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Galina Gerasimova Raeanne Perri Marisa Sevilla Joe Shen Grace Velasquez
What is Anxiety? What are the different types of anxiety disorders? What are the causes? What are the symptoms? What are the treatments? Professional Resources available.
Definition of Anxiety
Anxiety is a feeling of apprehension or fear. The source of this uneasiness is not always known or recognized, which can add to the distress you feel. Anxiety disorders are a group of psychiatric conditions that involve excessive anxiety.
Most common mental illness in the U.S. with 19 million of the adult (ages 18-54) U.S. population affected. Anxiety disorders cost more than $42 billion a year. More than $22 billion are associated with the repeated use of healthcare services, as those with anxiety disorders seek relief for symptoms that mimic physical illnesses. Anxiety is highly treatable (up to 90% of cases), but only one-third of those who suffer from it receive treatment People with an anxiety disorder are three-to-five times more likely to go to the doctor and six times more likely to be hospitalized for psychiatric disorders than non-sufferers. Depression often accompanies anxiety disorders
2003 Anxiety Disorders Association of America
Types of Anxiety Disorders Panic Disorder Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Phobias Generalized Anxiety Disorder .
Panic Disorder The abrupt onset of an episode of intense fear or discomfort. depersonalization A fear of losing control or "going crazy" A fear of dying Tingling sensations Chills or hot flushes . which peaks in approximately 10 minutes. and includes at least four of the following symptoms: A feeling of imminent danger or doom The need to escape Palpitations Sweating Trembling Shortness of breath or a smothering feeling A feeling of choking Chest pain or discomfort Nausea or abdominal discomfort Dizziness or lightheadedness A sense of things being unreal.
situations in which an individual always has an attack. Situational . . 2. Situationally Predisposed .situations in which an individual is likely to have a Panic Attack.the attack "comes out of the blue" without warning and for no discernable reason. Unexpected . An example of this would be an individual who sometimes has attacks while driving. but does not always have one. 3.Panic Disorder There are three types of Panic Attacks: 1. for example. upon entering a tunnel.
whether or not one has turned off the iron or stove. locked the door or turned on the answering machine. being overcome with the urge to yell 'fire' in a crowded theater . for example. germs or "unclean" objects. Obsessions are recurring thoughts or impulses that are intrusive or inappropriate and cause the sufferer anxiety: ± Thoughts about contamination. ± Persistent doubts.Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder Characterized by uncontrollable obsessions and compulsions which the sufferer usually recognizes as being excessive or unreasonable. ± Aggressive impulses or thoughts. for example. when an individual fears coming into contact with dirt. for example. ± Extreme need for orderliness.
junk mail. at least one hour every day. they may spend hours organizing and arranging objects. phrase or action over and over. Individuals may check several or even hundreds of times to make sure that stoves are turned off and doors are locked. ± Cleaning. Repeatedly washing their hands. or constantly cleaning their home. Some repeat a name. showering. . relief is only temporary. Hoarders are unable to throw away useless items. even broken appliances In order for OCD to be diagnosed. ± Checking. ± Slowness. and interfere with normal routines . Some individuals may take an excessively slow and methodical approach to daily activities. ± Repeating.Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder Compulsions are repetitive behaviors or rituals performed by the OCD sufferer. such as old newspapers. performance of these rituals neutralize the anxiety caused by obsessive thoughts. ± Hoarding. the obsessions and/or compulsions must take up a considerable amount of the sufferers time.
hypervigilance.Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Exposure to traumas such as a serious accident. When the aftermath of a traumatic experience interferes with normal functioning. ± Avoidance behavior in which the sufferer avoids activities. which can take the form of intrusive thoughts and recollections. situations.and/or conversations which he/she associates with the trauma. irritability and outbursts of anger. ± A general numbness and loss of interest in surroundings. people. or recurrent dreams. including: inability to sleep. or criminal assault can result in PTSD. Symptoms of PTSD are: ± Reexperiencing the event. overactive startle response. . a natural disaster. anxious feelings. ± Hypersensitivity. the person may be suffering from PTSD.
also known as social phobia. Individuals with the disorder are acutely aware of the physical signs of their anxiety and fear that others will notice. In extreme cases this intense uneasiness can progress into a full blown panic attack. This fear arises when the individual believes that they may be judged.Social Phobia/Anxiety Social anxiety disorder. and think poorly of them. judge them. scrutinized or humiliated by others. is an intense fear of social situations. .
or writing in public using public bathrooms driving shopping . drinking.Social Phobia/Anxiety Common anxiety provoking social situations include: ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± public speaking talking with people in authority dating and developing close relationships making a phone call or answering the phone interviewing attending and participating in class speaking with strangers meeting new people eating.
or substance abuse. This constant worry affects daily functioning and can cause physical symptoms. depressive disorders. . GAD can occur with other anxiety disorders.Generalized Anxiety Disorder Excessive uncontrollable worry about everyday things.
duration and frequency of the worry are disproportionate to the issue . car repairs and being late for appointments. usually focusing on issues like job. but it can also include more mundane issues such as. finances. The intensity. chores.Generalized Anxiety Disorder The focus of GAD worry can shift. health of both self and family.
± Occurs with major depression in very high rates. 2003 Anxiety Disorders Association of America . Obsessive Compulsive Disorder ± It is equally common among men and women. Panic Disorder ± Women are twice as likely to be afflicted than men. ± Very likely to exist along with other disorders.Specific Disorder Facts Generalized Anxiety Disorder ± Women are twice as likely to be afflicted than men. ± One third of afflicted adults had their first symptoms in childhood.
Social Anxiety Disorder ± It is equally common among men and women.Specific Disorder Facts Posttraumatic Stress Disorder ± Women are more likely to be afflicted than men. ± Childhood sexual abuse is a strong predictor of lifetime likelihood for developing PTSD. Specific Phobia affects ± Women are twice as likely to be afflicted as men 2003 Anxiety Disorders Association of America . 65% of men and 45.9% of women who are raped will develop the disorder. ± Rape is the most likely trigger of PTSD.
age 18-54 .3 million.2 11.8 * Based on 7/1/98 U.Anxiety Statistics Anxiety Disorders One-Year Prevalence (Adults) Percent Population Estimate* (Millions) 19.6 8.5 4.3 1.1 2.0 2.7 2. Census resident population estimate of 143.3 5.0 Any Anxiety Disorder Panic Disorder Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Any Phobia Generalized Anxiety Disorder 13.4 3.3 3.S.
. These physical symptoms or aches and pains include backaches (13%). heart and respiratory diseases.Recent Studies Freedom From Fear conducted a survey among 410 attendees during National Anxiety Disorders Screening Day on May 7. 50% of respondents with diagnosed medical conditions. The results : An increase in physical aches and pains is directly attributed to anxiety disorders and depression 60%) of the respondents with undiagnosed medical conditions said that on days when they feel anxious or depressed. migraines. digestive pain (11%) and dizziness (8%). vague aches and pains (14%). such as arthritis. reported that on days when they feel anxious or depressed. 2003. there is a moderate (41%) to severe (19%) change in their physical symptoms or aches and pains. there is a moderate (38%) to severe (12%) change in their physical symptoms or aches and pains. diabetes. headaches (14%).
In very rare cases. can lead to symptoms of anxiety due to either side effects or withdrawal from the drug.Common Causes There is no one cause for anxiety disorders. . a tumor of the adrenal gland (pheochromocytoma) may be the cause of anxiety. Several factors can play a role ± Genetics ± Brain biochemistry ± Overactive "fight or flight" response Can be caused by too much stress ± Life circumstances ± Personality People who have low self-esteem and poor coping skills may be more prone Certain drugs. both recreational and medicinal.
including: Twitching or trembling Muscle tension Headaches Sweating Dry mouth Difficulty swallowing Abdominal pain (may be the only symptom of stress especially in a child) .Symptoms of Anxiety Anxiety is an emotion often accompanied by various physical symptoms.
including loss of your temper Sleeping difficulties and nightmares Decreased concentration Sexual problems .Additional Symptoms of Anxiety Sometimes other symptoms accompany anxiety: Dizziness Rapid or irregular heart rate Rapid breathing Diarrhea or frequent need to urinate Fatigue Irritability.
Taking a shortcut directly to the Amygdala. Olfactory and tactile stimuli: Smells and touch sensations Bypass the thalamus altogether.Physical Reaction to Anxiety Auditory and Visual Stimuli: sights and sounds are processed first by the thalamus. Smells. Often evoke stronger memories Or feelings than do sights or Sounds. . therefore. which filters the incoming cues and shunts them either directly to the amygdala or to the other parts of the cortex.
enabling the brain to become conscious of what it Is seeing or hearing. Shape and color. by volume and Dissonance. Cortex: It gives raw sights and sounds meanings. . and auditory Cues. and then signals The appropriate part of the Cortex. One region. The thalamus breaks down Incoming visual ques by size.Physical Reaction to Anxiety Thalamus: The hub for sights and sounds. the prefrontal cortex. may be vital to turning off the anxiety response once a threat has passed.
which sets off an immediate burst of fear. information that passes through the amygdala is tagged with emotional significance. the BNST perpetuates the fear response. Bed Nucleus of Stria Terminalis: unlike the Amygdala. the amygdala has the primary role of triggering the fear response.Physical Reaction to Anxiety Amygdala: emotional core of the brain. . causing the longer term unease typical of anxiety.
Hippocampus: This is the memory center.Physical Reaction to Anxiety Locus Ceruleus: It receives signals from the amygdala and is responsible for initiating many of the classic anxiety responses: rapid heartbeat. vital to storing the raw information coming in from the senses along with the emotional baggage attached to the data during their trip through the amygdala. increased blood pressure. . sweating and pupil dilation.
Social Effects of Anxiety Depression ± Not as involved with family and friends the way you used to be ± Lowered quality of relationships ± Low energy ± Lack of motivation to do the things you once looked forward to doing Unable to convey the person that you are Fear and avoidance of situations where previous attacks occurred .
Allopathic Treatments Medications (Drug Therapy): Behavioral Therapy Cognitive Behavioral Therapy Psychodynamic Psychotherapy .
Alternative Treatments Acupuncture Aromatherapy Breathing Exercises Exercise Meditation Nutrition and Diet Therapy Vitamins Self Love .
nausea. particularly useful in elderly patients Benzodiazepines: include Xanax and Valium.Medications Buspirone: shown to be effective but usually takes 3-4 weeks. headaches. impaired memory . act rapidly and successfully but can be addictive and loses effectiveness over time Side Effects: dizziness.
writing down list of top fears and doing one of them once a week. spinning in a chair until dizzy.Behavioral and Cognitive Therapy Teaches patient to react differently to situations and bodily sensations that trigger anxiety Teaches patient to understand how thinking patterns that contribute to symptoms Patients learn that by changing how they perceive feelings of anxiety. after awhile patients learned to cope with the negative feelings associated with them and replace them with positive ones . the less likely they are to have them Examples: Hyperventilating.
Takes an extremely long time and is labor intensive . We then come up with defenses (such as denial) to protect us knowing about these painful feelings. making you seek help. with the intention that once you are aware of what is really going on in your mind the feelings will not be as painful. It tries to subdue them. Psychodynamic Psychotherapy uses the basic assumption that everyone has feelings held in the subconscious which are too painful to be faced. Psychodynamic psychotherapy assumes that these defenses have gone wrong and are causing more harm than good.Psychodynamic Psychotherapy Psychodynamic therapy is a general name for therapeutic approaches which try to get the patient to bring to the surface their true feelings. so that they can experience them and understand them.
releases tension in the muscles. when angry the neck and shoulders tighten Redirects the chi into a balanced flow. increases flow of blood. and nerve impulses to affected areas Takes 10-12 weekly sessions .Acupuncture Caused by the imbalance of chi coming about by keeping emotions in for too long Emotion effects the chi to move in an abnormal way: when fearful it goes to the floor. lymph.
Aromatherapy Calming Effect: vanilla. and 1 part sandalwood . geranium. and lavender Essential Oil Combination: 3 parts lavender. juniper. sandalwood. chamomile. 2 parts bergamot. and lavender Reducing Stress: Lavender. orange blossom. rose. and nutmeg Uplifting Oils: Bergamot.
effects on self image. calm state to deal with issues and conflicts . biochemical and physiological changes associated with exercise. the distraction from worries. mastery of a sport. symbolic meaning of the sport Helps by expelling negative emotions and adrenaline out of your body in order to enter a more relaxed.Exercise Benefits: symbolic meaning of the activity.
silently repeat the word or phrase for 20 minutes .Meditation Cultivates calmness to create a sense of control over life Practice: Sit quietly in a position comfortable to you and take a few deep breaths to relax your muscles. next choose a calming phrase (such as ³om´ or that with great significance to you).
alcohol. after awhile you may be able to see a correlation East small. foods with white flour Keep a diary of the foods you eat and your anxiety attacks. strong spices. frequent meals . green and leafy veggies. garlic. highly acidic foods. soy products. brown rice. asparagus. bananas. yogurt Foods to Avoid: coffee.Nutrition and Diet Therapy Foods to Eat: whole grains. sugar.
B-1.Vitamins B-Vitamins stabilize the body¶s lactate levels which cause anxiety attacks (B-6. taken in combination before bed improves sleep Vitamin C taken in large doses also has a tranquilizing effect Potassium helps with proper functioning of adrenal glands Zinc has a calming effect on the nervous system . B-3) Calcium (a natural tranquilizer) and magnesium relax the nervous system.
increases endorphin levels and decreases stress hormones Let go of frustrations Do not judge self harshly: don¶t expect more from yourself than you do others Accept your faults .Self Love The most important holistic treatment of all Laugh: be able to laugh at yourself and with others.
Appointments may be made by phone (415) 338-2208 or in person at Student Services Building Room 208. of Health & Human Services ± Substance Abuse & Mental Health Services Administration ± find resources in your area http://www.samhsa.gov/databases .S.The services of the Center are open to regularly enrolled (matriculated) undergraduate and graduate students.Where to Get Help SFSU Health Center . Office hours are 8AM to Noon and 1PM to 7PM Monday through Thursday and until 5PM on Friday. Any licensed psychologist or psychiatrist U.mentalhealth. Dept.
S. of Health & Human Services (http://www.nih.freedomfromfear.Additional Links Anxiety Screening Tools Anxiety Disorders Association of America (ADAA) Freedom From Fear (www.gov) U.mentalhealth.gov/topics/expl ore/stress/) .org) National Institute of Mental Health (www.samhsa. Dept.nimh.
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