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Genick Bar–Meir, Ph. D. 7449 North Washtenaw Ave Chicago, IL 60645 email:genick at potto.org

Copyright © 2011, 2010, 2009, 2008, 2007, and 2006 by Genick Bar-Meir See the ﬁle copying.fdl or copyright.tex for copying conditions. Version (0.3.1.1 December 21, 2011)

‘We are like dwarfs sitting on the shoulders of giants”

from The Metalogicon by John in 1159

CONTENTS

Nomenclature GNU Free Documentation License . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. APPLICABILITY AND DEFINITIONS . . . . . . . . . 2. VERBATIM COPYING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3. COPYING IN QUANTITY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4. MODIFICATIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5. COMBINING DOCUMENTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6. COLLECTIONS OF DOCUMENTS . . . . . . . . . . . 7. AGGREGATION WITH INDEPENDENT WORKS . . . 8. TRANSLATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9. TERMINATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10. FUTURE REVISIONS OF THIS LICENSE . . . . . . . ADDENDUM: How to use this License for your documents How to contribute to this book . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Credits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Steven from artofproblemsolving.com . . . . . . . . . . . Dan H. Olson . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Richard Hackbarth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . John Herbolenes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Eliezer Bar-Meir . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Henry Schoumertate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Your name here . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Typo corrections and other ”minor” contributions . . . . . Version 0.3.0.5 March 1, 2011 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . pages 400 size 3.5M . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Version 0.1.8 August 6, 2008 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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iv pages 189 size 2.6M . Version 0.1 April 22, 2008 . pages 151 size 1.3M . Properties . . . . . . Open Channel Flow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

CONTENTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xlv . xlvi . xlvi . liii . liii . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 1 3 5 6 9 9 10 11 12 22 22 24 33 37 47 47 55 55 57 57 58 58 58 59 61 65 66 67 67 68 71 71 71 73 73

1 Introduction to Fluid Mechanics 1.1 What is Fluid Mechanics? . . . . . 1.2 Brief History . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.3 Kinds of Fluids . . . . . . . . . . . 1.4 Shear Stress . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.5 Viscosity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.5.1 General . . . . . . . . . . 1.5.2 Non–Newtonian Fluids . . 1.5.3 Kinematic Viscosity . . . . 1.5.4 Estimation of The Viscosity 1.6 Fluid Properties . . . . . . . . . . 1.6.1 Fluid Density . . . . . . . 1.6.2 Bulk Modulus . . . . . . . 1.7 Surface Tension . . . . . . . . . . 1.7.1 Wetting of Surfaces . . . .

2 Review of Thermodynamics 2.1 Basic Deﬁnitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Review of Mechanics 3.1 Kinematics of of Point Body . . . . . 3.2 Center of Mass . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.2.1 Actual Center of Mass . . . . 3.2.2 Aproximate Center of Area . . 3.3 Moment of Inertia . . . . . . . . . . . 3.3.1 Moment of Inertia for Mass . . 3.3.2 Moment of Inertia for Area . . 3.3.3 Examples of Moment of Inertia 3.3.4 Product of Inertia . . . . . . . 3.3.5 Principal Axes of Inertia . . . . 3.4 Newton’s Laws of Motion . . . . . . . 3.5 Angular Momentum and Torque . . . 3.5.1 Tables of geometries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

4 Fluids Statics 4.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.2 The Hydrostatic Equation . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.3 Pressure and Density in a Gravitational Field . . 4.3.1 Constant Density in Gravitational Field .

CONTENTS 4.3.2 Pressure Measurement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.3.3 Varying Density in a Gravity Field . . . . . . . . . . 4.3.4 The Pressure Eﬀects Due To Temperature Variations 4.3.5 Gravity Variations Eﬀects on Pressure and Density . 4.3.6 Liquid Phase . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Fluid in a Accelerated System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.4.1 Fluid in a Linearly Accelerated System . . . . . . . . 4.4.2 Angular Acceleration Systems: Constant Density . . 4.4.3 Fluid Statics in Geological System . . . . . . . . . . Fluid Forces on Surfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.5.1 Fluid Forces on Straight Surfaces . . . . . . . . . . . 4.5.2 Forces on Curved Surfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Buoyancy and Stability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.6.1 Stability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.6.2 Surface Tension . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Rayleigh–Taylor Instability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Qualetive questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

v 77 81 85 89 91 92 92 94 96 99 99 108 115 124 136 137 142

4.4

4.5

4.6

4.7 4.8

I

Integral Analysis

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147 147 148 149 151 151 158 160 166 169 175 175 175 176 177 177 178 182 185 186 193 194 197

5 Mass Conservation 5.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.2 Control Volume . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.3 Continuity Equation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.3.1 Non Deformable Control Volume . . . . . 5.3.2 Constant Density Fluids . . . . . . . . . . 5.4 Reynolds Transport Theorem . . . . . . . . . . . 5.5 Examples For Mass Conservation . . . . . . . . . 5.6 The Details Picture – Velocity Area Relationship 5.7 More Examples for Mass Conservation . . . . . .

6 Momentum Conservation 6.1 Momentum Governing Equation . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.1.1 Introduction to Continuous . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.1.2 External Forces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.1.3 Momentum Governing Equation . . . . . . . . . 6.1.4 Momentum Equation in Acceleration System . . 6.1.5 Momentum For Steady State and Uniform Flow . 6.2 Momentum Equation Application . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.2.1 Momentum for Unsteady State and Uniform Flow 6.2.2 Momentum Application to Unsteady State . . . . 6.3 Conservation Moment Of Momentum . . . . . . . . . . 6.4 More Examples on Momentum Conservation . . . . . . . 6.4.1 Qualitative Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

vi 7 Energy Conservation 7.1 The First Law of Thermodynamics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.2 Limitation of Integral Approach . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.3 Approximation of Energy Equation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.3.1 Energy Equation in Steady State . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.3.2 Energy Equation in Frictionless Flow and Steady State 7.4 Energy Equation in Accelerated System . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.4.1 Energy in Linear Acceleration Coordinate . . . . . . . 7.4.2 Linear Accelerated System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.4.3 Energy Equation in Rotating Coordinate System . . . . 7.4.4 Simpliﬁed Energy Equation in Accelerated Coordinate . 7.4.5 Energy Losses in Incompressible Flow . . . . . . . . . 7.5 Examples of Integral Energy Conservation . . . . . . . . . . .

CONTENTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 201 201 214 215 215 216 217 217 218 219 220 221 222

II

Diﬀerential Analysis

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231 231 232 236 237 242 242 243 245 249 260 260 264 273 279 279 280 281 283 284 286 287 288 291 300 304 314

8 Diﬀerential Analysis 8.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.2 Mass Conservation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.2.1 Mass Conservation Examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.2.2 Simpliﬁed Continuity Equation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.3 Conservation of General Quantity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.3.1 Generalization of Mathematical Approach for Derivations 8.3.2 Examples of Several Quantities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.4 Momentum Conservation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.5 Derivations of the Momentum Equation . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.6 Boundary Conditions and Driving Forces . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.6.1 Boundary Conditions Categories . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.7 Examples for Diﬀerential Equation (Navier-Stokes) . . . . . . . 8.7.1 Interfacial Instability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

9 Dimensional Analysis 9.1 Introductory Remarks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.1.1 Brief History . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.1.2 Theory Behind Dimensional Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.1.3 Dimensional Parameters Application for Experimental Study 9.1.4 The Pendulum Class Problem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.2 Buckingham–π–Theorem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.2.1 Construction of the Dimensionless Parameters . . . . . . . . 9.2.2 Basic Units Blocks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.2.3 Implementation of Construction of Dimensionless Parameters 9.2.4 Similarity and Similitude . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.3 Nusselt’s Technique . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.4 Summary of Dimensionless Numbers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

CONTENTS 9.4.1 The Signiﬁcance of these Dimensionless Numbers . . . . . . . 9.4.2 Relationship Between Dimensionless Numbers . . . . . . . . . 9.4.3 Examples for Dimensional Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Appendix summary of Dimensionless Form of Navier–Stokes Equations . . . . .

vii 318 321 322 325 325 331 331 331 332 333 334 335 339 340 343 344 346 347 348 350 351 353 354 361 363 363 364 366 368 374 374 375 377 380 382 385 387 389 389 390 391

9.5 9.6

10 Multi–Phase Flow 10.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10.2 History . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10.3 What to Expect From This Chapter . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10.4 Kind of Multi-Phase Flow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10.5 Classiﬁcation of Liquid-Liquid Flow Regimes . . . . . . . . . 10.5.1 Co–Current Flow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10.6 Multi–Phase Flow Variables Deﬁnitions . . . . . . . . . . . . 10.6.1 Multi–Phase Averaged Variables Deﬁnitions . . . . . 10.7 Homogeneous Models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10.7.1 Pressure Loss Components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10.7.2 Lockhart Martinelli Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10.8 Solid–Liquid Flow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10.8.1 Solid Particles with Heavier Density ρS > ρL . . . . 10.8.2 Solid With Lighter Density ρS < ρ and With Gravity 10.9 Counter–Current Flow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10.9.1 Horizontal Counter–Current Flow . . . . . . . . . . . 10.9.2 Flooding and Reversal Flow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10.10Multi–Phase Conclusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A Mathematics For Fluid Mechanics A.1 Vectors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A.1.1 Vector Algebra . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A.1.2 Diﬀerential Operators of Vectors . . . . . . . . A.1.3 Diﬀerentiation of the Vector Operations . . . . A.2 Ordinary Diﬀerential Equations (ODE) . . . . . . . . . A.2.1 First Order Diﬀerential Equations . . . . . . . . A.2.2 Variables Separation or Segregation . . . . . . A.2.3 Non–Linear Equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A.2.4 Second Order Diﬀerential Equations . . . . . . A.2.5 Non–Linear Second Order Equations . . . . . . A.2.6 Third Order Diﬀerential Equation . . . . . . . A.2.7 Forth and Higher Order ODE . . . . . . . . . . A.2.8 A general Form of the Homogeneous Equation A.3 Partial Diﬀerential Equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A.3.1 First-order equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A.4 Trigonometry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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viii

CONTENTS

Index 393 Subjects Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 393 Authors Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 397

LIST OF FIGURES

1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 1.9 1.10 1.11 1.12 1.13 1.14 1.15 1.16 1.17 1.18 1.19 1.20 1.21 1.22 1.23 1.24 3.1 3.2

Diagram to explain ﬂuid mechanics branches . . . . . . . Density as a function of the size of sample. . . . . . . . Schematics to describe the shear stress in ﬂuid mechanics The deformation of ﬂuid due to shear stress . . . . . . . The diﬀerence of power ﬂuids. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Nitrogen and Argon viscosity. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The shear stress as a function of the shear rate. . . . . . Air viscosity as a function of the temperature. . . . . . . Water viscosity as a function temperature. . . . . . . . . Liquid metals viscosity as a function of the temperature . Reduced viscosity as function of the reduced temperature Reduced viscosity as function of the reduced temperature Concentrating cylinders with the rotating inner cylinder . Rotating disc in a steady state . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Water density as a function of temperature . . . . . . . Two liquid layers under pressure . . . . . . . . . . . . . Surface tension control volume analysis . . . . . . . . . Glass tube inserted into mercury . . . . . . . . . . . . . Capillary rise between two plates . . . . . . . . . . . . . Forces in Contact angle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Description of wetting and non–wetting ﬂuids. . . . . . . Description of the liquid surface . . . . . . . . . . . . . The raising height as a function of the radii . . . . . . . The raising height as a function of the radius . . . . . .

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2 6 6 7 9 10 10 11 12 14 17 18 20 21 22 27 33 35 36 37 38 40 42 43 56 57

Description of the extinguish nozzle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Description of how the center of mass is calculated . . . . . . . . . . .

ix

Schematic angular angle to explain example 4. . . . . . The varying gravity eﬀects on density and pressure . . . . . . . . . . Inclined manometer .13 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . Moment of inertia for rectangular . . . . . . . . .18 4.26 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58 59 60 61 61 62 62 63 63 64 66 71 74 74 75 76 78 79 80 81 84 87 89 92 93 94 94 95 96 99 100 101 103 104 107 108 109 110 110 111 112 113 114 . . . . . The eﬀective gravity is for accelerated cart . . . . . .14 4.10 4. Description of parabola . . . . . . . . . . .30 4. . The eﬀects of multi layers density on static forces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .20 4. .8 3. . . . . . . .28 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 3. . . . . . . . . Schematic of gas measurement utilizing the “U” tube . . . . . . . . . . Tank and the eﬀects diﬀerent liquids . . . . . . . .6 3.3 3. .27 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 3. .17 4. . . . The general forces acting on submerged area . . .moment of inertia and center of area . .19 4. . . . . Schematic of sensitive measurement device . . . . . . . . Triangle for example 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The forces on curved area . .8 4. . . . . . .12 3. . . . .25 4. . Cylinder with an element for calculation moment of inertia . . . . . . . . Schematic of submerged area . . . . . . . . . . .6 4. The diﬀerence between the slop and the direction angle . . . .3 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11 4. . . . . . Area above the dam arc subtract triangle . . . . . . . . Circular shape Dam . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The general forces acting on a non symmetrical straight area . .7 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A schematic to explain the atmospheric pressure measurement The eﬀective gravity is for accelerated cart . . .32 LIST OF FIGURES Thin body center of mass/area schematic. . . . . . . . . . .29 4. . . Pressure lines in a static constant density ﬂuid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Moment on arc element around Point “O” . . . . . . . . . Polynomial shape dam description . . . Forces diagram of cart sliding on inclined plane . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Two adjoin layers for stability analysis . The schematic to explain the summation of moment of inertia. . . . . . . . .10 3.4 3.4 4. . . . The general forces acting on non symmetrical straight area . . .x 3. . . . . . .9 3. . . . . . . . .22 4. . . .12 4. . . . Hydrostatic pressure under a compressible liquid phase . . . . . .2 4. . . . . .13 4. . . . . Rectangular area under pressure . .5 4.15 4. .24 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9 . .23 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Schematic of Net Force on ﬂoating body . . . . . . . . . . .11 3. . . . A cart slide on inclined plane . . . . . .21 4. The ratio of the moment of inertia 2D to 3D. . . . Earth layers not to scale . . . . . . . Inverted manometer . . . . . . . . . . . . A square element for the calculations of inertia. . Description of a ﬂuid element in accelerated system. . . . . . . . Schematic to explain the angular angle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .31 4. . . . . . . . . . . The schematic that explains the summation of moment of inertia. . . . Description of rectangular in x–y plane. . . .1 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Product of inertia for triangle . . . . . . . . . Area above the dam arc calculation for the center . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .16 4. .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11 6. . . . Boundary Layer control mass . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .33 4. . . The eﬀects of liquid movement on the GM . . . Stability analysis of ﬂoating body . . . . . . Circular cross section for ﬁnding Ux . Propeller schematic to explain the change of momentum . . . . . . . . Calculations of GM for abrupt shape body . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The ﬂoating forces on Immersed Cylinder . . . . . . . . . .1 5. . Schematic of a thin wall ﬂoating body .37 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8 5. . . The impeller of the centrifugal pump and the velocities diagram Nozzle schematics water rocket . . Schematic of ﬂoating bodies . Filling of the bucket and choices of the control volumes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8 6. xi 115 116 117 125 125 126 129 129 130 131 132 134 135 137 138 139 140 142 147 148 149 150 153 156 161 166 167 168 169 170 176 179 181 183 184 185 188 189 193 194 198 198 The explaination for the direction relative to surface . . . .10 6. . .2 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . .45 4. . Schematics of ﬂow in a pipe with varying density . . . . . . . Cubic body dimensions for stability analysis . . . A heavy needle is ﬂoating on a liquid. . . . . . . . . . . . .9 5. . . . . . . . . . .LIST OF FIGURES 4. . .39 4. . . . . . . . . .9 6. . . . .11 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Boat for example 5. . . .5 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Flow out of un symmetrical tank . . . . . . .3 5. . . . . . . . . . . . .10 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Schematic of a tank seating on wheels . . . . . . . . . . The explaination for the direction relative to surface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .42 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 6. . . . . . . . . .34 4. . . . . . . . . . Schematics of velocities at the interface . . . . .49 4. . Height of the liquid for example 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Toy Sled pushed by the liquid jet . . . . . The maximum height reverse as a function of density ratio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .44 4. .12 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A new control volume to ﬁnd the velocity in discharge tank . . . . . . . . . . . . . Three liquids layers under rotation . . .38 4. . . . . . Measurement of GM of ﬂoating body . . . . . . . Piston control volume . . . .4 6.1 6. . . . . .12 Schematic of Immersed Cylinder . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 . . . .36 4. Schematics of area impinged by a jet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The cross section of the interface for max liquid.7 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Nozzle schematic for forces calculations . Velocity for a circular shape . . . . Description of depression to explain the Rayleigh–Taylor instability Description of depression to explain the instability . . . Stability of cubic body inﬁnity long .6 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 5. . .35 4. . . .3 6. . . . . .2 6. . . .4 5. . . . . . .40 4.14 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .50 5. . . . . . . . . . . Control volume and system in motion . . Schematic of ﬂoating cubic . . Control volume usage to calculate local averaged velocity Control volume and system in the motion . . .48 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A rocket with a moving control volume . . . .41 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .46 4. . . . . . .47 4. . . . . . . Stability of two triangles put tougher . . . . . . . . . .5 5. . . .43 4. . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . Kinetic Energy and Averaged Velocity . .6 8. .16 8. . . . . . . . .8 8. . .5 7. . . . . . . . . . . .2 7. . . . . . . . . .4 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11 8. . . . .4 The mass balance on the inﬁnitesimal control volume . . . (a) Projecting pipe K= 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .15 8. . Diﬀerent rectangles deformations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 202 204 206 214 214 214 214 214 222 225 225 232 234 236 238 246 247 248 249 251 252 254 254 254 255 260 263 263 264 265 266 268 271 273 284 285 291 318 333 335 336 336 7. . . . . A long pipe exposed to a sudden pressure diﬀerence Liquid exiting a large tank trough a long tube . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Tank control volume for Example 7. . Plug ﬂow in horizontal tubes with the liquids ﬂow is faster. . . . . . .2 10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Typical resistance for selected outlet conﬁguration . Discharge from a Large Container . . . . . . . . . Diagram to analysis the shear stress tensor . . . . . Mass ﬂow due to temperature diﬀerence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 7. . Pendulum for dimensional analysis . . . . . . . . . . . Flow in kerosene lamp . . . . . . . . Fitting rod into a hole . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 9. . . . .1 10. . . . . Stress diagram on a tetrahedron shape . . . . . . . .18 8. . . . . Diﬀerent ﬁelds of multi phase ﬂow. . . . . LIST OF FIGURES . . . Flow between two plates when the top moving . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 The work on the control volume . . .3 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .14 8. .xii 7. . . .19 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . .20 8. . The control volume of liquid element in “short cut” . . . . . . . . . . . . . Flow in an oscillating manometer . . . . . . . (b) Sharp edge pipe connection K=0. . . . . . . . .2 8. . . . . . . . . . . . (b) Deformations of the straight angle triangle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Linear strain of the element . . . . . The mass conservation in cylindrical coordinates . . . . . . . .5 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The shear stress creating torque . . . . . . . . . 1–Dimensional free surface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10 8. . . . . .3 8. . . . . .2 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8 8. . . . . . . . . . . . One dimensional ﬂow with shear between plates . . . . Mass ﬂow in coating process . . . . .3 9. . . . . . . . . . Liquid ﬂow due to gravity . . . . . . . . . . . . . Oscillating Von Karman Vortex Street . . . . . . . . . . . .4 10. . . . .5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (a) Deformations of the isosceles triangular . . . . . . .7 8.3 10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 7. . . . . Control volume at t and t + dt under continuous angle deformation Shear stress at two coordinates in 45◦ orientations . . . . . . . . . . . . . Flow of Liquid between concentric cylinders . . . . . . . . . . . The shear stress at diﬀerent surfaces . . Resistance of inﬁnite cylinder . . . Kind of Stratiﬁed ﬂow in horizontal tubes.21 9. . . . . . . . . Flow driven by surface tension . . . . . . . . . Mass ﬂow due to temperature diﬀerence . . . . . . . .9 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 .1 7. . . (c) Rounded inlet pipe K=0. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Stratiﬁed ﬂow in horizontal tubes when the liquids ﬂow is very slow. . . . . . . . . . .17 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12 8. . . . .04 . . . .13 8. . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . .15A diagram to explain the ﬂood in a two dimension geometry. . . . 10. . .7 Vector in Cartesian coordinates system . . . . . .1 A. . . . . . . . . . . The right hand rule . . .9 The ﬂow patterns in solid-liquid ﬂow. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .LIST OF FIGURES 10. . . . . . . . . . . . 10. . . . . 10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 A. . . . . . . . . . . . . .13Flood in vertical pipe. . . . .7 A dimensional vertical ﬂow map low gravity against gravity. . . .8 The terminal velocity that left the solid particles. . .6 Gas and liquid in Flow in verstical tube against the gravity.11Counter–current ﬂow in a can.2 A. . . . . . . Parabolic coordinates by user WillowW using Blender The tringle angles sides . . 10. .12Image of counter-current ﬂow in liquid–gas/solid–gas conﬁgurations. . . . . . . . . . . . . Spherical Coordinate System . . . . . .6 A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .16General forces diagram to calculated the in a two dimension geometry. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10. . . . . . . . . 10. .10Counter–ﬂow in vertical tubes map. . . . . . . . xiii 337 338 339 349 350 351 352 352 353 354 354 360 363 364 370 371 372 373 391 . 10. . . . .5 Modiﬁed Mandhane map for ﬂow regime in horizontal tubes. . . . . . 10. 10. . . . . . . . . . The general Orthogonal with unit vectors . . . . . . A. . . .4 A. . . . . . . . . 10. . . . . . Cylindrical Coordinate System . . . . . . . . . . . . .14A ﬂow map to explain the horizontal counter–current ﬂow. . . . . 10. .3 A. . . . . . .

xiv LIST OF FIGURES .

. . . . . . Moments of Inertia full shape. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 9.2 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 1. . . . . . .4 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . gold grain dimensional matrix . . . . . .1 3. . . . Dimensional matrix . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . continue . . . Moment of inertia for various plane surfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Bulk modulus for selected materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Viscosity of selected liquids . . . . . . . Physical Units for Two Common Systems continue . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . continue . . . . Viscosity of selected gases . . . . The surface tension for selected materials. . . . .1 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 1. 13 13 14 15 24 25 38 39 44 45 46 52 69 70 281 282 285 289 290 291 293 299 300 Properties of Various Ideal Gases [300K] . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 1. . . . . continue . . Continue . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Units of the Pendulum . . .7 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Properties at the critical stage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . continue . . . . . . . xv . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 3. . . . .3 9. . . . . . . . .7 1. . . .7 2. . . . . . . .2 9. . . . . . . . . The contact angle for air/water with selected materials. . . . . . . . . . . . Units of the Pendulum . . . . . .4 9. . Basic Units of Two Common Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 9. .6 Books Under Potto Project . . . . . .LIST OF TABLES 1 1. . .2 9. . . . . . . . continue . . . . . xlii Sutherland’s equation coeﬃcients . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. .7 9. .8 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8 Units of the Pendulum . . . . . . . LIST OF TABLES . . . . . . . . . . . . . continue . . . . . . 374 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Common Dimensionless Parameters of Thermo–Fluid in continue . . . . . . . . .8 9. . . .xvi 9. . . the Field .1 Orthogonal coordinates systems (under construction please ignore) . 304 315 316 317 A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

page 51 Internal energy. page 47 λ M µ µ0 F ext U Ξ A a Bf c. page 71 Body force.38). see equation (4. Ti0 . see equation (5.1). page 49 subscribe for control volume. see equation (2. see equation (6. page 12 reference viscosity at reference temperature. page 347 The area of surface. see equation (10.23).3).136). page 175 Martinelli parameter. page 51 The shear stress Tenser.26). see equation (2.101). page 193 viscosity at input temperature T. see equation (2. see equation (6. Cp Cv EU bulk viscosity.17). see equation (6. page 176 Units length. see equation (2.0).9). page 258 Angular Momentum.0). see equation (1. see equation (2. see equation (8. see equation (4. see equation (1. page 148 Speciﬁc pressure heat. page 51 Speciﬁc volume heat.22).17).1).NOMENCLATURE ¯ R τ Universal gas constant.43). see equation (2.11). see equation (6. page 177 The velocity taken with the direction.v. page 108 The acceleration of object or system.. page 12 External forces by non–ﬂuids means. page 48 xvii .7).

0). see equation (3. see equation (1. see equation (2.6). see equation (2. page 202 Angular momentum. see equation (4. page 101 q Q12 R S Suth Tτ Ti0 Tin U w W12 z says Energy per unit mass.2).40).67). page 50 Speciﬁc enthalpy. page 12 Torque. see equation (2.1. page 48 System energy at state i.24).104). page 50 Suth is Sutherland’s constant and it is presented in the Table 1. page 68 reference temperature in degrees Kelvin. see equation (2.17). page 52 Entropy of the system. see equation (5.xviii Eu Ei G gG H h k kT L Internal Energy per unit mass. see equation (2. see equation (2.18).2). page 48 The energy transfered to the system between state 1 and state 2.2). see equation (2. see equation (2. see equation (2.6). see equation (4.6). page 148 . see equation (4. see equation (7. see equation (2.14). see equation (2. page 48 the coordinate in z direction. page 71 Enthalpy. page 12 velocity . see equation (3.18). page 51 Fluid thermal conductivity.17).17). page 67 LIST OF TABLES Patmos Atmospheric Pressure.13). page 90 general Body force. see equation (1. see equation (2.4). page 50 the ratio of the speciﬁc heats. page 12 input temperature in degrees Kelvin. page 73 Subscribe says. page 48 Speciﬁc gas constant. see equation (1.0). see equation (4.27). page 48 Work per unit mass. page 48 The work done by the system between state 1 and state 2.3). page 48 The gravitation constant.42).

0. Addition of several examples integral Energy chapter.1.0 Dec 13. 2011 (3.3. 2011 (3. English and minor corrections in various chapters. xix .1. English and minor corrections in various chapters.4 Feb 23.6 M 446 pages) Addition of the Dimensional Analysis chapter skeleton. Version 0.5 M 392 pages) Insert discussion about Pushka equation and bulk modulus.1 Dec 21.3. 2011 (3. Version 0.The Book Change Log Version 0. English and addition of other minor exampls in various chapters.6 M 452 pages) Minor additions to the Dimensional Analysis chapter.3.

3 M 354 pages) Change the emphasis equations to new style in Static chapter. 2010 (3. additional examples in mass conservation chapter.0. Improve English in several chapters.artofproblemsolving. 2010 (3. Add discussion change of bulk modulus of mixture.0. Version 0. This addition was to go the compressible book and will migrate to there when the book will brought up to code.3 Dec 5.0.3 M 362 pages) Further improved the script for the chapter log ﬁle for latex (macro) process. Version 0.3.0. Addition of several examples. Improvement of properties chapter.3 M 378 pages) Add additional discussion about bulk modulus of geological system.3 M 358 pages) Add discussion change of density on buck modulus calculations as example as integral equation. Improve English in several chapters. Add several examples on surface tension.3.0 Oct 24. Brought the mass conservation chapter to code. Build the chapter log ﬁle for latex (macro) process Steven from www. Minimal discussion of converting integral equation to diﬀerential equations. Version 0.xx LIST OF TABLES Version 0.2 Nov 19.com.3. 2010 (3. 2010 (3.1 Nov 12.3. Add discussion about inclined manometer . Addition of several examples with respect speed of sound with variation density under bulk modulus.

9 M 280 pages) The energy conservation chapter was released. Minor correction to to the wording in page 11 viscosity density issue (thanks to Prashant Balan). Some additions to momentum conservation chapter.4 March 01. xxi Add example of falling liquid gravity as driving force in presence of shear stress.3 M 338 pages) Initial release of the diﬀerential equations chapter. Additions to the mathematical appendix on vector algebra.2.2.9. Version 0. Correct the ideal gas relationship typo thanks to Michal Zadrozny.9 M 280 pages) add example to Mechanical Chapter and some spelling corrected.9 Sep 20. Version 0.2. Add example. Improve the emphasis macro for the important equation and useful equation. Version 0. 2010 (3. Add to the appendix the diﬀerentiation of vector operations. change to the new empheq format and improve cylinder ﬁgure. 2010 (2. Version 0. 2010 (2.6 March 10.1 Oct 11.LIST OF TABLES Improve many ﬁgures and equations in Static chapter.3 M 344 pages) Change the emphasis equations to new style in Thermo chapter. . Improve English in static and mostly in diﬀerential analysis chapter. Some additions to mass conservation chapter on averaged velocity.2. Add example to dif chap on concentric cylinders poiseuille ﬂow. 2010 (3.

Add the macro ekes to equations in examples thanks to Steven from www. English corrections. Corrections to Static Chapter. Thanks to Eliezer Bar-Meir Version 0. Add the open question concept.3 Jan 01. 2009 (2.1. Add example on angular rotation to statics chapter. Two open questions were released. Thanks to Eliezer Bar-Meir Version 0. Add the macro protect to insert ﬁgure in lower right corner thanks to Steven from www.artofproblemsolving.5 Nov 01. Add Reynold’s Transform explanation. English corrections.artofproblemsolving Add example about the the third component of the velocity. Add the macro to improve emphases equation thanks to Steven from www.xxii LIST OF TABLES Additions to the mathematical appendix on variables separation in second order ode equations. Thanks to Eliezer Bar-Meir Version 0.6 M 219 pages) The mass conservation chapter was released.9 Dec 01.artofproblemsolving. Improve the dwarﬁng macro to allow ﬂexibility with sub title.8. 2009 (2.2.1.8 M 241 pages) The momentum conservation chapter was released. .5 M 203 pages) First true draft for the mass conservation. Add the ﬁrst draft of the temperature-velocity diagram to the Therm’s chapter. English corrections.com. 2010 (2.

6 M 183 pages) Fixing some long titles issues. Version 0.1.5 M 197 pages) Continue ﬁxing the long titles issues. Improve the doChap scrip to break up the book to chapters.1.8a July 5. Version 0.1 Sep 17.3 M 151 pages) Fix the English in the introduction chapter. Add the Rayleigh–Taylor instability.1. Version 0. Add an example to mechanics chapter.8 Aug 6. Fix minor issues (English) in the introduction chapter. 2009 (2. Remove the multiphase chapter (it is not for public consumption yet).LIST OF TABLES xxiii Version 0. Improve the Index (thanks to Irene).4 M 155 pages) Add the constant table list for the introduction chapter.4 M 189 pages) Add the chapter on introduction to muli–phase ﬂow Again additional improvement to the index (thanks to Irene). 2009 (2. Version 0.8. 2008 (1. (thanks to Tousher).6 Jun 30. .5a Jun 11. 2008 (1.1. Add some examples to static chapter. 2008 (2.1. Correcting the gas properties tables (thanks to Heru and Micheal) Move the gas tables to common area to all the books.

2008 Version 0.1. The mechanics chapter was released. 2008 (1. Fix very minor issues (English) in the static chapter.1 M 111 pages) Major English corrections for the three chapters.1.1 May 8.4 M 149 pages) Add the introduction. viscosity and other properties of ﬂuid.1a April 23. Add the product of inertia to mechanics chapter. Version 0. 2008 The Thermodynamics chapter was released.5 Jun 5.xxiv LIST OF TABLES Version 0. Version 0. Minor corrections for all three chapters. The static chapter was released (the most extensive and detailed chapter).1a April 23. 2008 (1. .

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and no BackCover Texts. no Front-Cover Texts. Front-Cover Texts and Back-Cover Texts. ADDENDUM: How to use this License for your documents To use this License in a document you have written.. include a copy of the License in the document and put the following copyright and license notices just after the title page: Copyright ©YEAR YOUR NAME. you have the option of following the terms and conditions either of that speciﬁed version or of any later version that has been published (not as a draft) by the Free Software Foundation. If you have Invariant Sections.xxxii LIST OF TABLES version” applies to it. with the FrontCover Texts being LIST. to permit their use in free software.2 or any later version published by the Free Software Foundation. Permission is granted to copy.Texts. . If you have Invariant Sections without Cover Texts. or some other combination of the three. If your document contains nontrivial examples of program code. A copy of the license is included in the section entitled ”GNU Free Documentation License”. Version 1. with no Invariant Sections.” line with this: with the Invariant Sections being LIST THEIR TITLES. we recommend releasing these examples in parallel under your choice of free software license. merge those two alternatives to suit the situation. such as the GNU General Public License. you may choose any version ever published (not as a draft) by the Free Software Foundation.. distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License. and with the Back-Cover Texts being LIST. If the Document does not specify a version number of this License. replace the ”with.

this book is open to revisions and expansions by any interested parties. you must follow the same guidelines as for any other GDL copyrighted work. Minor contributions (typo corrections.CONTRIBUTOR LIST How to contribute to this book As a copylefted work.com Date(s) of contribution(s): June 2005. Contact at: barmeir at gmail. time. contact info. Any and all contributions are gratefully accepted. date. 2009 xxxiii . Dec. just smaller in the sense of less text changed. The only ”catch” is that credit must be given where credit is due. Please understand that when I classify a contribution as ”minor. and resources to make this a better book! Date(s) of contribution(s): 1999 to present Nature of contribution: Original author. Major contributions are listed by individual name with some detail on the nature of the contribution(s).” it is in no way inferior to the eﬀort or value of a ”major” contribution. I am indebted to all those who have given freely of their own knowledge.com Steven from artofproblemsolving. etc. This is a copyrighted work: it is not in the public domain! If you wish to cite portions of this book in a work of your own.) are listed by name only for reasons of brevity. etc. Credits All entries have been arranged in alphabetical order of surname (hopefully.

Henry Schoumertate Date(s) of contribution(s): Nov 2009 Nature of contribution: Discussion on the mathematics of Reynolds Transforms. Dan H. Dec 2009 Nature of contribution: Correct many English mistakes Mass. describing how you contributed to the book. Nature of contribution: In 2009 creating the exEq macro to have diﬀerent counter for example. Richard Hackbarth Date(s) of contribution(s): April 2008 Nature of contribution: Some discussions about chapter on mechanics and correction of English.xxxiv LIST OF TABLES Nature of contribution: LaTeX formatting. Contact at: my email@provider. Olson Date(s) of contribution(s): April 2008 Nature of contribution: Some discussions about chapter on mechanics and correction of English. Nature of contribution: Correct many English mistakes Momentum.net . Your name here Date(s) of contribution(s): Month and year of contribution Nature of contribution: Insert text here. help on building the useful equation and important equation macros. Eliezer Bar-Meir Date(s) of contribution(s): Nov 2009. John Herbolenes Date(s) of contribution(s): August 2009 Nature of contribution: Provide some example for the static chapter.

January 2008. (Nov 2010) . review of statics and thermo chapters.38) by Michal Zadrozny.CREDITS xxxv Typo corrections and other ”minor” contributions R. Tousher Yang April 2008. Gupta. help with the original img macro and other ( LaTeX issues). Corretion to equation (2. (Nov 2010) Corretion to wording in viscosity density Prashant Balan.

xxxvi LIST OF TABLES .

the author’s models were used in numerical works. R. this author’s views had changed and the virtue of the practical part of any model becomes the essential part of his ideas.D. Bar-Meir developed models that explained several manufacturing processes such the rapid evacuation of gas from containers. in Mechanical Engineering from University of Minnesota and a Master in Fluid Mechanics from Tel Aviv University. These models have been extended by several research groups (needless to say with large research grants). it was commonly believed and taught that there is only weak and strong shock and it is continue by Prandtl–Meyer function. Bar-Meir was mainly interested in elegant models whether they have or not a practical applicability. These models are based on analytical solution to a family of equations1 . and Canada. For example. Currently. Bar– 1 Where the mathematicians were able only to prove that the solution exists. and the CICYT and the European Commission provides 1FD97-2333 grants for minor aspects of that models. Dr. xxxvii .E. Spain. As the change in the view occurred. in GM. Now. application of supply and demand to rapid change power system and etc. the critical piston velocity in a partially ﬁlled chamber (related to hydraulic jump).About This Author Genick Bar-Meir holds a Ph. He developed models for Mass Transfer in high concentration that became a building blocks for many other models. Bar-Meir was the last student of the late Dr. Moreover. Much of his time has been spend doing research in the ﬁeld of heat and mass transfer (related to renewal energy issues) and this includes ﬂuid mechanics related to manufacturing processes and design.G. All the models have practical applicability. In the area of compressible ﬂow. Eckert. he spends time writing books (there are already three very popular books) and softwares for the POTTO project (see Potto Prologue). The author enjoys to encourage his students to understand the material beyond the basic requirements of exams. books and software. In his early part of his professional life. British industry. the Spanish Comision Interministerial provides grants TAP97-0489 and PB98-0007.

Bar-Meir demonstrated that ﬂuids must have wavy surface when the materials ﬂow together.xxxviii LIST OF TABLES Meir discovered the analytical solution for oblique shock and showed that there is a quiet buﬀer between the oblique shock and Prandtl–Meyer. He also build analytical solution to several moving shock cases. the author just know to learn quickly. . The common explanation to Prandtl–Meyer function shows that ﬂow can turn in a sharp corner. The author lives with his wife and three children. Engineers have constructed design that based on this conclusion. While he writes his programs and does other computer chores. practically from scratch. The author spent years working on the sea (ships) as a engine sea oﬃcer but now the author prefers to remain on solid ground. While he is known to look like he knows about many things. He described and categorized the ﬁlling and evacuating of chamber by compressible ﬂuid in which he also found analytical solutions to cases where the working ﬂuid was ideal gas. Bar-Meir demonstrated that common Prandtl–Meyer explanation violates the conservation of mass and therefor the turn must be around a ﬁnite radius. The author’s explanations on missing diameter and other issues in fanno ﬂow and ““naughty professor’s question”” are used in the industry. In his book “Basics of Fluid Mechanics”. All the previous models for the ﬂooding phenomenon did not have a physical explanation to the dryness. He built a model to explain the ﬂooding problem (two phase ﬂow) based on the physics. A past project of his was building a four stories house. He also constructed and explained many new categories for two ﬂow regimes. he often feels clueless about computers and programing.

punishes the small “entrepreneur” who tries to defend his or her work.edu/openlaw/eldredvashcroft for more information) copyrights practically remain indeﬁnitely with the holder (not the creator). Ashcroﬀ (see http://cyber. As R. particularly the copyright law with the “inﬁnite2 ” time with the copyright holders. This project is to increase wisdom and humility.org/wiki/Main Page). 3 In some sense one can view the encyclopedia Wikipedia as an open content project (see http://en. xxxix . However. said instead of whining about arrogance and incorrectness. is a new idea3 . It has become very clear to the author and founder of the POTTO Project that this situation must be stopped.harvard. As individuals we have to obey the law.law. The writing of a technical book is really a collection of information and practice.wikipedia. The Potto Project has far greater goals than simply correcting an abusive Judicial system or simply exposing abusive judges. Writing a book in the technical ﬁeld is not the same as writing a novel. but also by coming to understand and be able to solve 2 After the last decision of the Supreme Court in the case of Eldred v. The wikipedia is an excellent collection of articles which are written by various individuals. like an open source. judges simply manufacture facts to make the little guy lose and pay for the defense of his work. The study of technical material isn’t only done by having to memorize the material. The ﬁrst issue is the enormous price of college textbooks. It is apparent that writing textbooks especially for college students as a cooperation. It is unacceptable that the price of the college books will be over $150 per book (over 10 hours of work for an average student in The United States). There is always someone who can add to the book. the corrupted court system defends the “big” guys and on the other hand. The second issue that prompted the writing of this book is the fact that we as the public have to deal with a corrupted judicial system. one of this author’s sages. Kook.Prologue For The POTTO Project This books series was born out of frustrations in two respects. when applied to “small” individuals who are not able to hire a large legal ﬁrm. the creation of the POTTO Project. Hence. On one hand. one should increase wisdom.

the undersigned believes that personal intentions are appropriate and are the author’s/organizer’s private aﬀair. they will become the most popular books and the most read books in their respected ﬁeld. hunting animals that are even up to a hundred kilograms in weight. there are always others who can see new aspects of or add to the material. Whatever the reasons. When an insect which is blind can be so powerful by networking. 77:139. Experience has shown that in explaining to others any given subject.ex. especially for family members or relatives and those students lacking funds. The desire to be an author of a well–known book (at least in his/her profession) will convince some to put forth the eﬀort. For others the social part is as simple as a desire to reduce the price of college textbooks. One component is to come to know and socialize with many in the profession. It is hoped that because of the open nature of these books. Thus.html) . The following example explains this point: The army ant is a kind of carnivorous ant that lives and hunts in the tropics. one also begins to better understand the material. The student’s contributions can be done by adding a question and perhaps the solution. Nigel R. the books on compressible ﬂow and die casting became the most popular books in their respective area.” American Scientist. Why would someone volunteer to be an author or organizer of such a book? This is the ﬁrst question the undersigned was asked. For some contributors/authors. this method is expected to accelerate the creation of these high quality books. For some authors. then that contributor will be the copyright holder of that speciﬁc section (even within question/answer sections). the reason is the pure fun of writing and organizing educational material.xl LIST OF TABLES related problems. 1989 (see for information http://www. For example. The book’s contributor’s names could be written by their sections. In these cases. The collective material is much richer than any single person can create by himself. While one can be as creative as possible. Thus. To reach this possibility the collective book idea was created/adapted. One can be successful when one solves as many problems as possible. in the course of their teaching they have found that the textbook they were using contains sections that can be improved or that are not as good as their own notes. The secret of the ants’ power lies in their collective intelligence. The social function can have at least two components. These books are written in a similar manner to the open source software 4 see also in Franks.ac. so can we in creating textbooks by this powerful tool. In a way. While a single ant is not intelligent enough to attack and hunt large prey. the collective power of their networking creates an extremely powerful intelligence to carry out this attack4 .uk/bugclub/raiders. The author has not found any technique that is more useful for this purpose than practicing the solving of problems and exercises. the popularity of the books should be one of the incentives for potential contributors. It is not just for experts to contribute. they now have an opportunity to put their notes to use for others. The answer varies from individual to individual.. but also students who happened to be doing their homework. contributing to these books will help one to understand the material better. If a contributor of a section in such a book can be easily identiﬁed. the writing of or contributing to this kind of books will serve as a social function. ”Army Ants: A Collective Intelligence. For others.

CREDITS

xli

process. Someone has to write the skeleton and hopefully others will add “ﬂesh and skin.” In this process, chapters or sections can be added after the skeleton has been written. It is also hoped that others will contribute to the question and answer sections in the book. But more than that, other books contain data5 which can be typeset in A LTEX. These data (tables, graphs and etc.) can be redone by anyone who has the time to do it. Thus, the contributions to books can be done by many who are not experts. Additionally, contributions can be made from any part of the world by those who wish to translate the book. It is hoped that the books will be error-free. Nevertheless, some errors are possible and expected. Even if not complete, better discussions or better explanations are all welcome to these books. These books are intended to be “continuous” in the sense that there will be someone who will maintain and improve the books with time (the organizer(s)). These books should be considered more as a project than to ﬁt the traditional deﬁnition of “plain” books. Thus, the traditional role of author will be replaced by an organizer who will be the one to compile the book. The organizer of the book in some instances will be the main author of the work, while in other cases only the gate keeper. This may merely be the person who decides what will go into the book and what will not (gate keeper). Unlike a regular book, these works will have a version number because they are alive and continuously evolving. In the last 5 years three textbooks have been constructed which are available for download. These books contain innovative ideas which make some chapters the best in the world. For example, the chapters on Fanno ﬂow and Oblique shock contain many original ideas such as the full analytical solution to the oblique shock, many algorithms for calculating Fanno ﬂow parameters which are not found in any other book. In addition, Potto has auxiliary materials such as the gas dynamics tables (the largest compressible ﬂow tables collection in the world), Gas Dynamics Calculator (Potto-GDC), etc. The combined number downloads of these books is over half a million (December 2009) or in a rate of 20,000 copies a month. Potto books on compressible ﬂow and ﬂuid mechanics are used as the main textbook or as a reference book in several universities around the world. The books are used in more than 165 diﬀerent countries around the world. Every month people from about 110 diﬀerent countries download these books. The book on compressible ﬂow is also used by “young engineers and scientists” in NASA according to Dr. Farassat, NASA Langley Research Center. The undersigned of this document intends to be the organizer/author/coordinator of the projects in the following areas:

5

Data are not copyrighted.

xlii

Table -1. Books under development in Potto project.

LIST OF TABLES

Project Name Compressible Flow Die Casting Dynamics Fluid Mechanics Heat Transfer

Progress beta alpha NSY alpha NSY

Remarks

Version 0.4.8.2 0.0.3 0.0.0 0.1.1 0.0.0

Based on Eckert

Availability for Public Download

Mechanics Open Channel Flow Statics Strength of Material Thermodynamics Two/Multi ﬂow phases

NSY NSY early alpha NSY early alpha NSY

ﬁrst chapter

0.0.0 0.0.0 0.0.1 0.0.0 0.0.01

TelAviv’notes

0.0.0

**NSY = Not Started Yet The meaning of the progress is as:
**

The Alpha Stage is when some of the chapters are already in a rough draft; in Beta Stage is when all or almost all of the chapters have been written and are at least in a draft stage; in Gamma Stage is when all the chapters are written and some of the chapters are in a mature form; and the Advanced Stage is when all of the basic material is written and all that is left are aspects that are active, advanced topics, and special cases.

The mature stage of a chapter is when all or nearly all the sections are in a mature stage and have a mature bibliography as well as numerous examples for every section. The mature stage of a section is when all of the topics in the section are written, and all of the examples and data (tables, ﬁgures, etc.) are already presented. While some terms are deﬁned in a relatively clear fashion, other deﬁnitions give merely a hint on the status. But such a thing is hard to deﬁne and should be enough for this stage. The idea that a book can be created as a project has mushroomed from the open source software concept, but it has roots in the way science progresses. However, traditionally books have been improved by the same author(s), a process in which books

CREDITS

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have a new version every a few years. There are book(s) that have continued after their author passed away, i.e., the Boundary Layer Theory originated6 by Hermann Schlichting but continues to this day. However, projects such as the Linux Documentation project demonstrated that books can be written as the cooperative eﬀort of many individuals, many of whom volunteered to help. Writing a textbook is comprised of many aspects, which include the actual writing of the text, writing examples, creating diagrams and ﬁgures, and writing the A LTEX macros7 which will put the text into an attractive format. These chores can be done independently from each other and by more than one individual. Again, because of the open nature of this project, pieces of material and data can be used by diﬀerent books.

6 Originally authored by Dr. Schlichting, who passed way some years ago. A new version is created every several years. 7 One can only expect that open source and readable format will be used for this project. But more A than that, only LTEX, and perhaps troﬀ, have the ability to produce the quality that one expects for A these writings. The text processes, especially LTEX, are the only ones which have a cross platform ability to produce macros and a uniform feel and quality. Word processors, such as OpenOﬃce, Abiword, and Microsoft Word software, are not appropriate for these projects. Further, any text that is produced by Microsoft and kept in “Microsoft” format are against the spirit of this project In that they force spending money on Microsoft software.

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Prologue For This Book

**Version 0.3.0.5 March 1, 2011
**

pages 400 size 3.5M

A look on the progress which occur in the two and half years since the last time this page has been changed, shows that the book scientiﬁc part almost tripled. Three new chapters were added included that dealing with integral analysis and one chapter on diﬀerential analysis. Pushka equation (equation describing the density variation in great depth for slightly compressible material) was added yet not included in any other textbook. While the chapter on the ﬂuid static is the best in the world (according to many including this auther8 ), some material has to be expanded. The potto style ﬁle has improved and including ﬁgures inside examples. Beside the Pushka equation, the book contains material that was not published in other books. Recently, many heavy duty examples were enhanced and thus the book quality. The meaning heavy duty example refers here to generalized cases. For example, showing the instability of the upside cone versus dealing with upside cone with spesiﬁc angle.

**Version 0.1.8 August 6, 2008
**

pages 189 size 2.6M

When this author was an undergraduate student, he spend time to study the wave phenomenon at the interface of open channel ﬂow. This issue is related to renewal energy of extracting energy from brine solution (think about the Dead Sea, so much energy). The common explanation to the wave existence was that there is always a disturbance which causes instability. This author was bothered by this explanation.

8 While this bragging is not appropiate in this kind of book it is to point the missing and aditional further improments needed.

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Now, in this version, it was proven that this wavy interface is created due to the need to satisfy the continuous velocity and shear stress at the interface and not a disturbance. Potto project books are characterized by high quality which marked by presentation of the new developments and clear explanations. This explanation (on the wavy interface) demonstrates this characteristic of Potto project books. The introduction to multi–phase is another example to this quality. While it is a hard work to discover and develop and bring this information to the students, it is very satisfying for the author. The number of downloads of this book results from this quality. Even in this early development stage, number of downloads per month is about 5000 copies.

**Version 0.1 April 22, 2008
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pages 151 size 1.3M

The topic of ﬂuid mechanics is common to several disciplines: mechanical engineering, aerospace engineering, chemical engineering, and civil engineering. In fact, it is also related to disciplines like industrial engineering, and electrical engineering. While the emphasis is somewhat diﬀerent in this book, the common material is presented and hopefully can be used by all. One can only admire the wonderful advances done by the previous geniuses who work in this ﬁeld. In this book it is hoped to insert, what and when a certain model is suitable than other models. One of the diﬀerence in this book is the insertion of the introduction to multiphase ﬂow. Clearly, multiphase is an advance topic. However, some minimal familiarity can be helpful for many engineers who have to deal with non pure single phase ﬂuid. This book is the third book in the series of POTTO project books. POTTO project books are open content textbooks so everyone are welcome to joint in. The topic of ﬂuid mechanics was chosen just to ﬁll the introduction chapter to compressible ﬂow. During the writing it became apparent that it should be a book in its own right. In writing the chapter on ﬂuid statics, there was a realization that it is the best chapter written on this topic. It is hoped that the other chapters will be as good this one. This book is written in the spirit of my adviser and mentor E.R.G. Eckert. Eckert, aside from his research activity, wrote the book that brought a revolution in the education of the heat transfer. Up to Egret’s book, the study of heat transfer was without any dimensional analysis. He wrote his book because he realized that the dimensional analysis utilized by him and his adviser (for the post doc), Ernst Schmidt, and their colleagues, must be taught in engineering classes. His book met strong criticism in which some called to “burn” his book. Today, however, there is no known place in world that does not teach according to Eckert’s doctrine. It is assumed that the same kind of individual(s) who criticized Eckert’s work will criticize this work. Indeed, the previous book, on compressible ﬂow, met its opposition. For example, anonymous Wikipedia user name EMBaero claimed that the material in the book is plagiarizing, he just doesn’t know from where and what. Maybe that was the reason that he felt that is okay to plagiarize the book on Wikipedia. These criticisms will not change the future or the success of the ideas in this work. As a wise person says “don’t tell me that it is

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wrong, show me what is wrong”; this is the only reply. With all the above, it must be emphasized that this book is not expected to revolutionize the ﬁeld but change some of the way things are taught. The book is organized into several chapters which, as a traditional textbook, deals with a basic introduction to the ﬂuid properties and concepts (under construction). The second chapter deals with Thermodynamics. The third book chapter is a review of mechanics. The next topic is statics. When the Static Chapter was written, this author did not realize that so many new ideas will be inserted into this topic. As traditional texts in this ﬁeld, ideal ﬂow will be presented with the issues of added mass and added forces (under construction). The classic issue of turbulence (and stability) will be presented. An introduction to multi–phase ﬂow, not a traditional topic, will be presented next (again under construction). The next two chapters will deals with open channel ﬂow and gas dynamics. At this stage, dimensional analysis will be present (again under construction).

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How This Book Was Written

This book started because I needed an introduction to the compressible ﬂow book. After a while it seems that is easier to write a whole book than the two original planned chapters. In writing this book, it was assumed that introductory book on ﬂuid mechanics should not contained many new ideas but should be modern in the material presentation. There are numerous books on ﬂuid mechanics but none of which is open content. The approach adapted in this book is practical, and more hands–on approach. This statement really meant that the book is intent to be used by students to solve their exams and also used by practitioners when they search for solutions for practical problems. So, issue of proofs so and so are here only either to explain a point or have a solution of exams. Otherwise, this book avoids this kind of issues. The structure of Hansen, Streeter and Wylie, and Shames books were adapted and used as a scaﬀolding for this book. This author was inﬂuenced by Streeter and Wylie book which was his undergrad textbooks. The chapters are not written in order. The ﬁrst 4 chapters were written ﬁrst because they were supposed to be modiﬁed and used as ﬂuid mechanics introduction in “Fundamentals of Compressible Flow.” Later, multi–phase ﬂow chapter was written. The presentation of some of the chapters is slightly diﬀerent from other books because the usability of the computers. The book does not provide the old style graphical solution methods yet provides the graphical explanation of things. Of course, this book was written on Linux (Micro$oftLess book). This book was written using the vim editor for editing (sorry never was able to be comfortable with emacs). The graphics were done by TGIF, the best graphic program that this author experienced so far. The ﬁgures were done by gle. The spell checking was done by ispell, and hope to ﬁnd a way to use gaspell, a program that currently cannot be used on new Linux systems. The ﬁgure in cover page was created by Genick Bar-Meir, and is copyleft by him.

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describes the fundamentals of ﬂuid mechanics phenomena for engineers and others. naturally. and there were words. without form. These questions have lead to more information and further explantion that is not found anywhre else. Many in the industry. And the Fingers of the Author the face of the keyboard. This book is designed to replace all introductory textbook(s) or instructor’s notes for the ﬂuid mechanics in undergraduate classes for engineering/science students but also for technical peoples. For example." 9 . This means that a lot of information is presented which is not necessary for everyone. 10 At 9 To li . Let This book. if you need information about. and emptiness was upon the face and files. of the bits moved upon said. this manuscript is ﬁrst and foremost a textbook. This book is written and maintained on a volunteer basis. there is a limit on how much eﬀort I was able to put into the book and its organization. have called and emailed this author with questions since this book is only source in the world of some information. say. statics’ equations. Basics of Fluid Mechanics. rather than just listing “seven easy steps” for each task. the explanations are not as good as if I had a few years to perfect them. I hope this makes the book easier to use as a reference manual. However. Nevertheless. And the Author there be words. Like all volunteer work. and secondly a reference manual only as a lucky coincidence. the POTTO project was and void. These explanations have been marked as such and can be skipped. increase your understanding of the many aspects of ﬂuid mechanics. I have tried to describe why the theories are the way they are. physics. etc. due to the fact that English is my third language and time limitations.10 Reading everything will.Preface "In the beginning. Moreover. the present. It is hoped that the book could be used as a reference book for people who have at least some basics knowledge of science areas such as calculus. You have to remember that this book is a work in progress. the book is not well organized. The structure of this book is such that many of the chapters could be usable independently. This book is only to explain his power. I believe professionals working in many engineering ﬁelds will beneﬁt from the power and glory of the mighty God. you can read just chapter (4).

whose work was the inspiration for this book. R. I have tried to make this text of the highest quality possible and am interested in your comments and ideas on how to make it better. The symbol META was added to provide typographical conventions to blurb as needed.com”. and assistance. I would like to especially thank to my adviser. marked with a Mata mark. Marshall wrote to this author that the author should review other people work before he write any thing new (well. I am particularly interested in the best arrangement of the book. I am interested in it all. errors. isn’t it?). literature review is always good. rewritten sections. E. Incorrect language. They will be removed gradually as the version number advances. While close content peer review and publication in a professional publication is excellent idea in theory. Eckert. However. I hope that many others will participate of this project and will contribute to this book (even small contributions such as providing examples or editing mistakes are needed). please drop me a line. In fact. There are also notes in the margin. A I encourage anyone with a penchant for writing.lii LIST OF TABLES this information. This book contains many worked examples. You may contact me via Email at “barmeir@gmail. which can be very useful for many. G. I also would like to thank to Jannie McRotien (Open Channel Flow chapter) and Tousher Yang for their advices. 11 Dr. you can contact me at “barmeir@gmail. or proofreading.com”. ignore them please. more fundamental material. this process leaves a large room to blockage of novel ideas and plagiarism. Furthermore. If you have Internet e-mail access. This is mostly for the author’s purposes and also for your amusement. If you would like be “peer reviews” or critic to my new ideas please send me your comment(s). While his comment looks like unpleasant reaction. this book contains material that was not published anywhere else. more mathematics (or less mathematics). Several people have helped me with this book. graphic ability. I am asking from everyone to assume that his reaction was innocent one. directly or indirectly. LTEX knowledge. Even reaction/comments from individuals like David Marshall11 . it brought or cause the expansion of the explanation for the oblique shock. I hope to improve or to add to these areas in the near future. but those are solely for the author’s purposes. Dr. and material knowledge and a desire to provide open content textbooks and to improve them to join me in this project. ideas for new areas to cover. This material never went through a close content review. ideas. . other email that imply that someone will take care of this author aren’t appreciated. this book contains material that never was published before (sorry cannot avoid it). editing. In practice. graphic design. Over ten individuals wrote me about this letter. If you want to be involved in the editing. Naturally. I have left some issues which have unsatisfactory explanations in the book.

There will always new problems to add or to polish the explanations or include more new materials. Meta End You are always welcome to add a new material: problem. It is hoped the A changes in TEX and LTEX related to this book in future will be minimal and minor. Also issues that associated with the book like the software has to be improved. Open Channel Flow The chapter isn’t in the development stage yet. many chapters are missing. At this stage. Nevertheless. Properties The chapter isn’t in development stage yet. liii . mistakes. Material can be further illuminate. Speciﬁc missing parts from every chapters are discussed below. approach problems are sometime appears in the book under the Meta simple like this Meta sample this part. These omissions. question. Additional material can be provided to give a diﬀerent angle on the issue at hand. It is hoped that the style ﬁle will be converged to the ﬁnal form rapidly. illustration or photo of experiment.To Do List and Road Map This book isn’t complete and probably never will be completed. there are speciﬁc issues which are on the “table” and they are described herein. Some parts were taken from Fundamentals of Die Casting Design book and are in a process of improvement.

liv LIST OF TABLES .

Researchers distinguish between orderly ﬂow and chaotic ﬂow as the 1 Mushy 2 It zone zone refers to to aluminum alloy with partially solid and partially liquid phases. ﬂuid statics. Even material such as aluminum just below the mushy zone1 also behaves as a liquid similarly to butter. motions. 1 .1 What is Fluid Mechanics? Fluid mechanics deals with the study of all ﬂuids under static and dynamic situations. and statical conditions in a continuous material. Furthermore. ﬂow stability. It is known that these materials have the ability to drown people. glass appears as a solid material. but a closer look reveals that the glass is a liquid with a large viscosity.). material particles that “behaves” as solid mixed with liquid creates a mixture that behaves as a complex2 liquid. A proof of the glass “liquidity” is the change of the glass thickness in high windows in European Churches after hundred years. ﬂow in enclose bodies. the boundary between the solid mechanics and ﬂuid mechanics is some kind of gray shed and not a sharp distinction (see Figure 1. This study area deals with many and diversiﬁed problems such as surface tension. The ﬂuid mechanics study involve many ﬁelds that have no clear boundaries between them. For example. After it was established that the boundaries of ﬂuid mechanics aren’t sharp. Fluid mechanics is a branch of continuous mechanics which deals with a relationship between forces.CHAPTER 1 Introduction to Fluid Mechanics 1. Materials like sand (some call it quick sand) and grains should be treated as liquids. can be viewed as liquid solid multiphase ﬂow. most of the discussion in this book is limited to simple and (mostly) Newtonian (sometimes power ﬂuids) ﬂuids which will be deﬁned later. almost any action a person is doing involves some kind of a ﬂuid mechanics problem. In fact. or ﬂow round bodies (solid or otherwise). Furthermore.1 for the complex relationships between the diﬀerent branches which only part of it should be drawn in the same time. etc. The bottom part of the glass is thicker than the top part.

Then the dimensional analysis can be used explain why in certain cases one distinguish area/principle is more relevant than the other and some eﬀects can be neglected. ﬂow with two phases (or materials) can be treated as a single phase (for example. Moreover. The last boundary (as all the boundaries in ﬂuid mechanics) isn’t sharp because ﬂuid can go through a phase change (condensation or evaporation) in the middle or during the ﬂow and switch from a single phase ﬂow to a multi phase ﬂow. when a general model is need because more parameters are eﬀecting the situation. The ﬂuid mechanics can also be distinguish between a single phase ﬂow and multiphase ﬂow (ﬂow made more than one phase or single distinguishable material). After it was made clear that the boundaries of ﬂuid mechanics aren’t sharp. air with dust particle). Diagram to explain part of relationships of ﬂuid mechanics branches.1. laminar ﬂow and the turbulent ﬂow.2 CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION TO FLUID MECHANICS Continuous Mechanics Solid Mechanics something between Fluid Mechanics Fluid Statics Fluid Dynamics Boundaries problems Multi phase flow Internal Flow Laminar Flow Stability problems Turbulent Flow Fig. Or. the study must make arbitrary boundaries between ﬁelds. -1. It is this author’s per- .

2 Brief History The need to have some understanding of ﬂuid mechanics started with the need to obtain water supply. aqueducts were constructed. At that stage theory and experiments had some discrepancy. almost all knowledge of the ancients can be summarized as application of instincts. “The theory of ﬂuids must necessarily be based upon experiment. For example. For example. the knowledge of ﬂuid mechanics (hydraulic) increasingly gained speed by the contributions of Galileo. For example. and continue with Empirical Analysis. The ﬁrst progress in ﬂuid mechanics was made by Leonardo Da Vinci (1452-1519) who built the ﬁrst chambered canal lock near Milan. Yet. and D’Alembert. a large population created a need to solve waste (sewage) and some basic understanding was created. Later. etc. After his initial work. These two approaches pose a dilemma to anyone who writes an introductory book for the ﬂuid mechanics. turbulence. boundary layer and internal and external ﬂow. . Reviewing many books on ﬂuid mechanics made it clear.com/HTML ) analyzed a ﬂow of a complete still liquid assuming a complex turbulent ﬂow model. the simpliﬁed private cases must be explained. one of the main goals of this book is to explain what model should be applied. Bernoulli family.2. This book is unique in providing chapter on multiphase ﬂow.C. larger tunnels built for a larger water supply. chapters on open channel ﬂow (as a sub class of the multiphase ﬂow) and compressible ﬂow (with the latest developments) are provided. there isn’t a clear winner. people realized that water can be used to move things and provide power. with the exception Archimedes (250 B. Newton. There are two main approaches of presenting an introduction of ﬂuid mechanics materials. Before dealing with the boundaries. These aqueducts reached their greatest size and grandeur in those of the City of Rome and China. Euler. Thus. He also made several attempts to study the ﬂight (birds) and developed some concepts on the origin of the forces.” For example the concept of ideal liquid that leads to motion with no resistance.) on the principles of buoyancy. When cities increased to a larger size. engineers in software company (EKK Inc. to be followed by stability. 1. Torricelli. At some point. Such absurd analysis are common among engineers who do not know which model can be applied. http://ekkinc. The ﬁrst approach introduces the ﬂuid kinematic and then the basic governing equations. The second approach deals with the Integral Analysis to be followed with Diﬀerential Analysis. This fact was acknowledged by D’Alembert who stated that. Naturally. people realized that wells have to be dug and crude pumping devices need to be constructed. This book attempts to ﬁnd a hybrid approach in which the kinematic is presented ﬁrst (aside to standard initial four chapters) follow by Integral analysis and continued by Diﬀerential analysis. BRIEF HISTORY 3 sonal experience that the knowledge and ability to know in what area the situation lay is one of the main problems. The ideal ﬂow (frictionless ﬂow) should be expanded compared to the regular treatment. conﬂicts with the reality. These two approaches have justiﬁcations and positive points.1. There were no calculations even with the great need for water supply and transportation.

two diﬀerent of school of thoughts were created: the ﬁrst believed that the solution will come from theoretical aspect alone. Weisbach. the way how it was calculated changed. Thus. The Navier-Stokes equations. On the theoretical side. Examples of such work are Hermann von Helmholtz’s concept of vortexes (1858). and many others. Rayleigh. Dupuit. Gas Dynamics. the development of dimensional analysis by Rayleigh. and Blasius and several other individuals as Nikuradse. Perhaps the most radical concept that eﬀects the ﬂuid mechanics is of Prandtl’s idea of boundary layer which is a combination of the modeling and dimensional analysis that leads to modern ﬂuid mechanics. mainly in pipes and open channels area. This demand coupled with new several novel concepts like the theoretical and experimental researches of Reynolds. people cannot relinquish control. and Manning. Fabre. INTRODUCTION TO FLUID MECHANICS This discrepancy between theory and practice is called the “D’Alembert paradox” and serves to demonstrate the limitations of theory alone in solving ﬂuid problems. d’Aubisson. But. von Karman. On the “experimental” side. the empirical formulas generated by ﬁtting curves to experimental data (even sometime merely presenting the results in tabular form) resulting in formulas that the relationship between the physics and properties made very little sense. As results it created today “strange” names: Hydrodynamics. La Grange. Hydraulics. and Poisseuille. Stanton. for example. as in thermodynamics. To- . Rose. At the end of the twenty century. Bhuckingham. There are many open source programs that can analyze many ﬂuid mechanics situations. Meyer. This problem led to two consequences. and the Kutta-Joukowski circulation theory of lift (1906). Theoreticians tried to simplify the equations and arrive at approximated solutions representing speciﬁc cases. transformed the ﬂuid mechanics to today modern science. which describes the ﬂow (or even Euler equations). Helmhoitz. after World War Two. resistance by Darcy. This concept leads to mathematical basis for many approximations. The introduction of the computers during the 60s and much more powerful personal computer has changed the ﬁeld. considerable contribution were made by Euler. Thus. Therefore. creating a matching between the two school of thoughts: experimental and theoretical. Kirchhoﬀ. at the same time proposed many correlations to many ﬂuid mechanics problems.4 CHAPTER 1. The experimentalists. Fanning. Rankine. Coulomb. Ganguillet. Prandtl and his students Blasius. Bossut. While the understanding of the fundamentals did not change much. ﬁrst Navier in the molecular level and later Stokes from continuous point of view succeeded in creating governing equations for real ﬂuid motion. were Brahms. the demand for vigorous scientiﬁc knowledge that can be applied to various liquids as opposed to formula for every ﬂuid was created by the expansion of many industries. Chezy. and Froude’s idea of the use of models change the science of the ﬂuid mechanics. The obvious happened without theoretical guidance. As in thermodynamics. Dubuat. Lanchester’s concept of circulatory ﬂow (1894). Taylor. many call Prandtl as the father of modern ﬂuid mechanics. In the middle of the nineteen century. Hagen. and the second believed that solution is the pure practical (experimental) aspect of ﬂuid mechanics. and Aeronautics. were considered unsolvable during the mid nineteen century because of the high complexity. and Kelvin.

1). Thus. In gaseous phase. It is a known fact said that the ﬂuid continuously and permanently deformed under shear stress while solid exhibits a ﬁnite deformation which does not change with time. Gas has no free interface/surface (since it does ﬁll the entire volume). For example. This is a result of division of a vector by a vector and it is referred to as tensor. sharp even though in reality this diﬀerence isn’t sharp. It must be remember that force is a vector. Thus. Inc).g it has a direction. It is evident from this discussion that when a liquid is at rest. the emphasis is on the physics. and it is referred to the direction of the area. This diﬀerentiation leads to three groups of materials: solids and liquids. In the best scenario. The diﬀerence between a gas phase to a liquid phase above the critical point are practically minor. which is force per area has a new meaning. The direction of area is perpendicular to the area.1. In this book. a change in the volume by more 5% will required tens of thousands percent change of the pressure. e. It is also said that liquid cannot return to their original state after the deformation. 1. However.3. these kinds of areas should be addressed inﬁnitesimally and locally. these programs are as good as the input provided. there are many other cases that numerical analysis cannot provide any meaningful result (trends). The area is measured in [m2 ]. EKK. it behaves like solid and under others it behaves like liquid (see Figure 1. then the change of volume is at best 5%. There are several quantities that have to be addressed in this discussion. Building a car with this accuracy is a disaster). assuming turbulent ﬂow for still ﬂow simply provides erroneous results (see for example. The unit used to measure is [N]. no weather prediction program can produce good engineering quality results (where the snow will fall within 50 kilometers accuracy. But below the critical point. any change in pressure directly aﬀects the volume. under certain limits. KINDS OF FLUIDS 5 day many problems can be analyzed by using the numerical tools and provide reasonable results. the change of water pressure by 1000% only change the volume by less than 1 percent. The main diﬀerence between the liquids and gases state is that gas will occupy the whole volume while liquids has an almost ﬁx volume. This test creates a new material group that shows dual behaviors. the pressure will not aﬀect the volume. Hence.3 Kinds of Fluids Some diﬀerentiate ﬂuid from solid by the reaction to shear stress. The gas ﬁlls the volume and liquid cannot. These programs in many cases can capture all the appropriate parameters and adequately provide a reasonable description of the physics. This diﬀerence can be. This quantity was discussed in physics class but here it has an additional meaning. no shear stress is applied. For example. The ﬁrst is force which was reviewed in physics. so at this stage the tensor will have to be broken . Area of three–dimensional object has no single direction. for most practical purposes considered. The traditional quantity. So. if the change of pressure is signiﬁcantly less than that. The study of this kind of material called rheology and it will (almost) not be discussed in this book. The ﬂuid is mainly divided into two categories: liquids and gases. The second quantity discussed here is the area.

the shear stress is considered as the y ratio of the force acting on area in the direcx tion of the forces perpendicular to area. Figure 1. INTRODUCTION TO FLUID MECHANICS into its components. the F denotes the force. The upper plate velocity generally will be U = f (A. h is the distance between the plates. and many parts of the book. The pressure component in the area direction is called pressure (great way to confuse.2 shows the density as log ℓ a function of the sample size. it will be treated as a separate issue. Consider moving the plate with a zero lubricant (h ∼ 0) (results in large force) or a large amount of lubricant (smaller force). Density as a function of ρ= ∆V −→ε lim ∆m ∆V (1. the principles of statistical mechanics must be utilized. one in the area direction and two perpendicular to the area. 1.1) the size of sample.3. the discussion on the mathematical meaning is presented (later version). The density can be changed and it is a function of time and space (location) but must have a continues property. ﬂuid cannot pull directly but through a solid surface. In solid h β mechanics. -1. here. The other two components are referred as the shear stresses. the velocity of the plate increases also. Thus. It doesn’t mean that ǫ a sharp and abrupt change in the density cannot occur. .2) Where A is the area. then.6 CHAPTER 1. -1. From solid mechanics study. it did not reach/reduced to the size where the atoms or molecular statistical calculations are signiﬁcant (see Figure 1.2. Experiments show that the increase of height will increase the velocity up to a certain range.2 for point where the green lines converge to constant density). the pressure has three components.3).stress in ﬂuid mechanics. h) (1. tance of two plates as shown in Figure (1. The units used for the pressure components is [N/m2 ]. it was shown that when the force per area increases. Consider liquid that Fig. F. After certain sample size. the density remains constant. Different from solid. When this assumption is broken. the density is deﬁned as Fig. that is. Later. For the discussion here. It referred to the fact that density is independent of the sampling size. U0x F However.4 Shear Stress ∆ℓ The shear stress is part of the pressure tensor. isn’t it?). Schematics to describe the shear undergoes a shear stress between a short dis. The density is a property which requires that ρ liquid to be continuous. It must be noted that ε is chosen so that the continuous assumption is not broken.

3) The index x represent the “direction of the shear stress while the y represent the direction of the area(perpendicular to the area).6) Where µ is called the absolute viscosity or dynamic viscosity which will be discussed later in this chapter in a great length. The deformation of ﬂuid due to shear geometry stress as progression of time. δt is d = U δt (1. the aim is to develop diﬀerential equation. δβ ∼ sin β.9) with equation (1. In steady state. d = U δt = h δβ (1. -1.9) Combining equation (1.4. applying the coeﬃcient to obtain a new equality as τxy = µ U h (1.4) and (1.4) hF A (1.4 it can be noticed that for a small angle.1.6) yields τxy = µ δβ δt (1.10) .8) it follows that U =h δβ δt (1. the regular = approximation provides Fig.7) From Figure 1. the following can be written U∝ Equations (1.5) (1. thus the small distance analysis is applicable.5) it follows that ratio of the velocity to height is proportional to shear stress. Hence. From equations (1. SHEAR STRESS 7 In this discussion. For cases where the dependency is linear.8) From equation (1.3) can be rearranged to be U F ∝ h A Shear stress was deﬁned as τxy = F A (1. the distance the t0 < t1 < t2 < t3 upper plate moves after small amount of time.4.

Some referred to shear stress as viscous ﬂux of x–momentum in the y–direction. Assume steady state conditions. This approximation is appropriate for many other ﬂuids but only within some ranges.01 End Solution Example 1. the notation of τxy is easier to understand and visualize. then it can be written for small a angel that δβ dU = δt dy (1.12) dy Newtonian ﬂuids are ﬂuids which the ratio is constant.45[N ] h 0.2: Castor oil at 25◦ C ﬁlls the space between two concentric cylinders of 0. when the outer cylinder remains stationary.8 CHAPTER 1. the viscosity is the resistance to the ﬂow (ﬂux) or the movement.9) can be interpreted as momentum in the x direction transferred into the y direction. The units of shear stress are the same as ﬂux per time as following F kg m 1 mU ˙ = A sec2 m2 A kg m 1 sec sec m2 Thus. . which is exhibited by all ﬂuids. For this kind of substance dU τxy = µ (1. Equation (1. Calculate the force that is required to drag a very thin plate of 1 [m2 ] at a speed of 0.5 ∼ = 53. It can be assumed that the plates remains in equidistant from each other and steady state is achieved instantly.5 m/sec.10) referred to as Newtonian ﬂuid. The property of viscosity. In fact. this interpretation is more suitable to explain the molecular mechanism of the viscosity. the following can be written (see equation (1. Example 1.1[m] diameters with height of 0. Thus. Calculate the torque required to rotate the inner cylinder at 12 rpm. Many ﬂuids fall into this category such as air.1 [m].6)) F = A µU 1 × 1.069 × 0. The units of absolute viscosity are [N sec/m2 ]. INTRODUCTION TO FLUID MECHANICS If the velocity proﬁle is linear between the plate (it will be shown later that it is consistent with derivations of velocity). Solution Assuming Newtonian ﬂow. These cohesion and interactions hamper the ﬂux in y–direction. water etc.11) Materials which obey equation (1.2[m] and 0. is due to the existence of cohesion and interaction between ﬂuid molecules.1: A space of 1 [cm] width between two large plane surfaces is ﬁlled with glycerin.

the molecules are more dx compact and cohesion is more dominate.5.1 General S Bi imp ng le ha m Viscosity varies widely with temperature.1 h 0. in gases. ri 2 3 = A µU ro − ri µ M= 2 π 0.5 Viscosity 1. -1. This molecular activity is known to increase with temperature.1. This theory indicates that gas viscosities vary directly with the square root of temperature.5. The diﬀerent of power ﬂuids families. thus. exchange of momentum between layers brought as a result of molecular movement normal to the general direction of ﬂow. The diﬀerence is due to their fundamentally different mechanism creating visτ cosity characteristics.986 0.5. and it resists the ﬂow. VISCOSITY Solution The velocity is rps 9 ˙ U = r θ = 2 π ri rps = 2 × π × 0. In gases.1). This reasoning is a result of the considerations of the kinetic theory. temperature variation has an opposite eﬀect on the viscosities of liqτ0 uids and gases. ic op molecules are sparse and cohetr o ix th sion is negligible.4 π ri Where rps is revolution per second.1 × 12/60 = 0. the Fig. In liquids. the momentum exchange due to molecular movement is small compared to the cohesive forces between the molecules.4 ¡ ∼ . Thus. However. the viscosity of gases will increase with temperature. the moment can be calculated as the force times the distance as ri 2 π ri h M =F In this case ro − ri = h thus. Thus. while in the dU liquids. the viscosity is st ic op ne Ne ti c ps eu d ei op ec R re h wt on ia n r-P hi la lip po ff di la ta nt . The same way as in example (1.0078[N m] h ¡ End Solution 1.

2 Non–Newtonian Fluids In equation (1. The lines in the above diagrams are only to show constant pressure lines. Not all the materials obey this relationship.5).5. This Fig. Fig. There is a large class of materials which shows a non-linear relationship with velocity for any shear stress. Figure 1. the coeﬃcient depends on the velocity gradient. the pressure has minor eﬀect on the viscosity. Since these forces decrease rapidly with increases of temperature. This class of materials can be approximated by a single polynomial term that is a = bxn .6. 1. There is no such a thing of viscosity at 30% liquid. INTRODUCTION TO FLUID MECHANICS primarily dependent on the magnitude of these cohesive forces. Well above the critical point.7. both materials are only a function of the temperature. but this variation is negligible for most engineering problems.6 demonstrates that viscosity increases slightly with pressure. -1. On the liquid side below the critical point. Oils have the greatest increase of viscosity with pressure which is a good thing for many engineering purposes.10 CHAPTER 1. Nitrogen (left) and Argon (right) viscosity as a function of the temperature and pressure after Lemmon and Jacobsen. It simply depends on the structure of the ﬂow as will be discussed in the chapter on multi phase ﬂow. From the physical point of view. liquid viscosities decrease as temperature increases. . -1. It must be stress that the viscosity in the dome is meaningless. the relationship between the velocity and the shear stress was assumed to be linear. The shear stress as a function relationship is referred to as power relationship of the shear rate.

0014 0.0024 0. this kind of ﬁgures isn’t used in regular engineering practice. The reason for this new deﬁnition is that some experimental data are given in this form. The liquids which satisfy equation (1. eds. 1.0018 0. the liquid is dilettante. F.00002 The kinematic viscosity is another way to look at the viscosity. Air viscosity as a function combination of kinematic terms). is above one.7. When n is below one. which are acceleration units (a Fig.e-06 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Temperature [◦ C ] May 1. The general relationship for simple Bingham ﬂow is τxy = −µ ± τ0 dUx =0 dy if |τyx | > τ0 (1. Mindess and J.0004 0.8. The Newtonian part of the model has to be replaced by power liquid.0008 0. K) in equation (1.003 0.16) ρ 0.0028 0. When n.15) There are materials that simple Bingham model does not provide dequate explanation and a more sophisticate model is required. However.000015 0. Fluids that show increase in the viscosity (with increase of the shear) referred to as thixotropic and those that show decrease are called reopectic ﬂuids (see Figure 1.002 0. the name “kinematic” viscosity.14) if |τyx | < τ0 (1.5).0002 5. Many ﬂuids satisfy the above equation. according to Ferraris at el3 concrete behaves as shown in Figure 1.001 sec µ[ Nm2 ] 1. Ferraris.. Skalny. for most practical purposes. The kinematic viscosity is deﬁned as µ ν= (1.0006 0. VISCOSITY and it can be written as viscosity 11 τ =K dU dx n−1 dU dx (1.e-05 0.13) The new coeﬃcients (n. 215-241 (2001) m ν[ sec ] 2 . This fact explains of the temperature. For example.0016 0. The above equation shows that the dimensions of ν to be square meter per second.1. -1. These results also explained better using the new deﬁnition. [m2 /sec].000025 0. In the simple case. When n = 1 equation represent Newtonian ﬂuid and K becomes the familiar µ. the “liquid side” is like Newtonian ﬂuid for large shear stress.5. 2008 3 C. The viscosity coeﬃcient is always positive. S. de Larrard and N. the ﬂuid is pseudoplastic.13) are referred to as purely viscous ﬂuids.0012 0.0022 0.0026 0. Materials Science of Concrete VI. Martys.5.13) are constant. The kinematic viscosity embraces both the viscosity and density properties of a ﬂuid. Materials which behave up to a certain shear stress as a solid and above it as a liquid are referred as Bingham liquids.3 Kinematic Viscosity Air absolute & kinematic viscosity Atmospheric Pressure 0.

00001827 × × 0.8 and 1.17) Example 1. Solution Applying the constants from Suthelnd’s table provides 0. INTRODUCTION TO FLUID MECHANICS The gas density decreases with the temperature. The variations of air and water as a function of the temperature at atmospheric pressure are plotted in Figures 1. the viscosity can be considered constant in many cases. -1.555 × 800 + 120 800 524.12 CHAPTER 1. . 2008 0. Water viscosity as a funchave expressions that provide an estimate. Sutherland’s equation is used and according to the literature. 4 This author is ambivalent about this statement. 1.3: Calculate the viscosity of air at 800K based on Sutherland’s equation. The observed viscosity is about ∼ 3.07 3 2 ∼ 2.51 10−5 N sec m2 N sec m2 The viscosity increases almost by 40%.5.9.002 The absolute viscosity of many ﬂuids relatively doesn’t change with the pressure but very sensitive to temperature.001 0. Use the data provide in Table 1. the kinematic viscosity also increase with the temperature for many materials.555 × 524.0015 m ν[ sec ] 2 µ[ N sec ] m2 0. However.4 Estimation of The Viscosity Water absolute and kinematic viscosity Atmospheric Pressure 0. For isothermal ﬂow. provides reasonable results4 for the range of −40◦ C to 1600◦ C 0. The increase of the absolute viscosity with the temperature is enough to overcome the increase of density and thus. T T0 3 2 (1. Some common materials (pure and mixture) Fig.9.555 Tin + Suth Where . For many tion temperature.710−5 End Solution .07 + 120 µ = 0.1.555 Ti0 + Suth µ = µ0 0.0005 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Temperature [◦ C ] May 1. gases.

.0000109 0.00001720 0.0002018 0.2.05 528.0000876 0.67 528.0001254 ammonia standard air carbon dioxide carbon monoxide hydrogen nitrogen oxygen sulfur dioxide Table -1.93 540.00000982 0. Substance Chemical formula i − C4 H10 CH4 CO2 O2 Hg Temperature T [◦ C] 23 20 20 20 380 Viscosity [ N sec ] m2 0.1.0000203 0.5.57 µ0 (N sec/m2 ) 0. The list for Sutherland’s equation coeﬃcients for selected materials.99 526.0001781 0.00001480 0. VISCOSITY 13 coeﬃcients Chemical formula Material N H3 CO2 CO H2 N2 O2 SO2 Sutherland 370 120 240 118 72 111 127 416 TiO [K] 527.07 527. Viscosity of selected gases.0000076 0.67 524.00001827 0.0000654 oxygen mercury vapor Table -1.67 518.0000146 0.1.

5 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 Li Na K Hg Pb Temperature [◦ C ] May 1.10. Chemical component Chemical formula (C2 H5 )O C6 H6 Br2 C2 H5 OH Hg H2 SO4 Temperature T [◦ C] 20 20 26 20 25 25 25 25 25 20 ∼ 25◦ C ∼ 25◦ C ∼ 20◦ C ∼ 25◦ C ∼ 20◦ C 20 Viscosity [ N sec ] m2 0. Figure 1.5 Liquid metal can be considered as a Newtonian ﬂuid for many applications. the metal behavior can Fig. Washington D.3. Furthermore.5 1. -1.000946 0. Liquid metals viscosity as a function of the temperature. Atomic Energy Commission AECD-3646 U.01915 0.54 1. Vol.10 exhibits several liquid metals (from The Reactor Handbook. Even when there is a solidiﬁcation (mushy zone). May 1995 p. INTRODUCTION TO FLUID MECHANICS Table -1. 258.0 0.0 1.001194 0.986 5-20 0.000245 0.072 0. 2008 The General Viscosity Graphs . Government Printing Oﬃce.C.001547 0. be estimated as a Newtonian material (further reading can be done in this author’s book “Fundamentals of Die Casting Design”).05 0.000647 0.6 0.) 2. many aluminum alloys are behaving as a Newtonian liquid until the ﬁrst solidiﬁcation appears (assuming steady state thermodynamics properties).098 0.069 Olive Oil Castor Oil Clucuse Corn Oil SAE 30 SAE 50 SAE 70 Ketchup Ketchup Benzene Firm glass Glycerol Liquid Metals sec µ[ Nm2 ] Liquid Metal viscosity 2.14 CHAPTER 1.200 0.15-0. Viscosity of selected liquids.S.084 0.000652 ∼ 1 × 107 1.

In this graph. Example 1.6 26.4 49. The critical pressure can be evaluated in the following three ways. The second way.3 5.183 39.1.4.11 (1.5.4: Estimate the viscosity of oxygen.18) The third way.0 15.97 44. when none is available.9 15 Table -1.11 obtain the reduced viscosity.7 647.00 30.4 or similar information. The simplest way is by obtaining the data from Table 1. for practical purpose.40685 22.3 19. VISCOSITY Chemical component H2 He Ne Ar Xe Air “mixed” CO2 O2 C 2 H6 CH4 Water Molecular Weight 2.01 32. Tr .064 [MPa] µc [ N sec ] m2 3.289945 27.9696 2. if the information is available and is close enough to the critical point. Hougen et al suggested to use graph similar to compressibility chart. The properties at the critical stage and their values of selected materials.8823 73.865925 50. .3 28. In case “ordinary” ﬂuids where information is limit.26 44.4 190. The lower pressure is. is by utilizing the following approximation µc = M Tc vc 2/3 ˜ (1.54 15.944 131.2 154.0 18.0 21.003 20.358525 48. 19.11 the relative viscosity µr = µ/µc is plotted as a function of relative temperature.07 16. Furthermore.016 4. In Figure 1. Or ˜ √ µc = M Pc 2/3 Tc −1/6 (1. The lines of constant relative pressure.8 132 304.04 Tc [K] 33.636 58. then the critical viscosity is obtained as given µc = µ µr ﬁgure 1.83865 46. this graph also shows the trends.7685 36.4 305.096 K Pc [Bar] 12.20) Calculate the reduced pressure and the reduced temperature and from the Figure 1. if one point is well documented.19) Where vc is the critical molecular volume and M is molecular weight.5 151 289. ∼ 1[bar]. µc is the viscosity at critical condition and µ is the viscosity at any given condition. other points can be estimated. O2 at 100◦ C and 20[Bar].256425 48. Pr = P/Pc are drawn.47 2.

Physical Chemistry Japan Vol. 2 1956. In this book. n is the number of the chemical components in the mixture. xi is the mole fraction of component i. Even for homogeneous mixture. The mixture viscosity is highly nonlinear function of the fractions of the components. For most cases. O2 and 80% nitrogen N2 for the temperature of 20◦ C. only the mixture of low density gases is discussed for analytical expression. Rev.4 µc = 18 value of the reduced temperature is Tr ∼ The value of the reduced pressure is Pr ∼ 20 ∼ 0. Makita. The subscript i should be used for the j index.15 ∼ 2.35[Bar] Tc = 154. the following Wilke’s correlation for gas at low density provides a result in a reasonable range. and µi is the viscosity of component i.2 and the predicted viscosity is T able µ = µc µ µc = 18 × 1.6[N sec/m2 ] The observed value is 24[N sec/m2 ]5 . Example 1.5: Calculate the viscosity of a mixture (air) made of 20% oxygen. End Solution Viscosity of Mixtures In general the viscosity of liquid mixture has to be evaluated experimentally.22) Here.35 373. The dimensionless parameter Φij is equal to one when i = j.4 50.4 N sec m2 The From Figure 1. INTRODUCTION TO FLUID MECHANICS The critical condition of oxygen are Pc = 50. n µmix = i=1 xi µi n j=1 xi Φij (1.11 it can be obtained µr ∼ 1. . there isn’t silver bullet to estimate the viscosity.16 Solution CHAPTER 1. 26 No. 5 Kyama.41 154.21) where Φi j is deﬁned as 1 Φij = √ 8 Mi 1+ Mj 1+ µi µj 4 Mj Mi 2 (1.2 = 21.

2008 Fig. x 0. Reduced viscosity as function of the reduced temperature.1. VISCOSITY 17 Reduced Viscosity 2 10 liquid 5 dense gas Reduced Viscosity µ µc 2 two-phase region 1 critical point Pr=LD Pr=0. M 32.11. Mole Fraction. -1.8 Viscosity.00001754 .5 Pr=1 Pr=2 Pr=3 Pr=5 Pr=25 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 0 5 2 2 3 T Tc 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 1 Reduced Temperature May 27.5.2 0.2 Pr=0. µ 0. Solution The following table summarize the known details i 1 2 Component O2 N2 Molecular Weight. 28.0000203 0.

8 × 0. Reduced viscosity as function of the reduced temperature.157 . End Solution .0 µi /µj 1.0 µmix ∼ 0.0000181 0.4 Tr=1.0 + 0.8 Tr=1 Tr=1.00001754 N sec + ∼ 0. i 1 2 j 1 2 1 2 Mi /Mj 1.0 Φij 1.996 1.0 m2 N sec m2 The observed value is ∼ 0.875 1.8 × 1.0 1.2 × 0.2 × 1.2 × 0.996 + 0.143 0.18 6 CHAPTER 1.8 × 1.1 Tr=1.0024 0. INTRODUCTION TO FLUID MECHANICS 5 Tr=0.0 1.6 Tr=2 Tr=3 µ µ0 4 Reduced viscosity 3 2 1 -1 10 2 5 1 2 5 10 2 P Reduced Pressure [ Pc ] June 2.2 Tr=1.86 1. 2008 Fig. -1.0 1.12.0024 0.0000182 .0000203 0.

23) provides reasonable value only up to 2 m τ = 0.26) Example 1. In this method the following are deﬁned as mixed critical pressure as n Pc the mixed critical temperature is mix = i=1 xi Pc i (1. To estimate the viscosity of the mixture with n component Hougen and Watson’s method for pseudocritial properties is adapted. in theory. For gases with very long molecular structure or complexity structure these formulas cannot be applied.5.24) n Tc and the mixed critical viscosity is mix = i=1 xi Tc i (1.0000073 kN .25) n µc mix = i=1 xi µc i (1. The term τs is the characteristic shear stress of the mixture. The term µ0 is the experimental viscosity at shear stress approaching zero. VISCOSITY 19 In very low pressure. m2 Figure 1.001 kN .1.6: . For some mixtures of two liquids it was observed that at a low shear stress. Reiner and Phillippoﬀ suggested the following formula 1 µ0 − µ∞ τ xy dUx µ + 2 = ∞ (1. µ0 = 0. for Molten Sulfur at temperature 120◦ C are µ∞ = 0. The higher viscosity is more dominate at low shear stress.12 can be used for a crude estimate of dense gases mixture. the viscosity is only a function of the temperature with a “simple” molecular structure.0215 N sec . An example for values for this formula. the viscosity is dominated by a liquid with high viscosity and at high shear stress to be dominated by a liquid with the low viscosity liquid.23) τxy dy 1 + τs Where the term µ∞ is the experimental value at high shear stress.00105 N sec . m2 m2 and τs = 0. This equation (1.

VII.4 revolution per second (these number represent only academic question not real value of actual Fig. Control volume around the inner cylinder shows that moment is a function of the area and shear stress.101 [m] radius and the cylinders h length is 0.14[m/s] (1.VI.13.0 [kN] with a side surfaces area of 0. i der. The velocity at the inner cylinders surface is Ui = r ω = 0.2 × 100 2 End Solution (1.1 The used moment is A τ M = 2 π ri h µ or the viscosity is µ= M dU 2 π ri 2 h dr = dU dr ri (1.b) = 100sec−1 = dr 0.VI. -1. The oil creates a distance between the block and the inclined surface of 1 × 10−6 [m]. Solution The moment or the torque is transmitted through the liquid to the outer cylinder. The viscosity of the oil is 3 × 10−5 [m2 /sec]. Concentrating cylinliquid).c) 1 = 2 × π × 0.4[rad/second] = 3.d) Example 1.1 [m] U ro rotates concentrically within a ﬁxed cylinri der of 0. The velocity gradient may be assumed to be linear.2 [m].VI.a) The velocity at the outer cylinder surface is zero. The shear stress calculations can be estimated as a linear between the two concentric cylinders.1 − 0 (1.a) .7: A square block weighing 1. INTRODUCTION TO FLUID MECHANICS An inside cylinder with a radius of 0. hence.101 − 0. What is the speed of the block at steady state? Assuming a linear velocity proﬁle in the oil and that the whole oil is under steady state.1 × 31. The surface is covered with oil ﬁlm. dU ∼ 0. Solution The shear stress at the surface is estimated for steady state by τ =µ U dU = 3 × 10−5 × = 30 U dx 1 × 10−6 (1.20 CHAPTER 1. Estimate the liquid viscosity used ders with the rotating inner cylinbetween the cylinders.1 × 0. It is given that a moment of 1 [N × m] is required to maintain an angular velocity of 31.VI.1 [m2 ] slides down an incline surface with an angle of 20◦ C.

c) 1 × 9. The shear stress can be estimated as U ωr τ ∼µ =µ = δ δ This torque can be integrated for the entire area as τ R R (1.d) Example 1.VII. The shear stress can be assumed to be linear. Solution δ R r Fig.5.b) The gravity force that acting against the friction is equal to the friction hence Fg = f = 3 U =⇒ U = Or the solution is U= m g sin 20◦ 3 (1.VIII.VIII.1.VII.b) The results of the integration is T = π µ ω R4 2δ (1.8: Develop an expression to estimate of the torque required to rotate a disc in a narrow gap.8 × sin 20◦ 3 End Solution (1. r and an expression has to be developed. VISCOSITY The total ﬁction force is then f = τ A = 0. -1. the diﬀerential area also increases and is a function of r.a) T = 0 r τ dA = 0 r ωr µ 2 π r dr δ dA (1. Rotating disc in a steady state.1 × 30 U = 3 U 21 (1.VIII. Additionally. In this cases the shear stress is a function of the radius. The edge eﬀects can be neglected. The gap is given and equal to δ and the rotation speed is ω.VII.c) End Solution .14.

0 75.0 175. State your assumptions. Due to the change temperature the tank.0 125. 7 This value is actually of Bulk modulus.15 × 109 (N/m2 )7 . Solution 6 The deﬁnition of Young’s modulus is E = σ where in this case σ can be estimated as the pressure change.0 50. The rest of the properties lumped into this section. Example 1. (strong steel structure) undergoes linear expansion of 8 × 10−6 per ◦ C. Examples to describe the usage of property are provided. A discussion of viscosity and surface tension should be part of this section but because special importance these topics have separate sections.15.22 CHAPTER 1.6.9: A steel tank ﬁlled with water undergoes heating from 10◦ C to 50◦ C.0 25. Water density as a function of temperature for various pressure. INTRODUCTION TO FLUID MECHANICS 1. This ﬁgure illustrates the typical situations like the one that appear in Example 1.1 Fluid Density Water Density As A Function of Temperature and Pressure 0.6 Fluid Properties The ﬂuids have many properties which are similar to solid. 2011 Fig.9 The density is a property that is simple to analyzed and understand. The deﬁnition of is the ratio length change to to total length ∆L/L. The density is related to the other state properties such temperature and pressure through the equation of state or similar. -1.0 150. Assume that the Young modulus of the water is 2. E denotes the Young’s modulus6 .0 1010 1005 ∂P dρ ∂ρ ρ kg m3 1000 995 990 ∂P dT ∂T 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 985 T [◦C] March 15.0 100. 1.5 1. . Calculate the pressure at the end of the process. The initial pressure can be assumed to atmospheric.

6.c) 1 + α∆ T = 1 − Thus the ﬁnal pressure is ∆P E (1. ρ2 ∝ 1 (L2 ) 3 =⇒ ρ2 ∼ = m L1 1 − ∆P E 3 (1. the density at end is also known mw ρ2 = (1. Thus. The tank volume change under the assumptions state here but in the same time the tank walls remain straight. For this example. T ) thus ∼βv ∼E dP = 8 This ∂P ∂v dv + ∂P ∂T dT (1. The water pressure at the end of the process is unknown but the volume is known. it is assumed that the expansion due to pressure change is negligible. If the expansion of the water is taken into account then the change (increase) of water volume has to be taken into account.e) P2 = P1 − E α ∆ T In this case.IX.IX.g) T2 |tank The pressure is a function volume and the temperature P = P (v.b) It can be noticed that ρ1 ∼ m/L1 3 and thus = ρ1 3 = (1 + α∆ T ) The change is then ρ1 1− ∆P E 3 (1.IX. V2 3 = (1 + α∆T ) (1. Thus. The tank volume was calculated earlier and since the claim of “strong” steel the volume of the tank is only eﬀected by the temperature.IX.f) V1 tank The volume of the water undergoes also a change and is a function of the temperature and pressure. what happen when the value of P1 − E α ∆ T becomes negative or very very small? The basic assumption falls and the water evaporates.IX.h) leads E (L2 − L1 ) = ∆P L1 . The new density is ρ1 ρ2 = 3 (1 + α∆ T ) (1.1. FLUID PROPERTIES 23 The expansion of the steel tank will be due to two contributions: one due to the thermal expansion and one due to the pressure increase in the tank.IX. As estimated 3 value of the density using Young’s modulus and V2 ∝ (L2 ) 8 .d) (1.IX. L2 = L1 (1 − ∆P/E) .IX.a) thermal expansion The more accurate calculations require looking into the steam tables.

6. It can be noted that this property is not the result of the equation of state but related to it.80 1. ∆ρ < 0. Table -1.15 × 109 ∆T ∆ρ (1. End Solution 1.27) into BT = ρ ∂P ∂ρ (1. The reason that liquid has diﬀerent coeﬃcient is because it is three dimensional verse one dimension that appear in regular spring.8 [Bar] 48 [Bar] 4.4 K Pc 57.IX.j) (1.IX.28) T The bulk modulus for several selected liquids is presented in Table 1. The bulk modulus is a measure of the energy can be stored in the liquid. Bulk modulus is usually obtained from experimental or theoretical or semi theoretical (theory with experimental work) to ﬁt energy–volume data.0002 + 2. liquids have a property that describes the volume change as results of pressure change for constant temperature. Chemical component Acetic Acid Acetone Benzene Carbon Tetrachloride Bulk Modulus 109 N m 2. The bulk modulus for selected material with the critical temperature and pressure na −→ not available and nf −→ not found (exist but was not found in the literature). Most (theoretical) studies are obtained by uniformly changing the unit cells in global energy variations especially for isotropic systems ( where the molecules has a structure with cubic symmetries).10 1.i) Notice that density change.49 0. INTRODUCTION TO FLUID MECHANICS As approximation it can written as ∆P = βv ∆v + E ∆T Substituting the values results for ∆P = 0. The bulk modulus is deﬁned as BT = −v ∂P ∂v (1.5. This coeﬃcient is analogous to the coeﬃcient of spring.32 Tc 593K 508 K 562 K 556.49 [MPa] .5.27) T Using the identity of v = 1/ρ transfers equation (1.74 [MPa] 4.2 Bulk Modulus Similar to solids (hook’s law).24 CHAPTER 1.

additional expansions for similar parameters are deﬁned.064 [MPa] In the literature.34 1.32) reduces 0= ∂P ∂T dT + v ∂P ∂v dv T (1.2-28. FLUID PROPERTIES Table -1. The thermal expansion is deﬁned as βP = 1 v ∂v ∂T (1.60 1.00 [MPa] Est 78. These deﬁnitions are related to each other. v) The full pressure derivative is dP = ∂P ∂T dT + v (1. and therefore equation (1.52 26.79 K na 647. This relationship is obtained by the observation that the pressure as a function of the temperature and speciﬁc volume as P = f (T.174 Tc 514 K nf 850 K 1750 K Est 513 nf nf nf na na 591.28 2.096 K Pc 6.30) v This parameter indicates the change of the pressure due to the change of temperature (where v = constant).20 1.6.62 1.1.15-2.06 1.5 [Bar] nf nf nf na na 4.32) On constant pressure lines.3 4.109 [MPa] na 22.31) ∂P ∂v dv T (1.29) P This parameter indicates the change of volume due to temperature change when the pressure is constant.33) .5. dP = 0.5 2. Another deﬁnition is referred as coeﬃcient of tension and it is deﬁned as βv = 1 P ∂P ∂T (1.3 [Mpa] nf 7.03-4. Bulk modulus for selected materials (continue) 25 Chemical component Ethyl Alcohol Gasoline Glycerol Mercury Methyl Alcohol Nitrobenzene Olive Oil Paraﬃn Oil SAE 30 Oil Seawater Toluene Turpentine Water Bulk Modulus N 109 m 1.09 1.5 0.97 2.5 [Bar] 172.

The increase of the pressure increases the bulk modulus due to the molecules increase of the rejecting forces between each other when they are closer.10: Calculate the modulus of liquid elasticity that reduced 0.26 CHAPTER 1.33) follows that dv dT ∂P ∂T ∂P ∂v =− P =const v (1.11: Calculate the pressure needed to apply on water to reduce its volume by 1 per cent.34) indicates that relationship for these three coeﬃcients is βT = − βv βP (1.035 per cent of its volume by applying a pressure of 5[Bar] in a s slow process. Solution Using the deﬁnition for the bulk modulus ∆P ∼ βT ∆v ∼ 2. Example 1. the temperature increase results in reduction of the bulk of modulus because the molecular are further away.15 107 [N/m2 ] = 215[Bar] v End Solution Example 1.15 109 . INTRODUCTION TO FLUID MECHANICS From equation (1. In contrast. Solution Using the deﬁnition for the bulk modulus βT = −v ∂P ∂v v 5 ∆P = ∆v 0.12: .00035 End Solution 14285.34) T Equation (1.35) sometimes is used in measurement of the bulk modulus.35) The last equation (1. Assume the temperature to be 20◦ C.714[Bar] Example 1.01 = 2.

c) End Solution Example 1. P1 = P0 + ρ g h.6.16. ∆h1+2 = ∆P h1 h2 + BT 1 BT 2 (1.55 ∗ 10−7 BT Another user suggest that: We are supposed to use the bulk modulus from our textbook. The area of the tank is A and liquid A height is h1 and liquid B height is h2 . P1 = −BT ∆V /V with the suggested solution of “I am assuming that I have to look for ∆V as that would be the water that comes out causing the change in volume.1.” −V ∆P = −1. A cylindrical steel pressure vessel with volume 1. (1. The new pressure is P1 .31 m3 is to be tested. Estimate the change of the heights of the liquids depicted in the Figure 1. Initially the pressure in the tank is P0 . State your assumptions. ∆V = . Solution The volume change in a liquid is BT ∼ = Hence the change for the any liquid is ∆h = ∆P h ∆P = A BT /V BT ∆P ∆V /V 27 air (or gas) Oil (liquid 1) h1 Water (liquid 2) h2 Fig.XII. and that one is 0.31(1000)/(0.2 × 101 0N/m2 . FLUID PROPERTIES Two layers of two diﬀerent liquids are contained in a very solid tank. The liquids are compressed due to the pressure increases.b) The total change when the hydrostatic pressure is ignored. Two liquid layers under pressure.2×1010 .XII.XII.2 × 1010 )∆V = 6. -1.a) (1.13: A In the Internet the following problem ( here with LTEX modiﬁcation) was posted which related to Pushka equation. How many liters of water come out? Relevant equations and data suggested by the user were: BT = 0.16. a safety plug on the top bursts. then a piston at one end of the cylinder is pushed in until the pressure inside the vessel has increased by 1000 kPa. The vessel is entirely ﬁlled with water. Suddenly.

XIII. The process involve some thermodynamics identities to be connected. is 0. Since the pressure is related or a function of density and temperature it follows that P = P (ρ. So with this bulk modulus.b) Equation (1.c) ρ dP 1 ∂P ρ = P P ∂ρ T 1 ∂P dρ + ρ P ∂T The deﬁnitions that were provided before can be used to write ρ dP 1 = BT dρ + ρ βv dT P P The inﬁnitesimal change of density will be then 1 ρ dP BT dρ = − ρ βv dT P P or dρ = ρ dP ρ P βv dT − BT BT (1. the process is isentropic. 9 The . Solution It is assumed that this process can be between two extremes: one isothermal and one isentropic. End Solution shock wave velocity is related to square of elasticity of the water.f) Thus.XIII. If the shock wave is ignored (too advance material for this book9 . Thus the characteristic time for the shock is S/c when S is a typical dimension of the tank and c is speed of sound of the water in the tank.a) Hence the full diﬀerential is dP = ∂P ∂ρ dρ + T ∂P ∂T dT ρ (1. What is a better way to solve this problem.XIII.XIII.b) can be multiplied by ρ/P to be BT βv dT ρ (1. INTRODUCTION TO FLUID MECHANICS Anything else would give a wrong answer in the system. the calculation that were provide on line need to have corrections by subtracting the second terms.d) (1.e) (1.28 CHAPTER 1.). T ) (1.XIII.XIII. The assumption of isentropic process is applicable after a shock wave that travel in the tank.XIII.655L right? In this post several assumptions were made.

FLUID PROPERTIES 29 Example 1.b) V −V BT In the Chapter on static it will be shown that the change pressure is x ∆P = g 0 ρ(x)dx (1.XIV.e) to 1− g BT x ρ(x)dx = 0 ρ0 ρ(x) (1.12.XIV. In one method assume that the density is remain constant until the bottom. It is convenient to change further equation (1. In some places the ocean depth is many kilometers (the deepest places is more than 10 kilometers).b) with equation (1.e) 0 Equation (1. .f) The integral equation (1.e) is an integral equation which is discussed in the appendix10 . calculate the density change in the bottom of 10 kilometers using two methods.XIV.6.XIV.c) yields ρ(x) = g V −V Equation can be rearranged to be ρ(x) = V 1− m g BT x 0 m x ρ(x)dx BT ρ0 1− g BT x (1. Solution For the the ﬁrst method the density is BT ∼ = ∆P ∆P =⇒ ∆V = V ∆V /V BT (1.XIV.XIV.XIV.XIV.c) Combining equation (1.XIV.g) construction .1.XIV.XIV.a) The density at the surface is ρ = m/V and the density at point x from the surface the density is m m ρ(x) = =⇒ ρ(x) = ∆P V − ∆V (1. For this example.f) can be converted to diﬀerential equation when the two sides under diﬀerentiation g ρ0 d ρ(x) ρ(x) + =0 BT ρ(x)2 dx 10 Under (1.d) =⇒ ρ(x) = ρ(x)dx ρ(x)dx 0 (1.14: The hydrostatic pressure was neglected in example 1.XIV. In the second method assume that the density is a function of the pressure.

j) The integration constant can be found by the fact that the density at the x = 0 is ρ0 ρ0 = ρ0 B T BT =⇒ c = 2 g (c) 2 g ρ0 (1.XIV.XV.XIV. For constant bulk modulus.m) BT − g ρ0 x 1− g ρ0 x BT End Solution Advance material can be skipped Example 1.XIV.XIV.a) Calculate the time it take for a sound wave to propagate perpendicularly to the surface to a depth D (perpendicular to the straight surface). the solution is ρ = ρ0 ρ0 BT 2 g ρ0 x + BT (1.XIV. the salinity can be completely ignored.15: Water in deep sea undergoes compression due to hydrostatic pressure. Solution The equation for the sound speed is taken here as correct for very local point.e) was ρ0 ρ0 B T ρ= =⇒ g (1.l) In the “constant” density approach. .XIV.i) or rearranged as ρ= (1. it was shown in “Fundamentals of Compressible Flow” by this author that the speed of sound is c= BT ρ (1. the density at the bottom using equation (1.30 or CHAPTER 1.k) Substituting the integration constant. That is the density is function of the depth.XIV.h) The solution is (1. INTRODUCTION TO FLUID MECHANICS g ρ(x)3 d ρ(x) + =0 B T ρ0 dx ρ0 BT =x+c 2 g ρ2 ρ0 BT 2 g (x + c) (1. Assume that no variation of the temperature. For the purpose of this exercise. However.

In this short section a discussion about the bulk modulus averaged is presented.f) (1.c) The time takes for the sound the travel the whole distance is the integration of inﬁnitesimal time D dx (1.XV. The speed of sound at any depth point.1 Bulk Modulus of Mixtures In the discussion above it was assumed that the liquid is pure.b) The time the sound travel a small interval distance.36) . is c= BT = ρ0 BT BT − g ρ0 x BT − g ρ 0 x ρ0 (1.XV.d) is t= √ ρ0 2 BT − 2 BT − D (1. dx is dτ = dx BT − g ρ 0 x ρ0 (1.d) t= BT − g ρ0 x ρ0 - 0 The solution of equation (1.e) The time to travel according to the standard procedure is √ D ρ0 D t= = √ BT BT ρ0 The ratio between the corrected estimated to the standard calculation is √ √ √ ρ0 2 B T − 2 B T − D √ correction ratio = D ρ0 √ BT End Solution (1.6. The deﬁnition of the bulk modulus is given by equation (1.XV. x.6.XV.27) or (1. FLUID PROPERTIES 31 the density is diﬀerent for every point since the density varies and the density is a function of the depth.XV.g) 1. When more than one liquid are exposed to pressure the value of these two (or more liquids) can have to be added in special way.XV.1.2.28) and can be written (where the partial derivative can looks as delta ∆ as ∂V = V ∂P ∼ V ∆P = BT BT (1.XV.

Hence.39) can be written as ∂V = V ∂P x1 x2 xi + + ··· + BT 1 BT 2 BT i ∼ V ∆P = x1 x2 xi + + ··· + BT 1 BT 2 BT i (1. . INTRODUCTION TO FLUID MECHANICS The total change is compromised by the change of individual liquids or phases if two materials are present.38) (1.37) results in ∂V = V1 ∂P V2 ∂P Vi ∂P ∼ V1 ∆P V2 ∆P Vi ∆P + + ··· + + + ··· + = BT 1 BT 2 BT i BT 1 BT 2 BT i (1. Thus.40) yields v ∂P ∼ ∆P = =v ∂v ∆v 1 x1 x2 xi + + ··· + BT 1 BT 2 BT i (1.39) Where x1 .41) suggested an averaged new bulk modulus BT mix = 1 x1 x2 xi + + ··· + BT 1 BT 2 BT i (1.41) Equation (1. In case the total change isn’t.42) In that case the equation for mixture can be written as v 11 End Advance material 11 To ∂P = BT mix ∂v (1. using this identity and the fact that the pressure is change for all the phase uniformly equation (1. another approach with taking into account the energy-volume is needed. Even in some cases of emulsion (a suspension of small globules of one liquid in a second liquid with which the ﬁrst will not mix) the total change is the summation of the individuals change. x2 and xi are the fraction volume such as xi = Vi /V .40) Rearranging equation (1. the total change is ∂V = ∂V1 + ∂V2 + · · · ∂Vi ∼ ∆V1 + ∆V2 + · · · ∆Vi = Substituting equation (1.43) be added in the future the eﬀect of change of chemical composition on bulk modulus. V = x1 V + x1 V + · · · + xi V (1.37) Under the main assumption in this model the total volume is comprised of the individual volume hence. in special mixture.36) into equation (1.32 CHAPTER 1.

the commercial hydraulic ﬂuid can change due to friction by 50◦ C.2 When the Bulk Modulus is Important? and Hydraulics System 33 There are only several situations in which the bulk modulus is important. It also responsible for the breakage of a liquid R1 jet into other medium/phase to R2 dℓ1 many drops (atomization). When the surface tension is constant. The pressure on one side is Pi and the pressure on the other side is Po . SURFACE TENSION 1.Fig. Cosmology.7 Surface Tension The surface tension manifested it2dβ1 self by a rise or depression of the y liquid at the free surface edge. when the liquid volume or density is function of the pressure (and temperature due the friction) the movement of the other object is unpredictable. In many (physics. Consider a small element of surface. There is a common misconception for the source of the surface tension.6. surface tension. Surface tension control volume analysis detween two adjoined phases or ma. This erroneous explanation can be traced to Adam’s book but earlier source may be found. For very accurate and rapid systems. the horizontal forces cancel each other because symmetry. and ﬂuid mechanics) books explained that the surface tension is a result from unbalance molecular cohesive forces. The change of the bulk modulus by this amount can change the response time signiﬁcantly. terials. 1.2. In practical situations. The Pushka equation normally can address the situations in deep ocean and geological system. Surface tension results from a sharp change in the density be. For theoretical or hypothetical liquids which moving one object (surface) results in movement of the other object under the condition that liquid volume is ﬁx. The hydraulic system normally refers to system in which a liquid is used to transmit forces (pressure) for surface of moving object (normally piston) to another. 2dβ2 Surface tension is also responsidℓ2 ble for the creation of the drops and bubbles. -1. The bulk modulus for the same liquid change by more 60%. The x surface tension is force per length and is measured by [N/m] and is acting to stretch the surface. deep ocean (on several occasions). The only issue that was not address is the eﬀect on hydraulic systems. This explanation is wrong since it is in conﬂict with Newton’s second law (see example ?). The relationship between the surface tension and the pressure on the two sides of the surface is based on geometry.1.scribing principles radii. the temperature and pressure varies during the operation. In the vertical . This author is not aware of any special issues that involve in Cosmology as opposed to geological system. These situations include hydraulic systems. geology system like the Earth.17.7.

34 CHAPTER 1. the pressure diﬀerence has to balance the surface tension. it can be noticed that d i ∼ 2 Ri dβi . Thus.46) Other extreme is for a sphere for which the main radii are the same and equation (1. thus the pressure inside the bubble is ∆P = 4σ R (1.16: A glass tube is inserted into bath of mercury. The ﬁrst case is for an inﬁnite long cylinder for which the equation (1. There are two extreme cases: one) radius of inﬁnite and radius of ﬁnite size.45) is reduced to ∆P = 2σ R (1. the angles are very small and thus (sin β ∼ β).48) Example 1. Furthermore. A soap bubble is made of two layers. .47) Where R is the radius of the sphere. the surface tension forces are puling the surface upward. inner and outer.45) is reduced to ∆P = σ 1 R (1.45) Equation (1. The forces in the vertical direction reads (Pi − Po ) d 1 d 2 = ∆Pd 1 d 2 = 2 σd 1 sin β1 + 2 σd 2 sin β2 (1. INTRODUCTION TO FLUID MECHANICS direction. It was observed that contact angle between the glass and mercury is 55◦ C. Thus.44) can be simpliﬁed as ∆P = σ 1 1 + R1 R2 (1.45) predicts that pressure diﬀerence increase with inverse of the radius.44) For a very small area. the equation (1. The second with two equal radii.

5 [N/m] Solution 35 55◦ P = ρhg h 0. which contains n bubbles with equal radii. It can be assume that the contact angle is the same for the inside and outside part of the tube.49) . r. The work is rf w= r0 ∆P (v)dv (1.18.02[m] and the outer diameter is 0. Solution The work is due to the change of the bubbles volume.025[m] 0. The mercury as free body that several forces act on it. if the inside and the outside diameters are considerable diﬀerent the results is F = σ2 π sin 55◦ C (Do − Do ) (1.021[m].XVI. Calculate the minimum work required to increase the pressure in tank by ∆P . Assume that the liquid bulk modulus is inﬁnity.18). Assume that the surface tension for this combination of material is 0.e) End Solution Example 1.02[m] σ 55◦ Fig. F = σ2 π cos 55◦ C (Di + Do ) (1.XVI.XVI. Estimate the force due to the surface tension (tube is depicted in Figure 1. Estimate the depression size. SURFACE TENSION The inner diameter is 0. However. Glass tube inserted into mercury.7.1.XVI. -1.XVI.d) (1.a) This force is upward and the horizontal force almost canceled.b) The balance of the forces on the meniscus show under the magniﬁed glass are A b & P π r2 = σ 2 π r + & W or ∼0 ∼0 (1.17: A Tank ﬁlled with liquid.c) b & W g ρ h π r2 = σ 2 π r + & Or after simpliﬁcation h= 2σ gρr (1.

Compute the value for surface tension of 0.50) Where. the temperature must remain constant due to heat transfer. the density 1000[kg/m3 ] and distance between the plates of 0.19 exhibits the liquid under the current study. the pressure above and below and surface tension. The vertical forces acting on the body are the gravity.05[N/m].19. End Solution Example 1. Thus. Solution In Figure 1. Capillary rise between two plates.19. the control volume is taken just above the liquid and the air part is neglected.001[m]. that is the work is done on the system.52) 2σ ρg (1. It can be noted that the pressure and above are the same with the exception of the curvature on the upper part.36 CHAPTER 1. The reversible process requires very slow compression. The relationship between pressure diﬀerence and the radius is described by equation (1. The net forces in the vertical direction (positive upwards) per unit length are 2σ cos 0◦ = g h ρ =⇒ h = Inserting the values into equation (1. Assume that the contact angle is 0circ (the maximum possible force). Notice that previously a rise for circular tube was developed which diﬀerent from simple one dimensional case. r0 is the radius at the initial stage and rf is the radius at the ﬁnal stage.51) . -1. INTRODUCTION TO FLUID MECHANICS The minimum work will be for a reversible process. It is worth noting that for very slow process.05 = 0. The question when the curvature should be answered in the Dimensional analysis and for simpliﬁcation this eﬀect is neglected.001 × 9.47) for reversible process. Hence the work is ∆P rf dv w= r0 2σ 4 π r2 dr = 8 π σ r rf r0 rdr = 4 π σ rf 2 − r0 2 (1. ℓ h Fig.8 × ×1000 (1.18: Calculate the rise of liquid between two dimensional parallel plates shown in Figure 1. The work for n bubbles is then 4 π σ n rf 2 − r0 2 . It can be noticed that the work is negative. The distance between the two plates is and the and surface tension is σ.51) results in h= 2 × 0.

This contact point occurs due to free surface S L reaching a solid boundary.20.XIX.7. liquid.a) The maximum is obtained when cos θi = cos θo = 1. For example. Solution The diﬀerence lie in the fact that “missing”cylinder add additional force and reduce the amount of liquid that has to raise.53) .1. In Figure 1. SURFACE TENSION 37 End Solution Example 1.1 Wetting of Surfaces To explain the source of the contact angle. Thus.7.b) can be simpliﬁed 2σ h= (1. equation (1.b) (1.19: Develop expression for rise of the liquid due to surface tension in concentric cylinders. The balance between gravity and surface tension is σ 2 π (ri cos θi + ro cos θo ) = ρ g h π(ro )2 − π(ri )2 Which can be simpliﬁed as h= 2 σ (ri cos θi + ro cos θo ) ρ g ((ro )2 − (ri )2 ) (1. The surface tension occurs between gas phase (G) to liquid phase (L) and also occurs between the solid (S) and the liquid phases as well as between the gas phase and Fig. and gas can be ignored.XIX. conG sider the point where three phases became in contact. forces diagram is shown when control volume is chosen so that the masses of the solid.XIX. -1.54) (1. Forces in Contact angle.XIX. forces balanced along the line of solid boundary is σgs − σls − σlg cos β = 0 and in the tangent direction to the solid line the forces balance is Fsolid = σlg sin β (1.c) ρ g (ro − ri ) End Solution 1. the solid phase. Regardless to the magnitude of the surface tensions (except to zero) the forces cannot be balanced for the description of straight lines.20.

If the angle of the contact between three materials is larger than 90◦ then it is non-wetting. a contact angle is created to balance it. when solid surface is made or cotted with certain materials. thus. distilled water with selected materials to demonstrate the inconsistency.7 π/4. -1. This fact is the reason that no reliable data can be provided with the exception to pure substances and perfect geometries. There is a common deﬁnition of wetting the surface. structure of the surface and it provides the balance for these local structures. On the other hand. And a small change on the solid surface can change the wetting condition to non–wetting. It must be noted that the solid boundary isn’t straight.Nickel Nickel Nickel Chrome-Nickel Steel Contact Angle Source [1] [2] [1] [3] [4] page π/3.74 π/4.53).21.7 Continued on next . the wetness of ﬂuids is a function of the solid as well. the solid reaction force must be zero.74 to π/3. Description of wetting and ular phenomenon.55) For β = π/2 =⇒ tan β = ∞. The surface tension is a molec. gas medium and the solid surface. however. For example. The connection of the three phases–materials–mediums creates two situations which are categorized as wetting or non–wetting. thus depend on the locale non–wetting ﬂuids. INTRODUCTION TO FLUID MECHANICS substituting equation (1. Table -1. The surface tension forces must be balanced. Chemical component Steel Steel. The angle is determined by properties of the liquid.21).83 π/4.6. The contact angle for air. This statement is correct in most cases.38 CHAPTER 1. In fact there are commercial sprays that are intent to change the surface from wetting to non wetting.76 to π/3.83 π/3.Fig. The gas solid surface tension is diﬀerent from the liquid solid surface tension and hence violating equation (1. The contact angle is determined by NonWetting whether the surface tension between the gas Wetting fluid solid (gs) is larger or smaller then the surface fluid tension of liquid solid (ls) and the local geometry. So. water is described in many books as a wetting ﬂuid.53) yields σgs − σls = Fsolid tan β (1. Thus.54) into equation (1. the water is changed to be wetting (for example 3M selling product to “change” water to non–wetting). if the angle is below than 90◦ the material is wetting the surface (see Figure 1.

56.. pages 1465-1470. (1993). (1966) “On the mechanism of boiling heat transfer”. 4 Arefeva E.” J.” Chem. G.517. pp. H. (2002) “Onset of Nucleate Boiling and Active Nucleation Site Density during Subcooled Flow Boiling.7. V. Aladev O. K. No 1. The surface tension . To solve the shape of the liquid surface. Siegel. E. Vol. Eng. J.T. 659-669 To explain the contour of the surface. and Westwater. Warrier. E.. Heat Transfer 115. Pages 509 . Symp. W. 7 Gaetner. A.I. The contact angle for air. 8 Wang.. F. International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer.. (1958) “wlijanii smatchivaemosti na teploobmen pri kipenii. (1960) “Population of Active Sites in Nucleate Boiling Heat Transfer. and Dhir.22..” AIChE Journal Volume 10 Issue 4. N.. 124. Heat Transfer.. R. and Ostrovsky.2 π/4 π/3 π/2 Source [5] [4] [4] [4] [7] [8] 1 R.22 describes the raising of the liquid as results of the surface tension.6. Y. ”The determination of forced convection surface– boiling heat transfer. ASME.372. (1939) “Approximate theory of heat transfer by developed nucleate boiling” In Sussian Izvestiya An SSSR . K. and Dhir.. M. 1975 2 Bergles A.. the pressure diﬀerence between the two sides of free surface has to be balanced by the surface tension. V. distilled water with selected materials to demonstrate the inconsistency. Keshock (1975) “Eﬀects of reduced gravity on nucleate boiling bubble dynamics in saturated water. Ser. 11-17 1(7) In Russian. Vol. Energetika I transport. R. V.. J. 3 Tolubinsky. In Figure 1.4 π/3. “Eﬀect of Surface Wettability on Active Nucleation Site Density During Pool Boiling of Water on a Vertical Surface. SURFACE TENSION 39 Table -1.1. I.” ASME Journal of Heat Transfer. (continue) Chemical component Silver Zink Bronze Copper Copper Copper Contact Angle mN m π/6 to π/4. and the contact angle consider simple “wetting” liquid contacting a solid material in two–dimensional shape as depicted in Figure 1. papes 717 -728. C.I. Prog.” Injenerno Fizitcheskij Jurnal. No 12. and Rohsenow W.N. G.. 6 Basu. 9.5 π/3. 5 Labuntsov D. vol 1 pp 365 .

is ˙ 1 + h(x) R(x) = ¨ h(x) 2 3/2 (1. INTRODUCTION TO FLUID MECHANICS reduces the pressure in the liquid above the liquid line (the dotted line in the Figure 1. g h(x).22. is the atmospheric pressure. h = h(x).46) and using the pressure diﬀerence yields h P0 P0 P0 Fig.56) The radius of any continuous function. -1.57) into equation (1.57) can be derived either by forcing a circle at three points at (x.59) ˙ With the boundary conditions that specify either the derivative h(x = r) = 0 (symme˙ = β or heights in two points or other combinations.58) is non–linear diﬀerential equation for height and can be written as 1-D Surface Due to Surface Tension ghρ σ dh 1+ dx 2 3/2 2 3/2 (1. The pressure. and x+2dx) and thus ﬁnding the the diameter or by geometrical analysis of triangles build on points x and x+dx (perpendicular to the tangent at these points).56) yields g h(x) ρ = σ ˙ 1 + h(x) ¨ h(x) Equation (1. The pressure just below the surface is −g h(x) ρ (this pressure diﬀerence will be explained in more details in Chapter 4). Equation (1.58) is ghρ = ¨ σh ˙ 1 + h2 3/2 (1.57) ˙ Where h is the derivative of h with respect to x. Description of the liquid surface. on the gas side. This problem is a two dimensional problem and equation (1.58) − d2 h =0 dx2 (1. Substituting equation (1. Appalling equation (1. ρ = σ R(x) (1.60) . x+dx. An try) and the derivative at hx alternative presentation of equation (1.22).40 CHAPTER 1.46) is applicable to it.

h = ξ = dξ transforms equation (1.61) into 1 h dh = Lp ξdξ (1 + ξ 2 ) 3/2 (1.65) Squaring both sides and moving the one to the right side yields ˙ h2 = 1 2 1 − 2h Lp 2 −1 (1.7. Equation (1. constant = −1 . the height and the derivative of the height must by zero so constant + 0 = −1/1 and hence. SURFACE TENSION Integrating equation (1. Shamefully. 1− h2 = 2 Lp 1 ˙ 1 + h2 1/2 (1.63) At inﬁnity. The diﬀerential dh is h.62) After the integration equation (1. this author doesn’t know how to show it in a two lines derivations.64) is a ﬁrst order diﬀerential equation that can be solved by variables separation12 . Using dummy variable and the ˙ ¨ ˙ identities h = ξ and hence.1.66) The last stage of the separation is taking the square root of both sides to be dh ˙ h= = dx 12 This 1 2 1 − 2h Lp 2 −1 (1.62) becomes h2 + constant = − 2 Lp 1 ˙ 1 + h2 1/2 (1. .64) can be rearranged to be ˙ 1 + h2 1/2 = 1 2 1 − 2h Lp (1.60) transforms into gρ h dh = σ ¨ h ˙ 1 + h2 3/2 41 dh (1.61) The constant Lp σ/ρ g is referred to as Laplace’s capillarity constant.67) p equation has an analytical solution which is x = Lp 4 − (h/Lp)2 − Lp acosh(2 Lp/h) + constant where Lp is the Laplace constant. The units of this ˙ constant are meter squared.64) Equation (1.

69) The constant is determined by the boundary condition at x = 0. For example if h(x − 0) = h0 then constant = h0 .1.68) Equation (1. Furthermore. -1. . INTRODUCTION TO FLUID MECHANICS dh 1 2 1 − 2h Lp 2 = dx −1 (1. It can be shown that the height that the liquid raised in a tube due to the surface tension is h= 2 σ cos β g ∆ρ r (1.23. 1.6. there are information about the contact angle. that case equation (1. that information conﬂict each other and no real information is available see Table 1.70) becomes working range hmax = 2σ g ∆ρ r { (1. The raising height as a function of the radii. this equation describes the dimensionless parameter that aﬀects this phenomenon and this parameter will be studied in Chapter ?. h But this simplistic equation is unusable and useless unless the contact angle (assuming that the contact Theory angel is constant or a repressive average can be found or provided or can be measured) is given.71) 13 Actually.7. This angle is obtained when a perfect half a sphere shape exist of the liquid surface. However.70) Where ∆ρ is the diﬀerence of liquid density to the gas density and r is the radius of tube. otherwise it will not be there.1 Capillarity The capillary forces referred to the fact that surface tension causes liquid to rise or penetrate into area (volume). in reality there is no readily information for contact actual angle13 and therefore this equation is useful to show 0 R the treads.70) when β = 0 and thus cos β = 1. In Fig.68) can be integrated to yield dh = x + constant 2 1 −1 2 1 − 2h Lp - (1. This book is introductory.42 or CHAPTER 1. therefore this discussion on surface tension equation will be limited. This equation is studied extensively in classes on surface tension. The maximum that the contact angle can be obtained in equation (1. However.

1.7. SURFACE TENSION

1.2

43

Distilled water [23 C] Mercury [25 C] Equation

Capilary Height Figure 1.24 exhibits the height as a function of the radius of the tube. The height based on equation (1.71) is shown in Figure 1.23 as blue line. The actual height is shown in the red line. Equation (1.71) provides reasonable results only in a certain range. For a small tube radius, equation (1.59) proved better results because the curve approaches hemispherical sphere (small gravity eﬀect). For large radii equation (1.59) approaches the strait line (the liquid line) Fig. -1.24. The raising height as a strong gravity eﬀect. On the other hand, for exfunction of the radius. tremely small radii equation (1.71) indicates that the high height which indicates a negative pressure. The liquid at a certain pressure will be vaporized and will breakdown the model upon this equation was constructed. Furthermore, the small scale indicates that the simplistic and continuous approach is not appropriate and a diﬀerent model is needed. The conclusion of this discussion are shown in Figure 1.23. The actual dimension for many liquids (even water) is about 1-5 [mm]. The discussion above was referred to “wetting” contact angle. The depression of the liquid occurs in a “negative” contact angle similarly to “wetting.” The depression height, h is similar to equation (1.71) with a minus sign. However, the gravity is working against the surface tension and reducing the range and quality of the predictions of equation (1.71). The measurements of the height of distilled water and mercury are presented in Figure 1.24. The experimental results of these materials are with agreement with the discussion above. The surface tension of a selected material is given in Table 1.7. In conclusion, the surface tension issue is important only in case where the radius is very small and gravity is negligible. The surface tension depends on the two materials or mediums that it separates.

1.0 0.8

Height [cm]

0.6

0.4

0.2

0.0

0.0

0.3

0.6

0.9

1.2

1.5

1.8

2.1

2.4

2.7

Radii [cm]

May 29, 2008

Example 1.20: Calculate the diameter of a water droplet to attain pressure diﬀerence of 1000[N/m2 ]. You can assume that temperature is 20◦ C. Solution The pressure inside the droplet is given by equation (1.47). D = 2R = 22σ 4 × 0.0728 = ∼ 2.912 10−4 [m] ∆P 1000

End Solution

Example 1.21: Calculate the pressure diﬀerence between a droplet of water at 20◦ C when the droplet has a diameter of 0.02 cm. Solution

44 using equation

**CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION TO FLUID MECHANICS 2σ 2 × 0.0728 ∼ ∼ 728.0[N/m2 ] r 0.0002
**

End Solution

∆P =

Example 1.22: Calculate the maximum force necessary to lift a thin wire ring of 0.04[m] diameter from a water surface at 20◦ C. Neglect the weight of the ring. Solution F = 2(2 π r σ) cos β The actual force is unknown since the contact angle is unknown. However, the maximum Force is obtained when β = 0 and thus cos β = 1. Therefore, F = 4 π r σ = 4 × π × 0.04 × 0.0728 ∼ .0366[N ] In this value the gravity is not accounted for.

End Solution

Example 1.23: A small liquid drop is surrounded with the air and has a diameter of 0.001 [m]. the pressure diﬀerence between the inside and outside droplet is 1[kPa]. Estimate the surface tension? Solution To be continue

End Solution

Table -1.7. The surface tension for selected materials at temperature 20◦ C when not mentioned.

Chemical component Acetic Acid Acetone Aniline Benzene Benzylalcohol

Surface Tension

mN m

T

correction

mN mK

27.6 25.20 43.4 28.88 39.00

20◦ C n/a -0.1120 22◦ C -0.1085 -0.1291 -0.0920 Continued on next page

1.7. SURFACE TENSION

Table -1.7. The surface tension for selected materials (continue)

45

Chemical component Benzylbenzoate Bromobenzene Bromobenzene Bromoform Butyronitrile Carbon disulﬁd Quinoline Chloro benzene Chloroform Cyclohexane Cyclohexanol Cyclopentanol Carbon Tetrachloride Carbon disulﬁd Chlorobutane Ethyl Alcohol Ethanol Ethylbenzene Ethylbromide Ethylene glycol Formamide Gasoline Glycerol Helium Mercury Methanol Methyl naphthalene Methyl Alcohol Neon Nitrobenzene Olive Oil Perﬂuoroheptane Perﬂuorohexane Perﬂuorooctane Phenylisothiocyanate Propanol Pyridine

Surface Tension

mN m

T

correction

mN mK

45.95 36.50 36.50 41.50 28.10 32.30 43.12 33.60 27.50 24.95 34.40 32.70 26.8 32.30 23.10 22.3 22.10 29.20 24.20 47.70 58.20 ∼ 21 64.0 0.12 425-465.0 22.70 38.60 22.6 5.15 43.90 43.0-48.0 12.85 11.91 14.00 41.50 23.70 38.00

-0.1066 -0.1160 -0.1160 -0.1308 -0.1037 -0.1484 -0.1063 -0.1191 -0.1295 -0.1211 ◦ 25 C -0.0966 -0.1011 n/a -0.1484 -0.1117 n/a -0.0832 -0.1094 -0.1159 -0.0890 -0.0842 n/a -0.0598 −269◦ C n/a -0.2049 -0.0773 -0.1118 n/a −247◦ C n/a -0.1177 -0.067 -0.0972 -0.0935 -0.0902 -0.1172 25◦ C -0.0777 -0.1372 Continued on next page

46

**CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION TO FLUID MECHANICS
**

Table -1.7. The surface tension for selected materials (continue)

Chemical component Pyrrol SAE 30 Oil Seawater Toluene Turpentine Water o-Xylene m-Xylene

Surface Tension

mN m

T -

correction

mN mK

36.60 n/a 54-69 28.4 27 72.80 30.10 28.90

-0.1100 n/a n/a -0.1189 n/a -0.1514 -0.1101 -0.1104

**CHAPTER 2 Review of Thermodynamics
**

In this chapter, a review of several deﬁnitions of common thermodynamics terms is presented. This introduction is provided to bring the student back to current place with the material.

2.1 Basic Deﬁnitions

The following basic deﬁnitions are common to thermodynamics and will be used in this book. Work In mechanics, the work was deﬁned as mechanical work = F•d = P dV (2.1)

This deﬁnition can be expanded to include two issues. The ﬁrst issue that must be addressed, that work done on the surroundings by the system boundaries similarly is positive. Two, there is a transfer of energy so that its eﬀect can cause work. It must be noted that electrical current is a work while heat transfer isn’t. System This term will be used in this book and it is deﬁned as a continuous (at least partially) ﬁxed quantity of matter. The dimensions of this material can be changed. In this deﬁnition, it is assumed that the system speed is signiﬁcantly lower than that of the speed of light. So, the mass can be assumed constant even though the true conservation law applied to the combination of mass energy (see Einstein’s law). In fact for almost all engineering purpose this law is reduced to two separate laws of mass conservation and energy conservation.

47

48

CHAPTER 2. REVIEW OF THERMODYNAMICS

Our system can receive energy, work, etc as long the mass remain constant the deﬁnition is not broken. Thermodynamics First Law This law refers to conservation of energy in a non accelerating system. Since all the systems can be calculated in a non accelerating systems, the conservation is applied to all systems. The statement describing the law is the following. Q12 − W12 = E2 − E1 (2.2)

The system energy is a state property. From the ﬁrst law it directly implies that for process without heat transfer (adiabatic process) the following is true W12 = E1 − E2 (2.3)

Interesting results of equation (2.3) is that the way the work is done and/or intermediate states are irrelevant to ﬁnal results. There are several deﬁnitions/separations of the kind of works and they include kinetic energy, potential energy (gravity), chemical potential, and electrical energy, etc. The internal energy is the energy that depends on the other properties of the system. For example for pure/homogeneous and simple gases it depends on two properties like temperature and pressure. The internal energy is denoted in this book as EU and it will be treated as a state property. The potential energy of the system is depended on the body force. A common body force is the gravity. For such body force, the potential energy is mgz where g is the gravity force (acceleration), m is the mass and the z is the vertical height from a datum. The kinetic energy is K.E. = mU 2 2 (2.4)

Thus the energy equation can be written as Total Energy Equation mU1 mU2 2 + mgz1 + EU 1 + Q = + mgz2 + EU 2 + W 2 2 For the unit mass of the system equation (2.5) is transformed into Spesiﬁc Energy Equation U1 2 U2 2 + gz1 + Eu 1 + q = + gz2 + Eu 2 + w 2 2 (2.6)

2

(2.5)

where q is the energy per unit mass and w is the work per unit mass. The “new” internal energy, Eu , is the internal energy per unit mass.

2.1. BASIC DEFINITIONS

49

Since the above equations are true between arbitrary points, choosing any point in time will make it correct. Thus diﬀerentiating the energy equation with respect to time yields the rate of change energy equation. The rate of change of the energy transfer is DQ ˙ =Q Dt (2.7)

In the same manner, the work change rate transfered through the boundaries of the system is DW ˙ =W Dt Since the system is with a ﬁxed mass, the rate energy equation is DU D Bf z D EU ˙ ˙ + mU +m Q−W = Dt Dt Dt (2.9) (2.8)

For the case were the body force, Bf , is constant with time like in the case of gravity equation (2.9) reduced to Time Dependent Energy Equation D EU DU Dz ˙ ˙ Q−W = + mU + mg Dt Dt Dt (2.10)

The time derivative operator, D/Dt is used instead of the common notation because it referred to system property derivative. Thermodynamics Second Law There are several deﬁnitions of the second law. No matter which deﬁnition is used to describe the second law it will end in a mathematical form. The most common mathematical form is Clausius inequality which state that δQ ≥0 T (2.11)

The integration symbol with the circle represent integral of cycle (therefor circle) in with system return to the same condition. If there is no lost, it is referred as a reversible process and the inequality change to equality. δQ =0 T (2.12)

The last integral can go though several states. These states are independent of the path the system goes through. Hence, the integral is independent of the path. This observation leads to the deﬁnition of entropy and designated as S and the derivative of entropy is ds ≡ δQ T rev (2.13)

50

CHAPTER 2. REVIEW OF THERMODYNAMICS

**Performing integration between two states results in
**

2

S2 − S1 =

1

δQ = T rev

2

dS

1

(2.14)

One of the conclusions that can be drawn from this analysis is for reversible and adiabatic process dS = 0. Thus, the process in which it is reversible and adiabatic, the entropy remains constant and referred to as isentropic process. It can be noted that there is a possibility that a process can be irreversible and the right amount of heat transfer to have zero change entropy change. Thus, the reverse conclusion that zero change of entropy leads to reversible process, isn’t correct. For reversible process equation (2.12) can be written as δQ = T dS and the work that the system is doing on the surroundings is δW = P dV Substituting equations (2.15) (2.16) into (2.10) results in T dS = d EU + P dV (2.17) (2.16) (2.15)

Even though the derivation of the above equations were done assuming that there is no change of kinetic or potential energy, it still remail valid for all situations. Furthermore, it can be shown that it is valid for reversible and irreversible processes. Enthalpy It is a common practice to deﬁne a new property, which is the combination of already deﬁned properties, the enthalpy of the system. H = EU + P V The speciﬁc enthalpy is enthalpy per unit mass and denoted as, h. Or in a diﬀerential form as dH = dEU + dP V + P dV Combining equations (2.18) the (2.17) yields (one form of) Gibbs Equation T dS = dH − V dP (2.20) (2.19) (2.18)

For isentropic process, equation (2.17) is reduced to dH = V dP . The equation (2.17) in mass unit is dP T ds = du + P dv = dh − (2.21) ρ

2.1. BASIC DEFINITIONS when the density enters through the relationship of ρ = 1/v.

51

Speciﬁc Heats The change of internal energy and enthalpy requires new deﬁnitions. The ﬁrst change of the internal energy and it is deﬁned as the following Spesiﬁc Volume Heat Cv ≡ ∂Eu ∂T (2.22)

And since the change of the enthalpy involve some kind of work is deﬁned as Spesiﬁc Pressure Heat Cp ≡ ∂h ∂T (2.23)

The ratio between the speciﬁc pressure heat and the speciﬁc volume heat is called the ratio of the speciﬁc heat and it is denoted as, k. Spesiﬁc Heats Ratio Cp k≡ Cv

(2.24)

For solid, the ratio of the speciﬁc heats is almost 1 and therefore the diﬀerence between them is almost zero. Commonly the diﬀerence for solid is ignored and both are assumed to be the same and therefore referred as C. This approximation less strong for liquid but not by that much and in most cases it applied to the calculations. The ratio the speciﬁc heat of gases is larger than one. Equation of state Equation of state is a relation between state variables. Normally the relationship of temperature, pressure, and speciﬁc volume deﬁne the equation of state for gases. The simplest equation of state referred to as ideal gas. and it is deﬁned as P = ρRT (2.25)

Application of Avogadro’s law, that ”all gases at the same pressures and temperatures have the same number of molecules per unit of volume,” allows the calculation of a “universal gas constant.” This constant to match the standard units results in ¯ R = 8.3145 kj kmol K (2.26)

0413 1.4897 1.7113 0. Properties of Various Ideal Gases [300K] Gas Chemical Formula Ar C4 H10 CO2 CO C 2 H6 C 2 H4 He H2 CH4 Ne N2 C8 H18 O2 C 3 H8 H2 O Molecular Weight 28.7445 1.14304 0.12418 0.2537 1.4909 1.097 18.6618 1.289 1. Table -2.6794 1.52 CHAPTER 2.01 30.230 31.07 28.0416 1.1926 14.400 1.003 2.25) of state for perfect gas it follows d(P v) = RdT For perfect gas dh = dEu + d(P v) = dEu + d(RT ) = f (T ) (only) (2.667 1.6385 0.8418 1.7164 0.299 1.013 114.400 1.183 28.8723 0.28) .091 1.6179 0.0849 1.9216 1.667 1.2091 2.409 1.28700 0.04 20.015 R kj KgK CP kj KgK Cv kj KgK k Air Argon Butane Carbon Dioxide Carbon Monoxide Ethane Ethylene Helium Hydrogen Methane Neon Nitrogen Octane Oxygen Propane Steam 0.07279 0.25983 0.3122 1.126 1.186 1.327 From equation (2.970 39.124 44.1156 10.18892 0.18855 0.7354 0.7165 0.20813 0.29680 0.2518 3.29) (2.667 1.393 1.7662 1.400 1.5203 1.948 58.41195 0.48152 1.01 28.237 1.016 16.6529 0.5482 5.1.0035 0.1.5734 0.4108 1.999 44.0299 1.27650 0.044 1.7448 1. the speciﬁc gas can be calculate as R= ¯ R M (2.51835 0.29637 2.27) The speciﬁc constants for select gas at 300K is provided in table 2.07703 4.29683 0.054 4. REVIEW OF THERMODYNAMICS Thus.

The ratio of the speciﬁc heats can be expressed in several forms as Cv to Spesiﬁc Heats Ratio Cv = R k−1 (2. ∆s = 0.35) Or using speciﬁc heat ratio equation (2.33) The speciﬁc heat ratio.1). k value ranges from unity to about 1.2.667.30) and dividing by dT yields Cp − Cv = R This relationship is valid only for ideal/perfect gases.31) Cp to Spesiﬁc Heats Ratio Cp = kR k−1 (2.36) (2.34) Using the identities developed so far one can ﬁnd that 2 s2 − s1 = 1 Cp dT − T 2 1 R dP T2 P2 = Cp ln − R ln P T1 P1 (2.37) as Ideal Gas Isontropic Relationships T2 = T1 P2 P1 k−1 k = V1 V2 k−1 (2. The entropy for ideal gas can be simpliﬁed as the following 2 s2 − s1 = 1 dh dP − T ρT (2.28) and subsisting into equation (2. BASIC DEFINITIONS From the deﬁnition of enthalpy it follows that d(P v) = dh − dEu 53 (2.38) .35) transformed into k T2 P2 s2 − s1 = ln − ln R k − 1 T1 P1 For isentropic process.” The values of several gases can be approximated as ideal gas and are provided in Table (2.30) Utilizing equation (2. These values depend on the molecular degrees of freedom (more explanation can be obtained in Van Wylen “F.1. of Classical thermodynamics. the following is obtained T2 ln = ln T1 P2 P1 k−1 k (2.37) There are several famous identities that results from equation (2.32) (2.

The real gas has a correction factor to account for the deviations from the ideal gas model.54 CHAPTER 2.39) . This correction factor referred as the compressibility factor and deﬁned as Z deviation from the Ideal Gas Model PV Z= RT (2. REVIEW OF THERMODYNAMICS The ideal gas model is a simpliﬁed version of the real behavior of real gas.

1 Kinematics of of Point Body A point body is location at time. change in R direction change in perpendicular to R U = dR = dt dR dt + R ω ×R (3. These concepts and deﬁnitions will be used in this book and a review is needed.1: A water jet is supposed be used to extinguish the ﬁre in a building as depicted in Figure 55 .CHAPTER 3 Review of Mechanics This author would like to express his gratitude to Dan Olsen (former Minneapolis city Engineer) and his friend Richard Hackbarth. It also can be noticed that this derivative is present derivation of any victory.1) Notice that ω can have three dimensional components. This chapter provides a review of important deﬁnitions and concepts from Mechanics (statics and dynamics).2) Example 3. The acceleration is the derivative of the velocity “regular acceleration” angular acceleration centrifugal acceleration Coriolis acceleration a= dU = dt d2R dt2 + R× R dω dt +ω × R × ω +2 dR dt ×ω R (3. t in a location. R . 3. The velocity is derivative of the change of the location and using the chain role (for the direction and one for the magnitude) results.

REVIEW OF MECHANICS 3. .I. The velocity at x is Ux = U cos θ and the velocity in y direction is Uy = U sin θ. For given velocity.a) The distance for y equation for coordinate (zero is at the window) is 0=− g t2 + U sin θ t − b 2 (3.I. it b proposed to calculate the velocity a of the point particle to toward the window.I. The equation for the x coordinate is a = U cos θ t (3.c) b= and equation (3.c) These nonlinear equations (3. t and three equations. Assume that gravity is g and the distance of the nozzle from the building is a and height of the window from the nozzle is b.c) can be solved explicitly.I. Isolating t from (3.I.I.I.I. To simplify the calculations. and time. What is the angle that jet has to be aimed.a).d) End Solution 1 While the simple example does not provide exact use of the above equation it provides experience of going over the motions of kinematics.b) The velocity for the y coordinate at the window is zero u(t) = 0 = −g t + U sin θ (3.I.b) and (3.11 . Calculate what is the veFig.f) (3.I.e) into (3.b) and (3.I. -3.I. U .I.I. dow.56 CHAPTER 3.1. (3.I. at what angle the jet has to be shot so that velocity will be horizontal at the window.a) becomes √ ag −g a 0= + U cos θ =⇒ U = U cos θ cos θ Substituting (3.a) and substituting into equations (3.e) −g a2 + a tan θ 2 U 2 cos2 θ (3. Description of the extinguish locity so that the jet reach the winnozzle aimed at the building window. θ. U sin θ U cos θ θ Solution The initial velocity is unknown and denoted as U which two components. There there are three unknowns.d) results in tan θ = 1 b + a 2 (3.

center of the mass and two. the body will not rotate. In same is calculated. The center of mass doesn’t depend on the coordinate system and on the way it is calculated.3. the center of mass is required to make the calculations. then a moment in additional to force is required (to prevent the body for rotating). ρ(xi ) is the line density as function of xi . etc.1 Actual Center of Mass In many engineering problems. It can be noticed that center of mass in the x–direction isn’t aﬀected by the distribu. moment of inertia. the x mass.2 Center of Mass The center of mass is divided into two sections. It is convenient to use the Cartesian system to explain this concept. Also.2. the the line density is referred to density mass per unit length in the x direction. center of area (two–dimensional body with equal distribution mass). CENTER OF MASS 57 3. rho) as a function of the location. y or z. m is the total mass of the object. even for solid and uniform density the line density is a function of the geometry.2. In other words. The density. The density “normally” deﬁned as mass per volume. This concept is derived from the fact that a body has a center of mass/gravity which interacts with other bodies and that this force acts on the center (equivalent force). the dV element has ﬁnite dimendV sions in y–z plane and inﬁnitesimal dimension in x direction see Figure 3.4) where xi is the direction of either. .2. The physical meaning of the center of mass is that if a straight line force acts on the body in away through the center of gravity. fashion the center of mass can be deﬁned in the other directions as following xi of Center Mass 1 xi = ¯ xi ρ(xi )dV m V (3. if the body isn’t be held through the center of mass. 3. Suppose that the body has a distribution of the mass (density. x. Description of how the center of mass tion in the y nor by z directions.Fig. -3.3) z Here.2. Thus. if a body will be held by one point it will be enough to hold the body in the direction of the center of mass. ﬁrst. Here. It turns out that this concept is very useful in calculating rotations. In x coordinate. Note. the center will be deﬁned as 1 x= ¯ m dm y x ρ(x)dV V (3.

3. t.6) when the integral now over only the area as oppose over the volume. equation (3.7) If the density is constant then equation (3. Thin body center of mass/area The density.7) can be transformed into Irr m = ρ r2 dV V (3. Consider a uniform thin body with constant thickness shown in Figure 3.2 Aproximate Center of Area t dA Y In the previous case. Furthermore. Thus. REVIEW OF MECHANICS 3.3) can be transferred into 1 x= ¯ tA ρ V dm z x x ρ t dA V (3.1 Moment of Inertia for Mass The moment of inertia turns out to be an essential part for the calculations of rotating bodies. schematic.5) Fig.58 CHAPTER 3. Finding the centroid location should be done in the most convenient coordinate system since the location is coordinate independent. it turns out that the moment of inertia has much wider applicability. -3.8) . 3.3 Moment of Inertia As it was divided for the body center of mass.3. 3. are constant and can be canceled. Moment of inertia of mass is deﬁned as Moment of Inertia Irr m = ρr2 dm m (3. ρ and the thickness. ρ.5) can be transferred into Aproxiate xi of Center Mass xi = ¯ 1 A xi dA A (3. Thus equation (3.2. the body was a three dimensional shape.3 which has density. There are cases where the body can be approximated as a twodimensional shape because the body is with a thin with uniform density. the moment of inertia is divided into moment of inertia of mass and area.

13) y’ C z Thus.15) mation of moment of inertia. .11) The moment of inertia about axis is x can be deﬁned as Moment of Inertia Ixx m Ixx = r2 dA = ρt A where r is distance of dA from the axis x and t is the thickness. Any point distance can be calculated from axis x as y (3.1 Moment of Inertia for Area General Discussion For body with thickness. equation (3. The schematic that explains the sum- (3. but dependent on the location of axis of rotation relative to the body. rk = Im m (y 2 + z 2 ) dm (x2 + z 2 ) dm V (x2 + y 2 ) dm V V (3.12) x= y2 + z2 (3. MOMENT OF INERTIA 59 The moment of inertia is independent of the coordinate system used for the calculation.4.2.14) ∆y x z’ ∆x x’ In the same fashion for other two coordinates as Iyy = A x2 + z 2 dA Fig.3.2 3. -3.9) The body has a diﬀerent moment of inertia for every coordinate/axis and they are Ixx = Iyy = Izz = V V V rx 2 dm = ry 2 dm = rz 2 dm = (3. Some people deﬁne the radius of gyration as an equivalent concepts for the center of mass concept and which means if all the mass were to locate in the one point/distance and to obtain the same of moment of inertia.12) can be written as Ixx = A y +z 2 2 dA (3.10) 3.3. t and uniform density the following can be written moment of inertia for area Ixx m = r2 dm = ρ t m A r2 dA (3.3.3.

REVIEW OF MECHANICS Izz = A x2 + y 2 dA (3. Ixx = i=1 Ixxi = n Ixxi (3.19) Hence. Let Ixx the moment of inertia about axis xx which is at the center of mass/area.17) equation (3.2.3. The schematic to explain the summation of moment of inertia.5 and therefore.16) 3.17) can be expended as Ixx =0 Ix x = A y 2 + z 2 dA + 2 A (y ∆y + z ∆z) dA + A (∆y) + (∆z) 2 2 dA (3. The second therm is zero because it integral of center about center thus is zero.18) The ﬁrst term in equation (3.21) x If the same areas are similar thus n Fig. The knowledge about one axis can help calculating the moment of inertia for a parallel axis. -3. The moment of inertia for axis x is Ix x = A r dA = A 2 y 2 +z 2 dA = A (y + ∆y) + (z + ∆z) 2 2 dA (3. n 2 1 y Ixx = i=1 Ixx i (3.22) .2 The Parallel Axis Theorem The moment of inertial can be calculated for any axis. The third term is a new term and can be written as constant r2 2 A 2 A 2 2 (∆y) + (∆z) A dA = (∆y) + (∆z) dA = r2 A (3.20) The moment of inertia of several areas is the sum of moment inertia of each area see Figure 3. the relationship between the moment of inertia at xx and parallel axis x x is Parallel Axis Equation Ix x = Ixx + r2 A z (3.60 CHAPTER 3.5.18) on the right hand side is the moment of inertia about axis x and the second them is zero.

3. Here the convenient element is a shell of thickness dr which shown in Figure 3. Solution The element can be calculated using cylindrical coordinate. r0 . Description of rectangular in x–y plane for calculation of moment of inertia. Fig. Cylinder with an element for calculaof the tion moment of inertia. Solution The moment of inertia is calculated utilizing equation (3. the moment of inertial of half a circle is half of whole circle for axis a the center of circle. For example.3: Calculate the moment of inertia of the rectangular shape shown in Figure 3. MOMENT OF INERTIA h 61 Equation (3.3. dr r 3.3.6 as Irr = ρ V r dm = ρ 0 2 r0 dV r h 2 π r dr = ρ h 2 π 2 r0 4 1 1 = ρhπr0 4 = m r0 2 4 2 2 The radius of gyration is rk = 1 2 mr0 2 r0 =√ m 2 End Solution Example 3. The material is with an uniform density and homogeneous.2: Calculate the moment of inertia for the mass of the cylinder about center axis which height of h and radius.22) is very useful in the calculation of the moment of inertia utilizing the moment of inertia of known bodies. as shown in Figure 3. -3.14) as following 0 y z b dx a x Ixx = A 2 2 y +z dA = 0 a dA z 2 bdz = a b 3 3 This value will be used in later examples.7. . -3.3 Examples of Moment of Inertia Example 3. End Solution Fig.6.7 around x coordinate. The moment of inertia can then move the center of area.6.

24) The total moment of inertia can be obtained by integration of equation (3.Fig.24) to write as t/2 Fig.9. The ratio of the moment of inertia of ditionally it can be noticed that the ratio two-dimensional to three–dimensional. t compare the results to a square shape with zero thickness. -3. Ad. a2 /t2 is the only contributor to the error2 . consider a simple shape to see the eﬀects of this assumption. REVIEW OF MECHANICS Example 3. I can be noticed that the error is signiﬁcant very fast even for small values of t/a while the with of the box.9.23) dz dIx x m b a3 = ρdy + z2 12 2 r r A 2 ba A a b (3.62 CHAPTER 3. Ixx m = ρ −t/2 b a3 a b t 2 + a3 b + z 2 b a dz = ρ t 12 12 (3.8. Ixx m (t → 0) → 1.26) indicates that ratio approaches one when thickness ratio is approaches zero.26) = 2 = 3 t2 Ixx m t ba + ba 1 + a2 Ixx Ixxm It can be noticed right away that equation (3. A square element for the calculations of inertia of two-dimensional to three– dimensional deviations. This author suggests to call this ratio as the B number. February 28. 2 This . 2008 t a End Solution ratio is a dimensionless number that commonly has no special name. Solution The moment of inertia of transverse slice about y (see Figure mech:ﬁg:squareEll) is Ixx t dIxx m = ρ dy The transformation into from local axis x to center axis. -3.4: To study the assumption of zero thickness.25) Comparison with the thin body results in Ixx ρ t b a3 1 (3. The results are present in Figure 3. Calculate the moment of inertia about the center of mass of a square shape with a thickness. b has no eﬀect on the error. x can be done as following Ixx b a3 12 (3.

Using this method calculate the entire rectangular.V.3. Hint. -3. depicted in Figure 3.6: Calculate the center of area and moment of inertia for the parabola.10 is a r2 d Izz |dy = y 2 + x2 dy dx = −a 2 3 a y 2 + a3 dy 3 (3.10. Parabola for calculations of moment of inertia. why?) is b Izz = −b 2 3 a y 2 + a3 dy 3 4ab (3. Rectangular Moment of inertia.11.c) Example 3. construct a small element and build longer build out of the small one. There are several ways to approach the calculation (diﬀerent inﬁnitesimal area).5: Calculate the rectangular moment of Inertia for the rotation trough center in zz axis (axis of rotation is out of the page).b) Results in Izz = Or a 2 a b3 + 2 a3 b = A 3 End Solution (2a)2 + (2b)2 12 (3.V.20). -3.V. y = αx2 . Solution For y = b the value of x = Fig.11. First the area inside the parabola calculated as √ b/α dA/2 A=2 0 2(3 α − 1) (b − αξ )dξ = 3 2 b α 3 2 . MOMENT OF INERTIA Example 3.3. Hint. b/α. calculate the area ﬁrst. Use this area to calculate moment of inertia. The moment of inertia for a long element with a distance y shown in Figure 3.a) The second integration ( no need to use (3. Solution dx dy y r x 63 2b 2a Fig.

The center of every 2 element is at. α ξ 2 + b−αξ the element area is used before and therefore 2 √ 1 xc = A 0 xc b/α (b − αξ 2 ) αξ + 2 2 dA (b − αξ 2 )dξ = 3αb 15 α − 5 (3. Solution The right edge line equation can be calculated as x y = 1− h a Y h dy X a Fig. What is the moment inertia when h −→ 0.27) can be done in two steps ﬁrst calculate the moment of inertia in this coordinate system and then move the coordinate system to center.7.12. Assume that base is a and the height is h.7: Calculate the moment of inertia of strait angle triangle about its y axis as shown in the Figure on the right. What is the moment when a symmetrical triangle is attached on left.20) x =4 0 ξ2 ξ 2 b7/2 dξ = √ α 7 α Ix x A (∆x=xc )2 Ixx = Ix x − A ∆x2 = 4 b7/2 3 α − 1 √ − 3 7 α √ b α 3 2 3αb 15 α − 5 2 or after working the details results in Ixx = b 20 b3 − 14 b2 √ 35 α End Solution Example 3. Triangle for example 3.27) The moment of inertia of the area about the center can be found using in equation (3. Utilizing equation (3. REVIEW OF MECHANICS The center of area can be calculated utilizing equation (3.64 CHAPTER 3. -3. . What is the moment inertia when a −→ 0.14) and doing the integration from 0 to maximum y provides dA b Ix Utilizing equation (3. What is the moment when a symmetrical triangle is attached on bottom.6).

4 Product of Inertia In addition to the moment of inertia. MOMENT OF INERTIA or x y = 1− a h 65 Now using the moment of inertia of rectangle on the side (y) coordinate (see example (3. Ix y = A x y dA = A (x + ∆x) (y + ∆y)dA (3.30) results in 0 0 Ixy ∆y A x dA x ∆ydA + ∆x A y dA ∆x ydA + ∆x ∆y A Ix y = A x ydA + A ∆x ∆ydA A (3. The product of inertia deﬁned as Ix i x j = xi xj dA A (3.31) A . the product of inertia for x and y axises is Ixy = A x ydA (3. Transfer of Axis Theorem Same as for moment of inertia there is also similar theorem. The units of the product of inertia are the same as for moment of inertia.30) expanding equation (3.29) Product of inertia can be positive or negative value as oppose the moment of inertia.28) For example. The calculation of the product of inertia isn’t diﬀerent much for the calculation of the moment of inertia. the product of inertia is commonly used. Here only the product of the area is deﬁned and discussed.3)) y 3 h a 1− dy a3 h h = 3 4 0 For two triangles attached to each other the moment of inertia will be sum as The rest is under construction.3. End Solution a3 h 2 3.3.3.

Example 3. .33) Symmetrical area has zero product of inertia because integration of odd function (asymmmertial function) left part cancel the right part.3.13.35) referred as principle system. Product of inertia for triangle.66 The ﬁnal form is Ix y CHAPTER 3. The total product of inertia is ∆x ∆y A b ′ y y x a ′ x Ix y =0+ a 3 b 3 ab 2 = a2 b2 18 Fig. REVIEW OF MECHANICS = Ixy + ∆x ∆y A (3. -3. End Solution 3.34) In linear algebra it was shown that for some angle equation (3.35) System which creates equation (3.34) can be transform into Ix x 0 0 0 Iy y 0 0 0 Iz z (3.32) There are several relationships should be mentioned Ixy = Iyx (3. Solution The equation of the line is a y = x+a b The product of inertia at the center is zero.8: Calculate the product of inertia of straight edge triangle.5 Principal Axes of Inertia The inertia matrix or inertia tensor is Ixx −Iyx −Izx −Ixy Iyy −Izy −Ixz −Iyz Izz (3.

NEWTON’S LAWS OF MOTION 67 3. ˙ 3.40) The angular momentum of the entire system is calculated by integration (summation) of all the particles in the system as Ls = m r × U dm (3. The radial velocity is denoted as Ur . The same as in the dynamic class.41) . Yet. U is a derivative of the location with respect to time. Coriolis. stresses).4. 2 (Ur × ω).4 Newton’s Laws of Motion These laws can be summarized in two statements one.36) F= Dt It can be noted that D replaces the traditional d since the additional meaning which be added. The surface forces are forces that act on the surface of the body (pressure. The acceleration is divided into three categories: Centrifugal. dm. Angular. This law apply to any body and any body can “broken” into many small bodies which connected to each other. ω×(r × ω). The external forces are typically divided into two categories: body forces and surface forces. it can be treated as the regular derivative.3. thus. Since the derivative with respect to time is independent of the volume. for every action by body A on Body B there is opposite reaction by body B on body A.37) Dt V The external forces are equal to internal forces the forces between the “small” bodies are cancel each other. r × ω. Two. Yet this examination provides a tool to study what happened in the ﬂuid during operation of the forces. F= ρ rdV V (3. The body forces are forces that act from a distance like magnetic ﬁeld or gravity. which can expressed in mathematical form as D (m U ) (3. These small “bodies” when became small enough equation (3. is deﬁned as L = r × Udm (3.5 Angular Momentum and Torque The angular momentum of body. the system acceleration called the internal forces.36) can be transformed to a continuous form as D (ρ U ) F= dV (3.39) where r is the location of the particles from the origin.38) The velocity. the derivative can be taken out of the integral and the alternative form can be written as F= D Dt D2 Dt2 ρ U dV V (3.

REVIEW OF MECHANICS The change with time of angular momentum is called torque.40) provides ˆ ˆ k i j ˆ ˆ L = r × U = x y 0 = (x v − y u)k (3. A force is acting on the particle in the same plane (x–y) plane.44) To understand these equations a bit better.1 Tables of geometries Th following tables present several moment of inertias of commonly used geometries. 3.5. (3. The torque of entire system is Tτ s = D DL = Dt Dt (r × Udm) m (3.42) where Tτ is the torque. in analogous to the momentum change of time which is the force. in the same fashion.48) In the same way the component in y and z can be obtained. Tτ = DL D = (r × Udm) Dt Dt (3. The force can be written.42) to calculate the torque as ˆ ˆ k i j ˆ ˆ Tτ = r × F = x y 0 = (x Fx − y Fy )k Fx Fy 0 (3.46) Since the torque is a derivative with respect to the time of the angular momentum it is also can be written as xFx − yFy = D [(xv − yu) dm] Dt (3.45) u v 0 Utilizing equation (3. The velocity can be written as U = uˆ + vˆ and the location from the origin can be written as r = xˆ + yˆ i j i j.68 CHAPTER 3. as F = Fxˆ + Fy ˆ Utilizing equation i j.47) The torque is a vector and the various components can be represented as Tτ x = ˆ • i D Dt r × U dm m (3. it can be proved utilizing vector mechanics) that Tτ = D D Dr D2 r (r × U) = (r × )= Dt Dt Dt Dt2 (3. .43) m It can be noticed (well. consider a particle moving in x–y plane.

3. 2 2 ab ab3 12 XX Triangle b b/3 a a 3 ab 3 ab3 36 XX Circle a=b b b/2 b 2 π b2 4 πb4 64 a Ellipse XX a>b b b/2 b b 2 2 π ab 4 Ab2 64 a y = αx2 Parabola a XX b xc 3αb 15 α−5 6α−2 3 × 3 b 2 α √ b (20 b3 −14 b2 ) √ 35 α . yc A Ixx XX Rectangle b b/2 a b a . ANGULAR MOMENTUM AND TORQUE 69 Table -3.5.1. Moments of Inertia for various plane surfaces about their center of gravity (full shapes) Shape Name Picture description xc .

2. REVIEW OF MECHANICS Table -3. yc A Ixx Quadrant of Circle XX 4r 3π 4r 3π π r2 4 4 π r 4 ( 16 − 9π ) r Ellipsoidal Quadrant XX b 4b 3π 4b 3π πab 4 π 4 a b3 ( 16 − 9π ) a Half of Elliptic XX b 4b 3π 4b 3π πab 4 π 4 a b3 ( 16 − 9π ) a Circular Sector XX α α 0 2α r2 r4 4 (α− 1 sin 2α) 2 r XX Circular Sector α α 2 r sin α 3 α 2 r sin α 3 α Ix 2α r2 r4 4 x = r (α+ 1 sin 2α) 2 .70 CHAPTER 3. Moment of inertia for various plane surfaces about their center of gravity Shape Name Picture description r xc .

a = 0. The ﬁrst assumption is that the change in the pressure is a continuous function. several assumptions must be made. Later.1) erated system under body forces.2 The Hydrostatic Equation A ﬂuid element with dimensions of DC. y. a as shown in Figure 4. the student will be exposed to stability analysis probably for the ﬁrst time.CHAPTER 4 Fluids Statics 4. here this topic will be more vigorously examined. Description of a ﬂuid element in accel- Equation (4. Furthermore. In these derivations. dy. The changes of the second derivative pressure are not signiﬁcant compared to the ﬁrst derivative (∂P/∂n × d >> ∂ 2 P/∂n2 ). This topic was introduced to most students in previous study of rigid body. The combination of an acceleration and the body force results in eﬀective body force which is gG − a = geﬀ y P P+ ∂P dy dxdz ∂y P+ dy ∂P dz dxdy ∂z P+ ∂P dx dydz ∂x dz dx z P x (4. There is no requirement that the pressure has to be a monotonous function e. with acceleration. and dz is motionless in the accelerated system.1 Introduction The simplest situation that can occur in the study of ﬂuid is when the ﬂuid is at rest or quasi rest. Fig. The system is in a body force ﬁeld. that pressure can increase and later decrease.g. However.1) can be reduced and simpliﬁed for the case of no acceleration. z). where n is the steepest 71 . 4. gG (x. -4.1.1. the methods discussed here will be expanded to more complicated dynamics situations.

The body (element) is in rest and therefore the net force is zero F= total surface F+ body F (4.4) In general. the eﬀective gravity force is utilized in case where the gravity is the only body force and in an accelerated system.3) referred to in the literature as the pressure gradient (see for more explanation in the Mathematics Appendix). As before. as a scalar function (there no reference to the shear stress in part of the pressure) the gradient is a vector. The second point is that the gradient is a vector (that is. the calculations of the three directions result in the total net pressure force as F =− surface ∂P ˆ ∂P ˆ ∂P ˆ i+ j+ k ∂x ∂y ∂y (4.3) The term in the parentheses in equation (4. P .7) . The net pressure force on the faces in the x direction results in dF = − ∂P ∂x dydx ˆ i (4. now.2) In the same fashion. Even though. if the coordinates were to “rotate/transform” to a new system which has a diﬀerent orientation.8) (4. the utilizing the above derivations one can obtain −gradP dx dy dz + ρ geﬀ dx dy dz = 0 or Pressure Gradient gradP = P = ρ geﬀ (4. was a two–dimensional height (that is only a function of x and y) then the gradient is the steepest ascent of the height (to the valley).72 CHAPTER 4. For example.6) Hence. the pressure is treated. If the pressure. the dot product of the following is i · gradP = i · P = ∂P ∂x (4.5) where in is the unit vector in the n direction and ∂/∂n is a derivative in that direction. FLUIDS STATICS direction of the pressure derivative and d is the inﬁnitesimal length. This mathematical statement simply requires that the pressure can deviate in such a way that the average on inﬁnitesimal area can be found and expressed as only one direction. it has a direction). This mathematical operation has a geometrical interpretation. the dot product results in in · gradP = in · P = ∂P ∂n (4.

it will be used. This equation can be integrated and therefore solved.14) 1 This situation were the tradition is appropriated. and temperature.1 Constant Density in Gravitational Field The simplest case is when the density.13) The integration constant is determined from the initial conditions or another point. a discussion on the pressure and the density in various conditions is presented.8) results into three simple partial diﬀerential equations. For this reason sometime there will be a deviation from the above statement. The eﬀective body force is ˆ geﬀ = −g k (4.9) and substituting it into equation (4.11) (4. 4.4. For example. the z coordinate is used as the (negative) direction of the gravity1 .8) as the Fluid Static Equation. z) = −ρgz + constant (4. y) = constant (4. However. ρ. T (in a way no function of the location) are constant. if at point z0 the pressure is P0 then the equation (4.13) becomes P (z) − P0 = −ρg(z − z0 ) (4. First.12) can be absorbed by the integration of equation (4. There are ﬁelds where x or y are designed to the direction of the gravity and opposite direction. a discussion on a simple condition and will continue in more challenging situations. . y.3.10) can be integrated to yield P (x.9) Utilizing equation (4. PRESSURE AND DENSITY IN A GRAVITATIONAL FIELD 73 Some refer to equation (4. 4.12) (4. pressure. P .11) and therefore P (x.3.3 Pressure and Density in a Gravitational Field In this section. These equations are ∂P ∂P = =0 ∂x ∂y and Pressure Change ∂P = −ρ g ∂z Equations (4. Traditionally.10) and constant in equation (4. there are several physical implications to this equation which should be discussed and are presented here.

-4. A schematic to explain the measure to deﬁne h as the dependent of the ﬂuid of the atmospheric pressure.3.74 CHAPTER 4.13) that the pressure depends only on z and/or the constant pressure lines are in the plane of x and y. It is convenient to reverse the direction of z to get rid of the negative sign and Fig. The reason that a a solid boundary doesn’t break the continuity of the pressure lines is because there is always a path to some of the planes. The pressure lines are continuous even in area where there is a discontinuous ﬂuid. that is h ≡ −(z − z0 ) so equation (4.15) is deﬁned as piezometric pressure. Pressure lines in a static ﬂuid with a constant density.4 are in equilibration. If the air mass at chamber A is 1 Kg while the mass at chamber B is unknown. the right hand side of the equation (4.1: Two chambers tank depicted in Figure 4. Figure 4.15) In the literature. It is evident from equation (4. -4. FLUIDS STATICS Constant Pressure Lines Fig.2. Example 4. The diﬀerence in the .14) becomes Pressure relationship P (h) − P0 = ρgh (4.2 describes the constant ρgh pressure lines in the container under the gravity body force.

Calculate the air mass in chamber B.I.I.a). Solution The equation of state for the chamber A is RT PA VA The equation of state for the second chamber is mA = mB = The water volume is Vtotal = h1 A + (h1 + h2 )A = (2 h1 + h2 ) A (4.f) The following question is a very nice qualitative question of understanding this concept.e) RT P B VB (4. Assume that for accelerated cart.c) The pressure diﬀerence between the liquid interface is estimated negligible the air density as PA − PB = ∆P = h2 ρ g (4. PRESSURE AND DENSITY IN A GRAVITATIONAL FIELD 75 liquid heights between the two chambers is 2[m].I.4.2: .b) h2 ρ g mA VA RT RT 1 = − = h2 ρ g =⇒ 1 − mB VB mA VA m B VB RT mA VA In equation the only unknown is the ratio of mB /mA since everything else is known.I. Example 4.I.d) combining equations (4.b) results in (4. -4.3.4. You can assume ideal gas for the air h1 and the water is incompressible substance with density of 1000[kg/m2 ]. The total Fig.I.I. The liquid in the two chambers is water. The area of each chamber is h3 h2 1[m2 ]. The eﬀective gravity is height of the tank is 4[m].I. (4. the chamber are at the same temperature of 27◦ C.a) (4. Denoting X = mB /mA results in h 2 ρ g m A VA 1 =1− =⇒ X = X RT End Solution 1 h2 ρ g mA VA 1− RT (4.

5 (the light liquid is on the top of the heavy liquid).II. The way the interpretation of an automobile fuel gage is proportional to the pressure at the bottom of the fuel tank.d) ρ1 h 1 + ρ2 h 2 h 2 ρ2 = h1 h2 1− ρ1 ρ2 (4. The water also can change measurement of fuel gage. For the case. FLUIDS STATICS h1 hL h2 hH Fig. hH − hL h1 + h2 = − h2 h2 or hH − hL = h1 1− ρ1 ρ2 (4. The common instinct is to ﬁnd that the lower tube will contain the higher liquids.16) End Solution Example 4. Which piezometric tube will be higher? why? and how much higher? What is the pressure at the bottom of the tank? Solution CHAPTER 4. . Calculate the error for a give ratio between the fuel density to the water.5.II.II. The pressure at the bottom is P = Patmos + g (ρ1 h1 + ρ2 h2 ) (4. the lighter liquid is on the top the heavier liquid the the top tube is the same as the surface.b) h2 h2 hr 21 ρ2 It can be noticed that hH = h1 + h − 2 hence. The diﬀerence is hH − hL hH ρ1 h 1 + ρ2 h 2 = − (4.II. -4.76 A tank with opening at the top to the atmosphere contains two immiscible liquids one heavy and one light as depicted in Figure 4. However.3: The eﬀect of the water in the car tank is more than the possibility that water freeze in fuel lines.a) Since ρ1 > ρ1 the mathematics dictate that the height of the second is lower. Tank and the eﬀects different liquids. the lower tube will raise only to (notice that g is canceled) hL = ρ1 h1 + ρ2 h2 ρ2 (4.c) The only way the hL to be higher of hH is if the heavy liquid is on the top if the stability allow it. Part of the tank height is ﬁlled with the water at the bottom (due to the larger density).

knowing any point on this plane provides the pressure anywhere on the plane.76 [m] and the gravity acceleration is 9.3. PRESSURE AND DENSITY IN A GRAVITATIONAL FIELD Solution 77 The ratio of the fuel density to water density is ς = ρf /ρw and the ratio of the total height to the water height is x = hw /htotal Thus the pressure at the bottom when the tank is full with only fuel Pf ull = ρf htotal g (4. Example 4.85[kg/m3 ].b) where φ in this case the ratio of the full height (on the fake) to the total height.c) (4.4: Calculate the atmospheric pressure at 20◦ C.3.3. The atmospheric pressure at point a is the same as the pressure on the right hand side of the tube.III. Assume that the mercury vapor pressure is 0.d) 4. Equation (4. The high of the Mercury is 0.82[m/sec].2 4. Hence.2.a) But when water is present the pressure will be the same at Pf ull = (ρw x + φ ρf ) g htotal and if the two are equal at $ $ ρf $$ g = (ρw x + φ ρf ) g $$ htotal ¡ ¡ htotal (4.4.1 Pressure Measurement Measuring the Atmospheric Pressure One of the application of this concept is the idea of measuring the atmospheric pressure. The liquid is ﬁlling the tube and is brought into a steady state. Hence.III. will result in a device that can measure the pressure without additional information (the temperature).III.3. The mercury density is 13545.17) . The pressure above the liquid on the right side is the vapor pressure.III. Consider a situation described in Figure 4. Using liquid with a very low vapor pressure like mercury.3. The description of the height is given in Figure 4.15) can be utilized and it can be noticed that pressure at point a is Pa = ρ g h + Pvapor (4. φ= ρf − x ρ w ρf End Solution (4. Solution The pressure is uniform or constant plane perpendicular to the gravity.000179264[kPa].

000001793[Bar] which is insigniﬁcant compared to the total measurement as can be observed from the above example. -4. When in this case h1 is equal to Hb . Gas The pressure. U tube is L. The partial pressure of mercury is in the range of the 0.78 CHAPTER 4. L. Locate the liquids surfaces.39[P a] ∼ 1.76 ∼ 101095. the ratio between two sides will be as ρ1 h1 = ρ2 h2 → h2 = α h1 The mass conservation results in Ha + Hb = L + h 1 + h 2 Thus two equations and two unknowns provide the solution which is h1 = Ha + Hb − L 1+α When Ha > L and ρa (Ha − L) ≥ ρb (or the opposite) the liquid a will be on the two sides of the U tube. Solution The question is to ﬁnd the equilibrium point where two liquids balance each other. The ratio of the Fig. h .85 × 9. Thus. FLUIDS STATICS The density of the mercury is given along with the gravity and therefore. End Solution The main reason the mercury is used because of its large density and the fact that it is in a liquid phase in most of the measurement range. Schematic of gas measurement liquid densities is α = ρ1 /ρ2 . For smaller width. The third reason is the low vapor (partial) pressure of the mercury.6.5: A liquid2 a in amount Ha and a liquid b in amount Hb in to an U tube. The additional equation is the mass conservation as Ha = h 2 + L + h 3 2 This example was requested by several students who found their instructor solution unsatisfactory.82 × 0.01[Bar] The vapor pressure is about 1 × 10−4 percent of the total results. If the width of the U tube is equal or larger than total length of the two liquids then the whole liquid will be in bottom part. Pa = 13545. P valve 2 1 Example 4. The width of the utilizing the “U” tube. the balance is h1 ρb + h2 ρa = h3 ρa where h1 is the height of liquid b where h2 is the height of “extra” liquid a and same side as liquid b and where h3 is the height of liquid b on the other side.

-4. One A2 h2 ρ2 technique is to attached “U” tube ρ2 to the chamber and measure the ρ2 pressure.2. This device is based on the following mathematical explanation. If the pressure diﬀerences between P1 and P2 is small this instrument can “magniﬁed” height. This technique utilizes the opposite range. In steady state. Schematic of sensitive measurement device.3.2.Fig. h1 and provide “better” accuracy reading. imal interference to the gas (some gas enters to the tube).4. Figure 4. the pressure balance (only diﬀerences) is P1 + g ρ1 (h1 + h2 ) = P2 + g h2 ρ2 (4. The pressure at point “1” is P1 = Patmos + ρg h (4. In the previous technique.3 Magniﬁed Pressure Measurement For situations where the pressure diﬀerence is very small.7 shows a typical and simple schematic of such an instrument. The gas density is signiﬁcantly lower than the liquid density and therefore can be neglected. This device is build around the fact that the height is a function of the densities diﬀerence. PRESSURE AND DENSITY IN A GRAVITATIONAL FIELD The solution is h2 = (Ha − L) ρa − Hb ρb 2 ρa End Solution 79 4.7. The densities of the two sides are very close to each other.3. 4.3. the gas is prevented from escaping and its pressure can be measured with a min.18) Since the atmospheric pressure was measured previously (the technique was shown in the previous section) the pressure of the chamber can be measured. thus the height become large. It can be noticed that h1 can be positive or negative or zero and it depends on the ratio that . the density of one side was neglected (the gas side) compared to other side (liquid).19) It can be noticed that the “missing height” is canceled between the two sides. engineers invented more sensitive measuring device.6). This way. Consider a chamber ﬁlled with gas needed to ρ1 be measured (see Figure 4.2 Pressure Measurement The idea describes the atmoh1 P1 P2 A1 A1 spheric measurement that can be ρ1 ρ1 extended to measure the pressure of the gas chambers.

Additionally.8). . Here. -4. in writing equation (4. But this ratio can be inserted easily into the derivations.22) For the small value of the area ratio.80 CHAPTER 4. the volume ratio. The densities of the liquids are chosen to be much heavier than the measured gas density.21) A1 Liquid volumes do not necessarily have to be equal. The calculations as results of this additional parameter does not cause a signiﬁcant complications.20) If the light liquid volume in the two containers is known.18) is then Poutside P1 dy θ dℓ P1 − Poutside = ρ g d Fig.19) the gas density was neglected.24) Some refer to the density diﬀerence shown in equation (4. it provides the relationship between h1 and h2 . 3 This author’s personal experience while working in a ship that use this manometer which is signiﬁcantly inaccurate (ﬁrst thing to be replaced on the ship). Inclined manometer. it can be observed that h1 is relatively small because A1 >> A2 . this ratio equals to one and it simplify the equation (4. Additional parameter. will be introduced when the volumes ratio isn’t equal. FLUIDS STATICS two containers ﬁlled with the light density liquid.8.21). Inclined Manometer One of the old methods of pressure measurement is the inclined manometer. The densities of the liquid are chosen so that they are close to each other but not equal. the tube leg is inclined relatively to gravity (depicted in Figure 4.23) becomes h2 = (4. The equation (4. Due to surface tension. This method is an attempt to increase the accuracy by “extending” length visible of the tube. then equation (4. a location can be calibrated on the inclined leg as zero3 . For example.21) equation (4.19) becomes −h1 A1 = h2 A2 −→ h1 = − P1 − P2 = g h2 ρ2 − ρ1 1 − or the height is h2 = P1 − P2 g (ρ2 − ρ1 ) + ρ1 A2 A1 P1 − P2 g (ρ2 − ρ1 ) (4. caused air entrapment especially in rapid change of the pressure or height. ρ2 . In this method.23) A2 A1 (4. The pressure diﬀerence can be expressed as P1 − P2 = g [ρ2 h2 − ρ1 (h1 + h2 )] (4. Thus. if the volumes in two containers are equal then h2 A2 (4. With the equation for height (4.25) If there is a insigniﬁcant change in volume (the area ratio between tube and inclined leg is signiﬁcant). (4.24) as “magniﬁcation factor” since it replace the regular density. A2 /A1 << 1.

right leg left leg 81 Z Z h P2 − ρ2 (b + h) g = P1 − ρ1 a − ρ h) g Rearranging equation (4.9. the ideal gas model can be employed to describe the density. the equation of state is simply the ideal gas model or the ideal gas with the compressibility factor (sometime referred to as real gas). density and location.3.3.30) . These relationships will be used to ﬁnd the functionality between pressure.28) As in the previous “magniﬁed” manometer if the density diﬀerence is very small the height become very sensitive to the change of pressure.3. 4. it can be written as the pressure on left is equal to pressure on the right legs (see Figure 4.3. As ﬁrst approximation. Thus equation (4. The equation of state for liquid can be approximated or replaced by utilizing the bulk modulus.1 Gas Phase under Hydrostatic Pressure Ideal Gas under Hydrostatic Pressure The gas density vary gradually with the pressure.4. PRESSURE AND DENSITY IN A GRAVITATIONAL FIELD Inverted U-tube manometer The diﬀerence in the pressure of two diﬀerent liquids is measured by this manometer.26) leads to P2 − P1 = ρ2 (b + h) g − ρ1 a g − ρ h g (4.9). 4.29) Separating the variables and changing the partial derivatives to full derivative (just a notation for this case) results in g dz dP =− P RT (4. In the gas phase. For the similar density of ρ1 = ρ2 and for a = b equation (4. This idea is similar to “magniﬁed” manometer but in reversed. -4.27) becomes P2 − P1 = (ρ1 − ρ) g h (4.11) becomes gP ∂P =− ∂z RT (4.26) 1 a b 2 (4. Thus. liquids and other. The pressure line are the same for both legs on line ZZ.3 Varying Density in a Gravity Field There are several cases that will be discussed here which are categorized as gases. Schematic of inverted manometer.27) Fig.

a numerical integration must be carried out. For a large range of P/Pc and T /Tc .34) is useful in mathematical derivations but should be ignored for practical use4 . In these cases.34) Equation (4.32) can be expanded to show the diﬀerence to standard assumption of constant pressure as − h ρ0 g P0 P (z − z0 ) g (z − z0 ) g + + ··· =1− P0 RT 6RT Or in a simpliﬁed form where the transformation of h = (z − z0 ) to be correction factor h2 P ρ0 g h − + ··· =1+ 6 P0 P0 2 (4.31) to the following P = P0 e − g(z−zo ) RT (4. These deviations have a limited practical purpose. The modiﬁed equation is P = P0 Or in a series form which is P (z − z0 ) g (z − z0 ) g =1− + + ··· P0 Z RT 6Z RT 2 e „ − g (z−zo ) Z RT « (4.32) Here the pressure ratio is related to the height exponentially. In general.82 CHAPTER 4. 4 These derivations are left for a mathematical mind person. the relationship is very complicated and in some ranges Z cannot be assumed constant. Real Gas under Hydrostatic Pressure The mathematical derivations for ideal gas can be reused as a foundation for the real gas model (P = ZρRT ).35) (4. Z. can be assumed constant and therefore can be swallowed into equations (4. they are presented here for students who need to answer questions on this issue. the ﬁrst approximation should be noticed that the compressibility factor. the value of the compressibility factor.32) and (4.33) (4.39).31) It is convenient to rearrange equation (4.30) can be integrated from point “0” to any point to yield ln P g =− (z − z0 ) P0 RT „ « (4.33).36) Without going through the mathematics. Z enter the equation as h/Z and not just h. FLUIDS STATICS Equation (4. Equation (4. The compressibility is deﬁned in equation (2. Another point that is worth discussing is the relationship of Z to other gas properties. . However.

28)) is ρ = BT ∂ρ ∂P (4.38) The integration of equation (4. with units of length.41) e P −P0 BT = z + Constant (4.37) should be separated and then the integration can be carried out as P ρ dP = P0 ρ0 BT dρ ρ (4.43) . here.42) has units of length.39) can be represented in a more convenient form as Density variation ρ = ρ0 e P −P0 BT (4.38) yields P − P0 = BT ln ρ ρ0 (4.4.42) It can be noted that BT has units of pressure and therefore the ratio in front of the exponent in equation (4. The governing diﬀerential density equation (see equation (1. The integration constant.3. For these cases.40) Equation (4.3.40) is the counterpart for the equation of state of ideal gas for the liquid phase. Utilizing equation (4.11) transformed into ∂P = −gρ0 ∂z Equation (4.28).2 Liquid Phase Under Hydrostatic Pressure 83 The bulk modulus was deﬁned in equation (1. can be evaluated at any speciﬁc point. The simplest approach is to assume that the bulk modulus is constant (or has some representative average). If at z = 0 the pressure is P0 and the density is ρ0 then the constant is Constant = BT g ρ0 (4.37) The variables for equation (4. Fortunately.3. the diﬀerential equation for density should be solved ﬁrst.39) Equation (4. So. PRESSURE AND DENSITY IN A GRAVITATIONAL FIELD 4. only one hydrostatic equation depends on density equation. there are two diﬀerential equations that needed to be solved.41) can be integrated to yield BT g ρ0 e P −P0 BT (4.40) in equation (4.

pressure (P − P0 ) + Example 4. Additional discussion will be presented in the dimensionless issues chapter (currently under construction). The comparison between the two methods will be presented.14 is more general which provided a simple solution5 .44) March 11.46) An approximation of equation (4.45) Fig.” The method described in the Example 1. it can be observed that the correction is on the left hand side and not as the “traditional” correction on the piezometric pressure side.14 ratio of the density was expressed by equations (1. is a typical length of the problem. please pass this information to this author. Sometimes. The equation of state suggests that ∂P = g ρ0 f (P ) dz while the integral equation is ∆P = g ρ dz where no assumption is made on the relationship between the pressure and density. The solution is presented in equation (4.10. The solution is a reverse function (that is not P = f (z) but z = f (P)) it is a monotonous function which is easy to solve for any numerical value (that is only one z corresponds to any Pressure). FLUIDS STATICS e P −P0 BT P −P0 BT −1 =z (4. Additionally.47) is reduced to the standard equation when the normalized pressure ratio. However. The exponent can be expanded as piezometric corrections 2 3 = z g ρ0 (4. Hydrostatic pressure when there is compressibility in the liquid phase. If you know of any of these solutions or similar. 2008 P −P0 BT Or in a dimensionless form Density in Liquids g ρ0 z BT e −1 z g ρ0 = BT (4. the integral equation uses the fact that the pressure is function of location. .XIV.10.14 use the integral equation without using any “equation of state. The solution becomes BT g ρ0 CHAPTER 4.l) while here the ratio is expressed by diﬀerent equations. the solution is presented as P BT = ln P0 P0 g ρ0 z +1 +1 BT (4.84 This constant.44) and is plotted in Figure 4. In Example 1.6: 5 This author is not aware of the “equation of state” solution or the integral solution. The diﬀerence between the two equations is the fact that Example 1. -4. P/BT is small (<< 1).47) BT P − P0 BT P − P0 + + ··· 2 BT 6 BT It can be noticed that equation (4.45) is presented for historical reasons and in order to compare the constant density assumption. BT /g ρ0 .

48) where h here referred to height or distance.49) where the Constant is the integration constant which can be obtained by utilizing the initial condition. If you feel that it is too simple. Air can be a function of the temperature ﬁeld and the pressure.3. a simple case is examined for which the temperature is a linear function of the height as dT = −Cx dh (4. A bit more complicate case is when the gas is a function of the pressure and another parameter.3.4. the temperature in the atmostphere is assumed to be a linear with the height under certain conditions. Here. the density is aﬀected and thus the pressure is a location function (for example.1 The Pressure Eﬀects Due To Temperature Variations The Basic Analysis There are situations when the main change of the density results from other eﬀects.).53) 6 A colleague asked this author to insert this explanation for his students. when the temperature ﬁeld is not uniform. For the atmosphere.51) and changing the formal ∂ to the informal d to obtain dP g dh =− P R (T0 − Cx h) (4.52) Deﬁning a new variable6 as ξ = (T0 − Cx h) for which ξ0 = T0 − Cx h0 and d/dξ = −Cx d/dh.50) with (4. For h = 0. please. the temperature–distance function can be written as T = Constant − Cx h (4.4 4.50) Separating the variables in equation (4. For example. PRESSURE AND DENSITY IN A GRAVITATIONAL FIELD 85 4. .3. Hence. just ignore it.51) (4. the temperature is T0 and using it leads to Temp variations T = T0 − Cx h Combining equation (4. Using these deﬁnitions results in dP g dξ = P RCx ξ (4. it is commonly assumed that the temperature is a linear function of the height.11) results in ∂P gP =− ∂h R (T0 − Cx h) (4.4.

It has to be inserted to make the physical signiﬁcance clearer.55) can be approximated by two approaches/ideas. It is worth to point out that the above statement has a qualitative meaning when additional parameter is added.57) shows that the correction factor (lapse coeﬃcient).56) shows that the ﬁrst two terms are the standard terms (negative sign is as expected i. and the second approximation for a small temperature gradient. It can be observed that Cx has a “double role” which can change the pressure ratio. Equation (4.e. The second approximation for small Cx is P Cx = lim h 1− Cx −>0 P0 T0 g R Cx = e gh −RT 0 − g h2 Cx 2 T0 2 R e gh −RT 0 − . Eckert who was the pioneer of the dimensional analysis in heat transfer and was kind to show me some of his ideas.56) and (4. The ﬁrst approximation for a small distance.55) represents only the pressure ratio.50).86 CHAPTER 4.55) and (4. I am grateful to my adviser E.. FLUIDS STATICS After the integration of equation (4.. Equation (4.. (4. However. T0 R 2 T0 2 R2 (4.G.54) Or in a more convenient form as Pressure in Atmosphere P = P0 g T0 − Cx h ( R Cx ) T0 (4. negative direction). It has to be noted that these equations (4. . This relationship can be obtained from combining equations (4. it is sometimes important to obtain the density ratio. This situation is roughly representing the pressure in the atmosphere and results in a temperature decrease. this kind of analysis will be presented in the dimensional analysis chapter7 . The correction factor occurs only at the third term which is important for larger heights.57) are not properly represented without the characteristic height. It can be recalled that the following expansions are g h ρ0 P0 correction factor P Cx = lim 1 − h h−>0 P0 T0 g R Cx =1− R g C x − g 2 h2 gh − − .56) Equation (4. For engineering purposes.57) Equation (4.55) is a monotonous function which decreases with height because the term in the brackets is less than one.R. Cx . inﬂuences at only large values of height.. The simplest assumption to combine these 7 These concepts are very essential in all the thermo–ﬂuid science. h.52) and reusing (the reverse deﬁnitions) the variables transformed the result into ln P g T0 − Cx h = ln P0 R Cx T0 (4.55) It can be noticed that equation (4.

In reality. to yield P P0 T0 T g R Cx 87 ρ P T0 = = ρ0 P0 T 1− Cx h ( T0 ) 1+ Cx h T (4. -4.4. the body forces that acting on the slab are equal to zero.55) is stable and if so under what conditions.58) Advance material can be skipped 4. h. The buoyancy forces are proportional to the ratio of the density of the slab to surrounding layer density. The ﬁrst case is referred to as the stable condition and the second case referred to as the unstable condition. the surroundings “pressure” forces (buoyancy forces) are equal to gravity forces. to layer at height h + dh (see Figure 4. Suppose that h for some reason. This question is determined by the net forces acting on the slab. Under equilibrium. Thus. If ρ (h) > ρ(h + dh) then the situation is stable. the stability question is whether the slab density from layer h. The reason that the free expansion is chosen to explain the process that the slab undergoes when it moves from layer h to layer h + dh is because it is the simplest.3. That is.11. That is.2 The Stability Analysis It is interesting to study whether h + dh this solution (4. A weak wind or other disturbances can make the unstable system to move to a new condition. The two processes that occurred here are thermal and the change of pressure (at the speed of sound). higher heights). two main possibilities one: the slab could return to the original layer or two: stay at the new layer (or even move further. The term ρ (h) is slab from layer h that had undergone the free expansion.25). The whole system falls apart and does not stay if the analysis predicts unstable conditions. equation (2. Whether these forces are toward the original layer or not.4. the pressure process is about thousands times faster than the thermal process. Clearly.11) What could happen? There are Fig. this shock is insigniﬁcant (check book on Fundamentals of Compressible Flow Mechanics by this author on the French problem). a small slab of material moves from a layer at height. Two adjoin layers for stability analysis. The two forces that act on the slab are the gravity force and the surroundings pressure (buoyant forces). the free expansion is not far way from the actual process. However. the slab is in equilibrium with its surroundings before the movement (not necessarily stable). The second issue that occurs during the “expansion” is the shock (in the reverse case [h + dh] → h). . PRESSURE AND DENSITY IN A GRAVITATIONAL FIELD equations is by assuming the ideal gas model. The thermal process is in the range of [cm/sec] while the speed of sound is about 300 [m/sec].3. ρ (h) undergoing a free expansion is higher or lower than the density of the layer h + dh.

25)) ρ (h + dh) = ρ(h) P (h + dh) P (h) 1/k (4.64) and (4.62) transformed into ρ (h + dh) = ρ(h) 1− ρ gdh P 1/k (4. The little slab undergoes isentropic expansion as following for which (see equation (2.59) and then it is expanded in taylor series as ρ(h + dh) = ρ(h) g Cx dh ( R Cx ) Cx dh 1− 1+ T0 T ∼1− g ρ Cx − P T dh + · · · (4.60) When the symbol denotes the slab that moves from layer h to layer h + dh. Pk 2 P 2 k2 (4..62) Expanding equation (4.55) but can be approximated by equation (4..63) provides the conditions to determine the stability.58) as following ρ(h + dh) P T0 = = ρ(h) P0 T 1− g Cx dh ( R Cx ) Cx dh 1+ T0 T (4. to keep the inequality for a small dh only the ﬁrst term need to be compared as g ρ Cx gρ > − Pk P T (4.88 CHAPTER 4. can be assumed to be adiabatic (that is.65) .61) Again using the ideal gas model for equation (4.62) in Taylor series results in 1− ρ gdh P 1/k =1− g 2 ρ2 k − g 2 ρ2 dh2 g ρ dh − − .64) The comparison of the right hand terms of equations (4. From a mathematical point of view.63) The density at layer h + dh can be obtained from (4. The process. The pressure ratio is given by equation (4. no signiﬁcant heat transfer occurs in the short period of time).56) and thus ρ (h + dh) = ρ(h) 1− gdh T (h) R 1/k (4.59) The pressure and temperature change when the slab moves from layer at h to layer h + dh. FLUIDS STATICS The slab density at layer h+dh can be obtained using equation (4. under the above discussion and simpliﬁcations.

What is the source of the force(s) that make this situation when unstable continue to be unstable? Supposed that the situation became unstable and the layers have been exchanged.12. . The gravity force can be assumed that for inﬁnity. See example for the ﬂoating ice in cup.3. equation (4. -4.11) has two r P b ρb terms on the right hand side.4.65) and using the ideal gas identity. while the gravity force source in liquid can be the liquid itself. The varying gravity eﬀects Thus. 4. it was explained that the gravity is a function of the distance from the center of the plant/body. One of the common question this author has been asked is about the forces of continuation.3. PRESSURE AND DENSITY IN A GRAVITATIONAL FIELD 89 After rearrangement of the inequality (4. one has to bear in mind that this analysis only provides a range and isn’t exact. issues. Assuming that the pressure is aﬀected by this gravity/body force. r → ∞ the pressure is about zero. the density.5. The issues of magnetohydrodynamics are too advance for undergraduate student and therefore.3. The body force was assumed rb g ∝ r2 until now to be constant. At ﬁrst glance. around this value additional analysis is needed 8 . 4. However. ρ and the body force. The gravity force is reversely proportional to r2 . The source of the gravity force in gas is another body. Thus. Again.66) The analysis shows that the maximum amount depends on the gravity and gas properties. it transformed to Cx (k − 1) g ρ > T kP k−1 g Cx < k R (4.1 Ideal Gas in Varying Gravity In physics. would the situation become stable now? One has to remember that temperature gradient forces continuous heat transfer which the source temperature change after the movement to the new layer. the discussion is separated into two diﬀerent on density and pressure. the body force is independent of the ﬂuid. Thus. the unstable situation is continuously unstable.11) can be used 8 The same issue of the ﬂoating ice. This assumption must be deviated when the distance from the body source is signiﬁcantly change. g. it is said that situation is neutral. It should be noted that this value should be changed a bit since the k should be replaced by polytropic expansion n. When lapse rate Cx is equal to the right hand side of the inequality. Fig.will not be introduced here. Equation (4.5 Gravity Variations Eﬀects on Pressure and Density Until now the study focus on the change of density and pressure of the ﬂuid.

The regular method of separation is employed to obtain P Pb dP G =− P RT r rb dr r2 (4.90 CHAPTER 4.71) = = 1− − + .70) demonstrates that the pressure is reduced with the distance..72) With the same process as before for ideal gas case. It can be observed that for r → rb the pressure is approaching P → Pb . 4. is employed. Z.68) is transformed into P Pb dP G =− P Z RT r rb dr r2 (4.73) Equation (4. It has to remember when this assumption isn’t accurate enough. This equation conﬁrms that the density in outer space is zero ρ(∞) = 0.70) can be expanded in Taylor series as standard correction f actor ρ P 2 2 G R T + G2 rb (r − rb ) G (r − rb ) (4.3. This equation conﬁrms .70) Equation (4. equation (4. ρb Pb 2 RT 2 rb (R T ) Notice that G isn’t our beloved and familiar g and also that G rb /RT is a dimensionless number (later in dimensionless chapter about it and its meaning). FLUIDS STATICS (semi one directional situation) when r is used as direction and thus ∂P G = −ρ 2 ∂r r (4.5. It can be noticed that for r → rb the pressure is approaching P → Pb . equation (4.69) e G r−r − RT r r b b (4. As before.68) results in ln Or in a simpliﬁed form as ρ P = = ρb Pb P G =− Pb RT 1 1 − rb r (4.67) where G denotes the general gravity constant. Thus. numerical integration is a possible solution.. The integration of equation (4.2 Real Gas in Varying Gravity The regular assumption of constant compressibility. one can obtain P ρ = = ρb Pb e G r−r −Z RT r r b b (4.70) demonstrates that the pressure is reduced with the distance.68) where the subscript b denotes the conditions at the body surface.

PRESSURE AND DENSITY IN A GRAVITATIONAL FIELD 91 that the density in outer space is zero ρ(∞) = 0.5.4.75) is e P −P0 BT G r2 (4..75) e P0 −P BT = Constant − BT g ρ0 r (4. This issue is related to Pushka equation that will be discussed later.000 [m]. the Cartesian coordinates provides suﬃcient treatment to the problem.3 Liquid Under Varying Gravity For comparison reason consider the deepest location in the ocean which is about 11.3. As before Taylor series for equation (4.74) It can be noted that compressibility factor can act as increase or decrease of the ideal gas model depending on whether it is above one or below one.78) . 4. it is left for the reader to apply according to problem. Derivations of the ﬂuid static in spherical coordinates are Pressure Spherical Coordinates 1 d r2 dP + 4 π Gρ = 0 r2 dr ρ dr Or in a vector form as 1 P ρ (4.70) is standard correction f actor ρ P 2 2 G Z R T + G2 rb (r − rb ) G (r − rb ) = = + .77) • + 4 π Gρ = 0 (4. 1− − ρb Pb 2 Z RT 2 rb (Z R T ) (4.. there are situations where the spherical coordinates must be considered and used.3.40) is used with the hydrostatic ﬂuid equation results in ∂P = −ρ0 ∂r which the solution of equation (4.3.6 Liquid Phase While for most practical purposes.76) Since this author is not aware to which practical situation this solution should be applied. 4. If the liquid “equation of state” (4. if applicable.

The eﬀective angle is obtained by adding vectors. the previous derivations can be easily extended. Example 4. what happened to the liquid surface? What is the relative angle of the liquid surface for a container in an accelerated system of a = 5[m/sec]? Solution 27.7: A tank ﬁlled with liquid is accelerated at a constant acceleration. The eﬀective gravity is for accelerated cart.1 Fluid in a Linearly Accelerated System ˆ gef f = a ˆ + g k i For example. However. the previous method can be used and there is no need to solve new three (or two) diﬀerent equations. the constant pressure plane is perpendicular to the direction of the eﬀective gravity. In general.79) where the magnitude of the eﬀective gravity is |gef f | = g 2 + a2 (4. Equation (4.80) and the angle/direction can be obtained from tanβ = a g (4. in a two dimensional system.4.1 a 5 m sec g geﬀ Fig. This question is one of the traditional question of the ﬂuid static and is straight forward. Consider the following example to illustrate the situation. The solution is obtained by ﬁnding the eﬀective angle body force. for the eﬀective gravity (4. When the acceleration is changing from the right to the left.4 Fluid in a Accelerated System Up to this stage. The change of the acceleration from the right to left is . body forces were considered as one-dimensional. Generally the acceleration is divided into two categories: linear and angular and they will be discussed in this order. FLUIDS STATICS 4.8) can be transformed into a diﬀerent coordinate system where the main coordinate is in the direction of the eﬀective gravity. 4.13. the linear acceleration have three components as opposed to the previous case of only one.81) Perhaps the best way to explain the linear acceleration is by examples. Thus. As before.92 CHAPTER 4. -4.

015[m/sec2 ] End Solution Example 4. A cart slide on inclined plane.812 = 11. FLUID IN A ACCELERATED SYSTEM 93 like subtracting vector (addition negative vector). The net body force depends on the mass of the liquid and the net acceleration is a=g− The angle of the surface. lar to the slope.82) ) F (a β The eﬀective body force is acting perpendicu.4.8: A cart partially ﬁlled with liquid and is sliding on an inclined plane as shown in Figure 4. If there is a resistance.83) (4. Thus. If there is no resistance. Calculate the shape of the surface.14. what will be the angle? What happen when the slope angle is straight (the cart is dropping straight down)? Solution (a) The angle can be found when the acceleration of the cart is found.01◦ g 9.81 The magnitude of the eﬀective acceleration is |gef f | = 52 + 9. In that case the eﬀective body moves closer to the gravity forces. is now tan α = net g − Fm g cosβ Fnet m (4. the acceleration in the cart direction is determined from a = g sin β (4. -4. End Solution (b) In case of resistance force (either of friction due to the air or resistance in the wheels) reduces the acceleration of the cart. the liquid surface is parallel to the surface of the inclination surface.14. This angle/direction can be found using the following a 5 tan−1 β = tan−1 = ∼ 27. α < β.84) (c) .4.Fig.

Schematic to explain the angular angle. Example 4. The angle of the line depends on the radius as dz g =− 2 dr ω r (4.15.17.2 Angular Acceleration Systems: Constant Density Fig.9 is provided.85) z r unit mass ω2 r g geﬀ center of circulation Equation (4. Solution .86) can be integrated as ω 2 r2 z − z0 = 2g (4. That eﬀective body force can be written as ˆ gef f = −g k + ω 2 r r ˆ The lines of constant pressure are not straight lines but lines of parabolic shape. Notice that the integration constant was substituted by z0 . the ﬁrst case deals with a rotation in a perpendicular to the gravity. CHAPTER 4.4.86) (4.87) Fig. -4. The center of rotation is a distance. The constant pressure will be along Angular Acceleration System ω 2 r2 (4. Forces diagram of cart sliding on inclined plane.88) P − P0 = ρg (z0 − z) + 2g To illustrate this point.94 In the case when the angle of the inclination turned to be straight (direct falling) the eﬀective body force is zero. So.9: A “U” tube with a length of (1 + x)L is rotating at angular velocity of ω. Because the asymmetrical nature of the problem there is diﬀerence in the heights in the U tube arms of S as shown in Figure 4. -4. FLUIDS STATICS ce fa th wi t ic fr n io r su α a β g sin β − Fnet m β g geﬀ 4. example 4. Expresses the relationship between the diﬀerent parameters of the problem.16. the pressure at any point in the liquid is the same and equal to the atmospheric pressure. L from the “left” hand side. For simpliﬁcation reasons. The pressure is uniform in the tank and no pressure diﬀerence can be found.

The volume above the lower point is ? which is only a function of the geometry. End Solution Example 4. It is ﬁrst assumed the height is uniform at the tube (see for the open question on this assumption).87) represent the pressure line. Taking the “left” wing of U tube change in z direction zl − z0 The same can be said for the other side zr − z0 = ω 2 x2 L2 2g = change in r direction ω 2 L2 2g Thus subtracting the two equations above from each each other results in zr − zl = L ω 2 1 − x2 2g It can be noticed that this kind equipment can be used to ﬁnd the gravity. Notice that the curvature in the two sides are diﬀerent from each other. The distance of the inﬁnitesimal area from the rotation center is ?.9. -4.9 is rotating with upper part height of .17 shows the inﬁnitesimal area used in these calculations. What will be the correction factor if the curvature in the liquid in the tube is taken in to account. Thus. How would you suggest to deﬁne the height in the tube? Solution In Figure 4.10: Assume the diameter of the U tube is Rt . equation (4.11: In the U tube in example 4.4. The pressure at the interface at the two sides of the tube is same. The height of the inﬁnitesimal area is ?.4. Schematic angular angle to explain example 4. At what rotating nt . End Solution Example 4. FLUID IN A ACCELERATED SYSTEM Calculation of the correction factor dA Rotation center ns ta su re lin e 95 pr es S ω L co xL Fig.17.

what happen the rotation approach very large value? Advance material can be skipped 4. these layers assumption will be used to do some estimates.9 bulk modulus and the eﬀect of rotation. -4. outer core. This explaination is provided to understand how to use the Fig. inspired from image made by user Surachit . Two diﬀerent extremes can recognized in ﬂuids between the outer core to the crust. In one extreme is the equator which the rotation play the most signiﬁcant role.4. 9 The image was drawn by Shoshana Bar-Meir. and two layers in the liquid phase with a thin crust. If this assumption is accepted.3 Fluid Statics in Geological System This author would like to express his gratitude to Ralph Menikoff for suggesting this topic. FLUIDS STATICS velocity liquid start to exit the U tube? If the rotation of U tube is exactly at the center. there might be an additional eﬀects which aﬀecting the situation but these eﬀects are not the concern of this discussion. Earth layers not to scale. In reality.18.96 CHAPTER 4. For the purpose of this book. In geological systems such as the Earth provide cases to be used for ﬂuid static for estimating pressure. The assumption states that the Earth is made from the following layers: solid inner core. It is common in geology to assume that the Earth is made of several layers. the interest is the calculate the pressure at bottom of the liquid phase.

4. the bulk modulus can be written as a function of the radius.93) ρ0 dρ = − ρ3 r R0 G dr r2 (4. Hence.45) or in approximation of equation (1.90) In equation (4. If the bulk modulus is assumed constant (for simplicity) governing equation can be constructed starting with equation (1.94) is ρ0 2 or ρ= 1 1 2G − 2 ρ0 ρ0 1 1 − R0 r (4. ρ0 (4.92) is a relatively simple (Fredholm) integral equation. In that case.89) Using equation to express the pressure diﬀerence (see Example 1. the pressure at the bottom of the liquid layer can be estimated using the equation (4.28).j). FLUID IN A ACCELERATED SYSTEM 97 In the other extreme north–south does not play any eﬀect since the radius is relatively very small.90) it is assumed that BT is a function of pressure and the pressure is a function of the location.4. r.94) The solution of equation (4.92) Equation (4.96) 1 1 − 2 ρ0 2 ρ =G 1 1 − R0 r (4. Again.91) ρ(r) = r 1 1− g(r)ρ(r)dr B T R0 The governing equation can be written using the famous relation for the gravity as ρ0 1 =1− ρ(r) BT r R0 G ρ(r)dr r2 (4.95) . for simplicity the bulk modulus is assumed to be constant.14 for details explanation) as ρ(r) = 1− R0 r ρ0 g(r)ρ(r) dr BT (r) (4. The approximate deﬁnition of the bulk modulus is BT = ρ ∆P ρ ∆P =⇒ ∆ρ = ∆ρ BT (4.XIV. Thus. In this case it also can be noticed that g is a function of r. The solution of this equation obtained by diﬀerentiation as ρ0 d ρ G + 2ρ = 0 ρ2 dr r Under variables separation the equation changes to ρ ρ0 (4.

99) Thus the approximated density ratio can be written as ρ0 1 =1− ρ BT r ρ R0 G − ω r2 r2 dr (4.98) The other issue that related to this topic is. FLUIDS STATICS These equations (4. The pressure diﬀerence is r ∆P = R0 ρ G − ω r2 r2 dr (4. the ﬂow is much more complicated because it is not stationary but have cells in which the liquid ﬂows around.96) referred to as expanded Pushka equation.101) ρ0 1 = 2 ρ2 BT −G ω r3 − r 3 (4. The conclusion is that the pressure at the “equator” is substantially lower than the pressure in the north or the south “poles” of the solid core. Thus. Nevertheless.R0 The integral can evaluated numerically or analytically as ρ0 log ∆P = − (2 ρ0 G + r) R0 − 2 r ρ0 G r ρ0 2 R0 2G ρ0 log (ρ0 ) G − (4. the eﬀect of rotation is reduced because the radius is reduced. this analysis gives some indication on the pressure and density in the core.102) Where the pressure is obtained by integration as previously was done. It can be noticed that the rotation acts in the opposite direction to the gravity.97) 1 2G 1 1 BT r2 − − ρ0 2 ρ0 R 0 r .98 CHAPTER 4. The pressure can be calculated since the density is found as r 1 G dr ∆P = (4. In the range between the two extreme. End Advance material . What is the pressure at the equator when the rotation is taken into account. The pressure diﬀerence is due to the large radius.100) Taking derivative of the two sides results in − ρ0 1 = 3 ρ BT G − ω r2 r2 dr = 0 (4.95) and (4. mathematical complications caused by the coupling creates additionally diﬃculty. The integral in equation (4. In real liquid.92) has to include the rotation eﬀects.101) Integrating equation (4. The rotation aﬀects the density since the pressure changes.

Later. Solution The forces can be calculated by looking at the moment around point “O. F1 and F2 to maintain the gate in position.4. Calculate the minimum forces. P can be expressed as a function ξ as the following P = g ρ ( + ξ)sinβ The liquid total moment on the gate is b Fig.5. Rectangular area under pressure. straight surfaces and curved surfaces. how the calculations can be simpliﬁed will be shown.5 Fluid Forces on Surfaces The forces that ﬂuids (at static conditions) extracts on surfaces are very important for engineering purposes. M= 0 g ρ ( + ξ) sin β a dξ( + ξ) The integral can be simpliﬁed as b M = g a ρ sin β 0 ( + ξ)2 dξ (4. 4. This section deals with these calculations.12: Consider a rectangular shape gate as shown in Figure 4.103) The solution of the above integral is M = g ρ a sin β 3 b l2 + 3 b2 l + b3 3 .19. Assuming that the atmospheric pressure can be ignored. -4.5. Example 4. FLUID FORCES ON SURFACES 99 4.” The element of moment is a dξ for the width of the gate and is dF "0" β = 50◦ h A-A ξ ℓ = 5[m] ξ A-A a[m] dξ dM = P a dξ ( + ξ) dA F2 F1 b[m] The pressure. These calculations are divided into two categories. Initially. a simple case will be examined.1 Fluid Forces on Straight Surfaces A motivation is needed before going through the routine of derivations.19.

Looking at the above calculations. -4.Fig. First. Several rep. it can be observed that there is a moment of area in equation (4.103) and also a center of area.20. FLUIDS STATICS This value provides the moment that F1 and F2 should extract. It is the total force. These tabulated values can be used to solve this kind of problems. which is b Ftotal = 0 g ρ ( + ξ) sin β a dξ The total force integration provides b Ftotal = g ρ a sin β 0 ( + ξ)dξ = g ρ a sin β 2 b + b2 2 The forces on the gate have to provide F1 + F2 = g ρ a sin β 2 b + b2 2 Additionally. Additional equation is needed. The total force and moment that the liquid extracting on the area need to be calculated. and center of area have been tabulated in Chapter 3. the moment of forces around point “O” is F1 + F2 ( + b) = g ρ a sin β The solution of these equations is F1 = F2 = (3 + b) a b g ρ sin β 6 (3 + 2 b) a b g ρ sin β 6 End Solution "O" 3 b l 2 + 3 b2 l + b3 3 The above calculations are time consuming and engineers always try to make life simpler.100 CHAPTER 4.20. β ξ ξ ℓ0 dξ ℓ1 ξ Symmetrical Shapes Consider the two–dimensional symmetrical area that are under pressure as shown in Figure 4. These concepts have been introduced in Chapter 3.104) . the force is h(ξ) 1 F = A P dA = (Patmos + ρgh)dA = A Patmos + ρg 0 (ξ + 0 ) sin β dA (4. Schematic of submerged area to resented areas for which moment of inertia explain the center forces and moments. The symmetry is around any axes parallel to axis x.

The integral in equation (4.110) can be combined the moment and . FLUID FORCES ON SURFACES 101 In this case.12 can be generalized to solve any two forces needed to balance the area/gate.107) ξ1 ξ1 ξ sin β F2 My = ξ0 (Patmos + g ρ h(ξ) )ξdA (4. The boundaries of the integral of equation (4.106) and (4. The general forces acting on submerged area. Ix x . the atmospheric pressure can include any additional liquid layer above layer “touching” area. -4.108) Fig.104) can be further developed as Ftotal = A Patmos + ρ g sin β 0 xc A 1 (4. Ix ξ1 Or separating the parts as xc A ξ1 x My = Patmos ξ0 ξdA +g ρ sin β ξ0 ξ 2 dA (4. is about the axis through point “O” into the page.109) can be written in more compact form as Total Moment in Inclined Surface My = Patmos xc A + g ρ sin βIx x (4.105) A+ 0 ξdA In a ﬁnal form as Total Force in Inclined Surface Ftotal = A [Patmos + ρ g sin β ( 0 + xc )] The moment of the liquid on the area around point “O” is ξ1 (4.106) "O" y ξ0 β a F1 b My = ξ0 P (ξ)ξdA (4. The “atmospheric” pressure can be set to zero.104) refer to starting point and ending points not to the start area and end area.21.109) The moment of inertia. Equation (4. Equations (4.5. Consider the general symmetrical body shown in ﬁgure 4.4.21 which has two forces that balance the body.110) Example 4.

additional equation is required. the atmospheric pressure can contain either an additional liquid layer above the “touching” area or even atmospheric pressure simply can be set up to zero. Additionally. the forces can be negative or positive.115) into Mx = A y (Patmos + ρ g ξ sin β) dA (4.102 CHAPTER 4.111) (4. Thus. The forces balance reads F1 + F2 = A [Patmos + ρ g sin β ( and moments balance reads F1 a + F2 b = Patmos xc A + g ρ sin βIx The solution of these equations is F1 = and F2 = Ix x x 0 + xc )] (4.116) The integral in equation (4. In symmetrical area only two forces are required since the moment is one dimensional. Ix x ρ sin β (4.106).113) ρ sin β − ρ sin β − Patmos ga xc + 0 ρ sin β + Patmos g aA g (b − a) (4. FLUIDS STATICS force acting on the general area.118) y . The moment around the x axis (which was arbitrary chosen) should be Mx = A y P dA (4.117) The compact form can be written as Moment in Inclined Surface Mx = Patmos A yc + ρ g sin β Ix (4.110) and the total force is given by (4.22). If the “atmospheric pressure” can be zero or include additional layer of liquid. This equation is for the additional moment around the x axis (see for explanation in Figure 4. The moment around the y axis is given by equation (4. in non–symmetrical area there are two diﬀerent moments and therefor three forces are required. However. and the distance a or b can be positive or negative.115) Substituting the components for the pressure transforms equation (4.112) ρ sin β − Patmos gb xc + 0 ρ sin β + g (b − a) Patmos g b A−.115) can be written as A yc Ix y Mx = Patmos A y dA +ρ g sin β A ξ y dA (4.114) In the solution.

110) and (4. ξ (4. Example 4.118). The height of triangle 1 is ( 1 − 0 ) and its width b and thus.119) (4. The general forces acting on non symuse of these equations is provided.22.120) + F2 (a + 0) + F3 0 = Mx (4.106).13: Calculate the forces which required to balance the triangular shape shown in the Figure 4.5. the moment of ∆x2 2 1 A2 Ixx 2 = b[a−( 1− 36 0 )] + b[a−( 1 − 0 )] 3 + [a−( 1 − 0 )] 2 3 . There are many combix nations of problems (e. Solution The three equations that needs to be solved are F1 + F2 + F3 = Ftotal The moment around x axis is F1 b = My The moment around y axis is F1 1 (4. metrical straight area.4. (4.23. moment of inertia about its center is Ixx = b( 1 − 0 )3 /36.106). -4.23) for triangle 1 and 2).g. The moment of inertia of the triangle around x is made of two triangles (as shown in the Figure (4.118) provide the base for solving any problem for straight area under pressure with uniy dA form density. two forces and moment) but no general solution is provided. (4. Example to illustrate the Fig.121) The right hand side of these equations are given before in equations (4. FLUID FORCES ON SURFACES 103 The product of inertia was presented y These equations in Chapter 3. Triangle 1 can be calculated as the moment of inertia around its center which is 0 +2∗( 1 − 0 )/3.110) and (4. The moment of inertia for triangle 1 about y is A1 ∆x1 2 0 2 Ixx 1 = b( 3 1− 0) 36 + 1 b( 1− 0) 3 0) + 2( 1− 0) 3 The height of the triangle 2 is a − ( inertia about its center is 3 − and its width b and thus.

1.1 Pressure Center In the literature. F2 ab 3 =− F3 ab 3 − 72 „„ « « 24 1 48 0 Patmos a −24 + a .122) In the same way.23. pressure centers are commonly deﬁned. the pressure center in the x direction is xp = 1 F x P dA A (4.118).123) . the pressure center in the y direction is deﬁned as yp = 1 F y P dA A (4. The pressure center is the distance that will create the moment with the hydrostatic force on point “O. The lower line of the b 0 triangle is y = ( 1 − b −a)x + 0 + a.” Thus.5.110) and equation (4. 72 „„ « „ « « 15 12 12 2 a− a 1 + 0 27− a 1 + a 0 g ρ sin β „„ 24 a 72 « 48 1 +24 + a 72 End Solution 1 −14 a)− 0 « « 12 2 −27 + a 0 g ρ sin β = + « 0 Patmos 4. FLUIDS STATICS ℓ1 y b 1 ℓ0 F3 a F1 2 F2 x Fig. It can be noticed that upper line of the triangle is y = ( 1 − 0 )x + 0 . The general forces acting on a non symmetrical straight area. The deﬁnition is derived or obtained from equation (4. b ( ( 1 − 0 −a)x CHAPTER 4. -4. These deﬁnitions are mathematical in nature and has physical meaning of equivalent force that will act through this center. 2 a b2 2 1 +2 a b 0 +a 2 + 0 +a Ixy = 0 b 1 − 0 )x + b 0 x y dx dy = b2 24 The solution of this set equations is A F1 = a b (g (6 3 „ (3 1 + 3 a) + 6 g „ 12 a 0) ρ sin β + 8 Patmos 24 1 .104 and the total moment of inertia Ixx = Ixx 1 + Ixx 2 The product of inertia of the triangle can be obtain by integration.

the integral has be carried out. the force that is acting on the body is GeogologicalFtotal = A g ρ h dA ∼ ρ ¯ A g h dA (4. the reader can ﬁnd that direct calculations can sometimes simplify the problem.2 Multiply Layers In the previous sections.128) As before for single density. If density can be represented by average density.126) It has to emphasis that these deﬁnitions are useful only for case where the atmospheric pressure can be neglected or canceled and where 0 is zero. In fact. Thus.127) In cases where average density cannot be represented reasonably11 .4.5. 4. .124) according to equation (3. It also means that the density can be a non-continuous function. FLUID FORCES ON SURFACES 105 To show relationship between the pressure center and the other properties. 11 A qualitative discussion on what is reasonably is not presented here.5. but constant in segments. the following can be said Ftotal = A g ρ h dA = A1 g ρ1 h dA + A2 g ρ2 h dA + · · · + An g ρn h dA (4.125) and in the same fashion in y direction yp = Ixy + yc yc A (4. the following can be written x c A1 xc A2 1 2 xc n An (4. For non constant density the derivations aren’t “clean” but are similar.1. However. Consider straight/ﬂat body that is under liquid with a varying density10 .17) results in xp = Ixx + xc xc A (4. the reasonable average can be used. these limitations diminish the usefulness of pressure center deﬁnitions. In cases where density is non–continuous. the density was assumed to be constant. Why? Because of the buoyancy issue. it can be found by setting the atmospheric pressure and 0 to zero as following xp = Expanding Ix x g ρ sin β Ix x A ρ g sin β xc (4. if the variation of the density is within 10% and/or the accuracy of the calculation is minimal.129) Ftotal = g sin β ρ1 ξ dA +ρ2 A1 A2 ξ dA + · · · + ρn An ξ dA 10 This statement also means that density is a monotonous function.

FLUIDS STATICS Or in a compact form and in addition considering the “atmospheric” pressure can be written as Total Static Force n Ftotal = Patmos Atotal + g sin β i=1 ρi xc i Ai (4. My under the same considerations as before is My = A g ρ ξ 2 sin β dA (4. . the atmospheric pressure can include all the layer(s) that do(es) not with the “contact” area.5[m].132) If the atmospheric pressure enters into the calculations one can ﬁnd that Total Static Moment n My = Patmos xc Atotal + g sin β i=1 ρi I x x i (4. a2 = 1.106 CHAPTER 4. The forces distances are a1 = 1.130) where the density.131) After similar separation of the total integral. Moreover. one can ﬁnd that n My = g sin β i=1 ρi Ix x i (4. ρ2 = 800[kg/m3 ].134) To illustrate how to work with these equations the following example is provided.133) In the same fashion one can obtain the moment for x axis as Total Static Moment n Mx = Patmos yc Atotal + g sin β i=1 ρi I x y i (4.14: Consider the hypothetical Figure 4.24. The angle of inclination is is β = 45◦ .75[m]. Calculate the forces at points a1 and b1 . Also neglect all mass transfer phenomena that may occur. The heights are: h1 = 1[m]. Assume that the layers are stables without any movement between the liquids. Example 4. and b1 = 4. The atmospheric pressure can be entered into the calculation in the same way as before. The last layer is made of water with density of 1000[kg/m3 ].and h4 = 4[m].5[m]. The densities are ρ1 = 500[kg/m3 ]. h2 = 2[m]. The moment around axis y. and ρ4 = 1000[kg/m3 ]. ρ3 = 850[kg/m3 ]. ρi is the density of the layer i and Ai and xc i are geometrical properties of the area which is in contact with that layer. h3 = 3[m].

133) to be written for the moment around the point “O” as xc Atotal F1 a1 + F2 b1 = Patmos (b2 + a2 ) (b2 − a2 ) +g sin β ρi+1 Ix 2 i=1 3 x i The solution for the above equation is 2 b1 g sin β P3 i=1 F1 = ρi+1 xc i Ai −2 g sin β 2 b1 −2 a1 P3 i=1 ρi+1 Ix x i − (b2 2 −2 b1 b2 +2 a2 b1 −a2 2 ) 2 b1 −2 a1 Patmos . Equation (4.Fig.133) and (4. the ﬁrst equation is Atotal 3 F1 + F2 = Patmos (b2 − a2 ) +g sin β i=1 ρi+1 xc i Ai The second equation is (4.24.forces.133) can be used by modifying it. only two equations are needed. The geometries of each areas are „ xc 1 = xc 2 = xc 3 = h2 a2 + sin β 2 h2 +h3 2 sin β h3 +h4 2 sin β A1 = A2 = A3 = h2 sin β sin β sin β − a2 Ix x 1 = x 2 x 3 h2 sin β −a2 36 «3 + (xc 1 ) A1 + (xc 2 ) A2 + (xc 3 ) A3 2 2 2 (h3 − h2 ) (h4 − h3 ) Ix Ix = = (h3 −h2 )3 36 sin β (h4 −h3 )3 36 sin β After inserting the values.130). -4. the following equations are obtained Thus. which are (4. The solution method of this example is applied for cases with less layers (for example by setting the speciﬁc height difρ4 ference to be zero). stead of using the regular atmo. FLUID FORCES ON SURFACES Solution ρ1 y "O" 107 β h1 a2 Since there are only two unh4 knowns.5. spheric pressure the new “atmospheric” pressure can be used as ρ2 ρ3 ρ4 h3 h2 b2 b1 F2 F1 a1 ℓ The eﬀects of multi layers density on static Patmos = Patmos + ρ1 g h1 The distance for the center for each area is at the middle of each of the “small” rectangular. as it can be noticed that in.4.

is simply the integral of the area perpendicular to y as . dA.292 Ix x 3 = 86.2 Forces on Curved Surfaces The pressure is acting on surfaces perpendicular to the direction of the surface (no shear forces assumption). The element force is d F = −P n dA ˆ (4. for example. The total force on the area will be the integral of the unit force F=− A y dAz x Fig.136) The result of the integral is a vector. A mini source code for the calculations is provided in the the text source.9497 A1 = 2.108 2 g sin β P3 i=1 CHAPTER 4. P n dA ˆ (4.535 Ix x 1 = 14. [m4 ]) are: xc1 = 2. The intermediate results in SI units ([m]. The forces on curved area.79[N ] and F2 = 958923. the conventional notation is used which is to denote the area. -4. if the y component of the force is needed.92[N ] End Solution 4.137) From this analysis (equation (4.718 The ﬁnal answer is F1 = 304809.137)) it can be observed that the force in the direction of y.2892 xc2 = 3.535 A3 = 3.5355 xc3 = 4. FLUIDS STATICS ρi+1 Ix x i F2 = −2 a1 g sin β 2 b1 −2 a1 P3 i=1 ρi+1 xc i Ai + (b2 2 +2 a1 b2 +a2 2 −2 a1 a2 ) 2 b1 −2 a1 Patmos The solution provided isn’t in the complete long form since it will makes things messy. So.135) z dAy dAx dA Here. only a dot product is needed as dFy = dF • ˆ j (4. [m2 ]. It is simpler to compute the terms separately. the pressure is treated as a scalar function. At this stage.215 Ix x 2 = 44.5.25.696 A2 = 3. outward as positive.

The force in the z direction is Fz = A h g ρdAz (4.142) body.139) implicitly means that the net force on the body is z direction is only the actual liquid above it.26 shows a ﬂoating body with cut–out slot into it. Fig. -4.5. Additional point that is worth mentioning is that the depth where the cut–out occur is insigniﬁcant (neglecting the change in the density).4.26. for some geometries there are readily calculated center of mass and when combined with two other components provide the moment (force with direction line). For example.15: .139) The force which acting on the z direction is the weight of the liquid above the projected area plus the atmospheric pressure. “y z” is tan θzy = (4.140) only the liquid above the body affecting the body And the angle in “x z” plane is tan θxz = Fz Fx Fz Fy (4. However. Inside the slot. FLUID FORCES ON SURFACES 109 Fy = A P dAy (4. There are no readily made expressions for these 3–dimensional geometries. Example 4. Figure 4. Thus. The atmospheric pressure acts on the area with continuous lines. This force component can be combined with the other components in the other directions to be Ftotal = Fz 2 + Fx 2 + Fy 2 (4. only the net force is the actual liquid in the slot which is acting on the body. Cut–Out Shapes Eﬀects There are bodies with a shape that the vertical direction (z direction) is “cut– out” aren’t continuous. Equation (4.138) The same can be said for the x direction. the atmospheric pressure with it piezometric pressure is canceled by the upper part of the slot. Schematic of Net Force on ﬂoating The moment due to the curved surface require integration to obtain the value.141) and the angle in the other plane.

143) Note that the direction of the area is taken into account (sign).27. The net force will be θ0 P dAx Fx = 0 ρ g r sin θ b r cos θ dθ results in The Fx = integration ρ g b r2 1 − cos2 (θ0 ) 2 Alternative way to do this calculation is by calculating the pressure at mid point and then multiply it by the projected area. Compare the diﬀerent methods of computations. Solution The force in the x direction is CHAPTER 4.28) as Ax xc A△ = r2 sin θ cos θ Aarc = r θ r2 2 Fx = ρ g b r sin θ0 r sin θ0 ρgbr = sin2 θ 2 2 Notice that dAx (cos θ) and Ax (sin θ) are different. When the area Ax is b r dθ cos θ.110 Calculate the force and the moment around point “O” that is acting on the dam (see Figure (4. FLUIDS STATICS δθ θ θ0 θ Y 4[m] x direction A θ Ax Ay Fig. Ax (see Figure 4.8[m/sec2 ] and width of the dam is b = 4[m]. You can assume that the liquid density is constant and equal to 1000 [kg/m3 ]. Area above the dam arc subtract triangle. direct and indirect. The diﬀerential area that will be used is. The gravity is 9. -4. Calculations of forces on a circular shape dam. The atmospheric pressure does cancel itself (at least if the atmospheric pressure on both sides of the dam is the same. why? Fig. b r dθ where b is the width of the dam (into the page).27)). The pressure is only a function of θ and it is P = Patmos + ρ g r sin θ The force that is acting on the x direction of the dam is Ax × P . -4. .28. The dam is made of an arc with the angle of θ0 = 45◦ and radius of r = 2[m]. dAx Fx = A P r cos θ dθ (4.).

29. it is just a demonstration! .216[N ] 2 2 The center area ( purple area in Figure 4.28) should be calculated as yc = yc Aarc − yc Atriangle A The center area above the dam requires to know the center area of the arc and triangle shapes.5.65174 ∼ 0. The arc center (see Figure 4. FLUID FORCES ON SURFACES 111 The values to evaluate the last equation are provided in the question and simplify subsidize into it as Fx = 1000 × 9. and substituting the proper values results in Aarc θ r2 2 yc yc Atriangle 4 r sin θ 2 cos θ 2 3θ 4 r sin yc r = 2 r cos θ sin θ r2 − 3θ 3 2 θ r2 r2 sin θ cos θ − 2 2 cos Aarc Atriangle θ 2 θ 2 θ 4 r sin 3θ θ 2 This value is the reverse value and it is yc r = 1. Some mathematics are required because the shift in the arc orientation. The force in the y direction is the area times width.0[N ] 2 Since the last two equations are identical (use the sinuous theorem to prove it sin2 θ + cos2 = 1).1 and 3. clearly the discussion earlier was right (not a good proof LOL12 ).65174[m] The result of the arc center from point “O” (above calculation area) is Fig. yc = r − yc r = 2 − 1.8 × 4 × 2 sin(45◦ ) = 19600. Area above the dam arc calculation for the center.2.348[m] 12 Well. V A θ r2 r2 sin θ0 cos θ0 0 − Fy = − b g ρ ∼ 22375. -4.4.29) is at yc arc = 4 r sin2 3θ θ 2 All the other geometrical values are obtained from Tables 3.

348 × 22375.” or M= 0 ρ g sin θ b r 2 r sin θ 2 cos θ 2 dθ The solution of the last equation is M= g r ρ (2 θ0 − sin (2 θ0 )) 4 θ0 The vertical force can be obtained by Fv = 0 P dAv . -4. Moment on arc element around Point “O.30.21[N × m] 9 The total moment is the combination of the two and it is Mtotal = 23191. FLUIDS STATICS Mv = yc Fy ∼ 0.112 The moment is CHAPTER 4.2 ∼ 7792.5[N × m] For direct integration of the moment it is done as following θ0 O dF = P dA = 0 ρ g sin θ b r dθ θ θ/2 θ/2 π−θ 2 ℓ = 2 r sin and element moment is θ 2 θ 2 θ 2 π 2 dM = dF × = dF 2 r sin and the total moment is θ0 cos dF θ/2 M= 0 dM θ0 Fig.31759[N × m] The center pressure for x area is Ixx b ¡ (r cos θ0 ) r cosθ0 Ixx 5 r cos θ0 36 = + xp = xc + = r cosθ0 xc A 2 9 b ¡ (r cos θ0 ) 2 xc 3 The moment due to hydrostatic pressure is Mh = xp Fx = 5 r cosθ0 Fx ∼ 15399.

It is much simpler now to use the second method. In fact. and thus. The element force (see Figure 4.31). FLUID FORCES ON SURFACES or θ0 P dAv 113 Fv = 0 ρ g r sin θ r dθ cos θ g r2 ρ 2 1 − cos (θ0 ) 2 Here. Fv = End Solution To demonstrate this point further. Solution o y= b n i=1 ai x i dA dy y x dx Fig.31) in this case is P h dA dF = (b − y) g ρ dx2 + dy 2 The size of the diﬀerential area is the square root of the dx2 and dy 2 (see Figure 4. Polynomial shape dam description for the moment around point “O” and force calculations. it can be shown that dx2 + dy 2 = dx 1+ dy dx 2 .16: For the liquid shown in Figure 4. Example 4. and the direct approach second. The calculations are done per unit depth (into the page) and do not require the actual depth of the dam. there are many programs or hand held devices that can carry numerical integration by inserting the function and the boundaries.calculate the moment around point “O” and the force created by the liquid per unit depth.31 . Also calculate the horizontal and vertical forces. The function of the dam shape is n y = i=1 ai xi and it is a monotonous function (this restriction can be relaxed somewhat).31.5.4. -4. From mathematics. the traditional approach was presented ﬁrst. It can be noticed that the diﬀerential area that is used here should be multiplied by the depth. The reason that a polynomial function was chosen is that almost all the continuous functions can be represented by a Taylor series. this example provides for practical purposes of the general solution for curved surfaces. consider a more general case of a polynomial function.

-4. The number “2” is a dimensional number with dy = 12 x5 dx units of [1/m5 ].32. The distance is = (b − 2 2 x6 ) + 6 b −x 2 2 . The diﬀerence between the slop and the direction angle. To evaluate the moment. The distance between the point on the dam at x to the point “O” is (x) = (b − y)2 + (xb − x)2 The angle between the force and the distance to point “O” is θ(x) = tan−1 dy dx − tan−1 b−y xb − x The element moment in this case is dF 2 dM = (x) (b − y) g ρ 1+ dy dx cos θ(x) dx To make this example less abstract.114 CHAPTER 4. In this case. in this case describing the dam function is 1+ dy dx 2 n 2 dy dx ℓ dF b θ y = 1+ i=1 i a (i) x (i) i−1 x x The value of xb is where y = b and can be obtained by ﬁnding the ﬁrst and positive root of the equation of n 0= i=1 ai x − b i Fig. only one term is provided and xb can be calculated as following xb = Notice that 6 6 b 2 b 2 is measured in meters. expression of the distance and angle to point “O” are needed (see Figure 4. FLUIDS STATICS O y The right side can be evaluated for any given function. For example. consider the speciﬁc case of y = 2 x6 .32). The derivative at x is and the derivative is dimensionless (a dimensionless number).

This author ﬁnd this method to be simpler for complicated geometries while the indirect method has advantage for very simple geometries. However. This omission saves considerable time. While the question of the stability was not scientiﬁcally examined in the past. Here. While Archimedes did not know much about integrals.33. ship builders who knew how to calculate GM but weren’t aware of scientiﬁc principles behind it. because this material is presented in a diﬀerent era. Archimedes princib ple is related to question of density and volume. In fact. perhaps the name can explain it: Sea Oﬃcers High School. To understand this issue.Fig.6. for a given value b this integral can be evaluate. trying to ﬁnd the center of the area will double the work. he was able to cap. more advance mathematics will be used. The total forces the liquid exacts on a body are considered as a buoyancy issue. 150 years ago and more. The horizontal force is Fh = b ρ g b ρ g b2 = 2 2 The vertical force per unit depth is the volume above the dam as √ 6 b Fv = 0 b − 2 x6 ρ g dx = ρ g 5 b6 7 7 In going over these calculations. . It was taught by people like these. the ﬂoating vessels structure (more than 150 years ago) show some understanding13 . consider a cubical and a cylindrical body that is immersed 0 0 13 This topic was the author’s high school name. If the reader wonders why such a class is taught in a high school. the calculations of the center of the area were not carried out.4. -4. ture the essence. End Solution 4.6 Buoyancy and Stability h r One of the oldest known scientiﬁc rea search on ﬂuid mechanics relates to buoyancy due to question of money was carried by Archimedes. Schematic of Immersed Cylinder. BUOYANCY AND STABILITY The angle can be expressed as θ = tan−1 12 x5 − tan The total moment is √ 6 b 115 b − 2 x6 −1 6 b 2 −x M= 0 (x) cos θ(x) b − 2 x6 g ρ 1 + 12 x5 dx This integral doesn’t have a analytical solution.

Thus even these bodies are in contact with each other. On the other hand.150) . The force on every rectangular shape is made of its weight of the volume.148) is F = −π r2 ρ g 2π The ﬂoating forces on Immersed Cylinder. The force to hold the cylinder at the place must be made of integration of the pressure around the surface of the square and cylinder bodies.146) F = 0 ρ g (h0 − r sin θ) r dθ sin θ (4. on the vertical direction. On the lower surface the pressure is ρg(h0 + a/2). Any body that has a projected area that has two sides. In illustration of this concept.148) Fig. Thus. Another way to look at this point is by approximation. The force due to the liquid pressure per unit depth (into the page) is F = ρg ((h0 − a/2) − (h0 + a/2)) b = −ρ g a b = −ρgV In this case the be (4.116 CHAPTER 4.146) transforms it to 2π F = rgρ 0 (h0 − r sin θ) sin θ dθ (4. consider the cylindrical shape in Figure 4. The force per area (see Figure 4.34. the horizontal forces are canceling each other.34) is P dAvertical h0 dF = ρ g (h0 − r sin θ) sin θ r dθ 2π (4. On the upper surface the pressure is ρg(h0 − a/2). The forces on square geometry body are made only of vertical forces because the two sides cancel each other.144) to F = ρg (4. the total force is made of the sum of all the small rectangles which is the weight of the sum of all volume. the imaginary pressure make it so that they cancel each other. the pressure on the two surfaces are diﬀerent.146) r θ The total force will be the integral of the equation (4.144) represents a depth (into the page).149) The negative sign indicate that the force acting upwards. This analysis can be generalized by noticing two things.145) V The force on the immersed body is equal to the weight of the displaced liquid. While the horizontal force is Fv = 0 (h0 − r sin θ) cos θ dθ = 0 (4. h0 as shown in Figure 4.33. The solution of equation (4.147) Rearranging equation (4. FLUIDS STATICS in liquid and center in a depth of. However. those will cancel each other. Rearranging equation (4. -4. For any two rectangle bodies. (4. All the horizontal forces are canceled.33. any shape is made of many small rectangles.

ρs liquid density.is ﬂoating in liquid with density. a length. In the case where thickness is half the maximum. The container diameter is w. You can provide that the angle or the depth. Express the maximum wall thickness. -4. Schematic of a thin wall function of the density of the wall. The body was inserted into liquid in a such a way that the air had remained in it.35 . as a Fig. h1 t w hin h Example 4.6. r.18: A cylindrical body. shown in Figure 4. BUOYANCY AND STABILITY 117 Example 4. Note that for the maximum thickness. ρl . Typical examples to explain the buoyancy are of the vessel with thin walls put upside down into liquid. calculate the pressure inside the container. The second example of the speed of the ﬂoating bodies.35. the height. h1 has to be zero.17: To what depth will a long log with radius. the pressure at the interface can be written as Pin = ρl g hin On the other hand. these examples are a must. T1 for the body to ﬂoat. t. and density.4. ﬂoating body. ρl and the surroundings air temperature. ρl . Solution The air mass in the container is V ρair mair = π w2 h The mass of the container is Patmos RT A mcontainer = π w2 + 2 π w h t ρs The liquid amount enters into the cavity is such that the air pressure in the cavity equals to the pressure at the interface (in the cavity). ρw in liquid with denisty. the pressure at the interface from the air point of view (ideal gas model) should be mair R T1 Pin = hin π w2 V . Assume that ρl > ρw . Since there are no better examples. Assume that the wall thickness is small compared with the other dimensions (t << w and t << h). Thus.

the air. Advance material can be skipped Extreme Cases The solution demonstrates that when h −→ 0 then hin −→ 0. Archimedes theorem states that the force balance is at displaced weight liquid (of the same volume) should be the same as the container. net displayed water π w2 (h − hin ) g container = π w 2 + 2 π w h t ρs g + π w 2 h air Patmos R T1 g . it can be inserted into the above equation. When the ﬂoating is under vacuum condition.19: Calculate the minimum density an inﬁnitely long equilateral triangle (three equal sides) has to be so that the sharp end is in the water. FLUIDS STATICS Since the air mass didn’t change and it is known. ρ π w2 h ρl g hin + Patmos = Pin = The last equation can be simpliﬁed into ρl g hin + Patmos = And the solution for hin is hin = − and Patmos + Patmos R T1 R T1 hin π w2 h Patmos hin 4 g h Patmos ρl + Patmos 2 2 g ρl 4 g h Patmos ρl + Patmos 2 − Patmos 2 g ρl The solution must be positive. hin = Example 4. When the gravity approaches zero (macro gravity) then hin = Patmos h 2 ρl g 2 h 3 ρl 2 g 2 5 h 4 ρl 3 g 3 +h− + − + ··· ρl g Patmos Patmos 2 Patmos 3 This “strange” result shows that bodies don’t ﬂoat in the normal sense. the following height can be expanded into hin = h Patmos Patmos + + ··· g ρl 2 g ρl End Advance material which shows that the large quantity of liquid enters into the container as it is expected.118 CHAPTER 4. Thus. so that the last solution is the only physical solution.

Thus.6. The equation of state is Pi = mair R Ti Vi The new unknown must provide additional equation which is Vi = π w2 hi Thickness Below The Maximum For the half thickness t = tmax the general solution for any given thickness below 2 maximum is presented. The thickness is known. but the liquid displacement is still unknown.4. which is ρl g hin + Patmos = π w2 (h − hin − h1 ) = π w2 + 2 π w h) t ρs g + π w2 h End Solution atmos π w2 h PR T1 R T1 (hin + h1 ) π w2 Patmos R T1 g . the temperature in the cavity immediately after the insertion is Ti = Tf Pi Pf The ﬁnal temperature and pressure were calculated previously. The pressure at the interface (after long time) is ρl g hin + Patmos = which can be simpliﬁed to h Patmos hin + h1 The second equation is Archimedes’ equation. It is reasonable as the ﬁrst approximation to assume that the process is adiabatic and isentropic. BUOYANCY AND STABILITY If air mass is neglected the maximum thickness is tmax = 2 g h w ρl + Patmos w − w 4 gh Patmos ρl + Patmos 2 (2 g w + 4 g h) ρl ρs 119 The condition to have physical value for the maximum thickness is 2 g h ρl + Patmos ≥ The full solution is tmax = − “ ” √ w R 4 gh Patmos ρl +Patmos 2 −2 g h w R ρl −Patmos w R T1 +2 g h Patmos w ρl (2 g w+4 g h) R ρl ρs T1 4 gh Patmos ρl + Patmos 2 In this analysis the air temperature in the container immediately after insertion in the liquid has diﬀerent value from the ﬁnal temperature.

it can be observed that only the density ratio is important. End Solution Example 4. Solution The force act on the half sphere can be found by integrating the forces around the . Calculate acceleration and time for a body to reach the surface. This idea can lead to experiment in “large gravity” because the acceleration can be magniﬁed and it is much more than the reverse of free falling.20: A body is pushed into the liquid to a distance. Find equivalent cylinder that has the same diameter that has the same force. the acceleration is a=g 1−α α If the object is left at rest (no movement) thus time will be (h = 1/2 a t2 ) t= If the object is very light (α −→ 0) then tmin = 2hα + g √ 2 g h α2 3 + 2g 3 2 hα g(1 − α) √ 2 g h α2 5 + 8g 5 √ 2 g h α2 + ··· 16 g 7 From the above equation. The body’s density is α ρl . h0 and left at rest. where α is ratio between the body density to the liquid density and (0 < α < 1).120 CHAPTER 4. FLUIDS STATICS Example 4.21: In some situations. Consider the force that acts on a half sphere. it is desired to ﬁnd equivalent of force of a certain shape to be replaced by another force of a “standard” shape. Is the body volume important? Solution The net force is liquid weight body weight F = V g ρl − V g α ρl = V g ρl (1 − α) But on the other side the internal force is m F = m a = V αρl a Thus.

Body with density between the two liquids. ρl < ρs < rhoh is ﬂoating between the two liquids. Solution In the discussion to this section. the height is h π = r 4 End Solution 1 π 2 (ρL − ρS ) r3 4 Example 4. the body can be separated into two: one in ﬁrst liquid and one in the second liquid. The element force is dAx h 2 dA 121 dF = (ρL − ρS ) g r cos φ cos θ cos θ cos φ r dθ dφ The total force is then π π 0 Fx = 0 (ρL − ρS ) g cos2 φ cos2 θ r3 dθ dφ The result of the integration the force on sphere is Fs = The force on equivalent cylinder is Fc = π r2 (ρL − ρS ) h These forces have to be equivalent and thus $ ! £ (ρL $$ 3 π 2 $$− ρS ) r¡ $ = & $$− ρS ) h π r2 (ρL $$ 4 Thus. it was shown that net force is the body volume times the the density of the liquid. This force is balance according to above explanation by the two liquid as ρc ¨A = ¨h (α ρl + (1 − α)ρh ) h¨ A¨ . it was assumed that above liquid is a gas with inconsequential density. BUOYANCY AND STABILITY sphere. The net force down is the weight of the body ρc h A.6. In the same vein. Develop the relationship between the densities of liquids and solid and the location of the solid cubical.22: In the introduction to this section. There are situations where density is a function of the depth.4. In this case there are two diﬀerent liquid densities. Where h is the height of the body and A is its cross section. Suppose that the above layer is another liquid which has a bit lighter density. What will be the location of solid body if the liquid density varied parabolically.

x1 = h ρl + h ρh − 6 ρc 2 ρl − 2 ρh In many cases in reality the variations occur in small zone compare to the size of the body. they have to accounted for. x1 . FLUIDS STATICS Where α is the fraction that is in low liquid. What is the = thickness if the sphere is neutrally buoyant? Assume that the radius of the sphere is R.122 CHAPTER 4. will be at √ 3 3 h2 ρl 2 + (4 ρc − 6 h2 ρh ) ρl + 3 h2 ρh 2 − 12 ρc ρh + 3 h ρl − 3 h ρh X1 = 6 ρh − 2 ρl For linear relationship the following results can be obtained. A is canceled on both sides.8) with a t wall thickness.23: A hollow sphere is made of steel (ρs /ρw ∼ 7. The density as a function of x coordinate along h starting at point ρh is ρ(x) = ρh − x h 2 (ρh − ρl ) Thus the equilibration will be achieved. if the body is smaller compare to the zone of variation. Solution The weight of displaced water has to be equal to the weight of the sphere ρs g ¡ 4 π R3 = ρw g ¡ 3 4 π R3 4 π (R − t) − 3 3 3 (4. the calculations can be carried out under the assumption of sharp change. For the thickness below this critical value. After rearrangement it became α= ρc − ρh ρl − ρh the second part deals with the case where the density varied parabolically. Thus. However.XXIII.a) . End Solution Example 4. develop an equation for the depth of the sphere. when x1 +h ρc h = x1 ρh − x h 2 (ρh − ρl ) dx After the integration the equation transferred into ρc h = (3 ρl − 3 ρh ) x12 + (3 h ρl − 3 h ρh ) x1 + h2 ρl + 2 h2 ρh 3h And the location where the lower point of the body (the physical).

XXIII. The volume of a sphere cap (segment) is given by Vcap = π h2 (3R − h) 3 (4.XXIII. Thus the Archimedes law is ρw 4 π R 3 − 3 R h 2 + h 3 ρs 4 π 3 t R 2 − 3 t 2 R + t 3 (4.a) becomes ρs R 3 = 3 t R2 − 3 t2 R + t3 ρw 123 (4. The last solution is the solution that was needed.h) . The volume in the water is Vwater = 4 π R 3 − 3 R h 2 + h3 4 π R3 π h2 (3R − h) − = 3 3 3 (4.6.b) Equation (4. For a given ratio of t/R.b) is third order polynomial equation which it’s solution (see the appendix) is t1 t2 t3 = = = √ 3 − 2i √ 3i 2 3 − 1 2 1 2 ρs 3 R − R3 ρw ρs 3 R − R3 ρw 1 3 +R 1 3 − +R (4.XXIII.d) Where h is the sphere height above the water. the weight displaced by the sphere has to be same as the sphere weight.XXIII. The depth that sphere will be located depends on the ratio of t/R which similar analysis to the above.f) = 3 3 or ρw R 3 − 3 R h 2 + h3 = 3 t R 2 − 3 t2 R + t3 (4.XXIII.XXIII.XXIII.4.XXIII.c) R ρs −1+1 ρw The ﬁrst two solutions are imaginary thus not valid for the physical world.XXIII.g) is −f R (4 R3 2 + −f R (4 R3 2 − f R) fR − 2 R 2 3 h= − 1 3 R2 − f R) − fR − 2 R 2 3 1 3 (4.e) When Vwater denotes the volume of the sphere in the water. BUOYANCY AND STABILITY after simpliﬁcation equation (4.g) ρs The solution of (4.XXIII.

other geometrical parameters) The Archimedes balance on the body is ρ Va = ρ w Vw (4. f −1 for cone with 30◦ when the tip is in the bottom. Solution First the function has to built for d (depth). As it was shown in the previous example.a) d = f −1 ρ Va ρw (4.25: In example 4. the relationship between the depth and the displaced liquid volume of the sphere. FLUIDS STATICS ρw (3 t R2 − 3 t2 R + t3 ) There are two more solutions which ρs contains the imaginary component. πd Vw = Thus.XXV.XXIV. End Solution Example 4.6.c) End Solution Example 4. the depth is d= 3 d √ 3 3 2 = π d3 9 (4. These solutions are rejected.1 Stability . wedge) will be located.124 Where −f R = R3 − CHAPTER 4. Find the reverse function.24: One of the common questions in buoyancy is the weight with variable cross section and ﬁx load.24 a general solution was provided. a wood wedge of wood with a ﬁx weight/load.XXIV. assume that the body is of a solid material. For example.e. The general question is at what the depth of the object (i.XXIV. Here it is assumed that this relationship can be written as Vw = f (d. For simplicity.b) End Solution 4.XXV.b) (4. Solution It is assumed that the volume can be written as a function of the depth.a) 9 π ρw ρ Va (4.

The third state is when the couple forces do have zero moment.36. -4. A wooden cubic (made of pine. Schematic of ﬂoating cubic. be ﬂoating. β.36c . The stability of the body is divided into three categories. The cubic mass (gravity) centroid is in the middle of the cubic.36 shows a body made of hollow balloon and a heavy sphere connected by a thin and light rod. This B situation is similar to Figure 4. the cubic results in returning to the original position. That is. In fact.4. the body stability must be based on the diﬀerence between the body’s local positions rather than the “absolute” stability.37. So.36c. the body is “stable” in some points more than others in their vicinity. The center of the mass (gravity) is still in the old location since the body did not change. . the balloon will be on the top and sphere on the bottom. The cubic is stable in six positions (every cubic has six faces).37). the immersed part of the body center changes to a new location. c a b The buoyant center is below the middle of the balloon. This analysis doesn’t violate the second law of thermodynamics.38. BUOYANCY AND STABILITY Empty buoyancy center 125 Figure 4. Tilting the body with a small angle from its resting position creates a shift in the forces direction (examine Figure 4. These points are raised from the buoyant force analysis.36b). If the new immerse volume creates a new center in such way that couple forces (gravity and buoyancy) try to return the body. Small amount of tilting of Fig. However. These forces create a moment which wants to return the body to the resting (original) position. -4. Moving bodies from an unstable position is in essence like a potential. HowG ever the buoyant center is the middle of the volume under the water (see Figure 4. gravity center This arrangement has mass centroid Full close to the middle of the sphere. for example) is inserted into water. the original state is referred as the stable body and vice versa. it results in a ﬂipping into the next stable position.6. B’ as shown in Figure 4. the body is in situation like in 4. Part of the block ﬂoats above water line. When tilting a larger amount than π/4 . If this arrangement is inserted into liquid and will Fig. When the body is at the position shown in Figure 4. it is referred to as the neutral stable. Schematic of ﬂoating bodies.the body is unstable and any tilt from the original position creates moment that will further continue to move the body from its original position. in any of these six positions. When the body is tilted at a small angle.36c. The reason for this local stability of the cubic is that other positions are less stable. any experiment of this cubic wood shows that it is stable locally. If one draws the stability (later about this criterion) as a function of the rotation angle will show a sinusoidal function with four picks in a whole rotation.

and. when given a tilted position. However. B’. FLUIDS STATICS β M ∆F GM δF δF ∆F G dA B B’ Fig. The body. W referred to the weight of the body.151) Where M is the moment created by the displaced areas (volumes).38.153) 14 It is correct to state: area only when the body is symmetrical. move to a new buoyant center.126 CHAPTER 4. . The displacement of the buoyant center can be calculated by examining the moment these forces creats. -4. BB . This analysis is based on the diﬀerence of the displaced liquid.38 as ∆F . should be BB = The moment M can be calculated as δF M W (4. So the perpendicular distance. The body weight creates opposite moment to balance the moment of the displaced liquid volume.38. shown in Figure 4. B. This deviation of the buoyant center from the old buoyant center location.38 is displaced by the same area (really the volume) on left since the weight of the body didn’t change14 so the total immersed section is constant. when the body is not symmetrical. BB is the distance between points B and point B’. the analysis is still correct because the volume and not the area is used. It can be noticed that the distance BB is an approximation for small angles (neglecting the vertical component.152) M= A g ρl x β dA x = g ρl β dV A x2 dA (4. β. the moment is calculated as the integration of the small force shown in the Figure 4. The right green area (volume) in Figure 4. For small angle.). should to be calculated. Stability analysis of ﬂoating body. BB W = M (4.

158) Example 4. For middle range.4. The moment of inertia of the cone is circle shown in Table 3. Looking at Figure 4.157) It is remarkable that the results is independent of the angle.b) . At this condition. For a very light cone ρc /ρl ∼ 0.153) as BB = g ρl Ixx ρs Vbody (4.XXVI. Analyze this situation. the cone has zero depth. M. the cone is unstable.6. Solution The ﬂoating cone volume is depent on d as π d r2 and the center of gravity is D/4.38. The distance.154) The point where the gravity force direction is intersecting with the center line of the cross section is referred as metacentric point. The angle of the cone is θ.154) with (4.1. The location of the metacentric point can be obtained from the geometry as BM = BB sin β (4.26: A solid cone ﬂoats in a heavier liquid (that is ρl /ρc > 1). The relationship between the radius the depth is r = d tan θ (4.155) And combining equations (4.a) Where D is the total height and d is the height of the submerged cone. BUOYANCY AND STABILITY 127 The integral in the right side of equation (4. BB can be written from equation (4. the geometrical quantities can be related as BM GM = ρl Ixx −BG ρs Vbody (4.156) lim (4.153) is referred to as the area moment of inertia and was discussed in Chapter 3. 1 > ρc /ρl > 0 there could be a range where the cone is stable. The distance BG 3 BG = D/4 − d/4 (4. The ratio of the cone density to liquid density is α.155) yields BM = For small angle (β ∼ 0) β→0 g ρl βIxx ρl Ixx ¡ = g ρs sin β Vbody ρs Vbody ¡ sin β ∼1 β (4.XXVI.

c) Equation (4.XXVI.e) into (4. Show that the block’s length. is insigniﬁcant for this analysis.d) yield the solution when GM = 0 ρl d3 ρc ρl d tan2 θ d ρl ρl tan2 θ (4. The distance BG is obtained from Archimedes’ theorem and can be expressed as immersed volume ρs W = ρs a h L = ρl a h1 L =⇒ h1 = h ρl V 15 Only the dimension is compared. Where L is the length into the 12 page.e) Substituting equation (4.158) requires that several quantities should be expressed.XXVI.d) The relationship between D and d is determined by the density ratio ( as displaced volume is equal to cone weight)15 ρl d3 = ρc D3 =⇒ D = d 3 ρl ρc (4. FLUIDS STATICS Ixx π (d tan θ) 64 GM = 2 − π d (d tan θ) ρs 3 ρl Vbody 4 BG D d − 4 4 (4. The moment of 3 inertia for a block is given in Table 3.XXVI.27: A solid block of wood of uniform density.XXVI. Construct a graph that shows the relationship of the GM as a function of ratio height to width. ρs = α ρl where ( 0 ≤ α ≤ 1 ) is ﬂoating in a liquid.128 CHAPTER 4.1 and is Ixx = La . why? .XXVI.c) can be simpliﬁed as GM = ρl d tan2 θ − ρs 192 D d − 4 4 (4. L. End Solution To understand these principles consider the following examples. Solution Equation (4. Example 4.XXVI.f) 0= − − =⇒ = 3 −1 4 ρs 192 4 ρs 48 ρc Since ρl > ρc this never happened.XXVI.

7 0.1 1.6 0.6 1.160) 2 where α is the density ratio.6.8 0.4 0.159) 2.4 1.4 α = 0.5 α = 0.9 Ixx 0.0 1.2 -0. Notice that GM /h isn’t a function of the depth.4 α = 0.4.2 α = 0. the distance BG is (see Figure 4.1 1. -4. Stability of Square Block 3. This equation leads to the condition where the maximum height above which the body is not stable anymore as a ≥ h 6 (1 − α)α (4.5 α = 0. L.1 BG = GM h h ρs 1 h − h = 2 ρl 2 2 1− ρs ρl (4. Stability of cubic body inﬁnity long.3 1.0 0.9 1.0 α = 0.2 Thus. 2008 Simplifying the above equation provides GM 1 = h 12 α a h 2 Fig.5 -0.40.2 1.8 0.5 0.0 -0.6 0.7 α = 0. BUOYANCY AND STABILITY 129 h h1 L a Fig.0 a h April 16.2 1.39.8 2.0 0.2 0.3 1. − 1 (1 − α) (4.8 1.3 0. Cubic body dimensions for stability analysis.0 L a g ρl ¡ 12 − h GM = g ρs a h 2 L ¡ V 3 ρs 1− ρl -0.0 1.1 0.5 0.0 0. -4.161) End Solution .37) h1 2.

5 0.7 0. This is not a hypothetical question.0 can be expressed.8 0. but rather practical. 2008 α shape (cubic) (see above (4. The 0.6 0. it must be stable at the “diagonal” axis.9 1. -4. The maximum height reverse as a g GM = h 64 α b h 2 − 1 (1 − α) 2 function of density ratio. This happens when a ship is overloaded with containers above the maximum height.3 0. there is a diﬀerent moment of inertia. Thus.5 drical shape equivalent to equation (4.0 body width is not stable anymore.2 0.0 circle above analysis is that there is a point 2. For example.130 CHAPTER 4. this problem is reduced to ﬁnd the stability for principle axis. The diﬀerence between the previous calculation and the moment of inertia around the diagonal is I diagonal axis √ ∆Ixx = 2a √ 3a 2 3 “normal axis 6 − a4 12 a h ∼ 0. For cylinder (circle) the 0. For stability analysis.5 moment of inertia is Ixx = π b4 /64.1 0. And the condition for maximum height for stability is b ≥ h 32 (1 − α) α This kind of analysis can be carried for diﬀerent shapes and the results are shown for these two shapes in Figure 4. FLUIDS STATICS Stability of Solid Blocks One of the interesting point for the square 3. It can be noticed that the square body is more stable than the circular body shape. For each of these axises. Thus.5 above where the ratio of the height to the 2.159)). the fuel is . a square shape body has larger moment of inertia around diagonal. Some analysis of ﬂoating bodies are done by breaking the rotation of arbitrary axis to rotate around the two main axises. In commercial ships.0 0.07 a4 Which show that if the body is stable at main axises. This axis is where the main rotation of the body will occur. Principle Main Axises Any body has inﬁnite number of diﬀerent axises around which moment of inertia can be calculated. it is enough to ﬁnd if the body is stable around the smallest moment of inertia.161) 1. With the exception of the circular shape.0 0. Unstable Bodies What happen when one increases the height ratio above the maximum height ratio? The body will ﬂip into the side and turn to the next stable point (angle). In cylin1.4 0.41. the equation is Fig.0 distance BG is the same as for the square April 16.41. every geometrical shape has an axis in which the moment of inertia is without the product of inertia.

Assume that density ratio is ρl /ρs = ρ. Example 4.7) is Ixx = And the volume is Vbody = a2 h2 − a h3 2 a2 = a2 h 4 1− 1 a2 4 h2 The point B is a function of the density ratio of the solid and liquid. ¯ Solution h The answer to the question is that the limiting case where GM = 0. The point B can be expressed as B= And thus the distance BG is BG = a 2 1− ρs ρl a ρs 2 ρl The limiting condition requires that GM = 0 so that ρl Ixx = BG ρs Vbody . The Volume of the body is V =2 a2 h 2 = a2 h Fig.6.158) have to be found.28: One way to make a ship to be a hydrodynamic is by making the body as narrow as possible. the ship that was stable (positive GM ) leaving the initial port might became unstable (negative GM ) before reaching the destination port. Denote the liquid density as ρl and solid density as ρs .42. BUOYANCY AND STABILITY 131 stored at the bottom of the ship and thus the mass center (point G) is changing during the voyage.4. Suppose that two opposite sides triangle (prism) is attached to each other to create a long “ship” see Figure 4. On the other side if the a/h −→ ∞ the body is very stable. What is the ˜ minimum ratio of a/h that keep the body stable at half of the volume in liquid (water). Supposed that a/h −→ ˜ the body will be 0 unstable. tougher. So. a a Stability of two triangles put The moment of inertia is triangle (see explanation in example (3. To ﬁnd this ratio equation terms in (4.42. -4.

is enough to be ig. and/or liquid) B does not occur in the same speed as the B′ body itself or the displaced outside liquid. The eﬀects of liquid movement on nored. These situations involve liquid with a low viscosity (like water. in this analysis. for stability analysis.132 Or explicitly ρl ρs a2 h a h3 2 1− 1 a 4 h2 2 CHAPTER 4. account these shifting mass speeds. Sometimes. For practical purposes.43. After the above manipulation and selecting the positive value and to keep stability as √ x< 64 ρ4 −64 ρ3 +ρ2 −2 ρ+1 ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ ρ ¯ + 2 √ 1 ρ ¯ −1 2ρ ¯ End Solution 4. However. the extreme case where the load reacts in the same speed as the tilting of the ship/ﬂoating body is examined. Exact analysis requires taking into the GM . A body is loaded with liquid “B” and is ﬂoating in a liquid “A” as shown in Figure 4.Fig. The movement of the load (grains. There are situations where the real case approaches to this extreme. the dynamics are ignored and only the statics is examined (see Figure 4. alcohol) and ship with low natural frequency (later on the frequency of the ships).43. FLUIDS STATICS = a 2 1− ρs ρl After rearrangement and using the deﬁnitions of ξ = h/a ρρl /ρs results in ¯ ρ ξ2 ¯ 1− ξ 4 2 = 1− 1 ρ ¯ The solution of the above solution is obtained by squaring both sides and deﬁning a new variable such as x = ξ 2 .43). it is used as a limit for the stability analysis. here. the slow reaction of the load. For example.1 Stability of Body with Shifting Mass Centroid Ships and other ﬂoating bodies carry liquid or have a load which changes the M mass location during tilting of the ﬂoating body. Moreover. a ship that carries Gc wheat grains where the cargo is not propG G′ erly secured to the ship.6. furniture. -4. When the body is given a tilting position the body displaces the liquid on the .1.

the liquid inside is changing its mass centroid.163) shows that GG is only a function of the geometry.162) Note that IxxB isn’t the same as the moment of inertia of the outside liquid interface. The change in the mass centroid of the liquid “A” then is Ixx B g ρl¨βIxx B = G1 G1 = ¡ ¨B g VB ¨B VB ρl¨ ¡ Inside liquid weight (4. BUOYANCY AND STABILITY 133 outside.4.164) Gi Gi ρl i Vi = i=1 g Wtotal n i=1 Ixxb i Vb i (4. The total change of the vessel is then calculated similarly to center area calculations. The moment created by the inside displaced liquid is Min = g ρl B βIxx B (4.163) Equation (4.167) If there are more than one tank partially ﬁlled with liquid. X0 g mtotal GG = $mbody + g mf G1 G1 g $$$ ¡ ¡ For more than one tank.166) The distance that was used before GM is replaced by the criterion for stability by Gc M and is expressed as Gc M = g ρA Ixx A 1 Ixx b − BG − ρs Vbody mtotal Vb (4.168) . This point is the intersection of the center line with the vertical line from G .165) A new point can be deﬁned as Gc . G1 G1 .6. it can be written as GG = g Wtotal n (4. This quantity. At the same time. the general formula is Gc M = g ρA Ixx A 1 − BG − ρs Vbody mtotal n i=1 Ixx b i Vb i (4. is similar for all liquid tanks on the ﬂoating body. G Gc = GG sin β (4.

The angle.1. Movement of the liquid (mostly the fuel and water) provides way to control the stability.6. Increasing the number of tanks reduces the moment of inertia. of the ship.173) (4. Wtotal .171) provides the solution. .2 Metacentric Height. FLUIDS STATICS One way to reduce the eﬀect of the moving mass center due to liqd T uid is done by substituting a single h tank with several tanks. 4. -4.171) results in GM a ctual = GM new T mtotal −h mship mship (4.170) (4.44.169) Where. The metacentric height is GM new = Td Wtotal θ (4. is the total weight of the ﬂoating body including measuring weight. GM . Measurement of GM of ﬂoating body. design the tanks in such a way that the moment of inertia is operationally changed. can be achieved by having some tanks spanning across the entire body with tanks spanning on parts of the body. d then the moment created is Mweight = T d This moment is balanced by Mrighting = Wtotal GM new θ (4. GM .172) with equation (4. is measured as the diﬀerence in the orientation of the ﬂoating body. θ. GM . This control of the stability. Moving the weight. The engineer could Fig. The calculation of GM can be improved by taking into account the eﬀect of the measuring weight.134 CHAPTER 4. The change in height of G is g mtotal Gnew = g mship Gactual + g T h ¡ ¡ ¡ Combining equation (4. equation (4.172) The weight of the ship is obtained from looking at the ship depth. The moment of inertial of the combine two G tanks is smaller than the moment of inertial of a single tank. T a distance.171) If the change in the GM can be neglected. Measurement The metacentric height can be measured by ﬁnding the change in the angle when a weight is moved on the ﬂoating body.

1. BUOYANCY AND STABILITY 4. For the case of b < 3 a the calculation of moment of inertia are similar to the previous case. In cases where the density changes signiﬁcantly. However.4. The moment created by change in the displaced liquid (area) act in the same fashion as the before.6. then none of the changes of buoyant centroid occurs. the stability analysis must take into account the changes of the displaced liquids of the two liquid layers. This analysis is out of the scope of this book (for now). -4. Generally.3 Stability of Submerged Bodies 135 The analysis of submerged bodied is diﬀerent from the stability when the body lays between two ﬂuid layers with diﬀerent density. The calculations for such cases are a bit more complicated but based on the similar principles. Fig. there are situations where the body has a “strange” ∆F M δβ and/or un-symmetrical body. After the tilting. the moment to return the body is larger than actually was calculated and the bodies tend to be more stable (also for other reasons). Thus. The moment of inertia should be calculated around this axis.45. The body ∆F GM weight doesn’t change during the rotation that the green area on the left and the B’ B green area on right are the same (see Figb ure 4. This point is the intersection of the liquid line with the brown middle line. The amount of area under the liquid section depends on the tilting angle. . There are two situations that can occur. the mass centroid must be below than buoyant centroid in order to have stable condition. the upper part of the body is above the liquid or part of the body is submerged under the water. Consider the ﬁrst strange body that has an abrupt step G change as shown in Figure 4. This point is intersection point liquid with lower body and it is needed to be calculated.6.1.6. For an example of such a case is an object ﬂoating in a solar pond where the upper layer is made of water with lower salinity than the bottom layer(change up to 20% of the density). The center of the moment is needed to be found. These calculations are done as if none of the body under the liquid. However. Calculations of GM for abrupt The mathematical condition for the border shape body. this density change helps to increase the stability of the ﬂoating bodies.45). it must be taken into account. The moment of inertia is calculated around this point (note the body is “ended” at end of the upper body). all ﬂuids have density varied in some degree. When the ﬂoating object is immersed into two layers. When the body is submerged in a single ﬂuid layer.4 Stability of None Systematical or “Strange” Bodies While most ﬂoating bodies are symmeta rical or semi–symmetrical. is when b = 3 a. 4.45. For the case where b < 3 a x some part is under the liquid.

5 Neutral frequency of Floating Bodies CHAPTER 4.The main eﬀect is the pressure diﬀerence beween the two surfaces (in the tube and out side the tune).174) Where here is length of the rode (or the line/wire) connecting the mass with the rotation point. 1608 October 25. If the ﬂoating body is used to transport humans and/or other creatures or sensitive cargo it requires to reduce the GM so that the traveling will be smoother. the larger GM the more stable the ﬂoating body is. The period of the cycle is 2 π /g. Similar situation exists in the case of ﬂoating bodies. In barometer is made from a tube sealed on one side. The governing equation for the pendulum is ¨ β −gβ = 0 (4.6. the surface tension aﬀects the high. However. 4. the frequency of pendulum is 21π g which measured in Hz. Thus. 16 Evangelista Torricelli October 15.1. In one of the early studies of the surface tension/pressure was done by Torricelli16 . The tube is ﬁlled with a liquid and turned upside down into the liquid container. In this section.176) In general. In this study he suggest construction of the early barometer. Increase in GM increases the frequency of the ﬂoating body. FLUIDS STATICS This case is similar to pendulum (or mass attached to spring).6.2 Surface Tension The surface tension is one of the mathematically complex topic and related to many phenomena like boiling. only simpliﬁed topics like constant value will be discussed. . etc. This eﬀect is large for very small diameters. 1647 was an Italian physicist best known for his invention of the barometer. The basic diﬀerential equation is used to balance and is rotation rotating moment ¨ Iβ − V ρs GM β =0 (4.177) V ρs GM Ibody (4.136 4.175) In the same fashion the frequency of the ﬂoating body is 1 2π and the period time is 2π Ibody V ρs GM (4. coating.

the surface tension between the needle and the liquid hold the needle above the liquid. Example 4. Example for such systems are dense water over oil (liquid–liquid). For example in die casting.4.30: Needle is made of steel and is heavier than water and many other liquids.46. the common explanation is wrong. However. After certain diameter. I.2) are always stable but unstable of the density is in the reversed order. Thus.3. it can create a situation where the liquid metal is above the air but cannot penetrate into the cavity because of instability. For example. This instability deals with a dense.3. heavy ﬂuid that is being placed above a lighter ﬂuid in a gravity ﬁeld perpendicular to interface. RAYLEIGH–TAYLOR INSTABILITY 137 Example 4. Solution Under Construction End Solution 4. Explain why this description is erroneous? Solution The upper layer of the molecules have unbalanced force towards the liquid phase. However. Taylor. density variations according to the bulk modulus (see section 4. A heavy needle is ﬂoating on a liquid. Newton’s law states when there is unbalanced force. -4. the liquid is not in motion. End Solution Fig. The original Rayleigh’s paper deals with the dynamics and density variations. Thus. There are situations where a heavy liquid layer is placed over a lighter ﬂuid layer. . Calculate the maximum diameter needle that can be inserted into liquid without drowning. In poor designs or other situations. This situation has engineering implications in several industries. in this case.7. the body should be accelerate. or water over air(gas–liquid). some air is not evacuated and stay in small cavity on the edges of the shape to be casted.29: In interaction of the molecules shown in Figure ? describe the existence of surface tension. liquid metal is injected in a cavity ﬁlled with air. the needle cannot be held by the liquid.7 Rayleigh–Taylor Instability Rayleigh–Taylor instability (or RT instability) is named after Lord Rayleigh and G.

the force that acting to get the above ﬂuid down is the buoyancy force of the ﬂuid in the depression. This disturbance can grow or returned to its original situation. Thus.47). If the surface will be disturbed. The conditions that required from this function will be required from all the other functions. The simpliﬁed case is the two diﬀerent uniform densities. ρL . -4.138 CHAPTER 4. Thus. Thus. example of a cosine function will be examined.180) (4. The disturbance is of the following 2πx h = −hmax cos (4.57) can be approximated as d2 h 1 = 2 R dx For equation (4. ρG . On the other hand. For perfectly straight interface. x.47. For example a heavy ﬂuid density. The ﬁrst derivative of cos around zero is sin which is approaching zero or equal to zero. As usual there is the neutral stable when the forces are equal. The ﬂuid above the depression is in equilibrium with the sounding pressure since the material is extending to inﬁnity. This analysis is referred to the case of inﬁnite or very large surface. if the center point of the depression can “hold” the intrusive ﬂuid then the whole system is stable.57). and the buoyancy forces. The weakest point is at x = 0 because symmetrical reasons the surface tension does not act against the gravity as shown in Figure (4. In that case. if the surface forces (surface tension) are not suﬃcient. the situation is Fig. This analysis asks the question of what happen when a small amount of liquid from the above layer enter into the lower layer? Whether this liquid continue and will grow or will it return to its original conditions? The surface tension is the opposite mechanism that will returns the liquid to its original place. Any continues function can be expanded in series of cosines. FLUIDS STATICS Supposed that a liquid density is arbitrary function of the height. this situation x σ σ is considered to be stable. the surface density. Description of depression to explain unstable and the heavy liquid enters into the Rayleigh–Taylor instability.178) the radius is 1 4 π 2 hmax =− R L2 (4. This condition is determined by competing forces.179) . Thus. This distortion can be as a result of heavy ﬂuid above the lighter liquid. the heavy ﬂuid will stay above the lighter ﬂuid. The depression is returned to its h original position if the surface forces are L large enough. above lower ﬂuid with lower density. some of heavy liquid moves down. The radius of any equation is expressed by equation (1. The depression has diﬀerent radius as a function of distance from the center of the depression.178) L where hmax is the maximum depression and L is the characteristic length of the depression. the liquid ﬂuid zone and vice versa. equation (1.

7. the force at the top is the same force at the bottom of the cylinder. the error σ σ . RAYLEIGH–TAYLOR INSTABILITY 139 According to equation (1. To analyze it.183) (4. The point where the situation is neutral stable Lc = 4 π2 σ g (ρH − ρL ) (4. the lighter liquid will “prevent” it. For the depression. the force is the integral around the depression.48. At the cylinder bottom. In reality.182) It should be noted that hmax is irrelevant for this analysis as it is canceled.4. cylinder to be in equilibrium with its surroundings if the pressure at bottom is indeed ρ g h. they are not part of the control volume. The heavier liquid needs to move in one side and the lighter liquid in another location.48. In this process the heavier liquid “enter” the lighter liquid in one point and creates a depression as shown in Figure 4.184) An alternative approach to analyze this instability is suggested here.182) show that if the relationship is 4 σ π2 > g (ρH − ρL ) L2 (4. The horizontal forces around the control volume are canceling each other. This acts Fig. Consider the situation described in Figure 4.181) The pressure diﬀerence due to the gravity at the edge of the disturbance is then PH − PL = g (ρH − ρL ) hmax Comparing equations (4. It can be approximated as a ﬂat cylinder that has depth of r π/4 (read the explanation in the example 4. -4. The lighter liquid needs to move up at the same time but in a diﬀerent place. The ﬁrst control volume is made of a cylinder with a radius r and the second is the depression below it. At the bottom.48.181) and (4.48. the force is ρ g h × A.21) This value is exact if the shape is a perfect half sphere. At the top.46) the pressure diﬀerence or the pressure jump is due to the surface tension at this point must be PH − PL = 4 hmax σ π 2 L2 (4. If all the heavy liquid “attempts” to move straight down. the force is atmospheric pressure times the area. considered two control volumes bounded by the blue lines in 2r Figure 4. Description of depression to explain against the gravity force which make the the instability. The θ “extra” lines of the depression should be ignored.

As shown in Figure 4.” The maximum possible radius of the depression depends on the geometry of the container.185) The force that hold this column is the surface tension.49. θ = π/2. The purple color represents the maximum heavy liquid raising area. the total force is then Fσ = 2 π r σ cos θ The forces balance on the depression is then 2 π r σ cos θ ∼ π r2 The radius is obtained by r∼ 2 π σ cos θ (ρL − ρG ) g (4. The cross section of the interface.48.140 CHAPTER 4. Additionally when the depression occurs. The yellow color represents the maximum lighter liquid that are “going down.189) πr 4 (ρL − ρG ) g (4. the liquid level is reduced a bit and the lighter liquid is ﬁlling the missing portion.187) The maximum surface tension is when the angle.190) Fig. -4. Thus. For the cylindrical geometry. At that case. the force at the bottom is Fbottom ∼ π r2 The net force is then Fbottom ∼ π r2 πr 4 (ρL − ρG ) g (4. the maximum depression radius is about half .188) (4.186) πr + h (ρL − ρG ) g + Patmos 4 (4. FLUIDS STATICS is not signiﬁcant. the radius is r∼ 2πσ (ρL − ρG ) g (4.

191) The actual radius will be much larger.31: Estimate the minimum radius to insert liquid aluminum into represent tube at temperature of 600[K]. it can be written that the minimum radius is rmin tube = 2 2πσ g (ρL − ρG ) (4. σ 8 π 0.4 2400 × 9.7. Assume that the surface tension is 400[mN/m]. However.02[m] which demonstrates the assumption of h >> r was appropriate. Assume that the ﬂuids do not mix.81 The minimum radius is r ∼ 0. Since the “exchange” volumes of these two process are the same. Solution The depression radius is assume to be signiﬁcantly smaller and thus equation (4. The canister is rotate with circular velocity. RAYLEIGH–TAYLOR INSTABILITY 141 for the container radius (see Figure 4. Example 4.168 by introducing experimental coeﬃcient.S. The actual area of the depression is only a fraction of the interfacial cross section and is a function. 2010 The best solution of the following question will win 18 U.49). the speciﬁc radius is limited. . The density of the aluminum is 2400kg/m3 . this angle is never can be obtained.4.191. These two scenarios should be inserting into equation 4.the depression is larger for square area. The density of air is negligible as can be seen from the temperature compare to the aluminum density.49. The actual value of this angle is about π/4 to π/3 and in only extreme cases the angle exceed this value (considering dynamics). dollars and your name will be associated with the solution in this book.191) the angle was assumed to be 90 degrees. ω. In Figure 4.190) can be used. For example. This radius is limited because the lighter liquid has to enter at the same time into the heavier liquid zone. In equation (4. The heavier liquid can stay on top of the lighter liquid without being turned upside down when the radius is smaller than the equation 4. Example 4.32: A canister shown in Figure 4. r∼ End Solution Open Question by April 15. it was shown that the depression and the raised area are the same. Thus.50 has three layers of diﬀerent ﬂuids with diﬀerent densities. This analysis introduces a new dimensional number that will be discussed in a greater length in the Dimensionless chapter.

How would you estimate the diﬀerence between the two locations.8 Qualetive questions These qualetitive questions are for advance students and for those who would like to prepare themself prelimanry examination (Ph. The atmosphere has diﬀerent thickness in diﬀerent locations. 3. The author’s daughther (8 years old) that ﬂuid mechanics make no sence.50. what is the diﬀerence? 4. D. Three liquids layers under rotation with various critical situations. The stability analysis that was discussed in this chapter was based on the assumption that surface is straight. 2. for known geometries of the ﬂuids. you should explain this phenomenon using only concepts that where develped in this chapter. Where will be atmosphere thicknesss larger in the equator or the north pole? Explain your reasoning for the diﬀerence. examinations). the canister top center is connected to another tank with equal pressure to the canister before the rotation (the connection point).142 Z CHAPTER 4. 1. So why when there is snow on high mountains? It must be that the temperature is below frizing point on the top of the mountain (see for example Mount Kilimanjaro. How would you explain this situation? Hint. How in your opinion the eﬀec of the surface curviture aﬀects the stability analysis. Is there any diﬀerence if the process is isentropic? If so. Use the ideal gas model. Is there any diﬀerence if the ﬂuids are compressible? Where is the maximum pressure points? For the case that the ﬂuids are compressible. For example. she points out that warm air raise and therefor the warm spont in a house is the top ﬂoor (that is correct in 4 story home). What happen after the canister start to be rotated? Calculated the volume that will enter or leave. -4. Describe the interface of the ﬂuids consider all the limiting cases. You can assume that the process is isothermal. The surface of the ocean has spherical shape. FLUIDS STATICS L3 L2 L1 Fig. . Kenya).

A car is accelarated (increase of velocity) in an include surface upwards. 6. A symmetrical cylinder ﬁlled with liquid is rotating around its center.4. If the gravity was change due the surface curviture what is the eﬀect on the stablity. What are the direction of the force if the cylinder is not symetrical? .8. Draw the constant pressure line. 5. What will constant pressure lines if the car will be driven downwords. QUALETIVE QUESTIONS 143 4. What are the directions of the forces that acting on cylinder.

FLUIDS STATICS .144 CHAPTER 4.

Part I Integral Analysis 145 .

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Control volume and system before and after the later part of this book.CHAPTER 5 The Control Volume and Mass Conservation 5. 147 . This kind of analysis is reasonable and it referred to in the literature as the Lagrangian Analysis. Leonard Euler (1707–1783) suggested an alternative approach. The Eulerian method focuses on a deﬁned area or locaa system tion to ﬁnd the needed informab tion. These differential equations will be used in Fig. Langrange (1736–1813) who formulated the equations of motion for the moving ﬂuid particles. This name is in honored J. The main target of such analysis is to ﬁnd the value of certain variables. When the ﬂuid system moves or changes.1. Ad. the Lagrangian system turned out to be diﬃcult to solve and to analyze. This method applied and used in very few cases. Even though this system looks reasonable. L. The use of the Eulerian methods leads to a set diﬀerentic control ation equations that is referred to volume as Navier–Stokes equations which are commonly used.1 Introduction This chapter presents a discussion on the control volume and will be focused on the conservation of the mass. This methods is referred as Eulerian method. -5. In Euler’s approach the focus is on a deﬁned point or a deﬁned volume.motion. one wants to ﬁnd or predict the velocities in the system. The main diﬃculty lies in the fact that every particle has to be traced to its original state.

The control volume is a deﬁned volume that was discussed earlier. When a piston pushing gases a good choice of control volume is a deformable control volume that is a head the piston inside the cylinder as shown in Figure 5. non–deformable and deformable. the control gains some material which is marked as “c”. entropy etc. The green lines in Figure 5.2 Control Volume The Eulerian method requires to deﬁne a control volume (some time more than one). At certain time the system and the control volume are identical location. Every control volume is the focus of the certain interest and will be dealt with the basic equations.148 CHAPTER 5. Therefore a limited discussion on the Lagrangian system will be presented (later version). trol volume.piston with in and out ﬂow. The control volume is diﬀerentiated into two categories of control volumes. Two examples of control volume are presented to illustrate diﬀerence between a deformable control volume and non–deformable control volume. The Eulerian method plays well with the physical intuition of most people. the control volume is a system.2. Fig. energy. Deformable control volume is a volume having part of all of its boundaries in motion during the process at hand. After a certain time. Non–deformable control volume is a control volume which is ﬁxed in space relatively to an one coordinate system. Flow in conduits can be analyzed by looking in a control volume between two locations. The diﬀerence between the system and the control volume is shown in Figure 5. The control volume should be chosen so that the analysis should be simple and dealt with as less as possible issues which are not in question. momentum. Control volume of a moving The control volume chosen is non-deformable con. -5. In the case where no mass crosses the boundaries. This coordinate system may be in a relative motion to another (almost absolute) coordinate system.1 represent the system. MASS CONSERVATION ditionally.1. The coordinate system could be ﬁxed to the conduit. The red dotted lines are the control volume. The material that remained in the control volume is marked as “b”. At the same time. This methods has its limitations and for some cases the Lagrangian is preferred (and sometimes the only possibility). Lagrangian equations are associated with the system while the Eulerian equation are associated with the control volume. mass. the Eulerian system leads to integral equations which are the focus of this part of the book. some of the mass in the system exited the control volume which are marked “a” in Figure 5.1. .2. 5.

4) Control Volume and is a function of the time.3).v. d ma d mc = + − Dt dt dt dt (5.3) The ﬁrst term in equation (5.3. is perpendicular to the surface is − → Urn = −ˆ · Ur = Ur cos θ n (5.5) Ub n ˆ θ Uf −Ub Uf − Ub Where Uf is the liquid velocity and Ub is the boundary Fig.v. The velocity component that velocities at the interface. In this chapter. Thus. the ﬂow out is d ma = dt ρs Urn dA Scv (5.2) The change of the system mass is by deﬁnition is zero.3. The change with time (time derivative of equation (5.3). -5. The mass ﬂow out of the control volume is the system mass that is not included in the control volume. + ma − mc (5. The actual velocity of the ﬂuid leaving the control volume is the relative velocity (see Figure 5. The relative velocity is − → − → − → Ur = Uf − Ub (5. the conservation equations will be applied to the control volume. The interface of the control volume can move.1) The system mass after some time. (5. The convention of direction ˆ is taken positive if ﬂow out the control volume and negative if the ﬂow is into the control volume.v.v. the mass conservation will be discussed.1. according Figure 5.7) .2)) results in 0= D msys d mc.3 Continuity Equation In this chapter and the next three chapters. (t) d = dt dt ρ dV Vc.5. The system mass change is D msys D = Dt Dt ρdV = 0 Vsys (5. Schematics of velocity (see Figure 5. CONTINUITY EQUATION 149 5. is made of msys = mc.3) is the derivative of the mass in the control volume and at any given time is d mc.6) Where n is an unit vector perpendicular to the surface.

3) results in Continuity d dt ρs dV = − c.4. (5. X dx L Fig. Again notice the negative sign in surface integral.8) and (5. -5. The change of mass change inside the control volume is net ﬂow in or out of the control system.1.10) is essentially accounting of the mass.v. t) = 1− cos . Example 5. ρ0 L t0 . The next example is provided to illustrate this concept.1: The density changes in a pipe.150 CHAPTER 5.8) It can be noticed that the two equations (5.7) are similar and can be combined. Schematics of ﬂow in in pipe with varying density as a function time for example 5. taking the positive or negative value of Urn with integration of the entire system as d ma d mb − = dt dt ρs Urn dA Scv (5.9) into equation (5. the ﬂow rate in is d mb = dt ρs Urn dA Sc.v. Scv ρ Urn dA (5. can be approximated as x 2 t ρ(x. The negative sign is because ﬂow out marked positive which reduces of the mass (negative derivative) in the control volume.10) Equation (5. MASS CONSERVATION It has to be emphasized that the density is taken at the surface thus the subscript s.9) applying negative value to keep the convention. Substituting equation (5. In the same manner. due to temperature variation and other reasons.

10). dρ dV = − dt ρ Urn dA Sc. End Solution 5. 5.v.c.10) can be obtained by assuming constant density and the equation (5. Using equation (5. the derivative in equation (5. r and angle.3. and time.10) can enter the integral since the boundaries are ﬁxed in time and hence. t. ρ0 c. and the mass in the conduit as function of time. Express the mass ﬂow in and/or out.11) Equation (5.v. θ and they can be taken out the integral as d d x 2 t ρdV = π R2 ρ0 1 − cos dx dt c. Write the expression for the mass change in the pipe.2 Constant Density Fluids Further simpliﬁcations of equations (5. the ﬂow out (or in) is ρ(t) dV d dt d ρdV = dt c. dt c. (5.v.4 length is L and its area is A.10).v. x 1− L 2 cos t t0 π R2 dx The density is not a function of radius.3.10) become conservation of the volume.5.11) is simpler than equation (5. CONTINUITY EQUATION 151 The conduit shown in Figure 5.3. L t0 which results in A Flow Out = π R2 d dt L ρ0 1 − 0 x L 2 cos t π R2 L ρ0 dx = − sin t0 3 t0 t t0 The ﬂow out is a function of length. and is the change of the mass in the control volume.v. Continuity with Fixed b. .1 Non Deformable Control Volume When the control volume is ﬁxed with time. L.v. Vc. Solution Here it is very convenient to choose a non-deformable control volume that is inside the conduit dV is chosen as π R2 dx.

Example 5. Assume that the density is constant and at the boundary interface Aj = 0. Urn dA (5. Sc. =0 =0 d dt ρ dV = c. MASS CONSERVATION Non Deformable Control Volume For this case the volume is constant therefore the mass is constant. Hence.2: Liquid ﬁlls a bucket as shown in Figure 5.1 CHAPTER 5. The liquid ﬁlls a bucket with cross section area of A and instantaneous height is h.152 5. the meaning is that volume ﬂow rate in and the volume ﬂow rate out have to equal.15) is the net growth (or decrease) of the Control volume is by net volume ﬂow into it.2. dρ dV +ρ dt n · Ub dA = ρ ˆ Sc.14) where Ub is the boundary velocity and Ubn is the normal component of the boundary velocity.3.v. and hence the mass change of the control volume is zero.13) Notice that the density does not play a role in this equation since it is canceled out. c.v. Find the height as a function of the other parameters.v.5.7 Ap .2 illustrates this point. Sc. (5.v.2.3. the net ﬂow (in and out) is zero. Ubn dA (5.v. 5. And where Aj is the area of jet when touching the .12) Steady State Continuity Vrn dA = Sin Sout Vrn dA = 0 (5.v.v. This condition can be written mathematically as =0 d −→ dt or in a more explicit form as Vrn dA = 0 Sc. Example 5.10) can be examined further to develop a simpler equation by using the extend Leibniz integral rule for a constant density and result in thus.2 Deformable Control Volume The left hand side of question (5. Physically. Steady State Continuity Deformable Ubn dA = Sc. The average velocity of the liquid at the exit of the ﬁlling pipe is Up and cross section of the pipe is Ap .15) The meaning of the equation (5.

this eﬀect can be neglected for this range which this problem.v. no liquid leaves the jet and enters the air. First. Calculate the bucket liquid interface velocity. several assumptions must be made. The ﬁrst control is around the jet and second is around the liquid in the bucket.v.2.v. Urn dA where Ubn is the perpendicular component of velocity of the boundary. However. the air eﬀects are negligible. Second.5. The mass conservation of the liquid in the bucket is boundary change Ubn dA c. This assumption is a strong assumption for certain conditions but it will be not discussed here since it is advance topic. the liquid in the bucket has a straight surface. CONTINUITY EQUATION 153 Up Ap Ub Aj h Uj A Fig.3. The last assumption is result of the energy equation (with some inﬂuence of momentum equation). Solution This problem requires two deformable control volumes. The control volume around the jet is deformable because the length of the jet shrinks with the time. Substituting the known values for Urn results in Urn Ub dA = c. In reality. Fourth. The relationship is function of the distance of the pipe from the boundary of the liquid. ﬂow in = c. In this analysis. (Uj + Ub ) dA . Filling of the bucket and choices of the deformable control volumes for example 5. the ratio is determined by height of the pipe from the liquid surface in the bucket. -5. liquid boundary in bucket. c.v. there are no evaporation or condensation processes. Third.5.

It also interesting to point out that if the ﬁlling was from other surface (not the top surface). mi .v.7 Ap results Up Ap − Ub A = −0. thus the relative velocity.b) are enough to solve for the two unknowns. c.II.c) is Ub = Ap A − 0.II.II. e.II.a) into (5.a) To ﬁnd the jet velocity. the second control volume around the jet is used as the following ﬂow in ﬂow out boundary change Up Ap − Aj (Ub + Uj ) = −Aj Ub (5.a) and (5.II. MASS CONSERVATION The integration can be carried when the area of jet is assumed to be known as Ub A = Aj (Uj + Ub ) (5. The other limit is that and Ap /A −→ 0 then Ap Ub = A which is the result for the “intuitive” solution.7 which is Ap Ub = =∞ 0 The physical meaning is that surface is ﬁlled instantly.154 CHAPTER 5.b) and using the ratio of Aj = 0.7 Ap Ub (5.II. End Solution Example 5.II. Urn dA The entrance is ﬁxed. Calculate the velocity of the balloon boundaries assuming constant density.c) The solution of equation (5. the side. The ﬁrst limit is when Ap = A/0. Solution The applicable equation is Ubn dA = c.g. Substituting the ﬁrst equation. The reason for this diﬀerence is that the liquid already ﬁll the bucket and has not to move into bucket.3: Balloon is attached to a rigid supply in which is supplied by a constant the mass rate. When examining solution there are two limits.v. Uj .b) The above two equations (5.7 Ap It is interesting that many individuals intuitively will suggest that the solution is Ub Ap /A. Urn is Urn = −Up 0 @ the valve every else .II. the velocity will be Ub = Up in the limiting case and not inﬁnity. (5.

v. This simpliﬁcation provides very useful description for many ﬂuid ﬂow phenomena.3.v.3 One–Dimensional Control Volume Additional simpliﬁcation of the continuity equation is of one dimensional ﬂow.v.2. The main assumption made in this model is that the proprieties in the across section are only function of x coordinate . Substituting into the general equation yields A ρ 4 π r2 Ubr = ρ Up Ap = mi Hence.5. Ubr = mi ρ 4 π r2 The center velocity is (also) exactly Ubr . (Ubr r) · n dA ˆ ˆ The ﬁrst integral is zero because it is like movement of solid body and also yield this value mathematically (excises for mathematical oriented student). CONTINUITY EQUATION 155 Assume equal distribution of the velocity in balloon surface and that the center of the balloon is moving.16) . This assumptions leads d ρ2 U2 dA − ρ1 U1 dA = dt A2 A1 dV ρ(x) A(x) dx V (x) (5.v. (Ux x) · n dA + ˆ ˆ Sc. The right side of equation (5. Sc.3.15) is the net change due to the boundary is center movement net boundary change (Ux x + Ubr r) · n dA = ˆ ˆ ˆ Sc. thus the velocity has the following form Ub = Ux x + Ubr r ˆ ˆ Where x is unit coordinate in x direction and Ux is the velocity of the center and where ˆ r is unit coordinate in radius from the center of the balloon and Ubr is the velocity in ˆ that direction. The second integral (notice n = r) yields ˆ ˆ (Ubr r) · n dA = 4 π r2 Ubr ˆ ˆ Sc. End Solution 5. The total velocity of boundary is Ut = mi (ˆ + r) x ˆ ρ 4 π r2 It can be noticed that the velocity at the opposite to the connection to the rigid pipe which is double of the center velocity.

Is there a critical value and then if exist ﬁnd the critical value of the system parameters. Height of the liquid for example 5. h as function of the time. continuity equation is at its minimum form of U1 A1 = A2 U2 (5.19) For incompressible ﬂow (constant density). Example 5. min h Fig.4: Liquid ﬂows into tank in a constant mass ﬂow rate of a.16) is reduced to U2 dA − A2 A1 U1 dA = d dt A(x)dx (5. determine the height. What happen if the h0 = 0? .17) For steady state but with variations of the velocity and variation of the density reduces equation (5.6.18) reduces further to ρ1 A1 U1 = ρ2 A2 U2 (5.16).4. For the ﬁrst case.156 CHAPTER 5. Assume that the height at time zero is h0 .18) For steady state and uniform density and velocity equation (5. The mass ﬂow rate out is √ function of the height. -5.16) to become ρ2 U2 dA = A2 A1 ρ1 U1 dA (5. MASS CONSERVATION When the density can be considered constant equation (5.20) The next example is of semi one–dimensional example to illustrate equation (5. First assume that qout = b h second Assume as qout = b h.

16) is dh ρL = dt solution is h= ﬂow out b1 h ﬂow in − mi private solution homogeneous solution b1 t mi + c1 ρ L b1 The solution has the homogeneous solution (solution without the mi ) and the solution of the mi part. It can be noticed that control volume satisfy the demand of one dimensional since the ﬂow is only function of x coordinate.16) is ﬂow out ﬂow in √ dh ρL = b h − mi dt with the general solution of √ hb ln −1 mi √ √ mi hb hb + − 1 = (t + c) ρL mi 2ρL . The solution can rearranged to a new form (a discussion why this form is preferred will be provided in dimensional chapter). the critical ratio state if the ﬂow in is larger or lower than the ﬂow out determine the condition of the height.3. For case one the right hand side term in equation (5. If the term hmb1 i i is larger than one then the solution reduced to a negative number. However. Essentially. CONTINUITY EQUATION Solution 157 The control volume for both cases is the same and it is around the liquid in the tank.16) is d L dh ρ h dx = ρ L dt 0 dt Substituting into equation equation (5. b t − ρ1L e e h b1 = m1 e − ρ1L b t +c e b1 t ρL With the initial condition that at h(t = 0) = h0 the constant coeﬃcient can be found as h0 b 1 h0 b1 = 1 − c =⇒ c = 1 − m1 mi which the solution is h b1 = m1 e − ρ1L b t + 1− h0 b1 mi e b1 t ρL 0 0 It can be observed that if 1 = hmb1 is the critical point of this solution. the height will increase. negative number for height is not possible and the height solution approach zero. If the reverse case appeared.5. For second case. the governing equation (5.

y) = f (α. speciﬁc enthalpy. The change of accumulative property will be then D Dt f ρdV = sys d dt f ρdV + c. material is not necessarily but is added her for completeness. y) = ∂G ∂x (5. the Reynolds Transport Theorem will be reproofed and discussed.4 Reynolds Transport Theorem It can be noticed that the same derivations carried for the density can be carried for other intensive properties such as speciﬁc entropy.22) Initially. the exact mathematical proof is not the concern here. This is engineering book and thus. The ideas are the similar but extended some what. To make the previous derivation clearer. . y) − − (x1 . c.158 CHAPTER 5.v f ρ Urn dA (5.23) Notice that lower boundary of the integral is missing and is only the upper limit of the function is present3 .24) diﬀerentiating (chain rule d uv = u dv + v du) by part of left hand side of the Leibniz integral rule (it can be shown which are identical) is 1 2 3 4 d [G(x2 . MASS CONSERVATION The constant is obtained when the initial condition that at h(t = 0) = h0 and it left as exercise for the reader. (1842-1912) which is actually a three dimensional generalization of Leibniz integral rule1 . For its derivative of equation (5.org/details/papersonmechanic01reynrich. Nevertheless. This author ﬁnd material just given so no questions will be asked. Suppose that g is intensive property (which can be a scalar or a vector) undergoes change with time. Assume that there is a function that satisfy the following x G(x. Osborne. if there will be a demand for such. y) dx = x1 (y) x1 (y) dx2 dx1 ∂f dx + f (x2 .25) papers can be read on-line at http://www. a proof will be provided and the physical meaning will be explained. y)] ∂G dx2 ∂G ∂G dx1 ∂G = + (x2 .23) is f (x. y) − f (x1 . End Solution 5. y) dy ∂x2 dy ∂y ∂x1 dy ∂y 1 These 2 This (5. y) ∂y dy dy (5. y) − G(x1 . it will be provided. y) dα (5. Leibniz integral rule2 is an one dimensional and it is deﬁned as d dy x2 (y) x2 (y) f (x.archive. 3 There was a suggestion to insert arbitrary constant which will be canceled and will a provide rigorous proof.v.21) This theorem named after Reynolds.

y) dx ∂y (5. with time. the ﬂow in (or out) will be the velocity of ﬂuid minus the boundary at x1 .v. Thus this explanation is a proof the Leibniz rule. F . F . f is investigated or the accumulative property. F . Since the change is very short (diﬀerential). The change with time is DF D = Dt Dt ρ f dV sys (5.25) are actually (the x2 is treated as a diﬀerent variable) x2 (y) x1 (y) ∂ f (x. The same can be said for the other side.30) Fout = f2 ρ Urn (5. F . The interesting information that commonly needed is the change of the accumulative property.29) If two limiting points (for the one dimensional) are moving with a diﬀerent coordinate system. between the boundaries is d dt ρ(x) f A(x) dA c.26) The ﬁrst term (1) in equation (5. The accumulative ﬂow of the property in.4. Urn = U1 − Ub .31) The change with time of the accumulative property. Suppose that a ﬂuid is ﬂowing in a conduit. This limiting condition is the control volume for which some of the mass will leave or enter. (5. y) ∂x2 dy dy (5.32) . is then F1 dx1 dt Fin = f1 ρ Urn The accumulative ﬂow of the property out. the mass will be diﬀerent and it will not be a system. The intensive property.5.25) is dx2 ∂G dx2 = f (x2 .28) For one dimensional situation the change with time is DF D = Dt Dt ρ f A(x)dx sys (5.27) The same can be said for the third term (3). The above “proof” is mathematical in nature and physical explanation is also provided. REYNOLDS TRANSPORT THEOREM 159 The terms 2 and 4 in equation (5. is then F2 dx2 dt (5. F .

V. What is the magical averaged velocity at the exit? Assume no–slip condition. the boundary condition is U (r = R) = 0 and U (r = 0) = Umax Therefore the velocity proﬁle is r U (r) = Umax 1 − R Where R is radius and r is the working radius (for the integration).v. After magical mixing. Since the time variable. The only diﬀerence is that the velocity has three components and only the perpendicular component enters into the calculations. Reynolds Transport d f ρdV = f ρ dV + dt c. is arbitrary and it can be replaced by any letter.c) End Solution .160 CHAPTER 5. the velocity became uniform. t. Thus.33) 5.V.a) is Umax π R2 = Uave π R2 6 Umax 6 (5. The magical averaged velocity is obtained using the equation (5. Reynolds Transport theorem is a generalization of the Leibniz rule and thus the same arguments are used. Solution The velocity proﬁle is linear with radius. Write the equation which describes the velocity at the entrance.a) The integration of the equation (5. (5. Additionally.5: Liquid enters a circular pipe with a linear velocity proﬁle as a function of the radius with maximum velocity of Umax .V. Example 5. MASS CONSERVATION When put together it brings back the Leibniz integral rule.13). The above discussion is one of the physical meaning the Leibniz rule.v sys D DT f ρ Urn dA Sc.5 Examples For Mass Conservation Several examples are provided to illustrate the topic. It will be assumed that the velocity at the interface is zero.V.b) The solution of equation (b) results in average velocity as Uave = (5. later a discussion on relationship between velocity at interface to solid also referred as the (no) slip condition will be provided. This assumption is good for most cases with very few exceptions. For which R Umax 1 − 0 r R 2 π r dr = Uave π R2 (5.

For simplicity assume slowed ﬂuid has a linear velocity proﬁle. In this case. and upper. right. Where δ is the height of the boundary layer at exit point of the ﬂow as shown in Figure 5. EXAMPLES FOR MASS CONSERVATION (1) (2) 161 U0 ge Ed of B n ou yL dr er ay L Fig. Then assume parabolic velocity proﬁle as Ux (y) = 2 U0 y 1 + δ 2 y δ 2 and calculate the mass transfer across the control volume. The slowed liquid is slowing the layer above it. The assumption is that ﬂuid attaches itself to surface. the left. calculate the relationship of the mass transfer across the control volume. The boundary layer is growing with x because the boundary eﬀect is penetrating further into ﬂuid. The above integrals on the . The control volume has three surfaces that mass can cross. Solution Assuming the velocity proﬁle is linear thus.7. A common boundary layer analysis uses the Reynolds transform theorem. -5. Boundary Layer control mass. Example 5. Compare the two diﬀerent velocity proﬁles aﬀecting on the mass transfer.5. (to satisfy the boundary condition) it will be U0 y Ux (y) = δ The chosen control volume is rectangular of L × δ.6: Experiments have shown that a layer of liquid that attached itself to the surface and it is referred to as boundary layer.5.7.13) results in x direction y direction out in δ δ U0 dy − 0 0 U0 y dy = δ L U xdx 0 It can be noticed that the convention used in this chapter of “in” as negative is not “followed.” The integral simply multiply by negative one. The situation is steady state and thus using equation (5. No mass can cross the lower surface (solid boundary).

MASS CONSERVATION U0 1 − 0 y δ L dy = 0 U xdx the integration results in U0 δ = 2 or for parabolic proﬁle δ δ L U xdx 0 U0 dy − 0 0 δ U0 y y + δ δ y y − δ δ L 2 L dy = 0 U xdx or 0 U0 1 − the integration results in 2 dy = U0 U0 δ = 2 U xdx 0 End Solution Example 5.1 kg/sec = = 1. The next example deal with such reversed mass ﬂow rate. Thus. The tank also has three emptying valves of 5 hours. the mass (or the volume) is given by indirect quantity such as the eﬀect of ﬂow. Is there a combination of valves that make the tank at steady state? . and 8 hours. What is the density of the gases at the exhaust? Solution The mass conservation equation (5. Example 5.8: The tank is ﬁlled by two valves which one ﬁlled tank in 3 hours and the second by 6 hours.162 right hand side can be combined as δ CHAPTER 5. However sometime.02kg/m3 AU 0.7: Air ﬂows into a jet engine at 5 kg/sec while fuel ﬂow into the jet is at 0.1 kg/sec The density is ρ= m ˙ 5.13) is used. 7 hours.01 m2 500 m/sec End Solution The mass (volume) ﬂow rate is given by direct quantity like x kg/sec. The burned gases leaves at the exhaust which has cross area 0.1 kg/sec.1 ) 5. The tank is 3/4 fulls. calculate the time for tank reach empty or full state when all the valves are open. the ﬂow out is ( 5 + 0.1 m2 with velocity of 500 m/sec.

Assume that the cylinder inﬂated uniformly and pressure inside the cylinder is uniform. The pressure inside the cylinder is linearly proportional to the volume. in or out ﬂow rate = Sc. Calculate the cylinder boundaries velocity.v boundary velocity + Sc.5. Solution The applicable equation is increase pressure Vc.v. The time to completely ﬁlled the tank is 1 70 4 = hour 159 1 131 − 2 280 The rest is under construction.v.9: Inﬂated cylinder is supplied in its center with constant mass ﬂow. End Solution Example 5. EXAMPLES FOR MASS CONSERVATION Solution 163 Easier measurement of valve ﬂow rate can be expressed as fraction of the tank per hour. Assume that the gas mass is supplied in uniformed way of mi [kg/m/sec]. For simplicity. mass ﬂow rate in is min = 1/3 + 1/6 = 1/2tank/hour ˙ The mass ﬂow rate out is mout = 1/5 + 1/7 + 1/8 = ˙ 131 280 Thus. The gas inside the cylinder obeys the ideal gas law. ρ= P RT and relationship between the volume and pressure is P = f π Rc 2 . if all the valves are open the tank will be ﬁlled. dρ dV dt ρ Ub dV ρUrn dA Every term in the above equation is analyzed but ﬁrst the equation of state and volume to pressure relationship have to be provided. For example valve of 3 hours can be converted to 1/3 tank per hour. Thus. assume that the process is isothermal.5.

mi .v Vc.10: A balloon is attached to a rigid supply and is supplied by a constant mass rate. 4 The proof of this idea is based on the chain diﬀerentiation similar to Leibniz rule. When the derivative of the second part is dUb /dRc = 0. . It also can be noticed that boundary velocity is related to the radius in the following form Ub = dRc dt The ﬁrst term requires to ﬁnd the derivative of density with respect to time which is Ub dρ d = dt dt Thus the ﬁrst term is dρ dV = dt 2 π Rc f π Rc RT 2 = 2 f π Rc dRc RT dt Vc.164 CHAPTER 5.v 2 f π Rc Ub RT 2 π Rc dRc dV = 4 f π 2 Rc 3 Ub 3RT The integral can be carried when Ub is independent of the Rc 4 The second term is ρ f π Rc 2 ρ Ub dA = Ub 2 πRc = RT Sc. A f π 3 Rc 2 RT Ub substituting in the governing equation obtained the form of f π 2 Rc 3 4 f π 2 Rc 3 Ub + Ub = mi RT 3RT The boundary velocity is then Ub = mi 3 mi R T G= 7 f π 2 Rc 3 7 f π 2 Rc 3 3RT End Solution Example 5. Assume that balloon volume is a linear function of the pressure inside the balloon such as P = fv V . Where fv is a coeﬃcient describing the balloon physical characters.v. Calculate the velocity of the balloon boundaries under the assumption of isothermal process. Assume that gas obeys the ideal gas law. MASS CONSERVATION Where Rc is the instantaneous cylinder radius. Combining the above two equations results in f π Rc 2 ρ= RT Where f is a coeﬃcient with the right dimension.

. The density change is Ub dρ 12 fv π Rb dRb = dt RT dt The ﬁrst term is =f (r) Rb 0 2 12 fv π Rb 2 16 fv π 2 Rb 5 Ub 4 π r2 dr = Ub RT 3RT dV The second term is 8 fv π 2 R b 5 4 fv π R b 3 4 fv π R b 3 Ub dA = Ub 4 π Rb 2 = Ub 3RT 3RT 3RT A A Subsisting the two equations of the applicable equation results Ub = 1 mi R T 8 fv π 2 R b 5 Notice that ﬁrst term is used to increase the pressure and second the change of the boundary.10.v The right hand side of the above equation is ρUrn dA = mi Sc.5.v.5. EXAMPLES FOR MASS CONSERVATION Solution The question is more complicated than Example 5. ρUrn dA Vc.v. The ideal gas law is ρ= P RT 165 The relationship between the pressure and volume is P = fv V = 4 fv π Rb 3 3 The combining of the ideal gas law with the relationship between the pressure and volume results 4 fv π Rb 3 ρ= 3RT The applicable equation is dρ dV + dt ρ (Uc x + Ub r) dA = ˆ ˆ Sc. Sc.v.

What are the units of the coeﬃcient fv in this problem? What are the units of the coeﬃcient in the previous problem? 5. Consider a container ﬁlled with liquid on which one exit opened and the liquid ﬂows out as shown in Figure 5. MASS CONSERVATION End Solution Open Question: Answer must be received by April 15. 2010 The best solution of the following question will win 18 U.10 under the assumption that the process is isentropic. local averaged velocity in three coordinates. Therefore an example will be provided to demonstrate the use Fig. under certain conditions it is reasonable to assume straight surface which have been done for this problem.11: Solve example 5. .34) V 5 The liquid surface is not straight for this kind of problem. However. dollars and your name will be associated with the solution in this book.6 The Details Picture – Velocity Area Relationship The integral approach is intended to deal with the “big” picture. To relate the velocity in the z direction with the ﬂow rate out or the exit the velocity mass balance is constructed. The mass balance reads dρ dV + dt Ubn ρ dA + A A Urn ρ dA = 0 (5. Sometimes hℓ z y Ae it is desirable to ﬁnd the averaged velocx Ue ity or velocity distribution inside a control volume. The upper boundary is surface parallel to upper surface but at Z distance from the bottom. However. Control volume usage to calculate of this approach.8.166 CHAPTER 5. there is very little written about the usability of this approach to provide way to calculate the average quantities in the control system. A similar control volume construction to ﬁnd the velocity of the boundary velocity (height) can be carried out. The velocity has three components in each of the coordinates under the assumption that ﬂow is uniform and the surface is straight5 .8. There is no general way to provide these quantities. Also assume that the relationship between the pressure and the volume is P = fv V 2 . Example 5. The control volume is bounded by the container wall including the exit of the ﬂow.S. -5. Indeed the method is used in this part of the book for this A purpose. The integral approached is used to calculate the averaged velocity of each to the components.

One zone is right to the exit with ﬂow to the left and one zone to left with averaged velocity to right.38) Ax − Where Ax − is the area shown the Figure under this label. THE DETAILS PICTURE – VELOCITY AREA RELATIONSHIP For constant density (conservation of volume) equation6 and (h > z) reduces to Urn ρ dA = 0 A 167 (5. If the volumes on the left and the right are symmetrical the averaged velocity will be zero. 6 The point where (z = h) the boundary term is substituted the ﬂow in term. Ax− X controlpage into the page into the The control volume is shown in Figure 5. The area Ayz referred to area into the page in Figure 5.39) Where Y (x) is the length of the (blue) line of the boundary.9. The only diﬀerence is that the velocity has two diﬀerent directions.35 becomes Uz A = Ue Ae =⇒ Uz = − Ae Ue A (5. Because averaged velocities and constant density are used transformed equation (5. The calculations for the y directions are similar to the one done for x direction.38) into Ae − Ax Ue + Ux Y (x) h = 0 A Ayz (5. Substituting into (5.37) Fig. Control volume and system before and after the motion.5. The velocity Uz is the averaged velocity downward.37) results in Ae Ue ρ dA + A Ux ρ dA = 0 Ayz (5. The x component of velocity is obY control Volume Volume tained by using a diﬀerent control volume.36) It can be noticed that the boundary is not moving and the mass inside does not change this control volume.6. The boundary are the container far from Ay − y the ﬂow exit with blue line projection into x page (area) shown in the Figure 5.9 under the blow line. -5.35) In the container case for uniform velocity equation 5.9. The mass conservation for constant density of this control volume is − A Ue Ae Ubn ρ dA + A Urn ρ dA = 0 (5.9. Usage of control volume not included in the previous analysis provides the velocity at the upper boundary which is the same as the velocity at y direction. It can be notice that the velocity. . Ux is generally increasing with x because Ax − increase with x.

Ux for a cross section of circular shape (cylinder).f) 1 α − . The length of the line Y (x) is Y (x) = 2 r 1− 1− x r 2 Ax− Y(x) (r − x) x α y r (5. Integrating the velocity for the entire container and dividing by the angle.XII.d) Ux = Averaged velocity is deﬁned as Ux = U dS S (5.10.a) Ue Ae This relationship also can be expressed in the term of α as Y (x) = 2 r sin α (5.XII. The value dS is r cos α. Since this expression is simpler it will be adapted. sin(2α) r2 2 (5. When the relationship between radius angle and x are x = r(1 − sin α) (5.13: .i) Example 5. -5.XII. Ux = which results in Ux = 1 2r π 0 Ae r α − 1 sin(2α) 2 Ue r dα A h tan α (π − 1) Ae r Ue 4 A h End Solution (5.g) Where here S represent some length.b) Fig.c) The area Ax − is expressed in term of α as Ax − = Thus the velocity.12: Calculate the velocity.XII. α provides the averaged velocity.h) (5.XII. Circular cross section for ﬁnding Ux and various cross sections.XII.e) (5. Ux is Ae A α− 1 sin(2α) r2 Ue + Ux 2 r sin α h = 0 2 Ae r α − 1 sin(2α) 2 Ue A h sin α 1 S (5.XII. MASS CONSERVATION Example 5.168 CHAPTER 5.XII. Solution The relationship for this geometry needed to be expressed. The same way it can be represented for angle calculations.XII.

7. The calculations are similar to those in the previous to example 5. State your assumptions and how it similar to the previous example.14: .XIII. Uy for a cross section of circular shape (cylinder). Example 5.40) 1 2r π/2 0 Ae r α − 1 sin(2α) 2 Ue r dα A h tan α (5. What is the averaged velocity if only half section is used.a) (5.7 More Examples for Mass Conservation Typical question about the relative velocity that appeared in many ﬂuid mechanics exams is the following.b) 5. The main concept that must be recognized is the half of the ﬂow must have come from one side and the other come from the other side. Thus. The ﬂow in half of the cylinder either the right or the left has non zero averaged velocity.5.11. MORE EXAMPLES FOR MASS CONSERVATION Calculate the velocity. That is the ﬂow ﬁeld is a mirror images.12. -5.XIII. every point has diﬀerent velocity with the same value in the opposite direction. Solution X(y) x 169 y r (r − x) Ay − Ue Ae Fig. Thus.39) modiﬁed to be Ae − Ax Ue + Ux Y (x) h = 0 A The integral is the same as before but the upper limit is only to π/2 Ux = which results in Ux = (π − 2) Ae r Ue 8 A h End Solution Ayz (5. equation (5. y velocity for a circular shape The ﬂow out in the x direction is zero because symmetrical reasons.

75m/sec Ain 0. the calculation have to be made in the frame of reference moving with the boat.11) is applicable mA + mB = Qmix ρmix =⇒= 0.10 0. The density of liquid A is 1000[kg/m3 ] and liquid B is 800[kg/m3 ].1 [kg/s]. MASS CONSERVATION A boat travels at speed of 10m/sec upstream in a river that ﬂows at a speed of 5m/s. what is the exit velocity? State your assumptions. The relative jet discharge velocity is Urout = 50 − (10 + 5) = 35[m/sec] The volume ﬂow rate is then Qout = Aout Urout = 35 × 0.1 + 0. Urin = Aout 0. what Fig.002 [m3 /s]. -5. since the ﬂow is incompressible ﬂow.2 m2 and eject it through the back of the boat with exist area of Aout = 0.14 are the relative velocities entering and leaving the boat and the pumping rate? Us = 5[m/sec] Uo = 50[m/sec] Ub = 10[m/sec] Solution The boat is assumed (implicitly is stated) to be steady state and the density is constant. the ﬂow is steady state and equation (5.15: Liquid A enters a mixing device depicted in at 0.05 = 1.05 Urout = 35 = 8.05 = 0.12.XV.a) Thus in this case. If the mixing device volume is decreasing (as a piston pushing into the chamber) at rate of .75m3 /sec The ﬂow rate at entrance is the same as the exit thus.2 End Solution Example 5.05 ˙ ˙ ˙ QA + QB = Qmix =⇒= + = + ρA ρA 1000 800 . Assume incompressible process. the total volume ﬂow in is equal to volume ﬂow out as mA ˙ mA ˙ 0. Find the average leaving velocity and density of the mixture leaving through the 2O [cm] diameter pipe. Schematic of the boat for example 5.170 CHAPTER 5. In same time liquid B enter the mixing device with a diﬀerent speciﬁc density at 0.05 [kg/s]. The water absolute velocity leaving the back is 50m/sec. The results of the mixing is a homogeneous mixture.15[m] ˙ ˙ (5. The inboard engine uses a pump to suck in water at the front Ain = 0. Solution In the ﬁrst scenario.05 m2 . However.

Yet.16: A syringe apparatus is being use to withdrawn blood7 . The ﬁrst choice seem reasonable 7 The author still remember his elementary teacher that was so appalled by the discussion on blood piping which students in an engineering school were doing. He gave a speech about how inhuman these engineering students are. So governing equation is (5.05 − mexit mexit = 1.07[kg/m3 ] mA ˙ mB ˙ + ρA ρB 171 (5. I hope that no one will have teachers like him.002[m/ sec] 923.d) (5. This part of the solution is art. MORE EXAMPLES FOR MASS CONSERVATION Thus the mixture density is ρmix = mA + mB ˙ ˙ = 923.XV.9974[kg/s] End Solution (5.XV.7.0003 [m].000001 [m3 /s]. . Solution The situation is unsteady state (in the instinctive c. −Qb ρmix in out Ubn A ρb = mA + mB − mmix ˙ ˙ ˙ That is the mixture device is with an uniform density −0. it can be observed that bioengineering is “cool” today while in 40 years ago is a disgusting ﬁeld.1 + 0. The chose of the control volume and coordinate system determine the amount of work.XV.625 ρ ρB = A = [m/s] π 0.c) Umix = In the case that a piston is pushing the exit density could be changed and ﬂuctuated depending on the location of the piston.7[kg/m3 ] = 0.15).012 π (5. There are several possible control volumes that can be used to solve the problem. What is the average velocity of blood into syringe (at the tip)? The syringe radios is 0.b) The averaged velocity is then Qmix Aout mA ˙ mB ˙ + 1.5.XV. if the assumption of well mixed is still holding the exit density should not aﬀected. The term that should be added to the governing equation the change of the volume. The two “instinctive control volumes” are the blood with the air and the the whole volume between the tip and syringe plunger (piston). If the piston is withdrawn at O.01 [m/s].v. However. At that stage air leaks in around the piston at the rate 0.e) Example 5.005[m] and the tip radius is 0. and coordinates) since the mass in the control volume (the syringe volume is not constant).

attached to the blood edge.b) In the case.17: The apparatus depicted in Figure ?? is referred in the literature sometime as the water– jet pump. The outside pipe is lower pressure which suck the water (other liquid) into device. At this stage.a) and (5.XVI. Ub and Utip .XVI.d) Utip ρa Qin As ρb Atip End Solution Example 5.c) results in Ub = Uplunger − Ub As = = Atip Uplunger − ρa Qin As ρ b As (5. stationary.5[m/s].0[m/s] and U2 = 0. U1 A1 + U2 A2 = U3 A3 (5. and two equations. the water (or another liquid) is pumped throw the inner pipe at high velocity. Solution The situation is steady state and which density of the liquid is irrelevant (because it is the same at the inside and outside). There several coordinate systems that can used.XVI.15) is applicable and can be written as Utip Atip & = Ub As & ρb ρb (5.a) & & In the air side the same equation can used.XVI. The cross section inside and outside radii ratio is r1 /r2 = 0. In this question the what is the mixed stream averaged velocity with U1 = 4.c) In the case of coordinates are attached to the blood edge similar equation is obtained. Using equations (5.XVII. In this device. attached to plunger. MASS CONSERVATION since it provides relationship of the total to speciﬁc material. In stationary coordinates two boundaries are moving and thus moving b.172 CHAPTER 5. In that case. the relative plunger velocity is zero while the blood edge boundary velocity is Uplunger − Ub . velocity in/out ˙ (Uplunger − Ub ) As ρb = ρa Qin (5. For this case.2. the choice is coordinates moving with the plunger. the equation (5. control volume is the volume syringe tip to the edge of the blood. there are two unknowns. Calculate the mixing averaged velocity.c. Later the two stream are mixed. The air governing equation is blood b. in/out ˙ Uplunger As ρa − Ub As ρb = ρa Qin (5.XVI. Notice that change of the volume do not enter into the calculations because the density of the air is assumed to be constant.XVI.a) . The second part of the control volume is the air.

MORE EXAMPLES FOR MASS CONSERVATION The velocity is A3 = A1 + A2 and thus U3 = U1 A1 + U2 A2 A1 A1 == U1 + U2 1 − A3 A3 A3 End Solution 173 (5.b) .5.XVII.7.

174 CHAPTER 5. MASS CONSERVATION .

the Reynolds Transport Theorem (RTT) was applied to mass conservation.CHAPTER 6 Momentum Conservation for Control Volume 6.3) 175 . Newton’s second law for single body is as the following F = U d(mU ) dt (6.1 Momentum Governing Equation 6. For several bodies (n). Newton’s law becomes n n Fi = i=1 i=1 U d(mU )i dt (6.1. This chapter deals with momentum conservation which is a vector. The Reynolds Transport Theorem (RTT) is applicable to any quantity and the discussion here will deal with forces that acting on the control volume.1 Introduction to Continuous In the previous chapter.2) The ﬂuid can be broken into inﬁnitesimal elements which turn the above equation (6. Mass is a scalar (quantity without magnitude).2) into a continuous form of small bodies which results in n Fi = i=1 D Dt element mass U ρ dV sys (6.1) It can be noticed that bold notation for the velocity is U (and not U ) to represent that the velocity has a direction.

6) The integral yields a force trough the center mass which has to be found separately. excluding the external forces.). the terms on the left hand side. . is in the surface direction. The forces.v. Thus.2 External Forces First. The explaination for the direction relative to surface perpendicular and with the surface. and the surface forces as the following F total = F b + F s (6. 6.1. τ dA (6. and τ are the shear stresses. hence. Sn . Thus. only the pressure component is used which is reasonable for most situations. are the body forces. have to be discussed. one due to viscosity (solid body) and two consequence of the ﬂuid pressure. is made out of two components. The gravity acts on all the system elements. -6.8) Where Sν is perpendicular stress due to viscosity.1. Here for simplicity. Sn . g ρ dV = sys cv g ρ dV (6.1.4) In this book (at least in this discussion). the main body force is the gravity. The Reynold’s Transport Theorem (RTT) has to be used on the right hand side. ∼0 Pˆ S n = −P n + Sν (6. the surface forces are with the divided into two categories: one perpendisurface n ˆ perpendicular to cular to the surface and one with the surthe surface face direction (in the surface plain see Figure 6.176 CHAPTER 6. it can be written as Fs = c. The surface “force”. Sn dA + c. Where the surface “force”. In this chapter. MOMENTUM CONSERVATION Note that the notation D/Dt is used and not d/dt to signify that it referred to a derivative of the system.5) which acts through the mass center towards the center of earth.v. or the forces. After inﬁnitesimal time the gravity force acting on the system is the same for control volume. Again. The total gravity force is element mass Fb = sys g ρ dV (6. n is an unit vector outward ˆ of element area and the negative sign is applied so that the resulting force acts on the body.7) Fig.

v. where θx is the angle between n and ˆ or (ˆ · ˆ ˆ i n i).11) ρ U dV + c. according Reynolds Transport Theorem (RTT). Thus. is measured in the frame of reference and U rn is the liquid relative velocity to boundary of the control volume measured in the same frame of reference. U . With external forces equation (6.4 Momentum Equation in Acceleration System For accelerate system.11) is a vector equation which can be broken into its three components.9) The liquid velocity.13) .1.v. Equation (6. (6.v. c. t dt c. are the forces resulting from support of the control volume by non–ﬂuid elements. friction (non-ﬂuid). c.v. the general form of the momentum equation without the external forces is Integral Momentum Equation g ρ dV − P dA + τ · dA c. ducts. for example in the x coordinate. is ρ U dV = sys ρ U dV + c. c.v.1. ρ U Urn dV The external forces. 6. τ x · dA = ρ U x · U rn dA (6.v.v. These external forces are commonly associated with pipe.v.10) is transformed to Integral Momentum Equation & External Forces F ext + g ρ dV − P · dA + τ · dA = c.v.3 Momentum Governing Equation D Dt t dt The right hand side. c. supporting solid structures.v.v. In Cartesian coordinate. t = dt c.6. g · ˆ ρ dV i c.1.12) t dt ρ U x dV + c. the right hand side has to include the following acceleration r ˙ a acc = ω × (r × ω) + 2 U × ω + r × ω − a 0 (6. etc. c.10) ρ U Urn dV ρ U dV + c. (6. ρ U U rn dA (6.v. Fext . the components are Fx + c. c. MOMENTUM GOVERNING EQUATION 177 6.v.v.v. P cos θx dA + c.v.v.

the mass ﬂow rate in and out are equal. Additionally.15) 6. .v.v. P dA + c.v.v. Integral Steady State Momentum Equation F ext + c.18) Equation (6. Thus. 6. g ρ dV − c.1. equation (6. In this case the resulting force due to the pressure is zero to all directions. ρ U Urn dA (6. This kind of situations arise when friction (forces) is small compared to kinetic momentum change.5 Momentum For Steady State and Uniform Flow The momentum equation can be simpliﬁed for the steady state condition as it was shown in example 6.14) Integral of Uniform Pressure on Body In this kind of calculations.1 Momentum for For Constant Pressure and Frictionless Flow Another important sub category of simpliﬁcation deals with ﬂow under approximation of the frictionless ﬂow and uniform pressure. In this situation. The unsteady term (where the time derivative) is zero. in these situations.6. τ dA = c.1. This situation is a similar idea that was shown in Section 4.v. MOMENTUM CONSERVATION Where r is the distance from the center of the frame of reference and the add force is F add = Vc. it common to obtain a situation where one of the term will be an integral of the pressure over the body surface.18) is applicable to any velocity proﬁle and any geometrical shape.16) In situations where the velocity is provided and known (remember that density is constant) the integral can be replaced by F = mU o − mU i ˙U ˙U The average velocity is related to the velocity proﬁle by the following integral U = 2 (6.17) 1 A [U (r)] dA A 2 (6.178 CHAPTER 6.3. ﬂow is exposed to the atmosphere and thus (almost) uniform pressure surrounding the control volume.15) is further reduced to Urn Urn F = out U U ˆ ρU (U · n) dA − in U U ˆ ρU (U · n) dA (6.5. a acc ρ dV (6.

I.a) Substituting equation (6.1: Calculate the average velocity for the given parabolic velocity proﬁle for a circular pipe.2. calculate the force and the angle which the support has to apply to keep the system in equilibrium.c) y x Uo Ui F Fig a. Schematics of maximum angle for impinged by a jet.2). Fig. -6. Solution The velocity proﬁle is U r R = Umax 1 − r R 2 (6. MOMENTUM GOVERNING EQUATION 179 Example 6. Umax U= √ 6 End Solution 2 1 2 π R2 1 0 R 0 [U (r)] 2 π r dr 2 (6. Schematics of area impinged by a jet for example 6.6.1. Schematics of area impinged by a jet and angle eﬀects.I.I.b) 2 2 1 − r2 ¯ 2 rd¯ = ¯ r 1 2 (Umax ) 6 (6. Uo θ Ui F Fig b.I.a) into equation (6. Example 6.18) U = results in U = (Umax ) Thus.2: A jet is impinging on a stationary surface by changing only the jet direction (see Figure 6. What is the angle for which maximum force will be created? .2. Neglect the friction.

a) can be explicitly written for the two coordinates.11) can be reduced.II.3: Liquid ﬂows through a symmetrical nozzle as shown in the Figure 6.3 with a mass . The equation for the x coordinate is Fx = m (cos θ Uo − Ui ) ˙ or since Ui = Uo Fx = m Ui (cos θ − 1) ˙ It can be observed that the maximum force. It can be proven by setting dFx /dθ = 0 which yields θ = 0 a minimum and the previous solution. End Solution Example 6. because it is a steady state.180 Solution CHAPTER 6.a) It can be noticed that even though the velocity change direction. Hence Fx |max = −2 m Ui ˙ and the force in the y direction is Fy = m Ui sin θ ˙ the combined forces are Ftotal = Which results in Ftotal = m Ui sin (θ/2) ˙ with the force angle of tan φ = π − Fy π θ = − Fx 2 2 Fx 2 + Fy 2 = m Ui ˙ (cos θ − 1) + sin2 θ 2 For angle between 0 < θ < π the maximum occur at θ = π and the minimum at θ ∼ 0. Equation (6. Fx occurs when cos θ = π. to Urn Urn F = out U U ˆ ρU (U · n) dA − in U U ˆ ˙U ˙U ρU (U · n) dA = mUo − mUi (6.II. the mass ﬂow rate remains constant. For small angle analysis is important in the calculations of ﬂow around thin wings. MOMENTUM CONSERVATION Equation (6.

The control volume does not cross any solid body (or surface) there is no external forces. ρ U z · U rn dA . τ z dA = c.v.01 [gk/sec]. The exit pressure is 1[Bar]. -6.0001 Equation (6.0015 [m3 ].0005[m2 ] and the exit area is 0.3. the exit velocity is U2 = A1 0.III.12) is applicable but should be transformed into the z direction which is Fz + c. c. =0 c.0001[cm2 ]. The entrance pressure is 3[Bar] and the entrance velocity is 5 [m/sec]. The entrance area is 0. Then A1 U1 = A2 U2 and after rearrangement.v.v. Nozzle schematic for the discussion on the forces and for example 6. ˆ g · k ρ dV + t dt P cos θz dA + c. forces on the nozzle Fnozzle solid surface P cos θz dA + c. The exit velocity is uniform but unknown. =0 liquid surface Fz + c. Hence.0005 U1 = × 5 = 25[m/sec] A2 0.1. First.v.3.v.3. What is the exit velocity? What is the force acting the nozzle? Assume that the density is constant ρ = 1000[kg/m3 ] and the volume in the nozzle is 0. MOMENTUM GOVERNING EQUATION ﬂow rate of 0. τ z dA = (6.a) ρ U z · U rn dA ρ U z dV + c.v. The chosen control volume is shown in Figure 6. This situation is a steady state for constant density. Solution U2 =? P2 = 1[Bar] A2 = 10[cm2] 181 z P2 = 3[Bar] A1 = 50[cm2] U1 = 5[m/sec] Fig.v. c.6.v.v.b) c.III. the velocity has to be found. ˆ g · k ρ dV + P cos θz dA + (6.v.

Of course it is only approximation but is provided a crude tool.c) into Fz = −g ρVnozzle + P A|2 − P A|1 + ρ U2 2 A2 − U1 2 A1 Fz = 9.v. A2 U2 (U2 ) dA − A1 U1 (U1 ) dA which results in ρ U z · U rn dA = ρ U2 2 A2 − U1 2 A1 c.III.8 × 1000× End Solution (6. ˆ g · k ρ dV + c. For a steady state the analysis is simpler and used here to provide an example of steady state.v. this analysis is used for academic purposes. Improvements can be made to this analysis. This surface is called slip surface. The part of the pressure which act on the nozzle in the z direction is − c. g · n ρ dV = −g ρVnozzle ˆ Notice that in the results the gravity is not bold since only the magnitude is used.v.III.2 Momentum Equation Application Momentum Equation Applied to Propellers The propeller is a mechanical devise that is used to increase the ﬂuid momentum.d) 6.v.4 the ﬂuid ﬂows from the left to the right. The propeller can be stationary like in cooling tours. Many times it is used for propulsion purposes of airplanes.c) is ρ U z · U rn dA = c.v. In the Figure 6. ρ U z · U rn dA (6. MOMENTUM CONSERVATION All the forces that act on the nozzle are combined as Fnozzle + c.III. P cos θz dA = c. Either it is assumed that some of the ﬂuid enters into the container and ﬂuid outside is not aﬀected by the propeller.c) The second term or the body force which acts through the center of the nozzle is Fb = − c. Here. P dA = 1 P dA − 2 P dA = P A|1 − P A|2 The last term in equation (6.182 CHAPTER 6. ships and other devices (thrust) as shown in Figure 6.v. Or there is a line (or surface) in which the ﬂuid outside changes only the ﬂow direction.III.v. The other common used of propeller is mostly to move ﬂuids as a pump.4. fan etc. . Combining all transform equation (6. The propeller analysis of unsteady is complicated due to the diﬃculty in understanding the velocity ﬁeld.

4. 3 with (note that there are no external forces) with points 4 and 2 results in ρ U2 2 − U1 2 = P4 − P3 (6. and is. The propellers are moved by a mechanical work which is converted to thrust.20) This analysis provide way to calculate the work needed to move this propeller. In Jet propulsion. in many case more eﬃcient. The inlet area and exit area are diﬀerent for most jets and if the mass of the fuel is neglected then F = ρ A2 U2 2 − A1 U1 2 (6. Calculate the friction force on the . the pressure around control volume is the same.5 is pushed by liquid jet. -6. Jet Propulsion Jet propulsion is a mechanism in which the air planes and other devices are propelled. the air is sucked into engine and with addition heating (burning fuel) the velocity is increased. Notice that Example 6.4: A sled toy shown in Figure 6. Furthermore. as it will be shown in the Chapter on compressible ﬂow it allows to achieve velocity above speed of sound.19) 183 1 U1 3 4 2 U2 Liquid Combining the control Fig. Hence. The one dimensional momentum equation is reduced F = ρ U2 2 − U1 2 (6. The diﬀerence between the jets propulsion and propellers is based on the energy supplied.21) An academic example to demonstrate how a steady state calculations are done for a moving control volume. the thermal energy is converted to thrust. Propeller schematic to explain the change of movolume between points 1 and mentum due to velocity. Thus. MOMENTUM EQUATION APPLICATION As ﬁrst approximation.2. a major obstacle in the past. Here. Note that in this analysis it was assumed that the ﬂow is horizontal that z1 = z2 and/or the change is insigniﬁcant. The analysis of such device in complicated and there is a whole class dedicated for such topic in many universities. Essentially.6. Further increase of the exit area with the increased of the burned gases further increase the thrust. this direct conversion can be. pressure drops from the calculation. a very limited discussion related to the steady state is oﬀered.

ρ U U rn dV (6.IV. The same can be said for air friction as τ dA ∼ 0 c. namics friction is µd . Assume that the friction between the toy and surface (ground) is Fig.v. U0 .v. U 0 . g ρ dV − c.4. U0 Uj Calculate the absolute velocity of the Ff jet exit.v. The dyjet in a steady state for example 6. Neglect y the friction between the liquid (jet) and control x volume the toy and between the air and toy. the gravity can be neglected also because this term is small compared to other terms.v.v.184 CHAPTER 6.v. thus g ρ dV ∼ 0 c.v. The frame of reference is moving with the toy velocity. τ dA = c. P dA + c. The applicable mass conservation equation for steady state is A1 U1 = A2 U2 The momentum equation in the x direction is Ff + c. Toy Sled pushed by the liquid relative to the vertical force.5. . -6.a) The relative velocity into the control volume is U 1j = (Uj − U0 ) x ˆ The relative velocity out the control volume is U 2j = (Uj − U0 ) y ˆ The absolute exit velocity is U 2 = U0 x + (Uj − U0 ) y ˆ ˆ For small volume. 2 1 Solution The chosen control volume is attached to the toy and thus steady state is obtained. The velocity of the jet is uniform. The pressure is uniform around the control volume and thus the integral is P dA = 0 c. MOMENTUM CONSERVATION toy when the toy is at steady state with velocity. Assume that the jet is horizontal and the reﬂecting jet is vertical.

FR mf mR UR Ug Fig.2.IV. End Solution 6.IV.IV. One such example of such idea is associated with the Rocket Mechanics which is present here. Alternative method of solution is done by attaching the frame of reference to the accelerating body. The momentum ﬂux is ρ Ux Ui rn dA = A ρ U1j 2 Sc. A possible way to solve the problem is by expressing the terms in an equation (6. MOMENTUM EQUATION APPLICATION The control volume was chosen so that the pressure calculation is minimized.IV.2.c) Increase of the friction reduce the velocity. This method is cumbersome in many cases. Additionally larger toy mass decrease the velocity.10). A rocket with a moving control volume. -6.b) into equation (6.6.a) yields Ff = A ρ U1j 2 The friction can be obtained from the momentum equation in the y direction mtoy g + A ρ U1j 2 = Fearth According to the statement of question the friction force is Ff = µd mtoy g + A ρ U1j 2 The momentum in the x direction becomes µd mtoy g + A ρ U1j 2 = A ρ U1j 2 = A ρ (Uj − U0 ) The toy velocity is then U0 = Uj − µd mtoy g A ρ (1 − µd ) 2 (6. .b) The substituting (6. 185 (6.1 Momentum for Unsteady State and Uniform Flow The main problem in solving the unsteady state situation is that the control volume is accelerating.v.6.

inside the rocket the change in the velocity is due to change in the reduction of the volume of the oxidant and fuel.v. it can be neglected. However. c.2. P dA − d dt ρ a0 dV = ρUy dV + Vc.22) There are no external forces in this control volume thus. The oxidant and fuel ﬂow outside.23) The ﬁrst term on the right hand side is the change of the momentum in the rocket volume. the acceleration is the derivative of the velocity and thus ρ a0 dV = dU (mR + mf ) dt (6. The momentum equation is FR 0 τ dA + c. d [(mR + mf ) U ] dt (6.26) .24) Clearly.v. d dt ρUy dV = Vc.v.2 Momentum Application to Unsteady State Rocket Mechanics A rocket is a devise similar to jet propulsion. In contrast to other mechanisms such as jet propulsion which obtain the oxygen from the medium which they travel the rockets carry the oxygen with it. dU /dt = 0 is not zero. The diﬀerence is the fact that the oxidant is on board with the fuel. g ρ dV + c. Yet. This change is due to the change in the volume of the oxidant and the fuel. the change of the rocket mass can be considered minimal or even neglected. c.v.186 CHAPTER 6. The rocket is accelerating and thus the frame for reference is moving the with the rocket.25) Combining all the above term results in −FR − (mR + mf ) g + dU (mR + mf ) = m (Ug − UR ) ˙ dt (6. ρUy Urn dA (6. This change is minimal and for this analysis. This mechanism is useful for speciﬁc locations because it is independent of the medium though which it travels.v. The velocity of the rocket in the rocket frame of reference U is zero. (6. vanishes. MOMENTUM CONSERVATION 6. The pressure term vanish because the pressure essentially is the same and the diﬀerence can be neglected. However. The resistance of the medium is Denote as FR . The gravity term is an instantaneous mass times the gravity times the constant and the same can be said for the acceleration term. The last term is ρUy Urn dA = m (Ug − UR ) ˙ c.v. the ﬁrst term FR .v. the derivative with respect to time. The two components are burned and the gases are ejected through a nozzle.

Integrating equation (6. the speed (the Reynolds number). in the past it was not noticed that a slight change in conﬁguration leads to a constant x velocity. For which he noticed this “constant velocity. This problem demonstrates the used of control volume to ﬁnd method of approximation for not given velocity proﬁles1 Example 6.30) The following is an elaborated example which deals with an unsteady two dimensional problem. As ﬁrst approx˙ imation. it can be noticed that the friction resistance FR .5: 1 A variation of this problem has appeared in many books in the literature. Thus it is assume that FR = 0.26) transformed to −FR − MT g + dU ˙ MT = MT Ue dt (6. MOMENTUM EQUATION APPLICATION 187 Denoting MT = mR + mf and thus dM/dt = m and Ue = Ug − UR . material that surface made and the medium it ﬂow in altitude. Thus.27) Separating the variables equation (6. This author was called for consultation and to solve a related problem. is a function of the several parameters such the duration. for constant fuel consumption (and almost oxidant).28) with limits of U (t = 0) = 0 provides U 0 ˙ dU = −MT Ue 0 t dt − MT t g dt 0 (6.27) yields dU = ˙ −MT Ue FR − − g dt MT MT (6.6. However. for constant constant gas consumption equation (6.2. For simplicity here the part close to Earth (to the atmosphere) is assumed to be small compared to the distance in space.28).29) ˙ the results of the integration is (notice M = M0 − t M) U = Ue ln M0 ˙ M0 − t M −gt (6.” .28) Before integrating equation (6. gas ﬂow out is constant as well. This problem was aroused in manufacturing industry.

d) into equation (6.7.188 CHAPTER 6.V.v. the ﬂuid has two velocity components verse one component in the rocket mechanics.d) Where B is the coeﬃcient that has the right units to mach equation (6.12) for two dimensions is used.V. The tank mass with the wheels (the solid parts) is known. This situation is unsteady state thus equation (6. mt .V.V.V. ρdA = 0 (6.v.c) results in dh B h A0 + =0 dt A (6. Schematic of a tank seating on wheel for unsteady state discussion Assume that the exit velocity is a This problem is similar to the rocket mechanics with a twist.7.V. = −ρ U0 A0 = −m0 dt (6.31) The relationship between the height and the ﬂow now can be used.b) can be further reduced due to constant density to d (A h) (6.7.a) can be transferred to dmc. U0 = B h (6.V. The tank upper part is opened to the atmosphere.a) Equation (6.b) Where m0 is mass ﬂow rate out. The control volume is shown in Figure 6. MOMENTUM CONSERVATION UT y x h A tank with wheels is ﬁlled with liquid is depicted in Figure 6. The mass conservation equation is d dt ρ dV + Vc. At initial time the valve on the tank is opened and the liquid ﬂows out with an uniform velocity proﬁle. The frame of reference is moving with the tank. Sc. Substituting equation (6.V.V.d) that represent the resistance in the system and substitute the energy equation. One the wheels have a constant resistance with the ground and two the resistance linear function of the weight.e) . Furthermore. Solution Uo FR Fig.c) + U0 A0 = 0 dt It can be noticed that the area of the tank is almost constant (A = constant) thus A dh dh U0 A0 + U0 A0 = 0 =⇒ =− dt dt A (6. the source of the propulsion is the potential energy. Calculate the tank velocity for two cases. linear function of the height. Equation (6. -6.V.v.

5.e) is a ﬁrst order diﬀerential equation which can be solved with the initial condition h(t = 0) = h0 . .h) e Ux (x) = ¨ A Ah ¡ The average x component of the velocity is a linear function of x.V.8. R Ubn dA = Urn dA =⇒ Ubn = Urn .f) into (6. MOMENTUM EQUATION APPLICATION 189 Equation (6.6. A new control volume to ﬁnd the servation for this control volume is velocity in discharge tank for example 6.2. In fact.8.Fig. Substituting (6. h. -6.j) It can be noticed that the velocity in the y is a function of time as oppose to the x direction. Using a similar control volume2 .k) 2 The boundaries are the upper (free surface) and tank side with a y distance from the free surface. is not relevant.1 ) is h(t) = h0 e − t A0 B A (6. Perhaps surprising. the average velocity in the tank is Ux = 1 L L 0 L A0 B x A0 B = A 2A (6.V. it also can be noticed that Ux (x) is a not function of the time.g) results ¨ t A0¨ B h0 x A0 B − ¨ ¨ A = x A0 B (6. y The boundary of this control volume are x the tank boundary on the left with the U straight surface as depicted in Figure 6. F The last boundary is variable surface in a distance x from the tank left part.V. Using this function.V. The applicable momentum equation (in the tank frame of reference) is (6.2. the average velocity in the y direction is Uy = dh h0 A0 B − =− e dt A t A0 B A (6.V. The tank depth.V.i) It can be noticed that Ux is not function of height. h x o R w &x dh = −& h Ux w dt (6. The solution (see for details in the Appendix A.f) UT To ﬁnd the average velocity in the L x direction a new control volume is used.V.V. it can be shown that average velocity is a function of cross section (what direction?).11) which is reduced to acceleration F −F R − (mt + mf ) g − a (mt + mf ) = R d [(mt + mf ) U r ] + U0 mo dt (6.V.g) Where here w is the depth or width of the tank. The mass con.

v.v. and the resistance due to air is negligible.190 CHAPTER 6. = mf + mT because the density of the air is very small the change of the air mass is very small as well (ρa << ρ).v.v.V. MOMENTUM CONSERVATION Where U r is the relative ﬂuid velocity to the tank (if there was no tank movement).32) In the x coordinate the momentum equation is −Fx + (mt + mf ) a = d [(mt + mf ) Ux ] + U0 mf ˙ dt (6.v. hence τ dA ∼ 0 Sc. This eﬀect is known as the add mass/momentum and will be discussed in the Dimensional Analysis and Ideal Flow Chapters. The acceleration of the tank is a = −ˆ 0 or ˆ · a = −a. a Vc. Here this eﬀect is neglected. mc. And the additional force for accelerated system ia i is −ˆ · i a ρdV = mc.l) Where Fx is the x component of the reaction which is opposite to the movement direction. The tank movement cause movement of the air which cause momentum change. This limitation can be partially overcome by assuming some kind of average. (6. The pressure around the control volume is uniform thus P cos θx dA ∼ 0 Sc. This momentum is function of the tank volume times the air density times tank velocity (h0 × A × ρa × U ). The mass in the control volume include the mass of the liquid with mass of the solid part (including the wheels). The momentum equation in the y coordinate it is Fy − (mt + mf ) g = d (mt + mf ) Uy dt (6.m) There is no mass ﬂow in the y direction and Uy is component of the velocity in the y direction.V. The momentum ﬂow rate out of the tank is ρ Ux Urn dA = ρ Uo 2 Ao = mo Uo Sc. The main problem of integral analysis approach is that it does not provide a way to analysis the time derivative since the velocity proﬁle is not given inside the control volume. mf and mt are the mass of the ﬂuid and the mass of tank respectively.v. It .

d Ux Ux + mc. MOMENTUM EQUATION APPLICATION 191 can be noticed that the velocity in the tank has two components.r) mf = ρ A h0 e − t A0 B A (6.v.V.V. The average velocity in the tank (because constant density and more about it later section) is Ux = 1 Vt Ux dV Vf Because the integral is replaced by the average it is transferred to ρ Ux dV ∼ mc.V. dt dt L A0 B Ux = −m0 2A (6.v.n) becomes mass rate out = − m0 ˙ d mc.V. However.v.v.o) Combining all the terms results in −Fx + a (mf + mt ) = −m0 L A0 B − U0 m0 2A (6. Ux + dt dt dt (6. The ﬁrst component is downward (y) direction and the second in the exit direction (x). The velocity in the y direction does not contribute to the momentum in the x direction.V.V.v.V.6.p) into a= Fx − m0 mf + mt L A0 B + 2 A U0 (mf + mt ) 2 A (mf + mt ) (6. d Ux mc.s) .V.v.n) Noticing that the derivative with time of control volume mass is the ﬂow out in equation (6.V.p) Rearranging and noticing that a = dUT /dt transformed equation (6. From equation (6.2. if it is the opposite the toy start to move.d) the mass ﬂow out is U0 h t A0 B − A A0 ρ m0 (t) = B h0 e The mass in the control volume is V (6. Ux Vf Thus.q) A0 If the Fx ≥ m0 L 2 A B + U0 the toy will not move. if the diﬀerence between the actual and averaged momentum is neglected then d dt ρ Ux dV ∼ Vf ∼0 d d mc. Ux = mc.

V. For example. if the density is not constant. The change in the accumulative momentum is d dmf dUy (6. Rearranging the momentum equation in the y direction transformed m f t A0 B − A g + 2 Fy = mt + ρ A h0 e ρ h0 A0 2 B2 A 2 e − t A0 B A (6. The momentum for average velocity is Ma = mc.v U = ρ V c. the coeﬃcient is not equal to one.V. Substituting equations (6. For example.1 relationship between momentum of maximum velocity to average velocity was presented.33) The y component of the average velocity is function of the time.v.5 can be estimated even by hand sketching.35) These two have to equal thus.r) and (6.v U dV (6. relationship between momentum for the average velocity to the actual velocity is presented. ρ Ux dV (6. For these cases a correction factor can be used.36) If the density is constant then the coeﬃcient is one (C ≡ 1).u) The actual results of the integrations are not provided since the main purpose of this exercise to to learn how to use the integral analysis. This correction factor can be calculated by ﬁnding the relation between the two cases. However.34) The actual momentum for control volume is Mc = c. MOMENTUM CONSERVATION The initial condition is that UT (t = 0) = 0.q) transforms it to a diﬀerential equation which is integrated if Rx is constant. C ρV c. Here. the ﬂow proﬁle in example 6.t) (mf ) Uy = Uy + mf dt dt dt The reason that mf is used because the solid parts do not have velocity in the y direction.V.v. the velocity proﬁle can be estimated using the ideal ﬂuid theory but the actual values are not known. There are situations where actual velocity proﬁle is not known but is function can be approximated. ρ Ux dV (6. . For the second case where Rx is a function of the Ry as Rx = µ Ry (6.192 CHAPTER 6.v U dV = c.V. End Solution Averaged Velocity! Estimates In example 6.V.s) into equation (6.

Un2 . Ut2 is not equal to the impeller outer edge velocity Um2 . and h.v.37) The angular momentum then will be obtained by calculating the change of every element in the system as M = r ×F = D Dt ρ r × U dV Vsys (6.41) . Here it is assumed that ﬂuid is incompressible (ρ = constant). The height of the impeller is h. Sc. Um2 Ulr2 U2 Un2 Ut2 (6.3. one the tangential velocity. Ut2 and radial component.38) Now the left hand side has to be transformed into the control volume as M= d dt r ρ (r × U ) dV + Vc.Fig.9. It is assumed that required torque is function U2 . Notice that tangential liquid velocity. To demonstrate this idea. A pump impeller is shown in Figure 6.3 Conservation Moment Of Momentum The angular momentum can be derived in the same manner as the momentum equation for control volume. -6. The ﬂow is assumed to enter the impeller radially with average velocity U1 .v r ρ (r × U ) U rn dA (6. r. The force F = D Dt U ρU dV Vsys (6.40) M = m r2 Ut2 ˙ (6. The relative exit velocity is Ulr2 and the velocity of the impeller edge is Um2 . The impeller increases the velocity of the ﬂuid by increasing the radius of the particles. The pressure on the outer side is uniform thus does not create a moment. The inside particle is obtained larger velocity and due to centrifugal forces is moving to outer radius for which ad. ditionally increase of velocity occur. CONSERVATION MOMENT OF MOMENTUM 193 6.9 commonly used in industry. applying equation (6.39) The angular momentum equation. The impeller of the centrifugal pump and the velocities diagram at the exit.39) to uniform and steady state ﬂow with neglected pressure gradient is reduced to M = m (r2 × U2 + r2 × U1 ) ˙ Introduction to Turbo Machinery The analysis of many turbomachinary such as centrifugal pump is fundamentally based on the angular momentum. the following discussion is provided.6. The exit liquid velocity. U2 has two components.

. -6. The upper part of the rocket tank is ﬁlled with compressed gas. The thickness of the impeller. 3 This problem appeared in the previous version (0. Estimate what is the minimum energy required by the pump. The following is not the solution but rather the approach how to treat this problem. Example 6.42) (6. Develop exFig. 6. Liquid ﬁlls the lower part of the rocket tank.4 More Examples on Momentum Conservation Example 6. hg Gas Select the control volume in such a way that provides the ability to ﬁnd the rocket Liquid acceleration.10.194 CHAPTER 6. What is the instantaneous vehℓ locity of the rocket at time zero? Develop Uexit the expression for the pressure (assuming no friction with the walls).2. h is 2[cm] and the exit diameter is 0.43) The diﬀerence between Um2 to Ut2 is related to the eﬃciency of the pump which will be discussed in the chapter on the turbomachinary. Nozzle schematics wapression for rocket velocity.10. hypotherical volume height Solution Under construction for time being only hints3 In the solution of this problem several assumptions must be made so that the integral system can be employed. The angular velocity is 1200 r. MOMENTUM CONSERVATION Multiplying equation (6. forces for example 6.p.7 What are the parameters that eﬀect the problem.3) without a solution.m.7: A design of a rocket is based on the idea that density increase of the leaving jet increases the acceleration of the rocket see Figure 6.6: A centrifugal pump is pumping 600 2[m3 /hour]. Assume that angle velocity is leaving the impeller is 125◦ . Several people ask to provide a solution or some hints for the solution.41) results in Um2 M ω = m r2 ω Ut2 ˙ The shaft work is given by the left side and hence. Assume that this idea has a good enUrocket gineering logic. ˙ W = m Um2 Ut2 ˙ (6.40[m]. Assume that ter rocket for the discussion on the the gas is obeying the perfect gas model.

VII. it can be observed that the gas pressure is a direct function of the mass ﬂow out.VII. The gas obeys the ideal gas law. Once the gas pressure reduced to be equal or below the outside pressure the rocket have no power for propulsion. the initial take oﬀ is requires a larger pressure. The gas pressure at the initial point is P0 = ρ0 R T (6. Using the above deﬁnition. The mixing between the liquid and gas is negligible.4.b) Per the assumption the gas mass remain constant and is denoted as mg .a) The mass conservation on the gas zone is a byproduct of the mass conservation of the liquid. Additionally. The gas mass is negligible in comparison to the liquid mass and/or the rocket.e) =A = −A dt dt dt The last identify in the above equation is based on the idea what ever height concede by the liquid is taken by the gas. The cross section of the liquid is constant. In this problem the energy source is the pressure of the gas which propels the rocket.VII. No gas leaves the rocket. MORE EXAMPLES ON MOMENTUM CONSERVATION 195 The surface remained straight at the times and no liquid residue remains behind. equation (6.c) The gas geometry is replaced by a virtual constant cross section which cross section of the liquid (probably the same as the base of the gas phase). No resistance to the rocket (can be added).6.VII. The minus sign is to account for change of “direction” . The mass conservation is similar to the rocket hence it is dm = −Ue Ae dt (6.d) mg R T V0g (6.b) becomes P0 = The relationship between the gas volume Vg = h g A (6. Furthermore.VII. The change of the gas volume is dhg dh dVg (6.VII. The process is isothermal (can be isentropic process).

j) From equation (6.196 CHAPTER 6.k) According to the assumption the ﬂow out is linear function of the pressure inside thus.VII.l) −g (mR + m ) − a (mR + m ) = d (mR + m ) U +bc + (UR + U ) m dt End Solution (6.a) can be written as t mg R T hg0 A mg R T hg A 1 ∆h 1− hg0 (6.VII.VII. The liquid momentum balance is =0 f (P ) = ζ P (6. The initial pressure now can be expressed as P0 = The pressure at any time is P = Thus the pressure ratio is hg0 hg0 P = = = hg0 P0 hg hg0 − ∆h Equation (6.VII.m) Where bc is the change of the liquid mass due the boundary movement. The total change of the gas volume can be obtained by integration as Vg = A (hg0 − ∆h ) (6. MOMENTUM CONSERVATION of the liquid height. Develop an expression for the rocket velocity.a) it also can be written that dh Ue Ae = dt ρe A (6.8: A rocket is ﬁlled with only compressed gas.g) (6.i) m (t) = m 0 − 0 Ue Ae dt (6. Example 6.VII.VII.f) It must be point out that integral is not function of time since the height as function of time is known at this stage. .VII.VII.h) (6. Ue = f (P ) + g h rho Where ζ here is a constant which the right units.VII. What is the minimum pressure which make the rocket ﬂy.VII. What are the parameters that eﬀect the rocket velocity. At a speciﬁc moment the valve is opened and the rocket is allowed to ﬂy.

6.5 it was mentioned that there are only two velocity components.4.1 Qualitative Questions Example 6.10: For each following ﬁgures discuss and state force direction and the momentum that act on the control volume due to . What was the assumption that the third velocity component was neglected.4.11: . Situations Explanations Uout F U Uin Flow in and out of Angle β θ Flow in and out at angle from a tank Example 6. MORE EXAMPLES ON MOMENTUM CONSERVATION 197 Example 6.6.9: In Example 6.

XII. τw mg The jet stream has only one componet in the horizontal component.11. consider the unsteady eﬀects. that is the same height will be required on the moon as the earth. In front and against the opening there a block with mass of 50[kg]. Look at the direcFig. That is the gravity has no eﬀect on the velocity (height) required to move the block. Example 6. Assume that resistence between the air and the water jet is negligible. Flow out of un symmetritions which the unsteady state momentum cal tank for example 6. For great accuracy.XII.11 is built with a exit located in uneven distance from the the right and the left and is ﬁlled with liquid.198 CHAPTER 6.c) It is interesting to point out that the gravity is relavent. if the gravity was in the opposite direction. Jet impinging jet surface perpendi- The miminum force the push the plock is cular and with the surface. -6. It is assumed that the two ρ Uexit2 streams in the vertical cancle each other. MOMENTUM CONSERVATION A similar tank as shown in Figure 6.a) Fig. Hence. What are the direction of the forces that keep the control volume in the same location? Hints. -6. First. A.12. The exit is located on the left hand side at the front. no matter what the height will be the block will not move (neglecting other minor eﬀects).XII. However. The control volume is attached to the block. So. The friction factor between the block and surface is 0. First assuming that a minimum accuracy therefore the infomration was given on the tank that it large. the velocity to move the block can be obtained from the analysis of the block free body diagram (the impeging jet diagram). the gravity has eﬀect and the eﬀect is the direction.b) (6. the eﬀect minor loss or the loss in the tank opening have taken into account. ρU 2 out F = ρ A Uexit 2 (6.11 in the tank change its value. Calculated the minimum height of the liquid in the tank in order to start to have the block moving? Solution The solution of this kind problem ﬁrst requires to know at what accuracy this solution is needed.12: A large tank has opening with area. .5. ρ A Uexit 2 = m g µ =⇒ Uexit = And the velocity as a function of the height is U = h= mµ ρ2 A √ mgµ ρA ρ g h and thus (6.

6. all liquid ﬂows downwords. The jet impenged on the surface results in out ﬂow stream going to all the directions in the block surface. In fact because the gravity the jet impeging in downwards slend direction. End Solution . At the exreme case.4. the gravity acts on all these “streams” and eventually the liquid ﬂows downwards.12. In the oposite cases the height is smaller. The pressure is canceled because the ﬂow is exposed to air. The balance on the stream downwords (for steady state) is 2 ρ Uout ∼ ρ Vliquid g + m g = (6.d) Where Vliquid is the liquid volume in the control volume (attached to the block). Yet. MORE EXAMPLES ON MOMENTUM CONSERVATION 199 For very tall blocks. In cases were ρ Vliquid g > 2 ρ Uout the required height is larger. the forces that acts on the block in the vertical direction is can be obtained from the analysis of the control volume shown in Figure 6.XII.

MOMENTUM CONSERVATION .200 CHAPTER 6.

1 The First Law of Thermodynamics This chapter focuses on the energy conservation which is the ﬁrst law of thermodynamics1 . obeys this law which creates strange and wonderful phenomena such as a shock and choked ﬂow. is included on the right hand side. here it will be derived.CHAPTER 7 Energy Conservation 7. which were assumed in the previous chapters. The right hand side is very complicated and only some of the eﬀects will be discussed (It is only an introductory material). during time of the constructing this book only a simple skeleton by Potto standards will be build.2) (7. Additionally a discussion on various energy approximation is presented. It was shown in Chapter 2 that the energy rate equation (2.1) Equation (7. as all phases and materials. the relationship between height and ﬂow rate was assumed previously. For example. The ﬂuid. For example. 2 Some view the right hand side as external eﬀects while the left side of the equation represents the internal eﬀects.10) for a system is D m U2 D EU D (m g z) ˙ ˙ Q−W = + + Dt Dt Dt This equation can be rearranged to be D ˙ ˙ Q−W = Dt EU + m U2 + mgz 2 (7. Moreover. the above view is wrong when the heat convection. this law allows to solve problems. 201 . Clearly this topic is very important and will be extensively discussed here.3) in which the right hand side has to be interpreted and the left hand side interpolated using the Reynold’s Transport Theorem (RTT)2 . However. which is external force. 1 Thermodynamics is the favorite topic of this author since it was his major in high school.2) is similar to equation (6. This simplistic representation is correct only under extreme conditions.

4) τ S The work done on the system is dℓ more complicated to express than the heat transfer.3) Where dq is heat transfer to an inﬁnitesimal small area per time and kT is the heat ˙ conduction coeﬃcient.Fig. Hence. . Conduction for most simple cases is governed by Fourier’s Law which is dq = kT ˙ dT dA dn (7. The issues of convection are mostly covered by the terms on the left hand side. Sn and τ . The main heat transfer mode on the left hand side is conduction. -7. There are three modes of heat transfer. Issues related to radiation are very complicated and considered advance material and hence will be left out.1) is F dF dV S A S dw = −S dA ·d = − (Sn + τ ) · d dA The change of the work for an inﬁnitesimal time (excluding the shaft work) is U (7. The heat derivative is normalized into area direction. actual mass transfer must occur and thus no convection is possible to a system by the deﬁnition of system. In most problems. dealing with convection. ENERGY CONSERVATION The energy transfer is carried (mostly3 ) by heat transfer to the system or the control volume.1.v.6) S (Sn + τ ) U dA − Wshaf t (7. surface direction. the radiation is minimal. There are two kinds of works that the system does on the surroundings. The work on the control volume is pendicular to the surface and one with the done by two diﬀerent mechanisms. The work done by system on the surroundings (see Figure 7. the surface forces are divided into two categories: one per.5) dw d S S = − (Sn + τ ) · dA = − (Sn + τ ) · U dA dt dt The total work for the system including the shaft work is ˙ W =− Ac. As in the previous chapter. convection4 and radiation. conduction. The total heat transfer to the control volume is ˙ Q= Acv k dT dA dn System at t n (7. the discussion here will be restricted to convection and conduction. 3 There 4 When (7.202 CHAPTER 7.7) are other methods such as magnetic ﬁelds (like microwave) which are not part of this book. The ﬁrst kind work is by the friction or the shear System at t + dt stress and the second by normal force.

Note that U is the velocity in the frame of reference while Urn is the velocity relative to the boundary.8) for more details). Now Reynolds Transport Theorem can be used to transformed the left hand side of equation (7. As it was discussed in the previous chapter the normal stress component is replaced by the pressure (see equation (6.8) Equation (7.9) ρ Vcv Eu + m Eu + m U2 +gz 2 U2 + g z dV 2 ρ Urn dA From now on the notation of the control volume and system will be dropped since all equations deals with the control volume. The work rate (excluding the shaft work) is ﬂow work ˙ = W ∼ S P n · U dA − ˆ S τ · U n dA ˆ (7. THE FIRST LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS The energy equation (7.9) the velocity appears twice.8) does not apply any restrictions on the system.12) .10) The ﬁrst term on the right hand side is referred to in the literature as the ﬂow work and is Urn P n · U dA = ˆ S S P (U − Ub ) n dA + ˆ S P Ubn dA (7.2) for system is kT Asys 203 dT dA+ dn S (Sn + τ ) dV D ˙ +Wshaf t = Dt Asys ρ Vsys EU + m U2 + g z dV 2 (7.11) can be further manipulated to become work due to the ﬂow work due to boundaries movement P n · U dA = ˆ S S P ρ Urn dA + ρ P Ubn dA S (7.7. In the last term in equation (7. The system can contain solid parts as well several diﬀerent kinds of ﬂuids.8) and thus yields Energy Equation kT Acv dT dA+ dn ˙ S (Sn + τ ) dA + Wshaf t = d dt + Acv Acv (7.11) Equation (7.1.

Discharge from a Large Container liquid density.15) describes the energy conservation for the control volume in stationary coordinates. . Eu is referred to as the enthalpy. the ﬂow rate out of a tank or container was assumed to be a linear function of A the height.2. which was discussed on page 50. The example of ﬂow from a tank or container is presented to demonstrate how to treat some of terms in equation (7. Flow Out From A Container In the previous chapters of this book. The enhℓ Ae ergy equation with mass conservation will Ue be utilized for this analysis. h.204 CHAPTER 7.14) transformed Simpliﬁed Energy Equation d U2 ˙ ˙ ˙ Q − Wshear + Wshaf t = Eu + + g z ρ dV + dt V 2 2 U h+ + g z Urn ρ dA + P Ubn dA 2 S S (7.15).14) The new term P/ρ combined with the internal energy. small. The ﬂow out is related to the height but in a more complicate function and is the focus of this discussion.13) Substituting all these terms into the governing equation yields d U2 ˙ ˙ ˙ + g z dV + Q − Wshear − Wshaf t = Eu + dt V 2 U2 P + g z Urn ρ dA + P Urn dA Eu + + ρ 2 S S (7. surface tension eﬀects are negligible and 5 Later a discussion about the height opening eﬀects will be discussed. the gas density is very small compared to Fig. In this analysis several assumptions are made which includes the following: constant density.15) Equation (7. ENERGY CONSERVATION The second term is referred to as the shear work and is deﬁned as ˙ Wshear = − S τ · U dA (7. and exit area is relatively with a small diameter. Also note that the shear work inside the the control volume considered as shaft work. -7. so the velocity can be assumed uniform (not a function of the opening height)5 . With these deﬁnitions equation (7.

Similar estimate that was done for x direction can be done to every side of the opening if they are not symmetrical. A discussion about this issue will be presented in the Dimensional Chapter and is out of the scope of this chapter. in this discussion it is assumed that surface has only one component in z direction. The averaged velocity in the y direction is zero because the ﬂow is symmetrical7 . Second reason for this exercise the surface velocity has only one component is to avoid dealing with Bar-Meir’s instability. The control volume is chosen so that all the liquid is included up to exit of the pipe. the temperature is assumed to constant. this quantity will be used.18) Note that the boundary velocity is not the averaged velocity but the actual velocity. for simplicity.21) 6 This assumption is appropriated only under certain conditions which include the geometry of the tank or container and the liquid properties. Also notice that the surface velocity is not zero. The conservation of the mass is d dt V ρ dV + ¡ dρ dt A ρ Urn dA = 0 ¡ (7. The surface has three velocity components which non have them vanish.3. . 7 For the mass conservation analysis.19) The x component of the averaged velocity is a function of the geometry and was calculated in Example 5. However.1. The averaged velocity in z direction is same as the boundary velocity Ub = Uz = dh Ae = Ue dt A (7. Since in this case the geometry is assumed to be symmetrical one side is suﬃcient as (π − 2)r dh Uy ∼ = 8h dt (7. Also note that the straight surface assumption is not the same surface tension eﬀects zero. for the energy analysis the averaged velocity cannot be considered zero.17) provides the relationship between boundary velocity to the exit velocity as A Ub = Ae Ue (7. THE FIRST LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS 205 the liquid surface is straight6 .20) In this analysis.17) Equation (7. the velocity is zero for symmetrical geometry and some other geometries. The kinetic energy of the tank or container is based on the half part as shown in Figure 7.12 to be larger than Ux 2 r Ae 2r 2 r dh Ue =⇒ Ux ∼ Ub = = h A h h dt (7. Additionally. However. However.16) which also can be written (because = 0) as Urn dA = 0 A Ubn dA + A (7.7. the change of the kinetic energy due to the change in the velocity ﬁeld isn’t zero. Hence it requires that velocity proﬁle in x y to be parabolic.

Combining all these information results in energy ﬂow out internal energy change energy in and out upper surface work d dt V U + g z ρ dV + 2 2 A Pe Ue + ρ 2 2 Ue ρ dA − A Pa Ub dA = 0 (7. Pa is the external pressure and Pe is the exit pressure10 . this change is a function of Eckert number. E.24) are Pe Ue ρdA − ρ Pa Ub dA = Pe A A Ue dA − Pa A Ub dA (7. the shear stresses at Fig.G. Some examples how to calculate these losses will be resent later on. why this approach is correct in most cases is not explained here. In this case. the internal shear work is assumed negligible. ENERGY CONSERVATION Uy 1 2 Uy 1 2 Uy = 0 Ue The boundary shear work is zero because the velocity at tank boundary or walls is zero. . hence the shear work is vanished. Furthermore. In this light. Note that the (exit) velocity on the upper surface is zero Urn = 0. 10 It is assumed that the pressure in exit across section is uniform and equal surroundings pressure. At the free surface the velocity has only normal component9 and thus shear work vanishes there as well. A discussion about this eﬀect will be presented in the dimensional analysis chapter. Ec which is very small. How to compensate and estimate the the exit are normal to the ﬂow direction kinetic energy when averaged Velocity is zero.R.15) which is applicable to this case.23) Now the energy equation deals with no “external” eﬀects. the dissipation creates a loss that has temperature component.25) A It can be noticed that Pa = Pe hence =0 Pa A Ue dA − A Ub dA =0 (7.206 The energy balance can be expressed by equation (7. -7. Ec number is named after this author’s adviser. The pressure terms in equation (7.22) CHAPTER 7.3. Yet. Eckert.24) Where Ub is the upper boundary velocity.26) 8 This approach is a common approximation. ˙ ˙ Wshear = Wshaf t = 0 (7. The dissipation can be neglected for small Ec number. Clearly. the following approximation can be written Eu ˙ Q= = hin − hout = 0 dt (7. Additionally. 9 It is only the same assumption discussed earlier. The temperature is constant8 .

The averaged velocity is Uave = 1 V U dV V (7. The inside integral can be evaluated as h zdz = 0 h2 2 (7. Even the averaged velocity is zero the kinetic energy is not zero and another method should be used. Similarly to the previous chapter which the integral momentum will be replaced by some kind of average.29) V Where h is the height or the distance from the surface to exit. The terms under the time derivative can be divided into two terms as d dt V U2 d + g z ρdV = 2 dt V U2 d dV + 2 dt g z ρ dV V (7.1.32) The total kinetic energy for the averaged velocity is ρ Uave 2 V = ρ 1 V 2 2 U dV V V =ρ V U dV (7.33) .28) is d dt d g z ρ dV = g ρ dt h A 0 dV z dz dA (7.s) of equation (7.29) yields V 2 d h d h dh gρ dA = g ρ h A = g ρ A h dt A 2 dt 2 dt (7. A discussion on the correction factor is presented to provide a better “averaged” velocity.7. A comparison between the actual kinetic energy and the kinetic energy due to the “averaged” velocity (to be called the averaged kinetic energy) provides a correction coeﬃcient.28) The second integral (in the r. THE FIRST LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS The governing equation (7.h.30) into equation (7. The ﬁrst integral can be estimated by examining the velocity proﬁle eﬀects.30) Substituting the results of equation (7.27) V A The minus sign is because the ﬂow is out of the control volume. Furthermore.31) The kinetic energy related to the averaged velocity with a correction factor which depends on the geometry and the velocity proﬁle.24) is reduced to d dt U2 + g z ρ dV − 2 Ue 2 2 Ue ρ dA = 0 207 (7.

The ﬂow is parabolic only when the ﬂow is driven by pressure or gravity.32) which yields 1/2. . The diﬀerence between the “averaged momentum” velocity and the “averaged kinetic” velocity is also due to the fact that energy is added for diﬀerent directions while in the momentum case. In this case. For a pipe geometry. the inequality sign because the density distribution for compressible ﬂuid. For circular shape. The correction factor for a constant density ﬂuid is 2 2 ρ U dV CF = V = ρ U 2 dV ρ ¡ ρ ¡ U dV V = U 2 dV Uave 2 V U 2 dV V (7. 11 Laminar ﬂow is not necessarily implies that the ﬂow velocity proﬁle is parabolic. it is assumed that the averaged velocity indeed represent the energy in the tank or container. diﬀerent directions cancel each other out. Note. ENERGY CONSERVATION The general correction factor is the ratio of the above value to the actual kinetic energy as 2 ρ U dV CF = V ρ U 2 dV V ρ (Uave ) V = ¡ ρ U 2 dV ¡ V 2 (7. the velocity is U r R = U (¯) = Umax 1 − r2 = 2 Uave 1 − r2 r ¯ ¯ (7. More about this issue in the Diﬀerential Analysis Chapter. for simplicity reason.1.34) Here.36) into equation (7. A large family of velocity proﬁles is laminar or parabolic (for one directional ﬂow)11 .37) The correction factor for many other velocity proﬁles and other geometries can be smaller or larger than this value. Uave is obtained by using equation (7. The relationship between Umax to the averaged velocity. Calculations according to this point can improve the accurately based on the above discussion.35) results Uave 2 V U 2 dV V V = Uave 2 V 2 Uave 1 − r2 ¯ 2 = dV 3 Uave 2 V = 4 4 Uave 2 π L R2 3 (7. a good guess number is about 1. 12 The advantage is described in the Dimensional Analysis Chapter.208 CHAPTER 7. Substituting equation (7. CF is the correction coeﬃcient.36) It can be noticed that the velocity is presented as a function of the reduced radius12 .35) V V This integral can be evaluated for any given velocity proﬁle.

7. However.44) It can be noticed that f (G) is a weak function of the height inverse. THE FIRST LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS The unsteady state term then obtains the form 2 U2 d U d gh ∼ρ ρ + g y dV = + dt V 2 dt 2 2 209 V hA (7. It must be remembered that is eﬀect extremely important in the later stages of the emptying of the tank. some other eﬀects have to be taken into account which were neglected in construction of this model such as upper surface shape.39) Therefore.38) The relationship between the boundary velocity to the height (by deﬁnition) is Ub = dh dt (7. not the derivation. . 13 A similar point was provided in mass conservation Chapter 5.1.42) 2 U ∼ = (π − 2) r dh 8h dt 2 + (π − 1) r dh 4h dt 2 + dh dt 2 (7. The reader is encouraged to do it to get acquainted with this concept. it easy can be proved by construction the same control volume. However. Analytical solution of the governing equation is possible including this eﬀect of the height.40) Ue = A dh dh = −Ub Ae dt dt (7.43) f (G) dh U∼ = dt (π − 2) r 8h 2 + (π − 1) r 4h 2 + 12 (7. 14 The solution.41) Combining all the three components of the velocity (Pythagorean Theorem) as 2 2 2 2 U ∼ Ux + Uy + Uz = (7. the velocity in the z direction13 is Uz = dh dt (7. But in the same vain. the mathematical complication are enormous14 and this eﬀect is assumed negligible and the function to be constant. is about one page.

46) hA + U gh + 2 2 2 A dh 1 − dt 2 dh dt 2 A Ae 2 Ue Ae = 0 (7.45) Combining all the terms into equation (7.49) Further rearranging to eliminate the “ﬂow rate” transforms to 1 U dh 1 A B ¨ gh dU Ub A¨ f (G)2 dt ¨ + f (G) h + ¨ dt ¨Ue Ae 2 e Ae U 2 dh dt 2 + gh 1 − 2 2 dh dt 2 A Ae 2 =0 (7.50) f (G)2 h 15 This d2 h g h f (G)2 + + dt2 2 2 dh dt 2 + gh 1 − 2 2 dh dt 2 A Ae 2 =0 (7. results in d U gh + dt 2 2 2 (7.47) Equation (7.210 The last term is CHAPTER 7. Advance material can be skipped Dividing equation (7.51) part can be skipped to end of ”advanced material”. .40) A Ae A Ue d U gh + dt 2 2 2 hA U gh + + Ue Ae 2 2 2 dh 1 A − dt 2 dh dt 2 A Ae 2 $ Ue A $$ e = 0 (7.h.48) Notice that U = Ub f (G) and thus f (G) Ub U dU h A g dh h A U gh 1 + + + − dt Ue Ae 2 dt Ue Ae 2 2 2 2 dh dt 2 A Ae 2 =0 (7.s.27) results in V 2 2 2 d U gh 1 dh A ρ + hA − Ue ρ Ae = 0 ¡ dt ¡ 2 2 2 dt Ae taking the derivative of ﬁrst term on l. ENERGY CONSERVATION A Ue 2 Ue 2 1 Ue ρ dA = Ue ρ Ae = 2 2 2 dh A dt Ae 2 Ue ρ Ae (7.46) by Ue Ae and utilizing equation (7.47) can be rearranged and simpliﬁed and combined with mass conservation 15 .

Thus deﬁne function of the height as dh (k1 Te − 2 k1 ) eln(h) T e + 2 g h2 f (h) = − (7. as Te = A f (G) Ae 2 (7. Te .53) This parameter represents the characteristics of the tank which controls the emptying process.54) The solution can either of these equations16 − - dh (k1 Te − 2 k1 ) eln(h) T e + 2 g h2 = t + k2 h (T e − 2) f (G) (7.57) h (T e − 2) f (G) - The initial condition for this case are: one the height initial is h(0) = h0 16 A (7.7.52) after minor rearrangement transformed to h d2 h g Ae 2 + dt2 Te A2 + 1 2 dh dt 2 [1 − Te ] = 0 (7.1. .52) Deﬁning a new tank emptying parameter.52) by f (G)2 and using this parameter.55) or - dh (k1 Te − 2 k1 ) eln(h) T e + 2 g h2 = t + k2 h (T e − 2) f (G) (7.56) The solution with the positive solution has no physical meaning because the height cannot increase with time. Dividing equation (7. equation (7.58) discussion about this equation appear in the mathematical appendix. THE FIRST LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS 211 End Advance material Combining the gh terms into one yields f (G)2 h d2 h 1 +gh+ dt2 2 dh dt 2 f (G)2 − A Ae 2 =0 (7.

Thus for a very short time.61) (7.54) into h g Ae 2 Te A2 + 1 2 dh dt 2 (7.60) The complication of the above solution suggest a simpliﬁcation in which g Ae 2 d2 h << dt2 Te A2 which reduces equation (7. the information about opening of the valve did not reached to the surface. The ﬁrst condition yields k2 = −f (h0 ) The second condition provides dh =0= dt (k1 Te − 2 k1 ) eln(h0 ) T e + 2 g h0 2 h0 (T e − 2) f (G) (7. if this phenomenon is ignored this solution is correct. It is 17 For the initial condition speed of sound has to be taken into account. the non linear element can be removed by taking negative branch (height reduction) of the equation as dh dt 2 = 2gh −1 + A Ae 2 (7.65) 2 dt A 1 − Ae The nature of ﬁrst order Ordinary Diﬀerential Equation that they allow only one initial condition. This initial condition is the initial height of the liquid. The initial velocity ﬁeld was eliminated by the approximation (remove the acceleration term). However. ENERGY CONSERVATION dh =0 dt (7.212 The initial boundary velocity is CHAPTER 7. . And taking the “positive” branch √ dh 2gh = (7.64) It can be noticed that Te “disappeared” from the equation.63) While equation (7. Thus it is assumed that the initial velocity is not relevant at the core of the process at hand.62) [1 − Te ] = 0 (7.59) This condition pose a physical limitation17 which will be ignored. This information travel in characteristic sound speed which is over 1000 m/sec.63) is still non linear equation.

He derived this equation based on similar principle to Bernoulli equation (which later leads to Bernoulli’s equation).4. this analysis demonstrates the usefulness of the integral analysis to provide a reasonable solution. .69) Equation (7. 1647) was an Italian physicist and mathematician. It seems that Torricelli was an honest man who gave to others and he died at young age of 39 while in his prime.71) 2gh (7. 18 Evangelista Torricelli (October 15. Yet.69) is referred in the literature as Torricelli’s equation18 This analysis has several drawbacks which limits the accuracy of the calculations. Equation (7.1.7.68) 1− If the area ratio Ae /A << 1 then U∼ = 2gh (7.66) The initial condition has been inserted into the integral which its solution is 1− A Ae √ 2 h − h0 √ =t 2gh √ (7. Today the exact reference to his work is lost and only “sketches” of his lecture elude work.67) dh A Ue = = dt Ae 2gh A Ae 1− A = 2 Ae 2gh Ae 2 A (7. This analysis can be improved by experimental investigating the phenomenon.65) integrated to yield 1− A Ae 2 h h0 dh √ = 2gh t dt 0 (7. THE FIRST LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS 213 correct only for large ratio of h/r and the error became very substantial for small value of h/r. 1608 October 25. The experimental coeﬃcient can be added to account for the dissipation and other eﬀects such dh ∼ =C dt The loss coeﬃcient can be expressed as C = Kf U2 2 (7. He was student (not formal) and follower of Galileo Galilei.70) A few loss coeﬃcients for diﬀerent conﬁguration is given following Figure 7.

Additionally. The accuracy issues that integral methods intrinsically suﬀers from no ability to exact ﬂow ﬁeld and thus lost the accuracy as was discussed in the example. The description H(t) as a function of time requires exact knowledge of the velocity ﬁeld. Furthermore. the integral methods is Fig. (b) Sharp edge pipe connection K=0. H For example. Fig. In fact. The integral method does not handle the problems such as the free surface with reasonable accuracy. (c) Rounded inlet pipe K=0. -7.5. A liquid in manometer is disturbed from a rest by a distance of H0 . 7.2 Limitation of Integral Approach Some of accuracy issues to enhance the quality and improvements of the integral method were suggested in the analysis of the emptying tank. the averaged velocity in x direction is zero yet the averaged velocity in the two zooms (two halves) is not zero. two such corrections were presented. There are problems that the integral methods even with these enhancements simply cannot tackle. Hence the prediction can skew the actual predictions. In the case of the tank. the knowledge of whether the ﬂow is laminar or turbulent (later on this issue) has to come from diﬀerent techniques. The ﬁrst type is the prediction of the velocities proﬁle (or the concentration proﬁle). In the calculations of the exit velocity of a tank. the averaged energy in the x direction contributes or eﬀects the energy equation. Flow in an oscillating manometer.04. -7.5. Typical resistance for selected outlet conﬁguration. The improvements to the integral methods are the corrections to the estimates of the energy or other quantities in the conservation equations. ENERGY CONSERVATION (a) Projecting pipe K=1. In cases that dissipation play major air air role. the analysis of the oscillating manometer cannot be carried by the intelowest level for the liquid gral methods. . In the analysis of the tank it was assumed that the dissipation can be igD nored.214 CHAPTER 7. the integral does not provide a sufH equilibrioum level ﬁcient tool to analyze the issue at hand.4. The second type of corrections is the understanding that averaged of the total ﬁeld is diﬀerent from the averaged of diﬀerent zooms.

3.1 Energy Equation in Steady State The steady state situation provides several ways to reduce the complexity. 7.72) is reduced to Steady State Equation & uniform ˙ ˙ ˙ Q − Wshear − Wshaf t = h+ h+ U2 + g z Urn ρAout − 2 (7. The reason is that while the velocity is constant. The discussion on the limitations was not provided to discard usage of this method but rather to provide a guidance of use with caution. Hence the energy equation is reduced to Steady State Equation ˙ ˙ ˙ Q − Wshear − Wshaf t = S h+ U2 + g z Urn ρ dA + 2 P Ubn dA S (7. These problem were minor for the emptying the tank but for the oscillating manometer it is the core of the problem. 7.3 Approximation of Energy Equation The emptying the tank problem was complicated even with all the simpliﬁcations that were carried. For a stationary ﬁx control volume the energy equation. The time derivative term can be eliminated since the time derivative is zero. APPROXIMATION OF ENERGY EQUATION 215 too crude to handle issues of free interface. It turn out that these simpliﬁcations can provide reasonable results and key understanding of the physical phenomena and yet with less work.7. equation (7.72) If the ﬂow is uniform or can be estimated as uniform.3.73) for non-deformable control volume does not vanished.74) . Engineers in order to reduce the work further simplify the energy equation. The acceleration term must be eliminated for the obvious reason. the pressure is different. The integral method is a powerful and yet simple method but has has to be used with the limitations of the method in mind. the problems can be solved. Hence diﬀerent techniques are required. under this simpliﬁcation transformed to ˙ ˙ ˙ Q − Wshear − Wshaf t = h+ U2 + g z Urn ρAout − 2 U2 h+ + g z Urn ρAin 2 (7.73) U2 + g z Urn ρAin + P Ubn Aout − P Ubn Ain 2 It can be noticed that last term in equation (7. The following sections provides further explanation.

75) in 7. Fix m & uniform ˙ q − wshear − wshaf t = ˙ ˙ ˙ h+ U2 +gz 2 − out h+ U2 +gz 2 (7. The second low is the core of “no losses” and can be employed when calculations of this sort information is needed. Equation (2.77) yields dqrev = dEu + d P ρ − v dP (7.80) becomes h D ˙ Qrev = Dt Eu + V P ρ ρ dV − D Dt V dP ρ ρ dV (7. This imaginary ﬂuid reduces the amount of work in the calculations and Ideal Flow Chapter is dedicated in this book.3.77) (7.76) dqrev = dEu + d (P v) − v dP = dEu + d integrating equation (7.21) which can be written as dqrev = T ds = dEu + P dv Using the multiplication rule change equation (7.216 CHAPTER 7.79) Integration over the entire system results in h Qrev = V Eu + P ρ ρ dV − V dP ρ ρ dV (7.82) .76) qrev = Eu + P ρ − dP ρ (7.80) Taking time derivative of the equation (7.81) Using the Reynolds Transport Theorem to transport equation to control volume results in d ˙ Qrev = dt h ρ dV + V A h Urn ρ dA + D Dt V dP ρ ρ dV (7. ENERGY CONSERVATION Dividing equation the mass ﬂow rate provides Steady State Equation.78) P ρ − v dP (7.2 Energy Equation in Frictionless Flow and Steady State In cases where the ﬂow can be estimated without friction or where a quick solution is needed the friction and other losses are illuminated from the calculations.

86) reduced to 0= P2 − P1 U2 2 − U1 2 + + g (z2 − z1 ) ρ 2 (7.1 Energy in Linear Acceleration Coordinate 2 The potential is deﬁned as P.87) 7.88) . the mathematical treatment is somewhat diﬀerent which is the reason for the separation. is the gravity that was compensated by the gravity potential. 7. In many cases. These accelerations will be translated to potential energy.85) for constant density is 0 = wshaf t + P2 − P1 U2 2 − U1 2 + + g (z2 − z1 ) ρ 2 (7.4. it was assumed that the control volume is at rest. The only acceptation to the above statement. However.81) can be simpliﬁed for uniform ﬂow as ˙ Qrev = m (hout − hin ) − ˙ or qrev = (hout − hin ) − ˙ dP ρ − out 217 dP ρ − out dP ρ dP ρ (7.84) from equation (7.4. General Acceleration can be broken into a linear acceleration and a rotating acceleration. There is no conceptional diﬀerence between these two accelerations. The accelerations are referring to two kinds of acceleration.75) results in change in pressure energy change in kinetic energy change in potential energy 0 = wshaf t + dP ρ − 2 dP ρ + 1 U2 2 − U1 2 + g (z2 − z1 ) 2 (7.85) Equation (7.83) in (7. linear and rotational. It was pointed earlier in this book that accelerated forces can be translated to potential force.4 Energy Equation in Accelerated System In the discussion so far. In building the gravity potential it was assumed that the gravity is a conservative force.E.84) in Subtracting equation (7. the control volume is moving in accelerated coordinates. = − ref F ·d (7.86) For no shaft work equation (7. ENERGY EQUATION IN ACCELERATED SYSTEM As before equation (7.7.

218 CHAPTER 7.2 Linear Accelerated System The acceleration can be employed in similar fashion as the gravity force. The potential of unit material is P Eatotal = sys (ax x + ay y + az z) ρ dV (7. The same can be done for the other two coordinates.91) The total work or potential is the integral over the whole mass. For example. The linear acceleration “creates” a conservative force of constant force and direction. r and m are the distance and mass respectively. 7.90) The reference was set to inﬁnity.93) At the origin (of the coordinates) x = 0. The gravity force for ﬂuid element in small distance then is g dz dm.92) P Ea = (0) a · d dm = (ax (x1 − x0 ) ay (y1 − y0 ) az (z1 − z0 )) dm (7.89) Where G is the gravity coeﬃcient and M is the mass of the Earth.4. ENERGY CONSERVATION In Chapter 3 a discussion about gravitational energy potential was presented. Thus.95) . The work this element moving from point 1 to point 2 is 2 g dz dm = g (z2 − z1 ) dm 1 (7. Using this trick the notion of the ax (x1 − x0 ) can be replaced by ax x. The “potential” of moving the mass in the ﬁeld provides the energy.94) The change of the potential with time is D D P Ea total = Dt Dt (ax x + ay y + az z) dm sys (7. for the gravity force is F =− GM m r2 (7. The gravity potential is then r P Egravity = − ∞ − GM m dr r2 (7. The Force due to the acceleration of the ﬁeld can be broken into three coordinates. and z = 0. y = 0. the element of the potential is d P Ea = a · d dm The total potential for element material (1) (7.

98) The work or the potential then is P E = ω 2 r r + 2 U × ω · d dm ˆ The cylindrical coordinate are ˆ ˆ d = drˆ + r dθ θ + dz k r (7. The ˆ ˆ potential is then ˆ ˆ P E = ω 2 r r + 2 U × ω · drˆ + r dθ θ + dz k dm ˆ r (7.3 Energy Equation in Rotating Coordinate System The coordinate system rotating around ﬁx axises creates a similar conservative potential as a linear system. There are two kinds of acceleration due to this rotation. The cross product is zero of U ×ω ×U = U ×ω ×ω = 0 . The forces acting on particles are centrifugal Coriolis F = ω 2 r r + 2 U × ω dm ˆ (7. ENERGY EQUATION IN ACCELERATED SYSTEM Equation can be added to the energy equation as D ˙ ˙ Q−W = Dt Eu + sys 219 U2 + ax x + ay y + (az + g)z ρ dV 2 (7.99) ˆ where r.4.97) h+ U2 + ax x + ay y + (az + g)z Urn ρ dA 2 + cv P Ubn dA 7. and k are units vector in the coordinates r. θ and z respectively.7.100) (7. one is the centrifugal and one the Coriolis force. To understand it better. θ. consider a particle which moves with the our rotating system.4.96) The Reynolds Transport Theorem is used to transferred the calculations to control volume as Energy Equation in Linear Accelerated Coordinate d ˙ ˙ Q−W = dt + cv Eu + cv U2 + ax x + ay y + (az + g)z ρ dV 2 (7.101) The ﬁrst term results in ω 2 r2 (see for explanation in the appendix 363 for vector explanation).

From a physical point of view.4 7. This multiplication creates lines (surfaces ) of constant values. the ﬂux of this property is important only in the direction of the velocity.1 Simpliﬁed Energy Equation in Accelerated Coordinate Energy Equation in Accelerated Coordinate with Uniform Flow One of the way to simplify the general equation (7.105) . In that case the time derivative term vanishes and equation (7. The net change of the potential energy due to the centrifugal motion is 2 P Ecentrif ugal = − 1 ω 2 r2 dr dm = ω 2 r1 2 − r2 2 dm 2 (7.4. However.102) This multiplication does not vanish with the exception of the direction of U . The second part is (2 U × ω) · d dm (7.220 CHAPTER 7. ENERGY CONSERVATION because the ﬁrst multiplication is perpendicular to the last multiplication.104) P Ubn dA 7. this term canceled and does not contribute to the potential.104) is to assume uniform ﬂow.103) Inserting the potential energy due to the centrifugal forces into the energy equation yields Energy Equation in Accelerated Coordinate d ˙ ˙ Q−W = dt + cv U2 ω 2 r2 + ax x + ay y + (az + g)z − ρ dV 2 2 cv U2 ω2 r2 h+ + ax x + ay y + (az + g) − z Urn ρ dA 2 2 Eu + + cv (7. Hence.4.104) can be written as Energy Equation in steady state ˙ ˙ Q−W = cv h+ U2 ω 2 r2 + ax x + ay y + (az + g) − z 2 2 + cv Urn ρ dA P Ubn dA (7.4. the most important direction is the direction of the velocity.

these losses are very important for many real world application.5 Energy Losses in Incompressible Flow In the previous sections discussion.15) when the energy and the internal energy as a separate identity as d ˙ Wshaf t = dt A V U2 +gz 2 ρ dV + P Ubn dA+ A P U2 + + g z Urn ρ dA + ρ 2 energy loss (7. However.107) sometimes written as d ˙ Wshaf t = dt U2 +gz 2 ρ dV + (7. And these losses have practical importance and have to be considered in engineering system. as will be shown.7. it was assumed that there are no energy loss.105) by assuming uniform ﬂow for which ˙ ˙ Q−W = U ω 2 r2 h+ + ax x + ay y + (az + g) − z 2 2 + cv 2 221 U rn ρ dA P U bn dA (7. Hence writing equation (7.106) Note that the acceleration also have to be averaged. This term.109) suggests that term h + U + g z has a special meaning (because it 2 remained constant under certain conditions).109) Equation (7. The correction factors have to introduced into the equation to account for the energy averaged verse to averaged velocity (mass averaged).4.4. This term represents . has to be constant for frictionless ﬂow without any addition and loss of energy. ENERGY EQUATION IN ACCELERATED SYSTEM Further simpliﬁcation of equation (7. 7.107) d dt Eu ρ dV + V A ˙ ˙ Eu Urn ρ dA − Q − Wshear Equation (7. These factor make this equation with larger error and thus less eﬀective tool in the engineering calculation.108) P Ubn dA + energy loss A V A P U2 + + g z Urn ρ dA + ρ 2 Equation can be further simpliﬁed under assumption of uniform ﬂow and steady state as wshaf t = ˙ P U2 + +gz ρ 2 − out P U2 + +gz ρ 2 2 + energy loss in (7.

These losses will be tabulated later on. U 2 /2. ﬂuid ﬂow in a pipe has resistance and energy dissipation. Euler. Furthermore assume that this loss is a function of the velocity square.” The loss is the combination of the internal energy/enthalpy with heat transfer. The dissipation is lost energy that is transferred to the surroundings. the velocity is identical because the cross area is same. For example. The loss is normally is a strong function of the velocity square. ENERGY CONSERVATION the “potential energy.6. 0= V ∂ρ dV + ∂t ρ Ubn dA + A A ρ Urn dA =⇒ ρ Uin = ρ Uexit ¡A ¡A (7.5 Examples of Integral Energy Conservation Example 7. Flow in a long pipe when exposed to a jump in the pressure diﬀerence.1: Consider a ﬂow in a long straight pipe. At time. -7. Furthermore. It can be noticed that for the energy balance on the pipe. 7. Thus.109) reduces to simple Bernoulli’s equation. t0 the a constant pressure diﬀerence is applied on the pipe.222 CHAPTER 7. State your assumptions. and the resistance or energy loss is f . and duct losses. The boundaries do not move and the second term is zero. Develop equation to describe the exit velocity as a function of time.a) There is no change in the liquid mass inside pipe and therefore the time derivative is zero (the same mass resides in the pipe at all time). Simple Bernoulli 0= P U2 + +gz ρ 2 − out P U2 + +gz ρ 2 (7. Initially the ﬂow is in a rest. Assume that ﬂow is incompressible.110) in Equation (7. the time derivative can . Solution The mass balance on the liquid in the pipe results in =0 =0 L Fig. There are several categories of the loss which referred as minor loss (which are not minor).110) is only a simple form of Bernoulli’s equation which was developed by Bernoulli’s adviser. There also unsteady state and other form of this equation that will be discussed in diﬀerential equations Chapter.I. If the energy loss is negligible and the shaft work vanished or does not exist equation (7. the ﬂow in and out are equal because the density is identical.

as can be noticed from equation (7. =0 =0 223 ˙ ˙ Q − Wshear + ˙ Wshaf t = 2 V S d dt Eu + U2 +gz 2 S ρ dV + P Ubn dA U + g z Urn ρ dA + h+ 2 (7. the velocity is identical (in and out).7. additionally notice that U = Urn ) as Eu + A P ρ ρ Urn dA = ∆P U A + A ρ Eu Urn dA (7. r is the pipe radius.b) The boundaries shear work vanishes because the same arguments present before (the work.I.e) The third term vanishes because the boundaries velocities are zero and therefore P Ubn dA = 0 A (7.5.c) where L is the pipe length. U averaged velocity.d) can be further simpliﬁed (since the area and averaged velocity are constant. Also. The gravity in the ﬁrst term and all other terms.h) dU + (Pin − Pout ) U dt .I.I.a).I. In the locations where the velocity does not vanished. Hence the second term becomes ¨ constant B U 2 ¨¨ h + ¨+ g z ρ Urn dA = ¨ 2 A h Eu + A P ρ ρ Urn dA (7.g) can be rearranged as −K U 2 2 ˙ Q−ρ Vpipe d (Eu ) dV − dt ρ Eu U dA = ρ L π r2 U A (7.g) equation (7.I. it is assumed that the pipe is perpendicular to the gravity line and thus the gravity is constant. EXAMPLES OF INTEGRAL ENERGY CONSERVATION enter the integral because the control volume has ﬁxed boundaries. Hence.d) Equation (7.I.I. In this analysis. is zero.I. related to the pipe. the work is zero because shear stress are perpendicular to the velocity). The ﬁrst term on the right hand side (with a constant density) is ρ Vpipe d dt U2 + Eu + 2 constant gz dU dV = ρ U Vpipe +ρ dt L π r2 Vpipe d (Eu ) dV dt (7. such as in and out.f) Combining all the terms results in dU d ˙ Q = ρU Vpipe +ρ dt dt L π r2 Eu dV + ∆P U dA + Vpipe A ρ Eu U dA (7. vanish again because the value of z is constant. There is no shaft work and this term vanishes as well. where velocity is zero.I.I.

U= 2 (Pin − Pout ) K (7.224 CHAPTER 7.m) Another note. velocity regime and etc.I. in reality the resistance.I.j) is a ﬁrst order diﬀerential equation.h) can be written as −K U2 dU = ρ L π r2 U + (Pin − Pout ) U 2 dt (7.i) by K U/2 transforms equation (7.I.k) 1 Applying the initial condition. 20 Via the viscosity eﬀects. is not constant but rather a strong function of velocity (and other parameters such as temperature20 . The solution of the linear equation and the steady state solution of the diﬀerential equation are the same.). It common to assume (to view) that these terms are representing the energy loss and are a strong function of velocity square19 . This shear work can be viewed also as one control volume work on the adjoined control volume.j) reduced to a simple linear equation. it should be noted that if momentum balance was used a similar solution (but not the same) was obtained (why? hint the diﬀerence of the losses accounted for).l) The solution is an exponentially approaching the steady state solution.j) Equation (7. Thus.i) to U+ 2 ρ L π r2 d U 2 (Pin − Pout ) = K dt K (7. 19 The shear work inside the liquid refers to molecular work (one molecule work on the other molecule). U (t = 0) = 0 results in 0 U= 2 (Pin − Pout ) 1 − K e −@ 1 tK A 2 π r2 ρ L (7. .I. Additionally.I.I.I. equation (7. End Solution The following example combined the above discussion in the text with the above example (7. The solution this equation is described in the appendix and which is U= e 1 tK A −@ 2 π r2 ρ L 2 (P − P ) in out K 0 0 e tK @ A 2 π r2 ρ L 1 + c 0 e @ 2 π r2 ρ t L A K (7. In steady state the ﬂow equation (7.I. This function will be discussed in a greater extent later on.I. K.I.1). ENERGY CONSERVATION The terms on the LHS (left hand side) can be combined. velocity range.i) Dividing equation (7.

To analysis this situation. Equation (7. A long pipe is connected to a tank from which the liquid is emptied.1.8. Fig. one of the liquid in the tank and one of the liquid in pipe. Solution D This problem can split into two control vol3 umes. Liquid exiting a large tank Assume that the resistance or the friction trough a long tube. The pipe is exposed to the surroundings and 3 thus the pressure is Patmos at the pipe exit.). EXAMPLES OF INTEGRAL ENERGY CONSERVATION 225 Example 7.7. Analysis of control volume in the tank was provided previously 1 h and thus needed to be sewed to Example d U1 7.7.II. h. The eﬀect is negligible in most cases because air mass is small with exception the “spring” eﬀect (expansion/compression eﬀects). -7.2. in the pipe is a strong function to the velocity square in the tank.b) simply can Atank Atank .II.II. Tank control volume for Example 7.II. d Assume that the liquid is incompressible.5.b) 2 ρ U1 Apipe = ρ U3 π R2 = ρ ¡ dt π R ¡ ¡ It can be noticed that U3 = dh/dt and D = 2 R and d = 2 r when the lower case refers to the pipe and the upper case referred to the tank. The control volume in tank is depicted in Fig.2: A large cylindrical tank with a diameter.a) reduces to dh (7. the energy loss is considered (as opposed to the discussion in the text). -7. Figure 7. State all the assumptions that were made during the derivations.a) The ﬁrst term vanishes and the second and third terms remain and thus equation (7.7. contains liquid to height. Note. D. consider that the tank has a constant presD sure above liquid (actually a better assumpVair tion of air with a constant mass. Patmos Derive approximated equations that related L the height in the large tank and the exit 1 2 velocity at the pipe to pressure diﬀerence. The mass conservation reads =0 V ∂ρ dV + ∂t ρ Ubn dA + A A ρ Urn dA = 0 (7. Tank Control Volume The eﬀect of the energy change in air side was neglected.

Hence.II. Therefore. The pressure component of the second term is P Urn ρ dA = ρ P1 U1 A1 (7. f (G) ≡ 1 will be assumed.d) Where Ut denotes the (the upper surface) liquid velocity of the tank.111) P Ubn dA = A3 d dt Eu ρ dV + Vt A1 ˙ Eu ρ Urn dA − Q Similar arguments to those that were used in the previous discussion are applicable to this case.II.II.44). the second term is U2 + gz 2 z=0 A 1 Urn ρ dA ∼ = 2 dh A3 dt A1 2 U1 ρ A1 = 1 2 dh R dt r 2 U1 ρ A1 (7.c) The boundaries shear work and the shaft work are assumed to be vanished in the tank. That is.II. the energy conservation in the tank reduces to =0 ˙ ˙ Q − Wshear + d Ut 2 ˙ Wshaf t = Eu + + g z ρ dV + dt Vt 2 Ut 2 h+ + g z Urn ρ dA + P Ubn dA 2 A1 A3 =0 (7.d) to become d dt Ut 2 +gz 2 U3 ρ dV + A1 Vt P Ut 2 + +gz ρ 2 K Ut 2 2 U1 Urn ρ dA+ (7. The second term can be recognized as similar to those by equation (7.g) . ENERGY CONSERVATION be written when the area ratio is used (to be changed later if needed) as U1 Apipe = dh Atank =⇒ U1 = dt R r 2 dh dt (7.e) hA Where the velocity is given by equation (7.II.II. Using equation (7.226 CHAPTER 7. Since the focus in this book is primarily on the physics. Moving all internal energy terms and the energy transfer to the right hand side of equation (7. the velocity is a derivative of the height with a correction factor. U = dh/dt × f (G). the ﬁrst term changes to d dt ρ V U +gz 2 2 dV ∼ ρ d Ut + g h = dt 2 2 2 V (7.45).f) ¡ A ρ ¡ It is assumed that the exit velocity can be averaged (neglecting the velocity distribution eﬀects).38).

l) can be rearranged as Kp 2ρ r R 2 R r 2 2 (P1 − P2 ) Kp (7.II.II.i) Pipe Control Volume The analysis of the liquid in the pipe is similar to Example 7.II. it can be noticed that the liquid velocity in the tank is related to the height and the liquid velocity in the pipe.a) is used U1 = U2 Up + 4 ρ L π r 2 d Up 2 (P1 − P2 ) = Kp dt Kp (7.c) in equation (7.II.7.II.m) and (7.k) where Kp is the resistance in the pipe and Up is the (averaged) velocity in the pipe.m) and (7.m) Solution The equations (7.m). Using equation (7.II.II.i) have two unknowns (dh/dt and P1 ) which are suﬃcient to solve the problem. The governing equation obtained by from adding equation (7.II. The equations (7.n) 2 2 2 Kp r (P3 − P2 ) dh 4 ρ L π r d h + + = 2ρ R dt K dt2 ρ . The conservation of the liquid in the pipe is the same as in Example 7.1. In fact.i) provide the frame in which the liquid velocity in tank and pipe have to be solved.i) as V 2 2 2 2 d Ut gh 1 dh A3 Kt dh + hA − U1 A1 + dt 2 2 2 dt A1 2 ρ dt (7. It can be noticed that two initial conditions are required to solve the problem.II. The relationship between the height was obtained by substituting equation (7. EXAMPLES OF INTEGRAL ENERGY CONSERVATION The last term on the left hand side is P Ubn dA = P3 A A 227 dh dt (7. there is only one equation with one unknown.II.c) eliminates the Up as dh 4 ρ L π r2 d2 h + = dt K dt2 Equation (7.II.II.II.1 and thus equation (7.II.II.l) dh 4 ρ L π r2 d2 h + dt K dt2 = (P1 − P2 ) ρ (7.m) and (7.h) The combination of all the terms for the tank results in V 2 2 2 gh 1 dh d Ut A3 Kt + hA − U1 A1 + dt 2 2 2 dt A1 2ρ dh dt 2 = (P3 − P1 ) ρ (7.II.5.I. Thus.II.j) (7.

the height of liquid is at prescript point as h(0) = h0 dh (0) = 0 dt (7. If the liquid is compressible what is the direction of the heat to keep the ﬂow isothermal? A tank is full of incompressible liquid. Additionally. Explain why the direction based on physical reasoning. Would happen when the liquid velocity is very large? What it will be still correct. End Solution Qualitative Questions A liquid ﬂows in and out from a long pipe with uniform cross section as single phase. What kind of internal work the liquid performed. A certain point the tank is punctured and the liquid ﬂows out. BT . To keep the tank at uniform temperature what is the direction of the heat (from the tank or to the tank)? .228 CHAPTER 7. What is the direction of the heat from the pipe or in to the pipe. The dimensional analysis method can be used to obtain solution various situations which will be presented later on. Assume that the liquid is slightly compressible. ENERGY CONSERVATION The initial conditions are that zero initial velocity in the tank and pipe.II. That is the liquid has a constant bulk modulus. A diﬀerent liquid ﬂows in the same pipe.o) The solution of equation can be obtained using several diﬀerent numerical techniques.

Part II Diﬀerential Analysis 229 .

.

In diﬀerential analysis. the emphasis is on inﬁnitesimal scale and thus the analysis provides better accuracy1 . The diﬀerential analysis allows the ﬂow ﬁeld investigation in greater detail. As usual Simon-Denis Poisson independently. The foundations for their arguments or motivations are based on a molecular view of how stresses are exerted between ﬂuid layers.CHAPTER 8 Diﬀerential Analysis 8. Later in the Chapters on Real Fluid and Turbulence. This analysis leads to partial diﬀerential equations which are referred to as the Navier-Stokes equations. with a presentation of the “non–regular” solutions will be presented with the associated issues of stability. However even for the “regular” solution the mathematics is very complex. derived these equations in 1831 for the same arguments as Navier. which leads to a diﬀerent approach of differential analysis. The concepts 1 Which can be view as complementary analysis to the integral analysis. A discussion about the “regular” solution is present and a brief discussion about limitations when the solution is applicable. Navier-Stokes equations are non–linear and there are more than one possible solution in many cases (if not most cases) e. as he done to many other equations or conditions. the solution is not unique. The equations without the viscosity eﬀects are referred to as the ideal ﬂow equations (Euler Equations) which will be discussed in the next chapter. One of the approaches is to reduce the equations by eliminating the viscosity eﬀects. These equations are named after Claude– Louis Navier–Marie and George Gabriel Stokes.1 Introduction The integral analysis has a limited accuracy. Barr´ de e Saint Venant (1843) and George Gabriel Stokes (1845) derived these equation based on the relationship between stress and rate–of–strain (this approach is presented in this book).g. 231 . Like many equations they were independently derived by several people. First these equations were derived by Claude–Louis– Marie Navier as it is known in 1827.

At a speciﬁc time this control volume can be viewed as a system. leads to approximations and consequently to the ideal ﬂow approximation (equations) and on the other hand experimental solutions of Navier–Stokes equations.2) on the right hand side and hence dρ dt dV V dρ dV + dt Urn ρ dA = 0 A (8.1) Fig.2 Mass Conservation Fluid ﬂows into and from a three dimensional inﬁnitesimal control volume depicted in Figure 8. the following can be written D Dt ρdV = V d dt ρdV + V A Urn ρ dA = 0 (8. on one hand. there are cases when complying with the boundary conditions leads to a discontinuity (shock or choked ﬂow). 8.232 CHAPTER 8.1. The mass balance on the inﬁnitesimal control volume. The mass conservation for this inﬁnitesimal small system is zero thus D Dt ρdV = 0 V x A ρ Ux dy dz ρ+ dρ dz Uz + dUz dz dx dy E F dρ y ρ+ d U dU + dy y y dx dz B ρ+ dρ dx Ux + dUx dx dy dz G dx dz H ρU y C ρ Uz dx dy D (8. the boundary conditions create instability which alters the boundary conditions itself which is known as Interfacial instability. the derivative can enter into the integral (see also for the divergence theorem in the appendix A. These equations cannot satisfy the boundary conditions in other cases and in way the ﬂuid pushes the boundary condition(s) further downstream (choked ﬂow). These issues are discussed in Open Channel Flow and Compressible Flow chapters. It has to be pointed out that the Add Mass and Add Force appear regardless to the viscosity. which are easier to discuss when the viscosity is ignored.3) . The connection between these two ideas or ﬁelds was done via introduction of the boundary layer theory by Prandtl which will be discussed as well. This phenomenon is presented in Multi–phase chapter and brieﬂy discussed in this chapter. Sometimes. Even for simple situations.1. The choked ﬂow is associated with a single phase ﬂow (even the double choked ﬂow) while the Interfacial instability associated with the Multi–Phase ﬂow. DIFFERENTIAL ANALYSIS of the Add Mass and the Add Force. However for a control volume using Reynolds Transport Theorem (RTT).2) For a constant control volume. and will be presented in the Ideal Flow chapter. -8.1. Historically. complexity of the equations.

The combination can be divided by dx dy dz and simpliﬁed by using the deﬁnition of the partial derivative in the regular process to be Urn ρ dA = − A ∂(ρ Ux ) ∂(ρ Uy ) ∂(ρ Uz ) + + ∂x ∂y ∂z (8. in the control volume is ∂ρ dm = ˙ dr dz r dθ ∂t 2 Note dv (8. in the x coordinate. as ∼0 V dρ dρ dV = dx dy dz + f dt dt dV d2 ρ dt2 + ··· (8. . the operation.7) Combining the ﬁrst term with the second term results in the continuity equation in Cartesian coordinates as Continuity in Cartesian Coordinates ∂ρ ∂ρ Ux ∂ρ Uy ∂ρ Uz + + + =0 ∂t ∂x ∂y ∂z (8.9) that sometime the notation dAyz also refers to dAx .2) is expressed2 as dAyz Urn ρ dA = A dAxz dy dz (ρ Ux )|x − (ρ Ux )|x+dx + dAxz dx dz (ρ Uy )|y − (ρ Uy )|y+dy + dx dy (ρ Uz )|z − (ρ Uz )|z+dz (8. It also can be noticed that.5) The diﬀerence between point x and x + dx can be obtained by developing Taylor series as (ρ Ux )|x+dx = (ρ Ux )|x + ∂ (ρ Ux ) ∂x dx x (8. The net mass change.2. produces additional dx thus a inﬁnitesimal volume element dV is obtained for all directions.3) for the inﬁnitesimal volume is expressed.4) The second term in the LHS of equation (8.2. for example. as depicted in Figure 8. MASS CONSERVATION 233 The ﬁrst term in equation (8. neglecting higher order derivatives.6) The same can be said for the y and z coordinates.8) Cylindrical Coordinates The same equation can be derived in cylindrical coordinates.8.

the net ﬂux in the z coordinate be written as net ﬂux in z direction = r dθ dr The net change in the θ direction is then net ﬂux in θ direction = dr dz ∂ρ Uθ dθ ∂θ (8. r . results in total net ﬂux =− 1 ∂ (ρ Ur r) ∂ρ Uz r ∂ρ Uθ + + r ∂r ∂z ∂θ (8. This change creates a diﬀerent diﬀerential equation with additional complications.11)–(8.14) 3 The mass ﬂow is ρ U r dθ dz at r point.g.2. DIFFERENTIAL ANALYSIS + ∂ (ρ Ur r) dz dθ dr ∂z ρ U θ ∂ (ρ Uθ ) + dθ dr dz ∂θ dz ρ Uz r) d r r ρU ∂ ( ∂z r+ dθ dz ρU r rd θd z rd z θ dr ρ Uθ dr dθ y θ x ρ Uz r dr dθ Fig. Hence. The mass conservation in cylindrical coordinates. e. Expansion to Taylor serious ρ U r dθ dz| r r r+dr is obtained by the regular procedure. The net mass ﬂow out or in the r direction has an additional term which is the area change compared to the Cartesian coordinates. -8. the change of r with r. The mass ﬂow at r + dr is ρ Ur r dθ dz|r + d/dr (ρ Ur r dθ dz) dr + · · · . In a similar fashion. The change is ﬂux in r direction = dθ dz r ρ U r − r ρ Ur + ∂ρ Ur r dr ∂r (8.10) The net ﬂux in the r direction is then ∂ρ Ur r net ﬂux in the = dθ dz dr ∂r r direction (8.13) and dividing by inﬁnitesimal control volume.13) ∂ (ρ Uz ) dz ∂z (8. dr r dθ dz. the r is “trapped” in the derivative.234 ρ U r z CHAPTER 8.11) Note3 that the r is still inside the derivative since it is a function of r.12) Combining equations (8.

this writing reduce the amount of writing and potentially can help the thinking about the problem or situation in more conceptional way. 4 notice the irony the second i is the dirction and ﬁrst i is for any one of direction x(i).16) can be expressed in diﬀerent coordinates.8). There are very few cases where this equation is used on its own merit. . It can be noticed that the second part of these equations is the divergence (see the Appendix A. y(j).8. j.16) The continuity equations (8. and k 4 . For academic purposes.2.14) with the change in the control volume (8.18) Where i is is of the i. Again remember that the meaning of repeated index is summation. The index notation really does not add much to the scientiﬁc understanding. dr r dθ dz yields Continuity in Cylindrical Coordinates ∂ρ 1 ∂ (r ρ Ur ) 1 ∂ρ Uθ ∂ρ Uz + + + =0 ∂t r ∂r r ∂θ ∂z (8. End Advance material The use of these equations is normally combined with other equations (momentum and or energy equations).9) divided by inﬁnitesimal control volume. Hence.15) Carrying similar operations for the spherical coordinates. (8.17) The mass equation can be written in index notation for Cartesian coordinates. However. MASS CONSERVATION 235 Combining equation (8. and z(k).15) and (8.1. the continuity equation becomes Continuity in Spherical Coordinates 1 ∂ r 2 ρ Ur 1 ∂ (ρ Uθ sin θ) 1 ∂ρ Uφ ∂ρ + 2 + + =0 ∂t r ∂r r sin θ ∂θ r sin θ ∂z (8. Compare to equation (8.8). the continuity equation can be written in a general vector form as Continuity Equation ∂ρ + · (ρ U ) = 0 ∂t Advance material can be skipped (8. The mass equation (see in the appendix for more information on the index notation) written as ∂ρ ∂ (ρ U )i + =0 ∂t ∂xi (8.2 page 366). several examples are constructed here.

3). Calculates the velocity of the liquid.e) =0 e −β t + ∂y .3.a) T1 ρ1 H0(t) T0 ρ0 y T(t = 0) T(t > 0) T(t = ∞) where ρ1 is the density at the surface and where ρ0 is the density at the botFig.236 CHAPTER 8.c) The exponential decay is 1 − e−β t and thus the combination (with equation (8.I. Substituting the density.2.I. It can be noticed that the height H0 is a function of time.I. t0 .d) ρ1 − ρ0 H0 Equation (8. as a function of time into the governing equation (8. ρ.3.1 Mass Conservation Examples Example 8. -8.I.I. Assume that the velocity at the lower boundary is zero at all times.b) with the boundary condition of zero velocity at the lower surface Uy (y = 0) = 0. Assume that the actual temperature is exponentially approaches to a linear temperature proﬁle as depicted in Figure 8. Mass ﬂow due to temperature tom.1: A layer of liquid has an initial height of H0 with an uniform temperature of T0 . it is treated as a constant. The expression that connects the temperature with the space for the ﬁnal temperature as T − T0 H0 − y =α T1 − T0 H0 (8. For this question. At time. Neglect the mutual dependency of the temperature and the height.I. Solution The situation is unsteady state thus the unsteady state and one dimensional continuity equation has to be used which is ∂ρ ∂ (ρUy ) + =0 ∂t ∂y (8. the upper surface is exposed to temperature T1 (see Figure 8.b) results in ∂ρ ∂t ∂ρ Uy ∂y 0 ∂ Uy α HH−y 1 − e−β t 0 αβ H0 − y H0 (8.a)) is ρ − ρ0 H0 − y =α 1 − e−β t (8.I. The density is a function of the temperature according to T − T0 =α T1 − T0 ρ − ρ0 ρ1 − ρ0 (8.I. Assume that the velocity is only a diﬀerence for example 8.1 function of the y coordinate.d) relates the temperature with the time and the location was given in the question (it is not the solution of any model). DIFFERENTIAL ANALYSIS 8.

f) as a constant5 . End Solution 8.8. MASS CONSERVATION 237 Equation (8.h) or the velocity is Uy = β 2 H0 − y 2 (H0 − y) e−β t (1 − y) (1 − e−β t ) (8.19) If the ﬂuid is incompressible then the governing equation is a volume conservation as ·U = 0 Note that this equation appropriate only for a single phase case.2.g) Utilizing the boundary condition Uy (y = 0) = 0 yields Uy α H0 − y 1 − e−β t H0 = −α β 2 H0 − y 2 H0 e−β t (y − 1) (8.I. Hence. it can be treated for the solution of equation (8.I. Example 8. the integration with respect to y yields Uy α H0 − y 1 − e−β t H0 = −α β 2 H0 − y 2 H0 e−β t y + c (8.f) holds for any time and thus.I.I. (8.f) Uy is a function of the time but not y.2 Simpliﬁed Continuity Equation A simpliﬁed equation can be obtained for a steady state in which the transient term is eliminated as (in a vector form) · (ρ U ) = 0 (8.20) 5 Since the time can be treated as a constant for y integration.4.e) is ﬁrst order ODE with the boundary condition Uy (y = 0) = 0 which can be arranged as 0 ∂ Uy α HH−y 1 − e−β t 0 ∂y = −α β H0 − y H0 e−β t (8. .i) It can be noticed that indeed the velocity is a function of the time and space y.I.I.2.2: In many coating processes a thin ﬁlm is created by a continuous process in which liquid injected into a moving belt which carries the material out as exhibited in Figure 8.I. Equation (8.

See the resembles to equation (8.16 . Assume that the ﬁlm temFig. Solution This problem is somewhat similar to Example 8.II.I.1 for a general function T = F (x).II.a) ρ0 − ρ∞ T0 − T∞ State your assumptions.II.e) 6 The presentation of one dimension time dependent problem to two dimensions problems can be traced to heat and mass transfer problems. On personal note. . At any point the governing equation in coordinate system that moving with the belt is ∂ (ρ Ux ) ∂ (ρ Uy ) (8.2. Higbie’s idea which was rejected by the scientiﬁc establishment. He spend the rest of his life to proof it and ending in a suicide.4. The relationship between the density and the temperature is linear as ρ − ρ∞ T − T∞ =α (8.b). Mass ﬂow in coating process perature is only a function of the distance for example 8. This assumption is consistent with the ﬁrst solution (no stability issues). from the extraction point. However. If the frame of reference was moving with the belt then there is only velocity component in the y direction7 .II. -8.II. Hence equation (8. One of the early pioneers who suggest this idea is Higbie which Higbie’s equation named after him. asH0 T0 T(x) T∞ sume that no mass transfer occurs or can x be neglected and the main mechanism is x heat transfer. 7 In reality this assumption is correct only in a certain range. this author Master thesis is extension Higbie’s equation. DIFFERENTIAL ANALYSIS The temperature and mass transfer takT0 ing place which reduces (or increases) the thickness of the ﬁlm. For this example.b) + =0 ∂x ∂y At ﬁrst.d) into the governing equation results in ∂Uy ρ α ∂F (x) = (ρ0 − ρ∞ ) ∂y Ux ∂x (8. however it can be considered as steady state. it can be assumed that the material moves with the belt in the x direction in the same velocity. Calculate the ﬁlm velocity ﬁeld if the density is a function of the temperature.II.d) Substituting this relationship in equation (8.238 CHAPTER 8. The solution is similar to the previous Example 8.II. the discussion about this point is beyond the scope of this section.c) Where Ux is the belt velocity. ∂ρ α ∂F (x) = (ρ0 − ρ∞ ) ∂x Ux ∂x (8.b) can be written as Ux ∂ρ ∂ (ρ Uy ) =− ∂x ∂y (8.

Assume that the density is constant and calculate the vertical velocity (y component) for the following x velocity component.II. For the second part equation (8. Solution The ﬂow ﬁeld must comply with the mass conservation (8.19) is applicable and used as ∂ a x2 + b y 2 (m ex+y ) ∂ Uy (m ex+y ) + =0 ∂x ∂y (8.8. Uy = − 2 a x + f (x) = −2 x y + f (x) (8.III. MASS CONSERVATION The density is expressed by equation (8.III.2.a) Equation (8.III. assume the density is also a function of the location in the form of ρ = m ex+y Where m is constant. The velocity. Notice the symmetry of the situation.f) Notice that ρ could “come” out of the derivative (why?) and move into the RHS.c) is an ODE with constant coeﬃcients.b) (8. Ux = a x2 + b y 2 Next.d) The integration constant in this case is not really a constant but rather an arbitrary function of x.II.e) .III.20) thus 2ax + ∂Uy =0 ∂y (8.3: The velocity in a two dimensional ﬁeld is assumed to be in a steady state. Applying the boundary condition Uy (t = 0) = 0 results in Uy = α ∂F (x) (ρ0 − ρ∞ ) y ρ(x) Ux ∂x End Solution (8. It can be noted that x should be treated as a constant parameter for the y coordinate integration. Ux has also arbitrary function in the y component.g) Example 8.II. Thus.III. Calculate the velocity ﬁeld in this case.III.a) and thus Uy = α ∂F (x) (ρ0 − ρ∞ ) y + c ρ Ux ∂x 239 (8.c) (8.

240 CHAPTER 8.c) . Is the ﬂow is incompressible? Is the ﬂow in a steady state condition? Solution Whether the solution is in a steady state or not can be observed from whether the velocity contains time component. this ﬂow ﬁeld is not steady state since it contains time componnet.h) is Uy = c e−y (see for an explanation in the appendix).j) (8.III.III.III.a) in the ﬂow ﬁeld. This continuity equation is checked if the ﬂow incompressible (constant density).f) a ∂y The exponent can be canceled to further simplify the equation (8.g) ∂y a Equation (8.f) and switching sides to be ∂ Uy b + Uy = −a 2 x + x2 + y 2 (8.4: Can the following velocities co-exist Ux = (x t) z 2 Uy = (x t) + (y t) + (z t) Uz = (x t) + (y t) + (z t) (8.III.III.IV. The private solution is Uy |private = −b y 2 − 2 y + 2 − a x2 − 2 a x The total solution is Uy = c e−y + −b y 2 − 2 y + 2 − a x2 − 2 a x (8. The derivative of each componnet are ∂Ux = t2 z ∂x ∂Uy =t ∂y ∂Uz =t ∂z (8.III.III.IV.III.b) Hence the gradient or the combination of these derivatives is U = t2 z + 2 t (8.IV. The homogeneous equation is ∂ Uy + Uy ∂y =0 (8.h) The solution for (8.g) is a ﬁrst order ODE that can be solved by combination of the homogeneous solution with the private solution (see for an explanation in the Appendix). DIFFERENTIAL ANALYSIS Taking the derivative of the ﬁrst term while moving the second part to the other side results in ∂ Uy b a 2 x + x2 + y 2 ex+y = − ex+y + Uy (8. Thus.i) End Solution Example 8.

This ﬂow can exist only for a limit time since over time the divergence is unbounded (a source must exist). is a function of x results of ∂ρ 5 α y ∂ρ = −ρ x e5 α y (cos (α t)) − e (cos (α t)) ∂t ∂x Equation (8.5: Find the density as a function of the time for a given one dimensional ﬂow with Ux = x e5 α y (cos (α t)).V.f) (8.V.a) Mathematically speaking.V. ρ. if it exist. these physical components are ignored for academic reasons.V. ∂Ux = e5 α y (cos (α t)) ∂x (8.a) and noticing that the density.V.b) Substituting equation (8.2.V.V.e) . this kind of presentation is possible.a) is ﬁrst order partial diﬀerential equation which can be converted to an ordinary diﬀerential equations when the velocity component. Hence.b) into equation (8. Ux .V. MASS CONSERVATION 241 The divergence isn’t zero thus this ﬂow.V. Using.d) A possible solution is when the left and the right hand sides are equal to a constant. the mass conservation is reduced only for one dimensional form as ∂ρ ∂ (Ux ρ) + =0 ∂t ∂x (8. is substituted. End Solution Example 8.c) 1 ∂ρ ∂ρ 5 α y = −ρ x e5 α y − e cos (α t) ∂t ∂x (8.V. In this problem.e) is reduced to ODE and its solution is ρ= c1 sin (α t) + c2 α (8. The initial density is ρ(t = 0) = ρ0 . However physically there are velocity components in y and z directions. Equation (8. Solution This problem is one dimensional unsteady state and for a compressible substance. must be compressible ﬂow.8.V. In that case the left hand side is 1 ∂ρ = c1 cos (α t) ∂t The solution of equation (8.c) can be separated to yield f (t) f (y) (8.

22) . c3 . The solution of (8.V.21) Where Φ is the total quantity of the system which has a volume V and a surface area of A which is a function of time. The total amount of quantity that exist in arbitrary system is Φ= sys φ ρ dV (8.k) Where the constant.j) by (8.g) The term e5 α y is always positive.242 CHAPTER 8.h) is given by impossible solution √ 2 x i π i c3 erf √x (8. End Solution 8. is an arbitrary function of the y coordinate.V.i) ρ = e− 2 2 √ c− 2 which indicates that the solution is a complex number thus the constant.V. must be zero and thus the constant. DIFFERENTIAL ANALYSIS The same can be done for the right hand side as ρ x e5 α y + ∂ρ 5 α y e = c1 ∂x (8. c1 vanishes as well and the solution contain only the homogeneous part and the private solution is dropped ρ = c2 e− x2 2 (8.V.V.V. c2 .h) ρx + = 5 α y = c3 ∂x e Equation (8. vector or tensor. real value.h) is a constant coeﬃcients ﬁrst order ODE which its solution discussed extensively in the appendix. A change with time is D DΦ = Dt Dt φ ρ dV sys (8.g) becomes ∂ρ c1 (8.V.1 Generalization of Mathematical Approach for Derivations In this section a general approach for the derivations for conservation of any quantity e. t).3 Conservation of General Quantity 8. z. and independent of y thus equation (8.3. y. are presented. scalar.f) transfered to ρ = c2 e− x2 2 c1 sin (α t) + c2 α (8.V.g.j) The solution is the multiplication of equation (8.V. Suppose that the property φ is under a study which is a function of the time and location as φ(x.V.

8.3.27) 8.33)) yields D Dt φ ρ dV = sys 243 d dt φ ρ dV + cv A ρ φ U · dA (8.2. For an inﬁnitesimal control volume the change is DΦ ∼ = Dt d (φ ρ) + dt dV · (ρ φ U ) dx dy dz (8.3.3.28) 8 These integrals are related to RTT.23) yields D Dt φ ρ dV = sys d dt φ ρ dV + cv cv · (ρ φ U ) dV (8.26) The deﬁnition of equation (8.24) Substituting equation (8.25) Since the volume of the control volume remains independent of the time. .2 8.24) into equation (8.21) LHS can be changed to simply the derivative of Φ. the derivative can enter into the integral and thus combining the two integrals on the RHS results in D Dt φ ρ dV = sys cv d (φ ρ) + dt · (ρ φ U ) dV (8. CONSERVATION OF GENERAL QUANTITY Using RTT to change the system to a control volume (see equation (5. In that case which is equal to zero as φ d 1 ρ dV φ dx dy dz = 0 ρ 1 U + · dt - = Dρ Dt (8. Basically the divergence theorem relates the ﬂow out (or) in and the sum of the all the changes inside the control volume. The integral is carried over arbitrary system.1 Examples of Several Quantities The General Mass Time Derivative DΦ Dt Using φ = 1 is the same as dealing with the mass conservation. the volume integral can be changed to the surface integral) as ρ φ U · dA = A V · (ρ φ U ) dV (8.23) The last term on the RHS can be converted using the divergence theorem (see the appendix8 ) from a surface integral into a volume integral (alternatively.

y. and t). (x.244 Using equation (8. y. z.31) Equation (8. A ﬂuid particle velocity is a function of the location and time.29) ·U = 0 (8.32) The velocity components are a function of four variables. x. t) i + Uy (x. z. and hence =1 Ux Uy Uz D Ux ∂ Ux d t ∂ Ux d x ∂ U x d y ∂ U x d z = + + + Dt ∂t d t ∂x d t ∂y d t ∂z d t The acceleration in the x can be written as D Ux ∂ Ux ∂ Ux ∂ Ux ∂ Ux ∂ Ux U = + Ux + Uy + Uz = + (U · Dt ∂t ∂x ∂y ∂z ∂t ) Ux (8. it can be written that U (x.30) Equation (8.21) leads to CHAPTER 8. z. y. The substantial derivative represents the change rate of the density at a point which moves with the ﬂuid.36) .33) (8.30) can be further rearranged so derivative of the density is equal the divergence of velocity as substantial derivative 1 ρ ∂ρ +U ∂t ·ρ =− ·U (8. z. y. t) k Therefor the acceleration will be U d Uy d Uz DU d Ux i+ j+ = k Dt dt dt dt (8.35) The same can be developed to the other two coordinates which can be combined (in a vector form) as ∂U dU U = + (U · dt ∂t )U (8. Therefore.29) can be rearranged as ∂ρ +U ∂t ·ρ+ρ · (ρ U ) = 0 (8. DIFFERENTIAL ANALYSIS Dρ ∂ρ = 0 −→ + Dt ∂t Equation (8. Acceleration Direct Derivations One of the important points is to ﬁnd the ﬂuid particles acceleration. y.34) (8. t) j + Uz (x.31) relates the density rate of change or the volumetric change to the velocity divergence of the ﬂow ﬁeld. t) = Ux (x. The term in the bracket LHS is referred in the literature as substantial derivative.

39) It also was shown that the pressure has to be continuous. In Cartesian coordinates on surface in the x direction the stresses are τ (x) = τxx τxy τxz (8. This division creates a tensor which the physical meaning will be explained here (the mathematical explanation can be found in the mathematical appendix of the book). MOMENTUM CONSERVATION or in a more explicit form as local acceleration convective acceleration 245 dU ∂U ∂U ∂U ∂U = + U +U +U dt ∂t ∂x ∂y ∂z (8. The area has a direction or orientation which control the results of this division. .8. The reason for this omission is that there is no physical meaning for it9 . So it can be written that F τ = f (F . The ﬂow in a nozzle is an example to ﬂow at steady state but yet has acceleration which ﬂow with a very low velocity can achieve a supersonic ﬂow. 8.38) It was shown that in a static case (or in better words.40) where τxx is the stress acting on surface x in the x direction. The transformation is available because the “standard” surface can be transformed using trigonometrical functions. It can be noticed that no mathematical symbols are written between the components. The notation τ (xi ) is used to denote the stresses on xi surface.37) The time derivative referred in the literature as the local acceleration which vanishes when the ﬂow is in a steady state. when the shear stresses are absent) it was written τ = −P n (8. While the ﬂow is in a steady state there is only convecive acceleration of the ﬂow. these stresses that act on every point and have three components on every surface and depend on the surface orientation. Similar “vectors” exist for the y and z coordinates which can 9 It can be argue that there is physical meaning that does not signiﬁcant to the understanding of the subject. A ) (8. The stress is a relationship between the force and area it is acting on or force divided by the area (division of vector by a vector).4. similarly for τxz . A common approach is to collect the stress in a “standard” orientation and then if needed the stresses can be reorientated to a new direction.4 Momentum Conservation The relationship among the shear stress various components have to be established. and τxy is the stress acting on surface x in the y direction. However.

This matrix is referred to as stress tensor and as it can be observed has nine terms.41) Z Y τn ℵ τnn τnℓ τ τ xx xy τxz τ yx τy y X τyz where δAy is the surface area of the tetrahedron in the y direction. The transformation matrix is then n·i ·i ℵ·i Fx Fy = n · j (8. These relationships provide the transformation for the diﬀerent orientations which depends only angles of the orientations. If the ﬁrst derivative is neglected (tetrahedron is without acceleration) the two sides are related as −τyx δAy − τxx δAx − τzx δAz = δAn τnn n · i − τn · i − τnℵℵ · i (8. Stress diagram on a tetrahedron face area of the tetrahedron in the x dishape.45) The same can be done for y and z directions. Here only one will be discussed the same conclustions can be drown on the other direction. . δAx is the surFig.246 be written in a matrix form CHAPTER 8. -8.42) τxy τyy τzy (8.5.5. rection and δAz is the surface area of the tetrahedron in the z direction. The areas are related to each other through angles. The cubical rotation can involve two parts: one distortion and one rotation10 . The opposing forces which acting on the slanted surface in the x direction are Fx = δAn τnn n · i − τn · i − τnℵℵ · i (8. DIFFERENTIAL ANALYSIS τxz τyz τzz τxx τ = τyx τzx Suppose that a straight angle tetrahedron is under stress as shown in Figure 8.44) ·j ℵ · j δAn Fx n·k ·k ℵ·k When the tetrahedron is shrunk to a point relationship of the stress on the two sides can be expended by Taylor series and keeping the ﬁrst derivative. The forces balance in the x direction excluding the slanted surface is Fx = −τyx δAy − τxx δAx − τzx δAz (8. and n are the local unit coordinates on n surface the same can be written in the x. and z directions.43) Where here ℵ. A ﬁnite angular distortion of 10 For inﬁnitesimal change the lines can be approximated as straight. The Symmetry of the Stress Tensor A small liquid cubical has three possible rotation axes.

torque is due to the fact that the body force is not uniform and hence not act through the mass center.5 for moment of inertia.47) The same can be said for τyx for y τyy direction. Diagram to analysis the shear stress speciﬁc location. The moment that creats by this acτyx τ tion can be neglected (the changes are inyy signiﬁcant). for cases that body force.8. -8.4. It can be ignored. The body force can exert tensor. does not.6 is Mz = Izz dθ dt (8. for the derivations in Example 3. The momentum can be assested by the shear stresses which act on it. The normal body force (gravdy τ τxx xy ity) acts through the cubic center of gravity. it is assumed that the external body force exerts a torque GT per unit volume at the Fig. The shear stress at point x is τxy . Balance of momentum around the z direction shown in Figure 8. For example. For simplicity and generality.48) where η is the local coordinate in the y direction stating at y and “mostly used” between y < η < y + dy.46) Where Mz is the cubic moment around the cubic center and Izz 11 is the moment of inertia around that center. y Advance material can be skipped The shear stress in the surface direction potentially can result in the torque due to the change in the shear stress12 . Hence. even though varied. MOMENTUM CONSERVATION 247 inﬁnitesimal cube requires an inﬁnite shear which required for inﬁnite moment. This point is for self convincing since it deals with a “strange” and problematic “animals” of integral of inﬁnitesimal length. The clarity of this analysis can τyx be improved if additional terms are taken. such as the magnetic ﬁelds.6. However. but provided to those who wonder why body forces can contribute to the torque while pressure. τxx at x can be expended as a linear function τxx = τxx |y + dτxx dy η y (8. However. 12 This 11 See . the shear stress at point x + dx is τxy |x+dx = τxy + dτxy dx dx (8. the rotation of the inﬁnitesimal ﬂuid cube can be viewed as it is done almost as a solid body rotation. yet it turn out that the results will be τxy τxx the same. point bother this author in the completeness of the proof. can credx x ate torque.

248 The moment that results from this shear force (clockwise positive) is y+dy CHAPTER 8. The gravity is a body force that is considered in many kind of calculations and this force cause a change in symmetry of the stress 13 The index notation is not the main mode of presentation in this book. For the case of GT = 0 the stress tensor becomes symmetrical.6).50) x The integral of (8. z and the j is any of the other x.52) which means since that dx −→ 0 and dy −→ 0 that GT + τxy = τyx (8.49) results y+dy y τxx |y + dτxx dy η y τyy (8. metrical function around the center of integration).51) 2 2 dθ dt dx dy dz 2 = ρ dx dy dz (dx) + (dy) The actual components which contribute to the moment are ∼ =0 (dx)2 + (dy)2 =0 GT + τxy − τxy + ∂ (τyx − τxy ) =ρ ∂y 12 dθ dt (8. z 13 . However.” . It is believed that this notation should and can be used only after the physical meaning was “digested.54) where i is one of x. End Advance material The net torque in the z-direction around the particle’s center would then be (τyx ) dx dy dz − 2 τxy + τyx + ∂τxy ∂x ∂τxy ∂x dx dy dz 2 + (τxy ) dx dy dz − 2 Izz (8.7. since Potto Project books are used extensively and numerous people asked to include this notation it was added. y. The reason that this term is neglected because on the other face of the cubic contributes an identical term but in the opposing direction (see Figure 8.50) isn’t zero (non symFig.49) y η dy dx dη η− dy 2 Substituting (8. DIFFERENTIAL ANALYSIS τyy τxx (η) y η− dy 2 dη (8. y.48) into (8. -8. The shear stress creating torque.53) This analysis can be done on the other two directions and hence the general conclusion is that GT + τij = τji (8.

11) is also applicable for the small inﬁnitesimal cubic. . One direction of the vector equation will be derived for x Cartesian coordinate (see Figure 8. For surface forces that acting on the cubic are surface forces.5 Derivations of the Momentum Equation τzz + ∂τzz dz ∂z ∂τ y y + ∂ y dy τ yy Z τxz τxx τxy τxx + τxz + τxy + ∂τxz dx ∂x ∂τxx dx ∂x τyy ∂τxy dx ∂x y τzz x Fig.8. -8.8.8). and internal forces. this change.57) the Dimensional Analysis a discussion about this eﬀect hopefully will be presented. The surface forces in x direction on the x surface on are dAx dAx fxx = τxx |x+dx × dy dz − τxx |x × dy dz 14 In (8. The body force that acting on inﬁnitesimal cubic in x direction is i · f B = f B x dx dy dz (8. gravitation forces (body forces). The shear stress at diﬀerent surfaces.56) The dot product yields a force in the directing of x.55) 8.5.11) is equivalent to Newton second law for ﬂuids. Previously it was shown that equation (6. for almost all practical purposes. can be neglected14 . Later Newton second law will be used and generalized. Equation (6. DERIVATIONS OF THE MOMENTUM EQUATION 249 tensor. All shear stress shown in surface x and x + dx. If the body forces eﬀect is neglected or do not exist in the problem then regardless the coordinate system orientation τij = τji (i = j) (8. The magnetic body forces on the other hand are signiﬁcant and have to be included in the calculations. However.

63) Advance material can be skipped Generally the component momentum equation is as ρ DUi = Dt ∂τii ∂τji ∂τki + + ∂i ∂j ∂j End Advance material + ρ fG i (8.62) The same can be obtained for the z component ρ DUz = Dt ∂τxz ∂τyz ∂τzz + + ∂x ∂y ∂z + ρ fG z (8.61) equivalant equation (8.58) The same can be written for the z direction.58) transformed into internal forces surface forces body forces DUx & & ρ& & = dx dy dz Dt ∂τxx ∂τyx ∂τzx + + ∂x ∂y ∂z & & & & dx dy dz dx dy dz & & + fG x ρ & & (8.250 CHAPTER 8.59) where i in this case is x. Hence. Equation (8.64) Where i is the balance direction and j and k are two other coordinates. the total net surface force results from the shear stress in the x direction is fx = ∂τyx ∂τzx ∂τxx + + ∂x ∂y ∂z dx dy dz (8. or z. The advantage of the vector from allows the usage of the diﬀerent coordinates.57) and (8.65) . y.64) can be written in a vector form which combined all three components into one equation.60) after rearrangement equations such as (8. DIFFERENTIAL ANALYSIS The surface forces in x direction on the y surface on are dAy dAy fxy = τyx |y+dy × dx dz − τyx |y × dx dz (8. The shear stresses can be expanded into Taylor series as τix |i+di = τix + ∂ (τix ) di + · · · ∂i i (8.61) for y coordinate is ρ DUy = Dt ∂τxy ∂τyy ∂τzy + + ∂x ∂y ∂z + ρ fG y (8. The vector form is ρ U DU = Dt · τ (i) + ρ fG (8.

9). Further. Control volume at t and t + dt unsult is a continuous deformation. At time t. At time t + dt the control volume undergoes three diﬀerent changes. the control volume is at a square shape and at a location as depicted in Figure 8.der continuous angle deformation. there is no left over stresses (In other words when the “no shear stress” situation exist the rate of deformation or strain is zero). reduction of the shear stress does three combinations of the deformation shown by purple color relative to blue color.63) requires that the stress tensor be deﬁned = + + in term of the velocity/deformaiton. rotates and changes the shape (the purpule color in in Figure 8. Or in index (Einstein) notation as ρ DUi ∂τji = + ρ fG i Dt ∂xi 251 (8.9 (by the blue color).8. Notice the more. when applying the shear stress in ﬂuids.66) End Advance material Equations (8.Fig. -8. the shear stress yields a ﬁx amount of deformation. In solid material. the simplest model is asdt y ∂x @t C A sumed which referred as the solid continA Uxdt uum model.61) or (8. not return the material to its original state as in solids.9. In contrast. b. The control volume moves to a new location. In this model the relationship bewtween the (shear) stresses and x 45◦ rate of strains are assumed to be linear. y. As engineers ∂Uy Uy dt U + do in general. or z.5. a linear relationship exist between the shear stress and the rate of shear strain. Additionally.62) or (8. The translational movement is referred to a movement of body without change of the body and without rotation. The relationship between the stress tensor and ∂Uy U + dt y y ∂y deformation depends on the classes of maD terials the stresses acts on. DERIVATIONS OF THE MOMENTUM EQUATION where here τ (i) = τix i + τiy j + τiz k is part of the shear stress tensor and i can be any of the x. Thus this “solid” model is a linear relationship with three main assumptions: y’ a. There is no preference in the orientation (also call isentropic ﬂuid). B @ t + dt the deformation can be viewed as a function of the velocity ﬁeld. the re. and c. The similarity to solids the increase shear stress in ﬂuids yields larger deformations. The rotation is the second movement that referred to a change in of the relative orientation inside x’ .

at this stage.10.9).69) where. τxy = µ Dγxy =µ Dt dUy dUx + dx dy B (8. The third change is the misconﬁguration or control volume (deformation). the relationship for the two of stress tensor parts was established.72) not marked as important equation this equation is the source of the derivation.252 CHAPTER 8. It can be noticed at this stage. In general equation (8.67) The total angle deformation (two sides x and y) is Dγxy dUy dUx = + Dt dx dy dU (8. The deformation of the control volume has several components (see the top of Figure 8. Shear stress at Note that the viscosity coeﬃcient (the linear coeﬃcient16 ) is assumed to be the same regardless of the direction. Advance material can be skipped two coordinates in 45◦ orientations. is the diagonal component which to be dealt below. The shear stress is related to the change in angle of the control volume lower left corner.68) In these derivatives. . µ is the “normal” or “ordinary” viscosity coeﬃcient which relates the linear coeﬃcient of proportionality and shear stress.70) D y τxx τxy A τx y ’ ’ τx x ’ ’ C τyx τyy x and for the directions of y z as τyz = µ Dγyz =µ Dt dUz dUy + dy dz y’ (8. This deformation angle coeﬃcient is assumed to be a property of the ﬂuid. the symmetry dxy = dUx was not assumed and or required because dy rotation of the control volume. This assumption is referred as isotropic viscosity. However. DIFFERENTIAL ANALYSIS the control volume. ﬁrst assumption was mentioned above. In a similar fashion it can be written to other directions for x z as τxz Dγxz =µ =µ Dt dUz dUx + dx dz (8.69) can be written as τij = µ 15 While 16 The Dγij =µ Dt dUj dUi + di dj x’ 45◦ (8. The angle between x to the new location of the control volume can be approximate for a small angle as dγx = tan dt Uy + dUy dx dx − Uy dx = tan dUy dx ∼ dUy = dx (8.71) Fig. -8. For the assumption of a linear ﬂuid15 . under isentropic material it is assumed that all the shear stresses contribute equally. The only missing thing.

75) from (8. The dx is constructed so it equals to dy. The normal shear stress relates to the change in the diagonal line length change. The force balance in the x’ is Ax cos θx dy τxx √ 1 1 1 1 √ + dx τyy √ + dx τyx √ + dy τxy √ = dx 2 τx’x’ 2 2 2 2 Ay cos θy Ay cos θy Ax cos θy Ax’ (8.11(a) depicts the deformations of the triangular particles between time t and t + dt.9) in the control volume move to the new locations. Figure 8. It can be noticed √ that “dx’” surface is 2 times larger than dx and dy surfaces. y. z) appears in the shear matrix diagonal.73) dividing by dx and after some rearrangements utilizing the identity τxy = τyx results in τxx + τyy + τyx = τx’x’ 2 Setting the similar analysis in the y’ results in τxx + τyy − τyx = τy’y’ 2 Subtracting (8. y’) frame.74) Equation (8.x.10.76) becomes τyx = 1 (τx x − τy’y’ ) 2 ’’ (8.5. the sides AB and AC rotate in unequal amount which make one diagonal line longer and one diagonal line shorter. The diagonal lines (line BC and line AD in Figure 8. .75) (8.8. the shear stresses are acting in this direction.76) (8. y coordinates). End Advance material 253 Normal Stress The normal stress.74) results in 2 τyx = τx’x’ − τy’y’ or dividing by 2 equation (8.76) relates the diﬀerence between the normal shear stress and the normal shear stresses in x’.77) (8. For example. The angular strain rate in the (x. This relationship can be obtained by changing the coordinates orientation as depicted by Figure 8. y) is frame related to the strain rates in the (x’. y’ coordinates) and the angular strain rate in the regular (x. In addition. DERIVATIONS OF THE MOMENTUM EQUATION where i = j and i = x or y or z. τii (where i is either . The forces acting in the direction of x’ on the ellement are combination of several terms. To ﬁnd the main (or the diagonal) stress the coordinates are rotate by 45◦ . The linear deformations in the x’ and y’ directions which is rotated 45◦ relative to the x and y axes can be expressed in both coordinates system. on the “x” surface (lower surface) and the “y” (left) surface.

Hence. c. It ◦ can be approximated that the change is about 45 because changes are inﬁnitesimally small. cos 45◦ or sin 45◦ times the change contribute as ﬁrst approximation to change. b.11. in both sides (d/dx+b/dy) which in turn is related to combination of the two sides angles. and d in the Figure are related to the incremental linear strains. The rate of strain in the x direction is c (8.80) Here.78) d x= dx The rate of the strain in y direction is d y = a dx (8. The change in the hypotenuse length is (c + b) + (a + d) . Fig.11(b)).254 b CHAPTER 8. Diﬀerent triangles deformation for the calculations of the normal stress. the ratio strain in the x’ direction is 2 2 d x’ = (c + b) + (a + d) √ 2dx (c + b) (c + b) √ + √ + f (dx’) 2 √ 2 2dx ∼0 (8. The linear strain in the x direction can be computed by observing Figure 8.79) The total change in the deformation angle is related to tan θ. -8. d x is the linear strain (increase in length divided by length) of the particle in the x direction. The original length of the √ 2 2 hypotenuse 2dx. Thus. and d y is its linear strain in the y-direction. The small deformations a . The linear angular deformation in xy direction is dγxy = b+d dx (8.81) . x (b) Deformation of the straight angle triangle. DIFFERENTIAL ANALYSIS b y’ y x’ a 45◦ y a d+a c+b d c 45◦ y’ x’ x (a) Deformations of the isosceles triangular.11(b). The hypotenuse of the triangle is oriented in the x’ direction (again observe Figure 8.

88) (8.12. Dashed squares denotes the movement without the linear change.86) From equation (8.79).87) y’ Uy’ + ∂Uy ’ ’ dy dt ∂y ’ Uy’dt ∂Ux ’ ’ Ux ’ + dx dt ∂x ’ x’ The same way it can written for the y’ coordinate. -8.84) describing in Lagrangian coordinates a single particle.8. Fig. and (8.12 depicts the approximate linear deformation of the element.86) can be continued and replaced as D y’ 1 D x’ − = (τx x − τy’y’ ) Dt Dt 2µ ’ ’ Figure 8.76) τxy be substituted and equation (8.81) can be interpreted as (using equations (8.82) In the same fashion.78).84) Equation (8. (8. the strain in y’ coordinate can be interpreted to be d y’ = 1 (d 2 y +d y − dγxy ) (8. .82) with equation (8.84) into D y’ Dγxy D x’ − = Dt Dt Dt (8.83) results in d x’ −d y’ = dγxy (8. Linear strain of the element purD y’ ∂Uy’ = Dt ∂y’ (8.69) it can be observed that the right hand side of equation (8.83) Notice the negative sign before dγxy .80)) as d x’ = 1 2 a+b+c+d dx = 1 (d 2 y +d y + dγxy ) (8.85) From (8.85) can be replaced by τxy /µ to read D x’ D y’ τxy − = Dt Dt µ (8.5. The linear deformation is the diﬀerence between the two sides as D x’ ∂Ux’ = Dt ∂x’ (8. Combining equation (8. DERIVATIONS OF THE MOMENTUM EQUATION 255 Equation (8. Changing it to the Eulerian coordinates transforms equation (8.89) ple denotes t and blue is for t + dt.

141.88) and (8.88) can be written in the y’ and is similar by substituting the coordinates.96) identical only in the limits to the mechanical measurements. . It can be shown that this two deﬁnitions are “identical” in the limits18 .95) Again where Pm Mechanical Pressure τxx + τyy + τzz Pm = − 3 17 It 18 G.92) transforms it into 3 τx’x’ = τx’x’ + τy’y’ + τz’z’ + 6 µ ∂Ux’ − 2µ ∂x’ ∂Ux’ ∂Uy’ ∂Uz’ + + ∂x’ ∂y’ ∂z’ (8.94) can be written as ∂Ux + ∂x is the mechanical pressure and is τxx = −Pm + 2 µ 2 µ ·U 3 deﬁned as (8. Cambridge University Press.89) changes into τx’x’ − τy’y’ = 2µ ∂Ux’ ∂Uy’ − ∂x’ ∂y’ (8. With this deﬁnition and noticing that the coordinate system x’–y’ has no special signiﬁcance and hence equation (8. DIFFERENTIAL ANALYSIS Equation (8. p. In situations where the main diagonal terms of the stress tensor are not the same in all directions (in some viscous ﬂows) this property can be served as a measure of the local normal stress.91) Adding equations (8.93) Dividing the restuls by 3 so that one can obtained the following “mechanical” pressure τx’x’ = 2 ∂Ux’ τx’x’ + τy’y’ + τz’z’ − µ +2 µ 3 ∂x’ 3 ∂Uy’ ∂Uz’ ∂Ux’ + + ∂x’ ∂y’ ∂z’ (8. The mechanical pressure can be deﬁned as averaging of the normal stress acting on a inﬁnitesimal sphere. 1967. An Introduction to Fluid Mechanics. The rate of strain relations can be substituted by the velocity and equations (8. (8.94) must be valid in any coordinate system thus equation (8. Batchelor. K.92) rearranging equation (8. For example in y’–z’ plan one can obtained τx’x’ − τz’z’ = 2µ ∂Uz’ ∂Ux’ − ∂x’ ∂z’ (8.94) The “mechanical” pressure. This pressure is a true scalar value of the ﬂow ﬁeld since the propriety is averaged or almost17 invariant to the coordinate transformation. Pm .90) Similar two equations can be obtained in the other two plans.90) and (8.256 CHAPTER 8. is deﬁned as the (negative) average value of pressure in directions of x’–y’–z’.91) results in 2 4 (3 − 1) τx’x’ − τy’y’ − τz’z’ = (6 − 2) µ ∂Ux’ − 2µ ∂x’ ∂Uy’ ∂Uz’ + ’ ∂y ∂z’ (8.

The linkage between the stress in the rotated coordinates to the deformation was established.98) Advance material can be skipped or index notation 2 τij = − Pm + µ 3 ·U δij + µ ∂Ui ∂Uj + ∂xj ∂xi (8.2. it will be provide before version 0.101) 19 Since the publishing the version 0.99) End Advance material where δij is the Kronecker delta what is δij = 1 when i = j and δij = 0 otherwise. However. it does not add any additional information. With God help.72). While this expression has the advantage of compact writing. Second Viscosity Coeﬃcient The coeﬃcient 2/3µ is experimental and relates to viscosity.97) ·U δxy +µ ∂Ux ∂Uy + ∂x ∂y (8. Commonality engineers like to combined the two diﬀerence expressions into one as τxy or τxx 2 = − Pm + µ 3 =1 2 = − Pm + µ 3 =0 ·U δxy +µ ∂Ux ∂Uy + ∂y ∂x (8. this association was established.1 . This expression suggests a new deﬁnition of the thermodynamical pressure is Thermodynamic Pressure 2 P = Pm + µ · U (8. if the derivations before were to include additional terms.61) the relationship between the stress tensor and the velocity were to be established.3. DERIVATIONS OF THE MOMENTUM EQUATION 257 It can be observed that the non main (diagonal) terms of the stress tensor are represented by an equation like (8. To reduced one unknown (the shear stress) equation (8. Using the coordinates transformation. First.5.0 several people ask this author to summarize conceptually the issues. This correction results in P = Pm + λ ·U (8. connection between τxy and the deformation was built.8. an additional correction will be needed. Then the association between normal stress and perpendicular stress was constructed.9.100) 3 Summary of The Stress Tensor The above derivations were provided as a long mathematical explanation19 .

Thus. For complex liquids this coeﬃcient. In material such as water. is τxy = τyx = ∂Uy ∂Ux + ∂x ∂y · U = 0. Clearly for incompressible ﬂow.103). can be over 100 times larger than µ. Equation (8. λ.” Here the term bulk viscosity will be adapted. τxy . neglecting this eﬀect results in τij = −P δij + µ ∂Ui ∂Uj + ∂xj ∂xi (8. is similar to the viscosity µ. The physical meaning of · U represents the relative volume rate of change. it can be written for spesiﬁc coordinates. λ. For simple gas (dilute monatomic gases) it can be shown that λ vanishes.101) can be written in terms of the thermodynamic pressure P . DIFFERENTIAL ANALYSIS The value of λ is obtained experimentally.106) 20 The reason that the eﬀect vanish is because .According to second law of thermodynamic derivations (not shown here and are under construction) demonstrate that λ must be positive. for the τxx it can be written that τxx = −P + 2 and the y coordinate the equation is τyy = −P + 2 however the mix stress. The expansion rate of change and the ﬂuid molecular structure through λ control the diﬀerence.102) The signiﬁcance of the diﬀerence between the thermodynamic pressure and the mechanical pressure associated with ﬂuid dilation which connected by · U . this coeﬃcient or the whole eﬀect is vanished20 . For example. ∂Ux ∂x (8. λ is large (3 times µ) but the net eﬀect is small because in that cases · U −→ 0. the total eﬀect of the dilation on the ﬂow is very small. The dimension of the bulk viscosity.105) (8. Only in micro ﬂuids and small and molecular scale such as in shock waves this eﬀect has some signiﬁcance. In fact this eﬀect is so insigniﬁcant that there is diﬃculty in to construct experiments so this eﬀect can be measured. In most cases.103) To explain equation (8. The thermodynamic pressure always tends to follow the mechanical pressure during a change. as τij = − P + 2 µ−λ 3 · U δij + µ ∂Ui ∂Uj + ∂xj ∂xi (8. This coeﬃcient is referred in the literature by several terms such as the “expansion viscosity” “second coeﬃcient of viscosity” and “bulk viscosity.258 CHAPTER 8.104) ∂Uy ∂y (8.

thus equation (8.108) is reduced to 2 U +fB (8. substitute equation (8.108) Momentum for Incompressible Flow ρ U DU =− P +µ Dt 2 U +fB (8.61) which results −λ ∂x ·U ∂ 2 Ux ∂ 2 Ux ∂ 2 Ux + + ∂x2 ∂y 2 ∂z 2 +µ f +f B x (8.111) The momentum equation in Cartesian coordinate can be written explicitly for x coordinate as ρ ∂Ux + ∂t ∂Ux ∂Ux ∂Ux + Uy + Uz = ∂x ∂y ∂z 2 2 ∂ Ux ∂ Ux ∂ 2 Ux ∂P − +µ + + ∂x ∂x2 ∂y 2 ∂z 2 Ux (8. DERIVATIONS OF THE MOMENTUM EQUATION in ρ DUx Dt =− ∂ P+ 2 3µ 259 For the total eﬀect.107) or in a vector form as N-S in stationary Coordinates U 1 DU =− P + µ+λ ( ·U) + µ ρ Dt 3 For in index form as ρ D Ui ∂ =− Dt ∂xi P+ 2 µ−λ 3 ·U + ∂ ∂xj µ ∂Ui ∂Uj + ∂xj ∂xi + f Bi (8. In the y coordinate the momentum equation is ρ ∂Uy + ∂t Ux ∂Uy ∂Uy ∂Uy + Uy + Uz = ∂x ∂y ∂z ∂2v ∂2v ∂2v ∂P +µ + 2 + 2 + ρgy − 2 ∂y ∂x ∂y ∂z (8.8.109) For incompressible ﬂow the term · U vanishes.112) + ρgx Where gx is the the body force in the x direction (i · g ).102) into equation (8.113) .5.110) or in the index notation it is written ρ D Ui ∂P ∂ 2U =− +µ + f Bi Dt ∂xi ∂xi ∂xj (8.

t where n is referred to the area direction (perpendicular to the area see Figure 8. The slip condition (as oppose to “no slip” condition) exist in situations where the scale is very small and the velocity is relatively very small.114) + ρgz 8. The slip condition is dealing with a diﬀerence in the velocity between the solid (or other material) and the ﬂuid media.115) b. DIFFERENTIAL ANALYSIS in z coordinate the momentum equation is ρ ∂Uz + ∂t ∂Uz ∂Uz ∂Uz + Uy + Uz = ∂x ∂y ∂z ∂P ∂ 2 Uz ∂ 2 Uz ∂ 2 Uz − +µ + + 2 2 ∂z ∂x ∂y ∂z 2 Ux (8. or in more general terms as the shear stress conditions (mostly at the interface). For this discussion. 1–Dimensional free surface describing n and (8. pressure (at the interface direction) and shear stress (perpendicular to the area). In another view. it is more common to write this condition as a given velocity at a certain point such as U( ) = U (8.6 Boundary Conditions and Driving Forces 8.115) is given in a vector form. A common velocity condition is that the liquid has the same value as the solid interface velocity. Another condition which aﬀects whether the slip condition ext n ist is how rapidly of the velocity change. The solid surface is rough thus the liquid participles (or molecules) are slowed to be at the solid surface velocity. These conditions described physical situations that are believed or should exist or approximated.116) . -8. Mathematically the “no slip” condition is x written as f (x) y U t · (U f luid − U boundary ) = 0 b Fig. this condition is referred as the “no slip” condition. These conditions can be categorized by the velocity.13).6.13. The slip condition canflow not be ignored in some regions. the diﬀerence in the velocities vanishes as the scale increases. pressure.260 CHAPTER 8. In the literature.1 Boundary Conditions Categories The governing equations that were developed earlier requires some boundary conditions and initial conditions. the shear tensor will be separated into two categories. While this condition (8. This boundary condition was experimentally observed under many conditions yet it is not universal true. The diﬀerence between the small scale and the large scale is that the slip can be neglected in the large scale while the slip cannot be neglected in the small scale. when the ﬂow is with a strong direction velocity ﬂuctuations.

115) can be mathematically represented in another way for free surface conditions. the “no slip” condition is applicable to the ideal ﬂuid (“inviscid ﬂows”) because this kind of ﬂow normally deals with large scales.118) This condition is called the kinematic boundary condition. t) = 0 as the equation which describes the bounding surface. there are situations where the ﬂuid (above one of the sides) should be considered as weightless material. In reality the interface between these two ﬂuids is not a sharp transition but only approximation (see for the surface theory).115) as U t · (U f luid − U boundary ) = f (Q. A jump in the shear stress creates inﬁnite force on the adjoin thin layer. In this book. The ”slip” condition is written in similar fashion to equation (8. the free surface in the two dimensional case is represented as f (t. this condition cannot be tolerated since inﬁnite velocity (acceleration) is impossible. The free surface is a special case of moving surfaces where the surface between two distinct ﬂuids. the jump in a shear stress (without a jump in density) does break a physical law. t) = 0 (8. This condition is expressed mathematically by equating the shear stress diﬀerence to the forces results due to the surface tension. The perpendicular relative velocity at the surface must be zero and therefore Df =0 Dt r on the surface f (r . While a jump in density does not break any physical laws (at least those present in the solution). The jump in shear stress can appear when the density has a jump in density. Furthermore.8. There are situations where the transition should be analyzed as a continuous transition between two phases. scale. The jump in the density (between the two ﬂuids) creates a surface tension which oﬀset the jump in the shear stress. In other cases. this condition will not be discussed (at least not plane to be written). is extremely hard to handle because the location isn’t given but the derivative given on unknown location. y). the transition is idealized an almost jump (a few molecules thickness). In these cases the assumptions are that the transition occurs in a sharp line.6.119) The solution of this condition.120) . sometime. x. The condition becomes as 0= ∂f ∂f ∂f + Ux + Uy ∂t ∂x ∂y (8. To make sure that all the material is accounted for in the control volume (does not cross the free surface). etc) (8. The location of r the (free) moving boundary can be given as f (r . The shear stress diﬀerence is ∆τ (n) = 0 = ∆τ (n) upper − ∆τ (n) lower surface surface (8. For example. the relative perpendicular velocity at the interface must be zero. The condition (8. BOUNDARY CONDITIONS AND DRIVING FORCES 261 Note.117) As oppose to a given velocity at particular point. and the density has a jump while the shear stress are continuous (in some cases continuously approach zero value). Oﬀ course. a requirement on the acceleration (velocity) can be given in unknown position.

One of results of the free surface condition (or in general.123) where 1 is the upper surface and 2 is the lower surface.122) t · τ (t) = −t · where n is the unit normal and t is a unit tangent to the surface (notice that direction pointed out of the “center” see Figure 8. M. it just for completeness and can be ignored for most purposes. DIFFERENTIAL ANALYSIS where the index (n) indicate that shear stress are normal (in the surface area). this constant is determined from the volume conservation. If the surface is straight there is no jump in the shear stress. Anal. The condition with curved surface are out the scope of this book yet mathematically the condition is given as without explanation as n · τ (n) = σ 1 1 + R1 R2 σ (8. the moving surface condition) is that integration constant is unknown). 1) 1 + (f (x)) (1.262 CHAPTER 8. Free surface of the steady ﬂow of a Newtonian ﬂuid in a ﬁnite channel. In same instances. 22 A one example of a reference not in particularly important or signiﬁcant just a random example. Jean. 3. f (x)) 1 + (f (x)) 2 (8. The last condition is similar to the pressure condition of prescribed shear stress or a relationship to it. The static pressure is measured perpendicular to the ﬂow direction. It can be noticed that the boundary conditions that involve the surface tension are of the kind where the condition is given on boundary but no at a speciﬁc location.121) is written21 as τij nj + σ ni (1) 1 1 + R1 R2 = τij nj (2) (8.121) (8.57). Rational Mech. 74 (1980).124) 2 the unit vector is given as two vectors in x and y and the radius is given by equation (1. 197–217. The equation is given by ∂f ∂f + Ux = Uy ∂t ∂x (8. 21 There is no additional beneﬁt in this writing. . In index notation equation (8. In this category include the boundary conditions with issues of surface tension which were discussed earlier. For example in one dimensional22 n= t= (−f (x). Arch.125) The Pressure Condition The second condition that commonality prescribed at the interface is the static pressure at a speciﬁc location. no.13) and R1 and R2 are principal radii.

8. The only (almost) propelling source of the ∂σ ﬂow is the surface gradient ( ∂n ). lamp. -8. The gravity is a common body force which is considered in many ﬂuid mechanics problems. The liquid does not move up due the gravity (actually it is against the gravity) but because the surface tension. The shear stress carry the Fig. It can be noticed that. this eﬀect is not discussed. The physical conditions in Figure 8. Consider.15. the case shown in Figure 8. the contribution due to the curvature is zero in the direction of the ﬂow (see Figure 8. In ﬂuid (mostly liquid) shear stress pulling side (surface) will have limited eﬀect and yet sometime is signiﬁcant and more rarely dominate.14 are used to idealize the ﬂow around an inner rode to understand how to apply the surface tension to the boundary conditions. One radius toward the center of the rode while the other radius is inﬁnite (approximatly). BOUNDARY CONDITIONS AND DRIVING FORCES Gravity as Driving Force 263 The body forces. the velocity at the gradent surface of the inner rode is zero. there are two principal radii of the ﬂow. } } } . In that case. The gravity can be considered as a constant force in most cases (see for dimensional analysis for the reasons).6. The outer diameter is depends on the surT ∂r ∂h face tension (the larger surface tension the smaller the liquid diameter). The ﬂuid surrounds the rode temperature and ﬂows upwards. Kerosene lamp. The boundary condition at outer surface given by a jump of the shear ∂U ∂σ constant = µ stress. material as if part of the material was a solid material. in the kerosene lamp the burning occurs at the surface of the lamp top and the liquid is at the bottom. Shear Stress and Surface Tension as Driving Force If the ﬂuid was solid material. somewhere downstream the temperature gradient is insigniﬁcant. the surface tension gradient remains. In that case. Even in that case. pulling the side will pull all the material. shear stress (including the surface tension) and the pressure.14. However. are the condition that given on the ﬂow beside the velocity. Schematic of kerosene surface tension is result of temperature gradient. The surface tension is a function of the temperature therefore the gradient in Fig. In this book.15). for example. For example. under the assumption presented here.14. The velocity at U(ri) = 0 mix zone the outer surface is unknown. in general and gravity in a particular. -8.

U (The rightside is deﬁned as positive).264 CHAPTER 8. Example 8.128) diﬀerence is measured at the bottom point of the plate. Uℓ y flow direction dy x z Fig. The momentum conservation leads − cv 23 The P dA + cv τ xy dA = 0 (8. -8. Solution In this example. It can concluded that the velocity in and out are the same (for constant density). the ﬂow in and the ﬂow out are equal. the mass conservation yields =0 d dt ρdV = − cv cv ρ Urn dA = 0 (8.7 Examples for Diﬀerential Equation (Navier-Stokes) Examples of an one-dimensional ﬂow driven by the shear stress and pressure are presented. top plate is moving at speed of U to the right (as positive). Further because no change of the momentum thus ρ Ux Urn dA = 0 A (8. The control volume shown in darker colors. Flow between two plates. examples with two phase are presented. The distance between the plates is . For further enhance the understanding some of the derivations are repeated.16).6: Incompressible liquid ﬂows between two inﬁnite plates from the left to the right (as shown in Figure 8. The upper surface is moving in velocity. . example dealing with one phase are present. Later.127) Thus. The static pressure per length is given as ∆P 23 . First.16. DIFFERENTIAL ANALYSIS 8.126) The momentum is not accumulated (steady state and constant density).

The “standard” boundary conditions is non–vanishing pressure gradient (that is the pressure exist) and velocity of the upper or lower surface or both.0 0.25 1.25 Ψ = −0.130) dU d3 U 2 d2 U τ xy = µ dy + dy 2 dy + dy 3 dy + · · · The net eﬀect of these two will be diﬀerence between them µ d2 U dU dU ∼ d2 U + dy − µ = µ 2 dy 2 dy dy dy dy (8.75 Ψ = −0. In that case. .133) Equation (8.75 green line to 3 the blue line.4 0.4 0. the left hand side is equal to constant. It is common to assume that the Fig.5 0.7 0. EXAMPLES FOR DIFFERENTIAL EQUATION (NAVIER-STOKES) 265 The reaction of the shear stress on the lower surface of control volume based on Newtonian ﬂuid is τ xy = −µ dU dy (8.25 Ψ = 2.7.132) A discussion why ∂P ∼ 0 will be presented later.8.25 Ψ = 1. One dimensional ﬂow with a shear “no slip” condition on the boundaries con.8 Ux Uℓ 0.75 Ψ = −1.9 1. -8.between two plates when Ψ change value be1.2 0.112)) results (without gravity eﬀects) in − dP d2 U =µ 2 dx dy (8.0 0.133) was constructed under several assumptions which include the diVelocity distributions in one dimensional ﬂow rection of the ﬂow. No assumption was imposed on the pressure distribution.1 0.133) is a partial diﬀerential equation but can be treated as ordinary diﬀerential equation in the z direction of the pressure diﬀerence is uniform.75 Ψ = 1.8 0.0 y ℓ October 4. Newtonian ﬂuid.131) The assumptions is that there is no pressure diﬀerence in the z direction.25 Ψ = 0.3 0.0 0.17.2 Ψ = −1. The only diﬀerence in the pressure is in the x direction and thus P− P+ dP dx dx =− dP dx dx (8. The momentum equation in the x ∂y direction (or from equation (8. Equation (8.75 Ψ = 0.129) On the upper surface is diﬀerent by Taylor explanation as ∼0 = (8.6 0.6 0.2 0.75 Ψ = 2. 2010 tween -1.

-8. if the plates or the boundary conditions do not move the solution is Ux (y) = What happen when ∂P ∂y dP y 1− U0 2µ dx 2 + y (8.17).134)/ results in =Ψ y 2 dP y y Ux (y) = 1− + U0 2µ dx (8.137) ∼ 0? End Solution r θ dz r θ flow Directi on r z Fig. The problem is still one dimensional because the ﬂow velocity is a function 24 A discussion about the boundary will be presented later. equation (8. However. The boundaries conditions are CHAPTER 8. Cylindrical Coordinates Similarly the problem of one dimensional ﬂow can be constructed for cylindrical coordinates.134) The solution of the “ordinary” diﬀerential equation (8.136) For the case where the pressure gradient is zero the velocity is linear as was discussed earlier in Chapter 1 (see Figure 8. The control volume of liquid element in cylindrical coordinates.18. .133) after the integration becomes Ux = − 1 dP 2 y + c2 y + c3 2 dx (8. DIFFERENTIAL ANALYSIS Ux (y = 0) = 0 Ux (y = ) = U (8.135) Applying the boundary conditions.266 dition24 .

The momentum equation for the control volume depicted in the Figure 8.7.143) (8.145) . The shear stress on the circumferential part small dark blue shown in Figure 8.139) and (8.142) Equation (8.138) The shear stress in the front and back surfaces do no act in the z direction.141) The term Uz+dz 2 − Uz 2 is zero because Uz+dz = Uz because mass conservation conservation for any element. Rederivation are carried out for a short cut.140) Uz Urn dA = − z Uz+dz 2 dA Uz 2 dA =ρ z Uz+dz 2 − Uz 2 dA (8.8. The “no slip” condition is assumed Uz (r = R) = 0 (8.139) Pz + ∂P dz − Pz ∂z π r2 = ∂P dz π r2 ∂z (8.18a is − P dA + τ dA = ρ Uz Urn dA (8. Poiseuille studied the ﬂow in a small diameters (he was not familiar with the concept of Reynolds numbers). EXAMPLES FOR DIFFERENTIAL EQUATION (NAVIER-STOKES) 267 of (only) radius.140) into equation (8.138) results in µ Which shrinks to 2 µ dUz ∂P =− r dr ∂z (8.144) dUz ∂P & & 2&¡ & = − π r dz dz π 2 & &r £ dr ∂z (8. Hence.18a is τ dA = µ The pressure integral is P dA = (Pzd z − Pz ) π r2 = The last term is ρ Uz Urn dA = ρ ρ z+dz dUz 2 π r dz dr dA (8. the last term is ρ Uz Urn dA = 0 Substituting equation (8. This ﬂow referred as Poiseuille ﬂow after Jean Louis Poiseuille a French Physician who investigated blood ﬂow in veins. Thus.144) is a ﬁrst order diﬀerential equation for which only one boundary condition is needed.

-8. it is possible to satisfy the boundary conditions. it has several deﬁciencies which include the ability to incorporate diﬀerent boundary conditions such as ﬂow between concentering cyliders. or z coordinate. Assume that the velocity at the surface of the cylinders is zero calculate the velocity proﬁle.7. That is. the velocity isn’t a function of the angle.148) While the above analysis provides a solution. One of the solution of this problems is one dimensional solution. For this mode. Liquid ﬂow between concentric cylinders for example 8.19. Example 8. DIFFERENTIAL ANALYSIS Where R is the outer radius of pipe or cylinder. Build the velocity proﬁle when the ﬂow is one directional and viscosity is Newtonian. element or function is −f (x) = f (−x) ro flow Directi o ut r in z n . It can be noticed 25 Asymmetrical r θ θ r Fig.147) (8.144) results in Uz = − 1 ∂P 2 r + c1 µ ∂z (8.7: A liquid with a constant density is ﬂowing between concentering cylinders as shown in Figure 8.19. Integrating equation (8. the ﬂow is assumed to be one dimensional. Solution After the previous example. Thus only equation in z coordinate is needed.268 CHAPTER 8. It turn out that the “simple” solution is the ﬁrst mode that appear in reality. The integration constant obtained via the application of the boundary condition which is c1 = − The solution is Uz = 1 ∂P 2 r R 1− µ ∂z R 2 1 ∂P 2 R µ ∂z (8. Calculate the ﬂow rate for a given pressure gradient.146) It can be noticed that asymmetrical element25 was eliminated due to the smart short cut. In fact there is no physical reason why the ﬂow should be only one dimensional. In this solution will be discussing the ﬂow ﬁrst mode. The situation is best suitable to solved in cylindrical coordinates. However. the appropriate version of the Navier–Stokes equation will be used.

c) and integrating results for the second times results ∂Uz 1 ∂P c1 = r+ ∂r 2 µ ∂z r Integration of equation (8.a) required boundary conditions which are Uz (r = ri ) = Uz (r = ro ) = Integrating equation (8.7.VII.b) Dividing equation (8.d) results in Uz = 1 ∂P 2 r + c1 ln r + c2 4 µ ∂z (8.VII.e) (8.d) Applying the ﬁrst boundary condition results in 0= 1 ∂P 2 ri + c1 ln ri + c2 4 µ ∂z (8.f) applying the second boundary condition yields 0= The solution is c1 c2 = 1 ln 4µ 1 ln 4µ ro ri ro ri ∂P ro 2 − ri 2 dz (8.VII.VII.a) once results in r ∂Uz 1 ∂P 2 = r + c1 ∂r 2 µ ∂z (8.g) = .VII.a) The PDE above (8.VII. EXAMPLES FOR DIFFERENTIAL EQUATION (NAVIER-STOKES) 269 that this case is steady state and also the acceleration (convective acceleration) is zero =f (t) =0 ∂U ∂Uz Uφ z + Ur + ρ ∂r r ∂t =0 Uz =f (φ) =0 ∂Uz ∂Uz +Uz =0 ∂φ ∂z (8.VII.VII.c) 0 0 (8.h) ∂P ln(ri ) ro 2 − ln(ro ) ri 2 dz 1 ∂P 2 ro + c1 ln ro + c2 4 µ ∂z (8.149) The steady state governing equation then becames ρ ¡ =0=− 0 ∂P +µ ∂z 1 ∂ r ∂r r ∂Uz ∂r =0 + ··· + $$ ρ gz (8.VII.VII.VII.VII.8.

The second part. (r3 ). The integraion of the rest is Q= 1 ∂P 4 µ ∂z ro ri r2 + ln ro ri ro 2 − ri 2 ln r 2 π r dr (8. Uave = (8.n) ro 2 ln (ro ) ro 2 ri 2 ln (ri ) ri 2 − − + 2 4 2 4 .VII.j) Or substituting equation (8.j) transfomed into Q= A 1 ∂P 2 1 r + ln 4 µ ∂z 4µ ro ri ro ri ∂P ro 2 − ri 2 ln r dz (8.VII.l) results in Q= ln ro ri ro − ri 2 2 π ∂P 2 µ ∂z ro 4 ri 4 − 4 4 + (8. of the second squere bracket.e) results in Uz (r) = 1 1 ∂P 2 r + ln 4 µ ∂z 4µ 1 + ln 4µ The ﬂow rate is then Q= ri ro ri ∂P ro 2 − ri 2 ln r dz (8.VII.i) ro ri ∂P ln(ri ) ro 2 − ln(ro ) ri 2 dz ro Uz (r)dA (8.k) dA 1 + ln 4µ ∂P ln(ri ) ro 2 − ln(ro ) ri 2 dz A ﬁnite intergation of the last term in the integrand results in zero because it is constant. (−a × r ln r) can be done by parts to be as r2 log (r) r2 − a 4 2 Applying all these “techniques” to equation (8.l) The ﬁrst integration of the ﬁrst part of the second squere bracket.m) ro 2 ln (ro ) ro 2 ri 2 ln (ri ) ri 2 − − + 2 4 2 4 Q π (ro 2 − ri 2 ) ro 2 ri 2 + 4 4 The averaged velocity is obtained by dividing ﬂow rate by the area Q/A.VII. DIFFERENTIAL ANALYSIS The solution is when substituting the constats into equation (8. is 1/4 ro 4 − ri 4 .VII.VII.270 CHAPTER 8.VII.VII.VII.VII.150) in which the identy of (a4 − b4 )/(a2 − b2 ) is b2 + a2 and hence Uave = ln ro ri 1 ∂P 2 µ ∂z + (8.i) into equation (8.

1 pump Solution This problem is sutiable to Cartesian coordinates in which x coordinate is pointed in the ﬂow direction and y perpendicular to ﬂow direction (depicted in Figure 8.8. 1957 in Munchen 27 Extensive discussion can be found in this author master thesis.7. the gravity in the x direction is g sin θ while the direction of y the gravity is g cos θ. assume that the y gas density is zero (located outside the liquid domain). 1882 September 1. assume that the ﬂow is two dimeng sin θ θ g cos θ sional. Mass ﬂow due to temperature dimensional in the x direction. Assume that the ﬂow is one Fig. Furthermore. . The dominate force is the gravity. Write the governing equations for this situation. For simplicity. The governing in the x direction is =f (t) =0 =0 −0 ∂U ∂Ux ∂Ux ∂Ux x = ρ + Ux + Uy + Uz ∂x ∂y ∂z ∂t ∼0 =0 =0 g sin θ (8. Comprehensive discussion about this problem can be found this author Master thesis.20. diﬀerence for example 8. This problem study by Nusselt26 which developed the basics equations.a) − ∂ 2 Ux ∂ 2 Ux ∂P ∂ 2 Ux + ρ gx +µ + + ∂x2 ∂x ∂y 2 ∂z 2 26 German mechanical engineer. -8. Calculate the velocity proﬁle. This problem is related to many industrial process and is fundamental in understanding many industrial processes. Assume that “scale” is large x h enough so that the “no slip” condition prevail at the plate (bottom). For this system.20). For this example.20. EXAMPLES FOR DIFFERENTIAL EQUATION (NAVIER-STOKES) 271 End Solution The next example deals with the gravity as body force in two dimensional ﬂow. this analysis is a building bloc for heat and mass transfer understanding27 . Ernst Kraft Wilhelm Nusselt born November 25. Assume that the ﬂow obtains a θ g steady state after some length (and the acceleration vanished).VIII.8: In many situations in nature and many industrial processes liquid ﬂows downstream on inclined plate at θ as shown in Figure 8. Example 8.

f) τair 1 + g sin θ h µ ν µ ρ (8.b) yields ρ ∂Ux = g sin θ y + c1 (8. Hence the pressure at the gas phase is almost constant hence the pressure at the interface in the liquid is constant.c) The boundary at the interface is simpliﬁed to be ∂Ux ∂y = τair (∼ 0) y=0 (8. such a speciﬁc velocity at the surface.a) is reduced to 0=µ ∂ 2 Ux + ρ g sin θ ∂y 2 (8. the governing equation can not be suﬃcient from the mathematical point of view.VIII.VIII.d) as τair Solving for c1 results in c1 = ∂Ux =µ ∂y y = −ρ g sin θ h +c1 µ h (8.VIII.VIII.VIII.b) With boundary condition of “no slip” at the bottom because the large scale and steady state Ux (y = 0) = 0 (8.g) The second integration applying the second boundary condition yields c2 = 0 results in g sin θ τair Ux = 2 y h − y2 − (8.h) ν µ . Thus.d) If there is additional requirement. Fully developed ﬂow means that the ﬁrst term of the velocity Laplacian is zero ( ∂Ux ≡ 0).VIII. The surface has no curvature and hence the pressure at liquid side similar to the gas phase and the only change in liquid is in the y direction.e) ∂y µ The integration constant can be obtain by applying the condition (8. As it will be shown later.VIII. The pressure is almost constant along the x coordinate.VIII. equation (8.VIII. Integration of equation (8.VIII. DIFFERENTIAL ANALYSIS The ﬁrst term of the acceleration is zero because the ﬂow is in a steady state. The last term of the velocity Laplacian is zero because no velocity in ∂x the z direction. The ﬁrst term of the convective acceleration is zero under the assumption of this example ﬂow is fully developed and hence not a function of x (nothing to be “improved”). the pressure loss in the gas phase (mostly air) is negligible.272 CHAPTER 8. The second and the third terms in the convective acceleration are zero because the velocity at that direction is zero (Uy = Uz = 0).

.1 Interfacial Instability sa m e so ve lu loc tio it n y In Example 8.8. Which results in g sin θ 2 h3 τair h Q = − W ν 3 µ The average velocity is then Q g sin θ 2 h2 τair Ux = W = − h ν 3 µ (8. the velocity proﬁle is Ux = The ﬂow rate per unit width is Q = W h 273 g sin θ 2 h y − y2 ν (8.VIII. Two boundary conditions must be satisﬁed at the interface. For the liquid. The ﬂow in the kerosene lamp is depends on the surface tension.VIII.VIII.7.l) (8. 8. the maximum height). the boundary condition of “no air (g y x wa ter (liq as ) uid ) ah h Fig. The vanishing shear stress at the interface was the only requirement was applied.21.9: A simpliﬁed ﬂow version the kerosene lump is of liquid moving up on a solid core. -8.k) Note the shear stress at the interface can be positive or negative and hence can increase or decrease the ﬂow rate and the averaged velocity. Calculate the minimum shear stress that required to operate the lump (alternatively. The ﬂow surface is curved and thus pressure is not equal on both sides of the interface.7.8 no requirement was made as for the velocity at the interface (the upper boundary). End Solution In the following following example the issue of driving force of the ﬂow through curved interface is examined.j) Where W here is the width into the page of the ﬂow.i) Ux dA = A 0 g sin θ τair 2 h y − y2 − ν µ dy (8. Assume that radios of the liquid and solid core are given and the ﬂow is at steady state. EXAMPLES FOR DIFFERENTIAL EQUATION (NAVIER-STOKES) When the shear stress caused by the air is neglected. Example 8. If the air is considered two governing equations must be solved one for the air (gas) phase and one for water (liquid) phase.VIII. Flow of liquid in partially ﬁlled duct.

The solution to the diﬀerential governing equations provides only two constants. the constants c1 and c2 are dimensional which mean that they have physical units (c1 −→ [1/sec] The governing equation in the liquid phase (0 ≥ y ≥ h) is Ux = g sin θ 2 y + c3 y + c4 2ν (8. .VIII. Thus.155) (8. The second domain (the gas phase) provides another equation with two constants but again three boundary conditions need to satisﬁed. These experiments were to study the formation of small and big waves at the interface.153) results in 0= g sin θ 2 h (1 + a)2 + c1 h (1 + a) + c2 2 νg (8. thus current explanation was developed to explain the wavy phenomenon occurs.153) Assuming “no slip” for the liquid at the bottom boundary as Ux (0) = 0 The boundary condition (8.b) and subtitling ν = µ/ρ.274 CHAPTER 8. DIFFERENTIAL ANALYSIS slip” at the bottom surface of liquid must be satisﬁed.151) Note. there is total of three boundary conditions28 to be satisﬁed. The phenomenon is explained by the fact that there is somewhere instability which is transferred into the ﬂow. two of the boundary conditions for these equations are the identical and thus the six boundary conditions are really only 4 boundary conditions.154) (8. The governing equation solution29 for the gas phase (h ≥ y ≥ a h) is Ux g = g sin θ 2 y + c1 y + c2 2 νg (8. the shear stress must be continuous µg ∂Ux g ∂Ux =µ ∂y ∂y (8.156) 28 The author was hired to do experiments on thin ﬁlm (gravity ﬂow). 29 This equation results from double integrating of equation (8. No matter how low ﬂow rate was small and big occurred.152) The gas velocity at the upper interface is vanished thus Ux g [(1 + a) h] = 0 At the interface the “no slip” condition is regularly applied and thus Ux g (h) = Ux (h) Also at the interface (a straight surface). However.157) (8. This explanation bothered this author. The experiments were conducted on a solid concrete laboratory and the ﬂow was in a very stable system.

155) yields ρg ρ 275 (8.156) which leads c4 = 0 Applying equation (8.157) results in g sin θ 2 g sin θ 2 h + c1 h + c2 = h + c3 h 2 νg 2ν Advance material can be skipped (8.161) c1 = − c2 = sin θ g h2 ρg (2 ρg ν ρ + 1) − g h2 ν 2 ρg ν sin θ (g h ρg (2 a ρg ν ρ − 1) − a g h ν ) ρg (2 a ν + 2 ν ) End Advance material c3 = When solving this kinds of mathematical problem the engineers reduce it to minimum amount of parameters to reduce the labor involve.160) is obtained by computer algebra (see in the code) to be sin θ (g h ρg (2 ρg ν ρ + 1) + a g h ν ) ρg (2 a ν + 2 ν ) (8. So equation (8.154) with (8.159) and (8.163) .7.159) 1 2 2 2 νg c1 2 c2 νg + g h sin θ g h2 sin θ (8.8.160) The solution of equation (8. (8.157) transformed by some simple rearrangement to be C1 C2 (1 + a) = And equation (8.159) (8.158) µg µ g sin θ h + c1 µg = g sin θ h + c3 µ νg ν Combining boundary conditions equation(8. EXAMPLES FOR DIFFERENTIAL EQUATION (NAVIER-STOKES) The same can be said for boundary condition (8.162) C1 1 µ 2 µg C3 1+ νg c1 ρ µ νg c3 = + g h sin θ ρg µg g h sin θ (8.157).

164) C1 C2 C3 νg 2 νg c1 2 νg c2 2 νg c3 + 2 − −1= ν h g sin θ h g sin θ g h sin θ (8.167) 2 (8. The ratio of the dynamics viscosity can be eliminated from equation (8.168) to be µg ρ − 1 = C1 + C2 − C3 µ ρg (8.168) (8.170) ρ µ µ µg ρ +a µ ρg µg µg −2 +3 + a2 µ µ µg µ µg −1 −2 µ − C2 = 2 (8.171) C3 = − 30 Later µg ρ + a2 + 2 a + 2 µ ρg (8.162) can be written as (1 + a) = C1 + C2 Further rearranging equation (8.164) Or rearranging equation (8.166) This process that was shown here is referred as non–dimensionalization30 .172) it will be move to the Dimensional Chapter . The solution for the constant is ρg µg µg C1 = − 2 + a2 + 2 a +2 (8.165) This presentation provide similarity and it will be shown in the Dimensional analysis chapter better physical understanding of the situation.163) C1 µ C3 ρ −1= − ρg 2 µg 2 and equation (8.165) νg − 1 = C1 + C2 − C3 ν (8.160) 1+ 2 νg h c1 ¡ 2 h£ CHAPTER 8.276 and equation (8. Equation (8.169) The set of equation can be solved for the any ratio of the density and dynamic viscosity. DIFFERENTIAL ANALYSIS g sin θ + 2 νg c2 νg 2 νg h c3 ¡ = + 2 g sin θ 2 h ν g h£ sin θ (8.

. EXAMPLES FOR DIFFERENTIAL EQUATION (NAVIER-STOKES) 277 The two diﬀerent ﬂuids31 have ﬂow have a solution as long as the distance is ﬁnite reasonable similar. is inﬁnite long.7. The boundary conditions of ﬂow with inﬁnite depth is that ﬂow at the interface is zero. This is one of the source of the instability at the interface.8. The point here the understanding issue related to boundary condition not per se solution of the problem. There is no way obtain one dimensional solution for such case and there is a component in the y direction. Combining inﬁnite size domain of one ﬂuid with ﬁnite size on the other one side results in unstable interface. 31 This topic will be covered in dimensional analysis in more extensively. ﬂow at inﬁnite is zero. The requirement of the shear stress in the inﬁnite is zero as well. mostly the gas. What happen when the lighter ﬂuid.

278 CHAPTER 8. DIFFERENTIAL ANALYSIS .

Furthermore. in many advance ﬂuid mechanics classes Nusselt’s technique is used and Buckingham’s technique is abandoned. there is another technique which is referred to in the literature as the Nusselt’s method. These techniques gave birth to dimensional parameters which have a great scientiﬁc importance. The key in these techniques lays in the fact of consistency of the dimensions of any possible governing equation(s) and the fact that some dimensions are reoccurring. Eckert number. applying from the old and known to unknown (see the Book of Ecclesiastes). It is interesting to point out that there are several dimensionless numbers that bear Nusselt and his students name. The deﬁnition of dimensional analysis is not consistent in the literature which span over various ﬁelds and times. However. Possible topics that dimensional analysis deals with are consistency of the units.1 Introductory Remarks Dimensional analysis refers to techniques dealing with units or conversion to a unitless system.CHAPTER 9 Dimensional Analysis This chapter is dedicated to my adviser.G. Several scientists used this concept before Buckingham and Nusselt (see below history section). In this chapter. Genick Bar-Meir 9. However. The approach or the technique used in these books is referred to as Buckingham–π–theory. There is no known dimensionless number which bears Buckingham name. Their work culminated at the point of publishing the paper Buckingham’s paper and independently constructed by Nusselt. Since the 1940s1 . The Buckingham–π goes further and no equations are solved and even no knowledge about these equations is required. E. Nusselt number. change order of magnitude. the focus is on the applying the old to unknown as diﬀerent scales and the creation of dimensionless groups. Schmidt number.R. this author observed that Nusselt’s technique is much more eﬀective as it will demonstrated later. this author can be accused for being bias as the Eckert’s last student. Dr. 279 . Even. The π–theory was coined by Buckingham. Buckingham’s technique is discussed and studied in Fluid Mechanics while almost completely ignored by Heat and Mass Transfer researchers and their classes. Perhaps this fact can be attributed to tremendous inﬂuence Nusselt and his students had on the heat transfer ﬁeld. Eckert. the dimensional analysis is taught and written in all ﬂuid mechanics textbooks. and creation of group parameters without any dimensions. Both these methods attempt to reduce the number of parameters which aﬀect the problem and reduce the labor in solving the problem. In Buckingham’s technique only the 1 The history of dimensional analysis is complex.

9. length. Maxwell a Scottish Physicist played a major role in establishing the basic units of mass. John Smeaton (8 June 1724–28 October 1792) was an English civil and mechanical engineer who study relation between propeller/wind mill and similar devices to the pressure and velocity of the driving forces. In the Buckingham’s approach it merely suggests the number of dimensional parameters based on a guess of all parameters aﬀecting the problem. there are ﬁelds in thermo–ﬂuid where dimensional analysis.280 CHAPTER 9. Thus.” Later. the simplicity of Buckingham’s technique yields insuﬃcient knowledge or simply becomes useless. The dimensional analysis was independently developed by Nusselt and improved by his students/co workers (Schmidt. Nusselt’s technique provides the form of these dimensionless parameters. Nusselt’s technique is more cumbersome but more precise and provide more useful information. Another example. It has to be recognized that the dimensional analysis provides answer to what group of parameters aﬀecting the problem and not the answer to the problem. and time as building blocks of all other units. Eckert) in which the governing equations are used as well. c) easier to extent the solution to more general situations. Rayleigh probably was the ﬁrst one who used dimensional analysis (1872) to obtain . the area of multiphase ﬂows there is no solution based on dimensionless parameters (with the exception of the rough solution of Martinelli). Some attribute it to Newton (1686) who coined the phrase of “great Principle of Similitude. suggested using sime ilarity in electrical engineering and suggested the Norton circuit equivalence theorems. When no governing equations are found.1 Brief History The idea of experimentation with a diﬀerent. b)knowledge what parameters aﬀect the problem. DIMENSIONAL ANALYSIS dimensions or the properties of the problem at hand are analyzed. This idea was extend by William Froude (1810-1871) by relating the modeling of open channel ﬂow and actual body but more importantly the relationship between drag of models to actual ships. Sometime.1. dimension was suggested by several individuals independently. While the majority of the contributions were done by thermo–ﬂuid guys the concept of the equivalent or similar propagated to other ﬁelds. rather than the actual. J. For example. The Buckingham–π technique is simpler while Nusselt’s technique produces a better result. In fact. is recognized as useless. and the relative relationship of these parameters. Both techniques are discussed in this book. This author is aware of only a single class of cases were Buckingham’s methods is useful and or can solve the problem namely the pendulum class problem (and similar). It can be argued that these situations really do not exist in the Thermo–Fluid ﬁeld. Buckingham’s method has usefulness. The advantage of the Nusselt’s technique are: a) compact presentation. more information is put into the problem and thus a better understanding on the dimensionless parameters is extracted. Jean B. Aim´em Vaschy. Fourier (1768-1830) ﬁrst attempted to formulate the dimensional analysis theory. a German Mathematical Physicist (1857–1899). The advantage or disadvantage of these similar methods depend on the point of view. In very complex problems both techniques suﬀer from in inability to provide a signiﬁcant information on the eﬀective parameters such multi-phase ﬂow etc.

developed the dimensional analysis (proposed the principal parameters) of heat transfer without knowledge about previous work of Buckingham.1.1). isothermal single component systems (which does not undergo phase change. Basic Units of Two Common Systems Standard System Name Mass Length Time Temperature Letter M L t θ Units [kg] [m] [sec] [ C] ◦ Old System Name Force Length Time Temperature Letter F L t T Unis [N ] [m] [sec] [◦ C] Additional Basic Units for Magnetohydrodynamics Continued on next page 2 Riabouchunsky. temperature change and observed no magnetic or electrical eﬀect) can be described by just basic four physical units. INTRODUCTORY REMARKS 281 the relationships between the physical quantities (see the question why the sky is blue story).1. For example. Riabouchunsky2 proposed of relating temperature by molecules velocity and thus creating dimensionless group with the byproduct of compact solution (solution presented in a compact and simple form). mass. the dimension or the units of force can be constructed utilizing Newton’s second law i.e. allowing this system to be non–isothermal will increase only by one additional dimension of temperature. Osborne Reynolds (1842–1912) was the ﬁrst to derive and use dimensionless parameters to analyze experimental data. 1957). Table -9. it was recognized that in many physical systems there are basic fundamental units which can describe all the other dimensions or units in the system. That is. Buckingham culminated the dimensional analysis and similitude and presented it in a more systematic form.1. quantity of substance (mole). In the about the same time (1915.9. 1915 . These ﬁve fundamental units are commonly the building blocks for most of the discussion in ﬂuid mechanics (see Table of basic units 9. Nature Vol 99 p. Increase of degree of freedom. length. For example. 9. 591. time. 1882 – September 1.2 Theory Behind Dimensional Analysis In chemistry it was recognized that there are fundamental elements that all the material is made from (the atoms). Similarly to this concept. The units or dimensions are. Wilhelm Nusselt (November 25. all the molecules are made from a combination of diﬀerent atoms. mass times acceleration −→ m a = M L/t2 . θ. a German engineer.

1: What are the units of force when the basic units are: mass. Solution These two systems are related as the questions are the reversed of each other. time. will not be discussed here. there are situations in which ﬁrst method is better than the second one while in other situations. length. at the moment. these two selections are presented. θ)? What are the units of mass when the basic units are: force. Temperature). Other selections are possible but not common and.1. Basic Units of Two Common Systems (continue) Standard System Name Electric Current Luminous Intensity Letter A cd Units [A]mpere [cd] candle Name Electric Current Luminous Intensity Old System Letter A cd Unis [A]mpere [cd] candle Chemical Reactions Quantity of substance M mol Quantity of substance M mol The choice of these basic units is not unique and several books and researchers suggest a diﬀerent choice of fundamental units. This notation has no signiﬁcance but for historical reasons remained in use. DIMENSIONAL ANALYSIS Table -9. temperature (F. The connection between the mass and force can be obtained from the simpliﬁed Newton’s second law F = m a where F is the force. temperature (M. Yet. This author is not aware of any discussion on the beneﬁts of one method over the other method. and a is the acceleration. t. L.282 CHAPTER 9. L.I. In this book. t. mol.a) as M= F t2 L (9. m is the mass. Thus. T)? Notice the diﬀerent notation for the temperature in the two systems of basic units. the units of force are ML (9. time. length. One common selection is substituting the mass with the force in the previous selection (F. Example 9. L.a) F = 2 t For the second method the unit of mass are obtain from Equation (9.I.I.b) . t. it can be the reverse.

The analogy or similitude refers to understanding one phenomenon from the study of another phenomenon. The non–dimensionalization i.a) where 7 represent the second term. has a useful by–product.e. For example. This idea alludes to connections between similar parameters to similar solution. this book is focused on engineering topics and other ﬁelds are not discussed. This idea alludes to the fact that these unitless parameters can be found without any knowledge of the governing equations. The solutions are similar or identical regardless to the origin of the ﬁeld no matter if the ﬁeld is physical. Where F ˙ is force.1. This technique is employed in many ﬂuid mechanics situations. m a and 7 have to be same.a)? Solution Clearly.1. The dimensions or units which aﬀect the problem at hand can be reduced because these dimensions are repeating or reoccurring. End Solution 9. this equation get a form of F = ma + 7 (9. INTRODUCTORY REMARKS End Solution 283 The number of fundamental or basic dimensions determines the number of the combinations which aﬀect the physical3 situations.3 Dimensional Parameters Application for Experimental Study The solutions for any situations which are controlled by the same governing equations with same boundary conditions regardless of the origin the equation.9. a is the acceleration and dot above m indicating the mass ˙ derivative with respect to time. In particular case.II. just knowing the parameters is enough the identify the problem. Because they have the same units the equations can be divided to create unitless equations. These unitless parameters are the dimensional parameters. What are the requirement on equation (9. The following trivial example demonstrates the consistency of units Example 9. That is the left hand side and the right hand side have to have the same units. The Buckingham’s technique implicitly suggested that since the governing equations (in ﬂuid mechanics) are essentially are the same. The Buckingham method is based on the fact that all equations must be consistent with their units. Thus. .2: Newton’s equation has two terms that related to force F = m a + m U . the analogy in other words. operation of reducing the number aﬀecting parameters. m is the mass. or economical. The same units force has to be applied to 7 thus it must be in [N ]. study of compressible ﬂow (a ﬂow where the density change plays a signiﬁcant part) can be achieved 3 The dimensional analysis also applied in economics and other areas and the statement should reﬂect this fact. the solution by experiments or other cases. However. The units of force are [N ] which is deﬁned by ﬁrst term of the right hand side. the arrangement of the eﬀecting parameters in unitless groups yields the aﬀecting parameters. or biological. the units of [F ].II.

the rod is too small. This author believes that at the present the Buckingham method has extremely limited use for the real world and yet this method is presented in the classes on ﬂuid mechanics. larger models are used to study small or fast situations. if one wants to deal with tolerances. This presentation allows one to draw or present the situation by using only one coordinate. further signiﬁcant information will be needed. To solve this problem. than one. 9. Experiments in diﬀerent scale than actual dimensions can be conducted for cases where the actual dimensions are diﬃcult to handle.4 The Pendulum Class Problem The only known problem that dimensional analysis can solve (to some degree) is the pendulum class problem. Fitting rod into a hole. Thus for similar governing equations if the solution exists for one case it is a solution to both cases. On the other situations. On the other hand. Furthermore. In the preceding simplistic example. In many real problems this approach can remove clattered views and put the problem into focus. Dimensional analysis is useful also for those who are dealing with the numerical research/calculation.0 the rode is ﬁtting. The analogy can be used to conduct experiment in a cheaper way and/or a safer way.99 to 1. Nusselt’s method has a larger practical use in the real world and therefore will be presented for those who need dimensional analysis for the real world. the ratio of the rode diameter to the hole diameter. the rode is said to be ﬁt. Only when the ratio is equal to one. the dimensional analysis can easily be extended to say that when the ratio is equal from 0. and etc. many examples on the use of this method will be presented in this book.1) is an example how dimensional analysis can be used. Thus. the rode will not enter the hole. Example 9. the advantages are minimal.1. The ﬁrst example is the classic Pendulum problem. The ratio is a dimensionless number and with this number one can tell that for a ratio larger Fig. DIMENSIONAL ANALYSIS by study of surface of open channel ﬂow. In this section several examples of the pendulum type problem are presented. it is required to have only one parameter. For example. Actually.284 CHAPTER 9. study of large air planes can done on small models. Fitting a rod into a circular hole (see Figure 9. D2 D1 1) the rode diameter and 2) the diameter of the hole. the radius ratio. it is required to know two parameters.3: . -9. The compressible ﬂow is also similar to traﬃc on the highway. and a ratio smaller than one. Throughout this book the reader will notice that the systems/equations in many cases are converted to a dimensionless form to augment understanding. This method supplement knowledge when some parameters should be taken into account and why. If one were to use the two diameters description.1.

however in the real world.b) the units of every term are examined and summarized the following table. that a trigonometric function relates and g and frequency. the result of operation not match i. (sec = sin (sec)).b) results in t−1 = C1 L1 a L1 t−2 b =⇒ La+b t−2 b (9.III. -9.b) The solution functional complexity is limited to the basic combination which has to be in some form of multiplication of and g in some power.2. Table -9. the relationship can be expressed as ω = f ( . .III. Figure for exvided.4 Solution The solution technique is based on the assumption that the indexical form is the appropriate form to solve the problem. That is.2.e. g) (9. for example. Furthermore. To satisfy equation (9.c) after further rearrangement by multiply the left hand side by L0 results in L0 t−1 = C La+b t−2 b 4 The (9.III. The Indexical form ω = C1 × a b g (9.III.III. the result is diﬀerent.1. this knowledge is ample 9. if a sin function is used. Here it is provided because the real solution is already known from standard physics classes. then the functionality looks like ω = sin( g).b) is selected. Units of the Pendulum Parameters Parameter ω Units t−1 Parameter Units L1 Parameter g Units L1 t−2 Thus substituting of the Table 9. From the units point of view.III. INTRODUCTORY REMARKS Derive the relationship for the gravity [g].3 not necessarily given or known.9. the multiplication of g have to be in the same units of the frequency units. assuming.d) reader can check if the mass is assumed to aﬀect the problem then.7 in equation (9. In other words. For example. frequency [ ω] and length of pendulum [ ]. For that reason the form in equation (9.a) 285 ℓ θ mg Notice in this problem. Assume that no other parameter including the mass aﬀects the problem. the real knowledge is proFig.III.

“Model Experiments and the Forms of Empirical Equations. the solution is in the form of g (9. a new function can be deﬁned as F (∆P. The choice is made normally as the result of experience and it can be observed that ν is a function of µ and ρ. µ can be replaced by dynamic viscosity. For example. study of the pressure diﬀerence created due to a ﬂow in a pipe is a function of several parameters such ∆P = f (L.e) The solution of the equations (9. However. the functionality e. 9.1) where qi is the “i” parameter eﬀecting the problem.2) In this example. U ) = 0 (9. q2 . 1915. µ. qn ) = 0 (9. Vol.3) Again as stated before.f) ω = C1 1/2 g −1/2 = C1 It can be observed that the value of C1 is unknown. the following must exist 0=a+b and −1 = −2 b (9. the mass is added to considerations. The constant can be obtained from experiment for plotting ω as the abscissa and /g as ordinate. Buckingham. L.III. this part is the importance of the dimensional analysis. Buckingham’s5 methods suggested to reduce the number of 5 E. D. the value of the constant was not found. µ. a diﬀerent result will be obtained.III.” Transactions of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers.2 Buckingham–π–Theorem All the physical phenomena that is under the investigation have n physical eﬀecting parameters such that F1 (q1 . DIMENSIONAL ANALYSIS In order to satisfy equation (9. the viscosity. ρ. It can be noticed that the initial guess merely and actually determine the results. Thus. The pendulum frequency is known to be 1 g (9.III.286 CHAPTER 9.III. the chosen parameters are not necessarily the most important parameters. q3 . however. · · · . D. If. For example. 37.e) is a = −1/2 and b = −1/2.g) ω= 2π End Solution What was found in this example is the form of the solution’s equation and frequency. . ν. In that case.III. U ) (9. According to some books and researchers. ρ. Finding the important parameters is based on “good fortune” or perhaps intuition.g. If the guess is relevant and correct then the functional relationship can be obtained by experiments. Yet. the study of every individual parameter will create incredible amount of data.d).

ρ can provide the mass [M ]. πm ) = 0 (9. 9. The fundamental units. The dimensions of these physical variables are: D = [L1 ]. One possible combination is of D.1 Construction of the Dimensionless Parameters In the construction of these parameters it must be realized that every dimensionless parameters has to be independent. another combination of the basic units is time. In the case of the pressure diﬀerence in the pipe (Equation (9. Thus. π3 ) (9. [L]. the second term. If independent parameters of same physical situation is m thus in general it can be written as F2 (π1 . It must not be possible to form a dimensionless group from one of the variables within a recurring set. Note. Additionally. to make these dimensionless parameters independent they cannot be multiply or division of each other. For example. · · · . the number of parameters that control the problem is reduced and the number of experiments that need to be carried is considerably smaller. There are 2 conditions on the dimensionless parameters: 1. then the equation relating all the variables will have (n-m) dimensionless groups. the π–theorem does not specify how the parameters should be selected nor what combination is preferred. π3 .4) If there are n variables in a problem and these variables contain m primary dimensions (for example M. A recurring set is a group of variables forming a dimensionless group. force.3)) there are 6 variables or n = 6. and D have the same dimension and therefore both cannot be chosen as they have the same dimension. mass is a proper choice. [t]) The choice of fundamental or basic units is arbitrary in that any construction of these units is possible. π2 . In the above example there are three dimensionless parameters which required of at least one of the physical parameter per each dimensionless parameter. can provide the time [t]. time and mass respectively.2. the ﬁrst term D can provide the length.9.2. The meaning of independent is that one dimensionless parameter is not a multiply or a division of another dimensional parameter. BUCKINGHAM–π–THEOREM 287 parameters. T). and the third term. then. U and ρ are chosen as the recurring set. velocity of U = [L t−1 ] and density as ρ = [M L−3 ]. t. L. U . [L]. L. For the pipe problem above. According to Buckingham’s theorem the number of dimensionless groups is n − m = 6 − 3 = 3. The number of the fundamental dimensions is 3 that is m = 3 ([M]. and M are length. It can be written that one dimensionless parameter is a function of two other parameters such as i π1 = f (π2 . Each of the fundamental dimensions must appear in at least one of the m variables 2.5) If indeed such a relationship exists. The fundamental units can be written in .

∆P . The third method is by using dimensional matrix which is used mostly by mathematicians and is less useful for engineering purposes. Now the dimensionless groups can be constructed by looking at the remaining physical parameters.6) The second dimensionless group (using D) is [L] [L−1 ] −1 π2 = D = D L (9. can be expressed by D/U . The ﬁrst one solving it in one shot. This requirement is logical since it is a building block. These building blocks are used to construct the dimensionless parameters. In the table contains two additional physical/basic units that appear in . ∆P . has dimensions of [M L−1 t−2 ] Therefore.7) The third dimensionless group (using µ dimension of [M L1 t−1 ]) and therefore dimensionless is [M −1 ] π3 = µ 1 D D3 ρ [L] [t] D µ = U DU ρ (9. [t]. Here. The pressure diﬀerence.288 CHAPTER 9. DIMENSIONAL ANALYSIS terms of the physical units. Thus. 9. The last method is mostly used by mathematicians which leads and connects to linear algebra. [M ]. Yet this method becomes complicated for large number of parameters. The ﬁrst term L is the described by D with the units of [L].2 Basic Units Blocks In Thermo–Fluid science there are several basic physical quantities which summarized in Table 9. some referred to as the building blocks method. the ﬁrst dimensionless group is [M L−1 t−2 ] [M −1 ] [t2 ] [L] 2 unitless π1 = ∆P 1 D ∆P = D ρ D3 U2 ρ U2 (9. The mass. There are roughly three categories of methods for obtaining the dimensionless parameters. The second method. The time. ∆P M −1 L t2 is a dimensionless quantity and these values were calculated just above this line.8) This analysis is not unique and there can be several other possibilities for selecting dimensionless parameters which are “legitimately” correct for this approach. The main point that the building block unit has to contain at least the basic or fundamental unit. D and µ.2. can be expressed by ρ D3 .1. The fact that this method used is the hall mark that the material was written by mathematician. this material will be introduced for completeness sake with examples and several terms associated with this technique. The second and third methods require to identiﬁcation of the building blocks. is described above. This method is simple and useful for a small number of parameters. There are several requirements on these building blocks which were discussed on page 287.

seconds and Kelvins/Celsius or English system or any other system. t. BUCKINGHAM–π–THEOREM 289 magnetohydrodynamics (not commonly use in ﬂuid mechanics). ratio of speciﬁc heats.I. There are many parameters that contains force which is the source reason why the old (or alternative) system use the force instead the mass. There many physical units which are dimensionless by their original deﬁnition.1.3. and θ or the old system relieves the discussion from using particular system measurements. The last two are not commonly used in ﬂuid mechanics and temperature is only used sometimes. units are M ass/Length3 and in the new system the density will be expressed as M/L3 while in S. kg/m3 and English system it slug/f t3 .2. for example. L. meters.3. Examples to “naturally” being dimensionless are the angle. Many common quantities are presented in the following Table 9. such as kilograms. Thus. In using basic new basic physical units.I. k.9. which expressed in SI as Newton [N ]. A common unit used in Fluid Mechanics is the Force. Physical units for two common systems. The actual basic units used can be S. The density. f and ratio of lengths. strains. The Newton deﬁned as a force which causes a certain acceleration of a speciﬁc mass. The angle represented by a ratio of two sides of a triangle and therefor has no units nor dimensions. Quantities used in engineering can be reduced to six basic dimensions which are presented in Table 9. in the new system the force it will be deﬁned as M L t−2 . friction coeﬃcient. Many (almost all) of the engineering dimensions used in ﬂuid mechanics can be deﬁned in terms of the four basic physical dimensions M .” Standard System Name Area Volume Angular velocity Acceleration Angular acceleration Force Density Letter L2 L3 1 t L t2 1 t2 ML t2 M L3 Units [m2 ] [m3 ] 1 sec m sec2 1 sec2 kg m sec2 kg m3 Old System Name Area Volume Angular velocity Acceleration Angular acceleration Mass Density Letter L2 L3 1 t L t2 1 t2 F t2 L Unis [m2 ] [m3 ] 1 sec m sec2 1 sec2 Ns m kg m3 F t2 L4 Continued on next page .t and θ. Note the second (time) in large size units appear as “s” while in small units as “sec. L . M . Table -9. Strain is a ratio of the change of length by the length thus has no units.

3.290 CHAPTER 9. DIMENSIONAL ANALYSIS Table -9. Basic Units of Two Common System (continue) Standard System Name Momentum Angular Momentum Torque Absolute Viscosity Kinematic Viscosity Volume ﬂow rate Mass ﬂow rate Pressure Surface Tension Work or Energy Power Thermal Conductivity Speciﬁc Heat Entropy Speciﬁc Entropy Letter ML t M L2 t M L2 t2 M L1 t1 L2 t1 L3 t1 M t1 M L t2 M t2 M L2 t2 M L2 t3 M L2 t3 θ L2 θ 2 t2 M L2 t2 θ L2 t2 θ Units kg m sec Old System Name Momentum Angular Momentum Torque Absolute Viscosity Kinematic Viscosity Volume ﬂow rate Mass ﬂow rate Pressure Surface Tension Work or Energy Power Thermal Conductivity Speciﬁc Heat Entropy Speciﬁc Entropy Letter Ft LF t LF tF L2 L2 t L3 t1 Ft L1 F L2 F L FL FL t1 F tT L2 T 2 t2 F L2 T L2 t2 T Unis [N sec] [m N s] [m N ] Ns m2 m3 sec m3 sec Ns m N m2 N m [ kg m ] sec kg m sec2 kg ms m2 sec 2 [sec] kg sec kg m sec kg sec2 kg m2 sec2 kg m2 sec3 kg m2 s2 K m2 s2 K kg m2 s2 K m2 s2 K [N m] Nm sec N mK m2 s2 K kg m2 s2 K m2 s2 K Continued on next page .

IV. ρ.3. Resistance of inﬁnite variables. -9.3.2.3. ρ. Example 9. the velocity U .9.1 Implementation of Construction of Dimensionless Parameters One Shot Method: Constructing Dimensionless Parameters In this method.2.3 9.2. Based on this limited information construct a relationship of the Fig. U.a) . the solution is obtained by assigning the powers to the aﬀecting variables. Basic Units of Two Common System (continue) 291 Standard System Name Molar Speciﬁc Entropy Enthalpy Speciﬁc Enthalpy Letter L2 t2 θ M L2 t2 M2 t2 Units kg m2 s2 K mol Old System Name Molar Speciﬁc Entropy Enthalpy Speciﬁc Enthalpy Letter L2 T t2 FL L2 t2 Unis kg m2 s2 K mol kg m2 sec2 m2 sec2 kg m sec2 mol mol sec kg m2 sec2 [N m] m2 sec2 m2 sec2 mol sec ThermodynamicM L t2 M Force Catalytic Activity heat transfer rate M t M L2 t3 Thermodynamic N M Force Catalytic Activity heat transfer rate M t LF t mN sec 9. µ) (9. The reR searcher intuition suggests that the resistance to ﬂow. R = f (r. The results are used to compare the powers on both sides of the equation. and the absolute viscosity µ.4: An inﬁnite cylinder is submerged and exposed to an external viscous ﬂow. Several examples are presented to demonstrate this method. that is cylinder. R is a function of the radius r. the density. BUCKINGHAM–π–THEOREM Table -9.

b) results in R L M M ML = Constant L t L3 L t 2 t From equation (9. a simple way.IV. Hence.g) The relationship between the two sides in equation (9. Thus substituting the data from the table into equation (9. L −2 1 1 = = = −b − d c+d a + b − 3c − d r a U b ρ c µ d (9.IV. t mass.b) The units of the parameters are provided in Table 9.IV. DIMENSIONAL ANALYSIS R = f ra U b ρc µd (9.IV.3.IV.IV.IV.e) into equation (9.f) (9.292 Solution The functionality should be in a form of CHAPTER 9. equation (9.e) Substituting equation (9.g) can be represented as R µ = Constant f (9.d) In equations (9.IV.IV.g) is related to the two dimensionless parameters.c) (9.IV.IV. Expressing all the three variables in term of d to obtain a = b = c = 2−d 2−d 1−d (9. In dimensional analysis the functionality is not clearly deﬁned by but rather the function of the parameters.c) the following requirements can be obtained time.c) results in R = Constant r2−d U 2−d ρ1−d µd = Constant ρ U 2 r2 Or rearranging equation yields R = Constant ρ U 2 r2 µ ρU r d µ ρU r d (9.h) 2 r2 ρU ρU r where the power of d can be eliminated. M length.c) there are three equations and 4 unknowns. .IV.IV.IV.

The thrust. T is known to be a function of the radius.a) It is convenient to arrange the dimensions and basic units in table. and ﬂuid viscosity. µ.4.V. the ﬂuid density. Solution The general solution under these assumptions leads to solution of T = C r a ρb U c N d µ e (9.5: The modern ship today is equipped with a propeller as the main propulsion mechanism. t 1= 1= −2 = c+e a + b + −3c − e −c − d − e (9. M Length. Assume that no other parameter aﬀects the thrust. Dimensional matrix T M L t 1 1 -2 r 0 1 0 ρ 1 -3 0 U 0 1 -1 N 0 0 -1 µ 1 -1 -1 Using the matrix results in M Lt−2 = La (Lt) b M L−3 c t−t d M L−1 t−t e (9. L time. Also introduction of dimensional matrix is presented. U . rotation speed. r. Example 9.c) 6 This author who worked as ship engineer during his twenties likes to present material related to ships. . relative velocity of the ship to the water.9. ﬁnd the functionality of these parameters and the thrust. ρ. Mass.V.V. BUCKINGHAM–π–THEOREM End Solution 293 An example of a ship6 is be a typical example were more than one dimensionless is to constructed. Table -9.2. This table is referred in the literature as the Dimensional matrix.b) This matrix leads to three equations. rpm or N .

density.a) . Technician by mistake releases a chemical which reduces the surface tension by half. σ. DIMENSIONAL ANALYSIS 2+d−e 2−d−e 1−e (9.a) yields T = C r(2+d−e) ρ(2−d−e) U (1−e) N d µf Rearranging equation (9.e) rN U e (9. Solution In the problem the functional analysis was deﬁned as U = f (σ. End Solution Example 9. The ﬂow–in to the chamber or the opening of gate is creating a disturbance. ρ.V.6: The surface wave is a small disturbance propagating in a liquid surface.d) into equation (9.g) where f and g are arbitrary functions to be determined in experiments. and the wave length of the disturbance (or frequency of the disturbance). Hence. Note the rpm or N refers to the rotation in radian per second even though rpm refers to revolution per minute.VI.V.” In practical purposes the thrust is a function of Reynolds number and several other parameters.V. in general it can be written that T =f ρ U 2 r2 ρU r µ g rN U (9.V.V. Estimate the new speed of the disturbance. It has to be mentioned that these experiments have to constructed in such way that the initial conditions and the boundary conditions are somehow “eliminated. λ) (9.d) Substituting the solution (9. a limited information is provided on which only Reynolds number with a additional dimensionless parameter is mentioned above.f) From dimensional analysis point of view the units under the power d and e are dimensionless. Assume that this speed for a certain geometry is a function of the surface tension.294 The solution of this system is a= b= c= CHAPTER 9. The time control of this certain process is critical because the chemical kinetics.e) provides T = C ρ U 2 r2 ρU r µ d (9.V. The knowledge when this disturbance is important and is detected by with the time it traveled. ρ. In this example. The calibration of the process was done with satisfactory results.V.

c) The solution of equation set (9.2. Alternative number represents the dissipation. could be constructed as µ Diss = dU d ρ U2 U Show that this number is dimensionless.VII.a) ( dU ) d 2 ρ U3 & & M & L2 M & L3 L = & 3 3 2 L2 & L L & t t t & M M = 3 t3 t (9.9. M Length. What is the physical interpretation it could have? Flow is achieved steady state for a very long two dimensional channel where the upper surface is moving at speed. End Solution Example 9.c) results in U= σ λρ (9.VI.e. t a+b= −2a + c = −2b = 0 1 −1 (9.VI. Solution The nominator and denominator have to have the same units.VI.a) leads to three equations as λ c M M L = 2 2 L L t t U ρ σ 295 a b (9. L time.d) Hence reduction of the surface tension by half will reduce the disturbance velocity by √ 1/ 2. BUCKINGHAM–π–THEOREM Equation (9.VI.VII. a linear velocity.VI.b) Mass. and lower is ﬁx.7: Eckert number represent the amount of dissipation. µ 2 µ = dU d ρ U3 2 (9. The ﬂow is pure Couette ﬂow i. Developed an expression for dissipation number using the information provided.b) . Uup .

VII. Example 9. DIMENSIONAL ANALYSIS The averaged velocity could be a represented (there are better methods or choices) of the energy ﬂowing in the channel. ∆P ) (9. the energy lost is a function of the velocity square E ∝ Diss µ U .VIII.8: Assume that the parameters that eﬀects the centrifugal pumps are Q D BT Pump Flow rate rotor diameter Liquid Bulk modulus typical roughness of pump surface ∆P Pressure pump created by the rpm or N ρ µ g angular rotation speed liquid density (assuming liquid phase) liquid viscosity gravity force (body force) Construct the functional relationship between the variables. Discuss which of these dimensionless parameters can be neglected as it is known reasonably. End Solution 9. With these value of the Diss number is µ Diss = U U ρ 8 3 2 = 4µ ρ U (9. and N [t]. The averaged velocity is U/2 and the velocity derivative is dU/d = constant = U/ .296 CHAPTER 9. this technique allows one to ﬁnd a single or several dimensionless parameters without going for the whole calculations of the dimensionless parameters. . There are nine (9) parameters thus the number of dimensionless parameters is 9 − 3 = 6. g. as opposed to the previous method. N. BT .a) The three basic parameters to be used are D [L].2 Building Blocks Method: Constructing Dimensional Parameters Note. µ.3. Q. Yet.2. ρ. ρ [M]. Discuss the physical meaning of these numbers. Solution The functionality can be written as 0 = f (D. For simplicity .c) The results show that Dissipation number is not a function of the velocity.

b) Length.VIII. D. t b= a − 3b = −c = (9. M Length.VIII. L Mass.g) M 1 L = L 3 L t 0 1 =⇒ π4 = D 0 D ρ b N c (9. µ b= a − 3b = −c = 1 BT −1 =⇒ π2 = ρ N 2 D2 −2 a ρ (9. t The next term. N as Q M 1 L3 = L 3 L t t =⇒ π1 = D a ρ b N c (9.d) Mass.e) b M 1 M = L 3 L t Lt =⇒ π3 = D N c (9.f) Mass. t The next term.VIII. t a − 3b = b= −c = 3 0 −1 Q N D3 (9.c) For the second term BT it follows BT M 1 M = L 3 L t L t2 D a ρ b N c (9. M Length.VIII. b= 1 a − 3b = −c = −1 −1 a ρ N 2 D2 µ (9.i) .9.h) Mass. M Length. The ﬁrst set is to be worked on is Q.VIII. M time. L time.2. BUCKINGHAM–π–THEOREM 297 the RP M will be denoted as N . L time. L time. µ. . ρ.VIII.VIII.VIII.

The reader is referred to “Fundamentals of die casting design. A pump is a device that intends to increase the pressure. The fourth number represents the production quality (mostly mode by some casting process7 ). if completely diﬀerent size of pumps are compared then this number must be considered. L time.j) Mass.VIII. These losses has several components which includes the friction in the system.). Some argue that this parameter is similar to Mach number (speed of disturbance to speed of sound. change order of the ﬂow and “ideal ﬂow” loss.k) The next term.298 The next term. In cases where the compressibility of the liquid can be neglected or the pressure increase is relatively insigniﬁcant. g. the roughness is similar to similar size pump and can be neglected. (similar to BT ) ∆P M 1 L = L 3 L t 2 t D a ρ b N c (9.l) Mass. If this physical phenomenon is accepted 7 The modern production is made by die casting process.” Genick Bar–Meir. the second dimensionless parameter can be neglected.VIII. t b= 0 a − 3b = 1 −c = −2 g D N2 (9. Potto Project. The ﬁfth dimensionless parameter is related to the ratio of the body forces to gravity forces. The third parameter is similar to Reynolds number since the combination N D can be interpreted as velocity.VIII. The second number represents the importance of the compressibility of the liquid in the pump.VIII. DIMENSIONAL ANALYSIS a ρ b M 1 L = L 3 L t 2 t =⇒ π5 = D N c (9. In practice. also know as turbulence (not covered yet this book. This energy is divided to a useful energy ( pressure increase) and to overcome the losses in the system. The most dominate loss in pump is loss of order. . The increase of the pressure involves energy inserted to to system. M Length. However. g CHAPTER 9. 1999 to learn more. ∆P . L time. t b= a − 3b = −c = 1 ∆P −1 =⇒ π6 = ρ N 2 D2 −2 (9.m) The ﬁrst dimensionless parameter π1 represents the dimensionless ﬂow rate. The last number represent the “eﬀectiveness” of pump or can be viewed as dimensionless pressure obtained from the pump. M Length.

Accordingly. Actually. In that case the functional relationship can be written as ∆P =f N 2 .5. For this analysis it is assumed that grains of gold grains are uniformly distributed. it has to be cautioned that this technique is overkill in most cases. Units and Parameters of gold grains Parameters grains amount cross section area grains per volume grain weight Units q A gr e Dimension M/L L2 grains/L 3 Remarks total grains per unit length pipe cross section count of grain per V count of grain per V M/grain Notice that grains and grain are the same units for this discussion.n) 9. Assume that water is used to transport uniform grains of gold.2.3.9. The total amount grains of gold is to be determined per unit length.3 Mathematical Method: Constructing Dimensional Parameters Advance material can be skipped under construction please ignore for time being In the progression of the development of the technique the new evolution is the mathematical method. In the following hypothetical example demonstrates the reason for the reduction of variables. However. the dimensional matrix can be constructed as .VIII. It can be noticed that in the previous technique the same matrix was constructed with diﬀerent vector solution (the right hand side of the equation). D2 End Solution Q N D3 (9. BUCKINGHAM–π–THEOREM 299 than the resistance is neglected and the fourth parameter is removed. This fact is the source to improve the previous method. The following parameters and their dimensions are considered: Table -9.2. this author is not aware for any case this technique has any advantage over the “building block” technique.

2. this conclusion is based on Nusselt’s method which calls for the same dimensionless boundary conditions.300 CHAPTER 9. 9 Because this book intend to help students to pass their exams. This logical conclusion is an add– on and this author is not aware of any proof to this requirement based on Buckingham’s methods. yield a solution to problem at hand. It is hard to obtain complete similarity. End ignore section End Advance material 9. This characterization started because historical reasons and it. Geometric Similarity One of the logical part of dimensional analysis is how the experiences should be similar to actual body they are supposed to represent. there is discussion how similar the model is to the prototype. Hence. and dynamic. knowing what are dimensionless parameters should provide the knowledge of constructing the experiments. requires similarity because the requirements to the boundary conditions. Thus. this book present what most instructors required. Here9 this postulated idea is adapted. some times. In Nusselt’s method this diﬀerentiation is less important. sometimes or even often. It has to be recognized that the results are as good as the guessing which in most cases is poor. DIMENSIONAL ANALYSIS Table -9. the total of one dimensional parameter. The analysis here suggests and demonstrates8 that the solution is based on several dimensionless numbers. Nusselt’s method. It well established that this over–strict requirement and under Nusselt’s method it can be overcome.6. Ironically. constructing experiments of the situation where the same dimensionless parameters obtains could. Thus. in theory. 8 This statement is too strong. . kinetics. In this section deals with these similarities which in the literature some refer as analogy or similitude. Hence.4 Similarity and Similitude One of dimensional analysis is the key point is the concept that the solution can be obtained by conducting experiments on similar but not identical systems. has merit especially when applying Buckingham’s method. It is common to diﬀerentiate between three kinds of similarities: geometric. gold grain dimensional matrix q M L grain 1 1 0 A 0 2 0 gr 0 3 1 e 1 0 -1 In this case the total number variables are 4 and number basic units are 3. Again.

river modeling requires to distort vertical scales to eliminate the inﬂuence of surface tension or bed roughness or sedimentation.9. It is common in the literature. It follows. the solution is to sacriﬁce the geometric similarity to minimize the undesirable eﬀects. then the desire to achieve a motion “picture” which is characterized by ratios of corresponding velocities and accelerations is the same throughout the actual ﬂow ﬁeld. the model faces inability to match two or more dimensionless parameters. Here this term refers to similarity of the forces.11) p a g (9. It was shown that the solution is a function of several typical dimensionless parameters.9) where 1 and 2 are the typical dimensions in two diﬀerent directions and subscript p refers to the prototype and m to the model. BUCKINGHAM–π–THEOREM Under this idea the prototype area has to be square of the actual model or Ap = Am 1 prototype 1 model 2 301 = 2p 2m 2 (9. Under the same argument the volumes change with the cubes of lengths.12) p . since both cases have the same Froude number. In some situations. These impose demands require a minimum on the friction velocity. that this requires that similarity in the accelerations and masses between the model and prototype.2. there is no way achieve low Reynolds number with thin ﬁlm ﬂow. Dynamics Similarity The dynamic similarity has many confusing and conﬂicting deﬁnitions in the literature. The geometrical similarity aside the shapes and counters of the object it also can requires surface roughness and erosion of surfaces of mobile surfaces or sedimentation of particles surface tensions. In some cases the minimum velocity can be Umin = τw /ρ.10) can be written as U gt and noticing that a ∝ U/t a g = m = m U gt (9. In that case. Kinematic Similarity The perfect kinetics similarity is obtained when there are geometrical similarity and the motions of the ﬂuid above the objects are the same. The solution for the model and the prototype are the same. For example. One of such dimensionless parameter is the Froude number. based on Newton’s second law. For example.10) p It can be noticed that t ∼ /U thus equation (9. If this similarity is not possible. Hence it can be written that U2 g = m U2 g (9. to discuss the situations there the model and prototype are similar but the velocities are diﬀerent by a diﬀerent scaling factor.

02 [m] and the contact angle and density remain the same. The above analysis was dealing with the forces related to gravity. In another situation. ρ. the fact remains that there is a strong correlation between these forces. Rem = Rep =⇒ ρU µ = m ρU µ (9.12) = m F ρ 3 p ρ 3 p Fp =⇒ = Fm (ρ 3 )m (9.16) Noticing that U/t is the acceleration and ρ is the mass thus the forces on the right hand side are proportional if the Re number are the same. ﬂuid density. While this explanation is a poor practice for the real world. it common to provide questions in exams and other tests on this issue. the Reynolds numbers have to be same. Substituting into equation (9. In this analysis/discussion. the Navier–Stokes equations are not linear and hence this assumption is excessive and this assumption can produce another source of inaccuracy. While in Buckingham’s methods these hand waiving are not precise.14) p Utilizing the relationship U ∝ /t transforms equation (9.13) In this manipulation. A discussion about force related the viscous forces is similar and is presented for the completeness. Example 9. The Reynolds numbers is a common part of Navier–Stokes equations and if the solution of the prototype and for model to be same. However.01 [m] was obtained. This section is provide to this purpose. radius. it is assumed that a linear relationship exist.001 [m] and surface tension of 73 milliNewtons/meter and contact angle of 75◦ a height is 0. In experimental with a diameter 0.15) p multiplying by the length on both side of the fraction by U as ρ 3U µt U = m ρ 3U µt U =⇒ p ρ (ρ 3 3 U/t m (µ U )m = U/t)p (µ U )p (9. Assume that this height is a function of the body force (gravity. g).9: The liquid height rises in a tube due to the surface tension. the surface tension is 146 milli-Newtons/meter. it was shown that the ratio of the forces in the model and forces in the prototype is related to ratio of the dimensions and the density of the same systems.14) into ρ 2 µt = m ρ 2 µt (9. DIMENSIONAL ANALYSIS hence a = F/ρ 3 . . Using Buckingham’s theorem develop the relationship of the parameters.302 and a ∝ F/m and m = ρ yields F ρ 3 3 CHAPTER 9. r. and the contact angle θ. Estimate the height. the diameter is 0. σ is h.

a) There are 6 parameters in the problem and the 3 basic parameters [L.IX. In this case. t]. the ratio of height and radius must be remain the same. The ρ r2 g −3a + b + c = 0 c = −1 Thus the dimensionless group is third group obtained under the same procedure to be h/r. ρ for [M] and d for [L] and gravity. BUCKINGHAM–π–THEOREM Solution It was given that the height is a function of several parameters such h = f (σ. g.IX.IX. One technique that was suggested is the possibility to use three parameters which contain the basic parameters [M.c) 0 σ . Hence. From the above analysis the functional dependency can be written as h =f d σ . t] and with them form a new group with each of the left over parameters. g for time [t].b) leads to three equations which are Mass. M Length. For the surface tension. L.b) Equation (9. h1 h2 = =f d1 d2 σ . r) 303 (9. ρ. M.d) which leads to the same angle and the same dimensional number.e) Since the dimensionless parameters remain the same. In the second part the calculations for the estimated of height based on the new ratios.f) . h2 = h1 d2 0.IX.002 = = 0.001 End Solution (9. t the solution is a = −1 b = −2 a+1= −2c − 2 = 0 (9.01 × 0. θ.002 d1 0.2. density.IX. σ it becomes ρ a −3 r g b ML [ L ] c σ 1 Lt −2 M t−2 = M 0 L0 t0 (9.θ ρ r2 g (9. Thus the number of dimensionless groups is (6-3=3). L time.IX. In Buckingham’s methods it is either that the angle isn’t considered or the angle is dimensionless group by itself.θ ρ r5 g (9. Hence. Five parameters are left to form the next two dimensionless groups.IX.9.

Example 9. A common mistake is to ignore the boundary conditions or initial conditions. Solution Under the assumptions in the example presentation leads to following m = f (θ. the height of the liquid.3 Nusselt’s Technique The Nusselt’s method is a bit more labor intensive. liquid viscosity.3 and summarized in the following table. in that the governing equations with the boundary and initial conditions are used to determine the dimensionless parameters. This point can be illustrated by example of ﬂow over inclined plane. U . It is recommended. and liquid velocity. In this method. DIMENSIONAL ANALYSIS 9.10: Utilize the Buckingham’s method to analyze a two dimensional ﬂow in incline plane. the density. Units of the Pendulum Parameters Parameter ν m ˙ Units L t 2 −1 Parameter g θ Units L t−2 none 1 Parameter U ρ Units L1 t−1 M L3 M t−1 L−1 . ν. The potential parameters are the angle of inclination. U ) ˙ (9. ν. gravity. g. In this method.304 CHAPTER 9. Table -9. σ. The parameters that results from this process are the dimensional parameters which control the problems.7. Assume that the ﬂow is not aﬀected by the surface tension (liquid). h. the boundary conditions together with the governing equations are taken into account as opposed to Buckingham’s method.17) The number of basic units is three while the number of the parameters is six thus the diﬀerence is 6 − 3 = 3. You furthermore are to assume that the ﬂow is stable. Assume that the ﬂow inﬁnitely long and thus ﬂow can be analyzed per width which is a function of several parameters. For comparison reasons Buckingham’s method presented and later the results are compared with the results from Nusselt’s method. when the reader is out in the real world to simply abandon Buckingham’s method all together. ρ. the governing equations. g. The units of parameters can be obtained in Table 9. Develop the relationship between the ﬂow to the other parameters. An example comparing the Buckingham’s method with Nusselt’s method is presented. Those groups (or the work on the groups creation) further can be reduced the because angle θ is dimensionless. initial condition and boundary conditions are normalized resulting in a creation of dimensionless parameters which govern the solution. θ. ρ.

b) a g b U c (9. M Length.a) M L L M = 3 2 L t t tL The equations obtained from equation (9. Utilizing the building blocks technique provides m ˙ ρ a g b U c (9. the issue of the combination of the angle gravity.θ ρ U3 U3 (9.3. t ν mg ˙ −3a + b + c = −1 =⇒ π1 = ρ U 3 −2b − c = −1 ρ a= 1 (9.c) M L L L2 = 3 2 L t t t The equations obtained from equation (9. and for the length g.X.a) are Mass. and second laws governed almost all cases in thermo–ﬂuid mechanics.X. the Navier–Stokes equations were developed. End Solution A small note. at the very least. M Length. mass or the chemical species of the system. the parameters that eﬀect the problem are the focus of this discussion. This author is not aware of a compelling .9.X. These equations along with the energy. NUSSELT’S TECHNIQUE 305 The basic units are chosen as for the time.d) Thus governing equation and adding the angle can be written as 0=f mg ν g ˙ . t a= −3a + b + c = −2b − c = 0 2 −1 =⇒ π2 = νg U3 (9. ρ.X.a) are Mass. Hence. In Chapter 8.X. U . for the mass.X. it is well established that the combination of angle gravity or eﬀective body force is signiﬁcant to the results. . While the analytical solution for this situation exist. L time. L time. this analysis misses.e) The conclusion from this analysis are that the number of controlling parameters totaled in three and that the initial conditions and boundaries are irrelevant. Nusselt’s analysis requires that the governing equations along with the boundary and initial conditions to be written.X.

However. These sets of equations (9. In that case.21) need to be converted to dimensionless equations. However.VIII. there are no governing equations established for the ﬁeld nor there is necessarily concept of conservation of something.a) as ρ ∂Ux + ∂t Ux ∂Ux ∂Ux ∂Ux + Uy + Uz ∂x ∂y ∂z = (9. The two dimensional NS equation can obtained from equation (8.306 CHAPTER 9. no assumption is made or required about whether or not the velocity. if the eﬀect of the initial condition is under investigation than the characteristic of that velocity should be used. The boundary conditions have typical velocities which can be used. . The velocity is selected according to the situation or the needed velocity. DIMENSIONAL ANALYSIS reason that this fact10 should be used in this chapter.18) + ρg sin θ ∂P − +µ ∂x and ρ ∂Uy + ∂t Ux ∂ 2 Ux ∂ 2 Ux ∂ 2 Ux + + ∂x2 ∂y 2 ∂z 2 ∂Uy ∂Uy ∂Uy + Uy + Uz ∂x ∂y ∂z = (9.20) The value U0 x and τ0 are the characteristic and maximum values of the velocity or the shear stress. No assumption is required about the acceleration or the pressure gradient etc.19) + ρg sin θ ∂P − +µ ∂x With boundary conditions ∂ 2 Uy ∂ 2 Uy ∂ 2 Uy + + 2 2 ∂x ∂y ∂z 2 Ux (y = 0) = U0x f (x) ∂Ux (y = h) = τ0 f (x) ∂x (9. and the initial condition of Ux (x = 0) = U0y f (y) (9. Any function can be presented by this form.21) where U0y is characteristic initial velocity. writing the governing equations will yield dimensionless parameters as good as the initial guess. It can be noticed that the boundary and initial conditions are provided in a special form were the representative velocity multiply a function. respectively. in the y direction. The only exception is that the y component of the velocity vanished on the boundary. In the process of transforming the equations into a dimensionless form associated with some intelligent guess work. Otherwise the velocity at the bottom should be used. For example. the 10 In economics and several other areas.18)–(9.

26) With the new deﬁnition equation (9. x.24) as ∂Ux τ0 U0x (y = 1) = g (x) ∂x hµ Where new dimensionless parameter.a) Ux (y = h) = U0 a x2 + b exp(x) .XI. What are the units of the coefﬁcient in front of the variables.27) Example 9. NUSSELT’S TECHNIQUE boundary conditions are Ux (y = 0) = f (x) U0x ∂Ux µ (y = h) = τ0 g(x) ∂x Now it is very convenient to deﬁne several new variables: U= where : x= x h y = y h Ux (x) U0x 307 (9. It can be noticed that because the units consistency.11: Non–dimensionalize the following boundary condition. U0 to Umax ? (9.24) h µ ∂Ux (y = 1) = τ0 g (x) U0x ∂x It commonly suggested to arrange the second part of equation (9. the characteristic length can be used for “normalization” (see Example 9. Using these deﬁnitions the boundary and initial conditions becomes Ux (y=0) U0x = f (x) (9.25) transformed into ∂Ux (y = 1) = τ0 g (x) ∂x (9.11). What are relationship of the typical velocity.23) The length h is chosen as the characteristic length since no other length is provided.25) (9.22) (9.9. the shear stress number is deﬁned as τ0 = τ0 U0x hµ (9.3.

The main part of the analysis if conversion of the governing equation into a dimensionless form uses previous deﬁnition with additional deﬁnitions.XI.d) With the new coeﬃcients for both terms and noticing that y = h −→ y = 1 now can be written as a Ux (y = 1) = a h2 x2 + b exp (h) exp (x) = a x2 + b exp x U0 b (9.308 Solution CHAPTER 9. This dimensionless number was and cannot be obtained using the Buckingham’s technique.21) utilizing the previous deﬁnitions transformed into U0y Ux (x = 0) = f (y) U0x U0x (9. The physical signiﬁcance of this number is an indication to the “penetration” of the initial (condition) velocity. Thus.XI.b) From equation (9.28) Notice the new dimensionless group of the velocity ratio as results of the boundary condition. The exponent appears a bit more complicated as L0 = b exp h Hence deﬁning b= x x = b exp (h) exp = b exp (h) exp (x) h h 1 exp h (9.e) Where a and b are the transformed coeﬃcients in the dimensionless presentation. the derivative with respect to time is Ux U0x U0x 2 ∂Ux ∂Ux ∂ Ux U0x = = ∂t h ∂t ∂ t Uh 0x t U0x h (9. The results must be unitless thus a x2 L0 = a L2 =⇒ a = 1 L2 (9. The initial condition (9.b) it clear the conversion of the ﬁrst term is Ux = a h2 x. DIMENSIONAL ANALYSIS The coeﬃcients a and b multiply diﬀerent terms and therefore must have diﬀerent units. The dimensionless time is deﬁned as t = t U0x /h.XI.29) . This deﬁnition based on the characteristic time of h/U0x . End Solution After the boundary conditions the initial condition can undergo the non–dimensional process.c) (9.XI.XI.

NUSSELT’S TECHNIQUE Notice that the coeﬃcient has units of acceleration. Substituting all terms and dividing by density.33) P0 − P∞ ∂P U0x µ + 2 hρ ∂x h ρ ∂ 2 Ux ∂ 2 Ux ∂ 2 Ux + + ∂x2 ∂y 2 ∂z 2 Dividing equation (9. ρ result in U0x 2 h ∂Ux + ∂t Ux − ∂Ux ∂Ux ∂Ux + Uy + Uz ∂x ∂y ∂z = ρg + ¡ sin θ ρ ¡ (9.31) (9.9.32) The last term is the gravity g which is left for the later stage.33) by U0x 2 /h yields ∂Ux + ∂t Ux − ∂Ux ∂Ux ∂Ux + Uy + Uz ∂x ∂y ∂z = + gh U0x 2 P0 − P∞ ∂P µ + 2 ∂x U0x h ρ U0x ρ ∂ 2 Ux ∂ 2 Ux ∂ 2 Ux + + ∂x2 ∂y 2 ∂z 2 sin θ (9.3.30) The pressure is normalized by the same initial pressure or the static pressure as (P − P∞ ) / (P0 − P∞ ) and hence P −P∞ P0 −P∞ ∂P ∂ P (P0 − P∞ ) ∂P = (P0 − P∞ ) = ∂x ∂xh h ∂x The second derivative of velocity looks like ∂ 2 Ux ∂ ∂ Ux U0x U0x ∂ 2 Ux = = 2 ∂x2 ∂ (xh) ∂ (xh) h ∂x2 (9.35) Substituting deﬁnition of equation (9.36) 1 ∂P + −Eu ∂x Re ∂ 2 Ux ∂ 2 Ux ∂ 2 Ux + + 2 2 ∂x ∂y ∂z 2 .34) Deﬁning “initial” dimensionless parameters as Re = U0x h ρ µ U0x Fr = √ gh Eu = P0 − P∞ U0x 2 ρ (9.36) yields ∂Ux + ∂t Ux ∂Ux ∂Ux ∂Ux + Uy + Uz ∂x ∂y ∂z = 1 + sin θ F r2 (9. The second term ∂Ux ∂ Ux U0x U0x 2 ∂Ux = Ux U0x = Ux ∂x ∂ x h h ∂x x h Ux U0x Ux U0x 309 Ux (9.35) into equation (9.

initial conditions and equations11 . fτ .). In general. given derivative (Neumann b. DIMENSIONAL ANALYSIS Equation (9. It recognized that not all the possibilities can presented in the example shown above. this process involve dividing the function by a typical value and the same for length variable (e. In fact. x) as ∂ ∂U = ∂x U0 ∂ U U0 x = ∂U U0 ∂x (9. Common Transformations Fluid mechanics in particular and Thermo–Fluid ﬁeld in general have several common transformations that appear in boundary conditions. the results of the non dimensional transformation depends on the selection of what and how is nondimensionalization carried. It can be noticed with Buckingham’s method. Boundary conditions are divided into several categories such as a given value to the function12 . The signiﬁcance of the large and small value of the dimensionless parameters will be discuss later in the book. Thus. Eu. there are numerous examples in the literature that showing people doing experiments based on Buckingham’s methods. 12 The mathematicians like to call Dirichlet conditions . one of the general nondimensionalization of the Navier–Stokes and energy equations will be discussed at end of this chapter. The second category involves the nondimensionalization of the derivative. and complex conditions. Thus.g. The ﬁrst and second categories were discussed to some degree earlier and will be expanded later. The third and fourth categories were not discussed previously.c. Several common boundary conditions which were not discussed in the above example are presented below. mixed condition. This is a very signiﬁcant diﬀerence between the two methods. Nusselt’s method provides several more parameters that were not obtained by the block method. The non–dimensionalization of the boundary conditions of the ﬁrst category requires ﬁnding and diving the boundary conditions by a typical or a characteristic value. This author is not aware of a collection of this kind of transforms.37) The values of x. τ0 . major parameters are ignored rendering these experiments useless in many cases and deceiving. y depend on h and hence the value of h is an important parameter. As an initial matter. U0y U0x (9. The solution of the governing equation is a function of all the parameters present in that equation and boundaries condition as well the initial condition.36) show one common possibility of a dimensionless presentation of governing equation. This section of these parameters depends on what is investigated.38) 11 Many of these tricks spread in many places and ﬁelds. In these experiments. Re. Without actually solving the problem.310 CHAPTER 9. y. the solution is Ux = f x. θ. F r. the number of parameters obtained was only three (3) while Nusselt’s method yields 12 dimensionless parameters. fu .

41) T0 − T T0 − Tmax k = h ∂ T − T0 T0 − Tmax x ∂ =⇒ Θ = 1 ∂Θ N u ∂x (9. NUSSELT’S TECHNIQUE 311 In the Thermo–Fluid ﬁeld and others. It can be noticed that the degree of the derivative boundary condition cannot exceed the derivative degree of the governing equation (e.). Thus. The last category is dealing with some non–linear conditions of the function with its derivative. For example. the governing equation can be of higher order than second order13 . .42) Where Nusselt Number and the dimensionless temperature are deﬁned as Nu = h k Θ= T − T0 T0 − Tmax (9. the highest derivative can be ﬁfth order derivative. and. For example a typical heat balance at liquid solid interface reads h(T0 − T ) = −k ∂T ∂x (9. second order equation has at most the second order diﬀerential boundary condition. since derivative of constant is zero.9.g. σ. In general “nth” order diﬀerential equation leads to U0 ∂ ∂nU = n ∂xn ∂ n U U0 x n = U0 ∂ n U n ∂xn (9.43) and Tmax is the maximum or reference temperature of the system. The surface geometry (or the radii) is determined by several factors which include the liquid movement 13 This author aware of ﬁfth order partial diﬀerential governing equations in some cases. is the surface tension between the gas (or liquid) and the other phase. ∆P ≈ σ 1 1 + r1 r2 = σ r1 + r2 r1 r2 (9.40) This kind of boundary condition.3. translated to T0 − T T0 − Tmax @ −∂ (T0 − Tmax k @@@@@) T − T0 T0 − Tmax x ∂ @ h @@@@@) (T0 − Tmax or =− (9.39) The third kind of boundary condition is the mix condition.44) Where r1 and r2 are the typical principal radii of the free surface curvature. This category includes combination of the function with its derivative.

The governing equation is non–linear and this example provides opportunity to study nondimensionalizing of this kind of equation. Characteristics Values Normally.a) . The diameter of cylinder as a typical length. This boundary condition (9. The boundary condition (9. There are several situations where the characteristic length. that liquid is incompressible. to initially assume. are determined by the physical properties of the ﬂuid(s). a new dimensionless parameters is introduced as the ratio of the density to a reference density as ρ= ρ ρ0 (9.45) can be transferred into ∆P r1 = Av σ (9.g.46) Where ∆P is the pressure diﬀerence between the two phases (normally between the liquid and gas phase). The characteristic velocity can determined from U0 = 2P0 /ρ. If greater accuracy is needed than this assumption is removed. velocity. the characteristics values are determined by physical values e. for example.XII. DIMENSIONAL ANALYSIS instabilities etc chapters of the problem at hand. This process requires analysis the mass transfer process. In that case.312 CHAPTER 9. The characteristic length can be determined from ratio of = ∆P/σ.12: One idea of renewable energy is to use and to utilize the high concentration of of brine water such as in the Salt Lake and the Salt Sea (in Israel). Example 9. One of advantage of Nusselt’s method is the Object–Oriented nature which allows one to add additional dimensionless parameters for addition “degree of freedom.47) In case of ideal gas model with isentropic ﬂow this assumption becomes ρ= ¯ ρ = ρ0 P0 P 1 n (9.45) Where Av is Avi number . The Avi number represents the geometrical characteristics combined with the material properties. The conversion of the species yields a governing nonlinear equation14 for such process is U0 ∂CA ∂ DAB ∂CA = ∂x ∂y (1 − XA ) ∂y (9.” It is common assumption.45) can be rearranged to be ∆P r1 r1 + r2 r1 + r2 ≈ =⇒ Av ≈ σ r2 r2 (9.48) The power n depends on the gas properties.

e) It can be noticed that X is unitless parameter because two same quantities are divided. From units point of view.e.9. equation (9.c) Select dimensionless parameters so that the governing equation and boundary and initial condition can be presented in a dimensionless form.XII. The boundary and initial conditions here provides 14 More information how this equation was derived can be found in Bar–Meir (Meyerson). Typically. Solution This governing equation requires to work with dimension associated with mass transfer and chemical reactions. Now the units are compared to make sure that diﬀusion coeﬃcient is kept the units on both sides the same.” However. In addition to that. the “mole.3. Hence.XII. the number of moles per volume.a) can be written (when the concentration is simply ignored) as U ∂C ∂x ∂ ∂y DAB (1−X) ∂C ∂y L t C C 1 DAB = L L 1 L (9. dimensionless parameters are presented as ratio of two quantities. Genick “Hygroscopic absorption to falling ﬁlms: The eﬀects of the concentration level” M. The potential of possibilities of dimensionless parameter is large. There is no need to discuss the physical signiﬁcance of the problem. .f) Hence the units of diﬀusion coeﬃcient are typically given by m2 /sec (it also can be observed that based on Fick’s laws of diﬀusion it has the same units). NUSSELT’S TECHNIQUE 313 Where the concentration. The initial condition is CA (x = 0) = C0 (9.XII. of Fluid Mechanics and Heat Transfer 12/1991.XII. Thesis Tel-Aviv Univ. XA is deﬁned as the molar fraction of species A divide by the total amount of material (in moles). DAB is deﬁned as penetration of species A into the material. in heat and mass transfer (also in pressure driven ﬂow etc.b) (9. The molar fraction. 1 1 L2 = 2 DAB =⇒ DAB = t L t (9. the units should not cause confusion or fear since it appear on both sides of the governing equation. What are the units of the diﬀusivity coeﬃcient? The boundary conditions of this partial diﬀerential equation are given by ∂CA (y = ∞) = 0 ∂y CA (y = 0) = Ce Where Ce is the equilibrium concentration. Dept.) the relative or reference to certain point has to accounted for. (Israel).XII. this unit will be canceled.d) (9.XII. CA is defended as the molar density i. The diﬀusivity coeﬃcient.S.

g) Φ= Ce − C0 With almost “standard” transformation x x= y y= (9. End Solution 9. this term.i) In general a derivative with respect to x or y leave yields multiplication of .XII. the potential deﬁnition is CA − C0 (9. Yet.l) another unexpected dimensionless parameter as Ce − C0 (9.XII. equation (9.314 CHAPTER 9.XII.a) transformed into $ (C$$ ∂Φ U0 $e −C0 ) ∂x U0 ∂Φ ∂x $ ∂ DAB $$− C0 ) ∂Φ (Ce $$ ∂y (1 − XA ) ∂y 1 ∂ DAB ∂Φ = 2 ∂y (1 − XA ) ∂y = 1 (9.l) XA = Φ C Thus number.XII.4 Summary of Dimensionless Numbers This section summarizes all the major dimensionless parameters which are commonly used in the ﬂuid mechanics ﬁeld. DIMENSIONAL ANALYSIS the potential of the “driving force” for the mass ﬂow or mass transfer. Using the deﬁnition of XA it can be written as XA = CA CA − C0 1 = (Ce − C0 ) C Ce − C0 C (9. the term XA . .XII. Hence. XA has to be converted or presented by Φ.XII.j) like non–dimensionalized and proper version. while is dimensionless.h) Hence the derivative of Φ with respect to time is ∂Φ = ∂x ∂ 0 CA − C0 & b ∂ CA − & C0 Ce − C0 = x Ce − C0 ∂x ∂ = ∂CA Ce − C0 ∂x (9. Hence. Hence.XII.XII.XII. is not proper. XA is a function of Φ because it contains CA . Ce −C0 was not expected and it represent ratio of the driving force to the C height of the concentration which was not possible to attend by Buckingham’s method.k) Thus the transformation in equation (9. However.j) Equation (9.

hydrodynamics.4.9. thin ﬁlm ﬂow Br Ca Cau µU 2 k ∆T µU σ ρ U2 E Pl − Pv 1 2 2 ρU ∆t U ∆x Re R/h tc tp D 1 2 2 ρU A U2 Cp ∆T during dissipation problems For small Re and surface tension involve problem For large Re and surface tension involve problem pressure diﬀerence to vapor pressure to the potential of phase change (mostly to gas) A requirement in numerical schematic to achieve stability) related to radius of channel with width h stability the ratio of the ﬂuidity of material primary used in rheology Aerodynamics.8. note this coeﬃcient has many deﬁnitions during dissipation problems Cavitation σ Number Courant Number Dean Number Deborah Number15 Drag Coeﬃcient Eckert Number Co D De CD Ec Continued on next page . Common Dimensionless Parameters of Thermo–Fluid in the Field 315 Name Symbol g Equation 3 Interpretation buoyancy forces viscous force buoyancy forces “penetration” force gravity forces surface tension force heat dissipation heat conduction viscous force surface tension force inertia force elastic force pressure diﬀerence inertia energy wave distance Typical Distance inertia forces viscous deviation forces stress relaxation time observation time drag force inertia eﬀects inertia eﬀects thermal eﬀects Application in nature and force convection in stability of liquid layer a over b RayleighTaylor instability etc. SUMMARY OF DIMENSIONLESS NUMBERS Table -9. Archimedes Ar Number Atwood Number Bond Number Brinkman Number Capillary Number Cauchy Number A ρf (ρ − ρf ) µ2 (ρa − ρb ) ρa + ρb ρg σ 2 Bo in open channel ﬂow.

economy La 2σ g(ρ1 − ρ2 ) L 1 ρ U2 A 2 U c − dσ ∆T dT να gµ4 ∆ρ c ρ2 σ 3 c CD 2 Pmax ρ Qmax 2 A CL M Marangoni Ma Number Morton Number Ozer Number Mo Oz viscous force viscous force surface tension force “maximum” supply “maximum” demand ( ) Continued on next page . DIMENSIONAL ANALYSIS Table -9. Common Dimensionless Parameters of Fluid Mechanics (continue) Standard System Name Ekman Number Euler Number Froude Number Galileo Number Grashof Number Knudsen Number Laplace Constant Lift Coefﬁcient Mach Number Symbol Ek Ec Equation ν 2 2 Interpretation viscous forces Coriolis forces pressure potential Application geophysical ﬂow like atmospheric ﬂow potential of resistance problems ω P0 − P∞ Cp ∆T U √ g ρg 3 µ2 β ∆T g µ2 λ 3 eﬀects inertia eﬀects Fr Ga Gr Kn inertia eﬀects gravitational eﬀects gravitational eﬀects viscous eﬀects ρ2 buoyancy eﬀects viscous eﬀects LMFP characteristic length surface force gravity eﬀects lift force inertia eﬀects velocity sound speed “thermal” surface tension open channel ﬂow and two phase ﬂow open channel ﬂow and two phase ﬂow natural convection length of mean free path. to characteristic length liquid raise. also ref:Capillary constant Aerodynamics.316 CHAPTER 9. hydrodynamics. LMFP.8. note this coeﬃcient has many deﬁnitions compressibility and propagation of disturbances surface tension caused by thermal gradient bubble and drop ﬂow supply and demand analysis such pump & pipe system. surface tension problem.

3051374. in the study of the physical situations often people refers to local Re number and the global Re number. in case of solid phase is Young modulus.4. The elasticity E in case of liquid phase is BT . (1964). doi:10.8 are the characteristics of the system. named this parameter because theological reasons perhaps since he was living in Israel. there several typical dimensions which need to be mentioned. The typical length is denoted as and in many cases it is referred to as the diameter or the radius. Keeping this point in mind. “The Deborah Number”. The 15 This number is named by Reiner.8. Reiner. M. a civil engineer who is considered the father of Rheology.9. . Physics Today 17 (1): 62.1063/1. In fact. Therefore there are several deﬁnition of Reynolds number. The typical body force is the gravity g which has a direction to center of Earth. SUMMARY OF DIMENSIONLESS NUMBERS Table -9. Common Dimensionless Parameters of Fluid Mechanics (continue) 317 Standard System Name Prandtl Number Reynolds Number Rossby Number Shear Number Stokes Number Symbol Pr Equation ν α ρU µ U ω 0 τc c µc Uc tp tK Interpretation viscous diﬀusion rate thermal diﬀusion rate inertia forces viscous forces inertia forces Coriolis forces actual shear “potential” shear time Kolmogorov time particle relaxation Application Prandtl is ﬂuid property important in ﬂow due to thermal forces In most ﬂuid mechanics issues Re Ro Sn Stk In rotating ﬂuids shear ﬂow In aerosol dealing penetration particles ﬂow with of Strouhal Number St ω U “unsteady” eﬀects inertia eﬀect The eﬀects of natural or forced frequency in all the ﬁeld that is how much the “unsteadiness” of the ﬂow is Stability of rotating cylinders Notice has special deﬁnition For large Re and surface tension involve problem Taylor Number Weber Number Ta ρ2 ωi 2 µ4 ρ U2 σ 4 centrifugal forces viscous forces inertia force surface tension force We The dimensional parameters that were used in the construction of the dimensionless parameters in Table 9.

These vortexes are created in a non–symmetrical way and hence Fig. The frequency ω or f is referred to as the “unsteadiness” of the system. 9.1 The Signiﬁcance of these Dimensionless Numbers Reynolds number. For example. Determine this relationship and under what circumstances this relationship is true. the physics itself instores or forces periodic instability. Lightfoot and Stuart “Transport Phenomena”. can be considered a steady state16 . this number was one of the ﬁrst numbers to be introduced to ﬂuid mechanics. The inability to deﬁne a ﬁx value leads also to new dimensionless numbers which represent the deviations of these properties. A in drag and lift coeﬃcients is referred normally to projected area. -9. named in the honor of Reynolds. Solution 16 This is an example where the more unsteady the situation becomes the situation can be analyzed as a steady state because averages have a signiﬁcant importance. And indeed in a low Reynolds number it is a steady state. 17 This example is based on Bird.13: Eckert number17 determines whether the role of the momentum energy is transferred to thermal energy is signiﬁcant to aﬀect the ﬂow. in many cases. The area. However after a certain value of Reynolds number. . DIMENSIONAL ANALYSIS density. Generally.4) which named after Von Karman. This number determines.4. c is the speed of sound of the ﬂuid at rest or characteristic value.Vortex Street. ber increases.4. The value of the viscosity. these vortexes are mixed and the ﬂow becomes turbulent which. the periodic eﬀect is enforced by the boundary conditions or the initial conditions. represents the ratio of the momentum forces to the viscous forces. When Reynolds num. Example 9. The pressure P is the pressure at inﬁnity or when the velocity is at rest. In other situations. This eﬀect is important in situations where high speed is involved. ﬂow around cylinder at ﬁrst looks like symmetrical situation. vortexes are created in an inﬁnite parade and this phenomenon is called Von Karman vortex street (see Figure 9. Historically. Oscillating Von Karman create an unsteady situation. ρ is referred to the characteristic density or density at inﬁnity.318 CHAPTER 9. µ is typically some kind averaged value. the ﬂow regime. This fact suggests that Eckert number is related to Mach number.

b) M =U =√ ρ kRT For the comparison.org/gasDynamics/node70.a) The material which obeys the ideal ﬂow model18 (P/ρ = R T and P = C1 ρk ) can be written that P U (9.XIII. supersonic ﬂow in rocket mechanics creating large heat eﬀect in the head due to large velocity (in many place it is a combination of Eckert number with Brinkman number. Thus Eckert number can be written as √ √ √ U U k − 1U Ec = = = √ = k − 1M Cp T kRT Rk (9. the reference temperature used to be equal to zero.XIII. Cauchy number and Mach number are related as well and see Example 9. End Solution Brinkman number measures of the importance of the viscous heating relative the conductive heat transfer.potto. While in some instances this combination is justiﬁed.XIV.html . other cases it is arbitrary. This number is important in cases when a large velocity change occurs over short distances such as lubricant.XIII.c) T k−1 Cp The Eckert number and Mach number are related under ideal gas model and isentropic relationship.4.14: For historical reason some ﬁelds prefer to use certain numbers and not other ones. Show what the relationship between these dimensionless numbers.8 Mach and Eckert numbers are deﬁned as Ec = U2 Cp ∆T M= U P ρ 319 (9. The Mach number is based on diﬀerent equations depending on the property of the medium in which pressure disturbance moves through. For example in Mechanical engineers prefer to use the combination Re and W e number while Chemical engineers prefers to use the combination of Re and the Capillary number.9.8 We = 18 See ρ U2 σ Re = ρU µ Ca = µU U = σ σ µ (9.a) for more details http://www. Example 9.15 for explanation. Solution The deﬁnitions of these number in Table 9. SUMMARY OF DIMENSIONLESS NUMBERS In Table 9.

as ﬁrst approximation. In the solid phase equation (9. The cavitation number is used in the study of cavitation phenomena while Euler number is mainly used in calculation of resistances.XV.XV.49) Thus the square root of Cau is equal to Mach number in the liquid phase. Eulers number and Cavitation number are essentially the same with the exception that these numbers represent diﬀerent driving pressure diﬀerences. Euler number is referred to as the pressure coeﬃcient. a German Physicist who pioneered so many ﬁelds that it is hard to say what and where are his greatest contributions. Furthermore. End Solution .b) transforms equation (9.320 CHAPTER 9. DIMENSIONAL ANALYSIS Dividing Weber number by Reynolds number yields ρ U2 We = σ ρU Re µ U = σ = Ca µ (9. Cp .XV. This diﬀerence from dimensional analysis is minimal.a) into √ Cau = U =M c (9.XV.a) In the liquid phase the speed of sound is approximated as c= E ρ (9.b) ρU2 E (9.b) End Solution Euler number is named after Leonhard Euler (1707 1783).XIV. Example 9.XV. this analysis can be applied also to the solid phase. This confusion arises in dimensional analysis because historical reasons and the main focus area.c) Using equation (9. However.XV.c) is less accurate and speed of sound depends on the direction of the grains.15: Explained under what conditions and what are relationship between the Mach number and Cauchy number? Solution Cauchy number is deﬁned as Cau = The square root of Cauchy number is √ Cau = U E ρ (9.

17: Laplace Number is another dimensionless number that appears in ﬂuid mechanics which related to Capillary number. Weber number and Laplace number. Mach number and Eckert Number under certain circumstances are same.2 Relationship Between Dimensionless Numbers The Dimensionless numbers since many of them have formulated in a certain ﬁeld tend to be duplicated.XIX. Example 9. the Bond number is referred in Europe as Eotvos number.4.a) Deﬁned Oh in term of W e and Re numbers.9. This number is deﬁned as F rR = ω2 g (9. In addition to the above confusion. The Laplace number deﬁnition is La = ρσ µ2 (9.a) What is the relationship between two Froude numbers? Example 9. For example.4. What are the relation between these numbers? Example 9. many dimensional numbers expressed the same things under certain conditions.a) Show what are the relationships between Reynolds number.18: The Rotating Froude Number is a somewhat a similar number to the regular Froude number. For example.19: Ohnesorge Number is another dimensionless parameter that deals with surface tension and is similar to Capillary number and it is deﬁned as Oh = √ µ ρσ (9. SUMMARY OF DIMENSIONLESS NUMBERS 321 9.XVII.XVI. Example 9.16: Galileo Number is a dimensionless number which represents the ratio of gravitational forces and viscous forces in the system as Ga = ρ2 g µ2 3 (9.XVIII.a) The deﬁnition of Reynolds number has viscous forces and the deﬁnition of Froude number has gravitational forces. .

The density and viscosity remains the same and hence Rem = Rep =⇒ Um Dm = Up Dp =⇒ Up = Dm Um DP (9.XX.20: The similarity of pumps is determined by comparing several dimensional numbers among them are Reynolds number.a) It can be noticed that initial situation is considered as the model and while the new pump is the prototype.3 Examples for Dimensional Analysis Example 9.XX.25 × 43 = 16 m3 sec (9. The new ﬂow rate.e) (9.XX.XX.c) The new pressure is obtain by comparing the Euler number as Eup = Eum =⇒ Rearranging equation (9.f) . Assume that the only numbers which aﬀect the ﬂow are Reynolds and Euler number.25 [m3 /sec] and pressure increase for this ﬂow rate is 2 [Bar] with 2500 [kw]. it is suggested to replace the pump with a 4 times larger pump. depends on the ratio of the area and velocity as Qp Ap Up Ap Up Dp 2 Up = =⇒ Qp = Qm = Qm Qm Am Um Am U m Dm 2 Um Thus the prototype ﬂow rate is Qp = Qm Dp Dm 3 (9. Rossby number etc.b) = 0. and power consumption? Solution It provided that the Reynolds number controls the situation.XX. DIMENSIONAL ANALYSIS 9.XX.XX.d) = ρ U2 p U2 p ¡ = (ρ U 2 )m (U 2 )m ¡ (9.XX.g) Dp Dm 2 ∆P 1 2 2ρ U p = ∆P 1 2 2ρ U m (9. pressure increase.d) provides (∆P )p (∆P )m Utilizing equation (9.XX. Due to increase of demand. Q. What is the new estimated ﬂow rate. The ﬂow rate of the imaginary pump is 0.322 CHAPTER 9.4. Euler number.a) ∆Pp = ∆Pm The power can be obtained from the following F ˙ = F U = P AU W = t (9.

XXI. Estimate the pressure loss ratio if Reynolds number remains constant.XXI.i) End Solution Example 9. Thus it can be written that the Euler number is function of the Reynolds number.e) . However. Rep = Rem Hence.XXI. SUMMARY OF DIMENSIONLESS NUMBERS 323 In this analysis. This kind of study appears in the industry in which the compressibility of the air is ignored. to have a similar situation the Reynolds and Euler have to be same. it is assumed that pressure is uniform in the cross section. Hence.XXI.b) (9.9.XXI. This assumption is appropriate because only the secondary ﬂows in the radial direction (to be discussed in this book section on pumps.21: The ﬂow resistance to ﬂow of the water in a pipe is to be simulated by ﬂow of air.). the Reynolds number is the single controlling parameter which aﬀects the pressure loss. Water is a substance that can be considered incompressible ﬂow for relatively small pressure change. Eu = f (Re) (9.a) Thus. the air is a compressible substance that ﬂows the ideal gas model.c) ρm Um ∆Pm = ∆Pp ρp U p (9. Estimate the error using the averaged properties of the air.XX.XXI.h) = ˙m (P A U )m W Utilizing equations above in this ratio leads to Pp /Pm Ap /Am 2 Up /Um 2 ˙ Wp = ˙ Wm Dp Dm Dp Dm Dp Dm = Dp Dm 5 (9.c) yields ∆Pm = ∆Pp p m 2 µm µp 2 ρp ρm (9. Solution For the ﬁrst part.d) and utilizing equation (9.XX.4. Um = Up and for Euler number p m Eum = Eup ρ µp ρm µm (9. the ratio of power between the two pump can be written as ˙ (P A U )p Wp (9.

The kinematic viscosity ratio is then νp = νm 19 The m p 3/2 = (1/20) 3/2 (9. If that variable is introduced into problem. g. Assuming a new variable that eﬀect the problem.XXII.f) It can be noticed that the density of the air changes considerably hence the calculations produce a considerable error which can render the calculations useless (a typical problem of Buckingham’s method). Solution The requirement is that Reynolds Rem = Rp =⇒ The Froude needs to be similar so F rm = F rp =⇒ U √ g = p U ν = p U ν (9. the air properties are calculated based on the averaged values between the entrance and exit values.d) m If the body force19 .XXII.XXII. What should be ratio of kinematic viscosity between the model and prototype so that Froude and Reynolds numbers remain the same. to be continue End Solution Example 9.a) by equation (9. air density variation.324 Inserting the numerical values results in CHAPTER 9.XXII.b) results in U ν or / p U √ g √ g ν = p U ν √ g ν / m U √ g (9. If the pressure reduction is a function of pressure reduction (iterative process).XXII.XXII.c) m = p (9.a) m U ν (9. Assume that body force remains the same and velocity is reduced by half.XXII. DIMENSIONAL ANALYSIS ∆Pm = 1 × 1000× ∆Pp (9.b) m dividing equation (9. air can be used to simulate water ﬂow.e) body force does not necessarily have to be the gravity. .XXI. However as a ﬁrst approximation.22: A device operating on a surface of a liquid to study using a model with a ratio 1:20.

50) ˜ =h . First. End Solution 9.6 Appendix summary of Dimensionless Form of Navier– Stokes Equations In a vector form Navier–Stokes equations can be written and later can be transformed into dimensionless form which will yield dimensionless parameters. Nusselt’s approach provides an heavy duties approach to examine what dimensionless parameters eﬀect the problem.5 Summary The two dimensional analysis methods or approaches were presented in this chapter. In other cases. The dimensional analysis technique provides a way to simplify models (solving the governing equation by experimental means) and to predict eﬀecting parameters.5. SUMMARY 325 It can be noticed that this can be achieved using Ohnesorge Number like this presentation. Buckingham’s π technique is a quick “ﬁx approach” which allow rough estimates and relationship between model and prototype. these technique proves diﬀerent and even conﬂicting results. 9. It can be shown that these two techniques in some situations provide almost similar solution.9. the typical or characteristics values of scaling parameters has to be presented and appear in the following table Parameter Symbol h U0 f ρ0 Pmax − P∞ Parameter Description characteristic length characteristic velocity characteristic frequency characteristic density maximum pressure drive Units [L] L t 1 t M L3 M L t2 Basic non–dimensional form of the parameters ˜ t = ft ˜ P = P − P∞ Pmax − P∞ ˜ r= r h U ˜ U = U0 ˜ ρ= ρ ρ0 (9.

every additive term has primary dimensions m1 L−2 t−2 .” This parameter is important in unsteady. we multiply every term by L/(V 2 ).a) Suggest a dimensionless parameter that will take this change into account. so that the dimensions cancel. The Strouhal number is named after Vincenz Strouhal (1850 1922).53) The deﬁnition of Froude number is not consistent in the literature. oscillating ﬂow problems in which the frequency of the oscillation is important. Supplemental Problems 1. What is the air velocity for a 1:20 scale model to achieve dynamic similarity between model and prototype? Assume that in the model the air has the same pressure and temperature as that in prototype.17) for non–compressible substance can be transformed into 0 ! ¡ ∂ρ ¡ + ∂t ¡ · (˜ U ) = 0 ρ (9. which has primary dimensions m−1 L2 t2 . who used this parameter in his study of “singing wires.111) results in ˜ f h ∂U ˜ ˜ + U· ˜ U =− ˜ U0 ∂ t Pmax − P∞ ˜ ρU ˜ ˜ ˜ P + 1 fg + 1 ˜ 2U ˜ ˜2 ρU h U µ gh (9.23: A device is accelerated linearly by a constant value B .326 CHAPTER 9. Using these deﬁnitions equation (8. To non nondimensionalization. Write a new N–S and continuity equations for incompressible substance in the a coordinate system attached to the body. Example 9. Measurement has shown that the acceleration to be constant with small sinusoidal on top the constant such away as a =B + sin f 2π (9. In some places F r is deﬁned as the square of F r = U 2 /g h. An airplane wing of chord length 3 [m] moves through still air at 15◦ Cand 1 [Bar] and at at a speed of 15 [m/sec].52) Or after using the deﬁnition of the dimensionless parameters as St ˜ 1 ∂U 1 ˜2˜ ˜ ˜ ˜ + U · ˜ U = −Eu ˜ P + fg + U ˜ F r2 Re ∂t (9. Using these equations developed new dimensionless equations so the new “Froude number” will contain or “swallow” by the new acceleration. DIMENSIONAL ANALYSIS For the Continuity Equation (8.51) For the N-S equation. If the .XXIII.

If the airplane velocity is 120 [m] and velocity at the wind–tunnel is 60 [m].02[m] pipe. what velocity is required for pressure is 1. 3. calculate the model and the airplane Reynolds numbers. The pipe is 0.9. An airplane 100[m] long is tested by 1 [m] model. What should be velocity of Castor oil to get the same Reynolds number? What would be pressure drop in that case? . 4. What is the pipe diameter for oil ﬂowing at speed of 1[m/sec] to obtain dynamic similarity with a pipe for water ﬂowing at 3 [m/sec] in a 0. You can assume that both model and prototype working conditions are the same (1[Bar] and 60◦ C). State your assumptions.6.5[bar] and temperature 20◦ C? What is the required velocity of the air in the model test when the medium is made of water to keep the dynamic similarity? 2. The pressure drop for water ﬂowing at 1 [m/sec] in a pipe was measured to be 1 [Bar]. APPENDIX SUMMARY OF DIMENSIONLESS FORM OF NAVIER–STOKES EQUATIONS327 air is considered as compressible.05 [m] diameter and 100 [m] in length.

328 CHAPTER 9. DIMENSIONAL ANALYSIS .

ZAMM 55. gas properties. E. 37. H. and worked at the (US) National Bureau of Standards (now the National Institute of Standards and Technology.S. ﬂuid mechanics. Rev. and black–body radiation. ). in German. The principle of similitude. Inc. 329 .) [5] Dimensional Analysis and Theory of Models by Henry L. 4. 345-376 (1914). E. [3] Buckingham. 1951.M.. Zur Geschichte des pi-Theorems. (On the o history of the pi theorem. but also apparently Krieger Publishing Co. 1980. [4] G¨rtler. [2] Buckingham. 396-397 (1915). Langhaar (John Wiley & Sons. 263-296 (1915). A. Nature 96. Trans. E. or NIST) 1905–1937. Model experiments and the forms of empirical equations. Phys. acoustics. 3-8 (1975).E. His ﬁelds of expertise included soil physics. A micro-biography of Edgar Buckingham Edgar Buckingham (18671940) was educated at Harvard and Leipzig. illustrations of the use of dimensional equations.. On physically similar systems.BIBLIOGRAPHY [1] Buckingham.

330 BIBLIOGRAPHY .

it is believed that the interactions/calculations requires a full year class and hence. This chapter provides information that is more or less in consensus2 . The author believes that the trends and eﬀects of multiphase ﬂow could and should be introduced and considered by engineers. the nature of multiphase ﬂow requires solving many equations. For simple models.there are two possibilities (1) the ﬂuids/materials are ﬂowing in well homogeneous mixed (where the main problem 1 An example. For many engineers. there was a Ph. 331 . the topic of multi–phase ﬂow is ignored in an introductory class on ﬂuid mechanics.1 Introduction Traditionally. in many books the representations is by writing the whole set governing equations. is required for many engineering problems. Here. working for the government who analyzed ﬁling cavity with liquid metal (aluminum). books on multiphase ﬂow were written more as a literature review or heavy on the mathematics. who did not consider the ﬂow as two–phase ﬂow and ignoring the air. 10. 2 Or when the scientiﬁc principles simply dictate.CHAPTER 10 Multi–Phase Flow 10. Thus. his analysis is in the twilight zone not in the real world. This book attempts to describe these issues as a fundamentals of physical aspects and less as a literature review. In fact. there is not a consensus to the exact map of many ﬂow regimes. only the trends and simple calculations are described. Calculations of many kinds of ﬂow deals with more than one phase or material ﬂow1 . As result. Additionally. this class will be the only opportunity to be exposed to this topic. It is recognized that multiphase ﬂow is still evolving. The knowledge in this topic without any doubts. In the past. Initially the models were using simple assumptions.D.2 History The study of multi–phase ﬂow started for practical purposes after World War II.

They postulate that there is a relationship between the pressure loss of a single phase and combine phases pressure loss as a function of the pressure loss of the other phase.3 What to Expect From This Chapter As oppose to the tradition of the other chapters in this book and all other Potto project books. When it became apparent that speciﬁc models were needed for diﬀerent situations. This chapter will introduce these concepts so that the engineer not only be able to understand a conversation on multi-phase but also. It is an attempt to explain and convince all the readers that the multi–phase ﬂow must be included in introductory class on ﬂuid mechanics3 . and importance to real world. ﬂow parameters eﬀects on the ﬂow regimes. . This chapter will provide: a category of combination of phases. and more importantly. a description of what to expect in this chapter is provided. Taitle and Duckler suggested a map based on ﬁve non-dimensional groups which are considered as the most useful today. Taitle and Duckler’s map is not universal and it is only applied to certain liquid–gas conditions. The ﬂow patterns or regimes were not considered. 10. MULTI–PHASE FLOW to ﬁnd the viscosity). Under this assumption the total is not linear and experimental correlation was made. Hence. and actual calculation of pressure of the diﬀerent regimes. Researchers that followed Lockhart and Martinelli looked for a diﬀerent map for diﬀerent combination of phases. and calculation of pressure drop of simple homogeneous model. However. If the pressure loss was linear then the total loss will be the summation of the two pressure losses (of the lighter liquid (gas) and the heavy liquid). this chapter will explain the core concepts of the multiphase ﬂow and their relationship. will know and understand the trends. However. the concept of ﬂow regimes. phase change or transfer processes during ﬂow. This was suggested by Lockhart and Martinelli who use a model where the ﬂow of the two ﬂuids are independent of each other. researchers started to look for diﬀerent ﬂow regimes and provided diﬀerent models.332 CHAPTER 10. Taitle–Duckler’s map is not applicable for microgravity. this chapter will not provide a discussion of transient problems. multi–phase ﬂow parameters deﬁnitions. Also the researchers looked at the situation when the diﬀerent regimes are applicable. partial discussion on speed of sound of diﬀerent regimes. Which leads to the concept of ﬂow regime maps. (2) the ﬂuids/materials are ﬂowing separately where the actual total loss pressure can be correlated based on the separate pressure loss of each of the material. For example. double choking phenomenon (hopefully). It turned out this idea provides a good crude results in some cases.

The creation 3 This author feels that he is in an unique position to inﬂuence many in the ﬁeld of ﬂuid mechanics.1. KIND OF MULTI-PHASE FLOW Gas Liquid Liquid Solid Gas Liquid Liquid Liquid Liquid 333 Gas Solid soid Liquid Solid Solid Soid Fig. consider air ﬂow that was discussed and presented earlier as a single phase ﬂow.4 Kind of Multi-Phase Flow All the ﬂows are a form of multiphase ﬂow. Hence. many proprieties of air are calculated as if the air is made of well mixed gases of Nitrogen and Oxygen. It also provides an opportunity to bring the latest advances in the ﬁelds since this author does not need to “sell” the book to a publisher or convince a “committee. there are situations when air ﬂow has to be considered as multiphase ﬂow and this eﬀect has to be taken into account. it is assumed that air is made of only gases. Diﬀerent ﬁelds of multi phase ﬂow. Practically for many cases. this assumption will not be appropriate when the air is stratiﬁed because of large body forces.” 4 Diﬀerent concentration of oxygen as a function of the height. or a large acceleration.10. However. nonetheless it exists. This fact is due to the shear number of the downloaded Potto books. In fact. The discussion in the previous chapters is only as approximation when multiphase can be “reduced” into a single phase ﬂow. 10. For example. the homogeneous assumption is enough and suitable. While the diﬀerence of the concentration between the top to button is insigniﬁcant. .4. In our calculation. many layers (inﬁnite) of diﬀerent materials). Air is not a pure material but a mixture of many gases.000 in about two and half years. The results of the calculations of a mixture do not change much if it is assumed that the air ﬂow as stratiﬁed ﬂow 4 of many concentration layers (thus. The number of the downloads of the book on Fundamental of compressible ﬂow has exceed more than 100. -10. Adopting this assumption might lead to a larger error.

MULTI–PHASE FLOW of clean room is a proof that air contains small particles. is only an extreme case of liquid-gas ﬂow and is a sub category of the multiphase ﬂow. This ﬂow also appears in any industrial process that are involved in solidiﬁcation (for example die casting) and in moving solid particles. The multiphase is an important part of many processes. In the past. although important. The liquid–solid. and river ﬂow. Many natural phenomenon are multiphase ﬂow. the breaks would started to work after about 20 seconds in the last wagon. However. they can be solid–liquid. solid propellant rocket. Yet. Since there are three phases. plasma and river ﬂow with live creatures (small organisms to large ﬁsh) ﬂow of ice berg. For example. The body inhales solid particle with breathing air. in nature can be blood ﬂow.334 CHAPTER 10. This ﬂow is used by engineers to reduce the cost of moving crude oil through a long pipes system. Open Channel ﬂow is. For the gas. living bodies (bio–ﬂuids). Many industries are involved with this ﬂow category such as dust collection. the density is a strong function of the temperature and pressure. and industries. The engineering accuracy is enough to totally ignore it. the cleanness of the air or the fact that air is a mixture is ignored. liquid–gas and solid–liquid–gas ﬂow. Gas–solid can be found in sand storms. Flow of air is actually the ﬂow of several light liquids (gases). Liquid–liquid ﬂow is probably the most common ﬂow in the nature. Jr. This category should include any distinction of phase/material. The category of liquid–gas should be really viewed as the extreme case of liquid-liquid where the density ratio is extremely large. In almost all situations. rain. When the . For example. for an example. In a four (4) miles long train. mud ﬂow etc. the breaks in long trains were activated by reduction of the compressed line (a patent no. spray casting. 360070 issued to George Westinghouse. The “average” viscosity is meaningless since in many cases the water follows around the oil. the ﬂow of oil and water in one pipe is a multiphase ﬂow. Many industrial process also include liquid-liquid such as painting. 1887). sand and grain (which are “solids”) ﬂow with rocks and is referred to solid–solid ﬂow. Generally. there are situations where cleanness of the air can aﬀect the ﬂow.5 Classiﬁcation of Liquid-Liquid Flow Regimes The general discussion on liquid–liquid will be provided and the gas–liquid ﬂow will be discussed as a special case. a 10% change of the speed of sound due to dust particles in air could reduce the stopping time by 2 seconds (50 meter diﬀerence in stopping) and can cause an accident. Thus. it is more common to categorize the ﬂow by the distinct phases that ﬂow in the tube.. 10. The same can be said for gas–gas ﬂow. the cleanness of air can reduce the speed of sound. for example. hydraulic with two or more kind of liquids. There are many more categories. paint spray. One way to categorize the multiphase is by the materials ﬂows. there are two possibilities for two diﬀerent materials to ﬂow (it is also correct for solid–liquid and any other combination). and avalanches. March 29. This notion eliminates many other ﬂow categories that can and should be included in multiphase ﬂow. The water ﬂow is the source of the friction. solid–gas. The multiphase can be found in nature. ﬂuidized bed. The materials can ﬂow in the same direction and it is referred as co–current ﬂow.

1. The vertical conﬁguration has two cases. The channel ﬂow will be discussed in a greater detail in Open Channel Flow chapter. the counter–current ﬂow must have special conﬁgurations of long length of ﬂow. water and air ﬂow as oppose to water and oil ﬂow. For example. The ﬂow regimes are referred to the arrangement of the ﬂuids.1 Co–Current Flow In Co–Current ﬂow. the heavy liquid ﬂows on the Fig. . When the ﬂow rate of the lighter liquid is almost zero. Generally.10. 5 With the exception of the extremely smaller diameter where Rayleigh–Taylor instability is an important issue. dispersed Heavy Liquid bubble ﬂow. The geometries (even the boundaries) of open channel ﬂow are very diverse. In general.1 Horizontal Flow The typical regimes for horizontal ﬂow are stratiﬁed ﬂow (open channel ﬂow. This issue of incline ﬂow will not be covered in this chapter.2. a reduction of the pressure by half will double the gas volumetric ﬂow rate while the change in the liquid is negligible. Open channel ﬂow appears in many nature (river) as well in industrial process such as the die casting process where liquid metal is injected into a cylinder (tube) shape. the ﬂow is referred to as open channel ﬂow. and what ever between them. There is no exact meaning to the word “near vertical” or “near horizontal” and there is no consensus on the limiting angles (not to mention to have limits as a function with any parameter that determine the limiting angle). up or down. Thus. two liquids can have three main categories: vertical. the co-current is the more common. 5 top as depicted in Figure 10.2. CLASSIFICATION OF LIQUID-LIQUID FLOW REGIMES 335 materials ﬂow in the opposite direction. horizontal. Additionally.5. plug ﬂow.5. 10. The other characteristic that is diﬀerent between the gas ﬂow and the liquid ﬂow is the variation of the density. the limits between the ﬂow regimes are considerably diﬀerent.5. This kind of ﬂow regime is referred to as horizontal ﬂow. This deﬁnition (open channel ﬂow) continues for small amount of lighter liquid as long as the heavier ﬂow can be calculated as open channel ﬂow (ignoring the lighter liquid). and annular ﬂow. Yet. -10. it is referred as counter–current. Stratiﬁed ﬂow in horizontal tubes bottom and lighter liquid ﬂows on the when the liquids ﬂow is very slow. For low velocity (low ﬂow rate) of the two liquids. the counter–current ﬂow has a limited length window of possibility in a vertical ﬂow in conduits with the exception of magnetohydrodynamics. For example. Light Liquid and non open channel ﬂow). 10. It is common to diﬀerentiate between the vertical (and near vertical) and horizontal (and near horizontal). The main diﬀerence between the liquid–liquid ﬂow to gas-liquid ﬂow is that gas density is extremely lighter than the liquid density. The ﬂow in inclined angle (that not covered by the word “near”) exhibits ﬂow regimes not much diﬀerent from the other two. the ﬂow of gas–liquid can have several ﬂow regimes in one situation while the ﬂow of liquid–liquid will (probably) have only one ﬂow regime.

all the ﬂow is wavy. The pressure drop of this kind of regime is signiﬁcantly larger than the stratiﬁed ﬂow. liquid ﬂow rate. the possibility to go through slug ﬂow regime depends on if there is enough liquid ﬂow rate. The slug ﬂow cannot be assumed to be as homogeneous ﬂow nor it can exhibit some average viscosity. Further increase of the lighter liquid ﬂow rate move the ﬂow regime into annular ﬂow. Fig. Choking occurs in compressible Light Liquid ﬂow when the ﬂow rate is above a certain point. thus it is arbitrary deﬁnition.3).336 CHAPTER 10. As the lighter liquid velocity increases two things can happen (1) wave size increase and (2) the shape of cross section continue to deform. Thus. At some point.3. liquid level is higher. choking occurs relatively Fig. If the heavier liquid ﬂow rate is larger6 than the distance. In fact.4. Light Liquid Light Liquid Some referred to this regime as wavy stratiﬁed ﬂow Heavy Liquid Heavy Liquid but this deﬁnition is not accepted by all as a category by itself. Thus. and other physical properties of the ﬂuids but also on the material of the conduit. -10. For liquid which the density is a strong and primary function of the pressure. all the two phase ﬂow are categorized by wavy ﬂow which will proven later. the ﬂow that starts the liquids ﬂow is faster. All liquids are compressible Heavy Liquid to some degree. Kind of Stratiﬁed ﬂow in There are two paths that can occur on the heavier horizontal tubes. The wave shape is created to keep the gas and the liquid velocity equal and at the same time to have shear stress to be balance by surface tension. The “average” viscosity depends on the ﬂow and thus making it as insigniﬁcant way to do the calculations. for the wave to reach the conduit crown is smaller. These plugs are separated by large “chunks” that almost ﬁll the entire tube. MULTI–PHASE FLOW As the lighter liquid (or the gas phase) ﬂow rate increases (superﬁcial velocity). -10. The conﬁguration of the cross section not only depend on the surface tension. the ﬂow pattern is referred to as slug ﬂow or plug ﬂow.4). The superﬁcial velocity is referred to as the velocity that any phase will have if the other phase was not exist. At this stage. then the wave cannot reach to the crown and the shape is deformed to the point that all the heavier liquid is around the periphery. when the lighter liquid ﬂow increases. . the friction between the phases increase. This kind of ﬂow regime is referred to as annular ﬂow. the heavier liquid wave reaches to the crown of the pipe. as a stratiﬁed ﬂow will turned into a slug ﬂow or stratiﬁed wavy7 ﬂow after a certain distance depends on the heavy ﬂow rate (if 6 The 7 Well. The plugs are ﬂowing in a succession (see Figure 10. Plug ﬂow in horizontal tubes when closer/sooner. If the heavier ﬂow rate is small. Plug ﬂow is characterized by regions of lighter liquid ﬁlled with drops of the heavier liquid with Plug (or Slug) of the heavier liquid (with bubble of the lighter liquid). This friction is one of the cause for the instability which manifested itself as waves and changing the surface from straight line to a diﬀerent conﬁguration (see Figure 10.

10. The angle decreases with the length of the pipe. Besides the length. Modiﬁed Mandhane map for ﬂow regime in horizontal tubes. in normal gravitation.5.5. For example.2 Vertical Flow The vertical ﬂow has two possibilities. CLASSIFICATION OF LIQUID-LIQUID FLOW REGIMES 337 this category is accepted). other parameters can aﬀect the “near. However.1. the ﬂow become annular or the ﬂow will choke.g. There is a difference between ﬂowing with the gravity and ﬂowing against the gravity.5. The reverse way is referred to the process where the starting point is high ﬂow rate and the ﬂow rate is decreasing. the vertical ﬂow against the gravity is more common used. There is even a possibility to return on diﬀerent ﬂow regime. Hence. this map is only characteristics of the “normal” conditions. The buoyancy . This phenomenon is refer to as hysteresis. Flow that is under small angle from the horizontal will be similar to the horizontal ﬂow. the “near” angle depends on the length of the pipe. ﬂow that had slug ﬂow in its path can be returned as stratiﬁed wavy ﬂow. weak to strong surface tension eﬀects (air/water in “normal” gravity). with the gravity or against it. 10. The choking can occur before the annular ﬂow regime is obtained depending on the velocity and compressibility of the lighter liquid. liquid–liquid ﬂow has a maximum combined of the ﬂow rate (both phases). After a certain distance. -10. In engineering application. as in compressible ﬂow. the return path is not move the exact same way. As many things in multiphase. e. The results of the above discussion are depicted in Figure 10. etc.5. As in many ﬂuid mechanics and magnetic ﬁelds. there is no consensus how far is the “near” means. This maximum is known as double choking phenomenon. Qualitatively.” Dispersed Bubble Liquid Superficial Velocity Elongated Bubble Slug Flow Annular Flow Stratified Flow Wavy Stratified Open Channel Flow Gas Superficial Velocity Fig.

6). the diﬀerent mechanism in creating the plug ﬂow in horizontal ﬂow compared to the vertical ﬂow. . For the ﬂow against gravity. the ﬂow starts as a bubble ﬂow. Thus. Flow of near vertical against the gravity in two–phase does not deviate from vertical. there are diﬀerent ﬂow regimes for these two situations. Notice. -10. The increase of the lighter liquid ﬂow rate will increase the number of bubbles until some bubbles start to collide.6. The main reason that causes the diﬀerence is that the heavier liquid is more dominated by gravity (body forces) while the lighter liquid is dominated by the pressure driving forces. is acting in two diﬀerent directions for these two ﬂow regimes. the ﬂow cannot start as a stratiﬁed ﬂow. Again. the lighter liquid has a buoyancy that acts as an “extra force” to move it faster and this eﬀect is opposite for the heavier liquid. When many bubbles collide.6. Gas and liquid in Flow in verstical tube against the gravity. it can be noted the diﬀerence in the mechanism that create annular ﬂow for vertical and horizontal ﬂow. After additional increase of “super slug” . all these “elongated slug” unite to become an annular ﬂow. Flow Against Gravity For vertical ﬂow against gravity. the ﬂow regime is referred as elongated bubble ﬂow. MULTI–PHASE FLOW Bubble Flow Slug or Plug Flow Churn Flow Annular Flow Dispersed Flow Fig. they create a large bubble and the ﬂow is referred to as slug ﬂow or plug ﬂow (see Figure 10. Thus. Any further increase transforms the outer liquid layer into bubbles in the inner liquid.338 CHAPTER 10. The heavier liquid has to occupy almost the entire cross section before it can ﬂow because of the gravity forces. see Figure 10. The opposite is for the ﬂow with gravity. Further increase of lighter liquid ﬂow rate will increase the slug size as more bubbles collide to create “super slug”. The choking can occur at any point depends on the ﬂuids and temperature and pressure. The ﬂow is less stable as more turbulent ﬂow and several “super slug” or churn ﬂow appears in more chaotic way.

A dimensional vertical ﬂow map considered as the “open channel ﬂow” of under very low gravity against the gravity. this ﬂow can starts with stratiﬁed ﬂow. Figure 10. The common map is based on dimensionless parameters. In the medium range of the ﬂow rate of gas and liquid. respectively.7. the initial part has a larger section compared to the ﬂow against the gravity ﬂow.5.7 presented in dimensionless coordinates. The liquid–liquid (also . the regime liquid ﬁlls the entire void and the gas is in small bubble and this ﬂow referred to as bubbly ﬂow. all the gas phase change into tiny drops of liquid and this kind of regime referred to as mist ﬂow.10. A good example for this ﬂow regime is a water fall.3 Vertical Flow Under Micro Gravity 339 The above discussion mostly explained the Dispersed Dispersed ﬂow in a vertical conﬁguration when the Bubble Bubble surface tension can be neglected.1. Since the heavy liquid can be supplied from the “wrong” point/side. there is pulse ﬂow in which liquid is moving in frequent pulses. When the ﬂow rate of the gas increases further. -10. After the ﬂow has settled. the points where these transitions occur are diﬀerent from the horizontal ﬂow. The ordinate is a combination of ﬂow rate ratio and density ratio. out in space between gas and liquid (large density diﬀerence) the situaPulsing & Bubbling tion is diﬀerent.6 Multi–Phase Flow Variables Deﬁnitions Since the gas–liquid system is a speciﬁc case of the liquid–liquid system. While this author is not aware of an actual model.6. The abscissa is a function of combination of Froude . The initial part for this ﬂow is more signiﬁcant. it is presented in a dimension form to explain the trends (see Figure 10. As the gas ﬂow increases. it must be possible to construct a model that connects this conﬁguration with the stratiﬁed ﬂow where the transitions will be dependent on the angle of inclinations. the liquid becomes more turbulent and some parts enter into the gas phase as drops. The transitions between the ﬂow regimes is similar to stratiﬁed ﬂow. both will be united in this discussion. Flow With The Gravity As opposed to the ﬂow against gravity. However. Liquid Flow Rate 10. MULTI–PHASE FLOW VARIABLES DEFINITIONS 10. In cases where the surface tension is very important. In the literature. However.7). The liquid ﬂows through Gas Flow Rage a trickle or channeled ﬂow that only partially wets part of the tube. the ﬂow continues in a stratiﬁed conﬁguration. the vertical conﬁguration. The interaction between the phases is minimal and can be Fig. Here. for the convenience of the terms “gas and liquid” will be used to signify the lighter and heavier liquid. The ﬂow starts as disTrickling persed bubble (some call it as “gas conFlow Spray or tinuous”) because the gas phase occupies Mist Flow most of column. Pulsing For example. and Weber numbers. At a higher rate of liquid ﬂow and a low ﬂow rate of gas.Reynolds.

1) It is common to deﬁne the mass velocity instead of the regular velocity because the “regular” velocity changes along the length of the pipe.1 Multi–Phase Averaged Variables Deﬁnitions The total mass ﬂow rate through the tube is the sum of the mass ﬂow rates of the two phases m = mG + mL ˙ ˙ ˙ (10. Perhaps.7) .6.2) Where A is the entire area of the tube. over its cross section. 10. some variables are deﬁned so that the ﬂow can be described as a one-dimensional ﬂow. The total volumetric volume vary along the tube length and is Q = QL + QG (10. It has to be noted that this mass velocity does not exist in reality.340 CHAPTER 10.5) For liquid with very high bulk modulus (almost constant density). To simplify the descriptions of the problem and yet to retain the important features of the ﬂow. The volumetric ﬂow rate is not constant (since the density is not constant) along the ﬂow rate and it is deﬁned as QG = and for the liquid QL = GL ρL (10.3) It has to be emphasized that this mass velocity is the actual velocity. The liquid mass velocity is GL = The mass ﬂow of the tube is then G= m ˙ A (10.6) GG = UsG ρG (10. the volumetric ﬂow rate can be considered as constant. and with time. MULTI–PHASE FLOW gas–liquid) ﬂow is an extremely complex three–dimensional transient problem since the ﬂow conditions in a pipe may vary along its length. the only serious missing point in this discussion is the change of the ﬂow along the distance of the tube.4) mL ˙ A (10. This method is the most common and important to analyze two-phase ﬂow pressure drop and other parameters. The gas mass velocity is GG = mG ˙ A (10.

MULTI–PHASE FLOW VARIABLES DEFINITIONS 341 Ratio of the gas ﬂow rate to the total ﬂow rate is called the ’quality’ or the “dryness fraction” and is given by X= GG mG ˙ = m ˙ G (10. It can be noticed that Um is not constant along the tube. LH is not constant for the same reasons the void fraction is not constant. Thus. the value of (1 − X) is referred to as the “wetness fraction.6. Thus.10. The liquid fraction or liquid holdup is LH = 1 − α = AL A (10.11) Since UsL = QL and similarly for the gas then Um = UsG + UsL (10. The ratio of the gas ﬂow cross sectional area to the total cross sectional area is referred as the void fraction and deﬁned as α= AG A (10.12) GG Xm ˙ = = QG ρG ρG A (10.14) Slip ratio is usually greater than unity. The gas superﬁcial velocity is therefore deﬁned as UsG = The liquid superﬁcial velocity is UsL = GL (1 − X) m ˙ = = QL ρL ρL A (10.” The last two factions remain constant along the tube length as long the gas and liquid masses remain constant. Also. it can be noted that the slip velocity is not constant along the tube. the ratio of these velocities is referred to as the slip velocity and is deﬁned as the following SLP = UG UL (10. The actual velocities depend on the other phase since the actual cross section the phase ﬂows is dependent on the other phase. .9) This fraction is vary along tube length since the gas density is not constant along the tube length.8) In a similar fashion.13) Where Um is the averaged velocity.10) It must be noted that Liquid holdup. The average superﬁcial velocity of the gas and liquid are diﬀerent. a superﬁcial velocity is commonly deﬁned in which if only one phase is using the entire tube.

15) This density represents the density taken at the “frozen” cross section (assume the volume is the cross section times inﬁnitesimal thickness of dx). The average density of the material ﬂowing in the tube can be evaluated by looking at the deﬁnition of density. MULTI–PHASE FLOW For the same velocity of phases (SLP = 1).17) Equation (10.20) becomes X= ρG α ρL (1 − α) + ρG α (10.1) and (10.20) mG + mL ˙ ˙ ρL UL A(1 − α) +ρG UG A α ρL UL (1 − α) + ρG UG α AL If the slip is one SLP = 1. The density of any material is deﬁned as ρ = m/V and thus.17) can be simpliﬁed by canceling the m and noticing the (1−X)+X = 1 ˙ to become + (1−X) ρL The average speciﬁc volume of the ﬂow is then X ρG ρaverage = 1 (10.7) into equation (10.16) Where Q is the volumetric ﬂow rate.21) . Substituting equations (10. the mixture density is deﬁned as ρm = α ρG + (1 − α) ρL (10.18) vaverage = 1 ρaverage = X (1 − X) + = X vG + (1 − X) vL ρG ρL (10. thus equation (10.16) results in mG ˙ mL ˙ ρaverage = ˙ X m + (1 − X) m ˙ ˙ X m + (1 − X) m ˙ = ˙ X m (1 − X) m ˙ QG + QL + ρG ρL QG QL (10. for the ﬂowing material it is ρ= m ˙ Q (10.342 CHAPTER 10.19) The relationship between X and α is AG X= mG ˙ ρG UG A α ρG UG α = = (10.

26) .24) as − dP S m dUm ˙ = − τw − + ρm g sin θ dx A A dx (10. the diﬀerent ﬂow regimes are examples of typical conﬁguration of segments of continuous ﬂow. it was assumed that the ﬂow is continuous. In fact.22) It can be noted that the continuity equation is satisﬁed as m = ρm Um A ˙ (10.25) The energy equation can be approximated as dw d dq − =m ˙ dx dx dx hm + Um 2 + g x sin θ 2 (10.10. Now.1: Under what conditions equation (10.7. The single phase was studied earlier in this book and there is a considerable amount of information about it.13)) is Um = QL + QG = UsL + UsG = Um A (10.7 Homogeneous Models Before discussing the homogeneous models. Furthermore. Thus.24) or modifying equation (10.23) Example 10. it was assumed that the diﬀerent ﬂow regimes can be neglected at least for the pressure loss (not correct for the heat transfer).23) is correct? Solution Under construction End Solution The governing momentum equation can be approximated as m ˙ dUm dP = −A − S τw − A ρm g sin θ dx dx (10. For the construction of ﬂuid basic equations. it is worthwhile to appreciate the complexity of the ﬂow. HOMOGENEOUS MODELS 343 10. the simplest is to used it for approximation. The average velocity (see also equation (10. Initially. these segments are not deﬁned but results of the conditions imposed on the ﬂow. this assumption has to be broken. and the ﬂow is continuous only in many chunks (small segments).

The friction factor is obtained by using the correlation f =C ρm Um D µm −n (10. For turbulent ﬂow C = 0. In that case.25). 10.7.30) The friction factor is measured for a single phase ﬂow where the average velocity is directly related to the wall shear stress. since there isn’t anything better. There is not available experimental data for the relationship of the averaged velocity of the two (or more) phases and wall shear stress. the total pressure loss can be written as f riction acceleration gravity dP dP dP dP + + = (10. For laminar ﬂow C = 16 and n = 1. However.1.7. this dependency can be neglected.25. For example. the experimental data that was developed and measured for single ﬂow is used. . acceleration.1 Pressure Loss Components In a tube ﬂowing upward in incline angle θ. acceleration must occur. In fact. the pressure loss is aﬀected by friction loss.1 Friction Pressure Loss The frictional pressure loss for a conduit can be calculated as − dP dx = f S τw A (10. and body force(gravitation). MULTI–PHASE FLOW 10.344 CHAPTER 10.31) Where C and n are constants which depend on the ﬂow regimes (turbulent or laminar ﬂow). for small distances (dx) and some situations. this friction factor was not measured for the “averaged” viscosity of the two phase ﬂow. from equation (10. These losses are non-linear and depend on each other. For calculating the frictional pressure loss in the pipe is − dP dx = f 4 τw D (10.28) Where S is the perimeter of the ﬂuid.079 and n = 0.29) The wall shear stress can be estimated by τw = f ρm Um 2 2 (10.27) dx dx f dx a dx g Every part of the total pressure loss will be discussed in the following section. Yet. the gravitation pressure loss reduce the pressure and thus the density must change and hence.

37) a There are several special cases. Duckler suggest the following µm = µG QG µL QL + QG + QL QG + QL (10. In second case is where the mass ﬂow rates of gas and liquid is constant in which the derivative of X is zero. dA/ dx = 0. The third special case is for constant density of one phase only. dX/ dx = 0.7. dρL / dx = 0.36) becomes pressure loss due to pressure loss due to density change area change 2 =m ˙ 1 1 d 1 dA + 2 dx A dx ρm ρm A − dP dx (10.35) The acceleration pressure loss (can be positive or negative) results from change of density and the change of cross section.1. 10.2 Acceleration Pressure Loss (10. .33) Or simply make the average viscosity depends on the mass fraction as µm = X µG + (1 − X) µL Using this formula.34) The acceleration pressure loss can be estimated by − dP dx =m ˙ a dUm dx (10. For the last point. the private case is where densities are constant for both phases.36) Or in an explicit way equation (10.7. Equation (10.18) average viscosity as µaverage = 1 X µG (1−X) µL + (10.32) Duckler linear formula does not provide always good approximation and Cichilli suggest similar to equation (10.10. HOMOGENEOUS MODELS 345 There are several suggestions for the average viscosity. The ﬁrst case where the cross section is constant. For example. the friction loss can be estimated.35) can be written as − dP dx =m ˙ a d dx m ˙ A ρm (10.

346 10. there are two parameters as shown below.4 Total Pressure Loss The total pressure between two points. φG = dP dx dP dx (10.38) The density change during the ﬂow can be represented as a function of density.39) and therefore f riction acceleration gravity ∆Pab = ∆Pab f + ∆Pab a + ∆Pab g (10. (a and b) can be calculated with integration as b ∆Pab = a dP dx dx (10. Taitle .1.1. Lockhart and Martinelli built model based on the assumption that the separated pressure loss are independent from each other. 8 This method was considered a military secret. MULTI–PHASE FLOW Gravity was discussed in Chapter 4 and is dP dx = g ρm sin θ g (10. Equivalent deﬁnition for the liquid side is φL = dP dx dP dx (10. 10.42) SL f TP Where the SL denotes the pressure loss for the single liquid phase.7.3 Gravity Pressure Loss CHAPTER 10. private communication with Y. Thus.41) SG f TP Where the T P denotes the two phases and SG denotes the pressure loss for the single gas phase.40) 10.. The density in equation (10.38) is the density without the “movement” (the “static” density).7. Lockhart Martinelli parameters are deﬁned as the ratio of the pressure loss of two phases and pressure of a single phase.2 Lockhart Martinelli Model The second method is by assumption that every phase ﬂow separately One such popular model by Lockhart and Martinelli8 .7.

It is assumed that the pressure loss for both phases are equal.10. and geometry.there will be a discussion about diﬀerent particle size and diﬀerent geometry (round. The density of the solid can be above or below the liquid. 3. SOLID–LIQUID FLOW 347 The ratio of the pressure loss for a single liquid phase and the pressure loss for a single gas phase is Ξ= dP dx dP dx (10.46) Simpliﬁed model is when there is no interaction between the two phases.44) SL The pressure loss for the liquid phase is dP dx = L 2 fL UL 2 ρl DL (10. For example. Consider the case where the solid is heavier than the liquid phase. Diﬀerent combination of solid particle creates diﬀerent “liquid. The uniformity is categorizing the particle sizes. To insert the Diagram. the eﬀect of the surface tension are very minimal and can be ignored. analysis of small coal particles in water is diﬀerent from large coal particles in water. it is assumed that the surface tension is insigniﬁcant compared to the gravity forces.43) SG f SL where Ξ is Martinelli parameter. in this discussion. the pressure loss is dP dx = G 2 fG UG 2 ρl DG (10. .” Therefor. The word “solid” is not really mean solid but a combination of many solid particles. 10. 2. distribution. etc). The ﬂow against the gravity and lighter density solid particles. The ﬂow with the gravity and lighter density solid particles. The ﬂow with the gravity and heavier density solid particles.45) For the gas phase. In that case there are four possibilities for vertical ﬂow: 1. It is also assumed that the “liquids” density does not change signiﬁcantly and it is far from the choking point. In solid–liquid. dP dx = SG dP dx (10. cubic. Thus.8 Solid–Liquid Flow Solid–liquid system is simpler to analyze than the liquid-liquid system.8.

44 (10. The ﬁrst set is similar because the solid particles are moving faster than the liquid velocity and vice versa for the second set (slower than the liquid). All these possibilities are diﬀerent. The discussion here is about the last case (4) because very little is known about the other cases. The drag coeﬃcient. The force balance of spherical particle in ﬁeld viscous ﬂuid (creeping ﬂow) is gravity and buoyancy forces π D g (ρS − ρL ) 6 3 drag forces = CD ∞ π D2 ρL UL 2 8 (10. However. The ﬂow against the gravity and heavier density solid particles.48) Inserting equating (10. the liquid cannot carry the solid particles because there is not enough resistance to lift up the solid particles.49) relates the liquid velocity that needed to maintain the particle “ﬂoating” to the liquid and particles properties.49) Equation (10. 1 and 4 and the second set is 2 and 3.8.51) 24 Re (10. and D is the equivalent radius of the particles. the Newton’s Law region. A particle in a middle of the vertical liquid ﬂow experience several forces.52) . possibility. However.48) into equation (10.50) For larger Reynolds numbers. The Reynolds number deﬁned as Re = UL D ρL µL (10. 10. it can be approximated for several regimes. When the liquid velocity is very small. is nearly constant as CD ∞ = 0. Re. CD ∞ is complicated function of the Reynolds number.47) Where CD ∞ is the drag coeﬃcient and is a function of Reynolds number. there are two sets of similar characteristics.1 Solid Particles with Heavier Density ρS > ρL Solid–liquid ﬂow has several combination ﬂow regimes. The ﬁrst regime is for Re < 1 where Stokes’ Law can be approximated as CD ∞ = In transitional region 1 < Re < 1000 CD ∞ = 24 Re 1+ 1 Re2/3 6 (10.47) become CD ∞ (UL ) f (Re) UL 2 = 4 D g (ρS − ρL ) 3 ρL (10.348 CHAPTER 10. MULTI–PHASE FLOW 4. CD ∞ .

further increase will create a slug ﬂow. In the literature there are many functions for various conditions. Yet. When the velocity is lower. As the solid particles are not pushed by a pump but moved by the forces the ﬂuid applies to them. Consequently. US|avarge . Further increase of the ﬂuid ﬂow increases the empty spots to the whole ﬂow. the velocity is small to lift the particle unless the density diﬀerence is very small (that very small force can lift the particles). the particle will sink into the liquid. The terminal velocity that left the is referred to as fully ﬂuidized bed.10. partialy Fully the discussion will be focus on the ﬂuid solid fluidized velocity. For small gas/liquid velocity. SOLID–LIQUID FLOW 349 In most cases of solid-liquid system. the Reynolds number is in the second range9 . This slug ﬂow is when slug shape (domes) are almost empty of the solid particle. the case of liquid. Increasing the ﬂuid velocity beyond a minimum will move the parti∆Ptube cles and it is referred to as mix ﬂuidized bed. in many cases the middle region is applicable. This regimes is referred to as Pneumatic conveying (see Figure 10. then the actual velocity that every particle experience depends on the void fraction. In that case. particles flow the particles are what some call ﬁxed ﬂuidized bed. additional increase create “tunnels” of empty almost from solid particles. Thus. 9 It be wonderful if ﬂow was in the last range? The critical velocity could be found immediately. In very large range (especially for gas) the choking might be approached. Additional increase in the ﬂuid velocity causes large turbulence and the ordinary domes are replaced by churn type ﬂow or large bubbles that are almost empty of the solid particles. the minimum velocity is a range of velocity rather than a sharp transition point. the particle will drift with the liquid. So far the discussion was about single particle. When the velocity of liquid is higher than the minimum velocity many particles will be ﬂoating. Thus. Additional increase of the ﬂuid velocity will move all the particles and this Fig.9). the sparse solid particles are dispersed all over. For the ﬁrst region. For solid particles. It has to remember that not all the particle are uniform in size or shape.8. Thus. -10. When there are more than one particle in the cross section. For the case of gas.53) When the subscript α is indicating the void.8. If the velocity is larger. The simplest assumption that the change of the cross section of the ﬂuid create a parameter that multiply the single particle as CD ∞ |α = CD ∞ f (α) (10. the solid particles Packed can be supplied at diﬀerent rate. the only velocity that can be applied is Trasiton the ﬂuid velocity. Minimum velocity is the velocity when the particle is “ﬂoating”. the function f (α) is not a linear function.

350

CHAPTER 10. MULTI–PHASE FLOW

Fixed Bed

Mixed Bed

Slug or Plug Flow

Turbulent Regimes

Fast Fluidization

Pneumatic Conveying

Fig. -10.9. The ﬂow patterns in solid-liquid ﬂow.

One of the main diﬀerence between the liquid and gas ﬂow in this category is the speed of sound. In the gas phase, the speed of sound is reduced dramatically with increase of the solid particles concentration (further reading Fundamentals of Compressible Flow” chapter on Fanno Flow by this author is recommended). Thus, the velocity √ of gas is limited when reaching the Mach somewhere between 1/ k and 1 since the gas will be choked (neglecting the double choking phenomenon). Hence, the length of conduit is very limited. The speed of sound of the liquid does not change much. Hence, this limitation does not (eﬀectively) exist for most cases of solid–liquid ﬂow.

10.8.2

Solid With Lighter Density ρS < ρ and With Gravity

This situation is minimal and very few cases exist. However, it must be pointed out that even in solid–gas, the ﬂuid density can be higher than the solid (especially with micro gravity). There was very little investigations and known about the solid–liquid ﬂowing down (with the gravity). Furthermore, there is very little knowledge about the solid–liquid when the solid density is smaller than the liquid density. There is no known ﬂow map for this kind of ﬂow that this author is aware of. Nevertheless, several conclusions and/or expectations can be drawn. The issue of minimum terminal velocity is not exist and therefor there is no ﬁxed or mixed ﬂuidized bed. The ﬂow is fully ﬂuidized for any liquid ﬂow rate. The ﬂow can have slug ﬂow but more likely will be in fast Fluidization regime. The forces that act on the spherical particle are the buoyancy force and drag force. The buoyancy is accelerating the particle

**10.9. COUNTER–CURRENT FLOW and drag force are reducing the speed as
**

2

351

π D3 g(ρS − ρL ) CD ∞ π D2 ρL (US − UL ) = (10.54) 6 8 From equation 10.54, it can observed that increase of the liquid velocity will increase the solid particle velocity at the same amount. Thus, for large velocity of the ﬂuid it can be observed that UL /US → 1. However, for a small ﬂuid velocity the velocity ratio is very large, UL /US → 0. The aﬀective body force “seems” by the particles can be in some cases larger than the gravity. The ﬂow regimes will be similar but the transition will be in diﬀerent points. The solid–liquid horizontal ﬂow has some similarity to horizontal gas–liquid ﬂow. Initially the solid particles will be carried by the liquid to the top. When the liquid velocity increase and became turbulent, some of the particles enter into the liquid core. Further increase of the liquid velocity appear as somewhat similar to slug ﬂow. However, this author have not seen any evidence that show the annular ﬂow does not appear in solid–liquid ﬂow.

**10.9 Counter–Current Flow
**

This discussion will be only on liquid–liquid systems (which also includes liquid-gas systems). This kind of ﬂow is probably the most common to be realized by the masses. For example, opening a can of milk or juice. Typically if only one hole is opened on the top of the can, the liquid will ﬂow in pulse regime. Most people know that two holes are needed to empty the can easily and continuously. Otherwise, the ﬂow will be in a pulse regime. In most cases, the possibility to have counter–current ﬂow is limited to having short length of tubes. In only certain conﬁgurations of the inﬁnite long pipes the counter–current ﬂow can exist. Annular Extented Flow In that case, the pressure diﬀerence and Open Channel gravity (body forces) dominates the ﬂow. Flow The inertia components of the ﬂow, for Pulse Flow Inpossible long tubes, cannot compensate for the Flow pressure gradient. In short tube, the or Dripping Flow pressure diﬀerence in one phase can be f (D/L, physical properties) positive while the pressure diﬀerence in the other phase can be negative. The pressure diﬀerence in the interface must Fig. -10.10. Counter–ﬂow in vertical tubes map. be ﬁnite. Hence, the counter–current ﬂow can have opposite pressure gradient for short conduit. But in most cases, the heavy phase (liquid) is pushed by the gravity and lighter phase (gas) is driven by the pressure diﬀerence. The counter-current ﬂow occurs, for example, when cavity is ﬁlled or emptied with a liquid. The two phase regimes “occurs” mainly in entrance to the cavity. For example,

Liquid Body Foreces

352

CHAPTER 10. MULTI–PHASE FLOW

Fig. -10.11. Counter–current ﬂow in a can (the left ﬁgure) has only one hole thus pulse ﬂow and a ﬂow with two holes (right picture).

Figure 10.11 depicts emptying of can ﬁlled with liquid. The air is “attempting” to enter the cavity to ﬁll the vacuum created thus forcing pulse ﬂow. If there are two holes, in some cases, liquid ﬂows through one hole and the air through the second hole and the ﬂow will be continuous. It also can be noticed that if there is one hole (oriﬁce) and a long and narrow tube, the liquid will stay in the cavity (neglecting other phenomena such as dripping ﬂow.).

Fig. -10.12. Picture of Counter-current ﬂow in liquid–gas and solid–gas conﬁgurations. The container is made of two compartments. The upper compartment is ﬁlled with the heavy phase (liquid, water solution, or small wood particles) by rotating the container. Even though the solid–gas ratio is smaller, it can be noticed that the solid–gas is faster than the liquid–gas ﬂow.

There are three ﬂow regimes10 that have been observed. The ﬁrst ﬂow pattern is pulse ﬂow regime. In this ﬂow regime, the phases ﬂow turns into diﬀerent direction (see Figure 10.12). The name pulse ﬂow is used to signify that the ﬂow is ﬂowing in pulses that occurs in a certain frequency. This is opposed to counter–current solid–gas ﬂow when almost no pulse was observed. Initially, due to the gravity, the heavy liquid is leaving the can. Then the pressure in the can is reduced compared to the outside and some lighter liquid (gas)entered into the can. Then, the pressure in the can increase,

10 Caution! this statement should be considered as “so far found”. There must be other ﬂow regimes that were not observed or deﬁned. For example, elongated pulse ﬂow was observed but measured. This ﬁeld hasn’t been well explored. There are more things to be examined and to be studied.

10.9. COUNTER–CURRENT FLOW

353

and some heavy liquid will starts to ﬂow. This process continue until almost the liquid is evacuated (some liquid stay due the surface tension). In many situations, the volume ﬂow rate of the two phase is almost equal. The duration the cycle depends on several factors. The cycle duration can be replaced by frequency. The analysis of the frequency is much more complex issue and will not be dealt here. Annular Flow in Counter–current ﬂow The other ﬂow regime is annular ﬂow in which the heavier phase is on the periphery of Water the conduit (In the literature, there are someFlow one who claims that heavy liquid will be inside). The analysis is provided, but somehow it contradicts with the experimental evidence. Probably, one or more of the assumptions that the analysis based is erroneous). In very small Steam Flow diameters of tubes the counter–current ﬂow is not possible because of the surface tension (see section 4.7). The ratio of the diameter to the Fig. -10.13. Flood in vertical pipe. length with some combinations of the physical properties (surface tension etc) determines the point where the counter ﬂow can start. At this point, the pulsing ﬂow will start and larger diameter will increase the ﬂow and turn the ﬂow into annular ﬂow. Additional increase of the diameter will change the ﬂow regime into extended open channel ﬂow. Extended open channel ﬂow retains the characteristic of open channel that the lighter liquid (almost) does not eﬀect the heavier liquid ﬂow. Example of such ﬂow in the nature is water falls in which water ﬂows down and air (wind) ﬂows up. The driving force is the second parameter which eﬀects the ﬂow existence. When the driving (body) force is very small, no counter–current ﬂow is possible. Consider the can in zero gravity ﬁeld, no counter–current ﬂow possible. However, if the can was on the sun (ignoring the heat transfer issue), the ﬂow regime in the can moves from pulse to annular ﬂow. Further increase of the body force will move the ﬂow to be in the extended “open channel ﬂow.” In the vertical co–current ﬂow there are two possibilities, ﬂow with gravity or against it. As opposed to the co–current ﬂow, the counter–current ﬂow has no possibility for these two cases. The heavy liquid will ﬂow with the body forces (gravity). Thus it should be considered as non existent ﬂow.

10.9.1

Horizontal Counter–Current Flow

Up to this point, the discussion was focused on the vertical tubes. In horizontal tubes, there is an additional ﬂow regime which is stratiﬁed . Horizontal ﬂow is diﬀerent from vertical ﬂow from the stability issues. A heavier liquid layer can ﬂow above a lighter liquid. This situation is unstable for large diameter but as in static (see section (4.7) page 137) it can be considered stable for small diameters. A ﬂow in a very narrow tube with heavy ﬂuid above the lighter ﬂuid should be considered as a separate issue.

354

**CHAPTER 10. MULTI–PHASE FLOW
**

Single phase Flow or Dripping Flow

When the ﬂow rate of both ﬂuids is very small, the ﬂow will be stratiﬁed counter–current ﬂow. The ﬂow will change to pulse ﬂow when the heavy liquid ﬂow rate increases. Further increase of the ﬂow will result in a single phase ﬂow regime. Thus, closing the window of this kind of ﬂow. Thus, this increase terminates the two phase ﬂow possibility. The ﬂow map of the horizontal ﬂow is diﬀerent f (D/L, physical properties) from the vertical ﬂow and is shown in Figure 10.14. A ﬂow in an angle of inclination is closer to verti- Fig. -10.14. A ﬂow map to explain the cal ﬂow unless the angle of inclination is very small. horizontal counter–current ﬂow. The stratiﬁed counter ﬂow has a lower pressure loss (for the liquid side). The change to pulse ﬂow increases the pressure loss dramatically.

Liquid Flow Rate Pulse Flow Straitified Flow

10.9.2

Flooding and Reversal Flow

The limits of one kind the counter–current ﬂow regimes, that is stratiﬁed ﬂow are discussed here. This problem appears in nuclear engineering (or boiler engineering) where there is a need to make sure that liquid (water) inserted into the pipe reaching the heating zone. When there is no water (in liquid phase), the ﬁre could melt or damage the boiler. In some situations, the ﬁre can be too large or/and the water supply failed below a critical value the water turn into steam. The steam will ﬂow in the opposite direction. To analyze this situation consider a two dimensional conduit with a liquid inserted in the left side as depicted in Figure 10.13. The liquid velocity at very low gas velocity is constant but not uniform. Further increase of the gas velocity will reduce the average liquid velocity. Additional increase of the gas velocity will bring it to a point where the liquid will ﬂow in a reverse direction and/or disappear (dried out). A simpliﬁed model for this situation is for a two dimensional conﬁguration where the liquid is D ﬂowing down and the gas is ﬂowing up as shown h in Figure 10.15. It is assumed that both ﬂuids are W ξ x y ﬂowing in a laminar regime and steady state. Additionally, it is assumed that the entrance eﬀects L can be neglected. The liquid ﬂow rate, QL , is unknown. However, the pressure diﬀerence in the (x direction) is known and equal to zero. The boundLiquid Gas Flow ary conditions for the liquid is that velocity at the Flow wall is zero and the velocity at the interface is the same for both phases UG = UL or τi |G = τi |L . Fig. -10.15. A diagram to explain the As it will be shown later, both conditions cannot ﬂood in a two dimension geometry. coexist. The model can be improved by considering turbulence, mass transfer, wavy interface, etc11 .

11 The circular conﬁguration is under construction and will be appeared as a separated article momentarily.

10.9. COUNTER–CURRENT FLOW

355

This model is presented to exhibits the trends and the special features of counter-current ﬂow. Assuming the pressure diﬀerence in the ﬂow direction for the gas is constant and uniform. It is assumed that the last assumption does not contribute or change signiﬁcantly the results. The underline rational for this assumption is that gas density does not change signiﬁcantly for short pipes (for more information look for the book “Fundamentals of Compressible Flow” in Potto book series in the Fanno ﬂow chapter.). The liquid ﬁlm thickness is unknown and can be expressed as a function of the above boundary conditions. Thus, the liquid ﬂow rate is a function of the boundary conditions. On the liquid side, the gravitational force has to be balanced by the shear forces as dτxy = ρL g dx The integration of equation (10.55) results in τxy = ρL g x + C1 (10.56) (10.55)

The integration constant, C1 , can be found from the boundary condition where τxy (x = h) = τi . Hence, τi = ρL g h + C1 The integration constant is then Ci = τi − ρL g h which leads to τxy = ρL g (x − h) + τi (10.58) (10.57)

Substituting the newtonian ﬂuid relationship into equation (10.58) to obtained µL or in a simpliﬁed form as dUy ρL g (x − h) τi = + dx µL µL Equation (10.60) can be integrate to yield Uy = ρL g µL x2 τi x − hx + + C2 2 µL (10.61) (10.60) dUy = ρL g (x − h) + τi dx (10.59)

The liquid velocity at the wall, [U (x = 0) = 0], is zero and the integration coeﬃcient can be found to be C2 = 0 The liquid velocity proﬁle is then ρL g µL x2 τi x − hx + 2 µL (10.62)

Uy =

(10.63)

356 The velocity at the liquid–gas interface is Uy (x = h) =

CHAPTER 10. MULTI–PHASE FLOW

τi h ρL g h2 − µL 2 µL

(10.64)

The velocity can vanish (zero) inside the ﬁlm in another point which can be obtained from 0= ρL g µL x2 τi x − hx + 2 µL (10.65)

The solution for equation (10.65) is x|@UL =0 = 2 h − 2 τi µL g ρL (10.66)

The maximum x value is limited by the liquid ﬁlm thickness, h. The minimum shear stress that start to create reversible velocity is obtained when x = h which is 0= ρL g µL h2 τi h − hh + 2 µL h g ρL → τi0 = 2 (10.67)

If the shear stress is below this critical shear stress τi 0 then no part of the liquid will have a reversed velocity. The notation of τi0 denotes the special value at which a starting shear stress value is obtained to have reversed ﬂow. The point where the liquid ﬂow rate is zero is important and it is referred to as initial ﬂashing point. The ﬂow rate can be calculated by integrating the velocity across the entire liquid thickness of the ﬁlm. Q = w

h h

Uy dx =

0 0

ρL g µL

x2 τi x − hx + dx 2 µL

(10.68)

Where w is the thickness of the conduit (see Figure 10.15). (10.68) results in Q h2 (3 τi − 2 g h ρL ) = w 6 µL

Integration equation

(10.69)

It is interesting to ﬁnd the point where the liquid mass ﬂow rate is zero. This point can be obtained when equation (10.69) is equated to zero. There are three solutions for equation (10.69). The ﬁrst two solutions are identical in which the ﬁlm height is h = 0 and the liquid ﬂow rate is zero. But, also, the ﬂow rate is zero when 3 τi = 2 g h ρL . This request is identical to the demand in which 2 g h ρL 3

τi

critical

=

(10.70)

10.9. COUNTER–CURRENT FLOW

357

This critical shear stress, for a given ﬁlm thickness, reduces the ﬂow rate to zero or eﬀectively “drying” the liquid (which is diﬀerent then equation (10.67)). For this shear stress, the critical upward interface velocity is

(2−1) 3 2 1 ρL g h2 (10.71) 6 µL The wall shear stress is the last thing that will be done on the liquid side. The wall shear stress is τi Ucritical |interf ace = τL |@wall = µL dU dx

x=0

ρL g 2 g h ρL 1 B0 = µL 2¨ x µL ¨ − h + 3 µL

x=0 12

(10.72)

Simplifying equation (10.72) the direction)

becomes (notice the change of the sign accounting for g h ρL 3

τL |@wall =

(10.73)

Again, the gas is assumed to be in a laminar ﬂow as well. The shear stress on gas side is balanced by the pressure gradient in the y direction. The momentum balance on element in the gas side is dτxy G dP = dx dy (10.74)

The pressure gradient is a function of the gas compressibility. For simplicity, it is assumed that pressure gradient is linear. This assumption means or implies that the gas is incompressible ﬂow. If the gas was compressible with an ideal gas equation of state then the pressure gradient is logarithmic. Here, for simplicity reasons, the linear equation is used. In reality the logarithmic equation should be used ( a discussion can be found in “Fundamentals of Compressible Flow” a Potto project book). Thus, equation (10.74) can be rewritten as dτxy G ∆P ∆P = = dx ∆y L (10.75)

Where ∆y = L is the entire length of the ﬂow and ∆P is the pressure diﬀerence of the entire length. Utilizing the Newtonian relationship, the diﬀerential equation is ∆P d2 UG = dx2 µG L

12 Also

(10.76)

noticing that equation (10.70) has to be equal g h ρL to support the weight of the liquid.

358

CHAPTER 10. MULTI–PHASE FLOW

Equation (10.76) can be integrated twice to yield UG = ∆P 2 x + C1 x + C2 µG L (10.77)

This velocity proﬁle must satisfy zero velocity at the right wall. The velocity at the interface is the same as the liquid phase velocity or the shear stress are equal. Mathematically these boundary conditions are UG (x = D) = 0 and UG (x = h) = UL (x = h) τG (x = h) = τL (x = h) Applying B.C. (10.78) into equation (10.77) results in UG = 0 = ∆P D2 + C1 D + C2 µG L ∆P → C2 = − D 2 + C1 D µG L (10.80) (a) (b) or (10.79) (10.78)

Which leads to UG = ∆P x2 − D2 + C1 (x − D) µG L (10.81)

At the other boundary condition, equation (10.79)(a), becomes ρL g h2 ∆P = h2 − D2 + C1 (h − D) 6 µL µG L The last integration constant, C1 can be evaluated as C1 = ρL g h 2 ∆P (h + D) − 6 µL (h − D) µG L (10.83) (10.82)

With the integration constants evaluated, the gas velocity proﬁle is UG = ∆P ρL g h2 (x − D) ∆P (h + D) (x − D) x2 − D2 + − µG L 6 µL (h − D) µG L (10.84)

The velocity in Equation (10.84) is equal to the velocity equation (10.64) when (x = h). However, in that case, it is easy to show that the gas shear stress is not equal to the liquid shear stress at the interface (when the velocities are assumed to be the equal). The diﬀerence in shear stresses at the interface due to this assumption, of the equal velocities, cause this assumption to be not physical.

The velocity at interface can have a “slip” in very low density and for short distances. the integration constant is C1 = The gas velocity proﬁle is then UG = ∆P x2 − D2 + µG L 2 g h ρL 2 h ∆P − 3 µG µG L (x − D) 2 g h ρL 2 h ∆P − 3 µG µG L (10. It was assumed that the interface is straight but is impossible.90) x=D or in a simpliﬁed form as τG |@wall = 2 ∆P (D − h) 2 g h ρL + L 3 (10.88) The gas velocity at the interface is then UG |@x=h = ∆P h2 − D 2 + µG L 2 g h ρL 2 h ∆P − 3 µG µG L (h − D) (10. The shear stress at the interface must be equal. The wall shear stress is τG |@wall = µG dUG dx = µG x=D ∆P 2 x + µG L 2 g h ρL 2 h ∆P − 3 µG µG L (10.9. condition (10. This condition requires that µG dUG dUL = µL dx dx (10. if no special eﬀects occurs.85) The expressions for the derivatives are gas side liquid side 2 h ∆P 2 g h ρL + µG C1 = L 3 As result.91) The Required Pressure Diﬀerence . COUNTER–CURRENT FLOW 359 The second choice is to use the equal shear stresses at the interface. Then if the interface becomes wavy. the two conditions can co–exist.86) (10. diﬀerent thing(s) must happen.87) (10.10.89) This gas interface velocity is diﬀerent than the velocity of the liquid side.79)(b). Since there no possibility to have both the shear stress and velocity on both sides of the interface.

However. However. the total balance is needed. General forces diagram to calculated the in The actual pressure diﬀerence can a two dimension geometry. MULTI–PHASE FLOW The pressure diﬀerence to D create the ﬂooding (drying) has to take into account the fact that h W x y the surface is wavy.93) result in ρgLh + L 2 ∆P (D − h) 2 g h ρL + L 3 =L D ∆P (10. There are two forces that act against the gravity and two forces with the gravity.94) Simplifying equation (10.94) results in 4ρgLh = (2 h − D) ∆P 3 or ∆P = 4ρgLh 3 (2 h − D) (10. this explanation is to show magnitudes and trends and hence it provided here. The estimation of the pressure diﬀerence under the assumption of equal shear stress can be applied.16. In D ∆P the same fashion the pressure difference under the assumption the equal velocity can be calculated. The control volume include the gas and liquid volumes.95) . Fig.96) (10. The gravity force on the gas can be neglected in most cases. The gravity force on the liquid is the liquid volume times the liquid volume as V olme/w FgL = ρ g hL (10.93) g h ρL + D ∆P 3 (10. as ρgLh L ﬁrst estimate the waviness of the Lτw |L Lτw |G surface can be neglected. -10.16) A/w G A/w L f orce due to pressure FgL + L τw = L τw + Substituting the diﬀerent terms into (10. be between these two assumptions but not must be between them.16 describes the general forces that acts on the control volume.360 CHAPTER 10. To calculate the required pressure that cause the liquid to dry.92) The total momentum balance is (see Figure 10. Figure 10. This model and its assumptions are too simplistic and the actual pressure diﬀerence is larger.

In other case where more accurate measurement are needed a speciﬁc model is required. The homogeneous models or combined models like Lockhart–Martinelli can be employed in some cases. There are several points that should be noticed in this chapter. the assumption of straight line is not appropriate when two liquid with diﬀerent viscosity are ﬂowing.10.10. Unless the derivations or assumptions are wrong. this analysis equation (10.10 Multi–Phase Conclusion For the ﬁrst time multi–phase is included in a standard introductory textbook on ﬂuid mechanics. There are many ﬂow regimes in multi–phase ﬂow that “regular” ﬂuid cannot be used to solve it such as ﬂooding. .96) indicates that when D > 2 h is a special case (extend open channel ﬂow). In that case. 10. the appropriate model for the ﬂow regime should be employed. The interface between the two liquid ﬂowing together is wavy. Perhaps as a side conclusion but important. MULTI–PHASE CONCLUSION 361 This analysis shows far more reaching conclusion that initial anticipation expected.

362 CHAPTER 10. MULTI–PHASE FLOW .

A. Hence without additional reading. and Uz is the vector component in the z direction. nates depicted in Figure A. -A.).1 Vectors Vector is a quantity with direction as oppose to scalar. some of the material appears in specialty books such as third order diﬀerential equations (and thus it is expected that the student is not familiar with this material. The length of the vector in Cartesian coordinates (the coordinates system is relevant) is U = Ux 2 + Uy 2 + Uz 2 (A. this book on ﬂuid mechanics issues could be read by most readers.1 where Ux is the vector component in the x direction.1. There is very minimal original material which appears without proofs. Vector in Cartesian coor- . the 363 Fig. Uy is the vector component in the y direction. Furthermore.APPENDIX A The Mathematics Backgrounds for Fluid Mechanics In this appendix a review of selected topics in mathematics related to ﬂuid mechanics is presented. These topics are present so that one with some minimal background could deal with the mathematics that encompass within basic ﬂuid mechanics.dinates system. Thus.1) z U Ux Uy y Uz x Vector can be normalized and in Cartesian coordi. The material is not presented in “educational” order but in importance order. This appendix condenses material that spread in many various textbooks some of which are advance.

V )) (A.4). The “cross” product is deﬁned in an orthogonal coordinate (h1 . and h3 ) as angle U V U U × V = |U | · |V | sin (∠(U . V . multiplication of U × V results in W . a (U + V ) = a U + a V 6. U + V = V + U 3. -A. regular scalar multiplication angle between vectors W V U Fig.5) . h2 .364 unit vector is APPENDIX A. A. U ·V = U V U |U | · |V | cos (∠(U .4) The second multiplication is the “cross” product which in vector as opposed to a scalar as in the “dot” product.1 Vector Algebra Vectors obey several standard mathematical operations which are applicable to scalars. and W and for in this discussion a and b are scalars. The results of this multiplication is scalar but has no negative value as in regular scalar multiplication. Then the following can be said U U V 1. MATHEMATICS FOR FLUID MECHANICS U Ux ˆ Uy ˆ Uz ˆ = i+ j+ k U U U U U = (A. The ﬁrst multiplication is the “dot” product which is deﬁned by equation (A.1.3) Vectors have some what similar rules to scalars which will be discussed in the next section. (U + V ) + W = (U + V + W ) = U + (V + W ) 2.2. There are two kinds of multiplications for vectors. U . Zero vector is such that U + 0 = U 4. The following are vectors. Additive inverse U − U = 0 U 5. The right hand rule. V )) n (A. a (b U ) = a b U The multiplications and the divisions have somewhat diﬀerent meaning in a scalar operations.2) and general orthogonal coordinates U = U U1 U2 U3 = h1 + h2 + h3 U U U U (A.

The number of the possible combinations of the division is very large.1.9) in matrix form as h1 U × V = U2 V2 h2 U2 V2 h3 U3 V3 (A. that is scalar associated with cos θ vectors is associated with sin θ. Note that U and V are not necessarily orthogonal. is that these combinations have physical meaning. VECTORS 365 where θ is the angle between U and V .8) 2 2 2 2 2 2 (A. The previous experience is that help to deﬁne multiplication help to deﬁnition the division. Additionally note that order of multiplication is signiﬁcant. This multiplication has a negative value which means that it is a change of the direction. etc. The reason that these current combinations. these above four combinations are not the only possibilities (not including the left hand system). and n is a unit vector perpendicular to both U and V which obeys the right hand rule.6) (A. .10) (A. Multiplication combinations shows that there are at least four possibilities of combining the angle with scalar and vector. The right hand rule is referred to the direction of resulting vector.A. It turn out that these combinations have very little1 1 This author did ﬁnd any physical meaning these combinations but there could be and those the word “little” is used. One of the consequence of this deﬁnitions in Cartesian coordinates is i =j =k =0 In general for orthogonal coordinates this condition is written as h1 × h1 = h1 = h2 = h3 = 0 where hi is the unit vector in the orthogonal system. the result of the division can be a scalar combined or associated with the angle (with cos or sin).7) The most complex of all these algebraic operations is the division. or vector with the angle. In right hand orthogonal coordinate system h1 × h2 = h3 h2 × h3 = h1 h3 × h1 = h2 The “cross” product can be written as U × V = (U2 V3 − U3 V2 ) h1 + (U3 V1 − U1 V3 ) h2 + (U1 V2 − U2 V1 ) h3 Equation (A.9) h2 × h1 = −h3 h3 × h2 = −h1 h1 × h3 = −h2 (A. However. For example. The multiplication in vector world have two deﬁnition one which results in a scalar and one which results in a vector.

More diﬀerential operations can on scalar function can results in vector or vector function. divergence. i.1. the curl.12) ˆ Where ˆ ˆ and k are denoting unit vectors in the x. One of these operations is nabla operator sometimes also called the “del operator. and z directions.11) V2 V V2 V2 U2 U3 U1 V3 V3 V3 One such example of this division is the pressure which the explanation is commonality avoided or eliminated from the ﬂuid mechanics books including the direct approach in this book. Many of the operations of vector world.13) . A compact presentation is a common way to handle the mathematics which simplify the calculations and explanations. A scalar function is a function that provide a valued based on the coordinates (in Cartesian coordinates x. y.y.2 Diﬀerential Operators of Vectors Diﬀerential operations can act on scalar functions as well on vector and vector functions. respectively. It turned out that combination of three vectors has a physical meaning. Additional possibility is that every combination of one vector element is divided by the other vector element. such as. MATHEMATICS FOR FLUID MECHANICS physical meaning. Since every vector element has three possible elements the total combination is 9 = 3 × 3.” Also note the multiplying matrices and inverse matrix are also available operation to these tensors. =ˆ i ∂T ˆ ∂T ˆ ∂T +j +k ∂x ∂y ∂z (A. the gradient. In multivariate calculus. and the Laplacian are based or could be constructed from this single operator. For example. This tenser or the matrix can undergo regular linear algebra operations such as ﬁnding the eigenvalue values and the eigen “vectors. There at least are two possibilities how to treat these elements. Gradient This operation acts on a scalar function and results in a vector whose components are derivatives in the principle directions of a coordinate system. the temperature of the domain might be expressed as a scalar ﬁeld.366 APPENDIX A. j. derivatives of diﬀerent directions can represented as a vector or vector function. A.z). The following combination is commonly suggested U1 U2 U3 V V1 V1 1 U U1 U2 U3 = (A. For example. The three vectors have a need for additional notation such of vector of vector which is referred to as a tensor. in Cartesian coordinates the operation is =ˆ i ∂ ∂ ˆ ∂ +ˆ j +k ∂x ∂y ∂z (A.” This operator is a diﬀerential vector.

in Cartesian coordinate is results in div N = ·N= ∂Nx ∂Ny ∂Nz + + ∂x ∂y ∂z (A. y. for Cartesian coordinates is ˆ N (x. y. N . A gradient acting on a scalar ﬁeld creates a vector ﬁeld.17) This combination is commonality denoted as 2 . z)ˆ + Nz (x. Curl Similar to the “cross product” a similar operation can be deﬁned for the nabla (note the “right hand rule” notation) for Cartesian coordinate as curl N = ×N = ∂Nz ∂Ny − ∂y ∂z ∂Nx ∂Nz − ∂z ∂x ˆ i+ ˆ+ j ∂Ny ∂Nx − ∂x ∂y ˆ k (A. z) = Nx (x. Applying a divergence on the result creates a scalar ﬁeld again. This operator also referred as the Laplacian operator. y. in honor of Pierre-Simon Laplace (23 March 1749 – 5 March 1827). Laplacian The new operation can be constructed from “dot” multiplication of the nabla.15) (A.16) Note that the result is a vector. and it deﬁned as 2 = 2 − 1 ∂2 c2 ∂ 2 t (A. VECTORS 367 Divergence The same idea that was discussed in vector section there are two kinds of multiplication in the vector world and two will be for the diﬀerential operators. d‘Alembertian As a super–set for four coordinates (very minimal used in ﬂuid mechanics) and it reﬀed to as d’Alembertian or the wave operator. This combined operations is known as the “div grad” which is given in Cartesian coordinates by · = ∂2 ∂2 ∂2 + 2+ 2 2 ∂x ∂y ∂z (A. z)ˆ + Ny (x.14) The divergence results in a scalar function which similar to the concept of the vectors multiplication of the vectors magnitude by the cosine of the angle between the vectors.1.A. y.18) . z)k i j The dot product of these two vectors. The divergence is the similar to “dot” product which results in scalar. A vector domain (function) assigns a vector to each point such as velocity for example.

1862).21) Since the deﬁnition of Φ = N .html . If N is a gradient of a scalar ﬁeld Π(x. This theorem is applicable for a ﬁx control volume and the derivative can enters into the integral. the harmonic functions can be added or subtracted because inside the volume these functions contributions is eliminated throughout the volume.3 Diﬀerentiation of the Vector Operations The vector operation sometime fell under (time or other) derivative.edu/mathews/c2003/HarmonicFunctionMod. · · · )e2 + f3 (x1 . x3 .19) In Gauss-Ostrogradsky Theorem (Mikhail Vasilievich Ostrogradsky (September 24. In Gauss notation it is written as ( V · N ) dV = A N · n dA (A. y. x2 . normally for steady state. This results reduces equation.22) where e i is the unit vector in the i direction.21) for harmonic function (solutions Laplace equation see2 Harminic functions) then the left side vanishes which is useful identity for ideal ﬂow analysis. The basic of these relationships is explored. This subset can further produces several interesting identities.20) V Note the strange notation of “Σ” which refers to the area. Special case of equation (A.fullerton. x2 . · · · )e1 + f2 (x1 . Thus. MATHEMATICS FOR FLUID MECHANICS Divergence Theorem Mathematicians call to or refer to a subset of The Reynolds Transport Theorem as the Divergence Theorem. A. For example. The cross and dot products when the come under diﬀerentiation can be look as scalar. the dot product of operation 2 for more information http://math. to a balance of the ﬂuxes through the surface. A vector is made of the several scalar functions such as R = f1 (x1 . x3 . x3 . z) then it can insert into identity to produce ( V · ( Φ)) dV = V 2 Φ dV = A Φ · n dA (A.368 APPENDIX A. or called it Gauss’ Theorem (Carl Friedrich Gauss 30 April 1777 23 February 1855). x2 . 1801 – January 1.1. · · · )e3 + · · · (A. Many engineering class present this theorem as a theorem on its merit without realizing that it is a subset of Reynolds Transport Theorem. The notation is a bit diﬀerent from Gauss and it is written in Ostrogradsky notation as ∂Q ∂R ∂P + + ∂x ∂y ∂z dx dy dz = Σ (P p + Qq + Rr) dΣ (A.

There are several orthogonal coordinates which appears in ﬂuid mechanics operation which include this list: Cartesian coordinates. Prolate spheroidal coordinates. As in operation on scalar time derivative of dot or cross of constant velocity is zero. R S d dR dS R (R · S ) = ·S + ·R dt dt dt And the the chain role for the cross operation is R S d dR dS R (R × S ) = ×S + ×R dt dt dt It follows that derivative (notice the similarity to scalar operations) of d dR R (R · R ) = 2 R dt at There are several identities that related to location. Oblate spheroidal coordinates. the most interesting is U d dU R (R × U ) = U × U + R × dt dt (A. VECTORS R · S = (xˆ + y 2 ˆ · (sin xˆ + exp(y)ˆ can be written as i j) i j) R d (R · S ) d = dt dt It can be noticed that d x sin x + y 2 exp(y) R d (R · S ) = = dt dt dx d sin x d y 2 d y2 sin x + + exp(y) + exp(y) dt dt dt dt xˆ + y 2 ˆ · sin xˆ + exp(y)ˆ i j i j 369 It can be noticed that the manipulation of the simple above example obeys the regular chain role. A. The second part is zero because Newton law (acceleration is along the path of R). Ellipsoidal coordinates. Similarly. it can done for the cross product.1. Parabolic coordinates. velocity. The results of operations of two vectors is similar to regular multiplication since the vectors operation obey “regular” addition and multiplication roles.3.24) (A. Yet.A. Hence the chain role apply for dot operation.25) (A. Spherical coordinates. Cylindrical coordinates. Parabolic cylindrical coordinates Paraboloidal coordinates.23) The ﬁrst part is zero because the cross product with itself is zero.1.1 Orthogonal Coordinates These vectors operations can appear in diﬀerent orthogonal coordinates system. and acceleration. Elliptic . the chain role is applicable.

Toroidal coordinates.3.ac. Bipolar cylindrical coordinates Conical coordinates. The new concept here is the length factor. The ﬁrst one represents the vector that is the direction of r while the second is the unit vector in the direction of the coordinate r. These coordinates rer θ r duced the work. and z. -A. Flat-ring cyclide coordinates. MATHEMATICS FOR FLUID MECHANICS cylindrical coordinates.uk/Extras/Coolidge Polars. Flat-disk cyclide coordinates. The second coordinate θ has unite coordinate θ.26) The reverse transformation is x = r cos θ y = r sin θ z=z (A. Cylindrical Coordinates The cylindrical coordinates are commonz ality used in situations where there is line of e1 symmetry or kind of symmetry. In Fig. Three common systems typical to ﬂuid mechanics will be presented and followed by a table and methods to present all the above equations.html. ”The Origin of Polar Coordinates”. . in most cases. http://www-history.29) 3 Coolidge.28) The gradient in cylindrical coordinates is given by =r ∂ 1 ∂ ∂ +θ +z ∂r r ∂θ ∂z (A. because probθ x lem is reduced a two dimensions. Bi-cyclide coordinates and Cap-cyclide coordinates. The cylindrical coordinates are shown in Figure A. Cylindrical Coordinate System. → and z.3. American Mathematical Monthly 59: 7885. r. Bispherical coordinates.mcs. θ. The coordinate θ is angle. Conversation of the angel to units of length is done by length factor which is. The conversion between the Cartesian coordinate and the Cylindrical is r= x2 + y 2 θ = arctan y x y z=z (A. the ﬁgure shows that the coordinates are r. In this book the dimensional chapter shows that in physics that derivatives have to have same units in order to compare them or use them. This kind sity uations occur in pipe ﬂow even if the pipe is not exactly symmetrical. Note the advantage of cylindrical (polar) coordinates in description of geometry or location relative to a center point. in this case. θ. The meaning of − r and r are diﬀerent. Because there are so many coordinates system is reasonable to develop these operations for any for any coordinates system.370 APPENDIX A. x these coordinate were introduced for geometrical problems about 2000 years ago3 . These three diﬀerent rs are some what similar to any of the Cartesian coordinate.27) The line element and volume element are ds = dr2 + (r dθ) + dz 2 2 dr r dθ dz (A. Note that unite coordinates are denoted as r.st-and. Julian (1952). Historically.

In ﬂuid y mechanics such situations exist in bubble dynamics.4.34) y = r sin φ sin θ z = r cos φ (A.37) . -A. Spherical Coordinate System. The ﬁrst angle between projection on x − y plane and the positive x–axis. A location is represented by a radius and two angles.33) Line element and element volume are ds = dr2 + (r cos θ dθ) + (r sin θ dφ) 2 2 dV = r2 sin θ dr dθ dφ (A.32) Spherical Coordinates z The spherical coordinates system is a φ r three-dimensional coordinates which is imθ provement or further modiﬁcations of the cylinφ r drical coordinates. boom explosion.35) The gradient is =r ∂ ∂ ˆ1 ∂ + φ 1 +θ ∂r r ∂θ r sin θ ∂φ (A. VECTORS The curl is written ×N = 1 ∂Nz ∂Nθ − r ∂θ ∂z 1 r The Laplacian is deﬁned by · = 1 ∂ r ∂r r ∂ ∂r + 1 ∂2 ∂2 + 2 2 ∂θ 2 r ∂z r+ ∂Nr ∂Nz − ∂z ∂r ∂ (r Nθ ) ∂Nθ − ∂r ∂θ θ+ z 371 (A. Spherical system used for z y x θ cases where spherical symmetry exist.A.36) The divergence in spherical coordinate is ·N = 1 ∂ r2 Nr 1 ∂ (Nθ sin θ) 1 ∂Nφ + + r2 ∂r r sin θ ∂θ r sin θ ∂φ (A. sound wave propagax tion etc.1.4. 0 < θ < 2 π while the second angle (colatitude) is only 0 < φ < π. The conversion between Cartesian coordinates to Spherical coordinates x = r sin φ cos θ The reversed transformation is r= x2 + y 2 + z 2 φ = arccos z r (A.31) (A. The radius is the distance between the origin and the location. Note that the ﬁrst angle (azimuth or longitude) θ range is between Fig. The second angle is between the positive y–axis and the vector as shown in Figure A.30) (A.

However. While the θ is the same the meaning is diﬀerent and diﬀerent notations need.3.42) . The coordinates distance coeﬃcient is in ase cre in e2 the change the diﬀerential to the actual distance. θ. As in almost all cases.5. The general Orthogonal is r.372 APPENDIX A. In mathematics it is denoted as q while in engineering is denotes h. For example in cylindrical coordinates. The notation for the presentation is required general notation of the units vectors is ei and coordinates distance coeﬃcient is hi where 1 e1 q i is 1. The units r and z are units ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ with length.2. The length of d d 2 = i=1 hk dq k 2 (A. and z . Also note that the derivative of the coordinate in the case of cylindrical coordinate is ∂θ and unit ˆ vector is θ. the unit vectors are: r.39) General Orthogonal Coordinates There are several orthogonal system and general form is needed. Since it is engineering book the h is adapted.38) ˆ φ The Laplacian in spherical coordinates is 2 = r2 + sin θ + (A. θ is lengthens unit vector and the coordinate distance coeﬃcient in this case Fig. The derivative quantity will be denoted by q superscript.41) Gradient The gradient in general coordinate for a scalar function T is the nabla operator in general orthogonal coordinates as T = T T T e1 ∂T e2 ∂T e3 ∂T + + h1 ∂q 1 h2 ∂q 2 h3 ∂q 3 (A. -A.40) The nabla operator in general orthogonal coordinates is = e1 ∂ e2 ∂ e3 ∂ + + 1 2 h1 ∂q h2 ∂q h3 ∂q 3 (A. MATHEMATICS FOR FLUID MECHANICS The curl in spherical coordinates is ×N = 1 r sin θ 1 r 1 ∂ r2 ∂r ∂ (Nφ sin θ) ∂Nθ − ∂θ ∂φ 1 ∂Nr ∂ (rNφ ) − sin θ ∂φ ∂r ∂ ∂r 1 ∂ 2 sin θ ∂θ r r+ ˆ 1 ˆ θ + r ∂ ∂θ ∂ (rNθ ) ∂Nr − ∂r ∂θ 1 ∂2 r2 sin2 θ ∂φ2 (A. there is dispute what with unit vectors. the proper notation for these coeﬃcients.

Parabolic coordinates by user WillowW using Blender.44) The Laplacian of a scalar equals 1 ∂ h1 h2 h3 ∂q 1 h2 h3 ∂φ h1 ∂q 1 ∂ ∂q 2 h3 h1 ∂φ h2 ∂q 2 ∂ ∂q 3 h1 h2 ∂φ h3 ∂q 3 (A. 2 φ= + + Fig.1. -A. VECTORS The divergence of a vector equals ·N = 1 ∂ ∂ ∂ (N1 h2 h3 ) + 2 (N2 h3 h1 ) + 3 (N3 h1 h2 ) .A. . 1 h1 h2 h3 ∂q ∂q ∂q 373 (A.45) The following table showing the diﬀerent values for selected orthogonal system.6.43) For general orthogonal coordinate system the curl is ∂ e1 ∂ (h3 N3 ) − 3 (h2 N2 ) + 2 h2 h3 ∂q ∂q ∂ ∂ e3 ∂ ∂ (h1 N1 ) − 1 (h3 N3 ) + (h2 N2 ) − 2 (h1 N1 ) 3 1 ∂q ∂q h1 h2 ∂q ∂q ×N = e2 h3 h1 (A.

If the highest derivative is ﬁrst order the equation is referred as ﬁrst order diﬀerential equation etc. Note that the derivatives are integers e. The meaning of linear equation is that the operation is such that a L (u1 ) + b L (u2 ) = L (a u1 + b u2 ) (A. the ﬁrst ODEs are easier to solve and they are the base for equations of higher order equation.2. ODE are categorized into linear and non-linear equations. A. However. there is no physical meaning to such a product according to this author believe. du .2 Ordinary Diﬀerential Equations (ODE) In this section a brief summary of ODE is presented. MATHEMATICS FOR FLUID MECHANICS Table -A. second derivative etc4 . It is suggested that the reader interested in depth information should read “Diﬀerential Equations and Boundary Value Problems” by Boyce de–Prima or any other book in this area. Or this dt dy2 operation on y2 is dt + y2 and the summation of operation the sum operation of +y L(y1 + y2 ) = y1dt 2 + y1 + y2 .g.46) d An example of such linear operation L = dt + 1 acting on y is dy1 + y1 .47) 4 Note that mathematically.1 First Order Diﬀerential Equations As expect. Orthogonal coordinates systems (under construction please ignore) Orthogonal coordinates systems name Cartesian Cylindrical Spherical Paraboloidal Ellipsoidal Remarks 1 standard common common ? ? √ 1 1 1 u2 + v 2 √ h 2 1 r r u2 + v 2 3 1 1 r cos θ uv 1 x r r u λ q 2 y θ θ v µ 3 z z ϕ θ ν A. It is not intent to be a replacement to a standard textbook but as a quick reference. .1. it is possible to deﬁne fraction of derivative.t dt =0 (A. ﬁrst derivative. The ﬁrst order equations have several forms and there is no one solution ﬁt all but families of solutions.374 APPENDIX A. The most general form is f u. Ordinary diﬀerential equations are deﬁned by the order of the highest derivative.

I.c) can be transferred to u = c et For the initial condition of u(0) = u0 then u = u0 et End Solution 2 2 (1.a) Solution The solution can be obtained by the variable separation method.A.48) can be written as du = X(t)dt U (u) (A.50) The limits of the integral is (are) the initial condition(s).I.I. u) = X(t) U (u).b) becomes du = u t dt =⇒ ln (u) + ln (c) = t2 2 (1.2.2 Variables Separation or Segregation In some cases equation (A.d) (1.48) A. (1. u) dt 375 (A.47) can be simpliﬁed to the ﬁrst form as du = F (t.I.49) Equation can be integrated either analytically or numerically and the solution is du = U (u) X(t)dt (A.2.1: Solve the following equation du = ut dt with the initial condition u(t = 0) = u0 . In that case it is said that F is spreadable and then equation (A.b) Equation (1. Example A.c) (1.e) .48) can be written as F (t.I.I. ORDINARY DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS (ODE) Sometimes equation (A. The name initial condition is used because the values are given commonly at initial time. The initial condition is the value the function has at some points. The separation yields du = t dt u The integration of equation (1.I.

MATHEMATICS FOR FLUID MECHANICS The Integral Factor Equations Another method is referred to as integration factor which deals with a limited but very important class of equations.51) What is needed from N (x) is to provide a full diﬀerential such as N (x) dy d [N (x) g(x) y] + N (x) g(x) y = dx dx (A.54) Using the diﬀerentiation chain rule provides dv du du dx d N (x) =e dx g(x)dx g(x) (A.52) becomes d [N (x) g(x) y] = N (x) m(x) dx Multiplying equation (A.54) is integrated to be ln (N (x)) = g(x)dx =⇒ N (x) = e g(x)dx (A.52) (A. This family is part of a linear equations.53).56) which indeed satisfy equation (A.2.1 APPENDIX A.58) (A.57) e R g(x)dx (A.59) N (x) A special case of g(t) = constant is shown next. .53) This condition (note that the previous methods is employed here) requires that d N (x) d N (x) = N (x) g(x) =⇒ = g(x) dx dx N (x) Equation (A.51) by unknown function N (x) transformed it to N (x) dy + N (x) g(x) y = N (x)m(x) dx (A.376 A. Thus equation (A.2.55) (A. The general form of the equation is dy + g(x) y = m(x) dx Multiplying equation (A.57) by dx and integrating results in N (x) g(x) y = The solution is then N (x) m(x) dx y= g(x) N (x) m(x) dx (A.

The actual solution is obtained by reversed equation which transferred solution to u = v (p−1) (A.60) The transformation v = u1−p turns equation (A.62) Example A.a) to be confused with the Bernoulli equation without the s that referred to the energy equation.59) provides y = e−x (ex + c) = 1 + c e−x End Solution A.61) The linearized equation can be solved using the linear methods.2.2: Find the solution for a typical problem in ﬂuid mechanics (the problem of Stoke ﬂow or the parachute problem) of dy +y =1 dx Solution Substituting m(x) = 1 and g(x) = 1 into equation (A.III. ORDINARY DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS (ODE) 377 Example A.60) into a linear equation which is dv + (1 − p) m(t) v = (1 − p) n(t) dt (A. This equation is non–linear part du + m(t)u = n(t) dt up (A. One such equation family is referred in the literature as the Bernoulli Equations5 . .3 Non–Linear Equations Non-Linear equations are equations that the power of the function or the function derivative is not equal to one or their combination.2.3: Solve the following Bernoulli equation du + t2 u = sin(t) u3 dt 5 Not (1.A. Many non linear equations can be transformed into linear equations and then solved with the linear equation techniques.

64) In another words if the substitution u = v t is inserted the function f become a function of only v it is homogeneous function.III.d) (1.III.65) Example A.3.378 Solution The transformation is APPENDIX A.III.c) is u(t) = ce And the general solution is t3 − 3 −t3 3 1−p 1−p (1. The solution is then ln |t| = dv +c f (1.4: Solve the equation du u = sin + dt t u4 − t4 t4 (1.IV. the transformation of u = v t transforms equation (A.b) equation (1.a) becomes dv −2 t2 v = −2 sin(t) dt The homogeneous solution of equation (1. t) = f (a u. v) − v (A.III.63) into t dv + v = f (1.e) private solution u= e e t3 3 sin (t) dt +c End Solution A.III.2.63) for any real positive a. MATHEMATICS FOR FLUID MECHANICS v = u2 (1. v) dt (A.III. a t) dt (A. For this case. Example of such case u = u3 − t3 /t3 becomes u = v 3 + 1 .c) (1.1 Homogeneous Equations Homogeneous function is given as du = f (u.b) Using the deﬁnition (1.a) .III.

d) results in dv t2 = +c sin (v) + v 4 − 1 − v 2 The initial condition can be inserted via the boundary of the integral.b) . In fact.IV.a) Solution Segregating the variables to be du = u2 t2 dt (1.IV.V.IV. this kind of class of equations appears all over this book. For this sort equations.5: Solve the following ODE du = −u2 t2 dt (1.2 Variables Separable Equations In ﬂuid mechanics and many other ﬁelds there are diﬀerential equations that referred to variables separable equations.A.c) or dv dv + v = sin (v) + v 4 − 1 =⇒ t = sin (v) + v 4 − 1 − v dt dt Now equation (1. The solution of this kind of equation is du = f (t) dt (A.66) The main point is that f (t) and be segregated from g(u).V.d) (1. End Solution (1. ORDINARY DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS (ODE) Solution Substituting u = v T yields du = sin (v) + v 4 − 1 dt 379 (1. it can be written that du = f (t)g(u) dt (A.IV.c) can be solved by variable separation as t dv = t dt sin (v) + v 4 − 1 − v Integrating equation (1.67) g(u) Example A.b) (1.e) A.2.2.3.IV.IV.

c) Rearranging equation (1.2.3.d) End Solution A. Many of these methods will be eventually covered by this appendix.68) In a way.2.72) .c) becomes u= t3 −3 +c (1.V.4 Second Order Diﬀerential Equations The general idea of solving second order ODE is by converting them into ﬁrst order ODE.3 Other Equations There are equations or methods that were not covered by the above methods. There are additional methods such numerical analysis.380 APPENDIX A. the second order ODE is transferred to ﬁrst order by substituting the one linear operator to two ﬁrst linear operators. MATHEMATICS FOR FLUID MECHANICS Integrating equation (1. One such case is the second order ODE with constant coeﬃcients.69) If b2 > 4 a c then there are two unique solutions for the quadratic equation and the general solution form is u = c1 es1 t + c2 es2 t For the case of b2 = 4 a c the general solution is u = c1 es1 t + c2 t es1 t (A. variable substitutions. A. Practically. The simplest equations are with constant coeﬃcients such as a d2 u du +b + cu = 0 dt2 dt (A.V.V. the solution of the quadratic equation is a complex number which means that the solution has exponential and trigonometric functions as u = c1 eα t cos(βt) + c2 eα t sin(βt) (A. transformation (like Laplace transform).71) (A. it is done by substituting est where s is characteristic constant and results in the quadratic equation a s2 + b s + s = 0 (A.70) In the case of b2 > 4 a c. and perturbation methods.b) transformed into − 1 t3 = + c1 u 3 (1.V.

and −5.VI.75) +b + c u = l(x) dt2 dt The solution of the homogeneous equation is zero that is the operation L(uh ) = 0. ORDINARY DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS (ODE) Where the real part is α= and the imaginary number is β= √ −b 2a 381 (A.b) (1.VI.VI.2.6: Solve the following ODE d2 u du +7 + 10 u = 0 dt2 dt (1. If the function on the right hand side is polynomial than the solution is will n utotal = uh + i=1 up i (A.c) A.74) Example A.a) Solution The characteristic equation is s2 + 7 s + 10 = 0 The solution of equation (1.77) The linearity of the operation creates the possibility of adding the solutions.73) 4 a c − b2 2a (A.76) Where the solution uh is the solution of the homogeneous solution and up is the solution of the particular function l(x).1 Non–Homogeneous Second ODE Homogeneous equation are equations that equal to zero.VI. This fact can be used to solve non-homogeneous equation.4.A.2. the solution is u = k1 e−2 t + k2 e−5 t End Solution (1.b) are −2. Equations that not equal to zero in this form d2 u du (A. . Thus. The additional solution of L(up ) is the total solution as a =0 L (utotal ) = L (uh ) +L (up ) =⇒ utotal = uh + up (A. where L is Linear operator.

d) A. MATHEMATICS FOR FLUID MECHANICS Example A.b) 6t + 5 36 18 t2 + 30 t + 19 108 9 t2 + 24 t + 17 54 (1. u) = 0 ˙ ¨ can be written or presented in the form f1 (u)u = f2 (u) u ˙ ˙ ¨ (A.VII.78) is referred to as a separable equation (some called it segregated equations).5 Non–Linear Second Order Equations Some of the techniques that were discussed in the previous section (ﬁrst order ODE) can be used for the second order ODE such as the variable separation.7: Solve the non-homogeneous equation d2 u du −5 + 6 u = t + t2 dt2 dt Solution The homogeneous solution is u(t) = c1 e2 t + c1 e3 t the particular solution for t is u(t) = and the particular solution of the t2 is u(t) = The total solution is u(t) = c1 e2 t + c1 e3 t + End Solution (1. A.2.5.2.79) .78) can be integrated u u ˙ v f1 (u)u = ˙ u0 u0 ˙ f2 (u) u = ˙ ¨ v0 f2 (u) v ˙ (A.382 APPENDIX A. ˙ ˙ ¨ equation (A.a) (1.78) then the equation (A.VII.VII. u.VII.1 Segregation of Derivatives If the second order equation f (u. Hence. The derivative of u can be treated as a new function v and v = u.c) (1.

Example A.VIII.VIII.81) author worked (better word toyed) in (with) this area during his master but to his shame he did not produce any papers on this issue. It can be noticed that the function initial condition is used twice.VIII.c) becomes 3 3 2 u 2 − u0 2 3 = cos (v0 ) − cos (v) = cos du0 dt − cos du dt (1.80) Using the ﬁrst order separation method yields dt = 0 u0 du 2 3 3 arcsin u0 2 −u 2 + cos (v0 ) 3 =0 =1 (A.8: Solve the equation √ du u − sin dt With the initial condition of u(0) = 0 and “dt”? Solution Rearranging the ODE to be √ du u = sin dt & √ and transformation to v is √ u du = sin (v) dv (1. This equation family is not well discussed in mathematical textbooks6 .a) du dt du dt d2 u =0 dt2 (t = 0) = 0 What happen to the extra Thus the extra dt is disappeared and equation (1.d) Equation (1.2.A. The physical reason is that the equation represents a strong eﬀect of the function at a certain point such surface tension problems. Note that the derivative initial condition is used once.a) becomes u du = sin d (1.VIII.b) After the integration equation (1. ﬁrst with initial integration and second with the second integration.VIII.VIII.c) du dt d dt & du dt du dt du dt (1. The papers are still his drawer and waiting to a spare time.VIII.d) can be rearranged as du = arcsin dt t u 3 3 2 u0 2 − u 2 + cos (v0 ) 3 (A. ORDINARY DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS (ODE) 383 The integration results in a ﬁrst order diﬀerential equation which should be dealt with the previous methods. 6 This .

384 APPENDIX A.88) . u d2 u d t2 + du dt 2 =0 (A.84) which can be solved with the previous methods. End Solution A.82) where a is constant.81) shows that initial condition of the function is used twice while the initial of the derivative is used only once.83) results in 1 dv dt =v =⇒ = v dv a dt a (A.5. One solution is u = k1 and the second solution is obtained by solving 1 = a The transform of v = du dt du dt d2u d t2 (A.2.86) A.87) It can be noticed that that c2 is actually two diﬀerent constants because the plus minus signs. d dt u du dt =0 (A.85) + c2 (A.2.2 Full Derivative Case Equations Another example of special case or families of second order diﬀerential equations which is results of the energy integral equation derivations as u − au du dt d2u d t2 =0 (A.3 Energy Equation ODE It is non–linear because the second derivative is square and the function multiply the second derivative.5. Bifurcation to two solutions leads t 1 du + c = v 2 =⇒ =± a 2 dt which can be integrated as u= ± a 2t + c1 dt = ± a 3 2t + c1 a 3 2 2t + c1 a (A. MATHEMATICS FOR FLUID MECHANICS The solution (A.

b) (1.IX.IX. The solution to constant coeﬃcients is relatively simple and will be presented here. Example A. This kind of diﬀerential equation has been studied in the last 30 years to some degree.89) Further rearrangement and integration leads to the solution which is u2 = t + k2 2 k1 For non–homogeneous equation they can be integrated as well.c) A.IX.91) The solution is assumed to be of the form of est which general third order polonium. the linear third-order diﬀerential equation” Springer Berlin Heidelberg.6 Third Order Diﬀerential Equation There are situations where ﬂuid mechanics7 leads to third order diﬀerential equation. 1999.90) +u=0 (1.2. ORDINARY DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS (ODE) after integration u du = k1 dt 385 (A. The general form for constant coeﬃcient is d3 u d2 u du +a 2 +b + cu = 0 3 dt dt dt (A.2.a) √ 3 u √ du 3 k1 − u3 √ = t + k2 2 u √ du 3 k − u3 √1 = t + k2 2 (1. Third unsteady energy equation in accelerated coordinate leads to a third order diﬀerential equation.9: Show that the solution of u is − √ 3 d2 u d t2 + du dt 2 (A. Thus. the general solution is depend on the solution of third order polonium.A. Solving Third Order Linear Diﬀerential Equations in Terms of Second Order Equations Mark van Hoeij 8 “On 7 The . Solution to more complicate linear equations with non constant coeﬃcient (function of t) can be solved sometimes by Laplace transform or reduction of the equation to second order Olivier Vallee8 .

94) (A.97) D = Q3 + R 2 and where the deﬁnitions of Q and R are Q= and R= 9a1 a2 − 27a3 − 2a1 3 54 3a2 − a1 2 9 (A. Thus.386 APPENDIX A. s3 + a1 s2 + a2 s + a3 = 0 The solution is 1 s1 = − a1 + (S + T ) 3 1 1 1 √ s2 = − a1 − (S + T ) + i 3(S − T ) 3 2 2 and 1 1 √ 1 s3 = − a1 − (S + T ) − i 3(S − T ) 3 2 2 Where S= 3 (A. (A. MATHEMATICS FOR FLUID MECHANICS order polonium has always one real solution. When the characteristic equation solution has three diﬀerent real roots the solution of the diﬀerential equation is u = c1 es1 t + c2 es2 t + c3 es3 t (A.93) (A. all the roots are real and unequal.92) (A.95) R+ √ D. For the case D = 0.96) T = and where the D is deﬁned as 3 R− √ D (A. From a mathematical point of view. if D > 0. In the last case where D < 0. one root is real and two roots are complex.100) Only three roots can exist for the Mach angle.98) (A. θ.99) (A.101) . derivation of the leading equation (results of the ode) is reduced into quadratic equation and thus the same situation exist. all the roots are real and at least two are identical.

102) Similarly derivations for the case of three identical real roots. For example. Generally. the equation d4 u − u = 0 =⇒ dt4 can be written as combination of d2 −1 dt2 d2 +1 u=0 dt2 or d2 +1 dt2 d2 −1 u=0 dt2 (A.105) d4 −1 u=0 dt4 (A.109) (A. For the case of only one real root.104). A.7 Forth and Higher Order ODE The ODE and partial diﬀerential equations (PDE) can be of any integer order. The general procedure is based on the above concept but is some what simpler. ORDINARY DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS (ODE) In the case the solution to the characteristic has two identical real roots u = (c1 + c2 t) es1 t + c3 es2 t 387 (A. The solution of equation (A. Thus the solution of d2 +1 u=0 dt2 with the solution of d2 −1 u=0 dt2 (A.2. Inserting es t into the ODE an u(n) + an−1 u(n−1) + an−2 u(n−2) + · · · + a1 u + a0 u = 0 yields characteristic equation an sn + an−1 sn−1 + an−2 sn−2 + · · · + a1 s + a0 = 0 (A.105).103) Where a1 is the real part of the complex root and b1 imaginary part of the root.108) .107) was discussed earlier.104) The order of operation is irrelevant as shown in equation (A.106) and equation (A.2.A. for constant coeﬃcients ODE can be transformed into multiplication of smaller order linear operations.106) are the solutions of (A.107) (A. Sometimes the ODE is fourth order or higher the general solution is based in idea that equation is reduced into a lower order. the solution is u = (c1 sin b1 + c2 cos b1 ) ea1 t + c3 es3 t (A.

388

APPENDIX A. MATHEMATICS FOR FLUID MECHANICS If The Solution of Characteristic Equation all roots are real and diﬀerent e.g. s1 = s2 = s3 = s4 · · · = sn all roots are real but some are identical e.g. s1 = s2 = · · · = sk and some diﬀerent e.g. sk+1 = sk+2 = sk+3 · · · = sn k/2 roots, are pairs of conjugate complex numbers of si = ai ± bi and some real and diﬀerent e.g. sk+1 = sk+2 = sk+3 · · · = sn k/2 roots, are pairs of conjugate complex numbers of si = ai ± bi , roots are similar and some real and diﬀerent e.g. sk+1 = sk+2 = sk+3 · · · = sn The Solution of Diﬀerential Equation Is u = c1 es1 t + c2 es2 t + · · · + cn esn t u = c1 + c2 t + · · · + ck tk−1 es1 t + ck+1 esk+1 t + ck+2 esk+2 t + · · · + cn esn t u = (cos(b1 t) + sin(b1 t)) ea1 t + · · · + (cos(bi t) + sin(bi t)) eai t + · · · + (cos(bk t) + sin(bk t)) eak t + ck+1 esk+1 t + ck+2 esk+2 t + · · · + cn esn t u = (cos(b1 t) + sin(b1 t)) ea1 t + · · · + (cos(bi t) + sin(bi t)) eai t + · · · + (cos(bk t) + sin(bk t)) eak t + ck+1 + ck+2 t + · · · + ck+ t −1 esk+1 t + ck+2 esk+2 t + ck+3 esk+3 t + · · · + cn esn t

Example A.10: Solve the ﬁfth order ODE d5 u d4 u d3 u d2 u du − 11 4 + 57 3 − 149 2 + 192 − 90 u = 0 5 dt dt dt dt dt Solution The characteristic equation is s5 − 11 s4 + 57 s3 − 149 s2 + 192 s − 90 = 0

(1.X.a)

(1.X.b)

With the roots of the equation (1.X.b) (these roots can be found using numerical methods or Descartes’ Rule) are s1,2 s3,4 s5 = = = 3 ± 3i 2±i 1 (1.X.c)

The roots are two pairs of complex numbers and one real number. Thus the solution is u = c1 et + e2 t (c2 sin (t) + c3 cos (t)) + e3 t (c4 sin (3 t) + c5 cos (3 t))

End Solution

(1.X.d)

A.3. PARTIAL DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS

389

A.2.8

**A general Form of the Homogeneous Equation
**

dn u dn−1 u du + k1 tn−1 n−1 + · · · + kn−1 t + kn u = a x dtn dt dt

The homogeneous equation can be generalized to k0 tn (A.110)

To be continue

**A.3 Partial Diﬀerential Equations
**

Partial Diﬀerential Equations (PDE) are diﬀerential equations which include function includes the partial derivatives of two or more variables. Example of such equation is F (ut , ux , . . .) = 0 (A.111)

Where subscripts refers to derivative based on it. For example, ux = ∂u . Note that ∂x partial derivative also include mix of derivatives such as ux y. As one might expect PDE are harder to solve. Many situations in ﬂuid mechanics can be described by PDE equations. Generally, the PDE solution is done by transforming the PDE to one or more ODE. Partial diﬀerential equations are categorized by the order of highest derivative. The nature of the solution is based whether the equation is elliptic parabolic and hyperbolic. Normally, this characterization is done for for second order. However, sometimes similar deﬁnition can be applied for other order. The physical meaning of the these deﬁnition is that these equations have diﬀerent characterizations. The solution of elliptic equations depends on the boundary conditions The solution of parabolic equations depends on the boundary conditions but as well on the initial conditions. The hyperbolic equations are associated with method of characteristics because physical situations depends only on the initial conditions. The meaning for initial conditions is that of solution depends on some early points of the ﬂow (the solution). The general second-order PDE in two independent variables has the form axx uxx + 2axy uxy + ayy uyy + · · · = 0 (A.112)

The coeﬃcients axx , axy , ayy might depend upon ”x” and ”y”. Equation (A.112) is similar to the equations for a conic geometry: axx x2 + axy x y + ayy y 2 + · · · = 0 (A.113)

In the same manner that conic geometry equations are classiﬁed are based on the discriminant a2 − 4 axx ayy , the same can be done for a second-order PDE. The disxy criminant can be function of the x and y and thus can change sign and thus the characteristic of the equation. Generally, when the discriminant is zero the equation are called parabolic. One example of such equation is heat equation. When the discriminant

390

APPENDIX A. MATHEMATICS FOR FLUID MECHANICS

is larger then zero the equation is referred as hyperbolic equations. In ﬂuid mechanics this kind equation appear in supersonic ﬂow or in supper critical ﬂow in open channel ﬂow. The equations that not mentioned above are elliptic which appear in ideal ﬂow and subsonic ﬂow and sub critical open channel ﬂow.

A.3.1

First-order equations

First order equation can be written as u = ax ∂u ∂u + ay + ... ∂x ∂x (A.114)

The interpretation the equation characteristic is complicated. However, the physics dictates this character and will be used in the book. An example of ﬁrst order equation is ∂u ∂u + =0 ∂x ∂y (A.115)

The solution is assume to be u = Y (y) X(x) and substitute into the (A.115) results in Y (y) ∂X(x) ∂Y (y) + X(x) =0 ∂x ∂y (A.116)

Rearranging equation (A.116) yields 1 ∂X(x) 1 ∂Y (y) + =0 X(x) ∂x Y (y) ∂y (A.117)

A possible way the equation (A.117) can exist is that these two term equal to a constant. Is it possible that these terms not equal to a constant? The answer is no if the assumption of the solution is correct. If it turned that assumption is wrong the ratio is not constant. Hence, the constant is denoted as λ and with this deﬁnition the PDE is reduced into two ODE. The ﬁrst equation is X function 1 ∂X(x) =λ X(x) ∂x The second ODE is for Y 1 ∂Y (y) = −λ Y (y) ∂y (A.119) (A.118)

Equations (A.119) and (A.118) are ODE that can be solved with the methods described before for certain boundary condition.

A.4. TRIGONOMETRY

391

A.4 Trigonometry

These trigonometrical identities were set up by Keone Hon with slight modiﬁcation 1. sin(α + β) = sin α cos β + sin β cos α 2. sin(α − β) = sin α cos β − sin β cos α 3. cos(α + β) = cos α cos β − sin α sin β 4. cos(α − β) = cos α cos β + sin α sin β 5. tan(α + β) = 6. tan(α − β) = tan α + tan β 1 − tan α tan β

tan α − tan β 1 + tan α tan β 1. sin 2α = 2 sin α cos α 2. cos 2α = cos2 x − sin2 x = 2 cos2 x − 1 = 1 − 2 sin2 x 2 tan α 3. tan 2α = 1 − tan2 α 4. sin α 1 − cos α =± (determine whether it is + or - by ﬁnding the quadrant 2 2 α that lies in) 2

α 1 + cos α =± (same as above) 2 2 α 1 − cos α sin α 6. tan = = 2 sin α 1 + cos α for formulas 3-6, consider the triangle with sides of length a, b, and c, and opposite angles α, β, and γ, respectively 5. cos 1 − 2 cos(2α) 2 1 + 2 cos(2α) 2. cos2 α = 2 sin α sin β sin γ 3. = = (Law of Sines) a b c 1. sin2 α = 4. c2 = a2 + b2 − 2 a b cos γ (Law of Cosines) 5. Area of triangle = 1 a b sin γ 2 6. Area of triangle = s(s − a)(s − b)(s − c), a+b+c (Heron’s Formula) where s = 2

β a c

γ b

α

Fig. -A.7. The tringle angles sides.

392

APPENDIX A. MATHEMATICS FOR FLUID MECHANICS

SUBJECTS INDEX

393

Subjects Index

Symbols

π–theory, 279 buoyant force, 87, 125

A

absolute viscosity, 7, 8, 12 Accelerated system, 92 Acceleration direct derivative, 244 Acceleration, angular, 94 Add Force, 232 Add mass, 190, 232 Add momentum, 190 Aeronautics, 4 Arc shape, 111 Archimedes, 3 Archimedes number, 315 Area direction, 5 Atmospheric pressure, 77 Atwood number, 315 Averaged kinetic energy, 207 Averaged momentum energy, 207 Averaged momentum velocity, 179 Averaged velocity concentric cylinders, 270 Correction factor, 207 Integral Analysis, 190 Integral analysis, 192 Avi number, 312

C

Capillary number, 319 Capillary numbers, 315 Cauchy number, 315 Cavitation number, 315 Co–current ﬂow, 335 Compressibility factor, 81, 91 Concentrating surfaces raise, 37 Conduction, 202 Conservative force, 217 Convection, 202 Convective acceleration, 245 Correction factor, 86 Counter–current Pulse ﬂow, 352 Counter–current ﬂow, 335, 351 Annular ﬂow, 353 Extended Open channel ﬂow, 353 Courant number, 315 Cut–out shapes, 109 Cylindrical Coordinates, 233

D

D’Alembert paradox, 4 d‘Alembertian Operator, 367 Dean number, 315 Deborah number, 315 Deformable control volume, 148 Density, 6 deﬁnition, 6 Density ratio, 86, 129 Diﬀerential analysis, 231 dilettante, 11 Dimension matrix, 299 Dimensional analysis, 279 Basic units, 281 Parameters, 283 Typical parameters, 314 Dimensional matrix, 293 Dimensionless

B

Basic units, 288 Bernoulli’s equation, 213, 222 Bingham’s model, 11 Body force, 71, 72, 74, 87, 89 eﬀective, 73 Bond number, 315 Boundary Layer, 161 Brinkman number, 315 Buckingham’s theorem, 286 Bulk modulus, 317 bulk modulus, 24, 26 Bulk modulus of mixtures, 31 buoyancy, 3, 115, 117

394

APPENDIX A. MATHEMATICS FOR FLUID MECHANICS Gas dynamics, 4 Gas–gas ﬂow, 334 Gauss-Ostrogradsky Theorem, 368 Geometric similarity, 300 Grashof number, 316 Gravity varying Ideal gas, 89 Real gas, 90

Naturally, 289 Divergence Theorem, 368 Double choking phenomenon, 337 Drag coeﬃcient, 315 Dynamics similarity, 301

E

Eckert number, 315 Ekman number, 316 Energy conservation, 201 Energy Equation Linear accelerate System, 217 Rotating Coordinate System, 219 Accelerated System, 217 Energy equation Frictionless Flow, 216 Simpliﬁed equations, 220 Steady State, 215 Euler equations, 231 Euler number, 316, 320 External forces, 176

H

Harmonic function, 368 horizontal counter–current ﬂow, 353 Horizontal ﬂow, 335 Hydraulics, 4 Hydraulics system, 33 Hydrodynamics, 4 Hydrostatic pressure, 71, 112

I

Ideal gas, 81 Inclined manometer, 80 Indexical form, 285 Initial condition, 375 Integral analysis big picture, 166 small picture, 166 Integral equation, 29 Interfacial instability, 232 Inverted manometer, 81 Isotropic viscosity, 252

F

First Law of Thermodynamics, 201 Fixed ﬂuidized bed, 349 Flow ﬁrst mode, 268 Flow out tank, 204 Flow rate concentric cylinders, 270 Flow regime map, 332 Flow regimes in one pipe, 336 Fluid Statics Geological system, 96 Fluids kinds gas, liquid, 5 Forces Curved surfaces, 108 Fourier law, 202 Free expansion, 87–89 Froude number, 316 rotating, 321 Fully ﬂuidized bed, 349

K

Kinematic, 3 Kinematic boundary condition, 261 Kinematic similarity, 301 kinematic viscosity, 11 Kolmogorov time, 317

L

Laplace Constant, 316 Laplace number, 321 Lapse rate, 89 Leibniz integral rule, 158 Lift coeﬃcient, 316 Limitation of the integral approach, 214

G

Galileo number, 316, 321

SUBJECTS INDEX Linear acceleration, 92 Linear operations, 374 Liquid phase, 83 Liquid–Liquid Regimes, 334 Local acceleration, 245 Lockhart martinelli model, 346

395

O

Ohnesorge number, 321 Open channel ﬂow, 335 Orthogonal Coordinates, 369 Oscillating manometer, 214 Ozer number, 316

M

Mach number, 316 “Magniﬁcation factor”, 80 Marangoni number, 316 Mass velocity, 340 Metacentric point, 127 Micro ﬂuids, 258 Minimum velocity solid–liquid ﬂow, 348 Mixed ﬂuidized bed, 349 Momentum Conservation, 175 Momentum conservation, 245 Momentum equation Accelerated system, 177 index notation, 250 Morton number, 316 Moving boundary, 261 Moving surface Free surface, 261 Moving surface, constant of integration, 262 Multi–phase ﬂow, 331 Multiphase ﬂow against the gravity, 338

P

Pendulum action, 136 Pendulum problem, 284 Piezometric pressure, 74 Pneumatic conveying, 349 Poiseuille ﬂow, 267 Concentric cylinders, 268 Polynomial function, 113 Prandtl number, 317 Pressure center, 104, 105 pseudoplastic, 11 Pulse ﬂow, 352 purely viscous ﬂuids, 11 Pushka equaiton expantion, 96 Pushka equation, 27, 91, 98

R

Radiation, 202 Rayleigh–Taylor instability, 137, 335 Real gas, 81 Return path for ﬂow regimes, 337 Reynolds number, 317, 318 Reynolds Transport Theorem, 158 Divergence Theorem, 368 Rocket mechanics, 186 Rossby number, 317

N

Navier Stokes equations solution, 4 Navier–Stokes equations, 231, 302 Neutral moment Zero moment, 125 Neutral stable, 89, 125, 138, 139 Newtonian ﬂuids, 1, 8 No–slip condition, 260 Non–deformable control volume, 148 Non–Linear Equations, 377 Normal stress, 253 Nusselt number, 311 Nusselt’s dimensionless technique, 304

S

Scalar function, 72, 108 Second Law of Thermodynamics, 216 Second viscosity coeﬃcient, 257 Segregated equations, 382 Shear number, 317 Shear stress initial deﬁnition, 7 shear stress, 6 Similitude, 281, 300

396

APPENDIX A. MATHEMATICS FOR FLUID MECHANICS

Slip condition range, 260 Solid–ﬂuid ﬂow Gas dynamics aspects, 350 Solid–ﬂuid ﬂow, 347 Solid–liquid ﬂow, 347 Solid–solid ﬂow, 334 Spherical coordinates, 91 Spherical volume, 123 Stability analysis, 87 stability analysis, 88, 115 cubic, 125 Stability in counter–current ﬂow, 353 Stable condition, 87, 135 Stokes number, 317 stratiﬁed ﬂow, 335 Stress tensor, 246 Cartesian coordinates, 246 symmetry, 246, 249 transformation, 246 Strouhal number, 317 substantial derivative, 244 Superﬁcial velocity, 336 Sutherland’s equation, 12

U

Unstable condition, 87 Unsteady State Momentum, 185

V

Vapor pressure, 77 Variables Separation 1st equation, 379 Vectors, 363 Vectors Algebra, 364 Vertical counter–current ﬂow, 352 Vertical ﬂow, 335 Viscosity, 9 von Karman vortex street, 318

W

Watson’s method, 19 Wave Operator, 367 Weber number, 317, 319 Westinghouse patent, 334

Y

Young modulus, 317

T

Tank emptying parameters, 211 Taylor number, 317 Terminal velocity, 348 Thermal pressure, 258 Thermodynamical pressure, 257 thixotropic, 11 Torricelli’s equation, 213 Total moment, 99 Transformation matrix, 246 Transition to continuous, 175 Triangle shape, 111, 118 Turbomachinary, 193 Two–Phase Gas superﬁcial velocity, 341 Liquid holdup, 341 Quality of dryness, 341 Reversal ﬂow, 354 Slip velocity, 341 Void Fraction, 341 Wetness fraction, 341

4 Gauss. 281 Kirchhoﬀ. 332. Ernst Kraft Wilhelm. Leonahard. 158 Lockhart. William. 4 Euler. 332 C Chezy. 280 Nikuradse. 231 Prandtl. M. Jean Louis. 368 Poiseuille. 267 Poisseuille. 368 R Rankine. 4. 4 Leibniz. 4 Brahms. 4 Blasius. 4 M Manning. 213 O Olivier Vallee. 345 Dupuit. J. 4 Fourier Jean B. 332 Maxwell. 4 Helmhoitz. 4 K Kelvin. 4 N Navier. 279. 4 Blasiu. 231 Newton. 280 Froude. 385 P Pierre-Simon Laplace. Barr´. 4 H Hagen. 4 Nusselt. John.. 281 Riabouchunsky. 4 Darcy. 4 Mikhail Vasilievich Ostrogradsky. 4 Rayleigh. 279 Smeaton.. 280 Meye. Claude–Louis. 137. 280 Reiner. 4 Kutta-Joukowski. 368 D d’Aubisson. 4 Bossut. 320 Evangelista Torricelli. 281 Rose. 4 F Fabre. 231 e Dubuat. 280. Hermann von. 4 Buckingham. 280 G Ganguillet. 317 Reynolds. Carl Friedrich. Simon-Denis. 280 . 279. 271. 4 L La Grange. Osborne. 4 Martinelli. 4 Fanning. 4 de Saint Venant. 4 Duckler. 345 Coulomb. 4. 158. 4 S Schmidt. 4 Helmholtz. 4 Cichilli. 4 Poisson. 281 E Euler.AUTHORS INDEX 397 Authors Index B Bhuckingham.

213 V Vaschy. Evangelista. George Gabriel..Aim´em. 332 Taylor. 318 von Karman. 231 Strouhal.I. MATHEMATICS FOR FLUID MECHANICS Stanton. 4 Westinghouse. G. 326 T Taitle. 280 e Von Karman. 4 W Weisbach. Vincenz. 4 Stokes.398 APPENDIX A. 334 . 137 Torricelli.

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