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2005_04_Apr_Punching Shear Resis of Flat Slabs Using HSC

2005_04_Apr_Punching Shear Resis of Flat Slabs Using HSC

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Evaluation and enhancing the punching shear resistance of flat slabs using HSC

N. Subramanian

The use of high-strength concrete, with strength exceeding 40 MPa, in reinforced concrete slabs, is becoming popular in India and other countries. Current design provisions of major codes throughout the world are based on empirical relationships developed from tests on low-strength concrete. In this paper, the existing recommendations in design codes for punching shear failure of slabs are reviewed. Though the Indian code formulae predict the punching shear resistance of high strength concrete slabs as compared to the experimental results, they do not consider the reinforcement ratio and size effects. Hence, a formula similar to that of CEB-FIP code formula is suggested. Out of the several methods to enhance the punching shear capacity, the stud shear reinforcement is found to increase the load carrying capacity, punching shear strength and ductility of flat slabs. Recent provisions in the American code allow 100 percent enhancement of shear capacity if shear stud reinforcements are used.
Keywords: BIS provisions, steel shear reinforcement, punching shear, flat slabs, high-strength concrete, stud reinforcement A number of structures including bridges are being built with high-strength concrete (HSC)/high performance concretes (HPC) with strengths exceeding 60 MPa, due to the number of advantages offered by them. HSC members exhibit, in some instances, different failure mechanisms and simply extrapolating models and equations meant for normal strength to HSC may lead to unsafe designs1. The use of HSC improves the punching shear resistance allowing higher forces to be transferred through the slabcolumn connection. Inspite of its wide use, only a few research projects have been conducted on the punching shear resistance of HSC slabs. The empirical expressions given in most of the design codes are based on the experimental results from slabs with concrete strengths up to 40MPa. Hence in this paper, the evaluation of punching shear resistance of flat slabs with respect to some of the major codes of practices are compared with some of the published

experimental data. Methods adopted to enhance the punching shear strength of flat slabs are also discussed. The concrete flat slab system is a slab and column structure without drop panels and column capitals at the slab and column connection. The flat plate structure is advantageous over other slab systems because of the significant savings in construction cost (due to the elimination of beams and adoption of simple form work) and the resulting aesthetic appearance, especially from the slab’s soffit. Moreover, the elimination of beams reduces the overall height of individual floors in a multi-storey building – creating additional floor space for a given building height. Due to the above advantages, such flat slab systems are widely used for multistorey structures such as office buildings, car parks, etc, in several countries. Flat plate slabs exhibit higher stress at the column connection and are most likely to fail due to punching shear rather than flexural failure, especially when a high reinforcement ratio is used. The catastrophic nature of the punching shear problem around the column-slab junction poses a critical problem to the engineers concerned. It has to be noted that the punching

April 2005 * The Indian Concrete Journal


One such failure is the collapse of the six-year old. width.0 32 The Indian Concrete Journal * April 2005 . Such a concentration of shear force and moments leads to unsymmetrical stress distribution around the column-slab connections. shear failure will occur at a load well below the flexural capacity of the slab. Column Slab Slab flat slab constructions built in India have drop panels or width.8 69.000 1. u = length of the critical perimeter.1 75 68 72 71 150 150 150 150 150 150 150 220 300 120/95 120/95 120/95 120/90 150/95 90/70 90/70 120/95 120/95 0. it is interesting to note that not much work Table 1: Variables considered in References 2 and 19 has been done in India. the critical section for checking punching shear in slabs is taken at 0. A typical punching shear failure of a bridge deck during testing is shown in Fig 2.Fig 2 A typical punching shear failure of a bridge deck4 punching phenomenon. probably to avoid this problem. shall be the smallest of shear transfer mechanism.10 lead to reasonable predictions . Korea in 1995..50 74. five-storey Sampoong Department store (originally designed as an office block and later converted to department store with reckless structural modifications) in Seoul.40 75. The square-root formula in the Indian code is adopted 12 from the ACI 318 code .5 2. The methods do not reflect the physical reality of the Marzouk and Hussin HS2 HS7 HS3 HS4 HS5 HS12 HS13 HS14 HS15 2 Square Square Square Square Square Square Square Square Square 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 19 70.640 1.0 1. Moreover. mm (See Fig 3) .193 1.2.5 2. till now. when properly calibrated. Errors in predicting the punching shear have shown to lead to catastrophic failure. Thus.5 to 2 times the effective depth from the edge of the load or the reaction. slab depth and other parameters are considered by the application of different modification factors.12. mm MPa diameter/ depth/effective reinforcement.0 P P P P Square Square Square Square 1900 1900 1900 1900 76. column capitals. ACI code provisions12 ACI 318 code provisions (clause 11.473 Osman. Depending on the code of a country.2 73.842 1. MPa. However. The local and brittle nature of the punching shear failure is in the form of crushing of concrete in the column periphery before the steel reinforcement reaches the yield strain. Marzouk and Helmy HSLW HSLW HSLW HSLW 0. mm depth. The formulae available in different code of practices are discussed briefly in the following section.1) for punching shear are derived from Moe’s work on low strength concrete13. but can. most of the Type Diameter/ fc . Fig 1.(1) In view of the complexities of the three-dimensional d = effective depth of slab. most of the equations are applicable to normal strength concretes up to a grade of M40 only1.5 1. Though the Indian code includes up to M80 grade concrete in Table 1.473 2. Influences of reinforcement. 11.. mm behaviour of the column-slab connections and the uncertainty vn = punching shear strength.524 2.8 68. The observed angle of failure surface was found to vary between 26o and 36o for normal strength concrete and 32o and 38o for HSC2. Generally the punching shear strength values specified in different codes vary with concrete compressive strength fc or n fck and are usually expressed in terms of f ck.1 65.5 1. 2.10 73.0 1. This collapse under service conditions killed 498 people3. due to the concentration of shear forces and the unbalanced bending and twisting moments.0 250 250 250 250 120 115 115 115 0. this problem has been studied of: by a number of researchers all over the world 4–9. In the Indian code IS 456. The ultimate shear strength for slabs without pre-stress is given by Vuo = ud (vn ) where. taken at a distance of d/2 from the column. the punching shear strength is expressed as proportional to √fck. the column will be seen punching through the slab along a truncated cone caused by diagonal cracking around the column. where the design punching load is a product of design nominal shear strength and the area of a chosen critical failure surface. mm percent Provisions in codes of practice Codes of practice of several countries present formulae.473 1.370 0.

9(b) .6..18 (100ρ1 fck )3 + 0. measured concrete strength is taken as fck.10σcp ≥ Vmin + 0. ( ) .(6) ρly. Comparison of test results with code predictions A review of the literature revealed that only a few experimental studies are available on punching shear strength of high-strength slabs2.. As per the British code BS 8110.18ξ (100 ρfck)1/3 u1d . positive if compression). It is to be noted that in the British code. Fig 3 ρ = ρxρ y ... where fck is the characteristic compressive strength of concrete. As per the Indian code.4(a) ks = 0.5 d from the face of the column.9(c) .90 provisions are similar to the British code provisions and the punching shear resistance.. k =1+ ρ1 = 200 ≤ 2.2(a) .. The Australian code AS 3600 (clause 9.9(e) CEB-FIP MC-90 model code17 The CEB-FIP model code MC . is expressed as proportional to (fck) . the punching shear strength of the slab is given by18 V Rd.5 +βc ≤ 1...9(a) British code provisions15 The British code provisions are based on the work by Regan16.5 A s = longitudinal tension reinforcement b = breadth of section d = effective depth of section.25 fck ) In the ultimate limit state the partial safety factor is 1. For the calculation of punching load capacity. respectively 3/2 ½ Vmin = 0.2. Fig 3.(3) Euro code 2 provisions18 The Eurocode provisions are similar to the British code provisions. the critical section for shear is considered at 1. σcz = normal concrete stresses in the critical section in Y and Z directions (MPa. 19-21....7(b) u 1 = length of the critical perimeter at 2d from the column... the shear stress given by equation (6) is multiplied by the factor (fck/25)1/3. which gives Equation (8) F sd = 0. ξ ξ = 1+ 200 d αs = 40 for interior columns.(5) ρly .02 0. the measured strength at the day of the test is substituted for f ’c or fck.. d in mm d . the highest concrete grade considered in MC 90 is M80..5. 2 (i) vn =  1 +  βc   fc'   6  . σcy + σcz 2 .. April 2005 * The Indian Concrete Journal 33 . .ρlz ≤ 0.79  100 As  3  400  4     τc = γ m  bd   d  .. 30 for edge columns and 20 for corner columns β c = ratio of longest column dimension to shorter column/capital dimension.3. which corresponds to fck equal to 80MPa.12ξ (100ρfck) u1d (iii) vn = where.035 k fck .0 The other terms have been defined already. The punching shear resistance is given by 1/3 F sd = 0. the ultimate shear strength for slabs without prestress is given by (clause 31. The values ρly and ρlz should be calculated as mean values taking into account a slab width equal to the column width plus 3d each side... the ultimate shear strength of slabs without pre stress is given by Vuo = udτc where.5..10σcp γck . c = 1 0..2(b) .....7(c) Indian code provisions11 The Indian code provisions are also based on the American code.7(a) where. Equation (7) is multiplied by 1. If the concrete grade is other than M25 (up to a maximum of M40).1 of the code) Vuo = udτc where. In the comparison presented in this paper..... . Unlike the codes stated previously. ρlz relate to the bonded tension steel in x and y directions respectively.. fc' 3 . τc = ks (0.2(c) ' α d  fc (ii) vn =  s + 2   u  12 1/3 Fsd .(4) .. As per Eurocode. σcp = γm = partial safety factor for concrete under shear taken as 1...(8) In the comparison of this study.9(d) γc = partial safety factor for concrete σcy . 1 1 where.3) provisions are similar to Equations (1) and (2)14. The size – effect coefficient.0..

It should also be noted that the partial safety factors in the codal equations were omitted for verification purpose. Ptest .87 0.0 percent.78 1. A considerable variety of concrete strengths.96 0. 19.71 0.65 1. (Enhancement is necessary especially in flat slabs located in seismic areas. During an earthquake. Marzouk and Hussein tested 17 square specimens to investigate the punching shear behaviour of HSC slabs2.5 to 2.81 0. Since AS 3600.84 0. it may be observed that IS 456 (as well as ACI 318 and AS 3600) code formulae are conservative in predicting the punching load whereas the CEB-FIP formula and BS 8100 formula are less conservative (It has to be noted that the tests of Reference 19 are on HSLW concrete.75 0. BS 8110 and CEB-FIP Enhancing the punching shear strength of flat slabs The punching shear resistance of reinforced concrete (RC) flat slabs can be enhanced by various means.85.17 0. Ramdane tested 18 circular slabs of 125 mm thickness and 1700 mm in diameter20. Similar comparisons were made by Ngo. which gives consistent results for normal and high strength concrete (normal and light weight) and also considers size effect and contribution of reinforcement ratio.05 1. It has to be noted that ACI. In these expressions.83 MC-90.Table 2: Comparison of experimental and predicted punching shear strengths.86 0. kN Marzouk and Hussein HS2 HS7 HS3 HS4 HS5 HS12 HS13 HS14 HS15 Osman.012.76 0. the unbalanced moment transferred between slabs and column may produce significant shear stresses that will increase the likelihood of brittle fracture). Similarly the Eurocode values are similar to that of CEB-FIP code.33 1.0 percent.49 – 2. The slabs had a nominal thickness of 240 mm with an effective depth of 200 mm.77 0. Hence.82 0. slab reinforcement ratios and slab depths were represented in these studies. The slabs were equally reinforced in orthogonal directions and were without shear reinforcement.02 In these studies. All slabs were provided with two-way flexural reinforcement consisting of deformed bars with a mean flexural reinforcement ratio of 0.40 1. From Table 2. Three slabs had shear reinforcement. Osman.84 1.93 0.5 percent reinforcement failed under flexural mode whereas the other specimens failed under punching shear. Indian and Australian code equations assume that the punching shear stress is proportional to square root of the concrete compressive strength.50 538.16 0. the values are conservative for steel ratios ≥ 1.88 0. 20 and 21 and concluded that AS 3600 and ACI 318 formulae are applicable to HSC4. 303. The enlargement of column cross-section and thickening of the portion of the slab around the column (by use of drop panels or column shear capitals) will enhance the shear 34 The Indian Concrete Journal * April 2005 .98 0. A brief description of the research studies is given below. whereas the European codes (Eurocode 2.05 1. They were divided into three groups in terms of main steel ratio with different concrete cylinder strengths varying from 32 to 102 MPa.16 0.5 2. the limits with respect to the concrete strength have been ignored. tests were conducted on square or circular slabs supported by column stubs or loading plates. of the slabs to the values predicted by IS 456. He also found that CEB-FIP formula is less conservative and should be applied to concretes with strength up to 80 MPa.95 for 19 HSLW concrete .63 1. Comparison of the code formulae with the test results of Reference 19 shows that the ACI code is conservative for steel ratios ≥ 1.58 0.0 P P P P 2 IS 456 BS 8110 CEB-FIP 249 356 356 418 365 258 267 498 560 19 1. The CEB-FIP expression is less conservative and more consistent compared with the test results of HSLW concretes.33 percent) were studied. They found that the specimen with 0.80). Table 1 shows the test variables of Reference 2 and 19. who compared ACI 318-95.0 1. Hallgren and Kinnunen tested 10 circular HSC slabs.99 0. ACI 318 and IS 456 formulae are similar. Marzouk and Helmy tested four slabs to study the behaviour of high-strength light weight concrete slabs 19 under punching loads .5 1. The structural behaviour with regard to the deformation and strength characteristic of HSC slabs of various thicknesses and different reinforcement ratios (0.90 0. Table 2 compares the experimental ultimate loads. BS 8110 and CEB-FIP) assume that it is proportional to the cubic root of concrete compressive strength. The capacity reduction factor is assumed to be equal to 1.76 0. BS 8110 similarly adopts a reduction factor of 0.78 0.95 0.54 613.003 to 0. Marzouk and Helmy HSLW HSLW HSLW HSLW 0. These slabs were having concrete of compressive strength higher than 70 MPa with steel ratios ranging from 0.81 0. Due to the reduction factors specified by ACI and BS codes for the light weight concrete.70 473.85 0. The compressive strengths of HSC specimens were between 85 and 108 MPa. the IS 456 values only are shown in Table 2. The ACI code requires that for semi-light weight (sand-light weight) concrete.97 0. it is suggested that the Indian code formula should be changed similar to the CEB-FIP code.90 0. They also found that for high strength light weight concrete o o (HSLW) the angle of failure surface was between 25 and 29 . supported on circular concrete column stubs21.74 0. P code /P u Experimental Pu .08 0.0 and hence Osman et al suggested that the reduction factors in both the codes be changed to 0.85 0. The test results also indicate that the punching shear capacity of the connection increases as the steel reinforcement ratio is increased. the shear stresses obtained by Equation (2) are to be multiplied by a reduction factor equal to 0. AS 3600 and CEB-FIP formulae with test results of References 2.71 0. The total diameter of the slabs was 2540 mm and the diameter of the circle along which the load was uniformly distributed was 2400 mm.

Moreover with stirrup legs. use of shear capitals to increase the punching shear resistance 22 Due to these reasons. bends and longitudinal slab flexural view. is found to provide an economic reinforcement and the concrete headed shear stud and welded wire and aesthetic solution. Though this stud-shear reinforcement has been in in earthquake zones). Megally the hooks or bends crushes or splits. also called the rail. structural shear heads anchor head (in the form of steel I-or channel sections). greater than four times slab thickness plus the largest column dimension. The and improves the punching shear resistance. The performance of several types of shear connection able slip. steel strip. Also. In order to solve this problem. accompanied by sudden separation of the shear capital from Since the length of the vertical leg of stirrup in the slab is the slab. Fig 4. bent – up bars. The stud has an anchor head and a steel strip welded to its However. lodged at stirrup corners .3) especially in earthquake zones (for the shear capital to be discourages their use in slabs thinner effective. Canada has developed three It can be seen from Table 2 that slabs. a small slip causes a large drop in force22. due to the reinforcements such as inclined stirrups. However. the anchorage is the already complex punching shear performance of the achieved mechanically by the forged heads or by the steel column-slab connection. the shear stud reinforcement types of pre-assembled shear reinincreasing the amount of flexural forcing units. since it complicates the April 2005 * The Indian Concrete Journal 35 . strip. The full yield strength of the In view of the above. the existence of spandrel beams will complicate top and bottom respectively. Before the force reduce the floor space and thicker slabs will increase dead in a stirrup leg reaches its yield strength. causing slip and thus and Ghali showed that the failure of shear capital is preventing development of the full strength of the stirrups22. which has an area hooked bars and welded-wire fabric have been tested equal to 9 to 10 extensively in the last three decades 24-30. such solutions are not feasible. namely. From the economic and aesthetic point of means of hooks.placement of the flexural reinforcement in thin slabs. Fig 5. Amongst various methods used to and should also be reinforced like drop the research team in the university of panels22). their length should be than 250mm. it is not yet available in the Indian market. Thus. Provision of spandrel beams along the edges of the slab will improve the punching shear capacity of the slab 23. the I-segment. in the form of stirrups as an anchor and has been found to be expensive. ACI 318-02 commentary (clause 11. since large columns will 12 reinforcement. In addition they have develbeneficial effect. acts Conventional shear reinforcement. along with brittle failure and do not recommend the relatively short. Figs effective in increasing ductility (which is an important criteria 6 and 7. many researchers have found that stud was found to the introduction of shear reinforcement is more economical be developed and reduces the chances of brittle failure at slab-column without appreci24-30 . 25 compressive strength will have some fabric . the anchorage is provided by resistance. Fig 7. the concrete within load and subsequently the cost of foundations. enhance punching shear of flat Calgary.12. increasing oped a type of shear reinforcement the flexural reinforcement is less called stud-shear reinforcement26. use in the international market for the past few years. It has been found times the crossthat the introduction of such shear reinforcement results in sectional area of ductile failure caused by yielding of flexural reinforcement the stud 31 .

when the shear capacity of slab calculated using Equation (1) exceeds the applied shear. References 32 and 33 provide more details about methods of design and worked out design examples.(10) 2 where.. A v = cross-sectional area of the shear reinforcement on one peripheral line parallel to the column faces. holding the studs in a vertical position at the appropriate spacing in the formwork until the concrete is cast. The Indian code suggests that 8 the shear stress carried by the concrete shall be assumed to be 0. Equations 2(c) and 10 indicate that the maximum enhancement of punching strength with shear reinforcement does not exceed 50 percent.1R-99 allows v n to reach 3 stud shear reinforcement is used. punching shear strength and ductility of flat slabs29-31. For most slab-columns without shear reinforcement. It also considers vc = 1 fc' ... the above equations (Equations 10 and 11) can be directly adopted in the Indian code. Several tests have been conducted which confirmed that the use of shear studs increase the load-carrying capacity. fc' vn = vc +vs ≤ . a drop panel or by using shear reinforcement. Since Indian code provision (Equations 3 and 4) are similar to those of ACI code provisions. Fig 8 s = spacing between peripheral lines f yv = specified yield strength of shear reinforcement. vn .75d and must be continued to a distance d beyond the section at which the shear stress is within allowable limits. Generally. reduce congestion and do not interfere with flexural reinforcement. This is conservative compared to the ACI code provision.spacer.11(b) where..22.. vs = nominal shear stress provided by shear reinforcement vc = nominal shear stress of concrete in the presence of shear reinforcement. the punching shear strength can be augmented by a shear capital. Punching shear stress in the presence of shear reinforcement As discussed above. However. The formulae for calculating the capacity of concrete and the capacity of shear reinforcement are: vs = vc ≤ representing 100 percent increase31. Hence. the critical section for punching shear gets shifted further from the column. when shear 6 reinforcement is provided.11(a) . 36 The Indian Concrete Journal * April 2005 . 1 fc' ) and reinforcement shall carry 8 the remaining shear. Equation 2(c) will govern the capacity of the concrete. the Indian code requires that the shear strength should be investigated at successive sections (at intervals of 0. The tests also revealed that such studs are easy to install. ACI 2 fc' if 421.. the nominal shear stress.25 fc' instead of stress does not exceed . Indian code also recommends that the spacing of stirrups should not exceed 0.5tc (which will be fck Av f yv us fc' 6 ≤ fc' 3 . Fig 5. When shear reinforcement is present.75d as per the Explanatory hand book) away from the column till the shear 0. is given by the ACI code as 12.

26. which are based on the tests on normal strength concrete. Stud shear reinforcement for flat concrete plates. 4th International Symposium on Utilization of High-Strength/High–Performance Concrete. 87. D. November-December 1991. . Concrete International. 515-525. Vol. 88. Sydney. pp. VOCKS. Design of stud-shear reinforcement for slabs. Vol. 3. pp. pp. Y. A. .M. Skokie. A. Bureau of Indian Standards. pp. Y. 1985. N. C. 52. pp. P. A. A. A. No. 89. Concrete International. Journal of the American Concrete Institute. pp. E. The effects of shear reinforcement on the reversed cyclic loading behavior of flat-plate structures. 33. ______Shear Reinforcement for Slabs. Vol. 1999. M ITCHELL . 1999. pp. N. Cautionary note on shear capitals. pp. 14. Shear reinforcement for deflection ductility of flat slabs. N. 25. . and HUSSEIN. A. Punching shear of high performance concrete slabs. 77. Fourth Revision. 5. No. Vol. 1. K. No. 52-59. Australia. 5. 16. 1. ______State-of-the-Art Report on High-Strength Concrete. due to the advantages offered by them. . 1037-1046. ACI Committee 421. Y.N. TRITA–BKN. Shearing strength of reinforced concrete slabs and footings under concentrated loads. pp. 27. GHALI. F. SEIBLE. 1980. and LOO. Part I: Code of Practice for Design and Construction. Concrete International. 263-271. 1. CEB-FIP Bulletin d’ Information No. ______Design of Concrete Structures. Punching shear resistance of high strength concrete slabs. reduce congestion and do not interfere with flexural reinforcement. ACI Structural Journal. Since the Indian code provisions are based on American code provisions. 22.. 17. Michigan. Relationship of the punching shear capacity of reinforced concrete slabs with concrete strength. N. and KINNUNEN. pp 66-71. Portland Cement Association. 21. Hence. J. 5. 1990. 90/1/1. Vol. 1975. 6. A comparison of the provisions of various codes of practices with the available test data shows that Indian code (ACI and Australian codes have similar provisions) provisions are applicable to HSC also. 32. Farmington Hills. Increase of punching shear capacity by using high-strength concrete. 701-713. 24. H. Vol. Vol. 30. OEZBOLT. N. May-June 1990. Cement and Concrete Composites. 130 pp. 87. 23. MARZOUK. pp. The European codal provisions which include these parameters also and based on cube root of compressive strength of concrete are found to predict the punching shear strength of flat slabs consistently for high strength normal weight and high strength light weight concretes. 197-207. May 2003. 75-82. K. Three dimensional numerical analysis of punching failure. March 2002. and HELMY. 3. 2. R. 7.S. 197. 91. HALLGREN. S. E. October 2002. 19. Vol. ACI Structural Journal. pp. Vol. OSMAN. ACI Structural Journal. (ACI 421. 2. 1998. ACI Structural Journal. 1992. F. He is the recipient of ACCE-Nagadi Award (for his book on Space Structures) and Tamilnadu Scientist Award. Hence. However. 24. pp. 3. 2003. C. the shear stud reinforcement (SSR) is found to provide economic and aesthetic solution. pp.Vol. ••• April 2005 * The Indian Concrete Journal 37 . S. No. December 8-10. pp. M. Equations (10) and (11) can be adopted in the Indian code also. 87. 15. ______Concrete structures standard. No. Vol. Vol. GARDNER. 77.Summary and conclusions RC flat slab systems are popular in several countries of the world. He is the past vice president of the Indian Concrete Institute and the Association of Consulting Civil Engineers (India). KHWAOUNJOO. D. 676-683.J. Effectiveness of shear reinforcement in slabs. 15. pp. and GILBERT. May-June 2000. industrial buildings and space frames. Vol. 28. SSR are also easy to install. ACI. pp. 13. MOE . 18. P. Punching shear tests of half scale reinforced concrete flat plate models with spandrel beams.. HUH. Vol. Influence of boundary conditions on punching shear behavior of flat-plate-column connections.J. 2. these provisions do not consider reinforcement ratio and size effects. ELGABRY. pp. Part 1: General Rules and Rules for Buildings. 5. 6. 3. and DILGER. including the American Society of Civil Engineers. and H ANNA . Electronic Journal of Structural Engineering. He also worked with the Technical University of Berlin and the Technical University of Bundeswehr. 696-705. 31. pp. ______CEB-FIP Model Code 1990. May 2003. . Shear strength of high strength concrete beams: Review of the codal provisions. 1015-1026. A. Sydney. 45-150. No.H. Standards Association of Australia. No. Development Bulletin No. American code provides design equations for flat slabs with SSR. 1996. ACI Structural Journal. CHANA. 30. 28-35. J. MEGALLY. and DILGER. December 2002. 65-74. No. Michigan. GHALI. M. H. V. 60-65. S. ACI Structural Journal. prEN 1992 –1-1: Euro Code 2. RAMDANE. . Vol. Canadian Journal of Civil Engineering. 697-707. Punching shear resistance of corner slab. No. D47. 97.J. pp. Failure analysis of column-slab connections with stud shear reinforcement. th Proceedings of the 16 Australian Conference on the Mechanics of Structures and Materials. S. 1974. 20. the punching shear strength of flat slabs is enhanced by 100 percent. 6. pp. Canadian Journal of Civil Engineering. London. 29. 523-529. W. 7-9 June 2000. 12. 4th International Symposium on Utilization of HighStrength/High-Performance Concrete.E. 6. 21-24. Thomas Telford Ltd. 1R-99). ______Structural use of concrete. 1997. 6. The Indian Concrete Journal. pp. Studies on concrete slabs with stud shear reinforcement in vicinity of edge and corner columns. Preassembled shear reinforcing units for flat-plates. MARZOUK. Dr N. 2001. and GHALI. Using these equations. GHALI. 69. They not only enhance the shear capacity but also result in flexural failure of the slab and thus increasing the ductility of flat slab. and GHALI. ACI Structural Journal. No. FALAMAKI. Vol. 20. Vol. American Concrete Institute. GHALI A. Out of the various methods to enhance the punching shear strength of flat slabs. April 1961. 1990. ACI Structural Journal. No. and CHUNG. N. 14. 10. SUBRAMANIAN. Paris. 1090-1094. New Delhi. J. W. Experimental investigation on the behaviour of high-strength concrete slabs. Chennai. R. No. NGO. No. which is very important in earthquake prone zones. GUAN. Anchoring with double-head studs. 1992. Munich for 2 years as Alexander von Humboldt Fellow. The Structural Engineer. the provisions of CEB-FIP model code equations are proposed to be adopted by the Indian code. 572-582. American Concrete Institute. and ELIGEHAUSEN. Dr Subramanian has contributed more than 160 technical papers in seminars and journals and published 19 books. ______Building code requirements for structural concrete and commentary. ACI Structural Journal. July 2000. November-December 1994. E. References 1. Stockholm. 1995. British Standard Institution. M. Punching shear in concrete slabs. A. He is a life fellow of several professional bodies. pp. 24. 92. W. 1996. 11. they are suggested for use in flat slabs. 4. 1991. C.J. REGAN. LIM. 11. and DILGER. and RANGAN. Bulletin 57.column connections. Vol. Vol. H. and LOO. The use of HSC has necessitated the re-evaluation of the formulae used in code of practices. No. GARDNER. steel towers. 3. No. London 1993. 15. Behaviour of high strength concrete slabs under punching loads. 282-285. 6. and HAMMILL. Design for punching shear. H AWKINS . 2002. S. Proceedings of the International Workshop on Punching Shear Capacity of RC Slabs. pp. Lessons from the Sampoong Department Store Collapse. Subramanian is the chief executive of Computer Design Consultants. BROMS. FOSTER. AS 3600.T.R. H. and GHALI. L. 350-361. ACI Committee 318. H. ______Indian standard code of practice for plain and reinforced concrete. HAMMILL. Structural Engineer (London). pp 492-498. Farmington Hills. 9. BS 8110. MOKHTAR. 1990. European Committee for Standardisation. The highlights of his professional career of 23 years include designing several multi-storey concrete buildings. 8. No. 934-944. 82. IS 456 : 2000. A. Paris. B. H. No. Vol.

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