nearby military base. writer for Universally Aware. The object changed direction at this point and eventually shot off into the sky. http://universallyaware.UFOs Prove UFO¶s Exist-multiple sightings in Russia prove Joslin. accessed 6/22/11. Political leaders will be hoping that this action will not jeopardise Humanity's galactic standing. HK ] Russian Television recently released a report of an attack to huge UFO of at least 656 feet of diameter upon Kahbarovsk. receiving massive media attention in that nation while being blacked out by the international UFO cover-up in the West. gathered on the streets as the object silently hovered just above the rooftops. It is now believed international talks. Residents of the village Lesopilniy in the region of Khabarovsk noticed a huge revolving object descend on the settlement. young and old. 6/22/11. The event lasted over two hours. writer for Unviersally Aware.

which had appeared several days earlier. accessed 6/22/11. described the moment his sighting was made.html. who has not been named. A spokesman for Wiltshire Police said: ''The police officer was apparently off duty when this happened so we have no comment to make because it is a personal not a police matter.org/South-America/Peru/Ica/Nazca/blog459201. reporter for Sunday telegraph. 'They ran faster than any man I have ever seen. close to where the noise was. Wiltshire Police has refused to comment on the incident. However. at first. ''I then got scared. saying it is a ''personal matter'' for the officer involved. ''The figures were all over 6ft and had blond hair.Gonzaga Debate Institute 2011 Mercury 113 Conspiracy Theory Aliens Here ± Physical Proofs The Nazca Lines History. The Telegraph. the mysterious beings disappeared when he ''looked away for a second'' and he contacted UFO experts after witnessing other paranormal activity. ''This crackling noise seemed to be running through the field and the crop was moving gently. ''He shouted to the figures who. He said: ''I am quite convinced the officer had an experience that day and one that we have not fully explored. 11 [History. when he stopped his car and began walking towards them. HK] The sergeant. was off-duty when he saw the figures standing in a field near Silbury Hill. who investigated the incident alongside Andrew Russell. For the rest of the day I had a pounding headache I couldn't shift.travelblog. reporter for Sunday Telegraph 09 [Alastair.com. accessed 6/22/11. HK] Called "Riddles in the Sand" (Discover 1982) they are the famous Nazca lines and giant ground drawings etched across 30 miles of gravel-covered desert near Peru's southern coast.'' . not glancing at him.html. Crop circle researcher Andrew Russell.com. ''He said.co. http://www. who is investigating the bizarre sighting on behalf of the officer.'' Crop circle expert Colin Andrews. said he is ''convinced'' by the police officer's story." Crop circles were made my aliens Jamieson. The officer claims the three figures were examining a crop circle. Wiltshire. ''I think with the unusual movement of the being and the poltergeist experiences there is too much additional information to say that is something in nothing. ³UFO alert police officer sees aliens at crop circle´ 10/20/09 http://www. and stopped his car to investigate. When he got to the edge of the field he heard what he believed to be a sound not dissimilar to static electricity.'' The bizarre incident occurred on the morning of July 6 this year as the police officer was driving. Von Däniken (1970) argues that the Nazca lines and figures could have been "built according to instructions from aircraft. However. The huge sketch-pad came to public prominence in Erich von Däniken's Chariots of the Gods?-. He stopped his car and approached the field." He adds:"Classical archeology does not admit that the preInca peoples could have had a perfect surveying technique. And the theory that aircraft could have existed in antiquity is sheer humbug to them.a book that consistently underestimates the abilities of ancient "primitive" peoples and assigns many of their works to visiting extraterrestrials. When he tried to enter the field they looked up and began running. as he approached the 'men' ± all over 6ft tall with blond hair ± he heard "the sound of static electricity" and the trio ran away ''faster than any man he had ever seen''. and contacted paranormal experts and told them he had spotted a UFO. ³Ancient Alien Theory´ 2011. I looked away for a second and when I looked back they were gone. The officer returned to his home in Marlborough. ignored him.uk/news/newstopics/howaboutthat/ufo/6394256/UFO-alert-police-officer-seesaliens-at-crop-circle. The noise was still around but I got an uneasy feeling and headed for the car. He said: ''At first he thought they were forensic officers as they were dressed in white coveralls. They seemed to be inspecting the crop.telegraph. I'm no slouch but they were moving so fast.

Gonzaga Debate Institute 2011 Mercury 114 Conspiracy Theory ***No Aliens*** .

If life were common in the universe. http://www.godandscience. none of the people involved have been shown to have any signs of tampering. Aug 25.godandscience.html) Have we been visited by extraterrestrial beings from elsewhere in the universe? First. which would be readily apparent by MRI. the nearest galaxy to the Milky Way is 2 million light years distant. 6 (Rich.much less over a period of 40 years. Beings in other galaxies would have no way of knowing that advanced life forms existed in our galaxy. Why would they even want to visit us? A third problem for potential aliens is detecting us. No physical evidence Deem. it would take them longer than 2 million years to come to earth. UFO sightings and alien abductions.Gonzaga Debate Institute 2011 Mercury 115 Conspiracy Theory No Aliens on Earth Nearest galaxy is 2 million years away Deem.1 Another problem is why they would want to visit our galaxy. The Andromeda galaxy is considerably larger than our galaxy. I would like to eliminate the idea that we have been visited by beings located outside our own galaxy.org/apologetics/ufo. http://www. ³UFO's and Extraterrestrial Aliens: Why Earth Has Never Been Visited´. ³UFO's and Extraterrestrial Aliens: Why Earth Has Never Been Visited´. It will be another 2 million years before those signals reach our closest neighboring galaxy. Andromeda. there should be many times more of it in Andromeda. The problem I have with the whole Roswell/government conspiracy thing is that there is not one piece of physical evidence.html UFO believers would ask about Roswell. The light (and other electromagnetic signals) that they now see represent the way the earth looked 2 million years ago. We have been sending radio waves for less than 100 years. than in our wimpy galaxy. . This means that if there were aliens in Andromeda. Researcher/Specialist at Cedars-Sinai Medical Center.org/apologetics/ufo. Regarding abductions. Researcher/Specialist at Cedars-Sinai Medical Center. The government has never been able to keep any kinds of secrets . 6 (Rich. Aug 25.

With no intermediate habitable stopping points.the physics of the universe prevent it. it would be highly unlikely that any extraterrestrial civilization could have visited us. more likely. . these problems would restrict the speed of travel to well below the speed of light.godandscience. Parts of it would not even be expected to produce rocky planets. What about all the "evidence" for extraterrestrials and UFOs? See the links below for more information. The presence of gas giants near the star would eject any rocky planets from orbit.6 Only bacteria and other simple life forms would be able to survive this kind of bombardment . Without Jupiter. Recent scientific studies demonstrate that the universe is much less hospitable to life than it would seem from our unique Solar System and planet. such as Star Trek and Star Wars and the like.Gonzaga Debate Institute 2011 Mercury 116 Conspiracy Theory No Aliens Probability is virtually zero Deem. Researcher/Specialist at Cedars-Sinai Medical Center.html This paper has shown that the probability of aliens visiting the earth is virtually zero. Potential aliens in other galaxies are too far away to detect our presence (since radio signals will not reach them for millions of years) and the travel times make intergalactic travel impractical.5 It also ejected the majority of our primordial atmosphere. Second. it is not possible to travel at speeds greater than the speed of light . An even worse problem is that the light from ordinary stars would be blue-shifted all the way to the gamma end of the spectrum when traveling near the speed of light. So. we are completely alone in our galaxy. So instead of suffering massive species extinction events every 100 million years. Other systems discovered have gas giants located either near their star or in both inner and outer regions of their planetary system. which prevented the earth from going through a runaway greenhouse effect similar to what happened to Venus.and. Collisions with particles even the size of a grain of sand would be catastrophic. First. The highly unlikely collision that produced our large moon prevented the earth from being a waterworld. These gamma rays would destroy all biological life . Aug 25. Finally. the number of catastrophic collisions that the earth would experience would be at least 10. our sister planet.no advanced life could ever form in the vast majority of planetary systems. our Solar System is unique in that it has large gas giants located only in the outer regions. Interstellar space travel is much more difficult than indicated in movies and television series. In essence. The most optimistic estimate for the presence of extraterrestrial civilizations would put them 2000 light years apart.000 years. http://www. even if we are not alone in this galaxy. space travel over this distance would be impractical.000 times greater. These problems indicate that there would be no more than 150 advanced civilizations within our galaxy . the earth would experience these events every 10. traveling near the speed of light is impractical for biological organisms. The presence of gas giants in the outer region of planetary systems is absolutely necessary for the survival of advanced life forms. A large proportion of our galaxy is uninhabitable. ³UFO's and Extraterrestrial Aliens: Why Earth Has Never Been Visited´.even if it were in suspended animation (if that were possible).org/apologetics/ufo. 6 (Rich.

html) The secrets.Gonzaga Debate Institute 2011 Mercury 117 Conspiracy Theory No Area 51 Aliens Area 51 employees break silence ± no aliens or UFOs Lacitis. 10 (Erik. But after September 2007. The veterans' stories provide a glimpse of real-life government covert operations. Noce didn't seek out publicity.29 (about 2. he was glad to tell what it was like.nwsource. the SR-71 Blackbird. The CIA says it reached Mach 3. but no space aliens or UFOs ³< http://seattletimes. Va..000 feet. . Noce.200 mph) at 90. Seattle Times staff reporter. 72. It's not a big leap from warding off the curious 40 or 50 years ago. ³Area 51 vets break silence: Sorry. But when contacted. although Noce and other Area 51 vets say they saw plenty of secret stuff.com/html/localnews/2011461015_area51vets28m. Their stories shed some light on a site shrouded in mystery. March 27. I couldn't talk about it. with their everyday routines and moments of excitement. Advance warning to UFOlogists: Sorry. have been declassified. when the CIA displayed an A-12 in front of its Langley. a secret spy plane that broke records at documented speeds that still have been unmatched. and his fellow Area 51 veterans around the country now are free to talk about doing contract work for the CIA in the 1960s and '70s at the arid. "I was sworn to secrecy for 47 years. Area 51 was the test site for the A-12 and its successor." he says. some of them. much of the secrecy of those days at Area 51 fell away. none make claims about aliens. headquarters as part of the agency's 60th birthday. classified projects still are going on there. In the 1960s. to warding off the curious who now make the drive to Area 51. isolated Southern Nevada government testing site.

Vol. Temporary paralysis is often accompanied by visual and auditory hallucinations and sexual fantasies." and they scored significantly higher than normal on a questionnaire measuring "absorption. 1993). 1990). some researchers have considered the claims of alien abductees in terms of possible clues from the fields of neuropsychology and neuropsychiatry. Johnson.self and masochistic fantasies (e.g. Even such celebrated cases as the alleged crash of a flying saucer and recovery of alien bodies near Roswell. ³Alien Abduction´ victims are lying. 1991..g.g.259 miles in the opening days of the 3. Newman & Baumeister.. alien beings were taking over the earth by replicating actual people but. and generally have opportunities that would otherwise not be available to them. 292 Issue 2. The focus of this paper is on the latter. 1998. I stared intensely at their fingers and grilled them on both technical and personal matters. ³Abducted!´. In the series. At that moment a distant memory of the 1960s television series The Invaders was inculcated into my waking dream. Ring & Rosing. McNally found that abductees "were much more prone to exhibit false recall and false recognition in the lab than were control subjects. Cognitive Neuropsychiatry 2002. 1996.bauer.. New Mexico. 1998). EBSCOhost 6-23-11 BLG) The most likely explanation for alien abductions is sleep paralysis and hypnopompic (on awakening) hallucinations. However. is it possible that they really were abducted by aliens? This seems highly unlikely. in that the abductee may become a celebrated case.. Scientific American. Rodeghier.g. appear at conferences and on talk shows. the question arises of how one is to account for their claims.. as the evidence presented in support of alien visitation is far weaker than uncritical and sensationalist media coverage typically implies. 1990. 1997). Suddenly the members of my support team were transmogrified into aliens.g. 7 (3) 163-178 ³Alien Abduction Experiences: Some Clues from Neuropsychology and Neuropsychiatry´ EBSCOhost 6-23-11 BLG) Uninformed sceptics often assert that alleged alien abductees are simply lying about their experiences. I was sleepily weaving down the road when my support motor home flashed its high beams and pulled alongside.100-mile nonstop transcontinental Race Across America. most informed sceptics generally accept that the majority of claimants are sincere in their beliefs. Bartholomew & Howard. Goodpaster. escapefrom. and the psychically sensitive personality (e. Assuming that abductees are not deliberately deceiving others about their experiences and also assuming that they are almost certainly wrong in thinking that they really have had a close encounter with an alien. Others have viewed alien abduction experiences as the product of biased investigators (e. as Appelle (1996) points out. Klass. & Howard." a trait related to fantasy proneness that also predicts false recall. inexplicably. February.Gonzaga Debate Institute 2011 Mercury 118 Conspiracy Theory AT: Abductions Prove Alien Abductions are explained by sleep paralysis and waking hallucinations Shermer. 166 HOLDEN AND FRENCH Matheson. Newman & Baumeister. They are also psychosocial. retained a stiff little finger. Klass. in that claimants may make money from books and film rights. Korff. boundary-deficit personality (e. 1988. Spanos. Parnell & Sprinkle. Christopher C. 1997. 1996). Adjunct Professor at Claremont Graduate University. 1990. and my crew entreated me to take a sleep break. Finally. Cross. Basterfield. I had just ridden a bicycle 83 straight hours and 1.g. Dickson. in the vast majority of cases abductees do not go public and although some cases may indeed be deliberate hoaxes. e.. A review of the literature reveals that a number of different approaches to answering this question have been adopted. One approach involves focusing on the personalities of abductee claimants and exploring factors such as levels of fantasy proneness (e. . µ05 (Michael Shermer.. UK µ02 (Katharine J. & DuBreuil.either for money or psychological reasons Holden and French University of London. Ring & Rosing. in 1947 are in fact based on incredibly weak evidence (see. & Blatter. If abductees are not deliberately deceiving other people. p34. 1991. 1994). The assumed motivations are financial. all of which are interpreted within the context of pop culture's fascination with UFOs and aliens. Bartholomew. My abduction experience was triggered by sleep deprivation and physical exhaustion.

a monumental liar now Deceased). Stanton T. E-6 with a Top Secret. None of them.com/majestyt. Bud Hopkins (CIA). are active. and others not named. http://www.. These dupes do not know that the Illuminati are the aliens who plan to destroy the United States of America in any event. ³Majesty Twelve´ Hourofthetime. and many others. The entire UFO phenomenon and the uFOOLogy movement has been created to further the protection and activation of the plan. SI. http://www. security clearance. Barry Taff PhD. John Lear (CIA). and many other people and events are projects of this type. All so-called leaks are intentional misinformation projects designed to promote the alien threat scenario while allowing for complete deniability on the part of government. Argentina?" Exactly the manner in which Stanton T. It is extremely difficult. and with full knowledge. Colonel Philip Corso (CIA. the Central Intelligence Agency. First Class Petty Officer QM1. ONI). Friedman ends his UFOs Are Real lectures. Art Bell (Freemason).(Pneuropsychiatric Institute of UCLA worked with recently deceased Dr. the Royal Institute of International Affairs. SL) The plan for the creation of a socialist world government is protected by an artificial extraterrestrial threat from space.com/majestyt. Linda Moulton Howe Order of the Eastern Star and American Federation of Human Rights (American co-masonry). George Knapp (Freemason). Jaime Shandera.com. Military and government personnel who have access to this material believe it is real.. however. and the Council On Foreign Relations.htm. Operation Majority is named after the original Bolshevik party which sparked the Russian Revolution. Glen Campbell. The plan claims that if the American people are ever told of this extraterrestrial presence aliens will destroy the United States. the War Of The Worlds. has ever seen any evidence of the existence of any extraterrestrial creature nor any advanced technology other that that of human origin. to believe that Top Secret government or military documentation could be lies. by geniuses like Nikola Tesla. Within MAJESTYTWELVE is Operation Majority justifying the plan by presenting an extraterrestrial threat as the reason for the necessity for world government ala "Who speaks for planet Earth.com. All who have access to the plan or who inadvertently discover the plan are silenced by that warning. 1997 (William. Richard Hoagland and his Face on Mars. communist agents of the KGB. Bruce Maccabee (CIA.Gonzaga Debate Institute 2011 Mercury 119 Conspiracy Theory Alien Threat is Coverup for NWO The creation of the alien threat is a plot to usher in the New World Order Cooper. Most of those named. ³Majesty Twelve´ Hourofthetime.hourofthetime. accessed: 6/25/. They believe in the government and thus believe the extraterrestrial lie. Bolshevik means the majority. Some (very few) of these People are unwitting accomplices in the charade and truly believe in the extraterrestrial threat. or one of the many psychological warfare agencies founded by the Rhodes Round Table Group (The Group). . Whitley Strieber.htm. SI. if not impossible. The antics of Vicki (Cooper) Ecker (CIA). The most well known are active Fellow Travelers. the so-called alien autopsy film. The threat is presented through the use of secret technology originally developed by the Germans in their secret weapons programs during WW-II. SL) The plan is real.hourofthetime. accessed: 6/25/. agents of illuminism/socialism. E-6 with a Top Secret. Donald Francis Ecker III (Dupe). Friedman. The extraterrestrial threat is artificial. Q. Q. German WWII tech is being used to fake extraterrestrial sightings to promote alien threat con to distract from the Illuminati¶s real plan Cooper. It is trust in government by men and women who have given their lives in its service that keeps this monumental lie a alive. NASA and the Apollo Moon Missions. William Moore. the so-called Mars Meteorite which was fraudulently promoted as containing fossil evidence of life on Mars. security clearance. First Class Petty Officer QM1. Louis Jollyn "Jolly" West). It is not what they see that convinces them it is extraterrestrial in origin but the manner in which it is presented. 1997 (William.

D." . and (3) "From century to century" .or from age to age. . the fish. Mankind is now literally entering a new age. The official translation of this motto is "A New Order of the Ages".org/reports/new-world-order/. the New World Order has become a globally recognized political concept. http://www. according to the ancient zodiacal calendar which is as old as human civilization. beneath the ancient Pyramid. dates were denoted "B."Before Christ". then perhaps this is indeed the age of Freemasonry.of this world.theinsider. 2011 [The Insider. is also an important Christian symbol. If secret societies are able to display such esoteric and Masonic symbolism so prominently for us all to see. 2011. the decision was officially taken to replace the BC/AD date referencing system with the new CE/BCE references which stand for "Common Era" and "Before the Common Era". they are synergistic. The Latin word "Seclorum" and its English equivalent "Secular" both share the same three alternative definitions: (1) "Secular" .without religion. for they demonstrate the esoteric power of language and the written Word. replacing the Christian dating system of the old Order with a new. or fraternity. In 2002 AD. The alternative translations are all as pertinent today as they were "at the beginning of the new American era in 1776." which stands for "Anno Domini" or "Year of Our Lord" denoting the era of Christ. it is an established fact. Amen. as the new millennium dawns.[3] Aquarius is associated by astrologers with brotherhood. During the previous age dates were written with the suffix "A. accessed 6/24/11.C. On the US Great Seal.[2] and as such it can no longer be regarded simply as a theory. The "New World Order" has been a prominent conspiracy theory for decades[1]. The previous zodiacal age was that of Pisces. Thus. Amen-Ra. and it is noteworthy that the age of Pisces coincided with the age of Christianity.[4] What better way for the New Secular Order to proclaim the beginning of its reign than to secularize the way in which dates are recorded. (2) "Worldly" . as the Age of Pisces was giving way to the new age of Aquarius. is the Latin inscription: "Novus Ordo Seclorum". which is most commonly seen on the back of the one the dollar bill[6] probably the world's most familiar banknote. The zodiacal symbol of Pisces. Here and now. secular system for the for the Aquarian age? Consider the official Great Seal of the Unites States of America[5]. in fact. and "Ordo" means "Order". the motto "Novus Ordo Seclorum" has three different but equally valid translations: The different meanings of Novus Ordo Seclorum are not mutually exclusive.Gonzaga Debate Institute 2011 Mercury 120 Conspiracy Theory New World Order New World Order is on the brink The Insider. which is the cornerstone of Freemasonry. The Latin word "Novus" means "New". Alternatively. HK] The New World Order is no longer a conspiracy theory." Let this be a testament the wisdom of the men who chose these words. the Age of Aquarius.

Gonzaga Debate Institute 2011 Mercury 121 Conspiracy Theory ***Impact/Advantage Answers*** .

Once a microchip is inserted into the human body. it is at this point that much of Icke¶s work has its most enduring interest. Again following the prevailing exocultural explanation. Egyptian pharaohs.1111Commission.´ according to Icke. . p. The Trilateral . In Icke¶s mind. Icke writes. professor at Montclair State University and Kahn. hedonistic drug parties. Bush. are direct reptoid-lineage descendants. Icke¶s work includes any number of accountings of how world leaders and other famous personalities. Icke believes that the Illuminati are very interested in mind control. Utopian Societies. ³The Internet is an Illuminati creation and only exists because of military technology. are owned by the reptilian bloodline´ (Children 260). professor at Antioch University 5 (Tyson and Richard. Icke asserts a standard conspiracy-culture line that the pure Aryan bloodline has ruled the planet throughout history. . The Bilderberg Group. In order to maintain their anonymity and deflect attention away from their ubiquitous presence in international finance and politics. . get their µnews¶ and µinformation¶ overwhelmingly from official sources. . is just another step towards perfect surveillance of the human race. World Bank. ³a micro-chipped population´ (Children 368). Icke himself theorizes that such obscene acts as these typify the difference between alien-kind and humanity and that they are necessary else the Aryan-reptilians lose their temporary human form and revert to their original reptoid physiognomy. The Internet. In fact. volume: 16 no. the IMF. take part in ritualistic sacrifices and pedophilic activities that include kidnapping.Gonzaga Debate Institute 2011 Mercury 122 Conspiracy Theory All Impacts The aff can never solve for any human caused impacts. Thus in the 21st century the reptoids have gone digital. Icke claims that in order to maintain their position of world domination down through the centuries. It¶s about control´ (Children 415). because all of those impacts are caused by reptilian mind control ± as long as reptilians exist in the world humans will never have full control of their own thoughts and action Lewis. in order to satiate their reptilian bloodlust. by providing historical critique that is at once trenchant political analysis mixed with what reads like an over-the-top satire in the tradition of Jonathan Swift. American presidents and British prime ministers. In Icke¶s conspiratorial schema. expand the scope of surveillance. The Illuminati are the grand historical puppet masters. Aryan lizards have been Sumerian kings. 2005. the Aryan lizards have created a secret society known as the Freemasons or Illuminati. According to Icke. in more recent history. The ³most important goal of the Illuminati is. though he is unique in developing it in an exocultural direction. 1. which. From the innermost secretive ³Round Table. The plan is quite simply ³to complete their financial control of the human race´ (Children 345). each individual will be tracked using a global positioning satellite. presiding over all human activities through indirect channels of control and manipulation. 43 American presidents. and the websites visited by individuals give the authorities the opportunity to build a personality and knowledge profile of everyone. in turn. then. and. and the Queen Mother herself was ³seriously reptilian´ (Children 79). Commenting on the Internet conspiracy. ³The Reptoid Hypothesis: Utopian and Dystopian Representational Motifs in David Icke¶s Alien Conspiracy Theory´. 6/27/11 CW) Mirroring a number of claims made by the political far-right. like the media itself.´ a handful of reptilian masterminds directs the course of human events via a network of international organizations such as the Council on Foreign Relations. and the United Nations (Children 339). The media and the Internet are two powerful tools that they have developed to achieve mind control over the general populace. ³The media. and restrict individual freedoms. 7 In this respect. like war. It allows for the easiest possible surveillance of personal communications through e-mails. including George Washington and George W. inventing and deploying new information technologies that will further suppress the truth. 10-11. and brutal murder.

(supported at least in part by many ³whistle blowers´ and by various high level government officials such as the former Defence Minister Paul Hellyer from Canada. etc impacts are all just coverup for planetary defense initiatives by the shadow government de Gourdon.. Much higher than the H Bomb. Terrorism Impacts Russia. Paul Hellyer said as much in his address to the 2006 Exopolitics Conference in Hawaii: ³ It appears that real government has passed from elected accountable representatives of the people to an unelected.. Dr. July. Alfred Lambremont Webre. embodied either by an amorphous terrorist network such as Al Qaida or by a regional power like Iran. Victor Viggiani and others. Stephen Bassett. 9 (Come Carpentier. China. justified by the imperative of planning for ³planetary defence´ against any and all invaders from space . Editorial Board of the World Affairs Journal. formerly defined as the USSR and now as China. French Defence Minister Robert Galley and General Bernard Norlain. unaccountable elite group of senior government officials and industrial leaders . In this regard. This broadly was the initial conclusion reached by M W Cooper in his brochure ³The Secret Government . terrorism.´ which Lewis Laphan called the ³permanent government´ as opposed to the visible elected one. Jacques Patenet. camouflaged as national security preparations against a foreign enemy. 68-9. a long-standing member of the select committee on Intelligence. once Hill Norton's counterpart in the French Air Force. Greer. Exopolitics Journal 3:2.to further their goals of global domination. http://exopoliticsjournal.the origins. known or unknown to the public. linked with the Intelligence complex led by the CIA and NSA. Some researchers . China.´ The implication is that the aforesaid agencies.and possible access . Navy and fundraising mechanism«free from the law itself . Admiral Lord Hill Norton. associate director of the National Institute for Astronomy and Geophysics. especially Michael Salla and his colleagues in the realm of Exopolitics.com/vol3/vol-3-2-Carpentier.pdf)sbl 3. identity and purpose of MJ12. Director of GEIPAN at the CNES (the French NASA). ³The Global Crisis and the Ultimate Secret of the Empire´.p. have used this information . especially the military-industrial administration symbolized by the Pentagon. is conclusive: ³The UFO situation is at the highest level of national security. Paola Harris. Prof. France and Nick Pope who headed the ³UFO Desk´ at the UK's Ministry of Defence) have concluded that certain government agencies. Mission Operations Monitor for NASA on 16 July 1969 at Kennedy Space Center during the launch of Apollo 11 by Senator Barry Goldwater. former Chief of the British Defence Staff. the statement made to Clark McClelland. Russia and accessorily the international Islamic threat. NASA astronaut Edgar Mitchell.´ This is the covert state that Senator Daniel K Inouye of Hawaii described as ³a shadowy government with its own Air Force. have accumulated substantial information on the ³alien´ presence and activity.´2 .Gonzaga Debate Institute 2011 Mercury 123 Conspiracy Theory AT: Russia. Jean-Claude Ribes. the late Colonel Philip Corso from the USA.

and actively deterred the US military from pursuing a preemptive nuclear attack against Iran. If these warnings went unheeded then extraterrestrials could take a range of defensive measures based on their influence over key policy makers and institutions. August 12. it appears that extraterrestrials have the capacity to deactivate nuclear weapons while either in storage or in flight. to prevent the Bush administration launching a preemptive nuclear war against Iran.exopolitics.[21] This suggests that use of nuclear weapons threaten the civilizations of extraterrestrials who use space-time to travel and to establish bases of operation on or near the vicinity of the earth. extraterrestrials could give warnings through their communications with individuals and military officials of impending action to prevent the possible use of nuclear weapons. Consequently. 6 (Michael. Eric Julien speculates that the use of nuclear weapons affects the time/space continuum in ways that disrupt UFO/extraterrestrial navigation and propulsion systems. ³Divine Strake´ vs. Julien argues that atomic explosions directly impact on the space-time continuum that they occupy. These responses may have been communicated and/or displayed. Exopolitics Research Study #11.[20] He argues that there is a correlation between UFO behavior around nuclear tests and 74 alleged UFO crashes documented in Ryan Wood's book. http://www. µDivine Strike¶ ± Did Extraterrestrials Deter the Pentagon from a Preemptive Nuclear War Against Iran?. recently at American University.Gonzaga Debate Institute 2011 Mercury 124 Conspiracy Theory AT: Nuclear War Aliens will prevent nuclear war from causing extinction because it threatens them too Salla. Such measures could culminate in a coordinated set of extraterrestrial responses. Majic Eyes Only (2006). French UFO researcher. Based on historical precedents described by Salas and Dedrickson. Center for Global Peace. and to destroy nuclear weapons while in flight. . . In his book. The Science of Extraterrestrials. and their ability to impact on the capacities of nations to use nuclear weapons.htm) In an article analyzing Velasco¶s correlation of UFOs and nuclear weapons. This is used to support Julien¶s thesis that nuclear testing negatively affects UFOs by impacting the space-time continuum they use to navigate to Earth.org/Study-Paper11. a µDivine Strike¶.

Gonzaga Debate Institute 2011 Mercury 125 Conspiracy Theory AT: Nuclear War We will be saved from nuclear war in 2012 by aliens Subramanium. http://www. In India and China UFO sightings have increased in many folds. we are destined to see them and interact with them any way. at Malmstrom Air Force Base in Montana which housed Minuteman nuclear missiles. says. When asked about recent UFO sightings in India and China. the monks smiled and said the divine powers are watching us all. When asked if these extra-terrestrials will show up in reality in 2012. "The missiles shut down . Buddhist monk of Tibet." He said said he witnessed such an event first-hand on March 16. As our technologies progress we will realize how external forces saved us. According to the remote viewers. As our science and technology progresses.telegraph. Capt Robert Salas. They will reveal themselves only if they have to. SL) In 2012.indiadaily. near Ipswich.co." Others claim to have seen similar activity in the UK. Supernatural divine powers will intervene. Mankind cannot and will not be allowed to alter the future to that great extent. Aliens will shut down the nuclear weapons Bloxham. assistant news editor for the Daily Telegraph 10 (Allen. the reincarnation and the fact we are connected with each other are all part of ³God´.10 Minuteman missiles. There's a strong interest in our missiles by these objects. our earth is blessed and is being saved continuously from all kinds of hazards all the time that we are not even aware of. http://www. Many say the Chinese and Indian Governments are being contacted by the Extra Terrestrials. but changing the destiny in that large extent will not be allowed to that great an extent.asp. And the same thing happened at another site a week later.. said: "The US Air Force is lying about the national security implications of unidentified aerial objects at nuclear bases and we can prove it.html) One of the men. Col Charles Halt said he saw a UFO at the former military base RAF Bentwaters. Beyond 2012. the relation between body and the soul. 27. the world will start plunging into a total destructive nuclear war.K. 1967. 30 years ago. People will learn the essence of spirituality. out technologies will take a different direction. the answers remote viewers are giving is: they will reveal themselves in such a way that none of us scared. And at that time something remarkable will happen. Saksoft is a leading provider of Information Management Solutions . . say US military pilots´. wherever they come from. The destiny of the world is not to self-destruct at this time. Sept. I personally think they're not from planet Earth.uk/news/newstopics/howaboutthat/ufo/8026971/Aliens-have-deactivated-British-and-USnuclear-missiles-say-US-military-pilots. Accessed: 6/22/11. Executive Director of Saksoft. ³Aliens have deactivated British and US nuclear missiles. 2004 (N. ³Remote viewing Tibetan monks see Extra Terrestrial powers saving the World from destroying itself in 2012´ India Daily.com/editorial/12-26-04. Monks also mentioned that beyond 2012 our current civilization would understand that the final frontier of science and technology is in area of spirituality and not material physics and chemistry. In recent days most UFO activities have been seen in those countries who have indigenously developed Nuke capabilities. They will intervene in 2012 and save the world from self-destruction. Capt Salas continued: "I was on duty when an object came over and hovered directly over the site. during which he saw beams of light fired into the base then heard on the military radio that aliens had landed inside the nuclear storage area. Scientific interpretation of the monks¶ statements makes it evident that the Extra Terrestrial powers are watching us every step of the way. Every human being though their current acts in life called ³Karma´ can alter the future lives to some extent.

or what's left. largely because of what follows. some will seek to dominate Earth. Accessed: 6/22/11. much will be spoken about this phenomenon and this is when the divine messengers and the spiritual hierarchies on earth explain what is to become of Earth and humanity. for they are of great wisdom.shtml. ³The Intervention: a time of tribulation before ascension or transmigration´ Global Psychics Inc. for there will be trust. psychics. the coming transformation of mother earth. ..and Bob. this will happen from year 2 to year 8. Humanity will learn from these entities what is to come in the spiritual revolution. They will create a reality which will warm the conversion of spirituality in humanity and total rehabilitation of earth. but the exchanges will be pleasant. (Humanity will) begin to see these entities. This is when humanity will compare "notes" with these other benevolent entities (there is more than one group here) and see that they were not alone. They are beginning to come. These benevolent entities. These entities will glow with the energy of Creator to show humanity all that is possible. so that earth will not fear. for they will feel and see the great works of these entities.during the above years.. not only in creation. humanity will feel they are about technology.during this period. which humanity will begin to explore in this time period. great love. culminating in the years five to eight. after the year 0 which is the beginning of the tribulation period (years 0-2). instead.com/enlighteningyou/prophecy/aliens-tribulation. humanity will feel an awakening. SL) Benevolent Aliens . they will be exchanges of the spirit. not alone in appreciation of Creator and the divine hierarchies. These entities will show humanity how to do this and they will participate in the years five to eight of the transformation period. great spirituality. but will be unsuccessful. but. They will be summoned by divine messengers sent to Earth during this time..Help Waiting in the Wings The benevolent aliens will help us clean up the damage done to the earth (they have awesome technologies for this). and the revolution which occurred to the entities and which must transpire on earth.Gonzaga Debate Institute 2011 Mercury 126 Conspiracy Theory AT: Extinction Impacts Aliens will help us during the tribulation Daust and Santorossa. As explained. they will receive assistance from other benevolent entities. so that this awareness may occur in humanity. 2000 (Danielle ±owner of Global Psychics. Earth's history as they know it. religions will still be around but humanity will note many spiritual exchanges with the divine and will wonder what is happening to them. Humanity will be made aware of how nature evolved. Then they will be told about these entities history.Exchanges will occur. will contact earth. there will be no fear. http://globalpsychics.

The temperature of the atmosphere fluctuates over a wide range. atmospheric temperatures have actually tended to go down. During the past 20 years. 97 [Arthur B. Atmospheric temperatures have been rising from that low for the past 300 years. accessed 6/25/11. So we needn't worry about human use of hydrocarbons warming the Earth. as shown in the second chart. Most of the increase in atmospheric carbon dioxide has occurred during the past 50 years. We also needn't worry about environmental calamities. One of the two coldest periods. relative to the mean temperature for 1951-70. HK] The global-warming hypothesis. http://stephenschneider. known as the Little Ice Age. there have been five extended periods when it was distinctly warmer than today. natural warming trend continues: After all the Earth has been much warmer during the past 3. even if the current. the result of solar activity and other influences. Therefore. and it does not hold up. occurred 300 years ago. but remain below the 3.stanford. temperatures have decreased. These measurements have definitively shown that major atmospheric greenhouse warming of the atmosphere is not occurring and is unlikely ever to occur. Close correlation between these two parameters--the shorter the solar cycle (and hence the more active the sun). it must be discarded. and during the 20 years with the highest carbon dioxide levels.Gonzaga Debate Institute 2011 Mercury 127 Conspiracy Theory AT: Global Warming Global Warming is completely fabricated-no risk of species or human extinction Robinson and Robinson.pdf. The highest temperatures during this period occurred in about 1940. and the increase has continued during the past 20 years. If a hypothesis fails the experimental test. the ultimate test is the process of experiment. During the past 3. scientists have made precise measurements of atmospheric temperature. Yet there has been no significant increase in atmospheric temperature during those 50 years. Why are temperatures rising? The first chart nearby shows temperatures during the past 250 years. however. which have been confirmed by measurements from weather balloons. . the scientific method requires that the global warming hypothesis be rejected. In science. is no longer tenable. as atmospheric carbon dioxide levels have risen. chemists at Oregon Institute of Science and Medicine. based on very reliable satellite data. During the past 50 years. and Zachary W. The same chart shows the length of the solar magnetic cycle during the same period. This hypothesis predicts that global temperatures will rise significantly. as do other studies. Wall Street Journal. that the gradual warming since the Little Ice Age and the large fluctuations during that warming have been caused by changes in solar activity.edu/Publications/PDF_Papers/RobinsonAndRobinson. Consider what this means for the globalwarming hypothesis.000-year average. Scientists have been able to test it carefully. if atmospheric carbon dioxide rises. indeed catastrophically.000 years.000 years without ill effects. the higher the temperature--demonstrates. ³Science Has Spoken: Global Warming Is a Myth´ 1997.

It¶s clear that the poorer the society is. But let me promise you something: this topic troubles me which is why I started to write an article about it last Christmas.] It is not quite exactly divided to the left-wingers and right-wingers. it¶s an undignified slapstick that people don¶t wait for the full report in May 2007 but instead respond. 2/12/2007. it is becoming fashionable and this fact scares me. we have another very good reason to think that the countries themselves. If the European Commission is instantly going to buy such a trick.by eliminating private ownership and similar things . the conclusions we may see in the media simply don¶t appear.] Indeed.] Environmentalism as a metaphysical ideology and as a worldview has absolutely nothing to do with natural sciences or with the climate. IPCC is not a scientific institution: it¶s a political body. It is not fair to refer to the U. ³Global Warming is a Myth´. Still. for example about ice in Antarctica. I know how to read science reports about these questions. panel.Gonzaga Debate Institute 2011 Mercury 128 Conspiracy Theory AT: Global Warming Global Warming is scientifically impossible-government conspiracy The Brussels Journal. 2007. to the summary for policymakers where all the ³but¶s´ are scratched. it will be published..] Other top-level politicians do not express their global warming doubts because a whip of political correctness strangles their voice. and replaced by oversimplified theses.. Nature is protected uncomparably more than on February 8th ten years ago or fifty years ago or one hundred years ago . [. I don¶t have to be a climate scientist myself to read them. And inside the papers I have read.. I never measure the thickness of ice in Antarctica.. These tendencies become important in the long run. It¶s also true that there exist social systems that are damaging Nature . [. Nevertheless it¶s obvious that environmentalism is a new incarnation of modern leftism...brusselsjournal. This is clearly such an incredible failure of so many people. The article expanded and became a book. In a couple of months. [. not the Commission.. in such a serious way.] [W]e know that there exists a huge correlation between the care we give to the environment on one side and the wealth and technological prowess on the other side. and vice versa. [. Sadly. accessed 6/25/11. I really don't know how to do it and don¶t plan to learn it. One chapter out of seven will organize my opinions about the climate change. as a scientifically oriented person. the more brutally it behaves with respect to Nature.N. it has nothing to do with social sciences either. 2/12/2007 [The Brussels Journal. removed.com/node/1899. [. from journalists to politicians. They unambiguously imply that today. on February 8th. HK] Global warming is a myth and every serious person and scientist says so. http://www. a sort of non-government organization of green flavor... It¶s neither a forum of neutral scientists nor a balanced group of scientists.much more than the freer societies. should be deciding about similar issues. However.. These people are politicized scientists who arrive there with a one-sided opinion and a one-sided assignment. Also.

but in finer and subtler bodies. accessed 6/27/11. 2004. 2004 (August 19. ³Our Fleets Are In Position. Life there passes unnoticed to you and. Ready Yourselves´ Brother Veritus. (The worlds you see in the Third Dimension are like the "shells" left by worlds already opened to levels of superior life. Other worlds do have life.Gonzaga Debate Institute 2011 Mercury 129 Conspiracy Theory SETI not on right setting Life does not exist in the same density as humans ± that¶s why SETI hasn¶t found any results Lord Ashtar. http://www. when you try to know this with your scientific apparatuses. dimensions of a higher level to the ones of this planet cannot be contacted with the eyes of the flesh. Also. SL) That Earth scientists have not found physical life in the remaining worlds of our Solar system is due to Earth being the only planet where life unfolds in such dense levels. it is as if you want to photograph smoke.luisprada.htm.) .com/Protected/ashtar_command_mission. which impedes the perception and visibility at the level of the apparatuses and technological systems with which you count on.

Gonzaga Debate Institute 2011 Mercury 130 Conspiracy Theory ***Authors Debate*** .

To the extent that editors are knowledgeable in their field. where the authors had a paper on the oncological aspects of neurology! This would have been perfectly reasonable if the original cancers had been of the genito-urinary tract.Gonzaga Debate Institute 2011 Mercury 131 Conspiracy Theory Peer Review Good Peer Review key to science Scott. visiting fellow at Separations Process Research Unit µ07 (Allister Scott.F. or other scien. the focus is on the role of µtechnology transfer¶. The question of how science can be made more relevant to the needs of society is increasingly central in science-policy debate. No. 428-431 Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology ³Good Science and Good Peer Reviewing: Are They Related?´ 6/25/11 BLG) Validity. It would appear self evident that a writer should write about what he or she knows about. as usually practised. Yale University Child Study Center µ98 (Domenic V. in terms of the level of expertise of the independent reviewers. Thus peer review is built so deeply into the brickwork of science that many refuse to examine and improve it. In some minds. Generally this is true and is extremely good advice. in the specific context of the peer re. an edi. Urologist. June 2003 UroOncology Vol. 1991b). review of papers submit. Finally.nent. The reason for an article being rejected out of hand may be entirely appropriate. Peer review is also the core tool used in various methods aimed at evaluating scientific institutions themselves: Peer Review achieves validity. but it is also fundamental to the institution of science.tor has some control over the internal compo.view process. preferring to leave the workings of science itself untouched. it needs to be stressed that these two concepts apply equally well to the peer review of any scientific document (manuscript review. to the wrong place. and which individual scientists are selected and promoted within research institutions.age¶¶. Occasionally people write on subjects they know little or nothing about and this becomes apparent when the text is read. Cicchetti 1998. there is wide consensus among scientists that the peer review of any given scientific document. 80% of most papers are rejected by peers. My investigations of the procurement of µrelevant¶ science have led me inexorably to the topic of peer review. but nei. Vol. 20. 3 (2). and to some critical perspectives on how peer review. for the following reason. We have at this Journal on two occasions had basic papers submitted to UroOncology.tific document. to document his impressions regarding the rejection of papers. Each of these will be discussed in turn. pp. but little or none over the external compo. grant proposal review. pp. the papers had been sent.ted for presentation at scientific societies).nent. 81±83 ³On Publication in Peer Reviewed Journals´ EBSCOhost BLG) Most serious journals are rejecting about 80% of papers that are submitted. Rejection letters vary from curt to kind.ch/pub/bscw. by an inattentive secretary or researcher. fearing that any significant change would weaken the entire edifice. who gets to publish in the scientific literature. January 29 2007 Science Direct ³Peer Review and the relevance of science´ http://bscwapp1. Yet many of these discussions approach the question from the outside.ethz. to question peer review is to question science itselfSince this thought from Chubin and Hackett²and possibly for the reasons they identify²we do not seem to have made much progress in studying the practice of peer review. defended as symbol and guarantor of the autonomy of science. This often translates. in or. but this was not the case and clearly. into adequate con. Cicchetti. As we shall see further. In this article. 3. has both internal. µ03 (Leslie E. this is an important activity for an editor to undertake. As noted in Cicchetti (1991a. Peer review plays a significant role in many of the key moments in science. As noted recently by Kraemer (1991). grant.der to be internally valid.pdf 6/25/11 BLG) Peer review is not only a routine component of the scientific role. as it were. . as well as exter. I want to explore the inner workings of science by investigating its central decisionmaking tool: peer review.ther of whom has a broad understanding of the content area being evaluated.tent and methodologic / biostatistical coverage for any given manuscript. it is entirely possible to select reviewers who will agree highly with each other. influences the priorities and decision-making processes of researchers and research organisations. must receive what might best be referred to as µµadequate cover. Moffat. The author has used his experience of the submissions in the last year.cgi/d448195/Scott2007_peer_review_Futures. in the usual context of two independent reviews of a given scientific document. as it is the main form of decisionmaking around: who receives money to do what science. µintermediaries¶ and µdissemination¶.nal components.

2007. regardless of whether the assignments are intended as Internet research projects or not (Jones. although this has not yet been tested. Thus. For example. Professor of Psychology at the University of Illinois at Chicago. as well as from a disciplinary perspective. and integration of ideas from multiple sources of information is becoming an increasingly important area of research in discourse processing and comprehension (Brem. & Bell. and synthesis within and across multiple sources of evidence (Chinn & Malhotra. comparison. They also seem to be critical features for the comprehension of multiple sources during Internetbased science inquiry tasks. Berkencotter & Huckin. Stadtler & Bromme. 2000). Thus. & Tzou. 46. & Weems. explanation. Wallace et al. & Soloway. Duschl. 2005. and the reputations of the institutions or research groups with which the scientists are affiliated (Bazerman. Goldman. 47 pgs accessed: 6/22/11 proquest) TJL Students are increasingly turning to the Internet to conduct their research projects. ³Source Evaluation. 2004. and Learning in Internet Science Inquiry Tasks´ American Educational Research Journal.Gonzaga Debate Institute 2011 Mercury 132 Conspiracy Theory Internet Science Research Bad Internet research is tricky-Scientific research goes through a complicated peer-reviewed process to become valid. Williams. Comprehension. The use of the Internet for research purposes increases the need for students to critically evaluate information sources for their reliability. 1991). pg. Because much of this information is on a metalevel. Researching science on the internet risks failures in critical analysis Wiley et al. ³Source Evaluation. 2001. from both a general discourse processing and comprehension perspective. Christopher A Sanchez Assistant Professor Cognitive Science & Engineering Program Arizona State University. Wineburg. Voss & Wiley. 1991). 2006. Davis. Duschl. 2002. Wallace. Susan R Goldman is a Professor of Psychology and Education University of Illinois at Chicago. an adjunct professor in Computer Science. 2002. experts routinely engage in selection. 47 pgs accessed: 6/22/11 proquest) TJL The elements of the intertext model are what are generally missing in the representation process of novice readers (Britt & Aglinskas. Iss. selection. 46. Graesser et al. Vol. & Shouse. When scientists read research reports within their field. Ellenbogen.. 2003). 2000). Evaluation. 2002. 1985. Finally. Bisanz. evaluation. Schweingruber. 2007) and in the learning sciences more generally (Linn.non fallsifiable conspiracy theories are the type of research we should be taught to reject because of their lack of evidentiary support Wiley et al. they evaluate the strength of the argumentation and the answers to such questions as. and corroboration of information across sources are all central processes in the disciplinary expertise of practicing scientists. and Learning in Internet Science Inquiry Tasks´ American Educational Research Journal. comprehension from multiple Internet sources may be even more reliant on effective metacognition than comprehension of single texts (Quintana et al. Professor of Psychology at the University of Illinois at Chicago 2009 (Jennifer Wiley. 1997.. & Hand. analysis. Washington: Dec 2009. it is important to understand how learners engage with multiple sources of information. Vol. integration. Rouet et al. 2002). and monitoring on the part of the student. and co-director of the Institute for Intelligent Systems at the University of Memphis. 1995). pg. 1060. Internet searches are problematic in that they return multiple sources and sites that may or may not be relevant or reliable. credibility. 2003). Rouet. 2007. Arthur C Graesser is presently a full professor in the Department of Psychology. Susan R Goldman is a Professor of Psychology and Education University of Illinois at Chicago. 4. 9 (Jennifer Wiley. and trustworthiness (Britt & Aglinskas. Arthur C Graesser is presently a full professor in the Department of Psychology.In both history and science. these processes may need particular support during Internet inquiry tasks. Does the evidence support the claims? Is the evidence reliable? and Does the claim sufficiently explain existing as well as new evidence? (Chinn & Malhotra. 2006. 2007). Washington: Dec 2009. Krajcik. . Stadtler & Bromme. the journals in which the publications appear. requiring reflection. 2002. Understanding how students engage in the processes of search. Wineburg. they rely on information about the scientists. 1060. Comprehension. 4. Iss.. evaluation. Rouet. when scientists read scholarly publications. 2006. an adjunct professor in Computer Science. Russell. new results and new explanatory models are framed against the extant literature (Yore. Christopher A Sanchez Assistant Professor Cognitive Science & Engineering Program Arizona State University. Kupperman. and co-director of the Institute for Intelligent Systems at the University of Memphis.

Thus.their inaccurate judgments are caused by an inadequacy of metacognition Wiley et al. Stadtler & Bromme. Palincsar & Brown. many Internet-based inquiry learning environments have found it necessary to include supports for inquiry learning through prompts and questions designed to help students focus on specific information. ³Source Evaluation. They destroy education by failing to do proper research. Norris. and tend to pay relatively little attention to source information (Azevedo & Cromley. pg. McNamara. When students fail to monitor their understanding accurately.. Thiede. Arthur C Graesser is presently a full professor in the Department of Psychology. 1060. Professor of Psychology at the University of Illinois at Chicago 2009 (Jennifer Wiley. distinguish claims from evidence. Washington: Dec 2009. and evidence from conclusions. White & Frederiksen. Iss.. Bisanz. 2001). 1060. Particularly germane to Internet-based science inquiry tasks are the skills and processes associated with searching. Susan R Goldman is a Professor of Psychology and Education University of Illinois at Chicago. Korpan. 46. 4. Griffin. 2004. 2003). Yarden. and Learning in Internet Science Inquiry Tasks´ American Educational Research Journal. Research indicates that high school and college students have difficulty differentiating claims from evidence. Arthur C Graesser is presently a full professor in the Department of Psychology. Winne. 1998. 2002. . information quality. 2001). Garner. 1997. 47 pgs accessed: 6/22/11 proquest) TJL Effective metacognition also plays a role in the processes and outcomes of comprehension. 2007). 1997. 1987. 2002. 2000. evaluating. pg. 1984. Vol. and co-director of the Institute for Intelligent Systems at the University of Memphis. such as by making inaccurate judgments of learning. Brill. they make poor study decisions and fail to reread misunderstood information (Thiede. 2008. 47 pgs accessed: 6/22/11 proquest) TJL Given the potential complexity of successful scientific inquiry. make critical contrasts and connections. 2001. Chinn & Malhotra. Susan R Goldman is a Professor of Psychology and Education University of Illinois at Chicago. Bisanz. in press). evaluate arguments. Anderson. Pressley. 46. however we should still reject bad evidence Wiley et al. & Therriault. 4. Iss. 2005. and the relevance of information to goals. Griffin. and monitor their own learning and understanding (Sandoval & Reiser.. & Falk. and co-director of the Institute for Intelligent Systems at the University of Memphis. Professor of Psychology at the University of Illinois at Chicago 2009 (Jennifer Wiley. Christopher A Sanchez Assistant Professor Cognitive Science & Engineering Program Arizona State University. & Redford.it makes sense for students to accept unreliable evidence such as conspiracy theories as fact. The result is little or no improvements in comprehension and ultimately poor overall learning outcomes (Wiley et al. Brem et al. & Thiede. it should not be surprising that adolescents and college students frequently struggle with inquiry tasks. 2005). & Henderson. Slotta & Linn. Wiley. and Learning in Internet Science Inquiry Tasks´ American Educational Research Journal. 2002.Gonzaga Debate Institute 2011 Mercury 133 Conspiracy Theory Internet Science Research Bad Due to Internet science queries¶ complexity. Comprehension. an adjunct professor in Computer Science. This is problematic because of the centrality of understanding the claim-plus-evidence structure of scientific arguments and explanations of natural phenomena (Duschl et al. an adjunct professor in Computer Science. Wiley. Comprehension. Christopher A Sanchez Assistant Professor Cognitive Science & Engineering Program Arizona State University. 2007). Successful comprehenders better monitor the adequacy of their text representation and use a range of strategies in response to failures to understand what they are reading (Duke & Pearson. 2003. Vol. Phillips. ³Source Evaluation. Washington: Dec 2009. and understanding information sources. 2004. & Korpan. especially when these tasks involve learning through research articles (Lanick-Buckner. Hacker et al. 2004.

JSkoog) Note: Míchele Lamont is a sociology professor at Harvard As for excellence.¶ ´ .´ she said. but her examination of the process suggests no way to measure it.com/news/2009/03/04/peerreview. that quality that peer review theoretically promotes. and their own research.the gate keepers -. ³I think you have to give the criteria. as other criteria could be used as well. The most common flaw she documents is a pattern of professors applying very personal interests to evaluating the work before them. Founder & Editor Inside Higher Ed. "I think excellence means nothing.insidehighered. ³People define what is exciting as what speaks to their own personal interest. ³The 'Black Box' of Peer Review. she said. But she does have hope for those on the panels too. 9 (Scott. she said in an interview. Lamont writes that she wants to ³open the Black Box of peer review´ so the scholars being evaluated have a better understanding of what happens to the applications in which they have invested so much time and hope. particularly when they define µwhat is exciting¶ as µwhat most looks like me (or my work). established scholars -. suggesting that panels be honest about the criteria they use. Typically it's originality.to think hard and think again about the limits of what they are doing. March 4. Lamont isn¶t so sure it exists.´ There is nothing wrong with those definitions per se. but people shouldn't pretend they equate with some scientific measure of excellence. feasibility. and also the social and intellectual significance.´ http://www. Even if her book doesn¶t change peer review. 2009. It may be invoked all the time.´ she said.Gonzaga Debate Institute 2011 Mercury 134 Conspiracy Theory A2: Our authors are more qualified There is no objective way to measure who is ³qualified´ or not Jaschik. ³I also want the older.

that HIV does not actually exist.html. so it must be right. that peer-reviewed literature develops over time. or even damaging to public policy. The public doesn't understand this. AIDS Researcher working at Cornell. even if it has been 'peer reviewed'. some of it is downright bad science. For example. And politicians are not alone. Similar practices can be found in other science-related areas.Gonzaga Debate Institute 2011 Mercury 135 Conspiracy Theory AT: Peer Review Academic communities only evaluate things that they deem to be interesting. I think they lack the training ± or if trained. 2006. how could it? But the term 'peer review' is often equated with 'gold standard'. We realize that some journals are more stringent than others in what they will accept. lazy or unscrupulous can use the peer-reviewed literature selectively. Indeed. the integrity ± to appreciate two things that are understood by professional scientists. the politically motivated. to make arguments that are seriously flawed. in The Republican War on Science (Basic Books. so that what was legitimately uncertain 20 years ago is fully understood today. This means that citing decade-old papers and ignoring more recent ones is an unscrupulous tactic. .com/nature/peerreview/debate/op5. a small clique of scientists and scientifically ignorant laymen promotes the bizarre view that HIV does not cause AIDS. professor tenure of microbiology and immunology. and that peer-review standards can unfortunately be too flexible. Professional scientists can see through this tactic. A lust for profit has arguably led to the appearance of too many journals. ³Perspective: Does peer review mean the same to the public as it does to scientists?´ http://www. provides several examples of how this operates in the political world. advertisements claiming that vitamin pills can cure cancer and infectious diseases selectively cite the peer-reviewed literature. Second. Professional scientists usually know how to rate papers within their own fields of expertise (all too often very narrow ones nowadays). JSkoog) It's been peer reviewed. politicians all too often cherry-pick the 'facts' they find most convenient to their party's agenda. or. in a particularly dubious variant of the genre. We know that scientific truth evolves on the basis of a mounting consensus. In my own field of AIDS research. not through an isolated paper that adopts a maverick position.nature. 6 (John. that ignoring every paper bar the one that most conveniently suits a preconceived position could be considered scientific misconduct. and so it can be all too easy to find somewhere that will publish poor-quality work. 2005). Hence. In contrast. right? Wrong! Not everything in the peer-reviewed literature is correct. First. These AIDS denialists are experts at selectively using the peer-reviewed literature to superficially bolster their positions. Chris Mooney. thus forcing alternative views of science out of the spectrum of academia Moore.

anti-oppression movements and liberal discourses continue to pathologise people who are disabled. My orientation for the position. and (Psychiatric) Ableism. but instead reserves those terms for people outside of mainstream politics. I contend that ableism. for the most part. use of the word furthers ableist sentiments AbbyJean. For example.´ http://appweb. blogger for disabledfeminists. again. and through being psychiatrized. people can be read as having a combination of disabilities. especially those who have been psychiatrized. In this way.´ http://disabledfeminists. an aboriginal woman who undergoes psychiatric intervention. I found myself working as a social worker at a ³drop-in-centre´ for people who were undergoing or had undergone psychiatric treatment. gender (see Smith. Anti±oppression movements may have lessened the medical pathology based on racialization or gender. oppresses people by labeling them as having either a physical. 1990.com. Groneman. It reminds me that when people call me ³crazy. JSkoog) What I conclude from that is that the media doesn¶t consistently use ³crazy´ and other ableist terms to refer to absurd policies or those that lack rational support. My colleagues informed me that they were attempting to separate the ongoing negative effects of oppression experienced through colonization and patriarchy from the ³real´ psychiatric disorder. my experience of cerebral palsy has been read by others as having both physical and cognitive disabilities.´ This was my initial introduction to ³Donna´ (a pseudonym). Yet. they have been socially constructed to represent medical pathology.Gonzaga Debate Institute 2011 Mercury 136 Conspiracy Theory AT: Your Authors are Crazy ³Crazy´ is only used for the marginalized and disrespected in intellectual communities. or start blending in better.´ what they really mean is ³stop existing in my consciousness ± either disappear or become normal. Donna experienced oppression as a woman. ³Chapter 2 Vitalism: Subjectivity Exceeding Racism. Moreover. Historically. and partly because it fiercely underlines and reinforces marginalization and dismissal of people with mental illness. Ableism is like racism and sexism and oppresses and marginalizes those who we label as ³disabled´ Overboe. and sensory disability. like racism and sexism. but also because it puts me in the extremely uncomfortable position of defending people like Palin and Paul against this kind of criticism.php/Wagadu/article/viewFile/324/611. This selective usage is even more reason the term ³crazy´ shouldn¶t be used in the political context ± partly because it¶s a lazy out for commentators who refuse to engage with the actual policy issues or political ideas being proposed on a substantive level. Professor at Wildfrid Laurier. To me.´ To see progressive writers and organizations rely on the marginalization of people with mental illness to score easy points against unpopular politicians is upsetting not only because of their perpetuation of ableism. in part.edu/ojs/index.2010.´ Which. 10 (AbbyJean. ³Ableist Word Profile: Crazy (to describe political viewpoints or positions. is exactly the message leveled at people with mental illness when they¶re called ³crazy´ or ³loony´ or ³unhinged´ or any number of synonyms. May 28. However the experience of being psychiatrized continues to be pathologised as a condition requiring a cure.com/2010/05/28/ableist-word-profilecrazy-to-describe-political-viewpoints-or-positions/. consisted of being informed that there were clients with ³difficult psychiatric problems.cortland.com. Professor at Wildfrid Laurier. JSkoog) In a previous life. this is even more evidence that the implicit subtext of terming a person or policy ³crazy´ is ³shut up and go away. This approach is problematic for me because. as some one who experiences cerebral. . blogger for disabledfeminists. psychiatric. cognitive. 1995) and race have been conflated with mental inferiority. Which in turn implies that the term is used primarily to further marginalize and dismiss people who don¶t fit expectations of what a politician is or what are common or popular political arguments. 2007 (James. developmental. as an aboriginal. Sexism.

Crazy bitch. it¶s turning the condition of having a disability into an all-purpose negative descriptor. Crazy is mostly. If a PWMD is going through pain because of something unrelated to their mental state.´ ³Not only is Dworkin cissexist. still. that challenges something. It¶s meant to admit a slight lack of foresight or sense on the part of the speaker. Jim¶s a great guy. crazy is often used as a positive amplifier. disturbing. It¶s used to discredit able-privileged persons by saying that they are actually mentally disabled ± and what could be worse than that? Examples: ³Tom Cruise is fucking crazy. But just because it¶s positive doesn¶t mean it¶s a good thing. she¶s fucking crazy!´ As a way to discredit neurotypical people: Crazy is also often used to describe a neurotypical person that the speaker disagrees with. yelling at Matt Lauer and shit. and rhetoric are dismissed because that person is ³crazy´. It¶s used to discredit. If a person with a history of mental illness wants to do something. by me and other feminists ± to negatively describe ideas. it is. and it doesn¶t absolve the mountains of bad usage. or other nouns that the speaker finds disagreeable.Gonzaga Debate Institute 2011 Mercury 137 Conspiracy Theory Ablism Impacts Ableist rhetoric is akin to other racist and bigoted language and is purely used for exclusionary purposes James. dismissed due to their ³craziness´. Examples: ³I¶ve been crazy busy lately. this winter¶s snow is ³craziness´. a word used sometimes directly against persons with mental disabilities (PWMD). acts of oppression are ³crazy making´ . he¶s batshit insane about Prozac. used to mean ³bad´. Crazy as a positive adjective still mean ³overly´ or ³too much´. she¶s crazy. to make sure that those of us brave enough to publicly identify as having mental disabilities are continually discredited. to marginalize.´ ³I¶m just crazy about ice cream!´ Crazy a destructive word. embedding itself in our language like a guerrilla force. Examples: ³I can¶t believe Britney shaved her head. wrong. that person¶s thoughts. sometimes descriptive and value-neutral.´ ³Yeah. Crazy is one of the most versatile and frequently used slurs.´ May 17. ³not worth paying attention to´. the PWMD is expected to pull themselves up by their bootstraps if they want to be viewed as a valid human being.´ Crazy is often used ± even. As a direct slur against PWMD: Crazy as a word is directly and strongly tied to mental disability. and overtly. disturbing. Conservatives are ³crazy´. The positive use is not that positive. Furthermore. to make sure that we feel shame for our disability and discourage self-care. Folks say that they are ³crazy´ about something or someone they love or like. Even if their suffering is related to their disability. culpability for the pain is placed solely on their being crazy. Whether it means ³bad´ or ³evil´ or ³outlandish´ or ³illogical´ or ³unthinkable´. ³Guest Post from RMJ: Ableist Word Profile: Crazy. ³silly´. used to hurt people with mental disabilities.com/2010/05/17/guest-post-from-rmj-ableist-word-profile-crazy/ Like every ism. ³too much´. It¶s using disability as a rhetorical weapon. no matter the context. Loretta went crazy on Jeanie last night. feminist blogger for Deepylproblematic. 10 (Rachel McCarthy.´ ³Did you hear that Shirley broke up with Jim? She thought he was cheating on her. or wrong. http://disabledfeminists.com. Gave her a black eye and everything. Persons with mental illnesses are none of these things as a group. feminist blogger. When using crazy as a synonym for violent. It¶s used as a slur directly against PWMD both to discredit and to marginalize. in a catch-22. This usage makes a direct connection between mental disability and bad qualities of all stripes. Editor¶s Note: It can take longer than usual for com . sorry I haven¶t been around much. it¶s saying that PWMD are violent. a slur is a slur is a slur. ableism is absorbed through the culture on a more subconscious level. for good or bad. Examples: ³They took the public option out of the health care plan? That¶s fucking crazy!´ ³Yeah. arguments. turning disability itself into a negative descriptor. sometimes indirectly against persons with able privilege. and sometimes in a superficially positive light. Seriously. 2010. writing.´ Crazy as a positive amplifier: On the flip side.

so hard to root out²I¶ll not pretend to be perfect on this score²and yet doing so is vital if we are to create a world in which people with intellectual disabilities are equals²not simply people-seen-as-lesser whom are condescended to. There is still the assumption that it is better to be ³intelligent´ (whatever that means). It¶s very troubling.) are but symptoms of the larger problem²society is full of ableist assumptions. in short. May 12. That is superficial.Gonzaga Debate Institute 2011 Mercury 138 Conspiracy Theory AT: Ableism Even if ableist discourses are stopped. that mental illness (however you define that) is something to be pitied. let alone disavow them. Truly examining one¶s ableism does not mean renaming the tags on your blog so that ³lame´ and ³crazy´ no longer appear. . Take the assumption that ³intelligence´ is valuable. Take stigma against people with intellectual disabilities. and that. Assumptions about who is valuable and who isn¶t. It is not being the fifth person on a thread to self-righteously proclaim that ³idiot´ is ableist. ³Perpetually Myself: It's not enough to call out ableist language.) But I don¶t think this has actually done all that much to promote the equality and worth of people with intellectual disabilities. but more important still are the underlying assumptions which shape our society. about what counts as ³contributing´ to to society/the economy/whatever«the list goes on and on. and oftentimes little more than a way for neurotypical and/or able-bodied people to publicly demonstrate their Good Ally status and pat themselves on the back. there is still stigma attached to disability . It¶s so ingrained in our society. some of which are very obvious and some of which may be more subtle²but ableist nonetheless. for instance. The elimination of ableist words is but a small part of what needs to be done. Examining one¶s ableism means constantly questioning and re-formulating basic assumptions which are oftentimes so deeply ingrained that it¶s hard even to see them.com/post/5433850854/perpetually-myself-its-not-enough-to-call-out-ableist. and it frustrates and disappointments me that so much ³social justice´ work has stopped at language²which is in many ways the easiest part. Blogger 11 (Kiriamaya. JSkoog) Language is important. Widespread use of ³crazy´ and ³lame´ (etc. and that other words are making some headway.tumblr. it¶s better to be non-disabled than not. The end result is a very shallow sort of ³social justice´ discourse that keeps all of the underlying problematic assumptions in place while giving lip service to equality. http://kiriamaya.their K doesn¶t solve anything Kiriamaya. I am glad that it¶s no longer acceptable to use the r-word in many circles. 2011. about what the proper way to behave is.´ Tumblr. Blogger on Tumblr. and then simply stopping at that. (I struggle with ´idiot´ and ³crazy´ and a lot of others myself in everyday speech.

Gonzaga Debate Institute 2011 Mercury 139 Conspiracy Theory ***Conspiracy Theory Analysis*** .

and a long-term commitment of the kind that to date has been possible only for epistemic authorities. regarding the UFO/ET question neither atheism nor belief is epistemically justified. which creates the possibility of scientific knowledge countering the state¶s dogma.74 even at the risk of exposing the foundations of modern sovereignty to insecurity. the UFO may reveal an Achilles heel.75 The problem is that agnosticism alone does not produce knowledge. including its investigations of selected cases. but it is only through it that We might move beyond the essentially theological discourse of belief and denial to a truly critical posture. this disclosure is not in itself a serious challenge to our argument. however. the modern sovereign is a warrior whose function is to protect²in this case. of which the French acknowledge 25 percent as unexplained. as attested by the long history of unsuccessful resistance to the UFO taboo to date. The other fissure is within liberalism. from threats to the norm. While the two are aligned in authoritative UFO discourse. Modern rule might not recognize the UFO. which can be included in authoritative discourse only through its exclusion. Since it is precisely such seeing that the UFO taboo forbids. it is possible here for science to play a key role for critical theory. Although we believe the case for this presumption is over-determined and overwhelming.com/DIVERS/Wendt_Duvall_PoliticalTheory. therefore. by which we mean public and strategic. but the presumption in science is that reality has the last word. in that it rests on a normative assumption that the limits of modern rule should be exposed. Rather. resistance must also be militant. Minnesota ± Professor of International Relations and Duvall. However. and thus reduce the ignorance upon which modern sovereignty depends. Like Achilles. For a critical theory of anthropocentric rule. infrastructure. so the difficulties of such resistance cannot be overstated. or precisely those actors most resistant to taking UFOs seriously. the structure of the UFO taboo also has aporias and fissures that make it²and the anthropocentric structure of rule that it sustains²potentially unstable. in conclusion we address the question of resistance to the UFO taboo. however. but in the face of continuing anomalies maintaining such nonrecognition requires work.73 Given that secrecy is only a contingent feature of the UFO taboo. the constitutive core of modern governmentality. Only breaking the taboo in public constitutes genuine resistance. given the potential disjunction of interest between science and the state. it seems incumbent upon us to follow through on the practical logic of our theory. Within the structure of modern rule there are also at least two fissures that complicate maintaining UFO ignorance. whereas science recognizes that its truths can only be tentative. The structuralism of our argument might suggest that resistance is futile. Nevertheless. which in its persistent recurrence generates an ongoing need for its normalization. Duvall / Sovereignty and the UFO 627 indeed be futile. Ohio State Professor of International Relations. However. and that even the French are still far from seeking systematic knowledge of UFOs. private agnosticism²of the kind moderns might have about God. agnosticism means ³seeing´ rather than ignoring the UFO. UFO resistance might not be futile but it is certainly dangerous. in which observations are actively sought in order to analyze patterns from which an intelligent presence might be inferred. In the present context this means that human beings should try to know the UFO. it is not a case we can make here. liberal governmentality justifies itself as a discourse that produces free-thinking subjects who might doubt it. we simply do not know. taking it seriously as a truly unidentified object.´ August 2008. ***Continued*** . so taking its desirability as given. Concretely. Still. 8 (Alexander and Raymond.pdf. and their reputations will suffer.76 That would require money. http://ovnis-usa. Theory may be stubborn. In this respect militant UFO agnosticism is akin to other forms of resistance to governmentality. whereas sovereignty has found ways of dealing with them. Even as it produces normalized subjects who know that ³belief´ in UFOs is absurd. because it is resistance to modern sovereignty itself. and not just a science of individual cases after the fact. ³Sovereignty and the UFO. Whether such a science would actually overcome UFO ignorance is unknowable today. Those who attempt it will have difficulty funding and publishing their work.Gonzaga Debate Institute 2011 Mercury 140 Conspiracy Theory Conspiracy Analysis Shell Only engaging in conspiracy agnosticism creates productive criticism and exposes cracks in the edifice of governmentality Wendt. Political Theory Volume 36 Number 4. which can tell us only that some UFOs lack apparent conventional explanations. Resistance must be agnostic because by the realist standards of modernity. the state is ultimately interested in maintaining a certain regime of truth (particularly in the face of metaphysical insecurity). or else it will Wendt. The kind of resistance that can best exploit these fissures might be called militant agnosticism.600 reports).72 It is in this context that we would place the recent disclosure by the French government (and at press time the British too) of its long-secret UFO files (1. In that respect the UFO is part of the constitutive. However. the French action does illustrate a potential within liberalism to break with authoritative common sense. One is the UFO itself. in this context seeing is resistance. a science of UFOs ironically is required. unnormalized outside of modern sovereignty. Even that is not enough. in this domain what is needed is paradoxically a systematic science. Modern rule and its metaphysics are extraordinarily resilient. The reproduction of UFO ignorance depends crucially on those in positions of epistemic authority observing the UFO taboo. One is the different knowledge interests of science and the state. Thus.JSkoog) We have called ours a ³critical´ theory. for example²is itself part of the problem.

and the large-scale phenomena of population. University of Auckland . this is not because of a recent return of the ancient right to kill. But the existence in question is no longer the juridical existence of sovereignty. the species. http://www.uiuc. Professor of Anthropology. . as the technology of wars has caused them to tend increasingly toward all-out destruction. at stake is the biological existence of a population. thereby. at individuals so that they are both individualized and normalized. the decision that initiates them and the one that terminates them are in fact increasingly informed by the naked question of survival." and the institutions or disciplinary blocks (including education) in which these truths have been developed. Unchallenged sovereign power makes extinction possible Rabinow. then the truth is that after sixty years of modern UFOs.edu/EPS/PESYearbook/95_docs/marshall. and cast doubt on the structure of rule that requires and sustains it." This notion "refers to the state. the UFO threatens humans¶ capacity to decide those threats. and the exercise of political sovereignty. The atomic situation is now at the end point of this process: the power to expose a whole population to death is the underside of the power to guarantee an individual's continued existence.ed. To what extent that would be desirable is a large normative question which we have bracketed here. if academics¶ first responsibility is to tell the truth. played. The principle underlying the tactics of battle-that one has to be capable of killing in order to go on living-has become the principle that defines the strategy of states. or to affect not only the conduct of people but. 95 (James D. Berkeley." This is a form of activity which attempts or aims at the conduct of persons. the "reason of state. 628 Political Theory human beings still have no idea what they are. it is the attempt to shape. 84 (Paul. The Foucault Reader. the race. it is because power is situated and exercised at the level of life. to guide. Foucault And Neo-Liberalism: Biopower And Busno-power.77 But taking UFOs seriously would certainly embody the spirit of self-criticism that infuses liberal governmentality and academia in particular.html) Foucault also develops the notion of governmentality as the art of government or. a crucially important role.Emeritus Professor School of Education. self to others. but by bio-power directed in a totalizing manner at whole populations and. That should surprise and disturb us all. 260) It is as managers of life and survival." He sees the technologies of domination and the self as being the techniques used "to make of the individual a significant element for the state. and are not even trying to find out. In Foucault's work this activity of governance could cover the relations of self to self. And through a turn that closes the circle. also. Governmentality is obtained not by a totalizing deterministic or oppressive form of power." By "government" Foucault should be understood as meaning something close to "the conduct of conduct. and continue to play.Gonzaga Debate Institute 2011 Mercury 141 Conspiracy Theory Conspiracy Analysis Shell ***Continued*** Unlike conventional threats. the attempt to constitute people in such ways that they can be governed. And indeed. of bodies and the race. causing so many men to be killed. foster critical theory. Governmentality and totalizing control over regimes of truth forms the basis of oppressive state power Marshall. and it would. that so many regimes have been able to wage so many wars. to its nature and to its own rationality. at one and the same time. If genocide is indeed the dream of modem powers. as it is sometimes referred to. relations between institutions and social communities. and so cannot be acknowledged without calling modern sovereignty itself into question. p. however. Here one locates the human sciences and their "truths.

to increased attention to the histories and situations of Native Americans. and globalist ideals. we are the aliens. although expansionism has been integral to its selfunderstanding.54 It demands that NASA. both cultural and military. conquering space itself. Ufology challenges the assumed vacancy of outerspace and thereby intervenes critically in narratives of national identity. Until the space program. As America reached out into this "new frontier. was to be revealed and proven by breaking the laws of gravity. open West. in space. Hobart and William Smith Colleges .51 By reiterating the expansive fantasy of the wild. This language is fitting in that "space technology and communications. "make possible new extensions of American imperialism.Professor of Political Science. and ready to be settled. NASA redeployed American frontier myths of a wild. one vacant. empty."53 Once linked to a growing critique of the excesses of the military-industrial complex. The UFO discourse resists official "space frontier" rhetoric.52 Indeed. 19-20) The American articulation of outerspace together with technology and democracy incorporates an uneasy mix of colonialist. colonies. 98 (Jodi. and colonization became part of the public language of outerspace. lawless West. the military. Aliens in America pg. escaping the confines of Earth. allow for the possibility that. the success of America's democratic experiment. nationalist. the metaphor of a "frontier" tapped into earlier notions of American exceptionalism. and to continued struggle in former colonies throughout Africa and Asia. this very exceptionalism. the government. settlements.Gonzaga Debate Institute 2011 Mercury 142 Conspiracy Theory Challenges Space Imperialism UFO discourse challenges US space imperialism Dean. the United States rarely presented itself explicitly as a colonial power." as Elayne Rapping points out. such colonial rhetoric disrupts the space program's smooth presentation of democratic freedom. and the authorities who act in America's name." the rhetoric of outposts. .

. by its very nature. breeds distrust: it is an intentional concealment that sets apart the secret from the non-secret. shifting the burden of proof onto those countering conspiracy claims includes using argument from absence. 79 Indeed. 18 everything within the conspiracy narrative has a purpose. even a lay public has the access and acuity to determine if the motives of the villain make sense. and they are able to stay popular within the public sphere over long periods of time because of their ability to adapt to.´ 12-12-2010. traditional modes of evaluation.Gonzaga Debate Institute 2011 Mercury 143 Conspiracy Theory Challenges Power Structures The unorthodox way that conspiracy theories present themselves allows them to engage in critical argumentation to challenge existing powers Horn. scientific. conspiracy arguments are the only theories for which evidence against them is actually constructed as evidence in favor of them. the ability of conspiracy theories to use the absence of evidence as evidence allows for virtually anything to be subsumed into the conspiracy narrative.gsu. One who claims that things are not as they appear to be assumes the burden of proof. Instructor at University of Tennessee Martin and Ph. the stories woven by conspiracists maintain an internal coherence so masterful. according to Darsey. 86 In our increasingly secret world (be it related to political. Darsey alludes to an examination of this nexus when he calls for a restoration of public science.cgi?article=1025&context=communication_diss&seiredir=1#search=%22Paranoid%20Style%20an%20Age%20Suspicion%3A%20Conspiracy%20Thinking%20Official%20Rhetoric%20Contempor ary%20America%22 JSkoog) Conspiracy theories are plausible because of their ability to tap into the traditional values and beliefs of their audiences. according to Zarefsky. I am more interested in the intersection that exists between conspiracy arguments and official discourse and what this intersection has to offer to our insight. no discrepancies. 85 The secrecy under which institutional agencies operate is often ascribed to a malign purpose. 83 Darsey affirms: Under normal circumstances. a singular conspiracy theory located within the public sphere in order to uncover the argumentative and narrative strategies conspiracists use in persuading their audiences. the absence of a response becomes evidence that a vast and sinister conspiracy is brewing. 78 Conspiracy narratives allow for no ambiguities. Perhaps the single most seductive element of the conspiracy argument is what David Zarefsky terms as its self-sealing nature. a more helpful and public way to evaluate conspiracy theories rests on a question of motive because. Conspiracy argument exploits and reverses this normative presumption. 10 (Chara Von Kay. making the lack of evidence into evidence transmogrifying surfaces from their pedestrian status as the most visible 19 outward manifestation of reality into veils and masks. and analyzed. a strong prima facie case is required before appearances need be seriously interrogated. equally important are the argumentative techniques used within conspiracy narratives. and a respondent counters by asserting that there is no conspiracy. When a conspiracy charge is made. From Digital Archive at Georgia State University. are not accessible enough for the lay person to use to evaluate conspiracy claims. appearance demands presumption. http://digitalarchive.D candidate. Sissela Bok argues secrecy. Such studies have tended to uncover the situational and contextual elements that make conspiracy theories more believable and then map out their inherent logical and narrative problems. no coincidences. although helpful. that. 84 Thus. and reflect. as Walter Fisher argued. 81 Successful conspiracy arguments. there is a tendency to believe the worst rather than the best about what these secretive agencies are doing. pg. Rather. and of keepers of a secret from those excluded. or trade realms). However. Even if there is no response. temporal and cultural conditions. ³The Paranoid Style in an Age of Suspicion: Conspiracy Thinking and Official Rhetoric in Contemporary America. 17-20. shift the burden of proof onto opponents while minimizing its own burdens. 80 While narrative may be the vessel through which conspiracy theories gain their legitimization. 82 Frequently.edu/cgi/viewcontent. The rhetorical hallmarks of conspiracy theories provide insight into the power such theories wield. Instructor at University of Tennessee Martin. then the response actually becomes proof that there is a conspiracy. As Brian Keeley notes. rhetorical scholars have generally focused on.

106 The leveling of the discursive playing field precipitated by the loss of central authority and the indeterminacy of information provides an opening for conspiracy theories to find increasing prominence and belief. conspiracy theories pose their adherence to facticity. http://digitalarchive.´ 12-12-2010. ³The Paranoid Style in an Age of Suspicion: Conspiracy Thinking and Official Rhetoric in Contemporary America. that what we see isnµt all there is. which inherently alters the substance and form of official discourse. especially with the lack of a suitable explanation. a hermeneutic of suspicion has 25 become a routine operating procedure. and rationality. according to Jodi Dean. must get back in touch with their audiences if they want the support of the people.gsu.Gonzaga Debate Institute 2011 Mercury 144 Conspiracy Theory Challenges Power Structures Conspiracy theories force powers structures to explain and defend actions Horn. ultimately. Conspiracy theories challenge and question authority and capitalize on the strength of their own narratives. the inconsistencies of official accounts. 17-20. that all the facts arenµt known. With the increasing overload of information from mutually competing sources. [the] accumulated assertions [of conspiracy narratives] remind us that we don¶t know. and. 105 Belief in conspiracy becomes an almost necessary response to the multiplicity of information. If recent authoritative texts are any indication. It is no longer automatically discrediting to label something a conspiracy theory. coherence. 10 (Chara Von Kay. Indeed. Yet the ability for officials to connect with the people is problematic because officials are no longer able to forward an affirmative argument simply providing the causes or reasons behind an event. Conspiracy theory demands more information. Conspiracy narratives emphasize that something has been withheld.edu/cgi/viewcontent. Even when an explanation is provided. none of which seem entirely trustworthy. Conspiracy theories are a form of pop sociology cobbled together on the fly as people try to gain a handle on the complexities of social and economic causation in an era of rapid globalization. Knight explains. which claim to know the truth.D candidate. 104 The multiplicity of competing information casts suspicion onto more legitimate forms of knowledge. then there is a real danger that conspiracy beliefs will usurp official explanations and become the preferred way of thinking .cgi?article=1025&context=communication_diss&seiredir=1#search=%22Paranoid%20Style%20an%20Age%20Suspicion%3A%20Conspiracy%20Thinking%20Official%20Rhetoric%20Contempor ary%20America%22 JSkoog) Conspiracy theories. Instructor at University of Tennessee Martin. Instructor at University of Tennessee Martin and Ph. like official discourse. is suspicion. enough evidence is brought to light. Conspiracy theories are a mode of constructing meaning in a rapidly changing and complex world. are not so different from official discourse. For this reason it is necessary to examine the power of conspiracy beliefs through the lens of official discourse. causality. so as to cast doubt and suspicion onto the explanation. Too humble to offer a totalizing account. and the proliferation of conflicting information. authorities must prove their positions. enough questions are asked. Officials are forced into a defensive position brought on by claims of conspiracy existing prior to the crafting of an official response. pg. write compelling and believable accounts of events. What sets contemporary conspiracy theories apart from official discourse. Any official discourse that comes into being after doubt and suspicion have been leveled against legitimate explanations has to at least attempt to assuage any existing doubts. From Digital Archive at Georgia State University.

29 Subsequently. even if this pact forms a somewhat uneasy one. as a sort of interplanetary hoaxer or dissident determined to confound the application of authoritative. there are some obvious differences between the postcolonial and experiencer spheres but while the ramifications of the former can be more effectively established the latter presents us with a paradox since we are dealing with impact of an unfamiliar. JSkoog) What are the implications then for Exopolitics? Certainly. scientific linguistic modes via their use of alien languages. µthe balance of probability¶ regarding the ETH does not µwarrant further focused attention¶.´ Exopolitics Journal. Accordingly. June. ensures the stability of it. we have a comparative psychosocial framework that lends further weight to the issue by showing that the impact of the alien presence constructs states of being that are representative of how multiple human cultures intersect.exopoliticsjournal. Firstly. and in this particular point I am referring to how Wendt and Duvall situate the sceptic and science as sources of authority. it is ethically imperative for Exopolitics to do so. This political necessity propagated by the union of science and the state. aside from the psychological framework utilised by John Mack and others to account for the validity of the abduction and contactee phenomenon. When left to the skeptics and scientific authorities to examine such an area. the UFO issue represents a sort of double entrapment since to disclose the former would lead to a questioning of the latter. A similar concern is explored by Professors Alexander Wendt and Raymond Duvall. and what is it Exopolitics if not a site of resistance and a counter cultural discourse? . 11 (Natasha. 32 Thirdly. 30 Needless to say. this is complicated by the denial of the ETH as a part of consensus reality. lecturer in Further Education. using Mark Newbrook words. 31 In the process the modern state is able to uphold its public discourse that. extraterrestrial paradigm.pdf.com/vol-3/vol-34-Acimovic. I would suggest that if this is true of the UFO subject then this is even more so in regards to the issue of inter-dimensional and (or) off planetary intelligences interacting with the Earth¶s human citizens. the Third Space and Adopting Multiple Ways of Viewing the Construction of Human-Alien Identities. and it is this site in particular that poses µontological threats to identity or social being¶. They contend that since the UFO issue includes the possibility of extraterrestrials as a plausible hypothesis then modern sovereignty is faced with a µphysical and ontological threat¶ to its rule. Furthermore. They examine how the UFO as an µauthoritative taboo¶ is actively produced via the mechanism of sovereign rule. and currently teaches Adult Literacy and Academic Study Skills at a British college. if the psychosocial dynamics of experiencers¶ narratives shares similarities with those identified by postcolonial theorists then it is a political imperative for Exopolitics to explore this further for a number of significant reasons.Gonzaga Debate Institute 2011 Mercury 145 Conspiracy Theory Challenges Sovereignty Exopolitical engagement is key to challenging sovereign authority Acimovic. Secondly.³Transcending the Hall of Mirrors: The Simultaneity of Discourse. if Exopolitics as a discipline does not venture further into the territory of academia to reappropriate sites which are critical to a deeper understanding the ETH then those who speak with sovereign authority will be able to maintain the µepistemology of [UFO] ignorance¶. the ethical imperative is that it is experiencers themselves who are left to deal with the psychological fallout from the machine of sovereignty. then we are presented with the type of analysis that is representative of Dr Mark Newbrook¶s treatment of the experiencer. http://www.

8 (Alexander and Raymond. Of course. and the science fictionalization of UFOs in the media. which goes to the fundamental puzzle with which we began our argument: given the many reasons to study UFOs. like the cure for cancer. .JSkoog) One might distinguish at least four such techniques: (1) authoritative representations. making them difficult to grasp objectively. Since the Uncertainty Principle has not stopped physicists from doing physics.S. and here the two cases differ. ³Sovereignty and the UFO.com/DIVERS/Wendt_Duvall_PoliticalTheory. Instead.´ August 2008. upon which modern sovereignty depends.pdf. in contrast. emerges in a context free of extant theory and empirical research. since ignorance is multiply realizable at the micro-level Notwithstanding the importance of governmentality to a critical theory of anthropocentric rule. http://ovnis-usa. 8 (Alexander and Raymond.´ August 2008. enabling it to be safely incorporated into modern science. Ohio State Professor of International Relations. this might seem to undermine our claim that potential unknowability precludes a decision on the UFO as object. and is a systematic body of knowledge that enables physicists to manipulate reality with extraordinary precision. which are amply documented in the ufological literature. http://ovnis-usa. ³Sovereignty and the UFO. it is to the performative insecurity of modern sovereignty that one must look first. ranging from formal attacks on the ³paranoid style´ of UFO believers as a threat to modern rationality. and in that respect they haunt modern sovereignty with the possibility of epistemic failure. like the U. but they might be. Yet. UFOs challenge modern science in two ways: (1) they appear random and unsystematic. To see how this might be uniquely threatening it is useful to compare the UFO to three other cases of what might be seen as unknowability. which generates a ³spiral of silence´ in which individuals engage in self-censorship instead.71 Much could be said from a governmentality perspective about these techniques.Gonzaga Debate Institute 2011 Mercury 146 Conspiracy Theory Challenges Sovereignty The uncertainty created by the UFO directly threatens the epistemology of the science that the sovereign relies on to maintain power Wendt. Political Theory Volume 36 Number 4. we have focused on explaining why all this anti-UFO work is necessary in the first place. This does not mean that UFOs are in fact humanly unknowable.´67 the portrayal of ufology as pseudoscience. That we might never know what we cannot know about UFOs makes their potential objectivity more problematic for the modern project.com/DIVERS/Wendt_Duvall_PoliticalTheory. One is the Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle in quantum theory.pdf.70 to everyday dismissal of those who express public interest in UFOs. Political Theory Volume 36 Number 4. which ³removes knowledge´ from the system. which have the appearance of being scientific but are essentially ³show trials´ systematically deformed by a priori rejection of the ETH. Minnesota ± Professor of International Relations and Duvall. why aren¶t they taken seriously? To answer this question the specific techniques by which the UFO is normalized can be a distraction. (2) official inquiries. With quantum theory we know exactly what we cannot know. The sovereign¶s attempts to discredit and ignore the UFO creates self censorship among the population that seeks to remove knowledge Wendt. but its authority rests on the assumption that nothing in Nature is in principle unknowable. there are known unknowns and unknown unknowns. Minnesota ± Professor of International Relations and Duvall.JSkoog) As unidentified object the UFO poses a threat of unknowability to science. which acknowledges inherent limits on the ability to know sub-atomic reality. Ohio State Professor of International Relations. Quantum mechanics emerged in a highly structured context of extant theory and established experimental results.69 and finally (4) discipline in the Foucauldian sense. and (2) some appear to violate the laws of physics (like the 40g turns in the Belgian F-16 case). like the 1969 Condon Report.68 (3) official secrecy. Air Force¶s claim that UFOs are ³not a national security threat. The UFO. and raises fundamental questions about the place of human beings in the universe. there are many things science does not know. but we lack the space to do so here.

demography.´ A constitutive feature of modern governmentality is that its discourses are scientific. Political Theory Volume 36 Number 4. Foucault¶s concept of governmentality is focused on the ³art of governing. there is also an important epistemological difference between the two. Minnesota ± Professor of International Relations and Duvall. governmentality concerns the specific regime of practices through which the population is constituted and (self-)regularized. Ohio State Professor of International Relations. .JSkoog) In thinking about the problem of rule. political economy. seeks a regime of truth to which its population will reliably adhere. objective representation of the world. ³the´ truth. http://ovnis-usa. health. always potentially contested body of knowledge.pdf. The object of government is no longer simply obedience to the king. defined as an apolitical. but knows it can never fully achieve. morality. ³Sovereignty and the UFO. in contrast. we suggest in conclusion that this difference opens space for critical theory and resistance.45 Thus.´ August 2008. and through the state science acquires institutional support and prestige. In contrast. Through science the state makes its subjects and objects known. 8 (Alexander and Raymond. political scientists have traditionally focused on either individual agents or institutional structures.Gonzaga Debate Institute 2011 Mercury 147 Conspiracy Theory Challenges Governmentality Foucauldian concepts of the state intervening in science¶s epistemology Wendt. Standards for knowledge in that context privilege stability and normalization over the uncertain path of scientific truth. and others²the effect of which is to make populations knowable and subject to the regularization that will make for the ³happy life. Despite this symbiosis. which means that science and the state are today deeply intermeshed. and practical knowledge be made available to improve them. As a result. lending them a facticity that facilitates their regularization.com/DIVERS/Wendt_Duvall_PoliticalTheory. To this end biopolitics requires that the conditions of life of the population be made visible and assayed. Science seeks. with modern governmentality we see the emergence of both panoptic surveillance and numerous specialized discourses²of education. however. in both cases treating government as a given object. Although science and the state are allied in the modern UFO regime. ³Modern´ governmentality marks a shift in discourses of rule away from the state¶s sovereign power² its ability to take life and/or render it bare²and toward its fostering and regularizing of life in biopolitics. but regulating the conditions of life for subjects. To this end it relies on norms and practices that produce an evolving.´ understood as the biopolitical ³conduct of conduct´ for a population of subjects. The state.

We might say that. conspiracy's attempts to uncover the secret assemble information regarding the contexts. by reiterating the compulsions of publicity. . although it continues to rely on revelation. they must watch. Thus. so long as nothing is hidden from them. So the problem with conspiracy thinking is not its failure to comply with public reason but its very compliance. and conditions of surveillance. a compliance that reiterates some of these assumptions even as it contests others. JSkoog) Conspiracy thinking is a method for thinking critically when caught within the governing assumptions of a public sphere. Make links. freedom as information gathering confirms a conception of democratic engagement long part of the ideal of the public sphere: the public has a right to know. more persuasive. the antagonism of a notion of the public that ultimately depends on secrecy: if everything and everyone were transparent. there would be nothing to reveal. than market and consumerist conceptions of freedom. I guess I'll have to look on the Internet. a sphere where others can be trusted (and. and compulsive will to know within the ideal of publicity. conspiracy theory rejects the myth of a transparent public sphere. surveillance. Hobart and William Smith Colleges . it claims an uncertainty as to whether anyone can be trusted). Theory & Event 1:2. In so doing. Conspiracy theory or the version of democracy that supports the information age? I can't tell the difference. More powerful. terms. Citizens. discovery. search for truth: within these injunctions one is forced to be free insofar as one is forced to gather information. surveill. conspiracy theory challenges the presumption that what we see on the screens. importantly. a compliance that demonstrates all too clearly the paranoia. Project MUSE. and visibility in a culture where democracy is conceived within a hegemonic notion of the public sphere. in other words. Citizens are free. expose. is not itself invested in specific lines of authorization and subjection. Thus. it demonstrates the constitutive antagonism between transparency and revelation. and Abduction´ . what is made visible in traditional networks and by traditional authorities. 97 (Jodi. John Hopkins University Press ³The Familiarity of Strangeness: Aliens. When publicity feeds the mediated networks of the information age. conspiracy theory doesn't claim with certainty that no one can be trusted.Gonzaga Debate Institute 2011 Mercury 148 Conspiracy Theory Key to Citizen Participation Conspiracy theories allow for the most basic right of a citizen in a democratic society: the pursuit of gathering information Dean. and reveal.Professor of Political Theory.

which promulgates the notion that the U.2008-04-09. which made me think about how to analyze the truth movement in as far as how it links up to the left. government was involved in the 9/11 attacks. Bratich settled in Princeton. ³That actually changed a lot of my work. rendering the askers of questions marginal. The documentary Loose Change. certain types of skepticism have become attached to extremism of either wing. opening space for dissent beyond the mainstream Alvarez.´ Indeed. too. ³I was accustomed to college towns. ³Investigative journalism has been gutted over the last 15 or 20 years. When he arrived at Rutgers from the University of New Hampshire in 2003. staff writer Rutgers Today. http://news. ³Panic over the unknown: New book examines the collective anxiety surrounding conspiracy theories´ Rutgers Today..edu/focus/issue. and now it¶s taking this other shape. ³Now we are faced with how to reorient ourselves around this new version of investigative research." Bratich said. ideas surrounding conspiracy theories have invaded the consciousness of millions. through the popularization of alternative media websites and particularly through video embedding and sharing. That a failed film school student from upstate New York and a magazine dedicated to automotive technology and used cars engaged in a debate about what happened that day points to a larger failing by government commissions and the mainstream media to answer the public¶s many questions about the tragedy. moving to New York City.1171885477/article.´ Bratich said.Gonzaga Debate Institute 2011 Mercury 149 Conspiracy Theory Key to Dissent Conspiracy theories should be understood as questioning the gatekeeping of official media and information. Bratich is mostly concerned with mainstream left media outlets that act as gatekeepers in an attempt to regulate discourse surrounding conspiracy theories and retain legitimacy..´ Bratich said. ³A lot of my undergrads really light up when I start talking about secret societies. came from Bratich¶s experience at 9/11 truth movement meetings taking place in lower Manhattan. which deals with the 9/11 attacks. He puts forth the idea of a ³sphere of legitimate dissensus. April 23. It¶s about what kinds of claims and knowledges can appear on the range of possible opinions.. But a year later he decided to move to New York¶s Lower East Side. Instead.S.´ Conspiracy theories are neither exclusive to the left nor right side of the political opinion spectrum. Being on the Lower East Side plugged me into a set of activists and activist organizations. just across the lower tip of Manhattan from Ground Zero.8077404311. Bratich says that recent conspiracy theories are born out of the investigative vacuum created by institutional failure and filled by grassroots access to technology.2008-04-23. 2008 (Ashanti M. through social network media. ³Where are the investigative bodies that we can turn to to trust and do these investigations and research?´ Bratich asks. .´ he said. "They are feeling the alienation and skepticism that young people have had for many generations. spread like wildfire across the internet and prompted an equally well-known debunking by Popular Mechanics magazine. ³I wanted to see how they were trying to organize politically.rutgers. especially young people. Government-appointed bodies . their work is not just full of holes but has all these closed door meetings. SL) A cultural studies scholar who takes a critical look at popular culture (one of his recent areas of study is reality television). In Conspiracy Panics.´ he says. The last chapter.

"special effects" no longer limited to Industrial Light and Magic but available from Photoshop for the splicer on a budget. They can reclaim their rationality on their own terms. any contest. The lines of thinking. to link into a network where it won't be obscured by those parts of our culture with claims to public or political status.Gonzaga Debate Institute 2011 Mercury 150 Conspiracy Theory AT: Irrational As technology blurs the lines of reality and rationality. We might say that it's "of the fringe" though no longer "on the fringe. We face a situation of profound blurring. pg.Professor of Political Science. like TV. the networks of discursive authority that had remained separate. the "irrational" can get their message out. They had difficulty getting attention and fighting back. any group. the "unreasonable" and "irrational. America has a long history of contestations. 98 (Jodi. Now. Because of the pervasiveness of UFO belief and the ubiquity of alien imagery. They can find and connect with those myriad others also dismissed by science. they still may not know what it means or even if it really happened. deliver messages without the user having to search for them ² advocate. only conspiracy theory offers a way for individuals to reclaim meaning Dean. though." Previously.) Such dismissals. Although not yet seamless. to get some kind of response. more contestations are possible than before simply because of the ease of connection. the experience of media in millennial America smears lines between ad and information. fringe groups. and abduction provide ideal vehicles for accessing the effects of these changes on American society. We have permanent media. How can we tell whether a person in a photo was inserted or really there? Access to media and technology affects the practices of democracy. even if only a few thousand people on the Internet are watching. the victims of this deployment.23 The new communication technologies make possible connections between persons and information that were once unimaginable. Aliens in America. These include temporal and spatial connections: I can see images from Mars now. What happens when there is so much suspicion of terms like "reasonable" and "rational" that one can no longer tell what an informed decision on a matter like. aliens. Hobart and William Smith Colleges . that has profoundly altered the conditions we use to establish the intelligibility of an issue or judgment. Those in positions of power deploy terms like "reasonable" and "rational. are now more likely to blur as more people know more about what happens. of complex interconnection. 9-10. contribute to the mistrust that pervades contemporary democracy. partial-birth abortion or nuclear waste storage might look like? This is where America is today. as proponents of push technologies ² which. ad and product. any theory has more opportunity to acquire an audience." remained isolated. entertainment and all of the above. ufology is an especially revealing window into current American paranoia and distrust. How can I know which statement on partial abortion reflects "facts" the pro-life movement wants to disseminate? How can I know whether this is an issue on which I might change my mind or compromise? UFOs." . and conspiracy theorists. handed out ever more frequently as science increasingly impacts on our lives. More opinions. They include conceptual and visual connections. Yet. say. Dismissing others' opinions is more likely to provoke outrage. Now. thanks to widespread developments in communication networks. They can network and offer alternatives to official deployments or reason. in real time. product and producer.

when assembled by the researcher into a particular narrative form. being unable to judge their rationality points to the lack of widespread criteria for judgments about what is reasonable and what is not: ufological discourse upholds the very criteria for scientific rationality that mainstream science uses to dismiss it. occlusion.Gonzaga Debate Institute 2011 Mercury 151 Conspiracy Theory AT: Irrational Scientists act as gatekeeprs of knowledge . far from a label dismissively attached to the lunatic fringe. Politics itself must now be theorized from within the widespread dispersion of paranoia that has supplanted focused targets such as "Jim Crow" laws. bank statements. conspiracy theory. but with the possible interconnections that might be made among dozens of different bits of information. invoices. could prove extremely damaging.22 Rather.they try to label those who believe as irrational Dean. As Grant Kester explains in his compelling analysis of federal information policies during the Reagan administration: With the growing use of computer networks the government is faced with the problem of an information blizzard ² a lascivious and potentially threatening intermingling in which memos. and the Vietnam War. Hobart and William Smith Colleges . 8-9) We have moved from consensus reality to virtual reality. bits that might mean little or nothing by themselves. my claim is not that people who think they have been abducted by aliens threaten to destroy democracy. or who dismiss those who do so as "distorted" or "prejudiced" or "ignorant. and manipulation. 98 (Jodi. Richard Nixon. In this scenario the threat doesn't lie with a single piece of damaging information that "leaks out" and exposes government malfeasance.Professor of Political Science.20 Some government agencies. affidavits. Aliens in America pg. It is not that UFO believers are irrational. and other documents combine and recombine themselves to produce dangerous new constellations of meaning." . "Scientists" are the ones who feel a need to explain why some people believe in flying saucers.21 To reiterate. may well be an appropriate vehicle for political contestation. as well as some researchers and journalists. receipts. have already been thinking and acting in ways that might have been dismissed as "conspiratorial" under traditional politics. but that. Insofar as its practioners can link together varieties of disparate phenomena to find patterns of denial. "Scientists" are the ones who have problems with the "rationality" of those in the UFO community.

´ 2000. at least since the late 1940's. to the probable. Such an attitude has been more than justified while observing an accelerating curve where deeds. at times almost non-partisan opposition against the polyarchal rule of business as usual.3r_goshorn. Project Muse.edu/journals/theory_and_event/v004/4.the masses are still captive to ignorance and superstition. these developments have not alleviated the illusions of a mainstream consensus culture. ³Strategies of Deterrence and Frames Of Containment: On Critical Paranoia And Anti-Conspiracy Discourse. JSkoog) Each year new evidence has appeared (helpless though it may be alone) which suggests that." whereas those who had the means to lead and control society occupied the seat of logic and rationality. but also to persecute those Others for believing in the wrong set of truth-claims resonates with a long series of earlier religious campaigns against heresies and ideological campaigns driven by a characteristically American counter-subversive impulse.. Professor of American politics and cultural history. Researching these dimensions of the relevant historical phenomena.. subsequently take less and less time to arrive from the realm of the conspiratorial absurd. The idea that misguided souls are being duped by conspiracy theories issues from a long history of upper class leaders and elitist intellectuals who have always feared that "..the one means of mass mobilization which is cheaper than violence. not only is it inaccurate to say that all those who "believe in" conspiracy theories are simply paranoid. as most of the recent writers discussed here are beginning to acknowledge. and policies.´ 2000."[7] And finally. largely through propaganda" which was ". could thus use this belief as the justification for the necessary ". nor have they yet altered the empty spectacle of electoral politics.jhu. Sometimes this process arrives through declassified or "liberated" documents from the deep archives of the official version. Professor of American politics and cultural history. but they have at least rekindled a semblance of popular. at first emphatically denied and officially disproven by numerous experts. Needless to say. especially the ever more complex problems of proof and evidence. Such persecution further re-enacts a familiar ritual of masculinist logic attempting to "feminize" its opponents. such narratives typically have been publicly ridiculed as mere paranoid fantasies in order to diminish their credibility.. Project Muse.Gonzaga Debate Institute 2011 Mercury 152 Conspiracy Theory AT: Paranoia The mainstream¶s attempts at silencing conspiracy theories construct an ³Other´ between those in power and those who question power Goshorn.jhu. It is essential that we criticize the common goings on of public policy-empirics prove Goshorn. http://muse. ³Strategies of Deterrence and Frames Of Containment: On Critical Paranoia And Anti-Conspiracy Discourse. to the plausible. or other possible control techniques. JSkoog) 12. 2000 (Keith. or occasionally by voluntary or forced admissions by representatives of government or corporate power which have reversed the status of what was long held at bay in the realm of "irresponsible" conspiracy theory into confirmable elements of the continually revised historical record.. 2000 (Keith. is a far more valuable enterprise for academic researchers to pursue than the continual flogging of the easy target of popular conspiratorial delusions and paranoid suspicions. Yet when the lower classes have expressed suspicions of ruling class conspiracies to manipulate and dominate them. Harold Lasswell. to the positively confirmable. there has been every reason to retain a hermeneutics of political suspicion and a healthy paranoia within reason regarding all official versions. http://muse. ..html. programs. no matter how implausible it may at first appear. and to remain open-minded toward nearly any alternative thesis of political cover-up. bribery.html.edu/journals/theory_and_event/v004/4.development of a whole new technique of control. to the possible. One of the most influential American academic theorists of propaganda. Professor of American politics and cultural history. Professor of American politics and cultural history.3r_goshorn.

as amorphous and permeable. Zizek suggests that we impute to the other an "excessive enjoyment. Abduction tells us there is nothing we can do. Whereas colonization implies an ongoing process with systemic limitations. Since what happens happens now. by the time we have assessed now it is then. He writes: "What we conceal by imputing to the Other the theft of enjoyment is the traumatic fact that we never possessed what was allegedly stolen from us: the lack ('castration') is original. Violence. replicating with its own momentum. Colonial notions connote history. the pervasive sense of the millennial US is that nothing is "ours. BLG) Despite or perhaps because of the excesses of privatization. Professor of Political Theory at Hobart and William Smith Colleges µ97 (Jodi. Technology promised to save us time. spreading. We might have thought that our genes are all we have. just like our security and certainty. we take control. abduction involves the sense that things are happening behind our backs. and enjoy cyber-citizenship on the World Wide Web. things have been done to us that we don't remember and probably couldn't bear if we did. Better to forget the neighbors. Citizens. developing. isolated. Unlike metaphors of colonization that presuppose borders to be penetrated and resources to be exploited. and the sense of security and certainty upon which our agency was predicated. their theft by aliens marks our contradictory and ambiguous relationship to our own bio-chemistry. and Abduction´ Project MUSE. 2011."66 In abduction. and neglect disrupt familiar images of home. June 21. both explicit in their stress on the need to build and repair homes. poverty. Zizek's formulation reminds us that the abduction narrative functions to conceal the fact that our agency was an illusion." nothing is safe. abduction operates with an understanding of the world. many of us today are missing time. or so we are told). John Hopkins University Press ³The Familiarity of Strangeness: Aliens. BLG) Slavoj Zizek's discussion of the "theft of enjoyment" can help us understand not just the thematization of passivity in the alien abduction narrative but also the way the program as a whole disrupts the fantasy of global citizenship. Peaceful coexistence demands mental changes. Because of its expertise. secure. it abducts our children. To fight colonization. all the while aware that they could be false. moreover. John Hopkins University Press ³The Familiarity of Strangeness: Aliens. we simply try to recover our memories. What happens to me alone.65 In his analysis of nationalism. or resistance and independence. go inside. accommodation. but since we can't really be said to own or possess them (they constitute us. brings with it the possibility of anticolonial struggle. the alien takes away our agency. that in our very recovery we participate in an alien plan. . Because of its genetic investigations. abuse. June 21. Citizens. Assimilation has been discredited as an ideal and multiculturalism hasn't become much more than a marketing strategy. our ability to determine. Dean . vulnerable is of global significance. Professor of Political Theory at Hobart and William Smith Colleges µ97 (Jodi. our future. of reality. but not enough to make any decisions because we are uncertain about the contexts and networks into which we might integrate this information. Some respond with vigorous interest in "Home Improvement" or Martha Stewart's complicated domestic projects. The technology has been controlling us.Gonzaga Debate Institute 2011 Mercury 153 Conspiracy Theory Abduction Narratives Alien abduction narratives are representative of the disruption in the global system Dean . to give us access to information. This theft of agency is manifest not just in the power of the alien to paralyze us and abduct us at will but also in its technological superiority and pernicious breeding project." always suspecting the other of attempting to steal ours. We don't fight abduction. and Abduction´ Project MUSE. We have too much data. 2011. tolerance. protected. Our neighbors are aliens. a momentum no one of us can comprehend. Abduction warps space and time. Colonization. Alien abduction narrates the predominant experience of the familiarity of strangeness in the techno-global information age. or at least influence. Like Hopkins' abductees. Alien Abductions narrate the experience of strangeness. it takes away our pride in technological achievement.

Gonzaga Debate Institute 2011 Mercury 154 Conspiracy Theory ***Conspiracy Theory Bad*** .

Well in that case. "The Republicans rigged the 2002 elections". & "Bush knew (about 9/11)" have been tossed around by people many see as more credible than the average fruit loop writing for these conspiracy websites. For example. . things are taken out of context. perceptions differ. this is just how life works. 3 (John. Before you buy into a conspiracy theory. Are you being too cynical about the government?: There's only one thing worse than believing that your government always tells the truth and that's believing that they always lie. the mainstream media is not always completely reliable. their readers still buy into what they have to say. what happened to the plane that was hijacked? How could it be that various people WATCHED the plane flying towards the Pentagon? Is it possible that the hundreds of firefighters and military personnel who must have known the truth were somehow silenced? Why would anyone go through such an elaborate charade? If you can't convincingly answer the most basic questions about a conspiracy. not a plane. Yet. and then separate the kids and ask what happened. Even things as sensitive as battle plans for upcoming invasions get into the papers. even though these sources burn them again and again. Do you have ready answers for the obvious questions?: Let's look at a conspiracy that was floating around after 9/11 -. When these things inevitably happen. conspiracy theorists tend to seize a handful of inconsistencies and try to prove that there's a cover-up or conspiracy happening. professional blogger who runs Right Wing News. In fact. over the last year and a half we've constantly heard people asserting that beliefs held by a large majority of Republicans are really unique to a handful of Conservative Jews who somehow manipulated Bush into going to war to help Israel. That's why you should certainly be skeptical of any sort of vast conspiracy that requires people keeping quiet about it indefinitely.that the Pentagon was hit by a truck bomb. Because of that.php) Now if these ridiculous beliefs were relegated to the fringes of society I probably wouldn't bother with writing an editorial to shoot down the thinking behind these theories. "falls into place".com/john/conspire. press biases creep in. But. they're infinitely more trustworthy than people who post anonymously on the net. May 30. there have been conspiracy theories that panned out. http://www. Are you acting as if commonly held beliefs are unique?: This is one question that a lot of the more "mainstream" conspiracy theorists should ask themselves more often.rightwingnews. By that I mean people's memories are faulty. very. but very.Gonzaga Debate Institute 2011 Mercury 155 Conspiracy Theory Reject Conspiracy Theories Conspiracy theories should be discounted Hawkins. few of them. Are you relying too much on a handful of contrary facts?: Rarely do you ever see a story where every fact. Who the conspiracy theories pick out of the bunch and try to assign sinister motives to in situations like that usually says more about the conspiracy theorist than the person or group they target. I'm often surprised to see that people who don't trust one thing that Fox News or the New York Times says will blindly lap up whatever some conspiracy website or moonbat radio talk show host like Art Bell has to say. It makes no sense. Things like the "Jewish Conservatives manipulating the President". then you're apt to be proven wrong over and over again. However. How reliable is your source?: As the ongoing saga with the New York Times has illustrated. & typos and factual errors come into play as well. conspiracy theories merit a lot of skepticism. "How can you just dismiss this conspiracy theory out of hand? There have been conspiracies that have turned to be true before so this one could be true as well!" Yes. Shouldn't you be a little more skeptical about those conspiracy theories?: I've heard some variation of the following from conspiracy theorists. come back a few minutes after you hear something break. this sort of bizarre paranoia has crept into "mainstream thinking". Keep in mind that we live in a world where the President can't even get a BJ from an intern without it becoming public knowledge. ask yourself these questions and generally -. To begin with« How many people know about this conspiracy?: It's very difficult to keep any sort of newsworthy conspiracy that hundreds or thousands of people are supposedly involved in out of the mainstream press. That's why I thought it would be worth tossing out a few questions that anyone who starts to buy into these sorts of theories should consider. ³The Questions Conspiracy Theorists Need To Ask Themselves´. However. then it's tough for the theory you're supporting to hold any water. If you're willing to buy into any sort of claptrap because you won't put anything past your government. if you simply blew off every conspiracy theory that came down the pike you'd rarely ever be wrong. leave a couple of kids alone in a room full of breakables with a football. in almost every case -.you'll find that it doesn't hold water.actually. politicians spin issues. If you don't believe me.

or set of plots. Further. so it will use its control over knowledge production and dissemination to mislead those who seek to expose it. media. they ultimately defeat any attempt at testing. SL) Conspiracy theories resist traditional canons of proof because they reduce highly complex phenomena to simple causes. Conspiracists' reasoning runs in the following way. In the end. The result is a closed system of ideas about a plot that is believed not only to be responsible for creating a wide range of evils but also to be so clever at covering its tracks that it can manufacture the evidence ad. professor emeritus of political science at the Maxwell School of Citizenship and Public Affairs and FBI consultant. the conspiracy desires at all costs to conceal its activities. ´ Conspiracy theories²particularly the systemic theories and the superconspiracy theories discussed above² are nothing if not parsimonious. however. where it is referred to as ³parsimony. be.Gonzaga Debate Institute 2011 Mercury 156 Conspiracy Theory Conspiracy Theories Non-falsifiable Conspiracy theories question knowledge production and reduce highly complex phenomena to non-fallsifiable explanations Barkun. pg. 7. Precisely because the claims are so sweeping. A Culture of Conspiracy: Apocalyptic Visions in Contemporary America.duced by skeptics. 03 (Michael. Hence information that appears to put a conspiracy theory in doubt must have been planted by the conspirators themselves in order to mislead. This is ordinarily a characteristic much admired in scientific theories. it controls virtually all of the channels through which information is disseminated²universities.cause every attempt at falsification is dismissed as a ruse. and so forth. the theory becomes nonfalsifiable. for they attribute all of the world's evil to the activities of a single plot. Because the conspiracy is so powerful. .

its literal application implies a culture war far more extreme than anything seen previously. Indeed. for the challengers do not believe their opponents are merely misguided. 189. . Conspiracy theory discourse makes political discourse impossible Barkun. ³Trust no one. rooted in divergent ideas about reality and knowing. That is. have stimulated the growth of an alternative communications system by which stigmatized ideas can be spread. But the fact that the beliefs described in the preceding chapters are bizarre ought not to imply that they are necessarily innocuous or unworthy of careful scrutiny. new orthodoxies can emerge out of just such ideological undergrowth. This is. First. ´ may appear innocuous in an escapist drama. others in the truthseeking cadre). the supporters of the status quo are thought to be at best the conspirators' dupes and at worst their accomplices. It does not take the form of a comprehensive and logically developed presentation of an alternative view of reality. A Culture of Conspiracy: Apocalyptic Visions in Contemporary America. Bizarre beliefs have broken into the open before. a new and disconcerting array of possibilities opens up. The likely outcome of such a polarization is not pleasant to contemplate. sometimes with devastating effects. pg. Second. it has significant limits. A Culture of Conspiracy: Apocalyptic Visions in Contemporary America. If no one can be trusted (except. SL) As New World Order ideas and attendant elements of the improvisational milieu break out of their traditional confinement. professor emeritus of political science at the Maxwell School of Citizenship and Public Affairs and FBI consultant. Although this access has promoted both recruitment and enhanced legitimacy. a worst-case scenario. it is fragmentary and episodic rather than systematic. pg.Gonzaga Debate Institute 2011 Mercury 157 Conspiracy Theory AT: Conspiracy analysis is productive politics Any understanding created is episodic not systematic Barkun. Hence the alternative reality sees itself as a fighting faith that must obliterate its adversaries. even though the factfiction reversals discussed earlier lead believers to regard it as truthful. such as films and television programs. presumably. 03 (Michael. While The X-Files motto. One hopes that will be the case here. 03 (Michael. to be sure.. 182. professor emeritus of political science at the Maxwell School of Citizenship and Public Affairs and FBI consultant. the stigmatized material usually takes the form of an individual motif incorporated into the story. SL) These fringe beliefs. This alternative system is necessary even though mainstreaming has opened popular culture to some traditionally stigmatized beliefs. it almost always occurs within the context of fictional representations of the world. as in the reference to the power of FEMA in the film The XFiles. Rather. and most worst-case scenarios melt away with time. and the resulting pariah status of the believers. It does not purport to offer an accurate picture of reality. because those who espouse such ideas represent dissent of a particularly radical sort. a society becomes divided between believers in received ideas about what counts as knowledge and a no-longer-hidden minority of challengers.

then conspiratorial theorists assert that the leaders failed on purpose to fool ordinary people. it makes more sense to assume that leaders act for their usual reasons. Roosevelt to John F. Since these claims have proved wrong dozens of times by now. JSkoog) There are several problems with a conspiratorial view that don't fit with what we know about power structures. | . infiltrated by reporters or government officials. it assumes that a small handful of wealthy and highly educated people somehow develop an extreme psychological desire for power that leads them to do things that don't fit with the roles they seem to have. Kennedy to Martin Luther King. Jr. highly trained professionals in medicine. and that they are ignored or replaced if they step outside the consensus (which is signaled by saying they have become overly abstract. the policy planning network. no conspiracy theory is credible on any issue. such as the failure of the CIA at the Bay of Pigs during the Kennedy Administration. These kinds of claims go back many decades now. Fourth. First. If there is class domination. When these limits are exposed through stupid mistakes. they have been the acts of individuals with no connections to any power groups. the conspiratorial view assumes that illegal plans to change the government or assassinate people can be kept secret for long periods of time. and it is always said that it is really going to happen this time. whereas sociologists who study power say that there is a leadership group of many thousands for a set of wealth-owning families that numbers several million. that rich capitalists are no longer out to make a profit.. it is through the same mundane processes that social scientists have shown to be operating for other levels of the socioeconomic system. Second. so they go along with the system even though they do not have much political power. Because all their underlying assumptions are discredited by historical events and media exposures.edu/whorulesamerica/theory/conspiracy. 5 (G. and written about in the press. Or that elected officials are trying to get the constitution suspended so they can assume dictatorial powers. and the government. William. the conspiratorial view often assumes that clever experts ("pointy-headed intellectuals") with bizarre and grandiose ideas have manipulated the thinking of their hapless bosses. the sociological view shows that the groups or classes below the highest levels buy into the system in various ways and support it. Furthermore.Gonzaga Debate Institute 2011 Mercury 158 Conspiracy Theory AT: Conspiracy analysis is productive politics Conspiratorial views of politics fail to interrogate the system Domhoff.are soon exposed for everyone to see. Professor of Sociology at UC-Santa Cruz. For example. but all evidence shows that secret groups or plans in the United States are uncovered by civil liberties groups. or even. such as profitseeking motives and institutionalized roles as elected officials. For example. but nothing in the ballpark of creating a one-world government or suspending the constitution. and that can lead them to do many unsavory things. frankly.html. often guided by one strong leader. the rationales for Bush's invasion of Iraq in 2003 -. but to create a one-world government. the conspiratorial view assumes that the behind-the-scenes leaders are extremely clever and knowledgeable. Of course they want to make as much money as they can. http://sociology. and be elected by huge margins every time.³There are no Conspiracies. Kennedy to Reagan. and academia have considerable control over their own lives.ucsc.Vietnam. the conspiratorial view places power in the hands of only a few dozen or so people. Third. "pinko"). the Contras. from McKinley to Franklin D. make a good living. idealistic. Finally. but it never does. If there is corporate domination. to Robert F. whereas social science and historical research shows that leaders often make shortsighted or mistaken decisions due to the limits placed on their thinking by their social backgrounds and institutional roles. As for assassinations and assassination attempts in the United States. and usually enjoy their work. But studies of policy-making suggest that experts work within the context of the values and goals set out by the leaders. law. it is through leaders in visible positions within the corporate community.´ March. Even secrets about wars and CIA operations -.

For a conspiracy theorist. JSkoog) But Clinton's statement also demonstrates the profound trouble that mainstream politicians and established political institutions have when confronted by the politics. Clinton s statement does speak for the conspiracy theorist. provide a useful way of thinking through conspiracy theory's role as an interpretive framework. Conspiracy theory demands continual interpretation. and asserting either too simplistic or too complicated explanations to account for historical or present-day events. Conspiracy theory works as a form of hyperactive semiosis in which history and politics serve as reservoirs of signs that demand (over)interpretation. the statement ignores the fact that conspiracy theory respects no interpretive limits when it investigates the secret treachery of true political power. however. however. the interpretive practices of conspiracy theory are in many instances delusional but are structured in a manner that is internally consistent and logical. far more than their conventional meaning. endless game in which every declaration of his innocence and every piece of evidence he put forward to exonerate himself served as further proof of his guilt. Both concepts allows us to see conspiracy* theory as an active. As a kind of residual or regressive practice within a presumably "postmodern" era that marks the end of master narratives. Ebrary. Therefore. pre-modern and ancient) history and politics. the statement "I just really don't believe there is anything more to know" makes no sense within the hermeneutics of conspiracy. Again. composed of various sorts ol details that were already known. In particular. The paradoxes of paranoia. he simultaneously circulates a profound error (there is always something more to know) and presents another statement. There really is nothing more to know. As I explained in part I. linked to previous ones that he and his associates have made. for example. while even the same theory could move in alternate directions as it developed. They engage in a logic that is at once tautological and Procrustean by associating disparate individual events and figures. in some theories. but the explanation of that evidence is always already formed. The linkage between an event like Foster's suicide to larger claims of conspiracy was contingent: competing theories utilized the same detail in different ways. ***continued*** . This chapter concerns these intensely active interpretive practices of conspiracy theory. even new developments as the Clinton conspiracy spread more widely²but there would be nothing more to know. or were coming to light. They take conspiracy theory's marginality and hyperactivity as starting points to examine its explanatory power and attraction in contemporary popular politics. when a suspect political leader says that there is nothing more to know.-* As with clinical paranoia.' This chapter proposes two alternative ways of conceiving of this interpretive practice. There may be more to learn²new details. but the conspiracy tightly limits its range of conclusions. drawing firm conclusions based on scant or nonexistent evidence. One can and must continually collect and interpret evidence. for the interpreter. By assuming there are limits to interpretation.Professor of Law. as desire and as production.Gonzaga Debate Institute 2011 Mercury 159 Conspiracy Theory AT: Conspiracy analysis is productive politics Conspiracy theory replaces political engagement with endless. Hofstadter's powerful notion of the "paranoid style" of conspiracy theory is superficially attractive as a framework for analysis. University of Florida . Conspiracy Theories: Secrecy and Power in American Culture. as each detail or sign links with another in an endless chain of details within a singular narrative frame. 93-96. His most important claim in this respect was that conspiracy theorists view current and historical events as a series of plots to undermine a rightful order by an enemy on whom they project their own anxieties and desires. A popular one²and the basis for the militia movements dread of Clinton's presidency² declared that Clinton was an agent of a "New World Order" seeking to impose a totalitarian regime. interpretive practices. a final interpretation. the evidence of which is subjected to an investigative machine that depends on the perpetual motion of signification. thus serving as an excessively integrative interpretive practice that moves beyond the norms of inference. or were still to be unearthed: the larger explanation behind these individual scandals. the very attempt to shut interpretation down is itself a suspicious act that requires interpretation. Further. and narrative constructions of conspiracy theory.' Although understanding conspiracy theory as a paranoid form of interpretation provides some insight. These interpretive practices are not per se pathological. This theory merely required further proof of Clinton's inherent insidiousness. and that signify. circular analysis Fenster.4 It manifests a popular desire to reconstruct the master narrative as a mode of expression. numerous scandals and nefarious plots awaited disclosure. Hofstadter s work can itself best be used analogically. it displaces the cultural and specifically semiotic challenge posed by conspiracy theory's interpretive practices onto a relatively simplistic notion of pathology. but can never fully arrive at. 09 (Mark. For a conspiracy theorist focused on the Clinton presidency during the 1990s. Clinton's declaration of a limit to interpretation thus signifies excessively. endless process that continually seeks. conspiracy theorists posit highly and imaginatively integrative analyses of individual pieces of evidence into an all-encompassing framework that can describe the breadth of modern (and. Hofstadter did not assert that conspiracy theorists were necessarily paranoid but that their way of interpreting the world was like that of the paranoid. There is always something more to know about an alleged conspiracy. Conspiracy theory trapped Clinton in a circular. At still another level. Interpretation may be endless. that demonstrates the devious and conspiratorial nature of his power (we know that he knows more). and an approach that labels them as such limits itself both politically and analytically because it cannot explain and respond to the specifically hermeneutical aspects of conspiracy theory. Pg.

Pg. Ebrary. Although some who search for evidence of a conspiracy are impoverished. conspiracy theory represents an impossible. endless. 100. Pg. 1 begin with some details about two sets of conspiratorial allegations that arose during Clinton's two terms as president in order to use these allegations as illustrative examples of how conspiracy theory's interpretive practices work. the way in which a single detail's significance was understood. their search seems only tangential))' related to the fulfillment ol specific demands concerning government programs and laws. Conspiracy Theories: Secrecy and Power in American Culture. Accordingly. As a result.Gonzaga Debate Institute 2011 Mercury 160 Conspiracy Theory AT: Conspiracy analysis is productive politics ***Continued*** They thus enable a cultural analysis of. but it is organized² indeed."' Rather. Interpretation may be endless. replace political engagement. conspiracy theory's practice of producing meaningful and intense effects and an incessant chain of interpretation. As an interpretive practice. and although some conspiracy theorists actively make political demands individually and collectively. all-explanatory thing. is this because of some ideological misrecognition by the conspiracy theorist. and. and it will produce the likely future. has become that transcendent thing which drives the search itself. conspiracy theory's ideological. what began as that which is presumptively searched for. circular search (the connections) and the thing that never arrives (the final order that is never revealed) represent a desire to find. which entails a truly transparent state of relations with others as well as with the greater Other of power. the traces of conspiracy. 107-108.´ 2009. 9 (Mark. This desire constitutes neither a basic human need nor a clear political demand. In their endless striving for more information. JSkoog) "Conspiracy" transcends everything in this interpretive process.Professor of Law.'5 If the subject does not know what it wants. understand. second. University of Florida. and represent the totality of social relations. or is it the result of some top-down manipulation by a state apparatus? If conspiracy theory is a symptom of an ideological desire. University of Florida . order. Ebrary. This chapter and the next together assert that conspiracy theory displaces the citizen's desire for political significance onto a signifying regime in which interpretation and a narrative of conspiracy. ³Conspiracy Theories: Secrecy and Power in American Culture. In order to ground what will at times become a rather abstract description and analysis of conspiracy theory's interpretive practices. ll produced the details under interpretation. Denying the ambiguities of the past. and solution represented by conspiracy²is a complex one. and the complexities and contingencies of the present. Search for ³truth´ becomes endless and repetitive Fenster. of finding the correct answer to the riddle of power. conspiracy theory's relationship to its seeming object of desire²the structure. then how is this conception of "desire" any different from Hostadter's notion of paranoia? ." as they would understand it. conspiracy theory wants to enjoy the pleasure of control.Professor of Law. It even produced the interpretive act itself²the conspiracy theorist's will to interpret follows the discovery of the conspiracy and organizes the conspiracy theorists narrative of history. The practice of interpreting conspiracy is repetitive. almost Utopian drive to seize and fetishize individual signs in order to place them within vast interpretive structures that unsuccessfully attempt to stop the signs' unlimited meaning production. has become a transcendent organizing principle.w What began as a textual effect. JSkoog) Conspiracy theories prodigiously commit to learn and know the presumed secrets of power and domination. Represents an endless desire to master the political order Fenster. of mastering its desire of political order. Conspiracy theory clearly wants something: it is a never-ending practice that combs the past and the present for evidence of some transcendent. first. 9 (Mark. it constitutes a desire. and faces continual frustration. their search does not promise the fulfillment of their basic needs. conspiracy theorists clearly want something² specifically the "truth. Interpretive Desire's Ideology The endless. and an obsessive desire for information. this chapter utilizes some of the conspiracies concerning Bill Clinton as examples. circular. and endless desire for a totalizing method of mapping and understanding a social and political order where power seems always elsewhere. It has produced the past and present. controlled²by the very particular logic of conspiracy.

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161 Conspiracy Theory

AT: Conspiracy analysis is productive politics
Conspiracy theory fails when applied to science and logic. Reville, public awareness of science officer at UCC, µ9 (William, assistant prof. of biochem at UCC, public awareness of science officer, Dec. 1, 2009, Lexis Nexis, ³When is a theory not a theory?´, p. 19, 6.27.11 JSkoog)
THE TERM conspiracy theory commonly means a fringe theory that explains an event as the secret machinations of powerful Machiavellian conspirators. The modern popularity of such theories dates from the conspiracy theory that arose in the 1960s around the assassination of JFK. Enhanced Coverage LinkingJFK. -Search using: Biographies Plus News News, Most Recent 60 Days Mainstream opinion looks on conspiracy theories with a jaundiced eye and often ridicules them. Of course genuine conspiracies do exist, for example Abraham Lincoln died as a result of a conspiracy. And George Bernard Shaw said, All professions are conspiracies against the laity . The word theory in conspiracy theory is used in a different sense to its use in science. A scientific theory is the agreed best explanation of a phenomenon, arrived at after long years of examining evidence and testing hypotheses by experiment. In everyday usage theory refers to a hypothesis an informed (and sometimes not-informed) guess as to the explanation of a phenomenon. Scientific theories are falsifiable and modifiable in the light of new evidence. Conspiracy theories, eg a secret branch of government is covering-up evidence of alien visits, are often unfalsifiable. Proponents of conspiracy theories are also very resistant to contrary evidence. Conspiracy theories are common and have grown up around well-known incidents such as: JFK Enhanced Coverage LinkingJFK -Search using: Biographies Plus News News, Most Recent 60 Days s assassination; the death of Princess Diana; the 9/11 terrorist attack; the ApolloMoon landing; the Roswell UFO incident, and so on. The theme features regularly in films, books television programmes. The two most infamous conspiracy theories of the 20th century were devised by Hitler and Stalin. Psychology attempts to explain conspiracy theories in various ways such as attempts to provide reassurance that disturbing events are not random but are the product of human intelligence and are, therefore, potentially controllable. The projection of undesirable characteristics of the self onto the conspirators is also suggested as another impulse behind conspiracy theories. Some conspiracy theories are obviously ridiculous, for example, the claim by former television presenter David Icke that humanity is controlled by alien reptiles who assume our appearance by drinking human blood. Other such theories seize on perceived weak points in the official explanation of an event, such as why were the hijacked 9/11 aircraft not shot down? Most conspiracy theories, in my opinion, do not withstand critical analysis. Most fail the test of Occam s Razor, a logical principle devised by medieval philosopher William of Occam which states, One should not increase beyond what is necessary, the number of entities required to explain anything . This principle of parsimony has proved itself most useful in science. Many conspiracy theories are convoluted explanations of mainstream evidence. Finally, let me tell you my own little story of a conspiracy theory. A taxi-driver recently told me that immigrants are entitled to receive dole plus a weekly socialising allowance of EUR 70, and that immigrants are entitled to a grant of EUR 17,000 to buy a taxi. He said all taxi drivers knew this and Irish people are not entitled to these benefits. The Department of Family and Social Affairs press office assured me that the taxi-driver s claims are incorrect. In order to qualify for dole, everybody must first satisfy the Habitual Residence Condition, ie that their centre of interest is Ireland. Social welfare does not pay a socialising allowance and everybody, Irish and non-Irish, must be treated the same. The socialising allowance idea probably refers to asylum seekers. Asylum seekers are not entitled to the dole. They are housed and fed by the government while their applications for asylum are processed. In addition they are given a weekly allocation of about EUR 40 to buy small necessary items that cannot be foreseen in detail. Finally the notion of the EUR 17,000 taxi grant to immigrants is a distortion of the Back to Work Enterprise Allowance scheme. This scheme is open to all who are eligible for the dole. If you can convince officials of the Department that you have a viable business idea that will get you out of the ranks of the unemployed, you may be awarded a small grant to get the enterprise started. But, buying a taxi in the present recession, with taxis already in over-supply, would hardly qualify as a viable business idea . William Reville is UCC s associate professor of biochemistry and public awareness of science officer

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162 Conspiracy Theory

AT: Conspiracy analysis challenges power
Conspiracy theories actually prop up and legitimate the power of the current political system Sternheimer, Professor of Sociology University of Southern California, 7
(Karen, Ph.D in Sociology and Professor at USC, ³The Sociology of Conspiracy,´ September 26, 2007, http://nortonbooks.typepad.com/everydaysociology/2007/09/the-sociology-o.html, 6/26/11 JSkoog) Sociologists refer to conspiracy theories as a form of collective behavior, something that we engage in together that gains traction as it appeals to many people. Similar to urban legends, rumors, and panics, sociologists seek to understand how and why groups create meaning through claiming that conspiracies have taken place. The creation of the Internet has definitely helped grease the wheels of collective behavior. One of the most fascinating things about collective behavior is that it often starts from the grassroots level, from everyday people rather from those in positions of power. In fact, the very distance from the centers of power fuels conspiracy theories. Let¶s think about some other conspiracy theories: some people claim that the Holocaust never happened; perhaps the most famous conspiracy theory is based on the premise that President John F. Kennedy¶s assassination was the work of insiders. The public¶s willingness to entertain such theories differs tremendously. For most people, even questioning the reality that millions of civilians were murdered during World War II is incredibly offensive. But there¶s something about Kennedy¶s assassination that makes millions question the findings of the Warren Commission Report. Why does one conspiracy theory seem outlandish while another one seems plausible? The imbalance of power is a key ingredient. It is not hard to believe that a powerful regime or dictator could slaughter a group of people with little or no social power, as sadly has happened over and over again in human history. But the opposite is much harder to believe: an individual or group with little power harming someone with significantly more power and status doesn¶t make sense. It challenges what we think we know about the social order. So the Kennedy assassination--apparently the work of a lone gunman who by all reports was, to put it kindly, unsuccessful in his other ventures--seems hard to believe. That a charismatic, larger-than-life leader of the free world could be brought down by a ³nobody´ has fueled conspiracy theorists for over forty years. Although solid evidence refutes the idea of a conspiracy, I admit to entertaining this notion myself. I now see that I fell into the power imbalance trap too. In my defense, I also grew up during the 1970s, when network television routinely featured programs about the Bermuda Triangle, Bigfoot, the Loch Ness monster, and other supernatural ³secrets´. The Kennedy assassination was also a big topic during the decade that featured the Watergate cover-up and made many Americans question how much the government could be trusted. In the early 1970s, Skylab, a precursor to today¶s international space station, actually fell to earth (which is terrifying if you¶re a kid!) and faith in the government fell as well. Flash forward more than 25 years, and you can see why people still might have trouble believing the government. The president's approval ratings have declined in recent years as the war in Iraq has become increasingly unpopular. Conspiracy claims make sense during a time when mistrust and anger toward the government run high. And most of all, it is hard to accept that our powerful military could not protect us that September day. For some, it is easier to believe that our government is all-powerful (even if that power is abused) than it is to believe that the government is flawed. Our Cold War military build-up made us feel almost invincible, and September 11th challenged that assumption. In a strange way, conspiracy theories help prop up the belief in an all-powerful America. Perhaps clinging to this idea is less upsetting than facing what transpired that day.

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163 Conspiracy Theory

AT: Jodi Dean
Dean¶s argument overreaches and ignores history and fails as a foundation for productive criticism Luckhurst, Department of English and Humanities, University of London, 98
(Roger , Nov, ³BOOKS IN REVIEW´, Science Fiction Studies, #76, Volume 25, Part 3 http://www.depauw.edu/sfs/birs/bir76.htm) As a narrative of cultural responses to technological change, this is a plausible account. This is the historical framework explored in chapters two and three of the book, but Dean¶s interest does not really lie here. In fact, she launches the book by using the pervasive presence of abduction narratives to exemplify her case about a radical relativizing of any claims to rationality or truth in American society. This is where Dean succumbs to a rather alarming chain of logic. "UFO belief is widespread enough to conflict with the concept of a unitary public reason," she asserts (11), having claimed that abduction accounts are symptomatic of "the lack of widespread criteria for judgments about what is reasonable and what is not" (9). From uncertainties of judgment, the argument escalates rapidly to allege that we "can no longer presume a reality based on consensus" (15), and hence have reached a "collapse" of the political sphere and the rise of conspiracy culture. This ultimately means that scientists or cultural commentators cannot contest the claims of abductees because, as Dean concludes, "there is no overarching conception of reality" on which to adjudicate competing claims (170). And what is the cause of this wreck of reason? Technology, in a series of dispiriting, clichéd guises. "We are all connected in a world wide web, a borderless information economy" (168) where "one site, one link, is as plausible as any other" (132), so that UFOlogists can "reclaim their rationality on their own terms" (9). Abductees also appear on television, and, Dean claims, "their televisual presence...links them with the real, with that which happens" (103), because the measure of the "real"²like History itself²is now televisual. Apparently, an abductee on Jerry Springer is rendered equivalent to a news report, or else Dean presumes the audience too foolish to tell the difference. At least abductee accounts about the strange life of domestic technologies, of VCRs, microwaves and telephones, of secret messages embedded in popular sf films and TV series, are more inventive than this. It is not the technological determinism or the familiar postmodernist rhetoric of "crisis" and "collapse" that is worrying here; it is the poorly premised relativism of the argument. Leaving aside the constant leaps from epistemological uncertainty to claims of ontological collapse, is it really the case that abduction discourse, because it is relatively organized on the Net, and because it mimics the methodologies of science, marks a crisis of reason? Apparently so: "heretofore reasonable procedures take an alien form. As the criteria for legitimacy are themselves abducted, the mainstream, the serious, the conventional, and the real become suspect" (58). Carl Sagan is held as being "nostalgic, even naive" compared with Budd Hopkins, "because he, Sagan, works within a world view that he doesn¶t question" (170). Such absurd statements might benefit from historical perspective. In one footnote, Dean hopes "to investigate more thoroughly in the future" the world of nineteenth century Spiritualism (221). She should do so: the Spiritualists were highly organized at the local and national levels, had three newspapers in London in the 1870s and thousands of supporters. Spiritualists were linked to both radical politics and the heart of the political establishment; they ceaselessly appropriated both the language and methods of science and the newest technologies as "vehicles" for belief. A number of eminent men of science became Spiritualists, and offered scientific rationales for communication with the dead. There was no crisis of reason, no collapse of the Real (whatever that means); Spiritualism at its height remained a definitively marginal science. Jodi Dean sets off on the wrong foot in making abduction narratives evidence of the relativizing of any possibility of truth; it means she ends up losing any possibility of critique, which requires, after all, some kind of ground on which to argue a case.

Instead. some have argued that the clinical and the political may overlap. and cultures in which.Gonzaga Debate Institute 2011 Mercury 164 Conspiracy Theory Clinical Paranoia The clinical paranoia and political paranoia are not mutually exclusive Barkun. 16.come a culturally defined norm. pg. SL) Unlike Hofstadter. In this view. conspiracy beliefs become neither determinative of paranoia nor divorced from it. conspiracism straddles a blurred and shifting boundary between pathology and normalcy. 7 . conspiracy beliefs be. 03 (Michael. A Culture of Conspiracy: Apocalyptic Visions in Contemporary America. borderline paranoids whose ³delusion is likely to involve exaggeration and distortion of genuine events and rational beliefs rather than pure psychotic invention´. including such clinical paranoids as James Forrestal and Joseph Stalin. Robert Robins and Jerrold Post assert that the domain of political paranoia encompasses a range of exemplars. professor emeritus of political science at the Maxwell School of Citizenship and Public Affairs and FBI consultant. at least temporarily.

´ It was a problem to which he never returned. the interventionist state has steadily expanded both the rights and the resources of virtually every citizen ² including those who were stigmatized and persecuted as biologically defective under National Socialism. Our specific context is more important than their sweeping generalization. or fascist. 5) steps Agamben in an attempt to complete an analysis of Foucauldian bio-politics and to. Dickinson. however. http://ccjournal. this view of the politics of expertise and professionalization is certainly plausible. rings as most ominous is his failure to further examine the problem of biopolitical state racism that he first raises in his lecture series.html) Perhaps the one failure of Foucault¶s that. unresolved. in which all political and social orders are grey. ³tactically polyvalent. at least give direction for further inquiry and hope of a politics that escapes the problem of this racism.´ Power is a set of social relations. from the perspective of the first years of the millennium. they cannot be assigned to one place in a structure. Society Must Be Defended. As a result. UC Berkeley . Biopower is inevitable Wright. bio-power itself is something that Foucault accepts as here to stay. ³How can one both make a bio-power function and exercise the rights of war. Yet his analysis of bio-politics and bio-power leads inevitably to state-sanctioned racism. But they are two very different ways of organizing it. as Foucault argued. while not solve the problem of state racism.91 Biopower is not genocidal when it is deployed by a government which also respects rights. the further conjecture that this ³micropolitical´ dynamic creates authoritarian. Democracy: Some Reflections on Our Discourse About ³Modernity. 1±48) This notion is not at all at odds with the core of Foucauldian (and Peukertian) theory. UC Berkeley . Perhaps these processes have created an ever more restrictive ³iron cage´ of rationality in European societies. nor bad.´ Central European History. And discourse is. in which individuals and groups have varying degrees of autonomy and effective subjectivity.cgu. no. professionalization has run ever more rampant in Western societies. the production of scientistic and technocratic expert knowledge has proceeded at an ever more frenetic pace. And yet. . is still the problem. are essentially or effectively ³the same. from public health and welfare programs through social insurance to city planning and.´ Discursive elements (like the various elements of biopolitics) can be combined in different ways to form parts of quite different strategies (like totalitarianism or the democratic welfare state). The concept ³power´ should not be read as a universal stifling night of oppression. 37. At the end of the last lecture. and entrapment.Associate Professor History. and that. socialist. 1±48) At its simplest. I think. 37. be the government democratic. it appears that the greatest advocates of political democracy ²in Germany left liberals and Social Democrats ²have been also the greatest advocates of every kind of biopolitical social engineering.´ Central European History.edu/past_issues/nathan_wright. vol. Dickinson. no. yes. Perhaps given its focus on the preservation of the population of the nation it which it is practiced. Historically speaking. it seems clear that there is no necessary correlation between rationalization and authoritarian politics. What is more.Associate Professor History. without becoming racist? That was the problem. 4 (Edward Ross. 1. Fellow at the Centre for Global Political Economy 2008 (Nathan. in the space opened by Foucault¶s failure to solve the problem of state racism and to ³elaborate a unitary theory of power´ (Agamben 1998. Fascism. The varying possible constellations of power in modern societies create ³multiple modernities. ³Biopolitics. Foucault suggests that bio-power is here to stay as a fixture of modernity. the second half of the twentieth century appears to be the great age of democracy in precisely those societies where these processes have been most in evidence. ³Biopolitics. but rather circulate. these systems are not ³opposites. even eugenics. or homicidal potentials at the level of the state does not seem very tenable. However. 1. But if so. totalitarian. manipulation.Gonzaga Debate Institute 2011 Mercury 165 Conspiracy Theory AT: Biopower Impacts Biopower is neither inherently good. Democratic welfare states are regimes of power/knowledge no less than early twentieth-century totalitarian states.´ in the sense that they are two alternative ways of organizing the same thing. Democracy: Some Reflections on Our Discourse About ³Modernity. Fascism. 4 (Edward Ross. Historically. ³Camp as Paradigm: Bio-Politics and State Racism in Foucault and Agamben´. the rights of murder and the function of death.102 The state they built has intervened in social relations to an (until recently) ever-growing degree. vol. the opposite seems in fact to be at least equally true. he ends the lecture series with the question.´ modern societies with quite radically differing potentials.