Industrial Boilers

       

Steam generators Closed vessels made of steel and used for generation of steam vaporizing water combustion of fuels eg. coal,coke,oil,wood,saw dust and begesse etc. Steam used for producing power,for industrial process work or for heating proposes.

STEAM GENERATORS

TO POWER SUPPLY Fuel BOILER TURBINE ALTERNATOR Air TO PROCESS CONDENSER TO COOLING TOWER TO PROCESS .

with minimum attention and minimum initial cost and operating cost. stress & strains Well design combustion chamber Less floor area.safety valves and other mountings Easily accessible for inspection. Simple constructions Quick starting from cold Strong enough against temp.capable of producing maximum steam at required pressure for minimum of fuel consumption. space & light weight Best gauges.Requirements of a Perfect Steam Boilers         Should be absolutely reliable.cleaning and repairs .

the fire and hot gases being outside of the tubes.Locomotive or Marine Internally Fired or Externally Fired (Lancashire and Locomotive Boilers) Solid.Classification of Steam Boilers      Vertical or Horizontal Stationary(Power plant.Liquid or Gas Fired Fire(Smoke)Tube:Water is outside the tubes while the hot gases are inside the tubes eg.industrial.) .Lancashire.Portable.eg.Babcock and Wilcox.Cochran.Cornish.Vertical.Locomotives.). Stirling and High pressure Boilers etc.central heating and combined power and heating boilers.etc ) or Water Tube: Contain a large number of small tubes through which water circulates.

winch engines in mines and on sites of temporary nature such as construction work etc.and is portable.excavators. Vertical Boilers are:Simple(having one to three cross tubes). Cheap. . Required minimum floor space. fire tubes and water tubes types.cranes.easy to start but inefficient due to large wastage of fuel and less heating surface.Vertical Boilers     Used in small factories.small water supply plants.not required elaborate foundations.

heating surface is about 8-10 times the grate area.Simple Cross tube vertical boiler    consists of a cylindrical shell surrounding a cylindrical fire box. 50% efficiency .

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.evaporation 3000kg/hr. Total heating surface area is about 10-25 times the grate area Efficiency 70-75% Ranges from 1m dia.X2m high.Cochran Boiler      It is well design of a Vertical multitubular fire tube boiler Improvement over the simple vertical boiler as it provides greater heating surface.evaporation 20kg/hr to 3m dia X6m high.

.Cochran Boiler contd«.

in Lancashire Boiler two flue tubes but in Cornish boiler only one flue tubes are there.Lancashire Boiler      Is horizontal smoke tube boiler size range from a shell 2m diaX6m long to 3m diaX10m long Working pressure range are up to 20kgf/cm2 Ratio of heating surface to grate area is 24-30 Efficiency is about 56% without economizer and 75% with economizer. Similar to Cornish boiler. .

Lancashire Boiler contd«« .

Lancashire Boiler contd«« .

Locomotive Boiler  Is an internally fired multitubular fire tube boiler .

LOCOMOTIVE BOILER CONTINUED .

steam and water drum. .Babcock and Wilcox water tube Boiler   Water tube boiler having lager pressure ranges and larger sizes.water tubes and furnace. Three main parts.

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Stirling Boiler  Example of water tube boiler where bent tube are used instead of straight tube which are used in Babcock and Wilcox boiler .

Stirling Boiler .

High Pressure Boilers  Two types.Natural circulation & Forced circulation Boilers .

High Pressure Boilers contd«««  La-Mont Boiler( Forced circulation Boiler) .

La-Mont Boiler .

Benson and Ramzin .saving in weight Supercritical Pressure Boiler Two types.Once-Through Forced Circulation Boiler    Does not required a steam and water drum.

BENSON BOILER .

Ramzin Boiler .

Loeffler Boiler  Indirect heating is combined with forced circulation .

Due to mostly externally fired water tubes boiler so furnace can be altered considerably to meet the fuel requirements. Modern trend is in the favors of water tube boiler due to continuous increase in capacities and steam pressures.so greater reliability and low in first cost.inspection and repairs. Fire tubes boiler is rigid and of simple mechanical construction. . Fire tube boilers can be made in smallest sizes therefore simple to fabricate and transport.therefore more flexible and can meet the sudden demand of steam without much drop of pressure.Fire tubes Vs water tubes Boilers       Fire tubes boilers has a large volume of water. Water tubes boilers are more readily accessible for cleaning. occupies less floor space but more height.compared to the fire tube boilers.

 Fittings which are essential from the safety point of view are as follows.Boiler Mountings and Accessories   Fitting and devices which are necessary for the safety and control are knows as boiler mountings Fitting or devices which are provided to increase the efficiency of the boiler and help in the smooth working of the plant are knows as boiler accessories. Water level indicators Safety valves Combined high steam and low water safety valve Fusible plug     .

 Fittings which are essential from the control point of view are as follows.Boiler Mountings and Accessories contd«. Pressure gauge Junction or stop valve Feed check valve Blow-off cock Man hole and Mud Box           The important accessories are Superheater Economiser Air-preheater Feed pump or injector .

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