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SMS in GSM Network
Jul 19, 2010 at 9:45 am in GSM by Shri · Tags: Beginners, GSM, Mobile, SMS, Telecom
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SMS Basic : • • SMS (Short Message Service) is the transmission of short text messages to and from a mobile phone, or any other device capable of generating the SMS. It is composed of a maximum of 160 characters, each coded on 7 bits (GSM) or 140 bytes. End to end SMS delivery completes in two parts, First SMS submission in SMSC (Short Message Service Centre) by originating subscriber, second Delivery of SMS to recipient subscriber. So SMS is a Stored and Forward Service. Once a message is sent, it is received by a Short Message Service Centre (SMSC) of the calling subscriber’s network, which then delivers it to the appropriate destination device.
This type of SMS delivery is also termed as Push method. the content provider usually has a revenue share agreement with the service provider. In all these types of SMS transfer. For other alphabets. the SMS is between two individual subscribers. the maximum SMS size is 70 characters. In this type mode. P2N & I2P. They also accept SMS originating from the Internet messaging web sites. through the SMSC of the terminating operator. On the basis of originating and terminating identities. Advertisers provide the messages and mobile numbers to an operator. SMS can be broadly classified into the following 4 categories : P2P. such as Chinese. The content provider then uses the short codes to provide different kinds of services like astrology information. or even via the Internet. Operators charge premium rate for these SMS to the short codes.In the GSM SMS delivery. SMSC HLR MSC • • • Basic SMS Network Element : • • • . fixed phone. etc. ring tones. Types of SMS : With the growing convergence Technology of networks and services. P2N (Person to Network) or P2A (Person to Application) : The Person to Network (P2N) SMSs are usually an on-net service. The SMSC or originating operator stores the SMS & sends it to the recipient. then the resources of the terminating operator are also used for delivering of such SMSs. games. SMS can be send from a mobile phone. then SMS moves only within the network of one operator and hence there is no issue of loading resources of other operators. picture downloads. but if the recipient subscriber is attached with another operator. However In CDMA (Code Division Multiple Access) network or GSM to CDMA SMS transfer. tele-voting. who then sends the messages in broadcast mode to the recipients. • SMS uses the signaling channel (not dedicated). The operator gives the content provider a 4-5 digit short SMS code. the recipient SMSC is also used for terminating the SMS to the recipient. advertising agencies have a commercial agreement with one or more service providers. so it can be sent/received simultaneously with the voice/data/fax service over a network. SMS termination does not require the SMSC of the recipient subscriber’s Operator. A2P (Application/Advertiser to Person) : In Advertiser/Application to Person (A2P) SMS mode. If the SMS transfer is onnet. either directly or in case of GSM to CDMA or CDMA to CDMA network. SMS Text Length: The “short” part refers to the maximum size of the text messages: 160 characters (letters. A2P. I2P (Internet to Person) : The Internet to Person (I2P) arrangement allowed by some operators with the provision of a web interface enables a person to send an SMS from the Internet to mobile subscribers. numbers or symbols in the Latin alphabet). the air interface-signalling channel is extensively used for terminating the SMS traffic. • P2P (Person to Person) : In Person to Person (P2P) mode. or in case of some services like Push SMS.
. SMSC. To delivers a SM SMSC has to find out the location (serving MSC) and the International Mobile Subscriber Identity (IMSI) of the recipient subscriber first. which includes IMSI and serving MSC of recipient number. HLR Provides routing Information to SMSC. This information (routing information) is retrieved from the Home Location Register (HLR) of the recipient subscriber based on the recipient number (MSISDN). and thereafter it is carried on the Signaling System 7 (SS7) signalling channel throughout BSC. Basic SMS Call Flow : End to end SMS transaction completes in 2 parts : • • Message submission by originating subscriber to its SMSC (Mobile Originating Part) Message delivery by SMSC to recipient Subscriber (Mobile terminating Part) Basic end to end SMS call flow shown in following diagram : SMS Originating Part – MO SM Submit : • • The SM is sent from the originating Mobile Station (MS) to the serving Mobile Switching Center (MSC). SMS Terminating Part – MT SM Deliver : • • • SMS Delivery Report : Successful Delivery – On successful delivery SMSC sends delivery report to the originator if requested.• • • • VLR BSC BTS UE (User Equipment : Mobile/Laptop/Fixed Phone) SMS is carried on a signaling channel of air interface from mobile handsets to the Base Transceiver Station (BTS). MSC/VLR. The MSC forwards the SM to the SMSC. The SMSC returns a positive (ACK) or negative (NACK) response indicating whether the message was successfully stored of not. The address of the SMSC where the SM should be submitted to is stored on the SIM card of the subscriber and forwarded to the MSC with the message. Based on routing information SMSC delivers SM to the serving MSC and MSC forwards it to the recipient Mobile Station.
Failed Delivery – If SMS is not delivered to the recipient number SMSC send failure reason to the originator. Mobile Originating Forward Short Message (MO Forward SM): Between Origin MSC and Origin SMSC. The MSC initiates this service if a subscriber indicates memory available situation. Report Short Message Delivery Status: Between Origin SMSC and Destination HLR. When the HLR detects the presence of the subscriber. whose MSISDN is in the Message Waiting Data file. it alerts the SMSC and SMSC forwards SM to the serving MSC. Alert Service Centre: Between Destination HLR and Origin SMSC. SMS Applications : • • Text message exchange between Mobile subscriber. Network Trigger : If the subscriber is not reachable (absent) the SMSC notifies the HLR that there is a message waiting for the recipient number. Regular SMS Messages : Send Routing Information for Short Message (SRI-SM): Between Origin SMSC and Destination HLR. is active or the MS has memory available. Inform Service Centre: Between Destination HLR and Origin SMSC. to set the Message Waiting Data into the HLR or to inform the HLR of successful SM transfer after polling. The VLR uses the service to indicate this to the HLR. called SMSC retry. or to provide status on different messaging flags. Send-Info-For-MT-SMS: Between the Destination MSC and VLR. to inform the SMSC which MSISDN number is stored in the Message Waiting Data file. to request subscriber related information from the VLR. • • Permanent Error : For example – Unknown Subscriber Temporary Error : For example – Absent Subscriber SMSC Retry : In case of temporary errors the SMSC schedules a next delivery attempt. Ring Tone . to request subscriber related information from the VLR. Send-Info-For-MO-SMS: Between the Origin MSC and VLR. Ready For Short Message: Between the Destination MSC and Destination VLR as well as between the Destination VLR and the Destination HLR. to retrieve the routing information needed for routing the short message to the servicing MSC. to forward mobile terminated short messages. to forward mobile originated short messages. to inform SMSC that a subscriber. Mobile Terminating Forward Short Message (MT Forward SM): Between Origin SMSC and Destination MSC.
whether MSC or SGSN. 2. 2010: Log in to Reply . 2010: Log in to Reply What is the difference between MAP opcode 44 (mt-forwardSM) and MAP opcode 46 (commonly called mo-forwardSM) which is capable of both MO (subscriber to SMSC) and MT (SMSC to serving MSC)? Why would one use opcode 44 when the same thing can be accomplished with opcode 46? Thanks in advance. kishsreeram said on Nov 16. I hope it clarifies your query. Thanks Shri 3. SM RP DA. The information from the MMS indication received from the Service Centre is inserted in this parameter. Tiger said on Sep 26. “More Message to send” is available in MT_FSM as conditional parameter and used to indicate whether or not the service centre has more short messages to send. The Mandatory MAP Parameters (Invoke ID. It means apart from SMS if other services (MMS/MNP) are involved these messages (MO_FSM/MT_FSM) have different significance. SM RP OA.• • • • Logo Stock Information Tele-Voting (TV Show) Vending machine Remote Management 43 Comments 1. But conditional MAP Parameters are different in both messages. 2010: Log in to Reply MT-Forward SM (opcode – 44) is used between the gateway MSC and the servicing MSC or the SGSN to forward mobile terminated short message. SM RP UI) in both messages are same that’s why in some cases (very rare) MO-Forward SM used in place of MT-Forward SM. MO-Forward SM (opcode – 46) is used between the serving MSC or the SGSN and the SMS Interworking MSC to forward mobile originated short messages. supports mobile number portability. Shri said on Oct 6. Similarly “IMSI” is available in MO_FSM as conditional parameter and shall be included if the sending entity.
switched off or memory full. in both cases SMSC already have the serving MSC GT (where B number is roaming). In case of SMS is not delivered in first attempt due to absent subscriber. 2010: Log in to Reply @moein Hi Moein. In standard SRI for SM. 2010: Log in to Reply why in the first SMS the SMSC send to HLR SRI but the next SMS doesnt ask to HLR and the SMS send to directy to MSC/VLR.? 6. either SMSC will do retry to deliver SMS or on the basis of Alert_Service_Centre message received from HLR. there is always MAP Opcode = 45. . 2010: Log in to Reply @Cesar Hi Cesar. Shri said on Dec 8. In first SMS.Thank you Appreciated:) 4. to get the MSC GT (where B number is roaming) and IMSI of B number. SMSC reinitiate MT_FSM message. Send Routing Info For SM (Invoke) message has the application context = 20 (dialoguePDU: ShortMsgGateway) . 2010: Log in to Reply What are the messages who have the application context=20 and are there any cases where the SRT-for-SM issued without indicating the Op Code 5. moein said on Nov 27. SMSC sends SRI_SM to HLR. Shri said on Dec 8. Thanks Shri 7. so it does not send SRI_SM to HLR but directly sends MT_FSM to MSC/VLR. cesar said on Dec 3.
Shri said on Dec 27. MSC (VLR) sends this message to HLR if a subscriber indicates memory available situation. has radio contact in the MSC. After receiving. 2010: Log in to Reply i have a question . SMSC (gateway MSC) sends Report_SM_Delivery_Status to set the Message waiting Data into the HLR. If HLR does not have the last VLR location. . 2010: Log in to Reply @ Tarik. Ready_SM (Ready for SM) message used between MSC to VLR and VLR to HLR or SGSN to HLR. HLR simply responds to SMSC (SRI_SM_Resp) with subscriber not reachable status. After receiving Alert_SC message SMSC (gateway MSC) again initiate SRI_SM to deliver SMS to subscriber. Badr said on Dec 24. In that case first Location update will take place before any other MAP message communication. this clarifies your query. When HLR receives SRI_SM from SMSC (gateway MSC) for the subscriber whose location is not updated in HLR. LU process will take place and subscriber will updated into the HLR with current VLR.Thanks Shri 8. Now HLR sends Alert_SC message (Subscriber available) to SMSC (gateway MSC) as MSISDN is stored in Message waiting Data of HLR. 2010: Log in to Reply Great article! Thanks for sharing knowledg 10. Hi Tarik. In that case subscriber is not able to receive SMS as well as Voice call. Once subscriber get network coverage. whose message waiting flag is active in the VLR. Tariq said on Dec 14. it means subscriber is not updated or not registered in HLR. if HLR does not have the last VLR location of the mobile and then someone send SMS to subscriber . Hope. if the VLR he is in send SM_Ready and message delivered will HLR register this VLR address based on the SM_Ready message ? 9. subscriber not reachable status from HLR. in summary we can say a subscriber can not receive either SMS or Voice call if it is not updated into the HLR. So.
Pls find the answers of your questions below: 1. SMSC-A analyze B-MSISDN and forwards SMS (SRI_SM and subsequently MT_FSM) to NW-B on the basis of routing table configured at NW-A for B-MSISDN. SMSC/IWG of NW-A routes the SMS directly to the serving MSC of subscriber B. How can NW-A identify which network to forward the SMS to? Ans : At NW-A. Let’s assume that an SMS is sent from subscriber A (who is in network NW-A) to subscriber B (in network NW-B). which subsequently delivers the SMS to its subscriber? What does the choice between the two methods depend on? Ans : Yes you are right. 2011: Log in to Reply Great article! I have a few questions with regards to the implementation and routing of SMSs. Thanks for your comment and questions.Thanks Shri 11. Am I correct to say that there are two ways of delivering the SMS. one where the SMSC/IWG of NW-A routes the call directly to the serving MSC of subscriber B and one where the NW-A SMSC forwards the SMS to the SMSC of NW-B. it depends upon the implementation logic and methodology adopted by the network for terminating SMS. one where the SMSC/IWG of NW-A routes the call directly to the serving MSC of subscriber B and one where the NW-A SMSC forwards the SMS to the SMSC of NW-B. kvoulgar said on Jan 31. Am I correct to say that there are two ways of delivering the SMS. whereas for . When SMSC of NW-A receives MO_FSM for the subscriber of NW-B. 2011: Log in to Reply @kvoulgar Hi Kvoulgar. Is there any reason why NW-A needs to identify or know the MNC of NW-B? Thanks a lot in advance for enlightening my ignorance ○ Shri said on Feb 6. Normally GSM to GSM having bilateral agreement for SMS between two MNOs. How can NW-A identify which network to forward the SMS to? 2. which subsequently delivers the SMS to its subscriber? What does the choice between the two methods depend on? 3. 1. MSISDN ranges (GT Levels) of NW-B (where SMS to be forwarded) is already defined under AA19 agreement between both networks. 2.
SMS terminating from GSM network to CDMA network. so either it will kill the message or returns UDTS to B. Shri said on Feb 19. Is there any reason why NW-A needs to identify or know the MNC of NW-B? Ans : To identify the network to which subscriber B belongs. there should be some arrangement in MNP implemented country. To ensure successful SMS delivery in such type of situation. operator “A” directly sends the SRI_SM request to Operator “B”. for all MSISDN series of Operator “B”. A can not invoke SRI_SM through SMS Hub as Subscriber number range belongs to B and for B. C can not able to response SRI_SM request as C can not recognize the calling party Address. when operator A request SRI_SM to operator B unfortunately the subscriber has changed to another operator C which is county A has not direct relation with but through third party . 3. Thanks Shri 12. 2011: Log in to Reply @Chapi Hi Chapi As Operator “A” has only bilateral relationship with Operator “B”. It is not necessary SMS hub is single there might be more than one SMS hub but all the SMS hub must have relationship with all the operators of MNP implemented country. Since Subscriber is ported into another Operator “C” and there is no bilateral relationship between A and C. Thanks in advance. 2011: Log in to Reply Can you help me how to send SMS from a county no MNP to a county having MNP. . chapi said on Feb 6. so SMS delivery is not possible. SMSHub scenario also is in practice where SMS Hub delivers SMS from one network to another for those MNOs who don’t have bilateral agreement for SMS. if B routes SRI_SM to C with CGPA of A at SCCP layer. For instance operator A has direct relation with operator B in county having MNP . One of the most popular arrangements is to receive international SMS only through SMS hubs having relationship with all the operators of MNP implemented country. MNC is required for billing settlement and reporting purpose. My question is how operator A receives return result for SRI_SM? Operator A has to invoke SRI_SM second times through third party(Hub)or operator B will forward the message (SRI_SM) to operator C then through Hub. Again. NW-A must know the MNC of NW-B. 13. A is not using SMS Hub and there is no mechanism in place by which A get the idea about portability of subscriber in a country where A and B are providing service. SMSC/IWG of NW-A forwards the SMS to the SMSC of NW-B. so that GTs of SMS hub allowed to all the operators and they can response SRI_SM request coming through these SMS hub. Apart from these two scenarios.
Actually im searching for telecom protocol testing job. Thanks. Fivefingers said on Apr 14.Workedwith Huawei telecommunicationsas a BSS engineer. sccp etc? Cheers. Atul Yadav said on Apr 21. 15. 2011: Log in to Reply Hi Shri. Hope this help you understanding SMS delivery in a MNP implemented country.a through knowledge… 16. Do you have sources you can share for detailed SS7 sms flow analysis. SRI_SM request coming from A to B for a subscriber ported in to C. ○ Guna said on Sep 7.. 2011: Log in to Reply Hi Shri.Another mechanism is.please give ur valuable advices and tips for how to get a job in the same. 2011: Log in to Reply hiii Shri.i have much interested to settled n telecom protocol testing side. Shoaib said on Apr 10. B routes SRI_SM request to C with CGPA of its own GT (replacing GT of A) . so that C can response SRI_SM to B and B again routes SRI_SM_Resp to A with its own GT ( replacing GT of C). . Can you share some docs on SMS flow and the troubleshooting methods.i have a real time exp in domain side. For example. all the operators perform sort of aggregation activity for incoming SRI_SM request. keep it up. Thanks Shri 14. 2011: Log in to Reply Shri…. like MAP dialogues.Great Replies. Great article and very through answers. Dis is Guna from Hyderabad.right now i was resigned in this company.
is it possible? 18. if the SUB A is from India and SUB B is also from India. Sandeep said on May 9. For your Question “cant just SMSC direct ask HLR for the SUB B info and then . in which CGSCCP is GMSC GT & CDSCCP is B-party number. 20. 2011: Log in to Reply Always SMS will go from A-number Home SMSC.SUB A is in UK (Roaming)and he is sending message to SUB B and B is in INDIA(Home network). in your case SMSC in India.17. 2011: Log in to Reply Question: I have seen few messages without opcode. 2011: Log in to Reply HI. shashank said on Jun 13. 2011: Log in to Reply What are the parameters used in mo-ForwardSM Ack? It would be greate if I could get some pcap files. so the flow of sms wil go from which SMSC?is it the SMSC in UK or the SMSC in INDIA? Could someone explain the detail flow or any site where i can find this flow? and also need to know what is the use of IW MSC in SMS flow? cant just SMSC direct ask HLR for the SUB B info and then submit the sms to MSC B ? ○ support said on Jun 13. osainet said on May 25. Raj said on Apr 29. Thanks 19. 2011: Log in to Reply nice one. Now the case is. I had a question for SMS flow in roaming cases.
2011: Log in to Reply @ Shoaib and @ Atul. MAP Opcode – 47) 3. Normally abort MAP messages do not contain any Opcode but these are error message. SRI_SM (Send Routing Info for Short Message. Besides. SIMS (Send IMSI. Hope this clarify your doubt? Our volunteers are in the process of updating all the basic voice. Please check our website regularly for the call flows. Roaming and SMS scenario in our website. Thanks Shri 22. 2011: Log in to Reply @ Raj Dear Raj. So. ETSI and GSMA documents on SMS for more information and knowledge. as per GSMA recommendation there should be no MAP message with B-MSISDN at CDSCCP without Opcode. Storing the SMSC will required infrastructure. Thanks Shri . RSDS (Report SM Delivery Status.com and it will help millions of readers 21. Shri said on Jun 15. MAP Opcode – 58) Above mentioned messages have specific Opcode. Dear Shoab and Atul. we will do further analysis. We will publish shortly a series on GSM MAP message flow which include GSM call as well as non call flow messages in detail. If B SUB is not present at this moment then Home SMSC store the message and then it will deliver whenever B SUB is active. All other MAP messages contain Network Node Address at CDSCCP. MAP Opcode – 45) 2. you can refer 3GPP specifications. Note: you can also contribute to learntelecom. these are: 1.submit the sms to MSC B ?”. so it’s not possible to ask HLR directly and forward. There are 3 MAP messages having B-MSISDN (B-Party Number) in CDSCCP. Shri said on Jun 15. SMSC is used for store & forward the SMSC. due to this it will always first submit it to Home SMSC and from Home SMSC it will ask B SUB HLR for info through SRI_SM message. If you can provide sample of SS7 message without Opcode.
Mike said on Jun 22. MSC does not accept FSM ???? 26. Mike said on Jun 22. 2011: Log in to Reply Hi I’ve a question. 2011: Log in to Reply @ Sandeep Dear Sandeep. Is SMS stored in GSM? if yes. about a SMS.23.Provider Error (Optional Parameter) – This parameter is used to indicate a protocol related type of error: Thanks Shri 24. Pooya said on Jun 20. Parameters used in Mo-ForwardSM_Ack message: At SCCP Layer: CDPA = MSC Address CGPA = SMSC (or Interworking MSC) Address At MAP Layer: .User Error (Conditional Parameter) – Facility Not Supported. Unexpected Data Value . For whatever reason. Shri said on Jun 15.SM RP UI (Conditional parameter) – The short message transfer protocol data unit received from the Service Centre is inserted in this parameter . SM Delivery Failure. remains in the network ? 25. . 2011: Log in to Reply in SMSC? yes. where is the sms’ stored? in SMSC? and what information. 2011: Log in to Reply Hi! I’ve a question. System Failure.Invoke ID (Mandatory Parameter) .
hrl.and what information. This article is helpful . thank you. 2011: Log in to Reply Can someone explain to me what happens when a subscriberA sends a message to subscriberB who is being served by a different network?Thanks 29. Shri said on Jul 17. nothing is remains in network. Thanks Shri . afroditiejr[at]yahoo. your help will really help us.com . 2011: Log in to Reply @Pooya Hi Pooya. Once it is delivered to “B” MSISDN (recipient Subscriber). SMS stored in SMSC of home network in GSM. jHun said on Jul 13. Yes. 30. 2011: Log in to Reply hi shri. because we want to develop a software that that will give an acknowledgement that the SMS received by the recipient at the moment he/she received it. Mike said on Jun 23. or you can add me in facebook. i just want to ask something. remains in the network ? no 27. thank you for your time. about a SMS. 2011: Log in to Reply which means: [A0] MAP dialogue PDU [A4] Map user abort info ——–  User specific reason 28.bless said on Jun 23. this is for our proposal i just want to know if it is possible to know if the text message was really received by the recipient or it was delayed.
bless Hi hlr.bless. The GMSC of Network B now queries the ngHLR of the serving MSC of SubB. MAP message from SMSC A to Serving MSC : MT Forward SM. received in Send Routing Info Response ) of subscriber B. Thanks Shri ○ hrl. SMSC of network A sends “Send Routing Info for SM Request” to HLR of network B. Following MAP messages flow in two networks. 4. SMSC of network A forwards message to serving MSC (Network Node Address. Thanks. 2011: Log in to Reply @hlr. Serving MSC delivers message to Subscriber B and sends acknowledgement to SMSC of Network A (MT Forward SM Acknowledgement). 5. Kindly educate me on my ignorance. 2011: Log in to Reply Thanks Shri.My worrry again is that if there are say 10 network operators then the SMSC of SubA have to connect to all the ten. 2011: Log in to Reply . Shri said on Jul 17. when a subscriber sends a message to another subscriber B. served by different network: 1. First message will be submitted to home SMSC of subscriber “A” (SMSC of Network A). Now the SMSC of SubA now delivers the message to the SubB based on the GT of the serving MSC of SubB.bless said on Aug 10. MAP message from serving MSC to SMSC : MO Forward SM 2.31. Shri said on Aug 21. How is this implementation to because i was thinking the SMSC of SubA does not necessary have to connect to the ngHLR of SubB. and returns the SRI-SM response in that same format. But i was thinking the SMSC of NetworkA will send the SRI-SM to the GMSC of NetworkA which intends forwards it to the GMSC of NetworkB. MAP message from SMSC A to HLR B : Send Routing Info For SM 3. HLR of Network B responds “Send Routing Info for SM” to SMSC of network A with Network node (serving MSC of subscriber B) and IMSI of subscriber B.
Can you suggest me a good reading material regarding MAP. Specially to refer to the SMS related MAP parameter definitions etc. Thanks Shri 33.com/groups/gsm-call-flows/forum/topic/what-happenswhen-a-subscribera-sends-a-message-to-subscriberb/#post-27 32. 2011: Log in to Reply Please join the group Telecom documents to get more details.Your query has been answered here: http://learntelecom. it is possible.com/groups/telecom-documents/forum/topic/ss7-mapdocuments/ 34. Serving MSC of subscriber B (B-Recipient Subscriber). Yes. http://www.learntelecom. ○ support said on Jul 29. CAMEL etc. -Sam . Shamal said on Jul 29. 2011: Log in to Reply Would it be possible to send SMS directly to an IMSI and not including MSISDN. Shri said on Jul 17. sends acknowledgement to SMSC A (SMSC of originating network) in response of “MT Forward SM” sent by SMSC A to serving MSC. I am referring to MT_FSM leg here. LearnSMS said on Aug 17. This acknowledgement is positive if delivery of SMS is successful otherwise serving MSC sends negative acknowledgement to SMAC A with proper error code. Thanks in advanced. 2011: Log in to Reply Hi. 2011: Log in to Reply @jHun Hi jHun. Thanks you so much for your expert guidance. Really appreciate it.
NodeA has to submit a message through the SMSC to a subscriber but ONLY when the subscriber is reachable.com/groups/gsm-call-flows/forum/topic/sms-directly-to-the-bimsi/#post-29 35. NodeA has to send report-SMDeliveryStatus message to the ngHLR.○ Shri said on Aug 21. does it have to try submitting the message and get delivery failure response before? if true.currently the subscriber’s handset state is not reachable. hrl. 2011: Log in to Reply Hi All. 2011: Log in to Reply Your query has been answered here: http://learntelecom. Alim Ul Gias said on Aug 29.bless said on Aug 23. is this a gsm standard that before a node can send reportSMDeliveryStatus message to the ngHLR. 2011: Log in to Reply Will the SMS follow the same path (shown in the figure) when an application is sending it to a single person and vice versa ??? Leave a comment Click here to cancel comment. Top of Form Search Bottom of Form Login via Log in with .but before nodeA can send this message. that node must try submitting a message and get delivery failure response? Thanks for educating me on my ignorance 36. You must be logged in to post a comment.
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