SAUDI ARAMCO CONSTRUCTION SAFETY MANUAL PREFACE

Dhahran, Saudi Arabia February, 1993 The purpose of the Saudi Aramco Construction Safety Manual (CSM) is to prevent injury, loss of life, and damage to assets. This is the fourth revision of the CSM. Since its 1974 introduction, the Construction Safety Manual has provided safety criteria for all construction work performed by Saudi Aramco and its contractors. Many of the requirements in this manual detail the need for Saudi Aramco services or equipment. Where references indicate that certain equipment (fall protection, safety shoes, etc.) should be provided or services rendered (bio-monitoring, etc.), the intent is that contractors must provide equivalent equipment or services (as approved by Saudi Aramco) from their own resources. The construction industry functions in a dynamically changing work environment in which updating of equipment and standards is a continuous process resulting from changes in operating variables, regulatory requirements, and safety practices. Although this manual has been updated to reflect the latest Saudi Aramco and construction industry practices, as time goes on there may be a need to consider new procedures, standards, or operating conditions. Such new developments, including potential conflicts with existing provisions, should be referred to the Loss Prevention Department for resolution. The Loss Prevention Department will issue interim revisions or updates where appropriate. Good loss prevention is an integral part of good project management. For our projects and maintenance programs to proceed safely, all Saudi Aramco and contractor personnel involved in construction activities, whether management or line employees, need to understand and follow the provisions in this Manual. Only with the active commitment of everyone can we ensure that Saudi Aramco maintains the safest possible work environment.

Senior Vice President, Engineering and Project Management

February 1993 - Construction Safety Manual: Table of Contents

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I. Administration.................................................................................30
1.0 SAUDI ARAMCO LOSS PREVENTION POLICY AND PROGRAM......................................31 1.1 Loss Prevention Policy Implementation.................................................................31 1.1.1 Compliance With Construction Requirements .......................................31 1.1.2 Operating Standards and Instructions.....................................................31 1.1.3 Personal Protection.....................................................................................31 1.1.4 Inspection ....................................................................................................31 1.1.5 Education and Training..............................................................................32 1.1.6 Motivation and Recognition .....................................................................32 1.1.7 Job Placement ..............................................................................................32 1.1.8 Response to Accidental Occurrences......................................................32 1.1.9 Contractor Safety ........................................................................................32 1.1.10 Off-The-Job Safety......................................................................................32 1.1.11 Traffic Safety................................................................................................32 1.1.12 Accountability.............................................................................................33 1.1.13 Compliance Reviews ...................................................................................33 1.2 Saudi Aramco Loss Preve ntion Requirements For Contractors.......................33 1.2.1 Non-Compliance..........................................................................................33 1.2.2 Assistance....................................................................................................33 1.2.3 Standards and Instructions .......................................................................34 1.3 Contractor's Loss Prevention Program.................................................................34 1.3.1 Written Program..........................................................................................34 1.3.2 Hazard Identification Plan..........................................................................35 1.3.3 Safety Supervisor........................................................................................35 1.3.4 Safety Discussion .......................................................................................35 2.0 SAUDI ARAMCO LOSS PREVENTION DEPARTMENT SERVICES ....................................36 2.1 Loss Prevention Program.........................................................................................36 2.2 Program Management Services ..............................................................................37 2.3 Program Maintenance Services ..............................................................................38 3.0 ACCIDENT INVESTIGATION, ANALYSIS AND REPORTING..............................................39 3.1 Reports Required by Saudi Aramco........................................................................39 3.2 Accident Investigation ...............................................................................................40 3.2.1 Responsibilities for Investigation.............................................................40 3.2.1.1 Supervisor/Safety Representative............................................40 3.2.1.2 Project Manager..........................................................................40 3.3 Cases to be Investigated.............................................................................................41 3.4 Accident Investigation Guidelines...........................................................................41 3.5 Accident Analysis ....................................................................................................41 3.5.1 Classification................................................................................................41 4.0 RESPONSIBILITIES FOR SAFETY...............................................................................................45 4.1 Contractor Senior Management..............................................................................45 4.2 Design Engineer.........................................................................................................45 4.3 Contractor's Safety Officer......................................................................................45 4.4 Construction Manager/Superintendent.................................................................46 4.5 Site Safety Supervisor ...............................................................................................47 4.6 Equipment Manager/Supervisor ..............................................................................47 4.7 Engineer/Supervisor..................................................................................................47

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4.8 4.9

Foreman........................................................................................................................47 Worker.........................................................................................................................48

5.0 EMERGENCY PROCEDURES .........................................................................................................49 5.1 Action to be Taken......................................................................................................49 5.2 Contact After Office Hours ......................................................................................49 5.3 Help in an Emergency................................................................................................49 6.0 SAFETY TRAINING...........................................................................................................................51 6.1 Safety Training for Supervisors..............................................................................51 6.2 Safety Training for Workmen.................................................................................51 6.2.1 Integrated Practices ....................................................................................51 6.2.2 Specialized Training....................................................................................52 6.2.3 Use of Persuasion .......................................................................................52 6.2.4 Course Requirements..................................................................................52 6.3 Scope of Training .......................................................................................................53 6.3.1 Safety Training Topics For Supervisors..................................................54 6.3.2 Induction Safety Topics For Workmen ...................................................55 7.0 SITE PLANNING AND HOUSEKEEPING.....................................................................................57 7.1 Initial Planning ...........................................................................................................57 7.1.1 Hazard Identification Plan..........................................................................57 7.1.2 Loss Prevention Program...........................................................................58 7.1.3 Protection of Employees and Equipment.................................................58 7.1.4 Transportation.............................................................................................58 7.1.5 Lifting Equipment........................................................................................58 7.1.6 Demolition ....................................................................................................58 7.1.7 Excavations ..................................................................................................58 7.1.8 Scaffolding ...................................................................................................58 7.2 Site Layout...................................................................................................................59 7.2.1 Site Accommodation...................................................................................59 7.2.2 Adequate Access Roads ...........................................................................59 7.2.3 Project Sign ..................................................................................................59 7.2.4 Safe Means of Access and Egress ...........................................................60 7.2.5 Parking Facilities..........................................................................................60 7.2.6 Drainage........................................................................................................60 7.2.7 Vehicle / Heavy Equipment Paths On Site Vs Pedestrian Paths..............................................................................................................60 7.2.8 Sand...............................................................................................................60 7.2.9 Fire Prevention.............................................................................................60 7.2.10 Site Illumination...........................................................................................60 7.3 Storage Areas .............................................................................................................60 7.4 Welfare Facilities.......................................................................................................61 7.5 Good Housekeeping....................................................................................................61 7.6 Construction Sites and Materials Storage Yards ................................................62 8.0 FIRST AID ...........................................................................................................................................65 8.1 Provision of First Aid Facilities...............................................................................65 8.2 First Aid Attendants...................................................................................................66 8.3 First Aid Facilities At Work Site............................................................................67 8.4 Labor And Workmen Law.........................................................................................69

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9.0 PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT.....................................................................................71 9.1 Head Protection...........................................................................................................72 9.2 Eye and Face Protection.............................................................................................72 9.2.1 Eye Protection from Impact........................................................................73 9.2.2 Eye Protection from Radiant Energies......................................................73 9.2.3 Face Protection............................................................................................73 9.3 Hand Protection ..........................................................................................................73 9.4 Foot Protection............................................................................................................73 9.5 Hearing Protection.....................................................................................................74 9.5.1 Ear Plugs.......................................................................................................74 9.5.2 Ear Muffs ......................................................................................................74 9.6 Fall Restraining/Arresting Devices .......................................................................74 10.0 BREATHING APPARATUS .........................................................................................................81 10.1 Selection of Equipment ..............................................................................................81 10.1.1 Requirements For Use................................................................................82 10.1.2 Misuse ..........................................................................................................82 10.1.3 Hazardous Substances ...............................................................................83 10.1.4 Contaminants ...............................................................................................83 10.2 Respiratory Protective Devices................................................................................83 10.2.1 Air Purifying Respirators ...........................................................................83 10.2.1.1 Gas Masks ....................................................................................83 10.2.1.2 Chemical Cartridge Respirators .................................................84 10.2.1.3 Particulate Filter Respirators (Dust Respirators)....................84 10.2.2 Supplied Air Respirators ............................................................................84 10.2.2.1 Air Line Respirators ....................................................................84 10.2.2.2 Abrasive Blasting Respirators ..................................................85 10.2.2.3 Air Supplied Suits .......................................................................85 10.2.3 Self Contained Breathing Apparatus (SCBA).........................................85 10.3 Training .......................................................................................................................86 10.4 Safety Precautions .....................................................................................................86 10.4.1 Air Compressors..........................................................................................86 FIRE PREVENTION.......................................................................................................................89 11.1 Before the Job Starts .................................................................................................89 11.2 Layout ...........................................................................................................................90 11.3 Equipment Protection.................................................................................................90 11.4 Control of Ignition Sources ......................................................................................91 11.5 Flammable Liquids 91 11.5.1 Storage..........................................................................................................91 11.5.2 Handling of Flammable Liquids.................................................................92 11.5.3 Ventilation ....................................................................................................92 11.6 Combustible Materials ..............................................................................................92 11.7 Housekeeping..............................................................................................................92 11.8 Emergency Equipment ...............................................................................................92 11.8.1 Water-Type Fire Extinguisher...................................................................93 11.8.2 Carbon Dioxide Type Extinguisher...........................................................93 11.8.3 Dry Chemical Type Extinguisher...............................................................93 11.8.4 Pressurized Water.......................................................................................93 11.9 Reporting a Fire..........................................................................................................94 11.10 End-of-Shift Checks...................................................................................................94

11.0

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12.0

RADIO COMMUNICATIONS .....................................................................................................96 12.1 Equipment.....................................................................................................................97 12.1.1 Remote Control Unit ...................................................................................97 12.2 Safe Operation ............................................................................................................97 12.3 Radio Phrases .............................................................................................................97 12.4 Phonetic Alphabet.......................................................................................................98 12.5 International Communications Union Agreement ...............................................99 12.5.1 Monitoring of Circuits ................................................................................100 12.5.2 Secrecy Act..................................................................................................100 12.5.3 Penalties........................................................................................................100 12.6 Message Priorities for Company Operations .......................................................100 12.7 Distress Messages .....................................................................................................102 12.7.1 MAYDAY.....................................................................................................102 12.7.2 Urgency Signal............................................................................................103 12.7.3 Priority Traffic ..............................................................................................104

13.0 TRANSPORTATION ......................................................................................................................105 13.1 Driver Requirements .................................................................................................105 13.2 Driver's Responsibilities ..........................................................................................105 13.3 Motor Vehicle Regulations: Saudi Arab Government and Saudi Aramco.........................................................................................................................107 13.4 Vehicle Condition.......................................................................................................107 13.5 Driver Training ..........................................................................................................109 13.6 Enforcement of Safe Driving Practices ..................................................................109 13.7 Action Taken After a Saudi Aramco Motor Vehicle Accident...........................110 13.7.1 Emergencies .................................................................................................110 13.7.2 Remain at Scene...........................................................................................110 13.8 Passenger Seating and Seat Belts ..........................................................................111 13.9 Desert Driving ............................................................................................................111 13.9.1 Stay With Vehicle........................................................................................111 13.9.2 Sand Tires.....................................................................................................111 13.10 Vehicle Admittance to Restricted Areas................................................................112 13.11 Operation of Motor Vehicles Within Saudi Aramco Communities ..................112 13.11.1 Seat Belts ......................................................................................................112 13.11.2 Traffic Regulations......................................................................................112 14.0 AIRCRAFT OPERATION...............................................................................................................113 14.1 General Operating Responsibilities .......................................................................113 14.1.1 Captain/Pilot.................................................................................................113 14.1.2 Camp Supervisors .......................................................................................113 14.2 Passenger Briefing/Instructions, General (All Aircraft Types)......................114 14.3 Transportation of Dangerous Goods .......................................................................115 14.4 Hours of Operation for Single-Engine Helicopters .............................................115 14.5 General Precautions for Helicopters......................................................................115 14.5.1 Life Vests ......................................................................................................115

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II. General And Civil...........................................................................116
1.0 WORK PERMIT SYSTEM................................................................................................................117 1.1 Definitions ...................................................................................................................117 1.1.1 Restricted Areas ..........................................................................................117 1.1.2 Issuer (Operation Supervisors).................................................................118 1.1.3 Receiver (Authorized Craftsmen)..............................................................118 1.1.4 Work Permit..................................................................................................118 1.2 Issuance and Approval ...............................................................................................118 1.2.1 Power Distribution Department Clearances ............................................119 1.3 Precautions..................................................................................................................119 1.3.1 Checklist.......................................................................................................119 1.3.2 Clear Area.....................................................................................................119 1.3.3 Work Stoppage............................................................................................110 1.4 Handling of Issued Work Permit............................................................................119 1.5 Closing Out and Filing the Permit..........................................................................120 1.6 Certification ................................................................................................................120 1.7 12 Rules on Work Permit Procedure ....................................................................120 1.8 Hold Tags and Multiple Lockouts............................................................................120 2.0 EXCAVATIONS, TRENCHING AND SHORING.........................................................................125 2.1 Before Work Starts ...................................................................................................128 2.2 Work Permit...............................................................................................................128 2.2.1 Excavation near Saudi Telephone Cables................................................128 2.3 Underground Obstructions.......................................................................................129 2.4 General Precautions ..................................................................................................129 2.4.1 Shoring Protective Systems .......................................................................129 2.4.2 Personnel Protection...................................................................................129 2.4.3 Inspection.....................................................................................................130 2.4.4 Clearance ......................................................................................................130 2.4.5 Mechanical Excavator.................................................................................130 2.4.6 Walkways.....................................................................................................130 2.5 Access and Egress......................................................................................................130 2.6 Hazardous Atmospheres and Materials .................................................................130 2.6.1 Ventilation 101 2.6.1.1 Hazardous Atmospheres............................................................131 2.6.1.2 Emergency Rescue Equipment..................................................131 2.6.2 Exhaust Gases ..............................................................................................131 2.6.3 Organic Lead................................................................................................131 2.7 Edge Protection, Markers and Fixed Lighting......................................................132 2.8 Roads, Streets, and Sidewalks .................................................................................132 2.9 Backfilling...................................................................................................................132 2.10 Borrow Pits..................................................................................................................133 3.0 DEMOLITION .....................................................................................................................................153 3.1 Before Work Starts ...................................................................................................154 3.1.1 Responsible Supervisor.............................................................................154 3.1.2 Original Drawings........................................................................................154 3.1.3 Disconnections............................................................................................154 3.1.4 Adjacent Structures and Public Areas.....................................................154 3.1.5 Barricades/Signs..........................................................................................154

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3.2

3.3 3.4

3.5 3.6

3.7 3.8

Method of Demolition.................................................................................................154 3.2.1 Demolition of Equipment Containing PCB: Polychlorinated Biphenyl (ASKAREL).................................................................................155 3.2.2 Demolition Of Buildings With Asbestos / Insulation Materials .......................................................................................................155 Stability During Demolition.....................................................................................155 Working Place Clearance........................................................................................155 3.4.1 Access ..........................................................................................................155 3.4.2 Glass Removal..............................................................................................155 Structural Steel Removal..........................................................................................155 Tanks, Vessels and Pipe Work (Explosion Prevention)......................................156 3.6.1 Welding and Hot Cutting...........................................................................156 3.6.2 Cold Cutting.................................................................................................156 3.6.3 Steaming and Ventilation ...........................................................................156 3.6.4 Residue Cleaning.........................................................................................166 Protective Clothing and Equipment.........................................................................156 Mechanical Equipment Guards ................................................................................157

4.0 ASBESTOS AND OTHER FIBERS.................................................................................................158 4.1 Types of Asbestos .......................................................................................................158 4.2 Health Risks................................................................................................................158 4.3 Before Work Starts ...................................................................................................159 4.3.1 Air Sampling.................................................................................................159 4.3.2 Job Details ....................................................................................................159 4.3.3 Chest X-rays ................................................................................................159 4.4 Storage and Transportation......................................................................................159 4.5 Work Area...................................................................................................................160 4.6 Handling and Use........................................................................................................160 4.6.1 Wetting/Ventilation ....................................................................................160 4.6.2 Cutting ..........................................................................................................160 4.6.3 Protective Equipment..................................................................................160 4.7 Protective Clothing ....................................................................................................160 4.7.1 Types ............................................................................................................160 4.7.2 Contamination..............................................................................................161 4.7.3 Review...........................................................................................................161 4.8 Respiratory Equipment..............................................................................................161 4.8.1 Type ..............................................................................................................161 4.8.2 Use.................................................................................................................161 4.8.3 Care................................................................................................................161 4.9 Washing and Changing Facilities...........................................................................161 4.10 Disposal of Waste Asbestos Materials/Clothing..................................................162 4.11 Cleanliness of Work Areas and Equipment ..........................................................162 5.0 WELDING, CUTTING, AND BRAZING.........................................................................................163 5.1 Gas Welding: Oxy-Acetylene Equipment and Use...............................................163 5.1.1 Gases .............................................................................................................163 5.1.2 Color Coding of Cylinders .........................................................................164 5.1.3 Storage Of Cylinders..................................................................................164 5.1.4 Handling of Cylinders.................................................................................165 5.1.5 Inspecting Equipment.................................................................................166 5.1.6 Faults.............................................................................................................167 5.1.7 Fuel Gas and Oxygen Manifolds...............................................................169

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5.2

5.3 5.4 5.5 5.6 5.7

Electric Arc Welding.................................................................................................169 5.2.1 Voltage..........................................................................................................169 5.2.2 Welding Connections.................................................................................169 Protective Measures ..................................................................................................171 Welding and Cutting: Tanks, Vessels and Drums .............................................173 Confined Spaces..........................................................................................................173 Personnel Protection.................................................................................................173 Health Hazards ............................................................................................................174 5.7.1 Radiant Energy ............................................................................................174 5.7.2 Respiratory Effects......................................................................................174

6.0 EXPLOSIVE MATERIALS ...............................................................................................................176 7.0 PILING OPERATIONS......................................................................................................................177 7.1 Before Work Starts ...................................................................................................177 7.1.1 Cranes ...........................................................................................................178 7.1.2 Pile Gates ......................................................................................................178 7.1.3 Inspection.....................................................................................................178 7.1.4 Wedges .........................................................................................................178 7.1.5 Timber Block................................................................................................178 7.1.6 Ground Support ...........................................................................................179 7.2 Driving Piles ...............................................................................................................179 7.2.1 Pitching.........................................................................................................179 7.2.2 Driving ..........................................................................................................179 7.3 Pile Extraction.............................................................................................................179 7.4 General Precautions ..................................................................................................180 8.0 ROADWORKS ...................................................................................................................................181 8.1 General .........................................................................................................................181 8.2 Street and Road Construction, Excavations, and Maintenance Traffic Controls........................................................................................................................182 9.0 WORKING PLACES, LADDERS, AND SCAFFOLDING..........................................................183 9.1 Working Places, General .........................................................................................184 9.1.1 Falls ...............................................................................................................184 9.1.2 Access and Egress......................................................................................184 9.1.3 Lighting.........................................................................................................184 9.1.4 Prevention of Falls ......................................................................................184 9.1.5 Ramps............................................................................................................184 9.1.6 Falling Material............................................................................................185 9.1.7 Hot Surfaces.................................................................................................185 9.1.8 Slipping and Tripping.................................................................................185 9.1.9 Roof Work....................................................................................................185 9.1.10 Insecure Structures .....................................................................................185 9.1.11 Work Over Water........................................................................................186 9.2 Ladders and Stepladders ...........................................................................................186 9.2.1 Selection .......................................................................................................186 9.2.2 Condition......................................................................................................187 9.2.3 Position.........................................................................................................187 9.2.4 Use.................................................................................................................188 9.2.5 Stepladders...................................................................................................190 9.2.6 General..........................................................................................................190

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9.3 9.4

9.5 9.6

9.7

9.8

9.9 9.10 9.11

Scaffolding Components............................................................................................191 Requirements Common to All Scaffoldi ng ............................................................195 9.4.1 Foundations .................................................................................................195 9.4.2 Posts ..............................................................................................................195 9.4.3 Runners.........................................................................................................197 9.4.4 Bearers ..........................................................................................................197 9.4.5 Board Bearers...............................................................................................197 9.4.6 Bracing..........................................................................................................198 9.4.7 Ties ................................................................................................................198 9.4.8 Platform Units ..............................................................................................199 9.4.9 Guardrail Systems and Toeboards............................................................200 9.4.10 Access ..........................................................................................................200 9.4.11 Scaffold Ladders..........................................................................................200 9.4.11.1 Portable Straight and Extension Ladders.................................200 9.4.11.2 Vertical Ladder.............................................................................200 9.4.12 Workmanship...............................................................................................202 9.4.13 Inspections...................................................................................................202 Fabricated Tubular Frame and System Scaffolding .............................................202 Tube and Coupler Scaffolds ......................................................................................204 9.6.1 Independent Tied Scaffold ........................................................................204 9.6.2 Light Duty Tube and Coupler Scaffolds..................................................204 9.6.2.1 Design, Loading and Dimensions.............................................204 9.6.2.2 Platform.........................................................................................204 9.6.2.3 Limitations....................................................................................205 9.6.3. Medium Duty Tube and Coupler Scaffold ..............................................205 9.6.3.1 Design, Loading, and Dimensions............................................205 9.6.3.2 Platform.........................................................................................205 9.6.3.3 Limitations....................................................................................205 9.6.3.4 Bearers ..........................................................................................206 9.6.4 Heavy Duty Tube and Coupler Scaffolds ...............................................206 9.6.4.1 Design, Loading and Dimensions.............................................206 9.6.4.2 Platform.........................................................................................206 9.6.4.3 Limitations....................................................................................206 9.6.4.4 Bearers ..........................................................................................206 Free-Standing Tower Scaffolds ................................................................................207 9.7.1 General Requirements .................................................................................207 9.7.2 Design, Loading and Dimensions.............................................................207 9.7.3 Runners and Bearers...................................................................................207 9.7.4 Bracing..........................................................................................................207 9.7.5 Ties ................................................................................................................207 9.7.6 Platform.........................................................................................................208 9.7.7 Access ..........................................................................................................208 9.7.8 Limitations....................................................................................................208 Mobile Tower Scaffolds .............................................................................................208 9.8.1 Foundations .................................................................................................208 9.8.2 Operation......................................................................................................208 9.8.3 Limitations....................................................................................................209 Scaffolds for Tanks and Vessels .............................................................................209 9.9.1 Bracket Scaffolds.........................................................................................209 Special Scaffolds .........................................................................................................210 Scaffold Terminology.................................................................................................210

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10.0 HAND TOOLS AND POWER TOOLS........................................................................................221 10.1 Hand Tools, General...................................................................................................222 10.1.1 Quality...........................................................................................................222 10.1.2 Cleanliness ...................................................................................................222 10.1.3 Repair and Storage......................................................................................222 10.1.4 Selection .......................................................................................................222 10.1.5 Electrical Risks .............................................................................................222 10.2 Individual Hand Tools, Precautions.........................................................................222 10.2.1 Screwdrivers.................................................................................................222 10.2.2 Hammer.........................................................................................................223 10.2.3 Chisels ...........................................................................................................223 10.2.4 Picks and Shovels .......................................................................................223 10.2.5 Spanners and Wrenches ............................................................................223 10.2.6 Pipe Wrenches.............................................................................................223 10.2.7 Pliers ..............................................................................................................224 10.2.8 Jacks ..............................................................................................................224 10.2.9 Hacksaws......................................................................................................224 10.2.10 Hand saws ....................................................................................................224 10.3 Power Tools, General.................................................................................................224 10.3.1 Quality...........................................................................................................224 10.3.2 Repair and Storage......................................................................................225 10.4 Pneumatic Tools .........................................................................................................225 10.4.1 General..........................................................................................................225 10.4.2 Individual Tools, Precautions ...................................................................225 10.4.2.1 Jack Hammer and Concrete Breakers........................................225 10.4.2.2 Rock Drill ......................................................................................226 10.4.2.3 Grinding Machine........................................................................226 10.5 Cartridge Operated Tools .........................................................................................231 10.5.1 General..........................................................................................................231 10.5.2 Storage..........................................................................................................231 10.5.3 Selection and Training of Personnel........................................................231 10.5.4 Personal Protective Equipment .................................................................232 10.5.5 Issue and Returns .......................................................................................232 10.5.6 Work Permits................................................................................................232 10.5.7 Use.................................................................................................................232 10.5.8 Maintenance and Repair ............................................................................234 10.6 Electrically Operated Tools ......................................................................................235 10.6.1 General..........................................................................................................235 10.6.2 Maintenance and Storage..........................................................................236 10.6.3 Personal Protective Equipment .................................................................236 10.6.4 Individual Tools, Precautions ...................................................................236 10.6.4.1 Grinders.........................................................................................236 10.6.4.2 Drills ..............................................................................................237 10.6.4.3 Saws ..............................................................................................237 10.6.4.4 Radial Saws ..................................................................................237 11.0 PAINTS AND COATINGS .............................................................................................................250 11.1 Flammability Hazards of Coating Materials..........................................................250 11.1.1 Flammable Materials ...................................................................................250 11.1.2 Flash Point (Definition)..............................................................................250 11.1.3 Flammable (Explosive) Limits (Definition)...............................................250 11.1.4 Fire Precautions...........................................................................................251

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11.2

11.3 11.4

11.5 11.6

11.7 11.8 11.9

Health Hazards Associated With Paints ................................................................251 11.2.1 Toxic Materials ............................................................................................251 11.2.2 Dermatitic Materials ....................................................................................252 11.2.3 Prevention of Health Hazards....................................................................252 Ventilation in Confined Spaces................................................................................252 Surface Preparation...................................................................................................253 11.4.1 Abrasive Blast Cleaning.............................................................................254 11.4.2 Hydroblast and Steam Cleaning................................................................254 11.4.3 Hand and Power Tool Cleaning ................................................................254 11.4.4 Chemical Cleaning.......................................................................................255 11.4.5 General Safety in Surface Preparation......................................................255 Personal Protective Equipment................................................................................256 Paint Application ........................................................................................................258 11.6.1 Paint Materials .............................................................................................258 11.6.2 General Safety In Paint Application .........................................................258 Scaffolding and Ladders ............................................................................................259 Tarring Operations....................................................................................................259 General Safety for Paints and Coatings.................................................................259

12.0 CONCRETE, CONCRETE FORMS, AND SHORING...............................................................259 12.1 General .........................................................................................................................262 12.2 Reinforcing Steel .......................................................................................................262 12.3 Bulk Concrete Handling ...........................................................................................262 12.4 Concrete Placement...................................................................................................262 12.4.1 Concrete Mixers...........................................................................................262 12.4.2 Guardrails ......................................................................................................262 12.4.3 Bull Floats.....................................................................................................262 12.4.4 Powered Concrete Trowels ........................................................................263 12.4.5 Concrete Buggies ........................................................................................263 12.4.6 Pumpcrete Systems .....................................................................................263 12.4.7 Concrete Buckets ........................................................................................263 12.4.8 Discharging on Slope .................................................................................263 12.4.9 Back-Up Man, Truck Spotter.....................................................................263 12.4.10 Pneumatic Hose...........................................................................................263 12.5 Vertical Shoring.........................................................................................................263 12.5.1 General Requirements .................................................................................263 12.5.2 Tubular Welded Frame Shoring................................................................264 12.6 Forms and Shoring.....................................................................................................264 12.6.1 General Provisions ......................................................................................264 12.6.2 Vertical Slip Forms .......................................................................................265 12.6.3 Tube and Coupler Shoring.........................................................................265 12.6.4 Single Post Shores ......................................................................................266

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III. Mechanical Equipment And Materials.........................................267
1.0 CRANES AND LIFTING EQUIPMENT...........................................................................................268 1.1 Competent Person ......................................................................................................269 1.2 Saudi Aramco Crane Operations (General Requirements)...............................269 1.3 Saudi Aramco Crane Operator Qualifications .....................................................270 1.4 Special Crane Operating Procedures ....................................................................270 1.5 Effect of Wind Speeds on Crane Operations .........................................................270 1.6 Overhead Power Lines...............................................................................................270 2.0 SLINGS AND LIFTING GEAR (RIGGING)....................................................................................275 2.1. Safe Working Load (SWL).......................................................................................275 2.2. Chain Slings................................................................................................................276 2.2.1 Grades ...........................................................................................................276 2.2.2 Repairs ..........................................................................................................276 2.3 Wire Rope Slings.......................................................................................................276 2.4 Synthetic Webbing Slings........................................................................................277 2.4.1 Removal from Service .................................................................................277 2.4.2 Repaired Slings............................................................................................277 2.5 Synthetic and Natural Fiber Rope Slings ..............................................................278 2.6 Care of Slings .............................................................................................................279 2.7 Hooks............................................................................................................................279 2.8 Spreader Bars .............................................................................................................280 2.9 Eyebolts And Safety Hoist Rings .............................................................................280 2.10 Shackles.......................................................................................................................281 2.11 Rigger...........................................................................................................................281 3.0 MECHANICAL EQUIPMENT...........................................................................................................287 3.1 Operators .....................................................................................................................288 3.1.1 Qualifications...............................................................................................288 3.1.2 Licensing Requirements .............................................................................288 3.2 Machinery Guards ......................................................................................................289 3.2.1 Multi-Piece Tire Rims and Locking Rings ...............................................289 3.3 General Requirements ..............................................................................................289 3.4 Compressors ...............................................................................................................290 3.5 Concrete Mixers and Batching Plants ...................................................................291 3.6 Dumpers and Dump Trucks .....................................................................................292 3.7 Excavators ....................................................................................................................293 3.8 Fork Lift Trucks ........................................................................................................294 3.9 Generators ...................................................................................................................295 3.10 Graders, Dozers, Scrapers, Loaders And Miniloaders .......................................296 3.11 Woodworking Machinery.........................................................................................296 4.0 MATERIALS HANDLING.................................................................................................................298 4.1 Planning .......................................................................................................................298 4.2 Machine Transport.....................................................................................................299 4.2.1 Dumpers........................................................................................................299 4.2.2 Tractors and Trailers...................................................................................300 4.2.3 Conveyor Belts and Monorails .................................................................300 4.2.4 Concrete Pumps...........................................................................................300 4.3 Site Stores ...................................................................................................................300

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4.4

Manual Handling ........................................................................................................301

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IV. Electrical And Radiation ..............................................................305
1.0 ELECTRICITY.....................................................................................................................................306 1.1 Voltage..........................................................................................................................307 1.2 Temporary Installations ............................................................................................307 1.3 Hand Tools and Lighting ...........................................................................................308 1.4 Work on Live Equipment...........................................................................................309 1.5 Overhead and Underground Cables.........................................................................310 1.6 Overhead Power Transmission and Distribution.................................................311 1.6.1 Initial Inspections, Tests, or Determinations..........................................311 1.6.2 De-energizing Lines and Equipment.........................................................312 1.6.3 Emergency Procedures and First Aid.......................................................312 1.6.4 Night Work...................................................................................................312 1.6.5 Work Near/Over Water..............................................................................312 1.6.6 Hydraulic Fluids ..........................................................................................313 1.6.7 Live-Line Tools (Hot Sticks)......................................................................313 1.6.8 Material Handling........................................................................................313 1.6.8.1 Unloading.....................................................................................313 1.6.8.2 Pole Hauling.................................................................................313 1.6.8.3 Storage..........................................................................................313 1.6.8.4 Framing .........................................................................................313 1.6.8.5 Attaching the Load.....................................................................314 1.6.9 Grounding for Protection of Workers ......................................................314 1.6.9.1 Isolation and Voltage Testing...................................................314 1.6.9.2 Applying and Removing Grounds............................................314 1.6.9.3 Grounding Distance....................................................................314 1.6.9.4 Removal of Grounds for Testing Purposes .............................314 1.6.9.5 Grounding Electrode...................................................................314 1.6.9.6 Grounding Cables And Clamps.................................................314 1.6.10 Overhead Lines............................................................................................315 1.6.10.1 Metal Tower Construction.........................................................315 1.6.10.2 Stringing/Remo ving De-energized Conductors......................317 1.6.10.3 Stringing Adjacent to Energized Lines ....................................318 1.6.11 Underground Lines .....................................................................................319 1.6.11.1 Work in Manholes ......................................................................320 1.6.11.2 Trenching and Excavating .........................................................320 1.6.12 Construction in Energized Substations ...................................................321 1.6.12.1 Barricades and Barriers...............................................................321 1.6.12.2 Control Panels ..............................................................................321 1.6.12.3 Mechanized Equipment..............................................................321 1.6.12.4 Substation Fences.......................................................................321 1.7 Electric Shock.............................................................................................................322 2.0 IONIZING RADIATION ....................................................................................................................325 2.1 Methods of Protection Against Radiation ..............................................................325 2.1.1 Distance........................................................................................................325 2.1.2 Time...............................................................................................................325 2.1.3 Shielding.......................................................................................................326 2.2 Classification of Personnel and Exposure Limits ................................................326 2.2.1 Radiation Workers ......................................................................................326 2.2.2 Non-Radiation Workers .............................................................................326

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2.3

2.4 2.5

2.2.3 Exposure Limits............................................................................................326 Responsibilities for Safe Handling .........................................................................327 2.3.1 Contractor.....................................................................................................327 2.3.2 Competent Person.......................................................................................327 2.3.3. Radiographer................................................................................................327 Shipping and Transportation....................................................................................328 Storage Areas .............................................................................................................328

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V. Chemicals And Operations ............................................................330
1.0 LIQUEFIED PETROLEUM GASES..................................................................................................331 1.1 General .........................................................................................................................331 1.2 Storage .........................................................................................................................332 1.3 Handling of Cylinders................................................................................................332 1.4 Leakage........................................................................................................................333 1.5 Transportation ............................................................................................................334 1.6 Operation .....................................................................................................................334 1.7 Action in Case of Fire................................................................................................335 1.8 Bulk Installations.......................................................................................................336 1.9 First Aid.......................................................................................................................336 2.0 PLANT OPERATIONS......................................................................................................................337 2.1 Additional Information On Saudi Aramco Instructions and Standards .....................................................................................................................337 2.1.1 General Instruction Manual.......................................................................338 2.1.2 Producing Instruction Manual..................................................................338 2.1.3 Refinery Instruction Manual.....................................................................338 2.1.4 Saudi Aramco Engineering Standards .....................................................338 2.2 Work Permit System.................................................................................................338 2.3 Operation of Plant Equipment ..................................................................................338 2.4 Shutdown and Maintenance in Plant Operations..................................................339 2.5 Commissioning ...........................................................................................................339 2.6 Emergency Procedures: Saudi Aramco Disaster Plan ......................................339 2.6.1 Gas Release Emergency Procedures.........................................................340 3.0 PRESSURE TESTING........................................................................................................................341 3.1 Preparation..................................................................................................................342 3.1.1 SAES-A-004 (Pressure Testing)................................................................342 3.1.2 Supports .......................................................................................................342 3.1.3 Vents and Drains.........................................................................................343 3.1.4 Valves............................................................................................................343 3.1.5 Pipings And Joints ......................................................................................343 3.1.6 Vacuums .......................................................................................................343 3.2 General Requirements ..............................................................................................343 3.3 Test Liquid...................................................................................................................344 4.0 CHEMICALS .......................................................................................................................................346 4.1 Hazard Identification System...................................................................................347 4.2 Health Hazards ............................................................................................................348 4.2.1 Inhalation Pathway Hazard ........................................................................348 4.2.2 Skin Hazards.................................................................................................349 4.2.3 Hazards of Swallowing Chemicals ............................................................349 4.3 Emergency Treatment ...............................................................................................349 4.3.1 Artificial Respiration...................................................................................349 4.3.2 First Aid ........................................................................................................349 4.3.3 Showers and Eyewash Fountains.............................................................349 4.4 Fire Hazards ................................................................................................................351 4.5 Reactivity Hazards ......................................................................................................351 4.6 Transportation, Storage and Disposal ....................................................................351

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4.7

4.6.1 Transportation.............................................................................................351 4.6.2 Storage..........................................................................................................352 4.6.3 Containers ....................................................................................................352 4.6.4 Disposal........................................................................................................352 Work on Equipment Which Has Contained Tetraethyl Lead (Organic Lead Compounds)......................................................................................354 4.7.1 Introduction .................................................................................................354 4.7.2 Precautions...................................................................................................355

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VI. Marine...........................................................................................359
1.0 COFFERDAMS ...................................................................................................................................360 1.1 Design...........................................................................................................................360 1.2 Before Work Starts ...................................................................................................360 1.3 Construction................................................................................................................360 1.4 Potential Hazards .......................................................................................................361 1.4.1 Structural Collapse......................................................................................361 1.4.2 Overhead Loads ..........................................................................................361 1.4.3 Dis lodgment of Struts and Wales.............................................................361 1.5 Inspection.....................................................................................................................361 1.6 Leaks ............................................................................................................................362 2.0 MARINE OPERATIONS ...................................................................................................................363 2.1 Other Publications .....................................................................................................363 2.2 General .........................................................................................................................364 2.3 Behavior on Floating Craft .......................................................................................364 2.4 Preparation for Transportation by Sea...................................................................364 2.5 Tide and Sea Effects ...................................................................................................365 2.6 Care of Tools and Equipment....................................................................................365 2.7 Housekeeping..............................................................................................................365 3.0 DIVING OPERATIONS ....................................................................................................................367 3.1 Employment of Qualified Divers ..............................................................................367 3.2 Diving Equipment........................................................................................................368 3.2.1 Compressors ................................................................................................368 3.2.2 Reserve Air Supply .....................................................................................369 3.2.3 Bail-Out Equipment.....................................................................................369 3.2.4 Maintenance ................................................................................................369 3.3 Safeguards ...................................................................................................................370 3.4 Physical Fitness..........................................................................................................374 3.5 Medical Diving Emergencies: Procedures and Responsibilities......................375 3.5.1 Sports Divers ...............................................................................................375 3.5.2 Commercial Divers.......................................................................................375 3.5.3 Coordinator, Diving Emergencies .............................................................375 3.5.4 Diving Medical Team..................................................................................375 3.5.5 Marine Department .....................................................................................376 3.6 Personnel Transfer at Sea........................................................................................376

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Appendix A...........................................................................................379
INDEX TO APPENDIX A..........................................................................................................................380 A.1 PROJECT MANAGEMENT AND CONTRACTOR'S SAFETY COMPETITION SITE REGISTRATION FORM.................................................................................................................381 A.2 CONTRACTOR SAFETY COMPETITION, RULES OF COMPETITION ..............................382 A.3 Saudi Aramco Safety, Health and Environmental Requirements ..............................................387 1. Compliance With Safety Rules - Schedule 'D' ....................................................387 2. Deviations From Safety Rules ..................................................................................387 3. Failure To Comply......................................................................................................387 4. Saudi Aramco Assistance.........................................................................................387 5. Loss Prevention Program.........................................................................................388 6. Work Permits .............................................................................................................388 7. Welding And Cutting Equipment.............................................................................388 8. Personal Protective Equipment................................................................................388 9. Tools And Portable Power Tools..............................................................................388 10. Cartridge Operated Tools .........................................................................................379 11. Ladders .........................................................................................................................389 12. Scaffolding ...................................................................................................................389 13. Electrical Installations And Equipment..................................................................389 14. Cranes And Rigging Equipment..............................................................................389 15. Mechanical Equipment...............................................................................................389 16. Saudi Aramco Plant Operations ..............................................................................390 17. Transportation ............................................................................................................390 18. Injury And Damage Reporting .................................................................................390 19. Excavations...................................................................................................................391 20. Work Over Or Adjacent To Water.........................................................................391 21. Fire Prevention ...........................................................................................................391 22. Formwork.....................................................................................................................391 23. Ionizing Radiation ......................................................................................................391 24. First-Aid Facilities .....................................................................................................391 25. Handling, Transportation And Disposal Of Hazardous Materials And Waste ............................................................................................................................392 26. Explosives .....................................................................................................................393 27. Sandblasting ................................................................................................................393 A.4 HAZARD IDENTIFICATION PLAN (HIP) ....................................................................................394 HAZARD IDENTIFICATION PLAN:......................................................................................395 I. Conduct Hazards Identification Review. .................................................395 II. List Potential Hazards.................................................................................395 III. Hazard Classification ..................................................................................395 IV. Corrective Action........................................................................................396

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Appendix B: Emergency/Disaster Planning And Response ...............398
B.1 SEARCH AND RESCUE PROCEDURES.......................................................................................399 B.2 EMERGENCY/DISASTER PLANNING AND RESPONSE.........................................................400 B.2.1 General Provisions.....................................................................................................401 B.2.2 Definitions ...................................................................................................................401 B.2.3 Plan Development Action Items ...............................................................................407

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Appendix C: Fire Safety Checklist For Evaluating Construction Materials Store Yard.....................................................427
C.1 Fire Safety Checklist For Evaluating Construction Materials Store Yard.............................428

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Appendix D: Saudi Aramco Crane Safety Handbook ........................432
D.1 Crane Safety Handbook .....................................................................................................................433

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Appendix E: Suggestion Form ............................................................434

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Appendix F: Distribution Form...........................................................436

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Appendix G: Sanitary Code ................................................................438
Implementing The Saudi Aramco Sanitary Code - GI 151.006..........................................................439

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Appendix H: General Instructions Master Index ...............................440
General Instructions (GI) Master Index.................................................................................................441

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Appendix I: List Of Figures ................................................................445
List Of Figures ...........................................................................................................................................446

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Appendix J: List Of Tables .................................................................449
List Of Tables..............................................................................................................................................450

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Appendix K: Forms .............................................................................451
Preliminary Accident Report...................................................................................................................453 Contractor Monthly Safety Report..........................................................................................................454 Injury Summary..........................................................................................................................................455 Lift Plan For Cranes ..................................................................................................................................456 Wire Rope Sling Inspection Log .............................................................................................................457 Cartridge/Tool Issuance Control ............................................................................................................458 Emergency Reporting Instructions.........................................................................................................459 Project Management And Contractor's Safety Competition Site Registration Form...................460

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I. Administration

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1.0

SAUDI ARAMCO LOSS PREVENTION POLICY AND PROGRAM

Saudi Aramco is committed to prevention of accidents to minimize loss of life or bodily injury to its employees and damage to its physical assets. In fulfilling this commitment, which is as essential and equally important as production objectives, Saudi Aramco will provide and maintain a safe and healthful work environment and protect the public against foreseeable hazards resulting from operations. Loss in production and property resulting from accidental occurrences can be minimized through good management. Loss prevention is one aspect of this loss control philosophy and is the direct responsibility of line management. All management functions, including business line and associated management, will comply with Saudi Arab Government and Company loss prevention requirements applicable to the design, operation, maintenance and construction of facilities and/or equipment. When conformity with any of these requirements is not practicable or cost effective, an amendment to such a requirement will be considered. Reviews for compliance with this policy will be performed on a selective basis.

1.1

Loss Prevention Policy Implementation
1.1.1 Compliance With Construction Requirements The application of the best petroleum industry loss control practices minimizes risk to personnel and property. The design, construction, modification, operation and maintenance of facilities and equipment and construction as practiced by Saudi Aramco and/or contractors, will meet Saudi Arab Government and Saudi Aramco safety requirements as covered in this manual and in relevant General Instructions, including the Company's E ngineering Standards. When conformity with any of these requirements is impractical or not cost effective, a waiver will be sought from the Chief Engineer. 1.1.2 Operating Standards and Instructions Risks that cannot be eliminated through design are controlled by operating standards and instructions. Compliance with safety standards and instructions will be consistently enforced for both Saudi Aramco operations personnel and contractors alike. 1.1.3 Personal Protection Personal protective equipment, periodic environmental monitoring and biosurveillance will be used to help to protect all employees against exposure to safety and health hazards (e.g., radiation, H2S, etc.) which cannot be eliminated. 1.1.4 Inspection Inspections to detect and correct unsafe practices and conditions will be conducted periodically by Saudi Aramco and/or contractor.

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1.1.5

Education and Training All employees shall be provided with ongoing safety education and training as well as helping to develop those skills that are required to perform, supervise and manage assigned tasks without mishap.

1.1.6

Motivation and Recognition Good communications, a viable suggestion system and the recognition of good safety performance, encourages employee participation in loss prevention programs.

1.1.7

Job Placement Employees must only be assigned tasks that are consistent with their physical capacities and job skills; this enable employees to work without endangering themselves or others.

1.1.8

Response to Accidental Occurrences Site specific effective emergency response plans must be established as per the guidelines of Appendix B.2 of this manual. These should include measures to contain or control an emergency or disaster when an accident occurs to minimize the loss of resources, a reporting and investigation system to determine the cause of the accident, and the adoption of corrective actions to avoid a recurrence.

1.1.9

Contractor Safety Saudi Aramco proponent departments will monitor all construction activity to ensure that services are performed in conformity with Saudi Aramco loss prevention policies, principles and practices and do not imperil any person or property. Proponents will register each contractor employing 50 or more persons in the Saudi Aramco Contractor Safety Competition. (See Appendix A - Figures A.1, A.2 and A.3.)

1.1.10

Off-The-Job Safety Off-the-job safety training (e.g. seat belt use) shall be vigorously practiced to provide the means for all employees to protect themselves and their families from harm during off-duty hours.

1.1.11

Traffic Safety Operators of Company vehicles must receive defensive driving training and driver evaluations and be in possession of a current Saudi Arab government driver's license. A vehicle operator will be held accountable for the vehicle assigned to him and he must ensure that it is always operated in a safe and lawful manner.

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1.1.12

Accountability All employees shall be held accountable for personal and functional safety performance. An important factor in an employee's overall job performance evaluation will be how well the employee meets his safety responsibilities.

1.1.13

Compliance Reviews On a selective basis, compliance reviews will be conducted by teams that include people with related expertise to determine compliance with this policy. In order to ensure the credibility and effectiveness of the review, the team members must be detached from the operation being reviewed.

1.2

Saudi Aramco Loss Prevention Requirements For Contractors
Saudi Aramco Loss Prevention requirements for contractors are contained in Schedule 'D' of contracts (See Appendix A - Figure A.4). The safe practices specified in Schedule 'D' shall be followed by all contractors during the performance of all work under each contract with Saudi Aramco. The requirements in Schedule 'D' are the minimum acceptable to Saudi Aramco. Any deviation from the requirements of Schedule 'D' must be signed in writing by the Company representative. The contractor shall also take any additional measures which the Company representative may determine to be reasonable and necessary to protect against the injury (or death) of any person, or damage (or loss) of any property during the contractor's performance of the work under the contract. 1.2.1 Non-Compliance The Company representative will notify the contractor, in writing, of any violation of the requirements of Schedule 'D' and provide corrective action to rectify the situation. After receipt of such notice, the contractor shall immediately take corrective action. Such notices when delivered to the contractor's representative at the site of the work shall be deemed sufficient notice to the contractor under Schedule 'D'. If the contractor fails to take corrective action promptly, the company representative may issue an order stopping all or part of the work until satisfactory corrective action has been taken. The contractor will not be eligible to use any part of the lost time incurred as a result of such stop orders as the subject of a claim for extension of time, additional costs or damages. Compliance with the provisions of Schedule 'D' by subcontractors shall be the responsibility of the contractor. 1.2.2 Assistance The contractor may request advice on establishing feasible and effective safety practices for the job. The company representative will assist the contractor's representative by providing guidance on good safety practices, pointing out unsafe conditions, and applying his experience and judgment in helping to improve the contractor's overall job safety.

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1.2.3

Standards and Instructions All work and equipment must conform to Saudi Aramco Standards and General Instructions. Where no standard or instruction is available to cover a particular item, the contractor shall request that Saudi Aramco specify the standard of work or equipment required. The term, "Approved Standards" in Schedule 'D' refers to standards which are approved by Saudi Aramco.

1.3

Contractor's Loss Prevention Program
The contractor shall develop and implement a loss prevention program that will conform with Saudi Aramco loss prevention policies and procedures. 1.3.1 Written Program Prior to the commencement of contractual activity, the contractor shall submit a written job-specific loss prevention program to the Saudi Aramco company representative. The latter is required to forward a copy of the program to the Loss Prevention Department. The Contractor's written loss prevention program shall address the following: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. Title page (B.I./J.O.) Project title and brief scope of work Organization chart Vicinity map and key plan Hazard identification plan Traffic plan Safety polity and assignment of responsibilities • Prime and sub contractors Desert driving • Search and rescue procedures Safety inspections Safety reports and records Contractor camp sanitation and safety Work permit Welding and cutting equipment Personal protective equipment Tools and portable power tools Ladders Cartridge operated tools Electrical installation and equipment Scaffolding Cranes and rigging equipment Mechanical equipment Transportation Saudi Aramco plant operations Injury and damage reporting Excavation Fire prevention Form work First-aid facilities • Medical evacuation procedures

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29. 30. 31. 32. 33. 34. 35. 36. 37. 38. 39. 40. 1.3.2

Dust control Job site inspections General safety rules Emergency evacuation procedures Hazardous material and waste management Security procedures Ionizing radiation Demobilization plan Work over or adjacent to water Explosives Abrasive blasting & painting/coating Lock out and tag system

Hazard Identification Plan As part of the Contractor Loss Prevention Program, the contractor shall develop a detailed Hazard Identification Plan based on the initial hazard identification data supplied by Saudi Aramco Project Management Team. Prior to the start of construction, the contractor shall conduct a hazard identification tour with the Company representative and the Saudi Aramco Loss Prevention representative. Once this has been completed, the contractor will prepare and submit a Hazard Identification Plan. (See Appendix A - Figures A.3 and A.4.)

1.3.3

Safety Supervisor The contractor shall designate one or more full-time safety supervisor(s) to coordinate and monitor the loss prevention program. The names and addresses of the Saudi Aramco approved safety supervisors shall be included with the written program.

1.3.4

Safety Discussion The contractor shall ensure that every craft and crew supervisor holds a weekly ten-minute safety meeting with his men to discuss hazards on the job, and review and update procedures to prevent accidents. These weekly meetings shall be documented and such documentation shall be maintained and made available for review at the Contractor's on-site office.

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2.0

SAUDI ARAMCO LOSS PREVENTION DEPARTMENT SERVICES

A full complement of loss prevention services is provided by the area Loss Prevention divisions. The area divisions are in turn provided support from the central Planning and Technical Services Division consisting of Technical Services Unit, Support Services Unit and a Planning and Program Group.

2.1

Loss Prevention Program
Loss Prevention superintendents ensure that a range of loss prevention engineering services are provided to organizations within their assigned areas through such activities as: 2.1.1 Directing the review of new plant design in the assigned area of operation to ensure conformity of facilities to loss prevention engineering standards. 2.1.2 Providing input to the Board of Engineers in the development of Saudi Aramco Engineering Standards. 2.1.3 Managing major safety reviews and incident investigations with Saudi Arab Government officials, US. Companies, and local area management. 2.1.4 Administering safety-related training programs for local area operations management and personnel in an effort to enhance the safety awareness of operations personnel and proper acceptance of responsibilities. 2.1.5 Serving on special committees and task forces such as the Radiation Protection Committee, and providing personnel to develop or assist in the development of General Instructions, position papers and standards. 2.1.6 Directing in-depth program reviews of area operations involving procedures and facilities with follow-up on implementation of recommendations resulting from these reviews.

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2.1.7 Interfacing with Government Affairs to provide input on safety related is sues to non-Saudi Aramco projects and providing monitoring of these projects to assure conformity.

2.2

Program Management Services
Superintendents and their subordinates provide department heads with program management services such as: 2.2.1 Assisting with the development of formal loss prevention programs; ensuring consistency with Company and business line policies, principles and practices; and providing consultative services in their implementation. 2.2.2 Monitoring and evaluating loss prevention systems through the Compliance Review Program. 2.2.3 Providing project review, waiver and other technical consulting services; recommending revisions to Saudi Aramco Engineering Standards; and developing new hazard control standards as required. 2.2.4 Analyzing, interpreting and reporting accident statistical data. 2.2.5 Initiating and administering safety management training. 2.2.6 Coordinating response to government concerns about fire and safety issues. 2.2.7 Serving on special accident investigation committees.

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2.3

Program Maintenance Services
Superintendents and their subordinates provide program maintenance services such as: 2.3.1 Providing technical interpretation of standards, procedures, principles and practices; and consulting services in their application from a loss prevention standpoint. 2.3.2 Conducting loss prevention policy, program and procedural surveys and inspections. 2.3.3 Identifying and assessing processes, operations and other risks (or hazards) and recommending solutions. 2.3.4 Initiating and administering supervisory and highly specialized safety training beyond the capability of operating management or training specialists. 2.3.5 Administering work permit and certain other safe work procedures. 2.3.6 Acting as Saudi Aramco's representative to the Saudi Arab Government on local safety issues. 2.3.7 Advising on proper selection and use of personal protective equipment and evaluating its effectiveness. 2.3.8 Monitoring and providing input on other activities as required to ensure proper response to accidental occurrences, including the development of containment and mitigation methods for liquid chemical spills or vapor releases, conducting accident investigations and recommending corrective measures.

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3.0

ACCIDENT INVESTIGATION, ANALYSIS AND REPORTING

Much is learned through experience. A thorough investigation and analysis of an accident can help to prevent future accidents. To learn by experience, however, means that a system for the retrieval of information must be set up and statistical records must be kept of injury, death and property damage. With such a system operational, information can be collated and analyzed to show accident patterns. The contractor can then emphasize those areas in which safety education and training is needed most. The contractor is responsible for reporting accidents to Saudi Aramco and in some cases to the Saudi Arab Government as required. This section covers these reporting requirements and the principles behind accident investigation and analysis. INSTRUCTIONS AND STANDARDS Saudi Aramco General Instructions: GI 6.001 GI 6.003 Notification Requirements for Incidents (Including Fires) Guide for Committees Investigating Major Incidents or Engineering Reviews of Other Incidents Reporting and Recording Of Motor Vehicle Accidents Lifting/Elevating and Mobile Equipment Accident Reporting Procedures

GI 6.029 GI 7.026

3.1

Reports Required by Saudi Aramco
Reports are required by Saudi Aramco as per Schedule 'D' of the contract. Contractor shall ensure that an immediate report is made to the Company Representative in the case of all: • • • • • • Fatal injuries Injuries requiring medical attention which result in lost time Damage over SR 10,000 to contractor's plant or equipment Damage, in any amount, to Saudi Aramco's equipment or property Fires Damage and near misses to cranes and heavy equipment (GI 7.026)

For accidents involving Contractor employee fatalities, serious injury to two or more Contractor employees, or damage to Saudi Aramco equipment or property, a preliminary written report shall be submitted within 24 hours followed by a detailed written report submitted within three days to the Company Representative. In addition, Saudi Aramco may convene an engineering review or investigation committee in accordance with the requirements of GI 6.001 and GI 6.003 (see Figure I.1).

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Contractor shall maintain, in a format approved by the Company Representative, a current record showing all: • • • • • • Work injuries Fires Incidents of property damage over SR 10,000 Motor vehicle accident Incidents involving damage to Saudi Aramco equipment and property Damage and near misses to cranes and heavy equipment (GI 7.026)

The record shall be available for inspection at all times and shall be submitted to Saudi Aramco on request. (See Figure I.2.) A final written report shall be prepared and submitted to the Company as per the provisions of GI 6.003. In the case of serious accidents, however, a detailed account of the circumstances, witnesses' statements and descriptive photographs are required. In addition to the reports required above, the contractor must keep a record of all injuries and damages on a form approved by the Company (Figure I.2). A copy of this record shall be sent to the proponent department and to the contractor's project management. Monthly summary reports are required in addition to the individual reports.

3.2

Accident Investigation
The point of an accident investigation is to prevent recurrence of similar accidents; to determine facts rather than to find faults. The main reasons for conducting an accident investigation are: 1. 2. 3. 3.2.1 To find the causes so that similar accidents may be prevented; To determine the point at which "unplanned" events took over from the "planned" sequence of events; To recommend what corrective action should be taken. Responsibilities for Investigation 3.2.1.1 Supervisor/Safety Representative The supervisor and/or safety representative shall carry out an immediate investigation of any accident which occurs within his area of responsibility. The preliminary accident report must be completed and submitted within 24 hours to the Saudi Aramco Company representative with a copy to the Loss Prevention Department. A final report on the incident shall be submitted within three days detailing any additional information and corrective action needed. 3.2.1.2 Project Manager The project manager shall review all accident reports to ensure that all the necessary corrective action has been taken and that he has addressed any items that may require action on his part.

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3.3

Cases to be Investigated
Incidents that result in property damage or serious injuries to personnel and hospitalization of two or more employees must be fully investigated and reported. Unless the real cause is known, the hazard cannot be controlled in the future. The near-miss incident is equally important from the point of view of prevention and should also be thoroughly investigated.

3.4

Accident Investigation Guidelines
The scene of an accident must be left undisturbed until Government Affairs, Industrial Security, the Loss Prevention Department and the safety supervisor have conducted their investigation. In some cases the accident site must be rendered safe so as not to contribute to further accidents. However precautions shall be taken to keep the accident scene intact as much as is possible, to assist local police in their investigation. The investigation should include, but not be limited to the following: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Questioning the man in charge and finding out what was planned. Finding out the injured man's job or the normal configuration and function of the damaged equipment or plant. Questioning the injured man as soon as possible. Questioning the witnesses separately as to what they actually saw, not what they think happened. Studying the equipment or plant layout and noting any signs of misuse. Finding the explanation of any irregularities. From the information obtained, establishing the reason why the "unplanned" events took over from those that were "planned". Recommending items of corrective action and methods of implementing them to prevent the recurrence of the incident. Making a scaled drawing of the accident scene and supplement that with supporting photographs.

3.5

Accident Analysis
3.5.1 Classification Contractors can use nine main classifications to analyze industrial accidents. Every contractor should go through the following classifications and their breakdowns to determine which of these (if any) apply to the incidents in which they were involved. These records help to illustrate accident trends. In turn, this helps the Loss Prevention Department (Saudi Aramco) evaluate their safety program and modify or upgrade it as needed. This information is supplemental to the findings and reporting requirements of the preceding "Accident Investigation" sections.

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The nine classifications with their individual breakdowns are: 1. Falls (Of Persons from Heights) To the ground or another level From scaffolding From ladders Into holes, trenches, etc. Into water 1a. Falls (Of Persons on the Level) To the ground Against objects 5. Equipment Moving Parts Equipment in motion Hot surfaces

6. Hand Tools Cartridge hammers Power tools Non-power tools 7. Transportation Road Site

2. Handling Objects From lifting From pulling or pushing Handling materials Electric shock 3. Striking Against Objects Protruding nails Scaffold tubes and fittings Stepping or kneeling on objects

8. Lifting Appliances Cranes Hoists and winches Pull-lifts, pulleys, wheels, etc. Piling frames A-frames Excavations 9. Hazardous Atmospheres Hydrogen Sulfide Others

4. Struck by Objects Falling objects Foreign bodies in eyes Flying objects

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FIGURE I.1: PRELIMINARY ACCIDENT REPORT
Detailed Report Required Within 3 Days Accident Location: Company: Date Of Accident: Personnel Injured: Control No_________________ Time Of Accident: Badge Number:

Type Of Injuries:

Property Damage And Estimated Cost Damage:

Description Of Accident:

Witness Statement(s)

What Caused The Accident:

What Corrective Action Has Been Taken

Signed:_______________________________________________________Badge No:________________________ Date Of Report:________________________________________________ Name (Printed):_____________________________________________________________________ Company:__________________________________________ Job Title:_________________________________

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FIGURE I.2: CONTRACTOR MONTHLY S AFETY REPORT
PROJECT TITLE:________________________________ LOCATION:_________________________________

CONTRACTOR:________________________________________________________________________________

BUDGET ITEM No:._________________________________ CONTRACT No.:________________JOB No:_______

1. Work Injuries: 2. Fires: 3. Incidents Or Property Damage (Over SR 10,000): 4. Motor Vehicle Accidents: 5. Incidents Involving Damage To Saudi Aramco Equipment: 6. Crane, Heavy Equipment & Manlift Accidents: 7. Safety Meeting: (A) Topics Discussed: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. (B) Attendance:

(C) Instructor(s):

Prepared By:_____________________________ Contractor Safety Officer:________________________________ Signed By:__________________________________ Saudi Aramco Representative:____________________________ Date:___________________________

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4.0

RESPONSIBILITIES FOR SAFETY

The Saudi Aramco proponent must ensure the company's safety and accident prevention policies are clearly understood by all employees and contractor personnel. The duties and responsibilities of employees, supervisors, and management must be stated in writing by the company's management. All employees should satisfactorily discharge the responsibilities of their job, and be aware that their safety record will be taken into account during performance appraisals. The main responsibilities of various members of a construction team are cited in the following:

4.1

Contractor Senior Management
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Initiate the company's policy for the control of injury, damage and fire. Administer the policy himself or appoint a senior member of staff to do so. Know the requirements of Schedule 'D' and the relevant parts of Saudi Arab Government Workmen's Regulations, and ensure they are observed by his company. Ensure that all supervisors are qualified and that they receive adequate and appropriate training. Make sure that in tendering, at planning stages and throughout the contract, allowance is made for suitable and sufficient equipment to enable the jobs to be done with minimum risk. Coordinate safety activities between Saudi Aramco, subcontractors and any other individual contractors who may be working on the same site. Institute proper system for investigation, reporting and estimating the cost of injury, property damage and fire loss. Initiate analysis to discover accident trends and promote action to prevent recurrence. Reprimand any supervisor for failing to discharge satisfactorily the responsibility allocated to him. Set a personal example. Ensure that a formal Hazard Identification Plan is prepared in order to identify and correct hazards which may be encountered during construction. (See Appendix A.4.)

6. 7.

8. 9. 10.

4.2

Design Engineer
Design for safety, taking into consideration those risks that might arise during construction or in the operation of plant or equipment. Follow established process hazard analysis techniques to evaluate and correct hazards during the design process.

4.3

Contractor's Safety Officer
1. Advise management on the following: • • • • • • Ways to prevent injury to personnel, damage to plant and/or equipment and fires. Ways to improve existing work methods. Legal and contractual requirements affecting safety, health and welfare. Provision and use of protective clothing and equipment. Potential hazards on site before work starts and on the safety organization and fire precautions required. Changes in safety requirements.

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2.

3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

Carry out site surveys to see that only safe work methods are in operation, that health and safety requirements are being observed, and welfare and first aid facilities are adequate and properly maintained. Determine the cause of any accident (or dangerous occurrence), and recommend means of preventing recurrence of such an incident. Supervise the recording and analysis of information on injuries, damage and production loss. Assess accident trends and review overall safety performance. Assist with training employees at all levels. Take part in discussions on injury, damage and loss control. Keep up-to-date with recommended codes of practice and safety literature. Circulate information applicable to each level of employees. Foster within the company an understanding that injury prevention and damage control are an integral part of business and operational efficiency. Attend job progress meetings where safety is an item on the agenda. Report on job safety performance.

4.4

Construction Manager/Superintende nt
1. 2. 3. 4. Understand the company's safety policy and the responsibility allocated to each grade of supervision. Know the requirements of Schedule 'D' and relevant Saudi Arab Government Workmen's Regulations, and ensure that they are observed. Ensure that tenders adequately allow for sound working methods and reasonable welfare facilities. Determine the following at the planning stage: • • • • • • • 5. The most appropriate order and method of performing the job. Allocation of responsibilities for Saudi Aramco, sub-contractors, and other contractors. Storage areas, access, etc. Any hazards identified under the hazard identification procedure described in Appendix A.4. Facilities for welfare, first aid and sanitation. Work permit procedures and requirements. Basic precautions for dealing with fire hazards.

6. 7. 8. 9.

Provide written instructions to establish work methods, explain the sequence of operations, outline potential hazards at each stage, and indicate precautions to be adopted. Check over work methods and precautions with supervision before work starts. Create safety awareness by promoting safety meetings, presentations, open forum discussions and by implementing safety training. Set a personal example on site by wearing appropriate protective clothing and equipment at all times. Ensure that all accidents are reported to Saudi Aramco in accordance with Section 3.

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4.5

Site Safety Supervisor
(If different from contractor's safety officer) 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Understand the requirements of Schedule 'D' and the company's loss prevention policy. Inspect the work site daily to report and correct unsafe methods and conditions. Keep a permanent record of all injuries, fires, motor vehicle accidents (MVAs), property damage and crane/heavy equipment accidents which have occurred at the site. Keep a record of every weekly safety meeting on site complete with subject discussed and a list of attendees. Set a personal example.

4.6

Equipment Manager/Supervisor
1. 2. 3. 4. Ensure that all equipment purchased or hired is safe, is guarded and equipped with safety devices and has been subjected to all necessary tests. Make certain that operators and attendants are employed only on equipment for which they have been thoroughly trained. Check that periodic tests, inspections and maintenance are carried out when due. Attend promptly to all equipment defects and advise site management of the need for any dangerous equipment to be taken out of service until properly repaired.

4.7

Engineer/Supervisor
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7 8. 9. Organize sites so that work is carried out to the required standard with minimum risk to men, equipment and materials. Know the requirements of Schedule 'D'. Be familiar with work permit procedures. Give precise instructions on responsibilities for correct work methods. Plan and provide for good housekeeping. Coordinate with sub-contractors and other contractors on site to avoid any confusion about areas of responsibility. Position equipment effectively and ensure that electricity supply is installed, used and maintained correctly. Check that equipment and tools (both power and hand tools) are maintained in good operating condition. Make sure that all men know how to obtain and administer first aid properly and efficiently to all injured persons. They should also know how to summon assistance in case of emergency and nominate others to act in your absence. Make sure that suitable personal protective equipment is available and that it is used. Release supervisors and men when necessary for safety and fire training. Cooperate with the safety engineer and the fire department, by acting on their recommendations. Set a personal example.

11. 12. 13. 14.

4.8

Foreman
1. 2. 3. Be familiar with those parts of Schedule 'D' applicable to the work on which subordinate workers are engaged. Incorporate safety procedures in routine tasks and see that they are obeyed. Conduct weekly safety meetings with subordinates.

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4.

5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

Conduct daily work site inspections to identify and correct any existing unsafe conditions. Document and coordinate the safety inspection activities and findings with the job site safety supervisor. Correct unsafe acts, such as horseplay or the taking of unnecessary risks. Ensure that new employees are properly instructed in precautions to be taken before they are allowed to start work. Commend men who, by action or initiative, eliminate hazards. Report accidents, unsafe conditions and defects in equipment to immediate superiors. Set a personal example.

4.9

Worker
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Use the correct tools and equipment for the job. Use protective clothing and equipment provided. Do nothing to endanger self or work mates. Keep tools in good condition. Refrain from horseplay and abuse of safety devices, equipment and welfare facilities. Report any accidents, near misses or hazardous conditions to immediate supervisor. Read the Company safety rules and take note of special safety precautions in restricted areas. Obey all posted warning signs. .

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5.0

EMERGENCY PROCEDURES

Saudi Aramco departments and organizations have established disaster and emergency response plans that are documented in general instructions (GIs), department operating instruction manuals (OIMs), terminal instruction manuals (TIMs), and refinery instruction manuals (RIMs), etc. All managers and supervisors are exp ected to become familiar with the emergency procedures of the plants and areas in which any of their staff are working. Construction site-specific written emergency procedures shall be prepared by the Contractor and submitted as part of the Contractor's loss prevention program plan. Details of the written procedures may be obtained from the Saudi Aramco representative, operating supervisor, or loss prevention engineer. General guidelines for preparing emergency response plans can be found in the following Saudi Aramco Loss Prevention Department publication: Guidelines For Preparing Emergency Response Plans, October 1989

5.1

Action to be Taken
In an emergency, or on hearing the "Stop Work Alarm", every supervisor shall ensure the following: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. All work is stopped at once. All equipment is shut down. All men are evacuated to a pre-determined assembly point. A roll call is taken and every man is accounted for. No one is permitted to return to work until notification has been received from operations or from the company representative that it is safe to do so.

Refer to the specific procedures established in each Company operating area.

5.2

Contact After Office Hours
The contractor's supervisor shall give his home address and telephone number (and that of his replacement) to the company representative so that he may be contacted after hours in case of emergency involving the contractor's job or equipment. These telephone numbers are to be kept current and posted at the job-site.

5.3

Help in an Emergency
5.3.1 In the event of an emergency situation (serious personal injury, fire, critical damage to operating equipment, etc.) help may be obtained by contacting the nearest Saudi Aramco Main Gate or Security Control Center. This may be done: 1. 2. By telephone: Dial the emergency telephone number 110. By radio: Radio an operations group that has a telephone in the Saudi Aramco system and ask them to dial 110 when the Main Gate or Security Control Center cannot be contacted directly.

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3.

By messenger: Send a messenger to the nearest telephone, radio, or Saudi Aramco Main Gate or Security Control Center.

5.3.2 When transmitting a message by telephone, radio, or messenger, ensure that you clearly identify yourself by giving: • • • • • Your exact location Nature of emergency Service required and repeat the message Your name Your badge number

Stay on the telephone until you are told to hang up. If possible, post a lookout to direct the ambulance, fire truck or helicopter to the right location.

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6.0

SAFETY TRAINING

Good safety training is important to employees who are learning a new trade but it is also necessary to keep supervisors and skilled operators up-to-date with current safety technology and practices. Safe working practices are learned when employees understand how an accident was caused. Measures can then be taken to prevent a recurrence. People who are trained to do their jobs correctly can also be expected to do them safely. INSTRUCTIONS AND STANDARDS Schedule 'D': Saudi Aramco Safety, Health and Environmental Requirements - Loss Prevention Program

6.1

Safety Training for Supervisors
6.1.1 The immediate job of preventing accidents falls upon the supervisor not because it has been arbitrarily assigned to him, but because accident prevention and production control are closely associated supervisory functions. The most direct way to develop the desired attitudes and to impart the necessary information about safety to supervisors is to give them safety training. 6.1.2 The course for supervisors should include legal requirements, company and administrative policies and safety aspects of the work likely to be undertaken by the supervisors. An outline of such a course is given in 6.3.1 of this section.

6.2

Safety Training for Workmen
Accident prevention training for workmen should incorporate the items listed in 6.3.2. 6.2.1 Integrated Practices Safe working practices must be integrated into training for specific skills. It is expected that those who have attended recognized training establishments will have received the necessary safety instructions. 6.2.2 Specialized Training Before their training is complete, new employees and new entrants to industry are more susceptible to accidents. Contractor's must provide safety orientation and training for new employees. Induction training should teach new workers to identify common on-site hazards and how to guard against them. It should also cover the main requirements of the

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company's accident prevention policy and instruct newcomers specifically in those areas which affect them personally (e.g., if it is company policy that safety helmets and protective footwear should always be worn, then this should be made clear and they should be told how and where to obtain them). Suitable induction courses together with job training containing an integrated safety content will go a long way towards achieving safe working conditions. Site supervision, however, must ensure that correct job methods are being utilized and workmen are periodically reminded to be aware of hazards in the work place. 6.2.3 Use of Persuasion The training providing skill and information should be supplemented by the techniques of persuasion. Persuasion has an important function and should not be overlooked in any comprehensive program. It is commonly applied by the use of posters which graphically indicate bad habits, pin-point the advantages of a safe working environment and give detailed information, advice, or instruction on special safety points to remember. Posters can be useful provided that: • • • • • They are designed with due regard for the industry and its type of operation. They are displayed where workmen spend some time when not working and specific posters are displayed where most appropriate (e.g., ladder hazards in ladder storeroom). They are mounted on properly designed and maintained bulletin boards. They are changed at frequent intervals. Only a few posters are displayed simultaneously.

Posters can stimulate thought on accident prevention, but they are no substitute for organized training. The most effective posters are those that help to reinforce safety training. 6.2.4 Course Requirements An induction safety course for workmen should be aimed at specific hazards which they could encounter at a specific job site. A suggested outline of such a course is given in 6.3.2.

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6.3

Scope of Training
Safety training needs to be ongoing if it is to accomplish optimum results. The program material and presentation should cover the safety subject and be interesting enough to hold the trainee's attention. A limited training effort, such as an occasional safety meeting, may prompt supervisors to do a better job for a short time, but interest starts to lag unless an effective safety training program is in place. Good job safety instruction not only produces more skilled workers, but also impresses upon them the high value that the employer places on job safety. Frequent follow-ups and attention by the supervisor to correct work practices also help to create understanding and to eliminate resentment, which is a source of some undesirable work attitudes. (See 6.3.1.)

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6.3.1

Safety Training Topics For Supervisors 2. Policy and Administration Effect of incentive on accident prevention Human relations Consultation Safety Officer: duties, aims, objectives 4. Principles of Accident Prevention Attitudes of management, supervision operations Methods of achieving safe operations Accident and injury causes 6. Human Behavior Motivating agencies Individual behavior Environmental effects Techniques of persuasion

1. The Law and Safety Statutory requirement Appropriate regulations Duties of employer and employee Schedule 'D' (Contractual Safety Requirements)

3. Safety and the Supervisor Safety and efficient production go together Accidents affect morale and public relations

and

5. Site Inspection The role of management Hazard Identification Procedure Records results Follow-up procedures Feedback 7. Site Tidiness Site organization Relationship of site housekeeping to accident occurrence Site access Equipment storage Material stacking Materials handling 9. Personal Protective Equipment Eye, face, hands, feet and legs Respiratory protective equipment Protection against ionizing radiation

8. Health Medical examination Hazard to health on site Sanitation and welfare Protective clothing First Aid/CPR

10. Electricity Appreciation of electrical hazards Power tools Arc welding Low voltage system Lighting and power system on sites Grounding/Ground fault circuit interrupters (GFCIs)

11. Oxygen and Acetylene Equipment Cylinder storage and maintenance Condition and maintenance of valves, regulators, and gauges Condition and maintenance of hoses and fittings Pressures

12. Equipment Accidents related to moving parts of machinery Appreciation of principles of guarding Importance of regular maintenance

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13. Transportation Transport to and from site Hazard connected with site transport Competent drivers Dumpers Tipping trucks Movement near excavations 15. Working Places, Ladders, and Scaffolding Hazards connected with the use of ladders Maintenance and inspection Type of scaffold Overloading Work on roofs Fragile material Openings in walls and floors

14. Excavations Method of shoring Precautions while shoring Precautions at edge of excavations Removal of shoring Sheet steel piling

Use of safety belts and nets 17. Lifting Tackle Slings - single and multi-legged Safe working loads (SWLs) Safety hooks and eyebolts Cause of failure Maintenance and examination

16. Cranes and other Lifting Machines Licensing, certification and training required for operation of cranes Slinging methods Signaling Access to crane(s) Maintenance and examination Ground conditions Hazards and accident prevention methods connected with the use of different types of cranes/heavy equipment Crane Lift Plan for all lifts 18. Fire Prevention and Control Principle causes determining fire Understanding fire chemistry Fire fighting equipment Fire fighting training

19. Communications Effective methods of communication (particular interest to non-English speaking workers) Method and preparation of reports Safety committees Safety meeting

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6.3.2

Induction Safety Topics For Workmen 1. Hazard Identification Procedure Hazards on site: • Machinery • Transport • Flammables on site (hydrocarbon) • Fire • Falls • Electricity • Site housekeeping • Handling materials 2. Precautions Against the Above Hazards • 3. Simple precautions that can be taken by workmen on site.

Personal Protective Equipment • • • What is available How to obtain it Correct use and care

4.

Health • • • Site welfare facilities Potential health hazards First Aid/CPR

5.

Duties of the Company • • • • Brief outline of the responsibilities of the Company by law Details of Company's accident prevention policy Saudi Aramco Safety and Loss Prevention Requirements For Contractors (Schedule 'D') Saudi Arab Labor Law

6.

Employee's Duties • • Brief outline of responsibilities of employee under law Explanation of how new employees fit into the Company's plan for accident prevention.

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7.0

SITE PLANNING AND HOUSEKEEPING

This section outlines the procedure to be followed prior to and during a contract. It cannot claim to cover every type of contract that is likely to occur, but it does provide a detailed logical process to serve as a guide in deciding upon a plan of action. INSTRUCTIONS AND STANDARDS Saudi Aramco Standards: GI 1021.000 SAES -P-123 SAES -B-007C Appendix C: Street And Road Closure And Excavations, Reinstatement And Traffic Controls Lighting; Illumination Requirements Portable, Mobile and Auxiliary Fire-Fighting Equipment Typical Construction Materials Store Yard. Fire Safety Checklist for Evaluating Construction Materials Store Yard

Schedule 'D': Saudi Aramco Safety, Health and Environmental Requirements (See Appendix A) National Fire Protection Association: NFPA 80-A Protection of Buildings from Exterior Fire Exposures

NFPA 231 - Appendix 'C' Protection of Outdoor Storage

7.1

Initial Planning
Prior to the start of any contract, an analysis is made by the contractor to ensure that construction will be conducted in a safe manner. Similarly, accident prevention is analyzed, both at the planning stage and throughout the contract, so that the contractor will be able to eliminate or reduce accidents. Accident prevention is a real factor in the economic success of all contracts. Among other factors that must be considered at the initial planning stage are: results of a Hazard Identification Plan, loss prevention program, protection of employees and equipment, transportation, lifting equipment, excavation, scaffolding and work in restricted areas requiring work permits. 7.1.1 Hazard Identification Plan The contractor shall conduct a Hazard Identification tour with the Company and Saudi Aramco Loss Prevention representatives to identify potential hazards prior to construction start-up.

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7.1.2

Loss Prevention Program A loss prevention program required in Schedule 'D' for specific job-related activities part of proposed construction work will be developed and coordinated by the contractor's safety supervisor. Part of this program will be a ten-minute safety discussion with the workmen, at least once a week, on the hazards at the site and the procedures to be followed to prevent personal injury and minimize property damage.

7.1.3

Protection of Employees and Equipment Schedule 'D' details the requirements to be followed by the contractor to reduce losses. It places the responsibility for the protection of men and equipment on the contractor and outlines general minimum acceptable standards.

7.1.4

Transportation The contractor must provide transportation to and from the site for his employees. Saudi Aramco requires that employees must be transported only in the passenger compartment of vehicles. (See Section I.13.) The provision of buses for larger sites will have to be considered. Inspection and maintenance of vehicles and the selection and training of drivers are other major considerations.

7.1.5

Lifting Equipment Cranes, hoists and lifting equipment should be considered well ahead of actual requirements both from the point of view of economical use and the safety of personnel and equipment. Lift plans shall be submitted as required. (See Section III.1 and III.2.)

7.1.6

Demolition Some contracts in existing plant areas may require demolition before new work can begin. Only minor demolition should be done by construction personnel. Specialist contractors should be employed for the demolition of larger structures. (See Section II.3.)

7.1.7

Excavations Timber for shoring, steel sheet piles, etc. should be present on site prior to starting excavation work. All excavation work will be closely supervised by experienced staff. (See Section II.2.)

7.1.8

Scaffolding For all work carried out above ground level where no permanent work place is available, temporary work places in the form of scaffolding must be provided. An adequate supply of scaffold material must be on site. There must be sufficient experienced men capable of erecting and dismantling the scaffolding properly. Ladders, built to an acceptable standard, must be supplied and readily available for access to elevated work areas. (See Section II.9.)

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7.2

Site Layout
The site layout must be planned before any work is started. This will assist in making the job easier and more efficient, thus increasing productivity and profit. Items to be considered under site layout include the following: 7.2.1 Site Accommodation This includes shacks, storage huts, compounds, racking areas, lock-up boxes, office buildings, etc. 7.2.2 Adequate Access Roads To be kept clear and unobstructed at all times. 7.2.3 Project Sign Erect project sign at the main entrance to the construction site and other sites, i.e., office, laydown yard, fabrication yard, etc., as designated by the Company representative. The sign shall be a minimum of four feet in height, and eight feet in width. The printing on the sign shall be black and white and shall be in both Arabic and English. The Arabic text will be above, or to the right of the English text. The sign shall list: • • • • • PROJECT MANAGEMENT ORGANIZATION PROJECT TITLE BUDGET ITEM NUMBER (BI NO.) PRIME CONTRACTOR NAME, ADDRESS, AND TELEPHONE NUMBER HOUR EMERGENCY PHONE NUMBERS FOR COMPANY REPRESENTATIVE AND CONTRACTOR

The sign shall be erected within two weeks after the contractor has started work on site. Contractor shall also erect and maintain sufficient signs on or near the site to direct delivery vehicles and visitors to the work site. Example of Job Site Sign: SAUDI ARAMCO/CENTRAL AREA PROJECTS SAUDI ARAMCO BUILT GOVERNMENT SCHOOLS BOYS SECONDARY - DAMMAM BI (2510) (ERC. 1990) CONTRACTOR: NAME PO. BOX LOCATION TELEPHONE NUMBER SAUDI ARAMCO REPRESENTATIVE TEL. - OFFICE/TEL. - HOME

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7.2.4

Safe Means of Access and Egress To be provided on site wherever employees are likely to go; these must be kept clear and unobstructed at all times.

7.2.5

Parking Facilities To be provided in clearly defined areas on site.

7.2.6

Drainage The site should have good drainage and be graded in such a way that water does not pool up during construction.

7.2.7

Vehicle / Heavy Equipment Paths On Site Vs Pedestrian Paths Pathways for workmen must be clearly marked and distinct from vehicular travel routes on site.

7.2.8

Sand In sand dune areas that might lie adjacent to or around a construction site, consideration should be given to the movement or build up of sand.

7.2.9

Fire Prevention Suitable fire extinguishers must be readily available on site. The area around fire extinguishers or hydrants must be kept clear so that they are readily accessible in case of emergency. They must be regularly inspected and maintained. Site personnel must be trained in the use of fire fighting equipment. (See Section I.11).

7.2.10

Site Illumination Adequate lighting must be provided in all areas of the job site in accordance with SAES-P-123. The National Electric Code a National Fire Protection Association standards nd should be consulted for specific areas. Grounding requirements will be per NFPA. In hazardous areas (e.g., tank farms and indoor fuel areas), NFPA 30, 37, 58 and 70 will be enforced.

7.3

Storage Areas
Note: See Appendix C. Fire Protection Checklist for Evaluating Construction Materials Store Yard; and Figure III.13 (Typical Construction Materials Store Yard). 7.3.1 Storage areas must be adequate for all material and equipment to be stored.

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7.3.2 They should not be within 15 meters (50 feet) of permanent or temporary structures. 7.3.3 Storage areas should be clearly marked. 7.3.4 They should have directional signs to facilitate speedy delivery.

7.4

Welfare Facilities
Adequate welfare facilities must be provided. The following are minimum requirements: 7.4.1 Canteen or eating area adequate for total work force must be provided. This area shall be clean of refuse and meet Saudi Aramco Sanitary Code requirements. 7.4.2 Rest area must be provided. 7.4.3 Adequate toilet and washing facilities must be provided. Toilets shall be provided in places where they may be easily accessible at the rate of one toilet for every fifteen workmen or less. These shall be maintained in a sanitary condition. 7.4.4 An adequate supply of drinking water must be available. Common drinking cups or dips are prohibited. 7.4.5 First aid facilities must be supplied and arrangements made for medical care and for emergency situations. 7.4.6 Where necessary, safe smoking areas m be provided, with the concurrence of ust the responsible area Loss Prevention office.

7.5

Good Housekeeping
The required standard of housekeeping must be established on site and all personnel informed of this standard. Trash, debris and refuse should be collected daily. All employees shall clean their respective work areas daily before quitting.

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Covered containers, drums, etc., should be provided at various, clearly marked locations throughout the work site. The containers should be emptied daily at approved rubbish dumps.

7.6

Construction Sites and Materials Storage Yards
(See Appendix C) 7.6.1 The contractor's engineer shall establish the perimeter of the site by agreement with the proponent department. He may consult the Loss Prevention Department for assistance. 7.6.2 The perimeter fence for construction sites and materials storage yards shall be properly grounded and of sound construction and design appropriate for the intended protection of the area. The Saudi Aramco Industrial Security organization should be consulted for details. 7.6.3 The fence shall be frequently inspected by a representative of the contractor's engineer. 7.6.4 Any access paths through the proposed site shall be rerouted outside the perimeter. Loss Prevention Department is to be consulted on any such rerouting. 7.6.5 Where a fence crosses existing roads, red and white, blue and white, or black and reflective yellow (or white) flags shall be fastened to the fence. If access is blocked, a dead-end sign will be erected on the approach to the fence with the distance of the obstruction marked below the sign. However, if there is a temporary by-pass, a "DIVERSION AHEAD" sign shall be erected on the approach to the fence and diversion arrows showing the route shall be displayed on the fence in black and yellow (or white) reflective material. 7.6.6 A suitable number of soundly constructed access gates shall be provided. The number of access gates will be kept to a minimum on main thoroughfares (See NFPA 231 Appendix 'C'). A minimum of two fifteen-foot wide gates are required. 7.6.7 Standard Saudi Arab Government stop signs will be fixed to the inside of the vehicle access gates.

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7.6.8 Temporary signs should be erected to route traffic in the safest manner to, from, and within the site. Temporary signs shall not be placed on public highways and roads (reference Saudi Arab Government traffic regulations). 7.6.9 While not in use all power driven construction equipment must have the ignition locked and key removed. If there is no lock for the cab and access can be readily made into the engine compartment, then the machine must be made immobile by disconnecting the battery or by any other means especially if the equipment is left outside the perimeter. This must be carried out before leaving the equipment unattended. 7.6.10 Crane booms, bulldozer blades, and front end loader buckets on all construction equipment should be lowered when the equipment is left overnight. For a crane boom where this is not possible, the boom will be locked off in such a manner that it cannot be dropped or blown over by the wind. 7.6.11 Job site electrical power must be de-energized at night unless required for specific lighting facilities or used by a night watchman. 7.6.12 The project will provide its own barricades. Barricades will only be supplied by the area Industrial Security Departments on a short term emergency basis. 7.6.13 Any excavation or obstruction of any kind likely to create a hazard to vehicular traffic at night will be adequately lit and a sign posted. (See GI 1021.000.) 7.6.14 If large pools of water are formed which cannot be adequately drained, these shall be separately fenced or barricaded if they constitute a safety hazard.

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7.6.15 There shall be no indiscriminate dumping of excavation spoil or building materials. Fire hydrants, manholes and electrical conduits will be kept clear at all times. The contractor's engineer shall designate sites for dumping. 7.6.16 All manhole covers will be replaced or the manhole properly barricaded. 7.6.17 Guy ropes will be clearly marked day and night as will any rope used as a barricade. 7.6.18 Refuse must be disposed of at a job site approved for such purposes and the contractor must have permission to use the site. Approved disposal sites can be those of Saudi Aramco or local municipalities. It is forbidden for contractors to dump refuse in any unauthorized area. 7.6.19 Clock stations can be requested from Industrial Security provided sufficient notice is given to ensure their availability. 7.6.20 The Saudi Aramco Project Representative shall notify the Loss Prevention Department representative and also the area Industrial Security Department about the time and place for the pre-construction meeting and also the first weekly site meeting which these departments should plan to attend. 7.6.21 It is the responsibility of the Company representative to initiate road closure requirements on work activity to ensure that all construction/maintenance adheres to the conditions of GI 1021.000 (See Appendix D) and that a notice of intent is placed in the company "Highlights and Notices" publication before work start-up.

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8.0

FIRST AID

First aid is the immediate help that is provided at the site to an injured or seriously ill person before professional medical help can be obtained. It is the responsibility of all contractors to ensure that proper first aid is available to their employees on all job sites. Provisions shall be made prior to start-up of the project for prompt medical attention in case of medical emergencies. INSTRUCTIONS AND STANDARDS Saudi Aramco General Instructions: GI 1321.015 GI 150.002 Schedule 'D': Saudi Aramco Safety, Health and Environmental Requirements Injury and Damage Reporting First Aid Facilities Request for Air Medical Evacuation First Aid / CPR Training and First Aid Kits - Remote Areas

8.1

Provision of First Aid Facilities
Every contractor shall provide first aid facilities on all sites for his employees. The first aid facility shall be kept in a sanitary condition at all times. Minimum requirements shall include the following: a telephone; desk; hot and cold water; wash basin; examining table; air conditioning; adequate lighting; and dust tight medical supply cabinet. 8.1.1 First aid supplies shall be kept readily available in a cabinet designated for those supplies only. (See 8.3 for a recommended list of cabinet contents.) 8.1.2 This cabinet shall be placed under the charge of a first aid attendant, who shall ensure the cabinet is well stocked at all times. 8.1.3 A suitable type of stretcher must be available on all sites.

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8.1.4 Contractors shall post notices indicating the following: 1. 2. 3. 4. 8.1.5 Contractors on pipeline and power line work or who are working in remote areas shall ensure that one vehicle is equipped with a well-stocked first aid kit for each crew, and that at least one man in every crew is trained in first aid. The vehicle shall be marked to indicate that it carries a first aid kit. (See GI 150.002. First Aid Training and First Aid Kits - Remote Areas.) 8.1.6 A site register shall be maintained by all contractors listing all injuries treated. (See Figure I.3 Example.) The name of the person who is in charge of the first aid cabinet. The hospital to which any injured person who requires hospital treatment is to be sent. The telephone number of the doctor or first aid attendant employed by the contractor. The emergency telephone number to be called for assistance.

8.2

First Aid Attendants
8.2.1 When more than 50 persons are emp loyed within a radius of 15 kilometers, first aid facilities run by a nurse familiar with first aid cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) requirements and exclusively assigned to medical duties. 8.2.2 Those persons in charge of first aid supplies on smaller sites with less than 50 workers should be trained in first aid procedures. 8.2.3 The contractor shall provide, or make arrangements to provide, a dedicated emergency vehicle (ambulance), properly supplied and marked, to transport injured personnel to the nearest designated health care facility. Each ambulance shall be equipped, as a minimum, with the following supplies: • • • • • Stretcher and blankets Portable oxygen Splints for bone fractures Bandages/rubber tourniquet Sterile wash water

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8.2.4

Medical Evacuation Capabilities Saudi Aramco has the ability to provide air medical evacuations (Medevac) for both onshore and offshore medical emergencies with helicopters or fixed wing aircraft. The procedures to initiate a Medevac are covered in GI 1321.015 and shall be incorporated in the Contractor's Loss Prevention Program plan.

8.3

First Aid Facilities At Work Site
(Originally Published in Umm al-Qura, No. 2534 July 26, 1974) Decision No. 404 Based on Articles 245 of Labor Law Article I An employer who employs less than fifty workmen shall provide at the work site a first aid cabinet containing bandages, medicines, and disinfectants as follows: 1. 2. 3. 4. A sufficient number of not less than 12 sterile, small-size finger dressings. A sufficient number of not less than 6 sterile medium-size hand dressings. A sufficient number of not less than 6 sterile large-size hand dressings. A sufficient supply of absorbent cotton wool for packing and firming up splints. Such supply shall not be less than 200 grams of cotton wool in small 25-gram packages and two 500-gram packages. A sufficient number of not less than 12 gauze bandages 7 cm. in width. A sufficient number of not less than 12 gauze bandages 11 cm. in width. Not less than 4 yards of adhesive tape in rolls, 1 cm. in width. Not less than 100 grams of Mercurochrome in aqueous solution. Two 10-gram shakers of sulfa powder for sterilization of wounds. 100 grams of aromatic ammonia solution in a glass bottle with a glass stopper. A medium-sized Thomas' thigh splint, a wooden posterior leg splint, a wooden elbow splint, a wooden Carr splint for the forearm, a wooden palm splint, and other types of ready-to-use splints. A minimum of 6 triangle bandages. A minimum of safety pins. Ointment for burns containing a disinfectant and an analgesic. A minimum of ten 70 x 70 bandages for burns. A pair of scissors with blunt ends. A sufficient number of stretchers for moving injured persons.

5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11.

12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17.

If work is carried out in scattered locations which are more than 300 meters apart, a separate cabinet shall be provided for every group consisting of more than ten workmen. Article II The employer shall assign one or more persons to be responsible for administering first aid to the injured at all times during working hours, provided that the person-in-charge shall be one of the establishment's employees who will either be trained in first-aid procedures in accordance with a program to be agreed upon with the Saudi Red Crescent Society, or who holds a certificate from a hospital attesting that he has practiced first-aid and is qualified to administer it.

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Article III An employer who employs 50 or more laborers shall provide at the work site a first aid room which meets the following standards: (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) It shall meet all sanitary specifications. It shall be conveniently located and readily accessible to injured persons and stretcher-bearers. Where quick means of transporting for the injured are not available, the said room shall not be more than 300 meters from the farthest work site. An adequate number of stretchers shall be available for moving the injured to the first aid room. First aid materials and supplies shall be no less than those specified under Article I, provided that they are in proportion to the number of workmen. A licensed nurse shall be on duty at all times during working hours under the supervision of a physician.

Article IV Supplies of any item in the first aid cabinets and rooms shall be replenished whenever they fall below the levels specified herein. Article V The first aid cabinet shall be of hard wood or sheet metal, measuring 85 cm. in length, 45 cm. in width, and 30 cm. in depth. They shall be painted white and shall be provided with one lock and more than one key. The cabinets shall bear the Red Crescent insignia and the words "First Aid Cabinet". All first aid cabinets shall be conveniently located in clean place above floor level and shall always be ready for use and easily accessible at all times. Signs shall be posted in conspicuous places at the various work sites to indicate the location of the cabinet and the name of the workmen in charge of first aid. Article VI An employer who employs less than fifty workmen shall assign an appropriate number of his workmen to receive first aid training in accordance with Article II. Article VII The Director General of the Department of Labor Inspection shall be charged with implementing this decision. He is authorized to increase the contents of the first aid cabinets or rooms in those industries and trades requiring such an increase, to stipulate special first aid procedures to implement the above articles, to determine the placing (if he deems it necessary) of first aid cabinets for any group comprising less than ten workmen, and to fix the number of stretchers and the number of workmen to be trained.

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8.4

Labor And Workmen Law
Saudi Labor And Workmen Law Chapter 7 Protection An Social Services Labor And Workmen Law Articles 134-6 Article 134 The employer shall provide first-aid services for the workmen in accordance with the standards to be determined by the Minister of Labor in collaboration with the Minister of Health. If the number of his workmen in a single location or town, or within a radius of fifteen kilometers, exceeds fifty, he shall employ a nurse who shall be familiar with first-aid services and shall be exclusively assigned to rendering such services; the employer shall assign a physician to examine and treat the workmen at the place to be provided by the employer for this purpose, and the employer shall provide them with the medicines necessary for their treatment. The aforementioned services shall be free of charge whether during work hours or otherwise. If in the cases mentioned above, the number of workmen exceeds a hundred, the employer shall, in addition, provide them with all other means of treatment in cases requiring treatment by specialists, or performance of surgical other operations. In case operations are performed, as well as in cases of incurable diseases, the expenses shall be taken from the Social Insurance Funds. The costs of treatment, medicines and hospitalizations in government or charitable hospitals, as well as the party who will assume such costs, shall be determined pursuant to the decision to be made by the Minister of Labor in agreement with the Minister of Health, or to the rules laid down in the Social Insurance Law. However, if the number of workmen is less than fifty, the employer must provide the workmen with a medical aid cabinet which shall be maintained in a good condition and shall contain the bandages, medicines, and antiseptics to be determined by the Minister of Labor in agreement with the Minister of Health, in order to provide the workmen with first aid. Article 135 Every employer who employs more than fifty workmen shall inform the appropriate Labor Office of the name of the physician who he has selected to treat his workmen. In case he employs more than an hundred workmen, he shall inform the Office of the names of the physicians and specialists whom he has selected to treat his workmen, and of the names of the hospitals which he has designated for that purpose. In both cases, he must notify the appropriate Labor Office of the minimum number of days fixed for the examination of workmen, provided that this minimum shall not be less than three times a week. Article 136 Every employer shall prepare for each workman a medical file showing the result of the medical examination performed on the workman upon his employment, a description of the cases of his illness, the stages of his treatment, and the periods of his absence from work, provided that mention shall be made in the file of the kinds of ordinary and occupational diseases and labor injuries.

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FIGURE I.3: INJURY S UMMARY

Injury Summary

(Page ___of___) Project:__________________________________Proje ct No.:________________________Month & Year:____________________ Contractor:__________________________________File No.:_________________________
Injury No. Name Of Injured Badge Numbe r Craft Date Of Accident Carry Over Yes/No Days Lost This Month Nature O f Injury And Part Of Body Affected Brief Description Of Accident State What, Where, How, Why

Total Lost Time Injuries This Month:

Total Days Lost:

Total Man-hours Worked This Month:

Report Prepared By:________________________________ Signature:_________________________________ Title And Telephone:__________________________________________________________________
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9.0

PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT

When a hazardous situation is recognized, steps should be taken to eliminate the hazard by engineering controls. Should it prove impractical to eliminate the hazard, then personal protective equipment must be used that meets the requirements of ANSI or equivalent standards. When it has been decided that personal protective equipment is required, steps must be taken to select the proper type of equipment and ensure that the supervisor instructs his employees in the use and care of that equipment, in accordance with the instructions provided by the manufacturer and Saudi Aramco. (See Table I.1.) INSTRUCTIONS AND STANDARDS Saudi Aramco General Instructions: GI 6.020 GI 7.027 GI 8.002 GI 8.003 GI 8.005 Personal Flotation Devices For Work Over, On Or Near Water Personnel Work Platform Operations Prescription Safety Glasses Breathing Apparatus Protective (Safety) Footwear

Saudi Aramco Engineering Standards: SAES -A-105 SAES -H-102 Schedule 'D': Saudi Aramco Safety, Health and Environmental Requirements OSHA: Code Of Federal Regulations 1910, 1915 and 1926 ASTM D120.E1 -87 Standard Specifications For Rubber Insulating Gloves ANSI Z 41-83 Personnel Protection - Protective Footwear Noise Safety Requirements For Painting

ANSI Z 87.1-89 Practice for Occupational and Educational Eye and Face Protection ANSI Z 89.1-86 Personnel Protection - Protective Headgear For Industrial Workers - Requirements

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9.1

Head Protection
Safety hats or helmets are rigid headgear made of materials designed to protect the head from impact, flying particles, electric shock, etc. Each helmet consists of a shell, a suspension cradle, and a chin strap. 9.1.1 Employees working in areas where there is danger of head injury from impact; from falling or flying objects; or from electrical shock and burns, shall be protected by protective helmets as per ANSI referenced standards or equivalent. 9.1.2 The suspension cradle gives a helmet its impact distribution qualities. It is therefore essential that it be properly adjusted to the wearer's head so there is a gap of at least one and a half inches between the top of the suspension cradle and the helmet shell. 9.1.3 Ancillary equipment such as ear muffs, welders shields, etc. can be obtained to fit on helmet shells. Holes should not be drilled into helmet to facilitate use of such equipment as this can seriously impair both the mechanical strength and the electrical resistance of the helmet. 9.1.4 Safety hats or helmets shall not be painted. 9.1.5 The complete helmet should be cleaned regularly with soap and water. Helmets should be scrapped following any penetration, high impact, or subjection to extreme heat. 9.1.6 A safety helmet should be worn by all persons at all times when on a construction job site; in an operating plant area; or whenever there are overhead hazards. Metal hard hats do not afford proper impact or electrical protection and, therefore, are prohibited from all Saudi Aramco work areas.

9.2

Eye and Face Protection
Protection of the eyes and face from injury by physical or chemical agents or light radiation, is of prime importance in an industrial environment. The type of protection selected will depend on the hazard, but it should be borne in mind that all eye protection and most face protection devices must be considered as optical instruments. They must be selected, fitted, and used with regard to both the type of hazard and the optical condition of

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the user. (See Figures I.9 and I.9A.) The wearing of contact lenses is not recommended in areas where eye protection is required. 9.2.1 Eye Protection from Impact Factors to be considered in selecting impact resistant eye protection include the degree of protection required and the comfort provided as required by ANSI or equivalent requirements. Four basic types of protection are: 1. Spectacles used for protection against frontal impact. When fitted with side shields, they afford limited protection against side impact and should not be worn while driving if they interfere with peripheral vision. Flexible fitting goggles. A flexible frame surrounding the lens gives protection against flying objects. Cushion fitting goggles. A rigid plastic frame surrounding the lens and a separate cushioned fitting surface on the facing contact area gives protection against flying objects. Chipping goggles. Separate rigid plastic eyecups with lens. Designed in two shapes, one for individuals who do not wear spectacles and one to fit over prescription spectacles. Chemical goggles.

2. 3.

4.

5. 9.2.2

Eye Protection from Radiant Energies In addition to damage from physical and chemical agents, the eyes are vulnerable to the effects of radiant energy such as that produced during welding. Visible and non-visible bands of the light spectrum can produce harmful effects upon the eyes and special attention must be paid to the selection of eye protection from these hazards.

9.2.3

Face Protection Face shields protect the face and neck from flying particles, sprays of hazardous liquids, splashes of molten metal, and hot solutions. Where required, safety spectacles and chemical goggles shall be worn under the face shield.

9.3

Hand Protection
The kind of gloves used depends primarily upon the material or equipment being handled and can be resistant against one or more of the following: heat, acid, caustic, slipping, wear, fire, oil, sharp edges, general wear and tear, cold, etc. (See Figure I.5.). Gloves should not be used near moving machinery as they can be caught and trap the hand before it can be withdrawn from the glove.

9.4

Foot Protection
Foot protection used must be manufactured to the referenced ANSI standard Z41-83 (or its equivalent). Safety footwear is available in many styles, with special soles to resist oil, abrasion, heat, and other abuses to which the footwear may be subjected. Comfort is particularly important for the wearer, so safety footwear must fit properly.

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Approved safety footwear are sturdy work shoes with leather uppers and/or leather composition with steel toe caps. Soles and heels are "non"-slip type. Fashion type safety "toe" shoes with canvas, nylon and/or other soft composition uppers or soles are not considered safety shoes and are not approved by Saudi Aramco.

9.5

Hearing Protection
Increasing attention is being paid to the problem of excessive noise in industry. Noise can be defined as "any unwanted sound". The intensity of noise is commonly expressed in terms of decibels (dBA) and measured by a sound level meter. Medical authorities state that continual exposure to noise levels above 90 dBA for an eight hour day, five day work week may endanger a person's hearing. The safe period of exposure to a noise level is inversely proportional to the level of the noise. (See reference SAES -A-105, Noise.) Hearing loss will result from over-exposure to excessive noise levels. Only after engineering and mechanical methods of reducing noise levels have been explored, should consideration be given to providing hearing protection to individual workmen. Exposure to impulsive or impact noise shall not exceed the requirements of SAES -A-105, Noise. Whenever it is infeasible to reduce the noise levels or duration of exposure to within the limits of SAES -A-105, hearing protection devices shall be provided and used. There are two types of hearing protection available, the plug type and the cup (or muff) type. The proper individual fitting of both types of hearing protection is critical as any sound leakage can seriously impair efficiency of these devices. 9.5.1 Ear Plugs Ear plugs are placed into the canal of the outer ear. Materials used for these plugs are rubber, plastic, wax, foam or Swedish wool. Disposable types are preferred as they give good protection and are very sanitary. 9.5.2 Ear Muffs Ear muffs cover the external ear to provide an acoustic barrier. The effectiveness of ear muffs varies considerably due to differences in manufacturer, size, shape, seal material, shell mass, and type of suspension. Head size and shape can also affect their performance. Liquid or grease filled cushions between the shell and the head are more effective than plastic or foam-filled types, but they would present material leakage problems. The use of hearing protection devices shall be properly evaluated to ensure that the selected devices give the necessary noise attenuation and protection.

9.6

Fall Restraining/Arresting Devices
There are several types of fall restraining devices used throughout the construction industry. The two most commonly used ones are the full body safety harness and the safety belt. Harnesses are used for above ground work, where fall restraining and arresting protection is

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required. Safety belts are used to restrain the wearer at his place of work. Safety belts should not be used as part of the fall arrest system. (See Figure I.6.) 9.6.1 Full body harnesses are required when working in areas with no guard rails at heights above 1.82 meters (6 feet) or for potential falls of six feet or greater. Exceptions shall require the review and concurrence of the Loss Prevention Department. 9.6.2 Special attention should be given to achieve a snug fit of the safety harness as it is easy for a man to slip through sound but badly adjusted equipment and fall. 9.6.3 No fall restraining or arresting device is any stronger than the point of attachment. Therefore, all users should be carefully instructed in the importance of a firm anchorage. 9.6.4 Fall restraining/arresting devices must be stored in clean and dry conditions away from sunlight, and must be thoroughly inspected both on issue and at the start of each shift. 9.6.5 Fall protection devices shall be capable of supporting a minimum dead weight of 2450 kilograms (5400 pounds). (Refer to OSHA 29 CFR 1910.66, Appendix C 1991.) The maximum length of standard lanyards shall be limited to provide for a fall of no greater than 1.82 meters (6 feet) except in the case of mechanical fall arresting devices which have been reviewed and received concurrence by the Loss Prevention Department. The lanyard shall have a minimum breaking strength of 2,450 kilograms (5,400 pounds). All fall arresting/restraining devices and hardware shall be manufactured to ANSI or equivalent standards and fully described in the Hazard Identification Plan (HIP), including type, model and manufacturer. 9.6.6 During all operations conducted from a personnel platform (man basket) at any height above ground level, fall protection devices (lanyards) shall be secured to an anchorage point or a structural member located on the basket which can support a minimum dead weight of 2,450 kilograms (5,400 pounds).

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TABLE I.1: BASIC PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT The table below is a list of basic personal protective equipment. Many job classifications may require additional personal protective equipment depending on the work location, type of job, local hazards, conditions, etc. The Loss Prevention or Industrial Hygiene office in your area should be contacted for further details.

Typical Job Classifications Abrasive blast cleaner Boiler maker Carpenter Electrician Iron worker - structural Lineman Mason Material Control Man Mechanic/Machinist Painter Pipe fitter Plumber Rigger Roof worker Scaffold erector Sheet metal worker Welder

Basic Personal Protective Equipment To Be Worn (see key below) See Section II.11, Table II.7 1, 8, 9, 10D, 15B 1, 8, 9, 10C, 15A 1, 2, 8, 9, 10B, 15A, or B 1, 8, 9, 10D, 12/13, & 14 A/B, 15A 1, 8, 9, 10C, 12/13 & 14 A/B, 15A 1, 8, 9, 10C/A, 15A 1, 8, 9, 10C, 15A 1, 8, 9, 10C/A, 15A See Section II.11, Table II.7 1, 8, 9, 10 C/D, 15A 1, 8, 9, 10C, 15A 1, 8, 9, 10C, 15A 1, 8, 9, 10C, 12/13 & 14 A/B, 15A 1, 8, 9, 10C, 13 & 14 A/B, 15A 1, 8, 9, 10 C/D, 15A 1A &B, 4, 8, 9, 10D,/E, 15B Key To Personal Protective Equipment

1. Safety glasses with side shields (1A=Clear, 1B=Shaded) 2. Face shield 3. Goggles, safety impact (3A=Clear, 3B=Shaded) 4. Welding hood and skull guard (Lens shaded to suit work) 5. Respirable air fed hood with filter 6. Respirator, chemical cartridge 7. Respirator dust 8. Safety hat helmet 9. Safety foot wear (9A=shoes, 9B=boots) 10. Gloves. (10A= Rubber coated, 10B= Rubber molded, 10C = General purpose, 10D= Leather, 10E=Heat resistant) 11. Ear protection (11A=Ear plugs, 11B=Ear muffs) 12. Standard safety belt 13. Full body harness 14. Lanyard 1.82m (6FD). (14A=Standard, 14B=Shock Absorbing) 15. One piece coverall (15A=Standard, 15B=Fire Resistant)

Notes: All personal protective equipment shall meet ANSI/OSHA or their equivalent requirements. Any worker 1.82 m above ground without the protection of a guard rail system, or in a confined space, shall wear a full body harness and standard lanyard. Respiratory protection shall be used anytime workers could inhale air contaminants exceeding permissible exposure limits (PEL), and when an oxygen deficient atmosphere could be encountered. Breathing quality air shall be supplied to the worker through the use of an air fed hood or self contained breathing apparatus.

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FIGURE I.4: PROTECTIVE GOGGLES , S PECTACLES , FACE S HIELDS AND HELMETS

TYPICAL EYE PROTECTION APPLICATIONS Operation Acetylene-welding, cutting burning Electric arc welding Chemical handling Chipping Furnace operations Grinding (light) Grinding (heavy) Laboratory Machining Molten metals Spot welding Hazards Sparks, molten metal, harmful rays, flying particles Sparks, molten metal, intense rays, flying particles Splash, acid burns, fumes Flying particles Glare, heat, molten metal Flying particles Flying particles Chemical splash, glass breakage Flying particles Heat, glare, sparks, splash Flying particles, sparks Protection D, E, F I G, H (Severe +C) A, B, C, E, F, G D, E, F A, B, C, G C, D, E, G G, H (A or B +C) A, B, C, G D, E (A or B tinted + C) A, B, C, G

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FIGURE I.4A: PROTECTIO N AGAINST RADIANT ENERGY Protection against radiant energy requires the selection and use of the proper shades of welding filter lens or plate. The table below shall be used as a guide for the selection of the proper shade numbers of filter lenses or plates used in welding. Shades more dense than those listed may be used to suit the individual's needs.

FILTER LENS S HADE NUMBERS FOR PROTECTION AGAINST RADIANT ENERGY Welding Operation Shielded metal-arc welding 1/16-, 3/32-, 1/8-, 5/32inch diameter electrodes Gas-tungsten arc welding and gas-metal arc welding (nonferrous) 1/16-, 3/32-, 1/8-, 5/32-inch diameter electrodes Gas-tungsten arc welding and gas-metal arc welding (ferrous) 1/16-, 3/32-, 1/8-, 5/32-inch diameter electrodes Shielded metal-arc welding 3/16-, 7/32-, 1/4-inch diameter electrodes Shielded metal-arc welding 5/16-, 3/8-inch diameter electrodes Atomic hydrogen welding Carbon-arc welding Soldering Torch brazing Light oxy fuel gas cutting, up to 1 inch Medium oxy fuel gas cutting, 1 inch to 6 inches Heavy oxy fuel gas cutting, over 6 inches Gas welding (light), up to 1/8-inch Gas welding (medium), 1/8-inch to 1/2 inch Gas welding (heavy), over 1/2-inch Air-carbon arc cutting Comfort Shade number 10 11

12

12 14 10-14 14 2 3 or 4 3 or 4 4 or 5 5 or 6 4 or 5 5 or 6 6 or 8 12

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FIGURE I.5: S PECIALIZED HAND PROTECTORS

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FIGURE I.6: TYPICAL S ELF-POWERED PLATFORM FOR BUILDING MAINTENANCE

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10.0 BREATHING APPARATUS
Where industrial processes create hazardous atmospheric contaminants, the first consideration should always be the application of engineering measures to control the contaminants. In those cases where engineering control measures are not possible, affected personnel must be supplied with personal respiratory protective equipment.

INSTRUCTIONS AND STANDARDS
Saudi Aramco General Instructions: GI 6.021 GI 8.003 TM-3 Safety Requirements For Abrasive Blast Cleaning Air Supplied Breathing Apparatus Technical Memorandum And Attachment - Oil By-Products Protection Program (Saudi Aramco Medical Services Organization, Dhahran, Saudi Arabia)

Schedule 'D': Saudi Aramco Safety, Health and Environmental Requirements - Personal Protective Equipment American National Standards: ANSI Z88.2. - 1980 Practices for Respiratory Protection US. Bureau of Mines: Respiratory Protection (See 30 CFR Part II)

10.1

Selection of Equipment
A wide variety of respiratory protective equipment is available. As each type is suitable for certain applications, it is necessary to develop an orderly m ethod for determining the appropriate device to be employed. Persons should not be assigned tasks requiring the use of respirators unless it has been predetermined by medical examination that the worker is physically able to perform the work and use the breathing apparatus properly. Each user must receive instructions on the proper use and limitations of the device, as well as demonstrations and practice in how to fit and wear it. Personnel shall not be placed in a hazardous environment for which the respirator is not designed, such as a location where there is a lack of sufficient oxygen.

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Consider the following factors when selecting a suitable respiratory protective device: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 The nature of the hazardous operation or process. The type of air contaminant, including its physical properties, chemical properties, physiological effects on the body, and its concentration. The period of time for which respiratory protection must be provided. The location of the hazard with respect to a source of uncontaminated respirable air. The state of health of the personnel or users involved. The functional and physical characteristics of the respiratory protective devices. The use of approved respirators only.

The contractor must know the specific hazards for which a given type of respiratory equipment is approved. He should not permit respiratory equipment to be used for protection against hazards for which it was not designed. 10.1.1 Requirements For Use As with all personal protective equipment, respirators only work if you use them correctly. For face mask respirators, always make sure that the mask fits properly, that there is a tight seal and no air leakage. Proper fit is important to prevent contaminants from leaking in. Beards, dentures and facial bone structure can affect the fit of the respirator. Be sure to wear the right respirator for the hazard. Always keep the respirator clean and well-maintained. Never alter or modify the respiratory equipment. Finally, follow manufacturer's specifications for proper cartridge use and established safety procedures. Do not hesitate to consult your supervisor if there are any questions concerning your personal respiratory protection. 10.1.2 Misuse Workers sometimes consider respiratory equipment a nuisance, not realizing that failure to wear it may endanger their lives. This attitude can be changed by education and training. However, as the risk of injury or death is very real when safety precautions are ignored, any worker refusing to wear the necessary respiratory equipment will not be allowed to work without it. Common misuses of respiratory protection equipment include: a. b. c. d. e. Using air-purifying (chemical cartridge type) respirators when toxic levels are above the respirator-rated capacity. Using air-purifying (chemical cartridge type) respirators in oxygen deficient atmospheres. Using incorrect cartridges or filters for the type contaminant and the concentration encountered. Using defective or improperly inspected equipment. Using equipment without having received adequate on training on it.

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10.1.3

Hazardous Substances Protection is required against those hazardous substances which can be inhaled into the respiratory system, ingested via the digestive tract and absorbed into the skin causing systemic injury to the human body. Hazardous substances which can enter the body through the respiratory system, the digestive tract and the skin include, but are not limited to, the following: • • • • • • • • Asbestos Creosol (cresylic acid) Hydrogen cyanide (hydrocyanic acid) Tetraethyl lead and its compounds Mercury and its compounds Nitroglycerine Organic phosphate insecticides Solvents

10.1.4

Contaminants Air supplied to respiratory equipment must be free from contaminants. (See GI 8.003.) Respirable air shall be controlled to the following conditions at all times: 1 2 3 4 5 6 Oxygen, not less than 19-23% vol. Carbon monoxide, not more than 10 parts per million (ppm) Carbon dioxide, not more than 0.10% vol. Oil mist, not more than 5 mg/m3 @ NTP Water vapor, not more than 0.76 mg/l Particulates, none

The above standards are based on Compressed Air Gas Association (Table No. 1) and referred to as Grade 'D' breathing air. Respirable air quality must meet this standard, at a minimum. The air delivered to the user must be less than 100o F (38o C) and supplied at 6 standard cubic feet per minute (6 SCFM). Air cooling devices (e.g. vortex tubes) may be necessary.

10.2

Respiratory Protective Devices
Respiratory protective devices can be classified as follows: 1 2 3 Air purifying respirators Supplied air respirators Self-contained breathing devices Air Purifying Respirators 10.2.1.1 Gas Masks The gas mask type of respirator consists of a face piece and filter. No one chemical agent has been found that will remove all gaseous contaminants, so the canister must be carefully chosen to fit the

10.2.1

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specific need. A canister designed for a specific gas will give longer protection than a canister designed for a multitude of gases and vapors. Canister gas masks with full face pieces are effective against higher concentrations of contaminants. However, they do not provide protection against oxygen deficiency. 10.2.1.2 Chemical Cartridge Respirators Chemical cartridge respirators consist of a face piece (usually half mask) connected directly to one or two small containers of filters/chemicals. The chemicals used are similar to those found in gas mask canisters, but cartridge respirators are for use only in atmospheres not immediately dangerous to life or health. An area where the chemical cartridge respirator works very well is in spray painting. It is critical that the cartridge be matched to the specific application. Particulate Filter Respirators (Dust Respirators) A particulate filter respirator protects against the inhalation of nonvolatile particles. The major items to be considered are: 1 2 3 10.2.2 The resistance to breathing offered by the filtering element; the adaptation of the face piece to faces of various sizes and shapes; the fineness of the particles to be filtered out, and their toxicity.

10.2.1.3

Supplied Air Respirators A supplied air respirator permits the user to breathe respirable air while working in a hazardous atmosphere. Important advantages are simplicity of design, usage under diverse conditions, and good protection (when properly selected, adequately supplied with respirable air, and used for the purposes for which they were designed and approved). 10.2.2.1 Air Line Respirators The air line respirator (see Figure I.8) is suitable for respiratory protection in atmospheres not immediately hazardous to life. Equipping the respirator with a small cylinder of compressed air to provide an emergency air supply qualifies the respirator for use in immediately hazardous atmospheres. It is particularly suited to some types of jobs because it is light and may be worn for long periods of time without appreciable discomfort. For example, it is often used for spray painting, insecticide spraying, welding, metalizing and prolonged production work in hazardous areas. There are two basic types of air line respirators: 1 2 the continuous flow, the pressure demand flow.

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The continuous flow respirator may be assembled to a half mask, full face piece, or hood, whereas the demand flow type must always be used with a tight-fitting face piece. 1 In the continuous air line respirator, a set amount of air is continuously fed to the face piece. The amount is regulated by an air control valve of special inlet design which is not susceptible to accidental changes of the setting even when jarred. A slight positive pressure on the inside of the mask is always maintained to prevent inward leakage of the contaminated outside atmospheric air. The pressure demand flow air line respirators are normally used when air must be conserved, as may be the case when the supply is from a cylinder of compressed air. They contain a regulator at the lower end of the breathing tube. This permits air to flow under slight preset positive pressure to the face piece only when the wearer breathes.

2

10.2.2.2

Abrasive Blasting Respirators Abrasive blasting respirators are used to protect personnel engaged in sand or other abrasive blasting operations. The requirements for this type of respirator are the same as those for an air line respirator of the continuous flow type with the addition that mechanical protection from abrasive particles is needed for the head and neck.

10.2.2.3

Air Supplied Suits The most extreme condition requiring respiratory equipment is rescue or emergency repair work done in atmospheres which are extremely corrosive to the skin and mucus membranes, in addition to being acutely poisonous and immediately hazardous to life. For these conditions, full suits of impervious clothing with respirable air supplies are available. This equipment must be used only by welltrained and qualified personnel. Consideration must be given for the clearance of safety equipment through manholes and other accessways. (See Figure I.9.)

10.2.3

Self Contained Breathing Apparatus (SCBA) When entry into a hazardous atmosphere is necessary, self contained breathing apparatus shall be used. This equipment typically consists of a high pressure cylinder of air, a cylinder valve, a regulator, a face piece and tube with an exhalation valve. The need to have the mask properly fitted before use is important. A person who wears glasses or who has a beard cannot wear this type of breathing apparatus as a proper seal cannot be obtained between the mask and face.

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SCBAs must be used in lieu of airline respirators when the distance from the source of fresh air supplied via the air line hose is greater than 91 meters (300 ft) per ANSI Z88.2-1980. However, an exception from this requirement is made in an emergency situation where use of such equipment is necessary to escape from a hazardous condition.

10.3

Training
In many cases, respirators are used in emergency situations where there is heightened physical demands on the body, due to stress and excitement. Under such conditions, it is essential that the potential users have been thoroughly trained and are medically fit (per TM 3 or equivalent) to cope with the increased level of physical activity and stress. The local Loss Prevention Division and the Industrial Hygiene Unit will assist contractors in the selection and use of respiratory protective equipment.

10.4

Safety Precautions
When air supplied respirators are used, the following safety precautions are required: 1 Breathing air compressors shall have: • Pressure Relief Valve • High temperature alarm • Periodic carbon monoxide (CO) testing to ensure it meets the CGA Grade 'D' limit • Breathing air tested to meet requirements. (See section 10.1.4.) Proper training of employees in the use of this equipment. Fit testing of mask/hood prior to each use. Employees determined by a medical evaluation to be physically fit to use equipment. Proper cleaning and inspection program for equipment. Written standard operating procedures for using the equipment. A rescue man with a self-contained breathing apparatus (SCAB) is required when equipment is used in immediately dangerous to life and health (IDLH) atmospheres. Life lines shall always be attached to the safety belt worn by employees using a respirator. Air Compressors • • • Air compressors shall operate at 245o F and 150 psig maximum. (See manufacturers' specifications.) Intake air filters to compressors and outlet filters to operator mask/hood are required. Air supplied respirator's maximum intake temperature and pressure are 140o F (60o C) and 125 psig respectively. Filter outlet temperature to operator's mask/hood is 100o F maximum. The air.supply rate is 6 CFM for hoods without vortex tube and 25 CFM for hoods with vortex tube.

2 3 4 5 6 7 8

10.4.1

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FIGURE I.7: RESPIRATORY PROTECTION

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FIGURE I.8: CLEARANCE CONSIDERATIONS FOR S AFETY EQ UIPMENT

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11.0 FIRE PREVENTION
This section covers measures to prevent fires and protect against all their possible harmful effects, in order to avoid injury to personnel and loss of time and materials.

INSTRUCTIONS AND STANDARDS
Saudi Aramco General Instructions: GI 2.100 GI 2.711 GI 1781.001-1 GI 1787.000-1 Work Permit System Fire and Safety Watch Inspection/Maintenance - Fire Protection Equipment Fire Reports

Abqaiq Plants Operations Instruction Manual: No. 2.102 Fire Fighting Dispatching Procedure

Refinery Instruction Manual: No. 1.806 Fire Watch

Saudi Aramco Engineering Standards: SAES -B-7A SAES -B-7C Fire Water System and Design Portable, Mobile, and Auxiliary Fire Fighting Equipment

Saudi Aramco Sanitary Code Schedule 'D': Saudi Aramco Safety, Health and Environmental Requirements - Fire Extinguishers National Safety Council Accident Prevention Manual for Industrial Operations NFPA: National Fire Codes NFPA 231-Appendix C, Protection of Outdoor Storage. "Fire Safety Checklist for Evaluating Construction Materials Store Yard"

11.1

Before the Job Starts
Construction within a petroleum industry complex requires careful planning since plants and support facilities being constructed are frequently next to those already in operation. An accident at a construction site can have serious effects on a nearby oil or gas facility and vice-versa, because of a large amount of fuel present at both locations. The factors which must be considered before the job starts include site preparation, work permit schedules, types of work permits required and type/quantity of equipment required on-site.

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As part of this process, the contractor must take into account the potential hazards that can be encountered on site; protection of machinery and equipment; control of ignition sources; storage of flammable and combustible materials; housekeeping; staff training; and end-ofshift checks. These subjects are addressed in the Hazards Identification Procedure prior to construction start-up in Appendix A of this manual. This section focuses on means of avoiding and controlling fires.

11.2

Layout
Good layout helps ensure the project can be carried out efficiently. Overall requirements for site planning are in Section 7. (See Appendix C attachment). The following principles of project layout and organization can help minimize fire risks: 11.2.1 Avoid congestion around machinery and equipment where there is a high level of activity and traffic. 11.2.2 Operations having a high fire risk, such as welding and spray painting, should be isolated from flammable and explosive materials or specially protected. 11.2.3 Be sure to provide adequate emergency access and egress. 11.2.4 Storage of flammable and explosive materials in the plant site should be restricted to minimum quantities necessary for an uninterrupted cycle of operations; use a larger, secondary storage site outside the plant area where possible.

11.3

Equipment Protection
Some items of plant equipment need special handling and care after they arrive on site and until they are commissioned. Examples are computer (and other electronic instrumentation and control gear) and large pumps and compressors. Such equipment should be covered and protected against possible damage that could result from its exposure to normal construction activity, dust, paint spray, etc. Consideration should also be given to protecting it against fire, which could be caused by storing it near combustible material and against water or other fire fighting agents that might be used to put out a fire.

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11.4

Control of Ignition Sources
Compliance with work permit procedures and conditions protects against possible ignition of oil or gas from process operations. The contractor must also take steps to prevent ignition of construction materials, lubricants, and fuels used in the job itself. 11.4.1 Electrical equipment should be checked regularly for defects. 11.4.2 Smoking is permitted only in designated areas. 11.4.3 Welding equipment, asphalt kettles, heating appliances and other open flames or hot surfaces s hould be segregated from combustible materials. 11.4.4 Beware of indirect sources of ignition: hot welding slag dropped from a height for example, or sparks from a fire under an asphalt kettle are familiar examples of this. 11.4.5 Open fires and/or open burning of materials are strictly prohibited. Authorization must be obtained from Saudi Aramco Fire Protection Department. 11.4.6 Proper bonding and grounding techniques shall be used for any operation where static electricity could become an ignition source.

11.5

Flammable Liquids
Flammable liquids are those that can produce a flammable mixture in air at ambient temperature. In Saudi Aramco, this is defined as a fluid (liquid or gas) having a flash point of 55o C (130o F) or lower. Care in handling flammable fluids is of prime importance. 11.5.1 Storage All flammable liquids must be kept in securely capped metal containers or steel drums on which the contents are clearly marked. Gasoline, acetone, spirits and other volatile liquids with flash points below 32o C (90o F) should be kept in strong metal lockers located in well-ventilated, non-combustible huts or sheds. Drums containing flammable fluids shall be provided with proper bung vents. Flammable storage areas must be securely locked (or fenced), posted with a warning sign "Danger: Flammable Area" and must be located at least 15 meters (50 feet) away from the nearest building or storage area for combustibles. No other materials should be stored with flammable liquids.

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Flammable gases in cylinders (acetylene, propane, etc.) shall be segregated from other materials, preferably under an open, well-ventilated sun shade. Oxidizing gases (oxygen, chlorine, nitrous oxide, etc.) shall be stored separately. 11.5.2 Handling of Flammable Liquids (Reference NFPA 30) In handling, the following precautions should be observed: 1 2 Transportation must always be in (closed) metal containers. (Plastic containers are prohibited.) Transfer operations should be carried out with funnels and there should be no open flames within 15 meters (50 feet) of the operation unless conditions warrant greater clearance. Containers are to be grounded and bonded during transfer operations. Screw tops and stoppers should be replaced immediately. Any metal container holding flammable liquid must be a FM (or UL) approved type of safety container.

3 4 5

11.5.3

Ventilation Gasoline and diesel powered equipment should only be used in well-ventilated areas. Exhaust pipes should be kept away from combustible materials. Engines must be stopped before refueling takes place.

11.6

Combustible Materials
Although the main material used in the construction of plants for the petroleum industry is non-combustible steel or concrete, on a construction site many materials are potential fuel for a fire: packing material, scaffold planks, form lumber, electrical insulation, tires and other rubber goods, lubricating oil and grease, and diesel fuel, in addition to the flammable liquids (fuels, paints, solvents) mentioned above. Therefore, daily site clean up of combustible materials is required to reduce fire hazards.

11.7

Housekeeping
Rubbish, accumulated at a job site, provides a good starting point for a fire. Waste should be removed at regular intervals and always at the end of a working day. Metal bins with closefitting lids should be provided for oily rags, wood shavings, and other highly combustible wastes. Use non-combustible absorbents to remove spills or leaks of oil. Contents of ash trays should not be mixed with other waste. Good housekeeping on the site can eliminate many of the situations where a fire can start.

11.8

Emergency Equipment
The Fire Protection Department area offices can assist in training Saudi Aramco employees in the proper use of fire fighting equipment. (See GI 1781.001. Inspection and Maintenance of Fire Protection Equipment.) Each contractor has a contractual obligation to provide and maintain adequate, easily accessible fire extinguishers on the job site (Schedule 'D'). The contractor should consult

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with the local Fire Protection Unit for advice on selection of such equipment. There are three types of fire extinguishers normally found on construction sites: water, carbon dioxide and dry chemical types. Contractor personnel should be aware of the fire fighting equipment available on site and be familiar with its use. 11.8.1 Water-Type Fire Extinguisher Water extinguishers should be available around sites where there will be Class "A" material, such as wood, paper, waste material, or packing crates. The typical portable water extinguisher comes in a 9.5 liters (2-1/2 gallon) size. On construction sites within Saudi Aramco facilities a pressurized system of fire water hydrants and hoses will normally be available, so this type of extinguisher will have limited use. 11.8.2 Carbon Dioxide Type Extinguisher The carbon dioxide (CO2) type extinguisher is normally used for controlling electrical fires. These fires take place in motors, switch-gear, and so forth and are usually very easily controlled by de-energizing the circuits that supply the power. The advantage of using CO2 in this particular instance is that it leaves no residue in the mechanisms of the electrical equipment and, therefore, does not further contribute to the damage. 11.8.2.1 CAUTION A CO2 extinguisher should never be used in enclosed areas where people are present, because the gas displaces oxygen from the immediate environment. When the oxygen level in the environment is reduced sufficiently to put out a fire, the oxygen level is also incapable of supporting human life. 11.8.3 Dry Chemical Type Extinguisher A dry chemical type extinguisher is normally used in controlling Class "B" fires in flammable liquids. A dry chemical extinguisher normally comes in portable 9 kilograms (20 pounds) and 13.6 kilograms (30 pounds) sizes. A larger wheeled extinguisher of 68 kilograms (150 pounds) and above is available, but is usually found only within petroleum operating areas. Some dry chemical extinguishers today have a powder which is good in controlling Class "A", "B", and "C" fires. This multipurpose ABC powder gives this particular fire extinguisher a good chance of controlling any type of fire involving a wood, a petroleum liquid, or electrical equipment. 11.8.4 Pressurized Water Where a pressurized water system is available on site, the contractor is responsible for supplying hoses and nozzles. Since most fires at construction sites involve Class "A" materials, they can be fought with water. Charged water hoses, ready for use, are a necessity. If there is no permanent system installed at a particular location, a water tanker and portable water extinguishers will have to be supplied in order to take care of any Class "A" fires.

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11.9

Reporting a Fire
Every fire, including those extinguished by contractor personnel, should be reported to the Saudi Aramco representative. The Fire Protection Unit will inspect the area, to offer suggestions for preventing a recurrence, and to ensure the contractor has re-established his fire fighting capability by recharging extinguishers or replacing equipment. The emergency telephone number used for reporting a fire or any emergency that requires Saudi Aramco assistance is 110. The contractor must ensure that this number is posted at all telephones and that instructions are placed indicating how to report the emergency correctly.

11.10

End-of-Shift Checks
A routine inspection shall be made at the end of the working day to see that everything is left in a safe condition. The following itemized checklist shall be followed: • • • • • Clean-up and removal of rubbish and waste materials. Switch off electrical equipment at the mains. Separate circuits should be provided for security lights and other equipment that has to be left turned on. Cover valuable equipment to protect it against dirt and against the effects of water that might be used in an emergency. Make a special check of smoking areas, hot equipment, welding areas, etc. to be sure there is no possibility of delayed ignition resulting in a fire. Return flammable liquids and gas cylinders to designated storage areas.

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FIGURE I.9: KNOW YOUR FIRE EXTINGUISHER

MAINTENANCE: Maintenance should comprise of a monthly check by proponent organization - Check extinguisher is in correct location, access is unobstructed and extinguisher is clearly visible. Check contents gauges, where fitted, indicate extinguisher is serviceable. Check for signs of leakage, corrosion, or physical damage. Check seals are unbroken and up to date inspection tag is fitted. If in doubt, contact your local fire control unit.

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12.0 RADIO COMMUNICATIONS
In a widespread area such as that covered by Saudi Aramco operations, it is not cost effective to lay down telephone lines and establish subsidiary installations for communication. It is more feasible to develop a radio communications network instead. The continuous development of the Saudi Aramco radio communications system has enabled us to convey messages to the most remote corner of the Company's operational area. This section is mainly concerned with the two-way radio network which is installed in vehicles, offices, outlying plants and allied facilities. This network is extensively used by many employees in their day-today business. Standard procedures must be followed in these radio operations. INSTRUCTIONS AND STANDARDS Saudi Aramco General Instructions: GI 70.500 GI 80.500 GI 1600.003 GI 1601.002 GI 1602.001 GI 1602.002 GI 1602.003 GI 1603.001 Disaster Contingency Plan - Dhahran Area Disaster Control - Refinery and Terminal - Ras Tanura Destruction Of Obsolete/Damaged, Unneeded Communication Equipment Radio Asset Control And Accountability Program (RACAP) Residential Telephone Service Business Telephone Service Inside Aramco Communities And Facilities Business Telephone Service Outside Aramco Communities And Facilities Data Circuits, Message Switch And Facsimile Terminals

See also OIMs, RIMs, and TIMs. No. 525.001 Disaster Control Plan - Plants and Pipelines Department - Abqaiq Producing and Udhailiyah Producing Divisions (also in Saudi Aramco GI Manual) Disaster Control Plan - Safaniya (also in Saudi Aramco GI Manual) Disaster Control Plan - Udhailiyah Area Disaster Control Plan - Qurayyah Seawater Treatment Plant

No. 85.001 No. 554.001 No. 554.002

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Radio Telephone Procedure Guide: Communications Department - Dhahran

12.1

Equipment
There are a minimum of three types of radio sets used in the Saudi Aramco network today: the mobile radio set, the stationary radio set with remote control, and the portable hand radio set. 12.1.1 Remote Control Unit The remote control units located in offices are used to control radio equipment at some other location. The unit controls used by operating personnel are the volume control, hand set switch, and the frequency switch. All other controls must be set by technical personnel.

12.2

Safe Operation
Adjustment of equipment must always be carried out by authorized personnel. Unauthorized tampering with equipment can result in electric shock or equipment malfunction leading to circuit interference. Under certain circumstances, radio waves can cause ignition of electric blasting caps. Radio equipment must be shut down within 91 meters (100 yards) of any blasting operations or where electric detonators are used or stored. Water Damaged Equipment: Vehicle drivers and maintenance personnel are requested to exercise great caution when washing vehicles containing radio equipment.

12.3

Radio Phrases
AFFIRMATIVE: This means Yes BREAK: The work BREAK means the message will continue, but due to the length of the message the operator will break the circuit to allow the reception of EMERGENCY messages. CORRECTION: This means that An error has been made; the correct message is ... DISASTER: When used on Company communications systems, DISASTER warns all operators that a sudden misfortune has occurred, causing either loss of life, property, fire, or a combination of the three. All operators must stop transmitting unless involved in the disaster and should standby unless told to transmit by Disaster Control or the Disaster Control Post. DISASTER DRILL: This is an exercise for training personnel to handle disaster situations. HOW DO YOU READ?: This means that the operator is trying to determine if the message is being received well.

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MAYDAY: This is an international radio distress signal which is primarily intended for ships and aircraft requiring assistance to save human lives or property. NEGATIVE: This means No. OUT: An operator using the word OUT at the end of a transmission indicates that he is finished with the communications circuit and any other station may begin its call. OVER: This means that the transmission of a message has ended, but one station is waiting for the other to transmit. OVER AND OUT: Do not use this phrase. PRIORITY TRAFFIC: This is a message having preferential rating over the routine. The expression "I have priority traffic" means the operator has listened to the messages being transmitted and has determined that his message is of greater urgency. READ BACK: This means that the operator wants to make sure that his message has been correctly understood. RESUME TRAFFIC: All stations are free to transmit routine messages. ROGER: This means that the operator has received and understood the message and accepts responsibility to carry out any instructions therein. SAY AGAIN: Do not use the word "repeat". If a message is to be repeated, the operator shall instruct the station to "say again your message". SAY EVERY WORD TWICE: This phrase is used when the operator is having trouble understanding, and wants each word said twice. SPEAK SLOWLY: This phrase is used mostly in cases where technical difficulties are causing the circuit to cut in and out. STANDBY: Any or all operators told to STANDBY shall cease further use of the communications circuit until further notice. TRAFFIC: The information or signals transmitted over a communications systems. URGENT TRAFFIC: A message requiring the attention of all operators. VERIFY: Check with originator and make certain the message is correct.

12.4

Phonetic Alphabet
In a radio message, some letters of the alphabet are likely to be confused with others: as "B" with "P" and "D" with "T". A standardized international phonetic alphabet for radio operators is in use to clear up such ambiguities. Whenever a word is not properly understood by the receiver, it is advantageous to utilize the Phonetic Alphabet. For example, an operator intends to make clear "ABQAIQ". He will spell it out like this: "A" as in "ALPHA"; "B" as in "BRAVO"; "Q" as in "QUEBEC"; "I" as in "INDIA"; and, so on. Use the phonetic alphabet which is listed which follows:

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PHONETIC ALPHABET

Letter A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

Word ALPHA BRAVO CHARLIE DELTA ECHO FOX-TROT GOLF HOTEL INDIA JULIET KILO LIMA MIKE NOVEMBER OSCAR PAPA QUEBEC ROMEO SIERRA TANGO UNIFORM VICTOR WHISKEY X-RAY YANKEE ZULU

Pronunciation AL fah BRAH vo CHAR lee DELL ta ECK oh FOKS trot GOLF hoh TELL IN dee ah JEW lee ETT KEY loh LEE mah MIKE No VEM ber OSS car Pah PAH keh BECH ROW me oh See AIR rah TANG go YOU nee form VIC tor WISS key ECKS ray YANG key ZOO loo

12.5

International Communications Union Agreement
All Company communications systems and networks come under the regulations of the International Communications Union Agreement. The Saudi Arab government is a signatory of the Communications Agreement and a member of the International Telecommunications Union (ITU). Regulations which shall be binding on all members include the operating of telegraph, telephone and radio. Any violation or infringement of any communication system or network shall be reported to the violator's administration by the control organization, stations, or inspectors detecting them. All stations must be established and operated in such a manner as not to result in harmful interference to associated members or members of recognized private operating organizations. NOTE: All stations are forbidden to carry out the following: unnecessary transmissions; the transmissions of superfluous signals; or false (or deceptive) distress, safety, or identification signals. Use of profane or obscene language is a violation of the International Agreement.

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Tampering with equipment is highly dangerous because of the high voltage involved. Adjustments to equipment are only to be made by competent and authorized personnel. Tampering can also cause off frequency operation and other technical problems which are violations of the ITU Agreement. 12.5.1 Monitoring of Circuits Most voice transmissions are transmitted by radio waves and can easily be monitored by outside agencies. It is forbidden to disclose or divulge any information intercepted over the Company communications systems. 12.5.2 Secrecy Act All member nations of the ITU bind themselves to the Secrecy Act which states: "They will take the necessary measures to prohibit and prevent: * The unauthorized interception of radio communications not intended for public use. The divulgence of the contents, simple disclosure of the existence, publication, or any use whatever, without authorization, of information of any nature obtained by the interception of radio or telephone communications."

*

Supervisors should be especially alert for violations of this kind and use maximum disciplinary action toward violators. 12.5.3 Penalties All persons operating the communications systems will be held responsible for any improper operation and will be held subject to disciplinary action.

12.6

Message Priorities for Company Operations
1 2 3 4 5 6 MAYDAY PAN/DISASTER DISASTER DRILL SAFETY SIGNAL (Number 3 Priority - International Frequencies) PRIORITY TRAFFIC ROUTINE

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12.6.1

MAYDAY (Broadcast to all stations) When MAYDAY is spoken three times and followed by the words: "this is (the call station, station identification, or other identification of the mobile station)", indicates that a ship, aircraft, or other vehicle is threatened by grave and imminent danger and requires immediate assistance to save human life or property. The message has absolute priority over all other messages. When the message is heard, all stations shall stop transmitting and listen to the message. The nature of distress may be such that the operator may not be able to complete the message or repeat. International Search and Rescue Monitor Stations shall 'fix' the bearings of the signal and alert ships and aircraft in the area to assist with the rescue. All persons operating radio equipment must be thoroughly acquainted with this type of priority message.

12.6.2

URGENCY SIGNAL (International PAN; Company DISASTER) This message is usually directed to a particular station. PAN/DISASTER, when spoken three times and followed by the words: "This is (the call sign or station identification)", indicates that the station has a critical emergency concerning injury, oil operations or other extreme operating situation. Messages of this nature carry priority over all messages except MAYDAY. Company operators use the word DISASTER. Within Company operations DISASTER has the same priority as the word PAN for those operating on international circuits or frequencies.

12.6.3

DISASTER DRILL At various times the Company conducts training exercises which are associated with familiarization and indoctrination programs. At the beginning of such a drill, radio stations will announce "A DISASTER DRILL is being conducted", followed by the name of the area. When a DISASTER DRILL is in progress, all stations whether mobile or fixed must standby, except those having MAYDAY, URGENCY, or DISASTER messages. The difference between DISASTER and DISASTER DRILL must be thoroughly understood.

12.6.4

SAFETY SIGNAL No. 3 Priority - International Frequencies This need only be understood by those operating on international circuits or frequencies. The French pronunciation of SECURITE will be spoken three times and followed by the station identification. The SAFETY SIGNAL is used

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when a station is going to broadcast a message concerning the safety of navigation or giving important meteorological warnings. 12.6.5 PRIORITY TRAFFIC Repairs to facilities involved in disasters should be classified as PRIORITY TRAFFIC. 12.6.6 ROUTINE All messages except those classified above should be ROUTINE.

12.7

Distress Messages
(Forms and Examples) 12.7.1 MAYDAY 1 Distress Signal The distress signal is MAYDAY, MAYDAY, MAYDAY followed by the name of station or station call letters repeated three times. Give location, first. Give the nature of the distress, second. Give the kind of assistance required. Complete message with any other information which can be of assistance to rescue operations. 2 Stations Receiving Message From the location given, the receiving stations can determine if they are in the immediate vicinity. All stations shall cease transmission. The station in the immediate vicinity shall acknowledge receipt by transmitting the following message: "(Give name of station in distress; repeat three times) - This is the (name of station), Roger, your Mayday Message." This station assumes the full responsibility of a control station for all further radio transmissions and all other stations remain off the air unless directed to transmit by the control station. By virtue of acknowledging the MAYDAY message, the receiving station assumes control and becomes fully responsible. It may use any means at its disposal to carry out the rescue operation.

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3

End of Mayday Distress When the distress traffic has ceased or when silence is no longer necessary on a circuit or frequency which has been used for distress traffic, the control station shall transmit the following message: "To all stations, to all stations, to all stations - This is (control station identification, repeated three times) distress traffic has ended with (station in distress identification). All stations resume normal traffic." The message should be repeated at intervals in order to assure that all stations standing by receive the message. IMPORTANT: The transmission of MAYDAY messages for the purpose of training is not permitted under any circumstances.

12.7.2

Urgency Signal This signal indicates that the calling station has a very urgent message to transmit concerning the safety of a person, ship, or aircraft. 1 Signal Radio operators, operating on international circuits or frequencies, shall be alert for the urgency signal which is PAN, repeated three times followed by the station call letter or identification. The Company equivalent to urgency signal is DISASTER. 2 Response All stations shall cease transmitting and listen to the message that follows. If the stations receiving the message can be of any assistance, they shall acknowledge and render all assistance possible; otherwise, they shall cease transmission until the urgency traffic has been cleared. 3 Procedures All persons operating Company communications equipment shall be familiar with the word DISASTER. When it is heard, they shall cease transmitting until the DISASTER is over. The procedures are outlined in the General Instruction Manual, under Disaster Procedure, Abqaiq, Dhahran, Ras Tanura. 4 Return to Normal When the disaster has ended, the responsible parties outlined in the General Instruction shall clear the radio circuits for normal traffic.

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12.7.3

Priority Traffic Repairs to facilities involved in disasters would be classified as priority traffic and the priority would depend on the situation.

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13.0 TRANSPORTATION
This section outlines the procedures and responsibilities for preventing motor vehicle accidents in Saudi Aramco's jurisdiction. In addition, it sets the standards for driver performance, responsibility, and vehicle maintenance expected of all contractor, service organization and Saudi Aramco drivers. All drivers are expected to drive in a defensive manner and maintain control of their vehicles at all times. INSTRUCTIONS AND STANDARDS Saudi Aramco General Instructions: GI 1183.215 GI 150.002 GI 6.025 GI 6.029 GI 6.030 GI 1321.015 Transporting Explosives in Company Owned/Leased/Rented Motor Transport Vehicles First Aid / CPR Training and First Aid Kits - Remote Areas Control of Remote Area Travel and Search/Rescue Procedures Reporting and Recording Of Motor Vehicle Accidents Traffic and Vehicle Safety Request for Air Medical Evacuation

Driving in Saudi Arabia: A Saudi Aramco guide to safer driving and desert travel. Schedule 'D': Saudi Aramco Safety, Health and Environmental Requirements - Transportation.

13.1

Driver Requirements
All contractors must employ only qualified personnel as drivers of motor vehicles. It is the responsibility of the driver's supervisor, foreman, or superintendent to verify the driver's credentials prior to his employment. It is Saudi Arab Government law and a Company rule, that each person driving a motor vehicle must possess and have on his person a valid Saudi Arab Government driver's license.

13.2

Driver's Responsibilities
13.2.1 It is the responsibility of the driver to ensure that his vehicle is safe to operate. 13.2.2 It is the responsibility of each driver to take his vehicle to the proper facility for servicing and repairs when they are required or scheduled.

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13.2.3 The driver of the vehicle is fully responsible and accountable for the mechanical and physical condition of the vehicle. He must report any damage, beyond normal wear and tear, immediately. 13.2.4 The driver is responsible for transporting materials properly and ensuring that a load does not exceed the manufacturer's design load capacity. All loads must be properly secured and tied down. Materials should not extend over the sides of the truck. Loads extending beyond the front or rear shall be marked with a red flag. Also such loads must be equipped with visible brake and tail lights at their rear end points. 13.2.5 Tires which have breaks in the casing, or with exposed fabric, shall not be used. 13.2.6 Sand tires present a hazard if used on vehicles which are operated at excessive speed especially when they are not properly inflated. It is the driver's responsibility to ensure that Saudi Aramco Transportation Department tire inflation standards are maintained. Proper inflation pressures are posted at the Department's tire shops. 13.2.7 Drivers shall not transport unauthorized persons in Company vehicles. The driver's supervisor shall authorize all passengers in the vehicle. 13.2.8 The driver and all passengers of a Company vehicle shall wear seat belts at all times while the vehicle is in motion. 13.2.9 Drivers have full authority to refuse to transport any passenger who refuses to use seat belts. Conversely, passengers may refuse to ride with a driver who refuses to wear his seat belt. 13.2.10 Passengers shall not be transported in the rear of pickups or on truck beds. 13.2.11 Drivers should not transport more passengers than the number of seat belts provided in the vehicle.

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13.2.12 All drivers shall be familiar with what the Company considers unsafe driving practices and avoid them at all times. The driver must not exceed the posted speed limit. This is the maximum speed allowed in a certain area.. Every driver is expected to reduce his vehicle's speed under hazardous weather or road conditions. (See GI 6.030.)

13.3

Motor Vehicle Regulations: Saudi Arab Government and Saudi Aramco
Each driver shall become familiar with, and abide by, the Saudi Arab Government Traffic Regulations. An English translation of these regulations is available from the Loss Prevention Department. 13.3.1 Where there is no sign post indicating the maximum speed limit, no vehicle may be driven at a speed greater than the following: 1. 100 kilometers per hour for light motor vehicles outside city limits. (See GI 6.030.) 70 km/hr for vehicles with sand tires.

2.

To drive safely, speed must be reduced below the allowable speed limit at night, or during fog, rain or sand storm. 13.3.2 Drivers shall comply with all Saudi Arab Government and Saudi Aramco traffic signs. 13.3.3 All vehicles shall be parked correctly and/or in designated parking areas. Parked vehicles shall not obstruct other vehicles, roadways, accessways or fire hydrants.

13.4

Vehicle Condition
It is the responsibility of the driver to ensure his vehicle is safe to operate. It is the responsibility of the driver to bring the vehicle in for scheduled maintenance. The driver is responsible for inspecting a vehicle before operating it to determine if the following items have been provided and are in satisfactory condition: Vehicle Inspection Checklist: 1. The vehicle number, company name, current inspection stickers and license plate (front and back) must be in place.

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2. 3. 4.

Seat belts are mandatory for all vehicle occupants. Two reflective warning triangles should be in each vehicle. Windows and windshield must be clean and free of cracks or damage. The glass must be in good condition. The windows must open and close properly. All lights (high and low beam headlights, tail lights, dash lights, stop lights, turn signal lights, and the rear license plate light) must be in working order. When fog lights (front & rear) and clearance lights have been provided, they must be also be in good working order. All brakes (foot and hand brakes) must be in good working order. Check the foot and hand brake mechanism for correct operation. The automatic transmission must be in good operating condition and should shift into the parking position correctly. Springs and shock absorbers must be in good condition with no alignment or control problems. There should be no excessive movement of the steering wheel and no signs of damage. Steering knobs and loose coverings are prohibited. Tires should have no breaks in the tire casing or exposed fabric and must be inflated to correct air pressure as specified by the Transportation Department. If the treads show any signs of wear like bare patches, this could indicate defective steering, springs and/or shock absorbers.

5.

6.

7.

8.

9.

10.

11.

Check the wheels for rim damage. Make sure the wheels are not buckled or out of alignment and wheel lug nuts are in place and secure on the rim. If the vehicle is fitted with a trailer, the coupling must be intact and working correctly. The trailer should have safety coupling chains, rear brake lights, turn signals, tail lights and rear license plate lights. Make sure that the inside and outside rear view mirrors are clean, adjusted, secured and undamaged. Check that the windshield wiper blades are in good condition, and operate properly. Inspect the rear window wiper, if fitted. The windshield washer should work properly and there should be water in the washer container.

12.

13.

14.

15. 16.

The speedometer should be in good working order. Test the exhaust system by starting up the engine of the vehicle, listening for sounds and spotting any leaks associated with it. Check to see if the tail pipe extends at least three inches from the body of the vehicle. The tail pipe emissions should be released

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from a point where they do not directly come into contact with the driver of the vehicle or its occupants, thereby causing any adverse health affects to any of them. 17. A properly inflated spare tire with a jack and tire wrench must be provided. The tire wrench should be the correct size to fit the wheel nuts of the vehicle. Check the following fluids for leaks and proper levels, especially in hot weather. • • • • • NOTE: Radiator coolant Oil Brake fluid Transmission oil (checked with engine running) Distilled water for the battery The driver should check the radiator coolant level only when the engine is cool. Fluid should be added to the level mark on the overflow expansion tank only if provided.

18.

19. 20.

The vehicle's horn must be operational. Note all damage on the vehicle, process the proper reports and have the damage repaired. You could be charged with a hit and run accident unless you have a police vehicle release for major damage, and back up reports for minor parking lot "dings and scratches". Each driver must conduct a vehicle inspection whenever taking charge of a vehicle and periodically thereafter (at least once a month) to ensure that all systems are operating properly and there is no damage. Passengers will be carried only in the passenger compartment of a vehicle. All vehicle occupants must wear seat belts. Drivers shall insist that all passengers wear seat belts before starting the vehicle. Drivers can receive a moving violation for not adhering to this regulation. Loose materials are to be kept out of the driving compartment. Do not place materials (hard hats, etc.) on rear window shelf.

13.5

Driver Training
The Company conducts driver training courses for Saudi Aramco employees. Details about the courses are available from the On-the-Job Training Unit.

13.6

Enforcement of Safe Driving Practices
The Industrial Security Organization issues "Unsafe Driving Practice Warning" notices. 13.6.1 Saudi Aramco drivers who commit traffic offenses are given penalty points. Repeat offenders may receive disciplinary action. (See GI 6.030.)

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13.6.2 Contractors driving on Saudi Aramco facilities or in the communities are required to abide by all Saudi Aramco and Saudi Arab Government traffic regulations. Offenders will be referred to proponent organizations for appropriate action, including counseling and revocation of driving privileges within Saudi Aramco. For repeat offenders, contract may be reviewed for cancellation.

13.7

Action Taken After a Saudi Aramco Motor Vehicle Accident
All motor vehicle accidents (MVAs) shall be reported to the closest main gate or security control center. This must be done by telephone, radio, or by sending a message with a passing driver. Other procedures in GI 6.029 must then be followed. The Main Gate/Security Control Center telephone numbers are: Dhahran: Ras Tanura: Abqaiq: Udhailiyah: Yanbu: Mubarraz: Abu Ali: Berri: Other procedures as detailed in GI 6.029 must then be followed. 13.7.1 Emergencies In the event of serious injury, fire or hazardous road block caused by an accident on Saudi Aramco facilities, the emergency telephone number 110 should be used. For emergencies occurring off Saudi Aramco facilities, a Main Gate/Security Control Center telephone number can be used (see above). This will allow both the Main Gate/Security Control Center and Medical Controller to be informed and they will ensure that the proper unit will respond to assist. When reporting any accident, make sure the message is understood before hanging up. 13.7.2 Remain at Scene A driver shall not leave the scene of an accident or move his vehicle after an accident unless he needs to take an injured person to a hospital. This is a Saudi Arab Government law and the Traffic Department investigating officer is the only one delegated the authority to release vehicles involved. The Saudi Aramco Government Affairs Representative will advise you of this release. If a damaged vehicle is blocking traffic or is stopped on the highway, reflective triangles must be used to warn approaching traffic of the vehicle's presence. 874-2055 673-5231 572-5291 577-8114 321-4284 577-2344 678-2228 678-7226

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13.8

Passenger Seating and Seat Belts
Passengers shall be transported only in passenger compartments of cars, trucks and buses. The number of passengers being transported in the passenger compartment of a vehicle must not exceed the manufacturer's specifications. Seat belts shall be worn by the driver and passengers in all vehicles except buses with more than 14 seats, where seat belts are only required for drivers.

13.9

Desert Driving
All persons who drive in the desert should study "Driving In Saudi Arabia," the Saudi Aramco guide on safe driving tips and desert travel. It is recommended that the driver have a copy with him in the vehicle. Copies may be obtained from any Loss Prevention area office. In particular, any person who drives in the desert shall ensure that: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. His immediate supervisor knows his destination and route. His vehicle is in good condition with adequate fuel, oil, and water. His vehicle has tools, equipment, and spares for emergency use. He has sufficient food and drinking water to sustain him until rescue, should he be stranded. He is familiar with survival and rescue techniques and procedures. Driver shall pass the off-the-road vehicle test conducted by Saudi Aramco Driver Training Unit before being permitted the use of 4-wheel drive vehicles. Stay With Vehicle A person lost or stranded in the desert must stay with the vehicle as it provides shelter and to make it easier for searchers to locate him. 13.9.2 Sand Tires Sand tires are hazardous to use when they are not properly inflated, when they are driven at high speeds or when the roads are wet. It is the driver's responsibility to ensure the following requirements are met for sand tires: VEHICLE TYPE TIRE S IZE RECOMMENDED TIRE PRESSURE MIN MAX 15 35 15 35 15 35 15 35 15 35 15 35 15 35 15 35

13.9.1

Carryall, 4x4 Pickup, 4x4,1/2 Ton Pickup, 4x4,3/4 Ton Pickup, Crewcab, 4x4, 1 Ton Utility, 4x4,3/4 Ton Utility, Crewcab, 4x4, 1 Ton Stake Truck, 4x4, 1 Ton Welder's Truck, 4x4, 1 Ton

9.00x16 9.00x15 9.00x16 11.00x16 9.00x16 11.00x16 11.00x16 11.00x16

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Maximum speed for sand tires (on hard dry road): • • 70 KPH at maximum sand tire pressure 20 KPH at minimum sand tire pressure

Since sand tires have a larger diameter than standard tires, speedometer readings will not be accurate. Unless the vehicle speedometer has been corrected to account for the oversize tires, the driver should remember that he is traveling approximately 10-15% faster than the speedometer reading.

13.10

Vehicle Admittance to Restricted Areas
Vehicles requiring admittance to a restricted area (e.g. hydrocarbon facilities, refinery and terminal areas) shall be inspected by the Saudi Aramco Transportation Department. Upon successful completion of the inspection, a window sticker is issued for the vehicle. This sticker is valid for three months after which the vehicle must be inspected again. If the vehicle fails inspection, it will not be permitted entry into any restricted area until all deficiencies have been corrected. File form 7575 (Restricted Area Access Sticker Request).

13.11

Operation of Motor Vehicles Within Saudi Aramco Communities
All contractor, service organization and company operated vehicles must be constructed to comply with the Saudi Arabian Traffic Regulations, Saudi Arabian Standards Organization (SASO) and Saudi Aramco rules for the safe operation of motor vehicles while driving within any Saudi Aramco community. 13.11.1 Seat Belts All vehicles shall be equipped with seat belts for each passenger seat in accordance with Saudi Arabian Standards Organization (SASO). 13.11.2 Traffic Regulations All posted speed limits shall never be exceeded and all local traffic signs shall be obeyed.

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14.0 AIRCRAFT OPERATION
This section will deal with both passenger and cargo transportation for which Saudi Aramco aircraft are used. Although some of the safety standards imposed will seem to restrict use, these regulations were designed not only with the safety of the passengers and aircraft cargo in mind, but also for the safety of the aircraft and the crew. INSTRUCTIONS AND STANDARDS Saudi Aramco General Instructions: GI 1310.00 Transportation of Dangerous Articles Onboard Saudi Aramco Aircraft

Aircraft Guidelines For Crew Managers And Aviation Remote Airfield Operations Personnel (February 1988) IATA Dangerous Goods Regulations (33Rd Edition, 1992) US Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 49 Part 175 - "Carriage By Aircraft"

14.1

General Operating Responsibilities
14.1.1 Captain/Pilot The Captain/Pilot is in command of the aircraft at all times and is responsible for the safety of his passengers and cargo. He is the sole judge and will make all decisions in determining if the weather is acceptable for flight or if landing and take off conditions are within Company minimum standards. No one is allowed to "pressure" the pilot into carrying more weight than the pilot states is acceptable. The Captain/Pilot is authorized to follow any course of action which he judges requires immediate decision or action in the interests of safety. 14.1.2 Camp Supervisors All camp supervisors in remote areas will familiarize themselves with all the relevant instructions on the movement of aircraft to and from their areas as detailed in the "Saudi Aramco Aviation Department Policy and Guidelines for Camp Managers". It is to the mutual advantage of the user department and the pilots of the Aviation Department that rules of Aviation Safety be reviewed and applied to all operations in remote areas. Complete cooperation and understanding between pilots and camp supervisors is essential for the safe and efficient operation of all inbound and outbound aircraft.

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14.2

Passenger Briefing/Instructions, General (All Aircraft Types)
14.2.1 The pilot shall either orally brief his passengers or direct their attention to the aircraft safety instructions. 14.2.2 Passengers should never approach fixed-wing aircraft for boarding from the front, and they must keep well clear of props and engines at all times. 14.2.3 A flight crew member or designated safety observer should monitor passenger movement while they are boarding or leaving an aircraft. 14.2.4 Smoking is prohibited on all Saudi Aramco aircraft and on all ramp and apron areas. 14.2.5 Seat belts must be fastened during all flights. Do not unfasten the seat belt until the aircraft has come to a complete stop and you are instructed to do so. 14.2.6 Passengers will comply with all flight crew or flight attendant instructions. 14.2.7 Ear protection is supplied by Saudi Aramco where appropriate. 14.2.8 All Saudi Aramco aircraft carry US registration. The Company complies with US DOT, FAA, ICAO and KSA President of Civil Aviation (PCA) regulations. Failure to comply with these regulations and instructions could endanger the lives and property of others and could be refused future use of the Saudi Aramco aircraft, termination of service, or prosecution. 14.2.9 Other areas of briefing may include the use and handling of special material or equipment which must be declared and will be shipped only at the Captain's discretion.

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14.2.10 In the event of forced landing, the pilot and passengers will stay with the aircraft. The Captain will direct rescue/survival activities. The Aviation Department will conduct a day and night search for the disabled aircraft.

14.3

Transportation of Dangerous Goods
Saudi Aramco complies with the provisions of ICAO regulations as published in the IATA Dangerous Goods Regulations. All shippers and passengers intending to transport dangerous goods on Saudi Aramco aircraft are required to be familiar with and comply with the IATA Regulations. Further requirements are contained in GI 1310.00. Any questions on Dangerous Goods Transport should be addressed to Central Area Loss Prevention Department, Aviation Safety Officers, or the Terminal Supervisor of the nearest Saudi Aramco airfield terminal.

14.4

Hours of Operation for Single-Engine Helicopters
Normal hours of single-engine helicopter operations are from sunrise to 30 minutes before sunset. A helicopter is required to be at its final destination no later than 30 minutes before sunset. By permission from the area supervisor, a helicopter may fly overland up to 30 minutes after sunset if warranted by extenuating circumstances. Operations may also authorize short flights to continue until sunset if rescue facilities are immediately available.

14.5

General Precautions for Helicopters
No loose clothing should be worn which may entangle on any aircraft surface or impede egress or flotation in any way. All persons shall approach the helicopter from the front in full view of the pilot. Never walk around the rear of the helicopter. Hold onto your headgear when approaching aircraft. Carry long objects below waist level. When visibility is reduced by dust or other conditions, personnel shall exercise special caution to keep clear of the main and stabilizing rotors. 14.5.1 Life Vests In the event of a forced landing at sea, the float gear is capable of supporting the helicopter. Life vest must be worn on all over-water flights. Only the vests provided in the helicopter should be used.

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II. General And Civil

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1.0 WORK PERMIT SYSTEM
The Work Permit System incorporates procedures commonly used in industrial facilities to ensure that necessary communication takes place and hazards are controlled. Saudi Aramco's restricted areas are potentially hazardous. However, knowledgeable people using proper procedures can perform work tasks efficiently and safely. The Saudi Aramco work permit procedure is important in maintaining a safe work environment and is a requirement for all Saudi Aramco jobs in restricted areas. INSTRUCTIONS AND STANDARDS Saudi Aramco General Instructions: GI 2.100 GI 2.708 GI 2.711 GI 6.012 Work Permit System Gas Testing Procedures Fire & Safety Watch Isolation, Lockout And Use Of Hold Tags

Power Distribution Instruction: No. 3.0 Definitions of Terms and Approved Abbreviations

No. 10.0 Power Distribution Operations No. 11.0 Hold Orders, Clearances and Permission to Test

1.1

Definitions
1.1.1 Restricted Areas Restricted areas are those areas or activities which have been designated by department managers as requiring the work permit system. These include (but are not limited to) all areas where hydrocarbons, flammable liquids or gases, or oxidizing agents are handled, stored, piped, or processed in significant quantities; and critical non-hydrocarbon operations. The following are examples of restricted areas: petroleum processing plants; pump stations; tank farms; loading piers; hydrocarbon pipelines; oil wells; gas plants; specified locations on marine vessels; gasoline service stations; areas where explosives and industrial X-ray or radioactive materials are used or stored; work areas under or near power lines; confined space entry; and material supply storage areas.

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1.1.2

Issuer (Operation Supervisors) Operation supervisors are those supervisors who are certified by their division or department head to issue and approve work permits in restricted areas under their supervision.

1.1.3

Receiver (Authorized Craftsmen) Authorized craftsmen are the craft supervisors, craftsmen, or others who have been certified by their division or department head to sign and receive work permits in the case of Company employees and by sponsoring organization heads in the case of contractors.

1.1.4

Work Permit There are four work permits: 1 Release of Hazardous Liquids or Gases, Form 924-1 (yellow) This form is required when opening lines or vessels that may release hazardous or toxic materials. 2 Hot Work, Form 924-2 (red) This form is required when using spark or flame producing equipment and for vehicle entry into a restricted area. 3 Cold Work, Form 924-3 (blue) This form is for work that will not produce sufficient energy to ignite flammable atmospheres/materials. 4 Confined Space Entry, Form 924-4 (green) This form is required for tank cleaning, tank inspection, work in sewers or excavations of 4 feet or deeper. All work in restricted areas must have at least one of the listed work permits. Work must be performed according to the instructions and precautions specified in the work permit.

1.2

Issuance and Approval
The authorized receiver (authorized craftsman) must request a work permit from a certified issuer (operation supervisor) before doing any work in a restricted area. The issuer will grant the work permit after he has visited the site with the receiver, reviewed the hazards applicable to the particular job, and is satisfied that the work can be done safely. If the work contemplated involves any change, addition, or deletion in the facility, the work should be reviewed by an engineer and appropriate authorization is necessary.

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Both the issuer and the receiver must hold valid work permit certificates issued by Saudi Aramco. 1.2.1 Power Distribution Department Clearances Power Distribution Department (PDD), issues clearances to enable work to be accomplished on high voltage electrical apparatus that has been de-energized and isolated from the power system in an approved manner. These clearances are issued by PDD dispatchers in addition to any work permits that are required. Usually clearance receivers are PDD employees. Non-PDD employees and contractors should request PDD Electric System operators for assistance. The following instructions apply to PDD clearances: PDD 3.0: PDD 10.0: PDD 11.0: Definitions of Terms and Approved Abbreviations Power Distribution Operations Hold Orders, Clearances and Permission to Test

1.3

Precautions
1.3.1 Checklist Each permit contains a checklist of precautions against common hazards. Such a list cannot include precautions against all hazards. It is the duty of both the issuer and the receiver to review the job, anticipate what hazards might arise, check for flammable gases in the area and see that proper precautions have been specified on the permit before it is signed. 1.3.2 Clear Area One specific precaution applying to all work is to clear the area of people not required for the job to avoid their being exposed to unnecessary hazards. If people enter an area where they could be exposed to undue danger, the work should be stopped until they are cleared from the area. 1.3.3 Work Stoppage If conditions change or become unsafe during the course of work, the issuer or local supervisor may stop the work and cancel the permit. The receiver has the responsibility to stop the work and advise the issuer or supervisor any time he feels the safety of the job does not meet the conditions of the work permit.

1.4

Handling of Issued Work Permit
A work permit is valid for only one shift, but it may be extended for one additional shift with proper approval. Exceptions in excess of 16 hours may be granted in special cases, provided certain precautions are taken. (See GI 2.100 for details.) The receiver of the work permit must keep the permit posted at the job location at all times.

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The receiver of a work permit must keep a copy in his possession or within view of the job site for the duration of the job, so that it may be presented upon request. If the receiver leaves the job site, he shall give the permit to a responsible senior crew member to keep until he returns. The issuer, receiver and the senior crew member must sign the work permit transferring the work permit to the senior crew member.

1.5

Closing Out and Filing the Permit
When the job is completed or at the end of the shift, each work permit must be closed out by both issuer and receiver. The only exception shall be when the distance and remoteness make signing impractical, and it is so stated when the work permit is issued. The work permit will be filed and kept by the issuing department for three months.

1.6

Certification
In order for a person to be a certified receiver of work permits, he must attend the work permit Receivers Course conducted by the Loss Prevention Department and pass a test on work permit System (GI 2.100) given at the end of the course. The superintendent of the construction organization will assure Saudi Aramco by his signature that his employee knows both the general instruction and his job. Contact the local Loss Prevention office for work permit certification information. Records of current certificate holders, with their names and the dates issued, must be kept by each superintendent or organization head.

1.7

12 Rules on Work Permit Procedure
(See below)

1.8

Hold Tags and Multiple Lockouts
1.8.1 Instructions contained in GI 6.012 outline the use of tagging and lockout for controllers which are to be held inoperative or for work clearance. The purpose for the Lockout System is to render controllers inoperative, i.e., circuit breakers, disconnect switches, valves, etc. on any systems (electrical, steam, hydrocarbon, water, acid, etc.), where the operation of the control device could be hazardous to personnel working on the system. Hold tags and locks are primarily intended to protect the individual doing the work from being injured by an inadvertent start-up. Work permit issuers and operations supervisors shall ensure that hold tags and lock outs are used and so noted on the work permit. The use of hold tags/lock outs shall be strictly enforced.

1.8.2

1.8.3

1.8.4

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TWELVE RULES ON WORK PERMIT PROCEDURE 1) 2) Issuer and receiver must inspect job site together before signing the work permit. Issue the correct permits for the job - hot, cold, vessel or confined space entry, and/or gas release. Two or more permits may be required for the job. Issuer and receiver must both have in their possession a valid work permit certification card (issuer and receiver respectively). J-W Sniffer gas test and/or H S gas test and/or oxygen analysis test must be made before 2 issuing work permit. Job description and equipment used must be clearly stated on the work permit. Be specific, issue permits for a single pump, drum, etc. All tick boxes must be correctly filled in and gas readings indicated. Proper lockouts, hold tags, and blinds must be used where applicable (multiple clips with lock, and/or chains with padlocks). Work permits should be issued for the specific period of time required to complete the job. To extend time work permit beyond one shift, the oncoming shift issuer must inspect job site, write in extended time and sign permit. Special precautions such as requirements for fire watch, Scott air packs, life lines, barricades, etc. must be written on the permit. The work permit must remain on the job site in a conspicuously visible place while work is going on. If an emergency develops, the permit must be withdrawn immediately and all work stopped without questions. The work permit must be closed out after a job is completed. Issuer and receiver must inspect the job site and sign off the work permit.

3)

4)

5)

6) 7)

8) 9)

10)

11)

12)

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LOCK OUT AND TAG Workers may be injured while working on equipment when the controls have not been locked and tagged in the off position. People do make mistakes and start equipment on which maintenance men are working; vibrations and ineffective mechanisms can cause controls to move or valves to open. Protection is simple: lock the control in the off position and prevent an accident. Saudi Aramco has special rules requiring the use of locks on switches and controls when it would be unsafe to work on an energized or operating system. Each supervisor of operations and maintenance should know the rules in GI 6.012 - Isolation, Lock Out and Use of Hold Tags. When more than one man is going to work on a system or on a number of pieces of equipment within the system, the multiple lockout clip enables each man to lock out the circuit or machine control. If your man can't get his lock on the clip, work should not proceed until a suitable clip is found. Clips may be ordered under stock number 21-350-487; locks under stock number 08-323-261; tags under stock number 39-378419. Locks belonging to contractor personnel must have one key only and should be compatible with the Saudi Aramco system. Contractors will establish their own lock issuing procedure complete with logging and a numbering system. Note: Contractors are required to establish a lock out and TAG system compatible with the Saudi Aramco system as part of the contractor Loss Prevention Program plan requirements of Schedule 'D'.

Tags are useful to tell who is working on the equipment and who authorized the shutdown. Teach your men the lockout procedure and insist they follow it.

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FIGURE II.1: HOLD TAG

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FIGURE II.2: LOCKOUT CLIP (TYPICAL)

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2.0 EXCAVATIONS, TRENCHING AND SHORING
Accidents due to cave-in can occur for excavations which are not shored or otherwise supported. Even rock that looks solid from a cursory inspection can collapse without warning. The sides of an excavation may need to be suitably shored, benched or sloped back to a safe angle of repose, depth, and soil composition. Other types of excavation accidents are caused by contact with underground pipes and cables, by falls of equipment and persons, by persons being struck by excavating equipment, and by hazardous atmospheres. INSTRUCTIONS AND STANDARDS Saudi Aramco General Instructions: GI 1021.000 Street and Road Closure, Excavation Reinstatement and Traffic Controls (See Appendix D) Work Permit System

GI 2.100

Saudi Aramco Engineering Standard: SAES -A-111 Borrow Pit Requirements

OSHA Safety And Health Standards: 29 CFR 1926 Subpart P

Excavations

DEFINITIONS: 1. Excavation Any man-made cavity or depression in the earth's surface, including its sides, walls, or faces, formed by earth removal and producing unsupported earth conditions by reason of the excavation. 2. Trench Excavation A narrow excavation made below the surface of the ground. In general, the depth is greater than the width, but the width of a trench is not greater than 4.5 meters (15 feet). 3. Accepted Engineering and Construction Practices Plans for excavations and protective system methods shall be submitted to Loss Prevention before work start up.

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4.

Protective Systems Methods used to protect employees from cave-ins, from materials that could fall or roll into the excavation onto the workers or from collapse of adjacent structures. Protective systems include supports, sloping and benching, shields and other means to protect workers.

5.

Shoring Hydraulic, timber or mechanical systems that support the sides of an excavation, designed to prevent cave-ins.

6.

Hydraulic Shoring A pre-engineered support system of aluminum hydraulic cylinders (cross-braces) used with vertical rods (uprights) or horizontal rods designed specifically to support side walls of an excavation to prevent cave-in.

7.

Benching A method of protecting employees from cave-ins by excavating the sides of an excavation to form one or a series of horizontal steps, with a vertical rise between steps.

8.

Sloping A method of excavating in which the sides of an excavation are laid back to a safe angle to prevent cave-ins. (The safe angle required varies with different types of soil, exposure to the elements and superimposed loads. There is no single angle of repose. Soil classification must be identified to select safe sloping and benching methods.)

9.

Soil Classification System A method of categorizing soil and rock deposits as types A, B, and C in decreasing order of stability. Soil type is determined by analysis of the soil's properties and how it performs under exposure to the elements and superimposed loads. Type A: Cohesive soils with an unconfined compressive strength of 1.5 ton per square foot (tc) (144kPa) or greater are classified as Type A. Examples of cohesive soils are: clay, silty clay, sandy clay, clay loam and in some cases, silty clay loam and sandy clay loam. Cemented soils such as caliche and hardpan are also considered Type A. However, no soil is Type A if one or more of the following conditions are true: (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) The soil is fissured. The soil is subject to vibration from heavy traffic, pile driving, or similar effects. The soil has been previously disturbed. The soil is part of a sloped, layered system where the layers dip into the excavation on a slope of four horizontal to one vertical (4H:1V) or greater.

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(v)

The material is subject to other factors that would require it to be classified as a less stable material.

Type B: Soils classified as Type B are: (i) Cohesive soils with an unconfined compressive strength greater than 0.5 tsf (48 kPa) but less than 1.5 tsf (144 kPa). (ii) Granular cohesionless soils including angular gravel (similar to crushed rock), silt, silt loam, sandy loam and, in some cases, silty clay loam and sandy loam clay. (iii) Previously disturbed soils except those which would otherwise be classed as Type C soil. (iv) Soil that meets the unconfined compressive strength or cementation requirements for Type A, but is fissured or subject to vibration. (v) Dry rock that is not stable. (vi) Material that is part of a sloped, layered system where the layers dip into the excavation on a slope less steep than four horizontal to one vertical (4H:1V) but only if the material would otherwise be classified as Type B. Type C: Soils classified as Type C are: (i) Cohesive soils with an unconfined compressive strength of 0.5 tsf (48 kPa) or less. (ii) Granular soils including gravel, and loamy sand. (iii) Submerged soil or soil from which water is freely seeping. (iv) Submerged rock that is not stable. (v) Material in a sloped layered system where the layers dip into the excavation or a slope of four horizontal to one vertical (4H:1V). 10. Trench Boxes: A structure that is able to withstand the forces imposed on it by cave-ins, and in the process, protects employees inside the structure. (Plans for trench boxes are to be submitted to Loss Prevention.)

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2.1

Before Work Starts
In order to begin excavation work with minimum risk to men, plant and equipment and to enable the work to proceed without interruption, the following factors must be considered well before the job starts: 1.) 2.) 3.) 4.) 5.) 6.) 7.) 8.) 9.) Size and purpose of the excavation. Nature of the ground including the proximity of made-up ground. Stability of adjacent structures. Position of underground obstructions such as pipes, electric cables, and other utilities. Weather and soil moisture conditions, especially high water table. Sources of soil vibrations (highway traffic, railroads, machinery, etc.). Adjacent roads and footpaths. Method of excavation. Excavation plan submitted to Loss Prevention.

Consideration of these factors will indicate the safety measures which must be implemented to proceed with the job and whether the sides of the excavation can be sloped and benched to a safe angle or whether other protective systems will be required. It is important to provide adequate and suitable protective systems for use whenever excavation work is to be carried out to a depth of 1.5 meters (5 feet) or more. Excavation work to a depth of less than 1.5 meters (5 feet) may also require protective systems.

2.2

Work Permit
Work permits must be obtained from the appropriate operations supervisor before excavation work is started in any Saudi Aramco facility, including residential areas and roadways, and in any place where the presence of underground/utility obstructions is known or suspected. Outside of clearly defined responsibility areas, work permits shall be obtained from the Superintendent, Utilities and the Communications Foreman, Oil and Gas Dispatch Unit or their delegated representatives. A Confined Space Entry Work Permit is a second work permit and is required for trenches deeper than 1.2 meters (4 feet). (See GI 2.100 for work permit requirements.) All protective shoring systems and configurations, such as timber shoring, hydraulic and pneumatic systems, sloping, benching, shielding, sheet piling and freezing must be designed in accordance with Saudi Aramco Loss Prevention requirements. Excavation plans must be submitted to Loss Prevention before work start up. 2.2.1 Excavation near Saudi Telephone Cables To avoid disruptions of service and unnecessary costs which result from the accidental cutting of Government telephone cables by contractors working on Saudi Aramco projects, proponents should urge their contractors to inquire about the location of such cables prior to excavation. Contractors may contact the Saudi Telephone Cable Locator Division on telephone no. 843-3247 during normal Government working hours or telephone no. 906 at any hour. Subsequently, they may be required to submit a written application to the Saudi Telephone Cable Locator Division providing a site plan of the proposed excavation and stating when it will be done. Contractor letters may be addressed to the Director, Dammam Area Communications, Ministry of Telegraph Post and Telephone, Dammam.

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Saudi Aramco proponent inquiries may be addressed to the Contractor Liaison Division of Government Affairs, telephone 874-1461 (Corporate Advisor, Contractor Liaison/GAO).

2.3

Underground Obstructions
Whenever the presence of underground pipes, cables, vessels, or structures is known or suspected, mechanical excavators shall not be used until all such obstructions have been exposed by hand digging. Mechanical excavators shall not be used within 3 meters (10 feet) of any such obstruction. Pneumatic breakers shall only be used where necessary to break concrete or other hard surfaces.

2.4

General Precautions
2.4.1 Shoring Protective Systems As soon as an excavation reaches a depth of 1.2 meters (4 feet) or soil banks are greater than 1.5 meters (5 feet), suitable shoring shall be installed or the sides sloped back to a safe angle. Shoring may be of timber or any other suitable material, such as steel sheet piling. The determination of the angle of slopes, benches, (See Figure II.3) or the choice and design of other protective systems shall be based on evaluation of pertinent factors such as: type of soil (Type A, B, or C), depth of cut; possible variations in water content of the material while the excavation is open; anticipated changes in materials from exposure to air, sun, or water; loading imposed by structures, equipment, overlying material, or stored material; and vibrations from equipment, blasting, traffic, or other sources. Excavations shall not be sloped at an angle greater than one and one-half horizontal to one vertical (340 measured from the horizontal). Plans for sloping and benching systems shall be sent to Loss Prevention for review. (See Figures II.3, II.4, II.5.) Shoring systems shall be designed by a qualified person and meet accepted engineering requirements. Materials used shall be in good serviceable condition, and timbers shall be sound, free from large or loose knots, and of p roper dimensions. 2.4.2 Personnel Protection Portable trench boxes or sliding trench shields may be used for the protection of personnel in lieu of a shoring system or sloping. Where such trench boxes are used, the design shall be approved by Saudi Aramco Consulting Services Department. Trench boxes shall be designed, constructed and maintained to provide protection equal to or greater than the sheeting or shoring required. Shields shall be installed in a manner to restrict lateral or other movement of the shield and be capable of withstanding any sudden application of lateral loads.

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Shields shall be extended above the excavation to protect employees working inside the shields and when entering or exiting the areas protected by shields. Employees shall not be allowed inside the shielded areas whenever shields are being installed, removed or moved (see Figure II.7). 2.4.3 Inspection All parts of an excavation, including the shoring, shall be inspected every day by a competent person to ensure that there is no danger of collapse and all observations shall be noted in the site safety log book. 2.4.4 Clearance In order to provide a safe footing at the edge, and to prevent spoil falling into an excavation, a clear space at least 0.6 meter (2 feet) wide shall be maintained on all sides. (See Figure II.8: Guide to Safe Distance Back From Top Of Slope For Storage of Materials / Equipment Placing.) 2.4.5 Mechanical Excavator Men shall not be permitted to work underneath loads or in places where they could be struck by any part of a mechanical excavator. 2.4.6 Walkways Where employees, equipment, or members of the public are required or permitted to cross over an excavation, a close planked bridge or walkway with standard guard rails shall be provided and kept clear of excavated materials or other tripping hazards. No sidewalk shall be undermined unless properly shored.

2.5

Access and Egress
Safe means of getting into and out of an excavation shall be provided at intervals not exceeding 7.5 meters (25 feet). Ladders shall conform to the requirements set out in Section 9.2, be placed at an angle of 75o , and extend at least 0.9 meter (3 feet) above the stepping-off point. Ladders shall be securely fixed.

2.6

Hazardous Atmospheres and Materials
2.6.1 Ventilation Where there is reason to suspect oxygen deficiency or the presence of a hazardous atmosphere in an excavation, gas tests must be carried out by a qualified person. Where necessary, mechanical ventilation shall be used, or other appropriate precautions shall be taken before men enter. Note: Toxic, oxygen and flammable gas tests are to be conducted before entering hazardous excavations in Restricted Areas (as mentioned in GI 2.100).

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2.6.1.1

Hazardous Atmospheres Prior to entry into excavations greater than four feet deep, or confined spaces, a work permit shall be issued. Gas tests shall verify that the oxygen level is 20-21%, combustible gases 0.0 LEL, and H2S is 0 ppm. For elevated levels of gases tested follow requirements of GI 2.100. Corrective measurers may include use of air movers, identification and isolation of sources from fuel lines, sewers, open tanks or other measures to return the breathing atmosphere to normal readings. Subsequent testing is required to monitor the area during the work so appropriate precautions can be taken as necessary. • Precautions shall be taken to prevent employee exposure to an atmosphere containing a concentration of any flammable gas above its lower explosive limit (LEL). For an atmosphere with a concentration of any flammable gas below its lower explosive limit (LEL), use the guidelines given in GI 2.100 (Work Permit System) as shown below: • • • • Above 0.0 LEL - No hot work permitted 0.05 LEL to 0.5 LEL - Breathing apparatus must be used Above 0.5 LEL - No entry permitted

When controls are used that are intended to reduce the level of atmospheric contaminants to acceptable levels, testing shall be conducted as often as necessary to ensure that the atmosphere remains safe.

2.6.1.2

Emergency Rescue Equipment (i) Emergency rescue equipment, such as breathing apparatus, a safety harness and line, or a basket stretcher, shall be readily available where hazardous atmospheric conditions exist or may develop during work in an excavation. This equipment shall be attended by a standby man outside the trench when in use. (ii) Employees entering bell-bottom pier holes, or other similar deep and confined footing excavations, shall wear a harness with a lifeline attached to it. The lifeline shall be separate from any line used to handle materials, and shall be individually attended at all times while the employee wearing the lifeline is in the excavation. Mechanical devices shall be available to lift incapacitated employees from excavations.

2.6.2

Exhaust Gases Where an internal combustion engine is used in an excavation, special precautions must be taken to ensure that exhaust gases are discharged so as not to be a hazard to men working in the excavation.

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2.6.3

Organic Lead Where the presence of buried organic lead (TEL) sludge, asbestos or any other hazardous chemical is known or suspected, whether in a Restricted Area or not, excavation work shall not be started (or continued) until the Industrial Hygiene Service and Loss Prevention Departments have identified the hazard and specified the precautions to be taken and a new work permit has been issued.

2.7

Edge Protection, Markers and Fixed Lighting
Whenever it is necessary to place or operate power shovels, derricks, trucks, materials, soil banks or other heavy objects on a level above and near an excavation, the side of the excavation shall be sheet-piled, shored, and braced as necessary to resist the extra pressure due to such superimposed loads. When mobile equipment is utilized or allowed adjacent to excavations, substantial stop logs or barricades shall be installed. If possible, the grade should be away from the excavation. If men or vehicles are in the vicinity after dark, fixed warning lights shall be used to mark the limits of the work.

2.8

Roads, Streets, and Sidewalks
Excavation work in roads, streets, and sidewalks shall not be undertaken without the prior approval of the relevant authorities (See Section II.1, Work Permit System). Excavation work on public highways will have to be cleared in advance with Government Affairs and any special measures that they might specify must be implemented (See Section II.8, Roadworks).

2.9

Backfilling
Backfilling and removal of trench supports shall be accomplished first by backfilling up to a level allowing for the removal of the lower braces. Another layer of backfill shall be positioned in the trench to the next layer of braces to be removed. Removal of trench supports shall progress together with the backfill from the bottom of the trench. In unstable soil, ropes shall be used to pull out the jacks or braces from above after employees have cleared the trench. All excavations shall be backfilled and consolidated, and the surface shall be left in good condition as soon as is practicable.

2.10

Borrow Pits
Location of borrow pit boundaries (i.e., residential, industrial plants, sub-stations, highways, etc.) shall be located at the distance noted in SAES -A-111. 2.10.1 A separate traffic flow plan is required to keep pedestrian traffic away from vehicle traffic areas. Traffic is strictly prohibited in borrow pit areas. Signs in Arabic and English shall be posted in roped-off areas, warning personnel to stay out of borrow pits. Dust concentration, noise levels, and security fencing associated with borrow pit operations shall be in accordance with Saudi Aramco Safe Operating Procedures.

2.10.2

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2.10.3

Hydraulic Shoring For Trenches Hydraulic shoring is provided as a method of protection against cave-ins in trenches that do not exceed 20 feet (6.1 m) in depth. Trench depths exceeding 20 feet (6.1 m) require Loss Prevention review. It is not intended that the aluminum hydraulic specifications apply to every situation that may be experienced in the field. These data were developed to apply to the situations that are most commonly experienced in current trenching practice. Situations that are not covered require specific designs for specific applications and will be subject to Loss Prevention review. (See Figures II.9, II.10, II.11, and II.12.)

2.10.4

Timber Shoring For Trenches Timber shoring is provided as a method of protection from cave-ins in trenches that do not exceed 20 feet (6.1m) in depth. Loss Prevention requirements must be used when timber shoring protective systems are designed. (See Figures II.13, II.14, II.15 and II.16.)

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TABLE II.1: MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE S LOPES

SOIL OR ROCK TYPE

MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE SLOPES (H:V) [1] FOR EXCAVATIONS LESS THAN 20 FEET DEEP [3] VERTICAL 3/4 : 1 1:1 1-1/2 : 1 (90O) (53O) (45O) (34O)

STABLE ROCK TYPE A [2] TYPE B TYPE C

NOTES: 1. Numbers shown in parentheses next to maximum allowable slopes are angles expressed in degrees from the horizontal. Angles have been rounded off. A short term maximum allowable slope of 1/2H : 1V (63O) is allowed in excavations in Type A soil that are 12 feet (3.67 m) or less in depth. Short-term maximum allowable slopes for excavations greater than 12 feet (3.67 m) in depth shall be 3/4 H : 1V (53O). Sloping or benching for excavations greater than 20 feet deep shall be reviewed by Loss Prevention. Slope Configurations (All slopes stated below are in the horizontal to vertical ratio)

2.

3.

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FIGURE II.3: EXCAVATIONS MADE IN TYPE A S OIL

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FIGURE II.3A

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FIGURE II.3B

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FIGURE II.4: EXCAVATIONS MADE IN TYPE B S OIL

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FIGURE II.4A

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FIGURE II.5: EXCAVATIONS MADE IN TYPE C S OILS

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FIGURE II.6: EXCAVATIONS MADE IN LAYERED S OILS

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FIGURE II.6A: EXCAVATIONS MADE IN LAYERED S OILS

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FIGURE II.7: EXAMPLES OF TRENCH SHIELDS

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FIGURE II.8: GUIDE TO S AFE DISTANCE BACK FROM TOP OF S LOPE FOR S TORAGE OF MATERIALS OR PLACING EQUIPMENT

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FIGURE II.9: EXAMPLES OF S CREW TRENCH J ACKS

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FIGURE II.10: ALUMINUM HYDRAULIC S HORING TYPICAL INSTALLATIONS

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FIGURE II.11: ALUMINUM HYDRAULIC S HORING Vertical Shores for Soil Type A

Hydraulic Cylinders Width Of Trench Depth of Trench Feet Over 5 up to 10 Over 10 up to 15 Over 15 up to 20 Over 20 Vertical Shores for Soil Type B Maximum Horizontal Spacing 8 8 7 Maximum Vertical Spacing 4 4 4 Up to 8 Over 8 up to 12 2 inch diameter 2 inch diameter 2 inch diameter Over 12 up to 15 3 inch diameter 3 inch diameter 3 inch diameter

2 inch diameter 2 inch diameter 2 inch diameter

Loss Prevention Review

Hydraulic Cylinders Width Of Trench Depth of Trench Feet Over 5 up to 10 Over 10 up to 15 Over 15 up to 20 Over 20 Maximum Horizontal Spacing 8 6.5 5.5 Maximum Vertical Spacing 4 4 4 Up to 8 Over 8 up to 12 2 inch diameter 2 inch diameter 2 inch diameter Over 12 up to 15 3 inch diameter 3 inch diameter 3 inch diameter

2 inch diameter 2 inch diameter 2 inch diameter

Loss Prevention Review

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FIGURE II.12: ALUMINUM HYDRAULIC S HORING WALER S YSTEMS FOR S OIL TYPE B

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FIGURE II.13: EXAMPLE OF TIMBER S HORING PROTECTIVE S YSTEMS

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FIGURE II. 14: TIMBER TRENCH S HORING - MINIMUM TIMBER REQUIREMENTS *

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FIGURE II.15: TIMBER TRENCH S HORING - MINIMUM TIMBER REQUIREMENTS *

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FIGURE II.16: TIMBER TRENCH S HORING - MINIMUM TIMBER REQUIREMENTS *

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3.0 DEMOLITION
Numerous factors must be taken into account before the method of demolition is decided. Of prime importance are the age of the structure, the method of construction, the state of preservation, its previous use, and the surrounding environment. These factors must be known before any planning can begin. Many problems are peculiar to the demolition of tanks, vessels, and ancillary pipe work associated with the oil industry. For instance, many serious accidents have resulted when due consideration was not given to the cleaning and gas-freeing of this equipment before work began. INSTRUCTIONS AND STANDARDS Saudi Aramco General Instructions: GI 2.100 GI 2.711 GI 6.012 GI 8.001 GI 150.001 GI 402.001 Work Permit System Fire and Safety Watch Isolation, Lockout And Use Of Hold Tags Safety Requirements For Scaffolds Asbestos Regulation Operational Chemical Cleaning of Boilers

Refinery Instruction Manual: No. 10.185 Precautions for Working in Leaded Product Tanks

American National Standards Institute: ANSI A 10.6-83 Safety Requirements for Demolition ANSI Z 88.2-80 Standard Practice for Respiratory Protection ANSI Z 117.1-89 Safety Requirements for Working in Tanks and Confined Spaces American Petroleum Institute: API 2217-84 API 2015-91 Guidelines for Confined Space Work in Petroleum Industry Safe Entry And Cleaning Of Petroleum Storage Tanks

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3.1

Before Work Starts
The contractor shall submit a Hazard Identification Plan as a part of his loss prevention program to the Company Representative. All such programs must be reviewed and concurred with by the Loss Prevention Department before start-up. (See Chapter I, Section 1.3.2.) 3.1.1 Responsible Supervisor Before any demolition work is started, a competent supervisor must be appointed in writing as the person responsible for all work on site. The man appointed should be experienced in demolition operations. His duties will include the direct supervision of the work force, ensuring that work permit requirements are met, and liaison with other contractors working in the general area and with operators and construction or maintenance engineers. 3.1.2 Original Drawings The original drawings of the structure to be demolished should be obtained. An examination of them should be made to ascertain whether any major changes from the original construction have been made and where utility connections may be found. 3.1.3 Disconnections All utility services such as electricity, gas, and water must be shut off and the main supplies disconnected outside the line of the demolition work. Tanks, vessels, and paperwork must be completely disconnected from inlet, outlet, and overflow points. 3.1.4 Adjacent Structures and Publ ic Areas Adjacent structures, public buildings, pedestrian walkways, parking lots, etc. shall be protected from demolition debris that can likely cause hazards to the general public. Also, bracing must be installed to insure stability of adjacent structures. 3.1.5 Barricades/Signs Barricades must be erected around the work area. Signs bearing the words "Danger - Demolition in Progress" in Arabic and English must be erected at each approach to the barricade.

3.2

Method of Demolition
The method of demolition to be used should be decided upon in consultation with the Saudi Aramco representative, Loss Prevention and all contractors involved. The re-use of salvage materials should be considered prior to this decision. It should be remembered that the safest and most efficient method is to start at the top and dismantle in the reverse order of construction. There are, however, cases where such a method is impractical or uneconomical and where other methods have to be considered. Any portion of the job which contains asbestos insulation should be cleared under the general procedures (See Section II.4), and Industrial Hygiene Services, Preventive Medicine Services Division, shall be contacted.

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3.2.1

Demolition of Equipment Containing PCB: Polychlorinated Biphenyl (ASKAREL) Before equipment containing or suspected of containing PCB(s) is removed in demolition work, the Loss Prevention Department and the Industrial Hygiene Unit shall be notified to ensure safe procedures are used. Proper personnel protection equipment and disposal systems must be utilized. (See GI 355.004.)

3.2.2

Demolition Of Buildings With Asbestos / Insulation Materials Before demolition of buildings with asbestos and insulation, notify Loss Prevention and Industrial Hygiene Services to ensure safe procedures are followed. Proper personnel protective equipment and disposal systems must be utilized. (See Chapter 4 and GI 150.001.)

3.3

Stability During Demolition
As work progresses, continuing inspections must be made to detect hazards arising through weakened or overloaded floors, unsupported walls, or loose material. Immediate steps shall be taken by bracing or by other means to prevent the premature collapse of the whole or any part of the structure. 3.3.1 Lateral support should not be removed from more than one story of wall at any time before starting to demolish it. When a wall from which support has been removed must be left standing at anytime, including overnight and off-shift work hours, adequate bracing (guying) must be provided to prevent collapse and to guard against wind pressures.

3.4

Working Place Clearance
3.4.1 Access A safe means of access to and egress from all working places must be provided. Work places and the areas around ladders and stairways must be kept clear of material and debris. 3.4.2 Glass Removal Nails in timber must be removed or bent over, or the timber must be stacked where it will not be a source of danger. All glass in windows, doors, partitions, etc. should be completely removed prior to structural demo lition.

3.5

Structural Steel Removal
All steel construction should be demolished column length by column length and tier by tier. A structural member being removed must not be under any stress other than its own weight. Members being cut or dismantled should be chained or lashed in place to prevent uncontrolled swinging or dropping.

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3.6

Tanks, Vessels and Pipe Work (Explosion Prevention)
3.6.1 Welding and Hot Cutting No tank, vessel, or pipe work which has contained explosive or flammable material shall be subjected to welding or hot cutting operation until all steps have been taken to remove the substance and any vapors. When hot cutting is planned, the advice of the area Fire Chief and the Loss Prevention Department should be sought. 3.6.2 Cold Cutting The use of cold cutting techniques for the dismantling of tanks, vessels, and pipe work, can substantially reduce the risk of explosion. Although this is often more costly and laborious, there are times when it is the only safe method which can be used. 3.6.3 Steaming and Ventilation In the case of vessels and tanks up to about 22,712 liters (6000 gallons) capacity, both vapors and residues can usually be removed by steaming out; however, with larger tanks the problems are somewhat different. Because of the high capacity of a large tank, steaming cannot be relied on to volatilize all residues unless very large quantities of steam are available. It is, however, relatively easy to eliminate explosive concentrations of vapor within the tank by forced ventilation using a blower or eductor system approved for hazardous locations. 3.6.4 Residue Cleaning With volatile materials, use of such methods as in 3.6.3 above will rapidly reduce vapor concentrations. With materials less volatile, the main danger lies in the hot cutting setting fire to any residues in the tank. It is, therefore, essential that any residues are removed before work starts.

3.7

Protective Clothing and Equipment
All demolition workers should be provided with and make use of the following protective equipment: 1 2 3 4 5 Safety helmet Goggles Heavy duty gloves Appropriate respiratory equipment (whenever necessary to prevent inhalation of dust and fumes) Safety boots with steel toe caps and preferably with penetrant resistant soles.

Safety belts or harnesses (with lifelines where required) shall be used by men working in isolated or dangerous locations where there is the possibility of them falling and where other preventive measures are impractical.

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3.8

Mechanical Equipment Guards
Mechanical equipment such as cranes and bulldozers should be equipped with wire mesh guards over windows and with solid protection over the driving position so that there is no danger of the operator being struck by flying debris.

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4.0 ASBESTOS AND OTHER FIBERS
Asbestos is the generic name given to a number of naturally occurring inorganic fibrous silicate minerals. Asbestos materials have been widely used in the construction industry and may be present in a number of manufactured products such as cement sheeting, molded insulation, gaskets, ropes, blocks, fire resistant boards, etc. For the purpose of these regulations, asbestos is defined as any of the minerals crocidolite, amosite, chrysotile, fibrous anthophyllite or any mixture containing any of these minerals. The use of asbestos is restricted. At present, the Saudi Aramco Industrial Hygiene Unit must approve the use of asbestos materials, under GI 150.001. INSTRUCTIONS AND STANDARDS Saudi Aramco General Instructions: GI 2.100 GI 8.003 GI 150.001 Work Permit System Breathing Apparatus Asbestos Regulations

American National Standards: ASTM C460-88 Standard Definitions of Terms Relating to Asbestos - Cement

4.1

Types of Asbestos
These exist in two main rock-forming mineral groups: 1) Serpentine group, which includes chrysotile (white asbestos); and, 2) Amphibole group, which includes crocidolite (blue asbestos) and amosite (brown asbestos). These two main groups were the most widely used asbestos minerals. However, fibrous anthophyllite has also been used in industry in a few applications. Chrysotile was commonly used as the reinforcing material in asbestos-cement products. Because crocidolite has high resistance to acids, it has been extensively used in chemical plants. Due to the superior heat resistance of amosite it has been used principally for the manufacture of fire-resistant insulation boards. The majority of asbestos products has been made of white asbestos, but some products contain blue asbestos (crocidolite). Of the asbestos products manufactured blue asbestos has the higher health risk. Blue asbestos can usually be recognized by its dark lavender blue color; however, its presence could be masked by other materials. Since prolonged exposure to heat, as would be the case with boiler or hotpipe lagging, may change the characteristic blue color of crocidolite to a white or fawn color.

4.2

Health Risks
Over a period of time, breathing asbestos dust can cause asbestosis (scarring of the lung), which may go undetected for years after exposure. All forms of asbestos are capable of causing asbestosis. The most important factors in the development of the disease are the amount of dust to which the individual is exposed, duration of exposure, and the personal susceptibility of the individual to the asbestos fiber. In addition, asbestos fibers can

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penetrate the skin, causing small tumors, warts, or corns. These asbestos tumors are usually found on the palms or fingers. They may not be cured unless every minute fiber is removed. The maximum allowable concentration of airborne asbestos dust shall not exceed 0.2 asbestos fibers longer than five microns in length per cc of air on a time-weighted average (TWA) exposure for an eight-hour work day.

4.3

Before Work Starts
The contractor shall submit a Hazard Identification Plan to Loss Prevention Department and to the Industrial Hygiene Service, Preventive Medicine Services Division for review and concurrence prior to job start-up, when removing or using asbestos materials. (See Administration I, Section 1.3.4.) Unless approved of in advance by the Industrial Hygiene Unit, asbestos products shall not be used in new construction. 4.3.1 Air Sampling Where the contractor knows that some part of an operation requires the use or removal of asbestos materials, he must notify, in writing, the Industrial Hygiene Services, Preventive Medicine Services Division. When informed, the Industrial Hygiene Services will take random samples of air at the point of operation during the working period. Bulk samples may be sent for the analysis and identification of asbestos to either Industrial Hygiene Services or to the Laboratories Department. 4.3.2 Job Details The contractor shall then inform the Industrial Hygiene Services of details of the work involved, the number of persons employed, the anticipated duration of the operation, the type of asbestos being used, and the type of equipment being used to work the asbestos material. 4.3.3 Chest X-rays It is the contractor's duty to ensure that each man employed on asbestos work be given a chest X-ray prior to commencement of the job and thereafter at two-year intervals. Detailed records shall be kept by the contractor of all persons employed in the process. These records shall be available to Saudi Aramco upon request.

4.4

Storage and Transportation
All asbestos materials removed from or used on a job shall be stored in an approved container at all times. For new construction, only that amount of asbestos material that is immediately required for the operation shall be moved to the work area. Approved containers shall be used during the transportation of asbestos materials. All such containers that contain asbestos shall be clearly marked in English and Arabic: "Caution: Health Hazard - Contains Asbestos".

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4.5

Work Area
The work area shall be clearly defined and where feasible roped off and notices displayed warning persons of the presence of asbestos dust. Signs shall be posted at all approaches to the work area. These signs shall be posted at readily visible locations near work areas and these notices shall read in both English and Arabic:

Caution: ASBESTOS HEALTH HAZARD
Respirator and protective overalls must be worn when entering this area. Only persons directly concerned with the operation shall be permitted inside the area.

4.6

Handling and Use
4.6.1 Wetting/Ventilation The handling, mixing, applying, removing, cutting, and spraying of asbestos materials shall be done in a wet state so as to prevent the emission of harmful fibers in excess of allowable concentration. Before removing asbestos cement mortar, coating, grouting, plaster, or similar material containing asbestos from bags, cartons, or shipping containers, the material shall be wetted or enclosed, or the operation shall be carried out under total exhaust ventilation. Work practices for using or removing asbestos are given in Section 4, GI 150.001. 4.6.2 Cutting Shearing or punching shall be used in preference to sawing or drilling of asbestos. Where it is necessary to cut or saw materials containing asbestos using hand or power tools, it shall be done in a separate cordoned off area with an approved exhaust and dust collection system. 4.6.3 Protective Equipment Protective equipment shall be required for all instances where asbestos is used regardless of ventilation, wetting, etc.

4.7

Protective Clothing
4.7.1 Types The contractor shall provide approved disposable overalls, head covering, foot protection, and gloves to prevent any airborne asbestos fibers from coming into contact with the body.

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The contractor shall provide a sufficient amount of clothing to each employee working with asbestos to ensure that a complete change of clean protective clothing is available for the start of each shift. 4.7.2 Contamination At the end of each shift, contaminated personal protective equipment shall be collected and disposed of in accordance to GI 150.001. Under no conditions shall contaminated clothing be worn from the work site. Employees shall be careful to prevent contamination of street clothes from work clothes. Asbestos-contaminated clothes shall be packed and carried in sealed impermeable bags or containers and disposed of in accordance to Section 6, GI 150.001. 4.7.3 Review The Loss Prevention Department and Industrial Hygiene Services shall review the types and applications of contractor's protective clothing for its' acceptability to Saudi Aramco.

4.8

Respiratory Equipment
Where there is an unavoidable emission of asbestos dust, the contractor shall supply a respirator approved by Industrial Hygiene Services and Loss Prevention Department to each employee. 4.8.1 Type In normal circumstances, an approved filter type dust respirator will be adequate protection; however, dusty jobs (e.g. stripping, delogging, demolition, etc.) involving asbestos materials require air-supplied positive pressure respiratory equipment. 4.8.2 Use All employees shall be properly trained in the use of respiratory equipment before being engaged in any work with asbestos. Also, it is the contractor's responsibility to make sure that each worker be supplied with equipment that provides the level of protection required and of the proper fit. 4.8.3 Care All respiratory equipment shall be thoroughly checked, cleaned, disinfected and stored at the end of each work period and before use by other persons.

4.9

Washing and Changing Facilities
The contractor shall provide showering/washing facilities for all employees engaged in asbestos work.

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The contractor must ensure that employees use these facilities before leaving the job site at the end of each shift. The contractor shall provide suitable changing accommodations, disposal facilities for protective clothing worn during asbestos work and separate accommodations for street clothing not worn during working hours.

4.10

Disposal of Waste Asbestos Materials/Clothing
All waste asbestos materials and disposal clothing shall be disposed of in sealed impermeable bags or containers. All bags and containers shall be marked in both English and Arabic: "Caution: Health Hazard - Contains Asbestos". The bags and containers shall be handled and disposed of in accordance to Section 6, GI 150.001.

4.11

Cleanliness of Work Areas and Equipment
The contractor shall ensure that all machinery, equipment, work areas, and adjacent areas are kept free from asbestos dust and waste as provided in Section 5, GI 150.001.

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5.0 WELDING, CUTTING, AND BRAZING
This section outlines the principles involved and the precautions to be taken in gas welding, cutting, and brazing and electric arc welding operations. Welding/cutting are safe operations if carried out in the correct manner. Where equipment is defective or there is no well-arranged, well-lit, or properly ventilated working place, hazards can arise. INSTRUCTIONS AND STANDARDS Saudi Aramco General Instructions: GI 2.100 GI 355.020 GI 401.081 Work Permit System Control of Compressed Gas Cylinders Performance Qualifying Tests Of Welders And Welding Operations

Saudi Aramco Engineering Standards: SAES W-4 SAES W-5 Welding Alloy Steels Field Stress Relieving

Saudi Aramco Bottled Gas Manual: Section 6 Schedule 'D': Saudi Aramco Safety, Health and Environmental Requirements - Oxygen and Acetylene Equipment and Electric Arc Welding Equipment American National Standards: ANSI Z49.1 ANSI Z87.1 NFPA 70 Safety In Welding and Cutting Practice For Occupational And Educational Eye And Face Protection National Electrical Code Safe Handling of Compressed Gases

5.1

Gas Welding: Oxy-Acetylene Equipment and Use
Personnel working with welding equipment shall be trained, competent, and provided with personal protection equipment. Welding goggles, helmets, screens, forced ventilation and similar equipment shall be provided to all workers and to trainees in the immediate area. 5.1.1 Gases Oxygen (O2) is odorless. It can promote rapid combustion, therefore, grease and oil must never be used near oxygen as this could cause fire.

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Oxygen cylinders or apparatus shall not be handled with oily hands or gloves. A jet of oxygen must never be permitted to strike an oily surface, greasy clothes or enter fuel, oil or other storage tanks. Acetylene (C2H2) has a distinct odor often likened to that of garlic or sour apples. It is combustible when mixed with air over a wide range (2.5% - 81%). Acetylene burned with oxygen can produce a higher flame temperature than any other commercial gas. Acetylene becomes unstable at pressures above 103 kPa (15 psig) which means it may explode. Under no conditions shall acetylene be generated, piped (except in approved cylinder manifolds) or utilized at a pressure in excess of 15 psi gauge pressure. Inside the cylinder, acetylene is dissolved in acetone to prevent internal explosion; therefore, it is essential that acetylene cylinders be stored, handled, and used in the vertical position to prevent the liquid acetone from escaping and damaging the valves and other equipment. Warning: Regulated Acetylene pressures must never be allowed to exceed 103 kPa (15 psig) or it may explode. 5.1.2 Color Coding of Cylinders Color coding can be of great help but also a potential source of danger as there is no internationally recognized standard color code. Refer to GI 355.020-4, Control of Compressed Gas Cylinders, for Saudi Aramco color coding requirements. 5.1.3 Storage Of Cylinders 5.1.3.1 Cylinders should be stored in a safe, dry, well-ventilated place prepared and reserved for that purpose. Flammable substances such as oil and volatile liquids or corrosive substances should not be stored in the same area. Oxygen cylinders and flammable gas cylinders shall be stored separately, at least 6.6 meters (20 feet) apart or separated by a fire proof, 1.6 meters (5 feet) high partition. All storage areas shall have Arabic and English "No Smoking Permitted" signs prominently displayed. All cylinders should be chained or otherwise secured in an upright position. To prevent rusting, cylinders stored in the open should be protected from ground contact, extremes of weather, or contact with water. Valve caps shall be kept in place when cylinders are not in use. Flammable substances shall not be stored within 50 feet of cylinder storage areas. (See GI 355.020.) 5.1.3.2 Cylinders shall not be stored at temperatures exceeding 54o C (130o F). Accordingly, they should not be stored near sources of heat such as radiators, furnaces, or near highly flammable substances like gasoline.

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Cylinders shall be stored out of the direct rays of the sun, in protective enclosures or sun shelters. 5.1.3.3 Cylinder storage should be planned so that cylinders will be used in the order in which they are received from the supplier. Empty and full cylinders must be stored separately with empty cylinders plainly marked as such, to avoid confusion. Empty cylinders should be segregated according to the type of gas they have held. 5.1.3.4 All cylinder storage rooms shall be ventilated sufficiently so that explosive concentrations of gas cannot accumulate. Smoking or any other source of ignition shall be prohibited near storage areas, and appropriately marked "No Smoking" as in Section 5.1.3.1 above. All wiring shall be in conduit and electric switches shall be located outside the room. All electrical installations shall meet the National Electrical Code (NFPA 70) for hazardous areas. 5.1.4 Handling of Cylinders Serious accidents may result from the misuse, abuse, or mishandling of cylinders. 5.1.4.1 Cylinders should never be lifted by their valves since the valves are not designed to take such stress. When the cylinder is not in use, the valve shall be protected with the valve cap. 5.1.4.2 All valves must be fully closed before a cylinder is moved. Unless a trolley or special carrier is used, regulators and hoses should be detached from the cylinders, for moving.

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5.1.4.3 If cylinders are to be lifted by a crane, specially designed bottle holders with lifting eyes should be used. Chain and wire rope slings can allow cylinders to slip. Where a trolley is to be used for slinging, its base should be strong enough to take the weight of the cylinders. Do not lift a cylinder with an electromagnet. 5.1.4.4 Cylinders in transit on vehicles shall have valve caps in place and be firmly secured to prevent movement. Cylinders shall be secured to avoid any violent contact. Loading and unloading shall take place carefully. Cylinders shall not be dropped, thrown, dragged, used as rollers, or as a support. No damaged or defective cylinder shall be used. 5.1.4.5 When in doubt as to the proper handling of a compressed gas cylinder or its contents, the supplier of the gas, the Bottled Gas Coordinator (Central Area Storehouse Department), or Loss Prevention Department should be consulted. Depleted cylinders shall be returned to the supplier with the valves closed and the valve protection caps in place. Cylinders, even those marked empty, should be treated as a possible hazard and handled with great care as they still contain some gas. 5.1.5 Inspecting Equipment All equipment should be examined immediately before use and regularly maintained. All welding operations shall be conducted in well ventilated areas. 5.1.5.1 Only soapy water should be used to check for leaks. Presence of a leak is often indicated by a hissing sound or unusual changes in the torch flame. Cylinders and valves should be kept clean. Valve sockets shall be kept free of grit, dirt, grease or oil.

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5.1.5.2 Hoses should be used for one type of gas only and color coded for identification. They should be examined before use for any signs of splitting which might give rise to leakage. All connections should be made by clips or crimps. The hoses used for acetylene and for oxy gen shall not be interchangeable. 5.1.5.3 Connections and check valves should be regularly examined. Equipment should be fitted with the correct pressure regulators and a regular check should be made to ensure that the regulator is working properly. The torch nozzle should be kept closed. An acetylene cylinder valve wrench shall be available at all times for the cylinder in use. 5.1.5.4 Means of torch ignition should be readily available. A friction lighter shall be used for this purpose. 5.1.5.5 Acetylene can form explosive compounds in contact with certain metals or alloys, particularly unalloyed copper or silver. Joint fittings or lines made of copper should not be used and acetylene should not be allowed to come into contact with copper pipe work or tubing. Only approved materials shall be used for acetylene systems. 5.1.5.6 It is dangerous to let the torch flame come into contact with gas cylinders or for the lighted torch itself to be left unattended. Torches shall never be sat down while lit. It is equally dangerous to rest blowpipes, even extinguished ones, on old drums. "Empty" drums which have contained low flash point liquids are known to have become lethal bombs when a hot welding torch was laid down on them. 5.1.5.7 Cylinders in use should be kept upright on a custom-built stand fitted with a bracket to accommodate the hoses and equipment or otherwise secured. The metal cap should be kept in place to protect the valve when the cylinder is not connected for use. 5.1.6 Faults It is not uncommon for minor "explosions" to occur during welding or cutting. Most are more frightening than harmful, but some can lead to very dangerous conditions.

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There are four general groupings of these faults: 1 Snapout can occur during use when: • • • Both regulators are set at an incorrect pressure Torch nozzle obstructed Nozzle held too close to the work

Corrective action: • • • • • • 2 Completely shut both torch valves Check regulator setting Check cylinder pressures Check nozzles Re-light Ensure adequate gas flow

Backfire can occur on lighting up when: • • Regulators not set to correct pressure Light applied before flow of gas mixture properly established

Corrective action: • • • • • 3 Close both torch valves, oxygen first Check cylinder pressures Check and adjust regulator settings Cool torch and check nozzle orifice for obstruction Re-light

A flashback is very dangerous. Flashback is caused by gases being mixed in the hose(s). Usually this mixing of gases occurs when the hoses have been disconnected from regulators or torches or when a new hose is being used for the first time. Sometimes it is due to loose connections. Usually one of the hoses will have burst and possibly ignited. Preventive action: • • • • • • • Use flashback flame arrestors for regulator and torch Ensure all connections are tight Ensure cylinder valves are open and torch valves closed Set regulators to the required pressures Purge each hose separately and consecutively by opening the torch valve and allowing gas to flow for sufficient time to ensure only pure gas remains in the hoses Close the valve for each gas as the purge is completed This purge should be carried out only in the open or in extremely well-ventilated areas

Corrective action: • Close both torch valves

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• • • 5.1.7

Close both cylinder valves Extinguish hose if alight Repair equipment and hoses

Fuel Gas and Oxygen Manifolds Fuel gas and oxygen manifolds shall bear the name of the substance they contain in English and Arabic letters at least 1-inch high which shall be either painted on the manifold or on a sign permanently attached to it. Fuel gas and oxygen manifolds shall be placed in safe, well ventilated, and accessible locations. They shall not be located within enclosed spaces. Manifold hose connections, including both ends of the supply hose that lead to the manifold, shall be such that the hose cannot be interchanged between fuel gas and oxygen manifolds and supply header connections. Adapters shall not be used to permit the interchange of hose. Hose connections shall be kept free of grease and oil. When not in use, manifold and header hose connections shall be capped. Nothing shall be placed on top of a manifold, when in use, which will damage the manifold or interfere with the quick closing of the valves.

5.2

Electric Arc Welding
Arc welding is a process for joining metals by heating with an electric arc. For arc welding, two welding leads, the electrode lead and the work lead, are required. 5.2.1 Voltage The voltage across the welding arc is normally within the range 20-40V. The voltage supplied, however, needs to be somewhat higher so that means of stabilizing and regulating the arc current can be introduced into the circuit. Using DC, a 60-80V supply will usually suffice. Using AC, an 80-85V supply will suffice although some of the latest techniques need an open circuit voltage of up to 100V between electrode and work. It should be remembered that a nominal 100V supply has, in fact, a peak voltage of 141V. For these reasons, DC should be used for welding operations in any situation where the effect of electric shock is likely to be extreme, such as in damp and confined spaces (tanks, boilers, etc.). 5.2.2 Weldi ng Connections In each welding circuit there are three main connections: 1) the welding lead; 2) the welding return; 3) the welding ground. 5.2.2.1

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The welding lead is the conductor carrying the welding current from the point of supply to the electrode holder. 5.2.2.2 The welding return is the conductor carrying the current back from the work to the point of supply. Its conductivity should at least equal that of the welding lead. The welding return should be used to ground the metal case of the welding machine. This high current capacity is essential, because all the current fed to the arc has to be conducted back to the supply point. The current involved could be as high as 300 amperes on a hand welding operation. 5.2.2.3 A continuous welding ground is essential and indispensable for conductors since electric currents as low as 50 milliamperes can be fatal. The ground should be of low impedance so that there can be no rise in the potential of the work and so that sufficient fault current passes quickly enough to cut off the supply if necessary. It is recommended that the welding ground be bonded to the ground of the main supply system by a separate substantial conductor. The frames of all fixed arc welding and cutting machines shall be grounded either through a third wire in the cable containing the circuit conductor or through a separate wire which is grounded at the source of the current. Welding grounds and returns should be securely attached to the work by cable lugs, by clamps in the case of stranded conductors, or by bolts for strip conductors. Bolts are unsatisfactory for stranded conductors, since the strands can loosen under the bolt head and become detached (see Manufacturers Grounding Specifications for Electrically Powered Equipment and Engine Powered Equipment). 5.2.2.4 Welding cable insulation needs to be abrasion resistant to withstand normal treatment over rough ground and the wear inflicted by foot and vehicular traffic. Where feasible, cables should be additionally protected by stringing overhead or by using cable covers. They should be regularly examined for cuts or abrasions to the insulation; damaged cable shall not be used. If joints become necessary, standard plug and socket coupling shall be used. Holders should be unplugged when not in use. If joints become necessary, standard plug and socket couplings shall be used. Splices are not allowed in welding cables. 5.2.2.5 Electrode holders shall be constructed to accommodate all sizes of electrodes and with an ejector for hot, spent stubs.

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5.2.2.6 A shield should be fitted between electrode holder and handle to prevent live elements from being touched. The handle itself shall be made of non-flammable insulating material and be free from joints or holes. 5.2.2.7 Auxiliary Power Outlets Most welding machines are furnished with an alternator which produces 3 KVA of 115 and 230 volts. As a safety factor, all power hand tools which are not double insulated should be grounded to the welder frame. Ground Fault Interrupters are required, where power output exceeds 5 KV. Placards must be placed on the welding machine.

5.3

Protective Measures
5.3.1 The need for the operator to take safety precautions and preventive measures during the operation of welding machines to ensure that no safety-related incident occurs cannot be overemphasized. The following is a list of precautions and operating considerations to take into account when operating a 400 amp arc welding machine, for example. All users are strongly encouraged to read the equipment's operating manual to ensure reliable and safe operation. 1. Keep all doors, covers and panels in place when operating the machine: the arc welding machine is designed to operate with all its doors, covers and panels in place. They ensure the optimum flow of cooling air, and removal of these covers and panels will reduce the cooling of the engine and generator, resulting in overheating and premature failure of the unit. Ensure that the engine protection push button 'pops out' when the engine is switched off. Under normal circumstances, this button will 'pop out' once the engine is switched off. However, if the unit becomes clogged with dirt, dust or sand, it may not return to its 'off' position without assistance. If the button remains depressed, it will quickly drain the unit's battery. The resulting failure to start will delay your work while a new battery is fitted, a 'jump start' arranged, or a recharge cycle is completed. Maintain welding and ground cables and connections in good condition. A major source of safety hazards, poor and inconsistent welding performance, and loss of point-of-use welder capacity is a set of welder leads in poor condition, or of the wrong size for the length of cable being run. Other sources of safety hazards related to cables and connections are: cracked insulation is an obvious source of hazard producing shorts to ground eventually leading to increase of conductor resistance. With noload voltages approaching 100+ volts, significant hazard of electrocution to personnel exists, especially in wet areas or when working on metal structures.

2.

3.

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combining sets of low capacity cables to reach a distant welding site can greatly reduce the effective welding power available to the welding machine. Larger-capacity cables must be used to reach distant sites, because of the buildup of resistance from the extra length of the leads. Inadequate or weak cable connections can also introduce sparking hazards, potential shorts to ground, and extra resistance which reduces effective welding machine capacity. Cable sizes and lengths must be as recommended by the manufacturer, as follows (for 400 amp machine): Combined length of electrode and work cable up to 150 feet 150-200 feet 200-250 feet Minimum Cable Size 2/0 3/0 4/0

4.

When welding is in progress, the full length of cable must be stretched out on the ground. Leaving the cable coiled on the machine alters the current flow and disrupts the welding process. Do not adjust the 'current control' while welding is in progress. This can damage the control.

5.

5.3.2 Sparks and molten or hot metal coming from the work area can easily set fire to combustible materials near or below the working area. Wherever possible, all combustible material should be removed from the work area. If it cannot be removed, it should be covered with fireproof material. Gas cylinders should be protected from falling sparks. 5.3.3 Operators of arc welding equipment must always switch off the current to the electrode holder and remove the electrode whenever it is to be set down and is not actually in use. 5.3.4 When welding or cutting material that is supported by a crane, a shield or an effective screen should be provided to protect the suspension ropes or chains. Grounding cables shall only be connected to the work, not to the crane or rigging. 5.3.5 Forced ventilation shall be arranged wherever work is to be carried out in a confined area. Suitable metal bins shall be provided for spent electrode stubs as they are usually hot when discarded and can easily cause a fire. Dry chemical fire extinguishers should be kept available while work is in progress. All completed work should be marked "HOT".

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5.4

Welding and Cutting: Tanks, Vessels and Drums
Careful tests should be made to establish that the tank, vessel or drum is free from explosive flammable vapors or substances. The responsible supervisor should make a check before permitting any work to begin. It is essential that past contents of the tank, vessel or drum be identified. If there is any doubt or if the tank is known to have had any kind of flammable or explosive content, it should be cleaned and purged thoroughly prior to welding or cutting. Extreme care should be taken in considering methods of tank welding and cutting as these jobs are hazardous operations unless correct safety measures are taken. (See General And Civil II.1, Work Permit System.) Welding and cutting on drums is strictly controlled and, in most cases, prohibited. Contact area Loss Prevention for guidance and information. Note: The use of oxygen for blowing out containers and small tanks is forbidden.

5.5

Confined Spaces
It is vital that forced ventilation be maintained in confined spaces at all times. Air line respirators may be needed for men working inside such places. No gas cylinders should ever be allowed into such an area. The hoses and equipment used inside must be in excellent condition. Where work in confined spaces has to take place over several days, the hoses and equipment shall be taken outside overnight in case of any leakage that could occur, resulting in a build up of gas. (See General And Civil II.1, Work Permit System. )

5.6

Personnel Protection
5.6.1 Helmets, welding hoods, and goggles are necessary to protect eyes and face against heat and the effect of the intense light emitted by welding operations. 5.6.2 Goggles are required to protect the eyes of the welder from pieces of flying slag chips during electric arc welding. They should be fitted with opaque side pieces. These goggles should also be worn under the regular welding hoods. 5.6.3 Electric welding operations must be effectively screened to prevent nearby personnel from being affected by harmful radiation. Screens should be made from fire resistant materials or should be suitably treated with a fire resistant compound. Screens should be designed and placed so as not to restrict the flow of air for ventilation purposes. 5.6.4

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Gloves are necessary protection to the hands against heat, sparks, molten metal, and radiation. Leather, suitably reinforced at points of maximum wear, is the material most generally worn. Gloves should be long enough to protect wrists and forearms. When gloves are not long enough, protective sleeves of similar materials should be worn. 5.6.5 Safety boots and leggings are essential to provide effective protection against heat, flying sparks, and falling metal. Pant cuffs shall never be worn inside of the safety boot.

5.7

Health Hazards
Apart from the obvious hazards of physical burns, health hazards in welding operations fall into two classes: hazards from radiant energy and hazards from dusts and fumes. 5.7.1 Radiant Energy The process of welding produces radiant energy in the form of visible light, ultraviolet rays, and infrared rays. The risk of this energy harming the operator or other personnel can be minimized by the proper use of protective clothing and shielding. Exposure of the skin to infrared and ultraviolet rays can result in irritation and burning. The risk of exposure is lessened by wearing protective clothing, shielding, and distance. Arc-eye or flash burn is a well known condition in welding operations and is due to the eyes being exposed to ultraviolet rays. This condition is a superficial burn on the outer layer of the eye. The effects normally wear off within two days, and generally no permanent damage is caused. The condition is, however, extremely painful and can easily be avoided by the use of eye protective lens or shields. Welding protective lens shall be tempered glass. Lens shall be distinctively marked to identify approved lens shade. Lens Shade Guide: 1. Arc Welding2. Torch Brazing3. Gas Welding5.7.2 Respiratory Effects The risk of being gassed in normal welding operations is slight; however, when working in confined areas, a forced ventilation system should be in operation to remove any build up of hazardous gases. 5.7.2.1 Oxy-acetylene welding operations can cause the oxygen and nitrogen of the air to unite to form nitrogen oxides. In well ventilated areas this

10 to 14 3 to 6 4 to 8

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does not cause any problems; however, in confined areas or where the welder is working very close to the job, the amount of nitrogen oxides breathed can rapidly reach toxic levels. The main problem with this gas is that the welder does not appear to be affected at the time; the real effects take place some 6 to 24 hours after exposure. 5.7.2.2 All welding operations produce quantities of ozone, a highly toxic gas. In oxy -acetylene and electric arc welding, the amount produced is small and providing adequate ventilation is used, the risk is negligible. Significant and sometimes dangerous amounts of ozone can be formed when inert gas shielded welding is being carried out. There are many other dangers which can arise when welding or cutting under specific conditions or on particular metals. Hazardous operations include: welding on manganese steel, galvanized material, material which has been degreased or on material which has been painted with lead, copper-bearing, or chromate-containing paint. These problems must be recognized before the job starts, and safe practices for dealing with them must be established. Although welding cannot be regarded in general as an extremely hazardous occupation, exposure to concentrated fumes may be irritating and in some cases dangerous. It is essential that each operation be analyzed before work starts and that the control measures are correctly applied.

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6.0 EXPLOSIVE MATERIALS
The use of explosive materials within construction is extensive and, whether large or small quantities are handled, the responsibilities falling upon supervisory staff are considerable. Those responsible must consider the acquisition, storage, transporting, handling and use of explosive materials, as well as the emergency procedures to be adopted in the case of misfire, accident, fire, etc. The acquisition and use of explosive materials in Saudi Arabia are strictly controlled by the Saudi Arab Government, whose requirements must be adhered to at all times. All blasting operations in Saudi Aramco are strictly controlled and the use of explosive materials by contractors is prohibited without prior written approval by Company representatives. For contractor In-Kingdom blasting operations, contact the Resources Planning Department, Project Support Services Division, Blasting Services Unit for all blasting requirements. INSTRUCTIONS AND STANDARDS Saudi Aramco General Instructions: GI 2.100 GI 355.015 GI 475.001 GI 475.002 GI 610.001 GI 1183.215 GI 1310.00 Schedule 'D': Saudi Aramco Safety, Health and Environmental Requirements American National Standards: ANSI A10.7-89 Safety Requirements for Transportation, Storage, Handling, and Use of Commercial Explosives and Blasting Agents in Construction and Demolition Explosive Materials Code Work Permit System Requisitioning, Receiving, Storing and Issuing Explosives Blasting Near Existing Facilities Use Of Explosives In Construction Special Regulations for the Use of Explosives in Seismic Operations Transporting Explosives on Company Owned/Leased/Rented Motor Transport Vehicles Transportation Of Dangerous Articles Aboard Saudi Aramco Aircraft

NFPA 495-90

National Safety Council Industrial Data Sheets: I-644-90 I-730-86 Treatment Of Extraneous Electricity In Electric Blasting Ammonium Nitrate / Fuel Oil Mixtures As Blasting Agents

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7.0 PILING OPERATIONS
Piling operations attract many of the problems associated with other types of construction work: access, unguarded machinery, housekeeping, etc. Heavy equipment and the stress and vibration imposed upon that equipment give rise to hazards peculiar to piling operations. The standard of supervision should be high, as well as the standard and maintenance of equipment. Piling operations fall into two categories: driving load-bearing piles, which may be driven vertically or raked; and, driving sheet piles. Piles may be of steel, concrete, timber or any combination of the three. Piling equipment can vary from a simp le air-operated hand-held hammer to a large complex rig. INSTRUCTIONS AND STANDARDS Saudi Aramco General Instructions: GI 2.100. GI 7.025. GI 7.026. GI 7.029. GI 7.030. Schedule 'D': Saudi Aramco Safety, Health and Environmental Requirements - Excavations Crane Safety Handbook (Page 99) National Safety Council Data Sheet: Special Hazard Bulletin X128. Property Damage from Blasting, Pile Driving, and Similar Sources ASME Standard: Section I Section VII Power Boilers Pressure Vessels Work Permit System Mobile Heavy Equipment Operator Testing and Certification Crane and Heavy Equipment Accident Reporting Procedures Inspection, Testing and Maintenance of Wire Rope Slings Inspection And Testing Requirements Of Elevating / Lifting Equipment

7.1

Before Work Starts
In order that piling operations may be undertaken with the minimum risk to men and equipment, the following factors should be considered before work starts. • • The nature and purpose of the operation. Soil investigation reports of the area.

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Location and nature of any underground services in the area, which should be checked with the various departments through the Saudi Aramco Construction Engineer; then, precisely located by careful hand digging, under competent supervision.

Where piling operations are within a restricted area, the proper Work Permits should be obtained before any work is undertaken. Competent supervision, experienced in piling operations, is essential for piling work. Equipment of adequate capacity to perform the operation should be assembled. All equipment must be carefully inspected before being used with particular attention to the following. (See GI 7.030.) 7.1.1 Cranes Cranes used for both lifting and piling operations should be of an adequate size and capacity to perform the work safely. Where cranes are to be used for driving raking piles with a drop hammer or driving piles below the level of the crane using extended leaders, the hammer will be suspended from the crane at a greater radius than the boom angle indicator will show. In all such cases, the distance of the hammer from the center point of the crane must be calculated and this distance used to ascertain the safe working load. Outriggers, counterbalances, etc., shall be provided to maintain stability of the pile driver rig. 7.1.2 Pile Gates Sufficient timber or steel must be available for the construction of pile gates. Proper ladder access must be provided to the pile gates, and where they are over 1.8 meters (6 feet) high, handrails or rigger's belts must be provided. 7.1.3 Inspection Air compressors or steam boilers must be carefully examined and all hoses and couplings checked both for leaks and general condition. All steam and air hoses should be fitted with a regulator valve and a quick acting shut-off valve for emergency. 7.1.4 Wedges An adequate supply of hardwood wedges should be obtained for adjusting piles while pitching. Softwood wedges are likely to split and must not be used. 7.1.5 Timber Block Stop blocks shall be provided for the leads to prevent the hammer from being raised against the head block. Guards shall be provided across the top of the head block to prevent the cable from jumping out of the sheaves.

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Fixed leads shall be provided with ladder and adequate attachment points so that the loft worker may engage his safety belt lanyard to the leads. If loft platforms are provided, they shall be protected with standard guardrails. Steam/air hose leading to the hammer or jet pipe and all hoses shall be securely attached with 1/4" chain or cable to prevent whip lash. 7.1.6 Ground Support The ground upon which the crane or rig will stand should be firm and level. Digger mats or a hard-core standing should be provided if the ground is likely to subside under the high ground loading imposed by driving or extracting piles.

7.2

Driving Piles
7.2.1 Pitching Piles should only be lifted and positioned in the pile gate or onto the leaders or rig with sound lifting gear adequate for the purpose. Quick release shackles should be examined before each use. Where hollow section or concrete piles are lifted with chains or wire slings, timber or burlap packing should be placed between the lifting gear and the pile. Adequate access, such as a cradle or a properly secured ladder, must be provided for the topman when pitching sheet piles. The topman must wear stout gloves when pitching. 7.2.2 Driving Workmen should stand clear of the operation while driving is in progress. The emergency shut-off valve and the crane or winch controls must be manned at all times during driving. The foreman must be present and so positioned that he can be seen by the crane or winch operator and the man standing by the valve. When driving raking piles, the pile, leaders, and machine must all be in the same line. Under no circumstances should any man touch the hammer until all valves are closed. A system of signals must be arranged between the foreman, the winch or crane operator, and the valve operator, so that the emergency shutdown does not depend on verbal communication. Where the head of a pile becomes distorted through driving, no attempt should be made to clear it from the leaders by lifting or booming up. The pile head should be cut off and the debris cleared from the leaders.

7.3

Pile Extraction
No attempt should be made to extract piles which have been hammer-driven by lifting or booming up with a crane. A steam, air, or electric operated extractor should be used. Particular attention should be paid to the extractor wedges and the condition of the gripping faces, which should not be smooth. Workmen must not walk under piles that are suspended from extractors.

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7.4

General Precautions
7.4.1 Men handling piles or working on piling operations should always wear safety helmets, safety shoes, safety glasses, stout gloves, and be equipped with ear protection, preferably of the muff type. 7.4.2 At the start of each shift, hammers and extractors should be carefully checked for loose bolts, etc. 7.4.3 All other equipment should be inspected daily for defects. 7.4.4 Piling operations should never be undertaken except under competent supervision and with a crew experienced in this class of work. Crane operators shall have a valid Saudi Arab Government heavy equipment license and a valid Saudi Aramco certificate (See GI 7.030). 7.4.5 Piling operations are a construction process with special hazards. In addition to these special hazards, men are exposed to the hazards commonly associated with all types of construction work, and precautions against these general hazards must not be neglected.

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8.0 ROADWORKS
A contractor engaged in roadwork is not only responsible for the safety of his own men, he also has an obligation to protect the public from potential construction hazards, during the day, at night and in all weather conditions. Consequently, the marking of construction sites and the safe and efficient diversion and control of traffic must be properly planned and executed. Road closure plans must be submitted to Loss Prevention before roads are closed. Failure to do this can have disastrous results. INSTRUCTIONS AND STANDARDS Saudi Aramco General Instructions: GI 1021.000 Street and Road Construction, Excavation, and Maintenance of Traffic Controls (Appendix D) Work Permit System

GI 2.100

8.1

General
8.1.1 Saudi Aramco organizations can obtain barriers, lights, etc. from the Maintenance Department during normal working hours. Contractors shall provide their own barriers, lights, etc.. 8.1.2 To avoid creating a traffic hazard, warning devices must not be put in place until they are needed. They must be promptly removed when work is complete. 8.1.3 Activities which produce dust shall be kept to a minimum. 8.1.4 Permanent road signs and striping shall be restored before the roadway is returned to service. 8.1.5 The surface of any highway, street, or sidewalk shall be level and in good condition before any barriers and markers are removed. 8.1.6 Should there be any doubt as to the type of marking and protection required for roadwork in any location, the Loss Prevention engineer for the area should be consulted.

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8.1.7 A flagman, equipped with a safety vest and a red flag, shall be posted at least 50 meters (165 feet) from the work site at the entrance barricade and another flagman at the exit barricade. It shall be the duty of the flagmen to control the flow of traffic in a safe manner. Both flagmen shall be in sight of each other. If conditions do not permit this, then a third man shall be positioned where he can see and be seen by the other two men in order to signal them to start or stop traffic. Traffic control signals shall be in accordance with GI 1021.000. At night, flagmen shall wear light-reflecting vests and gloves, and use reflective signs or flags. Flagmen shall be stationed in an illuminated area. 8.1.8 During darkness, the work area will be marked by lights spaced 10 meters (30 feet) apart. Warning lights used in oil operations, industrial, or company housing areas shall be weather proof and positioned 0.6 meter (2 feet) and 0.9 meter (3 feet) above grade. 8.1.9 In addition to the foregoing, excavation work in residential areas shall be entirely enclosed, covered over, or roped-off. 8.1.10 Excavations in sidewalks or areas of expected pedestrian traffic shall be provided with close-planked walkways or bridges 0.9 meters (3 feet) wide and equipped with standard guardrails.

8.2

Street and Road Construction, Excavations, and Maintenance Traffic Controls
See Appendix D (GI 1021.000).

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9.0 WORKING PLACES, LADDERS, AND SCAFFOLDING
Every contractor and every employer of workmen has a legal and contractual responsibility to ensure that each place at which his men work is safe and that it remains safe so long as men work there. Similarly, each supervisor is responsible for ensuring that every man working under his direction or control has a safe working place and a safe means of getting to and from every working place. Where work cannot safely be done on the ground or from part of a building or permanent structure, scaffolds, ladders, or other means of support shall be provided and properly maintained. INSTRUCTIONS AND STANDARDS The Standards used for guidance in this section of the Construction Safety Manual are those of the American National Standards Institute, Inc. (ANSI) and US Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 1910.28. Where scaffold manufacturers products meet other scaffold standards that are equivalent to or higher than ANSI requirements, then those products can be used. Scaffold products from different manufacturers shall not be mixed on a scaffold, unless they are specifically designed to be used together. Saudi Aramco Instructions and Standards: GI 2.100. GI 6.020. GI 8.001. SAES -P-123. Schedule 'D': Saudi Aramco Safety, Health and Environmental Requirements - Ladders; Scaffolding; Personal Flotation Devices for Work Over, On or Near Water. American National Standards Institute: Uniform Building Code ANSI A10.8 - 1988 Scaffolding-Safety Requirements ANSI A14.1 - 1982./ANSI A14.1a- 1985 Ladders - Portable Wood Safety Requirements ANSI A14.2 - 1990 Portable Metal Ladders ANSI A14.3 - 1984 Ladders - Fixed-Safety Requirements Work Permit System Personal Flotation Devices for Work Over, On or Near Water Safety Requirements For Scaffolding (formerly 1009.006) Lighting Utilization

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ANSI A92.2 - 1990 Vehicle - Mounted Elevating and Rotating Aerial Devices US. Code of Federal Regulations, 29. CFR Part 1910.28, Safety Requirements for Scaffolding National Safety Council Data Sheets: Data Sheet 568. Job-Made Ladders NFPA 70 - 90 National Electrical Code (NEC)

9.1

Working Places, General
9.1.1 Falls Within Saudi Aramco, every working place shall be safe and of adequate dimensions. Where men, tools, or materials could fall 1.8 meters (6 feet) or more, a guardrail system (consisting of toprails and midrails) and toeboards shall be provided. Should the provision of these safeguards be impracticable, other means of preventing falls, such as safety belts, etc. shall be used. For further information, see Personal Protective Equipment, Section I.9, (9.6.5 and 9.6.6) of this Manual. 9.1.2 Access and Egress A safe means of getting to and from a working place shall be provided and used. Ladders shall conform to the requirements set out in 9.2. 9.1.3 Lighting Every working place and every means of getting to and from a working place shall be provided with adequate lighting which shall be properly maintained. (See SAES -P-123) 9.1.4 Prevention of Falls Permanent decking, parts of a structure, walkways, footbridges, etc., which men use in the course of their work or for a permanent or temporary access, shall be provided with a guardrail system and toeboards (permanent or temporary) at all edges from which men, tools, or materials could fall 1.8 meters (6 feet) or more. Holes and gaps shall be guarded or securely covered. Stairs (permanent or temporary) shall have all treads properly secured and shall be fitted with handrails throughout their length and conform to the Uniform Building Code. 9.1.5 Ramps Where the slope of a ramp exceeds 1 vertical to 4 horizontal, the ramp shall be fitted with stepping cleats at 0.3 meter (1 foot) intervals. When a ramp is to be used by the general public, its slope shall not exceed 1 vertical to 4 horizontal. Handrails shall be provided.

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9.1.6

Falling Material Where there is danger of men being struck by falling material, protective coverings shall be erected or No. 18 gauge wire, 1/2 inch mesh or equivalent, shall be securely fixed between the toeboard and midrail to prevent falling objects.

9.1.7

Hot Surfaces Suitable precautions shall be taken to prevent men coming into contact with any hot surface.

9.1.8

Slipping and Tripping Contractors are responsible for maintaining good housekeeping to prevent slipping, tripping, and falling. Oil spills, mud, scrap, and other debris must be cleared up immediately. Men shall not be permitted to walk or work on steel work or other surfaces on which paint or cement wash is still wet.

9.1.9

Roof Work Where work is done on or from the roof of a building or structure, or where men have to cross, work on, or work from fragile roofs or surfaces, adequate protection in the form of crawling boards, roof ladders, or other suitable covering must be provided to prevent men and materials falling from or through the roof. Temporary guardrails shall be placed to prevent workers from falling. If roof work is accomplished on pitched roofs with a slope greater than 1:4, workers shall be equipped with safety belts that are securely anchored to the structure. During storms or high winds, workers shall not be working on a roof or scaffold that is exposed to the weather.

9.1.10

Insecure Structures Unstable or weak structures shall be supported by guys, stays, supports, or other fixings where necessary. If work being done is likely to reduce the stability of an existing structure or building, bracing or other means of support shall be used. Unstable structures shall not be left unsupported over night. No wall sector which is more than one story in height, shall be permitted to stand alone without lateral bracing, unless such wall was originally designed to do so and is in a safe condition to be self-supporting. All walls shall be left in a stable condition at the end of each shift by bracing support jacks, timbers and/or guywired, taking wind force and storm conditions into consideration.

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9.1.11

Work Over Water 9.1.11.1 Where men work on, over or near water, a guardrail system and toeboards, fencing or other suitable barriers shall be provided for the protection of the worker. 9.1.11.2 Wherever the provision of a guardrail system and toeboards, fencing or other suitable barriers is impracticable, or if for any reason men are outside the protection of these safeguards, suitable life vests shall be worn and a safety belt or harness securely fixed to a dropline. 9.1.11.3 Approved rescue equipment that meets the requirements of GI 6.020 in the form of life rings with life lines, etc.; where necessary, a suitably equipped rescue boat shall be readily available, and properly maintained. Men shall be thoroughly trained in the use of all protective and rescue equipment, first aid and cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR).

9.2

Ladders and Stepladders
The safety of a ladder depends on four important factors: selection, condition, position and use. Ladders shall comply with the referenced ANSI or equivalent codes. 9.2.1 Selection 9.2.1.1 A ladder must be of the proper length for the job to be done. If it is to be used for access or as a working place, it shall ris e to a height of 36 inches to 42 inches above the landing place or above the highest rung to be reached by the feet of the man using the ladder. 9.2.1.2 Metal ladders, ladders with metal reinforced side rails, and ladders which are wet shall not be used near electrical equipment with exposed live conductors. Such ladders shall have a warning notice attached to guard against use near electrical equipment. 9.2.1.3 Aluminum ladders shall not be used where there is a likelihood of contact with materials harmful to aluminum, such as caustic liquids, damp lime, wet cement, etc.

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9.2.2

Condition 9.2.2.1 Each ladder shall be examined before use. Those with split or broken side rails, missing, broken, loose, decayed or damaged rungs or cleats, or with other faulty equipment shall be tagged and removed from service. 9.2.2.2 Rungs shall be properly mortised into side rails. Cleats shall be inset by 2.25 centimeters (7/8 inch), or filler blocks used on the side rails between the cleats. Cleats shall be uniformly spaced 30.5 centimeters (1 foot) between centers.

9.2.3

Position 9.2.3.1 The side rails of a ladder shall be equally supported on a firm level surface. Boxes, blocks, barrels, etc. shall not be used as a means of support. The area at the base of a ladder must be kept clear. Ladders shall not be used in a horizontal position as platforms, runways or scaffolds. 9.2.3.2 Ladders shall not be supported on their rungs or cleats. Rungs or cleats shall not be used to support planks. 9.2.3.3 Whenever possible, ladders shall be set at an angle of 75o to horizontal ground (i.e., one meter out to four meters up). 9.2.3.4 Metal reinforcing shall be on the underside of the rungs and where reinforcing is on only one side of the side rails, that too shall be on the underside. 9.2.3.5 Both side rails of a ladder shall be evenly supported at the upper resting place. Side rails must be securely tied off to prevent movement. Where secure fixing is impracticable, other measures must be taken to prevent movement by securing at the base, using side guys, or stationing a man at the base. It must be understood, however, that a man stationed at the base will be unable to control a ladder more than 6 meters (20 feet) in length.

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9.2.3.6 Where there is a possibility of a ladder being struck by moving vehicles or equipment, a man should be placed on guard or a space at the base should be securely fenced off. If a ladder is erected close to a doorway, the door should either be locked, shut, or be secured in the open position with a man on guard or properly barricaded. 9.2.3.7 Ladder landing places shall be provided at least every 9 meters (30 feet) of height and shall be fitted with a guardrail system and toeboards. Holes in decking through which ladders pass shall only be enough to permit passage of the man using the ladder. 9.2.3.8 A ladder should always be placed so that there is space behind each rung or cleat for a proper foothold. There should be no obstruction in the way of a man's foot, particularly at the landing platform. Here the rung or cleat should be level with the platform. 9.2.3.9 Where ladders have to be suspended, both side rails shall be lashed top and bottom so as to provide equal support. Where long ladders are used, they shall also be lashed at the center to prevent lateral movement. 9.2.4 Use 9.2.4.1 Where an extension ladder is used fully extended, the minimum overlap depends on the extension ladder length, and overlap should be as follows (examples): 9.75 to 10.97 meters (32 to 36 feet) = 1.22 meters (4 feet) overlap 10.97 to 14.63 meters (36 to 48 feet) = 1.52 meters (5 feet) overlap Splicing or lashing ladders together shall not be permitted. 9.2.4.2 Before mounting a ladder, personnel shall check their shoes for freedom from grease, oil or mud. They shall always step through, not around, the rail extensions at the top of the ladder.

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9.2.4.3 Single rung and single cleat ladder should be used by only one man at a time. When ascending or descending personnel shall face the ladder and keep both hands on the ladder. Personnel shall not run up or down or slide down a ladder at any time. The width of single cleat ladders shall be at least 38.1 centimeters (15 inches) but not more than 50.8 centimeters (20 inches) between rails at the top. 9.2.4.4 Men ascending or descending ladders shall not carry tools and materials in their hands. Tools may be carried in pockets or on special belts provided there is no risk of injury and movement is not impaired. Materials shall be raised or lowered using a handline after being securely tied or placed in a basket. 9.2.4.5 A man working on or from a ladder must always have a secured handhold and both feet on the same rung or cleat. If the work to be done requires the use of both hands, a safety belt is required, securely fixed to a dropline (life line). Only one person shall be on a ladder at a time. 9.2.4.6 Job-made ladders shall be constructed for intended use. If a ladder is to provide the only means of access or exit from a working area for 25 or more employees, or if simu ltaneous two-way traffic is expected, a double cleat ladder shall be installed. Double cleat ladders on Saudi Aramco construction sites shall not exceed 4.5 meters (15 feet) in length. Single cleat ladders shall not exceed 4.5 meters (15 feet) in length between supports (base and top landing). If ladders are to connect different landings, or if the length required exceeds this maximum length, two or more separate ladders shall be used, offset with a platform between each ladder. A guardrail system and toeboards shall be erected on the exposed sides of the platforms. 5.08 by 10.16 centimeters (2 by 4 inches) lumber shall be used for side rails of single cleat ladders up to 4.5 meters (15 feet) long. 5.08 by 10.16 centimeters (2 by 4 inches) lumber shall be used for side and middle rails of double cleat ladders up to 3.6 meters (12 feet) in length; 5.08 by 15.24 centimeters (2 by 6 inches) lumber for double cleat ladders from 3.6 by 4.5 meters (12 to 15 feet) in length. Wood cleats shall have the following minimum dimensions when made of woods that meet ANSI requirements for ladders:

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LENGTH OF CLEAT Up to and including 50.8 cm (20 inches) Over 50.8 cm (20 in.) and up to and including 76.20 cm (30 in.)

THICKNESS 1.9 cm (.75 in) 1.9 cm (.75 in.)

WIDTH 7.62 cm (3 in) 9.52 cm (3.75 in.)

Cleats may be made of species of any other group of wood provided equal or greater strength is maintained. Cleats shall be inset into the edges of the side rails one-half inch, or filler blocks shall be used on the rails between the cleats. The cleats shall be secured to each rail with three 10d common wire nails or other fasteners of equivalent strength. Cleats shall be uniformly spaced, 30.48 centimeters (12 inches) between centers. 9.2.4.7 Metal ladders shall not be used for work on electrical systems unless the ladders are specifically designed for that application. 9.2.5 Stepladders Generally, the foregoing remarks on selection, condition and use of ladders apply equally to stepladders. The following requirements also apply: 9.2.5.1 To ensure stability, stepladders shall be spread to their fullest extent limited by manufacturer's braces when in use. Whenever possible, they should be placed at right angles to the work with either the front or back facing the work. 9.2.5.2 Do not stand, climb or sit on the stepladder top, pail shelf, braces or back section. 9.2.6 General 9.2.6.1 Ladders and stepladders shall be maintained in good condition at all times. Joints shall be tight, all hardware and fittings shall be securely attached, and movable parts shall operate freely without binding or undue play. 9.2.6.2 Ladders and stepladders must not be painted.

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9.2.6.3 Where a ladder is carried by one man, the front end should be kept high enough to clear men's heads and special care shall be taken at corners and blind spots.

9.3

Scaffolding Components
9.3.1 All scaffold structures shall be erected with metal components approved per ANSI requirements or equivalent. Scaffolds shall be stored to prevent damage and to permit easy access for use. Scaffold erection plans (drawings) shall be submitted to Loss Prevention Department for review prior to men being allowed to work on the scaffold. 9.3.2 Tubing Ordinary scaffold tubing is 4.8 centimeters (1-29/32 inches) in diameter and nominal wall thickness 0.4 centimeter (5/32 inch) and is referred to as two-inch nominal diameter tubing. It is mild steel and normally supplied in lengths of 6.4 meters (21 feet). Tubes must meet ANSI or equivalent requirements and must be free from cracks and surface flaws, laminations, excessive rust and other defects. The ends shall be cut square and cleanly. A tube shall not deviate from a straight line by more than 1/600 of its length measured at the center of the tube length. 9.3.3 Aluminum Tubing 9.3.3.1 Although the aluminum tubing is dimensionally interchangeable with steel tubing, it must not be used in the same structure; the difference in the elastic modulus of the two materials results in greater deflection in aluminum tubing for the same loading conditions. 9.3.3.2 Aluminum tubing shall not be used where there is likelihood of contact with materials harmful to aluminum such as caustic liquids, damp lime, wet cement and sea water. 9.3.4 Fittings All fittings (couplers, clamps, etc.) shall be of a metal type approved to ANSI or equivalent requirements. They shall be examined regularly and care must be taken to ensure that moving parts are sound and well lubricated and that threads are not stripped.

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9.3.5

Typical Scaffold Fittings (Figures II.17 - II.22) Base Plate: A 15 centimeter (6 inch) by 15 centimeter (6 inch) steel plate greater than 0.64 centimeters (1/4 inch) thick providing a flat bearing surface for load distribution from posts. It has an integral spigot and fixing holes for use with sills. Screwjacks: Used for compensating variations in ground levels. Standard Coupler: Also known as a Right Angle or 90o Coupler. A load bearing coupler used for connecting two tubes together at right angles. Adjustable Coupler: Used for connecting two tubes together at any angle through 360o . Not to be used where a load bearing standard coupler is required. End-to-End Coupler: Also known as a Sleeve Coupler. Used for connecting two tubes end-to-end. Reveal Pin: Inserted into the end of a tube and adjusted to form a rigid horizontal or vertical member between two opposing surfaces. It forms a solid anchorage to which a scaffold can be tied.

9.3.6

Planks 9.3.6.1 Planks shall be of rough timber and graded as scaffold planks without defects (2" x 9"), 5 centimeters (2 inches) thick by 23 centimeters (9 inches) wide, and shall conform to the following specifications: 1 2 All planking shall be Scaffold Grade to ANSI requirements. On the face of the plank, the ends shall not be split up more than 30.5 centimeters (1 foot), without fixed banding or the end bolted through. On the face of the plank, not more than one third the width in any one place shall be knot wood. On the edge of the plank, not more than half the depth shall be knot wood. On the edge of the plank, the grain shall not cross from face-toface within a distance of less than 30.5 centimeters (1 foot). From end-to-end, the plank must not be twisted by more than 1.3 centimeters (1/2 inch). Scaffold planks shall meet the loading requirements of Table II.2.

3

4

5

6

7 9.3.6.2

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Planks shall not be painted or treated in any way that would conceal defects. 9.3.6.3 Planks which are split, decayed or warped shall not be used, but the parts affected may be cut off to produce shorter planks with the ends banded or bolted through. 9.3.6.4 Planks should be stacked on a suitable foundation. Where the height of a stack exceeds 20 planks, measures should be taken to tie or bond succeeding layers. 9.3.6.5 Planks should not be stood on end unattended. 9.3.6.6 Scaffold planks shall not be used for shuttering for concrete, shoring for trenches, or as sills for scaffolding. Planks shall be inspected for defects, including decay, prior to each use. 9.3.6.7 The design working load of each platform unit (i.e., plank) shall be capable of supporting without failure one or more 91 kg (200 lb) person with 22.7 kg (50 lb.) of equipment. 9.3.6.8 Platform units rated for one person capacity shall be designed and constructed to carry 113.6 kg (250 lb.) at the center of the span. 9.3.6.9 Platform units rated for two persons shall be designed and constructed to carry a working load of 227 kg (500 lb.) : 113.6 kg (250 lb.) placed at 0.46 meters (18 inches) to the left and right of the center of the span.

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9.3.6.10 Platform units rated for three persons shall designed and constructed to carry a working load of 341 kg (750 lb.) : 113.6 kg (250 lb.) placed at 0.46 meters (18 inches) to the left and right of the center of the span, and at the center of the span. 9.3.6.11 The design loads in sections 9.3.6.7 to 9.3.6.10 are not to be added to uniformly distributed loads for light, medium and heavy duty scaffold (i.e., 25, 50 and 75 lb./ft 2 respectively), but are shown as alternates. 9.3.6.12 Each platform, where applicable, shall be designed and constructed to carry a uniformly distributed load as an alternate to the person loading of 9.3.6.7 to 9.3.6.10. Uniformly distributed loads and person loading are not cumulative and the most restrictive loading shall be used for platform design. 9.3.6.13 Light, medium and heavy duty uniformly distributed load requirements shall be 25, 50 and 75 pounds per square foot respectively. Greater uniformly distributed loads shall be specially designed. TABLE II.2: WOOD SCAFFOLD PLANK LOADING CHART Permissible Span (ft) Douglas Fir or Southern Pine 2 in x 10 in Nominal or Loading Condition One worker or medium-duty Two workers or heavy-duty Three workers REFERENCE: ANSI A10.8-1988 1-1/2 in x 9-1/4 in Actual 10 ft 8 ft 5 ft Spruce Rough Sawn 1-7/8 in x 9-7/8 in or 2 in x 9 in 8 ft 7 ft 5 ft

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FIGURE II.17: S TANDARD COUPLER

FIGURE II.18: ADJUSTABLE COUPLER

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9.4

Requirements Common to All Scaffolding
9.4.1 Foundations 9.4.1.1 A sound base is essential; therefore, the ground or floor on which a scaffold is going to stand must be carefully examined. Sand or madeup ground may need compacting to ensure there are no cavities. Such bases as floors, roofs, etc. may need shoring from underneath. Scaffolds, including components, shall be capable of supporting without failure at least 4 times the maximum intended load. 9.4.1.2 Timber sills at least 23 centimeters (9 inches) wide by 3.8 centimeters (1-1/2 inches) thick (not scaffold planks) will be required to spread the load on sand, made up ground, asphalt pavement, wooden floors, and slippery surfaces. A sill shall extend under at least two posts. 9.4.1.3 Where scaffolding is erected on a solid bearing such as rock or concrete, small timber pads may be used in place of sills and nailed to prevent the base plates sliding off. 9.4.1.4 Concrete blocks, barrels, and other loose or unsuitable material shall not be used for the construction or support of scaffolding. 9.4.1.5 If used to compensate for variations in ground level, the screwjack shall not be adjusted to more than two-thirds of the total length of the thread. The base plate shall be of a type approved for supporting scaffolding posts. (See manufacturer's specifications.) 9.4.2 Posts 9.4.2.1 Posts shall be pitched on 15 centimeters (6 inches) by 15 centimeters (6 inch) steel base plates and at least 0.64 centimeter (1/4 inch) thick. Joints in posts should be staggered, i.e., joints in adjacent posts should not occur in the same lift. All posts shall be vertical. 9.4.2.2 The inner row of posts shall be placed as close as possible to the face of the building or structure. To avoid projections, the posts may be up

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to 41 centimeters (16 inches) away from the wall or structure as necessary, provided that, where there is room to do so, the gap between the wall or structure and the inner posts shall be closed with planks on extended board bearers. The outer row of posts shall be positioned from the inner row of posts depending on the load requirements of the scaffold, and the working platform shall be fully decked out. 9.4.3 Runners 9.4.3.1 Runners shall be securely fixed to posts with standard couplers and shall be horizontal. Joints in runners should be staggered, i.e., joints in adjacent runners should not occur in the same bay. Runners should be secured end-to-end by sleeve couplers, not by joint pins. 9.4.3.2 Runners shall be vertically spaced no more than 2.0 meters (6 feet, 6 inches) to give adequate headroom along the platforms. 9.4.4 Bearers Bearers should be installed between posts and securely fixed to the posts bearing on the runner coupler and secured with standard couplers. When coupled directly to the runners, the coupler must be kept as close to the posts as possible. These bearers must remain in position as they are a structural part of the scaffold. 9.4.5 Board Bearers Board bearers shall be installed between bearers to accommodate differences in plank lengths. Board bearers shall be secured to the runners between bearers where necessary to support platform units (planks). These may be removed when no longer required to support platform units.

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9.4.6

Bracing 9.4.6.1 Cross bracing shall be installed across the width of the scaffold at least every third set of posts horizontally and every fourth runner vertically. Such bracing shall extend diagonally from the inner and outer runners upward to the next outer and inner runners. These braces should be fixed to the runners with standard couplers as close to the posts as possible. Where such a fixing is impracticable, adjustable couplers may be used to fix the braces to the posts. (See Figures II.23 and II.24.) 9.4.6.2 Longitudinal diagonal bracing shall be installed at approximately 45degree angle from near the base of the first outer post upward to the extreme top of the scaffold. Where possible, such bracing shall be duplicated at every fifth post. On short but high runs, diagonal bracing shall be installed at an angle of 45 degrees from the base of the first outer post to the last outer post and shall alternate directions to the top of the scaffold. When bracing cannot be attached to the posts, this bracing may be attached to the runners, as close as possible to the posts. Only standard couplers or adjustable couplers may be used. Joints in braces shall be made with end-to-end or parallel couplers. 9.4.6.3 Temporary rakers (inclined load-bearing tube supports) brace the scaffold against the ground when setting out. These rakers are replaced by permanent braces when the scaffold has been plumbed, leveled and tied. Rakers must be secured with proper couplers at the scaffold and coupled to a ground stake.

9.4.7

Ties 9.4.7.1 It is essential that all scaffolds, with the exception of certain tower and mobile scaffolds (See 9.7 and 9.8), be securely tied to the building or structure throughout their length and height to prevent movement of the scaffold either towards or away from the building or structure. This should be done by connecting a tie tube to both runners or posts and coupling this to a two-way tie or column box tie assembly. (See Figures II.25 and II.26.) 9.4.7.2 Where the foregoing is impracticable, tubes may be securely wedged between opposing surfaces on the building or structure by the use of reveal pins and coupled to the tie tubes (Figure II.27). Where reveal ties are used, they shall not exceed 50% of the total number of ties. Two-way ties or column box ties shall be evenly distributed over the

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scaffold area. To ensure the security of reveal ties, it is necessary to check frequently for tightness. 9.4.7.3 Ties shall occur at the top of the scaffold and at least every 7.9 meters (26 feet) vertically and 9.1 meters (30 feet) horizontally and at each end of the scaffold. All tie assembly connections shall be made with standard couplers. 9.4.8 Platform Units 9.4.8.1 All platform units (i.e., planks, fabricated decks, etc.) shall be closed planked with, whenever practicable, each plank resting on at least three supports. Planks shall extend over their end supports by not less than 15 centimeters (6 inches) and not more than 30.5 centimeters (12 inches). 9.4.8.2 Supports for scaffold planks shall be spaced with due regard to the nature of the platform and the load it will bear. (See Table II.2.) 9.4.8.3 Except on platform units adjacent to the surface of a cylindrical or spherical structure, planks shall be laid flush. 9.4.8.4 Planks shall be secured in position to prevent displacement by high winds. 9.4.8.5 Adequate space for men to pass in safety shall be provided and maintained wherever materials are placed on platform units or if any higher platform is erected thereon. 9.4.8.6 Platform units shall be kept free of unnecessary obstructions, materials, and projecting nails. 9.4.8.7 Platform units which have become slippery with oil or any other substance shall be cleaned, or otherwise removed and replaced.

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9.4.8.8 Slopes in platform units shall not exceed 1 vertical to 4 horizontal and stepping cleats at 0.3 meter (1 foot) intervals shall be provided. 9.4.8.9 All platform units shall be closed planked for the full width of the scaffold structure. 9.4.9 Guardrail Systems and Toeboards 9.4.9.1 Guardrail systems (consisting of toprails and midrails) and toeboards shall be installed at all open sides and ends of all scaffolds and supports on no more than 3-meter (10-foot) centers from which men or materials could fall a distance of more than 1.8 meters (6 feet). Toprails shall be no less than 0.91 meter (36 inches) and no more than 1.14 meters (45 inches) above the working surface; midrails shall be installed equidistant between the working surface and the toprail. Toeboards shall not be less than 10 centimeters (4 inches) in height by 2.5 centimeters (1 inch) thick. Guardrail systems and toeboards shall be securely fixed to the inside of posts to withstand a lateral thrust of 200 pounds. 9.4.9.2 Landings: Safe landings shall be provided at the top of all ladders. Rings shall be eliminated above the landing level, and side rails shall extend 36 to 42 inches above the landing for mounting and dismounting. Where multiple ladders are required, solidly decked platforms shall be provided. Guardrails, intermediate rails and toeboards shall be erected on the outside edges and exposed sides of the platform. 9.4.10 Access Access to a working platform is best achieved by providing a separate ladder tower or a cantilevered access platform so as not to obstruct the working platform and to minimize the risk of persons falling through gaps in the guardrail system or platform units. Access must be provided to working platforms. 9.4.11 Scaffold Ladders Scaffold ladders provide the means of access and egress for scaffolds. They can generally be classified as follows:

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9.4.11.1

Portable Straight and Extension Ladders (Figure II.24) A straight ladder is a portable ladder that only consists of one section which determines its overall length. It cannot support itself or be adjusted in length. An extension ladder is a portable ladder that cannot support itself but can be adjusted in length. It consists of two or more sections which are arranged to permit length adjustment. Its overall length is the sum of the length of all its sections measured along the side rails. Portable straight and extension ladders shall have a firm base and be positioned with a slope of 1:4.

9.4.11.2

Vertical Ladder A vertical ladder is a type of fixed ladder which is permanently attached to the horizontal or vertical components of a scaffolding. The main criteria to consider in the use of a vertical ladder is clearance. The following clearance guidelines shall be used. • General: Safe clearances shall be maintained to prevent workers from bumping into, or snagging onto, projecting objects while ascending or descending the ladder. • Climbing Side: Ladders shall have a minimum clear perpendicular distance of 30 inches from the rungs to the nearest projecting object on the climbing side. When unavoidable obstructions are encountered, the minimum clearance distance may be reduced to 24 inches if deflector plates are provided. • Back Side Of Ladder: The perpendicular distance from the face of the rung on the climbing side to the nearest fixed object on the back side of the ladder shall not be less than 10 inches. When unavoidable, horizontal obstructions (e.g. beams, pipes, etc.) are encountered, the vertical toe clearances specified in the following sections, shall apply. • Side Clearance: The minimum clear distance to the nearest fixed object shall be 15 inches on each side of the centerline of single rung ladders.

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Vertical Clearance: The minimum vertical toe clearance from horizontal obstructions shall be 1 1/2 inches below and 4 1/2 inches above the top edge of the rung.

Multiple Ladders: When two or more separate ladders are used with a landing platform, the side-step distance shall be a minimum of 15 inches from the centerline of the upper ladder to the near side of the lower ladder.

9.4.12

Workmanship 9.4.12.1 Scaffolding shall be erected, altered, and dismantled by experienced men working under the direction of a competent supervisor. 9.4.12.2 Posts shall be set accurately in place and checked vertically by using a spirit level or by using vertical lines on the building or structure. 9.4.12.3 Scaffolding couplers should be tightened with proper scaffolding spanners. The use of an ordinary spanner or tool giving greater leverage could damage the screw threads and render the coupler unserviceable. 9.4.12.4 Scaffolding materials shall not be thrown or dropped from heights.

9.4.13

Inspections All scaffolds shall be inspected regularly by a competent Supervisor and after adjustments, modifications, adverse weather conditions, etc. Erected scaffolds and platforms should also be inspected continuously, by those using the scaffold, to insure that the scaffold has not been altered and is in a safe working condition.

9.5

Fabricated Tubular Frame and System Scaffolding
Fabricated tubular frame and system scaffolding are composed wholly or partly of prefabricated sections. There are many types of fabricated tubular frame and system scaffolding available which vary in design and methods of erection; however, the same basic principles set out in 9.4 apply and the following matters warrant particular attention. All scaffolds must be erected as per manufacturer's direction and limitations. A scaffold plan needs to be submitted to Loss Prevention Department for review. (See Figures II.28 to II.31)

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9.5.1 To be erected, altered and dismantled by experienced men, under the direction of a competent Supervisor. 9.5.2 Periodic inspections shall be made of all parts and accessories. Broken, bent, altered, excessively rusted or otherwise structurally damaged frames or accessories shall not be used. 9.5.3 All fabricated tubular frame and system scaffolding shall be constructed and erected to support four times the maximum intended loads. 9.5.4 Scaffold posts shall be pitched on steel base plates and on timber sills or pads as necessary. Screwjacks shall be used to compensate for variations in ground level. 9.5.5 Scaffolds shall be properly braced by cross braces and longitudinal diagonal braces for securing vertical members together. The cross braces shall be of such length as will automatically square and align vertical members so that the erected scaffold is always plumb, square, and rigid. All brace connections shall be made secure. 9.5.6 The frames or posts shall be placed one on top of the other with coupling or stacking pins to ensure proper vertical alignment of the legs. 9.5.7 The frames and posts shall be locked together vertically by pins or other equivalent suitable means. 9.5.8 Fabricated tubular frame and system scaffolding over 38 meters (125 feet) in height shall be specially designed by a Professional Engineer. In Saudi Aramco, scaffold heights are limited to a maximum height of 12.2 meters (40 feet), unless a scaffold plan has been reviewed by the Area Loss Prevention Division representative prior to construction. Scaffolds above 12.2 meters (40 feet) should be constructed using scaffold contractors; however no scaffolds shall exceed 38.1 meters (125 feet) unless the design has been reviewed by an Area Loss Prevention D ivision representative, Consulting Services Department and approved by a qualified engineer. (See also GI 8.001, section 6.1.1.)

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9.6

Tube and Coupler Scaffolds
(Tube and Coupler Construction - Figure II.23) 9.6.1 Independent Tied Scaffold An independent tied scaffold (also commonly known as a double pole scaffold) consists of a double row of posts connected together longitudinally with runners and with bearers at right angles to the runners. Braces and ties are essential for stability. Independent tied scaffold is the most common form of tube and coupler scaffolding and is divided into three groups. In Saudi Aramco the height limitation of the tube and coupler scaffold shall not exceed 12.2 meters (40 feet) unless a scaffold plan proposing to use such a scaffold at a greater height has been reviewed by the Loss Prevention Department per the provisions of Section 9.5.8. 1 2 3 9.6.2 Light Duty: for painting, cleaning, etc. Medium Duty: when materials are deposited on the platforms. Heavy Duty: where the deposited material is of a more substantial nature.

Light Duty Tube and Coupler Scaffolds (For general requirements, see 9.4 and 9.5) 9.6.2.1 Design, Loading and Dimensions A light duty tube and coupler scaffold can have up to three working platforms in use at any one time, and the maximum distributed load on the platform shall be 1.2 kPa (25 lb./sq. ft) with posts 3.05 meters (10 feet) apart longitudinally and 1.83 meters (6 feet) transversely.

TABLE II.3: TUBE AND COUPLER SCAFFOLDS--LIGHT DUTY Uniformly distributed load Post Spacing (longitudinal) Post Spacing (transverse) Not to exceed 25 p.s.f. 10 ft. 0 in. 6 ft. 0 in.

Working Levels 1 2 3 Reference: CFR 1910.28 9.6.2.2

Additional Planked Levels 8 4 0

Maximum Height 125 ft. 125 ft. 91 ft. 0 in.

Platform The platform between posts should be decked out with 23 centimeters (9 inches) wide by 5.1 centimeters (2 inches) thick planks. Bearers may

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be cantilevered for use as brackets to carry not more than two planks between the building and inner post. 9.6.2.3 Limitations Light duty tube and coupler scaffolds erected in accordance with these directions may be used up to a maximum height of 38.1 meters (125 feet) and limited to a uniformly distributed load of 25 lb./ft 2. Light duty tube and coupler scaffolds departing from these directions shall be specially designed or designed to a higher rating such as medium or heavy duty. 9.6.3. Medium Duty Tube and Coupler Scaffold (For general requirements, see 9.4) 9.6.3.1 Design, Loading, and Dimensions A medium duty tube and coupler scaffold may have up to two working platforms in use at any one time. The maximum distributed load on each platform shall not exceed 2.39 kPa (50 lb./sq. ft) with posts not more than 2.4 meters (8 feet) apart longitudinally and 1.83 meters (6 feet) transversely. TABLE II.4: TUBE AND COUPLER SCAFFOLDS--MEDIUM DUTY Uniformly distributed load Post Spacing (longitudinal) Post Spacing (transverse) Not to exceed 50 p.s.f. 8 ft. 0 in. 6 ft. 0 in.

Working Levels 1 2 Reference: CFR 1910.28 9.6.3.2

Additional Planked Levels 6 0

Maximum Height 125 ft 78 ft. 0 in.

Platform The platform between posts should be decked out with 23 centimeters (9 inches) wide by 5.1 centimeters (2 inches) thick planks. Bearers may be cantilevered for use as brackets to carry not more than two planks between the building and inner post.

9.6.3.3

Limitations Medium duty tube and coupler scaffolds erected in accordance with these directions may be used up to a maximum height of 38.1 meters (125 feet) and limited to a uniformly distributed load of 50 lb./ft 2. Medium duty tube and coupler scaffolds departing from these

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directions shall be specially designed or designed to a higher rating such as heavy duty. 9.6.3.4 Bearers Bearers on medium duty tube and coupler scaffolds shall be 6.35 centimeters (2.5 inches) outside diameter steel tube and of nominal wall thickness of 0.4 centimeter (5/32 inch). 9.6.4 Heavy Duty Tube and Coupler Scaffolds (For general requirements, see 9.5) 9.6.4.1 Design, Loading and Dimensions A heavy duty tube and coupler scaffold has one working platform with a maximum distributed load of 3.6 kPa (75 lb./sq ft) on the platform. The posts shall be no more than 2.0 meters (6 feet, 6 inches) apart longitudinally and 1.8 meters (6 feet transversely). TABLE II.5: TUBE AND COUPLER SCAFFOLDS--HEAVY DUTY Uniformly distributed load Post Spacing (longitudinal) Post Spacing (transverse) Not to exceed 75 p.s.f. 6 ft. 6 in. 6 ft. 0 in.

Working Levels 1 Reference: CFR 1910.28 9.6.4.2

Additional Planked Levels 6

Maximum Height 125 ft.

Platform The platform between the posts shall be decked out with 23 centimeters (9 inches) wide by 5.1 centimeters (2 inches) thick planks.

9.6.4.3

Limitations Heavy duty tube and coupler scaffolds erected in accordance with these directions may be used up to a maximum height of 38.1 meters (125 feet). Heavy duty tube and coupler scaffolds departing from these directions shall be specially designed.

9.6.4.4

Bearers Bearers on heavy duty tube and coupler scaffolds shall be 6.35 centimeters (2.5 inches) outside diameter steel tube and be of nominal wall thickness 0.4 centimeter (5/32 inch).

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9.7

Free-Standing Tower Scaffolds
A free-standing tower scaffold consists of four or more posts connected together longitudinally with runners and bearers at right angles to the runners, forming a square or rectangular tower (see Figure II.32). Alternatively, a free-standing tower scaffold may be constructed of a fabricated tubular frame or system scaffolding (see 9.5). A free-standing tower scaffold has a single working platform and is a common form of access scaffolding for painters and others who do work of a light nature and of short duration. 9.7.1 General Requirements For general requirements, see 9.4 and where a fabricated tubular frame or system scaffolding is to be used, see 9.5. 9.7.2 Design, Loading and Dimensions A free-standing tower scaffold shall have only one working platform and the maximum distributed load shall not exceed the load rating which is determined by the platform unit type and the scaffold duty. The height from the base to working platform of a free-standing tower scaffold shall not exceed four times the minimum base dimension. In no case shall the minimum base dimension be less than 1.2 meters (4 feet). 9.7.3 Runners and Bearers The vertical spacing of runners and bearers shall be 2.0 meters (6 feet, 6 inches). The lowest runners and bearers shall be as near to the base as possible. Runners and bearers shall be secured to the posts with standard couplers. 9.7.4 Bracing Sway bracing is necessary on all four elevations to the full height of the scaffold. Plan bracing is also required at the base, at the top, and at every third lift to prevent racking. 9.7.5 Ties Free-standing tower scaffolds more than 9.8 meters (32 feet) in height shall be adequately tied to a building or structure. Where tying to a building or structure is impracticable, one of the following methods of ensuring stability shall be used (see Figures II.33 to II.35): 1 2 3 Guy wires at a slope of approximately 45o connected to the working platform level of the tower. Bottom corners of the tower securely anchored. Outriggers extending to the ground.

The strength of the guy wires or of the anchorage used shall be calculated, having due regard to the horizontal wind forces and other known forces which may be applied to the tower. These calculations shall be reviewed by Loss Prevention Department.

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9.7.6

Platform The single working platform of a free-standing tower scaffold shall not project beyond the base area and the platform unit(s) shall be securely fixed in position.

9.7.7

Access Where the means of access to the working platform is outside the tower structure, due consideration must be given to the effect of such means of access on the stability of the scaffold. Where a sloping ladder would cause instability, a securely fixed vertical ladder may be used.

9.7.8

Limitations Free-standing tower scaffolds erected and used in accordance with these directions and with one working platform may be used up to a maximum height of 12 meters (40 feet) to the work platform. Free-standing tower scaffolds departing from these directions shall be specially designed.

9.8

Mobile Tower Scaffolds
(Figure II.31) The requirements for free-standing tower scaffolds in 9.7 also apply to mobile tower scaffolds with the exception that wheels are used in place of base plates and sills. 9.8.1 Foundations Wheels or casters, not less than 12.7 centimeters (5 inches) in diameter, and fitted with brakes, which cannot be released accidentally, shall be securely fixed to the bases of the posts by lock pins or dowels. A mobile tower scaffold shall only be used and moved on surfaces sufficiently firm and level to ensure stability. Where the scaffold is to be used on a suspended floor, it shall be designed to apply loads no greater than the bearing capacity of the floor. Temporary foundations or track laid on soft or uneven ground to facilitate the erection and movement of the tower shall be constructed and anchored so that its bearing capacity is not exceeded due to imposed loading from the tower. The track shall be level and properly secured. 9.8.2 Operation A mobile tower scaffold shall be moved only by pushing or pulling at the base. Force must not be applied at a height greater than 1.4 meters (4 feet, 6 inches) above the base. No men, equipment or materials shall be on the working platform or elsewhere on the structure while it is in motion. Wheel brakes shall be applied at all times when men are on the stationary mobile tower scaffold.

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9.8.3

Limitations Mobile tower scaffolds, erected and used in accordance with these directions, supported on four wheels and with one working platform, may be used up to a maximum height of 12 meters (40 feet). Mobile tower scaffolds departing from these directions shall be specially designed and properly secured (See 9.7.5).

9.9

Scaffolds for Tanks and Vessels
Tube and coupler scaffolds for tanks and vessels shall be erected in accordance with 9.6. Secure tying to the structure is essential for stability. 9.9.1 Bracket Scaffolds 9.9.1.1 Brackets and bracket straps shall be constructed, fixed and erected in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions. 9.9.1.2 It is essential that the brackets, straps and welds are of sufficient strength to support the weight of the scaffold, men, tools and materials. 9.9.1.3 The bracket straps shall be welded to the wall of the tank by a certified welder. The weld shall be a full 5 millimeters (3/16 inch) fillet. Prior to welding on any tank, approval is required from Saudi Aramco Consulting Services Department. 9.9.1.4 The weld shall be made with the same type of electrode as used for the main tank weld joints. Before the bracket is attached to the strap, the weld shall be inspected by a competent welding inspector or welding supervisor who will approve and accept the weld. 9.9.1.5 Brackets shall be inspected prior to each use and damaged or defective brackets shall be removed from service. Brackets shall be vertical and horizontal spacing shall not exceed 2.5 meters (8 feet) on centers. 9.9.1.6 A rigid guardrail system and toeboards shall be securely fixed to the uprights of the brackets (see Section 9.4.9). Alternatively, 3/8 inch diameter wire ropes may be used in place of toprails and midrails providing that they are securely fixed and kept taut by the use of turn buckles.

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9.9.1.7 Whenever men are working, the platform shall be fully decked. 9.9.1.8 Excessive storage or accumulation of materials or platform units (planks) shall not be permitted. 9.9.1.9 The scaffold shall be designed to support a minimum load of 1.2 kPa (25 lb./sq. ft). No more than two persons shall occupy any given 2.5 meters (8 feet) of bracket scaffold at any one time. Tools and materials shall not exceed 34 kg (75 lb.) in addition to person(s) occupying the area.

9.10

Special Scaffolds
Scaffolds to suit special applications and those required for unusual heights or for use in abnormal circumstances shall be of a special design, which has been reviewed by the Loss Prevention Department as per the provisions of section 9.5.8. Vehicle-mounted elevating and rotating aerial devices shall comply with ANSI A92.2-1990.

9.11

Scaffold Terminology
Where possible, the scaffold terminology used in this document is based on ANSI A10.81988: Scaffolding - Safety Requirements. A list of common ANSI scaffold terms is included, and in brackets are equivalent British Standard (BS 5973: 1990 scaffold terms, where an equivalent term exists. (1) Base Plate. A metal plate with a spigot or screwjack for distributing the load from a post or other load bearing tube. Bearer (Transom). A horizontal tube across runners to form the support for a platform or to connect the outer posts to the inner posts. Brace. A tube placed diagonally with respect to the vertical and horizontal members of a scaffold and fixed to them to give stability. Coupler. A device for locking together component parts of tube and coupler scaffold. Design Load. The maximum intended load; that is, the total of all loads including the worker(s), material and the equipment placed on the unit. Dropline. A vertical line from a fixed anchorage, which is independent of the work platform and its rigging, and to which the lanyard is affixed. Fabricated Tubular Frame Scaffold. A system of tubular frames (panels) field erected with bracing members.

(2)

(3)

(4) (5)

(6)

(7)

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(8)

Guardrail System. A rail system erected along open sides and ends of platforms. The rail system consists of a toprail and midrail and their supports. Lanyard. A flexible line to secure the wearer of a body belt or harness to a dropline or a fixed anchor.

(9)

(10) Load Ratings. Maximum loading for the following categories: (a) (b) (c) Heavy Duty: Scaffolding constructed to carry a working load of 75 lb./ft 2 such as for masonry work, with storage of materials on the platform. Medium Duty: Scaffolding constructed to carry a working load of 50 lb./ft 2 such as for bricklayers with the weight of materials in addition to workers. Light Duty: Scaffolding constructed to carry a working load of 25 lb./ft 2 and is intended for workers only, with no material storage other than the weight of tools. Special Duty: Scaffold designed and constructed to carry specific types of objects. A scaffold assembly supported by casters and moved along

(d)

(11) Mobile Scaffold. manually.

(12) Midrail. A horizontal rail approximately midway between the toprail and platform of a guardrail system. (13) Plank. A wood board or fabricated component that is a flooring member. (14) Platform. An elevated work surface composed of one or more platform units. (15) Platform Unit. Individual wood planks, fabricated planks, fabricated decks, and fabricated platforms. (16) Post (Standard). Vertical scaffold tube that bears the weight of the structure. (17) Putlog (Truss). A fabricated tube upon which the platform rests, the putlog has a flattened end, to rest in or on part of the brickwork. (18) Rated Load. The manufacturer's recommended maximum load. (19) Runner (Ledger). A horizontal scaffold tube that extends from post to post, that supports putlogs or bearers and that forms a tie between the posts. (20) Scaffold. A temporary elevated or suspended work unit and its supporting structure used for supporting worker(s) or materials, or both. (21) Scaffold Access. A separate, attachable or built-in means of access to and from a scaffold or work unit. (22) Scaffold Deck 'Fabricated'. A work unit equipped with end hooks that engage the scaffold bearer. (23) Sill (Sole Plate). A timber, concrete or metal spreader used to distribute the load from a post or base plate to the ground.

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(24) Tie. A device used between scaffold components and the building or structure to enhance lateral stability. (25) Toeboard. A barrier secured along the sides and the ends of a platform unit to guard against the falling of material, tools and other loose objects. (26) Toprail. The uppermost horizontal rail of a guardrail system. (27) Tube and Coupler Scaffold. A scaffold system consisting of tubing that serves as posts , bearers, braces, ties and runners; a base supporting the posts; and special couplers that serve to connect the uprights and join the various members.

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FIGURE II.23: A TYPICAL INDEPENDENT TIED S CAFFOLD CONSTRUCTED USING TUBE AND COUPLER S CAFFOLDING

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FIGURE II.24: A TYPICAL TUBE AND COUPLER S CAFFOLD

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Page

FIGURE II.25: PLAN VIEW OF TW O -WAY TIE

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FIGURE II.28: A TYPICAL S YSTEM S CAFFOLD

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FIGURE II.29: A TYPICAL S YSTEM S CAFFOLD BEING ASSEMBLED

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FIGURE II.31: A TYPICAL FABRICATED TUBULAR FRAME MANUALLY PROPELLED MOBILE S CAFFOLD

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FIGURE II.32: A TYPICAL TUBE AND COUPLER MOBILE ACCESS TOWER

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FIGURE II.33: CROSS TUBE ANCHOR

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10.0 HAND TOOLS AND POWER TOOLS
Hand tools are those tools for which the hand provides the motive force, e.g., picks, shovels, axes, crowbars, wrenches, saws, chisels, hammers, screwdrivers, etc. It is the contractor's duty to ensure that his workmen are properly instructed in the selection and use of the correct tool for the job. Tools constructed of good quality materials should always be used. Poor quality tools increase the risk of accidents and also reduce the efficiency of work. Power tools, however, allow many jobs to be carried out more efficiently and with greater speed and accuracy. The correct use of power tools can only be achieved by the proper training of workmen, by proper maintenance, and by adequate site supervision. Many accidents have occurred because unskilled and untrained labor have been allowed to operate power tools in an incorrect manner. INSTRUCTIONS AND STANDARDS Saudi Aramco Instructions And Standards: Schedule 'D': Saudi Aramco Safety, Health and Environmental Requirements - Cartridge Operated Tools United States Code of Federal Regulations 29, Part 1910, Subpart "0", Machinery And Machine Guarding American National Standards Institute: ANSI A10.3-1985 Safety Requirements For Powder Actuated Fastening Systems ANSI A10.9-1983 Safety Requirements For Concrete Construction and Masonry Work ANSI B7.1-1988 Safety Code For The Use, Care, And Protection Of Abrasive Wheels ANSI B15.1-1984 Safety Code For Mechanical Power Transmission Apparatus NFPA - 70-90 National Electrical Code (NEC)

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10.1

Hand Tools, General
10.1.1 Quality The contractor shall ensure that the finest quality tools shall be provided for all jobs where hand tools are used. 10.1.2 Cleanliness The contractor shall ensure that hand tools are regularly cleaned and, where necessary, lightly oiled as a protection against corrosion. 10.1.3 Repair and Storage All hand tools shall be regularly inspected before and after use, and before storage. If wear or damage is observed, the tool should be withdrawn from use for repair or disposal. The contractor shall ensure that the storekeeper maintains a record of all tools issued, repaired, and withdrawn from use. Proper racks and boxes shall be provided for the storage of hand tools. 10.1.4 Selection The majority of accidents are caused by using an incorrect tool for the job. It is essential that the correct type, size, and weight of tool should be decided upon before any work is carried out. 10.1.5 Electrical Risks All uninsulated metal tools are conductors of electricity. Where work takes place on or near electrical operations, only properly insulated and non-conductive tools should be used. Insulation should be checked at regular intervals by a competent electrician.

10.2

Individual Hand Tools, Precautions
10.2.1 Screwdrivers It is essential that a screwdriver has the correct size of tip to fit the slot of the screw. If the screwdriver fits the screw correctly, the screw will be drawn into the correct position without unnecessary force being applied. Over-tightening of screws can lead to possible hand injury if the screwdriver slips. Screwdriver shanks are not designed to withstand the twisting strain applied by a pair of pliers or more grips in order to obtain additional leverage. On no account should screwdriver handles be subjected to blows from a hammer or similar instrument. Screwdrivers should never be carried in the pockets of coveralls or other clothing. A screwdriver can produce a serious wound.

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10.2.2

Hammer It is essential that the right kind of hammer be selected for the job. Hammer handles should be made from smooth timber or be m ade of an integral head and shaft of steel. Hammer heads should be secured to wooden handles with proper wedges.

10.2.3

Chisels Cutting edges should be kept sharp at all times, and the original shape and angle should be maintained. Re-sharpened cold chis els should be suitably hardened and tempered to maintain them in a safe working condition. The chisel heads will mushroom in use. As soon as mushrooming is observed, the head should be reground with a slight taper around the edge to prevent chipping and reduce the tendency to re-mushroom. Eye protection should be worn at all times when a cold chisel is used. On jobs where it is necessary to use a sledge hammer for striking the chisel, the chisel should be held by a second person using a pair of tongs. Wood chisels should also be maintained in a sharp condition so that minimum pressure is exerted when making a cut. If the chisel is to be struck, only a wooden or soft mallet should be used.

10.2.4

Picks and Shovels Picks and shovels shall be maintained in a serviceable condition at all times. Shovel blades should not be allowed to become blunt, turned, split, or jagged. Pick head points should be kept sharp and heat-treated so that the metal wears down in use and does not splinter or chip off. Shafts of picks and shovels should be kept free from cracks and splinters.

10.2.5

Spanners and Wrenches Only spanners and adjustable wrenches of the right size should be used. When possible, use box-end rather than adjustable wrenches. The jaw should first be checked for any sign of opening out or splitting. Spanner and wrench lengths are graded to provide sufficient leverage on the nuts for which they are designed. Improvised extension to these tools is an unsafe practice and may cause the bolt tread to strip or cause shearing of the bolt. On no account should ordinary wrenches be struck by a hammer when tightening nuts. For heavy work of this nature, a properly designed slugging wrench should be used.

10.2.6

Pipe Wrenches Pipe wrenches must be large enough for the job, the jaw teeth must be kept clean and sharp, and the knurl, pin, and spring should be kept free from damage. Pipe wrenches should never be struck with a hammer, nor should they be used as a hammer.

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10.2.7

Pliers Pliers should only be used when there are no other tools for the job. They are meant only for gripping around objects and should not be used as a wrench. Care should be taken when cutting soft metal with pliers to ensure the scrap portion does not fly off and cause injury. If wire is cut under tension, then long handled pliers should be used. Where pliers are used for electrical work, they must be fitted with insulated handles. All pliers should be kept free from dirt and grit, and the movable parts should be lightly lubricated.

10.2.8

Jacks Jacks should be marked with rated capacity and must be heavy enough and strong enough to raise and maintain the load. They should be placed on a firm and solid support, and the load should be positioned on the center line of the jack. Once a load has been raised, it must be shored or blocked. The jack should never be relied upon to hold the raised load in position by itself. Extreme care should be taken when working under or near a raised load.

10.2.9

Hacksaws The correct type of blade should be selected to suit the material to be cut. The blade should be set in a hacksaw frame so that the teeth are pointing in the forward direction, and sufficient tension should be applied to ensure blade is maintained rigid.

10.2.10

Hand saws Many kinds of woodworking hand saws are available, and care should be taken to select the correct saw. All hand saws shall be regularly examined to ensure that the saw teeth are properly set so as to avoid binding in the timber which can cause the blade to buckle. The teeth should be kept sharp, clean, and lightly oiled. When the saw is not in use, the blade should be protected by a slotted piece of timber or a sheath. Two-man saws should be operated by pulling only. The cut should be kept straight to avoid the blade buckling. The cut should be wedged open to prevent the timber from pinching the blade.

10.3

Power Tools, General
10.3.1 Quality The contractor shall ensure that all portable power tools do not exceed 125 volts rating, are manufactured of sound materials, and are free from defects and properly grounded.

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10.3.2

Repair and Storage All portable power tools shall be stored in clean, dry conditions. The contractor shall provide a schedule of systematic inspection and maintenance for all power tools. All tools shall be returned to the storekeeper at the completion of each individual job. Power tools must not be left lying around the job site where they could be damaged. Rotating tools should be switched off and held until rotation has completely stopped before they are set down. Tools must be disconnected before changing bits, blades, cutters, or wheels. Power for tools can be supplied by compressed air, explosive cartridge, or electricity. All portable power tools must be equipped with properly functioning "dead man" switches.

10.4

Pneumatic Tools
10.4.1 General 10.4.1.1 An air compressor shall always be under the supervision of a competent person. It should always be sited in such a place so as to have adequate ventilation. Compressors shall not be permitted to operate in confined spaces without the provision of adequate exhaust ventilation. 10.4.1.2 All compressed air hoses shall be of the correct size to fit the tool being used. Any joint in the hoses shall be made with a proper coupler and secured by safety wire. The hose length shall be kept as short as possible and placed so as not to be subjected to damage. 10.4.1.3 Pneumatic tools require clean air to operate efficiently. In every line feeding a power tool, there shall be an adequate filter and lubricator. 10.4.1.4 During operation all air tools should be held firmly to prevent them spinning and jumping. This pressure should be maintained during the stopping process to prevent injury to the operator's feet and hands. 10.4.2 Individual Tools, Precautions 10.4.2.1 Jack Hammer and Concrete Breakers The tool bit retaining spring shall always be securely in position to prevent the bit from dropping out. The bit must be kept sharp.

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Ear, eye and foot protection shall be required when working with this type of equipment. See I.9 for other personal protective equipment requirements. 10.4.2.2 Rock Drill It is extremely important that the operator maintains a firm grip with both hands and stands in a balanced position. Any other method of using the tool can cause serious bodily injury. 10.4.2.3 Grinding Machine This tool is probably the most misused of all the power tools. Care should always be taken to ensure that the grinding wheel is free from defect before mounting. Any defect may cause the wheel to disintegrate as it gains momentum. Only persons who have been instructed in the proper selection and fitting of grinding wheels should be allowed to install wheels on tools. The proper size and type of wheel should be fitted to the tool so that the maximum permissible running speed of the spindle does not exceed the maximum periphery speed displayed on the grinding wheel. No grinding machine shall be used unless the maximum speed is clearly marked on the case. All wheels shall be fitted with adequate guards in conformance with ANSI B7-1-1988. (See Figure II.36.) Floor stand and bench mounted abrasive wheels, used for external grinding, shall be provided with safety guards (protection hoods). The maximum angular exposure of the grinding wheel periphery and sides shall be not more than 90o , except that when work requires contact with the wheel below the horizontal plane of the spindle, the angular exposure shall not exceed 125o . In either case, the exposure shall begin not more than 65o above the horizontal plane of the spindle. Safety guards shall be strong enough to withstand the effect of a bursting wheel. (See Figures II.37 and II.38.) Floor and bench-mounted grinders shall be provided with work rests which are rigidly supported and readily adjustable. Such work rests shall be kept at a distance not to exceed one-eighth inch from the surface of the wheel. (See Figure II.37.) Cut type wheels used for external grinding shall be protected by either a revolving cup guard or a band type guard in accordance with the provisions of the American National Standards Institute, B7.1-1988 Safety Code for the Use, Care, and Protection of Abrasive Wheels. All other portable abrasive wheels used for external grinding, shall be provided with safety guards (protection hoods) meeting the requirements of this paragraph, except as follows: • When the work location makes it possible, a wheel equipped with safety flanges shall be used.

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When wheels 2 inches or less in diameter which are securely mounted on the end of a steel mandrel are used.

Portable abrasive wheels used for internal grinding shall be provided with safety flanges (protection flanges) except as follows: • • If the wheels are entirely within the work being ground while in use. When wheels 2 inches or less in diameter which are securely mounted on the end of a steel mandrel are used.

When safety guards are required, they shall be so mounted as to maintain proper alignment with the wheel, and the guard and its fastenings shall be of sufficient strength to retain fragments of the wheel in case of accidental breakage. The maximum angular exposure of the grinding wheel periphery and sides shall not exceed 180o . When safety flanges are required, they shall be used only with wheels designed to fit the flanges. Only safety flanges of a type and design and properly assembled so as to ensure that the pieces of the wheel will be retained in case of accidental breakage, shall be used. All abrasive wheels shall be closely inspected and ring-tested before mounting to ensure that they are free from cracks or defects. (See Figure II.39.) Grinding wheels shall fit freely on the spindle and shall not be forced on. The spindle nut shall be tightened only enough to hold the wheel in place. (See Figure II.40.) All employees using abrasive wheels shall be protected by eye protection equipment. Materials that require grinding shall be placed on the tool rest with moderate head-on pressure applied. Materials should not be forced or jammed into the wheel. Grinding the materials on the sides of the wheel is an unsafe practice which can damage the wheel. A grooved or damaged wheel must be replaced.

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FIGURE II.36: ABRASIVE/GRINDING WHEEL 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Dimensions Nature of the Abrasive Abrasive Grain Size Grade Structure Bond Maximum Speed Color Stripe = Speed

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FIGURE II.37: GRINDER GUARDS 1. 2. Work rests shall be kept adjusted to the wheel with a maximum gap of 1/8 inch. Tongue guards shall be kept adjusted closely to the wheel with a maximum opening of 1/4 inch. The maximum angular exposure of the grinding wheel periphery should not exceed 90o. This exposure shall begin at a point not more than 65o above the horizontal plane. Whenever the nature of the work requires contact with the wheel below the horizontal plane, the exposure shall not exceed 125o .

3.

4.

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FIGURE II.38:

BENCH GRINDER - MACHINE GUARDING

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10.5

Cartridge Operated Tools
10.5.1 General Cartridge operated tools have a great advantage in that they can be used in almost any situation without the inconvenience of trailing leads or hoses. However, it is essential that these tools be operated only by properly trained personnel who are over 18 years of age. The contractor shall ensure that each man required to operate such a tool will undergo a thorough training period and be certified by the tool vendor. Use of cartridge operated tools will be in accordance with Saudi Aramco GI 2.100, ANSI A10.3-1985 and the manufacturer's specifications and shall be subject to review and concurrence by the Loss Prevention Department. 10.5.2 Storage Safe and secure storage for cartridges and tools must be provided on the job site. Storage must be fire proof, dry, must be capable of being locked and should be sited in a clear, but easily accessible location where constant supervision can be maintained. Cartridges and tools must not be stored together. A storage unit providing positive physical separation of cartridges and tools (i.e., a wall or partition) is required. Warning to be posted where cartridges are stored: "DANGER - NO SMOKING Cartridge Storage". Ventilation must be provided in the store. Cartons of cartridges must not be stacked against the wall and ventilation spaces must be left around the cartons. Only one carton of each strength cartridge shall be open at any one time. All empty cartons, and intermediate packing, must be removed at once. Tools must be stored in their carrying cases. No loose cartridges must be in the carrying cases; all cartridges must be in their color coded boxes. Only authorized personnel must be allowed access to the store. 10.5.3 Selection and Training of Personnel No person may operate, clean, maintain, or repair any cartridge tool without possessing a certificate of competency, issued by an accredited tool vendor or manufacturer's representative, which identifies the particular model that the person is qualified to handle. Personnel for training must be selected with the following points in mind: 1 2 3 4 Must be over 18 years of age. Must be physically fit and have full use of both hands and both eyes. Should ideally be a tradesman, e.g. plumber, mason, electrician, joiner/carpenter, etc. Storemen may also need to be trained if they are required to clean and maintain the tools.

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Training, both theoretical and practical, must be given by a competent instructor. The training must follow the manufacturer's instructions as contained in the handbook of each particular model. 10.5.4 Personal Protective Equipment Eye Protection shall be worn by the operator and his assistant whenever using the tools. Goggles must be of a satisfactory standard designed to withstand high speed impacts and/or, penetrations. Ear muffs will be available for use at any time and shall be used in confined spaces. Safety belts may be required in certain situations where the recoil from the tool could cause an operator to loose his balance. 10.5.5 Issue and Returns Contractors will ensure that a full register of the serial numbers of each tool is made and kept up to date. A log inventory system of issuing and returning cartridges and tools against signatures must be initiated and maintained. See Figure II.47: Cartridge/Tool Issuance Control. Only personnel in possession of a user certificate will be allowed to withdraw tools or cartridges from the store. Only the minimum number of cartridges required for that particular shift's operation should be issued at any one time. Cartridges and tools must not be left on the job site at lunch break or at end of shift but must be returned to the store for safekeeping. Any loss, either of tools or cartridges, must be reported, at once, to Saudi Aramco project proponent. 10.5.6 Work Permits Work Permits will not normally be required for use on job sites. Where tools will be used in restricted areas (as defined in GI 2.100 Work Permits), a Hot Work Permit must be obtained before work commences. 10.5.7 Use No person may operate, clean, maintain or repair any cartridge tool without possessing a certificate of competency which identifies the particular model that person is qualified to handle. The manufacturer's operating instructions must be followed at all times.

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Cartridges are manufactured in different calibers and strengths. There are three sizes: .25 short, .27 short, and .27 long; and, four strengths, as follows: POWER LEVEL Low Low/Medium Medium/High Extra High NUMBER 3 4 5 6 COLOR CODE Green Yellow Red Purple/Black LETTER CODE L LM MH EX

It is, therefore, imperative that the correct size and strength of cartridge required for the tool, the fixing, and the material to be fixed onto be properly determined. A wrongly sized cartridge will cause a stoppage or misfire. Using a cartridge which is too powerful could cause a ricochet or a spalling or fracture of the material. The following General Safety and Operating Rules are common to all types of tools: 1 As soon as the tool is removed from its carrying case, check to make sure that a cartridge is NOT LOADED. Inspect the tool before use each day to ensure that it is complete, in good condition (e.g., clean), and that the safety devices are in proper working condition. Any tool that is not in proper working order or that develops a defect during use, shall be immediately withdrawn from service and not used until properly repaired. Tools shall not be loaded with a cartridge until just prior to the intended firing time. When loading a tool, point it away from you and anyone else. Never walk around with a loaded tool; load it where you are working. Never leave the tool loaded when not in use. Loaded tools shall not be left unattended. Never try to operate the tool without the end of the barrel hard against the fixing surface. All tools shall be used with the correct shield, guard, or attachment recommended by the manufacturer. Fasteners shall not be driven into very hard or brittle materials including, but not limited to, cast iron, glazed tile, surface hardened steel, glass blocks, hollow tile, terra cotta, marble, granite, slate, etc. Driving into soft or easily penetrable materials shall be avoided unless materials are backed by another material that will prevent the pin from passing completely through and creating a flying missile hazard on the other side. Careful inspection of all materials should be made before deciding on the use of a cartridge tool.

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

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9

No pins shall be driven into a spalled area caused by an unsatisfactory shot, or into any existing hole in the material. Care should be taken to ensure that the new fixing is at least two inches away from any previous hole, and a similar distance from any welded joint. Pins must not be fired into corner bricks, mortar joints, and must be at least four (4) inches (100 mm) away from the edge of concrete or brick work and one-half inch (12 mm) from the edge of steel. Ensure that the correct strength cartridge is used for the pin, fixing and material involved. For the first, or test firing use the weakest cartridge. Too strong a cartridge may result in over penetration, or the fastener may rebound or ricochet. The tool must be held at right angles to the job when firing. In the event of a misfire, the tool should be re-triggered without moving the tool from the work face. If the shot again fails, then the tool must be held firmly in the firing position for at least 30 seconds to allow for a possible "Hang Fire" in the cartridge. The removal of the misfired cartridge must be as per the manufacturer's instructions. Do not use nails, knives, etc., to pry the cartridge loose. Recoil from firing can throw an operator off balance, especially when working from ladders or scaffolds. Care must be taken to ensure that the operator has a secure and safe work area. Safety belts should be used if necessary. Do not leave cartridges loose on the job site or in the carrying case or carry them in your pockets. Cartridges are of the 'Rim Fire' type and could explode accidentally if in receipt of a knock from a pin, fixing, or even a bunch of keys. Before returning the tool to the stores, ensure that it is clean and complete and that all cartridges are in their correct color coded box.

10

11

12 13

14

15

16

10.5.8

Maintenance and Repair Before any repair/maintenance work is carried out, check to make sure that the tool is NOT LOADED with a cartridge. No person may operate, clean, maintain or repair any cartridge tool without possessing a certificate of competency which identifies the particular model that the person is qualified to handle. Tools must be dismantled, as far as the manufacturer's instructions indicate, at least once every week and checked for defects and excessive wear before being cleaned and oiled. If any defect is found, the tool must be made serviceable before being issued for use.

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Only manufacturer's authorized spare parts are to be used for repair/replacement. NO CARTRIDGES must be allowed in the repair/maintenance area. Test firing of repaired tools must be done in a safe location away from work and store or office areas.

10.6

Electrically Operated Tools
10.6.1 General 10.6.1.1 All electrically operated hand tools shall be rated and used at a voltage not exceeding 125V to ground. 10.6.1.2 Before any electrical tool is used, a careful check shall be made by the supervisor to ensure that the supply voltage is within the range marked on the information plate on the tool. Ground Fault Circuit Interrupters (GFCIs) are required for all 120 volt, single phase, 15 and 20 ampere receptacle outlets on construction sites which are not a part of the permanent wiring system. 10.6.1.3 All electrical power hand tools shall be of the double insulated type or properly grounded. External metal parts of double insulated tools (drill chucks, saw blades, etc.) are insulated from the electrified parts inside the tool and, under normal conditions, contact with electrified parts of the tool does not take place. However, under wet conditions, rain, condensation, high humidity, damp locations, etc., the hazards are as great as with faulty grounded tools. All electrical tools are hazardous when used damp or wet, but with double insulated tools the moisture coupled with metal dust, carbon dust, etc. can form a conductive path from inside the tool to the surface through the ventilation holes or cracks. Since there is no ground wire to carry this current away, the user can receive an electric shock. Double insulated tools, like all electric tools, must be kept dry and should not be used without a ground fault circuit interrupter. 10.6.1.4 All tools shall be used with extension cords which are as short as possible. All extension cords shall be fitted with grounding pin and blades to fit the socket outlet on the distribution board. Extension cords shall be of the three-wire conductor type. Plugs and sockets must meet the National Electrical Code requirement with respect to grounding and polarity.

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Overcurrent protection shall be provided to extension cords in accordance with the requirements of the National Electrical Code Article 240. Factors to be considered for adequate overcurrent protection are: type of conductors, size, and length of run. Example: Consider electrical equipment being used on a construction site that may require 15 or 18 ampere (amp.) capacity. Construction plans call for three No. 12 AWG (wire size) copper conductors which run to a 20 amp. receptacle (120 v) 40 feet from the electrical panel box. This circuit is protected by a 20 amp. circuit breaker. Is this a problem? Yes - There may be three problems: (1) the size of the conductors, (2) the length of cable run and, (3) the circuit breaker size. In order to prevent an employee from receiving an electric shock, the breaker size and receptacle should be reduced to 15 amp. or the conductors changed to a No. 10 AWG so that the breaker can function at 20 amp. when required. Leaving the circuit the way it is would allow considerable electrical leakage without tripping the circuit breaker. Also conductor insulation would be subject to heat damage causing electrical leakage and fire. Heavy duty construction type extension cords are required for 20 ampere circuits, No. 14 AWG or larger size for 100 feet of run length. (See Figure II.41.) 10.6.1.5 Where it is necessary to make electrical splices, these shall be made with proper connector blocks or by plug and socket connectors. Taped joints shall not be permitted. 10.6.2 Maintenance and Storage A proper inspection and maintenance routine shall be established by the contractor for all electrical tools. The inspection and maintenance of all tools shall be carried out at least once in every working week by a competent electrician. All tools shall be stored in a clean, dry place, and a record of issue and receipt shall be maintained by the storekeeper. 10.6.3 Personal Protective Equipment The contractor shall ensure that all operators are provided with eye, head, and ear protection. If there is any likelihood of harmful dust being emitted, dust respirators should be used. 10.6.4 Individual Tools, Precautions 10.6.4.1 Grinders All grinders shall be equipped with a protective guard which allows only the working part of the wheel to be exposed. This guard must not be removed.

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Grinders shall be clearly marked with their maximum running speed. The maximum running speed of the spindle must not exceed the maximum periphery speed marked on the grinding wheel. Wheels should be checked for defects before mounting. All defective wheels must be destroyed. (See Figure II.40.) 10.6.4.2 Drills Care should be taken not to drill too large a hole at one time. Drilling of large holes should be done in stages by using small bore drills and gradually increasing the size as necessary. If this is not done, the drill may bind on breakthrough, and the torque set up could twist the tool against the user's wrist. 10.6.4.3 Saws Hand operated circular saws shall be fitted with spring loaded guards which allow only the working part of the blade to be exposed. (See Figure II.42.) Portable table saws shall be provided with adjustable guards, antikick-back devices, and push-type start/stop buttons within easy reach of the operator. (See Figures II.43 and II.44.) Fixed table saws shall be hard wired to an emergency electrical disconnect switch that has the capability of locking out in addition to having start/stop buttons at the operator's location, etc. Portable table saws must be unplugged for repair, maintenance, or when not in use. Where a provision is made for a table saw riving knife to be fitted, it shall be kept clean and properly adjusted to the work at all times. Push sticks must be provided and used when necessary on all bench saws. The work area shall be cleaned to prevent excessive build-up of sawdust and scrap wood. Operators shall wear eye and hearing protection. 10.6.4.4 Radial Saws (Figure II.45) Radial saws must be provided with: • An upper hood to enclose the top portion of the blade down to a point that includes the end of the saw arbor. The sides of the lower, exposed portion of the blade must be guarded to the full diameter of the blade by a device that automatically adjusts to the thickness of the stock being cut. Anti-kickback dogs (on both sides of saw) designed to provide adequate holding power for all thicknesses of ripping stock.

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An adjustable stop limiting the forward travel of the blade beyond the distance necessary to complete the cut in repetitive operations. A saw housing which automatically returns to the starting position. A marking on the hood showing the direction of the saw rotation. In addition, a permanent label must be affixed to the rear of the guard, reading: "DANGER. DO NOT RIP OR PLOUGH FROM THIS END." Start/stop buttons at the operator's position. Additionally, in the case of fixed saws, each saw must be wired to an emergency electrical disconnect isolation switch capable of locking out the saw.

• •

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FIGURE II.39: "RING TEST"

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FIGURE II.40: CORRECTLY MOUNTED GRINDING WHEEL

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FIGURE II.41: WIRE CONVERSION CHART

* Middle Ring American Wire Gauge

* Outer Ring Allowance Ampacities Of Insulated Conductors Rate 0-2000 Volts, 60o To 90o ("THWN" 75o C Cable Temperature Ratings)

* Inter Ring Metric or MM2 Note: Ambient Temperature Corrections Factors Must Be Applied As Per SAES -P-104

CMills = MM2 19735

Example 500 mcm AWS 500000 = 250MM2 (Reference N.E.C. Table 310-60) 19735

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FIGURE II.42: S ELF ADJUSTING GUARD

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FIGURE II.43: TABLE S AWS • • • • • • Table saws must be provided with a hood that covers the saw at all times. Table saws used for ripping must be equipped with an anti-kickback device and spreader. The exposed part of the saw underneath the table must be guarded. Table must be secured in position. Guarded start/stop buttons shall be provided at the operator's position. All fixed table saws shall be hard wired to an emergency electrical disconnect switch capable of locking out the saw.

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FIGURE II.44:

TABLE S AWS - MACHINE GUARDING

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FIGURE II.45: RADIAL S AWS Radial Saws must be provided with: • An upper hood to enclose the top portion of the blade down to a point that includes the end of the saw arbor. The sides of the lower, exposed portion of the blade must be guarded to the full diameter of the blade by a device that automatically adjusts to the thickness of the stock being cut. Anti-kickback dogs (on both sides of the saw) designed to provide adequate holding power for all thicknesses of ripping stock. An adjustable stop limiting the forward travel of the blade beyond the distance necessary to complete the cut in repetitive operations. A saw housing which automatically returns to the starting position. A marking on the hood showing the direction of the saw rotation. In addition, a permanent label must be affixed to the rear of the guard, reading: "DANGER. DO NOT RIP OR PLOUGH FROM THIS END." Guarded start/stop buttons shall be located at the operators position. Saw stand shall be secured in position. All fixed radial saws shall be hard wired to an emergency electrical disconnect switch capable of locking out the saw.

• • • •

• • •

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FIGURE II.46: THE WOODWORKING MACHINE REGULATIONS Circular saws are included under types specified as woodworking machines. Training: • No person should be employed on a woodworking machine who has not been trained and instructed in its operation. Duties Of Employed Persons: • Employees using woodworking machines must use and keep properly adjusted guards and other safety devices and use push sticks, jigs, holders and backstops provided. Working Environment: • Sufficient space to be provided around machine to allow work without risk of injury. • Floors to be level, in good condition, free of loose material, and not slippery. Guards: • Cutters to be guarded to the greatest practicable extent. • Guards to be of substantial construction, properly secured and adjusted, and constantly in position while cutters are in motion. Top Guard: • Guard to be strong and easily adjustable. • Adjusted to extend from top of riving knife to a point as close as practicable to the surface of the material being cut; or to a point not more than 12 mm above the material being cut where squared stock is being hand held. Bottom Guard: • Blade below table to be guarded to the greatest extent practicable. Push Sticks: • Must be available for use on every hand-fed circular saw, and used to feed materiala) throughout any cut of 300 mm or less b) during the last 300 mm of any cut more than 300 mm in length Push sticks should also be used to remove cut material from between the saw blade and the fence.

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FIGURE II.47: CARTRIDGE/TOOL ISSUANCE CONTROL

Date

Issued

Cartridge Quantity Returned Returned Used Unused

Returned Unexploded

Tool Issued (Type/MDL)

Received By Cert No. Name/ Signature

Issued By

Remarks

Warning: Above items can only be issued to workers with valid training certificate

Storekeeper:

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Safety Officer:

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11.0 PAINTS AND COATINGS
In addition to the usual hazards associated with construction activities, workmen engaged in surface preparation and paint application can be exposed to the dangers of fire, explosion, chemical burns, toxic fumes, dust, and insufficient air. This section of the manual discusses these hazards and how to minimize them. INSTRUCTIONS AND STANDARDS Saudi Aramco General Instructions: GI 2.100 GI 6.021 GI 8.003 Work Permit System Safety Requirements For Abrasive Blast Cleaning Breathing Apparatus

Saudi Aramco Engineering Standards: SAES -A-105 SAES -B-067 SAES -H-102 Noise Safety Identification and Color Coding Safety Requirements for Painting

Steel Structures Painting Council. Steel Structures Painting Manual, Volumes 1 and 2. United States of America Code of Federal Regulations, 29 CFR 1910.1000 Air Contaminants.

11.1

Flammability Hazards of Coating Materials
11.1.1 Flammable Materials In paint systems, it is normally the organic solvent vapor that is flammable. In the Saudi Aramco paint system, all the solvents (except for the water based paints) present a fire hazard. 11.1.2 Flash Point (Definition) The flash point is defined as the lowest temperature at which a liquid will give off sufficient vapor to ignite when exposed to an open flame. For most paint solvents in the Saudi Aramco system, the flash point is less than the normal ambient temperatures in Saudi Arabia. The danger of fire exists virtually always when solvents are in use. 11.1.3 Flammable (Explosive) Limits (Definition) The lower and upper flammable (explosive) limits define the range of vapor/air concentrations that are potentially explosive. The lower flammable (explosive) limit (LEL) is typically on the order of 1% to 2% by volume, a level readily obtained in

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the area near opened solvent containers and near the nozzle of a spray painting gun in operation. 11.1.4 Fire Precautions Solvents in paints constitute a significant fire and explosion hazard when in the presence of ignition sources. No painting should be carried out within 75 feet of potential ignition sources, e.g., welding, flame-cutting, smoking areas, or sparking tools, unless conditions warrant greater clearance. Ventilation equipment should be used to maintain a maximum level of solvent concentration, typically below 10% of the LEL. All electrical lighting and equipment shall be explosion-proof when required in areas where solvent vapors are likely to be present. All electrical equipment such as switches, panel boards, electrical motors and associated equipment must be de-energized before spray painting to eliminate explosion hazards. Solvents and solvent based paints shall not be applied to surfaces exceeding Saudi Arabia summer ambient temperatures. The use and storage of flammable paints and solvents shall be kept to restricted areas and these areas should be suitably marked with the appropriate warning signs. Flammable paints should be kept in a special building or in a sun shelter. Fire extinguishers should be located at the work area and the area Loss Prevention representative/Fire Chief shall agree upon their suitability. Work areas should be kept as clean as practicably possible.

11.2

Health Hazards Associated With Paints
Many paint ingredients are harmful to humans; most people can withstand these materials over a short time and in small quantities. However, some people are immediately sensitive to some ingredients and almost everyone will be affected to some degree if exposed for sufficient time. There are two major groups of irritants: toxic materials and dermatitic or skin irritating materials. 11.2.1 Toxic Materials The most abundant toxic materials found in paints and coatings are solvents. Other toxic materials in paints include pigments (lead), binders (epoxies, polyesters) and additives (organotin). Also, dust from cleaning operations or application of the paint can generate toxic materials. These toxic materials can enter the body through breathing, ingestion or skin absorption. Most solvents are toxic to some degree depending on exposure. The degree of toxicity can be measured by the Permissible Exposure Limit (PEL) expressed as parts per

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million (ppm) or milligrams of particulate per cubic meter (mg/M3) of solvent in air over an exposure of 8 hours a day five days a week with no ill effects. 11.2.2 Dermatitic Materials Dermatitic materials irritate the skin which, if left untreated, can cause infections or ulceration. Solvents have a tendency to dissolve and remove natural oils and fats from skin. Certain binders such as epoxy resins may also irritate the skin. Other chemicals used in paint related work should be handled with care (e.g. paint removers, acid and alkaline cleaners). 11.2.3 Prevention of Health Hazards Many solvents and coatings contain hazardous ingredients. A copy of the appropriate Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) should be obtained for all materials used, studied carefully, and the required safety precautions implemented. The following precautions should minimize health hazards: • • Identify and seal all toxic and dermatitic materials when not in use. Adequately ventilate all painting areas and provide National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA)-approved or equivalent respiratory protection where necessary. All workmen spray painting shall wear chemical cartridge respirators or airline hoods depending upon the hazards of the paint. Minimize dust during surface preparation, and dispose of coating residue in accordance with the recommendations of the Environmental Engineering Division, Process and Control Services Department. Wear the appropriate personnel protective equipment for the work being carried out. Avoid touching any part of the body and wear protective equipment (e.g. gloves, Tywag suits, etc.) when handling dermatitic materials. Personnel involved in painting shall wash thoroughly before eating and at the end of the day. Use ventilation control or respirators when working with paint removers containing toxic solvents.

• •

11.3

Ventilation in Confined Spaces
A supply of clean air is a necessity for all operations involving the application of coating materials, and the paint curing/drying process. A high quality air supply is also required for life support (refer to GI 8.003 - Breathing Apparatus).

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Ventilation is a necessity when painting in confined areas because solvents tend to be heavier than air and migrate to lower levels. The fresh air inlet of the ventilation system should be located near the top of the confined space, and the discharge should be located near the bottom, positioned to eliminate dead air spaces. Supplementary fans may be necessary to ensure good air circulation. Natural ventilation through open man ways, etc. is rarely sufficient to keep local vapor concentrations to a safe level in terms of PELs or LELs. As a general rule, forced ventilation shall be used, especially in small enclosures and always during spray painting. Ventilation requirements are proportionally greater for vessels with a capacity smaller than 1580 m3 (10,000 BBL's or 56,000 cu ft). The recommended ventilation requirements for various vessel capacities are shown in Table II.6; ref. SAES -H-102. Ventilating to 10% of the LEL considerably reduces the likelihood of fire or explosion; however, this level will no doubt exceed the Permissible Exposure Limits for toxic materials. Hence, supplied air respiratory protection is required in confined spaces. The preparation of air used for life support involves the following factors: PEL's of nuisance and toxic dusts; fume, gas and vapor content; air temperature. Air required for breathing apparatus shall meet the requirements of GI 8.003, Breathing Apparatus. TABLE II.6: VENTILATION REQUIREMENTS FOR CONFINED SPACES

Volume of Confined Area m3 16 80 160 800 1600 4000 + BBL 100 500 1000 5000 10000 25000 +

Required Air Mover Capacity L/s 472 1180 2360 4720 7080 9440

cfm 1000 2500 5000 10000 15000 20000

11.4

Surface Preparation
Equipment and materials that are used in surface preparation for paints and coatings can be hazardous if used carelessly. There are several methods for preparing surfaces and these include: • • • Blast cleaning where abrasives in the form of sand, iron shot, grit, slag, etc. are used. Other types of blast cleaning use high pressure water or steam. Hand or power tool cleaning includes grinders, sanders, rotary wire brushes, impact tools, chisels, hammers. Chemical cleaning using paint removers, or solvents, alkali, acids or detergents.

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11.4.1

Abrasive Blast Cleaning This section covers blast cleaning using abrasives in the form of sand, iron shot, grit, slag or similar materials. Abrasive blast cleaning operators shall have pre-placement physical examinations, including chest X-ray and pulmonary function tests with repeat tests at least every two years. The abrasive blast cleaning operator shall wear an air supplied protective hood approved (NIOSH/MSHA or equivalent) for the type of abrasive material being used and any other toxic contaminants (lead, zinc, etc.) that are present. Where blast cleaning assistants could be exposed to silica sand dust or toxic contaminants, then self-contained or air supplied breathing apparatus shall be worn by the assistant. The breathing apparatus and air quality specification shall meet the standards referenced in GI 8.003, Breathing Apparatus. Personnel (e.g. maintenance, workers handling abrasive supplies or clean up crews) within the range of rebound abrasive contaminants shall wear approved (NIOSH/MSHA or equivalent) dust-filter respirators for the specific airborne hazards. A bonding system that bonds nozzle, hose, blasting equipment and the material being cleaned shall be provided, and this bonding system shall be grounded to prevent a build up of static charges. Ground continuity tests shall be conducted periodically to ensure proper grounding. To prevent ignition of hydrocarbons in classified areas, the appropriate precautions listed in GI 2.100, Work Permit System, must be followed.

11.4.2

Hydroblast and Steam Cleaning Hydroblast cleaning uses a high pressure ambient temperature water jet and steam cleaning uses a high pressure and high temperature steam jet. Extra caution should be exercised when using such equipment. These types of equipment are used for removing dirt or rust scales and the personal protective equipment requirements are shown in Table II.7.

11.4.3

Hand and Power Tool Cleaning This section briefly covers the safety aspects of hand and power tools used for surface preparation. Particular attention should be paid to eye protection to guard against flying particles, and where necessary, ear protection should be provided to prevent long term hearing loss per SAES -A-105, Noise. Tools should be correctly selected for the purpose, and also operated and maintained to the manufacturer's instructions. Suitable respirators should be used if contaminant levels exceed Permissible Exposure Limits. Extreme care should be used if tools have the ability to create sparks.

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11.4.4

Chemical Cleaning This section is concerned with four types of chemical cleaners (organic solvents, alkalines, acids and detergents) used to assist in the removal of surface contaminants such as light oils, greases and rust. Solvents such as kerosene, mineral spirits, and turpentine are used to dissolve and remove oil contaminants. Hazards associated with solvents include their flammable, toxic and dermatitic characteristics. Safety precautions regarding these solvents are included in sections 11.1 and 11.2. Alkaline cleaners are composed of highly alkaline salts with wetting agents and/or soaps. They function by wetting, emulsifying, dispersing and solubilizing surface contaminants, and are generally used at elevated temperatures. Acid cleaners are generally composed of strong acids. They remove contaminants by chemical attack and are primarily used to remove metal scales such as rust. Detergent cleaners are comparable to alkaline cleaners except they are generally used at low temperatures (60 to 100 degrees Celsius). For all of the above chemical cleaners, personal safety precautions must be taken to protect personnel from materials and conditions that present fire hazards or cause personnel to experience dermatitic or toxic effects (such as inhalation effects, skin burns, or eye irritants). When using chemical cleaners, appropriate eye and body wash facilities shall be available in the immediate area to minimize the effects of chemical burns in the event of an accident. Chemical cleaning agents such as solvents shall not be used for cleaning personnel. The following solvents shall not be used for cleaning purposes due to the very toxic nature: benzene, gasoline, carbon tetrachloride, and chlorinated hydrocarbons.

11.4.5

General Safety in Surface Preparation Instruction and training of operators about correct use of the cleaning agents and equipment are essential. Surfaces other than those receiving preparation should be protected from damage due to cleaning operations. Where operators are using equipment such as blast cleaners or power tools, they must have safe footing. Extra caution should be taken on scaffoldings. Never point a cleaning gun or nozzle at anyone or any part of your body.

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Equipment such as blast guns and power tools must have automatic controls that shut off the flow of abrasive and propellant if for any reason the operator releases the control switch. Power tools should be properly grounded to prevent electric shock. All manufacturers recommendations on protective guards shall be implemented. Fire and explosion hazards always exist when using solvents, especially in confined areas. Adequate ventilation must be provided.

11.5

Personal Protective Equipment
Personal protective equipment is required for the majority of operations that involve surface preparation or paint application. The amount and type of personal protection depends on the work being carried out and the location. Table II.7 gives a summary of essential personal protective equipment that must be worn by personnel carrying out specific duties. In addition, all personnel on Saudi Aramco industrial facilities and potentially hazardous areas must wear safety shoes, a hard safety hat and safety spectacles. Other protective details such as gloves, face shields, overalls and hearing protections should be addressed to either the area Loss Prevention or Industrial Hygiene offices.

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TABLE II.7: PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT TO BE WORN OR USED DURING SURFACE PREPARATION AND PAINT APPLICATION TYPE OF WORK PERFORMED PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT TO BE WORN (Outside) See key 3,4,5,9,10,11 1,9,10,11 3,4,5,9,10,11 3,4,5,9,10,11 4,7,10,11 2,4,6,10,11 2,5,6,10,11 2,5,6,10,11 2,5,6,10,11 2,5,6,10,11 2,5,6,10,11 4,6,10,11 6,10,11 6,10,11 6,10,11 6,10,11 6,10,11 PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT TO BE WORN (Confined space) See key

Surface preparation Hand or power tool operations Abrasive blast cleaning Operator Other workmen in the vicinity Hydroblast and steam cleaning Chemical cleaning Paint application (spray) Epoxy and coal tar epoxy (SAPCS - 1,2 and 3) Alkyd (SAPCS - 4 and 6) Inorganic zinc (SAPCS -1A, 11A and 17) Chlorinated rubber (SAPCS - 9) Bituminous (SAPCS - 10) Polyurethane (SAPCS - 25) Paint application (brush) Epoxy and coal tar epoxy (SAPCS - 1,2 and 3) Alkyd (SAPCS - 4 and 6) Inorganic zinc (SAPCS -1A, 11A and 17) Chlorinated rubber (SAPCS - 9) Bituminous (SAPCS - 10) Polyurethane (SAPCS - 25) Note:

3,4,9,10,11 1,8,9,10,11 1,8,9,10,11 3,4,5,8,9,10,11 1,4,7,10,11 1,6,10,11 1,5,6,10,11 1,5,6,10,11 1,5,6,10,11 1,5,6,10,11 1,5,6,10,11 2,4,6,10,11 2,6,10,11 4,6,10,11 2,6,10,11 2,6,10,11 6,10,11

Safety belts / harnesses shall be used when these operations are performed above ground levels (1.82 m - 6 ft or more) if a guard rail system is not in place, and / or in confined spaces. The workman should always refer to the MSDS for complete details.

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Key to Table II.7: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. OSHA-approved, respirable air fed hood and filter, SAMS No. 21-444-934 Respirator; chemical cartridge, SAMS No. 21-370-800/810/820 Dust respirator, SAMS No. 21-370-500 Face shield (1), SAMS No. 21-426-121 Goggles, safety impact, SAMS No. 21-434-249 Gloves, SAMS No. 21-432-XXX Gloves; rubber, SAMS No. 21-432-630 Ear protection, SAMS No. 21-327-110 Gloves (leather and fabric), SAMS No. 21-432-353 Helmets (hard hats), SAMS No. 21-441-055 (MSA) / SAMS No. 21-441-050 (American Optical) Safety Shoes, SAMS Nos. 21-472-200 / 21-472-221 / 21-472-300 / 21-472-350

11.6

Paint Application
There are numerous hazards associated with paint application and this section is concerned with air and airless spraying, together with brush and roller painting. 11.6.1 Paint Materials The majority of paint solvents, many pigments and some binders are toxic in addition to having potential dermatitic hazards. Refer to the Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) for information concerning the hazards associated with their use. In that, solvent based painting materials also present a fire and explosion hazards, painting shall not be carried out near an ignition source. Also, additional care should be taken to provide adequate ventilation in confined spaces. Spraying paint using air or airless systems can be very hazardous and should only be used by trained operators. 11.6.2 General Safety In Paint Application All personnel involved with the application of paint to surfaces should wear the appropriate personal protective equipment for the work being carried out at a given location. For some paint jobs personal protective equipment may have to exceed the requirements specified in Table II.7 due to the nature of the work being performed. Some examples of these jobs are above ground and water operations, use of special paints, etc. All pressurized equipment should be handled carefully. Operators and their assistants should know how to operate and de-energize the equipment in accordance to manufacturer's recommendations. No spray gun should be pointed at anyone or part of the user's body. The spray painting operation should be conducted from the upwind side of the object being coated, wherever practicable.

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Before using airless spray equipment, all guards recommended by the manufacturer shall be in place and the system shall be in good order and correctly grounded to prevent static build-up. Prompt professional medical aid shall be available to any person receiving paint injuries. The area around spray painting activity should be enclosed by hardboard fence or equivalent to protect outside personnel from paint over spray.

11.7

Scaffolding and Ladders
Details concerning the use and hazards associated with scaffolding and ladders are included in Section II.9 of the Construction Safety Manual. Only good condition, correctly erected equipment shall be used that meets industry standards (ANSI) or equivalent. Users and erectors of such equipment should be trained about its use and limitations.

11.8

Tarring Operations
Tarring operations are commonly used in roof work, and hazards associated with this type of work include body burns, fire and toxicity. Precautions that are required for tar operations include: • • The heating of tar shall not be carried out on roof tops or in similar potentially hazardous locations. Tar heating operations shall be carried out using approved fuel gas in the correct cylinders. The heating operations shall be at ground level and at a minimum distance of 4.5 m (15 feet) away from fuel gas cylinders, buildings or similar structures. The transferring of hot tar to its required location shall be carried out using the safest mode of transport available (preferably pumped). Lifting of hot asphalt in buckets is not allowed. The temperature of the asphalt shall be monitored with a temperature gauge and must not exceed 4500F at any time during the tarring operations.

In addition to personal protective equipment (safety shoes, safety glasses and hard hats), the following shall be provided for all personnel directly involved in tar operations: face shields, leather gloves, cotton overalls, and heat resistant aprons. Also, respiration protection may be required in confined spaces.

11.9

General Safety for Paints and Coatings
Safety precautions concerning various stages of paints and coatings are mentioned under their respective sub-headings of Section 11. This section is provided to highlight areas of paints and coating operations not covered under an individual sub-heading.

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*

Colors - All color coding shall conform to the requirements in SAES -B-067: Safety Identification and Color-Coding. Colors reserved for safety use within Saudi Aramco are red, green, yellow and black, orange and blue. Some equipment identified by color coding that may be required by painters include: Fire protection: red. Emergency stops: red. Danger signs: red. Emergency safety equipment and instructions (eye wash, showers, first aid): green. Hazards (physical and radioactive): yellow/black. Potable water: blue.

*

Breathing Air - Before breathing air used for respiration purposes, it must be checked to ensure it meets the quality requirements referenced in GI 8.003. Once compressors providing breathing air have conformed to the requirements of GI 8.003, they shall be re-tested every quarter to ensure that air quality remains satisfactory. Personal Protective Equipment - Depending on the work being carried out and its location, appropriate personal protective equipment must be worn that meets both the manufacturers requirements and those of Saudi Aramco. Personal protective equipment shall be in good condition. Blast Cleaning - Abrasive blast cleaning equipment and abrasive materials shall be suitable for the work to be carried out; substandard products will be removed from Saudi Aramco facilities. Signs and Barricades - Areas where hazardous work is being carried out (such as abrasive blast cleaning and airless spraying) shall be suitably barricaded to keep personnel out of the hazardous area, or the timing of the work shall be such that only the work crew doing the job is present at the site, or a lookout is posted around the site. Warning signs shall be posted in hazardous areas with suitable warnings of the potential dangers (i.e., "No entry, sand blasting in progress"). Paints and Solvents - The amount of paints and solvents stored at the site shall be restricted to a day's requirements. Bulk storage of paints and solvents shall be in a designated, well marked safe area away from the work area and protected from the sun's heat. Work Permits - The Saudi Aramco work permit system shall always be used where necessary for all aspects of paints and coatings (reference GI 2.100). Equipment - Before any equipment is used, operators and assistants shall be trained on the equipment's use and operation. Also, the equipment shall be in good working order, have an automatic shut-off system and all safety guards installed. Personal Health - Personnel involved with using paints, solvents and cleaning equipment (i.e., sand blasting) shall be in good health and have medical examinations by professional medical staff at least every two years.

*

*

*

*

*

*

*

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Assistants - No one shall work alone in hazardous areas. An assistant shall always be available or the "buddy" system used.

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12.0 CONCRETE, CONCRETE FORMS, AND SHORING
12.1 General
All equipment and materials used in concrete construction and masonry work shall meet the applicable requirements for design, construction, inspection, testing, maintenance, and operations.

12.2

Reinforcing Steel
Employees working more than 1.8 meters (6 feet) above any adjacent working surfaces, placing and tying reinforcing steel in walls, piers, columns, etc., shall be provided with proper work platforms with a guardrail system. When work is to be accomplished outside a work platform, a safety belt shall be worn that is securely fixed to a dropline or anchor. Employees shall not be permitted to work above vertically protruding reinforcing steel unless it has been bent over or capped. Guying: Reinforcing steel for walls, piers, columns, and similar vertical form work structures shall be guyed and supported to prevent collapse and to guard against possible wind pressures. Wire mesh rolls: Wire mesh rolls shall be secured at each end to prevent dangerous recoiling action.

12.3

Bulk Concrete Handling
Bulk storage bins, containers, or silos shall have conical or tapered bottoms with mechanical or pneumatic means of starting the flow of material.

12.4

Concrete Placement
12.4.1 Concrete Mixers Concrete mixers equipped with 0.75 cubic meter (1 cubic yard) or larger loading skips shall be equipped with a mechanical device to clear the skip of concrete. 12.4.2 Guardrails Mixers of 0.75 cubic meter (1 cubic yard) capacity or greater shall be equipped with protective guardrails installed on each side of the skip. 12.4.3 Bull Floats Handles on bull floats, used where they may contact energized electrical conductors, shall be constructed of non-conductive material, or insulated with a non-conductive sheath whose electrical and mechanical characteristics provide the equivalent protection to a handle constructed of non-conductive material.

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12.4.4

Powered Concrete Trowels Powered and rotating-type concrete troweling machines that are manually guided shall be equipped with a control switch that will automatically shut off the power whenever the operator removes his hands from the equipment handles. The rotating blades shall be guarded at the top and outer perimeter.

12.4.5

Concrete Buggies Handles of buggies shall not extend beyond the wheels on either side of the buggy. Installation of knuckle guards on buggy handles is recommended to protect the hands.

12.4.6

Pumpcrete Systems Pumpcrete or similar systems using discharge pipes shall be provided with pipe supports designed for 100 percent overload. Compressed air hose in such systems shall be provided with positive fail-safe joint connectors to prevent separation of sections when pressurized.

12.4.7

Concrete Buckets Concrete buckets equipped with hydraulic or pneumatically operated gates shall have positive safety latches or similar safety devices installed. Prevent aggregate and loose material from accumulating on the top and sides of the bucket. Riding of concrete buckets for any purpose shall be prohibited, and vibrator crews shall be kept out from under concrete buckets suspended from cranes or cable ways.

12.4.8

Discharging on Slope When discharging on a slope, the wheels of ready-mix trucks shall be blocked and the brakes set to prevent movement.

12.4.9

Back-Up Man, Truck Spotter Back-up man, ready-mix truck spotter shall be used to back ready-mix trucks.

12.4.10

Pneumatic Hose Nozzleman applying a cement, sand, and water mixture through a pneumatic hose shall be required to wear protective head and face equipment.

12.5

Vertical Shoring
12.5.1 General Requirements When temporary storage of reinforcing rods, material, or equipment on top of form work becomes necessary, these areas shall be strengthened, shored to meet the intended loads.

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The sills for shoring shall be sound, rigid, and capable of carrying the maximum intended load. All shoring equipment shall be inspected prior to erection to determine that it is as specified in the shoring layout. Any equipment found to be damaged shall not be used for shoring. Erected shoring equipment shall be inspected immediately prior to and immediately after the placement of concrete. Any shoring equipment that is found to be damaged or weakened shall be immediately reinforced or re-shored. Re-shoring shall be provided when necessary to safely support slabs and beams after stripping, or where such members are subjected to superimposed loads due to construction work done. 12.5.2 Tubular Welded Frame Shoring Metal tubular frames used for shoring shall not be loaded beyond the safe working load recommended by the manufacturer. All locking devices on frames and braces shall be in good working order; coupling pins shall align the frame or panel legs; pivoted cross braces shall have their center pivot in place; and all components shall be in a condition similar to that of original manufacture. When checking the erected shoring frames with the shoring layout, the spacing between towers and cross brace spacing shall not exceed that shown on the layout, and all locking devices shall be in the closed position. Devices for attaching the external lateral stability bracing shall be securely fastened to the legs of the shoring frames. All base plates, shore heads, ext ension devices, or adjustment screws shall be in firm contact with the footing sill and the form.

12.6

Forms and Shoring
12.6.1 General Provisions Form work and shoring shall be designed, erected, supported, braced, and maintained so that it will safely support all vertical and lateral loads that may be imposed upon it during placement of concrete. Personnel shall not be allowed under or in close proximity of the form work during pour operations. Personnel not engaged in the pour operation shall stay clear of the pour area. A clear area shall be maintained at 1-1/2 times the highest point of the form work. Drawings or plans showing the jack layout, form work, shoring, working decks, and scaffolding, shall be available at the job site.

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Stripped forms and shoring shall be removed and stockpiled promptly after stripping, in all areas in which persons are required to work or pass. Protruding nails, wire ties, and other form accessories not necessary to subsequent work shall be pulled, cut, or other means taken to eliminate the hazard. Imposition of any construction loads on the partially completed structure shall not be permitted unless such loading has been considered in the design and approved by the engineer-architect. 12.6.2 Vertical Slip Forms The steel rods or pipe on which the jacks climb or by which the forms are lifted shall be specifically designed for the purpose. Such rods shall be adequately braced where not encased in concrete. Jacks and vertical supports shall be positioned in such a manner that the vertical loads are distributed equally and do not exceed the capacity of the jacks. The jacks or other lifting devices shall be provided with mechanical dogs or other automatic holding devices to provide protection in case of failure of the power supply of the lifting mechanism. Lifting shall proceed steadily and uniformly and shall not exceed the predetermined safe rate of lift or concrete cure. Lateral and diagonal bracing of the forms shall be provided to prevent excessive distortion of the structure during the jacking operation. During jacking operations, the form structure shall be maintained in line and plumb. All vertical lift forms shall be provided with scaffolding or work platforms completely encircling the area of placement with intermittent tie breaks to ensure that superimposed loads on the scaffold/work platforms cannot pull down the entire scaffold works. 12.6.3 Tube and Coupler Shoring Couplers (clamps) shall not be used if they are deformed, broken, or have defective or missing threads on bolts, or other defects. The material used for the couplers (clamps) shall be of a structural type such as drop-forged steel, malleable iron, or structural grade aluminum. Gray cast iron shall not be used. When checking the erected shoring towers with the shoring layout, the spacing between posts shall not exceed that shown on the layout, and all interlocking of tubular members and tightness of couplers shall be checked. All base plates, shore heads, extension devices, or adjustment screws shall be in firm contact with the footing sill and the form material and shall be snug against the posts.

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12.6.4

Single Post Shores For stability, single post shores shall be horizontally braced in both the longitudinal and transverse directions, and diagonal bracing shall also be installed. Such bracing shall be installed as the shores are being erected. All base plates or shore heads of single post shores shall be in firm contact with the footing sill and the form materials. Whenever single post shores are used in more than one tier, the layout shall be designed and inspected by a structural engineer. Lay-out to be submitted to Saudi Aramco for approval. When form work is at an angle, or sloping, or when the surface shored is sloping, the shoring shall be designed for such loading. Adjustment of single post shores to raise form work shall not be made after concrete is in place Fabricated single post shores shall not be used if heavily rusted, bent, dented, rewelded, or having broken weldments or other defects. If they contain timber, they shall not be used if timber is split, cut, has sections removed, is rotted, or otherwise structurally damaged. All timber and adjusting devices to be used for adjustable timber single post shores shall be inspected before erection. Timber shall not be used if it is split, cut, has sections removed, is rotted, or is otherwise structurally damaged. Adjusting devices shall not be used if heavily rusted, bent, dented, re-welded, or having broken weldments or other defects. All nails used to secure bracing or adjustable timber single post shores shall be driven home and the point of the nail bent over if possible.

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III. Mechanical Equipment And Materials

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1.0 CRANES AND LIFTING EQUIPMENT
SAUDI ARAMCO INSTRUCTIONS AND STANDARDS ALL REFERENCED STANDARDS ARE INCORPORATED INTO THIS SECTION. Saudi Aramco General Instructions: GI 2.100. GI 2.702. GI 6.029. GI 7.024. GI 7.025. GI 7.026. GI 7.027. GI 7.028. GI 7.029. GI 7.030. Work Permit System Electrical Safety for Boom or Derrick Type Hoisting Equipment Reporting and Recording Of Motor Vehicle Accidents Marine and Offshore Cranes and Rigging Mobile Heavy Equipment Operator Testing and Certification Cranes and Heavy Equipment Accident Reporting Personnel Work Platform Operations Crane Lifts: Types and Procedures Inspection, Testing and Maintenance of Wire Rope Slings Inspection and Testing of Cranes, Elevators, Powered Platforms, and Mobile Aerial Baskets

Refinery Instruction Manual: 1.087. 1.808. Precautions to be taken for Operating Cranes near Overhead Power Lines Operating Cranes

Heavy Equipment Operator Licensing Information, Attachment No. III.1 Schedule 'D': Saudi Aramco Safety, Health and Environmental Requirements - Cranes and Rigging Equipment Saudi Aramco Crane Safety Handbook Riggers Handbook American Petroleum Institute: API SPEC 2C API SPEC 2D Specification for Offshore Cranes Operation and Maintenance of Offshore Cranes

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Contractor Liaison Notice No. 5. Procedure for Obtaining Crane and Heavy Equipment Operator's Licenses for Expatriate Employees (See Appendix F) AMERICAN NATIONAL STANDARDS INSTITUTE (ANSI) ANSI A10.4. ANSI 30.2. ANSI B30.3. ANSI B30.4. ANSI B30.5. ASME B30.6. ASME B30.8. ASME B30.14. ANSI B30.16. ANSI B30.22. Safety Requirements Overhead and Gantry Cranes Hammerhead Tower Cranes Portal, Tower and Pillar Cranes Mobile and Locomotive Cranes Derricks Floating Cranes and Floating Derricks Side Boom Tractors Overhead Hoists Articulating Boom Cranes

1.1

Competent Person
A competent person is a person who, by possession of a recognized pertinent degree or certificate of professional standing, or who by extensive knowledge, training and experience has successfully demonstrated the ability to solve or resolve problems relating to safe crane operations and procedures (e.g. Rigger Technician, Crane and Rigging Specialist, etc.). A competent person shall supervise all lifts.

1.2

Saudi Aramco Crane Operations (General Requirements)
Before beginning any crane operation, the supervisor and operator should complete the preoperation checklist (Figure III.1). A lift plan required as a part of this procedure must provide the following information: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Crane radius Boom length Safe working limits of the crane (load chart) Weight of the load Ground and site conditions Placement of the crane Swing and tail clearances Necessary communication to be used

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9. Explanation of hand signals 10. Rigging hardware 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. Rigging sketch for critical or hazardous lifts Rated capacity of rigging components Sling angles Strain calculations Wind velocity Load moment indicator Other

One competent person shall be placed in charge of the lift with the responsibility of explaining in detail, the duties of all involved in the lift before the actual lift commences. The outriggers must be fully extended prior to the lift, and the rubber tires must be off the ground (see Figure III.2, Crane Lift Plan). Cranes shall have a valid Crane Safety inspection sticker issued by the Saudi Aramco Crane, Communication, and Facilities Inspection Unit. (See GI 7.030.)

1.3

Saudi Aramco Crane Operator Qualifications
A valid SAG heavy equipment license and Saudi Aramco Crane Operator Certificate are required for all contractor mobile crane operators. Contact the Vehicle & Heavy Equipment Training and Testing Unit (Tel. Nos. 875-4347/874-1857) to operate specific mobile heavy equipment. (See GI 7.025.)

1.4

Special Crane Operating Procedures
Heavy lifts, critical lifts, and crane personnel work platform operations require special procedures outlined in the Saudi Aramco General Instructions. The Heavy Haul Unit, Transportation Dept., Abqaiq should be contacted and lift plans/work permits submitted. (See GI's 7.027, and 7.028.)

1.5

Effect of Wind Speeds on Crane Ope rations
When wind velocities are above 32 km/h (20 mph), the rated load and boom lengths shall be reduced according to manufacturer specifications. Wind forces are greater at height by as much as 35% or more. All lifts above ground level, must account for wind force, i.e., side loads, down drafts, etc. as applied to the load and boom. (See TABLES III.1 and III.2.)

1.6

Overhead Power Lines
There is an area surrounding every power line that is referred to as the absolute limit of approach. It is strictly forbidden to move any crane boom or load line or load into this are unless the line has been de-energized or insulated. There are no exceptions. The absolute limit of approach varies according to the following table: Line Voltage Up to 250,000 volts Over 250,000 Absolute Limit Of Approach 20 feet (6 meters) 25 feet (7.5 meters)

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FIGURE III.1: PRE-LIFT OPERATION CHECKLIST • • • • OPERATOR: CURRENT SAUDI ARAB GOVERNMENT CRANE OPERATORS' LICENSE CURRENT SAUDI ARAMCO OPERATORS' CERTIFICATE OUTRIGGERS: FULLY EXTENDED LEVEL GROUND COMPACT SOIL HEAVY PAD SUPPORTS LOCKING PINS/LOCKS SET NO HYDRAULIC LEAKS NO DAMAGE GOOD CONDITION WHEELS OFF THE GROUND OPERATION: CURRENT CRANE SAFETY INSPECTION STICKER CLEAR 360o VISIBILITY NO SHADES/CURTAINS IN CAB LOAD CHARTS IN CAB CLEAR VISIBILITY WIND, ABOVE 20 m/h (32 km/h), NO GO DO NOT OPERATE DURING STORMS AND AT NIGHT LIGHTNING, NO GO BARRICADE CRANE CAB SWING AREA TAG LINES IN USE CLEAR OVERHEAD POWER LINES CLEAR AREA OF PERSONNEL 1-1/2 x BOOM LENGTHS NO LIFTS OVER WORKERS OR CRITICAL PROPERTY TRIAL LIFT, FLOAT LOAD ONE METER OFF GROUND TO CHECK BALANCE CLEAR VIEW OF SIGNAL MAN (RIGGER) DO NOT PULL LOADS WITH CRANE LOAD RADIUS INDICATOR MAN LIFT WORK PERMIT ANTI-TWO BLOCK OPERATIONAL LMI (LOAD MOMENT INDICATOR) OPERATIONAL RIGGING: CHECK ALL RIGGING FOR DAMAGE CHECK SLING LOAD CAPACITY CHECK BLOCK, HOOKS, etc. FOR DAMAGE HOOK SAFETY LATCH IN PLACE RECORD WEIGHT OF LOAD RECORD WEIGHT OF CRANE GEAR, ADD CRANE GEAR WEIGHT TO TOTAL WEIGHT

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• • -

LIFT PLAN APPROVED USE LOAD WEIGHT MEASURING DEVICE FOR UNKNOWN LOADS TRAVELING: BLOCK SECURED TIRES PROPERLY INFLATED AND IN GOOD CONDITION BRAKE LIGHTS, SIGNALS, MIRRORS, HORN OPERATIONAL ROUTE PLAN CHECKED FOR FIRM GROUND, OVERHEAD AND SIDE RESTRICTIONS ESCORT VEHICLES REQUIRED WITH FLASHING BEACON LIGHTS SPEED TO BE MAINTAINED FOR SAFE LIMITS (SLOW AS POSSIBLE) PARKING: BOOM AND HOOK BLOCK(S) LOWERED TO TRAVEL POSITION APPLY SWING BRAKE AND POSITIVE SWING LOCK TIE DOWN HOOK BLOCK(S) RETRACT STABILIZERS RETRACT OUTRIGGERS EXTEND STABILIZERS AND LATCH ONTO FLOAT PADS WEIGHT OF CHASSIS OFF THE TIRES LET ENGINE IDLE 3-5 MINUTES REMOVE ALL FOREIGN MATERIAL FROM CAB(S) CLOSE ALL DOORS, WINDOWS, SKYLIGHTS AND COMPARTMENTS TURN OFF SWITCHES STOP ENGINE

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FIGURE III.2: LIFT PLAN FOR CRANES 1. Contractor:__________________________________________________ J.0. No.:_____________________________________________ 2. Crane Inspection Sticker valid: Yes:o No:o Date of expiry:________________________________________________________________ 3. Operator Saudi Aramco certified: Yes:o No:o 4. Description of load:___________________________________________________ 5. •Type of crane to be used ______________________ •Boom length (total) _______________________ft/m •Jib length ______________________________ft/m Stowed Erected N/A (lbs/kgs) o o o Jib: _______ o o o Extension: _______ Hookblock (Main): ______ _____ _____ _______ o o Aux. Boom Head: ______ _______ o o Headache Ball: ______ _______ Slings, Shackles, etc.: ______ ______ ______ _______ Others: __________________________________ _______ __________________________________ _______ Total (Gross Load Weight): _______ • • •

6. • • • • 7. 10.

Weight of load _______lbs/kgs Effective weight of jib headache ball ______ lbs/kgs Weight of hoist rope below boom tip______ lbs/kgs Weight of other rigging ______ lbs/kgs Total load weight _____ lbs/kgs

Effective weight of jib _____ lbs/kgs (see jib chart) Weight of load block _____ lbs/kgs Weight of spreader bar _____ lbs/kgs

Hoisting clearance ________ft/m. 8. Lift quadrant zone ___________________ . 9. Operating radius ___________ft/m. Crane capacity at operating radius __________ (Note: Do not make lift if total load is greater than crane capacity shown in Item 10. Refer to GI 7.028 for appropriate derating based on type of lift.) 11. Crane capacity for jib configuration:____________ 12. Ground and site conditions:______________________________________________ 13. Wind speed:__________mph (Maximum 20 mph) 14. Work permit required: Yeso No:o 15. Load moment indicator: Yes:o No:o Type:_________________________________________ 16. Sketch and supplementary information for crane lift is required to be attached to this plan. (Note: The sketch of the crane should include the following rigging information: size of each component; safe working load (SWL) capacity; length of slings; type of component; component diameter; weight of component and sling angles). Contractor:______________________ Date:__________________ Crane Operator:_______________________ Date:__________________________ Approved:_______________________ Date:__________________ Reviewed by:_____________________ Date:_____________________________ (Competent Person) (Saudi Aramco Site Representative) Approved:_______________________ Date:__________________ (Heavy Haul/Rig Move Unit, Transportation Dept., Abqaiq) Footnote: This form is to be filled out for the following lifts: 1. At all construction sites and operating plants; 2. Associated with offshore and marine sites and operations; 3. Within safety zones of power lines; 4. Involving personnel platforms (as per GI 7.027, 7.028 and 7.030).

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TABLE III.1: WIND S PEED (MILES PER HOUR ) VS . FORCE OF WIND IN POUNDS PER S QUARE FO O T MILES PER HOUR 1 2 3 4 5 10 15 20 FORCE PER SQUARE FOOT, POUNDS .004 .014 .036 .064 .1 .4 .9 1.6

TABLE III.2: WIND SPEED DEFINITION The following table lists speed, in the major units, relative to Beaufortwind Scale Numbers, the internationally accepted reference for wind force: Beaufort Numbers 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Description Calm Light Air Light Breeze Gentle Breeze Moderate Breeze Fresh Breeze Strong Breeze Near Gale Gale Strong Gale Storm Violent Storm Hurricane Knots 0-1 1-3 4-6 7-10 11-16 17-21 22-27 28-33 34.40 41-47 48-55 56-63 64+ M/Sec 0-0.51 0.51-1.53 2.04-3.07 3.58-5.11 5.62-8.18 8.69-10.73 11.24-13.80 14.31-16.87 17.38-20.44 20.96-24.02 24.53-28.11 28.62-32.20 32.71+ KM/H 0-1.84 1.84-5.52 7.36-11.04 12.88-18.4 20.24-29.44 31.28-38.64 40.48-49.68 51.52-60.72 62.56-73.6 75.44-86.48 88.32-101.2 103.04-115.92 117.76+ Miles/H 0-1.15 1.15-3.45 4.6-6.9 8.05-11.5 12.65-18.4 19.55-24.15 25.3-31.05 32.2-37.95 39.1-46 47.15-54.05 55.2-63.25 64.4-72.45 73.6

Reference: GROVE COLES CRANE SPECIFICATION BULLETIN NO. 045

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2.0 SLINGS AND LIFTING GEAR (RIGGING)
Saudi Aramco General Instructions: GI 7.027. GI 7.029. Personnel Work Platform Operations Inspection, Testing and Maintenance of Wire Rope Slings

American National Standards: ANSI B30.5. ANSI B30.9. ANSI B30.10. ANSI B30.20. ANSI B30.21. Mobile and Locomotive Cranes Slings Hooks Below the Hook Lifting Devices Manually Lever Operated Hoists

Saudi Aramco Crane Safety Handbook (See Appendix E) Saudi Aramco Riggers Handbook Saudi Aramco Inspection Procedures 07-AIP-0I-P Inspection of Steel Wire Rope Slings

2.1.

Safe Working Load (SWL)
Slings and other rigging equipment must be constructed according to a recognized standard. The safe working load of rigging equipment is the maximum load which the equipment should be subjected to; this load should never be exceeded. Before use, all new equipment should be subjected to a proof load test by the manufacturer and certified. The safe working load and serial number shall be clearly marked on the sling and the lifting gear, either by tagging, stamping, engraving, or embossing. Riggers shall not use lifting gear unless the safe working load is clearly visible (see Figures III.3 and III.6). Slings shall not be tagged with an safe working load in the field. Approval by the Inspection Department and subsequent review by the Loss Prevention Department is required.

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2.2.

Chain Slings
2.2.1 Grades Only alloy steel chain complying with ASTM A391 shall be used. Other grades are subject to approval by the Saudi Aramco Crane, Communications and Facilities Inspection Unit [CCFIU] (see Figure III.5). Each grade of chain should be clearly tagged by the manufacturer, and riggers should be trained to look for the safe working load marked on each sling. They shall be forbidden to use any equipment unless the safe working load is clearly visible. All attached fittings (hooks, rings, etc.,) shall be as prescribed by the manufacturer. Hooks, shackles, and eyebolts shall be equal to or exceed the safe working load of the chain. 2.2.2 Repairs Modern chains are produced under closely controlled factory conditions using proper heat treatment and testing procedures. On-site welding repairs cannot provide the necessary controlled conditions to safely repair a damaged chain. Damaged chains must be returned to the manufacturer for repair or destroyed. In particular, watch for bent links, cracked welds, and excessive wear. 2.2.3 Logger chains or chains used to secure truck loads shall not be used for rigging.

2.3

Wire Rope Slings
2.3.1 Wire rope is the most common type of sling in use on construction sites. It is essential that each wire rope sling is properly constructed and used. All wire rope slings shall be manufactured, inspected, and load tested by a recognized manufacturer. Homemade wire rope slings shall not be allowed at Saudi Aramco unless they meet all standards and pass inspection by CCFIU. 2.3.2 Damaged slings shall be destroyed if there are: 2.3.2.1 * * * 2.3.2.2 * Severe localized abrasion or scraping. 10 random broken wires in one lay. 4 broken wires in one strand of a rope lay. One broken wire at the fitting.

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2.3.2.3 * Kinking, crushing, birdcaging, or any other damage causing distortion.

2.3.2.4 * 2.3.2.5 * 2.3.2.6 * 2.3.2.7 * 2.3.3 Each sling shall bear a permanent manufacturer's identification stating the safe working load (SWL) in tons and serial number. Proof load test and documentation of testing is required from the manufacturer (see Figures III.3 and III.6). 2.3.4 Wire rope clips (bulldog clips or crosby clips) shall not be used to make slings. Severe corrosion. Bent or opened hooks. End attachments are cracked, deformed, or excessively worn. Evidence of heat damage.

2.4

Synthetic Webbing Slings
These are manufactured from woven man-made fiber. Their strength lies in the width of their bearing surface. These slings must not be subjected to point loading, sharp edged objects, and non-vertical lifting (see Figure III.7). Synthetic web slings shall be marked with a stitched in label to show: (a) (b) (c) 2.4.1 Name or trademark of manufacturer Rated capacity for each type of hitch Type of material Removal from Service Slings which have been damaged or are defective in any way shall be immediately removed from service, cut up and destroyed. 2.4.2 Repaired Slings The use of repaired slings is prohibited.

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2.5

Synthetic and Natural Fiber Rope Slings
2.5.1 Each synthetic and natural fiber rope sling shall be permanently marked to show: 2.5.1.1 2.5.1.2 2.5.1.3 2.5.1.4 2.5.1.5 2.5.2 All associated rigging hardware shall equal or exceed the safe working load rating of the rope sling. 2.5.3 Slings shall be removed from service and destroyed when: 2.5.3.1 * 2.5.3.2 * There is considerable filament or fiber breakage (a light fuzzing is acceptable) on the surface. The fibers are cut, badly abraded or seriously worn. Name or trademark of manufacturer Manufacturer's code or stock number Rated loads for the types of hitches used Type of natural or synthetic material Date of manufacture

2.5.3.3 * There are particles of broken filament or fibers inside the rope between strands.

2.5.3.4 * There is other damage visible such as: melting or charring, kinks or hackles, knots, damaged fittings.

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2.6

Care of Slings
The following points must be considered in the storage and handling of slings: 2.6.1 Slings will undergo shock loading when a load is suddenly lifted or when the hoisting is abruptly stopped. This can be caused by the sudden application of the crane brake, the jerking of the load by poor operation, or the sling slipping on the load. A shock load can increase the normal working load by as much as five times its value. 2.6.2 As the angle between the legs of a multiple sling increases, the safe working load decreases. The included angle should be no more than 900 and must never exceed 120o under any circumstances (see Figure III.9). 2.6.3 Before storage, chain and wire rope slings should be cleaned, lightly lubricated, and inspected. Slings must be stored in a location where they are not liable to suffer mechanical damage, away from extremes of heat, cold, and especially dampness. 2.6.4 Contractors shall maintain a job site log of slings containing the following information: ID. number; date in service; safe working load as stated in proof load certificate; full details of periodic inspections (see Figure III.13). 2.6.5 All rigging shall be inspected at least every six months per ANSI B30.9, and a Sling Inspection Report shall be completed and filed for review by the Crane Inspector to comply with GI 7.029.

2.7

Hooks
2.7.1 Hooks should be fitted with a safety catch on the hook opening, or should be moused with wire and a shackle used or the hook should be designed so that the slings cannot be displaced (Figure III.11). 2.7.2 Loads should be applied on the hook only in the part designed to take them (i.e. the bend [bow] of the hook). Point loading can result in over stressing the hook causing it to open or break. Therefore, point loading shall not be permitted.

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2.7.3 Hooks should be regularly inspected for signs of damage. 2.7.4 The hook shall be removed from service for the following reasons: 1. 2. 3. If there are visible cracks If it is twisted 10o out of place If there is a 15% throat opening beyond the manufacturer's specification

A thorough examination shall be carried out each year by a qualified inspector.

2.8

Spreader Bars
2.8.1 All spreader bars shall be manufactured, tested, and inspected to ANSI B30.20. 2.8.2 Spreader bars shall be permanently identified with the safe working load, manufacturer's name and serial number. 2.8.3 Spreader bars shall be stored away from moisture, and protected from physical damage.

2.9

Eyebolts And Safety Hoist Rings
Sometimes machinery or other equipment is delivered to the site with eyebolts attached as lifting points. For such situations, the design and function of each of the three basic types of eyebolts should be known (see Figure III.10.). 2.9.1 Standard eyebolts are the weakest and are dependable only for vertical lifts. 2.9.2 Shouldered eyebolts can be used at slight angles, but are unsafe at less than 45 degrees with the horizontal. 2.9.3 Safety hoist rings (swivel eyes) are bolted in place with a calibrated torque wrench and maintain maximum capacity at all angles.

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2.10

Shackles
Shackles (clevis) are used for making connections in rigging. They should be tested by the manufacturer and marked with the safe working load. The pins are separate but matched parts of the shackles, so care must be taken to use the correct pin for each shackle. Rebar, mild steel bolts or similar items are not acceptable replacements for shackle pins (see Figure III.12.).

2.11

Rigger
The job of rigger requires thorough training. The man assigned must be wellacquainted with the capabilities of the crane being used, hand signals, the different functions of lifting gear, and the various methods of loading.

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FIGURE III.3: IDENTIFICATION TAGS

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FIGURE III.4: INSTALLING A WEDGE S OCKET ON A ROPE

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FIGURE III.7: S YNTHETIC WEBBING S LINGS

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FIGURE III.8: S LING LOADING

FIGURE III.9: EYEBOLTS

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FIGURE III.12: WIRE ROPE S LING INSPECTION LO G Contractor:______________________________________ Location: __________________________ BI/JO Number: ___________________________________ Project Title: ______________________

Sling#

Diameter

Length

SWL

Date-In Service

Date-OutService

Inspector Signature (Date)

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Page

3.0 MECHANICAL EQUIPMENT
The widespread use of mechanical e quipment in the construction industry improves the quality and efficiency of the work but it can lead to situations which are potentially hazardous. This section cannot cover all the situations which could arise, but it outlines some of the hazards likely to be encountered from specific items of equipment and their use. The only safe way of using mechanical equipment is to have properly trained operators, running equipment that is well maintained and carrying out the work for which it was designed. INSTRUCTIONS AND STANDARDS Saudi Aramco General Instructions: GI 7.025 GI 7.026 GI 7.030 GI 8.003 GI 447.002 Mobile Heavy Equipment Operator Testing and Certification Cranes and Heavy Equipment Accident Reporting Procedures Inspection, and Testing Requirements Of Elevating / Lifting Equipment Breathing Apparatus Pressure Relief Valves - New Installation, Change in Set Pressure, Replacement or Retirement from Service Pressure Relief Valves - Routine Test, Inspection, Quality Assurance and Regulation

GI 447.003

Saudi Aramco Engineering Standards: Inspection Procedures 17-SAIP-6.01 20-SAIP-3.01 31-SAIP-1.01 31-SAIP-1.02 31-SAIP-8.05 31-SAIP-8.10 31-SAIP-8.15 31-SAIP-8.16 31-SAIP-10.01 Diesel Electric Generating Set Welding Generator Pumps Compressor Vibrating Roller CAT Motor Grader Road Rollers Scraper Concrete Mixers

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31-SAIP-12.04 31-SAIP-12.05 Schedule 'D':

Diesel Fork Lift Truck Electric Fork Lift Truck

Saudi Aramco Safety, Health and Environmental Requirements - Mechanical Equipment AMERICAN NATIONAL STANDARDS: ANSI-A 10.4-81 Safety Requirements For Personnel Hoists ANSI-B 15.1-84 Safety Code for Mechanical Power Transmission Apparatus ANSI-B 30.1-86 Safety Code for Jacks ANSI B30.5. ANSI-B 56.1-88 Safety Standard for Low and High Lift Trucks Mobile and Locomotive Cranes

3.1

Operators
3.1.1 Qualifications Only trained personnel shall operate any mechanical equipment. Operators shall be trained in the procedures and functions relevant to a specific piece of equipment; they must be fully aware of the capabilities and limitations of the machine and have a knowledge of the day-to-day maintenance that it requires. It is recommended that contractors train and test all equipment operators and issue them with written authorization specifying the equipment which they are competent to operate. 3.1.2 Licensing Requirements Operators of mobile heavy equipment must be in possession of a Saudi Arab Government (SAG) license for that particular class of machinery and a Saudi Aramco certificate issued by the Saudi Aramco Heavy Equipment Operator Testing and Training Unit (see GI 7.025).

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3.2

Machinery Guards
All moving parts of machinery must be shielded by guards. This is particularly true with gears, pulleys, V-belt drives, fans, and revolving shafts. All of these are present on most of the static equipment used on or around construction sites. Other examples of equipment which must be guarded include cooling fans on compressors and generators, the main drive shafts on pumps and dumpers, and the cable drum on winches and concrete mixers. Guards must be installed on equipment before it arrives on site and maintained in position at all times while the equipment is operating. Guards removed for routine maintenance or for repair must be replaced before the equipment is returned to service. 3.2.1 Multi-Piece Tire Rims and Locking Rings As safety equipment like tire cages, restraining bars, racks and clips during tire check-out cannot fully protect employees working on or near the tire repair area, always deflate the tire first before making repairs. Inflate tires inside a strong restraining device (tire cage) by increasing the tire pressure very slowly.

3.3

General Requirements
3.3.1 Before any mechanical equipment is used in a Saudi Aramco restricted area, all required work permits must be obtained. 3.3.2 All machinery should be inspected before being placed in service and at regular intervals thereafter. 3.3.3 Maintenance schedules should be established for each piece of equipment and strictly followed. 3.3.4 No repair, adjustment, or replacement of parts on moving machinery is permitted. Before making any repairs, all equipment must be stopped and deactivated so that it cannot be unintentionally started. 3.3.5 At the start of each shift, the operator must check oil, water, fuel, and hydraulic levels, that all gauges are operating and that the machine is functioning smoothly. Safety equipment (e.g., guards, limit switches, governors) must be checked daily.

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3.3.6 Equipment traveling or working on the highway must have lights and reflectors. Park equipment clear of the roadway. If this is not possible, use flashing lights, cones, or other warning devices to alert approaching traffic. 3.3.7 When vehicles are left unattended (even overnight), engines must be stopped, parking brakes applied and the wheels chocked. Blades, scraper bowls, and other hydraulic equipment must be lowered to the ground before the operator leaves the machine. The ignition key should be removed and/or battery cables disconnected to avoid start-up by unauthorized personnel. 3.3.8 Unless otherwise instructed, operators must dismount from machines while maintenance or repair work is being carried out. 3.3.9 Cabs fitted to equipment must give 360o visibility. Cabs must be kept clean and clear of such items as rubbish and loose tools. Windows must be kept clean at all times and should be replaced if the glass becomes pitted, cracked or broken. 3.3.10 Where the operator of a mobile machine cannot see the area all around his machine, an attendant must be in a position to direct and assist the operator. 3.3.11 All equipment must be located so that exhaust fumes will not affect workers in the area. Gasoline-driven equipment shall not be used inside a building or other confined space.

3.4

Compressors
Compressors are one of the most common pieces of equipment used in construction work. They can be used to supply air for portable power tools or to supply air to sustain men working with breathing apparatus in extremely hazardous atmospheres. There is a considerable difference in the quality of the air used for these two functions. 3.4.1 All employees on site must know the dangers of compressed air. Never use compressed air to dust off clothing or machinery. Horseplay with compressed air must be strictly forbidden. When compressed air is used in special cleaning/purging tasks, goggles and full face shield must be worn.

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3.4.2 Compressors must be properly designed, inspected, tested and maintained. Relief valves shall be installed in accordance with GI 447.002/3, and the air receiver must be periodically inspected. 3.4.3 Before start up, a daily check should be made of the compressor's pressure relief valve, fuel, oil and water levels and the air reservoir should be drained of trapped water. The operating manual for the particular type of compressor used should be strictly followed. 3.4.4 When compressors supply air for breathing: 1.) 2.) 3.) 4.) The air intake must be located so that it does not draw in exhaust gas. There must be a filter to remove oil mist. They must be equipped with an automatic high temperature alarm. The air must be tested periodically to be certain it is safe to breathe (see Administration, I.10., 1.3.)

3.5

Concrete Mixers and Batching Plants
A concrete mixer of some type will be used on almost every construction site. The principles of good maintenance and properly trained operators apply equally whether it is only a small mixer for masonry work or a full batching plant with a large capacity cement silo, sand and aggregate bins, and a power shovel. 3.5.1 All chains, gears, and revolving shafts must be guarded. 3.5.2 Safety chains and catches must be operative, and the lifting mechanism must be in good order. 3.5.3 Men must not be allowed to work under or near the loading skip unless it is held in position by a safety chain or catch or positively blocked. 3.5.4 The mixer drum and the area around the machine must be thoroughly cleaned at the end of each day's operation.

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3.5.5 Cement bags must not be allowed to accumulate in the mixer area; they should be collected and disposed of at regular intervals during the day. 3.5.6 A hooped access ladder must be firmly attached to silos for access to the top manhole. Men must not be allowed to work inside the silo unless they are wearing a safety belt with a lifeline and an attendant is posted outside ready to assist in case of emergency. 3.5.7 The approach to the sand and aggregate bins should be barricaded, and the barricades should only be removed to allow access for vehicles delivering material. 3.5.8 Personal protective equipment such as respirators, ear muffs, and goggles shall be worn. Loose fitting clothes shall not be worn around moving machinery. 3.5.9 Lockout and tag system is required in batching plants to ensure the safety of repair and/or maintenance personnel. This is a means to disable process/mechanical electrical 'control' equipment during repairs and maintenance. Lockout and tag system rules must be posted in a conspicuous location throughout the plant and workers must be thoroughly trained in the lockout/tag procedures.

3.6

Dumpers and Dump Trucks
Dumpers and dump trucks, commonly used for construction work, often travel on the public highway. Therefore it is essential that they be properly maintained. 3.6.1 The latch on dumper skips must be in good working order, and the release mechanism should function smoothly. 3.6.2 Dumpers are not designed to carry passengers. It must be strictly forbidden for employees to ride in the skip or on the engine cover. 3.6.3 When repairs or maintenance are being carried out on a hydraulically operated dump truck, the dump body should be fully lowered. If it is necessary to have it

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in the raised position, it must be blocked. Do not rely on the hydraulic ram to support the raised body for an extended period. 3.6.4 All vehicles with cabs shall be equipped with windshields and powered wipers. Cracked or broken windshields or windows shall be replaced. All cab glass shall be safety glass or equivalent.

3.7

Excavators
Excavations are carried out using very specialized equipment which roughly falls into two categories: 1) fixed position machines, and 2) moving machines. The choice of equipment to be used is determined by the size of the project, topography, volume of earth to be hauled out and many other factors. Fixed position machines include, but are not limited to, face shovels, backhoes, draglines and grabs. The "fixed" excavator loosens the soil and loads from a stationary position. They are useful to perform specific excavation tasks at a single location. Their loss of mobility is compensated by the fact that greater force can be applied at the excavation face. "Moving" machines include, but are not limited to, bulldozers, loaders, scrapers, graders and trenching machines. They remove, transport and deposit excavated material all in one cycle of operation. They are used in applications where large volumes of earth need to be moved over uneven ground. In this process, they also help to level the ground over which they operate. (Also see General And Civil, II.2 of this manual.) 3.7.1 The excavation work permit may require that underground pipelines or cables be located by manual digging. The permit must be counter-signed by the Power Distribution Department (PDD) and the area Utilities Services Department. 3.7.2 Operators of excavators must possess a valid Saudi Arab Government license for the machine and a valid Saudi Aramco certificate issued by the Saudi Aramco Heavy Equipment Operator Testing Unit. 3.7.3 Outriggers must be fully extended when operating a mechanical excavator so fitted. 3.7.4 An attendant must be appointed and be available at all times during excavation to assist and guide the operator. 3.7.5 Excavators with a swinging motion must have a clearance of at least 0.6 meter (2 feet) from any fixed object.

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3.7.6 Booms on excavators must be latched before travel. 3.7.7 Do not excavate closer than 10 feet to the nearest pipeline or other equipment in place.

3.8

Fork Lift Trucks
Fork lift trucks are designed to operate on firm, level ground. This type of equipment has a limited use in construction operations. They are, however, sometimes used in materials handling yards and for placing loads where there are firm ground conditions. Operators of fork lift trucks must have a valid Saudi Arab Government heavy equipment license and a valid Saudi Aramco certificate. 3.8.1 It is essential that drivers be fully trained and experienced. They must be able to manipulate loads smoothly and efficiently. 3.8.2 A specific course of instruction should be established for fork lift drivers. They should not be allowed to use the vehicles on site until they have taken the course. 3.8.3 Special equipment fitted to the truck, in addition to or in place of the forks, must be designed for the specific machine. 3.8.4 The truck shall be equipped with overhead protection. 3.8.5 When traveling with a load on the forks, the forks should be as low as possible to maintain stability. 3.8.6 If the load being carried obstructs the operator's forward view, he should travel in reverse.

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3.8.7 Operators, loaders, helpers and other workers should never place any part of their bodies between the mast uprights, cross members, or other moving parts of the fork lift truck. Stay well within limits of the truck body or cab.

3.9

Generators
A competent electrician shall be available to ensure that electrical connections are properly made. The operator should be responsible only for the mechanical function of the machine. 3.9.1 All pulleys, belts, and fans must be totally enclosed or otherwise guarded. 3.9.2 The side panels to the engine cover are designed to give access to the machinery for maintenance or repair. They must be closed at all times when the engine is running. 3.9.3 The machine must be properly grounded before each use. 3.9.4 Fire Prevention Guide for Portable Generators The following is a typical check list of the major items to look for. There may be other potential fire hazards not listed, therefore a thorough inspection must be made. • • • • • • • • • • • Repair all fuel leaks. Check hose and pipe connections for wear and cracks. Clean up all combustible trash around the generator. Clean up all fuel spills and place clean sand around area when required. Sheds constructed of combustible materials placed around generators and wooden base frames are prohibited. Exhaust piping system shall be kept away from work areas and combustible materials. Generator sets shall be located at least 50 feet from buildings or materials that may catch fire. Inspect all wiring for damage or improper splices/repairs. Electrically ground all generator sets (system and frame ground). Fire extinguishers must be readily accessible. One CO2 extinguisher for the generator and a dry chemical extinguisher for the engine drive is recommended. Conduct daily inspections of all generator sets using this guide.

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3.10

Graders, Dozers, Scrapers, Loaders And Miniloaders
Heavy earth moving equipment only allows the operator a limited view of the immediate area. It is, therefore, essential that a banksman be appointed to warn the operator of hazards that cannot be seen from the operator's position. This equipment shall be equipped with rollover protection. A valid Saudi Arab Government heavy equipment license and a valid Saudi Aramco certificate issued by the Saudi Aramco Heavy Equipment Operator Testing Unit are required for each operator of such equipment. 3.10.1 Before moving his machine, the driver must walk around it to see that the area is clear. 3.10.2 Men must not be allowed to sit or lie in the area around the machine. 3.10.3 The engine shall not be left running when the driver is not at the controls. Before leaving his machine, a driver must shut off the engine and remove the ignition key. 3.10.4 Blades, scraper bowls, etc. must be lowered to the ground before the driver leaves his unit. The wheels should be properly chocked. 3.10.5 If there is work to be done underneath such hydraulic equipment, the equipment must be blocked in position.

3.11

Woodworking Machinery
Only fully trained operators may be allowed to use woodworking machinery. This machinery is inherently dangerous since the hazardous parts, knives, blades, etc., cannot be fully enclosed. Only that part of the blade necessary to carry out the work shall be exposed at any one time. 3.11.1 The area around saws, planers, and routers must be barricaded and only authorized and trained personnel allowed within the barricaded area.

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3.11.2 The ground around such machinery must be kept clear of off-cuts and other tripping hazards. 3.11.3 Machinery should be securely anchored to prevent movement during use. (See General And Civil, II of this manual.)

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4.0 MATERIALS HANDLING
Materials handling forms a large part of construction work. How construction materials are handled can have a considerable effect on the efficiency of production and on the safety record of the site. Because of the temporary nature of site work and the frequent change of the work place, it is not possible to mechanize material handling to the same extent as it would be in a more stable operation. However, there are many areas in which labor intensive, inefficient, costly, and frequently dangerous, manual material handling work can be replaced by the use of machines. INSTRUCTIONS AND STANDARDS Saudi Aramco General Instructions: GI 355.001 Identifying, Ordering, Receiving, Storing, Issuing And Disposing Of Hazardous Materials Vehicle Loading Use of Trailer Brakes Use of Trailer Safety Chains

GI 1130.013 GI 1131.165 GI 1131.921

4.1

Planning
Successful mechanization of material handling requires that the correct machines be available and properly used. The storage and movement of the various materials must be carefully arranged to make optimum use of the machines so that efficient service can be provided and ensure that all vehicle, crane and heavy equipment operators hold current Saudi Arab Government License and Saudi Aramco Certification where required. Planning for materials handling operations begins as the production schedule is being drawn. Ensure that the layout of storage areas provides for adequate access for necessary mechanical equipment. 4.1.1 Selection of the storage area should be made with due consideration for drainage and protection from rain and sandstorms (see Figure III.13 Typical Construction Materials Store Yard). 4.1.2 Open storage areas should be planned to minimize the reversing and maneuvering of trucks especially into and out of confined areas. 4.1.3 Access ways must be wide enough to allow for the passage of fire trucks. Fire fighting equipment should be located throughout the area. Contact the Fire Prevention Group of Loss Prevention for i formation (see Figure III.13 Typical n Construction Materials Store Yard).

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4.1.4 Cribbing timber, racks, or pallets should be used to ensure that all materials are stored off the ground. 4.1.5 Protection should be provided for materials such as cement, insulation, and other bulk material which could be damaged by moisture. 4.1.6 All machinery, equipment, and valves should be maintained fully assembled and securely closed. All machined surfaces must be covered and fully protected from exposure to the weather. 4.1.7 The quantity of material on site at any one time must be restricted to a minimum stock. Flammable stores shall be kept separated. Such a policy should greatly reduce losses due to pilferage or damage (see Figure III.13 Typical Construction Materials Store Yard). Once these factors have been established, the staffing of the storage areas can then be considered. 4.1.8 On larger projects, the movement of materials could justify the employment of a loading and unloading gang, whereas small jobs would probably need only one man assigned to this responsibility. 4.1.9 Routinely, on most sites, there should be a man appointed as a materials controller responsible for materials from the planning stage through to the final unloading, storage, and distribution stage.

4.2

Machine Transport
A wide variety of mechanical equipment is available for transporting and distributing materials on and around a job site. They range from simple equipment such as a dumper or a tractor and trailer to more sophisticated equipment such as a concrete pump or a large crane. 4.2.1 Dumpers Dumpers are one of the most commonly used pieces of construction equipment and have proved very useful in transporting concrete and other small loads around site. Unfortunately they are also a common source of injuries and damage.

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Dumper drivers must be properly trained and experienced and must hold a current Saudi Arab Government license. The equipment is designed for the movement of material only. Passengers must not be allowed to travel in the skip or anywhere else on the machine. Dumpers must be regularly maintained with particular attention to brakes, steering, and skip release mechanism. If they are to be used for towing, a proper towing eye with a shackle or pin must be provided. 4.2.2 Tractors and Trailers Tractors and trailers are useful for moving larger loads around the site. In addition to the normal precaution of good maintenance, it is essential that safety chains or wire ropes be fitted between the tractor and trailer so that if the towing connection should break or become separated for some reason, the trailer can still be brought to a controlled stop by the tractor. Trailer and its load shall not exceed the towing capacity of the tractor and shall be fitted with an independent braking system if it is designed to carry more than 9,072 kilograms (20,000 pounds). Trailers used for carrying pipes should be fitted with side stops, and loads must be securely tied down before being transported. 4.2.3 Conveyor Belts and Monorails Conveyor belts and monorails are occasionally used for transporting concrete, sand, or aggregate on site. They require a complete maintenance program. Because of the many problems associated with them, thorough consideration must be given to their use. All pulleys, rollers, gears and pinch points shall be guarded. On/off switches shall be clearly marked and readily accessible. 4.2.4 Concrete Pumps Concrete pumps are used for the placement of concrete in difficult situations. They have the advantage of being able to move large amounts of concrete very speedily to the area where it is required. The operation of this equipment demands specialized knowledge of concrete technology; however, placing concrete by this method can significantly reduce the number of dumpers employed or the crane usage time expended on a civil engineering contract.

4.3

Site Stores
For small or valuable materials which cannot be conveniently stored in outside areas, it is essential that an indoor stores shed, under the control of a responsible person, be established on site. Because of the nature of the materials stored in such an area, the main considerations must be security and fire prevention. The issuing and receiving of stores must be under the control of a responsible person. Adequate fire fighting equipment must be readily available in the area. Materials should be stored on shelving or with small items such as nuts and bolts, etc. in bins suitably marked with the contents. The safe loads allowed on racks and the maximu m stack heights should be established. All hazardous material, such as paints, fuels, chemicals, etc., should be separated and stored in an isolated flammable storage area (see Appendix C). Notices warning of the dangers associated with these materials should be posted in the hazard area.

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4.4

Manual Handling
There are many areas of construction work where mechanization cannot take the place of sheer muscle, and it is in such areas that the majority of injuries occur. The inevitable results of lifting incorrectly are strained backs, slipped discs, sprains and strains, and a complexity of internal injuries. It is, therefore, essential that workers be trained in the correct methods of manual handling. Safe lifting can only be carried out by the proper use of the right muscles. Back and abdominal muscles are weak, while the leg and thigh muscles are strong. The spine has a natural and comfortable shape when a man is standing upright; however, if he bends, the spine arches and becomes weaker. If the spine can be kept in a straight position when lifting, the strain of the lift goes to the strong muscles of the leg and thigh and loads can be lifted safely, with much less physical effort. This is the basic principle of manual handling. 4.4.1 There are four significant points in a proper lift: 1. 2. Grip: A good grip makes maximum use of the palm of the hand, the ball of the thumb, and base of the fingers. Back: The back must be kept straight to maintain its most natural and strongest position. This means that the knees and ankles must be bent and the chin kept well into the chest. The body must be positioned as close to the load as possible so as to act as a counterweight. Feet: The feet should be apart the width of the hips with one foot slightly in front of the other so that a natural lead off is obtained. Arms: The arms must be kept as close as possible to the body.

3. 4. 4.4.2

The important factor in manual handling is that a man should know his capabilities and ask for assistance with loads beyond his capabilities. In dual lifting, partners should be approximately the same height and weight so that the load does not become unevenly distributed. 4.4.3 Loads, even when properly lifted, can slip. The man lifting must be prepared for such a possibility and wear the proper protective equipment. Safety footwear is mandatory to protect feet and gloves should be worn to protect hands from laceration or splinters and to give some protection if the fingers are trapped between the load and the other surfaces.

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FIGURE III.13: TYPICAL CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS S TORE YARD

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ATTACHMENT III.1: HEAVY EQUIPMENT OPERATOR LICENSING INFORMATION GENERAL INFORMATION All crane and other heavy equipment operators working on Saudi Aramco projects are required to have a valid heavy equipment operator Saudi Arab Government (SAG) license and a Saudi Aramco Heavy Equipment Operator Certificate. This applies to Saudi Aramco employees as well as contractor employees. Saudi Arabs and non-Saudi citizens employed by Saudi Aramco or contractors working on Saudi Aramco projects may obtain their SAG license by following the established procedure. SAUDI ARAMCO EMPLOYEES (SAUDI AND NON-SAUDI) WITHOUT HEAVY EQUIPMENT LICENSE Application forms for SAG Heavy Equipment License are completed and processed at the Saudi Aramco License Unit, Building # 510, Dhahran. (Saudi Aramco employees in all other areas apply to local Saudi Aramco License Unit). After completion of an eye examination and blood test, the applicant is scheduled for an operator competency test by the Heavy Equipment Operator Training/Testing Unit, Dhahran (Tel. 874-1857). Upon successful completion of the test, application forms are returned to the Saudi Aramco License Unit for processing through the SAG Traffic Department, Dammam, for SAG License issue. SAUDI ARAMCO EMPLOYEES (NON-SAUDI) WITH HOME COUNTRY HEAVY EQUIPMENT LICENSE Employees with valid home country licenses need only apply through the Saudi Aramco License Unit, Building # 510, Dhahran (Saudi Aramco employees in all other areas apply to their local Saudi Aramco License Unit). After completion of an eye examination and blood test, application forms are forwarded by the Saudi Aramco License Unit for processing to the SAG Traffic Department, Dammam, for SAG License issue. A company test is not required. CONTRACTOR EMPLOYEES (SAUDI AND NON-SAUDI) WITHOUT HEAVY EQUIPMENT LICENSE Application for SAG Heavy Equipment License is made directly to the SAG Traffic Department, Dammam. Upon completion of the eye examination and blood test, the contractor company representative contacts the Saudi Aramco Heavy Equipment Operator Training/Testing Unit (Tel. 874-1857) for scheduling of the competency test. (Application form is to accompany contractor employee to the test site). After the successful completion of the competency test, the test sheet is attached to the application form. The application form is then taken to the SAG Traffic Department, Dammam, for processing and license issue.

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CONTRACTOR EMPLOYEES (NON-SAUDI) WITH HOME COUNTRY HEAVY EQUIPMENT LICENSE Contractor employee with a valid home country license need only apply for SAG license to the SAG Traffic Department, Dammam, for processing and license issue. A competency test is not required for SAG license. On receipt of the SAG license, the contractor company representative contacts the Saudi Aramco Heavy Equipment Operator Training and Testing Unit (Tel. 874-1857) for scheduling of the Saudi Aramco certification test.

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IV. Electrical And Radiation

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1.0 ELECTRICITY
The human senses (smell, taste, hearing, etc.) do not provide a warning of an electrical hazard. The great majority of electrical accidents result in burns. Fire and explosion from sparks in flammable atmospheres can and does lead to loss of life and serious damage to property. All electrical installations, no matter what voltages are used, should always be treated with great caution. INSTRUCTIONS AND STANDARDS Saudi Aramco General Instructions: GI 2.100 GI 6.012. Work Permit System Isolation, Lockout And Use of Hold Tags

Power Distribution Instruction: No. 10.0. No. 11.0. No. 50.0. Power Distribution System Operations Hold Orders, Clearances and Permission to Test Safety Grounding

Saudi Aramco Engineering Standards: Electrical Power Manual (SAES-P series) SAES -B-064 Onshore And Near Shore Pipeline Safety

Operations Instructions Manual: No. 1.111. NFPA 70: ANSI/IEEE C2-90 National Electrical Safety Code ANSI B30.5. 29 CFR 1926 Mobile and Locomotive Cranes Subpart N - Cranes, Derricks, Hoists, Elevators And Conveyors US Department of Labor, Occupational Safety And Health Administration (OSHA) Electrical Connections National Electrical Code

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1.1

Voltage
The severity of electric shock is not entirely dependent upon the voltage of the power source. The ratio of the voltage to resistance determines the current that will flow through the body and the resulting injury. In terms of a formula this ratio is: Current through the body = Voltage applied across the body Resistance of the body + contact resistance

The hazard is greater if working conditions are wet or if the worker perspires freely. This produces a combination of wet skin and body salt which provides low resistance to current flow.

1.2

Temporary Installations
Distribution of electricity on a construction site is different from a permanent installation. As construction work proceeds, the type of equipment in use changes. From excavation to completion, there is a constant need for convenient means of connecting equipment. This requires a variety of voltages, phases, and current in different places at different times. Load requirements will vary considerably. All temporary electrical systems shall conform to the National Electrical Code. 1.2.1 The contractor is responsible for the temporary electric supply system on a construction site and the safety measures associated with the National Electrical Code. 1.2.2 Cables on site are subject to rough treatment. Special care should be taken to ensure that the grounding conductor remains intact. If the conducting wire breaks, the supply will not be interrupted under a ground fault condition and the system will no longer be safe. Only UL, FM or other recognized testing lab approved extension cords bearing appropriate lab trademarks shall be used. Damaged or spliced cords are not acceptable to Saudi Aramco. 1.2.3 Special care shall be taken to ensure that the correct fuse or breaker ratings are strictly enforced and that the Ground-Fault Circuit Interrupters (GFCIs) are installed properly on all circuits. 1.2.4 All installation work must be carried out by qualified, experienced electricians. Before connecting temporary electrical installations to existing installations, prior approval must be obtained from the Saudi Aramco proponent department.

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This is to ensure that no overloading of electrical devices will occur and system protection will not be compromised. 1.2.5 A competent person must be made directly responsible for the overall safety of the installation. Its general usage, its maintenance, and any alterations and extensions to the system should be under his control. He must be at the site whenever work is being done. Before any part of a newly installed electrical system or its equipment is energized, it must be thoroughly tested. Safety can be ensured by regular inspection and maintenance.

1.3

Hand Tools and Lighting
1.3.1 Many injuries, fires, and explosions have resulted when extension lights with defective cords or fittings have been used or when bulbs have been broken, exposing the live filament wire to an explosive atmosphere. All electrically operated tools shall be rated and used at a voltage not exceeding 125V. The use of 220V is prohibited. 1.3.2 Defective extension lights and electric hand tools shall be repaired or replaced. A defective electrical tool or cord can cause burns, falls as a result of sudden shocks, or even fatalities. 1.3.3 Portable electric tools, extension lights and cords should be inspected each time they are issued and returned. This should be part of a tool store procedure. Frequent random checks should be made where those tools, lights and plugs are being used on site. Portable hand lamps shall comply with the following: (1) (2) (3) Metal shell, paper-lined lamp holders shall not be used. Hand lamps shall be equipped with insulated handle. Substantial lamp guard shall be attached to the handle or holder. Metallic lamp guards shall be grounded. Three-wire power cords with grounding conductor shall be used.

1.3.4 Failure of electrical equipment, because of misuse, is a frequent cause of shock. Workers are prone to abuse extension cords by pulling them over sharp metal objects, hanging them across equipment, kicking them, or letting them be run over

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by industrial equipment. They often strain the cords during use, causing the plug and fixture to part and expose live wires. 1.3.5 Many accidents occur when lower volt equipment is plugged into higher volt systems. Before any portable tool or extension light is plugged in, the voltage required for the tool or light must be the same as the power source, and the plugs must be checked for damage. 1.3.6 The importance of grounding all portable tools and lights cannot be emphasized too strongly. All non-current carrying metal parts of any electrical equipment must be properly grounded. This will reduce the electrical shock hazard. 1.3.7 In hazardous areas, more stringent rules apply as to the type of equipment which may be used. Explosion proof light fittings for extension lights is one example. As with all work carried out on Saudi Aramco installations, Work Permits must be obtained and the type of equipment to be used discussed and agreed upon before the permit is issued. 1.3.8 General Precautions: Only qualified electricians should make repairs and carry out maintenance checks. All extension lights must be fitted with protective guards, so if accidentally dropped, the lamp remains intact. Up to a 120 volt maximum rated AC portable lighting system may be used for illuminating inside confined spaces and vessels, provided it is protected by an externally located ground fault circuit interrupter and also meets the provisions of GI 520.001 Section 5.5.5.1 and 520.001-4 (Supplement 4) - "Confined Space Entry Procedure" (Abqaiq Plants). 1.3.9 Ground fault circuit interrupters shall be used on all electrical circuits including portable power electrical supplies (see NFPA Handbook of the National Electric Safety Code, Section 305-b for GFCIs) on temporary wiring. 1.3.10 The National Electric Safety Code defines requirements for the construction and use of portable extension and electric cords in industrial service. This code shall be followed by construction groups.

1.4

Work on Live Equipment
1.4.1 Whenever workmen are required to work on energized equipment, the job must be planned thoroughly and the workmen should proceed with caution.

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Before any work on live equipment starts, there must be a thorough knowledge of the work involved, personal protective equipment must be available, and all necessary work permits must be obtained. 1.4.2 Employees must never work alone on live equipment. In addition to the man doing the job, there must be another electrician standing by. A foreman or supervisor should also be in attendance while this work is being carried out, and he must know how to isolate the equipment. 1.4.3 Before starting a job, the exact voltages should be known. This is important as it determines the type of personal protection required for the work and the procedures established in the work permit. If there is any doubt about voltages, a check must be made before the work is started. 1.4.4 Work platforms and equipment used near energized equipment shall be properly grounded. 1.4.5 Work on live equipment can be as safe as work on isolated equipment if the following are observed: 1 2 3 4 There must be a thorough knowledge of the equipment and the job to be done. If there is any doubt, the advice of the supervisor or responsible person should be sought. The work must be correctly planned before starting. Protective equipment must be used correctly.

1.5

Overhead and Underground Cables
On any construction site, power supplies may have already been installed below ground or overhead. Contact should be made with the appropriate Saudi Aramco department at the planning stage of the job to determine the work permit requirements, route and depth of any underground cables and the recommended safe clearances. If re-routing existing cables is necessary, this should be done before the main contract starts. 1.5.1 Overhead Lines (Figure IV.1) High voltage or overhead lines are usually uninsulated. Therefore, any kind of metallic object coming near or in contact with them can cause a hazardous situation. High voltage can easily arc across a considerable distance. (See OSHA 29 CFR 1926 Subpart N.)

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1.5.2

The Contractor Should Arrange for Power Lines to be: 1 2 3 Re-routed clear of all construction work or placed underground if possible. Made "dead", grounded, and certified as such by Saudi Aramco. Protected by barriers and timber or wire "goal-posts", so that no part of any mobile crane, earth moving equipment, etc. can approach the live cable. Clearance distances should be agreed upon with Saudi Aramco. Access below the powerlines shall be restricted by barriers to where the "goalposts" are located (see Figure IV.1).

The need for caution in working with overhead lines cannot be over-emphasized. High voltage overhead lines have been mistaken for telephone cables. It should never be assumed that there is enough clearance; it should always be proved. It should never be assumed that a cable or line is "dead"; it should always be checked. 1.5.2.1 Spacing Between Powerlines and Pipelines Special precautions are required during installation, operation or maintenance of above grade or below grade onshore pipelines. (See SAES -B-064.) 1.5.3 Underground Cables Normal depth of underground cables varies between 46 centimeters (18 inches) and 0.9 meter (3 feet). (Changes in ground level, due to the work, can mean that the "as built" depth is no longer correct). No mechanical excavations should be started before test trenches have been dug by hand and cable locations established. Unless cables have been laid very deep, heavy vehicles should not be allowed to pass over them. Underground cables, exposed during excavation work should be assumed to be energized and not repositioned or moved until certified to be de-energized. Exposed buried cables in open trenches should be properly supported and the area barricaded. Accidental damage to any cable exposed during excavation shall be immediately reported to Saudi Aramco. The area must be barricaded until the damaged cable has been made safe.

1.6

Overhead Power Transmission and Distribution
The standards given in this section provide minimum requirements for safety and health during construction. 1.6.1 Initial Inspections, Tests, or Determinations Existing conditions shall be determined before starting work, by an inspection or a test. Such conditions shall include, but not be limited to, energized lines and

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equipment, condition of poles, and the location of circuits and equipment, including power and communication lines. Electrical equipment and lines shall be considered energized until determined to be de-energized by testing and grounding. Operating voltage of equipment and lines shall be determined before working on or near energized parts. 1.6.2 De-energizing Lines and Equipment The procedures outlined in GI 2.100 and GI 6.012 shall be followed, and all circuits will be identified, tagged, locked, and tested. Equipment shall be checked for potential and protective grounds shall be applied. Guards or barriers shall be erected as necessary near to adjacent energized lines. When more than one independent crew needs to work on the same line or equipment at the same time, a separate "clearance" shall be given to each crew by the Saudi Aramco Power Dispatcher, and a prominent tag and lock for each such independent crew shall be placed on the line or equipment by the designated crew leader. Upon completion of work on de-energized lines or equipment, the crew leader shall determine that all members in his crew are clear and that protective grounds installed by his crew have been removed. He shall release his clearance to Saudi Aramco. 1.6.3 Emergency Procedures and First Aid The Contractor shall provide training or require that his employees are knowledgeable and proficient in the following: 1 2 3 1.6.4 Procedures involving emergency situations; First-aid fundamentals including cardiopulmonary resuscitation; and Remote field crews shall have an employee certified in First-Aid.

Night Work When working at night, spotlights or portable lights for emergency lighting shall be provided as needed to perform the work safely.

1.6.5

Work Near/Over Water When crews are engaged in work over or near water and when danger of drowning exists, suitable protection such as buoyant work vests shall be worn. Life rings, ropes and at least one skiff shall be provided.

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1.6.6

Hydraulic Fluids All hydraulic fluids used for the insulated sections of derrick trucks, aerial lifts, and hydraulic tools which are used on or around energized lines and equipment shall be of the insulating type.

1.6.7

Live-Line Tools (Hot Sticks) Only live-line tool poles having a manufacturer's certification meeting the following requirements shall be used: 1 2 100,000 volts per foot of length for 5 minutes when the tool is made of fiberglass, or 75,000 volts per foot of length for 3 minutes when the tool is made of wood; or

All live-line tools shall be visually inspected and wiped clean before use each day. Tools with any hazardous defect shall be removed from service. 1.6.8 Material Handling 1.6.8.1 Unloading Prior to unloading steel, poles, cross arms, and similar material, the load shall be thoroughly examined to ascertain if the load has shifted, binders or stakes have broken, or the load is otherwise hazardous to employees. 1.6.8.2 Pole Hauling During pole hauling operations, all loads shall be secured to prevent displacement and a red flag shall be displayed at the trailing end of the longest pole. Precautions shall be exercised to prevent blocking of roadways or endangering other traffic. When hauling poles during the hours of darkness, illuminated warning devices shall be attached to the trailing end of the longest pole and haul truck brake lights shall not be obscured. 1.6.8.3 Storage No materials or equipment shall be stored under energized bus, energized lines, or near energized equipment. 1.6.8.4 Framing During framing operations, employees shall not work under a pole or a structure suspended by a crane, A-frame, or similar equipment unless the pole or structure is adequately supported.

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1.6.8.5

Attaching the Load The hoist rope shall not be wrapped around the load. This provis ion shall not apply to electric construction crews when setting or removing poles. Non-conductive tag lines or other suitable devices shall be used to control loads being handled by hoisting equipment.

1.6.9

Grounding for Protection of Workers 1.6.9.1 Isolation and Voltage Testing Equipment to be worked on when it is deenergized shall be isolated from the system and tested for voltage using test equipment rated for the system, and be grounded. 1.6.9.2 Applying and Removing Grounds (See Figure IV.2) Grounding cables shall be connected to ground first, and then the equipment. Grounding cables shall be installed and removed using hot sticks or insulating gloves and protective apparel. Grounding cables shall first be disconnected from the line or equipment and then be disconnected from ground. Grounding cables shall be at, or as close as practicable to, the work location. Protective grounds shall be installed so that it is not possible for workers to come in contact with a grounded component and an ungrounded component simultaneously. 1.6.9.3 Grounding Distance If the work is to be performed at more than one location in a line section, the line section must be grounded and short circuited at each end of the line section and the conductor to be worked on shall be grounded at each work location. 1.6.9.4 Removal of Grounds for Testing Purposes Grounds may be temporarily removed with the permission of the Power Dispatcher. Extreme caution shall be exercised while the equipment/line is not grounded. 1.6.9.5 Groundi ng Electrode When grounding electrodes are utilized, such electrodes shall exhibit low resistance to ground; thereby, rapidly diminishing the electrical

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hazard to personnel. Otherwise, insulated tools (or other operating equipment) must be used by personnel. 1.6.9.6 Grounding Cables And Clamps Grounding cables and clamps shall be capable of conducting the anticipated fault current and shall have a minimum size of No. 2 AWG standard copper. 1.6.10 Overhead Lines Prior to climbing poles, ladders, scaffolds, or other elevated structures, an inspection shall be made to determine that the structures are capable of sustaining the additional or unbalanced stresses to which they will be subjected. Where poles or structures may be unsafe for climbing, they shall not be climbed until made safe by guying, bracing, or other adequate means. Before installing or removing wire or cable, strains to which poles and structures will be subjected shall be considered and necessary action taken to prevent failure of supporting structures. When setting, moving, or removing poles using cranes, derricks, gin poles, Aframes, or other mechanized equipment near energized lines or equipment, precautions shall be taken to avoid contact with energized lines or equipment. Unless using protective equipment suitable for the voltage involved, employees standing on the ground shall avoid contacting equipment or machinery working adjacent to energized lines or equipment. Lifting equipment shall be bonded to an effective ground or it shall be considered energized and barricaded when utilized near energized equipment or lines. Pole holes shall not be left unattended or unguarded. Even in desert areas, unguarded pole holes are a hazard. Tag lines shall be of a non-conductive type when used near energized lines. 1.6.10.1 Metal Tower Construction When working in unstable material, the excavation for pad or pile-type footings in excess of 1.52 meters (5 feet) deep shall be either sloped to the angle of repose as required or shored if entry is required. Ladders shall be provided for access to pad or pile-type footing excavations in excess of 1.2 meters (4 feet). (See Section II, 2.4, Excavations, Trenching, And Shoring for depth and slope criteria.) When working in unstable material, provision shall be made for cleaning out auger-type footings without requiring an employee to enter the footing unless shoring is used to protect the employee.

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A designated employee shall be used in directing mobile equipment adjacent to footing excavations. No one shall be permitted to remain in the footing while equipment is being spotted for placement. Where necessary to assure the stability of mobile equipment, the location of use for such equipment shall be graded and leveled. Tower assembly shall be carried out with a minimum exposure of employees to falling objects when working at two or more levels on a tower. Guy lines shall be used as necessary to maintain sections or parts of sections in position and to reduce the possibility of tipping. Members and sections being assembled shall be adequately supported. No one shall be permitted under a tower which is in the process of erection or assembly, except as may be required to guide and secure the section being set. When erecting towers using hoisting equipment adjacent to energized transmission lines, the lines shall be de-energized when practical. If the lines are not de-energized, extraordinary caution shall be exercised to maintain the minimum clearance distances required. Erection shall be set on firm level foundations and when the cranes are so equipped, outriggers shall be used. Tag lines shall be utilized to maintain control of tower sections being raised and positioned, except where the use of such lines would create a greater hazard. The loadline shall not be detached from a tower section until the section is adequately secured. Except during emergency restoration procedures, erection shall be discontinued in the event of high wind or other adverse weather conditions which would make the work hazardous. Equipment and rigging shall be regularly inspected and maintained in safe operating condition. Adequate traffic control shall be maintained when crossing highways and railways with equipment. An employee shall be utilized to determine that required clearance is maintained in moving equipment under or near energized lines.

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1.6.10.2

Stringing/Removing De-energized Conductors When stringing or removing de-energized conductors, the provisions of the following paragraphs shall be complied with. Prior to stringing operations, a briefing shall be held setting forth the plan of operation and specifying the type of equipment to be used, grounding devices and procedures to be followed, crossover methods to be employed, and the clearance authorization required. Where there is a possibility of the conductor accidentally contacting an energized circuit or receiving a dangerous induced voltage buildup, to further protect the employee from the hazards of the conductor, the conductor being installed or removed shall be grounded. When the existing line has been de-energized, proper clearance authorization shall be secured and the line grounded on both sides of the crossover, or the line being strung or removed shall be worked on as if energized. When crossing over energized conductors in excess of 600 volts, rope nets or guard structures shall be installed unless provision is made to isolate or insulate the workman or the energized conductor. Where practical the automatic re-closing feature of the circuit interrupting device shall be made inoperative. In addition, the line being strung shall be grounded on either side of the crossover or and worked on as if energized. Conductors being strung in or removed shall be kept under positive control by the use of adequate tension reels, guard structures, tielines, or other means to prevent accidental contact with energized circuits. Guard structure members shall be sound and of adequate dimension and strength, and adequately supported. Anchors, riggings, and hoists shall be of ample capacity to prevent loss of the lines. The manufacturer's load rating shall not be exceeded for stringing lines, pulling lines, sock connections, and all load-bearing hardware and accessories. Pulling lines and accessories shall be inspected regularly and replaced or repaired when damaged or when dependability is doubtful.

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Conductor grips shall not be used on wire rope unless designed for this application. While the conductor or pulling line is being pulled (in motion) employees shall not be permitted directly under overhead operations, nor shall any employee be permitted on the crossarm. A transmission clipping crew shall have a minimum of two structures clipped in between the crew and the conductor being sagged. When working on bare conductors, clipping and tying crews shall work between grounds at all times. The grounds shall remain intact until the conductors are clipped in, except on dead end structures. Except during emergency restoration procedures, work from structures shall be discontinued when adverse weather (such as high wind or ice on structures) makes the work hazardous. Stringing and clipping operations shall be discontinued during electrical storms. Reel handling equipment, including pulling and braking machines, shall have ample capacity, operate smo othly, and be leveled and aligned in accordance with the manufacturer's operating instructions. Reliable communications between the reel tender and pulling rig operator shall be provided. Each pull shall be snubbed or dead ended at both ends before subsequent pulls. 1.6.10.3 Stringing Adjacent to Energized Lines Prior to stringing parallel to an existing energized transmission line, it shall be determined whether dangerous induced voltage buildups will occur in the system, particularly during switching and ground fault conditions. When stringing adjacent to energized lines, the tension stringing method or other methods which preclude unintentional contact between the lines being pulled and any employee shall be used. All pulling and tensioning equipment shall be isolated, insulated, or effectively grounded. A ground shall be installed between the tensioning reel setup and the first structure in order to ground each bare conductor, sub-conductor, and overhead ground conductor during stringing operations. During stringing operations, each bare conductor, sub-conductor, and overhead ground conductor shall be grounded at the first tower adjacent to both the tensioning and pulling setup and in increments

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so that no point is more than 3.218 kilometers (two miles) from a ground. • • • • The grounds shall be left in place until conductor installation is completed. Such grounds shall be removed at the last phase of aerial cleanup. Except for moving type grounds, the grounds shall be placed and removed with a hot stick. Conductors, sub-conductors, and overhead ground conductors shall be grounded at all dead-end or catch-off points.

A ground shall be located at each side and within 3.2 meters (10 feet) of working areas where conductors, or overhead ground conductors are being spliced at ground level. The two ends to be spliced shall be bonded to each other. It is recommended that splicing be carried out on either an insulated platform or on a conductive metallic grounding mat bonded to both grounds. When a grounding mat is used, it is recommended that the grounding mat be roped off and an insulated walkway provided for access to the mat. (See Power Distribution Instruction No. 50.) All conductors, sub-conductors, and overhead ground conductors shall be bonded to the tower at any isolated tower where it may be necessary to complete work on the transmission line. • • Work on dead-end towers shall require grounding on all deenergized lines. Grounds may be removed as soon as the work is completed, provided that the line is not left open circuited at the isolated tower at which work is being completed.

When performing work from the structures, clipping crews and all others working on conductors, sub-conductors, or overhead ground conductors shall be protected by individual grounds installed at every work location. 1.6.11 Underground Lines Warning signs shall be promptly placed when covers of manholes, hand holes, or vaults are removed. Before an employee enters a street opening, such as a manhole or an unvented vault, it shall be promptly protected with a barrier, temporary cover, or other suitable guard. When work is to be performed in a manhole or unvented vault, GI 2.100, Work Permit System, shall be enforced.

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No entry shall be permitted unless forced ventilation is provided or the atmosphere is found to be safe by testing for oxygen deficiency and the presence of explosive gases or fumes. Where unsafe conditions are detected, by testing or other means, the work shall be ventilated and otherwise made safe before entry. Provisions shall be made for an adequate continuous supply of air. Work in Manholes While work is being performed in manholes, an employee shall be available in the immediate vicinity to render emergency assistance as required. This shall not preclude the employee in the immediate vicinity from occasionally entering a manhole to provide assistance, other than for emergencies. This requirement does not preclude a qualified employee, working alone, from entering for brief periods of time, a manhole where energized cables or equipment are in service, for the purpose of inspection, housekeeping, taking readings, or similar work if such work can be performed safely. However, someone on the surface must be aware of this type of entry and know the expected duration of the task. Before entering or using open flames in a manhole excavation in an area where combustible gases or liquids may be present, such as near a gasoline service station, GOSP, refinery, etc., the atmosphere of the manhole or excavation shall be tested and found safe or cleared of the combustible gases or liquids (See GI 2.100).

• •

1.6.11.1

1.6.11.2

Trenching and Excavating During excavation or trenching, in order to prevent the exposure of employees to the hazards created by damage to dangerous underground facilities, efforts shall be made to determine the location of such facilities and work in accordance with GI 2.100, Work Permit System. When underground facilities are exposed (electric, gas, water, telephone, etc.) they shall be protected as necessary to avoid damage. When multiple cables exist in an excavation, the cable to be worked on shall be identified by electrical means unless its identity is obvious by reason of distinctive appearance. Before cutting into a cable or opening a splice, the cable shall be identified and verified by the proponent department. When working on buried cable or on cable in manholes, metallic sheath continuity shall be maintained by bonding across the opening or by equivalent means.

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1.6.12

Construction in Energized Substations When construction work is performed in an energized substation, authorization shall be obtained from the local power service dispatcher and a work permit shall be issued. (See GI 2.100) When work is to be done in an energized substation, safety precautions shall be detailed in the work permit (See GI 2.100). Extreme caution shall be exercised in the handling of busbars, tower steel, materials, and equipment in the vicinity of energized facilities. 1.6.12.1 Barricades and Barriers Barricades or barriers shall be installed to prevent accidental contact with energized lines or equipment. Signs indicating the hazard shall be posted near the barricade or barrier. 1.6.12.2 Control Panels Work on or adjacent to energized control panels shall be performed by designated employees. Precaution shall be taken to prevent accidental operation of relays or other protective devices due to jarring, vibration, or improper wiring. 1.6.12.3 Mechanized Equipment Use of vehicles, gin poles, cranes, and other equipment in restricted or hazardous areas shall at all times be controlled by designated employees. All mobile cranes and derricks shall be effectively grounded when being moved or operated in close proximity to energized lines or equipment, or the equipment shall be considered energized. (See OSHA 29 CFR 1926 Subpart N.) Fenders shall not be required for low-boys used for transporting large electrical equipment, transformers or breakers. 1.6.12.4 Substation Fences When a substation fence must be expanded or removed for construction purposes, a temporary fence affording similar protection, when the site is unattended, shall be provided. Adequate bonding and grounding interconnections shall be maintained between temporary fence and permanent fence.

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All gates to all unattended substations shall be locked, except when work is in progress.

1.7

Electric Shock
Speed is essential in dealing with any electrical accident. A copy of "The Treatment for Electric Shock" placard in Arabic and English should be prominently displayed so that everyone knows what to do in an emergency. Employees will be trained in First Aid and cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). In brief, the sequence for dealing with an electrical accident is: 1 If at all possible, switch off the power supply. If this is not instantly possible, release the victim from contact with the conductor by using dry gloves, dry blanket, dry wood, dry clothing, rubber sheets, or properly insulated equipment. If breathing has stopped, begin CPR and continue as necessary. Call for first aid assistance, a doctor, and an ambulance. The Saudi Aramco emergency number is 110.

2 3

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FIGURE IV.1: TEMPORARY CROSSING FOR CONSTRUCTION EQUIPMENT Overhead power lines are usually uninsulated and any kind of metallic object coming near or in contact with them can cause a hazardous situation. High voltage can easily arc across considerable distance. Overhead lines should therefore be rerouted, "made dead" or protected by timber "goal posts" and barriers. Clearance distances should be agreed upon with Saudi Aramco before work starts.

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FIGURE IV.2 PROPER USE OF INSULATING TOOLS AND PROTECTIVE APPAREL Note: Grounding Cables Shall Be Isolated And Removed Using Insulating Tools And Protective Apparel

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2.0 IONIZING RADIATION
Ionizing industrial radiation, such as x-rays generated by equipment or gamma rays emitted spontaneously by radioactive materials, are widely used in industry for non-destructive testing, e.g., testing of welds in pipes and pressure vessels, without damaging the material. The material tested does not retain any radioactivity when testing is completed. For all practical purposes, the radiation produced by x-ray equipment or emitted by radioactive sources are the same. X-rays and gamma rays both have properties which should be understood. Even though they penetrate the body, they cannot be perceived by any of our five senses; they can be absorbed and scattered by matter; they travel in straight lines at the speed of light; they ionize gases; they affect photographic emulsions; and by far the most important, they can be harmful to the living cells of the body. INSTRUCTIONS AND FORMS Saudi Aramco General Instructions: 150.003 00-AID-08 Ionizing Radiation Protection Radiation Safety Manual

Saudi Aramco Forms: Saudi Aramco 2654 Personal Radiation Exposure

Saudi Aramco Standard Drawings: AB-36895 Radiation Warning Sign

2.1

Methods of Protection Against Radiation
Distance, time, and shielding are the usual methods of reducing radiation exposure. 2.1.1 Distance Distance is an effective method of protection because gamma and x-rays obey the inverse square law, that is, the radiation intensity decreases with the inverse square of the distance. Conversely, dose rates at close distances can be extremely high, even for low activity sources. It is essential, therefore, that unshielded sources are kept at a sufficient distance from personnel so as not to pose a health hazard to them. 2.1.2 Time Time is a useful method of protection because high dose rates can be accepted over very short periods of time. However, the cumulative dose must remain at acceptable limits given in GI 150.003-2.

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2.1.3

Shielding To lessen harmful radiation, materials of high density, such as lead, depleted uranium, or tungsten, are used to absorb emitted radiation. In the use of x-ray equipment, precautions against emitted radiation are necessary until the electric power is turned off and locked out. On the other hand, radioactive materials constantly emit radiation and cannot be switched off. Consequently, to absorb unwanted radiation and facilitate handling, sealed sources are housed in shielded containers or bunkers.

2.2

Classification of Personnel and Exposure Limits
In order to control human exposure to industrial radiation, all employees and contractors are classified as either radiation workers or non-radiation workers according to their training and need to use radiation sources. Classification does not guarantee safety; safety procedures and adequate equipment must be used at all times. 2.2.1 Radiation Workers A radiation worker is an occupationally exposed person or employee whose job involves routine use of ionizing radiation and who has reasonable chance of being exposed to radiation from a radioactive source. Radiation workers are further categorized as Competent Persons or Radiographers. Competent Persons do not normally use radiation sources, but by training and experience are capable of supervising both routine operations and emergency situations involving radiation. Radiographers are expected to safely use radiation sources in the course of their work and must be in possession of a valid "Saudi Aramco Permit to Use Material/Equipment Producing Ionizing Radiation" before they can work with a radioactive source. Radiographers must wear two personal dosimeters when working with radiation, a direct-reading pocket dosimeter and an integrating permanent dosimeter (film badge or thermoluminiscent dosimeter [TLD]). 2.2.2 Non-Radiation Workers Non-radiation workers should not receive more than those dose limits given in GI 150.003-2. 2.2.3 Exposure Limits Radiation doses to workers should always be kept as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA). Under no circumstances shall the doses exceed those limits given in GI 150.003-2 for occupational or non-occupational people. Special controls (see GI 150.003-2) are imposed on persons who are, or are capable of being, pregnant. No occupational exposure is allowed for persons less than 18 years of age.

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Over exposure shall be reported to the Saudi Aramco proponent, the Occupational Medicine Services Unit, and the Loss Prevention Department.

2.3

Responsibilities for Safe Handling
The Radiation Protection Committee (see GI 150.003) has full responsibility in all matters concerning the safe use, storage, and transportation of industrial sealed sources and x-ray machines used on Saudi Aramco property. 2.3.1 Contractor The contractor appoints competent persons to be responsible for the immediate supervision and the enforcement of instructions and standards. Personnel involved in performing non-destructive testing must be certified and hold a valid "Permit to Use Material/Equipment Producing Ionizing Radiation". 2.3.2 Competent Person Each radiographer will check at the beginning of each shift on the zeroing and recharging of dosimeters and on the condition of the equipment. A competent person familiar with all of Saudi Aramco radiation use requirements will make field audits to ensure compliance with Company instructions and standards. He must report the results of these audits to the applicable department responsible for the operation. Also he must be familiar with all equipment and procedures so that the proper corrective action can be taken in any emergency situation involving radioactive equipment. 2.3.3. Radiographer At the start of each shift, radiographers must ensure that all equipment is in safe working order. All malfunctions must be reported to the supervisor or Competent Person immediately. The radiographer must also make sure that he is wearing a valid TLD or film badge and a direct-reading pocket dosimeter which has been charged and zeroed. One radiation monitoring instrument must be available for each source in use. Equipment must be transported to the work site with safety locks in place. Under no circumstance is equipment to be transported in an unassembled or open condition. Upon arrival at the job site and prior to operating with any sealed source, the radiographer must ensure that non-radiation workers are not subject to radiation levels that would exceed that which is permitted. Radiation areas must contain radiation warning signs (see Figure IV.3) and be clearly displayed around the circumference of the radiation area. In addition, in populated work areas, a rope or tape barrier shall be erected around the radiation area. The area will be monitored with approved survey meter to ensure safe area for non-radiation workers is maintained. Further guidance on industrial radiography is provided in GI 150.0034 and 00.AIP-08. A weekly report on the condition of all equipment should be passed to the supervisor.

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2.4

Shipping and Transportation
Government Permits are required for shipping radioactive materials into and out of Saudi Arabia. Additional information is available from Purchasing Services Division. Transporting radiation sources to work locations requires a locked container located out of the passenger compartment. The vehicle shall have radiation signs on the front and rear.

2.5

Storage Areas
Upon completion of work or at the end of each work period, every sealed source must be returned to a storage area approved by the Saudi Aramco Radiation Protection Committee. Storage is usually within fenced area. All permanent or temporary storage areas (bunkers) must be approved of by the Saudi Aramco Radiation Protection Committee. Sources may not be stored in the back of a truck whether or not they are under lock and key. Radiation readings must be taken at the perimeter of the storage area and the radiation level must be within the acceptable limits given in GI 150.003. Radiation signs must be fixed to the barriers of all storage areas. (See Figure IV.3.) • A log shall be maintained of radiation sources in storage, logged in or out, by source and responsible competent person in charge of source.

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FIGURE IV.3: S TANDARD S IGN - RADIATION

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V. Chemicals And Operations

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1.0 LIQUEFIED PETROLEUM GASES
Liquefied Petroleum Gases (LPG) are now being widely used n the construction industry. The i precautions covered in this section are directed to those industrial operators who handle these gases, i.e., stores personnel and the actual operators using the gases. LPG is a term applied to combinations of hydrocarbons known under various trade names and also widely known as propane and butane. INSTRUCTIONS AND STANDARDS Saudi Aramco General Instructions: GI 355.020 Control of Compressed Gas Cylinders

Saudi Aramco Engineering Standards: SAES -D-5 SAES -B.057 Liquefied Petroleum Gas Equipment, Installation Safety Requirements: Refrigerated and Pressure Storage Vessels

Saudi Aramco Bottled Gas Manual: Part 1.7 Liquid Petroleum Gas

American National Standards: NFPA 54-88 ANSI A10.10-81 Safety Requirements for Temporary and Portable Space Heating Devices & Equipment Used in the Construction Industry NFPA 58-89 Liquefied Petroleum Gases, Storage and Handling Fuel Gas Code

1.1

General
These gases are colorless, heavier than air, and normally odorless, but for commercial usage, an odorizing agent is added for the obvious reason of facilitating detection in the event of accidental escape of the gas. At normal temperatures, they are gaseous and can be changed into a liquid by the application of moderate pressure. In the liquid form, relatively large quantities of LPG can be safely transported and stored in suitably designed containers. The approximate ratios of gas volume to liquid volume are 275:1 for propane and 240:1 for butane. Both gases are heavier than air at normal temperatures. Any leakage will form a gas cloud which will settle at the lowest possible level. It may ignite if a flame or sparks are present. This could happen at some considerable distance from the source of leakage. The gases form an explosive mixture with air, and they react vigorously with oxidizing materials. These gases can be highly dangerous; if the container is exposed to heat or flame, there is a high risk of

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explosion. To reduce the risk of explosion, the cylinders must be equipped with relief valves or fusible plugs.

1.2

Storage
1.2.1 Cylinders, whether empty or full, should be stored under cover for protection against the elements. The storage place should be detached from any other buildings and constructed of non-combustible material. It should preferably be a well-ventilated one-story building with all doors leading directly to the outside. LPG cylinders must be stored at least 6.1 meters (20 feet) away from oxygen or oxidizers or must be separated from them by a fire wall rated at 30 minutes. 1.2.2 The building should be fenced-off and signs should be displayed both in Arabic and English: "No Smoking". Water and dry chemical fire extinguishers shall be available. 1.2.3 Natural ventilation points should be positioned at both high and low levels. 1.2.4 All electrical fixtures should be of an explosion-proof type. 1.2.5 All gas valves, fittings, connections, and piping shall be made of stainless steel, brass or copper; rubber/plastic hoses are prohibited.

1.3

Handling of Cylinders
1.3.1 Cylinders must not be dropped or allowed to come into violent contact with each other. 1.3.2 They must be stored and used in an upright position, thus preventing the liquid from passing through the relief valve regulator and into the equipment.

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1.3.3 They must not be placed in or near excavations or any low level area. 1.3.4 They must be placed on level ground and secured to prevent accidental tipping over. 1.3.5 Care should be taken that the valve assemblies are not damaged. The main valve should be closed and the valve cap in position when the cylinder is not in use. 1.3.6 Smoking is not permitted when handling cylinders.

1.4

Leakage
1.4.1 Cylinders, valves, connections, hoses, and pipings should be regularly inspected for damage or leakage. Detection can be carried out by the following methods, if flammable gas meter is unavailable: 1 2 3 4 1.4.2 Small leaks may be confirmed by using soapy water. 1.4.3 A leaking cylinder must be immediately removed to an open space, clear of all buildings and people or any potential source of ignition. 1.4.4 The cylinder must be placed with the leak uppermost. Smelling Touching: Listening: Looking:

Leaking cylinder may be colder than those around it. Sound of escaping gas. Localized condensation or frosting.

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1.4.5 The supplier must be notified immediately.

1.5

Transportation
1.5.1 Full or empty cylinders which are loaded on vehicles must be placed in an upright position, be adequately secured to prevent movement, and have valve caps in place. 1.5.2 The vehicle should have fire fighting and first aid equipment. 1.5.3 The vehicle must also display all the necessary warning notices.

1.6

Operation
1.6.1 In permanent or semi-permanent installations, the cylinder must be placed outside the building out of direct sunlight and the gas piped to appliances inside. 1.6.2 The cylinder must be secured in an upright position, away from excavation, pits, and other low lying areas. 1.6.3 The regulator and other equipment is to be connected and a test made to ensure that all joints are gas tight. 1.6.4 The regulator capacity must be suitable for the equipment being used. 1.6.5 Before lighting, a check is to be made to ensure that there is sufficient ventilation for the burner and that all combustible materials are removed from the work area. 1.6.6 Once the burner has been lit, it should burn with a steady blue flame with bluegreen base cones.

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1.6.7 A dry chemical fire extinguisher must be readily available at the work area. 1.6.8 Shut off valves shall be installed at the main tank supply and at the operating source. (See Loss Prevention Booklet, "Hazards of Gas Cylinders")

1.7

Action in Case of Fire
1.7.1 When cylinders are exposed to severe fire conditions and are engulfed in flames, no attempt should be made to extinguish the fire. In such condition, cylinders are likely to explode immediately. 1.7.2 The action to be taken in such an instance is to evacuate the area immediately and call the Fire Protection Department. 1.7.3 Cylinders which have been exposed to fire conditions must be adequately cooled with water before any attempt is made to remove them. 1.7.4 If cylinders are equipped with automatic relief valves and the fire exposure is severe, ignited jets of gas from these valves can extend as far as 6 meters (20 feet). 1.7.5 In the case of a small fire arising from gas leakage, it is possible to extinguish the fire by immediately turning off the cylinder valve. The cylinder should be approached from the opposite direction to the source of fire. 1.7.6 If a fire does not directly involve other cylinders in the vicinity, water hoses played on those cylinders will prevent increased internal pressure and minimize the risk of explosion. 1.7.7 All cylinders which have been involved in a fire must be returned immediately to the supplier, alerting the supplier that the cylinder was involved in a fire.

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1.8

Bulk Installations
Before any bulk storage installation is undertaken, the LPG supplier should be consulted on the size of the tank required and the most suitable fittings for that particular installation, including relief capacity. 1.8.1 Temporary tanks are to be installed above ground on a dry, hard foundation away from drains, culverts, or hollows where it would be possible for any leaking gas to collect. 1.8.2 Tanks should not be exposed to heat or direct rays of the sun and they must be adequately protected against accidental or unauthorized interference. 1.8.3 Only trained personnel are to install bulk tanks and equipment. All items used must be of approved design and comply with the appropriate standards. 1.8.4 All pipeline systems must be tested to a safe working pressure after completion of the assembly. 1.8.5 Fire water protection shall be provided.

1.9

First Aid
If LPG has been inhaled, the affected person must be removed from the area, kept warm and rested, and not allowed to move about. If the affected person is not breathing, mouth-tomouth resuscitation should be applied. No attempt should be made to give an unconscious person anything to drink. If the person is breathing, oxygen must be administered by a competent person. If liquid has gone to the eyes, they must be thoroughly washed out with water. Medical aid must be obtained as soon as possible.

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2.0 PLANT OPERATIONS
The safe processing and movement of oil from underground to ship or transmission pipeline is the primary Saudi Aramco objective. Any construction operation which could affect the safety of oil processing and movement must be planned and performed in accordance with the operating procedures of the area in which the job is located. Every plant area in Saudi Aramco operations has a specific set of operating instructions and the operating supervisor for that area has full responsibility for safety precautions. With this responsibility, he also has authority to issue work permits and stop any work if it is not in accordance with proper procedures. It is therefore necessary for anyone expecting to work in an area where oil or gas is handled to know the rules and regulations and obey them. Failure to follow the operating rules can result in not only destruction of Saudi Aramco property but also death of construction and operating personnel. This type of disaster must be prevented. INSTRUCTIONS AND STANDARDS Saudi Aramco General Instructions: GI 2.100 GI 2.710 GI 441.014 SAES -A-005 Schedule 'D': Saudi Aramco Safety, Health and Environmental Requirements - Plant Operations Work Permit System Mechanical Completion & Performance Acceptance of Plant/Unit Repair Procedures on Hydrocarbon Pipelines Safety Instruction Sheet

2.1

Additional Information On Saudi Aramco Instructions and Standards
There are a number of additional instructions and standards which apply to construction operations, either inside or outside Restricted Areas. The contractor must determine which of these apply to him and ensure that his supervisory staff is familiar with them. This can be accomplished through discussions with operations management for the area and with the construction engineer. A meeting of all concerned prior to starting a job shall be conducted and a Hazard Identification Plan shall be prepared for review by Saudi Aramco Loss Prevention Department. Because of the large number of instructions which might be applicable to a specific job, it is not practical to list all of them. The following, however, will be helpful in locating applicable instructions and standards.

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2.1.1

General Instruction Manual This manual is one which provides general instructions applicable to all Saudi Aramco areas and operations. The contractor will find most of the instructions applying to him in this manual.

2.1.2

Producing Instruction Manual This manual is designed to provide producing operating personnel with instructions on operating practices and procedures for specific operations. The contractor would find it useful to know in advance what these procedures are and how they affect him.

2.1.3

Refinery Instruction Manual This manual is designed for use in refinery operations. Its design and use is similar to the Producing Instruction Manual except that it applies to refinery operations.

2.1.4

Saudi Aramco Engineering Standards These provide detailed instructions on how to do specific jobs and establish minimum standards to follow. The contractor must use all applicable engineering standards in the performance of his job. Failure to do so will result in immediate shutdown, a delay for which the contractor will be responsible. The Saudi Aramco construction engineer is familiar with the Engineering Standards and will assist the contractor. Saudi Aramco Loss Prevention personnel will advise and provide guidance on fire and safety problems.

2.2

Work Permit System
Any contractor planning to do work in a restricted area must obtain a work permit from the operations supervisor for the area. To obtain this permit, the contractor must have personnel with a valid certificate to receive work permits. GI. 2.100, Work Permit System, provides the information needed to obtain such certificates and explains how to use them. The work permit is a written permission to proceed with the work in accordance with the plans and the restrictions written on the form. Without a proper permit, work will not be allowed in the area. (See Work Permit System, Section II.1 of this Manual.)

2.3

Operation of Plant Equipment
It is expressly forbidden for any construction personnel to operate any valves, switches, push buttons, or other devices in an operating area. If the work dictates such action, the contractor personnel must call the operations supervisor to perform the service. If the job involves work on equipment which is in service, a specific set of written procedures will have to be prepared and approved in advance by Operating and Safety personnel. The contractor must strictly follow these procedures. No deviations will be

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permitted without the prior approval of the operation supervisor. supervision will be required in these types of jobs.

Close contractor

2.4

Shutdown and Maintenance in Plant Operations
Shutting down a plant is the sole responsibility of operating personnel. Construction personnel should not, under any circumstances, be involved in any operational activity. In certain emergency situations, it may be necessary for the contractor to shut down the job and even move his equipment to permit access for operating and maintenance personnel. This emergency activity must be done as requested.

2.5

Commissioning
GI 2.710, Mechanical Completion and Performance Acceptance of Plant/Unit, outlines the procedures and requirements for accepting new plants or additions to plants after they have been completed by the contractor. This is to assure that the plant is safe to operate in every respect. The contractor should familiarize himself with this instruction before he starts work. If there is any question on the fire and safety aspects of this instruction, the contractor should contact the Saudi Aramco Loss Prevention Department for clarification and assistance.

2.6

Emergency Procedures: Saudi Aramco Disaster Plan
It is necessary for all contractors to familiarize themselves with the Disaster Control Plan for the plant and area in which the job is located. Each person working for the contractor must know exactly what to do when the emergency evacuation or stop work alarms are sounded and do it without delay. The Disaster Control Plan does not normally require the assistance of any construction personnel. Saudi Aramco personnel are trained to handle the emergency. If the emergency is the result of a construction operation, construction personnel will notify operating personnel immediately. The operating personnel will initiate alarm procedures and direct activities in controlling the emergency. When the emergency alarm is sounded for any reason, all contractor personnel will immediately shut down their job, make it safe, and proceed in an orderly manner to the designated assembly point. They will be checked out by Security and should assemble at a point outside the area and await further instructions from the Saudi Aramco Disaster Commander. Periodically, Saudi Aramco holds Disaster Drills to ensure the smooth functioning of its Disaster Plan. The contractor is required to participate in these drills just as if it were an actual emergency.

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2.6.1

Gas Release Emergency Procedures If there is a reason to suspect a gas release in the area through which you are driving: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Immediately shut off the vehicle engine and do not try to restart it. Check the wind direction by looking at the windsock. Get out of the vehicle and walk to a safe location generally in a crosswind direction away from the point of release. Inform plant operation employees of the situation. Do not go and investigate, leave this to operations.

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3.0 PRESSURE TESTING
It is essential that safe practices be observed during pressure testing, due to the potential hazards associated with high pressure liquids and gases. INSTRUCTIONS AND STANDARDS Saudi Aramco General Instructions: GI 2.100. GI 2.102. GI 2.710 GI 432.00 GI 434.000 GI 447.002 Work Permit System Pressure Testing Safely Mechanical Completion And Performance Acceptance Of Plant/Unit Pipeline Hydrotest Water Disposal Pipeline Repair and Maintenance Pressure Relief Valves - New Installation, Change in Set Pressure, or Retirement from Service Pressure Relief Valves - Routine Test, Inspection, Quality Assurance And Regulation

GI 447.003.

Saudi Aramco Engineering Standards: SAES -K-001 SAES -A-004 SAES -A-005 SAES -A-007 SAES -B-55 Refrigerant Piping Pressure Testing Safety Instruction Sheet Hydrostatic Testing Fluids And Lay-Up Procedures Plant Layout

Construction Specification Manuals: Form Saudi Aramco 2642 Engineering (Pressure Test Report - 11/90) Form Saudi Aramco 2642-1 Engineering (Pressure Test Information Sheet - 11/90)

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American Petroleum Institute Standards: API-STD-600-91 Steel Gate Valves - Flanged And Butt-Welding Ends, Ninth Edition API-STD-620-90 Design and Construction of Large, Welded, Low Pressure Storage Tanks, Eighth Edition American National Standards Institute: ANSI B 16.5-88 Steel Pipe Flanges and Flange Fittings ANSI B 31.3-90 Chemical Plant And Petroleum Refinery Piping ANSI B 31.4-89 Liquid Transportation Systems For Hydrocarbons, Liquid Petroleum Gas, Anhydrous Ammonia, And Alcohols ANSI B 31.8-89 Gas Transmission and Distribution Piping System American Society of Mechanical Engineers Standards: Section VIII. ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code

3.1

Preparation
3.1.1 SAES -A-004 (Pressure Testing) The person in charge of hydrostatic testing should have read SAES -A-004 and GI 2.102, and fully understand the safety requirements and procedures involved with pressure testing. All persons who will work on the pressure test must be informed of the potential hazards and the necessary safety precautions. A work permit shall be issued prior to commencement of hydrostatic test operations. 3.1.2 Supports Piping, vessels, supports and foundations designed for gas service shall not be overloaded by the extra weight of the test liquid. Temporary supports and braces may be required.

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3.1.3

Vents and Drains Vents of adequate capacity shall be installed at high points, to vent air / gas from the item while it is being filled with the test liquid. Hazardous gases or vapors must be vented clear of any area where personnel are working or where there is any possible source of ignition. Drains must be installed at a suitable location to allow removal of the test liquid.

3.1.4

Valves Where isolation valves are used to contain test pressures, they must be of adequate rating for the pressure to be encountered. If isolation valves are used in lieu of blinds, provisions shall be made to ensure that no over-pressurizing can occur in equipment that is not being tested, due to possible valve leak.

3.1.5

Pipings And Joints Prior to testing, investigations shall be carried out to verify whether or not temporary restraints are required to restrict the movement of pipings and joints during testing; when necessary, adequate restraints shall be provided.

3.1.6

Vacuums On vessels or tanks which could collapse if subjected to a vacuum, there must be sufficient vent relief capacity to assure that the vessel cannot be subjected to a vacuum by draining the test fluid or by sudden cooling.

3.2

General Requirements
3.2.1 Do not approach system never previously tested, corroded piping or vessels, or vessels with welds never previously tested during the stepwise increase in pressure to the strength test pressure. After the strength test pressure has been reached and held for a specified interval, in accordance with SAES -A-004, the equipment may be approached. The actual pressure at which the system under test will be approached for close inspection shall be specified in the test procedure. 3.2.2 Pressure relief valve(s) shall be used to prevent over pressuring of the equipment. 3.2.3 Any ancillary equipment not under test must be isolated by valves (subject to part 3.1.4) or blind flanged and vented or disconnected.

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3.2.4 Only calibrated test gauges shall be used and they should be mounted in the upright position. Pump discharge gauges must be visible to the pump operator for the duration of the test. 3.2.5 The equipment / vessel shall have adequate vacuum relief capacity to avoid damage or collapse, when draining the test liquid. 3.2.6 Lines should be drained and dried mechanically when the test liquid is corrosive or otherwise hazardous. 3.2.7 The pressure rise during a pressure test should be gradual and under control to allow time for material to strain, and time for personnel to check for leaks, see SAES -A-004 and GI 2.102. 3.2.8 A system under test shall be depressurized (with the exception of pressure due to a liquid head) before any work is done to stop leaks or repair weakness, including the tightening of bolts. In tightness tests, bolts may be tightened without depressurizing, if specifically approved in the written test procedure. 3.2.9 A block valve is required on the line from the test pump to the equipment under test. 3.2.11 Air shall not be used to displace test fluid from underwater equipment unless it has been determined that the equipment will not float.

3.3

Test Liquid
3.3.1 Water is a normally the preferred test liquid. Alternatives must be approved by a deviation from standard or they may be used if they are specifically permitted by SAES -4-004. 3.3.2 Salt water must not be used for testing any material subject to stress corrosion cracking in the presence of chloride ions (such as stainless steel type 304 or 18.8 CrNi).

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3.3.3 Pneumatic (gas) testing may be required as per SAES -A-004. Pneumatic testing other than as specified in SAES -A-004 may be done only with the explicit permission of the Consulting Services Department. Testing with air or other gases under pressure can be hazardous due to the explosion potential. 3.3.4 Possible changes in pressure due to thermal expansion, contraction or hydrostatic heads must be taken into account. 3.3.5 Written procedures approved prior to testing shall be followed for the disposal of test mediums containing chemical additives for control of corrosion or bacteria, as per the requirements of GI 432.000.

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4.0 CHEMICALS
There are thousands of chemicals in existence and hundreds of new ones are being developed for commercial use every year. While almost all of these chemicals are beneficial in some way, they can be dangerous too. In fact, of the thousands of chemicals in existence, it is difficult to find any that are absolutely harmless. When dealing with an unfamiliar chemical, it is always wise to assume that it is hazardous. The exposure to hazards associated with a material depends largely on its proper identification, handling, usage, transport, storage and disposal. In addition, materials which may be completely harmless in one application may be deadly in another. There are too many chemicals and too many possible combinations to deal with them individually here. In the references listed, there are many sources of information on the identification, storage, transportation, use, and disposal of hundreds of chemicals. In the literature there are tables of hazardous chemical reactions. If the name of the chemical is known, the names of others with which it is likely to react dangerously can be found. The proper identification and labeling of chemicals is a very important safety precaution. When dealing with a potentially harmful chemical, precautions should be taken to ensure that employees do not swallow it, inhale it, or allow it to contact their skin. The chemical must not be allowed to accidentally mix with other substances in transportation, storage, or use. It must not be subjected to undue shock, pressure, or heat. When the chemical is no longer needed, it must be safely disposed of or recycled. INSTRUCTIONS AND STANDARDS Saudi Aramco General Instructions: GI 150.001. GI 330.87. GI 355.001. GI 355.002 GI 355.003 GI 355.004 GI 355.015. GI 355.015-1 Asbestos Regulation Bulk Deliveries of Oil Field Treatment Chemicals from Local Vendors Identifying, Cataloging, Ordering And Tracking Of Hazardous Materials Receiving, Storing, And Issuing Hazardous Material Disposing Of Hazardous Materials Handling And Storing Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) For disposal Requisitioning, Receiving, Storing and Issuing Explosives Deterioration And Disposal Of Explosives

Refinery Instruction Manual: No. 5.001. No. 10.740. Caustic And A Dip Diluting Plant 20 - Safety Regulations LPG Plant, Salt Water Chlorination

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No. 13.850.

Sulfuric Acid Safety Regulations - Air And Water Unit

Operating Instruction Manual: No. 5.244. Inhibitor, Handling Procedure

Saudi Aramco Engineering Standards: Saudi Aramco Bottled Gas Manual Saudi Aramco Chemical Hazard Bulletins (CHBs) American National Standards: ANSI 288.2. Standard Practice for Respiratory Protection

American Petroleum Institute: API 2202-91 Dismantling And Disposing Of Steel From Tanks Which Have Contained Leaded Gasoline National Fire Protection Association Standards: NFPA 321. NFPA 325M. NFPA 49. NFPA 491M. NFPA 704. Basic Classification of Flammable and Combustible Liquids Fire Hazard Properties of Flammable Gases, Liquids, and Volatile Solids Hazardous Chemical Data Manual of Hazardous Chemical Reactions Standard System For The Identification of Fire Hazards of Materials

Threshold Limit Values for Chemical Substances and Physical Agents in the Work Environment American Conference of Government Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS) - Manufacturer's literature on chemicals approved by US. Department of Labor Dangerous Properties of Industrial Materials - Dr. N. Irving Sax

4.1

Hazard Identification System
The hazardous nature of a material is related to the manner in which it is transported, stored or used; the materials with which it may come in contact; and how it is disposed of or recycled. There is no single identification system which can briefly indicate the hazards for all these conditions. Saudi Aramco uses NFPA 704 Identification of Fire Hazard Materials,

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which indicates the fire hazards associated with any chemical and also describes the hazards which might be encountered in storage, transportation, use or disposal of the chemical. Many of the materials in the Chemical Section, Class 26, of the Saudi Aramco Material System Catalog are marked by the use of hazard identification labels. The container may not be so marked, but it is indicated in the catalog description of the chemical. The system is based on four different symbols or numbers arranged in a diamond pattern (see Figure V.1). The degree of possible injurious health effects, susceptibility of the materials to burning and to release of energy are rated by numbers (see Figures V.2 and V.2.A.). A zero (0) rating indicates little or no hazard and a four (4) indicates a high degree of hazard. It should be remembered that although a zero health hazard rating indicates that the material offers no hazards to fire fighters beyond that of ordinary combustible material subjected to fire, it does not mean that the material is harmless if inhaled or swallowed.

4.2

Health Hazards
Hazards to health arise from inhaling, swallowing, or skin contact. The severity of the hazard ranges from nuisance chemicals that produce no injury, to chemicals that on short exposure can cause severe injury or death. For industrial workers, the most prominent means of entry of a hazardous chemical into the human body is through the respiratory tract by inhalation. The next most important means of entry is through skin absorption. The least hazardous pathway is through swallowing the chemical, as this seldom occurs in industry. (Reference: Chemical Hazard Bulletins.) 4.2.1 Inhalation Pathway Hazard Chemicals may be in the form of gases, vapors, dusts, or a mixture of these. The senses of sight or smell cannot be depended upon to warn of chemical hazards. Some gases are harmful in concentrations which cannot be detected by their odor. Furthermore, some gases paralyze the sense of smell. Hydrogen sulfide, at low concentrations, can very quickly paralyze the olfactory nerves so that harmful concentrations cannot be detected through smell. Ordinary automotive gasoline, to some extent, does the same thing. When handling a volatile liquid, the maximum allowable concentration (MAC) of the vapor should be known and not exceeded. Where exhaust ventilation is not available, good mechanical ventilation must be provided or the work must be done outdoors. In the case of a chemical spill, it may not be possible to control the maximum allowable concentration. Therefore it is necessary to keep the worker from breathing the vapor by limiting the amount of vapor through careful handling or through the use of local exhaust ventilation. If the concentration of the chemical in the air exceeds the threshold limit value (TLV) or MAC, then respiratory protective devices are needed. It is important that the right kind of device for the particular hazard be obtained. (See Breathing Apparatus, Section I.10 of this Manual.) Dust is a common hazard. Whenever dusty material is handled, a respiratory hazard may exist. Exhaust ventilation, fans, blowers, and proper handling procedures must be used to keep the dust from entering the worker's breathing zone. If these methods fail, dust masks must be provided and their use enforced.

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Fine droplets of liquid form whenever liquids are sprayed or splashed so suitable precautions must be taken to prevent the fine droplets of liquid from entering the worker's breathing zone. Ventilation is also recommended. If such methods are not adequate, suitable respiratory protection must be provided. 4.2.2 Skin Hazards Skin contact/exposure hazard may not be as dangerous to life as respiratory hazards, but they are far more common. Dermatitis resulting from contact with harmful chemicals is a common work injury. Proper handling methods are the first step in protection. The second step, in the case of materials which act rapidly on the human body, such as corrosive chemicals (i.e. acids and caustics) is to provide a physical barrier in the form of goggles, face shields, hoods, gloves, aprons, suits, etc. The third step is to provide eyewash fountains and safety showers, which flush the material from the eyes or skin. The type of personal protective equipment required depends on the hazardous characteristics of the chemical and the way it is used. Personal cleanliness is important. Thorough washing of the hands and face before meals, daily bathing, and a regular change of clothing will reduce harmful contact with chemicals. 4.2.3 Hazards of Swallowing Chemicals In industry, swallowing chemicals does not occur frequently. The main precaution is to ensure that employees know that the material is hazardous if swallowed, and that they must wash their hands free of harmful chemicals before smoking, drinking or eating. Never store harmful chemicals in food containers or handle chemicals near food.

4.3

Emergency Treatment
4.3.1 Artificial Respiration Persons overcome by harmful gases and vapors must be taken out into the fresh air and, if they have stopped breathing, given artificial respiration; if there is no heartbeat, commence cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). Call emergency assistance immediately by telephoning 110. 4.3.2 First Aid In case of accidental swallowing of chemicals, it is not wise to induce the patient to vomit. The hospital must be informed of the chemical injury or chemical swallowed and the person should be moved to the hospital immediately for medical treatment. In the case of caustics or corrosives, drinking a large amount of water, followed by medical treatment, is recommended. Telephone 877-8056, Saudi Aramco Emergency Medical Services, for poison information. 4.3.3 Showers and Eyewash Fountains For skin hazards, the best treatment is thorough water washing under the emergency shower or eyewash fountain. Field treatment should only consist of

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flushing away the chemical. The patient should then be taken to the hospital for treatment. These water flushing devices are required, because working procedures and personal protective equipment may fail. In the case of materials that are immediately harmful to the eyes or skin, safety showers or eyewash fountains should be provided. They should be within 6 meters (20 feet) of the exposure site and accessible in an unobstructed straight line from the work location. Emergency showers shall be properly identified with signs and color background in accordance with SAES -B-55. A person who is blinded by a chemical must immediately be taken to the shower or eyewash fountain. Some emergency showers or eyewash fountains are designed so that standing under or near them activates the water supply. Others have hinged gates which are pushed to activate the shower, but all should be easily activated. If the water piping to the shower or fountain is exposed to the sun, the water will become so hot during summer that it could scald the user. The piping must be buried, insulated or shaded from the sun or the line must be only a very short branch from a main water line that is used frequently enough to keep the water from overheating in the sun. Emergency showers and eyewash fountains should be checked daily. CAUTION: There are two important points that workers must be taught about the correct use of emergency fountains and shower: 1 Before removing goggles, face shields, or other personal protective equipment, the user must get under the shower or use the eyewash fountain to wash off as much of the chemical as possible. It is a mistake to start for the hospital without first doing everything possible to flush out the harmful chemical. The eyes or skin must be washed for quite a long time to remove the chemical. It is necessary to wash the eyes holding the eyelids open with the fingers for at least fifteen minutes to free the eyes of bases or caustics. This will be painful, but it is absolutely necessary. In the case of acids, water will remove the acid quickly, but it is necessary to hold the eyelids open with the fingers, painful as this may be, and roll the eyes around under the shower or in the eye fountain to make sure that all acid is removed. At least fifteen minutes of thorough washing are required in the case of acid contact to skin or eyes.

2

Caustic alkalis such as sodium hydroxide and potassium hydroxide are much more difficult to wash from the skin or eyes. Strong alkalis of this type mixed with water feel slippery to the touch. The skin should be washed until the slippery feeling has gone and washing should be continued for at least 15 minutes.

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4.4

Fire Hazards
4.4.1 Only the necessary amount of hazardous materials should be brought into the work place, usually not more than one day's supply. Hazardous materials must not be allowed to accumulate, and any extra amounts should be cleared from the work area. Slop liquids or trash should be cleared away immediately. All flammable materials should be stored according to the specifications of their Chemical Hazard Bulletins, (CHBs) or Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS). 4.4.2 Smoking and the use of sparking devices near flammable liquids or finely divided combustible solids must be prohibited. 4.4.3 Blocking off air to a burning object is often possible in acid dip tanks or rubbish containers where a cover can be provided and dropped down on the container to smother the flames. 4.4.4 The use of fire fighting equipment, such as fire extinguishers or water streams, must be available in case all effective fire prevention measures fail to prevent a fire. (See Fire Prevention, Section I.11 of this Manual). Ordinary sand is a good extinguishing agent for smothering small fires. The fire hazards of most common materials can be found in the references given in this section. The proper fire extinguisher should be at the job site and readily available at all locations where a fire hazard is possible.

4.5

Reactivity Hazards
The manual of Hazardous Chemical Reactions, NFPA 491M, lists many of the chemicals which are likely to have dangerous reactions with other chemicals. As a general precaution, rough handling and shock should be avoided. Chemicals should not be allowed to mix with other chemicals unless it is known that no harmful reaction will occur.

4.6

Transportation, Storage and Disposal
4.6.1 Transportation During transportation, hazardous materials must be protected against shock, accidental mixing with other materials, damage to containers, undue heat from the sun or other sources, and theft, which could allow the hazardous materials to come into contact with people who are unaware of the dangers. Specific recommendations for the particular material may be obtained from the Area Loss Prevention Office. The Saudi Aramco Chemical Engineering Response Team or Fire Protection Department also handles spills which occur during

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transportation. labeled. 4.6.2 Storage

A vehicle transporting hazardous chemicals must be suitably

The NFPA fire codes contain recommendations for safe storage of flammable liquids, compressed gases, and typical highly combustible or explosive solids. Precautions must be taken to avoid shock, undue heat, or unplanned mixing. There are some cases where separating walls or specified distances are required. Specific storage recommendations for hazardous materials contained in the Saudi Aramco Chemical Hazard Bulletins (CHBs) and manufacturer-provided Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS) should be followed. Incompatible chemicals should not be stored together. A list of hazardous materials shall be kept by the contractor indicating type and quantity of materials used in each case, its hazardous classification rating and the quantity disposed of. 4.6.3 Containers Hazardous materials must be stored in containers that are safe for the transportation and use of the material. Containers must be labeled with the appropriate hazardous materials label to indicate the actual contents. All safety factors must be observed when transferring material from one container to another and the receiving container must be labeled to correctly describe the contents. Empty containers previously used to hold hazardous material must be washed free of the material or destroyed. 4.6.4 Disposal (See GI 355.003 and 355.004) Hazardous/toxic waste is liquid, solid and semi-solid material, which, because of the quantity involved, the concentration, and/or the biological, physical, chemical or infectious characteristics, pose a hazard to human health and/or the environment if it is improperly managed. The following are some examples of waste materials which are considered hazardous/toxic, and are to be disposed of in accordance with established Saudi Aramco procedure. • • • • • • • • • • • Waste paints and related products Asbestos Resins Wood preservative products Insecticides and pesticides Flushing fluids / chemicals Compressed gases (acetylene, oxygen, chlorine) Flammable / combustible liquids (gasoline, diesel oil) Corrosive liquids (acid) Cleaning fluids Explosives

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• • • • •

Flammable solids Poisons and infectious chemicals Radioactive materials Magnetized materials Polychlorinated Biphenyl (PCB (electrical transformer oil)

The disposal of hazardous material must be conducted by the contractor/user (c/u). The latter is obligated to perform the following: Step 1: The hazardous material must be identified by composition or content. If this is not possible, prior to arranging for disposal of the material the contractor/user should notify the AM&RD (Al Midra and Reclamation Division). The material will be provided to AM & RD in containers clearly marked "Hazardous Material" only, with no other conflicting or confusing words. Step 2: The c/u must follow manufacturers or literature safety guidelines (Material Safety Data Sheets, MSDS, Chemical Hazard Bulletins, CHBs, etc.) in addition to the Saudi Aramco procedures contained here. In cases where procedures overlap, the c/u should use the more conservative methods of disposal. Hazard rating codes assigned to SAMS material indicate the degree of hazard. (See Figure V.2A.) Obtain advice as needed from the Hazardous Materials Advisor, MHED (Materials Handling Engineering Division) at telephone number 872-7419 or from individual specialist units listed below:

Specialist Unit Central Area Storehouse Dept. (CASD) Laboratories Dept. (LP) Loss Prevention Dept. (LPD) Process And Control Systems Dept. (P&CSD) District Medical And Support Services (DM&SS) Industrial And Environmental Affairs Dept. (I&EAD) Fire Protection Dept. (FPD) Step 3:

Telephone Number 872-7419 876-6725 873-8779 875-3131 877-8425 874-1402 874-3345

The hazardous waste material must be adequately sealed up in containers to prevent leakage and labeled to denote composition or content. Step 4: Request a safety inspection of the material by the Hazardous Material Advisor.

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Step 5: When a large quantity of hazardous material needs to be disposed of, inform the: a). Chemical Storage Segment, Material Disposal Unit, Reclamation Operations Section, AM&RD. b). Hazardous Materials Advisor, MHED. Step 6: Follow the directives of the Hazardous Materials Advisor. (See GI 355.003.) Step 7: Transport the hazardous material to Dhahran Reclamation Yard using own truck or request suitable vehicle from the Transportation Department by following their established procedure. Step 8: Contact Assistant Superintendent, Reclamation Operations Section (ROS), AM & RD before a large volume of hazardous waste material is to be delivered. This person may request that the material be delivered directly to Delivery Point Code (DPC), 280 Reclamation Chemicals Storage And Handling Facility located near Abqaiq GOSP 3. Note: See GI 355.004 for any deviation from this established procedure for the handling, storage and disposal of Polychlorinated Biyphenyls (PCBs).

4.7

Work on Equipment Which Has Contained Tetraethyl Lead (Organic Lead Compounds)
4.7.1 Introduction Tetraethyl lead (TEL) is an organic compound of metallic lead which is used to improve the octane rating of gasoline. This compound is highly poisonous. The hazard with tetraethyl lead is that, being a liquid it gives off vapors which can come into contact with the body by breathing or skin contact. Tetraethyl lead is very hazardous as its vapors can be inhaled, absorbed through the skin, or ingested through contaminated food or cigarettes. The best protection is to avoid any contact. To make it easier to detect spills of tetraethyl lead, it has been dyed a bright orange color.

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Tetraethyl lead, or sludges containing organic lead compounds, are likely to be found in the following places: 1. Wherever drums of the compound are transported, stored, or used. Leaking drums can contaminate ships' holds, trucks, and storage areas. Wherever leaded gasoline is blended, handled, or stored. In controlled disposal sites designated to receive organic-lead-containing materials. The sludge removed from leaded gasoline tanks is decontaminated by spreading and weathering prior to mixing with inert solids to reduce the total lead concentration to no more than 0.5% and transfer to a final burial site. Since tetraethyl lead is delivered dissolved in organic solvents, it also presents a fire hazard.

2. 3.

4.7.2

Precautions Tanks that have once contained leaded gasoline (TEL) are considered dangerous thereafter even though they may have been used in other service for years. Such tanks should be permanently marked on the manholes with a sign warning that the tank has contained leaded gasoline and must not be entered without special precautions. Sludge pits where lead-bearing sludge from the leaded gasoline tanks has been buried must be marked with permanent warning signs. Before entering any tank, an inquiry should be made as to the tank's previous service and a work permit obtained. Likewise, before marking excavations in or around refineries or gasoline storage depots, it is wise to determine whether leaded gasoline (TEL) sludge may be encountered. Work in cleaning, repairing, or dismantling tanks which have contained leaded gasoline requires special training and special precautions. The workers must be medically certified and periodically examined before and during the course of the work. Using regular monitoring of TEL workers, any overexposure to TEL should be reported to the Saudi Aramco proponent department, the Saudi Aramco Loss Prevention Department and the Industrial Hygiene Services. The Saudi Aramco Industrial Hygiene Services and the Loss Prevention Department should be notified when work is to be done in TEL tanks or in areas with TEL contaminated equipment.

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FIGURE V.1: IDENTIFICATION OF MATERIALS BY HAZARD S IGNAL DIMENSIONS AND ARRANGEMENT

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FIGURE V.2: EXPLANATION OF HAZARD RATING CODES

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FIGURE V.3: IDENTIFICATION OF HEALTH HAZARD, FLAMMABILITY AND REACTIVITY

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VI. Marine

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1.0

COFFERDAMS

A cofferdam is an enclosure constructed to exclude water from a work area during construction. Cofferdam construction ranges from simple dikes to complicated timber or steel structures. Cofferdams must satisfy two basic requirements: 1. They must be strong enough to withstand the forces caused by water, soil conditions, and floating debris. They should be as watertight as practicable, although some leakage, requiring pumping, must always be expected.

2.

The most common type of cofferdam encountered in Saudi Aramco is constructed from steel sheet piling. The piles must be driven to design and penetration specifications and must encounter the pre-specified driving resistance. The steel piling is generally braced by a system of horizontal wales and struts which are designed to resist external forces. INSTRUCTIONS AND STANDARDS Saudi Aramco Instructions and Standards: Schedule 'D': Part 19 Part 20 Saudi Aramco Safety, Health and Environmental Requirements Excavations Work Over Water

1.1

Design
All cofferdams in excess of 1.2 meters (4 feet) in depth must be designed by a qualified engineer. Any deviations from the design encountered in the actual construction of the cofferdam must have the approval of a qualified engineer.

1.2

Before Work Starts
Any cofferdam which is to be constructed in a navigable waterway or which would constitute an obstruction or hazard to the operation of small boats or pleasure crafts must be approved in advance by the Manager, Saudi Aramco Marine Department. The latter will be responsible for coordinating its approval with the approval of required Government agencies.

1.3

Construction
All cofferdam construction work must be performed in strict compliance with the design drawings and specifications. All work m be accomplished by qualified craftsmen in ust accordance with accepted trade practices. Any unexpected soil or hydrographic conditions encountered during the construction must be reported immediately to the design engineer for evaluation and a possible mo dification of the structure.

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1.3.1 If overtopping of the cofferdam by high waters is possible, means shall be provided for controlled flooding of the work area. 1.3.2 Emergency evacuation warning signals shall be provided and procedures developed. Notices shall be posted at the entrance to the job site, and throughout the area. 1.3.3 Walkways, ramps or bridges on cofferdams shall have at least two exit points. These shall be provided with standard guardrails.

1.4

Potential Hazards
The construction and the use of cofferdams have three primary hazards which merit special consideration. 1.4.1 Structural Collapse Cofferdam structures may collapse as a result of the imposition of unexpected structural loads or the failure of the soil inside the cofferdam structures as evidenced by an upward heave or "blow-out" of the bottom. Such failures often occur with little or no warning, therefore a means of rapid exit from the enclosed cofferdam structures must be provided for all workmen engaged in work inside the structures. 1.4.2 Overhead Loads Sump pumps, equipment, and machinery shall be mounted on a cantilevered platform outside of a cofferdam. This will eliminate overhead obstructions, which could present a hazard to the workmen engaged in construction within the confines of the cofferdam. 1.4.3 Dislodgment of Struts and Wales All internal supporting structures must be secured against accidental dislodgment. The use of locking devices on wedges will prevent their accidental removal and the resulting collapse of the structure.

1.5

Inspection
1.5.1 General inspection should be carried out daily or after any weather condition or incident which might affect the safety of the cofferdam.

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1.5.2 The security of all wedges should be carefully checked at the start of each shift. 1.5.3 Leaks can indicate a movement of the piles. Serious leaks should be reported at once to the engineer in charge of operations. 1.5.4 Pump intake fastenings and the pumping sump should be carefully checked at the start of each shift.

1.6

Leaks
1.6.1 Small leaks can be sealed by lead caulking in the clutches from the inside of the cofferdam. Minor leaks over a large area can be sealed by dropping light granular material into the water surrounding the cofferdam. The material will be sucked into the gap between the piles where it will form a seal. 1.6.2 Where large leaks are encountered which cannot be sealed as described above or there is an indication that the piling has moved, the cofferdam area shall be immediately evacuated of all personnel and the problem brought to the attention of the design engineer for correction.

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2.0 MARINE OPERATIONS
This section, Marine Operations, is only concerned with the transportation of material, equipment, and personnel to off-shore job sites. This is carried out through the Saudi Aramco Marine Department by using company-owned and/or contractors' crafts. INSTRUCTIONS AND STANDARDS Saudi Aramco General Instructions : GI 6.020. GI 1185.003. GI 1186.502. GI 1186.504. Personal Flotation Devices for Work Over, On or Near Water Death or Injury Aboard Seagoing Vessels Marine Craft Fueling, Tanajib or West Pier SAG Regulations and Practice as Applied to All Types of Marine Craft at the Port of Ras Tanura Collision & Damage By or To Marine Equipment or Craft Operating Practices for Harbor Tugs, Offshore Vessels and Launches, Including Safety Rules Operating Procedures for Barges Including Safety Rules Operating Procedures for Marine Oil Recovery and Storage Barge/Vessel, Including Safety Rules Marine Port Information and Regulations Navigation Warnings Requesting, Assigning and Dispatching Pollution Control Vessels, Tugs, Launches and Barges Whistle Signals for Use Between Tugs and Barges or Tugs and Self-Propelled Vessels When Berthing Rig/Barge Moving Safe Operation of Self-Propelled Jack-Up Barges

GI 1187.001. GI 1192.001.

GI 1192.002. GI 1192.502.

GI 1193.001. GI 1193.002. GI 1194.001.

GI 1196.001.

GI 1198.001. GI 1199.001.

2.1

Other Publications
US. Coast Guard - 257 International Maritime Organization - Safety of Life at Sea International Labor Office - Accident Prevention on Board Ship, at Sea, and in Port.

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2.2

General
All safety precautions that are applicable onshore apply and must be enforced while offshore, including the wearing of personal safety equipment. In addition, life vests must be worn while working on, over or near the water. Work over water may be either offshore or on a site connected to the shore. The hazards and the precautions for both situations are similar.

2.3

Behavior on Floating Craft
Personnel embarked on floating craft must obey the instructions of the person in charge of the vessel. In particular they must not obstruct his view or movements. They must travel in the passenger designated areas. They should not enter or climb on top of the pilot house and machinery space are similarly out of bounds. Personnel are expected to act in a responsible manner at all times. 2.3.1 Unexpected movements of the vessel even in good weather must be anticipated and guarded against. Personnel should keep away from the ship's side and make use of handrails at all times. 2.3.2 Life vests must be available for all personnel. Each person shall wear and know how to inflate a life vest (see Figure VI.1).

2.4

Preparation for Transportation by Sea
2.4.1 Loose and movable parts of material and equipment must be properly secured against movement. Such material and equipment must always be prepared as if for very rough weather. Sea conditions can change rapidly. Even with no wind, a swell can produce violent movement. Lashing must be adequate. Tank compartments being transported should be either empty or completely full. Tarpaulins or plastic coverings must be of adequate strength and well secured. 2.4.2 The Marine Department must be informed in advance so that they may prepare for the transportation of any hazardous cargo (acids, explosives gases, etc.) or cargoes with special characteristics (e.g., sensitive to water, delicate, or pilferage). Information on weights and measurements must be included for any shipment that requires a manifest (Saudi Aramco Form 9063). 2.4.3 Although the actual loading may be performed by another department, the Marine Department carries the ultimate responsibility for the safe loading and distribution of cargo on the floating craft under its jurisdiction.

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2.5

Tide and Sea Effects
During pile driving and general offshore work, allowance must be made for wave action and the rise and fall of the tide, especially when erecting stages and platforms. Tidal predictions and weather forecasts are not completely accurate so a generous safety margin must be allowed.

2.6

Care of Tools and Equipment
2.6.1 Protective coatings reduce the corrosive effects of salt water and salt-laden air on tools and equipment. Nuts, bolts, and threads should be covered with grease or a similar protective coating. 2.6.2 Electrical and radio equipment must not be left exposed. When not in use, they should be protected by being returned to their boxes or being covered. 2.6.3 Objects that are dropped from any height can cause injury or damage, and they may be impossible to recover. For this reason, small hand tools should be secured by lanyards when working over or near water.

2.7

Housekeeping
Because of the confined space frequently encountered in Marine Operations, housekeeping is even more important offshore than onshore. 2.7.1 Tools must not be scattered around. Any spilled grease or oil must be cleaned up. Fire hose and rope must be coiled or flaked down clear of passageways. Doors and drawers should be kept closed. 2.7.2 Rags, papers, cigarette butts, and scrap must be properly disposed of. Proper disposal does not mean throwing the unwanted items overboard, thus polluting the environment. Trash cans and ashtrays should be used.

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FIGURE VI.1: IF YOU WORK OVER, ON OR NEAR WATER

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3.0 DIVING OPERATIONS
Accidents involving divers and their equipment are generally serious, because diving operations are undertaken in an element unnatural to man. What would be considered to be a minor incident on land could cause crippling injury or even death in a diving operation. Due to the extreme hazards of this occupation, divers must rely on their training, experience, and initiative to avoid accidents. For this reason, the strictest compliance with regulations, standards, and instructions must be observed at all times in order that everything possible is done to minimize the possibility of an accident. INSTRUCTIONS AND STANDARDS Saudi Aramco General Instructions: GI 1197.001 Procedures and Safety Rules for Diving Operations (See Appendix G)

The US. Navy Diving Manual is to be used as the standard for all Saudi Aramco diving operations. US. Navy Diving Manual: NAVSHIPS 0994-001, March 1970 British Admiralty Diving Manual: B.R. 181, 1972 United Kingdom Statutory Instruments S.I. NO. 1229 Offshore Installations (Diving Operations) Regulations, 1981

Saudi Aramco Instructions and Standards Saudi Aramco Bottled Gas Manual TM 6.1 Medical Diving Emergencies (Technical Memorandum - Saudi Aramco Medical Services Organization {SAMSO})

3.1

Employment of Qualified Divers
All divers shall be at least twenty-one (21) years old. 3.1.1 Divers must be qualified and experienced in all aspects of underwater inspection, construction, repairs, and salvage works, including oxy-arc cutting, thermal lancing, and the use of pneumatic and hydraulic tools.

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3.1.2 Divers shall be fully conversant with the use and operation of US. Navy Decompression Tables, recompression chambers, and therapeutic decompression procedures. 3.1.3 Familiarity with the use of SCUBA, Hookah, and surface supplied helmets (Swindel, Aquadyne, Kirby-Morgan, etc.) and knowledge of their maintenance and repair is required. 3.1.4 Divers will be required to show evidence of their training and experience by providing certificates from a competent authority. 3.1.5 All divers must be fluent in both reading and writing the English language and be able to depict the results of an underwater inspection by the use of sketches. 3.1.6 Evidence of medical fitness in accordance with 3.4 must be produced at the prescribed intervals.

3.2

Diving Equipment
All equipment used in connection with diving and submarine operations shall be produced by a reputable manufacturer. They must be of good quality and constructed of sound material, in accordance with appropriate and accepted standards. Equipment should be able to operate efficiently in the prevailing high temperatures of the Arabian Gulf. 3.2.1 Compressors Compressors for supplying breathing air must be fitted with adequate filtration and purification devices. They must be able to provide the air at a rated pressure and capacity to cover the maximum depth required during the operation. 3.2.1.1 The air intake of compressors shall be remotely located with reference to any exhaust system in the area to prevent contaminants from entering the compressor intake. 3.2.1.2 All the safety devices and relief valves on high pressure compressors must be operating properly.

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3.2.1.3 Detergent lubricating oils or oils with viscosity less than SAE 30 must not be used. Care must be taken not to overfill. 3.2.1.4 Compressed air supplied for breathing shall be certified Compressed Gas Association grade D or better. 3.2.2 Reserve Air Supply A reserve supply of air must be provided, maintained, and immediately available in the event of a primary air supply failure, whether in the form of a standby compressor or high pressure cylinders (or volume tanks) on the surface. If the reserve is in the form of high pressure cylinders (or volume tanks), it should be of sufficient capacity to enable the diver or divers to reach the surface safely while carrying out any necessary decompression step on the way. Reserve supply for recompression chambers should be sufficient to allow required surface decompression to be carried out. 3.2.3 Bail-Out Equipment In case there might be a ruptured, cut, or irretrievably fouled hose, each diver should be equipped with "bail-out" equipment, either in the form of a "bail-out" cylinder, a diver's life vest, or a pneumo hose. 3.2.4 Maintenance All plant (including safety) and diving equipment must be regularly maintained. Correct records must be kept of this maintenance. 3.2.4.1 All SCUBA tanks, recompression chambers, volume tanks, high pressure cylinders, and storage vessels must be regularly checked and tested at the prescribed intervals in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions and Saudi Aramco regulations. 3.2.4.2 As indicated in the Saudi Aramco Bottled Gas Manual, air cylinders not in sea water use are to be inspected internally and hydrostatically tested, at intervals not to exceed five years. They should be appropriately stamped to denote this inspection. 3.2.4.3 Each item of plant and diving equipment should be regularly inspected by a competent person at periodic intervals, and after the equipment has been modified. The maximum period between inspections should be three months.

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3.2.4.4 All hoses used for carrying compressed air or other gases must be checked for wear and abrasion and subjected to test pressures at least once every three months. Hose, fittings and connections should be of the screw thread type and properly fitted to the hoses. Hoses used in oxygen breathing systems must be grease and oil free. 3.2.4.5 Any pressure gauge showin g an error of more than two and one half percent (2.5%) must be adjusted or replaced. 3.2.4.6 Communication systems must be checked for correct operation. Every wire must be checked for continuity and, if they are combined with the life line, for wear. 3.2.4.7 A supply of suitable protective clothing such as diving suits, coveralls, gloves, and hoods must be available at all times. Insulated gloves shall be provided to divers performing welding and burning operations. 3.2.4.8 Gas cylinders taken under water shall be hydrostatically tested, inspected and stamped every two years.

3.3

Safeguards
When divers are preparing to enter or leave the water, or are in the water, or diving operations are underway, the International Code Flag "A" ("I have a diver down, keep well clear of area and maintain a low speed.") must be flown. (See Figures VI.2 and VI.3.) Communications - A two-way voice communication system shall be used between: 1. Each surface-supplied air or mixed-gas diver and a dive team member at the dive location. Two-way communication system shall be available at the dive location to obtain emergency assistance.

2.

In addition, special lights and day marks for "vessels engaged in surveying or underwater operations" should be shown in accordance with Maritime Regulations (Figure VI.3).

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3.3.1 Any person involved in an activity which could be a hazard to divers in the vicinity, such as those in charge of submarine blasting or masters of vessels about to move, start propulsion engines, or operate pumps, must be forewarned. 3.3.2 Adequate arrangements must be made to provide a safe means of access to and egress from the water. It must be kept in mind that a diver may be unconscious as a result of an accident. 3.3.3 Proper surface support and other facilities for the safe conduct of diving operations must be provided. 3.3.4 In all cases of emergency, the diving supervisor, the foreman diver, or the person in charge of a diver or divers must be the sole arbiter as to action to be taken. All personnel, whether connected with the diving operation or not, should take instructions from him. 3.3.5 Safe Operation of Divers 3.3.5.1 Bottom time and decompression time will be controlled by the diving supervisor or person in charge of diving. 3.3.5.2 On all work requiring four divers or more, a diving supervisor shall be present to facilitate coordination between divers and the surface. 3.3.5.3 All diving operations requiring more than two divers (using air for breathing) in water of a depth greater than 30 meters (100 feet), require the presence of a diving supervisor. 3.3.6 At all times when a diver is in the water, a stand-by diver must be on deck with a stand-by rig, fully dressed and ready to dive. 3.3.7 No diver working in water 9 meters (30 feet) or less shall be required to work longer than a twelve (12) hour shift without having a proper rest except for emergencies.

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3.3.8 Repetitive diving should not be done as a routine. If the task necessitates the use of "repeats", efforts should be made to obtain additional divers. When this is impracticable, the tables must be strictly adhered to in order to avoid decompression sickness, which could require therapeutic treatment and could endanger the health of divers and delay operations. 3.3.9 Therapeutic decomp ression must take precedence over all other operational requirements. 3.3.9.1 Divers must remain in the vicinity of a recompression chamber for a period of twelve (12) hours after the last dive. 3.3.9.2 In the case of therapeutic decompression the period in 3.3.9.1 shall be extended to twenty-four (24) hours. 3.3.9.3 In mild cases of decompression sickness which have been treated under Tables 1, 1A, 2, 2A and 5 (US. Navy Diving Manual), a diver can be returned to work at the discretion of the diving supervisor. After treatment for a case of "bends" under Tables 3, 4, 6 and 6A, a diver will not be permitted to dive again until he has been examined and passed as fit by a physician. 3.3.9.4 Each diver will maintain a personal logbook. Entries shall include but are not limited to the following: • • • • • • • • • • • Diver's name. Name and address of the employer of divers. Date. Name of the Diving Supervisor. Name of the vessel, barge, or installation from which the diving operation is carried out. Maximum depth reached on each occasion. Time he spent under water on each occasion. Type of equipment used by the diver. Work carried out by him on each occasion. Details of decompression sickness or other illness/injury suffered by the diver. Any other factor relevant to health.

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• •

Each daily entry will be signed by the diver and also by the diving supervisor. Divers must retain their logbooks for a period of not less than two years from the date of the last entry in the logbook.

3.3.10

Recompression Chamber A recompression chamber must be on site during all diving operations in excess of 18.5 meters (60 feet). Whenever a recompression chamber is not available, only "no decompression" dives are permitted. 3.3.10.1 The maximum rate of ascent is 18.5 meters (60 feet) per minute in the case of air decompression and 7.6 meters (25 feet) per minute in the case of oxygen decompression. 3.3.10.2 Only necessary articles are allowed in the recompression chamber. No tobacco or any ignition source, including electrical shall be allowed in the chamber. Smoking shall never be permitted in the chamber whether under pressure or not. 3.3.10.3 The chamber shall be kept clean and dry. 3.3.10.4 Personnel in a chamber under pressure shall ensure that both they and all loose materials are kept clear of all atmosphere inlet and exhaust openings. The exhaust, which is under pressure, is especially dangerous because it subjects anything near it to a high suction pull capable of causing extreme bodily harm .

3.3.11

SCUBA Special Care The use of SCUBA equipment in water over 18 meters (60 feet) in depth should be restricted. 3.3.11.1 SCUBA equipment shall not be used to depths greater than 45 meters (150 feet). 3.3.11.2 SCUBA equipment should never be used for dives requiring decompression.

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3.3.11.3 In open water, SCUBA divers shall always be attached to a clearly visible float by a life line. In no case shall SCUBA divers be allowed to swim free. 3.3.11.4 In enclosed or restricted water such as beneath structures, either a lifeline or the "buddy" system must be used. There will be no untethered solo diving. 3.3.11.5 When using SCUBA equipment, divers will always wear an inflatable life jacket of the approved type. 3.3.11.6 No SCUBA diving should be carried out during darkness.

3.4

Physical Fitness
All divers must be physically fit for diving and have a certificate to this effect issued by a qualified medical practitioner: one who has experience and knowledge of the medical requirements for diving. 3.4.1 The medical certificate should state "Fit for Diving" and be not more than twelve months old. 3.4.2 Doctors carrying out medicals for divers should be aware of the importance of the condition of heart, lungs, chest, ears, nose, throat, and teeth. An EKG and chest Xray are mandatory on an annual basis, while a long bone X -ray should be performed every three years. 3.4.3 For British divers, a current British Diving Fitness Register is acceptable and, likewise, any recognized fitness register for other nationalities. 3.4.4 All divers should be trained in First Aid/CPR, and on all diving operations, there should be an approved First Aid Kit suitable for use under hyperbaric conditions on site as recommended in the US. Navy Diving Manual.

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3.5

Medical Diving Emergencies: Procedures and Responsibilities
Every incident/accident involving diving personnel shall be reported on Saudi Aramco Form 3208 with the responsible supervisor submitting a follow-up report on Saudi Aramco Form 681. Offshore emergency response procedures are given in Appendix B. Specific responsibilities are as follows: 3.5.1 Sports Divers All divers must have an experienced person in charge with good knowledge of decompression sickness. He has to know the following two diving emergencies numbers to call if requiring help: 678-1248 from 6 a.m. until 6 p.m. 7 days per week; and 378-3691 from 6 p.m. until 6 a.m. 7 days per week. He should state his exact location and follow the instructions given to him by the coordinator answering the number. 3.5.2 Commercial Divers The diving supervisor will immediately arrange recompression according to the appropriate table and report the incident to the coordinator manning the diving emergencies numbers. 3.5.3 Coordinator, Diving Emergencies The coordinator, on call at either of the above numbers, will receive the information on diving medical emergencies. In the case of sports divers, he will direct them to the nearest available recompression chamber and alert its operator. He shall also inform the duty diving medical consultant who can be at the Saudi Aramco Preventive Medicine Services Division on 877-8916 (after work hours on 878-1697 or 878-0890). In commercial diving incidents, the coordinator may elect to proceed with treatment using the appropriate table without notifying the diving medical team in cases of minor decompression sickness. In all type II bends and possible gas embolism cases, the duty diving medical consultant shall be notified immediately. He shall send a monthly report of all incidents involving therapeutic decompression to the senior Occupational Medicine specialist. 3.5.4 Diving Medical Team This will come under the jurisdiction of the director of Preventive Medicine Services and will be a multi-disciplinary group headed by the senior Occupational Medicine specialist. It will be comprised of a group of physicians with an interest and training in hyperbaric medicine who shall rotate as duty diving medical consultants. Nurses with special training will also be integrated in this group which shall constantly keep abreast with current practices. The diving medical team will provide this service to the Marine Department.

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3.5.5

Marine Department The Marine Department is responsible for the provision, maintenance, and manning of the recompression chambers.

3.6

Personnel Transfer at Sea
The following is to be used as guidelines for the transfer of persons at sea from vessel to vessel or from vessel to platform (or structure). A. Personal Flotation Devices. These references are pertinent items from Loss Prevention Department GI 6.020 - Personal Flotation Devices for Work Over, On or Near Water. Requirements. 3.1. Wearing of personal flotation devices are required as follows: 3.1.7 When working or riding on the deck of a marine vessel or craft during rough seas at the discretion of the person in charge of the vessel or craft. 3.1.11 When transferring to or from any water craft or to or from one water craft to another. 3.1.17 At any time when deemed necessary by the boat skipper, ship captain, supervisor, or the person in charge of the marine vessel, installation or craft. 4.1.3 Marine craft skippers, ship captains and aircraft pilots shall enforce the wearing of personal flotation devices in their vessels or aircraft. Failure of an employee to heed the instructions given by the person in charge of the marine craft or aircraft shall require the passenger to be removed from the craft with disciplinary action to follow by the employee's department. 4.1.4 Supervisors or persons in charge of personnel in facilities, installations, or work activities shall be responsible for having their personnel follow the requirements regarding the wearing of personal flotation devices.

3.

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4.2. Contractors shall provide (fully functional, no defect) personal flotation devices for each of their personnel. They shall also provide their personnel with the necessary instructions or training on the proper way of wearing personal flotation devices. The proponent Saudi Aramco organization shall be responsible for ensuring that contractors comply with the applicable requirements of this GI 6.020. B. Saudi Arab and contractor vessel crews shall also be issued with proper working uniforms and personal protective equipment such as shoes, gloves, glasses and hard hats. The Marine Department expects all Saudi Aramco and contractor personnel working around marine facilities to strictly adhere to Company safety rules and regulations.

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FIGURE VI.2: INTERNATIONAL CODE FLAG "A"

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Appendix A

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INDEX TO APPENDIX A
This Appendix contains the following information: * * * * * Project Management And Contractor's Safety Competition Site Registration Form; Contractor Safety Competition, Rules Of Competition; Contractor's Competition Job Safety Evaluation; Saudi Aramco Safety, Health and Environmental Requirements; Hazard Identification Plan (H.I.P.).

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A.1

PROJECT MANAGEMENT AND CONTRACTOR'S SAFETY COMPETITION SITE REGISTRATION FORM
Date: ____________________________

To: Saudi Aramco Loss Prevention Department

Name Of Contractor:

Contractor's Address:

Contractor's Phone Number:

Job Description:

Job Number:

Starting Date: Estimated Completion Date:

B.I. Number:

Peak Number Of Employees:

Contractor Site Representative:

Saudi Aramco Site (PMT) Engineer:

Project Mgmt. Department:

Telephone Number:

Telephone Number:

Org. Code:

Name Of Contractor's Safety Representative:

Contractor's Site Phone Number:

Site Location:

Signed:____________________________________________________(Contractor's Representative) Job Title:__________________________________________________ Company:__________________________________________________ Date:_______________________________________________________ Saudi Aramco Department:____________________________________________________ Proponent

This form is to be completed and sent to the local Saudi Aramco Loss Prevention Office with a copy to the designated senior Project Engineer, who is a member of the proponent Project Management Team (PMT). Signed:________________________________________ Saudi Aramco Project Manager

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A.2

CONTRACTOR SAFETY COMPETITION, RULES OF COMPETITION
CONTRACTOR SAFETY COMPETITION JOB SAFETY EVALUATION RULES OF COMPETITION 1. The competition shall be run over a six-month period (January to June and July to December) and shall be assessed according to the requirements of Schedule 'D' of the contract documents. A contractor on a Budget Item (BI) who meets the following criteria shall be registered in the competition by the responsible Proponent (PMT). a. b. 3. Contractor and related sub-contractor exceed 50 for the entire six month period. Estimated completion time exceeds the competition time period.

2.

An unscheduled site inspection will be carried out by the Loss Prevention Department once before the 25th day of every even month. A contractor shall have a minimum of three ratings within the six month period. The Saudi Aramco Loss Prevention representative will report to the site office before he starts his inspection. Representatives of Project Management and the contractor shall be invited to accompany the Loss Prevention representative during the inspection. If it is inconvenient for a member of the Project Management Team or contractor's personnel to accompany the Loss Prevention representative during the inspection, the Loss Prevention representative will conduct the inspection alone - awarding appropriate scores. These scores shall be final. If during the inspection there is a difference of opinion over the points awarded, then the Loss Prevention representative will make the final decision. The Saudi Aramco Project Management Team shall receive a copy of the inspection sheet, and they should distribute it to the appropriate contractor. Remedial steps shall be taken to rectify faults and improve the score rating. At the end of the competition, a copy of the six-month summary sheet will be provided to any contractor.

4.

5. a. b. c. d. A contractor working on one BI at one location shall be evaluated, scored and ranked separately. A contractor working on more than one BI shall have an entry in the competition for each BI. A contractor working on the same BI at separate sites shall be evaluated by site but the final score will be averaged. Multiple contractors working on the same BI shall be entered, evaluated, scored and ranked separately. (This also applies to consortium partners provided they meet requirements in 2 above.)

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e.

For those rare cases where there are multiple sites and multiple contractors on a BI, each site under the BI will be scored separately but averaged with all sites for that BI by contractor.

Exceptions to the above guidelines shall be reviewed by Project Management Team and Loss Prevention during initial registrations. 6. Following each inspection by the Loss Prevention representative, the original copy of the form SA-6710 shall be submitted to the superintendent, Central Area Loss Prevention Division, Building 3121, Room 113, Dhahran, not later than the 25th day of each even month. In cases of holidays or rescheduled days off, the first work day after the 25th is acceptable. Any contractor who experiences a job related fatality, or serious incident that results in the hospitalization of five or more employees, and fire resulting in SR 10,000 worth of damage on any one of their sites within the competition period, will cease to be eligible for an award. Should a registered contractor not retain an average of 50 or more employees for the entire competition period, they will be dropped from the competition. Any item of concern not specifically covered on the Evaluation Form A-6710, shall be reflected in column #18 under Special Items. Should any contractor find he has completed the project before the end of the competition period due to meritorious performance or reasons beyond his control, then he will still be eligible to compete in the final assessment. Should it be found that the contractor has not entered into the required logs details which at a later date are determined to have occurred, e.g. restricted duty, lost work day cases, accidents, fires, etc., then he would be deemed to have broken the rules and forfeit the right to be included in the awards for the duration of that competition for which he was eligible. Every hazard report Saudi Aramco Form 3744 issued and not corrected within 24 hours, a penalty of 500 points shall be deducted from the total score. Should a contractor incur a second hazard report, disqualification for the rest of the competition period shall result. Violations noted during an initial inspection which have not been corrected by the next general and/or follow-up inspection shall be deemed a repeat violation and a "0" score will be given for the entire section under consideration.

7.

8.

9.

10.

11.

12.

13.

14.

SCORING: Where a section is inapplicable to a particular site, e.g. no scaffolding, cranes, etc., then that section will OK from the possible percentage score.

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POINT ASSESSMENT: Points will be assessed based on the gravity/severity of violations encountered and will range from 0 to 100. Points can be given from 0 to 100, depending on the judgment of the Loss Prevention Department representative. OVERALL PERFORMANCE RATING: Unsatisfactory= Fair= Good= Excellent= 0 - 65 66 - 80 81 - 95 96 - 100

Overall percentage performance will be calculated as follows: Points Scored x 100 = Contractor Rating: ___________ Points Possible Every endeavor will be made to provide an accurate assessment at each inspection. Any questions that may arise concerning this job safety evaluation may be submitted to the proponent department for resolution. Any contractor who persistently returns poor scores or violates the competition rules may be subject to corrective action by the proponent department. Please Note: For more information on the Contractor Safety Competition, and for the current competition rules, please contact your Area Loss Prevention Office.

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FIGURE A.1: CONTRACTOR'S COMPETITION J OB S AFETY EVALUATION

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FIGURE A.1: CONTRACTOR'S COMPETITION J OB S AFETY EVALUATION C ONTINUED.

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A.3

SAUDI ARAMCO SAFETY, HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENTAL REQUIREMENTS
Compliance With Safety Rules - Schedule 'D' CONTRACTOR shall at all times comply with, and ensure that its employees, agents and subcontractors comply with, applicable Saudi Arab Government Safety Regulations and all SAUDI ARAMCO Safety and Loss Prevention rules and regulations. Specifically, CONTRACTOR shall comply with the provisions of the SAUDI ARAMCO Construction Safety Manual and SAUDI ARAMCO's publication entitled "Loss Prevention Requirements for Contractors", Paragraphs 5 through 27 of this Schedule (which supplement but do not limit the requirements of the Construction Safety Manual), and such other related requirements; specifications and standards as are made known to CONTRACTOR by SAUDI ARAMCO. CONTRACTOR may request copies of all applicable rules and regulations from SAUDI ARAMCO's Loss Prevention Department. CONTRACTOR shall also take, or cause to be taken, any additional measures which Company Representative may direct to protect against injury to or death of any person or damage to or loss of any property during CONTRACTOR's performance of the work. CONTRACTOR shall maintain the SAUDI ARAMCO Construction Safety Manual and applicable SAUDI ARAMCO GIs at the WORK Site.

1.

2.

Deviations From Safety Rules Any deviation by CONTRACTOR from SAUDI ARAMCO's Loss Prevention rules and regulations must be approved in writing in advance by Company Representative.

3.

Failure To Comply Should CONTRACTOR fail to comply with the requirements of this Schedule 'D', SAUDI ARAMCO shall notify CONTRACTOR in writing. CONTRACTOR shall, upon being advised of its noncompliance, immediately take all corrective action required to comply. Such corrective action shall, unless provided otherwise in this Contract, be taken at CONTRACTOR's expense. If CONTRACTOR fails to take such corrective action promptly, Company Representative may direct CONTRACTOR to suspend all or part of the WORK pursuant to Schedule "A" until satisfactory corrective action has been taken. Costs incurred by CONTRACTOR as a result of such WORK suspension shall be for CONTRACTOR's account and any resultant CONTRACTOR performance delays shall not be deemed excusable here-under.

4.

Saudi Aramco Assistance CONTRACTOR may request assistance from SAUDI ARAMCO with respect to the implementation of its Loss Prevention requirements. Company Representative, or such party or parties designated by him, will assist CONTRACTOR by explaining good safety practices, pointing out unsafe WORK Site conditions, and by applying his/their experience and judgment in order to assist CONTRACTOR in improving WORK safety. It is understood, however, that rendition of such assistance by SAUDI ARAMCO will in no way relieve CONTRACTOR of its responsibilities as set forth in this Schedule 'D'.

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5.

Loss Prevention Program CONTRACTOR shall prepare and submit a Loss PREVENTION Program to Company Representative, for SAUDI ARAMCO's approval, not later than fifteen (15) working days following the execution of this Contract. CONTRACTOR shall ensure full implementation of the Program. CONTRACTOR shall appoint a qualified full-time Safety Supervisor approved by SAUDI ARAMCO, to coordinate the Program. The name and address of the Safety Supervisor shall be submitted to Company Representative no later than the Program's submission: The Program shall outline specific essential measures to be taken by CONTRACTOR to prevent injuries to persons and damage to property and to ensure compliance with this Schedule 'D'. The Program shall be organized and implemented by each craft or crew supervisor. It shall include a specific plan to hold a ten minute safety discussion organized and implemented by each craft or crew supervisor on at least one day in each working week.

6.

Work Permits CONTRACTOR shall obtain a work permit (SAUDI ARAMCO Form 924) each shift for any WORK to be carried out during such shift in any SAUDI ARAMCO specified "Restricted Area". It shall be the CONTRACTOR's responsibility to ascertain, in advance, whether the WORK area is designated a Restricted Area. Company Representative shall give guidance on Restricted Area locations. All work permit procedures shall be carried out by CONTRACTOR in accordance with SAUDI ARAMCO GI 2.100 (Work Permits) and GI 6.012 (Isolation, Lockout and Use of Hold Tags), which by this reference is made part of this Contract.

7.

Welding And Cutting Equipment All welding and c utting equipment shall be of a SAUDI ARAMCO approved type and maintained in good condition.

8.

Personal Protective Equipment CONTRACTOR shall, as a minimum, provide, maintain and enforce the use of the items of personal protective equipment listed in SAUDI ARAMCO's Construction Safety Manual, other applicable GIs and Operator Instruction Manuals (OIMs).

9.

Tools And Portable Power Tools CONTRACTOR shall ensure that all tools provided by CONTRACTOR are of the best quality with proper safeguards and are suitable for the use intended. Electrical hand tools shall be properly grounded or be of the double insulated type. All tools shall be free from defects and maintained in good condition. Saudi Aramco will reject tools which are found to be defective.

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10.

Cartridge Operated Tools Cartridge operated tools shall be used only with the prior written approval of Company Representative. Furthermore, CONTRACTOR shall ensure that only SAUDI ARAMCO approved tools shall be used and that they shall be maintained in good condition in compliance with the SAUDI ARAMCO Construction Safety Manual.

11.

Ladders CONTRACTOR shall ensure that only metal or timber ladders of SAUDI ARAMCO approved type are provided and used for ingress to and egress from WORK places where other means of ingress and egress are not available.

12.

Scaffolding CONTRACTOR shall provide and cause to be used scaffolding, platforms or temporary floors for all WORK which cannot be done safely from the ground, from a ladder or from a boatswain's chair. All scaffolding shall be constructed of SAUDI ARAMCO approved metal components and erected to comply with the requirements of the SAUDI ARAMCO Construction Safety Manual.

13.

Electrical Installations And Equipment All material and equipment used in temporary electrical installations shall be of SAUDI ARAMCO approved type and maintained in good condition. CONTRACTOR shall ensure that all 120 volt single phase 15 and 20 ampere receptacle outlets which are not a part of the permanent wiring of any building or structure shall have ground fault circuit interrupters for personal protection.

14.

Cranes And Rigging Equipment CONTRACTOR shall ensure that all lifting appliances and every part thereof, including all working gear, and all other plant or equipment for anchoring or fixing such appliances shall be of good mechanical construction, sound material, adequate strength and free from defect and are properly inspected and maintained. All chains, hooks, slings, shackles and other equipment used for raising or lowering on a lifting appliance shall be of a SAUDI ARAMCO approved type and maintained in good condition. All mobile heavy equipment and crane operators must possess a valid Kingdom of Saudi Arabia heavy equipment operator's license and be certified by SAUDI ARAMCO to operate such equipment (GI 7.025). All cranes and lifting equipment must be inspected and certified by SAUDI ARAMCO before being permitted to operate on SAUDI ARAMCO property (GI. 7.030). Certified riggers shall be provided (GI. 7.030).

15.

Mechanical Equipment CONTRACTOR shall ensure that all mechanical equipment provided is of a SAUDI ARAMCO approved type and maintained in good condition.

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All moving parts of any equipment shall be securely guarded so as to prevent access to the moving parts by persons working on or passing through the WORK Site. 16. Saudi Aramco Plant Operations CONTRACTOR shall ensure that CONTRACTOR's personnel and the personnel of its subcontractors do not open or close any valves or electrical switches, or operate any other piece of SAUDI ARAMCO plant without the prior approval of SAUDI ARAMCO and then only under the direct supervision of the supervising operator or plant foreman. 17. Transportation CONTRACTOR shall ensure that passengers shall travel only in vehicles that are provided with SAUDI ARAMCO approved passenger seats. This requirement shall apply while traveling to and from the WORK Site and during travel on the WORK Site. Seat belts shall be installed and used in all vehicles carrying personnel (except in the case of buses where seat belts are mandatory only for the driver). 18. Injury And Damage Reporting CONTRACTOR shall ensure that an immediate oral report is made to Company Representative in the case of all: • • • • • • Fatal injuries; Injuries requiring medical attention which result in lost time; Damage over SR 10,000 to CONTRACTOR's plant or equipment; Damage, in any amount, to SAUDI ARAMCO's equipment or property; Fire; Damage and near misses to cranes and heavy equipment (GI. 7.026).

For accidents involving CONTRACTOR employee fatalities, serious injury to five or more CONTRACTOR employees, or damage to SAUDI ARAMCO equipment or property, a written report shall be submitted promptly to Company Representative. In addition, SAUDI ARAMCO may convene an engineering review or investigation committee in accordance with the requirements of GI 6.001 and GI 6.003.. CONTRACTOR shall maintain, in a format approved by Company Representative, a current record showing all: • • • • • • WORK injuries Fires Incidents of property damage over SR10,000 Motor vehicle collisions Incidents involving damage to SAUDI ARAMCO equipment and property Damage and near misses to cranes and heavy equipment (GI 7.026)

This record shall be available for inspection at all reasonable times and shall be submitted to SAUDI ARAMCO on request.

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19.

Excavations CONTRACTOR shall ensure that any excavation work carried out during the course of the WORK is done according to the requirements of SAUDI ARAMCO GI 1021.010 and OIM. 1.108 which are by this reference made part of this Contract.

20.

Work Over Or Adjacent To Water Adequate lifesaving and rescue equipment shall be provided by CONTRACTOR on every seagoing vessel, and at every work station where WORK is being carried out over or adjacent to water. Life vests shall be worn by CONTRACTOR's personnel when working over water as prescribed in SAUDI ARAMCO GI 6.020, which by this reference is made part of this Contract.

21.

Fire Prevention CONTRACTOR shall provide and maintain in good working order adequate fire fighting equipment. All CONTRACTOR's personnel shall be properly trained in the use of such equipment. Store yards shall be laid out in accordance with SAUDI ARAMCO Standards (SAES -B-7A, SAES -B-7C) and NFPA 231 A with respect to spacing of rows, fire lanes and compatibility of materials.

22.

Formwork CONTRACTOR shall ensure that all formwork supports are constructed to SAUDI ARAMCO approved standards. As far as practicable, steel units shall be used. Where the WORK requires a timber supporting structure, the timber shall be of suitable quality and of adequate strength. CONTRACTOR shall obtain prior written approval from Comp any Representative before any timber supporting structure is erected. CONTRACTOR shall ensure that prior to any concrete being poured into any supported formwork structure, approval is obtained from Company Representative.

23.

Ionizing Radiation CONTRACTOR shall ensure that radioactive sources shall be used in compliance with the "General Rules and Regulations for the Use and Handling of Radioactivity and Radioisotopes" as promulgated by the Saudi Arabian Atomic Energy Department and with prior written approval of SAUDI ARAMCO. Where the WORK requires the use of ionizing radiation either by the CONTRACTOR or by some other organization approved by SAUDI ARAMCO, CONTRACTOR shall ensure that all employees are made aware of the precautions to be taken.

24.

First-Aid Facilities The CONTRACTOR shall provide and maintain first-aid facilities at the WORK Site in accordance with Articles 134 and 135 of the Saudi Labor Laws. When a CONTRACTOR employs 50 or more workmen at a WORK Site the CONTRACTOR shall provide a

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qualified nurse and a dedicated emergency vehicle (ambulance), properly supplied and marked, to transport injured personnel to the nearest health care facility. 25. Handling, Transportation And Disposal Of Hazardous Materials And Waste 25.1 When a CONTRACTOR, in the course of performing his obligations under the Contract, handles hazardous materials, the CONTRACTOR shall ensure that the handling of such materials is performed in accordance with currently accepted industry practices for the handling of such material. CONTRACTOR shall ensure that in handling of hazardous materials, especially liquids, such material is properly containerized and labeled in accordance with SAUDI ARAMCO GI 355.001. 25.2 Subject to any specific requirements in Schedule "B", CONTRACTOR shall include in its Loss Prevention Program its procedure for the disposal of solid and liquid wastes. The procedure shall detail specific locations for the disposal of each type of waste (construction, chemical, sludge, sanitary, scrap and sewage) and shall also identify the steps to be taken to treat the wastes or otherwise prevent them from polluting the ground water or the sea or from becoming a public nuisance. SAUDI ARAMCO shall approve such procedure before disposal of any waste by CONTRACTOR. 25.3 In addition to the requirements of sub-paragraph 25.2 above, where the CONTRACTOR is required to dispose of wastes determined to be hazardous, the CONTRACTOR shall: 25.3.1 Follow Saudi Arab Government regulations in disposing of hazardous waste materials. CONTRACTOR must provide SAUDI ARAMCO proof that the hazardous wastes have been properly disposed of at a licensed hazardous waste disposal facility. 25.3.2 CONTRACTOR shall also provide SAUDI ARAMCO proof of an established land treatment/disposal program which is designed to ensure that hazardous constituents placed in or on the treatment/disposal zone are degraded, transformed or immobilized within the treatment zone to prevent migration to ground and/or surface waters. The CONTRACTOR shall submit this program to SAUDI ARAMCO for approval prior to the disposal of any hazardous material by the CONTRACTOR.

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26.

Explosives CONTRACTOR shall promptly advise Company Representative of any requirements for explosives and only use such explosives after the written approval of Company Representative. Contractor shall comply with the general rules and requirements for the handling and use of explosives issued by the Ministry of the Interior and all Saudi Aramco requirements per the Saudi Aramco Construction Safety Manual for the storage, transportation and use of explosives.

27.

Sandblasting CONTRACTOR shall comply with SAUDI ARAMCO GI 6.021 and Construction Safety Manual requirements on sandblasting.

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A.4

HAZARD IDENTIFICATION PLAN (HIP)

INTRODUCTION In reviewing the safety requirements for our design and construction activities (i.e. new, modified or rebuilt plants or facilities), it is difficult for even the most experienced engineer and/or contractor to identify all the potential safety hazards that may be encountered unless a systematic potential-hazard review is conducted as a part of a Hazard Identification Plan (HIP). The attached Hazard Identification Plan (HIP) provides the method for conducting such a review. The hazards identified are classified as A, B or C according to their degree of potential human impact considering severity and probability (i.e. from most severe and probable to least severe and probable) during the initial design phase. This allows for a change in the methodology or operating procedure in the direction of reducing the risk associated with the hazard to an acceptable level, or eliminating it altogether.

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HAZARD IDENTIFICATION PLAN: Brief description of work to be accomplished. I. Conduct Hazards Identification Review. (To include on-site tour) Record hazards identified on location map. II. List Potential Hazards • • • • Each hazard will be classified A, B, or C. Statement of corrective action to be taken. Hazard areas identified on a location map and color coded. Contractor will submit this list to Saudi Aramco representative.

Consideration will be given to the following potential hazards: • • • • • • III. Potential hazards to P.M.T. and contractor personnel. Potential hazards to the general public. Incompatible interface with existing plants, facilities, procedures, regulations, engineering specifications, ground condition, etc. Potential hazards that may be encountered from outside sources. Hazardous materials identification/handling/storage. Potential fire / electrical hazards.

Hazard Classification Once the hazards are identified, they are classified as Class A, B, or C. • Class "A" Hazards: A condition or practice likely to cause permanent disability, loss of life or body part and/or extensive loss of structure, equipment or material. • Class "B" Hazards: A condition or practice likely to cause serious injury or illness (resulting in temporary disability) or property damage that is disruptive, but less severe than Class "A". • Class "C" Hazards: A condition or practice likely to cause minor (non-disabling) injury or illness or non-disruptive property damage.

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IV.

Corrective Action List all hazards identified in the HIP outline, and determine what corrective action should be taken. Example: "A" Hazards Overhead electrical power lines over building site • • Electrical power rating, (KV) Show power lines on location map.

Corrective Action Example: "A" Hazard. "Overhead Power Lines" Corrective Action: • • Obtain work permit before starting any work under or near electrical power lines. No activity in area under power line until power lines have been disconnected and/or relocated.

Following are examples of typical hazards that can be encountered: 1) Above Ground Potential Hazards • • • • • • • • • • 2) Overhead power lines, list KV rating Bridges, by-passes Micro wave / communication towers Houses Traffic flow Facilities close-by Aircraft flight path Trees, poles High cliffs / dangerous overhangs Fuel / chemical / pressure vessels and systems

Ground Level Potential Hazards • • • • • • • • • • • • Electrical wires Roadways Ditches High water table Tie-downs Obstruction Unstable soil Fences/walls Traffic flow Guide wires Nearby buildings, schools, houses Possible flood or wash out areas

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• • 3)

Adverse weather conditions Hazards from nearby plants or operations, etc.

Underground Potential Hazards • • • • • • • • Buried utilities High water table Building foundations Underground water waste Unstable soil Chemical / trash dump area Voids in the earth (caves) Underground fuel / chemical / pressure systems and vessels

4)

Interface Potential Hazards • • • • • • • • • • • • Existing emergency evacuation plans Emergency communication system Traffic flow Special personnel Protective equipment requirements Hazardous waste disposal Hazards from other outside operations Escape routes Evacuation alarms Access control Flammable liquid / chemical / pressure vessel storage Gas release into proposed area

5)

Off-Shore Potential Hazards • • • High wind / sea conditions Night time operations Inclement weather conditions • Fog • Rain • Lightning Marine vessels and materials adrift Electrical hazards

• •

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Appendix B: Emergency/Disaster Planning And Response

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B.1

SEARCH AND RESCUE PROCEDURES

This Appendix outlines Saudi Aramco search and rescue procedures for on- and off-shore facilities. Included in this appendix are the following: • • • Control of Remote Area Travel And Search And Rescue Procedures (GI 6.025); Offshore Emergency Response; Fire and Other Serious Emergency Response Procedures (Supplement No. 1-503-1).

Any further questions on search and rescue procedures should be forwarded to your area Loss Prevention Department office or the Saudi Aramco contract proponent. Effective emergency planning requires that employees be familiar with emergency procedures before a crisis. It is the responsibility of management to ensure that all employees are familiar with the proper response to fire and other serious emergencies.

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B.2

EMERGENCY/DISASTER PLANNING AND RESPONSE

It is the responsibility of every contractor employee to become familiar with emergency response procedures for both offshore and onshore operating facilities. The following Operating Instructions Manuals (OIMs) give facility-specific emergency response guidance/procedures: Saudi Aramco Operating Instruction Manual (OIM): OI 1.501 OI 1.501-1 OI 1.501-2 OI 1.501-3 OI 1.502 OI 1.503 OI 1.503-1 OI 1.503-2 OI 1.503-3 OI 1.503-4 OI 1.503-5 OI 1.527 OI 10.011 Overall Disaster Control Procedure - Safaniya/Tanajib Area Tanajib Disaster Control Center Commander Safaniya Support Personnel Assignment Disaster Control Command Center - Tanajib Personnel Assignment Onshore Control Unit - Safaniya Producing Offshore Disaster Control Plan - Safaniya Producing Offshore Emergency Response Offshore Emergencies Only Safaniya Offshore Jack-Up Test Barge/Well Platform Disaster Control Plan Safaniya Offshore - Offshore Casualty Evacuation Personnel Accountability Offshore Facilities Safety Zones and Safety of Navigation Around Offshore Installation Work Around Offshore Producing Facilities

General guidelines for preparing emergency response plans can be found in the following Saudi Aramco Loss Prevention Department publication: GI 70.500 Disaster Contingency Plan, Dhahran Area

Guidelines for Preparing Emergency Response Plans, October 1989 Other references include: Saudi Aramco Corporate Loss Prevention Manual (CLPM) Mobil Oil Corporation - Guidelines for Emergency Response and Disaster Contingency Planning for Saudi Aramco, May 1991

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The potential for emergencies and disasters exists at all construction sites and facilities and their associated costs can be devastating in terms of employee casualties, business interruption, loss of capital investment, etc. These events cannot be avoided but the contractor can reduce their frequency of occurrence and severity of damage with effective preparation/planning. This can be accomplished by developing emergency response plans that address immediate concerns within the contractor's operations and which also interface, as required, with emergency response procedures developed by Saudi Aramco organizations. The following guidelines (B 3.1 and B 3.3 and Figures) are extracted from the publication "Guidelines For Preparing Emergency Response Plans". These are generally used by Saudi Aramco operations as a framework for plan development. Contractors should refer to these guidelines for developing their own plans as appropriate, paying particular attention to the need for interfacing with local Saudi Aramco emergency planning procedures. Contractor's plans will need to be tailored to their specific operations and resources and the nature of their work with Saudi Aramco.

B.2.1

General Provisions
1. The purpose of the emergency plan is to provide guidance on the following: • • • • 2. A facility/site emergency response organization's structure and responsibilities Development of credible emergency/disaster scenarios and their consequences Establishment of emergency control resources (human, equipment, etc.) and procedures Emergency response training and drills

3. 4. 5.

Ensure that the emergency plan with the latest issue date is being used and it incorporates all amendments to date. It must have provision for any future amendments as addendum or reissues. The emergency reporting instructions must be provided in the front of the plan. The emergency telephone numbers must be provided in the front of the plan. The disaster preparedness policy must be provided in the front of the plan.

B.2.2

Definitions
1. Emergency: An emergency is an abnormal incident posing a threat to the safety of workers, residents, the environment or property at a facility or site and which can be brought under control using the resources and procedures for emergency response in place for the facility or site. 2. Disaster: A disaster is an emergency which poses a more serious threat to the safety of workers, residents, the environment or property at a facility or site and which cannot be brought under control using the resources and procedures for emergency response in place for the facility or site. Whether an emergency becomes a disaster depends on the following: • • the type of facility; the hazards of the facility operations;

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• • • 3.

the proximity of neighboring communities or other facilities; the capabilities of emergency personnel; and mutual aid capabilities of outside agencies.

Emergency Planning: This involves the development of a specific plan which details actions to be taken by trained personnel during an emergency in an effort to efficiently control it and minimize its net negative impact on workers, residents, the environment or property at a facility or site. This type of planning also extends to developing emergency control strategies and instituting training and drills for all facility personnel.

4.

Disaster Command Center (DCC): The location where the Emergency Manager and support staff assemble to respond to an emergency. It is a centralized location for monitoring the facility response and also serves as a command center for coordinating all communications, including the allocation and distribution of information. (This will also remain an onshore centralized location for an offshore emergency response episode.) During an offshore search and rescue (SAR) operation, this will become the SAR control center. A designated helicopter pilot will report to SAR control center to act as a search coordinator. Staffing from pertinent technical and support groups assures accessibility to all required resources for an overall effective emergency response.

5.

Disaster Command Post (DCP): A designated safe location near the emergency site from which the Incident Commander directs emergency control efforts. He directs operations and coordinates fire fighting, rescue and medical treatment activities during the emergency episode. At some onshore facilities, the DCP is a specially equipped vehicle outfitted with facility maps, communication equipment and support information similar to a DCC. This equipment provides the means for contact with the DCC and for field coordination. At offshore facilities, the DCP would be a safe location designated by the Incident Commander which should be equipped with a telephone, radio communication and personal protective/identification equipment, at a minimum.

6.

Table Top Exercise: This is a disaster management simulation where key personnel face a hypothetical disaster situation developed by a skilled moderator. Weaknesses are identified by evaluating the results of the exercise and corrected by revising the plan.

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7.

Planning Committee: A planning committee is a body comprising of members from key functional groups within the organization. This is set up to develop an emergency plan using the broad expertise of its members.

8.

Planning Coordinator: An individual who is qualified to develop an emergency plan to direct its development through a planning committee. This individual is required to process great depth of knowledge of emergency response and disaster control practices and procedures, and manpower organizational capabilities for his facility or site. He can review and use Saudi Aramco approved emergency plans from other similar facilities or sites in the development or modification of his facility/site plan.

9.

Emergency/Disaster Response Organization: The Emergency/Disaster Response Organization is a structured working group whose function is to control an emergency or disaster. The structure of this group is typified in Figure B.1. The organization is basically compris ed of the following positions with their delegated responsibilities. A. Key Positions (a) Emergency Manager The Emergency Manager is responsible for the overall organization and strategy of the emergency response, coordinates logistical efforts and has the authority for the final decision in any emergency action. He is usually, but not always, the senior management person at the facility. His specific responsibilities are to: (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) assume control of the DCC implement the Emergency Plan receive updates on control measures taken by the Incident Commander assess the situation and direct actions to minimize damage and loss of life maintain contact with upper management declare the emergency "under control" and authorize the "all clear" signal

(b) Incident Commander The Incident Commander is responsible for suppression and control tactics at the site. The Shift Superintendent usually fills this position and provides direction to all personnel at the scene, including the senior fire officer. His specific responsibilities are to: (1.) establish the Disaster Control Post (DCP) at a safe location near the emergency site

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(2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7)

develop and implement control tactics approve use of all emergency related resources keep the Emergency Manager informed evaluate mutual aid needs, and request assistance through the Emergency Manager coordinate mutual aid personnel and equipment determine the need for evacuation

All normal plant functions and emergency support services report directly to one of the above positions according to their reporting relationships given in Figure B.1. B. Emergency/Disaster Support Staff/Teams (a) Fire Protection/Rescue This function is usually performed by a combined team of facility/site fire protection personnel. They take directions from the Incident Commander through the appointed senior fire officer at the DCP. The responsibilities of the senior fire officer are as follows: • (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) • (1) (2) (3) Fire-Fighting provide initial evaluation to the Incident Commander deploy fire fighting personnel and equipment advise Incident Commander of the need for outside resources keep Incident Commander current on fire control status direct outside fire fighting organizations clean-up and restore fire protection equipment and supplies Rescue locate and rescue missing persons render essential first aid and life support remove victims to designated safe locations for medical treatment

(b)

Process

This function is usually performed by an operations representative who is responsible for advising the Emergency Manager in the following areas: (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) operations, hydrocarbon movement, unit isolation and emergency shutdown activities special fire protection needs materials or process in the affected area actions taken affecting the process process equipment involved in the control of the incident

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(c) Maintenance This function is usually performed by a maintenance representative who is responsible to: (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) assemble maintenance manpower in the maintenance shops assist operators in isolating and shutting down units as directed repair of emergency equipment assist utilities personnel in bypassing or repairing critical utility components provide fuel for emergency vehicles and firewater pump engines transport foam and other emergency supplies

(d) Engineering This function is usually performed by an operations engineering representative whose responsibilities are as follows: (1) (2) provide mechanical and process related information keep the Emergency Manager, Incident Commander, and Process Coordinator advised of factors influencing emergency activities. assign an engineer to serve as an emergency events recorder prepare damage assessment reports collect and preserve evidence for the incident investigators perform post-incident engineering for repair work

(3) (4) (5) (6)

(e) Security This function is usually performed by the facility Security Supervisor whose responsibilities are as follows: (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) ensure integrity of the plant perimeter provide necessary staffing to control use of emergency gates prevent entry of unauthorized personnel direct the flow of traffic away from the disaster scene direct emergency resources to the appropriate staging area provide escorts for emergency vehicles when requested advise Incident Commander on security matters act as liaison between the Frontier Force, the Incident Commander and Government Affairs

(f) Loss Prevention This function is usually performed by the Loss Prevention Advisor/Engineer whose responsibilities are as follows: (1) help evaluate hazardous situations and materials

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(2)

recommend actions and equipment necessary to protect personnel direct Loss Prevention staff to perform gas testing or other emergency/disaster services and interface as needed with Industrial Hygiene assign Loss Prevention staff to record or log emergency/disaster activities for future use coordinate with services as necessary regarding safety equipment

(3)

(4) (5)

(g) Services This function is usually performed by a staff engineer who coordinates support services and obtains a cost code from the area Finance representative to account for all financial, purchasing, and cost analysis aspects of the incident. His responsibilities are as follows: (1) contact the on-call Area Representative who will provide safe and sanitary food, potable water, and field sanitation facilities on request of the Incident Commander purchasing and contracting requirements coordinating claims actions providing necessary accommodations for emergency response personnel

(2) (3) (4)

(h) Medical This function is usually performed by district medical personnel whose responsibilities are as follows: (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (i) establish a triage area at the scene provide on-site emergency medical care advise the Emergency Manager of the number of injured and any need for additional medical assistance notify appropriate hospitals and clinics of the anticipated number of casualties advise the Emergency Manager of special medical transportation needs keep records of victims and their treatment

External Relations

This function is usually performed by the area Government Affairs representative whose responsibilities are as follows: (1) (2) (3) establish and maintain communications with civil authorities communicate the incident status to government organizations as appropriate request approval from the Emergency Manager for any government inspections and/or investigations during the emergency

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(4)

inform community leaders of incident status, potential dangers which might require evacuation and recovery efforts

(j)

Operations/Utilities

This function is usually filled by plant/site foremen who direct the activities of plant operators. Their responsibilities are as follows: (1) (2) (3) account for personnel by head count procedures report missing persons implement the facility emergency operating plan for a specific situation (i.e. isolation and shutdown unit(s) as instructed and stabilize units not involved) await further orders after the units have been shutdown and secured assign an operator to check firewater mains pressure and start fire pumps control the plant air systems, steam systems, and other utilities and advise the Incident Commander on their status inform the Incident Commander and Maintenance of system failures evacuate personnel if instructed by the Incident Commander

(4) (5) (6) (7) (8)

(k) Communications This function is usually performed by an operations employee who reports to the DCC to manage radio transmissions, telephone lines, operate special equipment such as DVD, EARS, etc., and record all message traffic. (l) Environmental This function is usually performed by an assigned environmental specialist whose responsibilities include providing environmental monitoring services and spill containment/recovery advice to the Emergency Manager and Incident Commander.

B.2.3

Plan Development Action Items
Task 1: Assign (or Establish) Planning Coordinator (or Team) 1. 2. A planning coordinator must be assigned; or A planning committee/coordinator team must be established.

Task 2: Establish Scope and Objectives 3. A scope and written objectives must be developed for the site.

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Task 3: Identify Emergency/Disaster Scenarios 4. Develop emergency/disaster scenarios specific to the facility or site as follows. (Use Figure B.2 for scenario development): • • • Planning Coordinator/team to identify emergency/disaster situations. Group these situations into generic scenarios (e.g. tank fires, pump fires, liquid releases, vapor releases, explosions, natural disasters, etc.) For each generic scenario, select the credible worst case emergency/disaster situation to represent that scenario (e.g. the largest tank fire) and fill out Part A (Description) and Part B (Possible Causes) of the Scenario Analysis Sheet (Figure B.2). Similarly, describe all scenarios on separate sheets and assign a rank order to each in Part E (Evaluation) based on likelihood of occurrence. (The "consequences" of Part E will be developed as part of Task 4, "Assess the Consequences of Scenarios".)

The following information is useful in identifying emergency/disaster situations (initiated on-site or off-site) within each generic scenario: • Fire Fires are generally caused as a result of ignition of a gas (or liquid) hydrocarbon leak under pressure. Unburned liquid hydrocarbon pools in the ground and fuel the fire to increase its intensity and spread. All situations within this scenario can lead to disasters if fire spreads beyond the capabilities of the fire fighting systems/personnel in place. Generally, this occurs if the response is not quick to contain the fire to a manageable limit before it approaches a disaster level. Some examples of potential emergency/disaster situations for the fire scenario are: • • • • congested multiple process unit area fire flammable liquid tank storage area fire wharf loading and unloading area fire

Explosion Flammable vapor releases are one of the most significant sources of explosions and the potential for casualties and property damage is high. Some examples of potential emergency/disaster situations for the explosion scenario are: • • • • boiling liquid expanding vapor explosion (BLEVE) of storage, sphere, bullet or process vessel runaway (exothermic) process chemical reaction gas explosion from a large volume release of refrigerated LPG unconfined vapor cloud e xplosion (UVCE) from a flammable vapor release

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Flammable Vapor Release (FVR) In the petroleum industry, the possibility of release of flammable vapor poses a great risk. Some examples of potential emergency/disaster situations for the FVR scenario are: • • • • failure of piping connection to pressurized storage sphere (or bullet), or refrigerated tank tank overfill LPG tanker accident resulting in containment failure high pressure gas pipeline rupture

Toxic Vapor Release (TVR) Toxic materials may or may not be flammable but could be in a high enough concentration to pose a health risk when released as a vapor. Some examples of potential emergency/disaster situations for the TVR scenario are: • • • • rupture of pipeline or well blowout releasing H2S vapor rupture of storage container releasing chlorine/ammonia vapor rupture or leak of amine regenerator overhead accumulator piping/flange to release H2S vapor failure of H2S compressor seal releasing the vapor

Hazardous Materials Spill Hazardous materials are used as solvents, reagents, and catalysts in various processes. A likely situation for a hazardous material spill is from the tanker vehicle transporting it to the facility or during its transfer from the tanker vehicle to its process usage or storage point. Other examples of potential emergency/disaster situations for the Hazardous Materials Release/spill scenario are: • • • TEL/TML gasoline antiknock compound liquid release rupture of storage container or associated piping releasing chlorine/ammonia liquid rupture of storage container or associated piping releasing sulfuric acid liquid

Natural Disaster Each facility or site is susceptible to natural disasters (e.g. high winds, flooding, etc.). The impact of natural disasters to cause other related process disasters should be recognized in the planning stage. Historical data on disasters at similar facilities or sites coupled with weather data can help in predicting the frequency of natural disasters for the area. Another source of such information is the Saudi Aramco Risk Analysis Manual.

Task 4: Assess the Consequences 5. Complete each scenario analysis sheet started in Task 3 by describing the incident size, duration and effect on operations.

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6.

Enter an estimate of the magnitude of potential consequences in Part E (Evacuation) of the Scenario Analysis Sheet (Figure B.2) after considering the following factors for each scenario: • • • • • • Size (including explosive potential, maximum fire areas, maximum spill volume and area, maximum vapor cloud volume). Growth spread of impact area resulting from the spread of a fire, toxic vapor cloud, or other undesirable product of the emergency/disaster episode. Amount of advance warning. Impact (including severity of potential damage, potential casualties, effect on surrounding population, domino effect of sequential explosions, and total duration). Controllability of incident based on level of emergency/disaster training of personnel and adequacy of equipment available within a facility or site. Reaction (or response) time and effectiveness of facility resources to control incident.

After the Scenario Analysis sheets have been completed for each scenario, assign a rank order in Part E based on consequences. The plan coordinator selects the scenario which represents the most likely event with the severest consequence(s) as the basis for developing the emergency response plan. This choice should be approved by Contractor management. Task 5: Review Emergency Control Needs 7. Use the Disaster Control Tasks Checklist to determine all tasks required (see Figure B.3). Assign a team member to develop the facility's response. Develop and document the assigned response.

8. 9.

Task 6: Available/Needed Resources 10. The methods to identify, estimate, and establish available needed resources are as follows: (a) Develop an inventory list of critical supplies and equipment needed to control the emergency disaster scenarios in Tasks 3 and 4. Ensure that these critical items are stored together at one easily accessible location (or the critical items store itself if accessible). Display the list of critical items on the entrance to the critical items store.

(b)

(c)

11.

Identify and list the entities responsible for supplying food, water, shelter, transportation, emergency equipment, additional manpower, external mutual aid, medical support and cost accounting.

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12.

Determine that the resource needs in item number 10. (above) have been met List contingencies to cover failure of any of those entities indicated in item 11. to supply the needed items. Survey alternate outside sources to determine their ability to supply resources which may be in short supply. If a mutual aid agreement has been established, develop an inventory of equipment and supplies that any mutual aid entity is expected to bring with them when they respond. Establish a telephone and personnel list of 24-hour contacts at all mutual aid entities. Determine and document that the equipment and supplies provided through mutual aid are compatible with emergency/fire protection equipment at the site. Measure the response/travel time needed by all mutual aid entities to respond to an emergency/disaster at the site. Establish the needed time range for all outside resources to reach the site. List and detail all high cost items and their corresponding authorization levels. List emergency response skills required to control all scenarios selected in Tasks 3 and 4. Compare required skills with available skills of construction/site personnel. Establish a Disaster Command Center (DCC). Consider the need to provide an alternate location for the DCC in case the original location is rendered unusable. Supply the DCC (and alternate) with: • • • telephone, fax, and other radio communication/alarm equipment emergency power and lighting reference materials (e.g. emergency response manuals, call out lists, Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDSs), drawings, photographs, maps, etc.) and emergency equipment (e.g. flashlights, spare batteries, camera, battery powered megaphones, etc. office equipment (e.g. dictating machines, tapes, flip charts, stationery items, etc.)

13.

14.

15.

16.

17.

18.

19.

20. 21. 22.

23.

24.

Establish a Disaster Command Post (DCP) vehicle/safe location near the emergency site.

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25.

Ensure that the DCP is set up with supplies similar to the DCC (except on offshore facilities where the DCP may only have a telephone, radio communication and personal protective/identification equipment). Additionally, ensure that the DCP also has the following: • • • • • self-contained breathing air megaphone binoculars safety/environmental monitoring equipment means of identification (vest, hat)

26.

Task 7: Emergency Response Organization 27. 28. Establish an emergency/disaster response organization. Ensure there are sufficient personnel to fill all assigned positions and alternates/substitutes identified and on standby to fill critical positions should it become necessary. Ensure that each assigned position has a documented detailed description of its responsibilities. Such a description must include: • • • 30. duties of the position reporting relationship reporting location

29.

Verify and document that all assigned individuals are aware of their responsibilities. Develop a physical method to identify each individual in the organization chart by position (ID. badges, vests).

31.

Task 8: Develop Emergency Response Procedures 32. Ensure that the planned facility/site emergency response procedures are structured according to the logical progression of action items given in Figure B.4. Reporting Emergencies: (1.) Report to senior operations person in control room using radios, telephones, manual pull box alarms, or public address systems. (Emergency telephone numbers or local 110 instructions should be posted near or on all telephones.) (2.) Determine how significant does an incident have to be to be reportable. (3.) Suggested wording for reporting emergencies (or drills) is shown in Figure B.5 (Emergency Reporting Instructions).

(a)

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Also see section VII.A (Reporting Emergencies) of the plan (see Task 9: Write the Plan). (4.) Details of the telephone and radio systems (i.e. different dialing and radio frequencies) should be in the appendix of the plan. (b.) Initiate The Alarm: All emergency related signals (i.e. "stop-work", "evacuation", and "all clear") and expected actions relating to each signal alarm must be established and followed. Authority and criteria for sounding the different alarms must be clearly stated in the plan. (c.) Assess The Situation: The Incident Commander must follow-up on every emergency declared by reporting to the incident site to assess: • • • • (d.) the emergency response actions taken or being taken additional actions and resources required to control the situation extent of damage to property and harm or negative impact to life. existing hazardous conditions and their likelihood to escalate.

Mobilization Of Resources: 1. Actions are taken by facility/site personnel to mobilize the facility's internal resources (human, equipment, etc.) and, if needed, contact external groups to mobilize their resources to the scene as developed in Task 6 (Available/Needed Resources). Plant personnel assigned to the emergency response organization are to proceed to their preassigned locations and await instructions from the Emergency Manager or Incident Commander, as applicable. Non-essential plant personnel are to be evacuated to preassigned assembly areas at a safe distance from the incident scene. Supervisory or assigned personnel are to take head count and DCC is to organize search and rescue for any missing personnel. Support groups such as Security, Medical and Fire Protection are to report to their preassigned locations and must commence any preauthorized emergency response related actions.

2.

3.

4.

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5.

At least two methods of in-plant communication should be available (e.g. radio and telephone). One in-plant radio channel is reserved as the main communication link between the Emergency Manager and Incident Commander. At least two methods of communication are necessary for external contacts (e.g. telephone, radio, Direct Voice Dispatch - DVD, Emergency Alert and Response System - EARS, etc.). A telephone number with a pre-recorded message providing essential up-to-date information on the incident (e.g. 113 in Dhahran) will be established.

(e)

Suppression/Control Of Incident: A separate control procedure must be written for each generic incident scenario developed in Task 3 (Identify Emergency Scenarios). This procedure is based on facility operating instructions detailing the rapid and safe sequential shut down of process units/equipment involved or affected by the particular incident scenarios.

(f)

Post Incident Actions: There are follow-up actions needed once an emergency is declared under control by the Emergency Manager. These actions are: 1. Stand Down And Fire Watch The Emergency Manager gives the "stand down" order to emergency response personnel. At this time, some personnel are released from duty, some are assigned to gather evidence, on the emergency episode and others are to maintain a fire watch if there is danger of reignition. The fire watch is set up by Fire Protection following consultation with the Emergency Manager. 2. Investigate And Report Incident investigation of causes and reporting can be made according to prescribed procedures. GI. 6.001 (Notification Requirements For Incidents) and GI 6.003 (Guide For Committees Investigating Major Incidents) are two sources which provide guidance for developing such procedures. 3. Restore Operations This covers all post-emergency control actions which must be followed to restore normal operations at the facility. This includes, but is not limited to: • demands of caring for injured and homeless

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• • • 4.

repairing damaged equipment to bring process equipment on-line collecting evidence for the reporting requirement determining secondary hazards that may have developed

Revise The Plan All new information gained as a result of the incident should be analyzed to determine what improvements could be made to the facility's Emergency Response Plan. These improvements should be integrated into the Plan and all emergency response personnel should be retrained and drilled to ensure that they are familiar with and proficient in following upgraded procedures.

33.

Develop procedures for the (onshore/offshore as applicable): • • • • • • • • • • • • •

following

emergencies/disasters

emergency unit shutdown individual equipment isolation process unit fire tank farm fire marine dock fire off-site pipeline leak personnel rescue medical emergencies toxic/flammable/corrosive gas leak evacuation from units and buildings process upsets breaches of security (including terrorism or sabotage) For more information refer to the Saudi Aramco Loss Prevention Department "Guidelines for Preparing Emergency Response Plans" manual.

34.

Complete the emergency reporting form given in Figure B.5 and follow the instructions contained therein to report such event(s).

Task 9 - Write the Plan 35. Ensure that the plan has a Corporate Policy Statement on emergency/disaster preparedness, and is prepared in conformance with the format and instructions presented in the Saudi Aramco Loss Prevention Department "Guidelines for Preparing Emergency Response Plans" manual. A typical Emergency Response Plan will follow the outline given in Figure B.6. 36. The plan manual must be reviewed and signed off by all outside mutual aid entities expected to respond to an emergency at this site.

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Task 10 - Emergency Response Training and Drills 37. Develop, document and follow the emergency response training/drill items given below to ensure that all personnel expected to participate in emergency response are proficient in its theory and practice. • • • • 38. table top exercise classroom training of personnel simulation of DCC operations during an emergency field simulations/drills of credible scenarios

Ensure that alternates (or standby) personnel are also trained and drilled on emergency response Train and familiarize all personnel with the provisions of your emergency response manual. (a) (b) develop a document and drill schedule in your manual ensure that these include full scale disaster simulations

39.

40.

41.

Hold and document critique sessions following all drills, simulations and/or actual incidents. Establish a procedure to ensure that all suggestions from the critique sessions are incorporated into your manual.

42.

Task 11 - Review and Revise the Plan 43. Provide for regular reviews (e.g. documented tickler date) and update the plan at least once a year through the plan coordinator. Keep a record of all amendments and maintain it in the front of the plan document manual. Keep a current list of all document manual holders and periodically forward them copies of any amendments.

44.

45.

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FIGURE B.1: TYPICAL EMERGENCY ORGANIZATION CHART

February 1993 - B.3 Emergency/Disaster Planning And Response 417

Page

FIGURE B.2: S CENARIO ANALYSIS S HEET FOR (LOCATION) Unit/Equipment: ____________________________________ Scenario No.: _________ Type of Emergency: • ______Fire • ______Explosion • ______Flammable Gas • ______Toxic Gas • ______Hazardous Materials Spill • ______Natural Disaster A. Description of the Scenario: __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ Possible Causes: __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ Expected Size or Duration: __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ Effect on Operations: __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ Evaluation and Ranking: __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ Likelihood: (1 = most likely) • No.____of____scenarios Consequences: (1 = most severe) • No.____of____scenarios

B.

C.

D.

E.

• •

F. Location/equipment-specific notes: __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ Reviewed by: _________________________________ Date: ____________

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Page

FIGURE B.3: EMERGENCY/DISASTER CONTROL TASKS CHECKLIST 1. Warning • • Alarm/communication systems to alert employees and local community of an emergency/disaster. "Alert", "Evacuation" and "All-Clear" signals must be recognized by all affected population, and they must know how to proceed in each case.

2.

Pre-impact Preparation If time permits, facility personnel must do the following to minimize negative impact of an emergency/disaster: • • • • Notify emergency response organization. Call for all available material reserves and resources. Contact appropriate resource for weather data and other emergency/disaster information Evacuate all affected areas.

3.

Evacuation • • • • Evacuation of persons from affected areas and non-essential workers from adjacent areas lowers the risk of casualties. Evacuation system testing and training. Control of access and exit points. Dead count requirements.

4.

Mobilization and Utilization of Human and Material Resources The effectiveness of an emergency response depends on the quality and supply of human and material resources. These resources must be: • • • • Known in advance. Available on demand. Compatible with each other. Used in an organized and controlled manner.

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5.

Incident Suppression/Control • • Selective use of assembled resources. Training and experience of emergency response team (especially Incident Commander).

6.

Search and Rescue • • Identify likely search and rescue situations from generic scenarios. Establish resources (qualified personnel and equipment) and procedures to locate victims - and transport them to safety.

7.

Care for Casualties Factors to be addressed in the care, treatment and relocation of casualties are: • • • Access of medical personnel to site. Temporary hospital facilities and equipment. Transportation to move casualties to such facilities.

8.

Communications Efficient and accurate communications are a necessary part of effective emergency response actions. • • • Communication equipment/system in place. Back-up communications equipment/system. Compatibility of facility communication equipment with that used by mutual aid organizations.

9.

Continuing Assessment • Continuing assessment of the situation by knowledgeable observers to redirect emergency/disaster response actions as needed.

10.

Coordination • Coordination of call-out personnel and staging of resources to ensure proper level of support is available where needed.

11.

Control and Authority • System of overall control and distribution of authority by chain of command.

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• • 12.

Call-out list for management personnel. Personnel responsible to contact outside agencies and/or mutual aid organizations.

Security Adequate security personnel/system be in place to: • • Control traffic. Control access to scene of emergency/disaster.

13.

Continuity of Operations • • Plan to continue operations unaffected by emergency/disaster by manpower reassignment. Ensure that sufficient manpower/equipment is on standby to handle escalation of emergency/disaster to other units.

14.

Outside Community Order Request Government Affairs representative to contact appropriate law enforcement authorities and community leaders to address the following: • Evacuation, traffic and crowd control, guarding property and patrolling dangerous areas.

15.

Secondary Hazards • The plan should identify hazards created as a result of the emergency/disaster (e.g. structural damage to buildings, isolated fires from explosions, downed electrical lines, etc.) Determine and plan to provide additional resources needed to control these hazards.

• 16.

Restore Normal Operations • Maintenance personnel should maintain a current status list of plant utilities and services lost during the emergency/disaster and the estimated time to restore them.

17.

Emergency Teams and Equipment Recovery • • System to check and replace emergency equipment damaged during or immediately after the emergency/disaster. System to provide shift relief to emergency/fire fighting crews and replenishment of fire fighting materials and other consumables.

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18.

Personnel Needs • Plan to provide emergency/disaster workers and other affected personnel with sanitary food, water, clothing, shelter and financial assistance as needed.

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FIGURE B.4: FLOW DIAGRAM OF TYPICAL OFFSHORE EMERGENCY RESPONSE

EMERGENCY INCIDENT

1. INITIATE THE ALARM

2. REPORT THE EMERGENCY

3. ASSESS THE SITUATION

4. MOBILIZE RESOURCES

5. CONTROL THE INCIDENT

6. POST-INCIDENT ACTIONS

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FIGURE B.5: EMERGENCY REPORTING INSTRUCTIONS TELEPHONE: XXX-XXXX I have an emergency to report: I am calling from _____________________________________________________ My name is _________________________ My badge number is _______________ I see a _____________________________________at ________________________ (fire, gas leak, etc.) (north/south/east/west) There are ___________(no.) of people hurt and requiring medical assistance. DO NOT HANG UP. ENSURE THAT YOU HAVE A RESPONSE THEN IF NECESSARY REPEAT THE ABOVE INFORMATION AND ANSWER QUESTIONS. 1. 2. 3. 4. If the number is busy or unavailable, try the following in the order listed: telephone xxx-zzzz radio frequency xxx.xx (other for the facility) (if busy see below)

After the message has been given successfully, the reporting individual, if an operator, should return immediately to the emergency site to do whatever he can safely do to improve the emergency situation.

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FIGURE B.6: EMERGENCY PLAN - S AMPLE TABLE OF CONTENTS Suggested headings are shown below. Sections should be separated by dividers with extended tabs naming each section. I. II. II. IV. V. Title Page Reporting Emergencies Emergency Response Personnel Roster Table Of Contents Introduction A. Scope B. When To Implement C. Definitions Emergency Response Organization A. Chain Of Command B. Functional Responsibilities

VI.

VII. Emergency Response Actions A. Reporting Emergencies B. Initiating The Alarm C. Assess The Situation D. Mobilization Of Resources 1. Internal Resources a. Plant Personnel b. Support Groups c. Contractors 2. External Resources a. Saudi Aramco b. Non-Saudi Aramco E. Suppression/Control of Incident 1. Vapor Release 2. Toxic Vapor Release 3. Fire 4. Explosion 5. Hazardous Materials Release 6. Natural Disaster 7. Other Site Specific Incidents VIII. Post-Incident Actions A. Stand Down And Fire Watch B. Investigate And Report C. Restore Operations D. Revise The Plan IX. Appendices A. Materials And Equipment Inventory 1. Emergency Equipment 2. Fire Fighting Supplies 3. Facility Maps, Plans, Drawings 4. Communication Equipment 5. Mutual Aid

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a. Saudi Aramco b. Non-Saudi Aramco B. Exceptions To Generic Scenarios C. Operating Instruction Manuals (OIMs) And Other References

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Appendix C: Fire Safety Checklist For Evaluating Construction Materials Store Yard

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C.1

FIRE SAFETY CHECKLIST FOR EVALUATING CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS STORE YARD
(Based on NFPA 231-APPENDIX C) PROTECTION OF OUTDOOR STORAGE

I.

SELECTION OF A SITE A. Adequate fire department protection. 1. B. Travel time to site, primary factor.

All-weather roads adequate to carry fire department apparatus. 1. Kept clear at all times.

C. D.

Available water supply of sufficient pressure and quantity. Sufficient clear space from combustible structures or other storage which could be an exposure hazard. No danger of flooding. 1. 2. Run-off from fire fighting water should be considered. Drainage from fuel spills should travel away from all storage.

E.

F. II.

Enough clearance from storage site to highways or major roads.

FENCING SITE A. Entire site should be fenced to control access.

B. Two 15' gates, directly opposite each other (180o ) are required to permit ready access of fire apparatus to any part of the storage area regardless of wind direction and location of fire. III. PILING OF MATERIALS A. LOW HEIGHT and SMALL AREA are the ideal conditions. 1. Reasons for this are (a) stability of the pile under normal and fire conditions (containers maximum: 2 high). access to the seat of the fire with hose streams from the ground.

(b) B.

AISLES must be maintained between individual piles; between piles and buildings, and between piles and the boundary line fence for the storage site, to allow access to all sides of the piles.

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1.

Aisles minimum of 10 feet wide.

C. DRIVEWAYS of minimum 15 feet width are required to permit travel of fire apparatus to all parts of the storage area. 1. Driveway and aisle widths should be increased to at least equal the height of piles of goods, since they also act as firebreaks to limit the spread of fire.

D. ARRANGEMENT OF MATERIALS is important to reduce the speed of the spread of fire. 1. Generally less hazardous materials should be stored upwind and more hazardous materials downwind. Piles or "blocks" of small piles are arranged with combustibles and noncombustibles in alternate locations (a) This technique tends to isolate a fire, allowing greater chance to contain it within the pile or "block" of origin. This checker board pattern of materials also helps reduce reliance on wind direction to control the spread of a fire.

2.

(b)

IV.

BUILDINGS A. Buildings within storage yards should be at least 50 feet from the nearest storage pile. 1. This space should remain c lear and free of combustible materials, at all times.

B.

ARRANGEMENT OF BUILDINGS should also consider the effects of wind on the spread of fire. 1. One approach is to have less hazardous shops and sheltered activities upwind, more hazardous ones downwind. In addition to the above, leave plenty of clear fire- break space between buildings (50 feet minimum), and alternate hazardous shops or stored goods with those structures housing less hazardous goods or activities. Again, this will help counteract unfavorable winds.

2.

V.

FIRE PROTECTION A. Communications -- a reliable means of communication with the Saudi Aramco Fire Protection Department shall be provided. Normally this will be a Saudi Aramco system telephone. WARNING: Prompt NOTIFICATION of the Fire Protection Department is mandatory and absolutely necessary to prevent out-of-control fires.

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B.

Portable fire extinguishers shall be provided throughout the storage area and the buildings located as to be quickly available for use at any point. Standard Live Hose Reels shall be provided throughout the storage areas to allow fast application of firewater onto any location within the store yard. These hoses are easily handled by one man and can deliver significant quantities of water. Full coverage of the interiors of all buildings must also be provided. WARNING: 1. The need to notify the Fire Protection Department and man these live hose reels as fast as possible cannot be over-emphasized. (a) Fire areas increase as an increasing multiple of time, not at a constant rate. The longer you wait to apply water on a small fire, the more you will be surprised at the size the fire has attained. These 1 -1/4" diameter hoses allow one person to apply about 100 gallons/minute without difficulty.

C.

(b)

2.

Two inch steel (galvanized) lines shall be used to feed these hoses. Each hose reel will have a valve at the tie-in to the 6" loop.

D.

Standard Fire Hydrants - Saudi Aramco Engineering Standard B-7C requires type 509-G hydrants for protection of outdoor storage. Depending on system pressure, the 2-1/2" hoses used by the Fire Protection Department can require 4 to 5 trained men to handle. It is for this reason that fire hydrants are not normally provided with hose or used by construction yard personnel. 1. In areas where there is no Fire Protection Department within reasonable distance, sufficient 2 -1/2" hose, and other equipment such as nozzles, hydrant wrenches, etc. shall be kept on the site, suitably located, housed, and maintained ready for use. Hydrants and all fire fighting equipment shall be accessible for use at all times. No temporary storage will be allowed to obstruct access for fire fighting.

2.

E.

Details of Water Supply Connect to main with gate valve. Provide a looped system valved to feed hydrants from either direction. (Block valve(s) to isolate either 50% of the piping and hydrants.) Materials - carbon steel pipe, okay for temporary yards. (Good mechanical strength, repairable.) Size of loop piping, 6" diameter minimum.

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VI.

GUARD SERVICE A. Guards trained in the use of live fire hose reels, fire extinguishers and the fire warning system shall be on site at all times when the yard is otherwise unoccupied. 1. 2. Supervised rounds are suggested to verify the entire property is periodically observed. Means of communication necessary to summon assistance during emergency situations shall be provided.

VII.

YARD MAINTENANCE AND OPERATIONS A. The site shall be kept free from accumulation of unnecessary combustible materials such as empty cartons or other packing or packaging materials. All electrical equipment and installations to comply with National Electrical Code. Employees' smoking areas shall be clearly designated and no smoking strictly enforced outside these "safe" areas. Motor vehicles shall be garaged and repaired outside the yard area, in a noncombustible structure or unsheltered. Fuel handling shall comply with NFPA 30, Flammable and Combustible Liquids Code, at a safe distance from the storage yard.

B. C.

D.

A site layout plan of the materials storage yards shall be submitted to the Loss Prevention Department Area Fire Prevention Engineer for review. All essential features of this "Checklist" shall be clearly illustrated on a site drawing of the proposed yard. Two copies of this drawing (done accurately to scale) will be submitted and once approved, one signed copy shall be kept at the site for periodic review. Changes to the original storage yard layout must be reviewed and concurred by Loss Prevention Department.

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Appendix D: Saudi Aramco Crane Safety Handbook

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D.1

CRANE SAFETY HANDBOOK
Notice: For utility, the crane safety handbook is bound under separate cover. One copy will be distributed to each holder of the Construction Safety Manual. Additional copies may be acquired by contacting the Support Services Unit, Loss Prevention Department, E -1660, Dhahran.

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Appendix E: Suggestion Form

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SUGGESTIONS FOR THE SAUDI ARAMCO CONSTRUCTION SAFETY MANUAL MANAGER, Loss Prevention Department Saudi Arabian American Oil Company E-1770 Dhahran, Saudi Arabia Please consider the following suggestion(s) relative to the Saudi Aramco Construction Safety Manual: ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________

_______________________________________ (Signature) ________________________________________ (Date) ________________________________________ (Address) ________________________________________ Contact Telephone Number ________________________________________ Contact FAX Number

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Appendix F: Distribution Form

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Address For Distribution Construction Safety Manual MANAGER Loss Prevention Department Saudi Arabian Oil Company E-1770 Dhahran, Saudi Arabia Please continue to send me changes or additions to the Saudi Aramco Construction Safety Manual. My present address is: Name:__________________________________________________________________________ Company:_______________________________________________________________________ Address:________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________ (Signature) ____________________________________ (Date) ________________________________________ Contact Telephone Number ________________________________________ Contact FAX Number

February 1993 - Appendix F: Distribution Form

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Appendix G: Sanitary Code

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IMPLEMENTING THE SAUDI ARAMCO SANITARY CODE - GI 151.006

SASC-A-010

INDOOR AND OUTDOOR RECREATION AREAS AND FACILITIES, INCLUDING BEACHES, CAMPGROUNDS AND MARINAS CAMPS AND COMMUNAL LIVING FACILITIES FOOD ESTABLISHMENTS SWIMMING POOLS, WADING POOLS AND SPAS SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT WASTE WATER AND SEWERAGE SYSTEMS WATER

SASC-C-010 SASC-F-010 SASC-P-010 SASC-R-010 SASC-S-010 SASC-W-010

February 1993 - Appendix G: Sanitary Code

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Appendix H: General Instructions Master Index

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GENERAL INSTRUCTIONS (GI) MASTER INDEX
GI Number 2.100 2.102 2.702 2.708 2.710 2.711 2.718 5.002 6.001 6.003 Title Work Permit System Pressure Testing Safely Electrical Safety for Boom or Derrick Type Hoisting Equipment Gas Testing Procedures Mechanical Completion & Performance Acceptance of Plant/Unit Fire and Safety Watch Contractor Sites Allotment Procedure Loss Prevention Policy Implementation Notification Requirements for Incidents (Including Fires) Guide for Committees Investigating Major Incidents or Engineering Reviews of Other Incidents Isolation, Lockout and Use of Hold Tags Personal Flotation Devices for Work Over, On or Near Water Safety Requirements for Abrasive Blast Cleaning Control of Remote Area Travel and Search/Rescue Procedures Reporting and Recording of Motor Vehicle Accidents Traffic and Vehicle Safety Mobile Heavy Equipment Operator Testing and Certification Lifting/Elevating and Mobile Equipment Accident Reporting Procedures Personnel Work Platform Operations Heavy Crane Lift, Multiple/Tandem, Critical Crane Lifts Inspection, Testing and Maintenance of Wire Rope Slings Inspection and Testing of Cranes, Elevators, Powered Platforms, and Mobile Aerial Baskets

6.012 6.020 6.021 6.025 6.029 6.030 7.025 7.026 7.027 7.028 7.029 7.030

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8.001 8.002 8.003 8.005 70.500 80.500 150.001 150.002 150.003 151.006 330.87 355.001 355.002 355.003 355.004 355.015 355.015-01 355.020 401.081 402.001 432.00 434.00 441.014 447.002

Safety Requirements for Scaffolding Prescription Safety Glasses Air-Supplied Breathing Apparatus Protective (Safety) Footwear Disaster Contingency Plan - Dhahran Area Disaster Control - Refinery and Terminal - Ras Tanura Asbestos Regulations First Aid/CPR Training and First Aid Kits - Remote Areas Ionizing Radiation Implementing the Saudi Aramco Sanitation Code Bulk Deliveries of Oil Field Treatment Chemicals from Local Vendors Identifying, Cataloging, Ordering and Tracking Hazardous Materials Receiving, Storing and Issuing Hazardous Material Disposing of Hazardous Material Handling and Disposing of Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) Requisitioning, Receiving, Storing and Issuing Explosives Deterioration and Disposal of Explosives Control of Compressed Gas Cylinders Performance Qualifications For Welders and Welding Operators Operational Chemical Cleaning of Boilers Pipeline Hydrotest Water Disposal Pipeline Repair and Maintenance Repair Procedures on Hydrocarbon Pipelines Pressure Relief Valves - New Installation, Change in Set Pressure, Replacement or Retirement from Service Pressure Relief Valves - Routine Tests, Inspection, Quality Assurance and Regulation

447.003

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Page 442

475.001 475.002 520.001 618.001 1021.000 1127.700 1130.013 1131.165 1131.921 1183.215

Blasting Near Existing Facilities Use of Explosives in Construction Confined Space Entry Procedure Special Regulations for the Use of Explosives in Seismic Operations Street and Road Closure, Excavation, Reinstatement and Traffic Controls Transportation Engineering Procedures for Heavy-Lift/Over-Sized Equipment Vehicle Loading Use of Trailer Brakes Use of Trailer Safety Chains Transporting Explosives in Comp any Owned/Leased/Rented Motor Transport Vehicles Death or Injury Aboard Seagoing Vessels Marine Craft Fueling, Tanajib or West Pier SAG Regulations and Practice as Applied to All Types of Marine Craft at the Port of Ras Tanura Collision & Damage By or To Marine Equipment or Craft Operating Practices for Harbor Tugs, Offshore Vessels and Launches, Including Safety Rules Operating Procedures for Barges Including Safety Rules Operating Procedures for Marine Oil Recovery and Storage Barge/Vessel, Including Safety Rules Marine Port Information and Regulations Navigation Warnings Requesting, Assigning and Dispatching Pollution Control Vessels, Tugs, Launches and Barges Whistle Signals for Use Between Tugs and Barges or Tugs and Self-Propelled Vessels When Berthing Procedures and Safety Rules for Diving Operations Rig/Barge Moving

1185.003 1186.502 1186.504

1187.001 1192.001

1192.002 1192.502

1193.001 1193.002 1194.001

1196.001

1197.001 1198.001

February 1993 - Appendix H: GI Master Index

Page 443

1199.001 1310.000 1321.015 1600.003 1601.002 1602.001 1602.002 1602.003 1603.001 1781.001-1 1787.00-1

Safe Operation of Self-Propelled Jack-Up Barges Transportation of Dangerous Articles Onboard Saudi Aramco Aircraft Request for Air Medical Evacuation Destruction of Obsolete/Damaged, Unneeded Communication Equipment Radio Asset Control And Accountability Program (RACAP) Residential Telephone Service Business Telephone Service Inside Aramco Communities and Facilities Business Telephone Service Outside Aramco Communities and Facilities Data Circuits, Message Switch And Facsimile Terminals Inspection/Maintenance - Fire Protection Equipment Fire Reports

February 1993 - Appendix H: GI Master Index

Page 444

Appendix I: List Of Figures

February 1993 - Construction Safety Manual - Appendix I: List Of Figures

Page 445

LIST OF FIGURES
I. Administration:
Figure I.1 Figure I.2 Figure I.3 Figure I.4 Figure I.4A Figure I.5 Figure I.6 Figure I.7 Figure I.8 Figure I.9 Preliminary Accident Report Contractor Monthly Safety Report Injury Summary Protective Goggle, Spectacles, Face Shields And Helmets Protection Against Radiant Energy Specialized Hand Protectors Typical Self-Powered Platform For Building Maintenance Respiratory Protection Clearance Considerations For Safety Equipment Know Your Fire Extinguisher 43 44 69 76 77 78 79 86 87 94

II.

General And Civil:
Figure II.1 Figure II.2 Figure II.3 Figure II.3A Figure II.3B Figure II.4 Figure II.4A Figure II.5 Figure II.6 Figure II.6A Figure II.7 Figure II.8 Figure II.9 Figure II.10 Figure II.11 Figure II.12 Figure II.13 Figure II.14 Figure II.15 Figure II.16 Figure II.17 Figure II.18 Figure II.19 Figure II.20 Figure II.21 Figure II.22 Figure II.23 Figure II.24 Figure II.25 Figure II.26 Figure II.27 Hold Tag Lockout Clip (Typical) Excavations Made In Type A Soil Simple/Multiple Bench Unsupported Vertically Sided Excavations Made In Type B Soil Single/Multiple Bench Excavations Made In Type C Soils Excavations Made In Layered Soils Excavations Made In Layered Soils Examples Of Trench Shields Guide To Safe Distance Back From Top Of Slope For Storage Of Materials Or Placing Equipment Examples Of Screw Trench Jacks Aluminum Hydraulic Shoring Typical Installations Aluminum Hydraulic Shoring Aluminum Hydraulic Shoring Waler Systems For Soil Type B Example Of Timber Shoring Protective Systems Timber Trench Shoring - Minimum Timber Requirements Timber Trench Shoring - Minimum Timber Requirements Timber Trench Shoring - Minimum Timber Requirements Standard Coupler Adjustable Coupler Typical End To End Coupler Screwjack Typical Reveal Pin Typical Base Plate A Typical Independent Tied Scaffold Constructed Using Tube And Coupler Scaffolding A Typical Tube And Coupler Scaffold Plan View Of Two-Way Tie Plan View Of Column Box Tie Plan View Of Reveal Tie 121 122 132 133 134 135 136 137 138 139 140 141 142 143 144 145 146 147 148 149 192 192 192 192 192 192 210 211 212 212 212

February 1993 - Appendix I: List Of Figures

Page 446

Figure II.28 Figure II.29 Figure II.30 Figure II.31 Figure II.32 Figure II.33 Figure II.34 Figure II.35 Figure II.36 Figure II.37 Figure II.38 Figure II.39 Figure II.40 Figure II.41 Figure II.42 Figure II.43 Figure II.44 Figure II.45 Figure II.46 Figure II.47

A Typical System Scaffold A Typical System Scaffold Being Assembled A Typical System Scaffold Base In The Process Of Being Assembled And Leveled A Typical Fabricated Tubular Frame Manually Propelled Mobile Scaffold A Typical Tube And Coupler Mobile Access Tower Cross Tube Anchor Outriggers In Use Driven Tube Anchor Abrasive/Grinding Wheel Grinder Guards Bench Grinder - Machine Guarding Ring Test Correctly Mounted Wheel Wire Conversion Chart Self Adjusted Guard Table Saws Table Saw - Machine Guarding Radial Saws The Woodworking Machine Regulations Cartridge/Tool Issuance Control

213 214 214 215 216 217 217 217 225 226 227 236 237 238 239 240 241 242 243 244

III.

Mechanical Equipment And Materials:
Figure III.1 Figure III.2 Figure III.3 Figure III.4 Figure III.5 Figure III.6 Figure III.7 Figure III.8 Figure III.9 Figure III.10 Figure III.11 Figure III.12 Figure III.13 Pre-Lift Operation Checklist Lift Plan For Cranes Identification Tags Installing A Wedge Socket On A Rope Two-Legged Chain Sling: Major Components Sling Fixings Synthetic Webbing Slings Sling Loading Eyebolts Crane Hooks Shackles Wire Rope Sling Inspection Log Typical Construction Materials Store Yard 266-267 268 277 278 278 278 279 280 280 280 280 281 297

IV.

Electrical And Radiation:
Figure IV.1 Figure IV.2 Figure IV.3 Temporary Crossing For Construction Equipment Proper Use Of Insulating Tools And Protective Apparel Standard Sign - Radiation 318 319 324

V.

Chemicals And Operations:
Figure V.1 Figure V.2 Figure V.3 Identification Of Materials By Hazard Signal Dimensions And Arrangement Explanation Of Hazard Rating Codes Identification Of Health Hazard, Flammability And Reactivity 351 352 353

February 1993 - Appendix I: List Of Figures

Page 447

VI.

Marine:
Figure VI.1 Figure VI.2 Figure VI.3 If You Work Over, On Or Near Water International Code Flag "A" Signals 361 373 373

Appendix A:
Figure A.1 Contractor's Evaluation Competition Job Safety 380-381

Appendix B:
Figure B.1 Figure B.2 Figure B.3 Figure B.4 Figure B.5 Figure B.6 Typical Emergency Organization Chart Scenario Analysis Sheet For (Location) Emergency/Disaster Control Tasks Checklist Flow Diagram Of Typical Offshore Emergency Response Emergency Reporting Instructions Emergency Plan - Sample Table Of Contents 412 413 414 418 419 420-421

February 1993 - Appendix I: List Of Figures

Page 448

Appendix J: List Of Tables

February 1993 - Construction Safety Manual: Appendix J: List Of Tables

Page 449

LIST OF TABLES
I. Administration:
Table I.1 Basic Personal Protective Equipment 75

II.

General And Civil:
Table II.1 Table II.2 Table II.3 Table II.4 Table II.5 Table II.6 Table II.7 Maximum Allowable Slopes Wood Scaffold Plank Loading Tube And Coupler Scaffolds - Light Duty Tube And Coupler Scaffolds - Medium Duty Tube And Coupler Scaffolds - Heavy Duty Ventilation Requirements For Confined Spaces Personal Protective Equipment To Be Worn Or Used During Surface Preparation And Paint Application 131 191 201 202 203 248 252

III.

Mechanical Equipment And Materials
Table III.1 Table III.2 Wind Speed (Miles Per Hour) vs. Force Of Wind In Pounds Per Square Foot Wind Speed Definition 269 269

February 1993 - Construction Safety Manual: Appendix J: List Of Tables

Page 450

Appendix K: Forms

February 1993 - Construction Safety Manual: Appendix K: Forms

Page 451

Appendix K contains originals of many of the forms which have appeared as figures throughout the Manual. Please copy these for use in your safety program.

February 1993 - Construction Safety Manual: Appendix K: Forms

Page 452

PRELIMINARY ACCIDENT REPORT:
Detailed Report Required Within 3 Days Accident Location: Company: Date Of Accident: Personnel Injured: Control No_________________ Time Of Accident: Badge Number:

Type Of Injuries:

Property Damage And Estimated Cost Damage:

Description Of Accident:

Witness Statement(s)

What Caused The Accident:

What Corrective Action Has Been Taken

Signed:_______________________________________________________________Badge No:________________________ Date Of Report:________________________________________________ Name (Printed):_____________________________________________________________________ Company:___________________________________________________ Job Title:_________________________________

CONTRACTOR MONTHLY SAFETY REPORT
PROJECT TITLE:___________________________________ LOCATION:_________________________________

CONTRACTOR:_______________________________________________________________________________________

BUDGET ITEM No:._______________________________________ CONTRACT No.:________________JOB No:_______

1. Work Injuries: 2. Fires: 3. Incidents Or Property Damage (Over SR 10,000): 4. Motor Vehicle Accidents: 5. Incidents Involving Damage To Saudi Aramco Equipment: 6. Crane, Heavy Equipment & Manlift Accidents: 7. Safety Meeting: (A) Topics Discussed: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. (B) Attendance:

(C) Instructor(s):

Prepared By:_____________________________ Contractor Safety Officer:_____________________________________ Signed By:____________________________________ Saudi Aramco Representative:____________________________ Date:___________________________

INJURY SUMMARY

(PAGE ___OF___)

Project:__________________________________Project No.:________________________Month & Ye ar:____________________ Contractor:__________________________________File No.:_________________________
Injury No. Name Of Injured Badge Numbe r Craft Date Of Accident Carry Over Yes/No Days Lost This Month Nature Of Injury And Part Of Body Affected Brief Description Of Accident State What, Where, How, Why

Total Lost Time Injuries This Month:

Total Days Lost:

Total Man-hours Worked This Month:

Report Prepared By:________________________________ Signature:_________________________________

Title And Telephone:_______________

LIFT PLAN FOR CRANES
1. Contractor:__________________________________________________ J.0. No.:_____________________________________________ 2. Crane Inspection Sticker valid: Yes:o No:o Date of expiry:________________________________________________________________ 3. Operator Saudi Aramco certified: Yes:o No:o 4. Description of load:___________________________________________________ 5. •Type of crane to be used ______________________ •Boom length (total) _______________________ft/m •Jib length ______________________________ft/m Stowed Erected N/A (lbs/kgs) o o o Jib: _______ o o o Extension: _______ Hookblock (Main): ______ _____ _____ _______ o o Aux. Boom Head: ______ _______ o o Headache Ball: ______ _______ Slings, Shackles, etc.: ______ ______ ______ _______ Others: __________________________________ _______ __________________________________ _______ Total (Gross Load Weight): _______ • • •

6. • • • • 7. 10.

Weight of load _______lbs/kgs Effective weight of jib headache ball ______ lbs/kgs Weight of hoist rope below boom tip______ lbs/kgs Weight of other rigging ______ lbs/kgs Total load weight _____ lbs/kgs

Effective weight of jib _____ lbs/kgs (see jib chart) Weight of load block _____ lbs/kgs Weight of spreader bar _____ lbs/kgs

Hoisting clearance ________ft/m. 8. Lift quadrant zone ___________________ . 9. Operating radius ___________ft/m. Crane capacity at operating radius __________ (Note: Do not make lift if total load is greater than crane capacity shown in Item 10. Refer to GI 7.028 for appropriate derating based on type of lift.) 11. Crane capacity for jib configuration:____________ 12. Ground and site conditions:______________________________________________ 13. Wind speed:__________mph (Maximum 20 mph) 14. Work permit required: Yeso No:o 15. Load moment indicator: Yes:o No:o Type:_________________________________________ 16. Sketch and supplementary information for crane lift is required to be attached to this plan. (Note: The sketch of the crane should include the following rigging information: size of each component; safe working load (SWL) capacity; length of slings; type of component; component diameter; weight of component and sling angles). Contractor:______________________ Date:__________________ Crane Operator:_______________________ Date:__________________________ Approved:_______________________ Date:__________________ Reviewed by:_____________________ Date:_____________________________ (Competent Person) (Saudi Aramco Site Representative) Approved:_______________________ Date:__________________ (Heavy Haul/Rig Move Unit, Transportation Dept., Abqaiq) Footnote: This form is to be filled out for the following lifts: 1. At all construction sites and operating plants; 2. Associated with offshore and marine sites and operations; 3. Within safety zones of power lines; 4. Involving personnel platforms (as per GI 7.027, 7.028 and 7.030).

WIRE ROPE SLING INSPECTION LOG
Contractor:______________________________________ Location: __________________________ BI/JO Number: ___________________________________ Project Title: ______________________

Sling#

Diameter

Length

SWL

Date-In Service

Date-OutService

Inspector Signature (Date)

CARTRIDGE /TOOL ISSUANCE CONTROL

Date

Issued

Cartridge Quantity Returned Returned Used Unused

Returned Unexploded

Tool Issued (Type/MDL)

Received By Cert No. Name/ Signature

Issued By

Remarks

Warning: Above items can only be issued to workers with valid training certificate

Storekeeper: Safety Officer:

EMERGENCY REPORTING INSTRUCTIONS
TELEPHONE: XXX-XXXX I have an emergency to report: I am calling from _____________________________________________________ My name is _________________________ My badge number is _______________ I see a _____________________________________at ________________________ (fire, gas leak, etc.) (north/south/east/west) There are ___________(no.) of people hurt and requiring medical assistance. DO NOT HANG UP. ENSURE THAT YOU HAVE A RESPONSE THEN IF NECESSARY REPEAT THE ABOVE INFORMATION AND ANSWER QUESTIONS. 1. 2. 3. 4. If the number is busy or unavailable, try the following in the order listed: telephone xxx-zzzz radio frequency xxx.xx (other for the facility) (if busy see below)

After the message has been given successfully, the reporting individual, if an operator, should return immediately to the emergency site to do whatever he can safely do to improve the emergency situation.

PROJECT MANAGEMENT AND CONTRACTOR'S SAFETY COMPETITION SITE REGISTRATION FORM
To: Saudi Aramco Loss Prevention Department Date: ____________________________

Name Of Contractor:

Contractor's Address:

Contractor's Phone Number:

Job Description:

Job Number:

Starting Date: Estimated Completion Date:

B.I. Number:

Peak Number Of Employees:

Contractor Site Representative:

Saudi Aramco Site (PMT) Engineer:

Project Mgmt. Department:

Telephone Number:

Telephone Number:

Org. Code:

Name Of Contractor's Safety Representative:

Contractor's Site Phone Number:

Site Location:

Signed:____________________________________________________(Contractor's Representative) Job Title:__________________________________________________ Company:__________________________________________________ Date:_______________________________________________________ Saudi Aramco Proponent Department:____________________________________________________ This form is to be completed and sent to the local Saudi Aramco Loss Prevention Office with a copy to the designated senior Project Engineer, who is a member of the proponent Project Management Team (PMT). Signed:________________________________________ Saudi Aramco Project Manager

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