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kavkasiologiuri Ziebani

CAUCASIOLOGIC PAPERS

Ivane Javakhishvili Tbilisi State University


Faculty of Humanities
Institute of Caucasiology

CAUCASIOLOGIC PAPERS

.

Tbilisi 2010

ivane javaxiSvilis saxelobis Tbilisis saxelmwifo


universiteti
humanitarul mecnierebaTa fakulteti
kavkasiologiis instituti

kavkasiologiuri Ziebani

Tbilisi
2010

JurnalSi dabeWdili statiebis nawili wakiTxulia


kavkasiologTa II saerTaSoriso kongresze.
Part of the published articles was read at II International Congress of
Caucasiologists.
II
.

iv. javaxiSvilis saxelobis Tbilisis saxelmwifo universiteti


E-mail: caucasiology@gmail.com; caucasiology@tsu.ge
web-pages: http://caucasiology.tsu.ge; www. humanities.tsu.ge/congress/

USBN

mTavari redaqtori
c. baramiZe (Tbilisi)

saredaqcio kolegia
r. abaSia (Tbilisi), i. abdulaevi (mahaCyala), l. azmaifaraSvili (Tbilisi),
n. ardoteli (Tbilisi), t. axundovi (baqo), i. brauni (varSava), i. gagoSiZe
(Tbilisi), l. vardaniani (erevani), x. Taovi (nalCiki), j. kviciani (Tbilisi),
i. kojima (tokio), m. i. mahomedovi (mahaCyala), m. rozini (donis rostovi), r.
fareuliZe
(tomis
redaqtori,
Tbilisi),
v.
Sengelia
(Tbilisi)

saredaqcio sabWo

n. abesaZe (Tbilisi)
a. abregovi (maikopi)
b. bRaJnokovi (nalCiki)
T. gamyreliZe (Tbilisi)
r. gordeziani (Tbilisi)
g. gociriZe (Tbilisi)
m. TeTraZe (Tbilisi)
a. Timaevi (grozno)
m. lorTqifaniZe (Tbilisi)
z. malaeva (mahaCyala)
n. maWavariani (Tbilisi)
l. minaSvili (Tbilisi)

s. patievi (nazrani)
n. ruxaZe (Tbilisi)
T. ujuxu (Tbilisi)
d. forkeri (laifcigi)
q. quTaTelaZe (Tbilisi)
n. quTelia (Tbilisi)
e. qurTiSvili (Tbilisi)
m. Cuxua (Tbilisi)
a. xalidovi (grozno)
S. jambekovi (grozno)
r. janaSia (Tbilisi)
o. jafariZe (Tbilisi)

Editor in hief
Ts. Baramidze (Tbilisi)

Editorial Staff
R. Abashia (Tbilisi), I. Abdullaev (Mahachkala), T. Akhundov (Baku), N. Ardoteli (Tbilisi),
L. Azmaiparashvili (Tbilisi), I. Braun (Warsaw), I. Gagoshidze (Tbilisi), I. Kojima (Tokyo),
J. Kvitsiani (Tbilisi), M. Magomedov (Mahachkala), R. Pareulidze (Editor, Tbilisi), M. Rozin
(Rostov-on-Don), V. Shengelia (Tbilisi), Kh. Taov (Nalchik), L. Vardanyan (Yerevan)

Editorial Board
E. Kurtishvili (Tbilisi)
K. Kutateladze (Tbilisi)
N. Kutelia (Tbilisi)
M. Lordkipanidze (Tbilisi)
N. Machavariani (Tbilisi)
Z. Mallaeva (Mahackala)
L. Minashvili (Tbilisi)
S. Patiev (Nazran)
N. Rukhadze (Tbilisi)
M.Tetradze (Tbilisi)
A. Timaev (Grozny)
T. Ujukhu (Tbilisi)

N. Abesadze (Tbilisi)
A. Abregov (Maykop)
B. Bgazhnokov (Nalchik)
M. Chukhua (Tbilisi)
D. Forker (Leipzig)
Th. Gamkrelidze (Tbilisi)
R. Gordeziani (Tbilisi)
G. Gotsiridze (Tbilisi)
Sh. Jambekov (Grozny)
R. Janashia (Tbilisi)
O. Japaridze (Tbilisi)
A. Khalidov (Grozny)

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1954-2010

eZRvneba

profesor mixeil

qurdianis

In memoriam Professor Mikheil Kurdiani


xsovnasE

Sinaarsi
c. baramiZe (Tbilisi), profesori mixeil qurdiani . . . . . . . .

23

mixeil qurdianis Sromebis bibliografia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33

enaTmecniereba

c. baramiZe (Tbilisi), Sesavali sityva kavkasiologTa II


saerTaSoriso kongresze . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

121

l. geguCaZe (Tbilisi), TumcakavSirian rTul konstruqciaTa Sesaxeb qarTulSi . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

129

r. gersamia, m. lomia (Tbilisi), tabu qarTul eTnokulturaSi gvelis eTnolingvisturi analizis safuZvelze . . . .

145

r. zeqalaSvili (Tbilisi), Tavazianoba, rogorc erovnul


faseulobaTa sistemis asaxva da misi enobrivi markerebi
qarTulSi . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

162

z. kikviZe (quTaisi), ramdenime postulati faruli sqesis


SeswavlisaTvis gramatikuli sqesis armqone enebSi . . . . . .

187

q. margiani-subari (Tbilisi), evidencialobis sakiTxisaTvis svanur enaSi. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

193

n. maWavariani (Tbilisi), kiTxviTobis -ma da uaryofiTobis -m- morfemaTa istoriisaTvis afxazurSi da maTi saerTo amosavlis kavSiri qarTuli enis analogiur kategoriebTan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

207

T. maxarobliZe (Tbilisi), inversia da ergativizaciis


procesi . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

219

s. omiaZe (Tbilisi), RirebulebiTi paradigma socialurkulturuli anTropologiis TvalsazrisiT. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

232

*s.

patievi (magasi), garTulebuli qvemdebare

*varskvlaviT

inguSurSi . .

aRniSnuli saTauri ekuTvnis werilis reziumes.

244

10

Sinaarsi

n. ruxaZe (Tbilisi), zogi leqsemis istoriisaTvis udiur


enaSi. I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

245

t. sixaruliZe (yarsi), l. aviZba (Tbilisi), anbani da separacia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

256

e. qavTaraZe (Tbilisi), mari broses qarTvelologiuri


moRvaweobidan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

269

m. qurdiani (Tbilisi), iberiul-kavkasiur enaTa naTesaobis


problema (sakiTxis mdgomareoba da perspeqtivebi) . . . . . . . . .

275

*s. Sixalieva (mahaCyala), Tabasaranuli enis leqsikuri


potenciali qristianul diskursSi . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

317

n. cixiSvili (Tbilisi), II xolmeobiTi da Sereuli kavSirebiTi saSual qarTulSi . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

318

* a. xalidovi (grozno) sityvawarmoebis rolis SeufaseblobisaTvis CeCnursa da sxva kavkasiur enebSi . . . . . . . . . . . .

347

r. janaSia (Tbilisi), rene lafoni kavkasiuri enebis lateraluri Tanxmovnebis Sesaxeb . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

349

* * *
c. baramiZe (Tbilisi), mixeil qurdiani, `iberiulkavkasiuri enaTmecnierebis safuZvlebi~. Tbilisi, 2007
(recenzia) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

365

*a. xalidovi (grozno), iberiul-kavkasiur enaTa naTesaobis dadgenis Taobaze: m. qurdianis koncepciis mxardaWera
(recenzia) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

373

r. fareuliZe (Tbilisi), m. Cuxua, iberiul-iCqeriul enaTa


SedarebiTi gramatika. I. Tbilisi, 2008 (recenzia) . . . . . . . .

380

11

Sinaarsi

istoria
e. avaliani (Tbilisi), `kavkasiuri Ziebani~: britaneli mecnieris mier kavkasiuri sasazRvro miwis istoriuli mimoxilva . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

395

n. axvlediani (baTumi), kerZo koleqciaSi daculi ramdenime osmaluri dokumenturi wyaro . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

409

*m. barazbievi (nalCiki), yaraCaeli, balyareli da qarTveli aristokratebis keTilmezobluri urTierTobebi

420

*l. guketlova (nalCiki), genderuli Tanasworobis problema sabWoTa modernizaciis wlebSi (yabardo-balyareTis
magaliTze) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

428

s. zedelaSvili (Tbilisi), adaTobrivi samarTali kavkasiel mTiel xalxTa konsolidaciaSi (XIX s.) . . . . . . . . . . . . .

429

j. kviciani (Tbilisi), memkvidreobiTobis problema kavkasiur civilizaciaSi . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

439

m. lorTqifaniZe (Tbilisi), mefe giorgi II-is (1072-1089) karis (yarsisa) da veJinis cixeTaTvis brZolis istoriidan. .

454

*j. mesxiZe (sanqt-peterburgi), italiis sagareo politikis


kavkasiuri mimarTuleba: eventualoba da realoba . . . . . . . . .

466

l. mirianaSvili (Tbilisi), qarTul-somxuri konfesiuri


Semwynarebloba Sua saukuneebSi . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

468

*j. raxaevi (nalCiki), XVI-XIX saukuneebis osmaluri wyaroebi adiReelTa (CerqezTa) Sesaxeb . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

487

i. tatiSvili (Tbilisi), erTi xeTuri formulis warmoSobisaTvis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

488

q. quTaTelaZe (Tbilisi), qarTvelTa gasomxebis sakiTxisaTvis XIX-XX ss-is mijnis qarTuli periodikis mixedviT

502

*k. Zamixovi (nalCiki), yabardos roli saqarTvelos ruseTis saxelmwifosTan urTierTobebSi (XVI-XVIII ss) . . . . . . . .

546

*S. xafizovi (mahaCyala), qalaq zaqaTalis formireba . . .

560

12

Sinaarsi

arqeologia
i. berZeniSvili (Tbilisi), adreqristianuli sanaTlavebi
dasavleT saqarTvelodan. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

563

i. gagoSiZe (Tbilisi), arqeologia da baskur-qarTveluri


problema . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

585

i. gagoSiZe (Tbilisi), i. babaevi (baqo), f. knausi (miunxeni),


aqemenidebi kavkasiaSi . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
d. gunia (Tbilisi), sataZro reliefuri figuruli gamosaxulebebi, maTi roli da mxatvruli xasiaTi (kavkasiis
xuroTmoZRvrul skolaTaA konteqstSi) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

601
616

eTnologia
*v. amiriani (erevani), transformaciis zogierTi aspeqti
xeze kveTis somxur tradiciul xelovnebaSi . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

632

g. gociriZe (Tbilisi), kavkasiis xalxTa tradiciuli kulturuli urTierTobebis eTnosocialuri aspeqtebi . . . .

633

*a. Tadevosiani (erevani), Tavisufali arCevnebis problema


somxeTSi: zogierTi kulturul-anTropologiuri aspeqti . .

641

*h. kragi (kopenhageni), dakvirvebani emigraciaSi myof CeCenTa identobaze . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

650

n. mgelaZe, l. tunaZe (baTumi), osmaluri gavlenebi XIX


saukunis samxreT-dasavleT saqarTvelos memorialur kulturaze . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

651

*l. soloviova (moskovi), qali Crdilokavkasiel xalxTa


saojaxo da sazogadoebriv yofaSi: tradiciebi da Tanamedrove ideologiis formireba . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
n. xarCilava (baTumi), xelovnuri naTesaoba da saqorwino
akrZalvebi (galis raionis eTnografiuli masalebis mixedviT) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

676
677

13

Sinaarsi

literatura, folklori
e. gogiaSvili (Tbilisi), moraluri Rirebulebebi vainaxur
zRaprebSi . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

697

T. gogolaZe (gori), kavkasiis kulturuli samyaro da nizami ganjelis siyvarulis zneobriv-esTetikuri modeli . . .

703

n. popiaSvili (Tbilisi), mijaWvuli gmiris saxe kavkasiur


folklorSi . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

714

q. sixaruliZe (Tbilisi), kardakar Camovlis Cveuleba kavkasiis xalxTa ritualur sistemaSi . . . . . . . . . . . . .

727

T. qurdovaniZe (Tbilisi), maqciaobis miTuri motivi qarTul-Crdilokavkasiur zRaparSi [samefo ZaRlis (ATU 449)
magaliTze] . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

735

*o. jambekovi (grozno), cecxlis motacebis problema CeCnur folklorSi . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

751

Contents

Ts. Baramidze (Tbilisi),

Professor Mikheil Kurdiani . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

27

Bibliography of Mikheil Kurdianis Works . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

66

Linguistics
Ts. Baramidze (Tbilisi), Introduction Speech at II International Congress of
Caucasiologists . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

124

L. Geguchadze (Tbilisi), On Complex Constructions with Conjunction tumca in Georgian . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

143

*R. Gersamia, M. Lomia (Tbilisi), An Ethno-Linguistic Analysis of gveli


snake: an Example of Taboo in Georgian Ethno-Culture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..

161

*R. Janashia (Tbilisi), Rene Lafon and Caucasian Laterals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

364

*E. Kavtaradze (Tbilisi), From Mari Brosses Kartvelological Activity . . . .

274

*A. Khalidov (Grozny), On Underestimation Dug Compounding in Chechen


and Other Caucasian Languages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

346

Z. Kikvidze (Kutaisi), Some Postulates for the Study of Covert Gender in


Genderless Languages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

190

*M. Kurdiani (Tbilisi), Problem of Kinship of the Iberian-Caucasian Languages (situation and perspectives of the issue) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . .

301

*N. Machavariani (Tbilisi), Toward the History of Interrogative -ma and


Negative -m- Morpheme in Abkhaz and the Connection of Their Common
Origin with Georgian Analogous Category. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

217

T. Makharoblidze (Tbilisi), Inversion and the Process of Ergativization . . . .

227

*K. Margiani-Subari (Tbilisi), Towards the Issue of Evidentiality in Svan. .

205

*S. Omiadze (Tbilisi), Paradigm of Values from the Viewpoint of Socio-

A title marked with asterisk applies to a summary of a work.

15

Contents

cultural Anthropology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

240

*S. Patiev (Magas), Complicated Subject in Ingush . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

244

*N. Rukhadze (Tbilisi), On the History of Some Lexemes in the Udi Language. I. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

255

S. Shikhalieva (Mahachkala), Lexical Potential of the Tabassaran Language


in the Christian Discourse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

311

*T. Sikharulidze (Qars), L. Avidzba (Tbilisi), Alphabet and Separation . . .

268

*N. Tsikhishvili (Tbilisi), II Permansive and Mixed Conjunctive in Middle


Georgian . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

336

*R. Zekalashvili (Tbilisi), Politeness as Reflection of the System of National


Values and Its Verbal Markers in Georgian . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

186

***
*Ts. Baramidze (Tbilisi), Mikheil Kurdiani, Foundations of the IberianCaucasian Linguistics, Tbilisi, 2007 (review) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

372

M. Khalidov (Grozny), On Ascertainment of Ibero-Caucasian Languages


Affinity (review) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

377

*R. Pareulidze (Tbilisi), M. Chukhua, Comparative Grammar of the Iberian-Ichkerian Languages, Tbilisi, 2008 (review) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

391

History
*N. Akhvlediani (Batumi), Some Ottoman Documental Sources Preserved in
Private Collections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

412

E. Avaliani (Tbilisi), The Caucasian Exploration: British Scholars Historical Review on the Caucasian Borderland . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

402

*M. Barazbiev (Nalchik), Good Interrelations of the Qarachay-Balqarian


and Georgian Aristocracy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..

420

*K. Dzamikhov (Nalchik), Qabardo in Interrelations Between Eastern Georgia and Russian State in the 16-18th c.c. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

546

*L. Guketlova (Nalchik), Problem of Gender Equality in the Years of Soviet

16

Contents

Modernization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

428

Sh. Khapizov (Mahachkala), Formation of the Town Zakatala . . . . . . . . . . .

555

*K. Kutateladze (Tbilisi), On the Georgians Armenization According to the


Georgian Periodicals on the Border of the 19-20th c.c. . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

529

*J. Kvitsiani (Tbilisi), Problem of Heritage in Caucasian Civilization . . . . . .

453

*M. Lordkipanidze (Tbilisi), From the History of Struggle of Giorgi II


(1072-1089) for Kari (Qarsi) and Vezhini Fortress . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

461

*J. Meskhidze (St.-Petersburg), The Caucasian Line of the Italian Foreign


Policy: Eventuality and Reality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

467

*L. Mirianashvili (Tbilisi), The Georgian-Armenian Confessional Liberalism in the Middle Ages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

477

*J. Rakhaev (Nalchik), Ottoman Sources of the 16-19th cc. on Adygians


(Circassians) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

487

*I. Tatishvili (Tbilisi), Towards the Origin of One Hittite Formula . . . . . . . . .

501

*S. Zedelashvili (Tbilisi), Adat Low in Consolidation of the Caucasus


Mountain Peoples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
.

438

Archeology
I. Berdzenishvili (Tbilisi), Early Christian Baptisteries from Western Georgia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

576

*I. Gagoshidze (Tbilisi), Archeology and Basque-Kartvelian Problem . . . . .

600

*I. Gagoshidze (Tbilisi), I. Babaev (Baku), F. Knauss (Munich), Archaemenids in the Caucasus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

615

*D. Gunia (Tbilisi), Facade Relief Figures, Their Role and Characteristics in
the Context of Caucasian Architectural Schools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

626

17

Contents

Ethnology
*V. Amiryan (Yerevan), Some Aspects of Traditional Wood-carving Arts
Transformation in Armenia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

632

*G. Gotsiridze (Tbilisi), Ethno-social Aspects of Communication Culture of


the Caucasus Peoples. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

637

*N. Kharchilava (Batumi), Artificial Relations as Prohibiting Condition for


Marriage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

694

H. Krag (Copenhagen), Observations on Chechen Identity in Exile . . . . . . .

642

*N. Mgeladze, T. Tunadze (Batumi), Ottoman Influence in the 19th c. Memorial Culture of South-Western Georgia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

665

*L. Solovieva (Moscow), A Woman in Family and Social Everyday Life


among the North Caucasus Peoples: Traditions and the Shaping of Modern
Ideology. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
*A. Tadevosyan (Yerevan), Problem of Free Election in Armenian: Some
Cultural and Anthropologic Aspects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

675

641

Literature, Folklore
*E. Gogiashvili (Tbilisi), Moral Values in the Vainakh Folk-tales . . . . . . . . .

702

T. Gogoladze (Gori), The Cultural World of the Caucasus and MoralEsthetic Model of Nizami Ganjelis Love . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

709

*O. Jambekov (Grozny), Problem of Fire Stealing in the Chechen Folklore .

751

*T. Kurdovanidze (Tbilisi), Mythical motif of the Turnover in Georgian


and North-Caucasian Tales . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

744

*N. Popiashvili (Tbilisi), The Image of a Chained Hero in the Caucasian


Folklore . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

725

*K. Sikharulidze (Tbilisi), The Custom of Door-to-Door Walking in the


Ritual System of the Caucasus Peoples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

734

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kavkasiologiuri Ziebani CAUCASIOLOGIC PAPERS


II

2010

c. baramiZe (Tbilisi)
profesori mixeil qurdiani
(1954-2010)
saerTaSoriso saenaTmecniero sazogadoebas gamoaklda Tanamedrove zogadi da iberiul-kavkasiuri enaTmecnierebis, qarTuli
kavkasiologiuri skolis erT-erTi TvalsaCino warmomadgeneli,
kavkasieli xalxebis erTianobis simbolo, maTi usayvarlesi Svili
da imedi mixeil qurdiani _ filologiis mecnierebaTa doqtori
(1998), profesori (2000), saqarTvelos sapatriarqos gelaTis mecnierebaTa akademiis akademikosi (1995) da prezidenti (2007 wlidan
2010 wlamde); arnold Ciqobavas saxelobis enaTmecnierebis institutis zogadi enaTmecnierebis ganyofilebis gamge; ivane javaxiSvilis saxelobis Tbilisis saxelmwifo universitetis profesori, saqarTvelos sapatriarqos wminda andria pirvelwodebulis
saxelobis qarTuli universitetis profesori (2010 wlamde), 2003
wlidan sruliad saqarTvelos rusTavelis sazogadoebis prezidenti, vaxtang gorgaslis II xarisxis ordenis kavaleri, mweralTa
kavSiris wevri 1992 wlidan.
mixeil qurdianis samecniero interesebis ZiriTadi sferoebia:
zogadi enaTmecniereba, komparativistika, gramatologia, iberiulkavkasiuri enebi, eTnolingvistika, literaturis Teoria, leqsTmcodneoba. samecniero Sromebis raodenoba 295 (maT Soris _ 3 monografia).
mixeil qurdianma mniSvnelovani wvlili Seitana zogadi anu
Teoriuli da SedarebiTi enaTmecnierebis ganviTarebis saqmeSi. man
sauniversiteto swavlebis samive safexurisaTvis warmoadgina zogadi (resp. Teoriuli) enaTmecnierebis sruli kursis koncefcia,
romlis sisrule, siaxle da aqtualoba am dargis specialistebisaTvis moiazreba rogorc erTiani ierarqiuli sistema, romelic funqcionirebs lingvistis profesiuli momzadebis yovel
safexurze uwyvetad, Sesabamisi sauniversiteto safexuris mizandasaxulobasTan samecniero disciplinis interesTa sruli SesabamisobiT da paralelizmis gamoricxviT.
profesor mixeil qurdians yovelTvis awuxebda is mdgomareoba, romelSiac amJamad imyofeba Teoriuli lingvistika saqarTveloSi. igi aRniSnavda, rom gvyavs calmxrivad ganswavluli leqtorebi, romlebic maTi maRali samecniero xarisxebisa da wodebebis miuxedavad, arian SezRudulni ama Tu im mimdinareobis an
skolis TvalsazrisiT, metic, moduri Tu modidan gamavali mec-

24

c. baramiZe

nieruli paradigmiT, romelsac awvdian studentebs, rogorc mecnierebis ukanasknel sityvas. universitetSi bakalavris, magistris
an doqtoris samecniero xarisxmiRebuli lingvisti ki, Tavisi samecniero xarisxis Sesabamisad, unda flobdes zRvrul, kvalificirebul informacias Tavis specialobaSi, koreqtulad, meTodologiuri imanentizmis doneze iyenebdes specialur meTodebs da,
rac mTavaria, azrovnebdes kritikulad.
profesori mixeil qurdiani Tvlida, rom lingvistika zusti
da verificirebadi meTodebis mqone mecnierebaa da am mxriv tols
ar udebs sabunebismetyvelo mecnierebebs, magram lingvistika, am
SemTxvevaSi Teoriuli, Sedgeba ramdenime dargisgan da am dargebs
Soris ar arsebobs terminTa sinonimuroba (semiotikaSi, komparativistikaSi, anTropocentrul (komunikaciur) lingvistikasa da sociolingvistikaSi); arada, yvela maTgani zogadi (resp. Teoriuli)
lingvistikis dargia. mkvlevari mixeil qurdianisTvis principulad gansxvavdeboda erTmaneTisgan maTi kvlevis meTodebic.
profesor mixeil qurdians humanitarul mecnierebaTa fakultetis bakalavriatis studentebi sauniversiteto swavlebis tradiciiT zogadi enaTmecnierebis propedevtikuri nawiliT, anu enaTmecnierebis SesavliT, profesiuli siyvaruliT Sehyavda zogadi
enaTmecnierebis mravalferovan samyaroSi, aZlevda maT enis, rogorc enaTmecnierebis sagnisa da enobrivi niSnis definiciebs
Teoriuli lingvistikis sxvadasxva dargis mixedviT, TvalsaCinos
xdida am dargebis imanentur markerebs, awvdida maT fundamenturi
lingvistikis terminTa mniSvnelobas da maT arasinonimurobas
dargebis mixedviT da a.S., aZlevda studentebs sabazo codnas,
uviTarebda mowodebuli informaciis klasifikaciisa da verifikaciis unars da aswavlida meTodebs, enobriv faqtsa da interpretacias Soris gansxvavebas, ama Tu im Teoriuli safuZvlis amocnobasa da gansazRvras relevanturi niSnis mixedviT, maT urTierTSedarebas sinqroniaSi Tanarsebul interpretaciebTan, rac
profesor mixeil qurdians miaCnda profesionalad CamoyalibebisaTvis gadamwyveti Rirebulebis mqoned. amiT studentebi ganasxvaveben Teoriul lingvistikaSi povnier miTologemebs _ `rwmenis~ sagans _ codnisgan.
zogadi enaTmecnierebis kursi profesor mixeil qurdianisaTvis sabakalavro da samagistro doneebis mixedviT gansxvavebuli
saxiT iyo warmodgenili. igi Tanamedrove sociolingvisturi
kvlevis meTodebisa da Teoriebis sakuTriv lingvistur interpretaciebs ganixilavda sociolingvisturi imanentizmis farglebSi.
mixeil qurdianisaTvis es kursi orientirebulia multilingvuri
monacemebiT operirebaze, romelSic saTanadod aris asaxuli
qarTveluri da mTis kavkasiuri enebis masalac, ramac sarwmuno
unda gaxados wamoyenebuli debulebebi, radgan maTi verificireba
arahomogenuri da araizomorfuli enebis saSualebiT xdeba.

profesori mixeil qurdiani

25

mecnier mixeil qurdianis kvlevis prioritetebi dakavSirebulia saqarTveloSi da, sazogadod, enaTmecnierebaSi iseTi kardinaluri da gaWianurebuli sakiTxis gadawyvetasTan, rogoricaa
qarTveluri da mTis kavkasiuri enebis naTesaobis damtkicebasTan
mkacri da verificirebuli meTodebis gamoyenebiT. am saqmeSi qarTvelma lingvistebma iTamaSes gadamwyveti roli (m. Cuxua, m. qurdiani...). maTma naSromebma ukve moipoves saerTaSoriso aRiareba
kavkasiologTa wreebSi. am naSromebs miecaT axali paradigmis
kvalifikacia. amgvarad, qarTveluri da mTis kavkasiuri enebis naTesaobis dasabuTebiT gamoikveTa axali realoba, perspeqtivebi,
prioritetebi. am TvalsazrisiT uaRresad sainteresoa lingvisturi, arqeologiuri da anTropologiuri monacemebis urTierTverifikacia.
mixeil qurdianis `iberiul-kavkasiuri enaTmecnierebis safuZvlebi~ Semajamebeli, saetapo naSromia iberiul-kavkasiur enaTa
naTesaobis TeoriaSi. masSi dadgenilia am enobrivi ojaxis TiToeul jgufSi Semaval enebs Soris kanonzomieri da regularuli
bgeraTSesatyvisobani, fuZe-enis fonologiuri sistemis, morfologiuri inventarisa da sityvaformaTa arqetipebis verificirebadi
rekonstruqciebi da sarwmuno etimologiebi. am naSroms SemdgomSi
unda daefuZnos raodenobrivad axali etapi _ axali masalisa da
axali Sepirispirebebis gamovlena SesatyvisobaTa dadgenili sistemis reinterpretaciis problemebi da sxva.
mixeil qurdiani ikvlevda qarTvelTa pirvelsacxovriss enobrivi monacemebis mixedviT da saerTo-qarTveluri sazogadoebis
socialur struqturas, praqarTvelTa tomobriv Sedgenilobas,
kulturuli da sameurneo yofis araerT sakiTxs.
semantikisa da tipologiis dargSi kvlevas awarmoebda sami
mimarTulebiT: a) naTesaobis terminebi, b) sivrcis struqturireba
(resp. markirebis) da g) feris aRmniSvneli leqsikis analizi (istoriul-SedarebiTi da SedarebiT-tipologiuri) iberiul-kavkasiuri,
indo-evropuli da semitur-qamituri masalis safuZvelze. am kvlevevis Teoriuli safuZvelia lingvisturi anTropologia (`enaTa
Soris sinonimuroba ar arsebobs~ _ vilhelm fon humboldti).
mixeil qurdianis samuSao magidaze darCa masalebi sociolingvistikis dargSi, romliTac igi cdilobda kenet li paikis
`eTiqs~ da `emiqs~ midgomis axleburi `energeistuli~ interpretaciis danergvas da misi farTo SesaZleblobis demonstrirebas kavkasiaSi enobriv qcevaTa deskrifciis TvalsazrisiT.
qarTvelur enaTa da dialeqtTa kvalifikaciis sferoSi mizanswrafulad Seqmnil krizisTan dakavSirebiT mixeil qurdiani
muSaobda enisa da dialeqtis sociolingvisturi da komparativistuli deficiniebis srulyofisa da principuli gamijvnisaTvis,
momijnave Teoriuli problemebis damuSavebisaTvis, qveyanaSi dig-

26

c. baramiZe

losiuri da bilingvuri mocemulobebis marTvis Teoriuli bazis


CamoyalibebisaTvis.
zemoTqmuli mixeil qurdianis mxolod kvleviTi prioritetebia. maT paralelurad igi awarmoebda saerTaSoriso kontaqtebiT
nakarnaxev kvlevebs, iyo araerTi samecniero forumis monawile da
Tavadac Tvlida, rom nebismieri lingvisturi instituciis arsebobas azri aqvs mxolod im SemTxvevaSi, Tu mas aqvs ambicia, iyos
ideaTa generatori da diskursanti saerTaSoriso masStabiT da
moixveWs Zalebs am ambiciebis realizaciisaTvis. swored amitom
mixeil qurdiani mxarSi edga kavkasiologiis instituts rogorc
pirveli, aseve meore saerTaSoriso kongresis organizebasa
da samecniero mimarTulebebis gansazRvraSi. II kongresi, samwuxarod, mis gareSe gaimara.
mixeil qurdians miaCnda, rom Teoriuli da SedarebiTi enaTmecnierebis instituti ara marto unda idges Tanamedrove msoflio zogadi lingvistikis doneze, aramed Tavadac unda ganapirobebdes am dones.
wavida Cvengan axalgazrda, magram mainc valmoxdili mecnieri, sazogado moRvawe, romelsac, rogorc Tavad ityoda, Tamamad
SeuZlia gausworos Tvali imqveynad farnavazs, leonti mrovels,
iv. javaxiSvils, arn. Ciqobavas. misi miwieri cxovrebis dasasruli
aRsavse iyo emociebiT, tanjviTa da tkiviliT. ufalma aqve, miwier
cxovrebaSi, moaxilva satanjveli sasufevlis dasamkvidreblad.
igi qarTvel lingvistTa Soris gamobrwyinda viTarca mTiebi xilulsa da ganqarvebad zecis samyaroSi, raTa samaradiso naTeliT
iyos moculi mixeil qurdianis maradiuli samkvidrebeli.

kavkasiologiuri Ziebani CAUCASIOLOGIC PAPERS


II

2010

Ts. Baramidze
Professor Mikheil Kurdiani
(19542010)
International linguistic society has lost an eminent representative of modern general and
Iberian-Caucasian linguistics, one of outstanding successors of Georgian Caucasiology,
symbol of the Caucasian peoplesunity, their favor son and hope Mikheil Kurdiani
Doctor of Philological Sciences (Hab.) (1998), Professor (2000), Academician of Gelati
Academy of Sciences of Georgian Patriarchate (1995) and its President (since 2007 till
2010), Head of the Department of General Linguistics at the Arnold Chikobava Institute
of Linguistics, Professor of the Ivane Javakhishvili Tbilisi State University and St. Andrew the First-Called Georgian University at the Georgian Patriarchate (up to 2010),
since 2003 the President of Rustaveli Society of All Georgia, holder of the Second
Class Order of Vakhtang Gorgasali, member of Union of Writers since 1992.
Mikheil Kurdianis basic spheres of scientific interests are: general linguistics, comparativistics, grammatology, Iberian-Caucasian languages, ethno-linguistics, theory of literature, verse studies.The number of scientific works is 295 (among them 3 monographs).
Mikheil Kurdiani made a valuable contribution to the cause of developing general or
theoretical and comparative linguistics. He represented conception of complete course
of general (resp. theoretical) linguistics for three stages of university teaching. Specialists of this branch interpreted and comprehended the completeness, novelty and actuality of it as an united hierarchal system that functions continuously on each stage of professional training of linguists in complete accordance of interests of science discipline
with purposefulness of relevant university degree and with excepting parallelism.
Professor Mikheil Kurdiani always troubled by the present situation of theoretical linguistics in Georgia. He noted that there were one-sided educated lectures who in spite of
their high scientific degrees and ranks were limited from the standpoint of this or that
orientation and school and the more, popular and unpopular scientific paradigms which
were presented to students by them as a last word in science.
Professor M. Kurdiani considered that linguistics was the science with exact and verificative methods and from this viewpoint it was beyond natural sciences. But linguistics
in this case theoretical, consists of several branches and there is no synonymity of
terms (in semantics, comparativistics, anthro-pocentric (communicative) and sociolinguistics). But all of them are the branches of general (resp. theoretical) linguistics. As
a researcher their researching methods were principally different for M. Kurdiani.
Following the university teaching, a propaeutic part of general linguistics, i.e. introductory course of linguistics, Professor M. Kurdiani accessed the baccalaureates in different
worlds of linguistics with accustomed professional loving, gave them definitions of a
language as a subject and marker of linguistics according to different branches of linguistics, made obvious immenant markers of these branches, gave them meaning of

28

Ts.Baramidze

fundamental linguistic terms and their non-synonymity according to branches, etc., gave
the students fundamental knowledge, improved their classificating and verificating
ability of given information, taught them methods, difference between a language fact
and interpretation, to recognize this or that theoretical basis and to define it according to
relevant feature, their inter-comparing with interpretations co-existing in synchrony,
that M. Kurdiani considered to be a determinant evaluable meaning in formatting as a
professional. Owing to it students differ an objects of faith mythologems revealed in
theoretical linguistics from knowledge.
For Prof. M. Kurdiani course of general linguistics was represented differently according to magistrate and baccalaureate level. He discussed the modern socio-linguistic research methods and linguistic interpretation of theories within the limits of sociolinguistic immanentism. For M. Kurdiani this course was oriented on using multilingual data in which Kartvelian and mountanian Iberian-Caucasian data was also relevantly reflected and which should make the arisen arguments trustworthy as their verification occured by means of non-homogeneous and non-izomorphic languages.
Research priorities of scholar M. Kurdiani are connected with solving of those cardinal
and unsettled issues such as the arguments on the kinship of the Kartvelian and mountainian languages using the structural and verificated methods. Georgian linguists (M.
Kurdiani, M. Chukhua) played a decisive role in it. Their works gained international
recognition among caucasiologists. These works were given the qualification of new
paradigm. Thus, owing to basic kinship of the Kartvelian and mountainian IberianCaucasian languages new reality, perspectives, priorities were revealed. From this
standpoint inter-verification of linguistics, archeological and anthropologic data is
noteworthy.
M. Kurdianis Foundations of Iberian-Caucasian linguistics is a summing stage
work in the kinship theory of the Iberian-Caucasian languages. The work established
the natural and regular sound-correspondences among the languages of each group of
this language family, verification reconstruction of a parent-languages phonological
system, morphological inventars and word-forms archetypes and trustworthy etymologies. In future this work will be a basis for qualitative new stage researching a new
material and new comparing, problem of reinterpretation of fixed system of wordcorrespondences and others.
M. Kurdiani researched the first-habitant of Georgians according to language data and
social structure of Common-Kartvelian society, Pre-Georgians tribe structure, many
issues of cultural and economic life.
On the basis of (historical-comparative and comparative-typological) Iberian-Caucasian,
Indo-European and Semitic-Hamit material he researched semantics and typology towards three directions: a) kinship terms, b) space structuring (resp. marking) and c)
analysis of the vocabulary denoting color. A theoretical basis of these researches is a
linguistic anthropology (There is no synonymy among languages V. Humboldt).
On M. Kurdianis working table there remained the materials in socio-linguistics by
what he tried to introduce new energeiestic interpretation of ethics and emics
approaching of K. Pike and to demonstrate its wide possibilities from the viewpoint of
description of language conducts in the Caucasus.

Professor Mikheil Kurdiani

29

In view of the crisis purposefully created in the qualification sphere of the Kartvelian
languages and dialects, M. Kurdiani worked on improving and principal demarcating of
socio-linguistic and comparativistics definitions of a language and dialect, on elaborating adjacent theoretical problems, on forming a theoretical basis of governing diglossive
and bi-lingual data in the country.
Abovesaid is only M.Kurdianis research priorities. Simultaneously the scholar carried
out researches dictated by international contacts. He was a participant of many forums
and thought that the existence of any linguistic institute had purport if it had ambitious
to be generator of ideas and discursant on an international scale and it could collect its
strength for realizing these ambitiousness. Just owing to this M. Kurdiani supported the
Institute of Caucasiology in organizing and defining of the 1st as well as 2nd international congresses. Unfortunately the 2nd congress was held without him.
M. Kurdiani considered that institute of theoretical and comparative linguistics not only
should be on the level of modern world general linguistics but also it itself should determine this level.
He passed away young but a scholar who paid his duty, public figure who as he used to
say can boldly look in the eyes of Parnavaz, Leonti Mroveli, Ivane Javakhishvili in
the other world. His last period of life was full of emotions, martyr and pain. The God
here in this world gave him suffering. He shines among linguists like heavenly bodies in
the sky. Let his eternal peace be illuminated for ever.

kavkasiologiuri Ziebani CAUCASIOLOGIC PAPERS


II

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kavkasiologiuri Ziebani CAUCASIOLOGIC PAPERS


II

2010
mixeil qurdianis Sromebis bibliografia
1973

1. mcire SeniSvnebi. _ gaz. `wignis samyaro, #10 (118),


oTxSabaTi, 23 maisi. 1973, Tbilisi. gv. 3. Kritikuli
SeniSvnebi
galaktion tabiZis TxzulebaTa Tormettomeulis VII tomze
(Tbilisi, 1972 : 356).
1975
2. scenazea revoluciuri guria. maxaraZis Teatris erTi
speqtaklis gamo.E_ gaz. `komunisti~ #250 (16371), SabaTi, 18
oqtomberi. 1975, Tbilisi. gv. 4. recenzia maxaraZis (ozurgeTis) al.
wuwunavas saxelobis saxelmwifo dramatuli Teatris speqtaklze
`ninoSvilis guria~ (piesis avtori _ Salva dadiani, damdgmeli
reJisori _ sergo axalaZe).
1976
3. vai mecnieruli naSromi _ Jurn. `ganTiadi~, #6
(noember-dekemberi), quTaisi, 1976 : 74-79. recenzia neli dumbaZis
wignze `qarTuli simbolizmi~. baTumi, 1973 : 240.
1978
4. sergo melaZe. benefisi _ epizodebi msaxiobis
cxovrebidan. almanaxi `nobaTi~ (`ciskris~ biblioTeka). wigni
pirveli, ianvar-Tebervali, Tbilisi, 1978 : 36-44. esse mesxeTis
saxelmwifo Teatris axalgazrda msaxiobze.
1980
5.
avangardistuli
manifestebi.
krebuli
upirveles yovlisa~, Tbilisi, 1980: 214-218. gamokvleva
dadaisturi manifestis publikacia.

`poezia
da ori

6. ori dedamiwa. almanaxi `jejili~, wigni meTvramete,


Tbilisi, 1980 : 18-32. statia sabavSvo literaturis problemebze.
gamoxmaureba: elizbar ubilava. `umaduroba WeSmaritebis niRbiT~.
gaz. `Tbilisi~, #48 (8766), paraskevi, 26 Tebervali. gv. 3.
1981
7. winaparTa dawyebuli saqme. gaz. `literaturuli
saqarTvelo~, #25 (2254), paraskevi, 19 ivnisi, Tbilisi, 1981 : 11.

34

mixeil qurdianis Sromebis bibliografia

dialogi italiel qarTvelolog profesor luiji magarotosTan.


8. `uria~ _ `hurias~ gamo _ GAgaz. `literaturuli
saqarTvelo~, #34 (2263), paraskevi, 21 agvisto, 1981, Tbilisi. gv. 13.
replika wereTlis gamokvlevaze `qarTuli eTnikuri
terminis `uris~ `huria~-s Sesaxeb~ wignSi `arnold Ciqobavas~
(dabadebis 80 wlisTavisadmi miZRvnili krebuli). Tbilisi, 1979 :
173-179.
9.
baskur-qarTulis
gamo.
gaz.
`literaturuli
saqarTvelo~ #39 (2268), paraskevi, 25 seqtemberi, Tbilisi, 1981 : 12-13.
dialogi bask mweralTan da mecnierTan, baskuri enis samefo
akademiis akademikos Sabier kintanasTan.
10. zaira ZiZava. katalogi. Tbilisi. saqarTvelos
mxatvarTa kavSiris gamocema. Tbilisi, 1981. winasityvaoba qarTul
(gv. 2-6) da rusul (gv. 8-11) enebze. statia axalgazrda fermweri
qalis Semoqmedebaze.
1982
11. saukunis dasawyisi. Jurn. `ciskari~, #5, Tbilisi, 1982 :
138-148. gamokvleva meoce saukunis dasawyisis literaturis
tipologiaze.
12. ori dedamiwa. werili meore. _ almanaxi `jejili~,
wigni mecxramete. Tbilisi, 1982 : 11-20. statia sabavSvo wignis
gaformebisa da ilustrirebis problemebze.
1983
13. terminoligiuri sizustisaTvis. _ almanaxi `kritika~,
#2 (43). Tbilisi, 1983 : 74-84.
Teoriuli
xasiaTis
statia
literaturul
mimdinareobaTa
arsisa
da
maTi
amsaxveli
terminebis Sesaxeb.
14. Appunti sulla zaum Jurn. ,,il verri . 29-30. pp. 57-62 [Trad. di
Daniela Rizzi]. SeniSvnebi zaumis Sesaxeb _ Jurn. `il veri~, #29-30 :
57-62, italiur enaze (mTargmneli daniela rici). gamokvleva
zaumis (saukunis dasawyisis avangardistuli poeziis aracnobieri
enis) Sesaxeb.
1984
15.
masalebi
qarTvelur
enaTa
versifikaciis
genezisisaTvis.
- krebuli `WaSniki~ (qarTuli leqsmcodneobis
sakiTxebi). Tbilisi: Tbilisis universitetis gamomcemloba, 1984:
18-43. monografia. saerTo-qarTveluri versifikaciuli sistemis
rekonstruqciisa da modelirebis mcdeloba.

mixeil qurdianis Sromebis bibliografia

35

16. avangardizmi TbilisSi. _ Jurn. `mnaTobi~, #6. 1984,


Tbilisi : 169-176. recenzia koleqtiur monografiaze ,,L'avanguardia a
Tifliz, Venezia, 1982, 328 p. [13. Quaderni del Seminario di Iranistica, UraloAltaistica e Caucasiologia dell'Universila degli Studi di Venezia]. Tanaavtorebi:
akaki gawerelia, baCana bregvaZe, emzar kvitaiSvili.
17. miTologiuri leqsikonis gamo. _ gaz. `literaturuli
saqarTvelo~, #50 (2335), paraskevi, 7 dekemberi : 10-11. recenzia akaki
gelovanis wignze `miTologiuri leqsikoni~, Tb, 1983 : 720.
gamoxmaureba: a. gelovani. pasuxi kritikul SeniSvnebze. almanaxi
`kritika~, #5 (60). Tbilisi, 1986 : 51-74. Tanaavtori: levan bregaZe.
18. jaWvgauxdeli. _ gaz. `axalgazrda komunisti~, #152
(10613), xuTSabaTi, 20 dekemberi. gv. 3. statia poet-akademikos
grigol abaSiZis Semoqmedebaze, miZRvnili misi 70 wlisTavisadmi.
19. masalebi qarTvelur enaTa istoriul-SedarebiTi
leqsikonisaTvis. I, II. ena da azrovneba. I samecniero sesia
miZRvnili akademikos niko maris dabadebidan 120 wlisTavisadmi.
1884 wlis 25 dekemberi, moxsenebaTa Tezisebi, Tbilisi, 1984 : 10-13.
20. siyvarulis qristianuli koncefciis rusTveliseuli
interpretacia. ena da azrovneba. I samecniero sesia miZRvnili
akademikos niko maris dabadebidan 120 wlisTavisadmi. 1984 wlis 25
dekemberi. moxsenebaTa Tezisebi, Tbilisi, 1984 : 13-16.
1985
21. , . . " ", 1 :
204-214. . , . . . wigni,
gamocemuli veneciaSi. Jurn. `literaturnaia gruzia~, #1 : 204-214.
Tanaavtorebi: a. gawerelia, b. bregvaZe, e. kvitaiSvili.
publikacia warmoadgens # 16 naSromis rusul variants.
22. antiaveroesi anu poeturi Semoqmedebis principebi da
meTodis problema Tanamedrove qarTul kritikaSi _ almanaxi
`kritika~ #4 (53) : 78-105. polemikuri statia akaki vasaZis werilze
_ `SeniSvnebi
ironiul-parodiuli
nakadis gamo~.
almanaxi
`kritika~ #2 (51) : 65-103. gamoxmaureba:
1. akaki vasaZe _ `gaugebrobis niSniT~ _ gaz. `literaturuli
saqarTvelo~ #15 (25334). 11 aprili, 1986 : 10-11. igive ix. misive
wignSi: `poeziis principebi~, Tbilisi, 1987 : 430-450;
2.
Teimuraz
doiaSvili,
levan
bregaZe
_
`gaugebrobis
gasafantavad~ _ Jurn. `laSari~, #3, 1991 : 123-126. igive ix. maTive
wignSi: polemikas ra unda, Tbilisi, 2001: 27-32. pasuxi akaki
vasaZis statiaze `gaugebrobis niSniT~.
3. koba imedaSvili _ `kritika sazogadoebrivi saqmea~. gaz.
`komunisti~, #112 (19554), 16 maisi, paraskevi, 1986 : 3.

36

mixeil qurdianis Sromebis bibliografia

23. yelsabami Cemi satrfosaTvis _ gaz. `axalgazrda


komunisti~, #30 (10647). paraskevi, 8 marti. gv. 2-3. i. gagoSiZis
wignis `qarTveli qalis samkaulis~ gamo.
24. zaris xma sruliad kavkasias swvdeboda. _ gaz.
`axalgazrda komunisti~, #135 (10742), samSabaTi, 12 noemberi. gv. 4.
Tanaavtorebi: a. arabuli, T. gvancelaZe, g. gogolaSvili, m.
suxiSvili, r. Serozia. arnold Ciqobavas gardacvalebis gamo.
25. `gamravleba - momavlis safuZveli~. mixeil qurdianis
sityva warmoTqmuli mweralTa kavSirSi gamarTul diskusiaze. gaz.
`literaturuli saqarTvelo~, #23 (2360), paraskevi, 7 ivnisi. gv. 10.
gamoxmaureba: karlo inasariZe, saqarTvelos mosaxleobis 2002
wlis aRwera, Jurnali `mesame dasi~, #3 (128), levili, safrangeTi,
2003 wlis 31 dekemberi : 31-32.

1986
26.
qarTvelur-daRestnuri
bgeraTSesatyvisobisaTvis.
saqarTvelos
ssr
mecnierebaTa
akademia.
enaTmecnierebis
instituti.
aspirantTa
da
axalgazrda
mecnier muSakTa
samecniero konferencia 1986 wlis 19-21 marts. muSaobis gegma da
moxsenebaTa Tezisebi. Tbilisi, 1986 : 19-20.
27. saWiroa gadaidgas praqtikuli nabijebi. rubrikiT:
`nebayoflobiTi demografiuli sazogadoebis daarsebisaTvis~. gaz.
`komunizmis gza~ #92 (7260), SabaTi, 2 agvisto, duSeTi, 1986 : 2, 4.
Tanaavtorebi: omar Turmanauli, ilia begiaSvili.
es werili, romlis yovel momdevno publikacias emateboda
qarTvel mweralTa axali xelmowerebi, sxvadasxva saTaurebiT
ibeWdeboda saqarTvelos raionul presaSi: 1986 wels: axmeta:
`baxtrioni~ #100 (4.909), 21 agvisto, xuTSabaTi, gv. 3, da #101 (4.910),
23 agvisto, SabaTi. gv. 3-4, saTauriT _ `Cveni kacobis qvakuTxedi~;
yazbegi: `dariali~ #108 (5.288) 11 seqtemberi, xuTSabaTi, gv. 3-4 da
#109 (5.289), 13 seqtemberi, SabaTi, gv. 4. saTauriT _ `Cveni
arsebobis qvakuTxedi~; mestia: `axali svaneTi~, #108 (4.493), 11
seqtemberi, xuTSabaTi, gv. 3 da #109 (4.494), 13 seqtemberi, SabaTi.
gv. 3-4, saTauriT `fuZev ar moiSlebode~; siRnaRi: `kolmeurne~,
#112 (8.158), 18 seqtemberi, xuTSabaTi, gv. 3 da #113 (8.159), 20
seqtemberi, SabaTi. gv. 3, saTauriT `Cveni kacobis qvakuTxedi~;
yvareli: `yvareli~, #129 (5.673), 1 noemberi, SabaTi, gv. 3, #130
(5.674), 4 noemberi, samSabaTi. gv. 3, #@131 (5.675), 6 noemberi,
xuTSabaTi, gv. 3, saTauriT `dedav, ismine qarTvlis vedreba~;
wiTelwyaro: `axali Siraqi~, #142 (6.905), 25 noemberi, samSabaTi, gv.
3-4 da #143 (6.906), 27 noemberi, xuTSabaTi. gv. 2, saTauriT `eris
ukvdavebis proeqti~; Telavi: `alaznis ganTiadi~, #152 (7.524), 30
dekemberi,
samSabaTi,
gv.
3-4,
saTauriT
`nebayoflobiTi
demografiuli sazogadoebis daarsebisaTvis~. 1988 wels: Tbilisi:
`Tbilisi~, #26 (10.544), 1 Tebervali, orSabaTi, gv. 4-5, saTauriT

mixeil qurdianis Sromebis bibliografia

37

`saWiroa praqtikuli nabiji~ (nebayoflobiTi demografiuli


sazogadoebis daarsebisaTvis _ m. qurdianis gvari amoRebulia
gazeTis
redaqciis
mier
politikui
koniunqturis
gaTvaliswinebiT misi ilia WavWavaZis sazogadoebaSi yofnis gamo).

1987
28. pasuxic amas hqvia _ almanaxi `kritika~, 1987, #1 (62) :
115-135. Tanaavtori: levan bregaZe. pasuxi a. gelovanis mier
naSromis pasuxad daweril werilze _ `pasuxi kritikul
SeniSvnebze~ _ almanaxi `kritika~, #5 (60), 1986 : 51-74.
gamoxmaureba: a. gelovani. saqme garCeviT gasinje...
almanaxi `kritika~, #4 (65), 1987 : 161-166.
29. `SiSisa~ da `Wiis~ aRmniSvneli saerTo-qarTveluri
sityvebi
da
sibilantTa
Sesatyvisobis
zogi
sakiTxi
_
saqarTvelos ssr mecnierebaT akademia enaTmecnierebis instituti.
aspirantTa
da
axalgazrda
mecnier muSakTa
samecniero
konferencia. eZRvneba didi oqtombris revoluciis 70 wlisTavs.
1987 wlis 31 marts. muSaobis gegma da moxsenebaTa Tezisebi.
Tbilisi, 1987 : 19-20.
30. iZulebiTi ganmarteba, - almanaxi `kritika~, 1987, #5
(66) : 242-246. Tanaavtori: levan bregaZe. pasuxi a. gelovanis mier
#28 naSromis pasuxad daweril werilze _ `saqme garCeviT
gasinje...~, _ almanaxi `kritika~, #4 (65), 1987 : 161-166.
31. futurizmi da sxva _ Jurn. `qarTuli ena da
literatura skolaSi~, 1987, #1-4 gv. 84-130. monografia meoce
saukunis pirveli naxevris evropis avangardistuli xelovnebis
istoriasa da tipologiaze.
32. mixeil qurdianis azri... _ almanaxi `kritika~, 1987, #6
(67) : 106-109. azri almanaxis imave nomerSi gamoqveynebul nino
darbaiselis leqsebze _ rubrikiT `gza, gza...~ (gv. 100-104).

1988
33. `miTologiuri leqsikonis~ gamo _ levan bregaZis
wignSi
`sityva
Zveli,
sityva
axali~.
Tbilisi,
`sabWoTa
saqarTvelo~, 1988 : 171-187. levan bregaZis TanaavtorobiT dawerili
# 17 naSromis axali publikacia.

34. pasuxic amas hqvia _ levan bregaZis wignSi `sityva


Zveli, sityva axali~, Tbilisi: sabWoTa saqarTvelo, 1988 : 188-205.

38

levan bregaZis
publikacia.

mixeil qurdianis Sromebis bibliografia

TanaavtorobiT

dawerili

#28

naSromis

axali

1989
35. ?- . "ii i", 54 (13568),
, 4 , . 2. ras niSnavs `viwro wre~? _ gaz. `veCirnii
kiiv~, #54 (13568), SabaTi, 4 marti. gv. 2. ukrainul enaze (igive
teqsti daibeWda gazeTis rusul adeqvatSic). polemikuri SeniSvnebi ukrainuli enis funqcionirebis arealis SezRudvis momxreTa
winaaRmdeg.
36. wigni samwerlo enaze _ almanaxi `kritika~, 1989, #3:
125-127. recenzia b. jorbenaZis wignze `balavari mwerlobisa~,
Tbilisi, `sabWoTa saqarTvelo~, 1987: 268
1990
37. saqarTvelos administraciul-teritoriuli mowyobis
zogadi principebisaTvis, gazeTi `erisioni~, Tbilisi, #1, paraskevi. 20 aprili. gv. 4-5.
38. erTi koconis kvamli (werili, romelic Tavis droze
ar daibeWda), gazeTi `erisioni~, #4-5. 20 ivlisi, 1990 : 4-6,
polemikuri SeniSvnebi v. CekuriSvilis werilis `koconi kaklian
goraze~
(Jurnali `saqarTvelos qali~ #11. 1986 : 14-15) Sesaxeb
da
qarTul-naxuri
istoriuli
urTierTobebis
tendenciuri
gaSuqebis gamo.
39.
- .
- ( -
). . , 1990, 82-83. Ca . . .
1991
40. nananena. Wanuri dedaena. nananena, Lsisches schulbuch,
Freudenstadt: Kaukasus-Verlag. (froidenStadti, germania) 134 gverdi.
lazur enaze. paralelurad qarTuli da laTinuri SriftiT.
Tanaavtori waTe bawaSi (wigni xelmowerilia fsevdonimiT: osman
tamtruli). gamoxmaureba:
1. irine asaTiani: osman tamtruli, nananena, Wanuri dedaena.
Jurnali `quTaisis universitetis moambe~, #1, 1996, qarTulad gv.
135-137, inglisurad gv. 265-266.
2. revaz Sengelia, omar SemiSiSi: osman tamtruli, nananena,
Wanuri dedaena.... Jurnali `quTaisis
universitetis moambe~. #1,
1996, qarTulad gv. 137-140, inglisurad gv. 266-269.

mixeil qurdianis Sromebis bibliografia

39

41. qarTvelur da naxur enaTa bgeraTSesatyvisobis


sakiTxisaTvis. _ saqarTvelos mecnierebaTa akademia. arn. Ciqobavas
saxelobis enaTmecnierebis instituti. XLIX samecniero sesia eZRvneba akad. varlam Tofurias dabadebidan 90-e wlisTavs. 1991 wlis
17-19 dekemberi. muSaobis gegma da moxsenebaTa Tezisebi. Tbilisi,
1991 : 34.

1993
42. demografiuli problema _ demografiuli politikiT
anu miwa Cveni arsobisa (Tvalsazrisi). gazeTi `saqarTvelos respublika~, #182 (728), xuTSabaTi, 19 agvisto, 1993 : 2. Tanaavtorebi:
ilia begiaSvili, avTandil sulaberiZe.
43. anJanbemani (gadatana) qarTvelur enaTa leqsTwyobis
sistemebSi. saqarTvelos mecnierebaTa akademia. arn. Ciqobavas
saxelobis enaTmecnierebis instituti. 52-e samecniero sesia 1993
wlis 21-24 dekembers. muSaobis gegma da moxsenebaTa Tezisebi.
Tbilisi, 1993 : 24.
44. albanuri asomTavruli (grafikuli struqtura da
genezisis problema). saqarvelos mecnierebaTa akademia. arn.
Ciqobavas saxelobis enaTmecnierebis instiuti. 52-e samecniero
sesia. 1993 wlis 21-24 dekembers. muSaobis gegma da moxsenebis
Tezisebi. Tbilisi, 1993 : 25-26.
1994
45. didi poeti _ gaz. `Tbilisi~, #51, 12 aprili, gv. 8.
SoTa niSnianiZis dabadebidan
65 wlisTavisadmi
miZRvnili
saiubileo werili.
46.
kidev
erTi
folkloruli
Janris
(`mavlia~-s)
gamoyofis aucileblobisaTvis (winaswari moxseneba).
`quTaisis
universitetis moambe~, #2, 1994 : 25-31. inglisuri teqstiT.
47. `sawmisis~ aqaduri saxelwodeba da qarTveluri enebi.
besarion jorbenaZis sazogadoebis samecniero konferencia. 1994
wlis 10-11 maisi. eZRvneba mudmivmoqmedi seminaris `saenaTmecniero
saubrebis~ daarsebis 20 wlisTavisa da misi damaarseblis _ besarion jorbenaZis_xsovnas. moxsenebaTa Tezisebi. Tbilisi, 1994 : 1213.
1995
48. istoriul-SedarebiTi meTodi leqsTmcodneobaSi da
saerTo-qarTveluri poeturi gamoTqmebisa da idiomebis rekonstruqcia. `quTaisis universitetis moambe~, #2, 1995 : 33-39. inglisuri teqstiT.

40

mixeil qurdianis Sromebis bibliografia

49. mesrop maStoci da kavkasiuri anbanuri samyaro.


gazeTi `literaturuli saqarTvelo~, #8 (8109), 24. II _ 3. III. gv. 1112.
naSromi
movses
kaRankatvacis
`aRvanTa
qveynis
istoriis~
teqstologiuri analiziT cxadyofs mesrop maStocis mier
albanuri asomTavrulis Seqmnis hipoTezis usafuZvlobas.
52. qalaq kar-is (yarsis) saxelwodebisaTvis. besarion
jorbenaZis sazogadoebis II samecniero konferencia. Tbilisi. 1995
wlis 30, 31 maisi, 1 ivnisi muSaobis gegma da moxsenebaTa Tezisebi.
1995 : 28-29.
53. `vefxistyaosnis~ leqsikidan. Zvirfasi qvebi. saqarTvelos mecnierebaTa akademia. arn. Ciqobavas saxelobis enaTmecnierebis instituti. 54-e samecniero sesia 1995 wlis 20-24 noembers.
muSaobis gegma da moxsenebaTa Tezisebi. Tbilisi, 1995 : 37-38.
54. meoce saukunis dasawyisis literaturul mimdinareobaTa formirebis procesi saqarTveloSi. Tbilisis ivane javaxiSvilis saxelobis saxelmwifo universiteti. filologiis mecnierebaTa kandidatis samecniero xarisxis mosapoveblad wardgenili
naSromis sadisertacio macne 10.01.02 _ qarTuli literatura (xelnaweris uflebiT). Tbilisi. 1995 : 36, tiraJi 100 (inglisuri reziume
: 34-36).
1996

55. lamazmani (ciklidan `geniosebi da komentatorebi~).


gazeTi `burji erovnebisa~, #3 (8), 6 marti.
56. klaskategoriani enebis gramatikul struqturaTa
Teoriuli modelirebis cda.
I. saqarTvelos mecnierebaTa
akademia. arn. Ciqobavas sax. enaTmecnierebis instituti. Tbilisis
iv. javaxiSvilis sax. saxelmwifo universiteti, filologiis
fakulteti. arn. Ciqobavas sakiTxavebi VII (26-29 marti). muSaobis
gegma da moxsenebaTa Tezisebi. Tbilisi, 1996 : 35-37.
57.
saerTo-qarTveluri
enis
qarTvelur
enaTa
urTierTmimarTebis
`burji erovnebisa~, #4 aprili, 1996 : 14.

diferenciaciisa
da
sakiTxisaTvis.
gazeTi

58. qvewyobili da Tanwyobili fabulebi inglisurenovan


dramaturgiaSi. quTaisis ak. wereTlis saxelobis saxelmwifo
universiteti, profesor-maswavlebelTa IV samecniero konferencia
(8-11 aprili). muSaobis gegma da moxsenebaTa Tezisebi. quTaisi, 1996
: 130-132.
59. poeti mefe (ciklidan geniosebi
gazeTi `burji erovnebisa~ #5 (10), 1996 : 6-10.

da

komentatorebi)

mixeil qurdianis Sromebis bibliografia

41

60.
ena
da
dialeqti
sakuTriv
lingvisturi
da
sociolingvisturi
TvalsazrisiT.
besarion
jorbenaZis
sazogadoebis III samecniero konferencia. Tbilisi, 1996 wlis 4-7
ivnisi. muSaobis gegma da moxsenebaTa Tezisebi, , 1996 : 41-42.
61.
istoriul-SedarebiTi
meTodi
da
toxurisa
da
Wadaqoluris kvalifikaciis problema. Tbilisis iv. javaxiSvilis
saxelobis saxelmwifo universiteti. filologiis fakulteti.
saqarTvelos mecnierebaTa akademia, arnold Ciqobavas sax.
enaTmecnierebis instituti. profesor giorgi rogavas dabadebis 90
wlisadmi miZRvnili saiubileo samecniero sesia. moxsenebaTa
Tezisebi. Tbilisi, 1996 : 26-27.
62. saerTo-qarTveluri enis diferenciaciisa da qarTvelur
enaTa urTierTmimarTebis sakiTxisaTvis. Jurnali quTaisis universitetis moambe, #1, 1996 : 9-17. inglisuri teqstiT.
63. saerTo-qarTveluri lirikuli (lapidaruli) leqsis
struqtura. Jurnali `gelaTis mecnierebaTa akademiis uwyebani~,
#2, 1996 : 83-90 (axlavs inglisuri reziume).
64. qronika. gelaTis mecnierebaTa akademia. dokumentebi da
faqtebi. Jurnali gelaTis mecnierebaTa akademiis uwyebani, #1,
1996 : 5-17. inglisuri teqstiT.
65. kavkasiuri anbanuri samyaros anbanuri rigis tipologia
da ivane javaxiSvilis gramatikuli moZRvreba. quTaisis akaki
wereTlis saxelobis saxelmwifo universiteti. iv. javaxiSvilis
dReebi quTaisSi. 24-25 seqtemberi, 1996. didi qarTveli mecnierisa
da sazogado moRvawis ivane javaxiSvilis dabadebidan 120 wlisTavisadmi miZRvnili sauniversitetTaSoriso samecniero sesia.
muSaobis gegma da moxsenebaTa Tezisebi. quTaisi, 1996 : 25-26
66. zanuri enis megruli da lazuri dialeqtebis versifikaciuli sistemebi sinqroniuli da diaqroniuli TvalsazrisiT.
saqarTvelos mecnierebaTa akademia, qarTuli enis mecnieruli Seswavlis sabWo, saqarTvelos mecnierebaTa akademiis arnold Ciqobavas saxelobis enaTmecnierebis instituti. XVI respublikuri
dialeqtologiuri samecniero sesia eZRvneba akad. iv. javaxiSvilis dabadebidan 120 wlisTavs. muSaobis gegma da moxsenebaTa
Tezisebi (q. Tbilisi, 1996 w. 24-25 oqtomberi). Tbilisi, 1996 : 29-30.
67. enaTa sociolingvisturi klasifikacia. saqarTvelos
mecnierebaTa akademiis arnold Ciqobavas saxelobis enaTmecnierebis instituti. 55-e samecniero sesia (1996 wlis 12-15 noemberi).
eZRvneba akad. iv. javaxiSvilis dabadebis 120 wlisTavs. Tbilisi,
1996 : 31-32.
68. saerTo-qarTveluri lirikuli (lapidaruli) leqsi.
saqarTvelos mecnierebaTa akademia. literaturaTmcodneobis re-

42

mixeil qurdianis Sromebis bibliografia

spublikuri sakoordinacio sabWo. SoTa rusTavelis saxelobis


qarTuli literaturis instituti. XXVI samecniero sesia. muSaobis gegma da moxsenebaTa Tezisebi (23-27 dekemberi, 1996 w.). Tbilisi, 1996 : 104-106.
69. mefe. saqarTvelos mecnierebaTa akademias. iv. javaxiSvilis saxelobis istoriisa da eTnologiis instituti. varlam
donduas xsovnisadmi miZRvnili samecniero sesia. Tbilisi 1996
wlis 25-27 dekemberi. moxsenebaTa Tezisebi. Tbilisi, 1996 : 24-26.
70. saerTo-qarTveluri leqsis Janrobrivi modelebis rekonstruqciisa da klasifikaciis problemisaTvis. qarTvelur
enaTa struqturis sakiTxebi. VI. Tbilisi, 1996 : 160-184 (axlavs inglisuri reziume).
71. saerTo-qarTveluri lirikuli (lapidaruli) leqsis
strofika da zogierTi myari saleqso formis genezisis problema.
saqarTvelos mecnierebaTa akademiis macne. enisa da literaturis
seria, #1-4, Tbilisi, 1996 : 155-162 (axlavs rusuli reziume).
72. saerTo-qarTveluri lirikuli (lapidaruli)
riTma. saenaTmecniero Ziebani. V. Tbilisi, 1996 : 196-202.

leqsis

73. grZeli xmovnebis problema da leqsTwyobis kvantitatiuri sistemis naSTebi svanurSi. saenaTmecniero Ziebani V. Tbilisi,
1996 : 202-209.
74. saerTo-qarTveluri enis diferenciaciis problema.
`qarTveluri memkvidreoba~, I. quTaisuri saubrebi. simpoziumis masalebi. quTaisi, 1996 : 253-262
1997
75.
qarTuli
samxedro
terminologis normalizaciis
sakiTxisaTvis. Jurnali `samxedro teqnika~, #1, 1997 : 97-101.
Tanaavtori: m. WiraqaZe.
76. `didi tradiciis~ xsovna da terminTqmnadobis erTi
SemTxveva diglosiuri bilingvizmis pirobebSi. saqarTvelos
mecnierebaTa
akademia.
arnold
Ciqobavas
saxelobis
enaTmecnierebis instituti. Tbilisis iv. javaxiSvilis saxelobis
saxelmwifo universiteti. filologiis fakulteti. arnold
Ciqobavas sakiTxavebi. VIII. 1997 wlis 1 - 4 aprili. muSaobis gegma
da moxsenebaTa Tezisebi. Tbilisi, 1997 : 25-26.
77. ena da eri. quTaisis akaki wereTlis sax. saxelmwifo
universiteti, dialeqtologiis samecniero kvleviTi instituti.
quTaisuri saubrebi IV. 1997 wlis 2-4 maisi. quTaisi, 1997 : 101-106.
78. kerpTa msxvreva. Jurnali `saqarTvelos moambe~
(Telavi), #2 1997: 143-162 gamokvleva meoce saukunis dasawyisis

43

mixeil qurdianis Sromebis bibliografia

qarTuli
modernistuli
literaturis
warmomadgenelTa
damokidebulebis
Sesaxeb
winamorbedTa
literaturuli
memkvidreobisadmi da literaturis periodizaciis tipologiuri
principis upiratesobaze qronologiurTan SedarebiT.
79.
lirikuli
(lapidaruli)
leqsis
universaluri
arqetipebi da transformaciuli modelebi. enis konceptualuri da
kompiuteruli modelebi. Tbilisi, 1997 : 68-74. inglisuri teqstiT.
80. Coxiani dadaistebi. Jurnali `ganTiadi~ (quTaisi), ##7-8,
1997 : 131-143; ##9-10, 1997 : 146-159. monografia qarTuli da evropuli
dadaizmis Teoriis istoriisa da praqtikis Sesaxeb.
81. diaqronuli adamianebi.
seqtemberi, #35 (720), 1997 : 5.

gaz.

`kviris

fosta~,

15-22

82. System of the Common-Kartvelian Lyric (Lapidary)Verse. Bulletion of


the Academy of Sciences of Georgia, 156, N1, 1997: 171-173. saerToqarTveluri lirikuli (lapidaruli) leqsis sistema. saqarTvelos
mecnierebaTa akademiiis moambe, 156, #1, Tbilisi, 1997 : 1.
83. dialeqtTa bunebrivi sazRvrebis Sesaxeb. iv. javaxiSvilis saxelobis Tbilisis saxelmwifo universitetis zogadi
enaTmecnierebis kaTedra. saqarTvelos mecnierebaTa akademiis arnold Ciqobavas saxelobis enaTmecnierebis instituti. 1997 wlis 810 dekembers gamarTuli gamoCenili qarTveli enaTmecnieris, prof.
givi maWavarianis dabadebis 70 wlisTavisadmi miZRvnili samecniero sesia. Tbilisi, 1997 : 24-25.
84. leqsi, rogorc metyvelebis markirebuli forma. besarion jorbenaZis sazogadoebis IV samecniero konferenciis masalebi. Tbilisi, 1997 : 30-33.
85. saerTo-qarTveluri epikuri (naratiuli) leqsis erTi
metruli sqemis Sesaxeb. giorgi rogavas saiubileo krebuli. Tbilisi, 1997 : 171-183.
86. riTmis genezisi svanur epikur (naratiul) leqsSi. zurab
WumburiZis dabadebis 70 wlisTavisadmi miZRvnili krebuli,
, 1997 : 140-151. (axlavs germanuli reziume).
1998
87. rusTaveli _ nizami (werili pirveli). `vefxistyaosani~,
rogorc saTauri semiotikuri TvalsazrisiT. Jurnali `burji
erovnebisa~, #1, Tbilisi, 1998 : 19-20.
88. rusTaveli _ nizami (werili meore). `vefxistyaosani~,
rogorc
siyvarulis
siuJeturi
realizacia
Teologiuri

44

mixeil qurdianis Sromebis bibliografia

TvalsazrisiT. Jurnali `burji erovnebisa~, #2, Tbilisi, 1998 : 1617; #3, 1998 : 16-17.
89. akademikosi arnold Ciqobava _ aRweriTi da SedarebiTi
qarTveluri
enaTmecnierebis
gamorCeuli
warmomadgeneli.
saqarTvelos mecnierebaTa akademia. arnold Ciqobavas saxelobis
enaTmecnierebis instituti. Tbilisis iv. javaxiSvilis saxelobis
saxelmwifo universiteti. filologiis fakulteti. arnold
Ciqobavas sakiTxavebi. IX. 1998 wlis 14-17 aprili. muSaobis gegma da
moxsenebaTa Tezisebi. Tbilisi, 1998 : 37-38. Tanaavtori: vaJa
Sengelia.
90. axalSobilTa tirili da Tavdapirveli vokalizmis
problema (eTnolingvisturi interpretaciis cda). quTaisis akaki
wereTlis
saxelobis
saxelmwifo
universiteti.
profesormawavlebelTa V samecniero konferencia. eZRvneba ilia WavWavaZis
dabadebis 160-e da akaki wereTlis saxelobis saxelmwifo
universitetis daarsebis 65-e wlisTavs. 1998 wlis 6-10 aprili.
quTaisi, 1998 : 29-30.
91. enisa da eris urTierTmimarTebis problemisaTvis..
qarTveluri memkvidreoba II. quTaisuri saubrebi. simpoziumis
masalebi. quTaisi, 1998 : 264-268. (axlavs inglisur inglisuri
reziume).
92. -
.
.
.
, , .
. 15-19 1998 .
100- . . .
. , 1998 : 8-10.
93. saerTo-qarTveluri versifikaciuli sistema da leqsTwyobis zogadlingvisturi Teoria. saqarTvelos mecnierebaTa
akademia. arn. Ciqobavas saxelobis enaTmecnierebis instituti. avtoreferati filologiis mecnierebaTa doqtoris samecniero
xarisxis mosapoveblad warmodgenili disertaciisa. 10.02.02. _
enaTmecnierebis Teoria da istoria. 10.01.08. _ literaturis Teoria
(xelnaweris uflebiT). Tbilisi, 1998, 80 gverdi, tiraJi 150.
94. saerTo-qarTveluri fuZis gaxmovanebis rekonstruqciis
kompiuterul modelSi zanuri enis monacemTa [gaTvaliswinebis]
wesTa sistemis dadgenisaTvis. enis konceptualuri da kompiuteruli modelebi. III. Tbilisi, 1998 : 86-88. inglisuri teqstiT.
95. erTgvarovani fonetikuri procesebisaTvis iberiulkavkasiur enebSi. I. labialur kompleqsTagan bagismieri Tanxmovnebis miReba. saqarTvelos mecnierebaTa akademia. arnold Ciqobavas
saxelobis enaTmecnierebis instituti. Tbilisis iv. javaxiSvilis
saxelobis saxelmwifo universiteti. arn. Ciqobavas dabadebis 100

mixeil qurdianis Sromebis bibliografia

wlisTavisadmi miZRvnili saerTaSoriso simpoziumis


Tbilisi, 1998 : 95-97. Tanaavtori: vaJa Sengelia.

45

masalebi.

96.
. Aarnold Ciqobavas dabadebis 100 wlisTavisadmi miZRvnili saerTaSoriso simpoziumis masalebi. Tbilisi, 1998
: 196-198.
97. qarTul dialeqtTa formebis relatiuri qronologiis
problemisaTvis (sinqroniul monacemTa diaqroniuli kvalifikaciis cda). saqarTvelos mecnierebaTa akademia. qarTuli enis
mecnieruli Seswavlis sabWo. saqarTvelos mecnierebaTa akademiis
arnold Ciqobavas saxelobis enaTmecnierebis instituti. cxinvalis saxelmwifo pedagogiuri instituti. VIII respublikuri
dialeqtologiuri samecniero sesia. eZRvneba arn. Ciqobavas dabadebis 100 wlisTavs. muSaobis gegma da moxsenebaTa Tezisebi. (q.
gori, 1998 w. 30-31 oqtomberi). Tbilisi, 1998 : 36-40.
98. saerTo-naxur-daRestnuri *a fonemis Sesatyvisobani
saerTo-qarTvelurSi. saqarTvelos mecnierebaTa akademia. arnold
Ciqobavas saxelobis enaTmecnierebis instituti. 57-e samecniero
sesiis masalebi. 1998 wlis 23-25 dekemberi. Tbilisi, 1998 : 59-60.
99. lateralebis arqaulobis problema iberiul-kavkasiur
enebSi da baskur-kavkasiuri hipoTeza. besarion jorbenaZis sazogadoebis V samecniero konferenciis masalebi (1999 wlis 21-22
ianvari). Tbilisi, 1998 : 37-40.

1999
100.
bolokidur
mJRerTa
dayruebis
sakiTxisaTvis
qarTulSi. arnold Ciqobavas sakiTxavebi. X. 1999 wlis 13-16
aprili. masalebi. saqarTvelos mecnierebaTa akademia arn. Ciqobavas saxelobis enaTmecnierebis instituti. filologiis fakulteti, Tbilisi, 1999 : 38-39. Tanaavtori: avTandil arabuli.
101.
.
" ",
90- . 2
, ., 1999: 5760.
102. .
"
", 90-
2 , ,
, , 1999 : 60-62.

46

mixeil qurdianis Sromebis bibliografia

103. ena rogorc kreatiuli aqtis da ara evoluciuri


procesis Sedegi. `qarTvelologiuri memkvidreoba~. III. quTaisi,
1999 : 190-193. (axlavs inglisuri reziume).
104.
saerTo-qarTveluri
sazogadoebis
socialuri
struqturis problemisaTvis. quTaisuri saubrebi. VI, simpoziumis
masalebi, quTaisi, 1999 : 165-168.
105. xSul TanxmovanTa sameulebrivi sistemis mqone enaTa
mkveTrebis (abruptivebis) asaxvis wesisaTvis wyvileulebrivi
sistemis mqone enaTa damwerlobebSi Zveli wina aziis magaliTze.
saenaTmecniero Ziebani, VIII. Tbilisi, 1999 : 69-74; (erTvis
inglisuri reziume, gv. 74-76).
106 On the Problem of Usage and Origin of Greeting Formulae from
Sociolinguistic Standpoint. 34 th World Congress of the International Institute of
Socioligy Multiple Modernities in an Era of Globalization. Program and Book of Abstracts. Tel Aviv, Israel, July 11-19, 1999 : 119.
107. sityva ewe (eiws) -gramatikuli da saRvTismetyvelo
statusisaTvis maTes saxarebaSi. saqarTvelos mecnierebeaTa akademia iv. javaxiSvilis sax. istoriisa da eTnografiis instituti,
samecniero konferencia, Tbilisi, 1999 wlis 29-30 oqtomberi. konferenciis masalebi eZRvneba saqarTvelos mecnierebaTa akademiis
akademikoss TinaTin yauxCiSvils. Tbilisi, 1999 : 27-28.
108. svanTa da megrelTa qarTuli metyvelebis sakuTrivlingvisturi statusis Sesaxeb. saqarTvelos mecnierebaTa akademia,
qarTuli enis mecnieruli Seswavlis sabWo, saqarTvelos mecnierebaTa akademiis arn. Ciqobavas saxelobis enaTmecnierebis instituti; Tbilisis iv. javaxiSvilis saxelobis saxelmwifo universitetis axalcixis filiali. XIX respublikuri dialeqtologiuri
samecniero sesia. eZRvneba Tbilisis ivane javaxiSvilis saxelobis
saxelmwifo universitetis axalcixis filialis daarsebis 10
wlisTavs (5-6 noemberi), axalcixe, 1999 : 79-80.
109. zanuri enis dialeqtTa raodenobisa daa klasifikaciis
problemisaTvis. saqarTvelos mecnierebaTa akademia. arn. Ciqobavas saxelobis enaTmecnierebis institutis 58-e samecniero sesiis
masalebi. 1999 wlis 24, 27-29 dekemberi. sesia eZRvneba saqarTvelos
mecnierebaTa akademiis wevr-korespondents, profesor ivane gigineiSvils dabadebis 90 wlisTavze, Tbilisi, 1999 : 12-15. Tanaavtori:
waTe bawaSi.
110. termini qarTveli da misi marTebuli areebis mixedviT
cvladi mniSvnelobebi. arn. Ciqobavas saxelobis enaTmecnierebis
institutis 58-e samecniero sesiis masalebi. 1999 wlis 24, 27-29 dekemberi. sesia eZRvneba saqarTvelos mecnierebaTa akademiis wevrkorespondents, profesor ivane gigineiSvils dabadebis 90 wlisTavze, Tbilisi, 1999 : 52-55.

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47

111. `bzisa~ da `sabZelis~ urTierTmimarTebisa da fonetikur procesebze morfonologiis zemoqmedebis ramdenime SemTxvevis
Sesaxeb qarTvelur enebSi. besarion jorbenaZis sazogadoebis VI
samecniero konferenciis masalebi. Tbilisi, 1999 : 5-9.
112. palataluri spirantizaciis procesis kvali svanurSi
(qarT. l: zan. l /r : svan. S. axsnis cda). saenaTmecniero Ziebani IX,
Tbilisi, 1999 : 97-100. (reziume erTvis inglisur enaze).
113.
saerTo-qarTveluri
sazogadoebis
socialuri
struqturisa da sameurneo yofis zogierTi sakiTxi enobrivi
monacemebis mixedviT. III. monadire. quTaisis akaki wereTlis
saxelobis saxelmwifo universitetis Sromebi, t. I (35), quTaisi,
1999 : 40-42 (erTvis inglisuri reziume).
2000
114. saerTo-qarTveluri eTnosis TviTsaxelwodebisaTvis
("mesxi", "mesxebi"). mesxeTi, istoria da Tanamedroveoba. axalcixe,
2000 : 185-193.
115. termini qarTveli da misi
`qarTvlis deda~, #1, ianvari, 2000 : 15-16.

mniSvnelobebi.

Jurnali

116. vin aris da vin ar aris qarTveli?! termini qarTveli da


misi marTebuli areebis mixedviT cvladi mniSvnelobebi. gazeTi
`bankebi da finansebi~, #53, 4 Tebervali, 2000 : 23.
117. qarTvelTa winare samSoblo, rogorc zRvispira qveyana
maRalmTiani landSatfiTa da Tbili (subtropikuli) klimatiT
(enobrivi monacemebis mixedviT). saqarTvelos mecnierebaTa akademia. arn. Ciqobavas saxelobis enaTmecnierebis instituti. Tbilisis
iv. javaxiSvilis saxelobs saxelmwifo universiteti, filologiis
fakulteti. arnold Ciqobavas sakTxavebi. XI. 2000 wlis 10-14 aprili. masalebi. Tbilisi, 2000 : 53-54.
118. saerTo-qarTveluri sazogadoebis socialuri struqturisa da sameurneo yofis zogierTi sakiTxi enobrivi monacemebis
mixedviT. V. (1.1. sagvareulo saxli, 1. 2. Tavisuflad Sobili, 1.3.
winamZRoli; 2.1. cixe-koSki, cixe-simagre, 2.2. cixe-qalaqi; 3.1. mebaJe,
3.2. mwerali). qarTveluri memkvidreoba. IV, quTaisi, 2000 : 338-349.
(axlavs inglisuri reziume, gv. 349-351).
119. religiis roli erebis CamoyalibebaSi. quTaisuri saubrebi - VIII. simpoziumis masalebi. eZRvneba qristianobis 2000
wlisTavs, 2000 : 68-75. Tanaavtori roland TofCiSvili.
120. qarTveluri da daRestnuri enebis naTesaobis problema da svanuri "Roliaq" ("cxvari") sityvis etimologia. iv. javaxiSvilis saxelobis Tbilisis saxelmwifo universiteti. filologiis fakulteti. samecniero sesia. 11-12 maisi. 2000 weli. muSaobis gegma da moxsenebaTa masalebi. Tbilisi, 2000 : 173-179.

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121. Common-Iranian Lyrik (Lapidary) Verse System. saerToiranuli lirikuli (lapidaruli) leqsis sistema. quTaisis akaki
wereTlis saxelobis saxelmwifo universiteti. iranis islamuri
respublikis gilanis universiteti. qarTul-iranuli urTierTobani. I. saerTaSoriso konferenciis masalebi: 27-37; (erTvis qarTuli
reziume, gv. 27-29). Tanaavtori: ruben morgoSia.

122. Zveli aRTqmis kanonikur wignTa raodenoba marTlmadidebluri da iudaisturi tradiciebis mixedviT. gelaTis mecnierebaTa akademia. qristeSobis oriaTasi wlisTavisadmi miZRvnili
samecniero sesiis moxsenebaTa Tezisebi. V. quTaisi, 2000 : 36-38.
123. kvarTi uflisa da qarTuli mesianizmi. gaz. "kvarTi
uflisa". saqarTvelos sapatriarqos erTdrouli gamocema. Tbilisi, 2000 : 3.
124. svanur-zanuri enobrivi erTobis dialeqturi Sedgeniloba da misi diferenciaciis procesi svanur da zanur enebad
istoriul-SedarebiTi fonetikis TvalsazrisiT (ZiriTadi fonetikuri procesebi). XX respublikuri dialeqtologiuri samecniero
sesiis masalebi. eZRvneba akad. s. janaSias dabadebis 100 wlisTavs. q. zugdidi, 2000 wlis 20-21 oqtomberi. Tbilisi, 2000 : 24-27.
Tanaavtori: waTe bawaSi.
125. qarTvelTa pirvelsacxovrisis flora enobrivi monacemebis mixedviT. quTaisis akaki wereTlis saxelobis saxelmwfo
universiteti. profesor-maswavlebelTa VI samecniero konferencia.
masalebi. quTaisi, 2000 : 6. Tanaavtori: waTe bawaSi.
126. misalmebis formulebi sinqroniuli (aRweriTi) da
diaqroniuli (istoriuli) sociolingvistikis TvalsazrisiT. quTaisis akaki wereTlis saxelobis saxelmwifo universiteti. profesor-maswavlebelTa VI samecniero konferencia. masalebi. quTaisi, 2000 : 9-10.
127. saerTo-naxuri-daRestnuri (aRmosavlur-kavkasiuri)
eTnosis pirvelsacxovrisis problema enobrivi monacemebis mixedviT. saqarTvelos mecnierebaTa akademia, iv. javaxiSvilis sax. istoriisa da eTnologiis instituti. akademikos simon janaSias
dabadebis 100 wlisTavisadmi miZRvnili samecniero sesia (moxsenebis mokle Sinaarsebi), Tbilisi, 2000 wlis 16-19 noemberi. Tbilisi,
2000 : 51-53.
128. poetis oqro (poetis axali wignis Semdgenelredaqtorisagan). krebulSi: "Cemi suli saqarTvelos aCqarebul
sunTqvaSia" (zurab kuxianiZe _ 70), Semdgeneli da narkvevis avtori
elguja buaZe. quTaisi, mowameTa, 2000 : 144-148.
Semoklebuli varianti erTdroul gazeTSi: `zurab kuxianiZe _
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49

129. simon janaSia qarTvelTa pirvelsacxovrisis Sesaxeb


da sakiTxis Seswavlis Tanamedrove mdgomareoba. saqarTvelos
mecnierebaTa akademia. arn. Ciqobavas saxelobis enaTmecnierebis
instituti. 59-e samecniero sesiis masalebi. 2000 wlis 12-15 dekemberi. sesia eZRvneba akad. simon janaSias dabadebis 100 wlisTavs.
Tbilisi, 2000 : 54-56.
130. erTi sintaqsuri Tavisebureba Txzulebisa "cxoreba
mefeT-mefisa
daviTisi". besarion jorbenaZis sazogadoebis VII
samecniero
konferenciis masalebi. Tbilisi. 2000 : 20.
131. zanizmebi osurSi da dvalTa eTnikuri kuTvnilebis
problema.
iv.
javaxiSvilis
saxelobis
Tb.
saxelmwifo
universiteti, saqarTvelos mecnierebaTa
akademiis akad. g.
wereTlis saxelobis aRmosavleTmcodneobis instituti, Tbilisis
aziisa da afrikis instituti. saqarTvelos mecnierebaTa akademiis
wevr-korespondent profesor mzia andronikaSvilisadmi miZRvnili
samecniero konferencia. 2000 wlis 26-27 dekemberi, konferenciis
masalebi. Tbilisi. 2000 : 69-70.
132. Sxara-s etimologiisaTvis. krebuli: fonetika da
norma. (samecniero konferencia miZRvnili akad. Tamaz gamyreliZis
dabadebis 70-e wlisTavisadmi) Tbilisis ilia WavWavaZis saxelobis
enisa da kulturis saxelmwifo universiteti. Tbilisi, 2000 : 114117. (erTvis inglisuri reziume). Tanaavtorebi: avTandil arabuli
da Teimuraz gvancelaZe.
133. The Classification of Modern Hebrew (IVRIT) Consonants. St.
Petersburg State University, Tbilisi State University, Tel-Aviv State University. Immanent Processes of language and Literarure Development. Tbilisi, 2000 : 66-69.

2001
134. saerTo-qarTveluri sazogadoebis socialuri struqturisa da sameurneo yofis zogierTi sakiTxi enobrivi monacemebis mixedviT. I. mesaqonle (mecxovele). masalebi saqarTvelos eTnografiisaTvis, XXIV. Tbilisi, 2001 : 63-72. (erTvis reziume inglisur enaze).
135.
(). - ;
, 2001. . 2.
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136. termini qarTveli da misi maxasiaTebeli areebis mixedviT cvladi mniSvnelobebi. II. saq. menc. akad. arn. Ciqobavas sax.
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saxelmwifo universiteti, filologiis fakulteti; arnold Ciqobavas sakiTxavebi. XII. 2001 wlis 17-20 aprili, masalebi, Tbilisi,
2001 : 102-106.
137. eTnikuri konsolidaciisa da diferenciaciis religiuri aspeqtebi. qarTveluri memkvidreoba. V. eZRvneba qristianobis 2000 wlisTavs, 2001 : 131-140. (erTvis reziume ingl. enaze, gv. 141)
Tanaavtori: roland TofCiSvili.
138. maRali markirebis mqone erTi leqsikur-semantikuri
velis
qristianizaciis
SemTxveva
qarTulSi.
qarTveluri
memkvidreoba, V. eZRvneba qristianobis 2000 wlisTavs. 2001 : 250-256.
(reziume erTvis inglisur enaze. gv. 257).
139. mose xorenelis "somxeTis istoriisa" da nusxaxucuri damwerlobis urTierT mimarTebisaTvis (sakiTxis dasmis
wesiT).
quTaisis
ak.
wereTlis
saxelobis
saxelmwifo
universiteti. dialeqtologiis samecniero kvleviTi instituti.
quTaisuri saubrebi. VIII simpoziumis masalebi. eZRvneba varlam
Tofurias dabadebidan 100 wlisTavs. quTaisi, 2001 : 107-110.
140. narkvevebi svanuri enis istoriuli fonetikidan I.
palataluri spirantizaciis procesis kvali svanurSi (qarT. l :
zan. l/r: svan. m. axsnis cda. krebuli: varlam Tofuria 100.
Tb, 2001 : 174-177. (erTvis reziume ingl. enaze, gv. 177).
kreaciulisa
da
evoluciuris
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urTierTmimarTebisaTvis
enaSi
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iv.
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filialebis filologiis fakultetTa IV samecniero sesia (12-13
maisi). eZRvneba akad. v. Tofurias dabadebidan 100 wlisTavs.
muSaobis gegma da masalebi. zugdidi-Tbilisi, 2001 : 60-64.
142. TanxmovanTa harmoniuli kompleqsebi xuritulsa da
urartulSi da maTi aRmosavlur-kavkasiuri (naxur-daRestnuri)
enaTa jgufisadmi kuTvnilebis hipoTeza. saenaTmecniero Ziebani XI.
Tbilisi, 2001 : 180-187. (reziume erTvis inglisur enaze).
143. uflis Seqmnili samyaro da misi metamorfozebi
(wminda werilisa da eklesiis mamaTa mixedviT). gelaTis
mecnierebaTa akademia. yovelwliuri samecniero sesiis moxsenebaTa
Tezisebi. VI. quTaisi, 2001 : 41-46.
144. `goniersa mwvrTneli uyvars~. mogoneba maTematikos
avTandil benduqiZeze. avTandil benduqiZe _ 80. statiebi da
mogonebebi, Tbilisi, 2001 : 94-103.
145. winaqristianul saqarTveloSi religiuri reformis
ramdenime mcdelobisa da maTi warumateblobis mizezebis Sesaxeb.
saqarTvelos
mecnierebaTa
akademia.
iv.
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wlisaa.
samecniero
sesia
miZRvnili
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146. xubuSqia (saqarTvelos, kavkasiisa da maxlobeli
aRmosavleTis Zveli istoriis eTno-lingvisturi problemebi. I).
kavkasiur-axloaRmosavluri krebuli X. Tbilisi, 2001 : 121-133.
(erTvis reziume rusul enaze (134-135), reziume inglisur enaze.
147. recenzia:
grigol giorgaZe, xeTuri da asuruli
lursmuli teqstebi qasqebis (qaSqebis) da abeSlaelebis eTnikuri
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axalcixe,
2000,
103
gv.;
kavkasiuraxloaRmosavluri krebuli, X. Tbilisi, 2001 : 311-320.
148. ena - qaosis modelirebisa da katastrofaTa Teoriis
TvalsazrisiT, I. saq. mecn. akademiis arn. Ciqobavas sax.
enaTmecnierebis instituti. me-60 samecniero sesiis masalebi, 2001,
18-21 dekemberi, sesia eZRvneba akad. varlam Tofurias dabadebis 100
wlisTavs. Tbilisi, 2001 : 46-51.
149.
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monacemebis mixedviT. IV. xelosani (1. mkeravi). quTaisis a.
wereTlis saxelobis saxelmwifo universitetis Sromebi, t. 2 (36),
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150. Minor Nations Language Saving Program CANCELLD.
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2002
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saerTo-qarTveluri
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besarion
jorbenaZis
sazogadoeba. VIII samecniero konferenciis masalebi. Tbilisi, 2002
: 15-16.
152. adamiani, rogorc percefciuli bazisis `tyve~ da
dialeqtTa fonetikuri Taviseburebebi sociolingvistur markerTa
rolSi. arnold Ciqobavas sakiTxavebi. XIII. 2002 w. 23-26 aprili,
masalebi. Tbilisi, 2002 : 83-87.
153.
eTnonimebis
`qaSqa~-sa
da
`qaSag~-is
urTieTrmimarTebisaTvis.
iv.
javaxiSvilis
sax.
Tbilisis
saxelmwifo universiteti, filologiis fakultetis samecniero
sesia, eZRvneba giorgi axvledianis dabadebis 115-e wlisTavs. 2002,
16-17 maisi. muSaobis gegma da moxsenebaTa masalebi, Tbilisi, 2002 :
45-47.

52

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154. vasil barnovis adgilisa da rolisaTvis qarTuli


literaturis istoriaSi. Telavis i. gogebaSvilis sax. saxelmwifo
universiteti.
besarion
jorbenaZis
sazogadoeba,
vasil
barnovisadmi miZRvnili samecniero konferenciis masalebi. Telavi,
2002 w. 31 maisi. Tbilisi, 2002 : 5-7.
155.
mefeTa
mier
SavizRvispireTSi
`bunebis
gaumjobesebis~ Sesaxeb `avestis~ cnobaTa movses xorenaciseuli
interpretacia.
oCxari.
julieta
ruxaZisadmi
miZRvnili
eTnologiuri, istoriuli da filologiuri Ziebani. saq. mecn.
akad. iv. javaxiSvilis sax. istoriisa da eTnologiis instituti,
Tbilisi, 2002 : 116-123. (erTvis rusuli reziume gv. 123-124 da
inglisuri reziume gv. 124). Tanaavtorebi: nodar gafrindaSvili,
guram narsiZe.
156.
saerTo-qarTveluri
sazogadoebis
socialuri
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monacemebis mixedviT. II. miwaTmoqmedi (2.1. memindvre). oCxari.
julieta ruxaZisadmi miZRvnili eTnologiuri, istoriuli da
filologiuri Ziebani. saq. mecn. akad. iv. javaxiSvilis sax.
istoriisa da eTnologiis instituti. Tbilisi, 2002 : 395-408.
(erTvis rusuli reziume gv. 409 da inglisuri reziume gv. 409).
157. `moqcevai qarTlisai~-s erTi frazis adgilisaTvis
teqstSi da mniSvnelobisaTvis Txzulebis daTariRebis saqmeSi.
qristianuli arqeologiis VI samecniero konferencia, moxsenebaTa
Sinaarsebi. saqarTvelos mecnierebaTa akademia. Tbilisi, 2002 : 2835.
158.
`huriani
qarTvelni~
da
maTi
saqarTveloSi
damkvidrebis
TariRisaTvis.
qristianuli
arqeologiis
VI
samecniero konferencia, moxsenebaTa Sinaarsebi. saqarTvelos
mecnierebaTa akademia, arqeologiuri kvlevis centri. Tbilisi,
2002 : 182-201.
159. qarTvelTa pirvelsacxovrisi enobrivi monacemebis
mixedviT da saerTo-qarTveluri eTnosis tomobrivi Semadgenloba.
qarTveli xalxis eTnogenezisi. Tbilisi, 2002 : 57-92. (erTvis
rusuli reziume gv. 87-88).
160. wminda mRvdelmowame svimon xucesi (simon mWedliZe)
mecnieruli kreacionizmis fuZemdebeli saqarTveloSi. gelaTis
mecnierebaTa akademia, yovelwliuri samecniero moxsenebaTa
Tezisebi. VII. quTaisi, 2002 : 38-40. (eZRvneba sruliad saqarTvelos
kaTalikos-patriarqis uwmidesi da unetaresi ilia II-is dabadebis
70 da aRsaydrebis 25 wlisTavs).
161. xalxuri etimologia `sivrciTi mijaWvulobisa~ da
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53

162. . " ", 1-6,


2002: 13-27. e .
163. Tanamedrove ebrauli saliteraturo enis Cqamier
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2003

164. saqarTvelos erovnuli uSiSroebis koncefcia. `Cveni


mwerloba~. saliteraturo CanarTi # 4(135) gazeTisa `axali epoqa~.
31 ianvari, 6 Tebervali, 2003 : 4-5.
165.
akademikosi
giorgi
mWedliZe
75.
gelaTis
mecnierebaTa akademiis Jurnali, # 4. 2003 : 56-60. Tanaavtori: Tamaz
gogberaSvili.
166. Rvawlmosili mecnieri da mamuliSvili. gazeTi
`literaturuli saqarTvelo~, 2-8 maisi, 2003, # 18 (3434). gv. 12.
akad. giorgi mWedliZis dabadebidan 75 wlisTavisadmi miZRvnili
saiubileo statia. Tanaavtori: avTandil nikoleiSvili.
167. Great Silk Road-Transit of Great Culture. International Black Sea
University. 1st International Symposium, June 25-27, 2003, Tbilisi - Georgia. Program
and Abstracts, p. 26. Tanaavtori: mzia CiCua.
168. qarTvelur enaTa istoriuli enobrivi kontaqtebi da
saerTo-qarTveluri
enis
diferenciaciis
qronologiuri
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44-51. (erTvis inglisuri reziume gv. 51).
169. .
. "
", , . , , 2003
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reziume gv. 327). Tanaavtori maia zaqaraZe.
170.
aRmoCena-ganmeorebiTi kavSirebi (recenzia Tamar
axvledianis wignze "akaki wereTlis mxatvrul saxeTa sistema da
modeli". quTaisi, 2003. gazeTi `Cveni mwerloba~, saliteraturo
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171. galaktionologiuri etiudebi, 1. Sarl bodleri Tu
esaia? almanaxi `mwignobari 03~, Tbilisi, 2003 : 3.
172.
galaktionologiuri etiudebi, 2. riTma
martooba. almanaxi `mwignobari 03~, Tbilisi, 2003 : 7-10.

da

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173.
`huriani
qarTvelni~
da
maTi
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noemberi (xeSvani), 2003 (5764): 2, 8.
174.
( ) :
, .
. , 17-18 , 2003. ,
2003 : 192-193. Tanaavtori: mzia CiCua.
175. wigni samwerlo enaze. recenzia b. jorbenaZis wignze
`balavari mwerlobisa~, Tbilisi, sabWoTa saqarTvelo, 1987: 286.
krebulSi: besarion jorbenaZe _ pirovneba, mecniereba, moRvawe.
Tbilisi, 2003 : 237-241. publikaciis gameoreba, Jurnali `kritika~,
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176. finikiurisa da ebraulis urTierTmimarTebisTvis,
arn.
Ciqobavas
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enaTmecnierebis
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2003 : 41-42.
177. kidev erTxel qarTlis moqcevis TariRis Sesaxeb.
wminda ninos gardacvalebis wlis kaTolikur tradiciasTan
dakavSirebiT.
gelaTis
mecnierebaTa
akademia,
yovelwliuri
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Tanaavtori: nodar gafrindaSvili.
178.
19
wliani
pasqaluri
kalendris
Sesaxeb
istoriisaTvis da anatoli laodikeelis wignis `paqsqaliis
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179.
ori
urartologiuri
etiudi:
1.
TanxmovanTa
harmoniuli kompleqsebi xuritulsa da urartulSi da maTi
aRmosavlur-kavkasiuri
(naxur-daRestnuri)
enaTa
jgufisadmi
kuTvnilebis hipoTeza. iv. javaxiSvilis saxelobis Tbilisis
saxelmwifo universitetis Sromebi. 349. istoria, arqeologia,
xelovnebaTmcodneoba, eTnologia. Tbilisi, 2003 : 66-72 (erTvis
reziume rusul enaze gv. 77-78 da reziume inglisur enaze gv. 80-81).
180. ori urartologiuri etiudi. xSul TanxmovanTa
sameulebrivi sistemis mqone enaTa mkveTrebis (abruptivebis)
asaxvis
wesisaTvis
wyvileulebrivi
sistemis
mqone
enaTa
damwerlobebSi Zveli wina aziis magaliTze. iv. javaxiSvlis
saxelobis Tbilisis saxelmwifo universitetis Sromebi. 349.
istoria, arqeologia, xelovnebaTmcodneoba, eTnologia. Tbilisi,
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2004
181. The Great Silk Road of the Great Culture. didi abreSumis
gza didi kulturis gamtari. krebulSi: 1 st Interanational Silk Road
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182. poeti _ siyvarulis mTesveli (Strixebi
oqroianis poeturi portretisaTvis). leqsebis wignSi:
oqroiani. `askilis surneli~, Tbilisi, 2004 : 3-8.

oqro
oqro

183. saxelmwifo da kanoni. moqalaqe (werili pirveli).


Jurnali: `biznesi da kanonmdebloba~, #1, ivnisi, 2004 : 63-66.
184. saxelmwifo da kanoni. saqarTvelos administraciulteritoriuli mowyobis zogadi principebisTvis _ feoderalur
qalaqTa
sistema
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meore).
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da
kanonmdebloba~, #2, ivlisi 2004 : 63-66.
185. unikaluri gamocema, romelic yvela ojaxSi unda
iyos. saqarTvelos istoriis atlasi, Tbilisi, mematiane, 2003: 88,
gazeTi `mTavari gazeTi~, #179 (578), 31 ivlisi, SabaTi. 2004 : 10.
Tanaavtori: roland TofCiSvili.
186. saxelmwifo da kanoni. kanonis damrRvevi da kanonis
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187. adgilobrivi eklesiebi da erovnuli enebi. Jurnali
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188.
kavkasia
qarTul
sazogadoebriv-politikur
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batiaSvilis
statiaze
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uqadis
rusuli
imperializmi
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189.
strategiuli
ganviTareba
Tu
reformatoruli
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isev
umaRlesi
ganaTlebis
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kanonproeqtze. gazeTi The Georgian Times. 21.10-28.10. 2004. xuTSabaTi
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strategiuli
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27-28 oqtomberi, 2004 : 2-3. Tanaavtori marian cacanaSvili.
191. ratom vangrevT qarTul mecnierebas fragmentuli
kompilaciiT?! (strategiuli ganviTareba, Tu reformatoruli
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192. globalizaciis sikeTe da globalizaciis safrTxe.


isev umaRlesi ganaTlebis Sesaxeb saqarTvelos kanonproeqtze.
Jurnali `biznesi da kanonmdebloba~, #8, oqtomberi, 2004 : 54-60.
Tanaavtori: mariam cacanaSvili.
193. Tbilisis saxelmwifo universitetis reqtorobis
kandidatis profesor mixeil qurdianis winaasaarCevno programa _
`sauniversiteto reformis konceptualuri safuZvlebi~. gazeTi
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194. ganaTleba da mecniereba. strategiuli ganviTareba
Tu
reformatuli
marcxi.
`saqarTvelos
kanoni
umaRlesi
ganaTlebis
Sesaxeb (proeqti)-s
analizi. gazeTi `qarTuli
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mariam cacanaSvili. gamoxmaureba: elbert batiaSvili. rogor
gavxadoT ganaTleba da mecniereba eris materialur Zalad
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203. enis kreaciuli Teoria. II saerTaSoriso simpoziumis
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204. cnobieri da aracnobieri prozasa da poeziaSi (akaki
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rusul enaze).
208. cnobieri da aracnobieri akaki wereTlis prozasa da
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poeturi versiebis magaliTze). akakis krebuli. II. Tbilisi, 2005 :
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209.
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kompozitSi [`kudraWa~]; 1.2. lezgiuri sityva `vefxistyaosanSi~
[`nexvi~ =`asli~] 2. sityva, rogorc aradokumentirebuli istoriuli realobis rekonstruqciis wyaro; 2.1. arabuli sityva qarTul
antonimur opoziciaSi [`dedani~=`asli~]. arnold Ciqobavas saxelobis enaTmecnierebis institutis 64-e samecniero sesiis masalebi. 2005 wlis 27-29 dekemberi. Tbilisi, 2005 : 32-34.

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210. akademikos niko maris `mesame eTnikuri elementi


xmelTaSua zRvis kulturis SeqmnaSi~ Tanamedrove kulturologiis Suqze. akad. niko maris 140 wlis iubilesadmi miZRvnili samecniero Sromebis krebuli, Tbilisi, 2005 : 38-52. Tanaavtori: mzia
CiCua.
2006
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II.
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arqetipis
eqsperimentuli
verifikaciis idea). arnold Ciqobavas sakiTxavebi. XVII. 2006 wlis
2-5 maisi. masalebi, Tbilisi, 2006 : 56-58.

2007
212. simboloTa paradigmatuli jaWvi _ rogorc sxva
modernistul mimdinareobaTa Soris simbolizmis klasifikatori. I
saerTaSoriso simpoziumi: literaturaTmcodneobis Tanamedrove
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213. sami semiotikuri etiudi `vefxistyaosnis~ Sesaxeb [1]
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214. sami semiotikuri etiudi `vefxistyaosnis~
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215. sami semiotikuri etiudi `vefxistyaosnis~ Sesaxeb [3]
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216. qristianobamdeli qarTuli saliteraturo enis
leqsikuri
fondis
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Zveli
sparsulidan
nasesxebi terminebi (I, II). arnold Ciqobavas sakiTxavebi. XVIII. 2007
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217. teqstSi okazionalizmebis adaptirebis erTi modeli
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besarion
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218. `Zrwode kavkaso!@ axlo ars dRe Seni aRsasrulisa~


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baraTaSvilisadmi miZRvnili samecniero konferenciis masalebi.
Telavi, 2007 wlis 8-9 ivnisi, Telavis i. gogebaSvilis saxelobis
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219. `avsa kacsa avi sityva urCevnia sulsa gulsa~
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Rirsebis ciliswamebaTa da insinuaciaTagan dasacavad. `gelaTis
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220. maRali da maRliT mxedi.


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222. `avsa kacsa avi sityva urCevnia sulsa gulsa
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223. iberiul-kavkasiur enaTa ojaxi Tu nostratuli da
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224. ilia WavWavaZis `master klasi~ _ `nikolooz
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225. fonetikuri procesebis droiTi mijaWvuloba da maTi
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228. saerTo-baskur - qarTveluri fuZe-enis fonologiuri


sistemis
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`kavkasiologiuri
krebuli~
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229. ,
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iberiul-kavkasiuri
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Tavi
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252. fuZeTa generaciis uZvelesi modelisaTvis iberiulkavkasiur enebSi. saqarTvelos mecnierebaTa erovnuli akademia,
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zaratuStras kvali osTa narTebis eposSi.
mecnierebaTa akademiis Jurnali, #10-12, 2009 : 61-67.
2010

271. - .
International Linguistic Conference Current advances in Caucasian Studies,
Macerata, Italy January 21-24. 2010. http://www.unimc.it/cacs/accepted-papers.
272. kaxianebis gvaris
Ciqobavas sakiTxavebi. XXI. 2010
Tbilisi, 2010 : 72-74.

warmomavlobisaTvis. arnold
wlis 13-16 aprili. masalebi.

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273.
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, .
, , 25-27 2009 , , 2010 :
461-464.
274. iranisa da somxeTis samefoTa urTierTmimarTebis
istoriidan (Zv. w. IV-ax.w. III saukuneebi). gelaTis mecnierebaTa
akademiis Jurnali, #1-2, 2010: 61-67. symposium: Iberian Caucasian linguistics: Legacy and Perspectives dedicated to the 110th birth anniversary of Arnold
Chikobava. Materials. Tbilisi, TSU publication, pp. 432 - 433. Co-author Vazha Shengelia (English text pp.434-435).

kavkasiologiuri Ziebani CAUCASIOLOGIC PAPERS



II

2010

Bibliography of Mikheil Kurdianis works


1973
1. Short Remarks. Newsp. Tsignis Samqaro, 10, Wednesday, 23 May,Tbilisi,
p.3. Critical notes on publishing VII volume of Galaktion Tabidzes twelve-volume
works (Tbilisi, Sabchota sakartvelo, 1972:356).
1975
2. Revolutionary Guria Is on Stage. On One Play of Makharadzes Theatre. Newsp.
Komunisti, 250 (16371), Saturday, 18 October, Tbilisi, p.4. Review on the play of
Makharadze (Ozurgeti) Al. Tsutsunava State Dramatic Theatre Ninoshvilis Guria
(author of the play Shalva Dadiani, Director Sergo Akhaladze).
1976
3. An Incompetent Scientific Work. Journ. Gantiadi, 6 (November-December),
Kutaisi,p.p. 74-79. Review on Neli Dumbadzes book Georgian Symbolism, Batumi,
Satchota Atchara, p.240.
1978
4. Sergo Meladze. Benefit. Episodes from the actors life. Almanac Nobati, (library of Tsiskari), book 1, January-February, Tbilisi, p.p. 36-44.
Essay on an young actor of the Meskheti State Theatre
1980
5. Avant-gardian Manifests. Coll. Poetry first of all, Tbilisi, p.p. 214-218.
6. Two Earths. Journ. Jejili, book 18, Tbilisi, p.p. 18-32.

1981
7. Affairs Started by Ancestors. Newsp. Literaturuli Sakartvelo, 25 (2254),
Friday, 19 June, Tbilisi, p.11. Dialogue with Italian Kartvelologist Luiji Maggaroti

Bibliography of Mikheil Kurdianis Works

67

8. On uria huria. - Newsp. Literaturuli Sakartvelo , 34 (2263), Friday, 21


August, , Tbilisi, p.13.
9. On Basque-Georgian. Newsp. Literaturuli Sakartvelo , 39 (2268), Friday, 25
September, Tbilisi, p.p. 12-13.
10. Zaira Dzidzava. Catalogue. Tbilisi, publishing house of Union of Arts of Georgia,
Tbilisi, 1981, foreword in Georgian (pp.2-6) and Russian (pp. 8-11) languages.
1982
11. Beginning of a Century. Journ. Tsiskari, 5, Tbilisi., p.p. 138-148.
12. Two Earths. Journ. Jejili, essay 2, almanac 19, Tbilisi, p.p. 11-20.
1983
13. Towards the Terminological Rightness. Almanac Kritika, 2 (43), Tbilisi,
p.p. 74-84.
14. Appunti Sulla Zaum. Journ. Il verri, 29-30, p.p. 57-62 [Trad. di Daniela
Rizzi]. Notes on Zaum. Journ. Il verri, 29-30, p.p. 57-62, in Italian language
(translator Daniela Rizzi).
1984
15. Materials for Genesis of Versification of the Kartvelian Languages.- Coll.
Tchashniki, (issues of Georgian verse-studies), Tbilisi, p.p. 18-43. Monograph An
attempt of reconstructing and modeling of Common-Kartvelian versification system.
16. Avant-gardism in Tbilisi. Journ. Mnatobi, 6, Tbilisi, p.p. 169-176. Coauthors: Akaki Gatserelia, Bachana Bregvadze, Emzar Kvitaishvili.
17. On Mythological Dictionary. Newsp. Literaturuli Sakartvelo , 50 (2335),
Friday, 7 December, Tbilisi, p.p. 10-11. Co-author: Levan Bregadze.
18. Chainundressed. Newsp. Akhalgazrda Komunisti, 152 (10613), Thursday,
20 December, p.3.
19. Materials for Historical-comparative Dictionary of the Kartvelian Languages,
I, II. - Language and Thinking - I scientific session dedicated to Academician Niko
Marrs 120th birth anniversary, 1984, 25 December, thesis, Tbilisi, p.p. 10-13.
20. Rustavelis Interpretation of Christian Conception of Love. Language and
Thinking. - I scientific session dedicated to Academician Niko Marrs 120th birth anniversary, 1984, 25 December, thesis, Tbilisi, p.p. 13-16.

68

Bibliography of Mikheil Kurdianis Works

1985
21. The Book Published in Venice. Jurn. Literaturnaia Gruzia, 1, p.p. 204-214.
Co-authors: A. Gatserelia, B. Bregvadze, E. Kvitaishvili. The publication is a Russian
variant of the work 16th.
22. Antiaverois or Principles of Poetic Activity and Problem of Method in the
Modern Georgian Criticism. Almanac Kritika, 4 (53):78-105. Polemic article
on Akaki Vasadzes essay Notes on ironic-parodic torrent, almanac Kritika, 2
(51):65-103.
23. A tie for my sweet-hurt. Newsp. Akhalgazrda komunisti, N30 (10647), Friday,
8 March, pp.2-3, On I. Gagoshidzes book A Georgian womans jewels, Tbilisi.
24. Sound of the bell was heard in All Caucasus. - Newsp. Akhalgazrda komunisti,
N135 (10748), Tuesday, 12 November, p. 4, Co-authors: A. Arabuli, T. Gvantseladze,
G. Gogolashvili, M. Sukhishvili, R. Sherozia. Owing to the death of Arnold Chikobava.
25. Demography - a basis of future. Mikheil Kurdianiss speech said at the discussion of Union of Writers, Newsp. Literaturuli Sakartvelo , 23 (2360), Friday,
June, p.10.
1986
26. Towards the Kartvelian-Daghestanian Sound-correspondences. Academy of
Sciences of Georgia SSR, Arn. Chikobava Institute of Linguistics. Scientific conference of post-graduate students and young research workers, 19-21 March, 1986. Working plan and thesis, Tbilisi, p.p. 19-20.
27. Practical steps should be made. With a rubric: For foundation of consenting demographic society. Newsp. Komunizmis Gza, 92 (7260), Saturday, 2 August,
Dusheti, p.p. 2-4. Co-authors: Omar Turmanauli, Ilia Begiashvili.
1987
28. Just So Answer. Almanac Kritika, 1 (62), 1987:115:135. Co-author Levan
Bregadze.
29. Common-Kartvelian words denoting shishi (fair) and chia(worm) and
some issues of sibilant correspondences. - Academy of Sciences of Georgia SSR,
Arn. Chikobava Institute of Linguistics. Scientific conference of post-graduate students
and young research workers, dedicated to the 70th anniversary of Great October Revolution, 31 March, 1987. Working plan and thesis, Tbilisi, pp.19-20.
30. Compulsory Explanation. almanac Kritika, 5 (66), p.p. 242-246. Coauthor: Levan Bregadze.
31. Futurism and Others. Journ. Georgian literature and language at school, 14, p.p. 84-130. Monograph: History and typology of European Avangardian art of the
first half of the 20th century.
32. Mikheil Kurdianis Viewpoint. almanac Kritika, 6 (67), p.p. 106-109. A
viewpoint on Nino Darbaiselis rhymes published in the same journal under the rubrice
Way, way (p.p. 100-104).

Bibliography of Mikheil Kurdianis Works

69

1988
33. On Mythological Dictionary. In Levan Bregadzes book An old word and
new word, Tbilisi, p.p. 171-187. A new publication on the work 17, co-author Levan Bregadze.
34. Just So Answer. - In levan Bregadzes book An old word and new word, Tbilisi,
p.p. 188-205. A new publication on the work N28th, co-author Levan Bregadze.
1989
35. What Does a narrow circle Mean?. Newsp. Vechirnii kiiv, 54 (13568),
Saturday, 4 March, p.2, in the Ukraine language (the same text was published in Russian, as well).
36. A Book on a Literary Language. almanac Kritika, 3, p.p. 125-127.
1990
37. Towards Some Principles of Administrative-Territorial Arrangement of Georgia. Newsp. Erisioni, 1, Friday, 20 April, p.p. 4-5.
38. A Smoke of One Bonfire. - Newsp. Erisioni, 4-5, Friday, July, p.p. 4-6.
39. Prefixal and Sufixal Means of Verbal Word-building in the Kartvelian and
Abkhaz-Adygian Languages. The 13th regional scientific conference on historicalcomparing studying of the Iberian-Caucasian languages (verbal word-formation in the
Iberian-Caucasian languages). Thesis, Maykop, p.p. 82:83 (in Russian). Co-author V.
Shengelia. (in Russian).
1991
40. Nananena. Chan ABC-Book. (Freudenstadt, Germany), 134 p. In Laz with Georgian and Latin font. Co-author Tsate Batsashi (the book is signatured under the pseudonym Osman Tamtruli).
41. Towards the Issue of Kartvelian and Nakh Sound-correspondences. Georgian
Academy of Sciences, Arn. Chikobava Institute of Linguistics. XLIX scientific session
dedicated to the 90th birth anniversary of Acad. Varlam Topuria, 1991, 17-19 December. Working plan and thesis, Tbilisi, p. 34.
1993
42. Demographic Problem With Demographic Policy or the Land of Our Life
(standpoint). - Journ. Sakartvelos Respublika, 182 (728), Thursday, 19 August, p.
2. Co-authors: Ilian Begiashvili, Avtandil Sulaberidze.
43. Anjanbeman (transformation) in a Verse-structure System of the Kartvelian
Languages. - Georgian Academy of Sciences, Arn. Chikobava Institute of Linguistics.
The 52nd linguistic scientific session, 1993, 21-24 December. Working plan and thesis,
Tbilisi, p. 24.
44. Albanian Majuscule (asomtavruli script with capital letters) (graphical structure and problem of genesis). - Georgian Academy of Sciences, Arn. Chikobava Institute of Linguistics. The 52nd linguistic scientific session, 1993, 21-24 December. Working plan and thesis, Tbilisi, p.p. 25-26.

1994

70

Bibliography of Mikheil Kurdianis Works

45. A Great Poet. Newsp. Tbilisi, 51, 12 April, p.8. An jubilee essay dedicated
to Shota Nishnianidzes 65th birth anniversary.
46. On the Necessity of the Recognition of One More Folklore Genre Mavlia, (a
preliminary report). Bulletin of Kutaisi University, 2, p.p. 25-31.(English text
p.p. 108-114).
47. Accadian Name of Fleece and the Kartvelian Languages. Scientific conference of the Besarion Jorbenadze Society, 1994, 10-11 May, dedicated to the 20th anniversary of foundation of standing workshop Linguistic researches and to the memory
of its founder Besarion Jorbenadze. Thesis, Tbilisi, p.p. 12-13.
1995
48. Comparative-Historical Method in Versification and Reconstruction of Common-Kartvelian Poetic Expressions and Idioms. - Bulletin of Kutaisi University, N2,
1994:33-39. (English text pp.157-164).
49. Mesrop Mashtotsi and Caucasian Alphabet World. Newsp. Literaturuli Sakartvelo, 8(8109), 24. II 3.III, p.p. 11-12.
50. Towards the Name of the Town Kari (Qars-i). II scientific conference of the
Besarion Jorbenadze Society, Tbilisi, 30, 31 May, 1 June. Working plan and thesis. p.p.
28-29.
51. From the Vocabulary of The knight in the panthers skin. Precious Stones.
Academy of Sciences of Georgia. Arn. Chikobava Institute of Linguistics. The 54th
scientific session, 20-24 November. Working plan and thesis. p.p. 37-38.
52. Process of Literary Trends Formation in Georgia in the Beginning of the 20th
Century. Ivane Javakhishvili Tbilisi State University. Dissertation bulletin represented
for the degree of candidate of sciences (Ph.D.), 10.01.02.- Georgian literature (with the
right of manuscript). Tbilisi, 36 p. Print-run 100, (English summary - pp.34-36).
1996
53. A Beauty (from the circle Geniuses and commentators). Newsp. Burji
Erovnebisa, 3 (8), 6 March.
54. An Attempt of Theoretical Modeling of Grammatical Structures of the Languages with Class-categories. I. Academy of Sciences of Georgia. Arn. Chikobava
Institute of Linguistics. Iv. Javakhishvili Tbilisi State University, Faculty of Philology.
Arn. Chikobavas Readings, VII, 26-29 March. Working plan and thesis, Tbilisi, p.p.
35-37.
55. Towards the Differentiation of Common-Kartvelian Language and Interrelation of the Kartvelian Languages. Newsp. Burji Erovnebisa, 4, April, p.14.
56. Compound and Complex Fables in English Dramaturgy. Kutaisi Ak. Tsereteli
State University. IV scientific conference of academics, 8-11 April. Working plan and
thesis, Kutaisi, p.p. 130-132.
57. The Poet King (from the circle Geniuses and commentators). Newsp. Burji
Erovnebisa, 5 (10), May, p.6.
58. A Language and Dialect from Linguistic and Socio-linguistic Standpoint. III
scientific session of the Besarion Jorbenadze Society, Tbilisi, 4-7 June. Working plan
and thesis, p. p. 41-42.
59. Historical-Comparative Method and Problem of Qualification of Tokhurian
and Tchadakolian. - Academy of Sciences of Georgia. Arn. Chikobava Institute of

Bibliography of Mikheil Kurdianis Works

71

Linguistics. Iv. Javakhishvili Tbilisi State University, Faculty of Philology. Jubilee


scientific session dedicated to Prof. Giorgi Rogavas 90th birth anniversary. Working
plan and thesis, Tbilisi, p.p. 26-27.
60. Towards the Differentiation of Common-Kartvelian Language and Interrelation of the Kartvelian Languages. Bulletin of Kutaisi University, 1, p.p. 9-17
61. Structure of Common-Kartvelian Lyric (lapidary) Verse. Journ. Memoirs of
the Gelati Academy of Sciences, 2, p.p. 83-90. (with English summary).
62. Chronicle. Gelati Academy of Sciences, Documents and Facts. - Journ. Memoirs of the Gelati Academy of Sciences, 1, p.p. 5-17. (with English summary
p.p. 51-61).
63. Typology of Order of Caucasian Alphabet World and Ivane Javakhishvilis
Grammatical Doctrine. - Kutaisi Ak. Tsereteli State University. Days of Ivane Javakhishvili in Kutaisi. 24-25 September. Scientific session dedicated to the 120th birth anniversary of great Georgian scholar and public figure Ivane Javakhishvili. Working
plan and thesis, Kutaisi, p.p. 25-26.
64. Versificative system of Megrelian and Laz Dialects of Zan from Synchronic
and Diachronic Viewpoint. - Academy of Sciences of Georgia, Board for scientific
studying of Georgian, Arn. Chikobava Institute of Linguistics. XVI republic dialectological scientific session dedicated to the 120th anniversary of Acad. Ivane Javakhishvilis birth. Working plan and thesis, Tbilisi, 24-25 October, p.p. 29-30.
65. Socio-linguistic Classification of Languages. - Academy of sciences of Georgia.
Arn. Chikobava Institute of Linguistics. The 55th scientific session dedicated to the 120th
anniversary of Acad. Ivane Javakhishvilis birth, 12-15 November, p.p. 31-32.
66. Common-Kartvelian Lyric (lapidary) Verse.- Academy of Sciences of Georgia.
Republic coordinate board of literary studies. Shota Rustaveli Institute of Georgian literature. XXVI scientific session. Working plans and thesis, Tbilisi, 23-27 December,
p.p. 104-106.
67. The King. - Academy of Sciences of Georgia. Iv. Javakhishvili Institute of History
and Ethnology. Scientific session dedicated to the memory of Varlam Dondua. Tbilisi,
25-27 December. Thesis, p.p. 24-26.
68. Towards the Problem of Reconstruction and Classification of the Genre Models of the Common-Kartvelian Verse. Issues of the Kartvelian languages structure,
VI, Tbilisi, p.p. 160-184 (with English summary).
69. Strofica of Common-Kartvelian Lyric (lapidary) Verse and the Problem of Genesis of Firm Verse Form. Bulletin of Academy of Sciences of Georgia. Language
and literature section, Tbilisi, 1-4, p.p. 155-162 (with Russian summary).

72

Bibliography of Mikheil Kurdianis Works

70. Rhythm of Common-Kartvelian Lyric (lapidary) Verse. Linguistic Papers,


V. Tbilisi, p.p. 196-202.
71. Problem of Long Vowels and Traces of Quantitative Verse-structure in Svan.
Linguistic Papers. V. Tbilisi, p.p. 202-209.
72. Problem of Differentiation of the Common-Kartvelian Language. Kartvelian
Legacy, I. Kutaisian Discussions. Materials of symposium. Kutaisi, p.p. 253-262.
1997
73. Toward the Normalization of Georgian Military Terminology. Journ. Samkhedro Teknika, 1, p.p. 97-101. Co-author M.Tchirakadze.
74. Memory of the Great Tradition and One Case of Term Formation in the
Condition of Digloss Bilingualism. - Academy of Sciences of Georgia. Arn. Chikobava Institute of Linguistics. Iv. Javakhishvili Tbilisi State University, Faculty of Philology. Arnold Chikobavas Readings, VIII, 1-4 April. Working plans and thesis, 910, Tbilisi, p.p. 25-26.
75. Language and Nation. Kutaisi Akaki Tsereteli State University. Scientific Institute of Dialectology. Kutaisian Discussions, IV, 2-4 May, Kutaisi, p.p. 101-106.
76. Breaking of Idols. Journ. Sakartvelos Moambe (Telavi), 2, p.p. 143-162.
77. Universal Archetypes and Transformation Models of a Lyric (lapidary) Verse.
Conceptual and computer models of a language, Tbilisi, p.p. 68-74.
78. Dadaists in a Caucasian Coat. Journ. Gantiadi, (Kutaisi), 7-8, p.p. 131-143,
9 p.p. 146-159. (monography).
79. Diachronic Human-beings. Newsp. Kviris Posta, 35 (720), 15-22 September, p.5.
80. System of the Common-Kartvelian Lyric (lapidary) Verse. Bulletin of the
Academy of Sciences of Georgia 156, N1, pp.171-173.
81. On Natural Boundary of Dialects. Chair of the General Linguistics at the
Iv.Javakhishvili Tbilisi State University. Academy of Sciences of Georgia. Arn. Chikobava Institute of Linguistics. Scientific session dedicated to the 70th birth anniversary of
outstanding Georgian linguist Prof. Givi Matchavariani, 8-10 December, Tbilisi, p.p.
24-25.
82. A Verse as a Marked Form of Speech. Materials of IV scientific conference of
the Besarion Jorbenadze Society, Tbilisi, p.p. 30-33.
83. On One Metrical Scheme of the Common-Kartvelian Epic (narrative) Verse.
Jubilee collection dedicated to Giorgi Rogava, Tbilisi, p.p. 171-183.

Bibliography of Mikheil Kurdianis Works

73

84. Genesis of Rhythm in Svan Epic (narrative) Verse. Collection dedicated to the
70th birth anniversary of Zurab Tchumburidze. p.p. 140-151. (with German summary).
1998
85. Rustaveli Nizami (first essay). The knight in the panthers skin as a title
from semiotic standpoint.- Journ. Burji Erovnebisa, 1, p.p. 19-20.
86. Rustaveli Nizami (second essay). The knight in the panthers skin as thematic realization of love from theological standpoint.- Journ. Burji Erovnebisa,
2, p.p. 16-17, N3 pp.16-17.
87. Academician Arnold Chikobava an Outstanding Representative of Descriptive and Comparative Kartvelian Linguistics. - Academy of Sciences of Georgia.
Arn. Chikobava Institute of Linguistics. Iv. Javakhishvili Tbilisi State University, Faculty of Philology. Arnold Chikobavas Readings, IX, 14-17 April. Working plan
and thesis, Tbilisi, p.p. 37-38. Co-author Vazha Shengelia.
88. Crying of Newborns and Problem of Initial Vocalism (attempt of ethnolinguistic interpretation). Kutaisi Akaki Tsereteli State University. V scientific conference of academics dedicated to the 160th birth anniversary of Ilia Chavchavadze and
the 65th anniversary of foundation of Akaki Tsereteli State University, 6-10 April, Kutaisi, p.p. 29-30.
89. Towards the Problem of Interrelation of a Language and Nation. Kartveliam
Legacy, II. Kutaisian Discussions. Material of symposium. Kutaisi, p.p. 264-268
(with English summary).
90. Historical-Comparative Method in Linguistics and Problem of Kinship of the
Kartvelian and Daghestanian Languages. European Society of Caucasiologists.
Dagestan Scientific Centre of Academy of Sciences of Russia. H.Tsadasa Institute of
Language, literature and Art. X international colloquium of European Society of Caucasiologists dedicated to the 100th birth anniversary of Acad. Arnold Chikobava, 15-19
June, thesis. Mahachkala, p.8-10, (in Russian).
91. Common-Kartvelian Versification System and General Linguistic Theory of
Versification. - Academy of Sciences of Georgia. Arn. Chikobava Institute of Linguistics. Synopsis of thesis for a degree of Doctor of Philological Sciences (Hab.). 10.02.02.
Theory and history of linguistics. 10.01.08. Theory of literature (with the right of
manuscript), Tbilisi, 80 p. 150 copies.
92. Toward the Establishing of Rules System of the Zan Language Data in Computer Model of Reconstruction of Vowelization of Common-Kartvelian Stem.
Conceptual and computer models of a language. III, Tbilisi, p.p. 86-88. (with English
summary).

74

Bibliography of Mikheil Kurdianis Works

93. Towards Similar Phonetic Processes in the Iberian-Caucasian Languages. I.


Forming of Labial Consonants from Labial Complexes. - Academy of Sciences of
Georgia. Arn. Chikobava Institute of Linguistics. Iv. Javakhishvili Tbilisi State University. Materials of international symposium dedicated to the 100th anniversary of Arnold
Chikobavas birth. Tbilisi, p.p. 95-97. Co-author Vazha Shengelia.
94. Genesis of Graphical Structure of Albanian Script and Typology of Its Alphabetic Order. - Materials of international symposium dedicated to the 100th birth anniversary of Arnold Chikobava. Tbilisi, p.p. 196-198.
95. Towards the Problem of Relative Chronology of Georgian Dialectal Forms (attempt of diachronic qualification of synchronic data). - Academy of Sciences of
Georgia, Board for scientific studying of Georgian, Arn. Chikobava Institute of Linguistics. Tskhinvali State Pedagogical Institute. VIII republic dialectological scientific
session dedicated to the 100th birth anniversary of Arn. Chikobava. Working plans and
thesis, (Gori, 30-31 October), Tbilisi, p.p. 36--40.
96. Correspondences of Common-Nakh-Daghestanian *a Phoneme in CommonKartvelian. - Academy of Sciences of Georgia. Arn. Chikobava Institute of Linguistics.
Materials of the 57th scientific session (23-25 December), Tbilisi, p.p. 59-60.
97. Problem of Archaism of Laterals in the Iberian-Caucasian Languages and
Basque-Caucasian Hypothesis. - Materials of V scientific conference of the Besarion
Jorbenadze Society (21-22 January), Tbilisi, pp.37-40.
1999
98. Towards the Issue of Devoicing of Final Voiced in Georgian. - Academy of
Sciences of Georgia. Arn. Chikobava Institute of Linguistics. Faculty of Philology.
Arnold Chikobavas Readings, X, 13-16 April. Materials, Tbilisi, p.p. 38-39.Coauthor Avtandil Arabuli.
99. Slavonic Languages From Genealogic and Socio-linguistic Standpoint. Thesis
and materials of international scientific conference Actual issues of philological
science dedicated to the 90th anniversary of founder of the Chair of Russian 2 , outstanding public figure Professor Tinatin Mrevlishvili, Tbilisi, p.p. 57-60, (in Russian).
100. Towards the Issue of Dialectal Basis of the Polish Literary Language. - Thesis
and materials of
international scientific conference Actual issues of philological
science dedicated to the 90th anniversary of founder of the Chair of Russian 2, outstanding public figure Professor Tinatin Mrevlishvili, Tbilisi, p.p. 60-62.
101. Language as a Result of Creative Act and not of Evolutionary Process.
Kartvelological legacy. III. Kutaisi. Kutaisi State University publication, p.p. 190193 (with English summary).
102. Social Structure of Common-Kartvelian Society. Kutaisian Discussions, VI.
Materials of symposium, Kutaisi, p.p. 165-168.

Bibliography of Mikheil Kurdianis Works

75

103. Towards the Reflecting Rules of Glottocclusives of the Languages Having


Trio-system of Plosive Consonants in the Scripture of the Languages with Pairsystem on the Example of Old Front Asia. Linguistic Papers, VII, Tbilisi, p.p.
69-74 (with English summary pp. 74-76).
104. On the Problem of Usage and Origin of Greeting Formulae from Sociolinguistic Standpoint. The 34th World Congress of the International Institute of Sociology Multiple Modernities in Era of Globalization. Program and bulletin of abstracts. Tel
Aviv, Israel, 11-19 July, p.119.
105. Toward the Grammatical and Theological Status of the Word Ewe (eiws) in
Matthews Gospel. Academy of Sciences of Georgia. Iv. Javakhishvili Institute of
History and Ethnography. Scientific conference dedicated to Academician of the Georgian Academy of Sciences Tinatin Qaukhchishvili, 29-30 October. Materials of the conference, p.p. 27-28.
106. On Proper-linguistic Status of Georgian Speech of the Svans and Megrelians.
- Academy of Sciences of Georgia, Board for scientific studying of Georgian, Arn.
Chikobava Institute of Linguistics, Akhaltsikhe Branch of Iv. Javakhishvili Tbilisi State
University. XIX republic dialectological scientific session dedicated to the 10th anniversary of foundation of the Akhaltsikhe Branch of Iv. Javakhishvili Tbilisi State University, 5-6 November, Akhaltsikhe, p.p. 79-80.
107. Towards the Problem of Number and Qualification of the Zan Language. Academy of Sciences of Georgia. Material of the 58th scientific session of the Arn.
Chikobava Institute of Linguistics dedicated to the 90th anniversary of the Corresponding Member of the Georgian Academy of Sciences Professor Ivane Gigineishvilis
birth, Tbilisi, 24, 27-29 December., p.p. 12-15. Co-author Tsate Batsashi.
108. The Term kartveli Georgian and Changing Meanings According to Its Correct areas. Material of the 58th scientific session of the Arn. Chikobava Institute of
Linguistics dedicated to the 90th anniversary of the Corresponding Member of the Georgian Academy of Sciences Professor Ivane Gigineishvilis birth, Tbilisi, 24, 27-29 December. p.p. 52-55.
109. On Interrelation of bza and sabdzeli and Some Cases of Morphological
Influence on Phonetic Processes in the Kartvelian Languages. - Materials of VI
scientific conference of the Besarion Jorbenadze Society, Tbilisi, p.p. 5-9.
110. A Trace of Palatal Spirantization Process in Svan (Geo. l : Zan l/r : Svan s
an attempt of explanation). - Linguistic Papers, IX, Tbilisi, p.p. 97-10.
111. Some Issues of Social Structure and Economic Life of Common-Kartvelian
Society According to Language Data. III. monadire a hunter. Works of the
Kutaisi Akaki Tsereteli State University, v. I (35), Kutaisi, p.p. 40-42 (with English
summary).

76

Bibliography of Mikheil Kurdianis Works

2000
112. Toward the Name of Common-Kartvelian Ethnos (meskhi meskhian
meskhebi meskhians). Meskheti - History and Modernity, Akhaltsikhe, p.p.
185-193.
113. The Term kartveli Georgian and Its Meanings. Journ. Kartvlis Deda, 1,
January, Tbilisi, p.p. 15-16.
114. Who Is and Who Is not Georgian? The Term kartveli Georgian and Changing Meanings According to Its Correct Areas. Newsp. Banks and Finance, 53,
4 February, p.23.
115. Pre-mother-land of Georgians as the Sea-Coastal Country with High-Land
Landscape and Subtropical Climate (according to language data). - Academy of
Sciences of Georgia. Arn. Chikobava Institute of Linguistics. Iv. Javakhishvili Tbilisi
State University, Faculty of Philology.Arnold Chikobavas Readings, XI, 10-14
April. Materials. Tbilisi, p.p. 53-54.
116. Some Issues of Social Structure and Economic Life of Common-Kartvelian
Society According to Language Data. V (1.1. family house. 1.2. freely born. 1.3.
leader. 2.1. fortified tower, fortress. 2.2. fortified city. 3.1. customer. 3.2. writer). Kartvelian Heritage, IV, Kutaisi, Kutaisi State University publication, pp.338-349
(with English summary pp. 349-351).
117. Role of Religion in Formation of Nations. Kutaisian Discussions, VIII. Materials of symposium dedicated to the 2000th anniversary of Christianity, p.p. 68-75.
Co-author Roland Topchishvili.
118. Problem of Kinship of the Kartvelian and Daghestanian Languages and Etymology of the Svan Word goliak (a sheep). - Iv. Javakhishvili Tbilisi State University, Faculty of Philology. Scientific session. 10-12 May. Working plan and materials of
thesis. Tbilisi, p.p. 173-179.
119. Common-Iranian Lyric (lapidary) Verse System. Kutaisi Akaki Tsereteli
State University. Gilhani University of Islamiam Republic of Iran. Georgian-Iranian
relations I. Material of international conference, Kutaisi, p.p. 27-37 (with Georgian
summary pp. 27-29). Co-author Ruben Morgoshia.
120. Number of Canonical Books of the Old Testament According to Orthodox and
Judaistic Traditions. Gelati Academy of Sciences. Thesis of scientific session dedicated to the 2000th anniversary of Christianity, V. Kutaisi, p.p. 36-38.
121. Christs Tunic and Georgian Messianism. Newsp. Kvarti Uplisa, Issues of
Patriarchate of Georgia, Tbilisi, p.3.
122. Dialectal Components of Svan-Zan Language Unity and Its Differentiation
Process into the Svan and Zan Languages from Historical-Comparative Stand-

Bibliography of Mikheil Kurdianis Works

77

point (basic phonetic processes). - Materials of XX republic dialectological scientific


session dedicated to the 100th anniversary of Acad. S.Janashias birth. Zugdidi, 20-21
October. Tbilisi, p.p. 24-27. Co-author Tsate Batsashi.
123. Flora of Georgians First Habitat According to Language Data. - Kutaisi Akaki Tsereteli State University. VI scientific conference of academics. Materials. Kutaisi,
p.6. Co-author Tsate Batsashi.
124. Formulae of Greeting from Synchronic (descriptive) and Diachronic (historic)
Viewpoint. - Kutaisi Akaki Tsereteli State University. VI scientific conference of academics. Materials. Kutaisi, p.p. 9-10.
125. Problem of First Habitat of Common-Nakh-Daghestanian (East-Caucasian)
Ethnos According to Language Data. - Academy of Sciences of Georgia. Iv. Javakhishvili Institute of History and Ethnography. Scientific session dedicated to the 100th
anniversary of Acad. S. Janashia s birth (short content), Tbilisi, 16-19th November,
Tbilisi, p.p. 51-53.
126. Poets Gold (P.S. from compiler and editor of a poets new book). In collection: My soul is in speeded breathing of Georgia), (Zurab Kukhianidze 70). Compiler and author of essay Elguja Buadze. Kutaisi, p.p. 144-148. (short variant in newspaper Zurab Kukhianidze 70, November, p.11).
127. Simon Janashia About First Habitat of Georgians and Modern Situation of
Studying the Issue. - Academy of Sciences of Georgia. Materials of the 59th scientific
session of the Arn. Chikobava Institute of Linguistics dedicated to the 100th anniversary
of Acad. S. Janashias birth. 12-15 December. Tbilisi, p.p. 54-56.
128.One Syntactic Peculiarity of the Work Life of the King of Kings David. Materials of VII scientific conference of the Besarion Jorbenadze Society, Tbilisi, p.20.
129. Zanizms in Ossetian and Problem of Ethnic Property of the Dvals. - Iv. Javakhishvili Tbilisi State University, Acad. G. Tsereteli Institute of Oriental Studies, Tbilisi
Institute of Asia and Africa. Scientific conference dedicated to Corresponding Member
of Georgian Academy of Sciences Professor Mzia Andronikashvili. 26-27 December.
Materials of conference. Tbilisi, p.p. 69-70.
130. Towards the Etymology of Shxara. Collection Phonetics and Norm. Scientific conference dedicated to the 70th anniversary of Acad. Tamaz Gamkrelidzes birth.
Tbilisi Ilia Chavchavadze State University of Language and Culture. Tbilisi, p.p. 114117 (with English summary). Co-authors: A. Arabuli, T. Gvantseladze.
131. Classification of Modern Hebrew (Ivrit) Consonants. St. Petersburg State
University, Tbilisi State University, Tel-Aviv State University. Immanent processes of
language and literature development. Tbilisi, p.p. 66-69.

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2001
132. Some Issues of Social Structure and Economic Life of Common-Kartvelian
society According to Language Data. I. cow-man (cattle farmer). Materials for
ethnography of Georgia, XXIV, Tbilisi, p.p. 63-73 (with English summary).
133. Classification of Modern Hebrew (Ivrit) Consonants. St. Petersburg State
University, Saaral University. Immanent processes of language and literature development. 2. Tbilisi, p.p. 67-71.
134. The Term kartveli Georgian and Changing Meanings According to Its Correct Areas. II. - Academy of Sciences of Georgia. Arn. Chikobava Institute of Linguistics. Iv. Javakhishvili Tbilisi State University, Faculty of Philology. Arnold Chikobavas Readings, XII, 17-20 April. Materials. Tbilisi, p.p. 102-106.
135. Religion Aspect of Ethnic Consolidation and Differentiation. Kartvelian
heritage, V. Dedicated to the 2000th anniversary of Christianity, p.p. 131-140 (with
English summary). Co-author Roland Topchishvili.
136. Case of Christianization of One Semantic Field Having a High Marking in
Georgian. - Kartvelian Heritage, V. Dedicated to the 2000th anniversary of Christianity, pp .250-256 (with English summary p.257).
137. Towards the Interrelation of Mose Khorenelis History of Armenia and
Nuskha-Khutsian Scripture. - Kutaisi Akaki Tsereteli State University. Scientific
Research Institute for Dialectology. Kutaisian Discussions, VII. Materials of the symposium dedicated to the 100th anniversary of Varlam Topurias birth, Kutaisi, p.p. 107110.
138. Essays from Phonetic History of Svan. I. A trace of palatal spirantization in
Svan (an attempt of explanation of Georg. l : Zan l/r : Svan m). Coll. Varlam
Topuria 100, Tbilisi, p.p. 174-177 (with English summary p. 177).
139. Towards the Interrelation of Creative and Evolutionary in a Language (theoretical problems). IV scientific session of Iv. Javakhishvili Tbilisi State University
and Faculty of Philology of TSU Branches dedicated to the 100th anniversary of Varlam Topurias birth. Working plan and materials, Zugdidi-Tbilisi, p.p. 60-64.
140. Harmonic Complexes of Consonants in Huritian and Urartian and Hypotheses of Belonging Them to the East-Caucasian (Nakh-Daghestanian) Languages
Group. Linguistic Papers, XI, Tbilisi, p.p. 180-187 (with English summary p.p.
187-188).
141. The World Created by the Lord and Its Metamorphoses (according to the
Holy Scripture and Fathers of Church). Gelati Academy of Sciences. Thesis of
annual scientific session VI, Kutaisi, p.p. 41-46.

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79

142. A Wise Likes a Teacher. Memories on Mathematician Avtandil Bendukidze.


Avtandil Bendukidze - 80. Thesis, Tbilisi, p.p. 94-103.
143. On Several Attempts of Religion Reforms in Pre-Christian Georgia and Reasons of Their Failure. - Academy of Sciences of Georgia. Iv. Javakhishvili Institute
of History and Ethnography. Scientific session dedicated to the 60th anniversary of
foundation of the institute, (short contexts of thesis), Tbilisi , p.p. 73-80.
144. Khubushkia ( ethno-linguistic problems of ancient history of Georgia, Caucasus and Near East. I). Caucasian-Near-East collection, X, Tbilisi, p.p. 121-133 (with
Russian (pp. 134-135) and English (pp. 135-136) summaries).
145. Review: Grigol Giorgadze Towards Ethnic Origin of Kasks (Kashks) and
Abeshlaels According to Hittite and Assyrian cuneiform texts. 103 p., Akhaltsikhe,
Caucasian-Near-East collection, X, Tbilisi, p.p. 311-320.
146. Language from Standpoint of Chaos Modeling and Catastrophes Theories.
Materials of the 60th scientific session of the Arn. Chikobava Institute of Linguistics
dedicated to the 100th anniversary of Varlam Topurias birth, Tbilisi, p.p. 46-51.
147. Some Issues of Social Structure and Economic Life of Common-Kartvelian
Society According to Language Data. IV. craftsman (I. tailor). Works of the Kutaisi Akaki Tsereteli State University v. 2 (36). Session of historical and philological
sciences, Kutaisi, KSU publication, p.p. 223-228 (with English summary).
148. Minor Nations Language Saving Program CANCELLD. - Linguistic perspectives on endangered languages. The Linguistic Association of Finland. International
symposium at the Helsinki University. Co-author Tariel Sikharulidze.
http//www.ling.Helsinki.fi/sky/endabs.htm. ttp.//www.ling.Helsinki.fi/skylel.html
2002
149. Problem of Chronological Boundaries of the Existing of a CommonKartvelian Radical Language. Besarion Jorbenadze Society. Materials of VIII scientific session, Tbilisi, p.p. 15-16.
150. A Human-being as a Slave of Perceptive Basis and Phonetic Peculiarities of
Dialects in a Role of Socio-linguistic Markers. Arnold Chikobavas Readings,
XIII, 23-26 April. Materials, Tbilisi, p.p. 83-87
151. Towards the Interrelation of Ethnonyms kashka and kashag. - Iv. Javakhishvili
Tbilisi State University, scientific session of Philological Faculty dedicated to the 115th
anniversary of Giorgi Akhvledianis birth. 16-17 May. Working plan and materials,
Tbilisi, p.p. 45-47.
152. Toward Vasil Barnovis Place and Role in the Georgian Literature. J. Gogebashvili Telavi State Unuversity, Besarion Jorbenadze Society. Material of the scientific
conference dedicated to Vasil Barnov, Telavi, 31 May, Tbilisi, p.p. 5-7.

80

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153. Movses Khorenatsis Interpretation of Information of Avesti on Improving of Nature at the Black Sea Coastal Area by the Kings. Ochkhari. Ethnological, historical and philological researches dedicated to Julieta Rukhadze. Academy of
Sciences of Georgia. Iv. Javakhishvili Institute of History and Ethnology, Tbilisi, p.p.
116-123 (with Russian (p.p. 123-124 and English (p.124) summaries).. Co-authors Nodar Gaprindashvili and Guram Narsidze.
154. Some Issues of Social Structure and Economic Life of Common-Kartvelian
Society According to Language Data. II. Farmer (2.1. Arable farmer). - Ochkhari.
Ethnological, historical and philological researches dedicated to Julieta Rukhadze.
Academy of Sciences of Georgia. Iv. Javakhishvili Institute of History and Ethnology,
Tbilisi, p.p. 395-408 (with Russian (p. 409) and English (p.409) summaries).
155. Towards the Place of One Phrase in a Text of Christening of Georgia and
its Importance in Dating of the Work. VI scientific conference of archeology. Contexts of thesis. Academy of Sciences of Georgia, Tbilisi, p.p. 28-35.
156. Georgian Hurians (Jews) and Their Settling Date in Georgia. - VI scientific
conference of archeology. Contexts of thesis. Academy of Sciences of Georgia, Center
for Archeological Research,Tbilisi, p.p. 182-201.
157. First Habitat of Georgians According to Language Data and Tribe Structure
of Common-Kartvelian Ethnos. Ethno-genesis of Georgian people, Tbilisi, p.p. 5792 (with Russian summary - pp. 87-87).
158. St. Priest-Martyr Svimon Khutsesi (Simon Mtchedlidze) a Founder of
Scientific Creationism in Georgia. Gelati Academy of Sciences. Thesis of annual
scientific session dedicated to the 70th birth and 25th enthroning anniversaries of Catholicos-Patriarch of All Georgia, His Holiness and Beatific Ilia the II, Kutaisi, p.p. 38-40.
159. Folk Etymology from the Viewpoint of Spatial Chaining and Pragmatics.
Materials of XXII republic dialectological scientific session. Tbilisi, pp.75-76.
160. Futurism and Others. Journ. Literatutnaia Gruzia, 1-6, p.p. 13-27 (translated by Giorgi Charkviani), (in Russian).
161. An Attempt of Glottal Consonants of the Modern Hebrew Literary Language.- Linguistic Papers, XIII, Tbilisi, p.p. 294-298 (with English summary - p.
299).
2003
162. Conception of Georgian National Security. Chveni Mtserloba, literary essay
of the newspaper Akhali Epoka, 4 (135), 31 January, 6 February, p.p. 4-5.
163. Academician Giorgi Mtchedlidze 75. Journ. of Gelati Academy of Sciences,
4, p.56. Co-author Tamaz Gogberashvili.

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81

164. Respected Scholar and Patriot. Newsp. Literaturuli Sakartvelo, 18 (34), 28 May, p.12. Jubilee article dedicated to the 75th birth anniversary of Acad. Giorgi Mtchedlidze. Co-author Avtandil Nikoleishvili.
165. Great Silk Road-Transit of Great Culture. International Black Sea University.
I international symposium, 25-27 June, Tbilisi. Program and abstracts, p. 26. Co-author
Mzia Chichua.
166. Historical Language Contacts of the Kartvelian Languages and Problems of
Differentiation Chronological Limits of the Kartvelian Language. - Linguistic
Papers, XIV, Tbilisi, p.p. 44-51, (with English summary - p. 51).
167. Role of V.Humbolts Linguistic Study in Forming of Verb-Central Theory of
a Sentence. Coll. Towards sources against the tide. International symposium, Maprial. Tbilisi, p.p. 323-326 (with English (p.p. 326-327) and German (p.327) summaries). Co-author Maia Zakaradze.
168. Discovering-Repeating Links. (review on Tamar Akhvledianis book System
and model of fiction characters of Akaki Tsereteli). - Kutaisi, Chveni Mtserloba,
literary essay of the newspaper Akhali Epoka, 3-9 (169), October, p.p. 4-5.
169. Galactionologic Etudes. I. Charles Baudelaire or Esau?. Almanac Mtsignobari 03, Tbilisi, p.p. 3-4.
170. Galactionologic Etudes. 2. Rhyme and Solitude. Almanac Mtsignobari 03,
Tbilisi, p.p. 7-10.
171. Georgian Hurians (Jews) and Their Settling Date in Georgia.- Newsp.
Georgian Hebrews, 9, November, (Kheshvani) , (5764), pp.2-8.
172. Towards the Issue of Common-Caucasian Integration (traditional geo-policy
of the Caucasus against the background of globalization). Coll. Archeology, Ethnology and Folklore of the Caucasus. Materials of international conference, Yerevan,
17-18 November. First Patron Saint of Yechmiadzin, p.p. 192-192. Co-author Mzia
Chichua, (in Russian).
173. A Book on a Literary Language. Review on Besarion Jorbenadzes Book Balavari Mtserlobisa Bastion of Literature. Tbilisi, Sabtchota Sakartvelo, p. 286
in coll. Besarion Jorbenadze a person, scholar, public figure, Tbilisi, p.p. 237-241
republishing of the article in almanac Kritika, 1, 1992.
174. Towards Interrelation of Phoenician and Hebrew. - Materials of the 62nd scientific session of the Arn. Chikobava Institute of Linguistics, 23-25 December, Tbilisi,
p.p. 41-42.

82

Bibliography of Mikheil Kurdianis Works

175. Again on Dating of Christening of Georgia. In Connection of the Year of St.


Ninos Death with Catholic Tradition. - Gelati Academy of Sciences. Thesis of annual scientific session , VII, Tbilisi, p.p. 19-25. Co-author Nodar Gaprindashvili.
176. On 19-years-old Paschal Calendar for History and Problem of Authenticity
of one Fragment of Anatoli From Laodikeas Book About Pachschaly. - Gelati
Academy of Sciences. Thesis of annual scientific session, VIII, Tbilisi, p.p. 26-31. Coauthors Nodar Gaprindashvili and Guram Narsidze.
177. Two Urartuologic Etudes: 1. Harmonic complexes of consonants in Huritian
and Urartian and hypotheses of belonging them to the East-Caucasian (NakhDaghestanian) languages group. Work of the Iv. Javakhishvili Tbilisi State University. 349. History, archeology, criticism studies, ethnology. Tbilisi, p.p. 62-73 (with
Russian (pp.77-78) and English (pp. 80-81) summaries).
178. Two Urartuologic Etudes: - Towards the Reflecting Rules of Glottocclusives
of the Languages Having Trio- System of Voicless Consonants in the Scripture of
the Languages with Pair-system on the Example of Old Front Asia. - Work of the
Iv. Javakhishvili Tbilisi State University. 349. History, archeology, criticism studies,
ethnology. Tbilisi, TSU publication, p.p. 73-77 (with Russian (p.p. 78-79) and English
(p.p. 80) summaries).
2004
179. The Great Silk Road of the Great Culture. Coll. I international Silk Road
symposium, 25-27 June, 2003, Tbilisi, Georgia, Izmir, p.p. 80-82. Co-author Mzia
Chichua.
180. A Poet - Sower of Love (features for Okro Okroianis poetic portrait).
Book of verses: Okro Okroiani Sence of berry, Tbilisi, p.p. 3-8.
181. State and Law. Citizen (essay 1). Journ. Business and Law, 1, June, p.p.
63-66.
182. State and Law. Towards General Principles of Administrative and Territorial
Structure of Georgia System of Feudal Cities (essay 2). - Journ. Business and
Law, 2, July, p.p. 63-66.
183. Unique publication that should be in every family. Atlas of Georgias history,
Tbilisi, p.88, Newsp. Mtavari Gazeti, 179 (578), 31 July, Saturday, p.10. Co-author
Roland Topchishvili.
184. State and Law. Breaker and Defender of Law. (essay 3). - Journ.Business and
Law, 4, August, p.p. 60-62.
185. Local Churches and National Languages. Journ. Logosi, 3, p.p. 44-51.
(with English summary - p.52).

Bibliography of Mikheil Kurdianis Works

83

186. Caucasus in Georgian Social-political Thinking. Newsp. Sakartvelos Respublica 215 (4944), Thursday, 16 September, p.6.
187. Strategic Development or Reformative Fiasco. Again on Planned Legislation
of Georgia on High Education. Newsp. The Georgian Times, 21.10-28, Thursday,
042 (305):10; 28.10-04,11 Thursday, 042 (306):10.
188. Strategic Development or Reformative Fiasco. Newsp. Erovnuli Ganatleba,
supplement of the newspaper Tbilisi, 27-28 October, p. 2-3. Co-author Mariam Tsatsanashvili.
189. Why Are We Ruining Georgian Science with Fragmentary Compilation?
(Strategic development or reformative fiasco?!). - Journ. Business and Law, 7 ,
October, pp.57-61. Co-author Mariam Tsatsanashvili.
190. Kindness and Danger of Globalization. Again about Law of Georgia on High
Education. - Journ. Business and Law, 8 , October, p.p. 54-60. Co-author Mariam
Tsatsanashvili.
191. Pre-election Program of Candidate of Rector of Tbilisi State University Professor Mikheil Kurdiani Conceptual foundation of university reform. - Newsp.
Tbilisis Universiteti, 3 December, Friday, 38 (1992), p.p .8-10.
192. Education and Science. Strategic Development or Reformative Fiasco. Analysis of Law of Georgia on high education (analysis of the project). Newsp. Kartuli
Universiteti , 29 September 5 October, pp.5-11. Co-author Mariam Tsatsanashvili.
193. Strategic Development or Reformative Fiasco? Jour. Burji Erovnebisa, 7,
pp.4-11. Co-author Mariam Tsatsanashvili.
194. Unique Scientific Publication. Atlas of Georgias History. Tbilisi, 2003.,
Analebi Journ. of Iv. Javakhishvili Institute of History and Ethnography of the
Georgian Academy of Sciences, 2, p.p. 84-86 (with Russian and English summaries).
Co-author Roland Topchishvili.
195. Goals and Problems of Globalism. International scientific conference Archeology, ethnology and folklore of Caucasus dedicated to the 90th anniversary of Academician A. Apakidze. Collection of short contexts of papers, Tbilisi, p.p. 208-209. Coauthor Mzia Chichua, (in Russian).
196. Georgian Hurians and Christening of Georgia. Coll. 20 centuries of Christianity in Georgia, Tbilisi, p.p. 280-295.
197. Contacts of Common-Kartvelian Language with Common-Indo-European
Language (on the basis of the Basque and Daghestanian languages). Caucasiolog-

84

Bibliography of Mikheil Kurdianis Works

ical collection dedicated to the 70th anniversary of foundation of the Chair of the Caucasian languages, Tbilisi, p.p. 98-103.
2005
198. Religious Aspects of Ethnic Consolidation and Differentiation. In the book:
Roland Topchishvili Ethno-Historic Etudes b.1, Tbilisi, p.p. 112-125 (with English
summary p.p. 125-126).
199. Ein buntes und vielgestaltiges ethnisches spectrum. Wostok spezial. Georgien
land des Goldenen Vlies, 1, p.p. 2-7 (Berlin). Mitautor Roland Topchischwili.
200. Ethno-linguistic Aspects of Relation of Georgian and North Caucasian Mountaineers. Materials for ethnography of Georgia, XXV, dedicated to the 100th birth
anniversary of Professor Vera Bardavelidze, Tbilisi, p.p. 63-74 (with English summary). Co-author Avtandil Arabuli.
201. Creative Theory of a Language. II international symposium Christianity in
our life: past, present, future, 24-26 November. Short contexts of papers, Tbilisi, p.p.
112-113. (English summary p.p. 80-81).
202. Consciousness and Non-Consciousness in Prose and Poetry (on the example of
prosaic and poetic versions of Akaki Tseretelis My adventure). Collection Literary Dialogues, II ,Akaki Tsereteli 165, Kutaisi, p.p. 35-39 (with English summary).
203. Voicing of voice in auslaut and problem of constancy of orthographic norms
of Georgian literary (resp. state) language. Sulkhan-Saba Orbeliani Tbilisi Sate
Pedagogical University. Chair of Georgian language. Works VI, Tbilisi, p.p. 121-127
(with English summary).
204. A Poet - Sower of Love (episodes of Okro Okroianis poetic portrait). Almanac Kamurj, 2004/2005, Tbilisi, p.p. 229-232 (in Armenian).
205. Some Issues of Social Structure and Economic Life of Common-Kartvelian
Society According to Language Data. IV. Craftsman (II. Carpenter). Issues of
Structure of the Kartvelian languages, IX, Tbilisi, p.p. 292-295 (with English summary).
206. Consciousness and Non-consciousness in Akaki Tseretelis Proze and Poetry
(on the example of prosaic and poetic versions of Akaki Tseretelis My adventure). Akakis collection of works, II, Tbilisi, p.p. 97-101.
207. Lexicological Etudes. I. From Daghestanian-Kartvelian language Relations:
1.1 An Avar word in Georgian composite [ kudraa]; 1.2. A Lezgian word in The
knight in the panthers skin [nexvi=asli); 2. A word as a reconstructive source
of non-commented historical reality: 2.2. An Arabian word in Georgian antomic
opposition [dedani=asli]. Georgian Academy of Sciences. Materials of the 64th

Bibliography of Mikheil Kurdianis Works

85

scientific session of the Arn. Chikobava Institute of Linguistics, 27-29 December, Tbilisi, p.p. 32-34.
208. Academician Niko Marrs Third ethnic element in creating the Mediterranean Sea culture against the background of modern culturology. Collection of
works of dedicated to the 140th anniversary of Acad. Niko Marr, Tbilisi, p.p. 38-52.
Co-author Mzia Chichua.
2006
209. Crying of Newborns and Problem of Initial Vocalism. II. (Idea of experimental verification of Basque-Kartvelian archetype). Arnold Chikobavas Readings,
XVII, 2-5 May. Materiaals, Tbilisi, p.p. 56-58.
2007
210. Paradigmatic Chain of Symbols as a Classifier of Symbolism from Other
Modernistic Movement. I international symposium: modern problems of literary
studies. Thesis, Tbilisi, p.p. 159-161.
211. Three Semiotic Etudes about The Knight in Panthers Skin [1] Title. Semiotics. Scientific journal, I, Tbilisi, p.p. 164-168.
212. Three Semiotic Etudes about The Knight in Panthers Skin [2] Theme.
Semiotics. Scientific journal, I, Tbilisi, p.p. 169-175.
213. Three Semiotic Etudes about The Knight in Panthers Skin [3] Word. Semiotics. Scientific journal, I, Tbilisi, p.p. 176-180.
214. Towards the Construction of Lexical Fund of Pre-Christian Georgian Literary Language: Terms Borrowed from Old Persian (I,II). Arnold Chikobavas
Readings, XVIII, 10-13 April. Materials, Tbilisi, p.p. 81-84.
215. One Adaptation Model of Occasionalisms in a Text in The Knight in Panthers Skin. Besarion Jorbenadze Society. Materials of IX scientific conference dedicated to the memory of Ioseb Kipshidze, 10 May, Tbilisi, p.p. 15-16.
216. Caucasus, Let You Tremble! Near Is the Day of Your Ending (Nikoloz Baratashvili an opponent of pan-Caucasian idea). Materials of the scientific conference dedicated to Nikoloz Baratashvili, Telavi, 8-9 June. I. Gogebashvili Telavi State
University, Besarion Jorbenadze Society, Tbilisi, p.p. 10-11.
217. An Evil Man Prefers an Evil Word to Heart and Soul. For protecting Academician Iost Gipperts (and not only his) name and honor from slander and insinuations. Journ. of Gelati Academy of Sciences, 5, p.p. 7-18.
218. Eminent and Higly Skilled. - An article dedicated to the 80th birth anniversary of
Academician Tedo Uturgaidze. Journ. of Gelati Academy of Sciences, 6, p.p. 5862, Co-author Avtandil Arabuli.

86

Bibliography of Mikheil Kurdianis Works

219. Professor Mikheil Kurdianis Speech at the Meeting of Metropolitan Anania


(Japaridze) at the Arn. Chikobava Institute of Linguistics on 15 May, 2007. In
coll. Kartvelian languages and dialects, (on one scientific polemic).Tbilisi, p.p. 510.
220. An Evil Man Prefers an Evil Word to Heart and Soul. For protecting Academician Iost Gipperts (and not only his) name and honor from slander and insinuations. - In coll. Kartvelian languages and dialects, (On one scientific polemic). Tbilisi, p.p. 65-74.
221. Family of the Iberian-Caucasian languages or Nostratic and Dene-Caucassian
Phillums, Problem of Methodic Strictness in Comparativistics. Materials of I international congress of Caucasiologists, Tbilisi, Universali, pp. 187-189.
222. Ilia Chavchavadzes master classes Nikoloz Gostashabishvili. Composition and functional cadring. In coll. International scientific conference: Ilia Chavchavadze and his epoch. Thesis, 6-7 November, Tbilisi, p.p. 39-41.
223. Temporal Chaining of Phonetic Processes and Their Importance in Establishing a Chronology of Language Contacts. Materials of XXVII republic dialectological scientific session dedicated to the 80th birth anniversary of Academician Tedo
Uturgaidze, 9-10 November, Tbilisi, p.p. 78-81.
224. Toward the History of a Word tit-i. The 66th scientific session of Arn. Chikobava Institute of Linguistics dedicated to the 120th anniversary of Academician Akaki
Shanidzes birth, Tbilisi, 34-35.
225. Introduction (to Deacon Bidzina Gunias book Towards the issue of Julius
calendar). In Decan Bidzina Gunias book Towards the issue of Juilius calendar,
Tbilisi, Gelati Academy of Sciences, p.p. 1-6.
226. Ian Brawns Reconstructive Basis and Verification of Phonological System of
Common-Basque-Kartvelian Parent Language. Caucasiologic collection dedicated to the 80th anniversary of outstanding Caucasiologist and Basquelogist Ian
Brawns birth, Tbilisi, p.p. 122-156.
227. Trace of Zaratyshtra in the Narth Epos of Ossetians. - International scientific
conference Archeology, ethnology and folklore of Caucasus. Coll. of short papers,
Tbilisi, p.p. 333-338.
228. Ancient Kartvelisms of the Indo-European Languages. Paper at the international conference on the Caucasian languages (Leipzig, Germany). Publication in Russian. (www.eva.mog.de)
229. F o u n d a t i o n s o f I b e r i a n-C a u c a s i a n L i n g u i s t i c s with Avtandil Arabulis editorship and preface, Tbilisi, 1040 p.

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230. Ancient Kartvelisms of the Indo-European Languages (towards the establishing of lexical interrelation on a chronological level of a parent-language). - Abstract, Tbilisi, p.36.
2008
231. Introduction to Professor N. Javakhishvilis Book Grigol I the last Georgian King. - In the book: N. Javakhishvili Grigol I the last Georgian king, Tbilisi,
p.p. 5-7,
232. Trace of Zaratushtra in the Narth Epos of Ossetians. Coll. of scientific papers Issues of history of Armenia, Yerevan, p.p. 3-11, (in Russian).
233. Umlaut of Adygean Type in Svan. Materials of VI international scientific
conference Actual problems of general and Adygean philology, Maykop, 24-26 April,
p.p. 183-184, (in Russian).
234. Andria Apostle (The First-Called) and History of Building of the First Apostolic Church in Georgia. Materials of scientific conference On Saint Andria Apostles step, 2-4 May, Skhalta Eparchy, pp.12-15. Co-author Nugzar Mgeladze.
235. Date of Apostle-equal Saint Ninos arriving in Kartli and its importance for
history of Christianity in the Caucasus. - Materials of scientific conference On Saint
Andria Apostles step, 2-4 May, Skhalta Eparchy, pp.18-20.
236. Anagram. - Georgian language. Encyclopedia. Tbilisi, p.p. 28-29. Co-author I.
Kobalava.
237. Alphabets on the Basis of Georgian Graphics. - Georgian language. Encyclopedia. Tbilisi, p.p. 30-31.
238. Anzhanbemani. - Georgian language. Encyclopedia. Tbilisi, p.39.
239. Ialguzidze. - Georgian language. Encyclopedia. Tbilisi, p.238.
240. Common-Kartvelian Verification System. - Georgian language. Encyclopedia.
Tbilisi, p.p. 30-31.
241. Muhmad and Ali about Science. In coll. Science in Islam and Christianity.
Workshop 9, Tbilisi, p.p. 3-17.
242. Sulkhan-Sabas Classification of Swords and Etymology of Exkalburi. Materials of scientific conference dedicated to Sulkhan-Saba Orbeliani, Telavi, 7-8 June,
Tbilisi, p.p. 26-29.
243. Sunny Night. Dedicated to the 30th enthroning and 75th birth anniversaries of
Catholicos-Patriarch of All Georgia, His Holiness and Beatific Ilia II. (in Georgian and
English languages). Tbilisi. Co-authors N. Tchavtchavadze, L. Togonidze.

88

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244. Religious Foundations of Civilizations Dialogue. Scientific journal Logosi,


N5, Tbilisi, pp.234-243.
245. Morphematic Theory of a Language Marker. Iberian-Caucasian Linguistics, XXXVI, Tbilisi, p.p. 231-239.
246. Georgian Language and Script. International Centre for Christian Studies at
the Orthodox Church of Georgia, Tbilisi, p.28.
247. Argument on qurdzeni (grape) and Problem of First Habitat of CommonDaghestanian Ethnos. Iv. Javakhishvili Tbilisi State University, Faculty of Humanities. II faculty scientific conference Shalva Nutsubidze 120, Tbilisi, p.p. 112-115.
248. Linguo-country-studies Etudes. I. Caucasus: Imamat of Chechnet-Daghestan
as a Supic orden of Naqshbands. - Iv. Javakhishvili Tbilisi State University, Faculty
of Humanities. II faculty scientific conference Shalva Nutsubidze 120, Tbilisi, p.p.
189-192.
249. Towards the Ancient Model of Stem Generation in the Iberian-Caucasian
Languages. Georgian National Academy of Sciences, Arn. Chikobava Institute of
Linguistics, Iv. Javakhishvili Tbilisi State University. I international symposium: Iberian-Caucasian linguistics: Legacy and Perspectives dedicated to the 110th birth anniversary of Arnold Chikobava. Materials, Tbilisi, pp.37-41. Co-author Avtandil Arabuli.
(English text pp.41-44).
250. Towards the Homogeneous Phonetic Processes in the Iberian-Caucasian languages. II. Dissimilative Voicing of Voiceless Plosive Consonants. - Georgian National Academy of Sciences, Arn. Chikobava Institute of Linguistics, Iv. Javakhishvili
Tbilisi State University. I international symposium: Iberian-Caucasian linguistics:
Legacy and Perspectives dedicated to the 110th birth anniversary of Arnold Chikobava.
Materials, Tbilisi, p.p. 432-433. Co-author Vazha Shengelia. (English text pp.434435).
251. Towards the Homogeneus Phonetic Processes in the Iberian-Caucasian languages. III. Affricatization of Velar Plosives. - Georgian National Academy of
Sciences, Arn. Chikobava Institute of Linguistics, Iv. Javakhishvili Tbilisi State University. I international symposium: Iberian-Caucasian linguistics: Legacy and Perspectives dedicated to the 110th birth anniversary of Arnold Chikobava. Materials, Tbilisi,
p.p. 433-434. Co-author Vazha Shengelia. (English text p.435).
252. Canonical Models of Root-structure and Stem-formation in Common NakhDaghestanian and Common-Daghestanian Parent Language. Linguistic Papers,
XXVII, Tbilisi, pp. 241-246 (with English summary p. 247).
253. Problem of Kinship of the Iberian-Caucasian Languages (condition of the issue and perspectives). Caucasian languages genetic, typological and areal contacts, Mahachkala, pp.221-235, (in Russian).

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254. Canonical Models of Root-structure and Stem-formation in Common NakhDaghestanian and Common-Daghestanian Parent Language. - Caucasian languages genetic, typological and areal contacts. Materials of international scientific conference, 14-16 October, Mahachkala, p.p. 476-480, (in Russian).
255. Theme of The Knight in the Panthers Skin as Art Realization of Christian
Conception of Love. Materials of international conference Tbeloba, November,
Skhalta Eparchy, p.p. 328-330.
256. Function of Subject Branches in Dramaturgy (Hypotactic and Paratactic Plots
in Native English Dramaturgy). II international symposium Modern problems of
literary studies. Thesis, Tbilisi, p.p. 198-200. (English summary p.p. 200-201).
.

2009
257. Ancient Iranian Socio-linguistic Model and Its Importance in Forming of
Language Policy of Neighboring Countries (on the example of Georgia). Arnold
Chikobavas Readings, XX, 14-17 April. Materials, Tbilisi, p.p. 71-75.
258. The Knight in the Panthers Skin from Semiotic Standpoint. In the book
On The Knight in the Panthers Skin, Tbilisi, .p.p. 77-81.
259. A Pronoun vin who an Ancient Information on Ergative. - Materials of international scientific conference Ergative and ergative construction in the world languages (Iberian-Caucasian and other languages of the world), 21-23 May, Tbilisi, p.7475. Co-authors Avtandil Arabuli (with English and Russian texts).
260. Problem of Kinship of the Iberian-Caucasian Languages (condition of the issue and perspectives). Journal of Gelati Academy of Sciences, 2-6, p.p. 3-22.
261. Sufficient Problem of Qualification Marker System of Svan Dialects and Cholurian as the Fifth Svan Dialect. XXIX republic dialectological scientific session.
Working plan and materials of paper, 27 November, Tbilisi, p.p. 33-37.
262 Phonetic Basis of Niko Marrs Qualification of the Daghestanian Languages. Arn. Chikobava Institute of Linguistics. The 68th scientific session dedicated to the 80th
birth anniversary of Acad. Tamaz Gamkrelidze, 23-24 December. Materials, Tbilisi,
p.p. 33-37.
263. Paradygmatic and Syntagmatic Aspects of Iconography of St. Andria Apostle
(The First-Called) and St. Nino. Tbilisi, p.167. Co-author Eka Vardoshvili.

90

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264. Year of St. Ninos Death According to Latin Martyrology and Its Relation
with the Date of Armenias Christening. - Journal of Gelati Academy of Sciences,
7-9, p.p. 42-57).
265. National and Cultural Specificity of Proverbs in the Daghestanian Languages. - Linguistic Papers, XXX, Tbilisi, p.p. 78-87 (with English summary p. 87). Coauthor Zulaihat Mallaeva.
266. From New Tactics to New Strategy in Relation with Inner-state and Out-state
Armed Conflicts. South Caucasus: Sources of Separatism, Solution of Conflicts,
Long-term Peace. - Materials of international scientific conference, 20 November,
Tbilisi, p.p. 16-22.
267. Trace of Zaratushtra in the Narth Epos of Ossetians. - Journal of Gelati Academy of Sciences, 10-12, p.p. 61-67
2010
268. On the Existence of Laterals in the Iberian-Caucasian Parent-Language.
International linguistic conference Current advances in Caucasian studies, Macerata,
Italy, 21-24 January. http://www.unimc. it/cass/accepted-papers, (in Russian).
269. Toward the Origin of the Kakhians Family-name. - Arnold Chikobavas
Readings, XXI, 13-16 April. Materials, Tbilisi, p.p. 72-74.
270. Year of St. Ninos Death According to Latin Martyrology and Its Relation
with the Date of Armenias Christening. - International scientific conference Archeology, ethnology and folklore of Caucasus., Tbilisi, 25-27 June, 2009. Coll. of short
papers, Tbilisi, p.p. 461-464, (in Russian).
271. From the History of Iranian and Armenian Kingdoms (4th c. B.C.- 3rd c. A.C.).
- Journal of Gelati Academy of Sciences, 1-2, p.p. 61-67.

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; , , 108 (5.288) 11
, , 3-4 109 (5.289), 13 , . . 3-4,
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108 (4.493), 11 , , . 3 109 (4. 494), 13 , .
. 3-4, ; , , 112
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; , ,
129 (5.673), 1 , , .3 130 (5.674), 4 , . .3

95

131 (5.675), 6 , , . 3, ,
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() ( ). " ".
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2000 . , 2000 : 51-53.
129. (P.S. - ).
: " " ( - 70),
. , , 2000 : 144-148.
: " 70",
, 2000 : 11.
130.
. . . .
. 59- . 12-15 2000 .
100- . . . , 2000 : 5456.
131. "
". VII . .
, 2000 : 20.
132.
. . . ,
. . . ,
. , -

106

, . . 26-27
2000 , . . 2000 : 69-70.
133. "". : .
, 70- . . .
. . .
, , 2000: 114-117. ( . .). :
.
134. The Classification of Modern Hebrew (IVRIT) Consonants. St. Petersburg
State Univerity, Tbilisi State Univerity, Tel-Aviv State Univerity. Immanent Processes
of language and literature Development. Tbilisi, 2000 : 66-69.

2001
135.
. I.
() ( (). . XXIV.
, 2001 : 63-72 ( ..).
136. ().
- ; ,
2001. . 2. , 2001 : 6771.
137. ""

. II. . . ;

.
.
,
; , XII, 17-20 2001 ,
. , 2001 : 102-106.
138. .
. V. 2000- : 131-140
( .., . 141), 2001 . : .
139. -
,
.
. V. 2000- : 250-256.
( . , . 257), 2001.
140. " "
(

).

-
. . . -
. - VIII .
100- . . , 2001 : 107-110.
141. . I.
(. l: . l|r: . m.
. : 100, , 2001 : 174-177. (
.., . 177).

107

142.
( ). IV (12-13 )
. ,
, 100- .
. . . , 2001 : 60-64.
143.
(-)
. . XI. , 2001 : 180-187
( . ., . 187-188.).
144. , , (
). .
. VI. , 2001 : 41-46.
145. . . .
- 80. . , 2001: 94-103.
146.
. . . .
. 60 . , 60 ( ), , 2001 : 7380.
147. (- ,
I). - .
, 2001 : 121-133. ( . (134-135) . (135-136).
148. : ,

() .
, 2000, 103 .; - . . , 2001
: 311-320.
149. . I.
. . . 60 , 2001, 18-21 , 100-
. . , 2001 : 46-51.
150.
, IV. (1.
). . . ,
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( . .).
151. Minor Nations Language Saving Program CANCELLD. Linguistic
Perspectives on Endangered Languages. The Lingistic Associatoin of Finland.
International Symposium at the University of Helsinki.
http//www. ling. Helsinki. fi/sky/endabs.htm.
http//www. ling. Helsinki. fi/skylel/.html. Co-autor: Tariel Sikharulidze

2002

108

152.
-. . . VIII
. , 2002, . 15-16.
153. - ""
. .
XIII. 2002 . 23-26 , . , " ", 2002: 83-87.
154. "" "".
. . ,
, 115- .
. 2002 . 16-17 . , ,
2002: 45-47.
155. . .
. . . . ,
, . . , 2002 . 31
. , 2002 : 5-7.
156. "" "
" . . ,
, . .
. . , , "",
2002 : 116-123. ( . . 123-124 . . 124).
: , .
157.
. II.

(2.1.). . ,
, . . .
. , , "", 2002: 395-408.
( .. 409 .. 409).
158. " "
. VI
, . . , 2002: 28-35.
159. " " . VI
, .
, . , 2002: 182-201.
160.
. . ,
"". 2002: 57-92 ( . . 87-88).
161. ( ) -
. ,
. VII. , 2002: 38-40 ( 70-
25-
- II).
162.
. XXII
. , . 2002: 75-76.

109

163. . . , 1-6, 2002: 13-27.


.
164.

. . . ,
, 2002: 294-298 ( , .299).
2003
165.
. .
4 (135) . 31 , 6 ,
2003: 4-5.
166. - 75. ,
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: .
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. . : .
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. XIV. , , 2003: 44-51.
( . 51).
170.
.
.
. , . , ,
2003: 323-326 ( . 326-327
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171. (
.
, 2003. . 39 (169)
, 3-9 , 2003: 4-5.
, 1. ?
172.
03. 2003: 3-7.
173.
, 2. .
03, , 2003: 7-10.
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). , ,
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, 2003: 192-193. : .

110

176. . .
1987: 286 : , , .
, , 2003: 237-241.
177.
. 62- ,
. . (23-25 2003 ). ,
2003: 41-42.
178. .
. ,
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: .
179.

. ,
. VIII. , 2003: 26-31.
: , .
181. :
1.

- (-) .
. .. 349.
, , , . ,
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182. :


.

. . . 349. , ,
, . , 2003 : 73-77 (
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2004

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Sumposium. June 25-27, 2003. Tbilisi, Georgia. Izmi, Tukey, 2004 : 80-82. :
.
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). : . . ,
(), 2004: 3-8.
185. . ( ).
, 1, , 2004: 63-66.
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( ). , 2, , 2004: 63-66.

111

187. , .
. , , 2003: 88. , 179
(578), 31 , , 2004: 10. : .
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). , 4, , 2004: 60-62.
189.
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: .
192. ?!
( ?!).
, 7, 2004: 57-61. : .
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. , 8, 2004:
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.
, , 3 2004 ., 38 (1992): 8-10.
195. .
. ( ).
29 - 5 , . 5-11. :
.
: ..
( . .).
, 32 (1986), , 12 , 2004 . . 2.
196. ?
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197. . , 2003.
. .
, 2, 2004: 84-86 (
).
198. .
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. . . . . ,
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199. .
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70- . , 2004 : 98103.
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. . XXV.
100- . . , 2005 : 63-74
(

).
: .
204. . II

:
, , . 24-26 . , 112-113.
205. (
. ).
. II. . - 165. , 2005: 35-39
( ).
206.

(resp. )
. . .-.
.

6.

2005: 121-127 ( ).
208. (
). (), 2004/2005, ,
, 2005: 229-232 ( ).
209.
. IV. - (II. ).
. IX. , ,
2005: 292-295 ( ).
210. (

). . II. ,
, 2005: 97-101.
211. . I.
1. - :
1.1. (udraa),
1.2. (nesvi = asli) .

113

2.

:
2.1. (dedani = asli). . ..
64- . 27-29 2005 . , , 2005:
32-34.
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.
, 140- . .
. , , 2005: 38-52. : .
2006
213. . II. (
).

-
. XVII. 2-5 2006. . , ,
2006: 56-58.
2007
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. I :
. . , , 2007:
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215. (1) .
. . I.
,
. . , 2007:164-168.
216. (2) .
. . I. ,
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217. (3)
. . . I. ,
.. , 2007: 176-180.
218.

:
,

(I, II). . XVIII. 10-13


2007. , , , 2007: 81-84.
219. ,
. .
IX
, . . 10
2007. , 2007: 15-16.
221. ! (. ). ,
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. . ,
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222 - !
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, 5, 2007: 7-18.
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: .
224.

.
.

()

.
.
15

2007.

( ).
, 2007 : 5-10.
225. - !.
. ( )
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). , 2007 : 65-74.
226. - , .. .
I . , 2007: 187-189.
227. - . - :
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(), 6-7 2007. ,
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.
XXVII . 9-10 2007.
80- . .. , 2007: 7881.
229.

tit-i
.
66-

.
.,
24-26

2007. 120- . . . ,
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230.
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. , , 2007 : 1-6.
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( 80-
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).
,
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, .
. , , 2007: 333-338.
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(, ).
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233. - .
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-). . , 2007 : 36.
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VI

. : 24-26 . , 2008 : 183-184.
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(), 2-4 2008 . , 2008: 12-15.
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,
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.
.
,
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, 5. ,
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. , .-.
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: ., ..
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, ..,
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110- . .. ,
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, .. ,
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-.
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259. The Canonical Models of Root and Stemformation in Common NachDagestanian and Common Dagestanian Proto-Languages. :
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(-
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,
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enaTmecniereba
Linguistics

kavkasiologiuri Ziebani CAUCASIOLOGIC PAPERS


II

2010

c. baramiZe (Tbilisi)
Sesavali sityva kavkasiologTa II saerTaSoriso kongresze

polieTnikuri, multilingvuri kavkasia Tavisi strategiuli


mniSvnelobiT mecnierTa da politikosTa yuradRebis sagani xdeba.
kavkasia, rogorc buferuli zona, sabWoTa kavSiris daSlis Semdeg
sxvadasxva qveynis geopolitikuri da ekonomikuri interesebis Sejaxebis arenad iqca, gansxvavebiT sxva regionebisagan. kavkasiam
dakarga geopolitikur-ekonomikuri mTlianoba. centraluri kavkasiis qveynebi ki damoukideblobis mopovebis sanacvlod `isjebian~
da iryevian fsevdoeTno konfliqtebiT.
rogori iqneba Tanamedrove kavkasia? am kiTxvis pasuxad iqmneba axali Sexedulebebi am regionis ganviTarebis perspeqtivebis
Sesaxeb. centraluri kavkasiis mdgomareobisa da ganviTarebis
tendenciebi gadamwyvet rols TamaSobs integraciis procesSi. aq
ikveTeba orgvari midgoma: I. es iqneba axali erTiani kavkasia Tanamedrove msoflio sazogadoebaSi Tu II. es iqneba Zveli integraciuli modelis axali modifikacia. Hard Land -- centraluri kavkasia
aucileblad gadamwyvet rols Seasrulebs kavkasiis erTian socialur-ekonomikur sivrced Camoyalibebis, regionalizaciis anu
Sida integraciis procesSi.
xolo imis gansasazRvrad, Tu rogori SeiZleba iyos uaxloes momavalSi integraciis veqtorebi, aucileblad unda gaviTvaliswinoT sxvadasxva istoriul periodSi kavkasiis centralizebuli marTvis modifikaciebi. am sakiTxis istoria gvidasturebs,
rom, miuxedavad winaaRmdegobrivi tendenciebisa, istoriis manZilze mainc yalibdeboda integraciuli saxelmwifoebrivi warmonaqmnebi marTvis sistemebiT, rogorc damoukideblobis periodSi,
aseve maSinac, roca kavkasia sxvadasxva imperiis SemadgenlobaSi
Sedioda. regionis integraciis kanonzomierebaze migviTiTebs rogorc istoriuli gamocdileba, aseve Tanamedrove globalizaciis
principebi.
kavkasiis erTiani saxlisa da erTiani bazris sakiTxis permanentuli wamoWra kavkasiis erTianobis istoriuli WriliTa da
Tanamedroveobis moTxovnebiTaa Sepirobebuli.
kavkasiologTa II saerTaSoriso kongresis Temaa `kavkasiuri
civilizacia _ istoria da Tanamedroveoba~, romliTac unda ganisazRvros, Tu rogori iqneba XXI saukunis dasawyisSi kavkasiis
regionalizaciis principebi, formebi da meTodebi.

122

c. baramiZe

migvaCnia, rom geopolitikuri niSnebiT regionis integracia,


romeli mxridanac ar unda ganxorcieldes igi, myife iqneba, Tu
igi ar daefuZneba geoekonomikur da, rac Zalze mniSvnelovania,
kulturul-civilizaciur sabazo struqturul elementebs, romelTa safuZvelSive Cadebulia demokratiuli, samoqalaqo sazogadoebis principebi. humanitar kavkasiologTa Teoriul-meTodologiuri midgoma mecnieruli kvlevebisadmi globalizaciis Tanamdevi procesis regionalizaciis ideis konceptualuri safuZvlebiTaa Sepirobebuli. kavkasieli xalxebis erTobis lingvokulturuli modeli sami ZiriTadi komponentisagan Sedgeba: iberiulkavkasiuri, arealur-kavkasiuri da paleokavkasiuri. samive Tanaarsebobs drosa da sivrceSi. maT aerTianebT tradiciuli da Tanamedrove kultura, saerTo istoriuli warsuli. Cveni kongresis
mizania gamoikveTos arsebuli samecniero miRwevebi, siaxleebi,
raTa SesaZlebeli gaxdes rogorc lingvokulturologiuri, aseve
geopolitikuri sakiTxebis mecnieruli gadaWra, gamoikveTos lokaluri civilizaciis krizisis istoriuli da Tanamedrove mizezebi msoflioSi mimdinare civilizaciuri transformaciis pirobebSi.
kongresis mizania gansazRvros kavkasiuri identoba globalizaciis procesSi, romelSic erovnuli kultura kvlav rCeba
adamianTa identobis saSualebad. msoflio religiebis, imperiebis,
ideologiebisa da Tanamedrove kiberteqnologiebis safuZvelze
unda gavaanalizoT kulturis globalizaciis sakiTxi istoriul
retrospeqtivaSi. unda ganisazRvros iberiul-kavkasiuri ojaxis
enebis sxva enebTan eTnogenetikuri naTesaobis sakiTxi; tolerantobis, rogorc kavkasiuri xalxebis urTierTobebis mTavari safuZvlis, roli; saerTo bunebriv-sayofacxovrebo garemoSi aTaswleulebis ganmavlobaSi SemuSavebuli erTiani eTnokultura,
eTika da etiketi, adaT-wesebi, erTiani msoflmxedveloba, saerTo
istoriuli bedi, romelic umetesad gare samyarosTan urTierTobiT ganisazRvreboda, `erTiani kavkasiuri saxlis ideis~ istoria
da Tanamedroveoba, momavlis perspeqtivebi; kavkasiaSi arsebuli
konfliqtebis mogvarebis mecnieruli prognozi; kulturuli da
religiuri identobis problemaTa aqtualizacia postsbWoTa periodSi; `mSvidobiani kavkasiis~ idea civilizaciaTa dialogis
konteqstSi da misi samoqalaqo, eTnoreligiuri da lingvokulturuli safuZvlebi.
kongresis muSaobis Sedegad gamoikveTeba dasaxul problemaTa gadaWris gzebi humanitarul mecnierebaTa dargebSi, kavkasiuri civilizaciis Seswavlis istoria da, rac mTavaria, Tanamedroveoba, rTul geopolitikur arealSi safrTxeebis arsebobis
pirobebSi mSvidobiani Tanaarsebobis ZiriTadi meqanizmebi _ samo-

Sesavali sityva kavkasiologTaAII saerTaSoriso kongresze

123

qalaqo, eTnoreligiuri, lingvokulturuli erTobis modeli _


kavkasiuri identobis ZiriTadi maxasiaTebeli.
evropis aRmosavleli guSagis kavkasiuri civilizaciis winaSe arsebuli safrTxeebi da riskebi bunebrivad badebs kiTxvebs:
1. rogor unda Seerwyas globalizms universalizmi?
2. rogor unda Seerwyas tradiciuli da inovaciuri?
3. rogor unda Seerwyas universaluri da individualuri?
Cveni azriT, kavkasiuri civilizaciis Senaxva da modernuli
transformacia, misi mSvidobiani arseboba SesaZlebelia mxolod
ambivalenturobiT _ anu universalurisa da individualuris SerwymiT. verc mxolod globalizacia da verc mxolod multikulturalizmi cal-calke aRebuli ver iqneba perspeqtiva lokaluri
civilizaciisaTvis, miTumetes, roca am xalxebis bedi nawilobriv
gareSe ZalebiT aris gansazRvruli.
4. SesaZlebelia Tu ara demokratiis, samoqalaqo sazogadoebis miRweva Tanamedrove multikulturul sazogadoebaSi? SeiZleba dRes Cven am kiTxvebze pasuxi ara gvaqvs, magram Cven gvWirdeba gadaviazroT Cveni cxovreba. es mogvcems SesaZleblobas, vipovoT gamosavali. inovacia Secvlis mcdelobaa. sadac is ar aris,
ar aris perspeqtiva.
5. rogoria is kondicia, romelic gaawonasworebs nacionalizmsa da kosmopolitizms? nacionalizmi identifikaciis saSualebaa (kultura, lingvistika, riTac is sxvisgan gansxvavdeba, igi
ideologiisa da politikis nazavia da iwvevs sentimentalur
grZnobebs, emociebs. kosmopolitizmi ki Tavisuflebis, adamianTa
uflebebis, eTnikurobis komponentebs Seicavs da mas eWviT vuyurebT.
6. Tu modernizaciis saxes geografia da geopolitika gansazRvravs, Tu msoflio isedac dgas riskis winaSe, rogori iqneba
modernuli, transformirebuli kavkasiis identurobis bedi, rogori iqneba kulturis linvistika? rogor ganxorcieldeba kavkasiuri civilizaciis integracia: a) multikulturalizmiT; b) adamianis uflebaTa dacviT da g) tradicionalizmiT.
7. SesaZlebelia Tu ara kavkasieli xalxebis interesTa konfliqtebis mSvidobiani, humanuri gadaWra?
da bolos:
8. SesaZlebelia Tu ara kavkasielTa identurobis SenarCuneba
amgvari riskebis fonze?
Cveni azriT, es yovelive SesaZlebelia. SeiZleba igi dRes
Cven utopiad gveCvenebodes, utopia ki Sors aris horizontze,
magram ori nabijiTac Tu mivuaxlovdebiT mas, es ukve perspeqtivaa.

kavkasiologiuri Ziebani CAUCASIOLOGIC PAPERS


II

2010

Ts. Baramidze
Introduction Speech at II International Congress of Caucasiologists
The poly-ethnic, multilingual Caucasus with its strategic significance focuses the
attention of scholars and politicians. Differently from other regions the Caucasus as a
buffer zone became an area of clashes of geo-political and economic interests of different countries after disintegration of the Soviet Union. The Caucasus lost its geo-political
and economic unity. Instead of gaining independence the countries of Central Caucasus are being punished and impaired with pseudo-ethno-conflicts.
What kind of modern Caucasus will be? In response to this question the new
standpoints on developing perspectives of this region are being appeared. State and
developing tendencies of the Central Caucasus play a key role in the process of integration. Here two approaches are distinguished: 1. It will be the new united Caucasus or 2.
it will be new modification of old integrating model. Hard Land the Central Caucasus is sure to play a decisive role in the process of forming the Caucasus as a united
social-economic space, regionalization or inner integration.
In order to define what integration vectors can be in the nearest future we should
take into account the modification of centralized direction of the Caucasus in different
historical period. The history of this issue confirms that notwithstanding the opposing
tendencies during the history the integrated states were being formed with their governing system in the period of independence as well as when the Caucasus was integrated
in different empires. Historical experience as well as the modern globalization principles point to natural integration of the region.
Permanent statement of a question of United House and united market of the
Caucasus is conditioned by historical past and demands of modernity.
The theme of II International Congress of Caucasiologists is Caucasian civilization history and modernity that will define the principles of regionalization,
forms and methods of Caucasus at the beginning of the 21st century.
I believe that integration of the region according to geo-political indicators from
what side it should be realized will be delicate if it is not based on geo-economic as well
as cultural and civilization base structural elements in foundations of which principles
of democratic, civil society are put.
Theoretical and methodological approaching of humanitarian caucasiologists to
the scientific researching is conditioned by conceptual foundations of regionalization
idea an accompanied process with globalization. Linguo-cultural model of the Caucasian peoplesunity consists of three basic components: Iberian-Caucasian, ArealCaucasian and Palaeo-Caucasian. All these three components exist in time and space.
Traditional and modern culture, common historical past unites them. The point of congress is to reveal the existing scientific achievements, novelties in order to solve the
scientific decision of linguo-cultural as well as geo-political issues, to define historical
and modern causes of local and civilization crisis in current civilization transformation
in the world.
The goal of the congress is to determine a Caucasian unity in the globalization
process in which the national culture still remains as the means of peoples identity. On
the background of the world religions, empires, ideologies and modern cybertechnology we should analyze the issue of cultural globalization from the historical retrospective review. The followings should be defined: an issue of ethno-genetic kinship
of the Iberian-Caucasian languages family with other languages; a role of tolerance as

Introduction Speech at 2nd International Congress of Caucasiologists

125

the main basis of the Caucasian peoples; common ethno-culture, ethics and etiquette,
customs, common world outlook formed during the thousand years in common natural
life, common historical fate that was mainly defined by relation with outer world, history and modern conception of the idea of the Common Caucasian House, future perspectives; scientific prognosis of solving the conflicts in the Caucasus, actualization of
the problems of cultural and religious identity in post-soviet period; idea of Peaceful
Caucasus in the context of the civilizations dialogue and their civil, ethno-religious
and linguo-cultural grounds.
The outcomes of the congress will be: to define the solving ways of the planned
problems in the branches of humanitarian sciences, researching history of the Caucasian
civilization and above all modernity, main tools of peaceful co-existing in the condition
of dangers existing in complicated geo-political areal model of civil, ethno-religious,
linguo-cultural unity a main indicator of the Caucasian identity.
Dangers and risks existing before an eastern guard of the Europe the Caucasian civilization naturally arise the questions:
1.
How universalism and globalism should be united?
2.
How traditional and innovation should be united?
3.How
universal
and
individual
should
be
united?
To my opinion, preserving and modern transformating of the Caucasian civilization, its peaceful existing is possible only through abivalence or through uniting universal and individual. Neither only globalization nor only multi-culturalism separately
should be perspective for local civilization, especially when the fate of these peoples is
conditions by outer powers.
4. Is it possible to achieve democracy, civil society in the modern multicultural society? Maybe today we have no answer to this question but we have to comprehend our life. It will give us possibility to find a way out. Innovation it is an attempt of changing. Nowhere it is there is no perspective.
5.
What kind is that condition which will balance nationalism and cosmopolitism? Nationalism is the means of identification (culture, linguistics) by what it differs from others, it is a combination of ideology and policy and arises sentimental feelings, emotions. Cosmopolitism contains components of freedom, humans rights, ethnic
and we look suspiciously at it.
6.
If geography and geo-politics define the future of modernization, if the
world is before the risk, how will the fate of identity of the modern, transformed Caucasus, linguistic of culture be? By what tools the integration of the Caucasian civilization will be realized: a) by multi-culturalism, b) by protecting the humans rights or c)
by traditionalism?
7.
Is peaceful, humane solving of the conflicts of the Caucasian peoples
interests possible?
And finally:
8.
Is it possible or not to preserve identity of the Caucasians against the
background of the existing risks?
I believe all these are possible. It may look like the Utopia for us but Utopia is
far away on the horizont and if we come a few steps nearer it is just perspective.

kavkasiologiuri Ziebani CAUCASIOLOGIC PAPERS



II

2010

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kavkasiologiuri Ziebani CAUCASIOLOGIC PAPERS


II

2010

l. geguCaZe (Tbilisi)
TumcakavSirian rTul konstruqciaTa Sesaxeb qarTulSi

Tumca kavSiri qarTuli saliteraturo enis ganviTarebis


samive safexurze gvxvdeba. cnobilia, rom Tavdapirvelad is
pirobiTi kavSiri iyo: am mniSvnelobiT gvxvdeba igi Zvel
qarTulsa da saSuali qarTulis adrindel ZeglebSi (ZiZiguri
1969, 119). mag.: Tumca me micodeT, mamamca Cemi icodeT: i, 14, 7, C
(simf. 1986, 236); nu iyofin Cemda, Tumca veziare saqmeTa da codvaTa
varsqenisaTa (`SuSan~. 1987, 227); kacsa RmerTi ar gaswiravs, Tumca
kaci Seigebda (rusTaveli 1957, 1362, 4)... pirobiTobis Tu kavSiri,
cxadia, mca nawilakis gareSec gvxvdeba: da Tu mravali tanjva
moawio Cem zeda, me ara veziaro saqmeTa SenTa (`SuSan~. 1987, 228);
Tu mkvdari mnaxos, dammarxos... (rusTaveli 1957, 852,3).
aRorZinebis xanis qarTulSi Tumca pirobiTi kavSiris
funqciiT faqtobrivad aRar gvxvdeba: is iSviaTi formebi,
romlebsac vxvdebiT sulxan-saba orbelianTan an besikis poeziaSi,
arqaizmebadaa kvalificirebuli (ZiZiguri 1969, 120): Tuca Sen
dagTmo, vinRa vhpovo (besiki 1980, 102); TumcaRa gcode, viyo
Semcode (iqve, 105).
saSuali qarTulidan moyolebuli Tuca/Tumca kavSiri myarad
mkvidrdeba konstruqciaSi, romelsac, tradiciulad, daTmobiT
winadadebas uwodeben: madli hkadra fxizelurad, Tuca iyo
Rvinosmuli (rusTaveli 1957, 1559,4); Sen ver gicnobdi, Tuca
mixmobdi (vaxtang, 1980, 71); esreT mSvenier bageT zeda ielvebs
Rimi, TumcaRa gulSi uzomosa hfaravs simwares (orbeliani 1980,
131); petrem Tumca yurebi acqvita..., magram Sors iyo da vera gaigo
ra (ilia 1985, 212) da a. S. (aRniSnul konstruqcias S. ZiZiguri
`gamoricxviTs~ uwodebs, radgan miiCnevs, rom `gamoricxulobaa am
tipis winadadebis semantikuri buneba~: gv. 128).
Tumca kavSiri rTuli winadadebis I komponentSic SeiZleba
Segvxvdes (Tumca omis mizani mSvidobaa, is mainc udavo borotebaa:
palitra 2010, [22(826)5] da - momdevnoSic (maT win... gamxdari,
dabali tanis kaci idga, Tumca sigamxdre da sidable siCiavis
STabeWdilebas ar tovebda: Coxeli 2001, 220).

130

l. geguCaZe

pirobiT da daTmobiTdamokidebulian konstruqciebs Soris


msgavseba mxolod masalobrivi ar aris (Tu, Tuca, Tumca): orive
saxis damokidebuli winadadebiT garkveuli pirobaa gadmocemuli,
magram am pirobisadmi mimarTebaa gansxvavebuli (kvaWaZe 1977, 386).
SevudaroT erTmaneTs: a) Tu Segcode, Sen Seminde (Ciqovani 1980,
563) da b) Tumca Segcode, Seminde.
pirvel (a) SemTxvevaSi mTavari winadadeba pirobadebulia
damokidebulisagan:
mxolod
garkveuli
pirobis
arsebobis
Semdegaa SesaZlebeli mTavari winadadebiT gaTvaliswinebuli
Sinaarsi,
meore
(b)
SemTxvevaSi
mTavari
winadadebiT
gaTvaliswinebuli Sinaarsi sruldeba unda Sesruldes) imis
miuxedavad, Tu ra aris gadmocemuli damokidebuliT.
TumcakavSirian
konstruqcias,
tradiciulad,
qvewyobis
farglebSi
ganixilaven,
magram
arsebobs
gansxvavebuli
Tvalsazrisebic: zogierTi avtori mas parataqsulad miiCnevs,
zogi - parataqsul-hipotaqsurad. S. ZiZiguri am Tvalsazriss
`arsebiTad sworad~ miiCnevs da amgvarad azustebs: konstruqcia
hipotaqsuria logikurad, parataqsulia struqturulad~ (ZiZiguri
1969, 129-130).
Tanamedrove
qarTulSi
Zalian
xSirad
vxvdebiT
TumcakavSirian konstruqciebs, romlebSic rTulis komponentebs
Soris araa daTmobiTi winadadebisaTvis niSandoblivi azrobrivi
mimarTeba,
romlebSic
Tumca
maerTebeli
magram
kavSiris
mniSvnelobiTaa naxmari. mxedvelobaSi gvaqvs aseTi magaliTebi:
zafxulobiT indoeTSi musonuri wvimebis sezoni iwyeba, Tumca
Svidi welia sezonis dadgoma sistematurad gviandeba: [27(831)27] (am
wesiT damowmebuli magaliTebi `kviris palitridanaa~); 1813 wels
[mamelukebis] ricxvi 250-mde gaizarda, Tumc yvela mameluki aRar
iyo aRmosavleTis Svili [22(826)30]; wigns yda ar hqonda,
Tavfurceli... CaSavebuli Canda, Tumca masze laTinuri warwera
mainc mkafiod ikiTxeboda (jandieri 2010, 25); babuawveras foTlebi
Zalian mwarea, Tumca misi moyvarulebi am simwares mcenaris
Rirsebad miiCneven (farmacevti 2010, 21) da a. S. warmodgenil
winadadebebSi Tumca-s magram-is mniSvneloba aqvs: mamelukebis
ricxvi 250-mde gaizarda, magram yvela mameluki aRar iyo
aRmosavleTis Svili; wignis... Tavfurceli CaSavebuli Canda,
magram masze laTinuri warwera mainc mkafiod ikiTxeboda;
babuawveras foTlebi Zalian mwarea, magram misi moyvarulebi am
simwares mcenaris Rirsebad miiCneven...
magram-is mniSvnelobiT gamoyenebuli Tumca, rogorc wesi,
rTuli
winadadebis
meore
komponentSia
warmodgenili.
es
gasagebia, ramdenadac am kavSiris Semcveli winadadebis Sinaarsi

TumcakavSirian rTul konstruqciaTa Sesaxeb qarTulSi

131

azrobrivad upirispirdeba wina komponentiT gadmocemuls. amasTan


dakavSirebiT unda gavixsenoT magram mapirispirebelkavSiriani
rTuli Tanwyobili winadadebebi, romlebSic, zemoT moyvanil
konstruqciaTa msgavsad, magram yovelTvis iwyebs parataqsuli
konstruqciis meore nawils da apirispirebs mas pirvelTan: me
sityva ar miTqvams, magram is grZnobda, rogor mivdevdiT
(bibiluri 1978, 64); ar xmaurobda, magram zriali imis wiaRSi mainc
ismoda (iaSvili 1975, 209); mekare win gamovarda, magram oTarma
gverdi auara da burTi badeSi gaaxvia (fanjikiZe 1986, 138) da a. S.
paralelurad
warmodgenili
teqstebi,
romlebic
imis
sailustraciod moviyvaneT, rom maTi semantikuri identuroba
gveCvenebina, sxva mxrivac iqcevs yuradRebas:
magram
kavSiriani
rTuli
Tanwyobili
1.
sakmarisia,
winadadebis I komponents Tumca kavSiri daematos, konstruqcia
hipotaqsuri _ daTmobiTdamokidebuliani xdeba: me sityva ar
miTqvams/Tumca me sityva ar miTqvams, magram is grZnobda, rogor
mivdevdiT; ar xmaurobda/Tumca ar xmaurobda, magram zriali imis
wiaRSi mainc ismoda; mekare win gamovarda/Tumca mekare win
gamovarda, magram oTarma gverdi auara da burTi badeSi gaexvia...
rac imas mowmobs, ramdenad pirobiTia zogjer zRvari parataqssa
da hipotaqss Soris.
2. magram-is mniSvnelobiT gamoyenebuli Tumca kavSiriani
konstruqciebi ki, romlebsac mocemuli saxiT verafriT ver
CavTvliT
daTmobiTdamokidebulian
qvewyobil
winadadebebad,
martivad da bunebrivad iqcevian aseTebad, Tu Tumca kavSirs
Tumca
rTuli
konstruqciis
I
komponentSi
gadavitanT:
zafxulobiT indoeTSi musonuri wvimebis sezoni iwyeba, Svidi
welia sezonis dadgoma sistematurad gviandeba; Tumca 1813 wels...
[mamelukebis] ricxvi 250-mde gaizarda, yvela mameluki aRar iyo
aRmosavleTis Svili; Tumca wigns yda ar hqonda, Tavfurceli...
CaSavebuli Canda, masze laTinuri warwera mainc mkafiod
ikiTxeboda; Tumca babuaweveras foTlebi Zalian mwarea, misi
moyvarulebi am simwares mcenaris Rirsebad miiCneven...
amgvari `manipulaciebis~ SesaZlebloba, vfiqrobT, imaze
miuTiTebs, rom arsebiTia rTulis Semadgenel komponentebs Soris
arsebuli logikur-Sinaarsobrivi dapirispirebulobis gamoxatva,
romelic (aseTi manipulaciebis miuxedavad) yvela SesaZlo
variantSi SenarCunebulia; es ki imdenad mniSvnelovania, rom metic
SeiZleba iTqvas: SesaZloa SevxvdeT Tumca kavSirian iseT rTul
konstruqciebsac, romlebic erTsa da imave dros hipotaqsuradac
Tumca
CaiTvalos
(daTmobiTdamokidebulianad),
romelSic
maqvemdebarebeli kavSiria, da _ parataqsuladac, an Serwymulad,

132

l. geguCaZe

romelSic Tumca-s maerTebeli magram kavSiris mniSvneloba aqvs.


magaliTad:
perevidan rusi okupantebis gasvla waadgeba adgilobriv
mosaxleobas, Tumca ver gadaWris saqarTvelos nawilobrivi
okupaciis problemas [42(846)9]. es winadadeba orgvari gaazrebis
saSualebas iZleva: 1. Tumca ver gadaWris... okupaciis problemas,
[magram]... okupantebis gasvla waadgeba adgilobriv mosaxleobas
(winadadeba daTmobiTia), da 2. perevidan... okupantebis gasvla
waadgeba
adgilobriv
mosaxleobas,
magram
ver
gadaWris...
okupaciis problemas;
mfrinavebma katapultireba scades, Tumca gvian iyo [28(832)39]:
1. Tumca gvian iyo, mfrinavebma katapultireba scades; 2.
mfrinavebma katapultireba scades, magram gvian iyo.
arsi
orive
saxis
winadadebisa,
rogorc
aRvniSneT,
dapirispirebis gamoxatvaa, amas ki orive kavSiri _ Tumca-c da
magram-ic _ bunebrivad axerxebs, rac, Tavis mxriv, iZleva Tumca
kavSiris moxmarebisa (Tu gavrcelebis) sferos gafarToebis
SesaZleblobas.
is, rom Tumca kavSirma marTlac Zalian gaifarTova
`samoqmedo asparezi~ magram-is xarjze, dasturdeba misi aqtiuri
gamoyenebiT
Serwymul
winadadebebSic:
erTgvar
wevrTa
SemaerTeblad
magram-is
paralelurad
(da,
Tu
tendencias
davakvirdebiT, iqneb ufro xSiradac) Tumca-s vxvdebiT: zemdgomTa
reaqcia iyo mZafri, Tumca (=magram) mosalodneli [25(829)22]; mere
bolnisi gamoCnda _ Zveleburad xvavrieli da mosavliani, Tumca
(=magram) ierSecvlilic [27(831)19]; iciT, rogori gogo iyo?
saocrad lamazi, Zlieri, Tumca (=magram) Zalze sevdiani [22(826)11]
da a.S.
miuxedavad imisa,
rom
am tipis
konstruqciebi
xSir
SemTxvevaSi bunebrivadac ki aRiqmeba (gavrcelebulobisa Tu
dapirispirebulobis
SenarCunebis
wyalobiT),
gvxvdeba
TumcakavSiriani
iseTi
winadadebebic,
romlebic
aSkarad
uxerxulobas iwvevs da gaumarTleblad migvaCnia: popoviCma
pirjvari gadaiwera, Tumca mivxvdi (unda iyos: magram mivxvdi), rom
msaxiobobda [40(844)10]. Cems gurulebs ori ukiduresoba aqvT _ an
uyvarT, an ara, Tumca (unda iyos: magram) siZulvili namdvilad ar
SeuZliaT [38(842)20]. amave rigisaa: Samili xatabTan darCa, Tumca
gviTxra (unda iyos: magram gviTxra), rom gegmebs uaxloes xanSi
gagvagebinebs [27(831)10]; vampiri dRisiT Cveulebrivi adamianis
msgavsad cxovrobs, Tumca RamiT (unda iyos: magram RamiT...) misi
energetikuli resursebi piks aRwevs [42(846)39]... aseTi darRvevebi
xSiria televiziis enaSic: gatacebuli iyo xuTi qarTveli, Tumca

TumcakavSirian rTul konstruqciaTa Sesaxeb qarTulSi

133

(?) maTi gaTavisufleba guSin moxerxda (`imedi~); problemebia


gadasaWreli, Tumca (?) amas sWirdeba dro (`kavkasia~)...
amgvari magaliTebi namdvilad ver CaiTvleba Tanamedrove
qarTuli enis saukeTeso nimuSebad, magram erTi ram ueWvelad
unda iTqvas: Tumca kavSiri gviCvenebs mkafiod gamoxatul
tendencias _ `SeiTavsos~ (konteqsturad) maerTebeli magram
kavSiris mniSvnelobac. sayuradReboa, rom Tumca magram-is
funqciiT
dasturdeba
TviT
daTmobiTdamokidebulian
winadadebaSic ki, romelSic Tumca-s mniSvnelobas misi sinonimi
marTalia gadmogvcems, Tavad Tumca ki magram-is mniSvnelobiTaa
naxmari: marTalia, sabWoTa periodSi `amxanagma~ TiTqmis gandevna
`batoni~,
Tumca
(=magram)
sabWoTa
kavSiris
daSlisa
da
saqarTvelos damoukideblobis aRdgenis Semdeg sityva-forma
`batonma~ daibruna ilias mier miniWebuli semantika da igi
pativsacemi adamianisadmi mimarTvis formad iqca [6(810)20].
sagangebod gvinda aRvniSnoT, rom Tumca-s gamoyenebas magramis mniSvnelobiT, romelmac aseTi farTo gavrceleba pova
Tanamedrove (gansakuTrebiT bolo periodis) qarTulSi (ara
mxolod
mediaSi,
aramed
gamorCeul
qarTvel
mweralTa
TxzulebebSic), mTlad axal movlenad ver CavTvliT, ramdenadac
igi iSviaTad, magram mainc dasturdeba bevrad ufro adrindel
teqstebSi: mesma saqme saSineli, Tuca Tavi ver wavage (rusTaveli
1957, 567,4); [guriaSi] gadasaxads aravin krefs, ar aris aqcizi,
mTavrobis sasamarTloebi... Tumca aris gaugebaris xalxis gayvlefa gaiZveraTagan, _ werda niko mari 1905 wels [41(845)32]...
zemoTqmulidan gamomdinare, vfiqrobT, rom Tumca kavSirma
SeiZina kidev erTi funqcia _ maerTebel-mapirispireblisac. ase
rom, Tu Zvel qarTulSi pirobiTi kavSiris mniSvnelobiT gvxvdeba
Tu-c da Tumca-c, saSualsa da axal qarTulSi Tumca ZiriTadad
daTmobiTi kavSiria, Tanamedrove qarTulSi igi aqtiurad gamoiyeneba maerTebeli magram kavSiris mniSvnelobiTac rogorc Serwymul, aseve Tanwyobil winadadebaSi. miuxedavad imisa, rom Cvens
cnobierebaSi Rrmadaa fesvgadgmuli Tumca-s, rogorc daTmobiTi
(anu hipotaqsuri) kavSiris mniSvneloba (rac ganapirobebs Cvens
skeptikur-uaryofiT damokidebulebas amgvari tipis garkveul konstruqciaTa mimarT), aRniSnuli tendencia Seuqcevadi Cans: realurad Tumca erT SemTxvevaSi maqvemdebarebeli kavSiria, meore
SemTxvevaSi _ maerTebeli (magram-is mniSvnelobisa). am TvalsazrisiT SeiZleba paralelic gaivlos Tu kavSirTan, romelic, konteqstis gaTvaliswinebiT, xan pirobiTi (da, e.i. maqvemdebarebeli)
kavSiria (Tu ar momklav, ar movkvdebi: rusTaveli 1957, 240,2), xanac

134

l. geguCaZe

_ maerTebeli (... kaci Tu dedakaci, didi Tu patara TavgamodebiT


muSaobda: vaJa 1939, 430), anu da kavSiris mniSvnelobisa.

literatura
kvaWaZe 1977 _ l. kvaWaZe, Tanamedrove qarTuli enis sintaqsi.
Tbilisi.
ZiZiguri 1969 _ S. ZiZiguri, kavSirebi qarTul enaSi. Tbilisi.
sailustracio masala
besiki 1980 _ besik gabaSvili (besiki). qarTuli klasikuri
poeziis anTologia. Tbilisi.
bibiluri 1978 _ T. bibiluri, Jami kiTxulisa. Civili.
Tbilisi.
gza 2001 _ Jurn. `gza~, #21. Tbilisi.
vaJa 1939 _ vaJa-fSavela, Txzulebani. t. VI. Tbilisi.
vaxtang 1980 _ vaxtang VI. qarTuli klasikuri poeziis
anTologia. Tbilisi.
iaSvili 1975 _ paolo iaSvili, poezia, proza, werilebi,
Targmanebi. Tbilisi.
ilia 1985 _ ilia WavWavaZe, rCeuli nawarmoebebi xuT tomad.
t. II. Tbilisi.
orbeliani 1980 _ grigol orbeliani. qarTuli klasikuri
poeziis anTologia. Tbilisi.
palitra 2010 _ gaz. `kviris palitra~, # 1 (805) _ 43 (847).
Tbilisi.
rusTaveli 1957 _ SoTa rusTaveli, vefxistyaosani. Tbilisi.
simf. 1986 - i. imnaiSvili, qarTuli oTxTavis simfonialeqsikoni. Tbilisi.
fanjikiZe 1986 _ guram fanjikiZe, rCeuli Txzulebani sam
tomad. t. I. moTxrobebi, romanebi. Tbilisi.
farmacevti 2010 _ Jurn. `farmacevti praqtikosi~, #5-6.
Tbilisi.
`SuSan~. 1987 _ iakob xucesi, `SuSanikis wameba~. qarTuli
mwerloba. t. I. Tbilisi.
Ciqovani 1980 _ simon Ciqovani. qarTuli klasikuri poeziis
anTologia. Tbilisi.
Coxeli
2001
_
goderZi
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jandieri 2010 _ kote jandieri, globalizacia. moTxrobebi.
Tbilisi.

kavkasiologiuri Ziebani CAUCASIOLOGIC PAPERS


II

2010

. ()
,,tumc

tumca
. , (
):
( 1969, 119). .: tumc me
micodet, mamaimca emi icodet (. 1986, 236) - ,
; nu iI q opin emda, tumca veziare sakmeta da codvata varskenisata

(. 1987, 227) - ,
; kacsa merti ar gas c iravs, tumca kaci eigebda ( 1957,

1362, 4) - , ...
tu, , mca: da tu mravali t anvai

moa c io em zeda, me ara veziaro sakmeta enta (. 1987, 228) -

, ;
tu m k vdari mnaxos, dammarxos ( 1957, 852,3) -

, .
tumca
. ,
- . (),
( 1969, 120): tuca en dagtmo, vina
vh p ovo ( 1980, 102) - , ; tumcaa

gcode, vi q o emcode ( , 105) - ,

.
, tuca/tumca
, : madli hkadra

136

pxizelurad, tuca i q o vinosmuli ( 1957, 1559, 4) -

, ; en ver gicnobdi, tuca mixmobdi ( 1980,


71) - , ; esret mvenier baget zedan ielvebs imi,
tumcaa guli uzomosa hparavs sim c ares ( 1980, 131)

, ;

p etrem

tumca

q urebi ackvi t a..., magram ors i q o da vera gaigo ra ( 1985, 212)

, ... .. (
. , ,

(. 128).
tumca
(tumca omis mizani mvidobaa, is mainc udavo boro t ebaa ( 2010, 22(826)5

, - ),
(mat c in... gamxdari, dabali t anis k aci idga, tumca sigamxdre da

sidable siiavis tabe c dilebas ar tovebda ( 2001, 220)

,
).

(tu/tuca/tumca):
,
( 1977, 386). : ) tu egcode, en eminde ( 1980, 563)
, ) tumca egcode, eminde
, .
()
:
; () ,
, ( )
, .
tumca, ,
, :
, ; .
: ,
( 1969, 129-130).

tumc

137


tumca,
,
tumca magram (, ).
: zapxulobit indoeti musonuri c vimebis sezoni i c

q eba, tumca

c elia sezonis dadgoma sistematurad gviandeba (27(831)27.

(=magram) vidi

)
,
; 1813 cels [mamelu k ebis] ricxvi 250-mde gaizarda,

tumc (=magram)

q vela mamelu k i aar i q o amosavletis vili (22(826)30)

1813 [] 250,

q da ar hkonla, tavpurceli... aavebuli anda, tumca (=magram)

; c igns

masze latinuri c ar c era mainc m k apiod i k itxeboda ( 2010, 25)

, ... ,
; babua c veras potlebi alian

m c area, tumca (=magram) misi mo q varulebi am sim c ares mcenaris irsebad

miineven ( 2010, 21) ,


.
tumca, magram, ,
. ,
, ,
, .

magram, magram, ,

: me si t

q va ar mitkvams, magram is grnobda, rogor mivdevdit (

1978, 64) , , ; ar
xmaurobda, magram zriali imis c iai mainc ismoda ( 1975, 209)

, ; me k are c in gamovarda, magram

otarma gverdi auara da burti badei gaaxvia ( 1986, 138)


, ..

138

,
, :
1. tumca
magram,
: me si t


mitkvams/tumca me si t

q va ar

q va ar mitkvams, magram is grnobda, rogor mivdevdit

/ , ,
: / , ;
me k are c in gamovarda/tumca me k are c in gamovarda, magram otarma gverdi

auara da burti badei gaaxvia /


, ... ,
.
2. tumca, magram,

,
, tumca
: tumca zapxulobit indoeti musonuri c vimetis sezoni i c

q eba, vidi

c elia sezonis dadgoma sistematurad gviandeba -

, 7
; tumca 1813 cels [mamelu k ebis] ricxvi 250-mde gaizarda,

q vela

mamelu k i aar i q o amosavletis vili 1813 []

250, ; tumca c igns

q da ar hkonla,

tavpurceli... aavebuli anda, masze latinuri c arcera mainc m k apiod i k itxeboda

, ... ,
; tumca babua c veras potlebi alian

m c area, misi mo q varulebi am sim c ares mcenaris irsebad miineven

,
.
,
,

-
,

tumc

139

( ) ;
, :
tumca,

), tumca ,
(
), tumca
magram. .:

p erevidan

rusi o k u p an t ebis gasvla c aadgeba adgilobriv

mosaxleobas, tumca ver gada c ris sakartvelos na c ilobrivi o k u p aciis

p roblemas

(42(846)9)
, //
.
: 1.
, []
(
2.
, ()
.
mprinavebma k a t a p ul t ireba scades, tumca gvian i q o (28(832)39 1.

, / ; 2.
, .
, ,
, tumca
magram, , ,
() tumca.
, tumca
magram,
:
magram ( , )
tumca: zemdgomta reakcia i q o mapri, tumca (=magram) mosalodneli (25(829)22)

, ; mere bolnici gamonda veleburad xvavrieli da mosavliani, tumca (=magram) ierecvlilic (27(831)19)
- ,
; icit, rogori gogo i q o? saocrad lamazi, lieri, tumca (=magram)

140

alze sevdiani (22(826)11) , ? ,


, ...
,

), tumca,
:

p o p ovima

p irvari gadai c era, tumca mivxvdi ( : magram mivxvdi), rom

msaxiobobda (40(844)10) , (
: ), ; ems gurulebs ori u k iduresoba akvt an

u q vart, an ara, tumca ( : magram) siulvili namdvilad ar euliat

(38(842)2) , , (
: ) . :
amili xa t btan dara, tumca gvitxra ( : magram gvitxra), rom gegmebs

uaxloes xani gagvagebinebs (27(831)10) ,


( ), ; vam p iri disit

veulebrivi adamianis msgavsad cxovrobs, tumca amit ( : magram


amit) misi energe t ikuli resursebi

p i k s a c evs (42(846)39)

, (/ )
... :
ga t acebuli i q o xuti kartveli, tumca(?) mati gatavisupleba guin moxerxda ()

, (?)
;

p roblemebia gadasa c reli, tumca(?) amas s c irdeba dro ()

, (?) ...

, : tumca
( )
magram. tumca magram

, tumca
martalia, tumca magram: martalia

tumc

sab c ota

141

p eriodi amxanagma titkmis gandevna ba t oni, tumca (=magram)

sab c ota k aviris dalisa da sakartvelos damou k ideblobis adgenis emdeg si t

q va-

porma batonma daibruna ilias mier mini c ebuli seman t ika da igi

p a t ivsacemi

adamianisadmi mimartvis pormad ikca (6(810)20)


() (),

() , .,
.
, tumca
magram,
( ) ( ,

),

, , -
. .: mesma sakme saineli, tumca tavi ver c avage

( 1957, 567, 4) - ,
; [guriai] gadasaxads aravin k reps, ar aris akcizi, mtavrobis sasamartloebi...

tumca aris gaugebaris xalxis ga q vlepa gaiveratagan - c erda ni k o mari 1905 c els

(41(845)32) [ ] , ,
, (=) , - . 1905
...
... , tumca
-. ,
tu, tuca/tumca
(), tumca
(),
magram (, )
, . ,
tumca
(.. ) (
- ),
: tumca
, - ( magram).
tu, ,

142

, (=), .. (tu ar mom k lav,

ar mov k vdebi: 1957, 240, 2 , ),

, da= (... k aci tu deda k aci,

didi tu

p a t arX a tavgamodebit muaobda ( 1939, 430)

, ).

1969: . , . ,
1969 ( . .).
1977: . , .
, 1977 ( . .).

1980 . (),
. , ( . .).
1978 . , . ( . .).
1939 -, , . 6. ( . .).
1980 VI. .
( . .).
2001 . , 21. ( . .).
2010 . , , . (
. .).
1975 . , , , , .
( . .).
1985 . , . .II. (
. .).
1980 .
. ( . .).
2010 . ( ), 1 (805) 43
(847). , 2010 ( . .).

tumc

143

1986 . , . . I.
( . .).
1957 , . (
. .).
. 1986 . , -
. ( . .).
2010 . -, 5-6. , 2010 (
. .).
1980 . ,
. ( . .).
2001 . , . ( . .).
. 1987 , . .
. . I. ( . .).

L. Geguchadze (Tbilisi)
On Complex Constructions with Conjunction tumca in Georgian

Summary
The conjunction tumca has been employed in literary Georgian on all the three
stages of its development. In earlier texts of Old and Middle Georgian tumca had the
meaning of the conjunction tu (if). From the Middle Georgian period on tumca has
firmly established itself in the hypothetical construction of concession (the subordinate
concessive clause logically excludes what is stated in the main clause: tumca maisi
dadga, magram mats bai m c vane balaxi ar anda - Though may had set in, there

was no green grass to be seen in their garden.


In Modern Georgian tumca construction are often used to establish relations other that concession - tumca carries the meaning of the coordinator magram: zemdgomta
reakcia i q o mapri, tumca (=magram) mosalodneli - The reaction of the authority

was harsh, but not unexpected; zapxulobit indoeti musonuri c vimetis sezoni

144

ic

q eba, tumca (=magram) vidi c elia sezonis dadgoma sistematurad gviandeba - In

summer the season of monsoon rains begins in India, however for the last seven years
the begining of the season has been systematically delayed.
These constructions are fairly common in Modern Georgian (and have become
increasingly frequent of late) which testifies that tumca has developed a new meening that of the coordinating conjunction magram: it (tumca) is extensively used to ling
homogenious part of the sentence as well as the clauses of the compound sentence.
Thus, on the one hand tumca today functions as a subordinating conjunction
(tumca omis mizani mvidobaa, magram is mainc udavo boro t ebaa - Though the aim

of war is peace, but it is definitely an evil), on the other - as a coordinator ( c ignis tav

purceli aavebuli i q o, tumca (=magram) masze latinuri c arcera m k apiod i k itxe

boda - The title page of the book had turned lack, however the Latin inscription on it
was clearly readable). With regard to this point a parallel can be drawn with the conjunction tu, which in Georgian (depending on the context) is sometimes used as a subordinator in a conditional clause (tu ar eeb, verapers i p ovi - If one does not seek, one

finds noting) and sometimes as a coordinator ( q vela ik i q o: didi tu

k aci - Everyone was there: the old and the young, women and men).

p a t ara, kali tu

kavkasiologiuri Ziebani CAUCASIOLOGIC PAPERS


II

2010

r. gersamia, m. lomia (Tbilisi)


tabu qarTul eTnokulturaSi gvelis eTnolingvisturi
analizis safuZvelze

preambula
akrZalvis fenomeni universaluria. igi metnaklebad yvela enis
kulturaSi

SeiZleba

gansxvavebuli.

aisaxos,

akrZalva

Tumca

cnobilia

realizaciis
polineziuri

gzebi

aris

warmoSobis

terminiT tabu, mas aqvs ori urTierTgamomricxavi mniSvneloba: 1.


wminda; 2. binZuri (The Wordsworts Consine English Dictionary 1994)
(daraselia 2001, 20). tabu moicavs verbaluri da araverbaluri qcevis
tips, igi Cndeba maSin, roca raRacis warmoTqma da qmedeba sociumis
warmodgeniT arasasurvel Sedegs moitans.
tabus, rogorc verbaluri fenomenis ganxilvas, uSualod
ukavSirdeba enobrivi niSnis, kerZod, aRsaniSnisa da aRmniSvnelis
mimarTebis sakiTxi, rasac gulisxmobs mniSvneloba. mniSvnelobas
emateba subieqturi faqtori, subieqtis damokidebuleba, erTi mxriv,
aRsaniSnTan da, meore mxriv, aRmniSvnelTanac, garkveuli fsiqikuri
xatis, warmodgenis Tu STabeWdilebis Seqmnis Semdgom, vinaidan
grZnoba,

romelsac

iwvevs

garkveuli

bgeriTi

struqturiT,

fonemaTmimdevrobiT gansazRvruli leqsema da am leqsemis warmoTqma,


mibmulia Tavad aRsaniSnTan, faqtTan, movlenasTan, warmodgenasTan
SegrZnebebis metad rTul struqturasTan.
aqedan gamomdinare, tabu es aris aRmniSvnelis, aRsaniSnisa da
daZaxebis, dasaxelebis qmedebis funqciuri mTlianoba, rac asaxvas
povebs enaTa leqsikur sistemaSi (daraselia 2001, 22).
tabus, rogorc verbaluri movlenis, gageba, dakavSirebulia
enis (Tu metyvelebis) magiur funqciasTan, kerZod, enobrivi
saSualebebiT
garesamyaroze
raime
zemoqmedebis
moxdenis
warmodgenasTan (Frazer 1993), sociumis warmodgenaSi sityvas aqvs
sakuTri Zala, is aris movlenaTa gamomwvevi mizezi (Hughes 1992).

146

r. gersamia, m. lomia

enobrivi tabus daZlevis gzad miiCneva misi Canacvleba evfemiuri


leqsikiT.
1. vaSiners
tabuirebis faqts rom sakmaod Rrma fesvebi hqonia qarTul
cnobierebaSi, amaze kargad metyvelebs qarTveluri enebis masala da
konkretulad is leqsikuri erTeulic, romelic polineziuri tabus
ekvivalentad mxolod megrulSi SemorCenila1. vaSiners, leqsikonTa
mixedviT aris is, rac ar SeiZleba; risi xsenebac dauSvebelia
(qajaia 2009, 236). maSasadame, vaSiners ara mxolod qmedebis, aramed
saxelis xsenebis (warmoTqmis, gaxmovanebis, gaJRerebis) akrZalvacaa.
megruli leqsemis semantika metad gamWvirvalea, struqturul
analizs ki axlavs garkveuli winaaRmdegobebi:
vaSiners leqsemis morfologiur segmentacias aseTi saxe aqvs:
vaSin+ers

absoluturi

(erTpiriani)

zmnuri

formaa,

romlis

glosirebuli Canaweria: NPTC xseneba + PRTC S3.SG, sadac vauaryofiTi nawilakia, Sin- qarTul xseneba zmnasTan dakavSirebuli
fuZe, -er mimReobis mawarmoebeli sufiqsi, -s S3 piris morfema. amgvari
segmentaciisas winaaRmdegobrivia is, rom mimReobisa da zmnis piris
gamomxatveli morfemebi erTad iyrian Tavs. problema moixsneba, Tuki
sinqroniisa da diaqroniis moSveliebiT gavmijnavT fuZeebs da
amosavlad erT SemTxvevaSi aviRebT Sin- Zirs (Sin-el-i - Tanamedrove
megrulSic metad produqtiuli warmoebaa), xolo meore SemTxvevaSi
mimReobur Siner- fuZes, romelic CvenTvis saintereso leqsemis

ansxvavebuli TavlsazrisisaTvis ix. Cuxua 2000-2003, 305: mkvlevari megrul Sin-erfuZeSi dacul Sin- Zirs svanuri Sid- formis leqsikur-fonetikur Sesatyvisad miiCnevs.
svanuri leqsemis mniSvnelobaa nebadarTulia, Sesawynarebeli, SeiZleba, religiuri
eTikiT dasaSvebia (made Sid ar SeiZleba). megruli da svanuri formis semantikur
dakavSirebas araferi ewinaaRmdegeba. orive enaSi saanalizo forma daSvebis
semantikas moicavs da mas akrZalvis mniSvnelobas mxolod uaryofis nawilakebi
aniWebs (megr. va-, svan. made). rac Seexeba lazuris Sen-er-i (< Sin-er-i) formasTan
Sesabamisobas: zmnuri Ziris semantika Tavisufals ukavSirdeba, rac SeiZleba
semantikuri gadaweviT aixsnas lazurSive, xolo amosavali fuZis semantika, megrulis
msgavsad, Sin- xsenebis aRmniSvnel fuZes daukavSirdes. lazuri formis amosavalSi
xsenebis aRmniSvneli fuZis daSvebas amyarebs kidev erTi argumenti (moxsenebis dros
aRniSnulze yuradReba migvaqcevina n. quTeliam): lazurSi mimarTvis saalerso
formaSi SurimSine / SurimSina (Marr1910, 207-208: pomni moh duwu) sulis (laz. Sur-:
Marr 1910, 207-208) semantikasTan erTad etimologiurad amosavalia swored xseneba
(laz. Sin-). n. quTelias zepiri informaciiT, qarTuli Semogevle, genacvale Targmani
zedmiwevniT ver asaxavs lazuri formis semantikas.

147

tabu qarTul eTnokulturaSi gvelis eTnolingvisturi analizis . . .

farglebSi warmodgenilia rogorc gaqvavebuli, dauSleli fuZe.


amgvari

daSvebiT

moixsneba

is

uxerxuloba,

romelsac

zmnur

struqturaSi mimReoburi afiqsis arseboba qmnis (gersamia 2010).


maSasadame, tabuirebis, akrZalvis semantika ukavSirdeba Sin+er(qarT.

xsenebul)

dauSlel

fuZes,

etimologiurad

mimReobas,

romelic TavisTavSi diaqroniul analizs gulisxmobs:


etimologiuri segmentireba
sinqroniuli segmentireba
vaSin-ers

vaSin+ers

NPTC xseneb- PRTC S3.SG

NPTC[xseneb-+ul-]S3.SG.

Sdr:
vaSin-ans
NPTC

PRTC

xseneb-

S3.SG.

aRniSnuli zmnuri forma unawilakodac ixmareba; Siners va Siners dasaSveboba _ akrZalvis gamomxatveli terminebia megrulSi.
vaSiners

- absoluturi mimarTebis zmnuri formaa da mis

Taviseburebad unda CiTvalos, rom


1. mas ara aqvs pirveli da meore piris formebi;
2. aqvs relatiuri mimarTebis qcevisniSniani formebi, rogorc
pirdapiri, ise inversiuli wyobiT;
3. Siner- fuZian relatiur zmnaTa uRlebis paradigmis analizi
cxadyofs, rom samsave wyobaSi _ subieqturs, obieqtursa da
inversiulSi zmnuri formebi gansxvavebulia mxolod pirvelsa da
meore pirSi, xolo mesame pirSi xdeba formis unificireba, Tumca
amgvari formebi aqtanturad gansxvavebulia, gansxvavebulia pirTa
mimarTebebic.
dRes
tabus
mniSvnelobiT
damkvidrebuli
vaSiners
monopersonaluri zmnisaTvis amosavalia polipersonaluri zmnuri
forma [(vavuSinerq me mas,, vauSinerq Sen mas; vamSinerq Sen me,
vagiSinerq me Sen; vamSiners is me, vaiSiners Sen is)], romelmac droTa
ganmavlobaSi dakarga obieqtis (obieqturi piris nacvalsaxelis)
Sewyobis unari, ris Semdegac iqca erTpirianad. vaSiners formaSi
qcevis niSani

araa

warmodgenili,

amdenad

raime kuTvnilebiT-

daniSnulebiTi mimarTebis gansazRvrac SeuZlebelia, dakargulia


qcevis

gageba,

rasac

ganzogadebisaTvis.

xeli

unda

Seewyo

misi

semantikuri

148

r. gersamia, m. lomia

vaSiners - rogorc tabus semantikurad ekvivalenturi terminis


arseboba megrulSi ukve mianiSnebs tabus fenomenis siZveleze
qarTvelur enebSi, zogadqarTul kulturaSi (gersamia 2010).
2.
leqsema gvelis analizi
Cveni mizania tabus sakiTxebis garkveva qarTul eTnokulturaSi
akrZalvis

konkretuli

fenomenis

gvelis

magaliTze.

gveli

qarTuli cnobierebisTvis akrZalvis kerZo gamovlenaa, igi, erTi


mxriv, veragi mtris saxe-simboloa, meore mxriv ki, masTan jadosnoba,
misnoba, sibrZne, mfarveloba asocirdeba.
marTalia,

gansaxilvelad

warmodgenili

sakiTxi

sakmaod

vrceli da mravalmxrivia, igi moicavs lingvistur, kulturologiur,


folklorul, miTologiur aspeqtebs, magram amjerad Cveni mizania
kvlevis

warmarTva

mxolod

lingvisturi

mimarTulebiT,

lingvisturi analizi leqsemisa gveli; gvelTan dakavSirebuli


leqsikologiur-semantikuri

mimarTebebis

dadgena

qarTveluri

enebis - qarTulis, svanuris, megrulisa da lazuris tipologiuri analizis safuZvelze.


absoluturad neitraluri gveli

masalis

qarTvelur enebSi gvxvdeba

pirdapiri da gadataniTi mniSvnelobiT: 1. gveli - roca ganmarteba


zoologiuri tipisaa, 2. gveli - metaforuli saxe boroti, gaiZvera
adamianisa (ix. qajaia 2001, 321).
qarTvelur enaTa etimologiuri leqsikonis mixedviT: qarTuli
guel- fuZis kanonzomieri fonologiuri Sesatyvisebi vlindeba
megrulSi gver- / ngver- monacvle da lazurSi gver- / mgver- fuZeTa
saxiT. megrulsa da lazurSi fuZis anlautSi ganviTarebulia
nazaluri m da n, paraleluri variantebi maT gareSe gvxvdeba. svanuri
fonologiuri ekvivalenti (Ziri) gamovlenili ar aris, svanuri hij /
ij (gveli) Ziris qarTul ZirTan dakavSireba (Tofuria, Ciqobava,
Smidti, klimovi), h. fenrixisa da z. sarjvelaZis azriT, fonetikuri
xasiaTis dabrkolebaTa gamo damajereblad ver CiTvleba (fenrixi,
sarjvelaZe 2000, 143).
j || vij gveli svanuris balszemouri kiloa (Tofuria,
qaldani 2000, 440), romelsac amave dialeqtSi moepoveba sinonimuri
herwm (Tofuria, qaldani 2000, 896), xolo balsqvemourSi herwem
leqsemis mniSvneloba daviwrovebulia da igi mxolod qarTuli
Zlokvi-s mniSvnelobiT

ixmareba

(Tofuria,

qaldani

2000, 744).

sagulisxmoa, rom rogorc ij || vij, aseve herwm / herwem gveli,


semantikurad

neitraluria.

am

ukanasknelis

saleqsikono

149

tabu qarTul eTnokulturaSi gvelis eTnolingvisturi analizis . . .

ganmartebaSi, pirvelisgan gansxvavebiT, sityva gvelis gverdiT


miwerilia qvewarmavali (Tofuria, qaldani 2000, 896), Tumca igi ar
Seicavs im semantikur niSnebs, rasac qarTuli qvewarmavali. arc
kompozits warmoadgens. informatorTa ganmartebiT isini an erTs
iyenebenen, an meores gvelis aRmniSvnelad
zogadad,

qarTuli

cnobierebisaTvis

gveli

tabuirebuli

leqsemaa, Sesabamisad, siuxvea mis monacvle evfemizmebSi, magram es


unda iTqvas qarTulsa da megrulze. sapirispiro suraTs aCvenebs
svanuri da lazuri masala, sainteresoa da moulodnelic, rom
svanursa da lazurSic ar aRmoCnda gvelis monacvle evfemiuri
leqsika. lazurSi, viwel da arqabel

mxcovan lazebSi Cvenma

gamokiTxvam daadastura erTaderTi evfemiuri forma: xunZe / gunZe /


ginZe, romelic qarTulad grZels niSnavs, saxeldebis motivacia
gamWvirvalea; sagulisxmoa, rom igi upirispirdeba wiwila-s, romelic
respodentTa TqmiT, moklea. amgvar msjelobaSi tabus niSnebi ar Cans.
dRes lazebisTvis wiwila, igive gveli, tabuirebuli ar aris.
Cndeba kiTxva, ramdenad aris tabuirebuli leqsema gvelis
warmoTqma am enebSi, roca megrulSi lamis tabuirebulad iqces amave
semantikis tabuirebuli leqsemis monacvle evfemiuri formebic?
sakiTxi iTxovs damatebiT kvlevas folkloris, miTosis kuTxiT.
aqve

SevniSnavT,

svanurSi

dasturdeba

sityva

urSna

uxsenebeli, romelic modis li-rS-i xseneba formisgan, magram


igi evfemiurad cvlis ara gvels, aramed sxva denotats, kerZod,
cxovels, romelic qarTulSi dedofalas saxelwodebiTaa cnobili.
qarTulSi gvelis aRmniSvneli evfemiuri leqsika: uxsenebeli,
boroti, avi suli, urwmuno, wyeuli, SavCoxiani, mcuravi (neimani 1961,
VLV), usaxelo, qvemZromi, qvewarmavali (bolo ori zogadi klasis
aRsaniSnavad gamoiyeneba, Tumca xSirad swored gvels miemarTeba).
sainteresoa, rom Zveli qarTulic terminTa mravalferovnebiT
gamoirCeva: aspiti, jarbi, qodqoda, savarcxela, vasilisko, iqedne.
Tumca, zogi maTgani (mag., qiziy. aspiti) dialeqtebSi dResac aqtiurad
ixmareba.
megrulSi

gveri

ngveri

(gveli)

erTaderTi

im

tipis

tabuirebuli leqsemaa, romelic monacvle evfemiur formaTa siuxviT


gamoirCeva:

uCa-RarTami

1914,

0146),

gilmasirgole Trevia (kvirtia 2001, 141) an Sesityveba Tudo


gilesargaluni ( 1914, 0146); saxeluSinafu
/ saxeluSinu saxeluxsenebeli, saxelWyeli saxeldawyevlili,

150

r. gersamia, m. lomia

wasagebeli

dasaRupi,

suldakarguli),

dasakargi,

(zedmiwevniT

Surdinafili

usulo,

uSure

Surwauliri

Surwauleri

sulgafuWebuli, sulwawymedili, usaxele / usaxelo usaxelo


(qajaia 2002, 69); urwmuno / urwumo urwmuno, gadataniT gveli
(qajaia 2002, 69): ma eqi joRori byaraulenc, urwmuno do wyeuli (yif.
15610) me iq ZaRli myaraulobs, urwmuno (= gveli) da wyeuli
lazurSi gvelis aRmniSvnel gver- / mgver- fuZe iSviaTad
ixmareba, ufro xSiria wiwila, romelic sxva qarTvelur enebSi
gvelis

naSieris

aRmniSvnelia,

Tumca

arasodes

ar

gvxvdeba

substantiuri msazRvrelis gareSe; Sdr. qarTuli: gvelis wiwila,


megruli: gveriS wiwila, svanuri: iji(S) winwil.

qarTuli

megruli

qvewarmavali

qvemZromi

mcuravi

boroti

avi suli

Surdinafili, uSure,
Surwauliri

urwmuno

urwmuno/urwumo

usaxelo

usaxele /usaxelo

uxsenebeli

saxeluSinu

wyeuli

saxelWyeli

10

qvewarmavali

uCaRarTami

11

SavCoxiani

wasagebeli

gilmasirgole /
Tudo gilesargaluni

qarTulsa da megrulSi warmodgenili evfemizmebis semantika da


struqtura arsebiTad erTgvarovania, Cans sesxebis kvalic, an erTi
tipis enobrivi tendenciebi (motivaciebi) saxeldebis dros, kerZod,
semantikur niSanTa SerCevis procesSi.
cxrilis

analizi

cxadyofs,

rom

megruli

da

qarTuli

arsebiTad erT klasifikacias misdevs. pirvel qveklasSi Semavali (ix.

tabu qarTul eTnokulturaSi gvelis eTnolingvisturi analizis . . .

151

cxrili: 1.2.3.) leqsemebi motivirebulia gvelis garegnuli niSniT,


ufro swored misi gadaadgilebis unaris tipiT. samive neitraluri
leqsemaa qarTulSi, megruli ki uaryofiT konotaciasac Seicavs.
meore (ix. cxrili: 4.5.6.) da mesame (ix. cxrili: 7.8.9.) klasisaTvis
dominanti leqsemaa: suli (megr. Suri) da saxeli.

aRmniSvnelis

amgvari cvla SemTxveviTi ar aris, vinaidan tabu swored, erTi mxriv,


daZaxebas _ saxelis warmoTqmis akrZalvas ukavSirdeba, xolo, meore
mxriv, im rwmena-warmodgenas, romelic qarTvelTa cnobierebaSi
arsebobda da ukavSirdeboda suls, eTnologiuri masalebis eniT,
sulis gamowvevas (T. saxokia, k. gamsaxurdia); vinaidan saxelis
warmoTqma daZaxebis tolfasad aRiqmeboda, radgan saxeli sulieri
arsebis an sagnis arsis, sulis nawilad ganixileboda; amitom,
sociumis warmodgeniT, daZaxeba mxolod zianis momtani SeiZleboda
yofiliyo. amitom, sociumisaTvis fonemaTmimdevroba gveli aris is,
rac unda Seicvalos im mizeziT, rom man raime uaryofiTi gavlena ar
moaxdinos, ar moitanos arasasurveli, vinaidan subieqti ebrZvis im
warmodgenas, rom misTvis saSiSi denotati sulieria, anu saSiSia
manam, sanam suli udgas, cocxalia (gersamia 2009, 35). amgvari
warmodgena arqauli, sinkretuli cnobierebis nakvalevad miiCneva,
msgavsi nakvalevi mravlad moipoveba sxvadasxva enasa da kulturaSi
(daraselia 2001, 23). sagnisa da saxelis ase martivi dakavSireba
sakmaod axlos dgas cnobil fiuseis (platonisa da aristoteles)
TeoriasTan, roca sagans saxeli misi bunebidan gamomdinare erqmeva
(daraselia 2001, 25).
sagulisxmoa, rom axal aRmniSvnels, Cvens SemTxvevaSi gvelis
monacvle evfemiur leqsemebs, ara aqvs Zveli Tvisebebi, vinaidan
evfemizmebma Secvales. icvleba ara mxolod saxeli, aramed am
saxelTan dakavSirebuli mniSvnelobis struqtura, ris Sedegadac is
molaparakis cnobierebaSi axali centrirebuli momentebiTaa
warmodgenili.

es

centrirebuli

momentebi

naklebad

aris

dakavSirebuli im usiamovno grZnobasTan, romelic Tan axlda


uxeiro saxeliT sxvagvari struqturiT warmodgenil mniSvnelobas
da amitom karg saxelad ganicdeba (bainduraSvili 1971, 156).
gvelis

metafora gulisxmobs gaiZvera, eSmak, moxerxebul

adamians, romelsac Tan sibrZne dahyveba. gveli qarTul cnobierebaSi


ukavSirdeba borots, magram brZens, romelsac sikeTis qmnac SeuZlia.
gvelad visime miCnevaSi, marTalia, uaryofiTi grZnoba meordeba,
magram es grZnoba gvelis rogorc cxovelis Tvisebas ar ukavSirdeba:

152

r. gersamia, m. lomia

gvels _ cxovels sicbieres amJamad ar miaweren xolme (foCxua 1974,


169). gvelis dadebiT konceftad unda ganvixiloT is, rom qarTvelebi
mas saxlis, ezos perimetrze ar klaven da moixsenieben sintagmebiT
saxlis angelozi || fuZis angelozi || ojaxis angelozi. qarTvelTa
cnobierebaSi gvelis angelozTan Sedareba da misi mfarvelad aRqma
sibrZnisa da borotebis kveTaa. sikeTis mqmneli gveli qarTuli
eTnokulturisTvis,

folklorisTvis

Cveulebrivia.

qarTvelur

enebze Seqmnil zRaprebSi gvels natvrisTvali abaria da igi,


Sesabamisad, mfarvelia, mcvelia am saganZurisa.
3. daskvna
1. tabus ganmarteba, rogorc es dasawyisSia aRniSnuli,
TavisTavSi erTdroulad moicavs antonimur mniSvnelobas _ wmindasa
da binZurs, igi qarTul eTnokulturaSic am saxiT vlindeba da
lingvistur donezec saTanadod realizebulia: gvelis, rogorc
borotis, avis arss upirispirdeba gvelis, rogorc mfarvelis,
mcvelis, angelozis arsi, rac sociumis cnobierebaSi, udavod, mis
sibrZnes,

Wkuas,

ukavSirdeba.

Tumca

dRevandel

realobaSi

aqcentirebulia uaryofiTi konotacia.


2.
qarTvelur enebSi gvelTan dakavSirebul sakiTxTa kvleva
cxadyofs,

rom

yvela

qarTvelur

enaSi

tabuirebis

erTnairi

tendencia ar Cans: kerZod, maSin, roca qarTulsa da megrulSi


evfemiur leqsemaTa simravle cxads xdis Tavad saSiSad aRqmuli
denotatis

warmoTqmis

akrZalvas,

svanursa

da

lazurSi

gansxvavebuli viTarebaa, Tumca ver vityviT _ msgavsi mizezebi


gansxvavebuli SeiZleba iyos.

svanurSi, sociumis cnobierebaSi

arsebobs akrZalvis fenomeni, Tumca enobrivad ar aris realizebuli,


vgulisxmobT

evfemizmebis

gamokiTxviT,

igi

ar

ararsebobas.

aris

akrZaluli,

xolo

lazurSi,

gansakuTrebiT,

Cveni
axali

TaobisTvis.

literatura:
bainduraSvili

1971

a.

bainduraSvili,

saxeldebis

eqsperimentuli fsiqologia. Tb., 1971.


gersamia 2009 - r. gersamia, tabus verbaluri gamoxatvisaTvis
megrulSi. kr. sergi jiqia - 110. Tb., 2009.

tabu qarTul eTnokulturaSi gvelis eTnolingvisturi analizis . . .

153

gersamia 2010 _ r. gersamia, megruli vaSiners (struqturulsemantikuri analizi). enaTmecnierebis sakiTxebi. Tb., 2010.
daraselia 2001 _ n. daraselia, tabu da sinkretuli cnobiereba.
saenaTmecniero Ziebani,

XI. Tb., 2001.

dondua 2001 _ k. dondua, svanur-qarTul-rusuli leqsikoni.


Tb., 2001.
Tofuria, qaldani 2000 _ v. Tofuria, m. qaldani, svanuri
leqsikoni. Tb., 2000.
kvirtia 2001 _ m. kvirtia, werilebis krebuli. Tb., 2001.
neimani 1961 _ a. neimani, qarTul sinonimTa leqsikoni. Tb., 1961.
foCxua 1974 - b. foCxua, qarTuli enis leqsikologia. Tb., 1974.
fenrixi,

sarjvelaZe

2000

h.

fenrixi,

z.

sarjvelaZe,

qarTvelur enaTa etimologiuri leqsikoni. Tb., 2000.


qajaia 2001 _ o. qajaia, megrul-qarTuli leqsikoni. t. I. Tb.,
2001.
qajaia 2002 _ o. qajaia, megrul-qarTuli leqsikoni. t. III.
Tb., 2002.
qajaia 2009 _ o. qajaia, megrul-qarTuli leqsikoni. t. IV.
Tb., 2009.
Cuxua 2000-2003 _ m. Cuxua, qarTvelur ena-kiloTa SedarebiTi
leqsikoni. Tb., 2000-2003.
., () . .-., 1910.
., () a
. .-., 1914.
The Wordsworts Consine English Dictionary. 1994.
Hughes 1992 _ G. Hughes, Swearing. A social History of Foul Language,
Oaths and Profanity in english. Blackwell, 1992.
Frazer 1993 _ J. Frazer, The Golden, Bough, Wordsworth Reference, 1993.

kavkasiologiuri Ziebani CAUCASIOLOGIC PAPERS


II

2010

. , . ()

gveli ()
.
. -
, .
,
: 1. ; 2. () (The Wordsworts Consine English
Dictionary 1994). ,
,
( 2001, 20).
, ,
, ,
. ,
, , .. , ,
. , ,
,
, , , ,
.
,
,
( 2001, 22).
, , (
) , , -
(Frazer 1993).
, ,
(Hughes 1992).
.
vainers

. ,
,
. , , , ,

155

( 2009, 236). , vainers


, , , , .
,
:
: va-in+er-s ()
, NPTC + PRTC S3. SG,
va- , in - ,
, -er , , -s S3 .
, ,
, . ,
,
, in- (in-el-i
), iner- ,
,
. ,
.
, ,
in+er- ( xsenebul-), :
:
va-in-er-s
NPTC mention-PRTC S3.SG
:
va-in-an-s
NPTC

:
va-in+er-s
NPTC[mention-+ul-S3.SG.

mention-

PRTC

S3.SG.

; iners vainers - , .
vainers - , , ,
, :
1. ;
2. , ,
;
3. iner- ,
,
, ,
, ,
.

156

. , .

vainers,
,
(vainerk
( ), .
vainers (
), - , ,
.
vainers ,
,
, .
1. gveli .

.
.
, ,
, , , .
,
. , ,
,
, , -
, , ,
, .

: 1. -
; 2. - , (
2000, 321).
,
guel-
gver- / ngver- gver- / mgver-.
m n,
. ()
, hiw/wi ()
(, , , ),
, -
(, 2000, 143).
wi || vi - ,
herm / herem ,
vi . , wi || vi
herm / herem (), .

157


. .
.
, ,
, ,
.
,
,
, . ,
,
: xune|gune|gine, ,
; , iila,
, , .
. iila, .. gveli
.
,
.

.
, urwna .
uxsenebeli ( , ), li-rwn-i
, ,
, , .
,
: uxsenebli ( ), , , ,
, avoxiani ( ), mcuravi () ( 1961),
usaxelo ( ), kvemromi, kvearmavali (), -
,
.
, : asidi,
arbi, kodkoda, savarcxela, vasilisko, ikedne. gveri / ngveri ()
,
: ua-artami ( ) ( 1914,
0146), gilmasirgole ( 2001, 141) tudo gilesargaluni
( ) ( 1914, 0146); saxeluinapu / saxeluinu
, saxeleli , asagebeli ,
, urdinapili , uure , urauliri /
urauleri , usaxele /usaxelo , urmuno /
urumo , ( 2001, 69): ma eki
oori baraulenc, urmuno do euli ( 1914, 15610)
, (=) .

158

. , .


kvearmavali
1
2

kvemromi

mcuravi


gilmasirgole / tudo gilesargaluni

boroi
5

avi suli

urdinapili, uure, urauliri

urmuno

urmuno / urumo

usaxelo

usaxele / usaxelo

uxsenebeli

saxeluinu

euli

Saxeleli

10

avoxiani

uaartami

11

asagebeli

gver-/mgveri ,
iila, ,
; gvelis iila,
- gveri iila, - wii() inil.

, ,
() , ,
.
,
. ,
(1.2.3.) , .
,
. (4.5.6.) (7.8.9.)
: suli ( uri ) saxeli.
, , ,
-, ,
-,
, , (. ,
. ), , -

159

, .
.
gveli ,
, ,
,
, , ,
, . ,
,
( 2001, 23).
( ),
( 2001, 25).
, ,
, gveli, ,
, , ,

.
, uxeiro
,
( 1971, 156).
gveli , ,
. , ,
. - ,
, :
, , , ( 1974,
169). ,
, : saxlis angelozi
( ) || puis angelozi ( ) || oaxis angelozi ( ).

. , ,
, . ,
, , , ,
.
4. : 1. , ,
,

: , ,
, , ,
, .

.
2. , ,
,
. , ,

160

. , .


,
, , .
.
, ,
. , , ,
.

1971 . ,
. .
2009 :
110. .
2010 vainers (-
). . .
2001 .
. XI. .
2001 . , -- . .
, 2000 . , . ,
. .
2001 . , kvimati ( ). .
1961 . , . .
1974 . , . .
, 2000 . , . ,
. .
2001 . , - . . I.
.
2002 . , - . II. .
2009 - . , - . IV. .
2000-2003 . ,
. .
1910 . , () . ..
1914 . , ()
a . .-.
The Wordsworts Consine English Dictionary, 1994.
Hughes 1992 _ G. Hughes, Swearing. A social History of Foul Language, Oaths
and Profanity in english. Blackwell.
Frazer 1993 _ J. Frazer, The Golden, Bough, Wordsworth Reference.

161

R. Gersamia, M. Lomia (Tbilisi)


An Ethno-Linguistic Analysis of gveli snake: an Example of Taboo in
Georgian Ethno-Culture
Summary
A word has an immense power. Peoples of ancient civilizations believed that a
word could both do good and bring harm. The Georgians would also be especially careful with words. Such a perception is valid to the present day as the death and severe
diseases are not referred to directly, while harmful animals are not mentioned at all (I.
Qipshidze).
Taboo is an universal phenomenon. It can be found in any culture, though the
ways in which it can be expressed are different. Tabooing emerges when not doing
something or not saying something may help avoid an undesired result. However, the
tabooed phenomenon is not always unacceptable. On the contrary, it may entail an element of attraction and/or mystery.
In the Georgian perception, one of the examples of taboo is gveli (a snake),
which is a symbol of a treacherous enemy on one hand and of magic, soothsaying and
wisdom, on the other.
The perception of gveli in Georgian ethno-culture was dual and varied at different periods.
Among the Kartvelian languages (Georgian, Svan, Megrelian and Laz), Megrelian preserved a lexical unit denoting prohibition.

kavkasiologiuri Ziebani CAUCASIOLOGIC PAPERS


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2010

r. zeqalaSvili (Tbilisi)
Tavazianoba, rogorc erovnul faseulobaTa sistemis
asaxva da misi enobrivi markerebi qarTulSi
Tanamedrove lingvistikaSi metyveleba ganixileba, rogorc
`mizanmimarTuli socialuri qceva, rogorc komponenti, romelic
monawileobs
adamianTa
urTierTobaSi
da
maTi
Semecnebis
meqanizmebSi (kognitiur procesebSi)~ (1, 137). amitom Seiswavleba
`cxovrebaSi Cafluli~ metyveleba da gansakuTrebuli yuradReba
eqceva komunikaciis monawileTa mentalur procesebs: metyvelebis
warmoSobisa
da
gagebis
eTnografiul,
fsiqologiur,
sociokulturul wesebsa da strategiebs ama Tu im pirobebSi (1,
137).
kulturaTaSorisi komunikaciis aucileblobam ganapiroba
swrafva erovnuli TviTmyofadobis Secnobisaken, risTvisac didi
mniSvneloba
eniWeba sametyvelo qcevis motivaciis kvlevas.
aqtualuri
gaxda
pirovnebaTaSorisi
urTierTobebi
da
Tavazianobis fenomenis Seswavla sxvadasxva enobriv garemoSi.
Tavazianoba,
rogorc
adamianis
socialuri
qcevis
ganuyofeli
nawili,
Seiqmna
adamianTa
Soris
xangrZlivi
socialur-kulturuli urTierTobebis manZilze. is dafuZnebulia
istoriul
gamocdilebaze,
rwmenasa
da
tradiciebze,
ganpirobebulia
erovnuli
TviTSegnebiT,
samyaros
enobrivi
msoflaRqmiTa da eris ganviTarebis doniT. Tavazianoba erovnuli
kulturis
Semadgeneli
nawilia,
masSi
Serwymulia
zogadsakacobrio da erovnuli Rirebulebebi. eris kulturis
gasagebad
gasaTvaliswinebelia
sametyvelo
etiketis
Taviseburebebi da damokidebuleba Tavazianobis fenomenisadmi.
Tavazianoba
eqstralingvistur
faqtorTa
universaluri
erTobaa, romelic gansazRvravs komunikaciaSi enobriv-araenobrivi
saSualebebis
arCevansa
da
morfosemantikur
kategoriaTa
transsemantizacias.
sametyvelo etiketad iTvleba `urTierTobis myar formulaTa
sistema, romelsac adgens sazogadoeba TanamosaubreTa Soris

Tavazianoba, rogorc erovnul faseulobaTa sistemis asaxva . . .

163

sametyvelo
kontaqtis
dasamyareblad,
SerCeul
tonalobaSi
urTierTobis SesanarCuneblad oficialur da araoficialur
garemoSi socialuri rolebis, erTmaneTis mimarT roluri
poziciebisa da ormxrivi damokidebulebis Sesabamisad. farTo
mniSvnelobiT,
sametyvelo
etiketi,
dakavSirebuli
etiketis
semiotikur da socialur gagebasTan, maregulirebel rols
asrulebs urTierTobis ama Tu im registris arCevisas... viwro
mniSvnelobiT ki sametyvelo etiketi warmoadgens keTilganwyobisa
da Tavaziani urTierTobis erTeulTa funqciur-semantikur vels
sxvadasxva situaciaSi: mimarTva da yuradRebis miqceva, gacnoba,
misalmeba, gamomSvidobeba, bodiSis moxda, madlobis gadaxda,
milocva, survilebis gamoTqma, Txovna, mipatiJeba, rCevis micema,
winadadebis wayeneba, Tanxmobis an uaris gamoxatva, qaTinaurebis
Tqma, TanagrZnoba, Wiris gaziareba da a. S.~ (2, 413).
sametyvelo etikets, rogorc ama Tu im enis verbaluri saSualebebis erTobas, miuxedavad universaluri xasiaTisa, specifikuri erovnuli forma aqvs. Tavazianobis gamomxatvel verbalur da
araverbalur saSualebaTa erToblioba ki qmnis Tavazianobis
romelic
moicavs
sakomunikacio
funqciur-semantikur
vels,
erTeulTa farTo speqtrs.
Tanamedrove enaTmecnierebisaTvis didi mniSvneloba hqonda
Tavazianobis Teoriis Camoyalibebas (j. lakofi, graisi, j. liCi,
brauni da levinsoni) (ix. 3). mis ZiriTad cnebad iqca `saxe~ (4),
rogorc pozitiuri socialuri Rirebulebebis erToblioba anu
socialurad aRiarebuli Tvisebebi. `saxe~ aris urTierTTanxmobis
safuZvelze miRebuli komunikaciuri qcevebis normebi calkeul
enobriv koleqtivSi anu sametyvelo qcevis strategia calkeuli
kulturul-yofiTi situaciisaTvis. saxed SeiZleba miviCnioT
mosaubreTa
Sexedulebebis,
Rirebulebebisa
da
rwmenis
gamoxatuleba (5, 112).
gamoyofen or `saxes~: dadebiTsa da uaryofiTs, Sesabamisad,
arsebobs dadebiTi da uaryofiTi Tavazianoba (anu mosaubre piris
dadebiTi
`saxe~
gamoirCeva
strategiis
sxvadasxva
mizani).
adresatisadmi Zlieri interesiT, komunikantTa saerTo interesebis
gamoyofiT, familarobiT. amas uwodeben Tanamosaubris `CarTvis~
strategiasac.
uaryofiTi `saxis~ niSnebad ki iTvleba: komunikantTa
individualobis gaxazva, pirovnuli Rirebulebebis dayeneba

164

r. zeqalaSvili

jgufurze maRla da oficialuroba. esaa e. w. `damoukideblobis~


strategia.
am Teoriis safuZvelze mecnierebma gamoyves Tavazianobis sami sistema: 1. deferenciuli (pativiscemisa da Tavazianobisa), 2.
solidarobisa da 3. ierarqiuli. rogorc daadgines, maT arCevanze
zemoqmedebas axdens Semdegi faqtorebi: mosaubre piris SedarebiTi
Zalaufleba msmenelze, socialuri distancia komunikantTa Soris
da zemoqmedebis xarisxi (6).
Tu rogor aRiqvamdnen Zvelad qarTvelebi Tavazianobas, sametyvelo qcevis ra normebs icavdnen isini, amis Sesaxeb garkveul
warmodgenas gviqmnis Cveni literaturuli memkvidreoba, folklori, andazebi. Zveli qarTuli literaturis zogierTi cnoba mowmobs qarTul metyvelebaSi socialuri diferenciaciis arsebobas
(ioane sabanisZis, giorgi merCulis, SoTa rusTavelis, sulxan-saba
orbelianis nawarmoebebi, arCil mefis `saqarTvelos zneobani~).
qarTulSi gamoyenebuli sityva `Tavazianoba~ arabulia (Tavazu _ niSnavs yuradRebas, stumarTmoyvareobas). misi sinonimebia:
zrdiloba (zrdis zmnis mimReoba `zrdili~ dakavSirebulia
aRzrda-sTan). zrdilobiani SeiZleba iyos adamianic, qcevac, sityva-pasuxic. zrdiloba, qegl-is mixedviT, `ama Tu im sazogadoebaSi
miRebuli yofa-qcevis wesebis Sesabamisi, ...moridebisa da pativiscemis gamomxatveli qcevaa~ (7, 178).
Tavazianobis RirebulebaTa gamosayofadD ganvixiloT `saxis~
koncepti qarTul TviTSegnebaSi. am sityvis erT-erTi mniSvneloba
_ pirovnebis socialur-eTikuri saxe, adamianis sulier faseulobaTa erToblioba _ exmianeba mis socialur-lingvistur mxares.
`saxe~ qarTulSi mravali pirovnuli Tvisebis saxelwodebis safuZvelia (ix. 8, 88), zogjer mas sityva piric enacvleba (piri gatexa, piri uSala, piri Seinaxa, piri Seircxvina, pirSi Sescicinebs,
pirSi efereba da sxv.). erT-erTi qarTuli andazis mixedviT: `moyvares pirSi uzraxe, mters _ pirs ukanao~.
`saxesTan~ dakavSirebulia ramdenime myari gamoTqma: saxis
dacva (SenarCuneba, gadarCena) _ Sdr. , , das Gesicht wahren (retten); saxis Secvla (dazianeba, rRveva) _ das Gesicht verletzen, axali saxis miReba (axali saxiT warudga) _ sein neues Gesicht bekommen; magram: pirSi miaxala (uTxra) _ etw. ins Gesicht sagen; saxis
dakargva _ sein Gesicht verlieren ; namdvili saxis Cveneba

Tavazianoba, rogorc erovnul faseulobaTa sistemis asaxva . . .

165

_ sein echtes Gesicht zeigen , saxeze niRbis


Camoxsna _ da a. S.
`saxe~ da `saxeli~ xSirad ixmareba sinonimuri mniSvnelobiT.
amitom qarTul enaSi Tavazianobis (anu `saxis~) RirebulebebTan
qarTvelebis damokidebuleba vlindeba `saxelis~ (rogorc didebis, reputaciis, avtoritetis) aRqmaSi.
enobrivi monacemebiTac dasturdeba, rom qarTvelisaTvis saxeli ufro fasobda, vidre warmomavloba, didgvarovneba da qoneba:
`saxeli sjobs qonebasa da ufleba _ gonebasa~; `saWmeli erTi
dRisao, saxeli _ asi wlisao~. myar SesityvebebSic naTelia es
msgavseba: saxeli daimkvidra, saxeli datova, saxeli gaiTqva (<
saxelganTqmuli), saxels eZebs, saxeli moixveWa (< saxelmoxveWili): `sjobs saxelisa moxveWa yovelsa mosaxveWelsa~ (rusTaveli).
negatiuri mniSvnelobiT: saxeli SeebRala (< saxelSebRaluli), saxeli gautyda (< saxelgatexili; Sdr. andaza `saxelis gatexas Tavis gatexa sjobiao~), saxeli Seircxvina (< saxelSercxvenili), saxeli gauvarda (< saxelgavardnili, Sdr. andaza `avad
saxelis davardnas Tvalis davardna amjobineo~).
`saxeliani~ adamiani sazogadoebis TvalSi odiTganve dafasebuli iyo. saxelganTqmul kacze ambobdnen, saxelovaniao. qarTvelisaTvis saamayo iyo saxelovani sikvdili (Sdr. andaza `saxelovani sikvdili mamacTa sanatrelia~; rusTvelis `sjobs sicocxlesa nazraxsa sikvdili saxelovani~).
qarTvelebi saxels eZebdnen, saxels saxels umatebdnen (vaJafSavela), saxels ufrTxildebodnen, omSi gamoCenili gmirobisTvis erTmaneTs saxels ulocavdnen an gardacvlilis sasaxelo
saqmeebs ixsenebdnen (ix. g. leoniZis moTxroba `saxelis milocva~);
saxelis dakargvas sikvdilze uaresad Tvlidnen, saxelgmobili
adamiani mkvdrad miaCndaT; vinc sircxvils Wamda, `sicocxliT
sikvdiliani~ iyo, saxelian adamians ki `saxe naTeliani~ hqonda
(vaJa-fSavela).
qarTveli ara marto amqveyniuri saxelisTvis zrunavda,
aramed saxeli rCeboda sikvdilis Semdegac: `mkvdrad igi Tqmula,
visac aq saxeli ar darCenia~ (ilia WavWavaZe, `mefe dimitri Tavdadebuli~). mefec ki imaze zrunavda, rom STamomavlobas misi saxeli wyevliT ar moexsenebina (n. baraTaSvili, `fiqrni mtkvris
pirzed~).
erT-erT leqsSi saxalxo mTqmeli sikvdils ase mimarTavs:
`saxels ver mospob verc Sena,

166

r. zeqalaSvili

verc saukuno wlebio,


saxeli qveynada rCeba,
miwas _ lebi da Zvlebio~ (v. baiaSvili).
CamoTvlili andazebi, aforizmebi, myari gamoTqmebi da
leqsebi gamoxatavs erovnul damokidebulebas saxelTan, adamianur
faseulobebTan anu `saxis~ RirebulebebTan da cxadyofs, rom
saxelsa da lingvistur termin `saxes~ Soris didi msgavsebaa.
amdenad, SeiZleba davinaxoT saerTo Tavazianobis Teoriasa da
`saxis~ socialur-lingvistur cnebasTanac.
socialuri qcevis (farTo mniSvnelobiT ki, Tavazianobis)
safuZvlad miCneul faseulobaTa sistemaSi unda gamoiyos sami
Sre:
a) universaluri (sakacobrio);
b) saerTokavkasiuri;
g) erovnul-specifikuri (saerToqarTveluri).
socialur da sametyvelo qcevaTa formebi ganpirobebulia
universaluri
(sakacobrio)
faseulobebiT:
sxva
adamianis
pativiscema, dafaseba, madlierebis, yuradRebisa da TanagrZnobis
gamovlena, sxvisi Rirsebebis aRiareba, moubari piris mokrZalebaTavmdabloba... am faseulobaTa ierarqia sxvadasxva kulturaSi
erTmaneTisagan gansxvavdeba, ganpirobebulia mravali faqtoriT da
damokidebulia komunikaciis pirobebze.
saerTokavkasiur faseulobebSi SeiZleba CaiTvalos stumris
gansakuTrebuli
pativiscema-dafaseba
(fatikuri
komunikaciis
erTeulebi: stumari RvTisaa! ixare, Wero, mokvdi, mtero!), uangaro
TavganwirvisTvis mzadyofna, Wirsa da lxinSi Tanadgomis survili
(Sen genacvale! Seni Wirime! mogikvdi me Sen! ratom ar movkvdebi!),
rainduli
Tvisebebis
gamomJRavneba
(qaTinaurebis
siWarbe,
dalocva),
TanagrZnoba,
didsulovneba,
mimtevebloba,
xelgaSliloba,
xandazmuli adamianebis, mSoblebis, ojaxis
ufrosis gansakuTrebuli pativiscema. es Tvisebebi mJRavndeba
yoveldRiur urTierTobaSi sametyvelo etiketis myar formulebSi.
isini
gamoxataven
keTilganwyobas
sxvadasxva
cxovrebiseul
situaciaSi (misalmeba, gamomSvidobeba, bodiSi, madloba, gacnoba,
milocva, dalocva, Txovna, mipatiJeba, qaTinauri, Wiris gaziareba,
sufris wesebi da sxv.). maTi Zirebi mWidrodaa dakavSirebuli saqarTvelos istoriul warsulTan, qarTul tradiciebTan, yofasa
da rwmena-warmodgenebTan.

Tavazianoba, rogorc erovnul faseulobaTa sistemis asaxva . . .

167

rac Seexeba saerToqarTvelur Rirebulebebs, aq win wamoiwevs enis, qveynis siyvaruli, sakuTari warmoSobiTa da kulturiT
siamaye. es gansakuTrebiT TvalSi sacemia qarTuli sufris wesebSi
(kerZod, sadRegrZeloebSi). qarTvels Tavisi arsebobis xangrZlivi
istoriis manZilze aTas mterTan uxdeboda brZola da, vfiqrobT,
amitomac damkvidrda misalmebis, gamomSvidobebisa da dalocvis
formulebSi gamarjvebisa da mSvidobis survili: gamarjoba! gamarjoba nu mogeSalos! gaumarjos! Sen gagimarjos! dila mSvidobisa! saRamo mSvidobisa! mSvidoba mogces RmerTma! mSvidobiT! aqa
mSvidoba! mSvidoba am ojaxs! mSvidoba Sens mosvlas! gza mSvidobisa! mSvidobiT darCiT!.. rogorc magaliTebidan Cans, `misalmebagamosalmebis formulebi... dalocvis tipisaa. qarTuli misalmebis
zogadi Sinaarsi salamTan erTad, mSvidobisa da sikeTis survebacaa~ (9, 60).
vfiqrobT,
qarTuli
sametyvelo
etiketis
dominantur
maxasiaTeblebad unda gamovyoT: gansakuTrebuli komunikabeloba,
emociuroba, midrekileba gulaxdili saubrisa da axlo kontaqtisaken, rac ganapirobebs saubris dros TqvenobiTi formidan SenobiTze gadasvlis gaadvilebas, magram es, Tavis mxriv, iwvevs
TviTkontrolis daqveiTebasa da e. w. komunikaciur egocentrizms.
amitom qarTul sinamdvileSi Cven ufro xSirad vxvdebiT e. w. `dadebiT~ Tavazianobas (braunisa da levinsonis klasifikaciiT) anu
erTianobisa da solidarobis demonstracias, naklebad formalizebul komunikacias, vidre `uaryofiTs~ (socialur distancias,
daxvewil, magram civ taqtianobas, TviTSezRudvas).
SeiZleba iTqvas, rom Cveni xalxis TviTSegnebaSi didi mniSvneloba aqvs sxvebis azrsa da damokidebulebas, imaze zrunvas, rom
mosaubrem ar dakargos `saxe~ meore komunikantis TvalSi.
rac Seexeba Tavazianobis lingvistur markerebs, maTi erToblioba qarTul enaSi qmnis funqciur-semantikur vels. masSi
SeiZleba gamoiyos sami done: mikro-, saSualo da makrodone (ix.
sqema #1) anu sxvadasxva enobrivi donis erTeulebi (am klasifikaciisaTvis veyrdnobodiT naSromebs: 10, 20; 11, 34-35).
1. mikrodone (sityvis done) moicavs Tavazianobis gamomxatvel
leqsikur-gramatikul saSualebebs _ enis morfologiur sistemasa
da leqsikur erTeulebs:

168

r. zeqalaSvili

sqema #1
Tavazianobis enobrivi gamoxatvis doneebi qarTulSi

a. morfologiuri qvedone: zmnis piri da ricxvi (TqvenobiTi


mimarTvebi -T sufiqsiT), `Cven~ nacvalsaxelis transsemantizacia,
nacvalsaxeluri mimarTvebi, gramatikul kategoriaTa (piris,
ricxvis, drois, kilos, gvaris) funqciur-stilisturi gadaazreba.

Tavazianoba, rogorc erovnul faseulobaTa sistemis asaxva . . .

169

qarTul enaSi, rogorc zogierT sxva enaSi, piris nacvalsaxelebis transsemantizaciiT SeiZleba gamoixatos Tavazianoba (Tavaziani `Tqven~, avtoriseuli `Cven~, TanagrZnobis anu empaTiis
`Cven~) .
TqvenobiTi mimarTva gamoiyeneba oficialur (araSinaurul)
situaciebSi:
I. simetriul saubrebSi;
II. asimetriul saubrebSi:
1. umcrosis mimarTva asakiT ufrosisadmi; 2. xelqveiTis (TanamdebobiT dabal safexurze mdgomisa) _ ufrosisadmi (maRal safexurze mdgomisadmi); 3. ucxo adamianebs Soris (quCaSi, transportSi, dawesebulebebSi da a. S.).
piris semantikuri transpozicia universaluri lingvisturi
movlenaa, romlis mizezebi unda veZeboT eqstralingvistur (sociolingvistur) sferoSi, radgan asaxavs adamianur urTierTobaTa
mravalferovan speqtrs (ix. amis Sesaxeb: 12; 13).
nimuSad davasaxelebT drois gadaazrebis SesaZleblobas:
mindoda warsuli drois formaa, magram frazaSi: TqvenTvis
mindoda meTqva _ Tavaziania da aRniSnavs axlandel dros: minda
giTxraT.
Tavazianobis xazgasasmelad zogjer gamoiyeneba kavSirebiTi
an brZanebiTi kilos formebi, I an II TurmeobiTisa da xolmeobiTSedegobiTis mwkrivebi.
b. morfoleqsikuri qvedone: kuTvnilebiTi nacvalsaxeli
`Tqveni~, pirSi monacvle zmnebi, vokatiuri mimarTvebi, modaluri
sakomunikacio
erTeulebi,
e.
w.
Semarbilebeli
sityvebi
(zmnizedebi, nawilakebi), Sorisdebulebi, saalerso sityvebi,
ficisa da dalocvis formulebi, leqsikuri evfemizmebi, SefasebiTi da emociuri sityvebi.
sityvawarmoebaSi: anTroponimTa oficialuri (an saalerso)
formebi, markirebuli afiqsebi.
TqvenobiTi formis arCeva gansazRvravs Tavazianobis lingvisturi markerebis gamoyenebas: mimarTvebi qalbatono/batono,
pirSi monacvle zmnebi, Sesabamisi etiketuri gamonaTqvamebi, SefasebiTi leqsikisa Tu saalerso formulebis (Seni Wirime, Sen genacvale...) simcire.
swored am lingvisturi markerebis _ Tavaziani zmnuri formebis, pirSi monacvle zmnebis anu zmnuri evfemizmebis _ arseboba
gvaZlevs uflebas, gamovyoT qarTul enaSi Tavazianobis morfose-

170

r. zeqalaSvili

mantikuri kategoria, romelic morfologiur doneze zmnaSi gamoixateba sufiqsiT -T, leqsikur doneze ki _ pirSi fuZemonacvle
zmnebiT.1
mimarTvaTa mravalferovneba qarTul metyvelebaSi areklavs
socialuri urTierTobebis mdidar palitras. amasTanaa dakavSirebuli pirSi fuZemonacvle zmnebis gamoyenebac, rasac ganapirobebs
Tavazianobis gamoxatvis survili. pirSi monacvle formebi dadebiTad (Tavazianad) aris markirebuli:
yofna: xar _ brZandebiT (rogor brZandebiT?)
Semosvla: Semodi _ SemobrZandiT!
dajdoma: dajeqi _ dabrZandiT!
adgoma: adeqi _ abrZandiT!
Tqma: Tqvi _ brZaneT, ra gnebavT?
Wama: Wame _ miirTviT, gTxovT!
mocema: mogcem _ axlave mogarTmevT. neba miboZeT! (=neba momeciT).
aReba: aiRe inebeT!..
survili: ra gnebavT? (=ra ginda?)
qarTulSi Cveulebrivia Tavazianobis gamoxatva arakomunikantis (mesame piris) mimarTac: batoni ivane Sin ar gaxlavT. batonma levanma brZana da sxv. es zmnebi gvxvdeba pirvel pirSic,
roca moubari xazs usvams adresatisadmi pativiscemasa da mowiwebas: me gaxlavarT (=var) batoni daviTi. ara, gmadlobT, ukve geaxeliT (=vWame). batono levan, rogorc SevTanxmdiT, geaxeliT
(=movedi) (amis Sesaxeb ix. 14, 11-13), Tumca isic unda iTqvas, rom
Tavaziani formebi zogjer ironiulad an xumrobiTac gamoiyeneba2.
vokatiur mimarTvebSi asaxulia sazogadoebis wevrebs Soris
rTuli damokidebulebebi (naTesaoba, nacnoboba, asakobriv da socialur mdgomareobas Soris gansxvaveba). qarTul sinamdvileSi

gamoTqmulia saintereso mosazreba etiketur formulebSi implicituri


piris
swrafvis
Sesaxeb
eqspliciturobisaken
anu
Tavaziani
formebis
sufiqsis
gaCena
upiro
formebSi:
gramatikalizaciisaken:
igulisxmeba -T
gamarjobaT, kargiT, bodiSiT... (ix. 13).
2
igive zmnebi yofiT metyvelebaSi gvxvdeba evfemizmebad mwvave infeqciuri
daavadebebis
dasaxelebasTan
(batonebi
ubrZandeba),
qarTvel
ebraelTa
metyvelebaSi ki _ `mokvdas~ mniSvnelobiT (rodis gadabrZanda mamaTqveni? sawyali
deda SarSan gadabrZanda.

Tavazianoba, rogorc erovnul faseulobaTa sistemis asaxva . . .

171

oficialur situaciaSi miRebulia mimarTva qalbatono/batono


(+saxeli)1. gvariT mimarTva qarTul metyvelebaSi sakmaod iSviaTia
(sasamarTloSi, jarSi, cixeSi, zogjer _ skolaSi).
II. saSualo done, sintaqsuri _ gamonaTqvamebi, iribi
sametyvelo
aqtebi,
winadadebis
modalobis
Secvla,
pirobiTdamokidebuli natvriTi winadadebebi, CarTuli gamoTqmebi
da
sxv.
_
orientirebulia
adresatze
da
damokidebulia
konkretul situaciaze. aq ganixileba e. w. iribi sametyvelo
aqtebi, Txovnis gamoxatvis SesaZleblobebi, adamianTa Soris
kontaqtis damamyarebeli saSualebebi anu fatikuri komunikaciis
formulebi,
romelTac
yoveldRiur
urTierTobaSi
didi
mniSvneloba eniWeba (misalmebis, damSvidobebis, Txovnis, miwvevis
dros; madlobis gadaxdisa da bodiSis moxdisas; milocvis
gamoxatvisas da sxv.).
Tavazianobis implicituri gamoxatvisaTvis sakmaod xSirad
gvxvdeba iribi sametyvelo aqtebi. mag., Tavaziani TxovnisTvis
brZanebis nacvlad kiTxviTi winadadebis gamoyeneba. Sdr.: es wigni
maTxove! am wigns xom ver maTxovebdiT? xom ar iciT, sadaa aq
Teatri? aseT kiTxviT winadadebebze ver gavcemT dadebiTs pasuxs,
aramed saWiroa Sesabamisi qmedeba (anu Txovnis Sesruleba).
adamiani
lingvisturi
(an
aralingvisturi)
markerebiT
arbilebs
gamonaTqvamis
kategoriulobas,
Tavidan
icilebs
uxerxulobasa da dabrkolebas komunikaciis dros.
qarTul metyvelebaSi aseve xSirad gamoiyeneba e. w.
`msmenelis signalebi~ anu saubris dros CarTuli wamoZaxilebi:
`rasa brZanebT?~, `marTla?, `ra kargia!~ `Zalian mixaria~,
`gasaocaria!~
amiT
adamiani
cdilobs
gamoxatos
aRtaceba,
TanagrZnoba,
asiamovnos Tanamosaubres, ganumtkicos mas `saxe~.
germaneli enaTmecnieri helga kothofi saubrobs am tipis
emfatikur signalebze da xazs usvams, rom `yvela kultura icnobs
brZanebis
gardaqmnas
Txovnad,
kritikis
Selamazebasa
da
survilebis SeniRbvas~ (16, 292).
III. makrodone gulisxmobs did sametyvelo segmentebs anu
sakomunikacio registrs, romelic warmoadgens yvela CamoTvlili
enobrivi
erTeulis
mTlianobas,
rogorc
srulyofil
komunikacias. es done Sedgeba patar-patara segmentebisagan:
1

15).

es sakiTxi kargadaa Seswavlili S. afridoniZis sadisertacio naSromSi (ix.

172

r. zeqalaSvili

sityvebisa da Sesityvebebisagan, gamonaTqvamebisagan. amdenad,


Tavazianobis enobrivi gamoxatvis specifika vlindeba swored am
lingvistur markerebSi.
komunikaciaSi gamoyenebul saSualebaTa erToblioba qmnis
sakomunikacio registrs anu sametyvelo stilis kompleqsur
maxasiaTebels,
romelic
aerTianebs
lingvistur
da
eqstralingvistur
saSualebebs,
SerCeuls
sakomunikacio
situaciisa da komunikantTa urTierTdamokidebulebis Sesabamisad.
es registrebi erTmaneTisagan swored Tavazianobis xarisxiT
gansxvavdeba.
qarTuli metyvelebis sakomunikacio registrebis indikatorebSi erTiandeba Tavazianobis gamomxatveli yvela lingvisturi
markeri (ix. sqema #2).
adamianis qcevis (maT Soris _ sametyvelo qcevis) axsna
xSirad SeiZleba Tavazianobis principebiT. qarTul kulturaSi
zogadi
damokidebuleba
Tavazianobis,
zrdilobis
mimarT
asaxulia erT-erT cnobil qarTul andazaSi: `aTasad gvari
dafasda, aTi aTasad _ zrdiloba~.
vfiqrobT, qarTuli sametyvelo etiketi unda ganvixiloT,
rogorc
erTiani
kulturul-socialuri
fenomeni,
romelic
gamoirCeva ganumeorebeli erovnuli koloritiT, aRmosavluri da
dasavluri kulturis elementebis SerwymiT.

173

Tavazianoba, rogorc erovnul faseulobaTa sistemis asaxva . . .

sqema #2
Tavazianobis enobrivi markerebi qarTulSi

morfoleqsikuri done

gramatikuli
done

morfologiuri done

zmnis
piri da
ricxvi

sityvawarm
oeba

pirSi
monacvl
e zmnebi

kilo

kavSireb
iTi

gvari

mwkrive
bi

brZanebi
Ti

vnebiTis
formebi

unaxaobi
Ti

aRwerilobiTi vnebiTi

pirobiTi

nulova
ni
Taniani
formebi

sintaqsuri
done
usruli
winadadebebi
pirobiT
damokideb.
winadadebe
bi

winadadebis
Canacvleba
modalobis
mixedviT
elifsuri
winadadebebi

kninobiTalersobiTi
formebi

markirebu
li
afiqsebi

leqsiku
ri
vokatiuri
mimarTvebi
Sen/Tqven
nacvalsaxel
modaluri
sityvebi

nawilakebi

zmnizedebi

Sorisdebul
ebi

gameorebeb

etiketuri
formulebi

CarTuli
konstruqciebi

calke dgomi
damokidebu
li

emociuri
da
SefasebiTi
leqsika

174

r. zeqalaSvili

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E. Goffman, Interaction Ritual. New York, 1967.
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s. omiaZe, qarTuli diskursis kulturologiuri paradigm. Tbilisi, 2009.
H. Henne, H. Rehbock, Einfhrung in die Gesprchsanalyse. 2. Aufl. Berlin, 1982.
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S. afridoniZe, Cveni ena qarTuli. me-3 gamocema. Tbilisi, 2009.
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kavkasiologiuri Ziebani CAUCASIOLOGIC PAPERS


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(. , , ) (. 3),
(4) , . .
.
, ,
. . - .
, (. 5,
112).
: , ,
(. .
).
, , .
.

; ; , .
. .

: 1. ( ); 2. 3.
. , :
;
(. 6).

,
, , .

( , , , - ,
).
Tavazianoba ,,tavazianoba ()
(: , ), zrdiloba
,,zrdiloba () aRzrda ,,aghzrda - ;
zrdilobiani ,,zrdilobiani
, ). ,,zrdiloba~, :
, , ,
- (7, 178).

. -

, . . .

177

, .
(. 8, 88),
piri (, ), : piri gatexa, piri uSala ,,piri
gatekha, piri ushala (: ), piri Seinaxa
,,piri sheinakha (: ), piri Seircxvina ,,
piri sherickhvina , pirSi Sescicinebs ,,pirshi shestsistinebs
, pirSi efereba ,,pirshi ephereba da sxv.
: `moyvares pirSi uzraxe, mters pirs
ukanao~ ,,mokvares pirshi uzrakhe, mters - pirs ukanao ( ,
).
: saxis dacva (SenarCuneba, gadarCena) , , . das Gesicht wahren (retten); saxis
Secvla (dazianeba, rRveva) ,,sakhis shecvla, (dazianeba,rghveva)
, . das Gesicht verletzen; axali saxis miReba (axali saxiT warudga)
akhali sakhis migheba,
, . sein neues Gesicht bekommen; : pirSi miaxala
(uTxra) - , . etw. ins Gesicht sagen; saxis dakargva
, . sein Gesicht verlieren; namdvili saxis Cveneba
, . sein echtes Gesicht zeigen, saxeze niRbis Camoxsna
. .
saxe saxeli , .
(. . )
saxeli (, , , ).
,
(), , , : `saxeli
sjobs qonebasa da ufleba gonebasa~ ( , ),
`saWmeli erTi dRisao, saxeli asi wlisao~ ( ,
). : saxeli daimkvidra, saxeli datova ( ), saxeli gaiTqva ( ),
saxels eZebs, saxeli moixveWa ( ), : `sjobs saxelisa
moxveWa yovelsa mosaxveWelsa ( ,
).
: saxeli SeebRala, saxeli gautyda (
, ), Sdr. saxeli Seircxvina ( ), saxeli gauvarda,
: `saxelis gatexas Tavis gatexa sjobiao~ (
, ), `avad saxelis davardnas Tvalis davardna
amjobineo~ ( , ).
(`saxeliani~, `saxelovani~) ,
(`saxelovani sikvdili mamacTa

178

sanatrelia~), . : `sjobs sicocxlesa nazraxsa sikvdili


saxelovani~ ( , ).
(), , (), (. ),
(sasaxelo saqmeebi), ,
`saxe naTeliani~ ( -).
, : `mkvdrad igi
Tqmula, visac aq saxeli ar darCenia~ (. ,
), ,
(. , ).
:
,
, (. ).
, ,
, , . . .
-
.
,
( ) :
) ;
) ;
) - ().

() : ,
, , ,
... ,
.
:
( : stumari RvTisaa!
; ixare, Wero, mokvdi, mtero! , , , !),
(Sen genacvale! !
Seni Wirime! ! mogikvdi me Sen! !;
ratom ar movkvdebi? ?),
( , ), , ,
, , ,
, .
.
(, , , , ,
, , , , , ,
, .).
, , .

, . . .

179

, ,
, , . .
, (sadRegrZeloebi).
,
, : gamarjoba!
! (. !); gamarjoba nu mogeSalos!
!; gaumarjos! ! ( !);
Sen gagimarjos! (. !); dila mSvidobisa!
! (. !); saRamo mSvidobisa! ! (.
!); mSvidobiT!
! (. !); mSvidoba mogces
RmerTma! !; aqa mSvidoba! (. !);
mSvidoba am ojaxs! !; mSvidoba Sens mosvlas! (.
!);
gza mSvidobisa! ! (. !);
mSvidobiT darCiT! ! ... ,
...
. ...
(9, 60).
:
, ,
. -
-, . .
. .
. ( )
( ),
( , , ,
).
,
, ,
.

, -
.
:
, (. 1), . .
( : 10, 20; 11, 3435).
1. ( ) -
:
. : (
-T), ;
;
-
(, , , , ).

180

, ,
( , ,
, ).
:
I. ;
II. :
1. ; 2. ,
(
);
3. ( , ,
. .).

, . . .

181

() ,
(. 12; 13).
, : mindoda
, TqvenTvis mindoda meTqva ( )
: minda giTxraT (
).

, I II (TurmeobiTi I da II )
(xolmeobiT-SedegobiTi).
. :
(Tqveni), , ;
, (, ),
, , , ,
, .

:
(
)

, .

: (qalbatono,
batono , ), ,
(Seni Wirime, Sen genacvale)
.
(
) ,
,
-T,

( )1.

.
, .
():
yofna: xar brZandebiT (rogor brZandebiT?
?).
Semosvla: Semodi SemobrZandiT! (, !).
dajdoma: dajeqi dabrZandiT! (, !).
adgoma: adeqi abrZandiT! (, !).


, . . : -T
: gamarjobaT, kargiT, bodiSiT (. 13).

182

Tqma: Tqvi brZaneT! (, !).


Wama: Wame miirTviT! (, !).
mocema: mogcem axlave mogarTmevT! ( ). neba
miboZeT! (=neba momeciT) (!).
aReba: aiRe inebeT! (, !).
survili: ra gnebavT? (=ra ginda?) ( ?) .
(3 ): `gaxlavT, brZandeba~ , brZana .
I- :
geaxeliT ( ), `gaxlavarT~ ( ). `me gaxlavarT daviTi~ ( ), ara, gmadlobT, ukve geaxeliT (=vWame) (, ).
rogorc SevTanxmdiT, geaxeliT, batono levan (=movedi) (
, , ) (. 14, 11-13). ,
1.

(, ,
).

2
qalbatono/batono (+saxeli) / (+) .
(
, , , ).
II. , ,
, ,
, .
.

, . . ,
(,
, , , , , ,
...).

. .,
(. !
? , ?).
( ) ,
. ( )

:
: batonebi ubrZandeba ,
: `gadabrZanda~ , : rodis
gadabrZanda mamaTqveni? ? sawyali deda SarSan
gadabrZanda.
2
. . (.
15).

, . . .

183

,
.
. .
, : `ras brZanebT?~ ?, `marTla?- ?,
`ra kargia!~ ! `Zalian mixaria~, ! `gasaocaria!~
! ,
, ,
( ).
,
, ~
(16, 292).
III. :
, , ,
. ,
, :
().
.

,
,

. .

( 2).
( )
. -
: `aTasad gvari dafasda, aTi
aTasad zrdiloba~ (, ),
.
, ,
.

184

()
.

, . . .

185

. ., (. .
. . ). , 1990.
. ., (.
. . . ). , 1990.
Brown P., Levinson S. C., Politeness. Some Universals in Language Usage. Cambridge, 1987
Goffman E., Interaction Ritual. New York: Pantheon Books, 1967.
., :
. . XXII. , 2002, . 111-116 ( .
).
Ron Scollon and Suzanne Wong Scollon, Intercultural Communication: A Discourse Approach, 2001, 2nd ed. (first ed. 1995), Blackwell Publishers.
( . .
), . IV. , 1955.
. ., . , 1976 ( . ).
., . ,
2009 ( . ).
Henne H., Rehbock H., Einfhrung in die Gesprchsanalyse, 2. Aufl., Berlin,
1982.
W. Lange, Aspekte der Hflichkeit. berlegungen am Beispiel der
Entschuldigungen im Deutschen: Europische Hochschulschriften, Reihe 1, 1984, Bd.
791.
., . ,
1999 ( . ).
., : . , 2004 (
.).
., . 3- ., , 2009 ( .
).
.,
: . , 2003 ( . ).
H. Kotthoff, Aspekte der Hflichkeit im Vergleich der Kulturen, in:
Muttersprache, 2003, N2 (113), 289-306.

186

R. Zekalashvili (Tbilisi)
Politeness as Reflection of the System of National
Values and Its Verbal Markers in Georgian
Summary
Politeness is the integral part of social behavior expressed by linguistic and nonlinguistic means. It includes the set of behaviors based on the historical experience, beliefs, traditions and language perception of the world. Politeness is indivisible part of the
national culture and knowledge of its rules implies its haring at certain extent. Culture of
the nation could not be understood without taking into consideration of the peculiarities of
the speech etiquette.
In the system of values recognized as the basis for politeness three layers could be
distinguished: a) Universal; b) Common-Caucasian; c) National-specific (common Georgian).
As dominating characteristics of Georgian communication the following could be
regarded: high communicability, emotionality, disposition towards open conversation and
close contact, In Georgian society so called positive politeness is more widespread or
demonstration of unity and solidarity, non-formalized communication.
Language means of politeness in Georgian language compose the unified system
including both, lexical-grammatical means (euphemisms, forms of address, modal words
and particles, singular and plural of pronoun you, verbs with changing persons of verbs,
indirect speech acts) and stable phatic communication expressions and phrases, proverbs.
In various situations of phatic communication Georgians use numerous language formulas, roots of which are closely linked with the historical past of Georgia, its traditions,
everyday life, system of beliefs.

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z. kikviZe (quTaisi)
ramdenime postulati faruli sqesis SeswavlisaTvis
gramatikuli sqesis armqone enebSi
radganac genderlingvistika gulisxmobs imis kvlevas, Tu ra
referenciuli modelebia povnieri ama Tu im enaSi mdedrisa da
mamris aRsaniSnavad, TavisTavad Rirebulia faruli sqesis sakiTxi
gramatikuli sqesis armqone enebSi. amgvar fenomens vuwodebT
sqesis
kriptotipul
kategorias.
tipologiurad
mkveTrad
gansxvavebuli enebis (kerZod, saSualevropuli standartisa da
amerikis indielTa enebis) SepirispirebiTi kvlevis Sedegad b. l.
uorfma erTmaneTisagan gamijna xiluli da faruli kategoriebi
da uwoda maT fenotipebi da kriptotipebi, Sesabamisad (uorfi
1945,
gv.
5).
fenotipebi
warmoadgenen
klasikuri
xasiaTis
morfologiur kategoriebs Sesabamisi eqsplicituri gramatikuli
mniSvnelobiTa da formaluri maCvenebliT anu morfemiT, xolo
kriptotipebi faruli kategoriebia, romlebic efuZnebian sityvaTa
semantikur da sintaqsur niSan-Tvisebebs, magram ar aqvT raime
eqsplicituri morfologiuri markeri; da mainc, isini qmediT
rols asruleben Sesityvebis agebasa da gagebaSi; isini gavlenas
axdenen imaze, Tu rogor kolokaciebSi Seva esa Tu is sityva
winadadebis farglebSi. rogorc wesi, gamoiyofa ori saxis
kriptotipebi:
klasifikaciuri
da
modifikaciuri.
faruli
kategoria klasifikaciuria, Tuki misi mniSvneloba mudmiv xasiaTs
atarebs mocemuli enobrivi erTeulisaTvis. Tuki erTeulis mniSvneloba cvalebadia, maSin igi modifikaciuri faruli kategoriis
sferos ganekuTvneba. aseT kategoriad SeiZleba CaiTvalos sqesi
iseT enebSi, rogorebicaa qarTuli, inglisuri, Turquli da a.S.
Sesabamisad, mas SeiZleba ewodos faruli sqesi. es midgoma gulisxmobs imas, rom vin jgufis saerTo sqesis mqone saxelis referenti regularulad asocirdeba mxolod (an ZiriTadad) mamrobiT an mdedrobiT pirTan; amgvarad, misi saSualebiT SeiZleba

188

z. kikviZe

warmoCndes Sromis genderuli dayofis zogierTi enobrivi ganzomileba mocemul enaze molaparake sazogadoebaSi.
winamdebare naSromSi warmovadgenT ramdenime ZiriTad meTodologiur da konceptualur postulats, romelTa gaTvaliswineba aucilebelia kriptotipuli sqesis Seswavlis dros:
a) Sesaswavl enas ar (an aRar) aqvs sqesis gramatikuli kategoria saerTod an nawilobriv (nawilobriv armqoneTa Soris
igulisxmeba, magaliTad, inglisuri, romelsac SemorCenili aqvs
sqesis gageba mesame piris mxoloobiTi ricxvis nacvalsaxelebSi,
rogorebicaa he da she);
b) kriptotipuli sqesi arsebobs iseT enebSic, romelTac
aqvT gramatikuli (anu fenotipuri) sqesi, magram maTSi ar (an
aRar) aris mdedrobiTi da mamrobiTi gramemebi; aseTia, magaliTad,
Tanamedrove Sveduri ena: saqme imaSia, rom Zvel Svedurs hqonda
mamrobiTi, mdedrobiTi da saSuali sqesebis gramemebi. axal SvedurSi mamrobiTi da mdedrobiTi gaerTianda saerTo sqesad da
amis Sedegad dRes gvaqvs saerTo da saSualo sqesebi.
g) kriptotipuli sqesi arsebobs iseT enebSic, romelTac
aqvT gramatikuli (anu fenotipuri) sqesi, magram maTSi mdedrobiTi da mamrobiTi sqesis gramemebis garda aseve moipoveba saerTo
(sazedao) sqesis gramema;
d) saanalizo masala unda moicavdes vin jgufis sityvebs,
romelTac ar eqnebaT raime sityvaTmawarmoebeli an semantikuri
markeri, romelic referentis SesaZlo sqesze miuTiTebs;
mag; qarTuli: medda, bebiaqali, kariskaci...
am mxriv sainteresoa arn. Ciqobavas mier xazgasmuli magaliTi: Zvelad gramatikuli klasis formanti substantivebsac unda hqonoda. Zveli viTarebis gadmonaSTebi aqa-iq SemorCenia enebs.
amis cnobili magaliTi iqneboda xunZuri substantivebi: v-ac Zma,
-ac da... v-as vaJiSvili, -as qaliSvili, b-as naSieri (cxovelisa)... (Ciqobava 1979, gv. 114).
e) faruli sqesi istoriulad da kulturulad specifikur
movlenas warmoadgens, ris gamoc kvleva mkacrad sinqroniul xasiaTs unda atarebdes;
v) faruli sqesis modelebis kvlevis yvelaze efeqturi
saSualeba cdispirTa gamokiTxvaa, ris gamocdilebac arsebobs
rogorc saqarTveloSi, ise ucxoeTSi.
xazi unda gaesvas im garemoebas, rom SepirispirebiT midgomas amgvar kvlevebSi sagulisxmo Sedegebis motana SeuZlia. magaliTad, sxvadasxva enis ori sityva, romelTac erTi da igive re-

ramdenime postulati faruli sqesis SeswavlisaTvis gramatikuli . . .

189

ferenciuli mniSvneloba aqvT, ar SeiZleba maincdamainc erTsa da


imave sqess davukavSiroT; magaliTad, f. braunis (1999) gamokvlevaSi faruli sqesis Sesaxeb TurqulSi stimuli terminebis erTi
jgufi moicavda iseT profesiebs, romlebic warmoadgenen tipurad
mamakacur sferoebs, magaliTad, policieli, garemovaWre, taqsis mZRoli. es terminebi mamrobiTad iqna miCneuli respodentTa
umravlesobis mier. stimuli polis policieli mamrobiTad iqna
miCneuli cdispirTa 98%-is mier, xolo rogorc mamrobiTad, aseve
mdedrobiTad mxolod 1%-is mier. amis msgavsad iportac garemovaWre mamrobiTad miiCnia cdispirTa 94%-ma, xolo inkluziurad _
mxolod 1%-ma (gv. 192). Rirssacnobia, rom qarTuli garemovaWre
ZiriTadad mdedrobiTad iqna miCneuli qarTveli cdispirebis mier.
aRniSnuli precedenti aucileblad unda iqnes miRebuli mxedvelobaSi msgavsi movlenebis Seswavlisas.
aRniSnul sakiTxze winaswar Catarebul kvlevebze dayrdnobiT SeiZleba iTqvas, rom farul sqess gramatikuli sqesis armqone enebSi aqvs rogorc semantikuri da sintaqsuri, aseve pragmatuli da kognituri ganzomilebebi. rac Seexeba kognitiur ganzomilebebs, sagangebod unda gaesvas xazi mocemul enobriv sazogadoebaSi arsebuli genderuli warmodgenebis sistemas (roSi 1977),
radganac igi gavlenas axdens ara marto gramatikuli sqesis armqone enaTa sistemebze, aramed iseTebzedac, romelTac morfologiurad markirebuli sqesi moepovebaT.
zemoTqmulidan cxadi xdeba, rom am mxriv saintereso
masala SeiZleba movipovoT rogorc iberiul-kavkasiuri, ise
kavkasiaSi gavrcelebuli sxva enebidan.

literatura
brauni 1999 _ Braun, F. Gender in a Genderless Language: The Case of
Turkish. Language and Society in the Middle East and North Africa. Studies in Variation and Identity, ed. by Yasir Suleiman. Richmond: Curson, 1999, 190-203.
roSi 1977 _ Rosch, E. Human Categorization. Advances in Cross-cultural
Psychology, Vol. 1, ed. by N. Warren. London: Academic Press, 1977, 1- 49.
uorfi 1945 -- Whorf, B. L. Grammatical Categories. Language, 21. 1945, 111.
Ciqobava 1979 _ arn. Ciqobava, iberiul-kavkasiuri enaTmecnierebis Sesavali. Tbilisi.

kavkasiologiuri Ziebani CAUCASIOLOGIC PAPERS


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2010

Z. Kikvidze (Kutaisi)
Some Postulates for the Study of Covert Gender in
Genderless Languages
As far as Language and Gender Studies comprise the investigation of what referential patterns occur in language with respect to a female and a male, the issue of
covert gender in genderless languages is obviously relevant. I refer to the phenomenon
as a cryptotypic category of gender. Based on the contrastive study of typologically
very distinct languages (viz. SAE vs. Amerindian), B. L. Whorf distinguished between
overt and covert categories, referring to them as pheno- and cryptotypes, respectively
(Whorf 1945: 5). Phenotypes are classical morphological categories with explicit
grammatical meaning and formal indication, that is, a morpheme, while cryptotypes are
covert categories, being based upon the semantic and syntactic features of words with
no explicit morphological expression, but essentially instrumental for the construction
and understanding of utterances; they influence the collocation of a given word with
other ones in a sentence.
The present paper focuses on the study of the latter, i.e. that of covert categories
(cryptotypes). As a rule, two kinds of cryptotypes have been identified: classifying and
modifying. A covert category is a classifying one whenever its meaning is permanent for
a given language item. If the meaning of an item is variable, then this is a domain of a
modifying covert category. Gender can be regarded to be one of such categories in languages like Georgian, English, Turkish, etc., and, hence, it may be referred to as covert
gender. This approach assumes that a referent of a generic animate noun, denoting human species, and semantic markers may be regularly associated with only (or mainly)
either a male or a female person; thus, it can highlight some linguistic dimensions of
gendered division of labor in a corresponding language community.
The present paper demonstrates some principal methodological and conceptual
postulates to be necessarily taken into account in the study of cryptotypic gender:
a) A target language does not (or no longer) have the grammatical category of
gender either entirely or partially (by partially lacking, I mean, for instance, English,
which has retained the gender features in the third person singular pronouns, he and
she);
b) Cryptotypic gender occurs in languages, having the grammatical (phenotypic)
category of gender, however, they do not (or no longer) have the feminine and masculine grammemes; Modern Swedish serves as an example. In Old Swedish, there were
three grammatical genders: masculine, feminine, and neuter. In Modern Swedish, masculine and feminine were incorporated into common gender, and, thus, there is an opposition between common and neuter genders.

Some Postulate for the Study of Covert Gender in Genderless Language

191

c) Cryptotypic gender occurs in languages, having the grammatical (phenotypic) category of gender, however, together with the feminine and masculine grammemes,
they also possess common (generic) gender;
d) The focused data should include the words for human beings with no derivation or semantic marker; to refer to a possible gender of a referent;
for instance, Georgian
med-da
med[icine]-sister
nurse
bebia-kali
grandmother-woman
midwife
kar-is-kaci
door-GEN-man
butler
The instance identified by Arn. Chikobava has been noteworthy in this respect:
Earlier, a marker of a grammatical class should have been present in substantives. Relics of the earlier situation occur in languages in some cases. The well-known example
of that would be Avar substantives: v-ac brother, y-ac sister... v-as son, y-as
daughter, b-as offspring (of an animal)... (Chikobava 1979, p. 114).
e) Covert gender is a historically and culturally specific phenomenon, due to
which the research should be strictly synchronic;
f) The most effective way for the study of covert gender patterns is the survey of
subjects; some such investigations exist both in Georgia and internationally.
It should be emphasized that the contrastive approach to such investigations can
yield rather original and considerable results; for instance, words of two different languages, having an identical referential meaning, cannot be readily be associated to one
and the same gender; e.g. in F. Brauns (1999) study of covert gender in Turkish, One
group of stimulus-terms involved occupations which represent typically male domains,
e.g. police officer, street vendor, taxi-driver. There terms were interpreted as
male by majority of the respondents. The stimulus polis police officer, was interpreted
as male by 98% of the subjects, and both male and female by only 1%. Similarly
iportac street vendor was interpreted as male by 94% of the subjects and as inclusive by only 1% (p. 192). In it is noteworthy that garemovare, the Georgian equivalent of iportac street vendor, was interpreted as mostly female by Georgian subjects.
The said precedent should necessarily be taken into consideration in the study of similar
phenomena.
Based on the results of the preliminary investigations of a case in point, it can be
stated that covert gender in genderless languages has both semantic and syntactic, and
pragmatic and cognitive dimensions. With respect to cognitive dimensions, a special
emphasis should be laid upon peculiar traits of Gender Belief System (GBS) (Rosch
1977) in a particular language community as far as it can affect the grammatical systems
of not only genderless languages, but also those of the ones with overt grammatical
gender marking.

192

Z. Kikvidze

Obviously enough, both the Ibero-Caucasian languiages and the languages of the
Caucasus can yield noteworthy data in this respect
References:
Braun, F. 1999. Gender in a Genderless Language: The Case of Turkish. Language and Society in the Middle East and North Africa. Studies in Variation and Identity, ed. by Yasir Suleiman. Richmond: Curson: 190-203.
Chikobava, Arn. 1979. An Introduction to Ibero-Caucasian Linguistics. Tbilisi:
Tbilisi University Press. [in Georgian]
Rosch, E. 1977. Human Categorization. Advances in Cross-cultural Psychology,
Vol. 1, ed. by N. Warren. London: Academic Press. 1-49.
Whorf, B. L. 1945. Grammatical Categories. Language, 21. 1-11.

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.

kavkasiologiuri Ziebani CAUCASIOLOGIC PAPERS


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2010

q. margiani-subari (Tbilisi)
evidencialobis sakiTxisaTvis svanur enaSi
evidencialoba-epistemikis problema, didi xania, lingvistTa
interesis sagania. mas jer kidev XX s-is dasawyisSi miaqcies yuradReba da aRweres amerikeli indielebis enaTa mkvlevrebma f.
boasma (1911), e. sepirma (1912) da sxvebma.
misi rogorc aRqma, ganmartebac sxvadasxva enis specialistTa
mier araerTgvarovania; enaTmecnierTa nawili (givoni, dendale,
tasmovski, nuitsi...) Tvlis, rom SesaZlebelia evidencialobis kategoriis orgvari gageba: farTo da viwro. farTo gagebiT, evidencialoba da epistemikuri (savaraudo, dauzustebeli) modaloba
ganixileba rogorc erTi kategoria, viwro gagebiT ki es ori
sxvadasxva kategoriaa, radganac maTi Sinaarsoblivi mxare
gansxvavebulia: evidencialoba informaciis wyarosTan aris mimarTebaSi, epistemika ki _ informaciis ueWvelobasTan (kordi 2007,
254). delensi evidencialobas ganixilavs rogorc `idealuri codnisa~ da `misgan gadaxrili, daSorebuli codnis~ opozicias, anu
codnis markirebul da aramarkirebul statuss (delensi 2001, 380).
met-naklebad gansxvavebulia mosazrebebi informaciis wyaroTa Sesaxebac, `Tumca ZiriTadad mainc gamoyofen yvelaze gavrcelebul sam wyaros: grZnobis organoebis mier uSualo aRqma _
pirdapiri evidencialoba
da arauSualo aRqma _ iribi evidencialoba ori tipisa: gadmocemiTi (sxvisgan miRebuli) informacia
da inferencia _ gonebis CarTviT, daskvnebis gziT mowodebuli
informacia, romelic, ZiriTadad, eyrdnoba mTqmelisTvis cnobil
faqtebs (kordi 2007, 255).
evidecialobis arsisa da misi wyaroebis Sesaxeb SexedulebaTa araerTgvarovneba ganpirobebulia enaTa sxvadasxva agebulebiTa da specifikiT. Sesabamisad, gansxavebulia aRniSnuli kategoriis gamoxatvis saSualebebic, romlebic, ZiriTadad, sami tipisaa:
1) specialuri gramatikuli formebi, romelTaTvisac es mniSvneloba erTaderTia; 2) mravalmniSvnelovani gramatikuli formebi,
romelnic gamoyenebulia Tavisi araZiriTadi mniSvnelobiT, funqciurad; 3) leqsikuri saSualebebi gansazRvrul sintaqsur konstruqciebSi. SesaZloa, romelime enaSi arc iyos evidencialobis
gamosaxatavad gramatikuli Tu leqsikuri formebi; maSin informa-

194

q. margiani-subari

cia misi wyarosa da uSualo momwodeblis Sesaxeb gadmoicema


vrceli konteqstiT (nicolova 2007, 108).
evidencilizms qarTvelur enebSi ZiriTadad ganixilaven rogorc gadmocemiTobas, unaxavi moqmedebis aqts, rac morfosintaqsis doneze svanuri enis monacemebzec saTanadod aris Seswavlili
cnobil qarTvelologTa mier (v. Tofuria, a. SaniZe, g. maWavariani,
a. oniani, z. WumburiZe, i. CantlaZe, v. boederi, m. palmaitisi...),
epistemika ki svanurSi morfosintaqsur kategoriad arc erT
mkvlevars ar miuCnevia (SesaZloa svanuri zmnis uRlebis paradigmis arasrulobis gamoc an sxva enaTa analogiis gavleniT, romelTa umravlesobaSi is mxolod modalobaa). Kufro metic, specialur literaturaSigamoTqmulia mosazreba (vileti 1998, 75),
rom qarTul enaSi gvaqvs evidencialuri perfeqti evidencialobis
farTo gagebiT (Semdgomi aspeqtebis gareSe), da rom `svanurs,
iseve, rogorc qarTuls, iribi evidencialuri formebis Semdgomi,
detaluri diferenciacia (epistemika, inferencia...) ar axasiaTebs,
Tumca Tavad evidencialur formaTa mniSvneloba sakmaod tevadia,
farToa (sumbaTova 2007, 329).
saerTaSoriso lingvistikaSi mkvlevarTa nawili (vileti, kozinceva) epistemikas ganixilavs rogorc irib evidencialobas, informaciis ZiriTad wyaroebad ki dasaxelebulia verbaloba (III
piris naTqvami, xmebi xalxSi, folklori...) da inferenciuloba
(mTqmelis daskvna, romelic mas gamoaqvs Tavisi codnisa da realuri samyaros movlenebis fonze). Aam interpretaciaTa gaTvaliswinebiT, ucxoel mkvlevarTa mosazrebas, rom `qarTulsa da svanurSi evidencialuri formebi oden unaxaobis aqtiT Semoifargleba Semdgomi detalizacia-diferenciaciis gareSe~, ver daveTanxmebiT. rogorc Cans, aq isini evidencialobas ganixilaven TurmeobiTebisa da nawilakovani `sxvaTa sityvis~ farglebSi, romelTa
semantikaSi marTlac mxolod unaxaoba an gadmocemiTi informacia
igulisxmeba, am informaciis sandooba-dauzusteblobis Sefasebis
gareSe.
kvlevam aCvena, rom svanur enaSi arsebobs mwkrivebi, romelTa
erTaderTi mniSvneloba
movlenis Sesaxeb codnis saeWvosavaraudobaa, oRond ara imitom, rom mTqmeli TviTmxilveli ar
aris (unaxaoba-gadmocemiTobis semantika am formebSi ar figururebs), aramed imitom, rom is inferenciis, sakuTari codnagamocdilebis ganzogadebis safuZvelze msjelobs, prognozirebs.A
es zmnebi swored epistemikurobiT zogjer sakuTar mwkrivSive qmnian opozicias gansxvavebuli warmoebis formebTan (netraluri myofadi _ inferenciuli myofadi, neitraluri pirobiTi _

evidencialobis sakiTxisaTvis svanur enaSi

195

inferenciuli pirobiTi), zogjer ki sxva mwkrivebTan (pirobiTSedegobiTi I _ SedegobiTi I, pirobiT-SedegobiTi II _ SedegobiTi


II).
rogorc cnobilia, svanurSi, qarTulTan SedarebiT, erT-erTi
`meti~ (a. SaniZe) mwkrivi myofadusrulia. qarTuls semantikurad
misi badali mwkrivi ar moepoveba; svanurSive myofadsruli myofadusrulisgan ara mxolod aspeqtiT, aramed warmoebiTac gansxvavdeba: am mwkrivis warmoqmnis gza samia: 1. preverbi+awmyos fuZe; 2.
awmyos fuZe+myofadsrulis mawarmoebeli sufiqsi; 3. preverbi+awmyos fuZe+sufiqsi (Tofuria 1967, 116). sufiqsuri warmoebis
myofadi mxolod windebuliT warmoebuli myofadisgan epistemikurobiT gansxvavdeba: Cadgri `moklavs~ _ Cadgrne ki calkeulad,
konteqstis gareSe aRebuli, qarTulad aseve `moklavs~ formas
Seisatyvisebs, magram sinamdvileSi myofadis am or formas gamoyenebis sferoebi ganawilebuli aqvs: pirveli, anu neitraluri myofadi da qarTulis myofadi srulad faraven erTmaneTs (rogorc
warmoebis principis TvalsazrisiT, ise semantikurad), epistemikuri myofadi ki mTlianad inferenciulia, is msjelobis, varaudis,
prognozis niuansis Semcvelia Sesasrulebeli moqmedebis mimarT;
maSasadame: iribi evidencialoba (epistemikuri formebi) svanurSi
mxolod maSin aris markirebuli, roca Tavad mTqmeli Tvlis, rom
mis mier gadmocemuli informacia arasakmarisad sandoa an saeWvoa.
pirdapiri evidencialoba (neitraluri formebi) gansakuTrebul
markirebas ar saWiroebs! Sdr.:
laxTe dsgJodri{}, litexsi JixoCSe `mTaSi adre Tu waval, dabrunebasac movaswreb~, magram laxTe dsg JiRuri i litexsi jixoCSe `mTaSi adre aval da dabrunebasac movaswreb~ _ pirveli winadadeba epistemikur myofads saWiroebs, radganac ZiriTadi moqmedebis winapirobazea saubari, Sesabamisad, sintaqsuri konstruqciac hipotaqsuri miviReT, sadac damokidebuli winadadeba
pirobiTia; mocemul konstruqciaSi svanurSi, rogorc vxedavT, maqvemdebarebeli kavSiri `Tu~ ar figurirebs, radganac pirobiToba
Tavad zmnur formaSia Cadebuli; meore SemTxvevaSi neitraluri
myofadis gamoyenebam Tanwyoba mogvca. rac Seexeba myofadusrulis
formebs, v. Tofuria aRniSnavs, rom maT rusuli Sedgenili myofadi faravs, qarTulad da megrulad ki aRweriTad gadmovcemT:
koniunqtivi I forma+`iqneba~/`iuafu~ (Tofuria 1967, 112) _ es ganmarteba TavisTavad metyvelebs am zmnebis epistemikurobaze: leqsema `iqneb~ xom swored dauzusteblobas, saeWvo-savaraudoobas gamoxatavs! zurab WumburiZe aRniSnavs, rom svanurSi
`xSirad erTi
da igive zmnac ki sxvadasxvagvarad awarmoebs myofadsrulis for-

196

q. margiani-subari

mebs, rac kidev erTxel xazs usvams im garemoebas, rom myofadis


formebi svanurSi SedarebiT axali warmoqmnilia da misi Camoyalibebis procesi mTlianad jer kidev ar dasrulebula~ (WumburiZe 1986:184). Cveni azriT, svanurma garTulebuli, morfemizebuli
formebi swored gansxvavebuli, niuansurad datvirTuli semantikis
gamosaxatavad Seqmna, qarTulma ki yovelive es mocemul SemTxvevaSi konteqsts daakisra, Tumca SesaZleblad gveCveneba meore
gzac: myofadusruli istoriulad marTlac awmyoa, rogorc es g.
maWavarianma ivarauda (maWavariani 1974, 129), oRond inferenciuli
awmyo, romelmac Semdgom funqciurad myofadic SeiTavsa (es formebi konteqstis mixedviT dResac orive droSi gamoiyeneba; ase, magaliTad: befS eCxe oTxisga im xaSdba? `bavSvi iqiT oTaxSi ras
akeTebs?~ pasuxi: iSdralni albaT TamaSobs~, Sdr. iSdrl `TamaSobs~). am mosazrebis sisworis SemTxvevaSi gamodis, rom svanurs aramarto myofadi, aramed awmyoc ori hqonia: neitraluri
(pirdapirevidencialuri) da epistemikuri (iribevidencialuri).
epistemikuri semantika aseve niSandoblivia svanurSi pirobiTis saxeliT cnobil formaTaTvis; Sdr. namyousruli: `werda~ _ usruli pirobiTi: `werda iqneba~; neitraluri sruli pirobiTi (xolmeobiTi): `dawerda~ _ epistemikuri
sruli pirobiTi: (bz.)/ (bq.) `savaraudod, dawerda~, `Tu dawerda~, `albaT dawerda~...
inferenciuli evidencialoba (epistemikuroba) kidev ufro
mniSvnelovani maxasiaTebelia gardamaval da medioaqtiur zmnaTa
Cven mier bolo dros dadasturebul I da II pirobiT-SedegobiTad
kvalificirebul formaTaTvis. es zmnebi mxolod dauzusteblobis, moqmedebis potenciurobis niSniT qmnian semantikur opozicias
I da II SedegobiTTan: Sdr. `{mo}uklavs~ _ `iqneb
(SesaZloa, albaT) mouklavs~, `uvlia~ _ `iqneb
(/albaT) uvlia~, `yofila (`umyofia~)~ _ `iqneb (SesaZloa, /albaT...) yofila~: bdis x germanel badis `bevri
germaneli mouklavs~ (`hyavs naklavi~) _ bdis x germanel
`badis bevri germaneli mouklavs albaT (`eyoleba naklavi~)~; giorgis

x TanRqa, meTxr li `giorgis bevri

uvlia uReltexilze, monadirea~ - giorgis

x TanRqa,

aRo m ra, meTxr li! giorgis, bevri uvlia, albaT, uReltexilze, aba ra iqneba, monadirea!~ identuri viTarebaa SedegobiTi II
da SedegobiT-pirobiT II-is opoziciaSic: mestias orin , ser
mma `mestiaSi orjer vyofilvar (`var namyofi~, metad ara~ _ mestias orin , ser mma! `mestiaSi orjer Tu vyofilvar (`viqnebi

evidencialobis sakiTxisaTvis svanur enaSi

197

namyofi~), metad ara~. pirobiT-SedegobiT formebSi (iseve, rogorc


sufiqsuri warmoebis myofadsa da pirobiTSi) mTqmelis varaudi
kvlav warmosaxviTobas efuZneba, epistemikurobis wyaro ki aqac
inferenciaa _ analizi im informaciisa da codnisa, romelic
mTqmels moepoveba da romelsac is ganazogadebs. rac Seexeba am
zmnebis warmoebas, davazustebT, rom / (`iqneb
{mo}uklavs~, `iqneb {mo}ekla~) formebSi (da, saerTod, yvela gardamaval da medioaqtiur zmnaSi) realuri subieqtisa da morfologiuri subieqtis (aseve obieqtebis) urTierTmimarTeba imgvarivea, rogoric xodgara/xodgarn (`{mo}uklavs~, `moekla~) formebSi,
xolo Tu ki viziarebT mkvlevarTa (n. naTaZe, a. arabuli, d. meliqiSvili, m. beriZe...) mosazrebas imis Sesaxeb, rom III seriis formebi warmoSobiT relatiuri (saobieqto versiis) statikur zmnaTa
inversiuli formebia (I rezult., II rezult. da III kavSirebiTi),
maSin, Cveni azriT, aRniSnuli zmnebi (pirobiT-SedegobiTi I da II)
statikur zmnaTa myofadisa da pirobiTis aseve inversiaqmnili,
reinterpretirebuli formebia, romelTac paradigma gaagrZeles
dinamikur zmnebSi;
maSasadame, svanurSi saanalizo formebi (myofadusruli da sruli, pirobiTusruli da -sruli, pirobiT-SedegobiT I da II) Sesrulebuli Tu Sesasrulebeli moqmedebis Sesaxeb mxolod savaraudo codnas, albaTobas gamoxataven; vfiqrobT, epistemika svanurSi (iseve, rogorc moqmedebis aqti) `mwkrivSi ucvalebeli~ (a.
SaniZe) uRlebis kategoriaa, mwkrivis e l e m e n t i a: `mwkrivis
farglebSi ucvalebeli kategoriebi mis xerxemals warmoadgenen.
qarTuli mwkrivis elementebia: dro, kilo, gzisoba, Tanamdevroba.
sxva enaSi SeiZleba sxva elementebic iyos, romelic metad gazrdis mwkrivTa raodenobas~ _ aRniSnavs a. SaniZe. swored am `sxva
elementis~, am SemTxvevaSi epistemikis kategoriis arseboba unda
iyos erT-erTi safuZveli svanurSi mwkrivTa siWarbisa Tanamedrove qarTulTan SedarebiT. amasTan epistemikur zmnur formebs
yovelgvari modaluri leqsemisa Tu nawilakis gareSe SeswevT hipotaqsis unari, sadac damokidebuli winadadeba xSirad swored
pirobiTia, mTavari da damokidebuli winadadebis SeerTeba ki, ZiriTadad, ukavSiroa, radgan zmna-Semasmeneli Tavad Seicavs saWiro
niuanss; aRniSnul nakvTTa es sintaqsuri funqcia swored epistemikurobiT aris ganpirobebuli. zemoTqmulidan gamomdinare, vfiqrobT, naTelia, rom epistemika svanurSi damoukidebeli morfosintaqsuri kategoriaa.
svanur enaSi, roamrigad, davaskvniT, rom evidencialoba
gorc morfosintaqsuri kategoria, srulad aris warmodgenili am

198

q. margiani-subari

fenomenisTvis damaxasiaTebeli yvela aspeqtiT, xolo Tu e. kordis sqemas (ix. zemoT) gaviziarebT, maSin, SeiZleba iTqvas, svanurSi specialuri morfologiuri saSualebebiT (mwkrivebiT) gamoixateba iribi evidencialobis sxvadasxva wyaroze dafuZnebuli
orive tipi: a) gadmocemiTi (sxvisgan miRebuli) informacia da b)
epistemikuri (inferenculi _ gonebis CarTviT, daskvnebis gziT
mowodebuli) informacia, romelic, ZiriTadad, eyrdnoba mTqmelisTvis cnobil faqtebs.

literatura
Tofuria v., Sromebi. I. Tbilisi, 1967
maWavariani g., aspeqtis kategoria qarTvelur enebSi,
qarTvelur enaTa struqturis sakiTxebi. IV. Tbilisi, 1974
SaniZe a., qarTuli gramatikis safuZvlebi. Tbilisi, 1973
WumburiZe z., myofadi qarTvelur enebSi. Tbilisi, 1986
., .
. -, 2007
., .
. -, 2007
.,
. . -, 2007
., .
. -, 2007
DeLancey S., The mirative and edibentiality/Journal of Pragmatics, 2001,
Vol.33
Willett Th., A cross-linguistic survey of evidentiality, Studies in Language,
1988

kavkasiologiuri Ziebani CAUCASIOLOGIC PAPERS


II

2010

. - ()

-
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( 2007, 255).

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; 2)
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; 3)
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200

. -

;
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, ( 2007, 108).

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(Willett 1998, 75),

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201


(
,
), (- I
I, - II II).
, , ,
(. ) .
.

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: 1. + ; 2. + ,
; 3. + +
( 1967, 116). , ,
,
: wadgri _ wadgrne ( ,
) ,

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( ,
),
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! .:
Laxwte dsg J'dri{ne}, litexsi JixoCSe _ [] ,
, Laxwte dsg JiGuri i litexsi JixoCSe

(J'dri{ne}_[] ),
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; , ,
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;
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. -

: I
+ ( 1967, 112)
:
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, (
1986, 184). , ,
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: : bepSw eCxe otxisga im xaSdba?
? : iSdralwni , . iSdrl
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jrda
: : jrunl ;
(): Cwjrda
:
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()

I II -
. I
II ,
: . xodgara ( ... )) _ xedgri
(/) , xozella _ xezelli
() , xoCda () xeCdi
(/...) : bdis xwj germanel xodgara

203

() bdis xwj germanel xedgri


( ); Giorgis xwj xozella tanGka, metxwjr
li! , ! Giorgis xwj xezelli
tanGka, aGo mj ra, metxwjr li! , , ,
, !
II - II: Mestias ijorin miCda, ser mma
(), _ Mestias ijorin meCdi, ser mma!
( ), . -
( )

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2001 - DeLancey S., The mirative and edibentiality/Journal of Pragmatics.

2007

.,

. . .
2007 - .,
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1974 - .,
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1986 _ .,

205

. ( . .).
1973 _ ., . I.
. ( . .).
Willett 1988 _ Willett Th., A cross-linguistic survey of evidentiality, Studies in
Language.

K. Margiani-Subari (Tbilisi)
Towards the Issue of Evidentiality in Svan
Summary
Among the modern Kartvelian languages Svan is distinguished by archaic feature. At the same time as an unwritten language differently from Georgian Svan is characterized by detalization of nuance through morpologization (and not through context)
that is seen in studying the issue of evidentialism. In Svan a category of evidentiality
acts in morphological as well as syntactical sphere. The following types of
evidencialism are distinguished in morphology;
a) opositivness of screeves marked by an evidencialism marker in the conjugative system of a Svan verb;
b) lexical means which express the semantics of evidenciality-epistemicy in certain syntactic constructions;
c) a partical system of others words or the evidentiality based on narrative information.
In Svan the interrelation of an information source and indirect evidenciality (an
action act) is studied and is considered to be a morphological category. Evidenciality epistemicy related with obviousness of information is not considered to be a characteristic feature of Svan today.
1.There are several forming ways of future in Svan (V. Topuria), but they do not
differ from each other by a model (as it is considered in special literature). Future with
a particle (C-adgri He/She will kill sth/sb) (C-ad-dagrisg/C-a-dgr-ne is neutral,
direct evidencial, without additional sub-nuances (ideal knowledge S. Delence). Future of suffixal origin is inferencive. It contains argumentation, possibility, prognose.

206

. -

Thus: in Svan indirect evidenciality is marked only then when a narrator thinks
that the information narrated by him/her is trustworthy or doubtful.
These two future forms have distributed the usage sphere as well: ktywed nne,
jixitri (1) If I read, Ill learn, but kaxiydni i jixitri (2) Ill read and
learn needs an epistemic future as a pre-condition is narrated. Relevantly, even a syntactical construction in which a subordinate clause is conditional hypotactic. In other
case using of neutral future gave us a coordination: future continuous (adgar-un-i
He/She would be killing sth/sb) is epistemic. We believe that here the morpheme
un- materially does not coincide with the forms suffix of conditional and non-seen
screeves, but just it is connected with evidenciality.
2.Inferensive epistemicy is of important characteristic feature for the forms
which are qualificated as I and II conditional (epistemic)-resultative forms lately
brought by us in a conjugative paradygm of a Svan verb. All transitive and medioactive verbs have these and only through the markers of unspecifisness potentiality
of action they form semantic opposition at the forms of I and II resultative; cf.:
resultative xodgara He/She killed sb/sth.- I resultative xedgari Perhaps he/she killed
sb/sth; II resultative xedgaran He/She has killed sb/sth II resultative conditional
xedgarl Perhaps he/she has killed sb/sth.
3.Relevantly in Svan epistemicy is an independent morpho-syntactical category as: a) in Svan verb conjugation there are screeves (future continuous and future
perfect, conditional continuous perfect, conditional-resultative I and II) which express
only possible knowledge, probability; b) they form opposition at direct-evidencial forms
and some of them at indirect-evidencial forms expressing unseeness: direct-evidencial
future Cadgari He/She will kill sb/sth indirect-evidencial (epistemic) future perfect
Cvadgarne Probably he/she will kill sb/sth; direct-evidencial present adgari He/She
is killing sb/sth indirect evidencial I resulatative (perfect present) xadgarena Apparently he/she has killed sb/sth epistemic-resultative I (presenr perfect) xedgari He/She
has possible killed sb/sth; c) epistemic verbal forms can form hypotaxis independently.

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n. maWavariani (Tbilisi)
kiTxviTobis -ma da uaryofiTobis -mmorfemaTa istoriisaTvis afxazurSi da maTi saerTo amosavlis kavSiri qarTuli enis
analogiur kategoriebTan
kiTxviTi formebi did nairsaxeobas iZleva afxazurSi. Cveni
interesis sagans amJamad kiTxviTobis -ma sufiqsi warmoadgens, romelic kiTxviTobis gamoxatvis erT-erTi saSualebaa dadebiTkiTxviT winadadebaSi, anu iseTi saxis kiTxviT winadadebaSi, romelic ar Seicavs uaryofiT nawilaks.
zmnis dadebiT-kiTxviTi forma kiTxviTobis gamosaxatavad
iyenebs -ma da -u sufiqsebs. isini daerTvian zmnis ama Tu im drois
infinitur formas: b-co-ma? < b-caa-ma? `Sen (q.) midixar?~, ~-E-bo? <
~-E-baEa-u? `Sen (k.) xedav?~ (lomTaTiZe 1942).
uaryofiToba afxazurSi -m- morfemiT gadmoicema. misi adgili zmnaSi damokidebulia zmnis sxvadasxva morfologiur pirobaze:
dinamikuroba-statikurobaze,
finituroba-infiniturobaze,
mwkrivis romelobaze.
statikur zmnebSi uaryofis -m nawilaki mudam Ziris Semdeg
dgas (sufiqsia) yvela nakvTsa da sityaTwarmoebiT kategoriaSi,
dinamikur

zmnaTa

finituri

warmoebis

awmyos,

mofadi

I-is,

mofadi II-isa da namo usrulis formebSi.


uaryofis m- nawilaki mudam prefiqsia da, Cveulebriv, zmnis
Ziris win iWers adgils dinamikur zmnaTa finituri warmoebis
namyo ganusazRvrelis, namyo srulis (aoristis), namyo ukveobiTis,
namyo winare warsulis formebsa da imave dinamikur zmnaTa yvela
nakvTis infinitur formebSi.
Tu dinamikuri zmnidanaa saxeli nawarmoebi da mas uaryofiTi
Sinaarsi aqvs, uaryofiTi afiqsi m- iqneba sityvis TavSi: a-m-ba
`uxilavi~, abara `xilva~. piriqiT, Tu statikuri zmnidanaa nawarmoebi saxeli da mas uaryofiTi Sinaarsi aqvs, uaryofiTi afiqsi -m
iqneba sityvis boloSi: a-H-m `ucxo~.
aseTivea uaryofis warmoeba absolutivSic. aq m afiqsis garda -a sufiqsic daerTvis Zirs (safiqrebelia, es igive `yofna~
zmnis fuZea). m- da -a dinamikur zmnebSi daSorebulia erTmaneTs:
s-m-ca-a `me wausvlelad~, i-ya-s-m-wa-a `me risame gaukeTeblad~.

208

n. maWavariani

statikur zmnaSi aqac -m sufiqsia, zmnas mTlianad erTvis m-a


boloSi: -s-ma-ma `me mis uqonlad~.
q. lomTaTiZis azriT, zemoT aRniSnuli viTareba imiT unda
aixsnebodes, rom enaSi dinamikur da statikur zmnaTa dapirispirebis erT-erT niSnad gamoyenebul iqna uaryofis afiqsis adgilmdebareobac (lomTaTiZe 1953).
swored -m- formantis aseTi formiT gamoyenebis aRniSnulma
SemTxvevam miiqcia Cveni yuradReba.
Cven vfiqrobT, rom afxazuris kiTxviTobis -ma formanti uaryofiTobis Sinaarssac unda Seicavdes da amiT unda iyos ganpirobebuli am ori -ma da -m- formantis (-m-) masalobrivi erTianoba.
am mosazrebis safuZvels iZleva Semdegi garemoeba: igi (-ma formanti)
mxolod im SemTxvevaSi ixmareba, rodesac winadadeba ar
Seicavs uaryofiT nawilaks. savaraudod, am nawilakiT gadmoicema
kiTxvis, daaxloebiT aseTi, Sinaarsi: b-co-ma? < b-caa-ma? `Sen (q.)
midixar? (ara?) an: --bo? < --baa-u? `Sen (k.) xedav?~ (ara?).
sxvagvarad rom vTqvaT, mxolod zmnis dadebiT-kiTxviT formaSi -ma sufiqsis gamoyeneba SesaZloa imis gamo xdeba, rom kiTxviToba-uaryofiTobis erTnairi morfologiuri inventariT gadmocema maTi saerTo warmoSobiT aixsneba.
afxazuris viTareba Zvel qarTulSi kiTxviTi a- nawilakis
gamoyenebas mogvagonebs: `iakob manda arsa?~ (SuSanikis wameba, 52)
rac, SesaZloa, niSnavda: `iakobi mand aris, ara?~
da odes isadilnes, hrqua simon-petres iesu: simon ionaso,
giKuar mea ufrois amaTsa?....(iovane, 21,15).
hrqua mas
(iovane, 21,16).

mermeca

meored:

simon

ionaso,

giyuar

mea?

kualad hrqua mas iesu mesamed: simon ionaso, giyuar mea?


(iovane, 21,17).
anu, xom giyvarvar amaTze metad (ara?)
anu, xom giyvarvar (ara?)
anu, xom giyvarvar (ara?)
da samive SekiTxvisa da petre mociqulisagan dadebiTi pasuxis Semdeg macxovris mowodeba unda gulisxmobdes: `(Tu giyvarvar,)
damwysen cxovarni Cemni~... TiTqos kiTxviTobis -a morfema Seicavs
garkveul apelaciurobasac. raRa Tqma unda, zemoT moyvanili amonaridis Cven mier SemoTavazebuli aseTi interpretacia hipoTeturia.
-a nawilakis Sesaxeb qarTulSi didZali samecniero literatura arsebobs (babunaSvili, SaniZe, uTurgaiZe...).

kiTxviTobis -ma da uaryofiTobis -m- morfemaTa istoriisaTvis . . .

209

Tu winadadebaSi kiTxviTi sityva gvaqvs, Zveli qarTuli iq -a


nawilaks aRar iyenebs, mag.: `sada arian wyalobani Senni ufalo?~
(fs. 88, 50) (uTurgaiZe 1966, 216).
-a nawilaki unda CaiTvalos kiTxvis gramatikul morfemad
(uTurgaiZe 1966, 217).
kiTxviTi -a nawilaki saerTo qarTveluria: Zvel qarTulSi
dadasturebul kiTxviT -a nawilaks sxva qarTvelur enebSi moepoveba kanonzomieri fonetikur-morfologiuri Sesatyvisebi: svanuri
-a da megruli -o, maT mxolod kiTxvis warmoeba evalebaT. (uTurgaiZe 1966, 214).
a-sTan dakavSirebiT svanurSi T. uTurgaiZes uCndeba kiTxva:
(miresa? xoxesa? xoxalesa?-s -esa mTliani afiqsia Tu iSleba? igi
varaudobs, rom -esa daboloeba miRebulia ha `Tu~ da desa `ara~
nawilakis SeerTebiT proklitika-enklitikisa da eliziis Sedegad,
rac hiatusiTaa gamowveuli, ha+desa iZleva -esa daboloebas anu
daboloeba Seicavs uaryofiT nawilaks (uTurgaiZe 1966, 219).
Cven gvgonia, rom qarTulis kiTxviTobis a-c uaryofiTi `ara~
nacvalsaxelidan unda momdinareobdes, romelic Tavis mxriv `arseboba/yofna~, zmnasTan unda iyos kavSirSi..., es ara nacvalsaxelia
da ara nawilaki, miRebuli ar+ra-sagan ori Tanxmovnis SeerTebiT
da Semdeg erT-erTis gauCinarebiT (SaniZe 1980, 103) (< ara-ra, arra...) es nacvalsaxeli Tanamedrove qarTulSi aRar gvxvdeba: SemorCenilia mxolod zmniT gaTiSul sintaqsur konstruqciaSi:
`iyo da ara iyo ra~ (SaniZe 1980, 103).
`arseboba/yofna~ zmnasTan dakavSirebiT da mis nacvalsaxelur ZirebTan kavSirze mravali met-naklebad gasaziarebeli mosazrebaa gamoTqmuli (SaniZe, imnaiSvili, abulaZe, Ciqobava, lomTaTiZe, rogava, qurdiani, arabuli, osiZe, yaraia, klimovi, gamyreliZe, mayavariani, sarJvelaZe, fenrixi, soselia, erTeliSvili,
qavTaraZe, gaCeCilaZe, Sengelia, suxiSvili, Smidti, deetersi, boederi...)
Cveni azriT, SesaZloa a momdinareobdes
ara-sagan,
*armyofi..., xolo ra niSnavs *myofs... erTi SexedviT, urTierTsawinaaRmdego cnebebi arseboba da ararseboba, SesaZloa, enaSi erTi
da imave morfologiuri inventariT gadmoices: *a+ra=ar+myofi, es
leqsikuri erTeuli
SesaZloa erTdroulad asaxavda gonierisa
da aragonieris armyofobas, Sesabamisad, adamianisa da nivTisaTvis
igi erTnairad gamoyenebadi iqneboda. aris: rogorc nivTi, ise adamiani, ar aris rogorc nivTi, ise adamiani... e. i. aq gvaqvs aseTi
dapirispireba: ara da ra... maTi semantikuri modelireba SeiZleba
rogorc myofi _ armyofi...
afxazurSi uaryofiTobis da kiTxviTobis gamosaxatavad
`a~<

azaara

`arseboba/yofna~

kopulis

Semcveli

sityva-

210

n. maWavariani

nawilakic gamoiyeneba: sara szaz(e)i? `me vin, ra var?~


momdinareobs
mqone zmnidan...

amazaara- azaara

... m-a...

`yofna-arsebobis~ semantikis

agebulebis mixedviT afxazuri m-a qarTuli a-ra-s ekvivalenturi gamodis: afxazuri m- iseve SeiZleba iyos uaryofiTobisa, rogorc qarTulis a-. anu
qarTuli ara < a+ra, `armyofi~,
xolo afxazuri ma < m+a `armyofi~...
TavisTavad, qarTulis a- da afxazuris m- erTi da igive odenoba Cans, isini amJamad uaryofiTobas aRniSnaven, istoriulad ki
orive yofna-arsebobis semantikis zmnidan unda momdinareobdes:
amazaara-dan _ ma-, aris zmnidan ki _ a-.
enobrivi fsiqologiis TvalsazrisiT sagulisxmo Tanxvedraa.
Tavad map `uari~ SesaZloa Sedgebodes m + ap < a kopulisagan
(lomTaTiZe 1974, 133).
safiqrebelia, rom es ori morfema (kiTxviTobis ma- da uaryofiTobis m- erTi da imave mniSvnelobis saerTo morfologiur
odenobas, savaraudod, uaryofis aRmniSvnel sityva-nawilaks warmoadgenda. (Sdr.: afx. mamo < mama, `ara~, map `uari~), Sesabamisad,
maTi materialuri Tanxvedra ar unda iyos SemTxveviTi.
mosazrebas mxars uWers sxva iberiul-kavkasiur enaTa monacemebic;
s. janaSias azriT, svanuri -a kiTxviTi nawilaki, albaT, fonetikur
niadagze miRebuli variantia *a-si, romelic saerTo
qarTveluri kiTxviTi nawilakia (Zveli qarTuli -a, megruli -o).
es qarTveluri -a formanti geneturad enaTesaveba Cerqezul -a
sufiqss, romelic imave funqcias asrulebs rogorc saxelebTan,
ise zmnasTan: is `zis~, is-a? `zis?~ (janaSia 1959, 102).
kiTxviTobis da uaryofiTobis semantikaTa dakavSireba ar
aris moulodneli zogadenaTmecnieruli TvalsazrisiT, logikurad dakavSirebul kategoriaTa mawarmoebeli morfemebic rom materialur erTianobas amJRavnebdnen, dasaSvebia, aq ganxiluli afxazuris, qarTulisa da svanuris viTareba iZleva safuZvels am
ori kategoriisaTvis _ uaryofiToba-kiTxviTobisaTvis erTi saerTo logikuri amosavali miviCnioT.

kiTxviTobis -ma da uaryofiTobis -m- morfemaTa istoriisaTvis . . .

211

literatura
arabuli 1996 _ a. arabuli, zogi calTanxmovniani zmnuri da
saxeluri Ziris urTierTmimarTebisaTvis. arnold Ciqobavas sakiTxavebi. VII. moxsenebaTa Tezisebi. Tbilisi.
axali aRTqma 2008
gaCeCilaZe 1974 _ p. gaCeCilaZe, uvis zmnis etimologiisaTvis.
ike, XIX. Tbilisi.
lomTaTiZe 1997 _ q. lomTaTiZe, yofna-arsebobisa da qonayolis gamomxatvel zmnaTa Zireuli nairsaxeobebis warmomavloba
qarTvelur enebSi da maT saerTo amosavalTan abazur-afxazur monacemTa kavSiri. qarTveluri memkvidreoba. I. quTaisi.
lomTaTiZe 1942 _ q. lomTaTiZe, kiTxviTi formebi afxazurSi.
smam. t. III, # 9. Tbilisi.
lomTaTiZe 1953 _ q. lomTaTiZe, zmnis uaryofiT formaTa
warmoeba afxazur-abazur dialeqtebSi. ike, V. Tbilisi.
lomTaTiZe 1974 _ q. lomTaTiZe, finitobis -p sufiqsis warmomavlobisaTvis afxazurSi, Tsu Sromebi, B 6-7 (151-152). Tbilisi.
osiZe 1996 _ e. osiZe, varaudebi `arsebobisa~ da `qona-yolis~
aRmniSvneli zogi uZvelesi zmnis warmomavlobis Taobaze. arnold
Ciqobavas sakiTxavebi. VII. moxsenebaTa Tezisebi. Tbilisi.
rogava 1979 _ g. rogava, Zveli qarTuli uvis zmnis fonetikuri da semantikuri variantebi qarTvelur enebSi. ikew, t. VI.
Tbilisi.
uTurgaiZe 1966 _ T. uTurgaiZe, kiTxviTi -a da -me nawilakebi
qarTulSi. ike, IV. Tbilisi.
qurdiani 1996 _ m. qurdiani, klaskategoriani enebis gramatikul struqturaTa Teoriuli modelirebis cda. I. arnold Ciqobavas sakiTxavebi. VII. moxsenebaTa Tezisebi. Tbilisi.
SaniZe 1980 _ a. SaniZe, Txzulebani Tormet tomad. tomi III.
Tbilisi.
Sengelia 1978 _ v. Sengelia, `qona-yolis~ aRmniSvnel zmnaTa
semantikuri ganawileba Zvel qarTulSi. ikew, t. V. Tbilisi.
SuSanikis wameba 1999 _ iakob curtaveli, `wameba~ wmidisa SuSanikisi dedoflisa~. Zveli qarTuli literaturis qrestomaTia.
Tbilisi.
janaSia 1959 _ s. janaSia, Sromebi. t. III. Tbilisi.

kavkasiologiuri Ziebani CAUCASIOLOGIC PAPERS


II

2010

. M ()
-m -m


.
-m,
-
, .. ,
.
-
-ma -y.
: b-c-m? < b-cawa-ma? (.) ?, j-w-b?
j-wa-b-w (.) ? ( 1942).
-m.
: , -.
-m
( ), ,
, I, II
.
m-
,
(), ,

.

, m- : ambt
, br .
,
, -m : tm
.
.
-m- -k ( ,

ma m

213

). m -k
: smcak , .
-m ,
m-k : ismmk , .
. ,
,

( 1956, 5).
-m-
.
, -ma
,
(-m-) : -ma -m-.
: ( -ma- )
,
. ,
: b-co-ma? < b-ca-wa-ma? (.) ? (?) j-w-b, < j-w-baw-u? (.) ?
(?).
, -ma , , ,
-
.
, ,

-: iakob manda
arsa? , , : , ?.
da odes isadilnes, hrkua simon-etres iesu: simon ionajso, giuar mea uprois
amatsa?.... (iovane 21,15)
, : !
, ? ( 21, 15).
hrkua mas mermeca meored: simon ionajso, giuar mea? (iovane 21, 16)
: ! ?
( 21, 16).
ualad hrkua mas iesu mesamed: simon ionaiso, giuar mea? (iovane 21, 17)
: ! ?
( 21, 17).
.. ? ( ?)
.. ( ?)
.. ( ?)

214


: ( ) ...
-
. ,
.
,
- (, , ...).
,
-, : `sada arian alobani enni upalo? (
, ?)~ (. 88.50) ( 1966, 216).
-
( 1966, 217).
- :
-



-: - -,
( 1966, 214).
- . ( miresa?
xoxesa? xoxalesa? -esa ?).
, -esa ha desa
- , ,
ha+desa -esa, . .
( 1966, 219).
, -
`ara~ `~, , ,
arseboba/opna /, `ara~ `~
`ara~ `~ - ar+ra (+)
( 1980, 103) (<
ara-ra, ar-ra...).
: ,
: `io da ara io ra~ (-) ( 1980, 103).
/
(, , ,
, , , , , , , ,
, , , , , ,
, , , , , , ...),
.
, - ar- *armopi (
...), ra *mopi (). ,
,

ma m

215

: *a+ra =
ar+mopi (+r = +);
, , .
aris (): (), ; ar aris () ,
..., : ara ra... ( ).
mopi _ armopi ( ).
ak
<akzaara / -,
: sara szkz(e)i? , ? m-k amazaara akzr ,
-...
m-k
-r: m- ,
-, .. ara < a+ra ,
m-k < m+k ...
, . - . m-, ,
,
-: m- mazr, - _
aris ().
ma , , m + < k (
1974, 133).
, ( m-
m-
, , -, (. . mamow
< mawmaw) , ma ,
.
-
.
. , -
-,
( -, -).
-, ,
: is `~, isa? `?~ ( 1959, 102).
.
m-ka
-r: m- ,

216

-, .. ara < a+ra ,


mk < m-k ...
, ,
, ,
. ,
,
.

e
1996

. ,
. . VII.
. ( . .).
1974 . , uvis.
- , XIX. ( . .).
1996 . ,
, c-. . VII. ,
( . .).
1942 . ,
. , . III, 9. ( . .).
1953 . ,
- . - .
V. ( . .).
1974

. ,
- . , 6-7 (151-152).
. ( . .).
1996 . ,
"", " "", ""
-
. . I. ( . .).
. 1999 . , " .
". ( . .).
2008 ( . .).
1996 . ,
arseboba kona-ola . VII.
( . .).
1979
.,
uvis (" // ") .
. VI. ( . .).

ma m

217

1966 . , -a -me
. , IV. ( . .).
1980 . , 12 . III. ( .
.).
1978 . ,
"" . ( . .).

N. Machavariani (Tbilisi)
Towards the History of Interrogative -ma and Negative -m- Morphemes in
Abkhaz and the Connection of Their Common Origin with Georgian Analogous
Categories
Summary
In Abkhaz the usage of -ma suffix is one of the tools for expressing question in
affirmative-interrogative sentence.
An affirmative-interrogative form of a verb uses -ma and -u suffixes for expressing a question. They are added to an infinitive form of this or that tense of a verb: b-coma? < b-cawa-ma? "Are you going?, j-w-bo? < j-w-bawa-u? "Do you see?" (Lomtatidze, 1942).
In Abkhaz negation is expressed by -m- morpheme. Its place in a verb is depended on different morphological conditions of a verb: dynamic-static, finitivness
infinitivness, kind of a screeve.
The paper expresses the viewpoint, that an Abkhaz interrogative ma formant
could contain negation, as well and thus, this conditions a material unity (-m-) of these
two formants -ma and -m-. This viewpoint is grounded on the following: this -ma formant is used only in that case, when there is no negative particle in a sentence. Supposedly, such contents of question is expressed by this particle: b-co-ma? < b-cawa-ma?
"Are you going? (aren't you?)" or j-w-bo? j-wa-bawa-u? "Do you see? (don't you?).
I think, that these two morphemes (interrogative ma- and negative m-) should
have been a common morphological quantity of the same meaning, supposedly, a wordparticle denoting negation (cf.: Abkh. mamow < mawmaw "no", map "refusal", that, according to K. Lomtatidze's view, should be contain m + ap < akcopula
(Lomtatidze, 1974: 133). Accordingly, their material coinciding should not be accidental.
An Abkhaz situation reminds the usage of an interrogative a- particle in old Georgian:
"iakob manda arsa?" "Is Jacob there?" that means: "iakobi mand aris, ara?" "Jacob
is there, is not he?"

218

Many viewpoints are expressed on a- particle in a scientific literature (Babunashvili, Shanidze, Uturgaidze...).
I think, that Georgian interrogative a- should be also originated from ara "no"
pronoun, that in its turn should be connected with the verb existence/ to be. This ara is
a pronoun and not a particle originated through joining of two consonants ar+ra and
then losing one of them (Shanidze, 1980: 103) - (< ara-ra, ar-ra...). This pronoun does
not occur in modern Georgian. It is preserved only in a syntactic construction splitted by
a verb: "iKo da ara iKo ra" (Shanidze, 1980: 103).
Generally, many viewpoints are expressed on the verb existence/to be and its
connection with pronoun roots in a scientific literature (Shanidze, Imnaishvili, Abuladze, Chikobava, Lomtatidze, Rogava, Kurdiani, Arabuli, Osidze, Tcharaia, Klimov,
Gamkrelidze, Machavariani, Sarjveladze, Fhnrich, Soselia, Ertelishvili, Kavtaradze,
Gachechiladze, Shengelia, Sukhishvili, Schmidt, Deeterce, Boeder...).
The connection a < *ar "non-existence"... *ra "existence" offered by me can be
added to them. At a glance, opposite conceptions existence and non-existence can be
expressed by the same morphological tools in a language: *a+ra=ar+mKopi "nonexistence". Possible this lexical entry should have expressed the non-existence of animate and inanimate, accordingly it should have been used for a human-being and an
object similarly. Semantic modeling of ara/ra opposition could be as armKopi mKopi
"non-existence existence". It is clear, that a root element is -r-.
In Abkhaz word-particles containing ak < akzaara "existence/to be" copula
are used, as well: sara zakz(e)i? "What/Who am I?", m-ka... "non-existence" from
the verb having the semantics of amazaara/akzaara to be/existence"
According to structure, Abkhaz m-ka comes to be an equivalent of Georgian ara: Abkhaz m- can be of negative like Georgian a- or Georgian ara < a+ra "nonexistence" and Abkhaz m-ka < m+ka "non-existence"...

kavkasiologiuri Ziebani CAUCASIOLOGIC PAPERS


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2010

T. maxarobliZe (Tbilisi)
inversia da ergativizaciis procesi
Tanamedrove qarTuli enaTmecniereba agrZelebs samecniero
polemikas inversis Temaze. Cven erT-erT werilSi vwerdiT, rom is
pirTa niSnebi, romlebic mocemuli gvaqvs III seriaSi, diaqroniuli
TvalsazrisiT, sruliad cxadia, rom aris ara pirdapiri obieqtis,
aramed iribi obieqtis kuTvnileba, ramdenadac statikur zmnaTa
formebSi, ris safuZvelzec gaformda III seria, pirdapiri obieqti
arasodes yofila. es iyo iribi obieqti da zustad amitom
sampirian zmnaSi irib obieqts zmnis gareT tovebs uRlebis
paradigma. Tu gaviziarebT im mosazrebas, rom TiTqos ar xdeba
inversia, unda CavTvaloT, rom - dauxatavs (kacs suraTi
dedisaTvis) aq suraTi aris subieqti (gnebavT iniciatori). Tu
pirvel da meore seriaSi subieqti aris kaci, paradigma
winaaRmdegobrivi iqneba, Tu mas mesame seriaSi sxva gramatikuli
subieqti gauCndeba. Ees ewinaaRmdegeba fleqsiis ZiriTad kanonebs.
naTelia, rom III seriaSi ara gvaqvs ordinaruli situacia, magram
markerTa formobrivi cvla ufro misaRebia, vidre Sinaarsobrivi
xasiaTis cvlilebani paradigmaSi (1, 193).
udavoa, rom rodesac saubaria inversiaze da es xdeba
sinqronul doneze gardamaval zmnaSi (romelic SeiZleba iyos
orpiriani an sampiriani), piris niSanTa cvlileba exeba subieqtsa
da pirdapir obieqts. saerTod, axali araa, rom aqtivi da pasivi
konversiuli
konkretuli
urTierTmimarTebis
formebia
da,
amdenad, naTelia, rom me werils vwer iqneba werili iwereba /
werili weria, sadac yofili pirdapiri obieqti iqneba subieqtis
rolSi da es movlena Sesabamisadac aris gaformebuli qarTuli
enis morfologiaSi. magram amave dros es sulac ar niSnavs imas,
rom me werils vwer formisaTvis uRlebis romelime paradigmaSi
fleqsiis
kanonebisaTvis
miuRebeli
cvalebadi
aqtantebia
mosalodneli.

220

T. maxarobliZe

prof. T. uTurgaiZe Tavis wignSi qarTuli enis doneTa


ZiriTadi maxasiaTeblebis urTierTzemoqmedebisaTvis globalur
enobriv
sistemaSi
inversiasTan
dakavSirebiT
warmoaCens
gansxvavebul Tvalsazriss da wers, rom Sedegi yovelTvis
pirdapiri damatebiT aris gamoxatuli (gv. 142) da iqve
ewinaaRmdegeba am debulebas, rodesac saubrobs perfeqtis mier
rolebis ganawilebaze da es Sedegi, avtoris azriT, ukve
subieqtia perfeqtSi. Tumca mkvlevari amjerad pirdapir ar
moixseniebs mas subieqtad. igi wers: mas dauxatavs suraTi _
suraTi warsuli qmedebis Sedegia... da perfeqtulobis modeliT,
rogorc Sedegi, iRebs subieqtis niSans, xolo mas aqac
Semsrulebeli aqtantia da obieqtis niSniT gamoixateba (gv. 142).
amgvarad, T. uTurgaiZis mier warmodgenili perfeqtulobis
kategoriis mier rolebis ganawilebis Teoriis arsi ucvlelia
Tu ar vcnobT da ar vaRiarebT inversiis movlenas enaSi, maSin
gamodis, rom subieqtad miviCnevT am niSnebiT gaformebul aqtants.
im SemTxvevaSic ki, Tu zogadad ar mogvwons subieqtis termini
an cneba da gvsurs misi gaSla semantikuri niuansebis mixedviT,
aqac es pretenzia iqneba, rom moTxovna Tanabrad unda gavrceldes
samive seriaze. Yyvela sxva SemTxvevaSi T. uTurgaiZis mier
wamoyenebuli mosazreba
SeusabamobaSi aRmoCndeba
fleqsiis
ZiriTad kanonebTan mimarTebaSi da SeewinaaRmdegeba enis, rogorc
formalur-funqciuri sistemis, ganviTarebis gzas. nebismieri
axali saenaTmecniero debulebebis miReba an ar miReba sirTules
ar warmoadgens, ramdenadac ena sistemaa da esa Tu is mosazreba
ramdenad marTebulia, amas TviTon sistema uCvenebs.
im
SemTxvevaSi,
Tu
gaviziarebT
profesor
Tedo
uTurgaiZis mosazrebas da CavTvliT, rom me damixatavs naxati
naxati aris subieqti, rogorc rezultati da me (kacs) aris
obieqti. dgeba sakiTxi: es me (kacs) romeli obieqtia pirdapiri
Tu iribi? micemiT brunvaSi mdgari obieqti iribs waagavs, Tumca
Tuki pirdapirma obieqtma da subieqtma gacvales rolebi, maSin es
pirdapiri obieqti unda iyos. pirdapiri obieqti, saerTod, meoresa
da mesame seriebSi saxelobiTSi gveguleboda. isic unda
aRiniSnos, rom semantikuradac miuRebelia am aqtantis pirdapir
samoqmedo obieqtad gadaazreba. gamodis, rom es aris iribi
obieqti, rac brunvis mixedviT dasaSvebia. magram aq ukve miviReT
gardauvali zmna. aseTi tipis Tvisobrivi cvlileba ki savsebiT
dauSvebelia paradigmis kanonebis mixedviT. arc erT enaSi
fleqsia ar icnobs am tipis enobriv movlenas.

inversia da ergativizaciis procesi

221

ismis martivi kiTxva: Tu perfeqtuloba anawilebs


rolebs, meore seriaSi ratom ar xdeba imave tipis movlena, iqac
xom srul droebTan gvaqvs saqme (dawera, daweros)?
aRsaniSnavia,
rom
zmnuri
aqtantebis
umartivesi
klasifikacia, anu tradiciuli klasifikacia
_ subieqti,
pirdapiri da iribi obieqtebi _ gaxlavT saenaTmecniero
azrovnebis udidesi monapovari. sxvadasxva niuansebis mqone
aqtantTa unifikacia da ganzogadeba universaluria da Tavis
TavSi moiazrebs am aqtantTa yovelgvar semantikur Sinaarsebs.
amrigad, uRlebis paradigma (anu dro-kiloTa sistema), sxva
derivaciuli kategoriebisagan gansxvavebiT, ver Secvlis am
aqtantTa morfosintaqsur rolebs. saerTod, naTelia, rom zmnis
samive pirs (subieqts, pirdapirsa da irib obieqtebs) aqvs sakmaod
farTo semantikuri diapazoni. magaliTad, subieqtis tipebis
daxasiaTeba SeiZleba aqtiurobis gradaciiT, gvaris mixedviT da,
ra Tqma unda, konkretuli zmnis semantikiT. cnobilia iribi
obieqtis farTo semantikuri speqtri dawyebuli beneficiariT da
damTavrebuli lokativiT. Tu aqcents gavakeTebT pirdapir
obieqtze rogorc Sedegze, maSin aqve unda aRvniSnoT is
garemoebac, rom aseTive Sedegi iqneba sxva seriebsa da
mwkrivebSic. Tu kacs dauxatavs qali - qali aris Sedegi, maSin
Tvisobrivad igive Sedegi unda iyos meore seriaSic - kacma daxata
qali.
xolo pirvel seriaSi kaci xatavs qals aqtanti qals
aris mosalodneli Sedegi. unda iTqvas, rom Sedegi yovelTvis ar
aris calsaxa - anu me movkali kaci Sedegi ar aris kaci, aq
Sedegia mokluli kaci. mesame seriaSi kacs dauxatavs qali.
Sedegi ar aris qali, aq Sedegia daxatuli qali.
Tu miviRebT imas, rom pirvel seriaSi kaci xatavs
qals qali aris pirdapiri damateba da kaci _ subieti, maSin
mesame
seriaSic
igive
gveqneba,
formobrivi
cvlilebebis
miuxedavad. es gaxlavT anbanuri WeSmariteba. rac Seexeba,
perfeqtis formebSi win wamoweul Sedegobriobas, es savsebiT
naTeli faqtia, perfeqti, rogorc dasrulebuli moqmedeba Tavisi
SedegiTaa
warmodgenili
da,
Sesabamisad,
aseT
formebs
rezultativebsac uwodeben.
saqme isaa, rom mesame seriaSi Cven gvaqvs ergativizaciis
mimdinare procesi. ergatiuli konstruqcia swored obieqtis win
wamowevas
gulisxmobs.
ergativizaciis
procesis
Sedegad
warmoqmnili inversiis movlenis gamo am seriaSi zmnis aqtantebis

222

T. maxarobliZe

Sinagani _ semantikuri donis da garegnuli anu morfologiuri


referenciis donis veqtorebi sarkisebur asimetrias gviCveneben.
gamovyofT statistikur calmxriv universalias: inversia,
rogorc zmnuri movlena, mxolod polipersonalur (gardamaval)
zmnebSia SesaZlebeli.
profesori T. uTurgaiZe wers: Zaladoba enaze emyareba
debulebas moqmedi u T u o d s u b i e q t i a (xazgasma
avtorisaa), e.i. Tu moqmedia, gind obieqtis niSani hqondes,
usaTuod subieqtad unda miviCnioTo da piris niSanTa inversiis
daSvebac aucilebeli xdeba (gv. 143). ACveni SexedulebiT ki
Zaladoba enaze emyareba debulebas moqmedi anu subieqti u T u
subieqtis niSnebiTaa gaformebuli. es debuleba uaryofs
o d
inversias da xelovnurad moiazrebs pirdapir obieqts subieqtad.
aqve unda davZinoT, rom aseTi sakiTxebis ganxilvisas
upriani iqneboda enobrivi analizisaTvis Cven mier xuTiode wlis
win mowodebuli funqciur-formaluri Teoriis gamoyeneba. ena,
rogorc umaRlesi materia, aris formisa da funqciis mWidro da
kanonzomieri urTierToba. amitomac ama Tu im enobrivi movlenis
Seswavla formisa da funqciis urTierTobis safuZvelze unda
moxdes. Ffaqtobrivad, Cven vaerTianebT am ori ukiduresi
mimdinareobis (formalizmisa da funqcionalizmis) saukeTeso
debulebebs
da
axali
funqciur-formaluri
racionaluri
meToduri midgomis Teoria Semogvaqvs, romlis mixedviTac, esa Tu
is enobrivi movlena xan formidan, xan ki funqciidan gamomdinare
aixsneba. erTi SexedviT, aseTi midgoma TiTqos ar aris
erTgvarovani da, rogorc meTodi, miuRebelic Cans, magram
gavixsenoT
Tundac
enaTmecnierebisaTvis
ukve
cnobili
klasifikaciis kombinirebuli principis sqema. erTgvarovnebis
principis dacva aucilebelia erTi konkretuli midgomis dros,
magram movlenaTa tipologiuri ganzogadebisaTvis da misi
saboloo zogadenobrivi modelis gasaazreblad aucilebelia
Tavad enis mravalmxrivobis gaTvaliswineba, rac, upirveles
yovlisa,
mdgomareobs
enis
formisa
da
funqciis
urTierTmimarTebis sakiTxSi. enaSi forma da funqcia erTobas
qmnis. amdenad, cxadia, es erToba kvlevisTvisac mniSvnelovani
iqneba. saTqmeli, azri, arsi anu funqcia aris pirveladi
amosavali, magram rig SemTxvevaSi, rodesac ukve Seqmnilia
enobrivi sistema, igi ukve damoukideblad, sistemis kanonebis
Sesabamisad, enobrivi inerciiT muSaobs. aseT dros yalibdeba
formaluri erTeulebi, romlebic sakmaod dacilebulia funqciur

inversia da ergativizaciis procesi

223

sawyiss. aseT SemTxvevaSi formaluri midgoma iqneba swori...


aseTi
tipis
funqcias
dacilebuli
formebis
istoriul
ganviTarebas diaqroniuli tipologia gaarkvevs.
bunebrivia, rom sinqroniulad forma da funqcia enaSi
Tanabar SesabamisobaSi ver iqneba. rig SemTxvevaSi funqcia axsnis
formas, zogan ki forma axsnis funqcias. Tu es orive Tanabrad ar
gaviTvaliswineT, maSin srulyofili ver iqneba ama Tu im enobrivi
movlenis kvleva. aseTi midgomiT Cven vaerTianebT or interess:
EerTi mxriv, lingvisti Teoretikosebis interess formaluri
inventarisadmi da, meore mxriv,
interess enobrivi faqtebis
funqciuri axnisadmi. (gv.7)
saerTod,
diaqroniuli
gadmosaxedidan
SedarebiT
advilad moCans enaSi ganviTarebuli procesebi. aseT diaqroniul
bazaze kargad aixsneba sinqronuli procesebic. faqtia, rom
qarTul enaSi yalibdeba specifikuri ergatiuli sistema da am
mimdinare process ukavSirdeba movlenaTa rigi: erTTemiani,
uTemisniSno da
fuZedrekadi zmnebis or Temianad gadaqcevis
tendencia da procesi; pirveli da meore seriebis gamijvnis
damatebiTi mcdeloba Temis niSnebiT, mesame seriaSi mimdinare
iseTi procesebi, rogoricaa ergatiuli dativi subieqtisaTvis,
inversia da Temis niSanTa araobligatoruloba. miuxedavad
miRebuli
saliteraturo
normebisa,
faqtia,
romEenas
ver
gadauwyvetia damixatia Tu damixatavs. saerTod, unda iTqvas,
rom saliteraturo normebi, garkveuli TvalsazrisiT, SezRudvebs
uwesebs enas, es ki, enis ganviTarebis TvalsazrisiT, aris iseTi
ram, rasac ena realurad arasodes emorCileba. araa gamoricxuli,
rom garkveuli drois Semdeg mesame seriam uTemisniSno formebi
daimkvidros normebad. am tendencias ki ganapirobebs is garemoeba,
rom Temis niSnebi Tavs iyris pirvel seriaSi nominatiuri
konstruqciis formebSi.
gardamavali zmnebis meore seriaSi gvaqvs ergatiuli
brunva gardamaval zmnebTan. aq gvaqvs
perfeqti, rac aris
qarTuli (da ara marto qarTuli) ergativisaTvis erT-erTi
sayrdeni monacemi. Tumca aq gvaqvs usruli drois formebic,
romlebic, inerciis kanonis mixedviT, imave tipis ergatiul
models avseben. es ki niSnavs imas, rom perfeqtuloba erTaderTi
gadamwyveti faqtori araa qarTuli ergatiuli konstruqciisaTvis.
mesame seriis Tavisebureba sworedac imaSia, rom aq gvaqvs
ergatiuli dativi da perfeqtuloba.

224

T. maxarobliZe

rogorc ukve aRvniSneT, qarTulSi gardamavali zmnebis


meore seriaSi xdeba ganzogadeba, es aris inerciis kanonis
moqmedeba ergatiuli konstruqciaa srul da usrul formebTan.
aqve saWirod migvaCnia, rom oriode sityviT SevexoT inerciis
kanons enaSi. inerciis kanoni... sxva kanonebTan erTad qmnis enis
ganviTarebis Sinagan kanons.
enis sistemaSi muSaobs klasikuri
meqanikis kanonebi. es arc aris gasakviri, ramdenadac ena aris
cocxali organizmi da igi ganuwyvetliv ganicdis evolucias.
niutonis pirveli kanoni, romelic safuZvlad daedo klasikur
meqanikas, ase JRers yoveli sxeuli cdilobs SeinarCunos
Tavisi uZraobis an Tanabari wrfivi moZraobis mdgomareoba, vidre
igi iZulebuli ar gaxdeba modebuli Zalebis gavleniT Seicvalos
es mdgomareoba (1687 w.). es aris inerciis kanoni.
inerciis kanoni muSaobs enaSic, enis sistemis yvela
ubanze da misi ierarqiis yvela doneze. Eenis ganviTarebis procesi
pirdapir eqvemdebareba am kanons. gansakuTrebiT TvalsaCinoa
inerciis kanonis moqmedeba ama Tu im enaze sxva enis gavlenis
faqtebSi, rodesac gavlenis qveS myofi ena inerciiT cdilobs
gadaabgeros Semosuli sityvebi an misTvis nacnobi semantika
moaxvios ucxo erTeulebs. ena, rogorc maRali materia, cxadia,
emorCileba Sesabamis kanonzomierebebs. enis ganviTarebis inerciis
kanoni erTaderTia, romelsac SeuZlia axsnas enaTa reintegraciis
procesebSi reintergirebul enaTa morfo-semantikasa da sintaqsSi
ganviTarebuli paraleluri cvlilebebi....
enis ganviTarebis kanoni martivad xsnis nebismieri
analogiis
movlenas
enaSi.
xSirad
inerciis
kanoni
aseve
ganapirobebs rig sistemur cvlilebebsac. faqtobrivad, enis
ganviTarebis inerciis kanoni qmnis simetriul konstruqciebs
enaSi (gv. 9) es aris asimetriebis kanonis sawinaaRmdego movlena.
yvela enas axasiaTebs sistemuroba, radganac ena aris sistema da
es universaluria, Tumca yvela enas aqvs Tavisi enobrivi logika
da gaaCnia Tavisi konkretuli sistemuri maxasiaTeblebi. is, rac
enobriv sistemas qmnis konkretul enaSi, eqvemdebareba Sesabamis
enobriv logikas, magram, amave TvalsazrisiT, yovel enas aqvs
asimetriebi.
lingvisturi
asimetriebi
am
SemTxvevaSi
ar
gulisxmobs imaves, rasac pragmatuli enaTmecnierebis Sesabamisi
termini, romelic gamoiyeneba, magaliTad, asimetriuli dialogis
analizisaTvis. am SemTxvevaSi Cven vsaubrobT enobrivi logikis
asimetriebze. es aris arasistemuri, ganupirobebeli formebi enaSi.

inversia da ergativizaciis procesi

225

Y yovel enas aqvs Tavisi saxasaiTo saidumloebebi anu


formobriv-semantikuri
asistemuri
movlenebi
da
garkveuli
sirTuleebi ucxoelTaTvis. nebismieri yvelaze ufro rTuli
sistemac ki ver CaiTvleba sirTuled am saidumloebebTan
SedarebiT. swored es warmoqmnis am enis Seswavlis ZiriTad
sirTules...
enobrivi logikis asimetriebad unda ganvixiloT
yvela lingvisturi gamonaklisi.
absoluturad naTelia, rom enobivi asimetriebi bunebrivi
movlenaa, ramdenadac ena cocxali organizmia. asimetriebi aris
garkveuli Tavdacvis formebi.
biologiaSi cnobilia, rom
cxovelebi da mcenareebic ki garkveul TavdacviT sistemebs
mimarTaven, roca ucnobi obieqti uaxlovdebaT, isini iniRbebian, an
momwamvlel suns gamoyofen. amdenad, enis mier asimetreibis
Seqmnac am mizans emsaxureba. Tumca enas aqvs gasaidulmoebis sxva
cnobili formebic.
zanurSi ufro Zlieria inerciis kanonis moqmedeba da
gardauvali zmnebic ergatiul konstruqcias qmnian meore seriaSi.
mesame seria am pirveli ori seriis Sualeduri variantia
ergatiulobis TvalsazrisiT. erTi mxriv, gvaqvs Temis niSnebiT,
Tumca araobligatoruli. meore mxriv, gvaqvs ergatiuli dativi
da perfeqti. es jer kidev ar aris srulyofili ergatiuli
konstruqcia. ena cdilobs, win wamowios obieqtis roli da
mniSvneloba da amitom Cndeba inversiis movlena. Cveni azriT,
inversia aixsneba mimdinare ergativizaciis procesiT. swored es
procesi aris inversiis gamomwvevi garemoeba.
ismis kiTxva: ratom dasWirda mesame serias damatebiTi
referencireba da ratom ar warimarTa ergativizaciis procesi
meore seriis modeliT? saqme isaa, rom ergatiuli subieqti aris
moazrovne subieqti
konkretuli vin klasis niSnebiT (T.
maxarobliZe). TurmeobiTebis dauzustebeli Turme kategoriis
moqmedeba moazrovne subieqtis semantikidan gadis da amitom verc
formdeba ergatiuli brunviT. Tumca gardamavali zmnis perfeqtiT
nakarnaxebi
ergatiuli
modeliT
ena
mainc
cdilobs
ergativizaciis procesis warmarTvas da, Sesabamisad, ayalibebs
subieqtisaTvis ergatiuli dativis formebs da ganaviTarebs
inversias obieqtis win wamowevis gziT. iqmneba arasruli
(nawilobrivi) ergatiulobis Semdegi sistema: pirveli seriis
nominatiur konstruqcias upirispirdeba meore da mesame seriebis
asimetriuli ergatiuloba.

226

T. maxarobliZe

Cven gvinda aRvniSnoT, rom qarTuli ergatiuli sistema


aris
kanonzomierad
asimetriuli.
cxadia,
mesame
seriaSi
perfeqtuloba aris gadamwyveti faqtori,Mmagram Cven aq saqme
gvaqvs
ara
rolebis
gadanawilebasTan,
aramed
ergatiuli
konstruqciis formirebis mimdinare procesTan. mogexsenebaT, rom
qarTuli (da ara marto qarTuli) ergatiuli konstruqciisaTvis
perfeqtuloba
aris
erT-erTi
dasayrdeni
morfologiuri
kategoria. saerTod, perfeqtulobas axasiaTebs obieqtis win
wamoweva (zustadac rezultatis saxiT) da swored es qmnis
ergatiul konstruqcias. magram mniSvnelovania imis gaazreba, rom
am dros es semantikurad dominirebuli aqtanti aris obieqti da
ara subieqti.

literatura
T. maxarobliZe, versiis kategoriisa da mesame seriaSi e. w.
ufunqcio qcevis niSnebis Sesaxeb. qarTuli saliteraturo enis
sakiTxebi: istoria da Tanamedrove mdgomareoba. Tbilisi, 2007.
T. maxarobliZe, baskuri da qarTveluri destinaciuri
sistemebis tipologia. Tbilisi, 2007.
T. maxarobliZe, lingvisturi werilebi. I. Tbilisi, 2009.
T.
uTurgaiZe,
gramatikuli
kategoriebisa
da
maTi
urTierTmimarTebisTvis qarTul zmnaSi. Tbilisi, 2002.
T. uTurgaiZe, qarTuli enis doneTa ZiriTadi maxasiaTeblebis
urTierTzemoqmedebisaTvis globalur enobriv sistemaSi. Tbilisi,
2009.
arn. Ciqobava, 1942 _ arn. Ciqobava, saxelis fuZis uZvelesi
agebuleba qarTvelur enebSi. Tbilisi.
arn. Ciqobava 1961 _ arn. Ciqobava, ergatiuli konstruqciis
problema iberiul-kavkasiur enebSi. ergatiuli konstruqciis
raobis Teoriebi. Tbilisi.
a. SaniZe, qarTuli enis gramatikis safuZvlebi. I. morfologia.
Txzulebani
Tormet
tomad.
t.
III.
Tbilisi,
1980.

kavkasiologiuri Ziebani CAUCASIOLOGIC PAPERS


II

2010

T. Makharoblidze (Tbilisi)
Inversion and the Process of Ergativization

There is a polemic on the theme of inversion among the modern Caucasian linguists. In our previous papers we wrote that the verbal personal markers in the III series diachronically are the belongings of the indirect (and not of the direct) object. As
the origin for the III series is in the forms of static passives, which are intransitive verbs
and in such forms we couldnt expect to have any direct object. (p.193) If we agree
with an opinion that there is no inversion in this series, that means the following: in the
form daukhatavs (kacs surati dedistvis), surati is a subject, while the same verb in the
first series has the another subject kaci (kaci surats khatavs). The paradigm will be
with a resistance. According to the rules of flexion/conjugation the same verb cant
change the verbal persons and it is impossible to have one subject in the first series and
another one in the III series. Its clear that there is not an ordinary situation, but we
could accept the formal changes of the markers more, rather than semantic changes of
the content in this paradigm of verbal flexion.
There is no doubt that while talking about inversion in transitive verbs on
sychronic level (these could be three-personal or two-personal transitive verbs) this
marker ex-changes takes place between the subject and the direct object. Its not new
that active is a conversive passive. Its clear that me cerils vcer will be cerili icereba/
cerili ceria where the former direct object is a subject now. This case is properly
described and exposed in Georgian grammar by many linguists. But it doesnt mean that
for the following forms me cerils vcer the diverse arguments are acceptable in the
other rows of conjugation.
Professor T. Uturgaidze in his book Towards the interinfluence of basic
features of Georgian levels in a global language system exposes the different opinion.
He writes: That result is always exposed by the direct object (p. 142) and at the same
page he says the opposite, talking about the roles of verbal persons in perfect forms,
saying thet this result is a subject in perfect. Although he doesnt call it subject
directly.
The general idea of this opinion - that no inversion exists in Georgian in the III
series of transitive verbs is to take the object for a subject. This is not welcome for the
language system. Even if we accept this opinion there will be a lot of questions: which
is this object, direct or indirect? As it is in the dative case, it looks like an indirect

228

T. Makharoblidze

object, but if the roles were exchanged between the subject and the direct object, then it
seems to be the direct object...
But we expectied to have nominative for the direct object in the III series.
Semantically we cant take it for the direct object. If it is an indirect object, which is
possible - as it is in dative, then we would have an intransitive verb without any direct
object. How can transitive verb become intransitive in conjugation? Verbal flexion cant
accpet such changes.
Besides, if perfect is that important performing the inversion why dont we have
the same event in the II series? Dont we have the perfect in the II series?
The simple calssification of the verbal persons (subject, direct object, indirect
object) is universal. Here we have the unification of the actants/arguments with different
activity in one unit subject - for example. In spite the fact that all these arguments
have wide semantic dyapasons. Besides, when we talk about the results in perfesct
forms we shoud say that in the sentence kacs dauxatavs kali the result is daxatuli kali
and not just kali. The result is exposed on the first place and these forms are called as
resultatives as well.
The fact is that in the III series we have the dynamic process of ergativization.
This is an actualization of the object. Thats why the inversion takes a place here. The
inner vectors of semantic level and morphological vectors are showing the mirror
asymmetry.
We can expose the statistic one-side linguistic universal regulation: inversion as a
verbal category can exist only in poly-personal transitive verbs.
Professor Uturgaidze considers that inversion is a forcing on the language. We
cant agree that an acting person is always a subject, even if it has the objective markers... (p.143). This attitude is incorrect. It is an unsuccessful trial to take an object as
for subject artificially. In our opinion it would be helpful for this author to take into
consideration the methodology of functio-formal analysis, which we have exposed a
few years ago. This is a new typological rational synthetic method offering to use the
best results of functionalism and formalism. The language has the two sides of the coin
the form and function and we can lay on functional and formal data analyzing the language systems. The function is prior, but when the language system is already functioning, it may follow only to its formal system in its way of development creating some
forms basing only on some formal system parameters. Such forms must be explained
from the formal point of view. Linguistic analysis needs to unify the functional and
formal analysis.
Actually diachronically its easier to make the analysis for any language process
and synchronic level is better seen from the historical point of view. In temporary
Georgian there is a specific type of split ergativity and this is connected with the other
processes as well:
1.
The processes in the third series is based on its specific semantics and the
usage of thematic markers is not an obligatory. The Georgian language cant decide
which form to use damixatia or damixatavs. Its known that the norms are limiting lan-

Inversion and the Process of Ergativization

229

guage development. Some time in future we can have these forms without thematic
markers. This is a tendency to have nominative construction in the first series only.
2.
Tendency to unify the forms of transitive verbs by the thematic markers
in nomintive construction - in the first series (adding the thematic markers to the verbs
with one theme) in opposition with the second and third series;
3.
Distribution of all thematic markers shows the current process of construction- forming.
According the law of inertia in the second series all transitive verbs perfect and
imperfect forms are generalized under the ergative construction. This process is wider in
Zan, where even intransitive verbs are exposing ergative construction in the second series. The III series is specific becuase there is perfect and ergative dative.
Talking about the law of inertia, we bring here more explanations for this matter.
The laws of classic mechanic act in Language systems and this seems to be very natural
as any language is just an alive organism and it follows to the Universal systemic regulations of physics having its non-stop evolution. The first law of Newton, which became a fundamental base for mechanical physics sounds as following: An object at rest
tends to stay at rest and an object in motion tends to stay in motion with the same speed
and in the same direction unless acted upon by an unbalanced force. This is a law
of inertia and it was discovered in 1687. The Law of Inertia works in languages as well.
It acts on the each level of language hierarchy highly attracting the processes of language development. In our opinion the best samples for the law of inertia in linguistics
could be phonetic changes of foreign words and linguistic analogies. The host language
tries to re-sound the foreign words turning them to the native articulation base. According to this law the host language also tries to tie the familiar semantics to some new
words, which are coming form the other languages.
The language as a high material of course follows to the world-wide proper regulations and the law of inertia is the only one, which could explain the similar type of
morphological, semantic and syntactical changes among the re-integrated languages and
their parallel developments. The law of inertia as a law of inner development during the
language evolution can easily explain any kind of analogies in languages. This law
could also be a reason for the systemic changes. Factually, the law of inertia creates the
symmetric constructions in languages in opposition with the law of linguistic asymmetries.
The language systems follow the directions of their inner structure developments.
Even then, when the language goes out of the literary forms (creating the dialectic forms
or some social expressions) it keeps its inertial productivity in any case at the different
hierarchical level. The processes of learning new languages and childrens speech also
could be really good samples of law of inertia in linguistics. While studying the foreign
languages the new forms are created on the base of a native language. Its quite clear,
that such forms are not acceptable for communication, but they are very interesting for
methodology, as very often these are the typical systemic mistakes. In our opinion the
offered law of inertia in linguistics can have very important meaning from temporary

230

T. Makharoblidze

linguistic sciences (namely for sociolinguistics, cognitive linguistics and neuroncognitive linguistics). The law of inertia can be a key to many unexplained things in the
analysis of dynamical processes of linguistic thinking among the diverse type of social
groups. Actually the law of inertia was always acting in languages and it acts now as
well, like the law of inertia was always active in nature - even before Newtons famous
discovery.
In the same sense there are linguistic logics and asymmetries anomalies. While
talking about asymmetries we need to say that this term is used in pragmatic linguistics,
but of course we dont mean the same thing. Asymmetries are fixed towards the language system in its grammar.
In nature every live organism has its own system to protect itself, for instance,
some plants have the poising smell. Linguistic anomalies are the same matter as a language is a life organism and it behaves like other life beings. There are also some other
systems for hiding inside one language (such as co called Katdjuri in Georgian, taboo
everywhere, etc.).
Actually some languages are difficult to learn not because that they have the difficult systems (11 rows of conjugation or 7 and more cases, etc.), but because of the
reason that these languages have many asymmetries towards the language system. Wed
call them mysteries. Georgian preverbs have such mysteries producing new semantics
out of system and creating new unique semantics for the concrete forms. The same type
of asymmetry is in Georgian/Kartvelian ergative system.
The II series is a middle form between the first nominative and the second ergative forms. It is exposed with ergative dative and non-obligatorily thematic markers. But
as it is not a well exposed ergativity and the language tries to outline the place and
meaning for the object and this is the process of ergativization inversion.
As we already wrote in our previous papers, most cases the ergative subject is the
thinking subject of a human class. Its significant that the un-deliberate or un-real action
of the verbal subject in the rows of the third series (so called turmeobities) are not
expressed by ergative case. Neither potentialis or indefinite common actions or future
tenses are considered as any real act with ergative characterization in Georgian. Following the many other linguists we must say that as a matter of fact the semantics of
results and perfect are very important for Georgian ergative.
In these transitive and perfect forms of the third series the language tries to actualize the object and as a result we have the asymmetric split ergativity in Georgian: nominative construction of the first series crates an opposition with an asymmetrical ergativity of the second and third series.
Perfect is very important for the III series. In these rows of conjugation we can
see the dynamic process of ergativization: The ergative construction tries to expose the
object on the first place and as a result of this process we have the inversion: the subject
and the object are changing the markers.

Inversion and the Process of Ergativization

231

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kavkasiologiuri Ziebani CAUCASIOLOGIC PAPERS


II

2010

s. omiaZe (Tbilisi)
RirebulebiTi paradigma socialur-kulturuli
anTropologiis TvalsazrisiT
anTropologia _ moZRvreba adamianze _ adamianis Sesaxeb
mravalgvari codnis dagrovebas gulisxmobs. amdenad, bunebrivia
mecnierebis sxvadasxva dargis monawileoba am codnis dagrovebaSi
da iseTi ganSrevebebis arseboba, rogoricaa fizikuri anTropologia, istoriamdeli anTropologia, socialuri anTropologia,
kulturuli Tu politikuri anTropologia da sxv.
socialuri da kulturuli anTropologiis or damoukidebel
dargad arsebobas yvela anTropologiuri skola ar iziarebs, magaliTad, amerikeli mecnierebi maT Soris arsebiTs gansxvavebas
ver xedaven, xolo inglisis sociologiuri da anTropologiuri
skolis warmomadgenlebi am ori dargis Seswavlis sagans mijnaven:
socialuri anTropologiisaTvis amosavlad miaCniaT adamianTa
Cvevebi, ganwyobebi, socialuri urTierTobebi; kulturulma anTropologiam ki, maTi azriT, adamiani unda Seiswavlos rogorc
`mwarmoebeli adamiani~ (homo faber), `iaraRis mkeTebeli~ (tool-maker).
am SemTxvevaSi Cvevebi, ganwyobebi da rwmena ganixileba rogorc
inteleqtualuri xasiaTis `iaraRi~, romelic iseve emsaxureba socialur cxovrebas, rogorc sasoflo-sameurneo iaraRebi. socialuri anTropologiisaTvis mTavaria ara `homo faberi~, aramed
socialuri jgufi komunikaciis uamravi formiT, romelic safuZvlad udevs socialur cxovrebas.
zemoTqmulidan gamomdinare, Cveni kvlevisaTvis optimaluria
socialur-kulturuli anTropologiis erT dargad ganxilva,
radgan igi ase ufro mWidrod ukavSirdeba lingvistikas, ramdenadac ena ara mxolod kulturuli movlenaa, aramed socialuri
cxovrebis nebismieri formis arsebobis aucilebeli piroba.
rogorc cnobilia, yovel ers RirebulebiTi orientaciis sakuTari sistema aqvs. es sistema droTa viTarebaSi garkveul

RirebulebiTi paradigma socialur-kulturuli anTropologiis . . .

233

cvlilebas ganicdis. aqsiologiaSi


RirebulebaTa sistematizaciis sxvadasxvagvari sqema arsebobs. erT-erTia ierarqiuli
struqturis sqema, romliTac ganisazRvreba RirebulebaTa metnaklebi mniSvnelovneba. ierarqiuli struqturis umaRles safexurze finaluri Rirebulebebia warmodgenili (qveda safexurebs
ikavebs instrumentuli da warmoebuli Rirebulebebi). erTi da
igive Rirebuleba SeiZleba erTi erisTvis finaluri iyos, meorisaTvis instrumentuli, amitom, Cveni azriT, sxvadasxva sistemaTa
SedarebiT kvlevas didi mniSvneloba eqneba anTropologiis, rogorc zogadad adamianis Semswavleli, mecnierebisaTvis.
enaTmecnierebaSi am mimarTulebiT kvlevis erT-erTi saintereso ubani aRmoCnda Jargonis statusis cvla. Tanamedrove qarTul diskursze dakvirveba gviCvenebs, rom bolo xanebSi Jargonisa
da bilwsityvaobis problemebma gansakuTrebuli mniSvneloba SeiZina. erTica da meorec (isini erTmaneTTan dakavSirebulicaa) mourideblad SeiWra Cvens mwerlobaSi, romelic odiTganve qarTuli
saliteraturo enis dasayrdeni iyo da romelic Tavisi dokumenturi arsebobis manZilze yovelTvis iyo orientirebuli maRal sulierebaze, rasTanac sruliad SeuTavsebelia vulgarizmi da lanZRva-ginebis seni, romelmac pandemiis xasiaTi miiRo. cxadia, verc
mecniereba (lingvistika, fsiqologia, sociologia, socialurkulturuli anTropologia) da verc sazogadoeba veRar Semoifargleba aRniSnuli movlenis mxolod emociuri dagmobiT. uwinares
yovlisa, unda gamovlindes misi wyaroebi da mizezebi, sxvadasxva
erovnul kulturaTa strategia da taqtika am TvalsazrisiT, raTa
adamianis eTikuri ganviTarebis Semdgom gzebze dafiqrebis saSualeba gvqondes (Jelvisi 2001, 55).
am bolo dros Jargonis statusma qarTul sinamdvileSi,
marTlac, seriozuli cvlilebebi ganicada _ adre Tu igi mxolod
garkveul, e. w. eqskluziur socialur jgufebSi gamoiyeneboda,
dRes misi gavrcelebis are bevrad farToa. igi TiTqmis normad iqca masmediisa da Tanamedrove mwerlobis enaSi. amitom arc aris
gasakviri, rom es aranormatiuli leqsika, romelic cota xnis win
farTo sazogadoebisTvis miuRebeli iyo, bevrisTvis vulgaruladac aRar aRiqmeba.
mentalurad SeuTavsebelia Cveni erisTvis qurduli cxovrebis wesi, rac qurdul JargonSi aisaxeba. amaze is faqtic metyvelebs, rom `qarTuli Jargonis leqsikonSi~ (bregaZe 2005), romelSic aTasze meti erTeulia, maTgan didi umravlesoba, gansakuTre-

234

s. omiaZe

biT qurduli, barbarizmebs, ucxo sityvebs warmoadgens. maTi arcTu mcire ricxvi derivaciuli da sxva `gaqarTulebuli~ formebis gamo nasesxeb sityvebsac ki emsgavseba (ix. iqve: aakiSkava, aiasnebs, balamutobs, blataobs, gablatavebuli, gatrupa, gruzavs, gulaobs, daalivera, dazagruli... Sdr. saliteraturo enis nasesxobebs: aproeqtebs, tumbavs, dapolareba, daStrixuli...). wyaro umetesad rusuli qurduli Jargonia. im erTeul SemTxvevebSic ki, roca
sityva ararusuli warmoSobisaa, Semosvlis gza mainc rusuli
Cans.
axalia qarTul diskursSi narkomaniis amsaxveli leqsika,
romelic sul ufro ivrcoba. narkotikul saSualebebsa da maT moxmarebasTan dakavSirebuli Jargonizmebia: wamali, balaxi, gervasi
/ geronti (heroini), TeTri, koknari, managua (Triaqis fafa), plani,
subo (suboteqsi), sufTa, faqti, Savi, Ceki (dafasoebuli fxvnili),
baSi, dabaSuli, baiani, masterka, masterkis Cakvla, xazi (erTi,
ori... sazomia), kubi (sazomia), zaxodi, miska, prakoli, kaifi, taska,
taskaSi waiRo, Seyvanili aqvs (narkotiki miRebuli aqvs), Sala, dabolili, prixodi, adxadniaki, lomkebi, kimari, akimarebs, planaqeSi, qeSi, kaifariki, kaifarikoba, narkuSa, wamalze zis, wamalze Sejda, wamalze Sesves, wamalze wevs, wamalSi gaipara da sxv. isini
asaxvas pouloben Tanamedrove prozaSi.
personaJis metyvelebaSi stilistikuri funqciiT Jargonuli
sityvis gamoyenebas garkveuli tradicia aqvs. rom araferi vTqvaT
g. erisTavze, meoce saukunis meore naxevarSi am xerxisTvis araerTxel miumarTavT (Sdr. mag., n. dumbaZis, g. rCeuliSvilis, o. CxeiZis, v. javaxaZis, t. Wanturiasa da sxv. Txzulebebi, agreTve, d.
fanjikiZis, T. kvaWantiraZis da sxv. Targmanebi). dRevandeli viTarebis suraTi iseTia, rom xSirad avtoris Txroba da yvela personaJis metyveleba erTnairad Jargonulia (ix. z. burWulaZis, b. janikaSvilis, m. mosuliSvilisa da sxvaTa Txzulebebi).
unda aRiniSnos, rom ufrosi Taobis mwerlebis mier Jargonul sityvaxmarebas epizoduri xasiaTi aqvs da ara wamlekavi.
amasTanave, rCeba STabeWdileba, rom isini naklebad uxeSi (iqneb
Zveli da Yyurs SeCveuli?) Jargonizmebis mcire doziT gamoyenebiTac aRweven stilizaciis efeqts. axalgazrda mwerlebSi ki SeimCneva TviTmiznuri gataceba rogorc Jargonuli leqsikiT, ise
ucenzuro sityvebiT. rogorc Cans, erTxans gagrZeldeba es bakqanalia. avtorebi arad dagideven, rom amgvari tendenciebi saliteraturo enis ganviTarebis generalur mimarTulebas ewinaaRmdegeba

RirebulebiTi paradigma socialur-kulturuli anTropologiis . . .

235

ara marto metyvelebis kulturis aspeqtiT, aramed enis gamdidrebis TvalsazrisiTac. enaca da adamianic ganviTarebas Sewyveten,
Tu ena quCuri iqneba, xolo adamiani mxolod quCuri eniT ilaparakebs (brodski 2001, 671).
Jargonis statusis cvlasTan erTad, inveqtiuri da obscenuri
leqsikis moWarbebac Tanamedrove qarTul diskursSi warmoqmnili
axali tendenciaa, romelic aseve ewinaaRmdegeba qarTvelTa RirebulebiTi sistemis umTavres orientirs, finalur Rirebulebas _
sulierebas.
inveqtiva, rogorc sityvieri agresia, universaluri lingvisturi movlenaa. igi garkveul adgils ikavebs nebismieri kulturis enaSi da mas saukuneebiT Camoyalibebuli erovnulspecifikuri Taviseburebani axasiaTebs.
inveqtivas garkveuli tabu edo rogorc Cvens sazogadoebaSi,
ise enaTmecnierTa wreSic, radgan sityvieri agresia uSualod
ukavSirdeba aranormatiul, obscenur (ucenzuro) leqsikas, amitom
CvenSi igi sruliad ukvlevi problemaa. enaTmecnieruli kvlevebidan uwmawuri leqsikisa da inveqtivis gamoricxva, rogori mcirec
unda iyos misi xvedriTi wili, enas `sterilurad~ warmogvidgens
da amdenad, mis damaxinjebul suraTs mogvcems. ama Tu im enis
adekvaturi, idealuri aRwera iqneboda misi yvela diskursis aRwera. Cveni arCevanis SeCereba diskursze imiTac aris ganpirobebuli, rom, faqtobrivad, diskursi socialuri qcevis formaa, romelic socialuri samyaros (codnebis, adamianebis, sazogadoebrivi
urTierTobebis CaTvliT) reprezentacias emsaxureba. diskursis
meSveobiT xorcieldeba normebisa da wesebis dacvaca da darRvevac. inveqtiuri diskursis analizs sinaTlis Setana SeuZlia iseT
rTul sakiTxebSi, rogoricaa socialuri da kulturuli konteqstis Seqmna da cvaleba, adamianis pirovnebis Camoyalibeba da ganviTareba, eris RirebulebiTi paradigmis struqtura da sxv.
qarTuli inveqtivis verbaluri agresiis funqciiT gamoyenebis
nimuSi Cveni literaturis pirvelsave teqstSi gvxvdeba, Tumca ara
uxamsi leqsikiT, rasac adgili hqonia sinamdvileSi: `... iwyo ujerosa ginebad varsqen da ferxTiTa TvisiTa daTrgunvida mas (SuSaniks) ... da aginebda varsqen Tesl-tomsa missa.~ `vefxistyaosanSi~
lanZRvisas inveqtivis efeqturobas aZlierebs uxeSi sityvebic.
inveqtivis erT-erTi funqciaa emociis gadmocema da ganmuxtva, rac mas SenarCunebuli aqvs dRevandel diskursSic. aq unda
SevniSnoT, rom Tanamedrove qarTuli metyveleba, Tu mas garkveu-

236

s. omiaZe

li konkretuli (arcTu eqskluziuri) diskursebis safuZvelze davaxasiaTebT, sakmaod araTavaziani, da ufro metic, inveqtiurobscenuria, rac, cxadia, did kontrasts qmnis Tavaziani metyvelebis tradiciasTan. es gansakuTrebiT SesamCnevi da Sokis momgvrelia nabeWd an zepir masmediur teqstebSi, radgan mkiTxveli da
msmeneli am movlenaSi oficialur Tvalsazriss xedavs, oficialur dasturs uxeS lanZRva-ginebasa da bilwsityvaobaze. Tu adre
inveqtivas mxolod araformaluri urTierTobebisas mimarTavdnen
da iqac SeiZleba gakicxvis sagani gamxdariyo, axla zRvari formalursa da araformalur komunikaciaTa Soris waSlili Cans, rac
inveqtivis mravalferovnebasa da maRal sixSires uwyobs xels.
unda aRiniSnos, rom inveqtivam qarTul diskursSi, droTa
viTarebaSi da gansakuTrebiT bolo xans, sul ufro metad miiRo
obscenuri xasiaTi, rac kidev ufro amZafrebs verbalur agresias.
qarTul enaSi inveqtivis evfemizaciis araerTi saSualeba arsebobs. TviT es faqti SeiZleba Sefasdes rogorc erovnulspecifikuri, rogorc ilustracia sulierebis dominanturobisa
qarTul RirebulebiT paradigmaSi, magram Tanamedrove qarTuli
diskursis analizma gviCvena, rom sagrZnoblad Seicvala evfemizaciis strategia, rac inveqtivis aqtivaciis pirobebSi qmnis STabeWdilebas, rom sazogadoebis erT nawilSi Zaladobisa da uxeSobis
moTxovnileba gaizarda, Tundac verbalur doneze.
amrigad, Cven mier ganxiluli orive enobrivi tendencia
lingvisturi
interesis
sferos
scildeba
da
socialurkulturuli anTropologiis TvalsazrisiT ufro Rrma kvlevas
saWiroebs.

literatura
bregaZe 2005 _ l. bregaZe, qarTuli Jargonis leqsikoni.
Tbilisi, 2005.brodski 2001 _ . , //
. . , 2001.
Jelvisi 2001 _ . . , . , 2001.

kavkasiologiuri Ziebani CAUCASIOLOGIC PAPERS


II

2010

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238


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1977 _ . . .

S. Omiadze (Tbilisi)
Paradigm of Values from the Viewpoint of Socio-Cultural Anthropology
Summary
Anthropology the study of human beings implies accumulation of diverse
knowledge on humans. Thus, it is natural that different disciplines are involved in the
accumulation of this knowledge and that there exist such branches as physical anthropology, pre-historic anthropology, social anthropology, cultural and political anthropology, etc.
The existence of social and cultural anthropology as two independent branches is
not shared by all anthropological schools. E.g. American scientists do not see essential
differences between them, whereas representatives of the British sociological and anthropological school demarcate the objects of study of these.

kavkasiologiuri Ziebani CAUCASIOLOGIC PAPERS


II

2010

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kavkasiologiuri Ziebani CAUCASIOLOGIC PAPERS


II

2010

s. patievi (magasi)
garTulebuli qvemdebare inguSurSi
reziume
statiaSi ganxilulia e.w. garTulebuli qvemdebaris raobisa
da struqturis sakiTxebi. garTulebul qvemdebared miCneulia sityvaTSexameba, rogoricaa, magaliTad andazaSi oaxaS nar xvnaSi
naTqvami (Sdr. oaxaS nar oardaS qoradd xvnaSi naTqvami mkaSi
gamodgebao), romelic ori sityvisagan Sedgeba, magram winadadebaSi erT erTeuls warmoadgens. am sintagmaSi mimReoba gasubstantivebulia, radgan qvemdebare (am SemTxvevaSi sityva) gamotovebulia. misi gauCinarebis miuxedavad klasniSniani sityva klasSi
mas uTanxmdeba (qora-d--d).
statiaSi ganxilulia, agreTve, garTulebul qvemdebaresTan
dakavSirebuli specifikuri sakiTxebi inguSur enaSi.

S. Patiev (Magas)
Complicated Subject in Ingush

Summary
Complicated subject is one of the main members of the simple sentences. It can
consist of several oral (verbal) of the forms, which link between itself on determined
law given language, and can be different on grammar structure.

kavkasiologiuri Ziebani CAUCASIOLOGIC PAPERS


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2010

n. ruxaZe (Tbilisi)
zogi leqsemis istoriisTvis udiur enaSi. I
iberiul-kavkasiur
enaTa
naTesaoba
rogorc
am
enaTa
gramatikuli wyobis, ise ZiriTadi leqsikuri fondis saerTo
warmomavlobas emyareba, amdenad, sakiTxis dasma qarTul-udiur
leqsikuri Sexvedrebis Sesaxeb sruliad bunebrivia. amasTanave, aucilebeli Cans sxva ojaxis enebTan da am SemTxvevaSi TurqulTan,
xangrZlivi kontaqtis Sedegad miRebuli saziaro leqsikis analizi. amgvari Zieba interess araa moklebuli, radgan Sesadarebel
enebSi gvaqvs erTi rigi sityvebi, romelTa msgavseba gansazRvrulia ara genealogiuri naTesaobiT, aramed sxva faqtorebiT. amgvar
leqsemaTa Seswavla mniSvnelovania enis warsulis garkveuli mxareebis gasaTvaliswineblad.
udiur enaSi, rogorc, saerTod, sxva enebSic, ZiriTadi leqsikuri fondis sityvebTan erTad warmodgenilia sxvadasxva enidan
Semosuli leqsika. am TvalsazrisiT sayuradReboa Turquli warmomavlobis leqsika udiur enaSi. Turqulidan nasesxebi leqsikis
meti wili udiuri enis nijur dialeqtSia dadasturebuli, am dialeqtis azerbaijanis teritoriaze gavrcelebisa da am enis, rogorc Turqulis axlomonaTesave enis gavlenis gamo.
Turqul-qarTul-udiur nasesxobaTa gamovlena am SemTxvevaSi
gansazRvrulia ara naTesaobiT, aramed eqstralingvisturi faqtorebiT. amgvar leqsemaTa Seswavla ki mniSvnelovania enis amosavali viTarebis rekonstruqciisaTvis.
udiursa da qarTulSi saerTo sityvebis (da sityvaTa Zirebis)
arsebobas ramdenime faqtori ganapirobebs:
I. orsave enaSi (qarTulsa da udiurSi) sityvebi SeTvisebulia
mesame enidan, am mxriv yvelaze meti xvedriTi wili aqvs arabuls,
sparsuls, somxurs, rusuls, SedarebiT naklebi _ Turqulsa da
sxva enebs.
II. saerTo sityvebi erT-erTi Sesadarebeli erTeulis kuTvnilebaa da am ukanasknelisganaa SeTvisebuli meore enaSi, an kidev
saerTo sityvebi Semosulia damoukideblad, romelime mesame enis
gareSe.

246

n. r u x a Z e

III. saerTo sityvebi Sepirobebulia enaTa genealogiuri kavSiriT, igi amosavali erTeulis diferenciaciis Sedegia. qarTuludiur nasesxeb sityvaTa erTi rigi specialur literaturaSia
cnobili (e. jeiraniSvili, t. sixaruliZe, m. aleqseevi, n. starostini, v. Sulce).
is faqti, rom arsebobda albanuri saxelmwifo da Sesabamisad, albanuri ena, miuTiTebs imaze, rom gveqneboda albanurTurqul-azerbaijanuli urTierTsesxebis SemTxvevebi. magaliTad:
Turquli borC,
borji (QqarT.) _ `vali~, azerb. _ borC,
borjG_ xinaluRuri, udiuri borj (borjaqsun valis micema).
borji warmomavlobis gareSe konstatirebulia qeglSi (I) ori
mniSvnelobiT: gurulsa da imerulSi _ `morigeobis dro, jeri,
rigi, vada~:
maS, gavyidoT Svilo Cvrebi, gavistumroT xarji,
borji (i. evd.). gurulSi, imerulsa da TuSur dialeqtSi `gaborjeba~ saqmis Seferxebaa.
qarTul sinonimTa leqsikonSi (neimani 1964) `borji warmodgenilia rogorc `vada~ da `vali~ (sinonimebia). v.sevorTians (sevorTiani 1978) gadawyvetilad ar miaCnia sityva `borjis~ warmomavlobis sakiTxi, igi dadasturebulia axalberZnulSi. leqsema
borji
udiurSi, qarTulSi, azerbaijanulsa da xinaluRurSi
Turquli enis gziTaa Sesuli.
yolbagi (qarT.), yolbaR
(Turq.), golbaR (azerb.), yolbag
(udiuri),
YyolbaR (xinaluRuri) _ farTo vercxlis samajuri
(xinaluRuri). leqsema yolbaR Zveli qarTul enaSic dasturdeba,
samajurs niSnavs. Turqul, azerbaijanul, udiur enebSi sityva
`yolbaRi~ kompozitia Qqol/gol `mklavia~, baR _ Semosakravi.
gukasianis udiur-rusul-azerbaijanul leqsikonSi misi mniSvneloba gafarToebulia- igi mklavze gadasakid raime nivTs aRniSnavs. vinaidan `yolbaRi~ Zvel qarTulSi dasturdeba, igi qarTul
enaSi Sesulia maSin, roca albanurisa da qarTulis gavrcelebis
areali erTmaneTs emijnaveboda. vfiqrobT, yolbaRi qarTulis
gziT aris Sesuli udiurSi, miT umetes, rom azerbaijanuli ufro
gvian gavrcelda am teritoriaze.
jida (qarT.) Zveli qarTuli xiSti, jida (Turq.) jida (xinaluRuri), Cida (azerb.), jida (udiuri). leqsema jida qarTulis
gziT Cans Sesuli udiurSi, vinaidan qarTulSic, udiuris msgavsad, Gjidaa warmodgenili.
Cilika (qarT.) Celik (Turquli), Cilink (azerb.), Cilinka
(udiuri) ceris sisqe mokle saTamaSo joxi, roki. imave mniSvnelobisaa, rac rusuli Ciliga (fasmeri, 1967) Ciliga _ Turquli

zogi leqsemis istoriisTvis udiur enaSi

247

warmomavlobisaa da migvaCnia, rom udiurSi Sesulia azerbaijanuli enidan.


xiCini (qarT.) qiCi, qiCila, xiCini, xicini (Turquli), xiCii
(udiuri), gdR (azerbaijanuli). d. CubinaSvilis `qarTul-rusul
leqsikonSi~ (1988) `xiCaobis~ sinonimad fiqsirebulia CoTiri da
gvrgvinva. SeCoTireba, , Ritini. am
sityvis erTmniSvnelianoba (grgvinva, CoTiri, Rutuni, xicini) kargad Cans . neimanis `sinonimTa leqsikonSi~. CvenTvis saintereso
sityvebSi xiCini, xicini, xiCaoba _ xiC, xic Ziri gamoiyofa. Tu
gamovricxavT am leqsemis SesaZlo bgerweriT xasiaTs (Sdr. xicini, Ritini), maSin unda vifiqroT, rom es sityva qarTulis gziTaa
Sesuli udiurSi.
dinji (qarT.) _ dinC (Turquli), dinC (udiuri): dinji, darbaiseli, mSvidi, wynari. zmnizeduri forma dinjad, nawarmoebi
zmnebiY_ dinjobs, dinjdeba. qarTul sinonimTa leqsikonSi (al.
neimani) sityva `dinji~ arxeini, mSvidi, dawynarebuli, darbaiseli
sityvebis sinonimad aris warmodgenili. al. neimani Tavis leqsikonSi iv. javaxiSvilis saintereso mosazrebas gvTavazobs. `darbaiseli~ Tavdapirvelad darbazis wevris aRmniSvneli termini iyo,
xolo Semdeg mas dinji adamianis mniSvneloba mieniWa. es yvelaferi metyvelebs `dinj~ sityvis mogvianebiT nasesxobaze Turqul
enaSi, rogorc samecniero literaturaSi aris aRniSnuli (jiqia,1957), Turquli dinC warmoadgens din/Tin (Sewyveta qaris, wvimis)
dasveneba, din/Tin `daRla~, `gadaRla~ mniSvnelobaTa sinTezis
Sedegs. qarTul-udiuri `dinji~, `dinC~, Turqul-azerbaijanuli
dinC-is adekvatia da Turqulidan aris Sesuli qarTulSi, azerbaijanulis meSveobiT ki udiurSi.
niaTi (qarT.) uniaToba, niaT (Turquli), niaT, nieT (udiuri)
`niaTnuT~ - uniaTo, uRono, Zalgamoleuli, uZluri, uniaToba,
xelmokleoba, uunaroba (qegl. II) Turqul nasesxebad migvaCnia,
Turq. niaT _ .
iaraRi (qarT.) _ Turq. araq, udiuri _ iaraRi, _ xinaluRuri raime samuSaos Sesasruleblad saWiro sagani an mowyobiloba. sulxan-saba orbelianis `sityvis konaSi~ aRniSnulia da
niSnavs `meomarTa aRsakazmavs, gina cxenTa da mWedelTa~. etimologiurad Turquli `~ gaWra-gapobas niSnavs, aseTive mniSvnelobisaa `armag~.
ieriSi (qarT.) _ Turq. eruS, azerb. eriS, udiuri _ eriS.
samxedro terminia, niSnavs swraf Tavdasxmas, Setevas mowinaaRmdegeze. `ieriSi~ ar gvxvdeba `sityvis konaSi~; TumcaRa qarTul enaSi

248

n. r u x a Z e

aqtiur sityvaTa fonds ganekuTvneba. aRsaniSnavia is faqtic, rom


qiziyurSi ieriSi omonimia da unagirze gadafarebul moqargul
qsovils niSnavs, romelsac patarZali miarTmevda xolme nefes da
amiT amtkicebda xelsaqmis codnas. TurqulSi eruS,

msvleloba,

laSqroba, siaruli, zmnidan - afiqsiT nawarmoebi saxelia, arc qarTulSi da arc sxva enaSi msgavsi afiqsi ar
dasturdeba.
kumkuma//kurkuma (qarT.) _ ququm, (Turq., azerb.), kumkum `yazanCa~ udiuri (patara qvabi); Sdr.svanuri (balszem.) kukum wveTi,
adiReuri - gogon, yabardouli - gogoni, osuri _ gogon, Tabasaranuli _ gorgun, mniSvnelobiT viwroyeliani WurWeli wylisaTvis.
`sityvis konaSi~ _ kumkuma niSnavs vercxlis kutals an kulas. vinaidan es leqsema qarTulSi adreve gamoiyeneboda, anu im periodSi, roca udiurisa da qarTulis gavrcelebis areali erTmaneTs
emijnaveboda, mosalodnelia aRniSnuli leqsema qarTulis gziT
iyos Sesuli udiurSi. am azrs isic amyarebs, rom azerbaijanulSi
am sityvis abruptiviani varianti ar gvxvdeba da am enidan sesxebis SemTxvevaSi abruptivis saxiT ar aRmoCndeboda udiurSi.
belga (qarT.) _ Zveli eTnologiuri terminia, udiuri belga, azerb. _ belga, beWedi an sxva ram samkauli imis niSnad, rom
qals irTavs colad _ niSani (qegli I), udiur `belgas~ zustad
igive mniSvneloba aqvs; Turqul `beliges~ ramdenime derivati aqvs:
belleq `mizani~, beleq _ `niSani~ (Sdr. rus. `niSani~, `laqa~).
vfiqrobT, es leqsemac azerbaijanulis gziT aris Sesuli udiursa da qarTul enebSi.
udiurSi nasesxeb leqsemaTa ricxvi mravladaa, maTma analizma gviCvena sesxebis ramdenime gza, kerZod, gamoikveTa Semdegi mimarTulebebi:
I _ udiurSi Turquli leqsika Sevida qarTulis gziT;
II udiurSi Turquli leqsika Sevida azerbaijanulis gziT;
III _ udiuris monaTesave xinaluRur enaSi, romelic uSualod azerbaijanulis garemocvaSi imyofeba, calkeuli saanalizo
leqsemis iseTive saxiT arseboba, rogorc udiurSia, miuTiTebs
imaze, rom es leqsema mxolod da mxolod azerbaijanuli enis
gziT aris Sesuli udiurSic.

249

zogi leqsemis istoriisTvis udiur enaSi

literatura
abulaZe 1973 il. abulaZe, Zveli QqarTuli enis leqsikoni
(masalebi). Tbilisi.
azizbekovi 1965 _ x. azizbekovi, azerbaijanul-rusuli leqsikoni. baqo (rus. enaze).
ganieva 2002 _ f. ganieva, xinaluRur-rusuli leqsikoni. maxaCkala (rus. enaze).
gukasiani 1974 _ v. gukasiani, diur azerbaijanul-rusuli
leqsikoni. baqo (rus. enaze)
Turqul - qarTuli leqsikoni. stambuli, 2001.
nasibovi, jangiZe, suleimanovi 2003 _ n. nasibovi, v. jangiZe, s.
suleimanovi, qarTul-azerbaijanuli leqsikoni. Tbilisi.
nikolaevi, starostini 1994 _ Nikolayev S. L, Starostin S. A., A North
Caucasian Etimological Dictionary. Moscow.
neimani 1964 _ a. neimani, qarTul sinonimTa leqsikoni. Tbilisi.
sevorTiani 1978 _ v. sevorTiani, Turqul enaTa etimologiuri leqsikoni. moskovi (rus. enaze).
sixaruliZe 1990 _ t. sixaruliZe, udiuri enis leqsikuri
Sedgenilobis Sesaxeb. ike, t. 29. Tbilisi.
sulxan-saba orbeliani 1991, 1993 _ sulxan-saba orbeliani,
leqsikoni qarTuli. Tbilisi.
qegl 1990 _ qarTuli enis ganmartebiTi leqsikoni. Tbilisi.
Rlonti 1984 _ al. Rlonti, qarTul kilo_TqmaTa sityvis
kona. Tbilisi.
jiqia 1957 _ s. jiqia, qarTul-azerbaijanul enaTa urTierTmimarTebisTvis. enaTm. inst. Sromebi. aRm. enaTa seria. 2. Tbilisi.
Cuxua 2000-2003 _ m. Cuxua, qarTvelur-ena kiloTa SedarebiTi
leqsikoni. Tbilisi.
Schulze

1982-

W.

Shulze.,

Die

Sprache

der

Uden

in

Nord-

Azerbajdzan.Wiesbaden:Harrassowitz.
Schulze 2001-W. Shulze., The Udi Gospels. Annotated texst, etimological index, Lemmatized concordance. Munich\Newcastle:Lincom Europa 2001.

kavkasiologiuri Ziebani CAUCASIOLOGIC PAPERS


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2010

. ()
. I
-
.
,

--
, ..
, ,
.
- .
, .
, .

, ..
,
.

--
,
.
( )
:
1) , , ,
.
, , , ,
.
2) ,

, .
3)
.

251

(. , . , . , W.Schulze, .
).
, ,
, , ,
.
bori (. bor, . bor, .
bor, . bor; boraqsun ). bori
(, I-1109) : 1) , , ,
, 2) , ,
, (. ). ,
gaboreba , .
, .
. bori
. .

bori,
. bor ,
, .
olbagi , .
olbai, . olbag, . olbag, . olba. olbai
. ,
olbai : ol-gol
( ), ba _ . --
. . -
, .
olbai
, ,

. , olbai
, ,
.
ida (),

ida, ,

. ida, . ida. ida .


ilia ,
, , . elik, . , . ilina.
, (. ,
). iliga . ,
.

252

xiini , , . kii, kiila,


xiini, xicini, . xiini, . . - .
xiaoba otiri grgvinva
, eotireba , , iini. ,
(grgvinva, otiri, uini, xicini)
.. xiini, xicini, xiaoba
xi, xic.
(. xiini, uini), ,
.
dini , , ,
, din ., din (.). ,
.
. dini mvidi ,
nari , danarebuli , darbaiseli .
. .:
darbaiseli , drbazi
(), .
dini ,
(. , -
). din
din~tin ( , ) , din~tin,
, . - dini, din - din .
niati , niat . niat, niet . niatnut
, , , , , (
II) : .
niyat
.
iarai ,
- , . jarak, . iarak, . jara.
- ,
. jarak , ,
jarmag.
ierii ,
, . jeru, . jeri, . eri. ierii
- ,
. , ierii
, ,

253

,
. jeru, , ,
, , -u
iurumek.
.
umuma// uruma , . kukum, . umum, . kazancha; . . gogon, . gogoni,
. gogon, . gorgun
, (). .-.
umuma (uala)
(ula).
, .. ,
, ,
.
,
ququm ,
,
.
belga _ . belga, beleg _ - ,
.
: belga ; belige
: bellek , belek (. . ,
). ,
.

, ,
, :

; , ,
,
, ,
.

254

1973 . , . ,
1973.
1965 . , - . ,
1965.
2002 . , - . ,2002.
1984
. , .
,1984.
1974 . , -- .
, 1974.
1957
. , -
. . ., . . , 1957.
1961 . , , ,1961.
... 2003 . , . , . , . 2003.
... 1994 Nikolaev S. L., Starostin S.A., A North Caucasian Etymological Dictionary. Edited by S.A. Starostin. Moscow, 1994
C 1978 . . ,
. ,1978.
1990 . ,
. , 29 . , 1990.
- ... 1970
-
. , 1970.
- 1991, 1993 - ,
. , 1991, 1993.
, 1, 1990 . ,1990.
, 2, 1993 . , 1993.
Schulce 1982 W. Shulze, Die Sprache der Uden in nordazerbajdzan. Wiesbaden:Harrassowitz, 1982.
Schulze 2001 W.Shulze, The Udi Gospels. Annotated texst,etimological index,lemmatized concordance. Munich/Nevcastle:Lincom Europa, 2001.
1967 .,
( .. ). II. ,1967.
1988 . , - .
, 1988.
2000-2003 . ,
. , 2000-2003.

255

N. Rukhadze (Tbilisi)
On the History of Some Lexemes in the Udi Language I
Summary
In Udi, together with items of basic vocabulary, there are words having entered
from various languages. In this respect, the vocabulary of Turkish origin is noteworthy
which, in my opinion, must have been borrowed through Georgian.
Most of the words, borrowed from Turkish, have been attested in the Nij dialect
of the Udi language, owing to the fact that the dialect in question is spread in the
territory of Azerbaijan and the impact of the Azeri language which is closely related to
Turkish.
In this case, the occurrence of Turkish-Georgian-Udi borrowings has been due
not to their genealogical affinity, but rather to extralinguistic factors. The study of those
lexemes is significant for the reconstruction of the original state of the language.
The occurrence of common words (and their roots) in Udi and Georgian has been
conditioned by several factors:
1. In both languages (Georgian and Udi), a word has been acquired via a third
language; of such, the most influential have been Arabic, Persian, Armenian, Russian;
less influential have been Turkish and other languages.
2. A common word belongs to one of the languages in comparison and is
borrowed from it into another one, or, alternatively, it is borrowed independently,
without the participation of a third language.
3. A common word is conditioned by the genealogical affinity of the languages in
comparison. It has been an outcome of the differentiation of an original item.
A part of Georgian-Udi borrowings have been attested in the specialist literature.
The present paper analyzes the Turkish lexemes, which, in my opinion, have
entered the Udi language through Georgian; for instance, borji, jida, ilinka, niati,
kumkuma, qolbai, dinji, xiini.

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t. sixaruliZe (yarsi)
l. aviZba (Tbilisi)
anbani da separacia
nebismier samwerlo sistemas sakuTriv lingvisturi da eqstralingvisturi mniSvneloba aqvs. lingvisturSi Cven vgulisxmobT niSnebisa (grafemebis) da bgerebis maqsimalur Sesabamisobas.
eqstralingvisturSi igulisxmeba romelime samwerlo sistemis
gavrceleba sakuTriv lingvisturi principis gaTvaliswinebis gareSe. eqstralingvisturi, Cveulebriv, miznad isaxavs sam amocanas:
religiuri (ideologiuri) konkretuli samwerlo sistemis meSveobiT rwmenis erT-erTi saxis gavrcelebas, magaliTad, qarTuli
anbanis meSveobiT qristianobis gavrceleba CrdiloeT kavkasiaSi
(laTinuri _ kaTolikur samyaroSi, arabuli _ islamSi),
berZnul-kafalikur samyaroSi wminda werili vrceldeboda
berZnuli damwerlobisa da enis meSveobiT, xolo romaulkaTolikurSi _ laTinuri damwerlobiTa da eniT. Yyoveli samwerlo sistema, rogorc gansazRvruli ideologiuri specifikis
matarebeli fenomeni sargeblobda Sesabamisi eklesiis mfarvelobiTa da dacviT. droTa ganmavlobaSi kaTolikuri eklesia (vatikani) iRebs iniciativas Tavis Tavze, gamoyofs gansakuTrebuli statusis mqone wminda enebs (ebrauli, berZnuli, laTinuri) da, faqtobrivad, evropaSi yvela cocxal enas upirispirdeba. Sesabamisad,
am enebs naTlavs rogorc vulgarul anu plebsis enebs.
islamSi wminda enad gamocxadebuli iyo mxolod arabuli
ena. am TvalsazrisiT sami wminda enis pluralingvisturi koncefcia, TiTqos ufro demokratiulia, magram, faqtobriv, is laTinuri monoligvizmis aRiarebas niSnavda, vinaidan im droisaTvis arc
Zveli berZnuli da arc Zveli ebrauli aRar gamoiyeneboda. laTinuri monolingvizmis gamarjvebis dasturia
evropuli enebis
grafikuli sistemebi, romlebisTvisac amosavali swored laTinuri anbania.
zustad aseve arabuli grafikiT vrceldeboda islami da
arabuli grafikis modifikaciiT Seiqmna sxvadasxva saxis samwerlo sistemebi sparseTis, Sua aziis, kavkasieli (e. w. ajamuri) da
sxva xalxebisaTvisac.

anbani da separacia

257

trilingvizmis TeoriasTan qarTuli anbanis iribi kavSiris


Sesaxeb metad saintereso mosazreba gamoTqmulia specialur literaturaSi. ivaraudeba, rom qarTuli anbanis Seqmna trilingvizmis Teoriis daZlevis Taviseburi mcdelobaa. samwuxarod, es
Tvalsazrisi agebulia sawinaaRmdego daTariRebaze, vinaidan jer
Seiqmna qarTuli anbani (pirveli werilobiTi Zegli TariRdeba Cv.
w. V s.), xolo Semdgom isidore sevilielma (Cv. w. VI s.) trilingvizmis Teoria Camoayaliba. unda vaRiaroT, rom avtoris es koncefcia absoluturad gamarTlebulia slavuri anbanis mimarT, romelic Semdgom Seiqmna.
rusul anbanTan mimarTebaSi gasaTvaliswinebelia is faqtic, rom misi Seqmna ganpirobebuli iyo berZnebis surviliT,
qristianuli morali, mcnebebi da ideologia gaevrcelebinaT slavebSi, moeqciaT marTlmadideblobaze da amiT gaefarToebinaT saqristiano.
CrdiloeT kavkasiaSi qarTuli anbanis gavrcelebasac igive
motivacia hqonda. qarTuli anbanisa da qristianuli ideologiis
gavrcelebis dasturad gamogvadgeba Aarnold Ciqobavas mier 1940
w. gaSifruli qarTul-xunZuri bilingva, romelic amotvifrulia
qvis jvarze. sainteresoa, rom aq gamoyenebulia qarTuli anbanis
ori saxeoba: qarTuli teqsti asomTavruliT iyo dawerili, xolo xunZuri _ nusxa-xucuriT.A sxva analogiuri warwerebis aRmoCenis Semdeg daRestnelma mecnierebma (b. aTaevi, r. Sixsaidovi, m.
xalilovi) daaskvnes, rom qarTuli enisa da qarTuli damwerlobis gamoyeneba xunZebiT dasaxlebul raionebSi SesaZlebeli iqneboda mxolod qarTuli enisa da anbanis farTo gavrcelebis
SemTxvevaSi.
amasve adasturebs qarTlis cxovreba, romelSic imdroindeli
enobrivi situaciis Taobaze aseTi cnobaa:^Tavdapirvelad qistebi,
RliRvebi da ZurZukebi metyvelebdnen qarTulad da qristianebi
iyvnen da inarCunebdnen qarTuls Temur-lengis Semosevamde, xolo
ukanasknelma risxviTa Tu pirferobiT moaqcia isini islamze, molebi arabebidan SeurCia da daavala, leki bavSvebisaTvis wera
arabulad eswavlebinaT. amieridan aukrZala qarTulad kiTxva da
wera.
Sesabamisad, arabulad werda yvela xalxi, romelmac muslimanoba miiRo. Aarabebi, sparselebi, Turqebi, TaTrebi, uzbekebi,
azerbaijanelebi, Turqmanebi da mravali sxva. arabulad werdnen
aseve kavkasieli xalxebi: daRestnelebi, afxazebi da adiRelebi,
CeCnebi da inguSebi, gamuslimanebuli qarTvelebi. Mmuslimanoba
iseve, rogorc qristianoba, gansakuTrebuli msoflmxedvelobaa,
cxovrebis wesi da sazogadoebis ganviTarebis specifika. sxvaTa

258

t. sixaruliZe, l. aviZba

Soris, religiurma faqtorma metad saintereso lingvisturi


TvalsazrisiT etapobrivi movlenis ganviTareba ganapiroba kavkasiaSi: igulisxmeba religiuri faqtoriT ganpirobebuliBbilingvizmis sxvadasxva formis Camoyalibeba: pirobiTad rom vTqvaT,
jer _ qarTul-kavkasiuri, Semdgom arabul-kavkasiuri da bolos _
rusul-kavkasiuri.
anbani sawyis etapze ZiriTadad emsaxureba gansazRvruli
ideologiis gavrcelebas, xolo Semdgom, sazogadoebis ganviTarebasTan erTad, SeiZleba SeiZinos ufro ganyenebuli mniSvneloba.
Aam SemTxvevaSi naklebi yuradReba eqceva mis ideologiur
safuZvlebs da orientacia konkretul anbanze Cveulebriv ukavSirdeba Sesabamisi samyaros kulturul, ekonomikur da socialur
cenzs. SemTxveviTi ar aris, rom swored laTinurma anbanma ikisra
interkonfesiuri anbanis
funqcia, rac imas niSnavda, rom is
gascda kaTolikuri samyaros farglebs da SeaRwia axal sivrceSi. dairRva grafikisa da sarwmunoebis istoriuli Sesabamisobis
principi.
Ddidi Turqi reformatori aTaTurqi (Turqebis mama), saxelmwifoebriv reformebs iwyebs samwerlo sistemis modernizaciiT.
rodesac aTaTurqi Seudga saxelmwifo aRmSeneblobis process,
TurqeTi erT-erTi CamorCenili
qveyana iyo. qveynis krizisidan
gamoyvana didma saxelmwifo moRvawem 1928 w. samwerlo sistemis
reformiT daiwyo. Aam RonisZiebam arabuli damwerlobis gamoyenebis sfero SezRuda, rac, bunebrivia, ar niSnavda islamze uars.
da mainc, im periodSi wminda arabuli damwerlobis nawilobrivi
SezRudvac faqtobriv gandgomasa da mTeli islamuri samyaros
amxedrebas niSnavda.
A enobriv mSeneblobas TurqeTSi axorcielebda sagangebod
Seqmnili TurqeTis lingvisturi sazogadoeba, romlis ZiriTadi
funqcia swored axali anbanisa da Sesabamisi kulturuli da socialuri Rirebulebebis propaganda-danergva iyo. laTinuri anbanis SemoReba evropasTan miaxloebis pirveli da gabeduli nabiji
gaxldaT.
dRes TurqeTi islamuri saxelmwifoa, romelSic, kidev erTxel aRvniSnavT, damwerlobis reformam da Sesabamisma RonisZiebebma qveynis cxovrebaSi bevri siaxle Seitana. arasamTavrobo seqtori, sazogadoebrivi institutebi, SedarebiT liberaluri ekonomika da cxovrebis wesi metadaa miaxloebuli evropuls, magram
saxelmwifos neba mainc yvelaferSi dominantia.
amJamad Turquli anbanis xSiri gamoyeneba (anu Turquli
warwerebis, banerebis da sxva sareklamo saSualebebis) TurqeTis

anbani da separacia

259

farglebs gareT am qveynis ekonomikuri da politikuri aqtivobis


Sedegia.
D bolo Tezisi rusuli anbanis administraciul-politikuri
gavrecelebis sakiTxi da rusuli anbanis separaciuli funqciaa.
sabWoTa kavSirSi es metad arapopularuli Tematika iyo, vinaidan am saxelmwifo gaerTianebaSi ZiriTadi aqcenti keTdeboda
ruseTis kulturtregerul rolze sabWoTa xalxebis cxovrebaSi
da yvelaferi amas emsaxureboda. iqmneboda cru simboloebi da
yalbi terminologia. enobriv sferoSi erT-erTi aseTi uSinaarso
terminia . termini, romelic Tavisi arsiT
axal samwerlo sistemebs gulisxmobs, magram sinamdvileSi es
termini absurdulia, vinaidan ugulebelyofs istorias: e.w. axali
damwerlobis, vTqvaT, kavkasiuri enebi, sinamdvileSi istoriulad
rusul grafikaze ufro Zvel samwerlo sistemebs (qarTuls, arabuls) iyenebdnen. aseTi siyalbe axasiaTebda ideologiuri sferos
TiTqmis yvela mecnierebas, magaliTad, istoriaSi ideologiuri
markireba Cans Tundac wignebis saTaurebSi, magaliTad:
( ) ( 1);
( 1861) (2) ...cnobilia, rom sabWoTa kavSiri,
rogorc saxelmwifo, Camoyalibda meoce saukunis pirvel meoTxedSi da uZveles xanasTan am saxelmwifo gaerTianebas aranairi kavSiri ar hqonda.
metropolia (caristuli, sabWouri) kargad acnobierebs anbanis maorientirebel Zalas rogorc jer separaciis, xolo Semdgom ama Tu im eTnosis asimilaciis naRd saSualebas. A
samwerlo sistemebis pirveli reforma kavkasiaSi ukavSirdeba
ruseT-kavkasiis oms, meore _ revolucias. oRondac unda aRiniSnos, rom mecxramete saukuneSi rusuli anbanis safuZvelze damuSavebuli sxvadasxva modifikacia gacilebiT ufro racionaluri
da, imavdroulad, lingvisturi TvalsazrisiT ukeTesad gaazrebuli iyo. Zveli anbani Sedgenilia kompetenturi piris mier, romelic iTvaliswinebs sxvadasxva slavuri Tu romanuli enis anbanis diakritikuli niSnebis sistemas, magaliTad, polonuri (damatebiTi niSani asos SuaSi) da Cexuri (niSani - asos Tavze), ruminuli (niSani asos qveS). Zveli anbani, udavod, ufro kompaqturia.
SevadaroT ori sxvadasxva periodis rusuli anbani. 1902 w. TbilisSi gamocemuli oTxTavis rusul-udiuri paraleluri teqsti
(orive SemTxvevaSi grafika rusulia) da 1978 w. baqoSi gamocemuli
rusul-udiur-azerbaijanuli leqsikoni (samive enisaTvis) aseve
gamoyenebulia rusuli grafika). oTxTavis teqstis rusuli asoebi
aSkarad gansxvavdeba im rusuli asoebisagan, romelic gamoiyeneboda Semdgom periodSi. oTxTavSi, magaliTad, w, W mkveTrebis

260

t. sixaruliZe, l. aviZba

aRsaniSnad gamoiyeneba (Sesabamisad, rusuli , afrikatebis Tavze


mZime), magram, rodesac igive diakritikuli niSani Sebrunebulia
da misi, ase vTqvaT muceli, moqceulia marcxena mxares, is fSvinviers aRniSnavs (magaliTad, rusuli , , Tavze); horizontalurad
ganlagebuli mZime intensivobis NniSania (J, S, C, SemTxvevaSi), laringaluri h-s aRsaniSnad gamoyenebulia Sesabamisi laTinuri aso.
ukanaenismieri R spirantis gadmosacemad gvaqvs rusuli , romelsac vertikaluri xazis SuaSi darTuli aqvs mZime (oRondac ufro
reliefuri konfiguraciisa).
am anbanSi mZimes, rogorc TanxmovanTa specifikis aRmniSvnel diakritikul niSans, didi datvirTva
aqvs.
sabWouri periodis anbanebi Seadgines metad martivi xerxiT,
anu specifikur kavkasiur bgerebs gamoxataven grafemebis kombinaciiT, an sxva sagangebod SemuSavebuli niSnebis (magaliTad, vertikaluri erTi an ori xazi asos Semdgom) damatebiT rac erTiorad
zrdis niSanTa raodeniobas. magaliTad,
igive ukanaenismieri
mJReri spiranti R-s gadmosacemad ukanaenismier mJRer xSuls -s
umateben e. w. simagris niSans -, xolo laringaluri h-s gamosaxatavad -s umateben silbos niSans -. Ees calkeuli SemTxveva ar
aris. aseTi viTareba ganapirobebs bevr uxerxul moments da maT
Soris anbanTrigis darRvevas. radgan rusuli grafikiT gadmocemuli (R) iwyeba -Ti, is moTavsebulia anbanis TavSi, Tumca
ukanaenismieri mJReri spiranti R tradiciulad unda iyos anbanis
bolos. Sesabamisad, gukasianis leqsikonSi (R) aRmoCnda (g) -s
win. Mmagram imave -sa da silbos niSnis () SerwymiT gamoxatuli
j
laringaluri (h) ratomRac moTavsebulia anbanis bolos.
afrikatis gadmosacemad Zvelad gamoiyeneboda gadabrunebuli rusuli , romelsac horizontaluri xazis SuaSi gare mxridan daumates patara samkuTxedi. xolo gukasianis leqsikonSi am afrikats gamoxatavs ori grafema: da . ra Tqma unda, darRveulia
anbanTrigis Tanmimdevroba, erTiorad gazrdilia grafemebis ricxvi da, garda amisa, da , romlebic rusulSi mxolod TanxmovanTa
specifikas aRniSnaven, aq gamoiyeneba xmovnebis faringalizaciisa
da umlautizaciis aRsaniSnadac. U
udavoa, rom revoluciamdeli rusuli grafikis safuZvelze
damuSavebuli anbanebi sjobs sabWouri periodis analogebs, magram
ukeTesi sulac ar niSnavs Sesabamiss an srulyofils.
fonetikis sferoSi
sistemobrivi disproporcia rusulsa
da iberiul-kavkasiur enebs Soris ganpirobebulia gansxvavebuli
genetikiT. qarTul (da kavkasiur) konsonantizmSi Cven gvaqvs sameulebi... (mJReri, fSvinvieri, mkveTri), rusulSi gvaqvs mxolod

anbani da separacia

261

wyvileulebi mJReri yru, e. i. yvela Sesabamis SemTxvevaSi rusulSi gvaklia sul cota erTi aso-bgera. G
qarTuli anbani agebulia fonografiul principze, is zustad
asaxavs qarTuli enis bgeriT sistemas, qarTuli weriTi metyveleba
ar gansxvavdeba zepiri metyvelebisagan, anu praqtikulad es aris
qarTuli metyvelebis transkrifcia. qarTuliManbanis am did Rirsebas aRiareben rusi enaTmecnierebic da maT Soris pirvelia p.
uslari. misi daxasiaTeba, faqtobriv, qarTuli enisa da anbanis
apologiaa. evropuli da rusuli anbanebis kritikuli ganxilvis
Semdeg is axasiaTebs qarTuls: es aris erT-erTi yvelaze srulyofili arsebul anbanebs Soris. Yyoveli bgera gamoixateba sagangebo niSniT da yoveli niSani yvela SemTxvevaSi gamoxatavs
erTsa da imave bgeras. Yyvela evropul enaSi aris lodi dabrkolebisa es orTografiaa; qarTulSi, anbanis srulyofilebis gamo, es sirTule TiTqmis ar arsebobs (3, 48).
marTalia, p.Uuslari aRiarebs qarTuli anbanis did upiratesobas, qarTuli anbanis lingvistur mizanSewonilobas rogorc
sxva kavkasiuri anbanebisaTvis safuZvels, magram qarTuli anbanis
gavrcelebis SesaZlo politikuri saxifaTo Sedegebi kavkasiaSi (3,
49) uslarisTvis miuRebelia da amitom qarTuli anbanis nacvlad
iyenebs rusuls. E uslars ar surda, rom qarTuli anbani kavkasieli xalxebis integraciis safuZveli yofiliyo. am konteqstSi
gasagebia, ras iTvaliswinebda anbanis Seqmna svanebisaTvis, megrelebisaTvis (orive eyrdnoboda rusul grafikas) da Semdgom _ xevsurebisaTvis (4, 389) aseve rusuli grafikis safuZvelze anbani
Seuqmnes Sua aziis Turqulenovan xalxebs, ungrul-finuri, monRoluri warmoSobis eTnosebs da sxva.
Yyvela anbans gaaCnia (sxvadasxva moculobis) integraciuli
funqcia, rasac adasturebs enebis (6500 ena), anbanebisa (daaxloebiT 300) da maTTvis amosavali grafikuli sistemebis (14) ricxobrivi Sefardeba.
Eeqstralingvisturi momentebis gamo samwerlo sistemas xSirad iyeneben aseve rogorc separaciis saSualebas. magaliTad, rusul damwerlobas, romelic aerTianebda (integraciuli funqcia)
sabWoTa kavSiris heterogenul mosaxleobas (kavkasiuri, slavuri,
Turquli, ungrul-finuri...), imavdroulad ekisreboda xalxebis
dayofis separaciuli funqciac.
am SemTxvevaSi rusuli anbanis
sxvadasxva modifikacias iyenebdnen rogorc SedarebiT didi xalxebis (magaliTad, azerbaijanelebi, moldavelebi, tajikebi) ZiriTadi eTnikuri erTeulebisagan (igulisxmeba Sesabamisad Turqebi,
ruminelebi, sparselebi) mosawyvetad. aseve rusul anbans iyenebdnen raodenobiT mcire xalxebis separacia-asimilaciisaTvis. ker-

262

t. sixaruliZe, l. aviZba

Zod, erTsa da imave xalxs anawevrebdnen gansxvavebuli samwerlo


sistemebis SeqmniT, magaliTad, afxazebsa da abazebs, CeCnebsa da
inguSebs, qvemo adiRelebs (adiReuri) da zemo adiRelebs (yabardouli), komi-zirianuli da komi-permiakuli, mordovuli-erzia da
mordovuli-mokSa, baris mariuli da mTis mariuli da sxva...
Llingvisturi sakiTxebis politikur WrilSi ganxilvam da
gadawyvetam, mcdarma eTnoenobrivma politikam jer daasusta, xolo Semdgom xeli Seuwyo sabWoTa kavSiris rRveva-danawevrebas.
postssabWour sivrceSi Seqmnili axali saxelmwifoebisaTvis
metad mniSvnelovania yofili gamocdilebis gaziareba (rogorc
konstruqciuli, ise negatiuri) da iseTi enobrivi politikis gatareba, romelSic gansakuTrebuli adgili da yuradReba daeTmoba
saxelmwifo qarTul enas, rogorc sruliad saqarTvelos maintegrirebel Zalas. samwuxarod, jerjerobiT saqarTveloSi qarTuli
ena ver faravs qveynis srul teritorias, igulisxmeba is regionebi, sadac gavrcelebulia rusul-somxuri, rusul-azerbaijanuli,
rusul-afxazuri, rusul-osuri da am saxis bilingvizmis
sxva
formebi, aq qarTuli ena da anbani ver asruleben Tavis konstituciurad miniWebul funqcias. Ees ar niSnavs, rom Cven vzRudavT
umciresobebis enebs, Cveni sazrunavia mxolod bilingvizmis
formis Secvla. saqarTvelos teritoriaze unda gavrceldes
qarTul-somxuri,
qarTul-azerbaijanuli,
qarTul-afxazuri,
qarTul-osuri da am saxis bilingvizmis sxva formebi, anu yofili
metropoliis ena unda Secvalos qarTulma enam, rac TavisTavad
qarTuli anbanis funqcionaluri datvirTvis zrdas Seuwyobs
xels.

literatura
... 1983 _ ( VIII ).
, 1983.
... 1983 _ ( 1861 ).
, 1983.
1887 _ . ., . 1887.
... 2007 _ . ., . ., . 2007.

kavkasiologiuri Ziebani CAUCASIOLOGIC PAPERS


II

2010

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268

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... 1983 _ ( VIII ).


, 1983.
... 1983 _ ( 1861 ).
, 1983.
1887 _ . ., . 1887.
... 2007 _ . ., . ., . 2007.

T. Sikharulidze (Qars)
L. Avidzba (Tbilisi)
Alphabet and Separation
Summary
The article discusses the reform activities of the metropoly (Tsarist and Soviet) in
terms of changing, relatively speaking, of all kinds of national writing systems into Russian. Initially, the essence of the event was focused not on linguistic but on political
expediency (necessity for orientation with the help of the Russian alphabet of heterogeneous population of the country with an objective of its further assimilation).

kavkasiologiuri Ziebani CAUCASIOLOGIC PAPERS


II

2010

e. qavTaraZe (Tbilisi)
mari broses qarTvelologiuri moRvaweobidan
xelnawerTa erovnuli centris fondebSi dacul frangi
orientalistis mari broses arqivSi gamovlinda saintereso epistolaruli masala, romelic naTlad warmogvidgens qarTvelologiuri kvlevis saTaveebs. esaa mari broses werilebi qarTvel istorikosTa da filologTa pirveli Taobis warmomadgenlebTan.
mari broses qarTvelologiuri moRvaweoba im periods
daemTxva, rodesac evropul orientalistikaSi is-is iyo mkvidrdeboda azri am kvlevis aucileblobis Sesaxeb. Tavdapirvelad igi
Cinur enasa da sityvierebas swavlobda. qarTuli sityvierebis interesi mas gauRviZa sen-martenma, romelmac evropul sivrceSi pirvelad daudo safuZveli qarTuli enis Seswavlis saqmes. mari
brosem jer parizSi daculi qarTuli xelnawerebi Seiswavla. iq
dawyebuli moRvaweoba man peterburgis universitetsa da mecnierebaTa akademiaSi gaagrZela. mari brose sicocxlis bolomde intensiurad ikvlevda saqarTvelos istoriis sakiTxebs. sawyis etapze
igi zrunavda qarTuli istoriuli siZveleebis gamovlenasa da
Seswavlaze.
evropuli orientalistika Tavdapirvelad skeptikurad uyurebda qarTvelologiis im saerTaSoriso mniSvnelobas, rac mogvianebiT naTeli gaxda. amis anareklia mari broses sityvebi:
`evropelTagan aravin dasjerda qarTveli meistorieebis TqmulTa,
vidremdis damtkicebaTa mogrovebiTa ar warmovaCine dajerebis
Rirseba maTi da Cemi damtkiceba aqa-iqa ZiebaSi Semovkribe, saydrebisa da cixeebisa da sxvadasxva Senebaebis kedlebze, RramatebSi,
sxvadasxva nivTebis zedwerilebSi~ (1). am sityvebs igi dimitri
meRvineTuxucess swers.
siZveleebis, istoriografiis mTavari wyaros, gamovlenis
mizniT, mari brose dauaxlovda ruseTSi moRvawe qarTvel mecnierebs da, bolos, saqarTveloSi moRvawe istorikosebsac. Tavadac
orjer imogzaura saqarTveloSi siZveleTa adgilze mosaxilvelad da gamosavlenad. qarTvel swavlulTa daxmarebiT Segrovebuli qarTuli wyaroebis Sesaxeb cnobebs mari brose Targmnida
da aqveynebda. man peterburgSi sam tomad gamosca sxvadasxva xasiaTis qarTul siZveleTa didZali masala.

270

e. qavTaraZe

mari broses qarTul enaze dawerili werilebis adresatebi


arian Teimuraz batoniSvili, dimitri baqraZe, rafiel erisTavi,
platon ioseliani da dimitri meRvineTuxucesi.
gasakuTrebul yuradRebas iqcevs mari broses mecnieruli
TanamSromloba qarTvel mweralsa da istorikosTan dimitri meRvineTuxucesTan. am TanamSromlobis maRali samecniero daniSnuleba naTlad ikveTeba axlad gamovlenili mdidari epistolaruli
memkvidreobidan. erT-erT werilSi igi dimitris swers: `dRedadRe
gamova didi wgini, romelSic axali da ucxo ambebi saqarTveloisa
ipoeba bevri. mixarian didad imisTvis, rom kacni umecarni akicxeben, agineben qarTul sityvierebas, araferi kargi qarTul qveyanaSi ar ipoebao. naxven isini Tavis drosa~ (2). Tavisi moRvaweobiT es
`dro~ erT-erTma pirvelma mari brosem moxaza.
mari brose qveynis istoriis mTavar safuZvlad werilobiT
wyaroebs da materialuri kulturis Zeglebs miiCnevs. igi gansakuTrebul mniSvnelobas aniWebs sigel-gujrebsa da eklesiamonastrebis warwerebs. amitom sTxovs qarTvel swavlulebs, Seagrovon es masala da miawodon cnobebi mis Sesaxeb. dimitri baqraZisadmi gagzavnil erT-erT werilSi vkiTxulobT: `kargaTa gesmis
ese, rom usafuZvloT ar aSendeba saxli. safuZvelni istoriisa
arian: a) dawerili ambavebi, Tu mefeTa da didebulTa kacTa, Tu
saeklesioni; b) garegani cxovrebaebi, romelTa ZliT gamoCndeba
siswore-sicrue SinaganTa meistoriveTa; g) gujrebi, sigelebi,
sxvadasxva saxelmwifo da saxalxo werilebi Zvelisa droisa; d)
fuli da zedwarweraebi da sxva.
rac SemeZlo me marto kacsa, movagrove saxelmwifo da martiv-kacebis dokumentebi, magram darwmunebuli var da WeSmaritebiT
vaRiareb, rom rac miqmnia, imisi aTasjer meti darCa saqnelad SemdegTa CemTa saqarTvelos moyvareTa mier. axla pirveli wyaro
qarTulis istoriisa unda iyvnen gujrebi da zedwarweraebi. Tqven,
batono, saqarTveloSi cxovrebT, ena kargad iciT, qarTvelT Tanamemamule bZandebiT, gesmiT saqme ufro, vidreRa CemTvis. uTuoT
yvelani Tavadebi, aznaurebi didis kmayofilebiT giCveneben Zvels
gujrebsa. amis garda aqa-iqa mimosvliT mgzavr SegiZlianT moagrooT zedwarwerebi saydar da monasterTa da sxvadasxva SenebaTa. mogexseneba, ra uqnia nacnobs da megobars dimitris. ra kargi
da ucxo ambvebi Seityo adgilebSi, sad aravis ar egona SesaZlebeli. uTuoT waikiTxeT Cvens biuletinebSi polkovnikis barTlomeosis mier mogrovili warwerebi samasamdin da Cems raportebSi aTas xuTasamdis. pirveli nandvili wyaro da safuZveli istoriisa.

mari broses qarTvelologiuri moRvaweobidan

271

gmadlob, batono, amisTvis, rom saqarTvelo giyvarsT. istoriis da sityvierebis meZiebeli bZandebiT. Tu rasmeSi SemiZlia
TanaSroma, yovelTvis mzaT var~ (3).
aseve
aRfrTovanebulia
is
dimitri
meRvineTuxucesis
moRvaweobiT, romelTanac mas TiTqmis ocdaaTwliani mecnieruli
TanamSromloba akavSirebda: `madloba RmerTsa, daiwyo qarTvelma
kacma siyvarulisagan mamulisa da mecnierebis gulisaTvis TviTon
TvalebiT gaSinjva ZvelTa mosaxsenebelTa saqarTvelosaTa!
gagimarjvos! miama didad, rom sacicianosi da goris mazris
dasavleTisa is nawili givlia, romeli me ar minaxavs. uTuod
bevri giSovnia iqa Rirsi xsovnisa zedwerilebi saydrebisa da
monasterTa. nu daigvianebiT, akademiasTan pirdapir gagzavneT~4.
imave werilSi mari brose dimitri meRvineTuxucess acnobebs:
`damrCa saweri ori Tvis da naxevrisa mogzauroba odiSs,
afxazeTs, suaneTs da imereTSi, romlisaTvis didi nivTiereba
maqvs. gujrebis ambavi davwere da davabeWdvine mokled. axla
grZlad unda davwero. gTxovT, erisTvisSvilebsa Tu aqvT Zveli,
Zalian Zveli gujrebi, Tugind mefe aleqsandres droisa, Tu cota
wina-ukana, gadawereT, Tu gadaawerineT maTis nebarTviTa. uTuoT
visme xelSi darCa amisTana Zveli ambvebi da uimisoT ar
SeuZlianT kacsa zedmiwevnilebiT gaigos da ganmartos uwindeli
droebis istoria~ (4).
mari brose ara marto sTxovs maT am masalis Segrovebas,
aramed werilebis did nawilSi eqspediciis marSrutsa da samuSao
grafikzec esaubreba da atyobinebs SeniSvnebs miRebuli masalis
Sesaxeb. mari brose urCevs maT mudmiv kavSirs ruseTis
mecnierebaTa
akademiasTan,
romlis
SemweobiTac
hpirdeba
eqspediciebis dafinansebas.
axalgamovlenili, sakmaod soliduri epistolaruli masala
datvirTulia faseuli mecnieruli informaciebiT da asaxavs im
gzas, romelic qarTvelologiam gaiara Tavisi arsebobis sawyis
etapze. amdenad igi metad faseulia.
literatura
1. xelnawerTa erovnuli centri, mari broses arqivi, #16.
2. iqve, #9.
3. iqve, #21.
4. iqve, #9.

kavkasiologiuri Ziebani CAUCASIOLOGIC PAPERS


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274


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E. Kavtaradze (Tbilisi)
From Mari Brosses Kartvelological Activity
Summary
A noteworthy epistolary material was revealed in the archive (The National Center of Manuscripts) of Mari Brosse, which will clarify the origins of Kartvelian studies.
Addressees of Mari Brosse are representatives of the first generation of Georgian
historians and philologists.
Newly revealed epistolary material reflects the path which was made by Kartvelology. Consequently its study is very valuable.

kavkasiologiuri Ziebani CAUCASIOLOGIC PAPERS


II

2010

m. qurdiani (Tbilisi)
iberiul-kavkasiur enaTa naTesaobis problema
(sakiTxis mdgomareoba da perspeqtivebi)
1. Cemi dRevandeli moxsenebis saTauri sityvasityviT imeorebs akademikos arnold Ciqobavas moxsenebis saxelwodebas, romelic man waikiTxa mahaCyalaSi 1965 wlis 14 ivniss Crdilo kavkasiis iberiul-kavkasiur enaTa istoriul-SedarebiTi Seswavlisadmi
miZRvnili samecniero sesiis plenarul sxdomaze. magram Tanxvdoma
didi maswavleblisa da Cems moxsenebebs Soris mxolod saTauriT
amoiwureba. am saTaurSi gacxadebuli TematikiTve amoiwureba maTi
Sexebis wertilebic da, rac mTavaria, akademikos Ciqobavasa da Cemi moxsenebebi asaxaven iberiul-kavkasiuri enaTmecnierebis or
Tvisobrivad gansxvavebul etaps, gnebavT _ sxvadasxva epoqas: pirveli moxseneba asaxavda etaps, rodesac iberiul-kavkasiur enaTa
naTesaoba, maTi kuTvnileba erTi da imave enobrivi ojaxisadmi iyo
jer kidev sagani rwmenis; meore moxseneba ki, romelic axlaa gamotanili Tqvens samsjavroze, asaxavs etaps, rodesac iberiulkavkasiuri enebis naTesaoba aris ukve sagani codnis.
2. mecnierebis kompetenturobis dones misi meTodis imanenturoba da simkacre gansazRvravs. rasmus qristian raskis (17871832) mier aRmoCenilma istoriul-SedarebiTma meTodma (1814 w., gamoqveynda 1818 w.) moZRvreba enis Sesaxeb mecnierebad aqcia; iseTive
zust mecnierebad, rogoric sabunebismetyvelo disciplinebia,
vTqvaT, fizika an qimia.
enaTa naTesaobis erTaderTi ueWveli kriteriumia maT Soris kanonzomieri da regularuli bgeraTSesatyvisobebis arseboba.
bgeraTSesatyvisoba ki dgindeba enaTa ZiriTadi leqsikuri fondis
(da gramatikuli inventaris _ aseTis povnierebis SemTxvevaSi) istoriul-SedarebiTi meTodiT kvlevis gziT.
SeniSvna: 2008 wlis 14 oqtombers mahaCyalaSi (respublika daRestani,
ruseTis federacia) gamarTuli saerTaSoriso samecniero konferenciis kavkasiuri
enebi: genetiuri, tipologiuri da arealuri kavSirebi plenarul sxdomaze
wasakiTxi moxsenebis teqsti. mokle versia ix.: -
( ). :
. , 14-16 . , 2008.
http://www.iyaldnc.ru

276

m. qurdiani

yvelaze mniSvnelovani istoriul-SedarebiT meTodSi misi


kvlevis Sedegebis verificirebadoba anu Semowmebadobaa _ swored
es gansazRvravs misi sandoobis xarisxs.
verifikacias sami safexuri aqvs: a) verifikacia masaliT; b)
verifikacia sistemis moTxovnebiTa da g) verifikacia tipologiiT.
mxolod am samive safexuris verifikaciis gatarebis Semdeg SegiZlia danamdvilebiT icode, ramdenad sandoa Catarebuli Sedareba
Tu arqetipis rekonstruqcia. dRes SeiZleba iTqvas, rom iberiulkavkasiuri enebis naTesaoba warmoadgens codnis sagans,
radgan is eqvemdebareba verificirebas istoriul-SedarebiTi
meTodis mTeli simkacriT.
3. iberiul-kavkasiur enaTa naTesaobis damtkicebis isedac
mcirericxovani mcdelobebis mimarT dasavleli komparativistebis
skefsisi, Tu sulac nihilizmi gamowveuli iyo im faqtiT, rom
maTi naTesaobis Sesaxeb msjelobas am hipoTezis momxreTa
mxridan, rogorc wesi, hqonda an aprioruli xasiaTi, an maTi
naTesaobis
damtkicebas
cdilobdnen
istoriul-SedarebiTi
meTodis gverdis avliT, an am meTodis arakoreqtuli Tu
araadekvaturi gamoyenebiT.
istoriul-SedarebiTi meTodis Semqmnelebad, Cveulebriv,
sam enaTmecniers asaxeleben. eseni arian: danieli rasmus qristian
raski (1787-1832), germanelebi: franc bopi (1791-1867) da iakob grimi
(1785-1863). am sameulidan erTi, kerZod, franc bopi, istoriul-SedarebiTi meTodis SeqmnaSi `ubraloa~, mas arc erTi fonetikuri Sesatyvisoba ar daudgenia indo-evropul enaTa Soris da misi moxvedra meTodis SemqmnelTa siaSi gaugebrobas unda mieweros.
Cvenda samwuxarod, swored misma magaliTma da avtoritetma seriozuli ziani miayena iberiul-kavkasiuri enaTmecnierebis ganviTarebas, daabrkola istoriul-SedarebiTi meTodiT am enebis kvlevis
saqme, gadatanil iqna ra mTeli yuradReba SedarebiTi fonetikidan
SedarebiT gramatikaze (morfologiur inventarze): gansakuTrebuli mniSvneloba eniWeba sityvis formis Sedarebas, rogorc sesxebebze yvelaze naklebad daqvemdebarebulis da maqsimalurad
myaris: SedarebiT gramatikas eniWeba gadamwyveti mniSvneloba enaTa
naTesaobis Sesaxeb sakiTxis gadawyvetisaTvis. indo-evropul enaTa
naTesaoba, magaliTad, iqna damtkicebuli fr. bopis zmnuri formebis Sedarebis saSualebiT (naSromSi Zv. induris uRvlilebis
sistema berZnulTan, laTinurTan, spars. da german... SedarebiT,
1816w.) (Ciqobava 1965, 3).
Sesabamisad:
...sakiTxi
Crdilokavkasiuri
enebis
qarTvelurebTan naTesaobis Sesaxeb iRebs principSi dadebiT
gadawyvetas morfologiur elementTa Cvenebis safuZvelze, e. i.
SedarebiTi gramatikis saSualebebiT (Ciqobava 1967, 7).

iberiul-kavkasiur enaTa naTesaobis problema

277

da es maSin, rodesac enaTa naTesaobis damtkicebisaTvis morfologiis monacemebs aranairi mtkicebulebiTi Zala ar gaaCnia. isini
meTodis TvalsazrisiT ararelevanturia, Warbia da erTaderTi da
gadamwyveti kriteriumi Sesadarebel enebs Soris kanonzomier da
regularul bgeraTSesatyvisobaTa sistemis dadgenaa istoriul-SedarebiTi meTodis mkacri gamoyenebiT (cxadia, amas arc arnold
Ciqobava uaryofda, magram meore rigis amocanad saxavda).
franc bopis ararsebuli damsaxurebis gafetiSebam istoriul-SedarebiTi meTodis Seqmnasa da indo-evropuli enebis naTesaobis dadgenasa Tu cxadyofaSi da bopis magaliTis gamocxadebam
Kyvelaze saimedo da perspeqtiul gzad iberiul-kavkasiuri enebis
istoriul-genezisuri urTierTobis kvlevisas lingvistTa Tbilisuri skolisa da misi mimdevrebisaTvis drois arc Tu mcire monakveTSi garkveuli saenaTmecniero doqtrinis xasiaTi miiRo.
4. ukve sayovelTaod aRiarebuli istoriul-SedarebiTi meTodi mxolod iberiul-kavkasiuri enebis kavkasiel da, upirveles
yovlisa, qarTvel mkvlevarTa Soris iwvevda gamudmebul msjelobas: iberiul-kavkasiur enaTa `specifikurobis~, maTi Seudareblad
mdidari konsonantizmis gamo bgeraTSesatyvisobaTa dadgenis `ufro rTuli xasiaTis~ da, aqedan gamomdinare, TviT komparativistuli `meTodis dazustebis aucileblobis~ Sesaxeb (xolo am `sirTuleTa~ da `specifikurobaTa~ sailustraciod, Cveulebriv, iseTi
magaliTebi moixmoboda xolme, romlebic meTodis koreqtuli gamoyenebiT sruliad damakmayofileblad ixsnebodnen an fonetikuri
procesebiT _ kombinatoruliT, poziciuriT, superaciuliT... an
fuZe-enis sxvadasxva fonemis refleqsad cnobiT, an nasesxobiT da
sxv.).
jer kidev 1924 wels osloSi wakiTxuli leqciebis ciklSi
a. meie wuxda saqmis amgvari mdgomareobis gamo: `...meTodebi, warmatebiT gamoyenebuli indo-evropuli enebis kvlevisas, Kyvelgan erTnairad rodia gamosadegi. saWiroa dafiqreba kvlevis meTodologiaze, Semowmeba Cveni meTodebis sisworisa da cda mkafiobisa da
sizustis moTxovnaTa daqveiTebis gareSe (xazgasma Cemia _ m.q.) maTi gavrcelebisa axal farTo areebze. meTodikis gadasinjva (igulisxmeba _ gamkacrebis mimarTulebiT, m.q.) miT umetes aucilebelia, rom bolo dros bevrma enaTmecnierma wamoayena cudad dasabuTebuli hipoTezebi. axali etimologia Zalian bevria, magram maTi umravlesoba im rigisaa, rom maTSi SeuZlebelia aRmoaCino raime, mtkicebulebis sawyisic ki~ (meie 1954, 9).
es mokrZalebuli eWvebi, romelic istoriul-SedarebiTi meTodis universalurobis mimarT gamoTqva antuan meiem osloSi, im
droisTvisve ukve sabolood gaqarwylebuli gaxldaT im TvalsaCino miRwevebiT, romelic mis gamoyenebas mohyva sxvadasxva sistemis
enebis mimarT:

278

m. qurdiani

XX saukunis pirveli meoTxedi aRiniSna ori uTvalsaCinoesi miRweviT SedarebiTi enaTmecnierebis sferoSi: TiTqmis
erTdroulad l. blumfildma da n. trubeckoim moaxdines demonstrireba SedarebiTi meTodis sruli gamoyenebadobisa literaturuli tradiciis armqone enebisadmi. pirvelma es moaxdina centraluralgonkinuri enebis mimarT, meorem ki _ Crdilokavkasiuri
enebis mimarT. orive SemTxvevaSi miRweul iqna brwyinvale Sedegebi (gigineiSvili 1977, 13).
sakuTriv iberiul-kavkasiur enebTan dakavSirebiT unda iTqvas, rom
isini
istoriul-SedarebiT
meTodTan
mimarTebaSi
arafriT
gansxvavdebian enaTa sxva ojaxebisagan da n. trubeckois umTavresi
damsaxureba komparativistuli meTodisa da kavkasiologiis winaSe
swored amisi cxadyofaa. rac Seexeba mis WeSmarit rols Crdilokavkasiur enaTa naTesaobis dadgenaSi, amis Sesaxeb qvemoT iqneba
naTqvami.
5. ra etapebi uZRoda win iberiul-kavkasiur enaTa naTesaobis saboloo damtkicebas:
5.1. afxazur-adiRuri da naxur-daRestnuri (resp. Crdilokavkasiuri) enebis naTesaobis dadgenas Cveulebriv n. trubeckois saxels ukavSireben da, kerZod, mis Semdeg Sromas: "Les consonnes latrales des langues Caucasiques-Septentrionales" ("Bulletin de la Socit de Linguistique".
t. 23. 27. Paris, 1922, 184-204).
Tavisi mniSvnelobiT es naSromi aRemateba n. trubeckois
yvela sxva kavkasiologiur narkvevs, radgan masSi (nawili IV) pirvelad aris dadgenili kanonzomieri da regularuli bgeraTSesatyvisobani naxur-daRestnur da afxazur-adiRur (trubeckoiseuli terminologiiT: CeCeno-lezgiur da abazgo-kerketul) enebs Soris lateralTa rigSi.
magram man ver SeZlo Crdilokavkasiur enaTa Soris bgeraTSesatyvisobaTa paradigmebis ageba da, Sesabamisad, maTi naTesaobis saboloo damtkiceba. rac kargad Cans Crdilokavkasiur enaTa SedarebiTi Seswavlis sferoSi n. trubeckois erT-erTi yvelaze gaxmaurebuli naSromis "Nordkaukasische Wortgleichungen" ("Wiener Zeitschift fr die Kunde des Morgenlandes". Bd. XXXVII, Heft 2, Wien, 1930, 76-92) g.
deetersiseul SefasebaSi:
`n. trubeckoim daadgina 100-ze meti fardoba aRmosavlur- da dasavlur-kavkasiurs Soris, romelic moicavs agreTve ricxviT saxelebs, pirisa da CvenebiT nacvalsaxelebs, magram bgeraTSesatyvisoba umetes SemTxvevaSi cxadi ar aris~ (deetersi 1963, 41).
5.2.1. n. trubeckoim 1924 wels gamoTqva mosazreba, rom:
Crdilokavkasiur enaTa naTesaoba samxreTkavkasiur (qarTvelur)
enebTan `ar aris arc cxadi, arc mecnierulad damtkicebuli ~
(trubeckoi 1924, 327). magram 1953 wlis 13 ivniss saqarTvelos mecnierebaTa akademiis enaTmecnierebis institutis IV (X) samecniero

iberiul-kavkasiur enaTa naTesaobis problema

279

sesiaze prof. togo gudavam waikiTxa moxseneba: lateralis genezisisTvis xunZur-didour enebSi~. momdevno wels es moxseneba
`iberiul-kavkasiuri enaTmecnierebis~ VI tomSi gamoqveynda statiis saxiT, saTauriT: `xunZur-andiur-didour enaTa lateralis
genezisisa da qarTvelur enebSi maTi fonetikuri Sesatyvisis Sesaxeb~ (gv. 55-65, rusuli reziume gv. 61-65). kvlevam t. gudava miiyvana
daskvnamde, rom xunZur-andiur enaTa lateralis kanonzomieri
Sesatyvisi `unda iyos qarTuli y(v)~ (gudava, 1954, 57). Tavisi mniSvnelobiT es naSromi istoriulia, radgan masSi pirvelad aris dadgenili kanonzomieri da regularuli bgeraTSesatyvisoba naxurdaRestnuri jgufis daRestnuri jgufis enebsa da qarTvelur
enebs Soris.
5.2.2. akademikos qeTevan lomTaTiZis (1909-2007) mier jer kiafxazur-qarTveluri bgeraTSedev 1955 wels dadgenil iqna
satyvisobebi dentalur xSulTa rigSi: qarT. T, zan. T, svan. Sd :
afx.-adiR. ||s (S, S)anu bgeraTSesatyvisobebi qarTvelur da afxazur-adiRuri enebis jgufis afxazur (afxazur-abazur) enaTa qvejgufs Soris (lomTaTiZe, 1955, 79); 1995 wels q. lomTaTiZem am SesatyvisobaTa sailustraciod damatebiT magaliTebi daimowma; 1977
wels q. lomTaTiZem daadgina qarTvelursa da afxazurs Soris kanonzomier da regularul bgeraTSesatyvisobaTa kidev erTi rigi
_ qarTv. w : afx. , romelic mogvianebiT araerTi magaliTiT Seavso (lomTaTiZe 1977, 81-85; lomTaTiZe 1995, 261-266).
am istoriuli mniSvnelobis naSromebSi pirvelad aris dadgenili kanonzomieri da regularuli bgeraTSesatyvisoba afxazur-adiRuri enebis jgufis afxazur (afxazur-abazur) enaTa qvejgufsa da qarTvelur enebs Soris.
5.2.3. samocdaaTiani wlebis dasawyisSi germanelma hainc fenrixma scada daedgina kanonzomieri da regularuli bgeraTSesatyvisobebi daRestnur enaTa xunZur-andiur-didouri qvejgufis
xunZur-andiur enebsa da qarTvelur enebs Soris: Sprachliche
Vernderungen und ihr Erkennen (Wissenschnaftische Zeitschrift der Friedrich Schiller - Universitt Jena. Gesellschafts _ und sprach-wissenschaftiche Reihe. Heft
5/6. Jena, 1972, 669-673); Konsonantenentspechungen zwischen Kartvelsprachen und
awaro-andischen Sprachen (Bedi Kartlisa, Revue de Karthvelologie. vol. XXXI, Paris,
1973, 246-259). komparativistikis poziciidan prof. h. fenrixis am
naSromebSi warmodgenili Sepirispirebebidan mniSvneloba, Tanac
principuli, faqtobrivad, aqvs mxolod qarTv. *Tx : xunZ.-and. t-s.
5.3.1. iberiul-kavkasiuri komparativistikisTvis aranaklebi
mniSvneloba, vidre n. trubeckois mier dadgenil kanonzomier da
regularul bgeraTSesatyvisobebs naxur-daRestnur da afxazuradiRur enebs Soris lateralTa rigSi, hqonda im faqts, rom
frangma baskologma da kavkasiologma prof. rene lafonma 1948

280

m. qurdiani

wels daadgina, rom qarTvelur enaTa infraglotalur afrikatebs


(mJRerebsa da Kyruebs) baskurSi Seesatyviseba Kyru sisina afrikatebi (da maTgan nawarmoebi spirantebi), xolo qarTvelur enaTa
supraglotalur afrikatebs _ Kyru naxevradSiSina afrikatebi (da
maTgan nawarmoebi spirantebi).
ai, faqtobrivad, sruli CamonaTvali im faseuli da angariSgasawevi monapovrisa
iberiul-kavkasiuri enebis istoriulSedarebiT fonetikaSi, rac Tbilisis lingvisturi skolis komparativist-kavkasiologTa axal Taobas ergo memkvidreobad.
1. es memkvidreoba ar iyo arc udavo da arc uproblemo: bgeraTSesatyvisobebi umravles SemTxvevaSi dadgenili iyo istoriul-SedarebiTi meTodis poziciidan arakoreqtulad, meTodis
mkacri moTxovnebis daucvelad. jer erTi _ erTmaneTTan Sedarebuli aRmoCnda mxolod uSualod sinqroniaSi Tanaarsebul
enaTa (qarTuli, xunZuri, afxazur-adiRuri, zanuri, svanuri) monacemebi, TiToeuli enobrivi jgufis (qarTveluris, afxazuradiRuris, daRestnuris) fuZe-enobrivi mdgomareobis (arqetipebis) winaswari rekonstruqciis gareSe an am rekonstruqciaTa
gauTvaliswineblad; meore _ SedarebisaTvis aRebuli iyo mxolod Zirebi, isic _ calTanxmovniani Zirebi da Tanac iseT sityvebSi, romelTa segmentacia (Zirisa da gramatikuli inventaris
gamijvna) arc cxadi iyo, arc udavo da, zogjer, arc SesaZlebeli; mesame _ mikvleuli bgeraTSesatyvisobebi maTi arasistemuri
xasiaTis gamo aRiqmebodnen izolirebul, arakanonzomier, araregularul movlenebad. Kyovelive zemoTqmuls minimumamde dahyavda maTi mniSvneloba da faseuloba Tu iberiul-kavkasiur enaTa
naTesaobis dadgenis saqmeSi ara, mis aRiarebaSi mainc.
7. arsebuli situaciidan gamomdinare, axali Taobis upirveles amocanad gamoikveTa, erTi mxriv, Tbilisis lingvisturi
skolisaTvis kvlevis tradiciuli prioritetebis koreqtireba _
iberiul-kavkasiur enaTa SedarebiTi morfologiidan SedarebiTi
fonetikisken, meore mxriv, komparativistuli
meTodis tradiciuli, me vityodi _ kanonikuri, Teoriuli bazis universalizacia, srulyofa, kvlevis Sedegebis verificirebadobis xarisxis amaRleba meTodis simkacris Sesabamisad da, rac aranakleb
mniSvnelovania, dacva lingvistikis istoriaSi garkveuli periodulobiT ganmeorebadi da imJamad
paralelurad mimdinare,
SedarebaTa Tu rekonstruqciaTa proceduris sicxadisa da simkacris Sesustebis xarjze enaTmecnierebis am uzustesi meTodis
sruli profanaciis morigi procesisagan, romelic am mizniT maSin swored Crdilokavkasiur enaTa genetiuri kavSirebiT operirebda.
8. ukanasknel wlebSi iberiul-kavkasiur enaTa empiriuli
kvlevebis procesSi da maT safuZvelze iqna dadgenili araerTi

iberiul-kavkasiur enaTa naTesaobis problema

281

fonetikuri kanoni Tu wesi da axsnili garkveuli fonetikuri


movlenebi (v. Sengelia, m. qurdiani), dazustda bgeraTSesatyvisobebis formulebi enobriv jgufTa SigniT (v. Sengelia,
n.ardoteli), SemuSavebul iqna ramdenime originaluri zogadlingvisturi Teoria da midgoma, ramac mniSvnelovani roli
iTamaSa wminda komparativistuli problemebis gadawyvetaSi:
8.1. bgeraTSesatyvisobaTa dadgenisas
sityva-formaTa urTierTSedarebis koreqtulobis dasacavad da maTi udavo da calsaxa segmentaciiis mizniT
enobrivi niSnis morfematuli Teoriis
(m. qurdiani) da alternaciis fuZeTqmnadobis Teoriis (a. arabuli)
Suqze gadasinjul da gaanalizebul iqna daRestnur, afxazuradiRur, baskur-qarTvelur enaTa Zirebis struqtura da fuZeTqmnadobis modelebi (Zireul da afiqsalur morfemaTa kanonikuri kombinaciebi). sakuTriv alternaciis Teoria Semowmebul iqna mTis
iberiul-kavkasiuri
enebis
masalaze,
ramac
cxadyo
ZirfuZeTqmnadobis am uZvelesi modelis sruli funqcionaluri da,
rac mTavaria, masalobrivi identuroba samxreT da Crdilokavkasiur enebSi (a. arabuli, m. qurdiani).
8.2. dadginda da aixsna sinqroniul bgeraTSesatyvisobaTa diaqroniaSi asaxvis (resp. povnierebis) hologramuli principi: Tu
enebi monaTesaveni arian, anu erT enobriv ojaxs ekuTvnian, Kisini,
yvela SemTxvevaSi, unda avlendnen kanonzomier da regularul
bgeraTSesatyvisobebs rogorc sinqroniul, aseve diaqroniul
WrilSi, damoukideblad imisa, erT konkretul enas vadarebT misive qvejgufis, jgufis, ojaxis cocxal an istoriulad dadasturebul meore enas, Tu romelime Sualeduri fuZe-enis an sulac saerTo fuZe-enis rekonstruirebul arqetipebs da am kanonzomier da
regularul bgeraTSesatyvisobebs Kisini unda avlendnen ara
izolirebulad, romelime calkeul fonemasTan, an Tundac fonemaTa romelime calke aRebul lokalur rigTan, aramed sistemurad, sxvadasxva lokalur rigebTan (m. qurdiani).
8.3. kvleva warmoebda paralelurad gansxvavebuli midgomebiT
_ erTi mxriv, moxda bgeraTSesatyvisobaTa ranJireba maTi mtkicebulebiTi Zalis mixedviT: miuxedavad imisa, rom e. w. identuri Sesatyvisobebi iseTive regularuli da kanonzomieri xasiaTisani
arian, rogorc e. w. gadiferencirebulni, maTi mtkicebulebiTi Zala gansxvavebulia, amitom enaTa naTesaobis mtkicebisas orientacia swored am ukanasknelebze (da maT kombinaciebze `identur~
bgeraTSesatyvisobebTan) iqna aRebuli (m. qurdiani), meore mxriv,
ukve erTi enobrivi ojaxis wevrebad cnobil enaTa fonematuri
sistemebis jgufTaSorisi Sedarebisas orientacia aRebul iqna
rogorc
araidentur, aseve identur bgeraTSesatyvisobaTa
srul paradigmebze (m. Cuxua) da sxv.

282

m. qurdiani

9. rogor simboluradac ar unda JRerdes, mainc sruli


SemTxveviTobaa, rom iberiul-kavkasiuri enaTmecnierebis ganviTarebis axali etapis dasawyisi droSi mohyva iberiul-kavkasiuri
enaTmecnierebis WeSmariti Semoqmedisa da Cveni didi maswavleblis
akad. arnold Ciqobavas gardacvalebas.
1986 wlis 20 marts saqarTvelos mecnierebaTa akademiis
enaTmecnierebis institutis aspirantTa da axalgazrda mecnier muSakTa samecniero konferenciaze am striqonebis avtorma waikiTxa
moxseneba `qarTvelur-daRestnuri bgeraTSesatyvisobisaTvis~, romelmac cxadyo, rom t. gudavas mier gamovlenili bgeraTSesatyvisoba iyo ara izolirebuli xasiaTisa, aramed warmoadgenda sistemis nawils. es iyo pirveli misi naSromebis ciklidan
naxurdaRestnur da qarTvelur jgufebs Soris povnieri bgeraTSesatyvisobebis Sesaxeb. 1991 wels saqarTvelos mecnierebaTa akademiis.
arn. Ciqobavas saxelobis enaTmecnierebis institutis XLIX samecniero sesiaze manve waikiTxa moxseneba qarTvelur da naxur enaTa
kanonzomieri da regularuli bgeraTSesatyvisobebis Sesaxeb
afrikatTa rigSi da pirvelad iberiul-kavkasiuri enaTmecnierebis
istoriaSi gamoavlina am SesatyvisobaTa paradigmatuli xasiaTi.
1991 wlidan naxur-daRestnur da qarTvelur jgufebs Soris bgeraTSesatyvisobaTa gamovlenaze intensiurad da warmatebiT daiwyo
muSaoba merab Cuxuam.
1995 wels iberiul-kavkasiur komparativistikas daubrunda
akad. qeTevan lomTaTiZe da mis mier qarTvelur da afxazuradiRur jgufebs Soris jer kidev 1955 wels gamovlenil bgeraTSesatyvisobaTa formulebi axali ueWveli magaliTebiT Seavso.
1998 wels varSavis universitetis profesorma, lingvistTa
Tbilisuri skolis warmomadgenelma ian braunma qarTvelurbaskuri enebis istoriul-SedarebiTi meTodiT kvlevis naxevarsaukunovan Sedegebs Tavi mouyara multilingvur monografiaSi: EUSCARO-CAUCASICA, Historical and Comparative Studies on Kartvelian and Basque,
Warszawa : "DIALOG". am wignamde baskuri sistemurad Tu usistemod
dardeboda zogadad da cal-calke Kyvela iberiul-kavkasiur enas.
ian braunis udavo damsaxurebaTa ricxvs ganekuTvneba baskuri enis
adgilis calsaxa gansazRvra iberiul-kavkasiur enaTa ojaxis
baskur-qarTvelur jgufSi.
1998 weli saerTodac unda iqnes miCneuli umniSvnelovanes
niSansvetad iberiul-kavkasiuri enaTmecnierebis istoriis TvalsazrisiT: moxda iberiul-kavkasiur enaTa samive (afxazur-adiRur,
baskur-qarTvelur da naxur-daRestnur) jgufs Soris gamovlenil
araidentur bgeraTSesatyvisobaTa sistematizacia da maTi verificirebadi paradigmebis ageba, anu damtkicda Crdilo da samxreT
kavkasiur enaTa kuTvnileba erTi enobrivi ojaxisadmi. El Imposible
vencido!

iberiul-kavkasiur enaTa naTesaobis problema

283

10. principuli, me vityodi, direqtiuli mniSvnelobisaa


Semdgomi kvlevebisaTvis is faqti, rom komparativistuli meTodis
mkacri dacviT gaanalizebuli masala mxars ar uWers iberiul-kavkasiuri enebis tradiciul dayofas lingvisturi niSniT samxreTkavkasiur (qarTvelur) da Crdilokavkasiur (afxazur-adiRur
da naxur-daRestnur) enebad. geografiulad Crdilo-kavkasiuri enebis ori jgufi ar avlens erTmaneTTan met lingvistur siaxloves, vidre TiToeuli maTgani samxreT-kavkasiur jgufTan. Sesabamisad, saerTo-iberiul-kavkasiuri enis qronologiur doneze raime
enobrivi realiis daSvebisa da semantikuri rekonstruqciisaTvis
sakmarisia misi povniereba kanonzomieri da regularuli bgeraTSesatyvisobis saxiT sami enobrivi qvejgufidan nebismier orSi. arqetipis (praformis) rekonstruqciisTvis, cxadia, samive jgufis
Cvenebaa gadamwyveti.
11. qvemoT me warmovadgen araidentur bgeraTSesatyvisobaTa
im umTavres paradigmebs, romlebze dayrdnobiTac ukve 1998 wels
gaxda SesaZlebeli iberiul-kavkasiur enaTa naTesaobis dasabuTeba:

11.1. qarTvelur : daRestnuri bgeraTSesatyvisobebi


11.1.1. lateralTa rigi:
*Ky
s./daRG. *t

s./qarTv.
*GR

*t
:
*Tx
SesatyvisobaTa am rigis ueWvelobas naxuri enebisa da baskuri
enis masaliT verifikaciac uWers mxars.
11.1.2. sibilantur afrikatTa rigSi :
saerTo-qarTveluri
:
saerTo-daRestnuri
*Z *ZI
:
*c
:
*c
*c *cI
*w *wI
:
*s
SesatyvisobaTa am rigis ueWvelobas naxuri, afxazuradiRuri enebisa da baskuri enis masaliT verifikaciac uWers
mxars.
11.1.3. dentalur xSulTa rigSi :
saerTo-qarTveluri : saerTo-daRestnuri

284

m. qurdiani

*T

* s I T

* sT

: * w

11.2. qarTvelur : afxazur-adiRuri bgeraTSesatyvisobebi


11.2.1. lateralTa rigSi :
saerTo-qarTveluri
:
afxazuri
*yK

qarT. Kyv
zan.
v / Kyv

:
:

adiRG. R
afxaz.

svan. Kyv
:
abaz.

SesatyvisobaTa am rigis ueWvelobas daRestnuri enebis masaliT


verifikaciac uWers mxars.
11.2.2. sibilantur afrikatTa rigSi :
qarTveluri
afxazur-adiRuri
w
K
qar

*wI

afxaz.
yab.
adiR.

S
x

*w
:
w
< *w
W
< *wI
SesatyvisobaTa am rigis ueWvelobas baskuri enis masaliT
verifikaciac uWers mxars.

zan.
svan.

11.2.3. dentalur xSulTa rigSi :


saerTo-qarTveluri :
afxazuri
*sT
*sT
*T
*T
:
*sIT
*sIT

s s0

SesatyvisobaTa am rigis ueWvelobas baskuri enis masaliT


verifikaciac uWers mxars.
11.3. qarTvelur : naxuri bgeraTSesatyvisobebi
11.3.1. lateralTa rigSi :
saerTo-qarTveluri :
saerTo-naxuri
*y
*l
*R
* *h
SesatyvisobaTa am rigis (Sdr. Cuxua 2008, 202-204 da Cuxua 2008,
215-217) ueWvelobas daRestnuri enebisa da baskuri enis masaliT
verifikaciac uWers mxars.
11.3.2. sibilantur afrikatTa rigSi :

iberiul-kavkasiur enaTa naTesaobis problema

saerTo-qarTveluri
*Z *ZI
:
*c *cI
:
:
*w *wI

:
*Z
*c
*w

285

saerTo-naxuri
*j (>J)
*C (>S)
*W

SesatyvisobaTa am rigis (qurdiani 1991, 34, ix. agreTve Cuxua


2008, 150-157) ueWvelobas daRestnuri enebisa da baskuri enis masaliT verifikaciac uWers mxars.
11.3.3. dentalur xSulTa rigSi :
saerTo-qarTveluri :
saerTo-naxuri
*sT
*T
:
*T / *T
*sIT
SesatyvisobaTa am rigis ueWvelobas daRestnuri enebisa da
baskuri enis masaliT verifikaciac uWers mxars.
11.4. qarTvelur : baskuri bgeraTSesatyvisobebi
saerTo qarTveluri
:
baskuri
*Z *ZI
:
c / s
*c *cI
:
c / s
*w *wI
:
C / S
*s *sI
*T *sTII
*w *wI
*
*yK
*RG
*rZ / *Z
*rZI / *ZI
*rJ / *J

:
:
:
:
:
:

s
s S
C / S
h
l
h / g

:
rd / d
da sxva.

11.5. iberiul-kavkasiuri komparativistikis Tanamedrove donis ganmsazRvreli Teoriuli postulatebi, kvlevis miRwevebi da
monapovrebi Tu problemebi, iseve rogorc iberiul-kavkasiur enaTa
ojaxis jgufebs Soris dadgenil kanonzomier da regularul
bgeraTSesatyvisobaTa formulebis sailustracio masala SeZlebisdagvarad sruli saxiT aris warmodgenili or kapitalur monografiaSi: akad. m. e. qurdianis iberiul-kavkasiuri enaTmecnierebis
safuZvlebi (Tbilisi: Tbilisis universitetis gamomcemloba, 2007,
1040 gv.) da prof. m. Cuxuas iberiul-iCqeriul enaTa SedarebiTi
gramatika (Tbilisi: Tbilisis universitetis gamomcemloba, 2008:
763 gv.; sadac iberiul-iCqeriuli = qarTvelur-naxurs).

286

m. qurdiani

12. axla rac Seexeba perspeqtivebs:


kanonzomier da regularul bgeraTSesatyvisobaTa gamovlena warmoadgens komparativistikis erT-erTi umTavresi (Tumca ara
_ erTaderTi) amocanis gadawyvetas _ enaTa naTesaobis dadgenas.
komparativistikis Semdgom, aseve umniSvnelovanes, amocanebs
warmoadgenen: a) enaTa naTesaobis xarisxis gansazRvra anu
enobrivi
ojaxis
fuZe-enis
diferenciaciis
dro-sivrculi
modelis warmodgena rekonstruirebadi Sualeduri fuZe-enebidan
istoriulad dadasturebul enebamde; b) rekonstruqcia da
sinqroniuli aRwera mocemuli enobrivi ojaxis fuZe-enisa misi
monaTesave enebad diferenciaciis uSualod winmswreb momentSi;
g) enobrivi ojaxis fuZe-enis arsebobis absoluturi qronologiis dadgena; d) enobrivi ojaxis SedarebiTi fonetikebisa da
gramatikebis
Seqmna
da
SedarebiTi
Tu
etimologiuri
leqsikonebis Sedgena;A e) fuZe-enaze metyveli eTnosis winare-samSoblos lokalizacia da v) proto-kulturis rekonstruqcia.
bolo ori amocana gansakuTrebiT aqtualuria kavkasiel
xalxTa preistoriisa Tu arafiqsirebuli istoriis realiebis
dadgenis TvalsazrisiT: ena erTaderTi istoriaa, romlis
gayalbebac SeuZlebelia (avgust Slaixeri); ra Tqma unda,
yvelaferi is (materialuri, socialuri Tu kulturuli), rac
iyo, ver aRdgeba, Tu is sityvad ar SemorCenila, rogorc minimum,
or enobriv jgufSi mainc, magram is, rac monaTesave enaTa
Sedarebis gziT aRdgeba, namdvilad iyo fuZe-enaze metyveli
eTnosis yofa-cxovrebaSi.
umwerlobo
Tu
axalmwerlobiani
enebisTvis, iberiul-kavkasiur enaTa umravlesoba ki swored
aseTia, es sakuTari istoriisa da preistoriis Sesaxeb utyuari
codnis mopovebis erTaderTi mecnieruli gzaa.
es gza Cveni saerTo winaprebis Sesacnobad Cven, kavkasielma
lingvistebma, erTad unda gaviaroT.

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deetersi 1963 _ G. Deeters, Die Kaukasischen Sprachen. Leiden-Kln,

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. 15-19
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fonemis Sesatyvisobani saerTo-qarTvelurSi. saqarTvelos mecnierebaTa akademiis arn. Ciqobavas saxelobis enaTmecnierebis institutis 57-e samecniero sesiis masalebi. 1998 wlis 23-25 dekemberi.
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- -
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gramatika. I. Tbilisi.

kavkasiologiuri Ziebani CAUCASIOLOGIC PAPERS


II

2010

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184-204).
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(Wissenschnaftische Zeitschrift der Friedrich Schiller Universitat Jena. Gesellschafts und sprach-wissenschaftiche Reihe. Heft 5/6. Jena, 1972, 669-673); Konsonantenentspechungen zwischen Kartvelsprachen und awaro-andischen Sprachen (Bedi
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296

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11.
, , 1998
- :
11.1. :

11.1.1. :
*
. *

.
*

* tx

11.1.2. :
.
*

*c
*c

*c

*s


- .
11.1.3. :

*st

*
:

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p - o

297

11.2. : -
11.2.1. :
.

v/v


.
11.2.2. :
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11.2.3. :
.

:
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*t

.
*st

*t

*st

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11.3. :
11.3.1. :
.
:
.
*

*l

298

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(. 2008, 202-204
2008, 215-217)
.
11.3.2. :
.
:
.
* *
:
*

* (>)

*c

*c

*c

*c (>)

( 1991, 34, .
2008, 150-157)
.
11.3.3. :
.
:
.
*st
t
:
*t/ *t
*st

.
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1998 _ J. Braun, Euscaro-Caucasica. Historical and Comparative Studies on Kartvelian and Basque. Warszawa.
1977 _ . . ,
. .
1954 _ . ,
--
(- . VI. ) ( .
).
1963 _ G. Deeters, Die Kaukasischen Sprachen, Leiden-Kln.
1986 _ . , -
. . .
. 21 1986.
. ( . .).
1991 _ . ,
. .
. . . XLIX , 90-
.. 17-19 1991.
.
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1998 _ . , -
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, 100- .
. 15-19 1998. . .
1998 _ . , *a . .
. . . 57- . 23-25
1998. ( . ).
1998 _ . ,
- - . V
. . 21-22 1998. (
. .).
2007 _ . , -
. ( . .).
1948 _ R. Lafon, Correspondances basque-caucasiques, II. Siffilantes
et Chuintanetes en basque et dans les langues caucasiques (EUSKO-JAKINTZA II).
1955 _ . . , (. , 4).

p - o

1977 _

301

. . , -

: . ~ . ( , IV). ( . .).
1995 _ . . , . ~ .
( , XX-XXI). ( . .).
1954 _ . ,
( ). , 1954.
1922 _ N. Troubetzkoy, Les consonnes laterals les langues Caucasiques-Septentrionales (Bulletin de la Societe de Linguistique. T. 23, 27, Paris).
1924 _ N. Troubetzkoy, Les langues caucasiques septeentrionales.
In:
Les Langues du monde. Ed. par A.Meilet et M. Cohen. Paris: Champion.
1926 _ N. Troubetzkoy, Studien auf dem Gebiete der vergleichenden Lautlehre der Nordkaukasischen Sprachen. I (Caucasica, fasc.3. Leipzig).
1973 _ N. Fahnrich, Konsonantenentspechungen zwischen Kartvelsprachen und awaro-andischen Sprachen (Bedi Kartlisa, Revue de Karthvelologie. Vol.
XXXI, Paris).
1965 _ . . , ( ).
- -
. 14-17 1965. .
1969 _ . ., . -
- . .
1979 _ .., -
. ( . .).
2001 _ . , -
(). 60- .
. . ( . .).
2005 _ . , -
: . ( . .).
2008 _ . , . I. ( . ).

M. Kurdiani (Tbilisi)
Problem of Kinship of the Iberian-Caucasian Languages
(situation and perspectives of the issue)
Summary
One trustworthy criteria of languages kinship is the existence of natural, regular
sound-correspondences among them, that is revealed by a historical-comparative method of basic lexical fund (and grammatical tools if it exists) of the languages under
research.

302

In a historical-comparative method verificating, testing of research results that


define degree of its trustworthiness is important.
Verification has three stages: a) material verification, b) system verification and
c) typological verification.
The article represents the critic of the western comparativistics attitude and method in confirming the kinship of the Iberian-Caucasian languages. Historicalcomparative method among the researchers of the Iberian-Caucasian languages especially among the Georgian researches was an object of discussion on specificities of
these languages, rich consonants and more complicated sound-correspondences. Owing
to this such examples were brought which were considered to be satisfied using the method correctly or phonetic processes comparative, positive, superlative or acknowledging a parent-anguage as a reflex of different phonemes, or borrowings and others.
The article discusses the passed stages till final confirming of kinship of the Iberian-Caucasian languages.
The article shows the correction of traditional researching priorities of Georgian
linguistic school from comparative morphology of the Iberian-Caucasian languages
till phonetics, universalization, perfecting of traditional, canonical, theoretical basis of
comparative method, rising the degree of verification of research results relevantly with
the strictness of method and defending profanation of a method from the following
process. This process is operated just by genetic kinship of the North-Caucasian languages.
The article discusses many phonetic laws and rules established in the empiric researching process of the Iberian-Caucasian languages. The article explains certain phonetic phenomena, defines formulae of sound-correspondences within the language
groups, a root structure of the Iberian-Caucasian languages and stem-forming models,
full functional and material identity of these models in the South and North Caucasian
languages, polegramic principles of reflecting the synchronic sound-correspondences in
diachrony.
The article represents a main paradigm of non-identical sound-correspondences
on the basis of what it was possible to argue the kinship of the Iberian-Caucasian languages.
At the end the article defines the next research tasks of comparativistics, reconstruction and synchronic description of a parent-language till differentiation, establishing an absolute chronology of a parent-languages existence, compiling of comparative
phonetics and grammars of a language family, compiling of comparative and etymological dictionaries, localization of pre-mother-country of the ethnos speaking a parentlanguage and reconstruction of proto-culture.
These tasks are especially actual from the standpoint of establishing pre-history
realies of the Caucasian peoples.

kavkasiologiuri Ziebani CAUCASIOLOGIC PAPERS


II

2010

. . ()


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saidval apub, pacahluval apub,
girami apub, gulugnak xub, ahtarmisvali aub,
civi xub, Isain terefkrar, aguvalar, -

. .

307

Hakvalin rug, kurban apruf, isib ni kai sim, alahdin hal,


ahtarmicvali aub.
,
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: , , , Durari fitkan
ulhuras aguadi, Isaii kyry. (2:19-21):
: , .

, . My Alagdin karagry hal yzy dabgai,
ga ysy dumy sybud iihan ait divyrsa. , .

.
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(9:36): , (1) ,
(2) (3), ...Isaiz dyrar (1)iazug
syly, gas garis marcihan ktru marcarsi, (3)uldugny, (2)kumekcuzdi aii..
(12:23)6 ,
Ga Hiroddi my gafar laig vyidarsi Kabul apuru, amma Alagdin
ad gapundap .

308


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(2)Ayhya didisnu, can xe Filipdin xpir Irodiadaiin kyllan, dustagdi itru. (1)Xacin
Hiroddi Irodiada cas sivdi ditnii. ( 2004).
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310

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2000 _ . ., . .
1996 _ , -
. . 28-29 1996.
2003 _ , .
. , 2-3 2003.
2004 _ . .
1 2010 _ . .

kavkasiologiuri Ziebani CAUCASIOLOGIC PAPERS


II

2010

S. Shikhalieva (Mahachkala)
Lexical Potential of the Tabassaran Language in the Christian Discourse
In the course of long time the researches concerning the biblical texts were rare
in the Russian science. Christian studies have become one of the popular subjects in the
recent decades. The studies of the Christian discourse phenomena, being restricted by
the inner ( personal) and external censuring, were carried out in the Russian studies
neither in pre-revolutionary times nor in the Soviet period. The burning researching
interest in the Christian moral orientation problems was aroused by the fears for the
spirituality level in the modern society. Turning to the Christian axiology in the language is still important, it allows to determine the causes and regularities of mental
losses, which had occurred in our society and to determine their components. The approach implying research of the language factors in comparison with confession and
cultural codes is interdisciplinary, as the relation base of the religion and the language is
composed by the increased attention to the word not to the archaic conscience. Such an
approach is actively applied in linguistics and simultaneously is a theoretical base of
anthropological subjects: semiotics, folklore, culture studies. The problem of studying
the North- Caucasian region in the context of Christianity through the language indexes
remains perspective and requires researches. In this connection the Bible translations
into the Daghestan languages are seen well-timed as they serve as a both cultures and
civilizations dialogue. The biblical texts translations will contribute into mutual understanding, will introduce the Daghestan ethnos to the treasures of the world civilization.
Such translation witnesses for the language maturity, adds to its development and saving, raises its prestige among the world languages. The translations of the biblical texts
in the Tabassaran language represent an interesting material, as the religious discourse
is used as expressive means and a way to give a national colouring, and the Bible vocabulary performs as enrichment of a national language. Due to the translations of the
biblical texts many interesting historical plots and genres of biblical mythology such
as biblical stories and spiritual verses, appeared in the Tabassaran language. Each of the
lexical units, independent of its structure (word or phrasal unit) we determine as a nomination and analyze it as a component of the general potential of the Tabasaran language. The description of the phenomena, characteristic for all cultures, presents no
problem. In translation texts of the Tabassaran language Arabic words existing in the

312

S. Shikhalieva

Daghestan languages are widely used, they often transfer similar or identic for Christianity and Islam notions: malaik angel, iblis devil, vaiza summon, duya
prayer, iman belief and etc. A number of anthroponoms is given in Arabic variant:
Ibragim, Musa, Garun, Gabrail and etc. Some biblical personal names have already
found their tradition of being put down: Isa, Musa, Ysyf, Lut, Mukail, Ismail and others.
Their pronunciation and spelling is determined by the phonetic peculiarities and orthoepic norms of the Tabassaran language. Keeping to the composed Tabassaran tradition of writing biblical names, sound-correspondence of which is typical to the Tabassarans have proved to be rather reasonable. In writing and pronunciation of personal
names a consonance with the names in the base language of the Bible must be reflected. In the whole it is justified for the vocabulary, which preserves its original meaning,
but penetrated into the Tabassaran language with phonetic and morphological adaptation. The language transformation like: Irusalim, Girod, Zilotar, Mana, Mesig others
is conceived in the Christian reading focus as phonetic casus. Folk etymology, phonetic
vocalizations, innovations in the sphere of word-formation are often represented as
speech changes. Changes of Christian borrowings perform as a word-formation method
of biblical words transformation. Meanwhile, the Christian vocabulary in the Tabassaran language is not limited by the word group, which is of the biblical origin, but is
widening due to the translation of the matter-of-fact and neutral vocabulary. Ethnolinguistic information of the religious character in the Tabassaran language reflects derivatives from biblical words and Christian toponyms : Sodov, afernaum, rusalim, Iordan, Vavilon, Gomora and many others. The toponyms sphere performs as ethnolinguistic information which is to be considered as one of the brightest and most ethnospecific characteristics of the spiritual peoples culture.
However, nominating phenomena, specific for the Tabassaran culture, one may
face difficulties caused by the lack of usual correlation for alien culture realities. It is
better seen when using borrowings. As a rule, such a choice proves the lack of necessary resources for expressing the meaning required. Borrowings always break the naturalness of the language. Anyway, for certain categories of terms borrowings are an optimal way of translation. Firstly, it concerns the vocabulary, which reflects specific for
biblical cultural and historical context and having no authentic correlations in the Tabassaran language. Such terms as farisei, addukei, levit, pasha cant be called either
clear or natural for the reader. A considerable functional lexical connotation fell upon
borrowings - Old Church Slavonic words (from Old Greek drachm, from Latin
canon, from Old Jewish synedrion, synagogue) and the words with phonetic or
grammar elements of Old Church Slavonic language blagochestie, dsher', oko,
lanity. Christian vocabulary words righteousness - durival, atonement- adaub,
Gods grace - uval, repention - umal'uval, baptism - tuan apuval arise to the rich
source of the Holy Books and possess a special theological meaning, not revealed for
some Daghestan peoples. In such cases one should better use a lexical unit spread in the

Lexsical Potential of the Tabassaran Language in the Christian Discourse

313

language and established as a part of the language. In this case it easily solves the problem of nomination choice by a lexical unit as a part of the base language vocabulary,
i.e. a linguistic nomination is meant. But in the case when for a specific cultural phenomenon there is no a lexical unit in usual usage the author creates an occasional correlation, i.e. creates a speech nomination. When comparing cultures similar features are
revealed as well as incomparable elements. Such notions as a bride for Christ, Gods
word, live in God, Gods grace enrich the language and arise special semantic difficulties in their adoption. Expressions of this kind are always detached in the readers consciousness. Not understanding metaphors is a spread phenomenon. An image group of
nominations of elevated style is composed by phrasal units such as Kains seal,
Egyptian darkness, not of this world, the promised land and others. When rethinking of their original non-Christian meanings a lexicological lacuna occurs in
the adopted vocabulary of the Tabassaran language. Etiology and the words future are
an object of special concern for us. We reckon that the Christian meaning of the word
rood or cross implies a Christian notion of Crucifixion, while in the Tabassaran
language it has a different connotations and implies a rug ornament in the shape of a
cross. Analyzing the vocabulary of the Tabassaran language in the Christian discourse
as both a linguistic and cultural phenomenon, we reckon that this linguistic layer performs as a part of ethnic and cultural traditions, which preserve their importance and
lexical achievements, flowing into the culturally significant vocabulary of the Tabassaran language. How proper is the underlying Tabassaran vocabulary positions concerning the Christianity? Wont it be meaningless to raise a problem of Tabassaran vocabulary stock validity under a Christian discourse influence? Does a special term layer
exist in the Tabassaran language, reflecting a religious world image? If yes, in what
forms? The general answer to these questions can be only positive. Indeed, a language
embodiment of Christianity can not pass by the Tabassaran language. The latter accumulates a semantic foundation of different Christianity forms and is a translator of religious and social experience, cultural norms and traditions. The problem of Christian
vocabulary definition and its presentation in interactive semantic fields of the Tabassaran language on the ideograms level contains religious mental productive elements.
The Tabassaran language creates a matrix of religious semiotics, which layers are
prognosed and filled in new signs. The system organization of the Tabassaran language
material allows to get an idea of preferences in objects nominating, choice of realities,
relating to the Christianity notions. Comprising the usual words as a part of Christian
vocabulary raises a number of extra lexicological problems , making us to take into account a variety of theme and style diversities of the Tabassaran vocabulary in general.
At the same time the language returning prompts its development. Choosing vocabulary
for biblical terms translation we remember words, widen their semantics, rethink many
Tabassaran terms.

314

S. Shikhalieva

In the NT translations the lexical fund of the Tabassaran language is being


formed. New lexical formations are created: Holy Spirit Girami Pyg , Gods Spirit Alagdin Pyg, dedicate - girami apyb, serve gylygnax xyb, temptation axtarmisbali
ayb, Resurrection cibi xyb, Jesus follower Isain terefkrar, doctrine aguvalar,
Truth Spirit - Gakvalin rug and others.
Besides, through the translation of the NT many a word of foreign origin flowed
into the Tabassaran language, related mostly to the Christian rituals observance: sermon
- gulug, altar kyrban aprysc, frankincence isi ni kaii ayg. For biblical texts
transmitting the translators use the folk Tabassaran language and a written one with
complex sentences, use present models and make new ones. There appear new complex
constructions not existent before in the folk language. Of course, the translated literature
is not ideal in the language aspect. It has many a disadvantage of grammar, orthoepic
and stylistic character. And yet, one should underline that the translation language is
close to the folk one. The translation religious literature, being practically an only one,
seriously influence the creation of the solid foundation of the Tabassaran language.
The vocabulary enrichment goes in two ways:
1. by reconstruction of words, once become archaic:cross- s, a Christian speres, Lord- Aga , taz wreath, gavagir pearls, ilkan sail, testament iixrar
2.by creating new words in the base of proper word-formation facilities: Gospel
Yzyvlan xabar, God the Father Adac-akax, God the Son - Bai- akax, God headAga Allah, Gods Spirit Allahdin ruh, withness saidval apub, reign pacahluval
apub, canonize girami apub, serve gulugnak xub, temptation ahtarmisvali aub,
ressuruction civi xub, Jesus follower Isain terefkrar, doctrine aguvalar, The
Truth Spirit - Hakvalin rug, altar kurban apruf, frankincence isib ni kai sim, temple alahdin hal.
In translating the New Testament the Tabassaran language is worked out, perfected, transforming to the written speech, new words and expressions are created. Lexical and grammar facilities, producing a higher level thoughts are formed. To a certain
extent it erases dialect borders.
karkat(dial) sufra(writ.) - tablecloth
Diahnik(dial) sinik(writ) in the shadow
Kahni xyb (dial) sakli xyb(writ.) - doubt
In spite of the fact that the Tabassaran language is the least penetrable and subjected to foreign influence, it is still able to go through transformations, determined by
the NT translation. One should believe, that lexical borrowings are rather numerous, but
grammar ones do occur, but not systematically and fully. If one looks at this material
not from the point of normalizing or codification but as at reflection of the language
development vivid process, one may come to some conclusions of tendencies in Daghestan grammar system development. In the Tabassaran language under the influence
of translation analogies a number of grammar construction transformations occur, some

Lexsical Potential of the Tabassaran Language in the Christian Discourse

315

grammemas meanings change. In GMk 8:15 Jesus warns eregis zacvasci fariceiskoi
in the Tabassaran language Ligai ha, fariciirin va Hirroddin dunihan ixtiiat iihai the
theme is given. Further in verse 17 Isus, yrazymev, govorit in the Tabasaran language the point of analogy is Durari fitkan ulhuras aguadi, Isaii kyry. In GJn
2:19-21: Jesus answered them, "Destroy this temple, and in three days I will raise it
up." The translation of these expressions reveal either a symbol or image.
My Alagdin karagry hal yzy dabgai, ga ysy dumy sybud iihan ait divyrsa. Here
in the text temple is am image of the Christs body.
The same grammar structure can be related to several different meanings. The
text grammar construction of the NT in the Tabassaran variant can have several different meanings. GMt 9:36 When he saw the crowds, he (1) had compassion for them,
because they were (2) harassed and (3)helpless, like sheep without a shepherd".
...Isaiz dyrar (1)iazug syly, gas garis marcihan ktru marcarsi, (3)uldugny,
(2)kumekcuzdi aii.
Acts 12:23 "And immediately the angel of the Lord smote him, because he gave
not God the glory: and he was eaten of worms, and gave up the ghost. "
Ga Hiroddi my gafar laig vyidarsi Kabul apuru, amma Alagdin ad gapundap
the theme is translated.
In the Tabassaran language a future form of the verb in the NT texts is used to
express a past or present action. Mostly in the cases when a past event is spoken as it is
present. It is done to give the narration vividness and dynamics. If a present action is
meant a future form can be used to give the narration a tone of assurance of the event
inevitability.
When translating the NT texts into the Tabassaran language in some cases a
present form of the verb is used to express a future action. The consequence of events
in the biblical texts and the correspondent linguistic means order coincide in the Tabassaran translations. However, the sentences order in the original texts (synodical) not
always coincide with the Tabassaran translations. In this case it is necessary to preserve
the chronological consequence of the events, which is acceptable for the Tabassaran
language. GMk 6:17 For Herod (1) had sent and (2) seized John, and (3) bound him in
prison for the sake of Hero'di-as, his brother Philip's wife; because he (4) had married
her(synodical).
Hiroddi cav (1) byiryh tuvnu, (2)Ayhya didisnu, can xe Filipdin xpir Irodiadaiin
kyllan, dustagdi itru. (1)Xacin Hiroddi Irodiada cas sivdi ditnii. (
,2004).
Many unclear places in translation texts acquire a special meaning, if in the narration an event is introduced, which had happened before and the event that will happen
later. Thats why in these cases one should pay a special attention to the correct usage
of the Tabassaran grammar constructions, expressing relativity in different events tense.
The development of the grammar layer, related to the NT translation is observed in the

316

S. Shikhalieva

widened usage of participial constructions. GLk 10:34: tells that a Samaritan and (1)
went to him and (2) bound up his wounds, (3) pouring on oil and wine ( synodical
translation).
Keeping to this word order in the Tabassaran language would mean that a Samaritan first bound up his wounds and then poured an oil and wine on the bounds. To
avoid this, one should change the chronology of the events using participial constructions: Xasin bagahna (1)dufnu, (3)cimna caixir ulubsuri, dugan ziinar (2)ilitnu (Uzhuvlan Habar). --The long-term experience proves that biblical translations can be a
very effective protection of the disappearing languages. If the Bible translation happens
to be the only written source, it is conceived not only as a religious text but as a normative model, a source of vocabulary enrichment.
We are almost sure that the first Bible translations into the Daghestan languages
resulted in the language norm formation, new words and words-combinations appearance, introduction of new notions and images, enrichment of the linguistic world picture of the languages speakers. The Bible translations enriches Daghestan written languages, forms terminology, which is important for the national language functioning.
The biblical texts translations into non-literal languages leads to an alphabet creation on
the base of scientific description of non-literal language phonology, aids to work out
and unify orthography and punctuation of national languages, develops vocabulary and
phraseology system, activates derivative means and some grammar forms, enriches and
establishes lexical and semantic structure of the language. One general peculiarity is
typical to the biblical texts translations into the Daghestan languages: that is a minimal
usage of russisms( Russian borowings). The Bible translation is important for preserving and developing languages, which have a written tradition too, as during the recent
decades the literary norm of many of them has became obscure.
Due to such translations the sphere of functioning of Daghestan literal languages
widens, as they find an appliance of new literary genres transmitting. The holy books
translations into the Daghestan languages give a rich material for linguistic, comparative researches and for translation studies.

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K. Barnuell, P. Densi, T. Pop, Klyuchevye ponyatiya Biblii. S.-Peterburg, 1990.
K. Barnuell , Vvedenie v principy perevoda. S.-Peterburg, 1990.

Lexsical Potential of the Tabassaran Language in the Christian Discourse

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Perevod Biblii v literaturah narodov Rossii, stran SNG i Baltii. Materialy konferencii. Moskva 2-3 dekabrya 2003
Uzhuvlan habar: Chetveroevangelie i Deyanie apostolov. Moskva, 2004.
C1ii iik'rar. Novyi Zavet na tabasaranskom yazyke. Moskva, 2010.

s. Sixalieva (mahaCyala)
Tabasaranuli enis leqsikuri potenciali
qristianul diskursSi
reziume
daRestnis xalxTa enebze bibliis Targmanebis gamocema kulturaTa da civilizaciaTa dialogs emsaxureba. bibliis wignTa
Targmnas daRestnur enebze wvlili Seaqvs xalxTa Soris urTierTgagebis saqmeSi da daRestnis eTnosebs acnobs msoflio civilizaciis saganZurs. statiaSi gaanalizebulia Tabasaranuli
enis SesaZleblobebi qristianuli diskursis gavleniT.

kavkasiologiuri Ziebani CAUCASIOLOGIC PAPERS


II

2010

n. cixiSvili (Tbilisi)
II xolmeobiTi da Sereuli
kavSirebiTi saSual qarTulSi

II xolmeobiTi da Sereuli kavSirebiTi is mwkrivebia, romlebic Zveli qarTulidan axal saliteraturo enas aRar SemorCa. II
seriis es ori uZvelesi sauRlebeli erTeuli Tanamedrove qarTulSi mxolod zogierT dialeqtSi dasturdeba.
samecniero literaturaSi `xolmeobiTis~ gverdiT sxva terminebic gvxvdeba. esenia: `habitualisi~, `permansivi~ da `namyo mravalgziTi~.
uRlebis sistemaSi II xolmeobiTis Setana da mravalgzisobis
gaxazva p. kvicariZis gramatikidan momdinareobs. p. kvicariZem yuradReba miaqcia am formas da mis sawarmoebel niSnad (mravalgzisobis maCveneblad) -i miiCnia (abesaZe 1960, 80-81). p. kvicariZes mravalgzisoba zmnis erT-erT `saxed~, aspeqtis erT-erT saxeobad miaCnia da mas `mraval-gzobiTis~ saxeliT aRniSnavs. saxelmZRvaneloSi `qarTuli swormetyveleba~ avtori `mravalgzobiTi saxis~
ganmartebis Semdeg, -i niSnis garda, piris niSnebzec saubrobs da
sailustraciod `vefxistyaosnidan~ moixmobs magaliTebs (kvicariZe 1888, 124).
zogadad, `xolmeobiTi im droindeli warmonaqmnia, rodesac
zmnis uRleba droTa mixedviT cvlas ar gulisxmobda, uRvlileba
aspeqtebis anu procesis saxeobaTa aRniSvnaSi mdgomareobda~ (Ciqobava 1948, 77). `zmnis uRvlilebis dasawyis etapebze gardamavali
zmnis ori aspeqti gairCeoda (gangrZobiTi da erTbaSi) da ori nakvTi gvqonda: xolmeobiTi da namyo ZiriTadi. xolmeobiTi asrulebda im rols, rac SemdegSi awmyos daekisra~ (Ciqobava 1948, 80).
kerZod, `xolmeobiTis daniSnuleba iyo, gadmoeca ara is, Tu rodis xdeba moqmedeba, aramed eCvenebina, rogor mimdinareobs procesi; xolmeobiTi miuTiTebda moqmedebis procesis gangrZobiTs (diuratiul) xasiaTze. am mxriv igi upirispirdeboda namyo ZiriTads,
rogorc wertilebrivi (momentobrivi) aspeqtis gamomxatvels~ (Ciqobava 1948, 126). `namyo mravalgziTi, kacma rom Tqvas, gansazRvruli dro ar aris: igi gamohxatavs xolme moqmedebas ara romelsame
droSi gansazRvruls (namyosa, awmyosa Tu myobadSi), aramed iseTs,

II xolmeobiTi da Sereuli kavSirebiTi saSual qarTulSi

319

romelic yovelTvis Cveulebrivia da marad damaxasiaTebelia moqmedi pirisaTvis. amitom unda vifiqroT, rom mravalgziTi namyos
formebi qarTuli zmnis uZvelesi formaciis droisa unda iyos~
(SaniZe 1920, 6).
II xolmeobiTsa da wyvetils saziaro martivi fuZe aqvT. aRniSnuli mwkrivis -i niSani morfologiuri elementia. amitomac mas
Seswevs Zala, SekumSos fuZe. `fuZe, romelic saerTod ikumSeba, ar
SeiZleba II xolmeobiTSi ukumSveli darCes~ (imnaiSvili... 1996, 183).
mesame subieqturi piris niSanTagan II xolmeobiTi iyenebs
mxolobiTSi -s da mravlobiTSi -an bolosarTebs:
mov-kl-i
moh-kl-i
mo-kl-i-s
dava-b-i
daa-b-i
daa-b-i-s

mov-kl-i-T
moh-kl-i-T
mo-kl-i-an
dava-b-i-T
daa-b-i-T
daab-i-an

aRva-Sen-i
aRa-Sen-i
aRa-Sen-i-s
Seva-mk-i
Sea-mk-i
Sea-mk-i-s

aRva-Sen-i-T
aRa-Sen-i-T
aRa-Sen-i-an
Seva-mk-i-T
Sea-mk-i-T
Sea-mk-i-an

rogorc saenaTmecniero literaturaSi miuTiTeben, II xolmeobiTSi subieqturi piris niSnad mr. ricxvSi -ed sufiqsic gvxvdeba
(abulaZe 1954, 133-139; kiknaZe 1961, 252; sarjvelaZe 1973, 144-145).
arn. Ciqobavas azriT, drois kategoriis Camoyalibeba da
xolmeobiTis poziciebis dasusteba Tanadrouli procesebi unda
yofiliyo (Ciqobava 1948, 126). Tumca poziciebis dasusteba II xolmeobiTis moSlas ar gulisxmobs. es xangrZlivi procesi iyo. z. sarjvelaZem Zveli qarTulis samwerlobo ZeglTa enaSi moiZia magaliTebi, roca wyvetilisa da II xolmeobiTis formebia urTierTSenacvlebuli. pirvelad aseTi SemTxveva `sinur mravalTavSi~ SeiniSna. amgvari faqtebis arseboba mkvlevars avaraudebinebs, rom
`enaSi II xolmeobiTis moSla daiwyo. safiqrebelia, es mwkrivi zog
dialeqtSi am droisaTvis ukve moSlilia. sainteresoa, rom Cven
mier moyvanili magaliTebis umravlesoba iseT ZeglebSi aris dadasturebuli, romlebic samxreT saqarTvelos samwerlobo kerebidan momdinareoben. safiqrebelia, rom samxreT qarTul dialeqtur
arealSi, romelsac emyareboda VIII-XI saukuneTa qarTuli samwerlobo ena, II xolmeobiTi moiSala~ (sarjvelaZe 1984, 451).
i. qavTaraZe ki fiqrobs, rom qarTul saliteraturo enas II
xolmeobiTi XVIII saukunis gasulamdis SemorCa, magram ar SeiZleba iTqvas, rom saliteraturo enis teqstebi srulad asaxavs XIIIXVIII saukuneebis yvela kuTxis qarTuli metyvelebis suraTs: `safiqrebelia, dasavlur kiloTa umetesobam da aRmosavleT saqarTvelos baris kiloTa erTma jgufma (zemoqarTluri, mesxur-java-

320

n. cixiSvili

xuri) amgvari warmoeba adreve dakarga, magram literaturuli


tradiciebis ZaliT igi kvlav cocxlobda... TviT saliteraturo
enaSi da garkveul dialeqtebSic ukve meCvidmete saukunidan sabolood iCens Tavs analogiur formaTa mniSvnelobis dakargva-daviwyeba, risTvisac damatebiTi sakompensacio saSualeba _ `xolme~
nawilaki xdeba aucilebeli~ (qavTaraZe 1961, 10).
II xolmeobiTi, rogorc damoukidebeli mwkrivi, axal qarTulSi aRar SemorCa. is mxolod mTis kiloebSi, ingiloursa da
qiziyurSia Semonaxuli. mravalgzisobis Sinaarsis gadmosacemad
Tanamedrove saliteraturo ena Zveli, organuli warmoebis formebis nacvlad sxvadasxva saSualebas mimarTavs. zogjer Tu analizur `xolme~ nawilakian formebs iyenebs, zogjer sxva mwkrivebs
Caanacvlebs. T. zurabiSvilma Seiswavla aseTi faqtebi da daadgina, rom xolmeobiTobis Sinaarsis gadmosacemad ena iyenebs xSirad
I xolmeobiTs, zogjer _ namyo uwyvetels, xSirad _ myofads, iSviaTad _ awmyos, zogjer _ namyo ZiriTads, I TurmeobiTs da II TurmeobiTs. am ukanasknelT (I TurmeobiTsa da II TurmeobiTs) xSirad
axlavT ganmeorebis gamomxatveli zmnizedebic da maTTan erTad
mravalgzisobis Sinaarsis matarebelia `xolme~ nawilakdarTuli
nebismieri mwkrivis zmniswiniani Tu uzmniswino forma (zurabiSvili 1965).
saSuali qarTulis Cven xelT arsebuli samwerlobo Zeglebidan amokrebili masalis mimoxilvam dagvarwmuna, rom aRniSnul
ZeglTa enaSi II xolmeobiTi jer kidev cocxalia. xsenebuli
mwkrivis formaTa regularuli damowmeba cxadyofs, rom am periodis saliteraturo enaSi II xolmeobiTi jer isev inarCunebs pozicias. mravalgzisobis Sinaarsis gadmosacemad xolmeobiTis sxva
mwkrivebTan erTad saSual qarTulSi II xolmeobiTi aqtiurad
gamoiyeneba. misi sistemuri fiqsacia xerxdeba ara mxolod adrindeli periodis teqstebSi, aramed gviandel ZeglebSic. iseT nawarmoebSi, rogoric ioane batoniSvilis `kalmasobaa~, II xolmeobiTi,
Cveulebriv, damoukidebeli sauRlebeli erTeulia, e. i. XIX saukunis 20-iani wlebisaTvis am mwkrivs jer kidev ar dauTmia sarbieli.
igi TiTqmis Tanabari sixSiriT gvxvdeba urTierTisagan qronologiurad Tu Janrobrivad gansxvavebul ZeglebSi:
naxis, cecxli gauaxldis, wyluli gaxdis ufro wylulad
(vefx., 41, 3);
ismendian, gahkvirdian, ra atirdis atirdian (vefx., 956, 3);
movdiodiT da, Tu sada meci gardaguekidis, ganaRamca rome
movkliT (am., 215, 3);
gardadian, Tayuani-scian da Seasxian qeba amiran darejanisZesa (am., 309, 1);

II xolmeobiTi da Sereuli kavSirebiTi saSual qarTulSi

321

ra suli Cemi gecis, mkudari gascocxldi (vis., 206, 24);


dilasa ra gaiRuiZian, sumiTa, sixaruliTa da simReriTa dasxdian (vis., 150, 21);
da ukeTu enebis rame basilis, momTxovelisa maxlobelTa mimarT misTa, gina sxuaTa mier ara momcemelTa, meyseulad SerisxviT amxilis da iZulebiT winaSe missa moawiian (abus. tb., 61, 90);
wavidi, ortaRTagan lahri da TeTri aviRi (ist. sab., 146, 33);
romelman daipyris kaci velsa gare da moklis igi (sam. Zegl.,
I, 119);
da ukeTu vin dafarviT imoqmedis da Semdgomad scnobdian, kanonsa miscemdian da dautevebdian (sam. Zegl., II, 152);
man didebulni awvivnis, Seiyarnian srulobiT (T. I, gv. 38. 102,
2);
ra beberma naxis, rom goSias cremli moswydis, ufro cxarcxari puri gamoucxvis da aWamis (T. II, 174, 23);
kvlav iqiT lekTa Cauxdi, damarTni cisa grexani (bes., gv. 26.
12, 1);
vinc rom iTxovis qva da talaxi,
mas miarTvian xe da balaxi (daviTiani, gv. 260. 575, 2);
esreT mterni iyvnen, erTad ver moTavsdian, arcara erTad
svian da Wamian (saba, s.s., gv. 24);
dabla xomaldis fskerSi Cems paqsimadze vijdi da viwvi (saba, mogz., 243);
da arca qristianeni SeuSindian satanjvelTa da Seibralnian
orcni Tsni, aramed erTiTa gonebiTa wardgian (saba, swavl.,
175 540);
dilas SevsxdiT, vinadiriT, SuadRisas SemoviqciT,
aw burTobas xeli mivhyviT, mun saZilod ar gaviqciT (arC., II,
293, 1-2);
da kvalad pirvelidganve iwyian, aTxuTmetad aRasrulian (batoniS., I, 196);
Sen xar romelman aRadgini qveynisagan glaxaki da skoreTagan
aRamaRli davrdomili (q. cx., I, 153, 21; 154, 1);
da odesme durZukTa da didoTa moirTnian da gamoiyvanian xazarni, maSin ewys da verodes sZles xazarTa da yovladve mirian
sZlis (q. cx., I, 66, 11-13);
viTar CClnica ZuZuTgan dedisaTa aRitacnian da winaSe dedisa qvazeda daanarcxian, da romelsame Tualni warscvdian da
romelsame tni daeTxiis (q. cx., II, 175, 15-16).
i. qavTaraZem SeniSna, rom Tanamedrove saliteraturo qarTulSi `xolme~ nawilaki Zalian iSviTad ixmareba II seriis mwkrivebTan (qavTaraZe 1961, 17). kidev ufro iSviaTia `xolme~ nawilaki

322

n. cixiSvili

saSuali qarTulis Cven mier mimoxilul ZeglebSi II xolmeobiTis


formebTan. aseTi analizuri warmoeba mxolod sulxan-sabas `sibrZne sicrueSi~ davadastureT. sainteresoa, rom xolmeobiTis amgvari warmoeba (II xolm. + xolme) mxolod pirvel subieqtur pirTan Segvxvda. Cvens konkretul SemTxvevaSi moubari sakuTar TavTan dakavSirebul ambavs hyveba:
romelic uars ityoda, ZaliT movaparsviniT xolme Tavi (saba,
s.s., gv. 84);
qveS varcli SevudgiT xolme, vcemdiT da vecxli, oqro gamogviyaris (saba, s.s., gv. 98).
is faqti, rom `xolme~ nawilakdarTuli II xolmeobiTis formebi Zneli mosaZebnia sulxan-saba orbelianis igav-arakTa krebulSi, metyvelebs imaze, rom Tavad II xolmeobiTi am droisaTvis sakmaod Zlieria. `sibrZne sicruisa~ xom axali qarTuliTaa dawerili.
Sereul kavSirebiTs uRlebis sistemaSi mogvianebiT miuCines
adgili. am Taviseburi warmoebis mwkrivis formebi adreve iqcevda
mecnierTa yuradRebas. arn. Ciqobava maT `arqaul namyo usruls~,
`namyo usrulis xolmeobiTs~, `waqezebiT brZanebiTs~ uwodebda da
damoukidebel mwkrivad ar Tvlida. `xolmeobiTisagan nawarmoeb
namyo usruls Cven vuwodebT arqaul namyo usruls~ (Ciqobava 1948:
52, 62). k. kekeliZem teqstisaTvis `cxovreba saba palestinelisa~
wamZRvarebul gamokvlevaSi `eziarnodian~, `yodian~, `ganaTiodian~
zmnebs `araCveulebrivi, TiTqos dialeqturi formebi~ uwoda (kekeliZe 1946, 136).
am formaTa Sesaxeb 1945 wels a. SaniZe ambobda: `es gaxlavT
paraleluri forma II kavSirebiTisa, romelsac -od formantis CarTvis gamo, aspeqti ucvleli srulis nacvlad usruli miuRia,
oRond sintaqsuri konstruqcia SeunarCunebia. aseTi forma uTuod
meoreuli warmoSobisaa~ (SaniZe 1945, 843).
1948 wels amgvar formebs a. SaniZem Sereuli kavSirebiTi uwoda da mwkrivTa sistemaSi warmoadgina. mkvlevari msjelobda: `1. romelsame gansakuTrebul formas SeiZleba damoukidebeli adgili
eWiros gramatikul sistemaSi imdenad, ramdenadac mas gansakuTrebuli funqciac gaaCnia. es saerTo debuleba ZalaSia im zmnur formaTaTvisac, romelTac mwkrivebi hqvia.
2. qarTuli enis IX-X saukuneTa ZeglebSi gvxvdeba formebi,
romlebic ver Tavsdeba verc erTis aqamomde cnobili mwkrivis
farglebSi. warmoebis TvalsazrisiT isini II serias ekuTvnian _
maT fuZes eyrdnobian, magram zed urTaven -od savrcobs, romelic
I seriidan aris aRebuli. amis gamo isini orgvar bunebas iCenen:
sintaqsuri Taviseburebani II seriis mwkrivebisa aqvT (gardamavali

II xolmeobiTi da Sereuli kavSirebiTi saSual qarTulSi

323

zmnebi qvemdebares moTxrobiTSi Seiwyoben, pird. damatebas ki _


saxelobiTSi), xolo erTi morfologiuri kategoriis mixedviT
isini I seriis mwkrivTa rigebSi dganan: aspeqti usruli aqvT. dro
maT momavali aqvT, kilo _ TxrobiTi an kavSirebiTi, zogjer brZanebiTic. amgvarad, funqciiT isini etolebian mwkrivs, romelic I
kavSirebiTis (an I myofadis) saxeliT aris cnobili. magaliTi: `sayurZeni igi misces sxuaTa moqmedTa, romelTa m i s c o d i a n mas
nayofi JamTa maTTa~ (maT. 21, 41 C).
3. aRniSnuli or-bunebovani mwkrivi uTuod meoreuli warmoSobisaa. amaze miuTiTebs obieqturi -n- infiqsis Casma zmnis fuZesa
da -od savrcobs Soris: S e w i r o d i s (man igi), magram: S e w i r n o d i s (man igini).
4. uRlebis paradigmebSi am axal mwkrivs adgili SeiZleba mieCinos an I seriaSi, an II seriaSi, magram sjobs II-Si. saxelad SeiZleba ewodos `Sereuli kavSirebiTi~ (SaniZe 1948: 18).
Sereuli kavSirebiTis formebi T. cqitiSvilma daZebna ezekielis wignis oSkur da ierusalimur versiebSi (cqitiSvili 1976, 284).
xsenebuli formebi daadastura k. daneliam ieremias winaswarmetyvelebis Zveli qarTuli versiebis kvlevisas (danelia 1965: 19). Sereuli kavSirebiTisa da Sereuli xolmeobiTis formebi moiZia z. sarjvelaZemac (sarjvelaZe 1984, 456).
l. kiknaZe uwyvetlis xolmeobiTze msjelobisas Sereul kavSirebiTze ambobda: `es axali tipis kavSirebiTi yovelTvis gansxvavebulia rogorc I, ise II kavSirebiTisagan... II xolmeobiTis fuZisagan nawarmoebi kavSirebiTis II seriis mwkrivebTan siaxlove
sxva ramis mixedviTac Cans: moqm. gvaris zmnaSi gamoxatulia pirdapiri obieqtis mravlobiToba (aRasrul-n-odian...), prefiqsian vnebiTSi aris moqmedebiTis formidan gadmoyolili -n- (eziar-n-odian...), fuZedrekad zmnaSi -e-s magivrad i xmovania (ganaTiodian...)~
(kiknaZe 1961, 248).
mogvianebiT mkvlevarma Sereuli kavSirebiTis manamde cnobil
formebs kidev eqvsi axali forma Semata. formiT Sereuli kavSirebiTis analogiur da funqciiT (romelsac maT konteqsti aniWebs) gansxvavebul formebs l. kiknaZem Sereuli xolmeobiTi daarqva da
mwkrivTa sistemaSi damoukidebel sauRlebel erTeulad warmoadgina:
`Sereuli kavSirebiTis (iseve, rogorc -od-iani zmnebis I kavSirebiTis) mwkrivis niSania -i sufiqsi, romelic Sereuli xolmeobiTis, II
xolmeobiTis da III xolmeobiTis) mwkrivis mawarmoebelic aris. amitom aris, rom Sereuli kavSirebiTisa da Sereuli xolmeobiTis
formebi (iseve, rogorc -od-iani zmnebis I kavSirebiTisa da uwyvetlis xolmeobiTis formebi) garegnulad erTnairia~ (kiknaZe 1967, 190).

324

n. cixiSvili

v. imnaiSvilma britaneTis muzeumSi dacul XI saukunis qarTul xelnawerSi Sereuli kavSirebiTis ToTxmeti magaliTi ipova,
konteqstis mixedviT yvela maTgani momavali drois gamomxatveli
kavSirebiTis forma aRmoCnda. `W a m o d i a n forma SeiZleba Sereuli kavSirebiTic iyos da Sereuli xolmeobiTic. Tu saxeldobr
romeli mwkrivia konkretul SemTxvevaSi, amas gvagebinebs konteqsti: Tu warsuli dro an mravaljer gameorebuli moqmedeba ivaraudeba, mwkrivi xolmeobiTisaa, Tuki momavali dro igulisxmeba _
kavSirebiTisa~ (imnaiSvili 1977, 18).
Sereuli kavSirebiTis uRlebis paradigma ase gamoiyureba:
vakurTxod-i
vakurTxod-i-T
akurTxod-i-T
akurTxod-i
akurTxod-i-s
akurTxod-i-an
rogorc zemoT aRvniSnavdiT, saSuali qarTulis Cven mier
mimoxiluli Zeglebidan jer kidev Zvelsave qarTulSi iSviaTobad
qceuli mwkrivis es formebi mxolod `qarTlis cxovrebaSi~ Segvxvda. oriode formis dadastureba movaxerxeT. orive maTgani leonti mrovelis TxzulebebSi aRmoCnda:
xolo TT mefeni qarTlisani mcxeTiT gaemarTodian somxiTs
gzasa abocissa, da maradis esreT hkrfebodes qarTvelni (q. cx., I,
48, 8).
mravalni ukue uRmrToni Wirsa STacvian, da raJams xadodian
wmidasa juarsa, munquesve ganerian Wirisagan da movidodian SemTxuevad patiosnisa juarisa, da mswrafl naTel-iRian da adidebdian patiosansa juarsa (q. cx., I, 124, 9).
aRsaniSnavia, rom Cven mier damowmebuli gardauvali zmnis es
orive forma 1633-1646 wlebis mariamiseul nusxaSia SemorCenili.
aqve davZenT, rom orsave SemTxvevaSi konteqsti xolmeobiTobis Sinaarsis Semcvelia da, Sesabamisad, moZiebul formebs SeiZleba
Sereuli xolmeobiTi vuwodoT.
davaskvniT, uRlebis sistemis es ori erTeuli iyo Zvel qarTulSi, aRar gvaqvs Tanamedrove saliteraturo enaSi. amaTgan II
xolmeobiTi sistemebr aris warmodgenili sakvlevi enobrivi periodis yvela ZeglSi. imaves ver gavimeorebT Sereul kavSirebiTze.
es ukanaskneli enobriv raritetad qceula ara mxolod saSuali
qarTulis samwerlobo ZeglebSi, igi iSviaTobas warmoadgens ukve
Zvel qarTulSic. konteqstis Sesabamisad man SeiZleba xolmeobiTis Sinaarsic gadmosces.

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325

literatura
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qarTul periodul gamocemebSi. Tbilisi, 1960.
abulaZe 1954 _ abulaZe i., qarTuli zmnis iSviaTi formebi
VIII-IX ss-is Zeglebis mixedviT. Tsu Sromebi. t. 53. Tbilisi, 1954.
danelia 1965 _ . .,
. . , 1965.
zurabiSvili 1965 _ zurabiSvili T., mravalgzisobis sakiTxi
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kimeni. naw. I, II. Tbilisi, 1946.
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Zvel qarTulSi. Tsu Zveli qarTuli enis kaTedris Sromebi. t. 7.
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kiknaZe 1967 _ kiknaZe l., Sereuli xolmeobiTis mwkrivi Zvel
qarTulSi. kr. orioni. Tbilisi, 1967.
sarjvelaZe 1973 _ sarjvelaZe z., d/ed da n niSnebiani mesame
subieqturi piris iSviaTi formebi Zvel qarTulSi. saq. ssr mecnierebaTa akademiis macne. 2. Tbilisi, 1973.
sarjvelaZe 1984 _ sarjvelaZe z., qarTuli saliteraturo
enis istoriis Sesavali. Tbilisi, 1984.
qavTaraZe 1961 _ qavTaraZe i., xolmeobiTis kategoriis istoriidan qarTulSi. qarTvelur enaTa struqturis sakiTxebi. II. Tbilisi, 1961.
SaniZe 1920 _ SaniZe a., subieqturi prefiqsi meore pirisa da
obieqturi prefiqsi mesame pirisa qarTul zmnebSi. tfilisi, 1920.
SaniZe 1945 _ SaniZe a., mwkrivTa moZRvrebisaTvis, I. sami mwkrivis warmoebis Taviseburebani Zvel qarTulSi. saq. ssr mecnierebaTa akademiis moambe. t. VI, 10. Tbilisi, 1945.
SaniZe 1948 _ SaniZe a., mwkrivTa moZRvrebisaTvis. V. sxva ucnobi mwkrivi qarTulSi. Tbilisis sax. universitetis samecniero
sesia (1948 w. 31 maisi _ 5 ivnisi). muSaobis gegma da moxsenebaTa Tezisebi. Tbilisi, 1948.

326

n. cixiSvili

Ciqobava 1948 _ Ciqobava arn., ergatiuli konstruqciis problema iberiul-kavkasiur enebSi. I. nominatiuri da ergatiuli konstruqciis istoriuli urTierToba Zveli qarTuli saliteraturo
enis monacemTa mixedviT. Tbilisi, 1948.
cqitiSvili 1976 _ cqitiSvili T., ezekielis wignis Zveli
qarTuli versiebi. teqsti gamosacemad moamzada, gamokvleva da
leqsikoni daurTo T. cqitiSvilma. Tbilisi, 1976.

damowmebuli wyaroebi

SoTa rusTaveli, vefxistyaosani. Tbilisi, 1966.


visramiani. Tbilisi, 1962.
mose xoneli, amirandarejaniani. Tbilisi, 1967.
abuseriZe tbeli, bolok-basilis mSenebloba SuartyalSi da
abuseriZeTa sagvareulo matiane. 1233 w. teqsti. Tbilisi, 1941.
qarTlis cxovreba. t. I. Tbilisi, 1955.
qarTlis cxovreba. t. II. Tbilisi, 1959.
qarTuli samarTlis Zeglebi. vaxtang VI-is samarTlis wignTa
krebuli. t. I. Tbilisi, 1963.
qarTuli samarTlis Zeglebi. saero sakanonmdeblo Zeglebi
(X-XIX ss.). t. II. Tbilisi, 1965.
qarTuli istoriuli sabuTebis korpusi. qarTuli istoriuli
sabuTebi IX-XIII ss. t. I. Tbilisi, 1984.
Teimuraz I, TxzulebaTa sruli krebuli. Tbilisi, 1934.
Teimuraz II, TxzulebaTa sruli krebuli. Tbilisi, 1932.
arCili, TxzulebaTa sruli krebuli or tomad. t. II. Tbilisi, 1937.
sulxan-saba orbeliani, Txzulebani. t. I. sibrZne sicruisa,
mogzauroba evropaSi. Tbilisi, 1959.
sulxan-saba orbeliani, Txzulebani. t. III. swavlani. Tbilisi,
1963.
besiki, TxzulebaTa sruli krebuli. Tbilisi, 1932.
daviT guramiSvili, TxzulebaTa sruli krebuli. Tbilisi,
1955.
ioane batoniSvili, kalmasoba. t. I. Tbilisi, 1936.

kavkasiologiuri Ziebani CAUCASIOLOGIC PAPERS


II

2010

. ()
II

II ,
,
.

II
.

: , , .
II
. . .
( )
-i ( 1960, 80-81). .
, ,
.
-i,
,
( 1888, 124).
,
,
, .. ( 1948, 77).
(
) : .
,
( 1948, 80). ,
, ,
;
() .

( 1948, 126). ,
:
- (,
), ,
. , ,

328

(
1920, 6).
II
. -i .
. ,
, II
( 1996, 183).
III II
-s, - -an. . .,
:

mov-kl-i
moh-kl-I
mo-kl-i-s

mov-kl-i-T
moh-kl-i-T
mo-kl-i-an

aGva-Sen-i
aGa-Sen-i
aGa-Sen-i-an

dava-b-i
daa-b-i
daa-b-i-s

dava-b-i-T
daa-b-i-T
daa-b-i-an

aGva-Sen-i-T
aGa-Sen-i-T
aGa-Sen-i-an

Seva-mk-I
Sea-mk-I
Sea-mk-i-s

Seva-mk-i-T
Sea-mk-i-T
Sea-mk-i-an


II

-ed ( 1954, 133-139; 1961, 252;
1973, 144-145).
. ,

( 1948, 126).
II . .

.
II .
.
, II
. ,
. ,
,
. , ,
VIII-XI ., II
( 1984, 451).

. , II
XVIII .

II

329

,
XIII-XVIII .: ,

(, -)
, ...
XVII .
.
xolme
, ( 1961, 10).
, II
. ,
.

.
xolme,
. . ,
I ,
, , ,
, I , II .
(I , II )
,
xolme ,
( 1965).
,
, II
.
, II
.
II
.
, .
II
, .. 20- XIX .
.
, ,
.
naxis, cecxi gauaxldis, wKluli gaxdis ufro wKlulad (vefx.,41,3). .
(), ,
(" ").
ismendian, gahkvirdian, ra atirdis, atirdian (vefx.,956,3). .
, (" ... ).

330

movdiodiT da, Tu sada mqeci gardaguekidis, ganaGamca rome movkliT


(am.,215,3). .
,
("").
gardaxdian, TaKuan-scian da Seasxian qeba amiran dareJanisZesa (am.,309,1)
.
, ,
("" ... ).
ra

suli

Cemi

gecis,

mkudari

gascocxldi

(vis.,206,24).

, ("").
dilasa ra gaiGuiZian, sumiTa, sixaruliTa da simGeriTa dasxdian (vis.,150,21).
.
, ( )
(" ...").
da ukeTu enebis rajme basilis, momTxovelisa maxlobelTa mimarT misTa, gina
sxuaTa miar ara momcemelTa, meKseulad Serisxvit amxilis da iZulebiT winaSe missa
moawiian (abus.tb.,61,90). . ,
, ( ).
wavidi, ortaGTagan lahri da TeTri aviGi (ist.sab.,146,33). .
, ( ).
romelman daipKris kaci velsa gare da mohklis igi (sam.Zegl.,I,119). .
... ( ).
da ukeTu vin dafarviT imokmedis da Semdgomad scnobdian, kanonsa mis
cemdian da dautevebdian (sam.Zegl.,II,152). .
- ,
( ... ).
man

didebulni

awvivnis,

SeiKarnian

srulobiT

(T.I,

38.

102,2). .

, ( I ).
ra beberma naxis, rom goSias cremli moswKdis, ufro da ufro cxar-cxari
,
puri gamoucxvis da ayamis (T.II, 174,23). .
,
( II).
kvlav ikiT lekTa Cauxdi, damarTni cisa grexani (bes.,26. 12,1). .
vinc rom iTxovis kva da talaxi, . ,
().
mas miarTvian xe da balaxi (daviTiani, 260. 575.2). .

, ( ).
esreT mterni iKvnen, erTad ver moTavsdian, arcara erTad svian da yamian
(saba, s.s., 24). . ,
, (" ").

II

331

dabla xomaldis fskerSi Cems paksimadze viJdi da viwvi (saba, mogz., 243).
. ("
").
da arca kristianeni SeuSindian satanJvelTa da Seibralnian qorcni Tyisni,
aramed erTiTa gonebiTa wardgian (saba,swavl., 175,540).

, ,
... (").
dilas SevsxdiT, vinadiriT, SuadGisas SemoviqciT,
aw burTobas xeli mivKviT, mun saZilolod ar gaviqciT (arC., II, 239,1-2). .
, , ,
().
da kvalad pirvelidganve iwKian, aTxuTmetad aGasrulian (batoniS., I, 196).
. , ("").
Sen xar romelman aGadgini qveKnisagan glaxaki da skoreTagan aGamaGli
davrdomili (q.cx., I, 153,21; 154,1). . ,
( ).
da odesme durZukTa da didoTa moirTnian da gamoiKvanian xazarni, maSin
ewKys da verodes sZles xazarTa da Kovladve mirian sZlis (q.cx.,I, 66, 11-13). .
, ...
( ...).
viTarca Ccylnica ZuZuTgan dedisaTa aGitacnian da winaSe dedisa qvazeda
daanarcxian, da romelsame Tualni warscyvdian da romelsame tyni daeTxiis (q.cx.,
II, 175, 15-16). .
, ,
( ... ).
. ,
xolme ,
II ( 1961, 17). xolme
II
.
.-. . ,
(II + xolme)
1- .
, .
romelic uars itKoda, ZaliT movaparsviniT xolme Tavi (saba, s.s., 84). .
, , ( ... ).
qveS varcli SevudgiT xolme, vcemdiT da vecxli, oqro gamogviKaris (saba,
s.s.,98). . ,
( ... ).

332

, II xolme
.-., , II
.
.

.
. .
,

,
- .
,
( 1948, 52, 62). .
, ,
,
( 1946, 136) .
. :
II ,
od ,

,
,

( 1945, 843).
1948 . .
. :
1. -
, .
, .
2. IX-X .
, .
II ,
od, I .
: II
( ,
),
I : ,
, , .
, ,
I ( I ). : ,, saKurZeni igi misces
sxuaTa moqmedTa, romelTa miscodian mas naKofi jamTa maTTa (maT. 21, 41c).
. ,
( ).
3. , ,
. -n,
, od: Sewirodis (man igi), Sewirnodis
(man igini).
.
( ), (
)

II

333

4.
I- II- , II-.
( 1948, 18).
.
( 1976,
284). .
( 1965, 19).

. ( 1984, 456).
, .
:
II-
I-,
... , II ,
II :

( aGasrul-n-odian...) .
(),
-n-,
( eziar-n-odian... ) .
.
- - -I ( ganaTiodian... )
. ( 1961, 248).

6 . ,
, (
) .
:
( I
od) i,
, II III .

( I od
) ( 1967, 190).
. XI
., , 14
.
. yamodian . ,
, .
, :
,
, ,
( 1977, 18).
:

334


vakurTxod-i
vakurTxod-i-T
akurTxod-i
akurTxod-i-T
akurTxod-i-an
akurTxod-i-s
,
,
, .
.
.
xolo TyT mefeni qarTlisani mcxeTiT gaemarTodian somxiTs gzasa abocissa,
damaradis esreT hkrfebodes qarTvelni (q.cx., I, 48,8).
.


( ... ).
mravalni ukue uGmrToni yirsa Stacyvian, da rajams xadodian wmidasa
Juarsa, munquesve ganerian yirisagan da movidodian SemTxuevad patiosnisa
Juarisa, da mswrafl naTel-iGian da adidebdian patiosansa Juarsa (q.cx., I, 124,9).
.
, ,
( ... ).
,
.. 1633-1646 .
, ,
.
,
, .
II
.
.
,
.
.

1960 _ .,
XIX . ( . .).
1954 _ .,
VIII-IX . . ( . .).

II

335

1965 _ . .,
. . .
1965 _ .,
. . ( . .).

1977 _ .,
. . (
. ).

1996 _ ., .,
. -- ( . .).
1946 _ ., .
.
1888 _ ., . (
. .).
1961 _ .,
. .
( . .).
1967 _ .,
. ( . .).
1973 _ .,
d/ed n . .
( . .).
1984 _ .,
. ( . .).
1961 _ .,
. . . (
. .).
1920 _ .,
. ( . .).
1945: ., . I.
. .
( . .).
1948 _ ., , V.
. . ( .
.).
1948 _ .,
- . I.
.
( ..).
1976 _ .,
. ( . .).

336


, . , 1966.
. , 1962.
, . , 1967.
. , 1955.
. , 1959.
. VI.
.
(X-XIX .). , 1965.
.

.
. .
I. . , 1934.
, 2- . , 1937.
- , . I. ,
. , 1959.
- , . III. . , 1963.
, . , 1932.
, . , 1955.
, . I. , 1936.

N. Tsikhishvili (Tbilisi)
II Permansive and Mixed Conjunctive in Middle Georgian
Summary
II permansive and mixed conjunctive are those screeves, which are not preserved
from old Georgian in new literary language. These two ancient conjugate units of II
series are attested only in some dialects of modern Georgian .
Reviewing the language material of middle Georgian collected by me, showed
that systematic fixing of II permansive occurs not only in the texts of early period, but
in the text of late period. It occurs with equal frequency in the texts of different period
or genre.
As for a mixed conjunctive, these screeve forms, which were still rare in old
Georgian, occur only in the old works of Life of Georgia. These are Leonti Mrovelis "Life of Georgian Kings" and "Christianization of Kartli by Nino" ( by the same
author ). The forms obtained by me are of permansive context and I call them mixed
permansive.

kavkasiologiuri Ziebani CAUCASIOLOGIC PAPERS


II

2010

. . ()


, ,
, ,
. .
,
, , ,
,
. ,
: , , , ,
, ? ,
(, ,
) . . .
, , ,
, , , -
,
:
,
-( 1986, 104-106).
, .. ,
, - (
, )
(
,
-). , ,
, ,
.
, .

,
, , :
,
,
, ,

338

. .

, , ,
( ).
,
- ,
,
,
. -
, (
, ), ,
. , ,
,
.
: ,
, .
, . .
(
. ,
, , ,
( 2004, 7),
,
.


, , .
.
, , ,
.
,
, -xu, 12
, -
5. :
1. , ,
,
( .): r
arxu , kjgalla kjgalxu , mangal
mangalxu , dov dovxu , iexar
iexarxu , diar diarxu ,
guodar guodarxu , un nxu ,
tallam ; tallamxu , xa xxu

339

, , juoxka , juoxkarxu , ilma


ilmanxu (. ilma ilmana .
,
).
2.
,
, ,

,
,
,
-: icar icarxu
, dijcar ; dijcarxu ;
, vxar () vxarxu .

. , ,

,

,
: lcar lcarxu ,
, dixar () dixarxu , quollar
, quollarxu , diettar diettarxu
, duoxkar () duoxkarxu ,
, lovzar , lovzarxu .
..
qiarxu , , , ,
, ,

, (qiar ; ).
3.
, : al
alxu// laxu , ir () irxu .
.
4.
, : qin
qixu . .
5.
, .

: d dxu ,
, nna nnaxu ,
, tajpa tajpanxu .
stunc(a)xu,

340

. .

marz(a)xu, : stunca
, .. , , marca , ..
, .

. .
6.
,
.
: nijsa ; nijsarxuo . .
7. ,
.
,
.
qiazxu , ( qiaza
, , qina
qia , ), - .. ,
,
qiarxu , , ,
( 1961, 241).
8. ,
, : pitana
, pitanxu , , ulam ,

ulamxu , , , un ,
naxu , dr , , .,
ov drxu .
.
, -a: pitanxu pitana, ulamxu
ulama.
9.
, :
turpal(a) turpalxu , igara igarxu
, ap(a) , apxu , ,
jmart , , jmartxu ,
. turpal,
turpala (- .. ),
,
, . (
), turpal

341

,
turpala , .
.
10.
, : sulzi//
sulza sulaxu . , sulzi;
; la laxu ,
; , ; giermaig(a) giermaigxu
. , giermaiga; ;
izlara izlarxu . ; , jevropa
jevropaxu ; ; kavkaz kawkazxu ,
. jrtaxu ;
, maxkaxu ; ,
,
,
[ (, . .) ], laxu , utarxu .
-,
,
-xu, , , -u.
, -xa,
, , ,
, ,
, : inxa inxu, armaxa

armaxu, ajbaxa ajbaxu, sandaxa sandaxu ,


.
-xu, -xa,
-u, .. .
, , ,
,
,
-xu (. ).
,
-.
(),
: rgaxu , vnaxu
, tkioxu , amsterdamxu

342

. .

, berlinxu , buxarestxu
. .
( )
,
, .
, , -xu.

, - . ,
(
, ,
) : - (- , -
), - (-- , I-- ), - (-
, - ). ,
.. - (-- , ) ..
- ( 1972, 152-153). ,
. . , ,
:
, ;

. :

,
.
11. ( ,
- ): ika ikaxu ,
, mazara mazarxu ,
, pia piexu , , buni
bunxu , ", basi basxu ,
listani listanaxu , .
,
-xa,
(
) ( )
: na-xa + -xu
naxu , , in-xa+xu inxu
, , ramxa + xu ramxu
, . :

,

343

,
. ,

, 11-,
: portuglixu , knixu .
,
. ..
, , , ,

(aj ajxu ; sjli,
, ; ergim

ergimxu ) ( 1970, 25-39), ,


.

( ) ,
,
. ..
, ,
, , ,
,
( 1973, 23). , ,
,

niqij, gr tuqum (. .).
,
;
duzal
, , -r: amdr, satur,
denir .
12. , ,
: portuglixu , amrikaxu , indonzixu
, germnxu , avstrlixu , gondurasxu
, knixu , banxu ba/uba ..
,
, 10- (. ).
,
, ,
,

344

. .

, ,
.

, , ,
.
, , ,
.
: ( )
,
(
).
, ,
.

.

, ,

, . , ,
(deverbative; nomina actionis)
, .
(, , , .)
, ,
.

,
, . kajnig , vurg
, olanig , sajnig

-nig- ( ..), -rig-//-rg- ( . .), -r- ( .


.): . . vienarg , . vinvar, -r-
. -nig- (. . jcanig . loacaer);
-rik-, (vuurik ) -riki-,
(vuuriki ).


.

(

345

- ),
.
( )
( , ) ,

. , :
,
, , ,
. , (
2010), 750
,
.

1972 ., .
.
.
1986 . ., .
.
1973 . ., ()
. .
1961 = . ., - . .
. : . ., . .
.
,

420-

. . II. , 2008;
. ., (I
.). . (VII - . .). , 1986.
2010 . . .
.
2004 . ., .
.
1970 . ., .
. II. .

kavkasiologiuri Ziebani CAUCASIOLOGIC PAPERS


II

2010

A. Khalidov (Grozny)
On Underestimation Dug Compounding in
Chechen and Other Caucasian Languages
Summary
In the Caucasian linguistics, in Chechen particularly, there is a supposition that
affixation has got here weak development and vocabulary composition is renewed by
compounding. Only G.A. Klimov considers that, on the contrary, compounding in Chechen language and other languages of this group is presented not so actively, as, for
instance, in Abkhazian and adagio languages, herewith not confirming the prevalence of
affixation or other way.
The research within the framework of performing the work on the first volume
"Grammars of the Chechen language", in which the word-building occupies the main
place, gives us base to consider that compounding in the Chechen language is a complex system and this system includes a lot of ways and means of the word-forming, including affixal ways, which did not stand out before.
For instance, word-building by means of suffix turned out to be undervalued
because there is no clear delimitation of inflexion and compounding in the Chechen
linguistics and as a result this many suffixes are considered to be inflectional though
they indeed execute the word-building role. In this sense it is possible to consider, for
instance, the formation of causative verbs and potentials. The careful research of the
affixal word-building has allowed the author to select many new word-building models
and types of the forming nouns, adjectives, words of other parts of speech. Among them
there are many productive models and types. This is a sufficient base to consider that
affixation in the Chechen language plays more essential role, than we considered before,
and that the opinion about poverty of the Chechen language word-building affixes is
groundless.
The Researchers of the Chechen language and compilers of the Grammars of
this language have not taken into account, the fact that word-forming occurs not only as
affixal word-production and compounding. Word-forming (especially adverbs) by the
Way of phonetic reduplication, the formation of frequentative verbs by means of vowel
mutations in the root (another point is their belonging to frequentative aspect) attract our
attention. If researchers paid attention to phonetic way of the word-forming, they acknowledged that possibilities of the phonetics in this plan are unlimited. But the combination of phonetic ways and affixation makes word-building in the Chechen language
guiding in comparison with compounding.
Considering the role of affixation in renewing the vocabulary composition of
the Chechen language, it is important take into account the fact that some means and
ways of word-forming in the Chechen language are used broader and include the greater

On Underestimation Dug Compounding in Chechen and Other Caucasian Languages

347

amount of the words, than in many other languages. So, for instance, "masdar" (deverbative; nomina actionis) in the Chechen language is formed by means of only one suffix
and from all verbs without exception. And in other languages (for instance, in English,
German, Russian and others) the names of the action are formed with the help of different means and not from all verbs.
Only morphological prejudice does not allow the vainach linguists to consider
the so called "independent" adjective, participles, numerals and pronouns of the type
chech. ajnig "white", vurg "going", olanig "second", sajnig "my" nouns and accordingly point out the variety of an noun sufficsal formation with the affixes -nig- (in
Chechen language), -rig-//-rg- (in Chechen language), -r- (in the Ingush language):
comp. chech. vie'narg "received", ing. vienavar moreover this -r- changes in Ingush
language and chech. -nig- (sr. chech. jcanig "short" and ing. loacaer); in bats (Tsovatushian) language -ri- if man (vuuri "loudmouth") or -rii-, es- woman (vuurii
"loudmouth"). In favour of referring the similar words to nouns tells their absence of the
use (or rare use in usual for producing stems functions and together with that the aquisition of morphological and syntax features of the nouns. Referring the similar nouns to
substantive word-building may be a subject of scientific dispute (they are the separate
authors, for instance, to morphological-syntax way of substantivization), but hardly
their exception from the sphere of the noun is valid.
The Underestime of the role compounding in the Chechen language (it is necessary to think, and in other Caucasian languages) could be avoided if word-building
systems were studied thoroughly. It happened as usual: they have revealed only a few
from many facts, have found not all ways and means of the word-forming, have not
classified, and have not described them thoroughly fundamental, but have already done
conclusions.

a. xalidovi (grozno)
sityvawarmoebis rolis SeufaseblobisaTvis CeCnursa
da sxva kavkasiur enebSi

reziume
arsebobs mosazreba, rom CeCnurSi (da sxva kavkasiur enebSi)
afiqsuri sityvaTwarmoeba mwiria, enis leqsikuri fondis Sevseba
ki xdeba kompoziciiT.
CeCnuri enis gramatikis pirveli tomis damuSavebis Sedegad, romelic sityvawarmoebas eZRvneba, gairkva, rom sityvawarmoeba CeCnurSi warmoadgens rTul sistemas. am sistemaSi sufiqsur

348

A.Khalidov

sityvawarmoebas ZiriTadi adgili ukavia. mdidari faqtobrivi masalis analizis safuZvelze gamovlinda bevri axali afiqsi, garda
amisa, Seicvala ukve gamovlenil afiqsTa morfologiuri kvalifikaciac. ase, magaliTad, bevri sufiqsi dRemde iTvleboda ara sityvawarmoebis, aramed formawarmoqmnis, sityvaTcvlilebis saSualebad.
miuxedavad amisa, CeCnurSi am kuTxiT muSaoba damTavrebulad
ver CaiTvleba. sitvawarmoebis yvela modeli da tipi, romelic
damaxasiaTebelia CeCnuri enisaTvis, gamovlenili ar aris. naTqvami
gansakuTrebiT zmnur sityvawarmoebas exeba.
sailustraciod naSromSi ganxilulia -x sufiqsiT
nawarmoeb sityvaTa Tormeti tipi, es maSin, roca specialur literaturaSi aRnusxulia aRniSnuli sufiqsiT sityvawarmoebis mxolod
xuTi tipi.

kavkasiologiuri Ziebani CAUCASIOLOGIC PAPERS


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r. janaSia (Tbilisi)
rene lafoni kavkasiuri enebis
lateraluri Tanxmovnebis Sesaxeb
cnobili enaTmecnieri, baskologi, qarTvelologi, literaturaTmcodne, bordos universitetis profesori, parizis literaturisa la xelnawerTa akademiis wevri, bevri universitetis, maT Soris iv. javaxiSvilis sax. Tbilisis saxelmwifo universitetis, sapatio doqtori rene lafoni (1899-1974) dainteresebuli iyo kavkasiologiiT, kavkasiuri enebiT. enaTmecnierebaSi am mimarTulebiT man
didi kvali datova.
rene lafonma bevri naSromi miuZRvna kavkasiuri enebis lateralur Tanxmovnebs. misi naSromebi ibeWdeboda `parizis lingvisturi sazogadoebis biuletenSi~ (BSL 1959 _ LIV 1960 _ LV, 1961 _
LVI; 1962_ LVII), k. da n. saliebis daarsebul, parizSi gamomaval
JurnalSi `bedi qarTlisa~ (BK 1963 _ XV-XVI: 1964 _ XVII-XVIII: 1967 _
XXIII-XXIV...)... amave dros r. lafoni, sxva did mecnierebTan erTad,
iyo am Jurnalis samecniero sabWos wevri.
Cven ganvixilavT 1963 w. dabeWdil naSroms `kavkasiur enaTa
lateralur TanxmovnebTan dakavSirebuli sakiTxebi~ (Les problmes
concernant les consonnes latrales dans les langues caucasique, 1963, 19-20).
r. lafonis statia iwyeba n. trubeckois gamonaTqvamis citirebiT (Troubetskoy 1922, 184-204). Crdilo-kavkasiuri enebis fonetikis
yvelaze originalur maxasiaTebels warmoadgens spiranti da afrikati lateralebi. lafonis azriT, trubeckois gamokvleva fundamenturia, magram saWiroebs zogierTi koreqtivis Setanas. am fonemebis Seswavla da maTTan SesatyvisobaTa dadgena Zalian mniSvnelovania, aseve gasaTvaliswinebelia sabWoTa mecnierTa naSromebi.
Cemi statia _ ambobs avtori _ Tanamedrove codnis Semajamebeli
gadmocemaa, rac kvlevis gagrZelebas gulisxmobso.
avtori Tavidan aRwers lateralTa bgeriT mxares. mas yru
laterali spiranti agonebs germanuli yru ch-sa (ich, ach) da yru ls kombinacias, sonori laterali spiranti ki _ ch-s Sesatyvisi sonori spirantisa da sonori l-s kombinacias. rac Seexeba lateral

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r. janaSia

afrikatebs (fSvinviersa da glotalizebuls), eseni yru bgerebia,


romlebic Seicaven okluziur elements, dentalurs an ufro xSirad dorsalurs, fSvinviers an glotalizebuls.
lafoni ganixilavs im Crdilo-kavkasiur enebs, romlebsac gaaCniaT lateralebi, zogierTi Crd.-kavkasiuri enisa da qarTveluri
enebis sapirispirod. ganxilulia samive Crdilo-kavkasiuri jgufi:
Crdilo-dasavleT kavkasiuri enebidan lateralebi aqvs ubixursa
da Cerqezul enebs, Crdilo-centraluri enebidan mxolod _ bacburs, xolo Crdilo-aRmosavluri enebidan xunZur-andiur-cezursa
da arCibuls.
avtori Cerqezul enebSi gamoyofs 3 laterals:
1. yru spiranti laterali L
2. glotalizebuli spiranti laterali , romelic fakultaturad SeiZleba Canacvlebul iqnes glotalizebuli afrikatiT,
rac unda miuTiTebdes an dialeqtur an individualur variantebze. 3. sonori l, odnav spirantizebuli da yabardoulSi mainc palatalizebuli. mas avtori aRniSnavs rogorc ll-s.
Cerqezuli erTaderTi kavkasiuri enaa, romelsac aqvs sonori
spiranti laterali da aseve erTaderTia, romelsac ara aqvs Cveulebrivi, araspiranti l. avtoris azriT, CerqezulSi lateralebis
Semcveli sityvebi enis uZveles fondSia. lateralebidan yvelaze
xSirad gvxvdeba yru spirantebi, naklebad _ sonori spirantebi da
Zalze iSviaTad _ glotalizebulebi. avtors mohyavs L, / da
ll-s Semcveli magaliTebi:
Ly `sisxli~, y `kaci~, lly `sxeuli~
pLe `naxe~ pe `oTxjer~, blle `Svidjer~, `gveli~.
ubixurs aqvs 2 laterali: L yru spiranti da / glotalizebuli spiranti. es bgerebi umetesad CerqezulTan saerTo sityvebSi gvxvdeba. Cerqezulisagan gansxvavebiT ubixurs aqvs Cveulebrivi l, odnav palatalizebuli. avtori aRniSnavs J. diumezilis
(Dumzil, 1932, 70) bolodroindel mosazrebas, rom ubixuri l ar
aris n da m sonantebis rigisa da rom l bevrad ufro xSirad
gvxvdeba, vidre lateralebi. amrigad, CerqezulSi 3 lateralia,
ubixurSi _ 2; afxazurs ar gaaCnia lateralebi, aqvs mxolod Cveulebrivi l. Cerqezuli L da / -s Sesatyvisi afxazurSi yru SiSina bgeraa, xolo Cerqezul ll-sa da ubixur l-si ki _ sonori SiSina , -c da -c zogierT dialeqtSi palatalizebulia. afxazurs
ara aqvs glotalizebuli spirantebi. avtoris SeniSvnebiT, sainte-

rene lafoni kavkasiuri enebis lateraluri Tanxmovnebis Sesaxeb

351

resoa, rom afxazuri pasuxobs araglotalizebulobiT rogorc


glotalizebul, ise araglotalizebul lateralebs Cerqezuli
da ubixuri enebisa. gasarkveviao, SeniSnavs avtori, hqonda Tu ara
ubixurs ll spiranti, Cerqezuls ki _ Cveulebrivi l. gadasamowmebelia k. boudasa da J. diumezilis monacemebi (K. Bouda 1960, 200).
r. lafons SeniSnuli aqvs, rom Cerqezulis morfologiur
elementebSi r Seesatyviseba afxazurisa da ubixuris Cveulebriv ls, rom CerqezulSi r anlautSi ar gvxvdeba. mesaroSis mier motanili (Mszapos 1934, 38) amgvari erTaderTi ubixuri magaliTi, lafonis azriT, saeWvoa. naSromSi mocemulia sia im bgeraTSesatyvisobebisa, romlebic dasazustebelia:
ubixuri

afxazuri

l
l

?
l

Cerqezuli
ll
ll
th
r

naxuri enebidan mxolod bacburs aqvs yru spiranti laterali L Cveulebriv l-sTan erTad. L ar dasturdeba anlautSi, aq mas
cvlis Cveulebrivi l. inlautisa da auslautis bacbur L-s CeCnursa da inguSurSi Seefardeba Cveulebrivi l. a. somerfeltis (Sommerfelt 1947, 145) monacemebiT bacburis rL kopleqss CeCnur-inguSurSi
Seesatyviseba r an naklebad yru rh.
daRestnuri enebidan lateralebi damaxasiaTebelia xunZur-andiur-didouri (cezuri) enebisa da arCibulisTvis.
xunZuri enisTvis damaxasiaTebelia 4 laterali:
1. L martivi yru spiranti
2. LL _ geminirebuli yru spiranti
3. _ geminirebuli yru fSvinvieri afrikati
4. _ geminirebuli yru glotalizebuli afrikati
xunZurSi aseve aris Cveulebrivi l. xunZuris erT-erT dialeqtsa da, agreTve, axvaxurSi l. Jirkovma ( 1949, 109-126) da
z. mahomedbekovam ( 1955, 289-309) erTmaneTisgan damoukideblad aRmoaCines V martivi glotalizebuli afrikati , romelsac samwerlo xunZurSi Seesatyviseba dentaluri glotalizebuli xSuli t. xunZurisa da mis dialeqtebze msjelobisas avtori

352

r. janaSia

eyrdnoba arn. Ciqobavas, il. cercvaZes (Ciqobava, cercvaZe 1962, $46),


t. gudavas (gudava, 1954, 55-61), z. mahomedbokovas, l. Jirkovis, evg.
bokarevis ( 1958: 3-11) naSromebs. V laterali karatulSic
da andiuris sxva dialeqtebSic ariso, _ ambobs avtori; axvaxurSi,
garda V lateralisa, VI-c aris: martivi yru fSvinvieri afrikati
, romelsac t. gudava uZebnis Sesatyvisebs xunZursa da andiur
enebSi: L, rasac regularuli xasiaTi aqvs, , rac auxsneliao da,
rogorc Cans, ufro axali movlena unda iyoso.
didouri anu cezuri enebis ganxilvisas r. lafoni eyrdnoba
e. bokarevis naSroms (1959). am enebSi 3 lateralia Cveulebriv lsTan erTad:
L _ yru spiranti
_ yru fSvinvieri afrikati
_ yru glotalizebuli afrikati
am lateralebidan arc erTi ar aris geminirebuli. artikulacia siZlieris mixedviT ar aris dapirispirebuli. L laterals
xunZurSi Seesatyviseba L, LL da ; laterals _ xunZurSi ,
laterals xunZur saliteraturo enaSi _ t, xunZuris dialeqtsa
da axvaxurSi _ .
arCibuli. r. lafoni miuTiTebs p. uslarisa da ad. diris
daSvebul uzustobebze ( 1908), ramac n. trubeckoi SecdomaSi
Seiyvanao. avtoris azriT, swori daskvnebis gakeTeba mxolod molaparake pirebze dakvirvebiT SeiZleba, rac ganaxorciela ot. kaxaZem (kaxaZe 1958, 339-344). ot. kaxaZis gamokvlevidan Cans, rom ad.
dirs ver ganusxvavebia susti da magari spirantebi da areuli hqonia spirantebisa da araglotalizebuli afrikatebis aRniSvnebi.
ad. diri zog rameSi emyareboda p. uslars.
arCibulis masalas r. lafoni warmogvidgens ot. kaxaZeze dayrdnobiT. ot. kaxaZis mixedviT, arCibulSi 4 lateralia: 2 spiranti (susti da magari) da 2 afrikati (fSvinvieri da glotalizebuli). xunZurisagan gansxvavebiT es afrikatebi ukana rigis dorsaluri bgerebia, xunZurSi ki _ wina rigis dorsaluri. rogorc
Cans, arCibulSi laterali afrikatebi magaria, raki ot. kaxaZe iyenebs imave aRniSvnebs, rac xunZurisTvisaa xmarebuli. garda amisa,
is maT ganixilavs rogorc spirantebisa da geminirebuli dorsaluri xSulebisgan momdinares. glotalizebuli laterali afrikati mJRerdeba mJReri bgeris win. mag., no `saxli~ + sufiqsi dur
gamoiTqmis rogorc noghldur an nogdur. magram es fonema ar aris, ar-

rene lafoni kavkasiuri enebis lateraluri Tanxmovnebis Sesaxeb

353

Cibuls ara aqvs sonori spiranti laterali. lafoni ar eTanxmeba


trubeckois imaSi, rom aris sonori m spiranti.
r. lafoni ganixilavs arCibuli lateralebis Sesatyvisebs
xunZur enaSi. xunZuris glotalizebul afrikats arCibulSi Seesatyviseba xan glotalizebuli afrikati (`sxeuli~), xanac _ araglotalizebuli (`Svidi, rva, micema~). r. lafons Seaqvs Sesworebebi trubeckois mier daSvebul SesatyvisobebSi da gvTavazobs Tavis mosazrebebs.
trubeckoi: xunZ. : arC. , xan mJReri spiranti
lafoni: xunZ., and., axv., arC. : cez. : lak. k' (`xorci, Zvali,
unagiri, yinuli~).
xunZ., and., arC. (da ara , rac Secdomaao), cez. , lak.
l (`Svidi, micema~).
amas avtori umatebs: xunZ. t, and. l, axv. , cez. , arC. da lak.
k (`TavTavi, wvrili~).
rene lafons Seaqvs Sesworebebi n. trubeckoisTan areul ori
sityvis `saxuravi~ da `xidi~-s SesatyvisobebSi. am sityvebs SeeZloT erTmaneTze gavlenis moxdena, magram es imas ar niSnavs, rom
es sityvebi ar aris gansxvavebuli. cezur enebSi isini gansxvavebul lateralebs Seicaven. hinuxurSi `saxuravi~ aris u, `xidi~ ki
_ emo (bokarevis mixedviT). sityva `saxurav~-Tan dakavSirebulia
laterali , `xidi~ ki ZiriTadad aris tero, aseve gvxvdeba tyre da
emo. erTi mxriv, gvaqvs axvax. ame, karat. ama, and. lom (dial.
om), did. o, hunzib. oq da ame, lak. amu (*kamu) `saxuravi~
(bokarevi) da, meore mxriv,, xunZ. a, hinux. emo, lak. lamu `xidi~.
rene lafons mohyavs trubeckois mier dadgenili Sesatyvisobebi Crd.-dasavluri da Crd.-aRmosavluri enebis lateralebs Soris:
bagval. ri, and. da axv. rii, did. re, arC. a, lak. dik,
ud. eq: Cerq. lly, afx. y `sxeuli, xorci~. amas lafoni umatebs J.
diumezilis masalas: bacb. ditx da ubix. .
Semdegi magaliTebia: arC. mua, lak. mik, ruTul. da waxur. myk: (dasavl.) Cerq. mylly, yabard. myll `yinuli~. ubixursa da
afxazurSi ar aris Sesatyvisobebi.
xunZ. an, and. hou, didour. jgufi oa, ana, arC. villa, lak.
arul, bacb. vorL, Cerqez. blly, ubix. bly, afx. b `Svidi~.
n. trubeckoim daakavSira agreTve `kurdRlis~ saxeli afx. a,
ubix. la `yurebgrZeli~, andiurSi ankala, axv. aka. CerqezulSi

354

r. janaSia

am SinaarsiT sxva leqsikuri erTeuli gamoiyeneba. aq iseTive Sesatyvisobaa, _ dasZens lafoni, rogorc sityvebSi `xorci, sxeuli~.
avtoris azriT, gasakeTebeli jer kidev bevria, mag.: asaxsnelia
ubixuris araspiranti dorsaluri l-s dualuri arseboba. J. diumezili akavSirebs afx. a-s ubixur la-sTan `motyueba~.
r. lafons dasaSvebad miaCnia yabard. blle-s `wina xeli~ dakavSireba daRestnur masalasTan: erTi mxriv, xunZ. rata `cxovelis wina TaTi~ da, meore mxriv, and., Wam. rea, jela, did. rea, xvarS. lea,
axvax. karat. da andiuris dial. rea-sTan `xeli, mtevani~.
r. lafoni askvnis, rom raki Cerqezulsa da ubixurSi naklebad gvxvdeba laterali, amitom daRestnur enebSi misi Sesatyvisi unda iyos k an q. asaxsnelia Cerq.-ubix. L-s Sesatyvisoba afx. sTan.
k. boudas dakavSirebas Cerq. L-si Crd.-centr. da Crd.-aRm. enebis l-sTan, r. lafoni, Tavis mxriv, amatebs Cerq. Leo `naxva~ : Tabas. lius `Sexedva~.
avtoris azriT, araswori formebi an unda aixsnas, an unda
Seikvecos. xunZ.-and. -s, did. -sa da lak. k-s arCibulSi Seesatyviseba . amave dros, xunZ. mao-s, and. moo-s, lak. mak-s
`Zili, sizmari~ : arC. namk. avtori svams kiTxvas, arCibulSi es sityva nasesxebi xom ar aris?
sirTuleebia dakavSirebuli `Roris, taxis~ aRmniSvnel leqsemebTan: arC. bo, lak. burk, ud. Bq, cezuri enebi beo, boi _ es
regularuli Sesatyvisebia, magram xunZursa da bevr andiur enaSia
boLon, bagval. bolhon, xvarSiulSic igivea, rac nasesxebi unda iyos
bagvaluridan. amdenad, xunZur L-s regularulad ar Seesatyviseba
arC. da lakuri k.
avtorisTvis bunebrivad ismis sakiTxi Sesatyvisobebisa qarTvelur enebsa da Crdilo-kavkasiur enaTa lateralebs Soris. SeiZleba dadgindes amis zogierTi magaliTi: xunZ. LL da qarT. x,
xunZ. da qarTul-svanuri kv, gv (R. Lapon, BSL. XXIX, 1929....). aseve
xunZ. , arC. , lak. k-s Seesatyviseba qarT. q; xunZ. in `zamTari~, cez. ini, ine, enu, lak. ki (genet. kin-il) `zamTari~ _ qarT.
qin, megr. in `gayinva~, qarT. qineli `yinva~. es masala avtors amokrefili aqvs arn. Ciqobavas leqsikonisa da bokarevis naSromebidan.
misi azriT, es Sesatyvisoba gasaocaria.

rene lafoni kavkasiuri enebis lateraluri Tanxmovnebis Sesaxeb

355

rene lafoni aseve imowmebs qeTevan lomTaTiZis statias


(, 1955, 73-82), romelSic moyvanilia Sesatyvisobebi yovelgvari axsnis gareSeo, magram dasamaxsovrebelia sami magaliTi:
1. xunZ. o `siyvaruli~ _ qarT. qvar (SesatyvisebiT megrulsa
da lazurSi). orive enaSi zmnas erTnairi agebuleba aqvs: visac uyvars, is micemiT brunvaSia, vinc uyvarT _ saxelobiT brunvaSi. -ariseTi mavrcobia, rogorc daRestnur enebSi -an-, -un.
2. xunZ. raa `Zvali~, laz. qv-il-i, il-i `Zvali~, qarT. qv-l-iv-i
`mxris Zvali~ (Ciqobavas analiziT).
3. and. u `Tqma~, cez. ea (bokarevi) : qarT. tqv- `Tqma~. t unda
iyos pirdapiri damatebis aRmniSvneli arqauli klas-niSani (*dt
glotalizebuli Tanxmovnis win).
jer kidev gasarkveviao, qarTvelur enebSi ra Seesatyviseba
xunZ. -s, cezur -s, arCib. -sa da lak. l-s. am sferoSi jer kidev bevria gasarkvevi. avtori gulisxmobs TiToeul jgufs, maT
Soris Crd.-dasavlurs qarTvelur jgufTan mimarTebaSi. amJamindeli Sedegebi gamamxnevebelia. ukve SeiZleba imis Tqma, rom lateralebi da maTi Sesatyvisebi gamodgeba seriozul fonetikur argumentad qarTveluri da Crdilo-kavkasiuri enebis naTesaobis sasargeblod. aseTia rene lafonis sayuradRebo daskvna. am naSromiT
rene lafoni pasuxs scems rogorc zogad, ise kerZo problemebs,
dakavSirebuls lateralur TanxmovnebTan. sxva naSromSi (Lafon,
1964, 7-17) ajamebs Tavis Sexedulebebs lateraluri Tanxmovnebis
Sesaxeb: qarTvelur enebSi arc aris da arc yofila lateraluri
Tanxmovnebi, am enaTa konsonanturi sistema martivia. rac Seexeba
Crdilo-kavkasiur enebs, avtoris azriT, Crdilo-dasavlur da
Crdilo-aRmosavlur kavkasiur enebSi lateralebi erTmaneTisgan
damoukideblad Camoyalibdnen. kavkasiuri enebisTvis damaxasiaTebeli iyo sonori da yru supraglotaluri afrikatebi, aseve iyo
fonologiuri opozicia wina da ukana rigis dorsalur spirantebSi (magrebsa da sustebs Soris).

356

r. janaSia

literatura
bokarevi 1959 _ . . ,
. , VII, 4. . 1958.
bokarevi 1958 _ . . , () . .
1959.
bouda 1960 _ Ch. Bouda, Etymologies oubykhs, JA, CCXLVIII, fasc. 2. Paris, 1960.
gudava 1954 _ t. gudava, t lateralis genezisisaTvis xunZurandiur-didour enebSi da mis fonetikur Sesatyvisze qarTvelur
enebSi. ike, VI. Tb., 1954.
diri 1908 _ . , . , . 39. ., 1908.
diumezili, 1932 _ G. Dumzil, Etudes comparatives sur les langues caucasiennes du Nord-Ouest. Paris, 1932.
diumezili, 1959 _ G. Dumzil, Etudes Oubykhs. Paris, 1959.
kaxaZe 1958 _ ot. kaxaZe, lateraluri Tanxmovnebi arCibulSi.
ike, IX-X. Tb., 1958.
lafoni 1963 _ R. Lafon, Les problmes concernant les consonnes latrales
dans les langues caucasiques, BK XV-XVI. Paris, 1963.
lafoni 1964 _ R. Lafon, Complments un article sur les consonnes latrales dans les langues caucasiques, BK XVII-XVIII. Paris, 1964.
lomTaTiZe 1955 _ . , . , 4. . 1955.
mahomedbekova 1955 _ . ,
. , VI. ., 1955.
mesaroSi 1934 _ J. Meszaros, Die Pkhy-Sprache. Chicago, 1934.
Jirkovi 1949 _ . . , . , II. .-. 1949.
somerfelti 1947 _ A. Sommerfelt, Etudes comparatives sur le caucasique
du Nord-Est. Bind XIV. Oslo, 1947.
trubeckoi 1922 _ N. Troubetskoy, Les consonnes latrales des langues caucasiques septentrionales, BSL, XXIII, fasc. 3 (70). Paris, 1922.
Ciqobava, cercvaZe 1962 _ arn. Ciqobava, il. cercvaZe, xunZuri
ena. Tb., 1962.

kavkasiologiuri Ziebani CAUCASIOLOGIC PAPERS


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2010

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. . :

361

., ., ., . , . , . k ("", "", "", "").


., ., , . ( , ), . ,
. l ("", ""). :
. t, . l, . , . , . . k ("", "").
. "" "", .
. , , ,
. "" u,
"" emo (). "" , ""
tero tre mo. ,
:
. m, . m, . lom (. om), . o, . oq
m, . mu ( *kmu) "", , . , .
emo, . lmu "".
.
, . :
. ri, . . rii, . re, . , . dik, . eq : .
lly, . y ", ". . .
: . dit . .
: . mu, . mik, . . myk, .-.
mylly, . myll (""), .-.
. n, . hou, . , n, . vi, . rul,
. vorL : . blly, . bly, . b "".
. "" : . , . l
nkl. . k "
". . .
, ,
", ". , ; .,
l . .
. . l "".
. . bll " "
: , . rt " "
, ., . r, jl, . r, . l, ., . .
. r ", ". ,
L,
k q.
.-. L . .

362

. . L .-. .- l.
. L "" . li-us
"".
. .-.
, . . k . .
m, . m, . mk " , "
nmk. ? .
.
", " : . b, . burk,
. bq, b, bi. ,
bLn, . blhn.
. ,
L , k.
,
.
: . LL . x; . . . kv,
gv (R. L., BSL, XXIX), . , . , . k . q. : .
in "", : ini, in, nu, . k(. kin-il) . qin,
. in "", . qinli "".
. . .
.
. . ( 1955),
, :
1. . o "" . qvar (
). , : ,
- , , .
-ar
an-, -un.
2. . raa "",. qv-il-i, il-i "", . qv-l-iv-i "
" ( ).
3. . u "", . ea () . tqv- "",
t
(*dt ).
,
, , l, .
.
- , -
. ,

363


. .
, ,
.
(Lafon 1964, 7-17) .
:
. .
, - -
.

,
, , .

1958 . . ,
. , VII, 4. 1958.
1959 . . , () .
, 1959
1960 Ch. Bouda, Etymologies oubykhs, JA, CCXLVIII, fasc. 2. Paris,
1960.
1954 . , t ..-
( . .). VI. T, 1954 ( . .).
1908 . . , , , . 39. ,
1908.
1932 G. Dumzil, Etudes comparatives sur les langues caucasiennes du Nord-Ouest. Paris, 1932.
1959 G. Dumzil, Etudes Oubykhs. Paris, 1959.
1949 . . , . , II. .-. 1949.
1958 . , . , IXX. T, 1958 ( ..).
1963 R. Lafon, Les problmes cncernant les consonnes latrales dans
les langues caucasiques, BK XV-XVI. Paris, 1963.
1964 R. Lafon, Complments un article sur les consonnes latrales
dans les langues caucasiques, BK XVII-XVIII. Paris, 1964.

364

1955 . , . , 4. , 1955.
1955 . ,
. , VI. , 1955.
1934 J. Meszaros, Die Pkhy-Sprache. Chicago, 1934.
1947 A. Sommerfelt, Etudes comparatives sur le caucasique du
Nord-Est, Bind XIV. Oslo, 1947.
1922 N. Troubetskoy, Les consonnes latrales des langues caucasiques septentrionales, BSL, XXIII, fasc. 3 (70). Paris, 1922.
, 1962 . , . , .
, 1962 ( . .),

R. Janashia (Tbilisi)
Rene Lafon and Caucasian Laterals
Summary
Rene Lafon was an outstanding scholar. Professor of Rordo University, member
of many Universities, also of Tbilisi State University, had a great interest in Caucasian
languages beside the Basque.
This article is dedicated to his research of caucasian laterals. R. Lafon makes
important conclusion: Kartvelian languages never had the laterals. The North-West and
the North-East languages created laterals independently from each other.

kavkasiologiuri Ziebani CAUCASIOLOGIC PAPERS


II
c. baramiZe

2010
(Tbilisi)

mixeil qurdiani, `iberiul-kavkasiuri enaTmecnierebis


safuZvlebi~, Tbilisi, 2007
recenzia
Tanamedrove zogadi da iberiul-kavkasiuri enaTmecnierebis
TvalsaCino warmomadgenlis profesor mixeil qurdianis fundamenturi da kapitaluri monografia iberiul-kavkasiuri enaTmecnierebis safuZvlebi umniSvnelovanesi movlenaa ara mxolod qarTuli, aramed msoflio saenaTmecniero sazogadoebisaTvis. naSromi komparativistuli meTodebis koreqtuli da adekvaturi gamoyenebiT adgens qarTveluri da mTis kavkasiuri enebis naTesaobas.
ama Tu im enobriv jgufTa Tu calkeul enaTa ojaxad miCnevis safuZveli maT Soris kanonzomier da regularul bgeraTSesatyvisobaTa dadgenaa da es monografiac iberiul-kavkasiur enaTa
ojaxis swored aseTi safuZvlis warmoCenas isaxavs miznad.
iberiul-kavkasiuri enaTmecnierebis fuZemdebels, arn. Ciqobavas, istoriul-SedarebiTi meTodis principul mimdevars, iberiul-kavkasiur enaTa naTesaobis ideis perspeqtiuloba eWvqveS
arasodes dauyenebia. ,,iberiul-kavkasiuri enaTmecnierebis Sesavlis daskvniT debulebebSi igi werda: ,,iberiul-kavkasiur enaTa
erTianoba mecnierulad xelSesaxebia am enaTa oTxive jgufis safuZvelze (gv. 303-304).
iberiul-kavkasiuri
enaTmecnieruli
Teoriis
mimdevari
mkvlevrebi naTlad xedavdnen qarTuli kavkasiologiuri skolis
fuZemdeblis mier maT winaSe dayenebul principul moTxovnas da
axlo momavlisaTvis am umniSvnelovanesi amocanis gadawyveta
SeuZlebladac ki miaCndaT. mkacri da Tanmimdevruli e. i. mkvidri
Sedegebis momtani meTodiT leqsikis Sedareba da kanonzomier
fardobaTa dadgena upirvelesi sakiTxi iyo. arn. Ciqobava aRniSnavda: jerjerobiT aseTi fardoba araa dadgenili ara Tu qarTvelursa da mTis iberiul-kavkasiur enebs Soris, aramed TviT am
ukanasknelTa Sorisac. Sesatyvisobis dadgena Wirs erTi da imave
jgufis enebSic. mizezi martivia: Sesadarebel sityvebs iReben im
saxiT, rac maT dRes aqvT. ,,istoriuli gaerTmniSvnelianebis ga-

366

c. baramiZe

reSe. . . cxadia, aseTi Sedareba, rogorc wesi, jer calkeuli


jgufis SigniT unda warmoebdes, Semdeg ki jgufebs Soris (iberiul-kavkasiuri enaTmecnierebis Sesavali - gv. 225-226).
profesorma mixeil qurdianma zogadi, qarTveluri da kavkasiuri enebis gamocdilma mkvlevarma, Ciqobavaseuli memkvidreobis mecnieruli safuZvlianobis dasabuTeba daisaxa miznad. enaTmecnierebaSi meToduri safuZvlianoba Sesabamisi kvlevis aucilebel pirobad miiCneva, sxva SemTxvevaSi cdomileba naTeli xdeba.
mixeil qurdianis ,,iberiul-kavkasiuri enaTmecnierebis safuZvlebs win erTvis mecnierebaTa akademiis wevr-korespondentis
a. arabulis werili Semajamebeli naSromi iberiul-kavkasiur enaTa
naTesaobis TeoriaSi (gv. 19-72). naSromi aseTi struqturisaa:
transkrifcia (gv. 73-82), iberiul-kavkasiuri enebi da dialeqtebi
(gv. 83-90), winasityvaoba (gv. 91-112), Sesavali istoriul-SedarebiTi
enaTmecnierebis sakvanZo sakiTxebi da iberiul-kavkasiuri enaTmecniereba (gv. 113-220;) aq ganxilulia sinqroniul bgeraTSesatyvisobaTa diaqroniaSi asaxvis hologramuli principi; bgeraTSesatyvisobani da enobriv erTeulTa klasifikaciis problema, aseve maTi
kvalifikaciis problema; bgeraTSesatyvisobaTa ranJireba maTi
mtkicebulebiTi Zalis mixedviT; bgeraTSesatyvisobaTa sinqroniuli sistemebis imperatiuli mniSvneloba diaqroniuli rekonstruqciebisas; bgeraTSesatyvisobebi, rogorc diaqroniuli rekonstruqciebis erTaderTi SesaZlo safuZveli; induqciuri da deduqciuri midgomebis ranJireba komparativistikaSi maTi mtkicebulebiTi Zalis mixedviT; divergenciisa da konvergenciis procesebis araTanabari mniSvneloba istoriul-SedarebiTi meTodis
TvalsazrisiT; bgeraTSesatyvisobaTa Tvisobrivi gamijvnisaTvis
poziciuri da kombinatoruli fonetikuri procesebisa da individis metyvelebis TaviseburebaTagan.
monografiis Sesavlis sakiTxTa nusxa cxadyofs mkvlevris zogadTeoriuli xasiaTis debulebaTa siswore-vargisianobis Semowmebis sizustes iberiulkavkasiur enaTa kvlevisaTvis.
sarecenzio wignSi yoveli debuleba Tu ganzogadebadaskvnebi damyarebulia iberiul-kavkasiur enaTa konkretul masalaze. ,,iberiul- kavkasiuri enaTmecnierebis Sesavali saxelmZRvanelocaa magistrantebisaTvis da amitom avtori saTanado masalas
gadmoscems auditoriis momzadebisa Tu codnis kvalad. ivaraudeba, rom studentma ukve moismina ,,iberiul-kavkasiuri enaTmecnierebis Seswavlis istoria da ,,iberiul-kavkasiuri enaTmecnierebis
Sesavali, romlis logikur gagrZelebasac es naSromi warmoad-

m. qurdiani `iberiul kavkasiur enaTmecnierebis safuZvlebi~

367

gens. ivaraudeba, rom studentebi icnoben saTanado cnebebs, maT


mosmenili aqvT qarTvelur enaTa da mTis kavkasiur enaTa mecnieruli kursebi.
monografiaSi dasmuli sakiTxebis gasagebad da ubralod
gadmocema ar niSnavs saTanado masalisa da masTan dakavSirebuli
problemebis simartives:
am TvalsazrisiT
aRvniSnavT zogierT sakiTxs. pirvel
TavSi (gv. 231-378) enobrivi niSnis morfematuli Teoria da fuZeqmnadobis modelebi iberiul-kavkasiur enebSi
avtori ganixilavs
enobrivi niSnis semiotikuri ierarqiis koreqciis sakiTxs, Zireul
da afiqsalur morfemaTa struqturebsa da kanonikur kombinaciebs
iberiul-kavkasiur enebSi, fuZeqmnadobis modelebs baskurSi, rac
Zalze mniSvnelovania, ganxilulia fuZeqmnadobis modelebis
mniSvneloba SedarebiTi meTodis poziciidan.
meore TavSi iberiul-kavkasiuri enaTmecniereba ganxilulia
istoriul-SedarebiTi meTodis Suqze. aq mecnieruli argumentirebiT dasabuTebulia qarTveluri da daRestnuri enebis naTesaobis
sakiTxi, dadgenilia bgeraTSesatyvisobebi lateralTa rigSi, sibilantTa rigSi, dentalur xSulTa rigSi; aseve dasabuTebulia
afxazur-qarTveluri bgeraTSesatyvisobebi dentalur xSul sibilantTa da lateralTa rigebSi.
mesame Tavi (gv. 379-439) warmogvidgens baskur-kavkasiur hipoTezas istoriul-SedarebiTi meTodis Suqze. kerZod, qarTuli
da baskuri enebis naTesaobis sakiTxs, gansazRvravs baskuri enis
adgils iberiul-kavkasiur enaTa Soris; saerTo-baskur-qarTveluri
enis konsonantur sistemas, am sistemis transformacias baskurSi,
aseve saerTo-qarTvelurSi.
meoTxe TavSi (gv. 501-550) iberiul-kavkasiuri enebis naTesaobis dasabuTebaTa damatebiTi verifikaciaa mocemuli, kerZod, daRestnur-qarTveluri da baskur-qarTveluri bgeraTSesatyvisobebis
urTierTverifikacia lateralTa da sibilantur afrikatTa rigSi;
mocemulia bgeraTSesatyvisobaTa verifikacia iberiul-kavkasiur
enaTa ojaxis samive jgufis masalaze lateralTa rigSi, ganxilulia iberiul-kavkasiur bgeraTSesatyvisobaTa verifikacia Zireul da afiqsalur morfemaTa kombinaciaSi Semaval elementTa
raodenobis mixedviT.
mexuTe TavSi (gv. 551-624) avtori adgens leqsikur sesxebaTa
mimarTulebas fuZe-enaTa qronologiur doneze. meeqvse Tavi (gv. 11698) iberiul-kavkasiur enaTa SedarebiT (semantikur da etimologiur) leqsikonebs ganixilavs. naSroms erTvis ZiriTadi daskvnebi

368

c. baramiZe

(gv. 699-728), bolosityva (gv. 729-742) da danarTi _ iberiulkavkasiur enaTa SedarebiTi Seswavlis istoria Tavis umTavres momentSi (gv.743-828); aqvea bibliografia (gv. 829-912) da saZieblebi: 1.
saerTo iberiul-kavkasiuri semantemebis, 2. arqetipTa da sityvaformaTa, 3. pirTa (gv. 913-999)
Cvens winaSea iberiul-kavkasiuri enebis SedarebiTi Seswavlis istoriis saetapo monapovari. dadgenilia am enobrivi ojaxis
TiToeul jgufSi Semaval enebs Soris kanonzomieri da regularuli bgeraTSesatyvisobani, fuZe-enis fonologiuri sistemis,
morfologiuri inventarisa da sityva-formaTa arqetipebis verificirebadi rekonstruqciebi da sarwmuno etimologiebi. Tamamad
SegviZlia vTqvaT, saqme gvaqvs 21-e saukunis kavkasiologiur mecnierul paradigmasTan, epoqalur naSromTan. mas SemdgomSi unda
daefuZnos raodenobrivad axali etapi _ axali masalisa da axali
Sepirispirebebis gamovlena. SesatyvisobaTa dadgenili sistemis
reinterpretaciis problemebi da sxv. mTavari ki is aris, rom dRes
ukve iberiul-kavkasiuri enaTmecniereba rwmenis ki ara, codnis sagania.
arn. Ciqobavam Tavis moswavleebs gacxovelebuli muSaoba dausaxa
miznad komparativistikis mxriv. dRes qarTuli kavkasiologiuri
skola axal sityvas ambobs msoflio saenaTmecniero sazogadoebis
winaSe.
arn.
Ciqobava
kavkasiologTa
regionaluri
sesiis
dReebSi
-s furclebze werda: ,,axla Sors ar aris is
dRe, roca aseTi dReebi dagvirgvindeba istorikosebis, arqeologebis, eTnografebisa da enaTmecnier-kavkasiologebis kongresiT.
WeSmaritad iwinaswarmetyvela didma mecnierma, iseve, rogorc iwinaswarmetyvela Tavis mowafeTagan ,,iberiul-kavkasiuri
enaTmecnierebis Sesavlis bunebrivi da logikuri gagrZeleba _
,,iberul-kavkasiuri enaTmecnierebis SesavliT amoyvanili kedlebis ,,saxuravi da dagvirgvineba misi gamosvlis 30 wlis Semdeg.

kavkasiologiuri Ziebani CAUCASIOLOGIC PAPERS


II

2010

. ()
, -
, , 2007


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Ts. Baramidze (Tbilisi)

Mikheil Kurdiani, Foundations of the Iberian-Caucasian


Linguistics, Tbilisi, 2007
Summary
Mikheil Kurdianis Foundations of the Iberian-Caucasian Linguistics is a significant
phenomena for linguistic society. In the work the author establishes the kinship of the
Kartvelian and mountanian Caucasian languages using the comparative methods correctly and adequately. The work discusses natural and regular sound-correspondences of
the Iberian-Caucasian languages.
Structure and the importance of the work for linguistics are represented in the present
review.

kavkasiologiuri Ziebani CAUCASIOLOGIC PAPERS


II

2010

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kavkasiologiuri Ziebani CAUCASIOLOGIC PAPERS


II

2010

A.I. Khalidov (Grozny)


On Ascertainment of Ibero-Caucasian Languages Affinity
(in support of M.E. Kurdianis conception)
Until recent times the absolute majority of Ibero-Caucasian linguists had no
doubt about uniting us historic affinity and typological propinquity of our languages.
But recently this is not only discredited but is subjected to criticism and towards the
languages, forming one group at that. I mean not only the actual division of NakhDagestanian group into two (Nakh and Dagestanian) for what, may be, there are some
grounds. The question is in attempts to divide even these groups: lets say to put to
doubt the kinship of Batz (Tzova-Tushin) to Chechen and Ingush or the kinship of Chechen and Ingush. And each of Ibero-Caucasian languages (or less often their group)
relating to some ancient language in isolation from the others or to the rank of parent
languages of all the mankind or its considerable part at that. I believe that the basic
cause is in the fact we fall behind in study of Caucasian languages. In Dagestan and
Adyghe linguistics certain results have been received in this field, it is doubtful whether
we can consider, that they are so essential and convincing to be an actual database for
conclusions about absolute affinity of all Caucasian nations languages or absence of it
and moreover about their kinship and ancient links with other languages.
We can discuss as much as we want Hurrit-Urartu-Nakh (or Hurrit-UrartuAdyghe respectively and so on) language bonds or bonds of any Caucasian languages
with some others, but linguists cant judge them more convincingly than para-scientists,
since seriously, thoroughly on comparative historical level our languages havent been
studied and we have nothing to compare with the same Hurrit-Urartu roots and forms:
the necessary for it proforms of most Caucasian languages, which could be chronologically correlated with Hurrit-Urartu by internal reconstruction method are not obtained yet. Put aside little-studied Hurrit-Urartu languages and an actual absence of specialists, well-qualified in this material. As to the kinship among Caucasian languages, it
also can be ascertained after fundamental comparative historical studies, that were initiated among others by famous Comparative historical grammar by U.D. Desheriyev, but its only a negligible part of what is to be done. Impressing not only by its
volume (1039 pages) the book of the deceased M.E. Kurdiani [Kurdiani 2007] have
done more than to bring us back to the most pressing problem: on the basis of scrupulous comparative historical study of great number of Caucasian nations languages phonetic systems he fully scientifically proved their kinship in it. In the opinion of Tz. Baramidze, scientist Michael Kurdianis research priorities in Georgia, and generally in

378

A. Khalidov

linguistics were connected with the resolution of cardinal and unsolved in its due time
problem the proof of kinship of Kartvelian and Caucasian mountaineers languages
applying strict and verified methods [Baramidze 2010, 349]. The fact that proof of
kinship of Caucasian nations languages was the matter of his life testifies the statement
of outstanding Dagestan scientist I.Kh. Abdullayev, who has read, as far as I know, in
Fundamentals of Ibero-Caucasian linguistics the texts in Georgian. Exactly in this
connection in one of his interviews, published in Internet (unfortunately, the newspaper
wasnt available at the report writing moment), prof. I.Kh. Abdullayev said: I consider
there is distant kinship among Kartvelian and Northcaucasian languages. Kinship of
Northcaucasian languages with Southcaucasian, Kartvelian, in the judgement of
some scientists, hasnt been proved yet. Representatives of different schools doubt this
point, underlining one can speak about kinship if there are sound correlations. This
theory requires improvement. Famous Georgian linguist Michael Kurdiani, who suddenly died last year, studied this problem. He undertook this problem study thoroughly.
According to Kurdianis assertion, sound correlations reveal themselves. The other linguist Merab Chukhua also insists on Ibero-Caucasian languages kinship, because so
much similarity cant be occasional.
In solution of the most important for him problem M.E. Kurdiani advanced seriously in the mentioned book. I remember, after appearance of the book, when I received it from our mutual acquaintance, who had gone to Tbilisi, we called. I congratulated him with such an impressive success, and reminded him that unfortunately I
couldnt read it in Georgian, and set him at ease at once, saying Id be able to read that
part of the book written in German. We talked for a long time then. Michael was making plans, saying that our mutual task is to finish the solution of the problem by writing
together a new book involving more voluminous material. Unfortunately, there have
been no time for us to work together Im not sure whether Ill manage to do even the
tenth part of what could do this outstanding scientist who shone out not only among
Georgian linguists
To prove or negate Caucasian nations languages kinship one must be as well
prepared comparative linguist as Michael Kurdiani was. Only in this case caucasian
linguist will be able to do the work, about what B.A. Serebrennikov wrote: Caucasian
linguists are faced with the dilemma: the first way is to prove genetic Ibero-Caucasian
languages kinship using normal comparative historical method or to come to conclusion that three groups of Caucasian languages Kartvelian, Abkhaz-Adyghe and NakhDagestanian are not kindred languages and only make language union. [Serebrennikov 1982, 28]. So long as it hasnt been done for Caucasian languages, considered G.A.
Klimov, attempts for their convergence without preliminary comparative historical
reconstructions within separate groups give limited effect, and the basis for the conclusion are very considerable discrepancies, having been revealed among AbkhazAdyghe, Kartvelian and Nakh-Dagestanian languages [Klimov 1967, 332]. I have already expressed my viewpoint on such a statement of the question earlier [Khalidov
20081, 21-26; Khalidov 20082, 42-56], Ill try to give an account of it briefly once more.

About Ascertainment of Ibero-Caucasian Languages Affinity

379

If we are going to make the same demands to comparative historical study of


Caucasian languages underlying comparative historical study, lets say, of IndoEuropean, Semit, Turkic languages, well have to admit in many issues that in the foreseeable future we wont be able to advance further than historical genetic suggestions:
actual absence of written records or their tiny number of certain nations, comparative
youth of few available sources doesnt let put forms and lexemes of mentioned languages to internal reconstruction in full compliance of methods underlying comparative
study. But why Indo-European linguists, from whom, as a rule, come such assessments
of Caucasian languages comparative historical study state and make the most high demands to it never take into consideration that hypothetical character degree of IndoEuropean language kinship is also still high, its known, for example, Indo-European
nations language kinship is traced to primitive communal system, but there are no concrete historical data related to this period they remained neither in written record nor
in folk traditions of nations, speaking Indo-European languages [Desnitzkaya 1955,
298]. As to considerable discrepancies, having been revealed among Abkhaz-Adyghe,
Kartvelian and Nakh-Dagestanian languages, no matter how G.A. Klimov explained it,
they havent been revealed by comparative historical method but by synchronic com
parison method when synchronic comparison of the same Indo-European languages reveals more discrepancies (compare Russian and Ossetic, German and Persian,
Danish and Czech, Bulgarian and Russian et cet.) nevertheless Indo-European linguists
dont account it as the basis for skepticism to Indo-European languages kinship.
Unfortunately, the book by M.E. Kurdiani, wrote substantially in Georgian, with
a small number of printed copies therefore is unavailable to broad reading public of
Caucasian linguists for its circulation and edition language. Caucasian Linguistics Institute of Tbilisi State University and Linguistics Institute of Georgian Academy of
Science, though, are planning to translate it into Russian, but its difficult to say when it
will happen. I believe, more than that I am sure, translation into Russian and publication of the book in sufficient copies with further its distribution to educational and
scientific institutions, main libraries of all the Caucasus and Russia would help our colleagues to be convinced of validity of Ibero-Caucasian Linguistic affinity and free
themselves from doubt in evident, indisputable similarity.

Literature
Baramidze 2010 Tzira Baramidze, To scientists memory. Reminiscence.
Shone out among Georgian linguists.// Problems of general and Dagestanian linguistics.
Issue 6, Makhachkala.
Desnitzkaya 1955 A. V. Desnitzkaya, The issue of Indo-European languages
affinity study. M.-L.
Klimov 1967 G. A. Klimov, Caucasian languages. // Soviet linguistics for 50
years. M.

380

A. Khalidov

Kurdiani 2007 Michael Kurdiani, Fundamentals of Ibero-Caucasian linguistics.ed. and with A.I. Arabulis preface. Tbilisi, Tbilisi SU.
Serebrennikov 1982 Serebrennikov B. A, The problem of foundation sufficiency in hypotheses, concerning genetic linguistic affinity.//Theoretical foundations of
world language classifications: affinity problems. M.
Khalidov 20081 A. I. Khalidov, Essays of history and typology of Nakh languages. Grozny.
Khalidov 20082 A. I. Khalidov, Introduction to Caucasian languages study.
Grozny.

kavkasiologiuri Ziebani CAUCASIOLOGIC PAPERS


II

2010

r. fareuliZe (Tbilisi)
m. Cuxua, `iberiul-iCqeriul enaTa SedarebiTi gramatika~,
Tbilisi, 2008
recenzia
naSromi Sedgeba Sesavlisa da sami nawilisagan, erTvis
daskvniTi debulebebi da gamoyenebuli literaturis sia, Seicavs
762
gverds.
monografiaSi
aseve
Sevida
qarTvelur-naxuri
etimologiuri leqsikoni, romelic, Tavis mxriv, pirveli cdaa
amgvari leqsikonis Seqmnisa.
naSromis mizania, rogorc avtori winasityvaobaSi wers,
iberiul-kavkasiur enaTa ori ojaxis _ qarTvelurisa da naxuris
_
urTierTdamokidebulebis
garkveva
istoriul-genetikuri
TvalsazrisiT.
am
miznis
misaRwevad
naSromis
avtors
aucileblad
miaCnia
dasaxelebul
enaTa
jgufebs
Soris
regularuli da kanonzomieri bgeraTSesatyvisobebis dadgena.
maSasadame, Tu enebi monaTesavea, maT Soris bgeraTSesatyvisoba
unda arsebobdes, Tavis mxriv, bgeraTSesatyvisoba uryevi sabuTia
enaTa naTesaobisa.
calkeuli
jgufis
enaTa
Soris
genetikuri
urTierTmimarTebisadmi miZRvnili araerTi naSromi arsebobs
kavkasiologiaSi.
am
mxriv
sakmao
siRrmiTaa
damuSavebuli
iberiul-kavkasiur enaTa ojaxis TiTqmis oTxive jgufi, magram
dRemde am jgufebs Soris urTierTdamokidebulebas, kerZod,
bgeraTSesatyvisobebs,
aravin
Sexebia.
bgeraTSesatyvisobaTa
dadgena, Tundac ori jgufis enaTa masalaze, ueWvels xdis am
enaTa naTesaobas. ori jgufis amosavali viTarebis dadgena, ra
Tqma unda, gaaadvilebs bgeraTSesatyvisobebis dadgenas danarCen
jgufebTan mimarTebiTac.
m. Cuxua naxur da qarTvelur enaTa cnobili mkvlevaria. misma
naSromma inguSuri enis konsonantizmis Sesaxeb (sak. disertaciis
avtoreferati rusul enaze) didi interesi gamoiwvia naxur enaTa
specialistebs Soris (daibeWda mogvianebiT: m. Cuxua, inguSuri ena.
I. fonetika-fonologia. Tbilisi, 2009). am naSromSi igi askvnis, rom
naxur enaTa konsonantizmi martivia, am mxriv igi Zalian axlos
dgas qarTulTan, zogadad qarTvelurTan. Tu ra mdgomareoba
gvaqvs qarTvelurSi, naTlad Cans missave monografiaSi qarTvelur ena-kiloTa SedarebiTi leqsikoni (Tbilisi, 2003). amave avtoris sxva naSromebSi, romlebic eZRvneba naxur da qarTvelur

m. Cuxua, `iberiul-iCqeriul enaTa SedarebiTi gramatika~

381

enaTa fonetikas, morfologias, leqsikas... axali debulebebis dasasabuTeblad argumentebi moxmobilia daRestnur, afxazuradiRur enaTa arealebidanac.
mokled, im didi miznis gansaxorcieleblad, romelsac qarTvelur da naxur enebSi bgeraTSesatyvisobaTa sistema hqvia, safuZveli Cayrili iyo _ Sesrulda is samuSao calke qarTvelur,
calke naxur enebSi, romelic kvlevis Semdgomi safexuris dasaZlevad aucilebeli iyo; maSasadame, sarecenzio naSromi warmoadgens xangrZlivi fiqrisa da dauRalavi garjis nayofs, mis avtors
gaweuli aqvs, SeiZleba iTqvas, titanuri Sroma.
sakiTxis Seswavlis mokle istoria warmodgenilia calke paragrafad. naTqvamia, rom a. meie skeptikurad uyurebda kavkasiur
enebs Soris regularul-kanonzomier bgeraTSesatyvisobaTa gamovlenis SesaZleblobas. kavkasiur enaTa Seswavlis imdroindeli
mdgomareoba, SeiZleba iTqvas, iZleoda erTgvari skepticizmis safuZvels, magram mas Semdeg bevri ram gakeTda, am enaTa Seswavlis
dRevandeli done sworedac rom sapirispiro mosazrebis gamoTqmis
saSualebas iZleva. n. trubeckoi mxolod maSin miiCnevda enaTa naTesaobas damtkicebulad, roca damuSavebuli iqneboda SedarebiTi
gramatika da SedarebiTi leqsikoni. igi ar uaryofda Crdilokavkasiur enaTa naTesaobas, Tumca ar gvqonda am enaTa arc SedarebiTi gramatika da arc SedarebiTi leqsikoni.
avtoris azriT, samarTliani iyo is moTxovna, romelsac n.
trubeckoi uyenebda kavkasiur enaTmecnierebas _ unda damuSavdes
SedarebiTi fonetika da SedarebiTi leqsikooni.
momdevno paragrafSi mocemulia msjeloba problemis arssa
da meTodologiaze, naSr4omis mizanze, romelic qarTveluri da
naxuri enebis genezisuri mimarTebis dadgenaSi mdgomareobs. am
miznis misaRwevad Sesrulda winaswari samuSao _ mxedvelobaSi
gvaqvs qarTvelur da naxur enaTa SedarebiTi leqsikoni, romelic naSroms aqvs darTuli. leqsikoni moicavs aTas erTeulze met
saerTo warmomavlobis fuZes am enebSi.es aris, SeiZleba iTqvas, am
enaTa etimologiuri leqsikoni, sadac rekonstruqciis safuZvelze
aRdgenilia saerTo-qarTveluri da saerTo-naxuri arqetipebi.
Sedareba rom sworad warimarTos, avtoris gancxadebiT, aucilebelia axleburi midgomis Semotana, rac ukavSirdeba e. w. Sebrunebuli wyobis Zir-fuZeTa arsebobas Sasadarebel enebSi. mxedvelobaSia im rigis fuZeebi, rogoricaa: s.-qarTveluri *wedwveTi, cvari da s. naxuri *darw- wvima... ra mimarTebaa am fuZeebs Soris? aq gvaqvs TanxovanTa Sebrunebuli wyoba, saurTierTo
metaTezisi, romlis nimuSebi qarTulSic vlindeba: Sdr.: Jini _
niJi (TuS.), sila _ lisa (raW.)...

382

r. fareuliZe

naSromis avtors miaCnia, rom qarTulSi gamovlenili saurTierTo metaTezisis realuroba axal perspeqtivebs saxavs etimologiuri kvlevis saqmeSi, rom ara sairTierTo metaTezisis aRniSnuli tipis arseboba, gaugebari darCeboda, Tu ratom gvaqvs qarTuli g r Z i l- RrZili fuZis Sesatyvisad zanurSi j i r g i
l - i (<*girjil-i)...
momdevno paragrafSi, zemoT mocemuli msjelobis Semdeg, naSromis avtori iZleva saerTo-qarTvelur da saerTo-naxur fuZeebs, romlebic swored saurTierTo metaTezisiT gansxvavdebian
erTmaneTisagan, ase, magaliTad, s.-qarTveluri sonanti anlautSi
da igive sonanti s.-naxurSi auslautSi. Sdr.: rekonstruirebuli
s.-qarTv. fuZe *esk- mnaTobi, cecxli (qarT. vask-ul-av-i da
a. S.) da aseTive s.-naxuri fuZe *ski naperwkali.
piriqiT, s.-qarTveluri auslautiseuli fonema s.-naxurSi anlautSia, mag., igive sonanti s.-qarTveluri *i borkili da s.naxuri *irx sadave... analogiuri wyoba _ bgeraTSenacvleba
Cveulebrivia bagismierebSic, s.-qarTveluri anlautis bgera s.naxurSi auslautSia saZiebeli da, piriqiT. sailustraciod erT
magaliTs moviyvanT. Sdr.: s.-qarTv. *qab- qvabi da s.-naxuri *buqTixis patara qoTani...
analogiurad aris ganxiluli dentalTa, ukanaenismierTa,
faringaluri -s saurTierTo metaTezisi aRniSnuli jgufebis
Semcvel fuZeebSi. moxmobilia saTanado sailustracio magaliTebi.
naSromis I nawilSi mocemulia vokaluri sistemis analizi.
ganxilulia Semdegi sakiTxebi:
1.
qarTveluri da naxuri enebis xmovanTa sistemis amosavali tipebisaTvis;
2.
amosavali a xmovnis Sesatyvisobani;
3.
amosavali e xmovnis Sesatyvisobani;
4.
amosavali i xmovnis Sesatyvisobani;
5.
amosavali o xmovnis Sesatyvisobani;
6.
amosavali u xmovnis Sesatyvisobani;
7.
xmovanTa amosavali sistemis cvalebisaTvis;
8.
zmnuri ablautis erTgvarovani tipisaTvis saerToqarTvelursa da saerTo-naxurSi.
aRniSnulia, rom saerTo-qarTvelur fuZe-enaSi mxolod is
xuTi martivi xmovani iyo, rac Tanamedrove qarTulSia, xmovanTa
sistema SemdgomSi garTulda svanurSi, xmovaovani gaCnda megrulSi. auxsneli xmovanTkompleqsebi vlindeba or SemTxvevaSi
(*xiar- mxiaruli, *ziar- ziareba); mocemulia sqema, ra xmovnebi

m. Cuxua, `iberiul-iCqeriul enaTa SedarebiTi gramatika~

383

iyo s.-qarTvelurSi da ra gvaqvs cal-calke qarTulSi, megrulSi,


svanurSi.
s.-naxuri fuZe enis vokalizmi ukeT aris Semonaxuli wovaTuSurSi, sadc igive xuTi martivi xmovania, istoriul-SedarebiTi
analiziT, Sinagani rekonstruqciis meTodis gamoyenebiT dgindeba.
am sistemis odnav garTulebuli variantia inguSurSi; CeCnuri xmovanTa mravalricxovnobiT gamoirCeva, gamoiyofa difTongebic, da
maic, CeCnurSic igive xuTi martivi xmovania savaraudebeli (Sdr.,
d. imnaiSvili saerTo naxurisaTvis gamoyofda a, , i, u xmovnebs).
naxurSic gamoricxuli iyo xmovanTkompleqsebi morfemis farglebSi, orive fuZe-enaSi am xmovanTa distribucia TavisuFali iyo.
aqve mocemulia saTanado sqema amosavali viTarebis Cvenebia.
orive fuZe-enis xmovanTa sistemis ganxilvas, bunebrivia,
mosdevs msjeloba xmovanTa Sesatyvisobebis Sesaxeb qarTvelursa
da naxur enebSi. magaliTad, amosavali *a:
s.-qarTveluri
s.-naxuri
a (Sdr.: *baw- bawari _ *Wab- Toki...)
o (Sdr.: *tal- kaJi _ *tol- qva...)
a
e (Sdr.: *kanZ- matyli _ *kej- erTgvari mai (Sdr.: *Zal- nawlavi _ *jintyli...)
Tirkmeli...)
amosaval *e xmovans s.-qarTvelurSi Seesatyviseba e, xolo s.naxurSi _ e, a (o), i;
amosaval *i xmovans _ s.-qarTvelurSi _ *i, s.-naxurSi _ i (u),
e, a;
amosaval o xmovans _ s.-qarTvelurSi _ o, s.-naxurSi _ o (a),
u;
amosaval u xmovans _ s.-qarTvelurSi _ u, s.-naxurSi _ u, o
(a).
TiToeul am debulebas erTvis mravalricxovani sailustracio masala.
bolos mocemulia daskvnebi. sayuradReboa, rom zmnaTa nawilSi fuZiseuli xmovnis cvliT (ablautiT) naxurSi iwarmoeba
aspeqtis kategoria. aqedan gamomdinare, qarTulSi e. w. fuZedrekadi zmnuri formebic swored aspeqturad unda yofiliyo dapirispirebuli, naTesaoba am enebSi aspeqturi ablautis mixedviTac
vlindebao, askvnis avtori. marTlac, saintereso paralelia. moxmobilia am rigis zmnuri fuZeebi.
naTelia, rom vokaluri sistemis (da ZiriTadad konsonanturi
sistemisac, ix. qvemoT) amosavali viTareba, naSromis mixedviT, savsebiT emTxveva s.-qarTvelurs, xolo refleqsebi, Tanac sakmaod
mravalricxovani, am sistemam mogvca saerTo-naxur fuZe-enaSi. ismis kiTxva: ram ganapiroba amosavali viTarebis ucvleloba s.-

384

r. fareuliZe

qarTvelurSi? aris Tu ara identuri bgeraTSesatyvisoba Sesatyvisoba Cveulebrivi, tradiciuli gagebiT?


naSromis
II
Tavi
eZRvneba
konsonantur
sistemas
s.qarTvelursa da s.-naxurSi. aRdgenil konsonantur sistemaSi gamoyofilia TanxmovanTa oTxi jgufi: xSulebi, napralovnebi (frikativebi), sonorebi, sonantebi. calkea mocemuli s.-qarTveluri
enobrivi erTobis xanis konsonanturi sistema da calke _ s.naxurisa.
qarTvelurSi Tanamedrove qarTulisagan gansxvavebuli fonemebia (-s mJReri varianti, faringaluri spirantebi da (da, ra
Tqma unda, da ). saerTo-naxurSi am fonemebs emateba d, , t da
laterali l (meoreuli).
konsonantur sistemaSi, pirvel rigSi, ganxilulia sonori
bgerebi. s.-qarTveluri da s.-naxuri enobrivi erTobis doneze, avtoris azriT, ar dasturdeba r, l, m, n sonorTa marcvlovani variantebi. cnobilia, rom aseTi bgerebis arseboba fuZe-enaSi dasaSvebad miaCndaT (T. gamyreliZe, g. maWavariani). sonorTagan amosavali l s.-qarTvelurSi TiTqmis ar Secvlila, s.-naxurSi ki refleqsebi moucia -s, r-s, -s, m-s, d-s, n-s, -s saxiT. moxmobilia saTanado magaliTebi.
msjeloba aris r vibrantze. orive jgufis enebSi igi anlautSi ar Cans. dadgenilia l-s refleqsebi s.-naxurSi, Sesatyvisobebi s.-qarTvelurSi. aseve cal-calkea ganxiluli m, n fonemebi
TavianTi fonetikuri variantebi, aris msjeloba im fonetikur
procesebze, romelTa gavleniT aris Secvlili sonorebi saerTonaxurSi.
, bgerebi sonorebisagan gamoyofilia, eseni, rogorc naSromis avtori wers, sonantebia. sonorebTan SedarebiT amaT
gansxvavebuli buneba aqvT (Sdr.: zanurSi Tanxmovnis momdevnod
ar dasturdeba, imave poziciaSi Cveulebrivia ||v).
naSromSi dawvrilebiT aris ganxiluli -s istoria, naTqvamia, rom igi sakvlev enebSi imTaviTve arsebobda, s.-naxurSi ar
Secvlila, xolo s.-qarTvelurSi, zog SemTxvevaSi, gadabgerebulia
s-d. Sesatyvisoba s : (s s.-qarTvelurSi da s.-naxurSi) kidev
erTxel adasturebs, rom es fonema Tanxmovania.
saanalizo masalis safuZvelze dadgenilia amosavali fonemis refleqsebi fuZe-enisaTvis.
kompleqsi C, naSromis avtorisaTvis, aris ori damoukidebeli bgeris ariTmetikuli jami, maSasadame, igi ar aris labializebuli Tanxmovani, uaryofilia amosaval labializebul TanxmovanTa arseboba TviT afxazurSic. miCneulia, rom aseTi Tanxmovne-

m. Cuxua, `iberiul-iCqeriul enaTa SedarebiTi gramatika~

385

bi warmoqmnilia labializebul kompleqsTa xarjze. naxurSi aseTi


kompleqsebis delabializacia moxda, mocemulia am procesis axsnis cda.
Semdegi msjelobis sagans xSulebi warmoadgenen. orive jgufis enebisaTvis damaxasiaTebeli iyo xSulTa da afrikatTa sameulebrivi sistemis eqvsi rigi (me-6 rigSia , , y), spirantebis me-4
wyvilia , h.
analizis sagani jer wyvilbagismieri bgerebia, Semdeg: kbilismierebi (romeltac ematebaT Sesabamisi magari variantebi) da a.
S. cnobilia, rom magari Tanxmovnebi naxurSi poziciuria, anlautSi ar dasturdeba. naSromSi gamoTqmulia mosazreba, rom dRevandeli viTareba meoreulia, aseTi Tanxmovnebi fuZe-enaSi anlautSic
unda yofiliyo da a. S.
aRniSvnas imsaxurebs sameulebrivi sistemis bolo (me-6) rigis

fonemaTa

Sesatyisobebi,

sadac

saerTo-qarTvelur

k||y-s

saerTo-naxurSi Seesatyviseba l, momdinare *-sagan (mJReri faringaluri varianti, -s mJReri varianti). aseTi fonema (da, miT
umetes, misi refleqsi da saerTo-qarTvelurTan Sesatyvisoba) specialur literaturaSi pirvelad gaxda msjelobis sagani.
naSromis bolo TavSi ganxilulia TanxomanTa kompleqsebis
Sesatyvisobani saerTo-qarTvelursa da saerTo-naxurSi. gamovlenilia TanxmovanTa kompleqsebis yvela SesaZlo varianti TavianTi
refleqsebiT, damajereblad axsnilia bgeraTSesatyvisobani da
rekonstruirebulia amosavali formebi. nimuSad erT magaliTs moviyvanT:
s.-q. *rw- rweva, triali (qarTuli: rw-eb-a || rw-ev-a.., zan. onw-e || o-nw-el-i akvani, sarwevi...) : s.-n. *erw (CeCnuri d-erz-uo,
ing. d-erZ-ar, bacb. d-erw-ar || e-rw-ar triali, brunva)...
da kidev:
s.-q. *wy- dawyeba : s.-n. wy-e || wy-a erTxel da a. S.
m. Cuxuas naSromSi, rogorc ukve iTqva, mocemulia unikaluri
masala, romelic, Cveni azriT, savsebiT damajerebels xdis warmodgenil bgeraTSesatyvisobebs saerTo-qarTvelursa da saerTonaxurSi. bgeraTSesatyvisobebis dadgena am ori jgufis enaTa fuZeenebis doneze niSnavs sakvlevi enebis udavo naTesaobas, romelic,
Cveni azriT, ukve mecnierulad aris dasabuTebuli.
ra Tqma unda, naSromis zogi detali momavalSi gadaisinjeba,
zog rames TviT avtoric Secvlis, axalic bevri daemateba. Tumca
amTaviTve SeiZleba iTqvas, rom m. Cuxuas sarecenzio naSromi warmoadgens seriozul gamokvlevas, rac axal etaps qmnis iberiulkavkasiur enaTa Seswavlis saqmeSi.

kavkasiologiuri Ziebani CAUCASIOLOGIC PAPERS


II

2010

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R. Pareulidze (Tbilisi)
M. Chukhuas Comparative Grammar of the Iberian-Ichkerian Languages, Tbilisi, 2008
Review (Summary)
The work consists of an introduction and three parts. Conclusive arguments and
literature are added.
An introduction represents the history of studying the issue. It is mentioned that
A. Meillet sceptically considered the manifesting possibilities of regular-natural soundcorrespondences among the Caucasian languages. The present situation of studying the
Iberian-Caucasian languages gives possibility to arise opposite viewpoint. N. Trubetskoy considered the kinship of languages to be confirmed then when a comparative
grammar and comparative vocabulary would be carried out. He did not deny the kinship of the North-Caucasian languages, though there was not either comparative grammar or comparative vocabulary of these languages.
An introduction discusses the essence and methodology of the problem, the goal
of the work that implies establishing of genesis, relation of the Kartvelian amd Nakh
languages. To achieve this goal first of all the Kartvelian-Nakh comparative was carried out. The dictionary discusses more then 1000 stems of common origin. Actually, it
is an etymological dictionary of these languages where Common-Kartvelian and Common-Nakh archetypes are reconstructed.

392

In order to carry out the research correctly it is essential to bring a new approaching that is connected with so called the existence of roots and stems of converse structure in the languages under compare (cf.: Common Kartvelian *c-vwt a drop, dew)
and Common Nakh *dahc rain). Revealing the models of converse structure (of
communicative metathesis) in Georgian has outlined new perspectives in researching
the Iberian-Caucasian languages. According to the authors view just communicative
metathesis differs Common-Kartvelian and Common-Nakh stems from each other. Illustrative materials on this viewpoint are lots in the work.
I part of the work gives an analysis of vocal system of the languages under compare. It is mentioned that in Common-Kartvelian parent-language only those five simple
vowels occurred which are in modern Georgian . A vowel system was then complicated
in Svan, in Megrelian vowel appeared. A scheme is given that shows those vowels
existed in Common-Kartvelian and the ones which exist separately in each language.
Vocalism of Common-Nakh parent-language is better preserved in TsovaTushian where there are the same five simple vowels like in Georgian. This fact is
supported by historical-comparative analysis using the method of inner reconstruction.
Discussion on vowels correspondences in Kartvelian and Nakh is followed after
discussing a vowel system of both parent-languages.
An initial situation of a vocal system completely coincides with of CommonKartvelian and this system gave reflexes in Common-Nakh language. A question arises:
What conditioned unchanging of an initial situation in Common-Kartvelian? Is an identical sound-correspondence under the traditional understanding or not?
II part of the work discusses a consonant system in Common-Kartvelian and in
Common-Nakh. Four groups of consonants are distinguished in reconstructed consonant
system: plosives, fricatives, resonant, sonants. A consonant system of the period of
Common-Kartvelian language unity and in Common-Nakh is given separately. Similarity and difference in a parent language of the group under compare is given as well.
The last chapter of the work discusses the correspondences of consonants
complexes in Common-Kartvelian and Common-Nakh. Initial forms are reconstructed.
M. Chukhuas work gives an unique material that I believe makes the represented
sound-correspondences in Common-Kartvelian and in Common-Nakh trustworthy by
what the kinship of the mentioned languages is scientifically confirmed.
Of course some details of the work will be discussed in future, some will be
changed by the author, much new will be added. Although M. Chukhuas work is a
serious research that is a new stage in studying the Iberian-Caucasian languages.

istoria
History

kavkasiologiuri Ziebani CAUCASIOLOGIC PAPERS


II

2010

e. avaliani (Tbilisi)
`kavkasiuri Ziebani~: britaneli mecnieris mier
kavkasiuri sasazRvro miwis istoriuli mimoxilva

K kavkasiuri Zveli civilizaciis sawyisebiT bevri ucxoeli,


evropeli mecnieri moxiblula, magram sabWoTa sistemisa da
mmarTvelobis pirobebSi SeuZlebeli xdeboda farTo sazogadoebisaTvis am civilizaciis ukeT gacnoba. im xanis mecnieruli wreebisaTvis es miwebi samyaros Seuswavlel sivrceebad aRiqmebodnen.
es regionebi, romlebic Zveli civilizaciebis gzasayarze mdebareobdnen, ruseTis imperiis SemadgenlobaSi Sediodnen me-19 saukunidan da administraciulad imarTebodnen Soreuli ruseTis politikuri centridan. kavkasiis regionebi, rogorc koloniuri miwebi, ise Sediodnen ruseTis imperiis SemadgenlobaSi; mogvianebiT
am nominaluri saxelmwifo erTeulebis politikuri da kulturuli cxovreba ruseTis mier iyo warmarTuli da ruseTis politikaze iyo orientirebuli. am Caketili politikuri reJimis pirobebSi britaneli mecnierebi
daJinebiT cdilobdnen, rom SeeswavlaT kavkasiuri civilizacia jer kidev XIX saukunis bolos,
da es interesi ar ganelebula mogvianebiT XX saukunis pirvel
naxevarSi.
kavkasiuri civilizaciis mecnierul SeswavlaSi gansakuTrebuli wvlili miuZRvis uiliam edvard devid alens (igi daibada
1901 wlis 6 ianvars da gardaicvala 1973 wels). aleni irlandiaSi
dabadebuli ingliseli iyo da im mecnierTa nawils ganekuTvneboda, romlebic dainteresebuli iyvnen kavkasiuri da maxlobeli aRmosavluri kulturebis kvlevebiT. A
alenis MmSoblebi iyvnen uiliam, devid aleni da sara kolet pini. man ganaTleba miiRo itonis kolejSi, berkSirSi (inglisi). igi iyo parlamentis wevri dasavleT belfastidan 19291931wlebSi. aleni samjer iyo daqorwinebuli da misi bolo qorwi*

ibeWdeba ucvlelad

396

e. avaliani

neba Sedga natalia maqsimes asul kosovskaiasTan, romelic rusi


warmomavlobis maRali wris qali iyo.
alens saintereso da amave dros TavgadasavlebiT aRsavse
biografia hqonda: is iyo sagareo saqmeTa oficeri, politikosi da
msxvili biznesis mflobeli, Tumca, amave dros, man saxeli gaiTqva
rogorc samxreT kavkasiis mkvlevarma-istorikosma. alens axlo
megobroba akavSirebda ser osvald moseleisTan, am ukanasknelma
ki, 1937wels daaarsa axali partia-britaneli nacistebisa. imxanad
aleni moxibluli iyo faSisturi ideebiT. aleni Tavisi qmedebebiT
erTgvar eWvebs aRuZravda sazogadoebas, kerZod, Tvlidnen, rom
igi farulad exmareboda megobars faSistur saqmianobaSi. aleni
iyo avtori
skandaluri statiisa saxelwodebiT- luciferis
werilebi, sadac is sajarod gamoxatavda sakuTar keTilganwyobas
faSisturi ideologiisadmi. mas saidumlo agentadac miiCnevdnen,
Tumca mogvianebiT aRmoCnda, rom es varaudi sinamdviles ar Seesabameboda. meore msoflio omis dawyebis win aleni bevrs mogzaurobda, Seiswavlida kavkasiisa da anatoliis xalxebis istoriasa da kulturas. 1935-1937 wlebSi aleni iyo qarTuli istoriuli
sazogadoebis daarsebis erT-erTi aqtiuri organizatori. 1937
wels oliver uordropTan erTad man safuZveli Cauyara qarTul
istoriul sazogadoebas da daiwyo gamocema amave sazogadoebis
Jurnalisa saxelwodebiT georgika, romelic qarTvelologiur
kvlevebze iyo orientirebuli. paul muratovTan TanaavtorobiT
alenma gamosca wigni kavkasiis brZolis veli, romelic gamoqveynda 1953 wels. britanulma samecniero wreebma maRali Sefaseba
misces alenis kvleviT saqmianobas da igi airCies britanuli antikvaruli sazogadoebis sapatio wevrad. alenis megobari da
Tanamoazre oliver uordropi britaneli mecnieri iyo, qarTvelologi. man, rogorc britanelma diplomatma, saqarTveloSi
gaatara ramdenime weliwadi da im periodidan moyolebuli,
ikvlevda qarTul mdidar kulturul memkvidreobas. es mecnierebi
samarTlianad arian miCneulni qarTvelologiuri kvlevebis pionerebad.
Cven
miznad
davisaxeT,
gagvekeTebina
erTgvari
Sefaseba/analizi alenis
samecniero moxsenebisaTvis, romliTac
igi 1942 wels wardga
britanuli antikvaruli sazogadoebis
erT-erT sxdomaze. es moxseneba, amasTanave, iwvevs did interess
Tanamedrove sazogadoebaSi, ramdenadac misi avtori britaneli

`kavkasiuri Ziebani~ britaneli mecnieris mier kavkasiuri sasazRvro . . .

397

TviTmxilvelia 50-iani wlebis kavkasiisa. alenis moxsenebis


saTauri iyo kavkasiuri sasazRvro miwa. im droisaTvis es iyo
Zalian STambeWdavi moxseneba kavkasiur samyaroze, civilizaciaze,
rogorc es Tavad alenma aRniSna Tavis winaTqmaSi, romlis
kvlevasac ukavSirdeba cnobili britaneli mecnierebis saxelebi;
es mecnierebi arian: duglas freSfildi, Tavisi klasikuri
TxzulebiT kavkasiuri kvlevebi, lordi braisi da
h. linCi,
romlebic ikvlevdnen araratis zegansa da armeniis maRalmTianeTs.
gansakuTrebul yuradRebas imsaxurebs jon badeleis kavkasiuri
problematikis kvlevebi, imdroisaTvis mas ukve dasrulebuli
hqonda ortomeuli daRestanze da centralur kavkasiaze.
uiliam alenma Tavis moxsenebaSi yuradReba gaamaxvila Semdeg problemebze:
1) geografiul-teritorialuri ganfeniloba da satranzito
komunikaciebi centralur aziasTan da sxva regionebTan;
2) kavkasiis mimoxilviTi istoria, uZvelesi periodidan
Tanamedrove xanamde;
3) eTnikuri identobis sakiTxebi: aqve exeboda kavkasiuri rasis problemebs maxlobel aRmosavleTSi;
4) kavkasiuri sakomunikacio saSualebebis mniSvnelobis sakiTxi Tanamedrove sazogadoebisTvis;
alenis azriT, kavkasia iyo sasazRvro miwa maxlobel aRmosavleTTan kavSirSi: es iyo farTo regioni, sadac aziuri kulturebi xvdebodnen kavkasiur kulturebsa da urTierTkveTdnen.
Aaleni AaRwers kavkasiis geografiul zonebs da dasZens, rom:
warsulSi maxlobeli aRmosavleTidan iranuli da islamuri
kulturebi zegavlenas axdendnen adgilobriv kulturaze, jarebiT
iyo avsebuli centraluri azia; meores mxriv ki, CrdiloeT aziuri elementebi, Turquli, mongoluri da rusuli SemoiWrnen regionSi, gadalaxes ra kavkasiis mTebis bunebrivi dabrkoleba da
kopet-daRi dasavleTSi, da agreTve, kaspiis zRva, aRmosavleTSi.
alenis mier kavkasiuri samyaros safuZvliani Seswavla did gakvirvebas iwvevs. is SesaniSnavad icnobs kavkasiis geografias, klimaturi zonebis mixedviT ajgufebs regionebs da cal-calke
ganixilavs am zonebs. misi kvlevis erTi nawili ukavSirdeba
transkavkasiis satranzito komunikaciebis Seswavlis Temas. is gamoyofs sam mTavar magistrals, romlebic CrdiloeTidan samxreTisaken gadiodnen. aleni aRwers maT, esenia: pirveli, Savi zRvis

398

e. avaliani

sanapiro zolze gamavali gza, romelic imdroisaTvis ukve aRar


gamoiyeneboda, radganac trasa da rkinigza, romlebic rusebma gaiyvanes, akavSirebda novorosiisks quTaisTan. meore da mTavari arteriuli gza iyo saqarTvelos samxedro gza, romelic vladikavkazis regions (CrdiloeTi kavkasia) akavSirebda TbilisTan. mesame magistrali kaspiidan miuyveboda qviSian sanapiro zols,
ukavSirebda ra zRvas maRalmTian daRestans. SeniSvnebis nawilSi
aleni iyenebs da azustebs garkveul geografiul terminebs, eyrdnoba ra jon badeleis cnobil naSroms kavkasiis myari flagmanebi.
alenis moxsenebis istoriuli nawili iwyeba Zveli istoriis periodebis ganxilviT; is erTgvar varauds gamoTqvams im
SesaZlo kulturuli kavSirebis Sesaxeb, romlebic unda hqonoda
Zvel kavkasias, anu transkaspiur regions, Sumerul da indur
civilizaciebs. es varaudi erTgvar yuradRebas imsaxurebs da gaTvaliswinebuli unda iyos gansakuTrebiT transkaspiur regionTan
mimarTebaSi. aleni exeba minosuri Talasokratiis sakiTxs Savi
zRvis konteqstSi da varaudobs, rom ganviTarebuli brinjaos
kultura aRmocenda yobanis xeobaSi da zogadad transkavkasiis
xeobebSi. is zedapirulad exeba berZnuli kolonizaciis problemas Savi zRvis sanapiroebze, Tumca iyenebs Tavis droisaTvis miRebul, tipur terminologias, berZnebis eqspansiasTan mimarTebaSi
berZnuli koloniuri imperia.
kvlevis mniSvnelovani nawili eTmoba ruseTis interesebs
kavkasiaSi, es ukanaskneli pretenzias acxadebda am regionze.
ruseTis saxelmwifom ganaxorciela warmatebuli kontroli regionze da rusuli warmatebuli politikis mTavar iaraRad, romelic ganxorcielda sazRvrebSi zemo donidan dawyebuli Sua
volgamde da kaspiis zRvidan kavkasiamde moiazrebian kazakebi- ase
asabuTebs aleni Tavis mosazrebas.
kvlevis momdevno nawilSi, eTnografiul mimoxilvaSi, aleni
saubrobs kavkasiis mosaxleobaze da Tavis Txrobas iwyebs
CerqezebiT. is Cerqezebs am regionis erT-erT uZveles mosaxleobad miiCnevs da Tvlis, rom maT erTgvari zegavlena moaxdines
ukrainis garkveul nawilebze, radganac Cerqezuli toponimebi iq
xSirad gvxvdeba. Cerqezebi yirimis mosaxleobis mniSvnelovan elements warmoadgendnen XVIII saukunemde. isini saxlobdnen CrdilodasavleT kavkasiaSi da yobanSi manam, sanam rusebma ar daipyres

`kavkasiuri Ziebani~ britaneli mecnieris mier kavkasiuri sasazRvro . . .

399

isini mecxramete saukunis Sua periodSi. Cerqezebi, rogorc monebi


da mebrZolebi, Cndebian bizantiur da musulmanur samyaroSi. isini
msaxurobdnen mamluqTa korpusSi, romelic ucxoelebisagan dakompleqtebuli legioni iyo napoleonis xanamde.Maleni saubrobs
osebze; etimologiurad es termini momdinareobso osebis sakuTari
saxelidan os, es , rac niSnavs rkinas. isini gansaxlebulni
iyvnen centralur kavkasiaSi, wyalgamyofis orive mxares. aleni
sagulisxmo SeniSvnas akeTebs maTi warmomavlobis Sesaxeb: anTropologiurad DZalian Sereuli xalxia, magram saubroben enaze,
romelic namdvilad indoevropulia.
alenis azriT, qarTvelebi regionSi yvelaze mravalricxovani
da ,amave dros, civilizebuli xalxia. is qarTvelebs or jgufad
hyofs: dasavleli qarTvelebi saubroben qarTulis damaxasiaTebel
megrul dialeqtze, da igi am jgufs uwodebs kolxur-svanur
jgufs. aRmosavleli qarTvelebi da mesxebi mtkvris sanapiroebze
uZveles periodSi mcire aziidan Semosuli xalxiao. aleni am SemoWras aTariRebs Zv.w. VII-V saukuneebiT. udarebs ra qarTul eTnonimebs pontoursa da kapadokiurs, aleni gamoTqvams varauds,
rom qarTul-mesxur mosaxleobas odesRac ekava farTo teritoriebi mcire aziaSi. aleni Tavisi periodis Tanamedrove qarTvel
mecnierTa Sromebs kargad icnobs, gansakuTrebiT a. guguSvilisa
da a. javaxiSvilis Sromebs eyrdnoba. aleni iziarebs da aviTarebs
mosazrebas, imis Taobaze, rom bibliuri Tubali da meSexi da
klasikuri xanis mesxoi da tiberenoi, SesaZlebelia davukavSiroT
Sua saukuneebis qarTvel mesxebsa da iberebs.
somxebis, kavkasiis uZvelesi indoevropuli mosaxleobis,
gamoCena ukavSirdeba am xalxis mcire aziidan SedarebiT mogviano
xanis Semodinebas; aleni Tvlis, rom maTi amgvari gansaxleba regionSi erTgvarad SeiZleba SevudaroT mesxebisa da iberebis Semodinebas mtkvris xeobaSi.
Aalenis warmodgeniT, qurTebs SeiZleba garkveuli kavSirebi
hqondeT qarTvelebTan; misTvis savaraudo identobis dadgenisaTvis, is iSveliebs klasikuri xanis avtors qsenofontes, romelic
moixseniebs karduxois toms. aleni qurTebsa da karduxebs erTi
da imave xalxad miiCnevs da martivad, kritikuli analizis gareSe,
adgens kavSirs qurTebis saxelsa da qarTvelebis nominalur
fuZes qarT-s Soris; Tumca aqedan gamondinare, is askvnis `rom
qurTebi Zalian Sereuli xalxia~.

400

e. avaliani

Semdeg jgufSi aleni azerbaijanel Turqebs moixseniebs;


azerbaijanuli Turquli jagatais Turqulis msgavsia, romelic
gvxvdeba centralur aziaSi. masSi bevri sparsuli sityva da
idiomi aris Sesuli. igi aqve ganmartavs, rom aRmosavleT transkavkasiis adgilobrivi mosaxleoba iyo albanuri da varaudobs,
rom isini enaTesavebodnen aRmosavleTis qarTvelebs (iberebs).
aleni Tavis mimoxilvaSi exeba anTropologiur problemas da
dasZens: `fizikur tipSi ar SeiniSneba didi gansxvaveba im xalxebs
Soris, vinc saxlobs mcire aziasa da kavkasiaSi.~ am SemTxvevaSi
igi eyrdnoba a. javaxiSvilis Sromas `kavkasiuri rasa~ (es naSromi
daibeWda `georgikis~ pirvel nomerSi). anTropologiuri tipi, romelic am vrcel teritoriaze mosaxleobda, iwodeboda armenoidad, an alpur tipad, Tumca Tanamedrove mecnierebaSi damkvidrda
da upiratesoba mieniWa axal termins-kavkasiurs.
Zalian saintereso da originaluria alenis mosazreba rasobriv da lingvistur Teoriaze: is miiCnevs, rom ena ar SeiZleba
rasis mTavari ganmsazRvreli kriteriumi iyos. ar daiZebneba
kavSiri xalxis eTnikur warmomavlobasa da im enebs Soris, romlebzec isini metyveleben. anatolieli glexebi iseve rogorc maTi
mezoblebi, romlebic sazRvars iqiT cxovrobdnen, uZvelesi periodidan moyolebuli, mraval enaze saubrobdnen berZnulze,
somxursa da sxvadasxva aziur enebze, magram isini iyvnen
TviTmxilvelni imisa, Tu rogor icvleboda sxvadasxva jari, imperia da sistema am regionSi. daskvnis saxiT aleni dasZens, rom
amao da usargebloa politika, romelic efuZvneba lingvistur da
somatur gansxvavebas.
alenis moxsenebis danarCeni nawili deskrifciulia; igi aRwers regionis istorias: ori aTasi wlis ganmavlobaSi kavkasia
rCeboda brZolebis epicentrad. Zveli, Sua saukuneebisa da Tanamedrove xanis jarebi aoxrebdnen am mTebs, ibrZodnen imisaTvis,
raTa TavianTi gavlenebi daemkvidrebinaT am nayofier transkavkasiur miwaze. am Semosevebis Sedegebi aisaxa kulturul gavlenebze;aRmosavleT
transkavkasiaSi
arabuli
ena
SemorCa
rogorc klasikuri ena. daRestnis mTian aulebSi bevri arabulis
mcodnea da arabuli, TurqulTan SedarebiT, ufro miRebulia aRmosavleT kavkasiaSi orTodoqsuli islamisaTvis, Tumca ,amave
dros, sparsulma literaturulma tradiciam didi gavlena
moaxdina qarTul literaturaze. qarTveli poetebi, SoTa rusT-

`kavkasiuri Ziebani~ britaneli mecnieris mier kavkasiuri sasazRvro . . .

401

veli da sargis Tmogveli sparsuli poeziis gavlenebs ganicdidnen.


moxsenebis boloSi aleni misi Tanamedrove xanis kavkasias
exeba, kerZod ki, is wamoWris navTobis sakiTxs, romelic
saintereso xdeba britanelebisaTvis. aleni sakuTari iniciativiT
bevrs mogzaurobda. igi imyofeboda baqoSi da moixseniebs baqos,
Tavisi Wreli mosaxleobiT sabWoTa kavSiris rigiT mesame industriul centrad.
uiliam edvard devid aleni Tavisi drois kavkasiis sakiTxebSi kargad gacnobierebuli ingliseli iyo. misi codna momdinareobda sakuTari gamocdilebidan da, Sesabamisad, igi kargad
erkveoda Tanamedrove kavkasiis problemebSi. misi moxseneba
kavkasiuri sasazRvro miwa britanuli sazogadoebisaTvis Zalze
saintereso cnobebis momcveli iyo, exeboda ra Soreul kavkasiur
civilizacias, Tumca istoriuli xasiaTis CanarTebi, avtorisagan
met sifrTxilesa da gadamowmebas moiTxovda. aleni Zveli istoriis wyaroebis Seswavlisas uSvebs uzustobebs da sakuTar,
Tavisufal interpretaciebs akeTebs.
Tavis samecniero kvlevebSi aleni did erudicias amJRavnebs
da misi Sromebi dasafasebelia, rogorc
wyaro, Tanamedrove
kavkasiologiis istoriografiuli kvlevebis procesSi.

kavkasiologiuri Ziebani CAUCASIOLOGIC PAPERS


II

2010

E. Avaliani (Tbilisi)
The Caucasian Exploration: British Scholars
Historical Review on the Caucasian Borderland

The stocks of Caucasian Ancient Civilization have attracted scholarly interest of


many European researchers, but during the Soviet regime these lands remained an unobserved and unexplored space of the universe, as a kind of the Terra incognita to
many contemporary scholarly societies. These regions, old crossroads of civilization,
were locked into the Russian Empire during the 19th century and were autocratically
administered from a distant political heart of Russia. Caucasian districts were treated as
colonial lands incorporated inside the Russian Empire: political affairs, trade and cultural life of these nominal states were reoriented towards Russia, though as long as the
Tsars ruled they still retained many of their old links to the outer world. However, owing to British scholars particular endeavour much attention was paid to the studies of
the stocks of the Caucasian Civilization at the end of the 19th and the first half of the
20th centuries.
A scholarly contribution was given to the studies of Caucasian Civilization by
William, Edward, David Allen (he was born on January 6, 1901, and died on September
18, 1973).1 He was an Ireland-born English man, and was among those scholars, who
dedicated themselves to the research of the Caucasian Civilization as well as to the Ancient Middle Eastern Cultural Models.
Allen was a son of William Edward Allen and Sarah Collet Phin2. He was educated at Eton College, Eton, and Berkshire, England. He held the office of a Member of
Parliament (M.P.) for West Belfast between 1929 and 1931.3 Allen was married three
times and his last spouse was a Russian noble woman, Nathalie Maximovna Kossovskya.4
Allen had an impressive, and meantime, an adventurous biography: as a
Foreign Service officer, later as a politician and businessman, he was also known as a
1

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/William_Edward_David_Allen
Br. Burke, Sir. (Ed.), Burke's genealogical and heraldic history of the landed gentry of Ireland, 4th ed.,
London, U.K.: Burkes Peerage Ltd, 1958. 14.
3
Ibid.
2

thePeerage.com, A genealogical survey of the peerage of Britain as well as the royal families of Europe.
Person Page : 8402 . http://thepeerage.com/p8402.htm#i84018. William Edward David Allen M, #84018.

,,The Caucasian Exploration: British Scholars Historical Review of the Caucasian. . .

403

historian of South Caucasus. Allen had close friendship with Sir Oswald Moseley, who
founded New Party- British Union of Fascists in 1937. By that time Allen was allured
by ideas of fascists, since he was under suspicion in supporting of his friend to pursue
his Fascist ambitions from behind the scenes.1 Allen was the author of the article The
Letters of Lucifer", where he vividly demonstrated his political visions and sympathy to
Nazi ideology. He was under suspicion and it had frequently been reported that Allen
was an MI5 informant but this now appears to be false2. In the pre-World War II years,
he travelled and conducted extensive research on the history of peoples of the Caucasus
and Anatolia. From 1935 to 1937, Allen was the main organizer of the Georgian Historical Society. In 1937 along with Sir Oliver Wardrop, he founded the Georgian Historic Society, which published its own journal Georgica, dedicated to the Kartvelian
studies. Allan was a co-author of the publication with Paul Muratoff as well, they wrote
a book Caucasian Battlefields, published in 1953. His intellectual contributions were
highly appraised by British Academics and he was invested as a Fellow of Society of
Antiquaries (F.S.A.).
Allens follower and friend, Sir Oliver Wardrop, was also a British scholar and
an expert in Kartvelian studies; as a British diplomat he spent couple of years as British
Commissioner for Georgia. From that time until many years after, he was being involved in scholarly research of Georgian cultural heritage. These two scholars were
British pioneer figures in Caucasian Historical Studies, and it would be interesting from
the modern historical perspective to evaluate their perception regarding the problems of
Caucasiology.
In our paper we intent to evaluate William Edward David Allens scholarly essay
as a historiography resource for studying of the Caucasus in mid of 1950s. The essay
is a valuable source, as it was written by a British eyewitness.
On the 4th of May, 1942, during the meeting of Society of Antiquaries (F.S.A.)
William Edward Allen made his presentation on the theme: The Caucasian Borderland. By that time it was an impressive observation of the Caucasian Civilization from
the view point of an English scholar; the lecture on an area which had been associated
with the names of the most distinguished Fellows of the Society, as he mentioned in his
preface. The most prominent expert of the field, Douglas Freshfield was known by
his Exploration of the Caucasus, which remained classics for the Central Range3.
Lord Bryce and the later H. F. B. Lynch had remained standard authorities for the geography of Ararat and Armenian highland zone. Also, remarkable was John Baddeleys
scholarly contribution to the problems of Caucasiology, by that time he had already

State Secrets: The Kent-Wolkoff Affair- Whos who, in http://www.statesecrets.co.uk/who/index-a.html


State Secrets: The Kent-Wolkoff Affair- Whos who, in http://www.statesecrets.co.uk/who/index-a.html
3
Douglas William Freshfield (1845-1934) was a British Lawyer and an active member of the Royal Geographical Society. He had published the book The exploration of the Caucasus in 1896.
2

404

E. Avaliani

finished his two volumes on Dagestan and the central Caucasus, which appeared under
the title of The Rugged Flanks of Caucasus.
William Edward David Allen gave an absorbing and fascinated speech on one of
the most interesting portions of the globe- Caucasian Civilization.
William Edward David Allen was focused on several issues during his presentation:
1) Geographical- territorial location and transit roots to Central Asia and other
regions;
2) Brief history of Caucasus from Ancient to the contemporary times;
3) The issues of ethnical identities: including the problem of Caucasian racial
elements in Middle East;
4) Importance of the Caucasian communication systems in his contemporary
times;
According to Allens accounts Caucasus stayed the borderland in the Middle
East: it was the large area where Asian cultures had crossed with Caucasian ones. Allen
had illustrated Caucasian geographic zones from the North to the South ranges and
noted that: in the past, from the Middle Eastern World Iranian and Islamic cultures
influences and armies have overflowed into Central Asia and Conversely, Northern
Asiatic elements: Turkish, Mongol and, finally, Russian, have filtered over the mountains barriers of the Caucasus and Kopet Dagh to the west and east of the Caspian Sea. 1
His ability and extent of knowledge in Caucasian geography remains amazing; simultaneously, he had consistently arranged the region into the climatic zones and described
the climate of each zones separately. The Portion of his investigation related to the issues of communication systems of Transcaucasia. He recapitulated three main roads of
access over the main chain from the north to the south, and consistently described them:
first is the Black Sea coast road, which was less explored by that time, because a motorroad and a railway were built by the Russians along the line of the Black Sea coast from
Novorossiysk to Kutaisi in Georgia. The second main arterial road was the Georgian
Military Highway from Ordjonikidze in the Northern Caucasus, to Tbilisi (Tiflis).The
third route followed the sandy foreshore of the Caspian between the foothills of the Dagistan Mountains and sea.2 In the section of the footnotes Allen submitted some geographical terms, alluding on Baddeleys work The Rugged Flanks of Caucasus.3
The historical chapter of his presentation starts from the observation of Ancient
periods; His presumption regarding the conjectural cultural relations between Early

William E. Allen, The Caucasian Borderland. On-line version


http://www.circassianworld.com/pdf/The_Caucasian_Borderland.pdf. 2p.
2
Op. cit 3.
3
J. Baddeley, The Rugged Flanks of Caucasus. Vol.1. Oxford University Press: London, 1941. 12p.

,,The Caucasian Exploration: British Scholars Historical Review of the Caucasian. . .

405

Caucasian Culture, Anau Transcaspia, Sumerian and Indus civilizations,1 considerably


must be taken in an account, especially, in case of cultural influence towards to Transcaspian Region. Allen stressed an issue of Minoan Thalassocracy in the Black Sea basin and presumed that an advanced Bronze Age Culture flourished in the valley of the
Kuban, as well as, in the Transcaucasia valleys.2He briefly mentioned on Greek colonial
expansion round the shores of the Black Sea and for that case, had applied on a typical
terminology for his period, towards to Greek expansion- the Colonial Empire. The
significant part of the historical assay focused on the issues of Russian political interests in Caucasus, who had submitted the claims on this region; The Russian State established its control over the region and the chief instrument in this Russian advance from
the region of the Upper Don and Middle Volga to the Caspian Sea and the Caucasus,
and in the west down the Dnepr to the Black Sea, were the Cossacks- Allen considers
in his statement.3
In the next portion of ethnological exploration Allen had described population of
Caucasus and started his listing with the Cherkess, or Circassians. Allen supposed that
this people was one of the ancient inhibitions of the region, who had influenced some
parts of the Ukraine, as Cherkess place-names are found there; also, they remained as an
significant element in the population of the Crimea until the 18th century. They occupied most of the north-western Caucasus and the basin of the Kuban until the Russian
conquest in the middle of the nineteenth century. As slaves and soldiers the Cherkess
were celebrated in the Byzantine and Islamic worlds, they presented in Mamluk Corps,
foreign legion which dominated Egypt until the time of Napoleon. Allen subsequently
speaks about the Ossets; the etiology of this term derives from the Ossetian self -name
Os, As or Iron. 4 They occupied the Central Caucasus on the both sides of the watershed. Allen had made an attentive remark regarding their origin: anthropologically
very mixed but speaking a language which is definitely Indo- European.
Georgians seemed to Allen to be a most numerous and at the same time most
civilized group in Transcaucasia. He divided Georgians in two groups of people; The
Western Georgians speaking a distinctive Megrelian dialect of Georgian and generally,
described as a Svano-Colchian group.5Eastern Georgians-Kartlians and Meskhians represent an early movement into the Kura valley from the Asia Minor. He dates this intru1

W. E. D. Allen, History of Georgian People, with an introduction by Sir Denison Ross. London: Ke-

gan Paul, 1932.


2

On-line version http://www.circassianworld.com/pdf/The_Caucasian_Borderland.pdf. 2.


http://www.circassianworld.com/pdf/The_Caucasian_Borderland.pdf,3..
3
Op .cit 4.
4
On-line version http://www.circassianworld.com/pdf/The_Caucasian_Borderland.pdf, 2p. in

http://www.circassianworld.com/pdf/The_Caucasian_Borderland.pdf. 5. fn. 2.
5
William E. Allen, The Caucasian Borderland. On-line version
http://www.circassianworld.com/pdf/The_Caucasian_Borderland.pdf. 6p.

406

E. Avaliani

sion by VII-V cc. BC. While compartmentalizes Georgian ethnonyms with place-names
in Pontus and Cappadocia, Allen supposed that the Kartlo-Meskhian group once had
occupied much wider area and was spread in the Asia Minor regions. Allen seems to
be well acquainted with researches of his contemporary Georgian scholars, A. Gugushvili and A. Javakhishvili and referred to those authors in his research. Allen evolved
and agreed with the theoretical speculation that, which the biblical Tubal and Meshech,
and Classical Meskhoi and Tiberenoi, could be identified with the Meskhians and Iberians of Mediaeval Georgia.
Armenians, the oldest Indo-European population of the Caucasian region, represented later intrusions into the Asia Minor-according to Allen, which can be correlated
and compartmentalized with the movement of the Meskhins and Iberians into Kura valley.1
The Kurds, according to Allens perception, could have some ties with Georgians; for drawing analogies between the names of these two peoples, he had confirmed
an author from Classical Period, and was referring to Xenophons quotation, who mentions the tribe Karduhkoi in Caucasian area. Allen considered that these two people had
the same origins and freely made connection between the name Kurds and Georgian
nominal root Kart; but consequently, he assumed that the Kurds are of course a very
mixed people.2
The next classified group by Allen is Turks of Azerbaijan. The Turkish of Azerbaijan is similar to the harder Jagatai Turkish of Central Asia and contains many Persian
words and idioms. He clarified that the original population of Eastern Transcaucasia
were called Albanians and he supposed that they were akin to East Georgians (Iberians).
In his observation Allen stresses an anthropological problem as well: physically there
are no very marked differences between the various peoples of the Asia Minor and the
Caucasus. On this quotation Allen relied on A. Javakhishviliss work The Caucasian
Race (this article was published in the first volume of the journal Georgica). The Anthropological type, who inhabited in that wide area, was called Armenoid, or Alpine,
but in modern scientific literature we gave preference to the widely established term,
that is Caucasian.
Allens contemplation regarding the issue of racial and linguistic theory appears
to be original and outstanding in terms of its unusual scholarly approach: he assumes
that languages cant be the main criterion of the race. There are no connections between
the ethnicity of people and the languages they have used to speak. The Anatolian peasants like their neighbours across the Caucasian border, spoke various languages from
the ancient times till now, Greek, Armenian or some Asiatic languages, but they had
watched armies and empires and systems come and go.3 He concludes that no racial
1
2
3

Ibid.
Ibid.
Op. cit 7.

,,The Caucasian Exploration: British Scholars Historical Review of the Caucasian. . .

407

differences exist and how inane and vain are political policies based on linguistic or
somatic differentiations1.
The remaining parts of the presentation are descriptive; Allen focused on the history of the region: for more than two thousand years the Caucasus had been a focal
point of world straggle. Ancient, mediaeval, and modern armies have swept around
these mountains, fighting for control of the lowlands to the North, the fertile Transcaucasian valleys to the South, and the strategic routs across the mountains and along their
flanks. The feedbacks of these invasions are evident in terms of cultural influences;
Arabic has remained the classical language of Eastern Transcaucasia, in the mountain
auls of Dagestan there are to be found many learned Arabists, and Arabic rather than
Turkish remains the basis of orthodox Islam in the Eastern Caucasus. At the same time
as the Persian literary tradition had deep influences on Georgian literature; Georgian
poets, Shota Rustaveli and Sargis Tmogveli, both had been under the influence of Persian poetry.2 At the end of his At the presentation Allen had briefly stressed an important problem for his contemporary times that, which was a British oil interest in Caucasus. Allen travelled widely on his own initiative and visited Baku. He had mentioned
that Baku, with its mixed population of all the nationalities of the Soviet Union, is the
third industrial centre of Russia. William Edward Allen was one of the best informed
Englishmen about conditions in the Caucasus at his time. His knowledge was extracted
from his own experience and his conduct revealed good knowledge of the Caucasian
problems at that time. His presentation The Caucasian Borderland entertained for the
British public was an interesting observation of the distant lands of Caucasus, meanwhile, the insertions with historical portions required to be more crosschecked, because
Allen makes inaccuracies while dealing with ancient historical sources and wilfully interprets them. To summarize, Allens scholarly studies reveal great intelligence and his
works remain considerable foreign sources for studying historiography of the modern
Caucasiology.

Ibid.
William E. Allen, The Caucasian Borderland. On-line version
http://www.circassianworld.com/pdf/The_Caucasian_Borderland.pdf. 8p. fn. 1.

408

E. Avaliani

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kavkasiologiuri Ziebani CAUCASIOLOGIC PAPERS


II

2010

n. axvlediani (baTumi)
kerZo koleqciaSi daculi ramdenime osmaluri
dokumenturi wyaro
saqarTveloSi gvarsaxeli didi socialuri erTeulis, ramdenime aTeuli da xSirad aseuli ojaxis saxelwodebaa. ojaxebisa
da gvarebis warmoSobis kvleva sruliadac ar gulisxmobs viwro,
SezRudul klasobriv (wodebriv) midgomas, mxolod privilegirebulTa, aristokratTa gvarCamomavlobis kvlevas. yovel konkretul SemTxvevaSi genealogiuri kvleva SesaZloa uaRresad sayuradRebo Sedegebis momtani iyos nebismieri warmoSobisa da wodebrivi kuTvnilebis istoriuli piris an pirTa jgufis dasaxasiaTeblad, maTi saqmianobis, qcevis, Semoqmedebis gasaazreblad, calkeuli faqtebisa da movlenebis gasagebad.
am bolo dros Cveni sakvlevi Temaa erTi gvaris istoria,
romelic araerT samecniero konferenciaze gaxda msjelobis sagani. gansakuTrebuli interesi gamoiwvia maxinjaurSi mcxovrebi axvledianebis istoriam. moviZieT saTanado samecniero literatura,
miviReT gvaris uxucesi warmomadgenlebisgan (aziz axvlediani,
niaz axvlediani) konsultaciebi, amasTanave xelT gvaqvs kerZo
koleqciaSi daculi osmaluri dokumenturi wyaroebi, romelic
inaxeboda baTumis universitetis slavistikis departamentis asocirebuli profesoris, filologiis mecnierebaTa kandidatis,
maxinjauris mkvidris, merab axvledianis saojaxo arqivSi da romlebsac ukve 100 welze meti xnis istoria aqvs.
Turqebis batonobis dros aWaraSi TiTqmis yvela mcxovrebi
Rebulobda Turquli oRli _ SviliT
gaformebul gvars.
ZirZvel qarTul gvarebs Turqebi maTTvis gasageb enaze Targmnidnen iseve, rogorc qarTul toponimebs: ase, magaliTad, qarTuli
toponimi wyavnari koncxi Turqebma Targmnes rogorc karaiemiS
buruni (karaiemiS wyavi, buruni koncxi), xolo rusebis Semosvlis Semdeg igive toponimi iTargmna ukve rusul enaze:
(mwvane koncxi). iSviaTi ar yofila qarTuli gvarebis Tur-

410

n. axvlediani

qulad Targmnac, ase, magaliTad: doxCiroRli jafariZe, CeleboRli CijavaZe, sambaSoRli lorTqifaniZe, yadioRlibolqvaZe,
kirisiloRli axvlediani ...
1850 wlis guriis Tavad-aznaurTa sia sruli araa, srulad
ar warmoadgens yofili guriis samTavros privilegirebuli wodebebis Semadgenlobas, jer erTi, imitom, rom wodebebSi damtkiceba
grZeldeboda 1850 wlis Semdegac, TviT 1917 wlis Tebervlis revoluciamde; meorec, masSi ar Sesula 1878 wlamde TurqeTis sazRvrebSi myofi qvemo guriis Tavadaznauroba. TurqeTSi e. w. TanzimaTis reformis periodSi (1839 w., me-19 s-is 40-70-iani wlebi) TurqeTis mTavrobam dapyrobil qarTul mxareebSi gaauqma Zveli qarTuli miwis mflobeloba, stambulSi gaiTxova qarTvel TavadaznaurTa sagvareulo dokumentebi da ukan aRar daubrunebia. miuxedavad amisa, ZiriTadad d. baqraZis Ziebis Sedegad (amas emateba
ramdenime sxva saarqivo masala), SesaZlebelia dadgindes qvemo
guriis TavadaznaurTa nawilis gvarebi. Caqvis TemSi, magaliTad,
dasaxelebulia: beJaniSvili (pirmsaxuriZe), kirisiloRli (axvlediani), CijavaZe (CelebaRisSvili)... aq Cven warmovadgenT kirisiloRlis (axvledianebis) miwis mflobelobis sabuTebs, romelzec
araerTxel iyo saubari da romelic TiTqos dakargulad iTvleboda. agreTve xelT gvaqvs 1849 wels gacemuli vercxlis medali,
romelic am gvaris warmomadgenlebs ekuTvnoda.
konstantinopolSi 1849 wels gacemuli vercxlis medali (mamacobisTvis)
maxinjaurel axvledianTa (kirisiloRli) miwis mflobelobis sagvareulo sabuTebi, romlebic TariRdeba me-19 saukunis Sua
xanebiT da dadasturebulia ruseTis imperatoris mier 1879 wliT.
teqstis erTi gverdi Sedgenilia Zv. Oosmalur enaze, meore _ rusul enaze da damowmebulia ruseTis imperatoris orTaviani arwivis gerbiT.

kavkasiologiuri Ziebani CAUCASIOLOGIC PAPERS


II

2010

. ()
,

,
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,

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- 1877-1878 .
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1944, 221-223).
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(30-70 . XIX )

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1879 .

412

N. Akhvlediani (Batumi)

Some Ottoman Documental Sources Preserved in Private Collection


Summary
In Georgia names and surnames are the titles of large social units, several tens or
even hundreds of families who relate their origin to one person, possess common
self-consciousness on relations and belong to one name. The paper analyses the political history of 1877-1878 Russian-Turkish war and its impact on Georgia, namely
oppressive policy of Turkey and Russia in Ajara. I also provide the hitherto unknown documents of one name living in this region. During the so called Tanzimat
reform in Turkey (1840-70s) the Turkish government abolished the Georgian land
ownership on Georgian territories, sent the family documentations of the nobility to
Istanbul and never brought them back.
Russia also carried out the similar policy. It was trying to withdraw the local
population from the coastline and settle the population from Russian gubernias
there.
As regard the Ottoman documental source at hand that has already been kept
at the private collection for a century to a certain extend corresponds to the documents preserved at the central State Archive of Georgia.

kavkasiologiuri Ziebani CAUCASIOLOGIC PAPERS


II

2010

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1892 . ., // .
, 1892.

kavkasiologiuri Ziebani CAUCASIOLOGIC PAPERS


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2010

m. barazbievi (nalCiki)
yaraCaeli, balyareli da qarTveli
aristokratebis keTilmezobluri urTierTobebi
reziume
statiaSi ganxilulia yaraCauli, balyaruli da qarTuli
aristokratiuli
wris
warmomadgenelTa
keTilmezobluri
urTierTobebi. didi yuradReba eTmoba yaraCael
da balyaruli
aristokratiis rols sxvadasxva qarTuli samefos rusul
saxelmwifosTan
politikuri
kontaqtebis
sakiTxSi.
kvlevis
ZiriTad
aspeqts
warmoadgens
yaraCaeli
da
balyareli
aristokratebis svaneTis Tavaduri gvarebis warmomadgenlebTan
urTierTobis Seswavla.
kvlevis Sedegad avtori askvnis, rom yaraCaeli, balyareli
da qarTveli aristokratebis keTilmezoblurma urTierTobebma
dadebiTi roli Seasrules ara mxolod sakuTriv maTTvis, aramed
am xalxTa sxva fenebis warmomamdgenlebisaTvisac.

M. Barazbiev (Nalchik)

Good-Neighboring Interrelations of
the Qarachay-Balqarian and Georgian Aristocracy
Summary
The paper discusses a good-neighboring interrelation of the members of Karachay-Balkarian and Georgian aristocracy. Great attention is focused on the role of Karachay-Balkarian aristocracy in political contacts of different Georgian kingdoms with
Russian state. The basis aspects of research are to study the interrelation of KarachayBalkarian aristocrats with the members of princely generation of neighbor Svaneti. As a
result of studying I came to the conclusion that good-neighboring interrelations of Karachay-Balkarian and Georgian aristocrats have positive importance not only for them but
for the members of other estates of these peoples.

kavkasiologiuri Ziebani CAUCASIOLOGIC PAPERS


II

2010

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.
... 1980 . (1918-1978). .
, . -2, .1, .738.
, . -8, 1, . 199.
, . 19, .1, .21.
, . 7, . 1, . 385.

kavkasiologiuri Ziebani CAUCASIOLOGIC PAPERS


II

2010

l. guketlova (nalCiki)
genderuli Tanasworobis problema sabWoTa
modernizaciis wlebSi (yabardo-balyareTis magaliTze)
reziume
statiaSi gadmocemulia bolSevikebis roli qalTa ekonomikur ganTavisuflebaSi, rogorc sabWoTa xelisuflebis emansipaciuri politikis mniSvnelovani mimarTuleba. jer kidev pirveli feministebi qalTa statusis amaRlebas sazogadoebaSi mWidrod
ukavSirebdnen profesionalur sferoSi maTi unarebis realizacias. sabWoTa sazogadoebis industrializacia da militarizacia,
ra poziciidanac ar unda SevafasoT, obieqturad moiTxovda qalis CarTulobas sawarmoo saqmianobaSi da amiT xels uwyobda
qalTa emansipacias.
avtoris mosazrebiT, aman moitana mosalodneli Sedegebi da
qalTa aqtiurma monawileobam mniSvnelovnad uzrunvelyo ekonomikuri da socialuri politikis warmatebebi, kerZod, sabWoTa xelisuflebam mokle droSi uzrunvelyo masobrivi uwignurobis
daZleva da ganaxorciela farTo masStabiani industrializacia.
naSromSi xazgasmulia, rom amis Sedegad qalma miiRo ekonimikuri
damoukidebloba mamakacisagan, rac aris qalTa emansipaciis umTavresi piroba.

L. Guketlova ( Nalchik)
Problem of Gender Equality in the Years of Soviet Modernization
(on the Qabardo-Balqarian material)
Summary
The paper deals with the analysis of activities of Bolsheviks in economic emancipating of women as a basic direction of emancipating policy of soviet power. Even
the first feminists connected with the problem of arising a womans status in a society
with the possible realization of her ability in professional sphere . Industrialization and
military of the society from what standpoint I can evaluate them objectively it needed
ine woman an efficient labor and promoted the same emancipation of a woman. It
should be said that this resulted expected outcomes and active participating of a woman
in success of economic and social policy.

kavkasiologiuri Ziebani CAUCASIOLOGIC PAPERS


II

2010

s. zedelaSvili (Tbilisi)
adaTobrivi samarTali kavkasiel mTiel xalxTa
konsolidaciaSi (XIX s.)
kavkasia uZvelesi droidan dasaxlebuli iyo sxvadasxva
erovnebis xalxiT. qarTul saxelmwifos odiTganve hqonda
keTilmezobluri
urTierToba
kavkasiis
mTis
xalxebTan,
saqarTveloSi mcxovreb sxvadasxva erovnebis warmomadgenlebs ki
erTiani saxelmwifoebrivi Segneba gaaCndaT.
XI saukunis mematiane leonti mroveli Tavis TxzulebaSi
`cxovreba qarTvelTa mefeTa~ aRniSnavda, rom I saukunis 70-ian
wlebSi sxvadasxva Crdilokavkasiurma eTnosebma da jiqebma
qarTvelTa xelmZRvanelobiT miiRes monawileoba brZolebSi.
rogorc
xedavT,
uZveles
periodSi
ikveTeboda
tendencia
qarTvelTa da mTiel xalxTa konsolidaciisa. ufro gamokveTili
iyo es urTierTobebi mosazRvre xalxebTan.
kavkasielTa erTianobaze saubrobdnen ara marto leonti
mroveli, aramed XX saukunis udidesi mecnierebi. istorikosma iv.
javaxiSvilma kapitalur monografiaSi `qarTuli da kavkasiuri
enebis Tavdapirveli buneba da naTesaoba~ (javaxiSvili 1937) da
enaTmecnierma a. Ciqobavam monografiaSi _ `iberiul-kavkasiur
enaTa Seswavlis istoria~ (Ciqobava 2008) daasabuTes qarTveluri
da kavkasiuri enebis naTesaoba. naTesaoba ki safuZvelia,
motivaciaa am xalxebSi konsolidaciis ganwyobis stimulisTvis.
kavkasielTa
konsolidaciaSi
did
rols
TamaSobda
sazogadoebriv-adaTobrivi institutebi, romlebic moqmedebdnen
saqarTvelos mTasa da Crdilo kavkasiiis eTnosebSi, agreTve
qristianuli religia, romelmac saqarTvelodan gavrceleba hpova
Crdilo kavkasiaSi. jer kidev me-7 saukuneSi man Seasrula am
eTnosebis gamaerTianebeli faqtoris roli. swored im dros
konstantinopolSi
gamarTuli
msoflio
saeklesio
krebis
gadawyvetilebiT jiqeTis eparqia mcxeTis sakaTilokosos daqvemdebarebaSi moeqca (javaxiSvili 2005, 12).
saqarTvelo,
rogorc
kavkasiis
kulturuli
centri,
asrulebda gamaerTianebel funqcias. XII-XIII saukuneebSi yubanidan

430

s. zedelaSvili

moyolebuli
daRestnis
CaTvliT
vrceldeboda
qarTuli
damwerloba, ena, kultura da marTlmadidebluri qristianoba.
( 2002, 43)
kavkasionze
arsebuli
gadasasvlelebiT:
darialis xeobiT, dvaleTis gzebiT, qluxoris, mamisonis, maruxis
da sxva uReltexilebiT saqarTvelos mosaxleoba ukavSirdeboda
Crdilo kavkasiaSi jiqebs, alanebs, durZukebs da daRestnelebs
(javaxiSvili 2005, 19)
kavkasiaSi
imperiaTa
dampyroblurma
politikam,
gansakuTrebiT
osmaleTisa
da
Semdgom
ruseTis
imperiis
marwuxebma umZimesi politikuri ryevebi moutana kavkasias. isini
`warmatebiT~ axerxebdnen kavkasielTa integraciis ganeitralebas,
Tumca sazogadoebriv-adaTobrivi marTvis institutebi amaSi xels
uSlidnen dampyroblebs.
adaTobriv-samarTlebrivi
institutebi
kavkasiis
mTis
sazogadoebis
yvela
fenisaTvis
gansazRvravda
uflebamovaleobebs, moqmedebisa da arsebobis wesebs. qonebis dacvis
instituti, administraciul-samarTlebrivi da sisxlis aRebis
institutebi, pirovnebis dacvisa da sazogadoebis zneobrivi
institutebi
sazogadoebisaTvis
iyo
gankuTvnili
da
maT
demokratiulobis niSnebi gaaCndaT; upiratesobas aniWebda adamians
da adaTobriv-samarTlebrivi normebiT icavda mas. adaTebis
demokratiuloba mdgomareobda imaSi, rom igi yvela fenis
interesebs emsaxureboda.
kavkasiis mTis sazogadoebebma demokratiulobas, pirovnebis
dacvis saxiT, gacilebiT adre miaRwies, vidre Tanamedrove
demokratiulma sazogadoebebma.
kavkasiis mTianeTma XVIII-XIX saukuneebSi ganicada Rrma
krizisi (kviciani 2007, 15), ramac gamoiwvia am regionSi ruseTis
damkvidreba,
Tumca
rusulma
koloniurma
teritoriuladministraciulma reformebma ver mospo Crdilo kavkasielTa
demokratiuli adaTobrivi institutebi. adaTobrivi samarTali
aseve did rols TamaSobda kavkasielTa urTierTndobisa da
mSvidobianobis damkvidrebaSi. adaTobrivma samarTalma Seqmna
iseTi sistema, romelmac SesaZlebeli gaxada moegvarebina
mTielTa Soris arsebuli sadavo sakiTxebi. adaTebma Seqmnes
erTiani sulieri, kulturul-fsiqologiuri sivrce ( 2009).
kavkasielTa konsolidaciis mTavar faseulobebs adaTobrivi
samarTaliT
warmoadgenda
ori
ZiriTadi
komponenti:
individualizmi
(adamiani,
rogorc
uzenaesi
faseuloba);
universalizmi (adamianis uflebebi) (kviciani 2007, 15). aRniSnuli
komponentebi
miuTiTebda
mTis
kavkasielebSi
agraruli

adaTobrivi samarTali kavkasiel mTiel xalxTa konsolidaciaSi (XIXs.)

431

civilizaciisa da pirovnebis dacvis demokratiuli institutebis


arsebobas, rac TviTmyofadi kavkasiuri civilizaciis qvakuTxeds
qmnida.
pirovnebis dacvis instituti mTiel xalxebSi adaTebiT
dadgenil kanonebsa da normebs emyareboda. miuxedavad imisa, rom
adaTebis sazogadoebrivi marTvis institutebi ar aTanabrebdnen
adamianebs, cnobdnen umcros-ufrosobas da patronaJs, mainc
nebismieri kategoriis warmomadgeneli samarTlebrivad daculi
iyo.
rogor
SeiZleboda
pirovnebis
dacva,
rodesac
mTis
sazogadoebaSi arsebobda socialuri araerTgvarovneba? patroni
xom Tavisi sakuTrebis _ masze ufro dabali kategoriebis _
upirobo mflobeli iyo da eqspluataciis farTo speqtrs
warmoadgenda?
magram
eqspluatacia
garkveul
adaTobriv
samarTlebriv farglebSi imarTeboda da sazogadoebis fenaTa
urTierTobani civilizebul, demokratiul CarCoebSi jdeboda.
sazogadoebebis
fenaTa
urTierTobebSi
pirovnebis
dacvis
instituti awesebda yvela fenaSi sazogadoebrivi urTierTobis
normas da icavda mas yovelgvari xelyofisagan es TiTqmis yvela
mTiel xalxSi vrceldeboda da maTi konsolidaciis erT-erT
mTavar qvakuTxeds warmoadgenda.
Crdilo-kavkasiur
sazogadoebaSi
mniSvnelovani
adgili
dabal, mwarmoebel fenas ekava, romlebzedac dafuZnebuli iyo
Crdilo-kavkasiuri
sazogadoebis
arseboba.
magaliTisaTvis,
adiReur da yabardoul sazogadoebaSi dabalTa sami kategoria
gamoiyofoda: Tavisufal azatTa, damoukidebel glexTa da monaTa
fena (zedelaSvili 2005, 36). miuxedavad imisa, rom sazogadoebrivi
marTvis institutebi aRiarebdnen patronTa uzenaesobas, dacvis
institutis meqanizmi icavda dabali fenis pirovnebaTa arsebobisa
da moRvaweobis uflebas. adaTebiT isinic sazogadoebis iseTive
srulfasovan wevrebad iyvnen miCneuli, rogorc zeda fenaTa sxva
kategoriebi. swored amaSi Cans am institutis demokratiuloba.
igi aRiarebs wodebriv da qonebriv principebs da mqonelebTa
upiratesobas; amave dros, icavs uqonelTa interesebsac.
mZime iyo yvelaze dabalTa, uqonloTa mdgomareoba. adaTebi
rTavdnen
mflobels
nebas,
moqceodnen
maT
Tavisi
Sexedulebisamebr.
miuxedavad
imisa,
rom
aRniSnuli
fena
eqspluatacias ganicdida, dacvis adaTobrivi institutebi icavda
maT pirovnuli ganadgurebisagan da aiZulebda mflobels,
moqceoda ara rogor pirutyvs, aramed rogorc adamians. yabardoSi
fSitlebi, loganaputebi, ogebi da unautebi mebatoneze iyvnen

432

s. zedelaSvili

damokidebulni, Tumca maT gaaCndaT TavianTi mcire meurneobac,


romelic adaTebiT iyo daculi (zedelaSvili 2005, 37)
pirovnebis dacvis instituti adaTobrivi sazogadoebrivi
marTvis institutebis demokratiul kategorias miekuTvneboda.
kavkasiel mTielTa konsolidaciaSi didi roli iTamaSes
zneobis adaTobrivma institutebma, romlis erT-erT mimarTulebas
stumar-maspinZloba warmoadgenda. erTi sazogadoebisa da eTnosis
stumari misaRebi iyo meore sazogadoebisa da eTnosisaTvis, rac
kavkasiel mTielTa konsolidaciis saukeTeso gamovlinebas warmoadgenda da qmnida kavkasiur mentalobas.
adaTobrivi normebidan stumarTmoyvareoba zneobrivi urTierTobebis mwvervali iyo. mteric ki, Tu is zRurbls gadmoabijebda, ojaxis sapatio wevrad miiCneoda. kavkasiis mTielebma
Seqmnes stumarTmoyvareobis adaTobriv-samarTlebrivi muxlebi da
dades saxelmZRvanelod, rasac daefuZna maTi qmedeba da damokidebuleba maTTan mosuli ucxo adamianebisadmi. pativiscema ucxo
stumrisadmi kavkasielebs genebSi hqondaT gamjdari. magaliTad,
maspinZels pativiT unda mieRo stumari, Tan SeeZlo daesaCuqrebina
cxeniT, ZroxiT da sxvadasxva nivTebiT (zedelaSvili 2005, 40).
kavkasiis mTielTa konsolidacia ganpirobebuli iyo imiT,
rom isini erTi saerTo mTis kanonebiT _ adaTobrivi samarTliT
moqmedebdnen.
XIX saukuneSi, gansakuTrebiT kavkasiuri omis Semdeg ruseTma
mTeli kavkasia erT politikur sivrceSi moaqcia, riTac, Tavis
mxriv, ufro unda ganmtkicebuliyo sxvadasxva eTnikuri jgufebis
konsolidacia; Tumca moxda piriqiT xelisufalTa azriT,
mTielTa saarsebo sazRvrebi dros aRar Seesatyviseboda da unda
gadaesinja miwaTsargeblobis fondi, moexdina miwebis Tavisi interesisamebr gadanawileba. mTielTa teritoriuli sazRvrebi jer
kidev 1830-50-ian wlebSi Secvales ( 1995, 11)
60-iani wlebis agraruli da sabatono reformebi mTielTa gamoTavisuflebuli miwebiT xelisuflebam umeteswilad daajildova kazakTa jarebis oficrebi da generlebi. magaliTad, oficrebs
ergoT nadelebi 200-dan 400 desetinamde, generlebs ki _ 1500 desetina memkvidreobiT ( 1986, 176)
rac Seexeba administraciul reformebs, ruseTma daasrula
Crdilo kavkasiis administraciuli mowyobis reforma, airia ara
marto sazRvrebi da Crdilo kavkasielTa teritoriuli kuTvnileba, aramed regionis eTnikuri Semadgenlobac, riTac adgilobrivTa
socialuri yofa-cxovreba ruseTis imperiis mier damyarebuli wesrigis mixedviT Seicvala.

adaTobrivi samarTali kavkasiel mTiel xalxTa konsolidaciaSi (XIXs.)

433

zemoT CamoTvlili RonisZiebebiT ruseTma Searyia kavkasiis


mTiel xalxTa konsolidacia, Tumca adaTobrivi samarTlis da
tradiciuli institutebis SemorCenam mTlianad ver mospo igi.

literatura
zedelaSvili 2005 _ s. zedelaSvili, sazogadoebrivi marTvis
institutebi, ruseTis mier teritoriuli-administraciuli
mmarTvelobis damyareba Crdilo kavkasiaSi XIX saukunis 6070 ian wlebSi. Tbilisi.
kviciani 2007 _ j. kviciani, kavkasiis civilizacia postsabWour istoriografiaSi. Tbilisi.
javaxiSvili 1937 _ iv. javaxiSvili, qarTuli da kavkasiuri
enebis Tavdapirveli buneba da naTesaoba. Tbilisi
javaxiSvili 2005 _ n. javaxiSvili, narkvevebi qarTveli da
adiRe li xalxebis urTierTobis istoriidan. Tbilisi.
Ciqobava 2008 _ a. Ciqobava, iberiul-kavkasiur enaTa Seswavlis
istoria. Tbilisi.
2002 - . , ( ). .
2009 - . , XVII-
XIX . . .
1986 - . , . .
.
1995 - . . ,
. .

kavkasiologiuri Ziebani CAUCASIOLOGIC PAPERS


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2010

. ()


.

,
.
XI
, 70- I
.
,
,
.
.
. (.
, 1937) . . (.
, 2008)
. , ,
- .
-
,
. VII
.

( 2005, 12).
,
. XII-XIII ., ,
, ( ),
. , , , ,

,
, , .
,
,

. . .

435

. ,
- .
- ,
. -
,
, - .
,
.
,
.
XVIII-XIX .
( 2007, 15), ,
-
.

. ,
, .
, -
( 2009).
,
: (
) ( 2007, 15).

,
.

, . ,
,
,
.
,
?
,
.
-
, .

,
.

, . ,

436

: (),
( 2005, 36). ,
,
.
, ,
.
. , .
.

. , ,

, . , ,
,
, ( 2005, 37).

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,
.

. , ,
. -
,
.
. ,
, ,
( 2005,40).

.
XIX , ,
,
, ,
. . , ,
,
,
.
1830-1850 . ( 1995, 11).
60-

. . .

437

. , ,
200 400 , 1500 ( 1986, 176).
,
,
,
,
, .

, .

2002 _ . , ( ). .
2009 _ . , XVII-
I . . .
1986 _ . , , .
.
1937 _ . ,
. ( . .).
2005 _ . ,
. ( . .).
2005 _ . ,

-
60-70 . XIX . ( . .).
1995 _ . ,
. .
2007 _ . ,
. ( . .).
2008 _ . . ,
. ( . .).

438

S. Zedelashvili (Tbilisi)
Adat Law in the Consolidation of Caucasus Mountain Peoples
Summary
Historical and up-to-date aspects of state of language in the North Caucasus are
considered in this report. Problems of Caucasus language diversity, and necessity of its
protection are revealed. An attempt is given to determine vital capacity and threats level for these languages according to the actual state of language. Main stroke of state of
language in the North Caucasus are revealed as the part of common language politics of
Russian Federation. According to this politics, beginning with 80s of the 20th century
education at native language has been stopped in the region. By means of new language
politics the rights of Russian language as of state (national) language has been strengthened in the Russian Federation. Unilateral bilingualism has been established. The destiny of national languages should be shaped by Republics themselves. Thats why we
suppose that estimation component should play decisive role in the adjustment of state
of language.
According to new statistical data used in the report, the significance of estimation
components in the issue of minority languages vital capacity is analyzed. Mismatch
between juridical and actual areas of national languages functioning is revealed.
An attempt of determination of level of current threats faced national languages
vital capacity is given in the report. The issue of continuity of language delivery from
one generation to another is considered on the basis of statistical data. Languages facing visible threat are revealed.
Vital capacity and threats for North Caucasus languages are determined by criteria, determination of which according to statistical data is not sufficient for estimation of
languages state. Only by coordination of all criteria will be possible to determine vital
capacity of these languages and areas of languages functioning.
Measures to be carried out for preservation of these languages vital capacity are
shown in the report and decisive role of estimation moment is revealed, as well.

kavkasiologiuri Ziebani CAUCASIOLOGIC PAPERS


II

2010

j. kviciani (Tbilisi)
memkvidreobiTobis problema kavkasiur civilizaciaSi
civilizaciuri paradigma, romelic bolo wlebSi popularuli gaxda, gvexmareba axleburad mivudgeT aramxolod Cveni regionis, aramed zogadad msoflios istoriuli procesebis analizsac. istoriis marqsistuli formaciuli xedvisagan gansxvavebiT,
sadac materialuri warmoebis procesia mTavari da romelic sazogadoebis socialur da sulier cxovrebas gansazRvravs, m. veberis mixedviT, piriqiT, ekonomikuri cxovrebis wesi yalibdeba da
myardeba kulturis sabaziso faseulobebze damokidebulebiT.
amgvari ideebis SemuSavebam gvaCvena, rom formaciuli Teoria, romlis safuZvels sazogadoebis ganviTarebis progresis idea
warmoadgens, am progress xedavs sazogadoebriv-ekonomikuri formaciis kanonzomier cvlaSi (pirvelyofili Temuri, monaTmflobeluri, feodaluri, burJuaziuli, komunisturi). es Teoria Seesabameboda dasavleT Eevropis ,,teqnogenuri sazogadoebis ganviTarebis istoriasa da tendencias.
civilizaciur Teorias ki axasiaTebs ,,sazogadoebis mTliani sistemuri xedva misi kulturis gansakuTrebulobiT, misi sabaziso faseulobebiT, socialuri urTierTobebiTa da institutebiT, bunebasTan damokidebulebis wesiT, pirovnebaTa tipebiTa da
maTi cxovrebiT, romlebic iqmneba civilizaciis arsebobis procesSi (stepini 2006, 17).
amrigad,
is saSualebas gvaZlevs uari vTqvaT msoflios
erTzomier formaciul suraTze da gaviTvaliswinoT qveynebisa da
regionebis, maT Soris kavkasiis xalxebis ganviTarebis gzis ganumeorebloba.
kulturaTa dialogs saerTo-sakacobrio civilizaciis erTian sistemaSi, sadac lokaluri (regionuli), maT Soris kavkasiuri civilizacia amgvari faseulobebis struqturul erTeulad
iTvleba, intensiuri xasiaTi aqvs. kavkasia iswrafvis, aqtiurad
miiRos monawileoba evraziul saintegracio procesebSi, magram,
samwuxarod aSkaraa, rom amgvari Zalisxmeva naklebefeqturia.
SemTxveviTi araa, rom axlaxans, gaeros generaluri asambleis 65-e
sesiaze, saqarTvelos prezidentma m. saakaSvilma kavkasiis xalxebs
regionis erTiani kulturuli da ekonomikuri sivrcis Seqmnisaken

440

j. kviciani

mouwoda. iqve iyo aRniSnuli, rom xalxTa gaucxoeba da konfliqtebi ewinaaRmdegeba kavkasiis ganviTarebis tradiciul, bunebriv
gzas. marTlacda, agraruli civilizaciis istoriis retrospeqtuli xedva gviCvenebs, rom me-11, me-12 saukuneebis daviT aRmaSeneblisa da Tamar mefis droindeli qarTul-kavkasiuri kavSiri
kavkasiis damoukidebeli xalxebis politikur, ekonomikur da
kulturul solidarul erTobas qmnida. aSkaraa, rom qarTulkavkasiuri renesansis ideologiur bazad kavkasiuri agraruli civilizacia gamodioda, romelic sistemur, TviTwarmoebul xasiaTs
atarebda. is efuZneboda kavkasieli xalxebis msgavs tradiciul
kulturas, romelic erTmaneTTan Tanacxovrebis xangrZliv istoriul procesSi warmoiqmna. kavkasiis xalxebis etikets, komunikaciur kulturas da eTnolingvistur naTesaobas, romelic tradiciuli kulturis sabazo faseulobebad iTvleba, dResac SeuZliaT gaagrZelon memkvidreoba da uzrunvelyon am xalxebis istoriuli mexsiereba transformaciis gzaze tradiciulidan (agrarulidan) Tanamedrove (industriuli, postindustriuli) civilizaciisaken.
amasTan, mxedvelobaSi unda gvqondes, rom Sua saukuneebSi
(XI-XII s.s) kavkasiurma civilizaciam, miaRwia ra Tavis ayvavebas, me13 saukunis dasawyisSi krizisi ganicada. is moTxovnebi, romlebic
vezirma yuTlu-arslanma Tamars wauyena (mefis absoluturi xelisuflebis SezRudva da xalxis warmomadgenlobiTi organos karavis anu dRevandeli gagebiT, parlamentis Seqmna), agreTve qveyanaSi
arsebuli sxva wanamZRvrebi (kulturis sferoSi), faqtiurad niSnavda, rom qveyanaSi iqmneboda konstituciuri monarqia da burJuaziul-demokratiuli urTierTobebis formebis Canasaxi.
samwuxarod, im dros saqarTveloSi ver moxerxda iseTi
axali sociokulturuli sistemis Camoyalibeba, romelic xalxebs
Soris urTierTobaSi daefuZneboda ara vertikalur (feodalur),
aramed horizontalur (demokratiul) organizacias.
mefis ruseTis mier ganxorcielebuli kavkasiis modernizacia ar SeiZleboda warmatebuli yofiliyo ara mxolod imis gamo,
rom am procesSi carizmi adgilobriv specifikas ar iTvaliswinebda, aramed imitomac, rom carizmi Tavisi arasruli zomebiT,
roca adgilobrivi sazogadoebis feodalur safuZvels ar exeboda, ver ganaxorcielebda efeqtur teqnikur-teqnologiur evolucias.
amasTan cnobilia, rom TaobaTa memkvidreobis procesi arasodes ar wydeba. mkvlevari i. v. suxanovi xazs usvams, rom
,,adamianis warmoebuli TvisebaTa diferenciaciis procesisagan
gansxvavebiT, ideologiuri Tvisebebis sferoSi (e. i. rogorc mo-

memkvidreobiTobis problema kavkasiur civilizaciaSi

441

qalaqis filosofiuri Sexedulebebi, zneobrivi Tvalsazrisi,


Cveulebebi) mTeli istoriis manZilze integraciis procesebi mimdinareobda (suxanovi 1976, 41). amdenad laparakia ara tradiciebis
miyolaze, aramed im substanciuri Tvisebis ganviTarebaze, romelic erTdroulad uzrunvelyofda memkvidreobisa da cvlilebebis
legitimacias. amitom dRes Zalze mniSvnelovania konkretuli
xalxis sulieri kulturis istoriuli roli, misi tradiciebi da
adaTebi, rogorc socialuri meqanizmebi, TaobaTa sulier memkvidreobaSi, maTi moqmedebis sfero sazogadoebaSi.
postsabWoTa periodis kavkasiaSi, civilizaciis memkvidreobiTobis problemis SeswavlasTan dakavSirebiT, did SesaZleblobas gvaZlevs sistemaTa TviTorganizaciis Teoria, romelsac
,,sinergetikasac uwodeben xolme da romelic warmatebiT SeiZleba miuyeno bunebasa da socialur cxovrebas.
TviTorganizebis arsi qaosidan (anarqiidan) wesrigis warmoSobaa. wesrigi yalibdeba socialuri organizmebis SigniT TiTqosda damoukideblad, am sistemaSi ttrSedegad. politologi k. s.
gajievi samarTlianad aRniSnavs, rom ,,TviTorganizaciis fenomenis swori gagebisaTvis mTavari mniSvneloba aqvs stabilurobas,
wonasworobasa da mdgradobasTan erTad aRiaro arastabiluroba,
rogorc adamianTa sazogadoebis sxvadasxva formebis arsebobis
fundamenturi maxasiaTebeli. (gajievi 2010, 6).
aqedan gamomdinare, Cven gvesmis, rom araxazuri cvlilebebi,
sazogadoebis TviTorganizaciis procesebi transformaciis pirobebSi aanalizeben socialur realobas da misi ganviTarebis momavals.
Cven veTanxmebiT u. i. malineckis, romelic, imowmebs ra j.
foresters, r. medouzs, n. moiseevs, romis klubis moxsenebebs, aRniSnavs, rom ,,ar SeiZleba dagegmo ganviTareba winamorbedi traeqtoriis eqstrapolirebisas, radgan wonasworoba ukve Seuqcevadaa
darRveuli. axla mTavaria ara kursis koreqtireba, aramed imperatiuli azrovnebis principuli cvlileba (malinecki 1997, 107).
samwuxarod, kavkasiaSi (gansakuTrebiT Crdilokavkasiur
respublikebSi)
situacia
sazogadoebis
marTvis
sferoSi
transformaciis
orive
etapze
mJRavndeba
tradiciuli
da
totalitaruli
ideologiis
SejvarebaSi,
romelic
Tavis
gamovlenas
eTnikuri
etatizmis ideologiaSi poulobs.
es
ukanaskneli, x. g. Txagapsoevis azriT, politikur praqtikad
yalibdeba da warmogvidgeba rogorc daxuruli eTnooligarquli
sistema, romlis wiaRSi ibadeba socialuri yofisagan adamianis
gaucxoebis daxvewili formebi. misive sityvebis Tanaxmad, am
SemTxvevaSi ukve eTnoetatizmi gamodis, uwinares yovlisa,

442

j. kviciani

respublikebSi
dominirebuli
eTnoklanebis
politikuri
da
ekonomikuri interesebis lobirebis ideologiad, Tanac es
ideologia
gasaRebulia,
rogorc
specifikurad
erovnuli
(Txagafsoevi 2006, 163).
iseve
rogorc
CrdiloeT
kavkasiaSi,
samxreTSic,
gansakuTrebiT transformaciis pirvel etapze, saxelwifoebriv
CamoyalibebaSi uaryofiTi roli Seasrules araformalurma,
,,patrimonialurma struqturebma. es ukanaskneli, faqtobrivad
formalurs Serwymuli, xels uwyobs marTvis tradiciuli
meTodebis realizebas.
amasTan dakavSirebiT, vfiqrobT, rom saWiroa daveTanxmoT
g. nodias, romelic exeba eduard SevardnaZis mier Seqmnil
hibridul politikur sistemas da aRniSnavs, rom, marTalia, masSi
rCeboda samoqalaqo da politikuri Tavisuflebebis garkveuli
sivrce, magram, amasTan erTad, is TiTqmis ar qmnida pirobebs
namdvili politikuri monawileobisa da konkurenciisaTvis (nodia,
skolbaxi 2006, 17).
amasTan dakavSirebiT, transformaciis pirveli etapis bolos sazogadoebaSi disbalansi iqmneba. Tu aseTi mdgomareoba ar
icvleba da sazogadoebaSi wonasworoba ar aRdgeba, mas katastrofa emuqreba. swored aseTi situaciis Sedegia is, rom 2003
wlis noembris bolos saqarTveloSi ,,vardebis revolucia moxda.
rogorc saqarTveloSi, iseve ruseTis samxreTSi (erovnul
respublikebSi), azerbaijansa da somxeTSi transformaciis pirveli etapis SedegTa gamocdilebam aCvena, rom marTvis Zveli meTodebiT sistemuri transformaciis axali amocanebis gadawyveta
SeuZlebelia. maTi gadawyvetisa da rigi procesebis marTvisaTvis
unda gvaxsovdes, rom araxazobriv garemoSi arsebobs Tanabarvariantiani struqturebi, romelic saSualebas gvaZlevs ganviTarebis optimaluri gza avirCioT. es, Tavis mxriv, iTxovs, rom sworad
ganvsazRvroT yoveli garemosaTvis (sistemisaTvis) damaxasiaTebeli bunebrivi struqturebis SerCeva, agreTve mivyveT MmaTi evoluciis bunebriv tendenciebs. samarTlianad aRniSnavs e. n. kniazeva,
rom ,,rTul araxazobriv sistemas SeuZlia Tavisi struqturireba
TviTonve moaxdinos imis msgavsad, rogorc adamiani axdens Tavisive organizebas, anu rogorc es xdeba Cvens mier dakvirvebad,
TviTorganizebul samyaroSi mTlianad (kniazeva 1991, 25).
samwuxaroa, rom kavkasiaSi transformaciis pirveli etapis
dasasrulsa da meores dawyebis mijnaze mmarTveli elitis
ZiriTad ,,sazrunavad iTvleboda ara Zveli sistemis Semdgomi
transformireba,
aramed
im
,,institucionaluri
xafangidan
gamosvla, romelic transformaciis pirvel etapze momxdari

memkvidreobiTobis problema kavkasiur civilizaciaSi

443

socialuri TviTorganizebis Sedegad Camoyalibda. bunebrivia,


araxazobriv sistemaSi Seqmnili aramdgradi mdgomareobidan
gamosasvlelad
saWiro
gaxda
radikaluri
cvlilebebi
saqarTvelos xelisuflebis sistemaSi, nawilobriv ki ruseTis
federalur subieqtebSic (CeCneTi, yabardo-balyareTi, daRestani
da a. S.).
TumcaRa
saqarTveloSi
jer
kidev
problematuria
sasamarTlo
sistemis
damoukidebloba,
adgilobrivi
xelisuflebis
organoTa
sicocxlisunarianoba,
wonasworoba
saxelmwifo
xelisuflebis
sxvadasxva
ganStoebebsa
da
sazogadoebriv institutebs Soris da sxva.
azerbaijanSi momxdari msgavsi cvlilebebis Sedegad,
marTalia, gatarda zogierTi demokratiuli reforma, magram es
iyo fasadobrivi _ saboloo jamSi prezident heidar alievis mier
Seqmnili sistema sicocxlisunariani aRmoCnda. qveynis momdevno
liderma ilham alievma moxerxebulad isargebla respublikis
energetikuli
resursebiTa
da
am
resursebiT
msoflios
ganviTarebuli qveynebis dainteresebiT, SeZlo sazogadoebis
metnaklebad mdgrad mdgomareobaSi moyvana.
amasTan, unda SevniSnoT, rom azerbaijanSi jer kidev bevri
problemaa gadasaWreli transformaciis konteqstSi.
imavdroulad, unda gvaxsovdes, rom zemoT aRniSnuli amocanebis gadaWraSi wamyvani roli miekuTvneba ara imdenad xelisuflebas, aramed sazogadoebas, yovel konkretul adamians. gavixsenoT, rom adamiani TviTon iTvleba disipaTiur sistemad da garemosTan mudmivi gacvlis reJimSi cxovrobs. amitom misi roli
Tavisi sazogadoebis socialur TviTorganizebaSi Zalian didia.
individs, globalizaciis msoflio dinamikaSi, araxazobriv sistemebSi mudmivad uwevs arCevanis gakeTeba da SemTxveviTi araa, rom
mis arCevanze, misi ganaTlebis donezea damokidebuli funqcionirebadi sistemebis mimarTuleba da ,,qceva.
marTalia g. a. poRosiani, roca aRniSnavs, rom demokratiis
arsis gagebis mimarT dasavlur da postsabWour sazogadoebaSi
seriozuli gansxvaveba arsebobs. dasavleli admianisTvis, ambobs
poRosiani, demokratia, upirveles yovlisa, niSnavs moqalaqeTa
monawileobas gadawyvetilebis miRebaSi saxelmwifos marTvis
sxvadasxva doneze. yofili sabWoTa respublikebis moqalaqeebisaTvis ki (maT Soris somxeTisac), rogorc sociologiuri gamokvlevebi gviCvenebs, demokratia uwinaresad sxvadasxva Tavisuflebebis
uzrunvelyofaa _ sityvis, sindisis, gadaadgilebis da ase Semdeg
(poRosiani, 2005).

444

j. kviciani

problemad

rCeba

damokidebuleba

eTnikurobasTanac:

am

SemTxvevaSi szogadoeba, eTnosebis Sesaxeb primordialistur da


konstruqtivistul
kamaTSi
Cabmis
gareSe,
msoflios
sinergetikuli
suraTis
gaTvaliswinebiT,
unda
gamovides
socialuri cxovrebis arsebuli realobidan da misi kavSiridan
momavalTan da winsvlasTan. SemTxveviTi araa, rom msoflio
movlenebis erT-erTi wamyvani interpretatori, amerikeli Tomas
fridmani globalizaciasa da kulturul identurobas Soris
arsebul daZabulobas axali eris ganmsazRvrel konfliqtad
miiCnnevs. Tumca, amasTan erTad, rogorc fridmani Tvlis, maT
Soris winaaRmdegoba globazlizaciis procesSi nivelirebuli
iqneba da adamianis SegnebaSi Seiqmneba globaluri da kulturuli
identurobis arsebobis pirobebi.
davubrundeT CrdiloeT kavkasias. aq arsebuli problema
adamianis SegnebaSi arsebuli eTnosisadmi kuTvnilebaSi ki araa,
aramed etatizmis zemoT aRniSnuli ideologiis gadalaxvaSi _ im
ideologiisa, romelic demokratiasTan SeuTavsebelia.
bolo wlebSi, aRniSnavs x. g. Txagapsoevi, amgvari
,,simboluri kapitalisagan inteligenciis distancirebis Semdeg,
etatizmis marginalizacia SeiniSneba (vahabituri jamaaTebi da
misTanani,
romlebmac
regionis
sxvadasxva
respublikebSi
saxelmwifo gadatrialebis moxdena scades), mecnieri yuradRebas
aqcevs
am
respublikebSi
,,socialur-ekonomikuri
CamorCenis
zrdas rogorc mezobeli stavropol-krasnodaris mxareebTan da
donis rostovis olqTan, aseve ruseTis centralur regionebTan
SedarebiT (Txagapsoevi 2007, 37).
amasTan erTad, disipatiuri struqturebis ierarqizaciis
sinergetikuli principebidan gamomdinare, 1991 wlis bifurkaciis
Semdeg dawyebuli, Crdilokavkasiuri respublikebis sazogadoeba
jer
kidev
ar
misula
Tavis
mdgrad
mdgomareobamde
(atraqtoramde), igi agrZelebs aramdgrad mdgomareobaSi yofnas,
sadac
jer
kidev
mimdinareobs
transformaciis
pirveli,
gardamavali periodi. ,,klanebisagan, teipebisagan da ,,TavisianSinaurebisagan Semdgari xelisufleba, korufciuli arxebis
meSveobiT, mosaxleobis Zarcvas agrZelebs da, Sesabamisad, aseT
pirobebSi xalxis dreifi islamuri civilizaciisaken (v. v.
Cernousi). Cveni warmodgeniT, sazogadoebis protestis erT-erTi
formaa am respublikebSi arsebuli wesrigis mimarT.
SemTxveviTi araa, rom ukanaskneli ori-sami wlis manZilze
regionis TiTqmis yvela respublikaSi xelisufleba Seicvala,
reorganizebul iqna ganaTlebis sistema, TandaTanobiT regioni
iwyebs integrirebas ruseTis samxreT federaluri okrugis

memkvidreobiTobis problema kavkasiur civilizaciaSi

445

(olqis) formirebad sociumSi. amitom mecnierebma ukve miaqcies


yuradReba ..eTnikuri plastikurobis Semcirebas Crdilokavkasiis
respublikebSi.
gavixsenoT, rasac sinergetika gvaswavlis: araxazobrivi
sistemebis ganviTarebis procesebze marTvadi zemoqmedeba SeiZleba
efeqturi iyos mxolod maSin, roca is SeTanxmebulia am sistemis
Sinagan TvisebasTan anu roca is rezonansulia.
rogorc ukve viciT, socialuri TviTorganizebis dinamikaze
mniSvnelovan gavlenas axdens garemo _ mxedvelobaSi gvaqvs ara
mxolod geografiuli, aramed socialuri sivrcec. Tanamedove
CrdiloeT kavkasiaSi mimdinare socialur eTnikuri procesebisami
miZRvnil specialur monografiaSi m. d. rozini da s. i. suSi
samarTlianad aRniSnaven, rom regionSi Camoyalibda adamianis
specifikuri
samxreTrusuli
tipi,
romelic
Riaa
kulturaTaSorisi dialogisaTvis, romelmac Seiwova kavkasiuri
mentalobisa da kulturis Taviseburebebi. amitom, maTi azriT,
erovnuli
respublikebisaTvis
zemoaRniSnuli
gamocdileba
yvelaze
optimalurad
iTvleba
aq
mcxovrebi
xalxebis
sociokulturuli integraciis procesis gasagrZleblad (rozini,
suSi 2003, 118).
erTiani kavkasiis mdgradi ekonomikuri da kulturuli
ganviTarebisaTvis, Cveni SexedulebiT, marTlzomieri iqneboda
gvesaubra
regionis
xalxebis
integraciasa
da
aqtiur
urTierTqmedebaze.
sxvaTa
Soris,
bolo
wlebSi
ruseTis,
saqarTvelos da rigi qveynebis mecnierebi sul ufro metad
laparakoben kavkasiuri civilizaciis arsebobaze, romelsac
SeuZlia regionuli integraciis ideologiuri baza gaxdes.
kavkasiis regionis dabrunebas
ganviTarebis bunebriv,
tradiciul
gzaze
,,buneba-sazogadoeba-adamiani
ganapirobebs
TviTorganizebis
Sinagani,
sistemur-sinergetikuli
logika
socialur da bunebriv garemoSi. amitom, ukve transformaciis
meore etapis gamocdileba, kerZod, saqarTveloSi momxdari
,,vardebis revolucia, gvaCvenebs, rom sazogadoeba, adis ra
TviTorganizebis
socialuri
struqturirebis
ufro
maRal
safexurze (vidre es iyo transformaciis pirveli etapis
dasawyisSi) da axdens axali institucionaluri makrostruqturis
generirebas, uzrunvelyofs sakuTari ganviTarebis ufro maRal
dones. sakiTxi exeba saxelmwifo aparatis gamWvirvaleobisa da
efeqturobis amaRlebas, bazrebis monopolizebis aRmofxvras da
sxva.
amrigad,
kavkasiuri
civilizaciis
memkvidreobiTobis
problemaTa
analizi
sistemur-sinergetikuli
meTodologiis

446

j. kviciani

mixedviT, gviCvenebs, rom dRes sazogadoebis TviTorganizacia


moiTxovs principulad axal midgomebs sociumis marTvasTan
mimarTebiT, anu aqcenti warsulze ki ar unda gakeTdes, aramed
dRevandelobis kavSirze momavalTan.

literatura
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- . , 6. .
Txagapsoevi 2006 . .,
:
.
20-21 2006 . --.
Txagapsoevi 2007 . .,
. ,
1. --.
kniazeva 1991 . ., , .
.
malinecki

1997 . .,

// ,

2.

.
nodia, skolbaxi 2006 g. nodia, a. skolbaxi, saqarTvelos
politikuri landSafti. Tbilisi.
poRosiani

2005 . .,

// , 8. .
rozini, suSi 2003 . ., . .,

: ,
, . --.
stiopini 2006 . .,
. , 2.
suxanovi 1976 . ., ,
. .

kavkasiologiuri Ziebani CAUCASIOLOGIC PAPERS


II

2010

. ()

,
, -
, .
,
,
, . , ,
.
, ,
,

(,

-
, , , ).

.

, ,
, ,
,
( 2006, 17).
,
, , , .
. .
,
(), . . ,
, .

. , ,
. , 65-
.

. ,
, .
,

448

, - I-II .
IV , ,

. , -
, ,
.
,
. ,
,
,

() (,
) .
, , (I-II .),
, , , III .,
. ,

( )
() ,

- .
,
,
(), ()
.

- ,
, , ,
,
- .
,
. . . ,
(),
(. . ( ,
, ) (
1976, 41). ,

.
,

, .

449



, .
.

().

. . .
,
,


( 2010, 6).
, , ,
(
: 90- , - 2000
. )
. . . , , .
, . , . , , ,
, ,
. ,
( 1997: 107).
, ( )

,
. ,
..,
- ,
. ,
, ,
, ,
( 2006, 163).
, ,
, ,
, .
, ,
.
, , . ,
, .
,

( ... 2006, 17).

450

,
.
,
, .
2003 .
, ( ),
, ,

. , ,
,
. , ,
,
(), .
. . ,
, , ,
( 1991, 25) .
,

,
,
. ,

, (, -, . .).

, ,

. .
, ,
, ,
. ,
, .
. ,
,
. , ,
, .
. . , ,
.
, ,
.
, . . ,
,

451

: , , .. ( 2005,
46).
. ,
,
,
. ,

,
. , ,


.
.
,
, , .
, . . ,

( . .,

). -
,
,
( 2007, 37).
,
, 1991.,

(). ,
, . ,
, ,
.
( . . ), ,
.
, -
, ,

.
.
, ,
,
, ..
.

452

,
-
, . . . . .

, -
, ,
,
,
. , ,


( ... 2003, 118).
,
, ,
, . ,
,
,

.
-

,
-

. ,
, , , ,
,
( )
,
.
, .
.
,
- ,

, ,
.

2010 _ . ., :
- . , 6. .
1991 _ . ., , . .
1997 _ . .,
. O , 2. .

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skolbaxi, saqarTvelos politikuri landSafti. Tbilisi.
2005 _ .., .
Co, 8. .
... 2003 _ . ., . ., -

:
,
,. --.
2006 _ . .,
. , 2. .
1976 _ . ., ,
. .
2006 _ . .,

:
.
20-21 2006. --.
2007 _ . .,
. H . I.
--.

J. Kvitsiani (Tbilisi)
Problem of Heritage in Caucasian Civilization
Summary
In the paper on the basis of the theory of systems self-organization that is
called synergetics as well is shown Caucasian agrarian civilization formed in the
Caucasus that had a systemic, self-organized character. It was based on the etiquette
similar for the Caucasian peoples, communication culture, ethno-linguistic kinship and
to my opinion it was a valuable basis for traditional culture.
I believe that even today the Caucasians can continuer this heritage and provide
historical memory of these peoples on the way of o transformation from traditional
(agrarian) towards the modern (industrial, post-industrial) civilization. For this today a
societys self-organization demands principal new approaching to governing of a socium or an accent should not be given not to the past but to present contact with future.

kavkasiologiuri Ziebani CAUCASIOLOGIC PAPERS


II

2010

m. lorTqifaniZe (Tbilisi)
mefe giorgi II-is (1072-1089) karis (yarsisa)
da veJinis cixeTaTvis brZolis istoriidan
karis (yarsisa) da veJinis cixeTaTvis brZolis Sesaxeb cnobebi daculia or qarTul saistorio TxzulebaSi: ,,qarTlis cxovreba krebulSi Sesul XI s-is anonimi avtoris usaTauro, pirobiTad, ,,matiane qarTlisa-d wodebul TxzulebaSi, romelic moicavs periods VIII s-is meore naxevridan XI s-is 70-ian wlebamde da
imave ,,qarTlis cxovreba-Si arsebul TxzulebaSi ,,cxovreba mefeT mefisa daviTisi, romlis avtori aseve anonimuria11
es orive saistorio Txzuleba sakmaod safuZvlianadaa
Seswavlili wyaroTmcodneobiTi TvalsazrisiT da gamoTqmulia
dasabuTebuli
mosazrebebi,
rom
maTi
cnobebi
ZiriTadad
imsaxureben ndobas da maTTvis angariSis gaweva sasurvelia.
karisaTvis brZolaze da mis Sedegebze mogviTxrobs orive
dasaxelebuli istorikosi, xolo veJinis brZolaze da mis
Sedegebze daviT IV-is moRvaweobisadmi miZRvnili Txzuleba.
XI s-is 60-iani wlebidan saqarTveloSi didi xniT mZime viTareba Seiqmna. 1064 wels saqarTvelos Turq-selCukTa sulTani alfarslani (1063-1072) moadga. es iyo maTi pirveli laSqroba saqarTveloSi. am droisaTvis selCukebis didi imperia ukve Seqmnili iyo.
samxreT kavkasiaSi maTi Semosevebi XI s-is 30-ian wlebSi daiwyo.
1038-1063 wlebSi sulTan TorRul begis dros maT daipyres irani,
erayi, qurTistani da SemoiWrnen samxreT kavkasiaSi.
1055 w. TorRul begma daipyro arabTa saxalifos dedaqalaqi
baRdadi da xalifam is sulTnad daloca.
1048 wels selCukebi somxeTSi SeiWren. somxeTis saxelmwifo
am dros ar arsebobda, TiTqmis mTeli somxeTi bizantiis imperias
epyra. bizantiis imperia SeZlebisdagvarad igeriebda TurqselCukebs samxreT kavkasiis misadgomebze, ramdenime warmatebasac
miaRwia maTTan brZolaSi, magram 1071 wels manazkertTan brZolaSi
1

marTalia, daviT IV (1089-1125) aRmaSeneblad wodebulis moRvaweobisadmi miZRvnili


Txzulebis SesaZlebeli avtoris Sesaxeb arsebobs sxvadasxva mosazreba, magram,
pirdapiri cnobis ararsebobis viTarebaSi, yvela isini mosazrebaTa sferoSi rCeba.

mefe giorgi II-is (1072-1089)karis (yarsisa) da vejinis cixeTaTvis . . .

455

selCukebma sastikad daamarcxes bizantia, tyved Caigdes imperatori roman diogeni. 1074 wlis zaviT bizantiam Tavisi aRmosavleTi
provinciebi selCukebs dauTmo.
saqarTvelo marto aRmoCnda Turq-selCukTa pirispir. 1064
wels, rodesac selCukebi saqarTvelos samxreTidan moadgnen, maT
didi winaaRmdegoba daxvdaT javaxeTis axalqalaqisaTvis brolaSi. marTalia, sabolood maT aiRes axalqalaqi, magram sulTanma
ar ganagrZo brZola saqarTvelos dasapyrobad. SeiZleba, igi daafiqra gaweulma didma winaaRmdegobam.
alf-arslani agrZelebda brZolas samxreT kavkasiis dasamorCileblad. sulTnis davalebiT anisis ganmgebeli abul-asvari
laSqrobda anisis garSemo da mis maxlobel qveynebSi da saqarTvelosac Semoesia. 1067/68 wlebSi saqarTvelos mefe bagrat IV-m
(1027-1072) bardavs ilaSqra da daarbia, ris sapasuxod 1068 wels
alf-arslani meored Semoesia saqarTvelos. amjerad is dasavleT
saqarTveloSic gadavida, moaoxra qveyana, auracxeli xalxi daiRupa brZolebSi, didi davla, tyveebi igdo xelT. mefe bagratma
mas zavi SesTavaza, ris safasurad sulTanma xarki iTxova, rac
mefe bagratma ar ikisra. zamTris sicivis gamo selCukebma datoves
saqarTvelo, mefe bagratma daiwyo brZola sulTnis mier dapyrobil qveyanaSi daniSnuli mmarTvelebis winaaRmdeg. brZola cvalebadi SedegebiT mimdinareobda. sulTani xarks moiTxovda, mefe bagrati diplomatiurad moqmedebda, ZRvens da mociqulebs ugzavnida
sulTans, magram xarks ar kisrulobda. ase gagrZelda 1072 wlamde,
rodesac gardaicvala mefe bagrat IV, imave wels mokles alfarslani. qarTveli mematiane wers: ,,verRara cnes bagrat da sulTanman erTman erTisa sikudili 2.1
saqarTvelos samefos taxti bagrat mefis Zem giorgi II-m (10721089) daikava.
selCukTa razmebi gamudmebiT arbevdnen saqarTvelos. mefe
giorgi SeZlebisdagvarad winaaRmdegobas uwevda maT. 70-ian wlebSi
giorgi mefem farcxisTan didi gamarjveba moipova selCukebTan
brZolaSi, aseve ,,aRiRo qalaqi karisa, cixe-queyana da simagreni
vanadisa da karniforisani, da iotna Turqni mis queyanisani (matiane qarTlisa. qarTlis cxovreba. I. Tb., 1955, 317). ,,matiane
qarTlisa-s avtori amiT amTavrebs Txrobas karisa da misi
mimdgomi qveynis Semdgom bedze.
1

es sakiTxebi farTodaaa ganxiluli qarTul istoriografiaSi, arsebul wyaroebze da sakiTxis Sesaxeb arsebul literaturaze ix.: saqarTvelos istoriis
narkvevebi (rvatomeuli). t. III. Tbilisi, 1979. gv. 196.

456

m. lorTqifaniZe

,,qarTlis cxovrebaSi am Txzulebas uSualod agrZelebs


,,cxovreba mefeT mefisa daviTisi (mefe daviTY IV _ 1029-1125 ww.,
aRmaSeneblad wodebuli), romlis avtori aRniSnavs mefe giorgis
farcxiss gamarjvebis Sesaxeb, xolo karTan dakavSirebiT wers:
,,movida winaSe maTsa (giorgi mefisa _ m. l.) zoravari
aRmosavleTisa grigol bakurianis Ze, romelsa hqondes olTisni
da karnu qalaqni da kari, da didad ganixares da ganisuenes da
mosca giorgi mefesa karis cixe-qalaqi da misi mimdgomi queyana,
da ganiyarnes, ,,qarTlis cxovreba (cxovreba mefeT-mefisa
daviTisi, miT. gam., gv. 318). amgvarad, daviTis istorikosi imeorebs
mis winamorbed istorikosTan arsebul cnobas mefe giorgis mier
farcxisTan mopovebuli brZolis Sesaxeb, Semdeg arafers ambobs
mefe giorgis mier karis, vanandisa da misi mimdgomi qveynis
,,aRebis Sesaxeb da mogviTxrobs grigol bakurianis Zis mier am
miwebis
giorgi
mefisaTvis
gadacemaze
(,,mosca).
grigol
bakurianis Ze aris bizantiis saimperatoro karis maRali moxele,
warmoSobiT qarTveli, aRmosavleTis didi domestikosi, romlis
sagamgeo iyo kari da mimdgomi qveyana.
sakiTxi ismis ase: saqarTvelos mefem gandevna selCukebi am
miwebidan da imperiis xelisuflebaa, romelic adre misi gavlenis
sferoSi (an mis mflobelobaSi) myof aRmosavleTis qristian qveynebs Tavis samflobeloebad Tvlida, am uflebas umtkicebda, Tu
arsebuli viTarebidan gamomdinare, man es qveynebi ,,aCuqa saqarTvelos mefes.
aRniSnul sakiTxze, qarTvel istorikosTa Soris azrTa
sxvadasxvaobaa (iv. javaxiSvili, v. kopaliani, m. lorTqifaniZe, n.
Sengelia, z. papasqiri, r. metreveli, i. anTelava, j. samuSia). zemoTqmulidan romeli azri gaviziaroT? ar vapirebT diskusias da
sxvadasxva avtorTa mosazrebebis ganxilvas. vecdebiT warmovadginoT wyaroebSi arsebuli realuri viTareba.
viTarebis garkvevisTvis mniSvneloba aqvs daviTis istorikosis cnobas veJinis cixisaTvis brZolis Sesaxeb, romelzedac cnoba mxolod mis TxzulebaSia, manamde ki aucilebelia aRvniSnoT,
rom bizantiis imperiam manazkerts damarcxebis Semdeg 1074 wlis
zaviT daTmo Tavisi aRmosavleTis provinciebi, romelnic selCukTa mflobelobaSi gadavida da risi ,,Cuqeba ar SeeZlo mas.
rac Seexeba veJinis cixisaTvis brZolis sakiTxs: saqarTveloSi uaRresad mZime mdgomareoba Seiqmna. saqarTvelos selCukamde araerTi mteri unaxavs, magram selCukebTan dakavSirebiT
sul sxva viTareba iyo. Turqi selCukebi modiodnen da sxdebodnen
dapyrobil miwebze. adgilobrivi mosaxleoba ibrZoda, wydeboda

mefe giorgi II-is (1072-1089)karis (yarsisa) da vejinis cixeTaTvis . . .

457

brZolaSi, nawili garboda, vinc rCeboda, maTi asimilireba xdeboda.


selCukebi, romelTa mTavari simdidre cxeni iyo, iRebdnen
mosavals ganurCevlad droisa, Cexdnen venaxebs, baRebs, mTel samiwaTmoqmedod vargis miwa-wyals aqcevdnen saZovrebad TavianTi
cxenebisaTvis. saqarTveloSi mosaxleobis erovnuli Semadgenlobis Secvlis, intensiuri meurneobis momTabaruliT Secvlis saSiSroeba Seiqmna.
qveyanaSi maTi sul axal-axali urdoebi Semodioda. daviTis
istorikosi saSinel suraTs xatavs: ,,psisforni da klarjeTi
zRvis piramdis, SavSeTi, aWara, samcxe, qarTli, argueTi samoqalaqo da Wyondidi aRivso TurqiTa. moisra da tyue iqmna amaT queyanaTa mkvidri yoveli. da masve erTsa dResa dawues quTaTisi, da
artanuji, da udabnoni klarjeTisani. da dayves amaT queyanaTa
Sina TurqTa vidre mosvlamde Tovlisa. moWames queyana da moswyvides, Tu sadRa vin darComil iyo tyeTa, kldeTa, quabTa da urelTa queyanisaTa. da ese iyo pirveli da didi Turqoba; rameTu
qoronikoni iyo samasi1. xolo Tu vinme mTiuleTs an simagreTa sadame vin daSTa kaci, zamTrisa sificxiTa, usaxlobiTa da SimSiliTa egreca moisra (cxovreba mefeT mefisa daviTisi, miT. gam. gv.
319-320).
da Semdeg moTxrobilia Semzaravi konkretuli faqtebi da
daskvna: ,,moiwua Senebuli yoveli, mdinareni sisxlTani, nacvlad
wylisa nakadulTa mrwyvelni queyanisani (iqve, gv. 320) SeiZleboda
gvefiqra, rom daviTis istorikosi amuqebs ferebs, aWarbebs, magram uares suraTs xataven amdroindeli somexi istorikosebi, mag.
aristakes lastivertci.
daviTis istorikosma SesaniSnavad icis, rom yvelaferi es
xdeba sulTan maliq Sahis dros, TviTonve iZleva TariRs da gvauwyebs: ,,amaT ra saqmeTa esreT xedvida mefe giorgi da rameTu arasadaT iyo Rone xsnisa da Sewevnisa . . . maSin hyo ganzraxva didebulTa TvisTa Tana, da daamtkices warsvla maRalsa sultansa
maliq Sahis winaSe. da esreT dadva suli Tvisi da sisxlni qristeaneTa snisaTvis. da mindobiTa RmrTisaTa da warZRuanebiTa Zelisa cxovrebisaTa~ eaxla sulTans da istorikosis moulodneli
gancxadeba: ,,Sewynarebul iqmna misgan viTarca Svili sayuareli
(iqve 321) da amas moyveba maliq Sahis qeba-dideba da, rac mTavaria,
qristianTa moyvaruli, romelmac ausrula saqarTvelos mefes
,,yoveli saTxoveli~ . . . samefo misi ganaTavisufla zedamarbevelTagan da mosca kaxeTi da hereTi, garna xaraja iTxova samefosa misisa, romelT aiRebdes JamTa mravalTa. da esre gandidebiTa
da mravliTa didebiTa gamogzavna Tvisad samefod da warmoayolna

458

m. lorTqifaniZe

spani didni, raTa warvlon gza mSvidobisa da raTa aarTvan kaxeTi. xaraja, rasakvirvelia, didi da mZime iyo, magram Tu Semosaxlebuli Turqebi gavidodnen, aRar Semovidodnen axali urdoebi, qveyanaSi mSvidoba damyardeboda da mdgomareoba nel-nela gamosworeboda. xaraja sasurveli iyo sulTnisTvisac. samxedro
davla da alafi ZiriTadad molaSqreebze nawildeboda da muslimuri samarTlis Tanaxmad saxelmwifo xazinaSi samxedro nadavlis
mxolod mexuTediBSedioda, xaraja ki mTlianad saxelmwifos Semosavali iyo.
daviTis istorikosi SorsmWvreteli moazrovnea, is Zalian
frTxilia, mas ar surs, momdevno Taobebma mefe giorgi II-sadmi
tendenciuroba daswamon. is wers giorgi mefis rig warmatebebze,
magram karisa da misi mimdgomi qveynis saqarTvelos mefis mier
selCukTagan brZoliT mopovebis Sesaxeb aras ambobs da saqmes ise
warmoaCens, TiTqos saimperatoro karma giorgi mefes ,,aCuqa is
miwa-wyali, rac mas ar ekuTvnoda. amasTanave, aRwers ra qveyanaSi
Seqmnil rTul viTarebas, aRniSnavs, rom giorgi mefem gawira Tavi.
amas mosdevs maliq Sahis qeba-dideba, mefe giorgis yvela saTxovelis Sesruleba da cnoba kaxeT-hereTis ,,Cuqebis Sesaxeb da ase
gamoistumra, magram radgan kaxeT-hereTi mas ar ekuTvnoda, giorgi
mefes Tan didi spa gamoatana, raTa mSvidobiT iaron da aRsarTans
,,aarTvan kaxeTi.
ra viTarebaa: mefe giorgi, romlis mizani saqarTvelodan
selCukebis urdoebis gayvana iyo, samSobloSi maTi axali urdoebiT brundeba.
mefe giorgis, albaT, kargad esmoda, ras niSnavda Seqmnili
viTareba, magram mas ar SeeZlo, uari eTqva, mas da mis mxleblebs
iqve gauswordebodnen.
mefe brundeba samSobloSi selCukTa axali samxedro ZaliT
da maTTan erTad dgeba veJinis cixis alyad, sadac gamagrebuli
mefe axsarTani danebebas ar apirebs. da am dros, ,,vidre brZodesa,
movida Tovli da daviTis istorikosi wers: ,,mefes giorgis
moexsena nadiroba ajameTisa, arRaras zrunvides sxuasa, arca
eloda aRebasa veJinisasa da kaxeTisa, aramed laSqarTa TurqTasa,
romel hyva misca niWad sujeTi dabyoveli queyana ioris piri
kuxeTi, romeli moorda mun dReindelad dRemde, xolo TviT
gardavlo mTa lixTa da STavida afxazeTad (cxovreba mefeT
mefisa daviTisi, miT. gamoc., gv. 322).
mefis saqcielis ufro mkacrad gansja, albaT, Znelia da
aqedan
moyolebuli,
vidre
dRevandel
dRemde,
qarTveli
istorikosebi, iSviaTi gamonaklisis garda, kicxaven mefe giorgis.
magram qarTul istoriografiaSi aris am movlenis sxvagvari

mefe giorgi II-is (1072-1089)karis (yarsisa) da vejinis cixeTaTvis . . .

459

axsnis cdac (n. Sengelia, selCukebi da saqarTvelo XI saukuneSi.


Tb., 1968, 316-317). gasaTvaliswinebelia is, rom sulTanTan misul
mefe giorgis araviTari saSualeba ar hqonda, uari eTqva mis
wyalobaze, magram man kargad icoda, ra mohyveboda selCukTa mier
kaxeT-hereTis aRebas da erTaderTi, risi gakeTebac mas SeeZlo, ar
mieRo
am
saqmeSi
monawileoba, TviTon
ar
Seewyo
xeli
selCukebisaTvis (n. Sengelia, iqve)
qarTul istoriografiaSi araerTi mosazrebaa gamoTqmuli
imis Sesaxeb, Tu ratom aqebs daviTis istorikosi maliq Sahs, an
ratom gamoutana man aseTi sastiki ganaCeni mefe giorgi II-s1. man
xom kargad icoda, vin iyo maliq Sahi, ra wvlili miuZRoda mas
saqarTvelos aoxrebaSi.
daviTis istorikosi Tavis Txzulebas daviT aRmaSeneblis
gardacvalebis Semdeg wers, man kargad icis da mogviTxrobs im
damsaxurebis Sesaxeb, rac daviTs erisa da qveynis winaSe miuZRvis
da unda Seamzados mkiTxveli im frazisaTvis, rom daviTi ,,mas
Jamsa iyo hasakiTa Teqsumetisa wlisa, xolo qoronikoni iyo
samasda cxra2, amas martod Sobilsa giorgisgan TviT mamaman
daadga gvirgvini da iqve aRniSnavs, rom TviT mamaman zeccaTaman
pova daviT, mona Tvisi da sacxebeli misi wminda scxo mas, rameTu
xeli misi Seeweoda mas mTeli mefobis manZilze (daviT
aRmaSeneblis istorikosi, miT gamoc., gv. 324).
niSandoblivia, rom daviTis istorikosi ,,mefeT mefesa da
kesaross giorgis, romelic 1089 wlis aqtis Semdeg, meti Tu ara
oci weli mainc, cocxalia, saerTod ar axsenebs. giorgi
faqtiurad,
aRar
arsebobs,
misi
moxsenieba
ruis-urbnisis
,,Zegliswera-Si an romelime xelnaweris minawerSi arafers ambobs
misi iuridiuli mdgomareobis Sesaxeb. mefe, romelmac Tavi dasdo
samSoblosaTvis, romelmac ver daafasa is didi ,,wyaloba, rac
mis mimarT maliq Sahma gamoiCina, romelmac Tavisi sruliad
gaumarTlebeli saqcielis Sedegad misca Turqebs ,,niWad sujeTi
da yoveli queyana ioris piri kuxeTi, romeli moorda mun
dReindelad dRedmde, xsenebis Rirsi aRar aris da 1089 wlis
aqti sruliad gamarTlebulia.
faqtobrivad ar viciT, rodis gardaicvala giorgi an sadaa
is dakrZaluli.

sakiTxis ganxilva, yvela mosazrebis analizi, wyaroebsa da literaturaze miTiTebiT ix. roin metreveli, jaba samuSia, mefeT-mefe giorgi II. Tb. 2003
2
1089 w.

kavkasiologiuri Ziebani CAUCASIOLOGIC PAPERS


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2010

. ()
II (10721089)


, , ..
(. - , I, 2008).
,
IV (1089-1125),
IV II (1072-1089).
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II (
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M. Lordkipanidze (Tbilisi)
From the History of Struggle of Giorgi II
(1072-1089) for Kari (Qarsi) and Vezhini Fortress
Summary
The paper analysis the information of David Agmashenebelis (David the Builder) anonymous author on activity of the King Giorgi II (1072-1089). Davids historian
shows tendentious attitude towards the estimating the activity of the King Giorgi II. The
historian does not mention the fact of liberating the Qarsi and Vanandi fortress and
their environs from Turkish and Seljukian conquerors by Giorgi II and transiting these
lands within the bordering of Georgia and ascribes this act to Byzantium.
This tendency is also shown in estimating the act of the King Giorgi II in sieging
the Vezhini fortress.

kavkasiologiuri Ziebani CAUCASIOLOGIC PAPERS


II

2010

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:

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2010

j. mesxiZe (sanqt-peterburgi)
italiis sagareo politikis kavkasiuri mimarTuleba:
eventualoba da realoba
reziume
elinuri samyaros memkvidre romis saxelmwifos aRmosavlur
politikaSi kavkasiis mimarTulebas mniSvnelovani roli eniWeboda.
Camoyalibebulma politikurma, ekonomikurma da kulturulma kavSirebma amjerad ukve bizantiis monawileobiT didwilad gansazRvres dasavluri samyarosa da kavkasias Soris Semdgomi urTierTobebi. romis pap honorius II-is SeTavazeba saqarTvelos mefe
laSa giorgisadmi, mieRo monawileoba jvarosnul laSqrobaSi
iyo saqarTvelosa da evropis urTierTobis pirveli faqti romis
imperiis dacemis Semdgom. amas moyolebuli, gza gaexsna rogorc
kaTolikur prozelitobas, ise italiasTan vaWrobasac.
momdevno xanaSi informacia kavkasiis Sesaxeb aRwevda dasavleT samyaros garkveulwilad swored italieli mogzaurebisa da
vaWrebis meSveobiT. rodesac XVIII saukunis 80-90-ian wlebSi mimdinare saerTaSoriso movlenebis fonze moxda ori legendaruli
figuris CeCen religiur da politikuri moRvawis Seix mansurisa da italiel dominikaneli beris jovani batista boetis
cxovrebiseuli bedebis gadaxlarTva, albaT Znelia es gaugebrobas mieweros. pirveli msoflio omis dasrulebisa da omisSemdgomi samyaros mowyobis periodSi kavkasiuri movlenebis ganviTarebaSi mniSvnelovani roli Seasrula italiis premier-ministris
franCesko saverio nitis gadawyvetilebam 1919 wels uari eTqva saqarTveloSi samxedro intervenciaze.
XX saukunis 90-iani wlebidan mTeli kavkasiis regioni aRmoCnda dasavleTis qveynebis yuradRebis fokusSi; italiam, romelic 2000 wlis maisSi evropis sabWos Tavmjdomareoba iTava, gansazRvra Tavisi pozicia CeCneTis omis problemis mimarT, aseve
samxreT kavkasiis konfliqtebis mimarT da evropasa da samxreT

Agrarian reform in the North Caucasus in the 19th c.

467

kavkasiis respublikebs Soris urTierTobebis ganviTarebis perspeqtivebis mimarTac. italiis kulturul-istoriuli da ideologiuri potenciali aZlevs mas saSualebas sul ufro aqtiuri roli iTamaSos evrokavSirsa da kavkasias Soris urTierTsasargeblo
kavSirebisa da TanamSromlobis ganviTarebis saqmeSi.

J. Meskhidze (St.-Petersbourg)
The Caucasian Line of the Italian Foreign Policy: Eventuality and Reality
Summary
In east policy of Roman Empire the Caucasian direction was of great importance.
On the one hand character of the RomanCaucasian political, economic and cultural
mutual ties was continuation of traditional communications of the Caucasian states with
the Ellyn world, and with another has appreciably predetermined the further attitudes
between Caucasus and the Western world through Byzantium. In the subsequent centuries the information on the Caucasus spread in the West to a certain extent owing to the
Italian travelers and missionaries, whose written materials have not lost the importance
till now. Emerged against a background of the international events 80-90s of XVIII century an interlacing of two legendary persons fates Chechen religious-politician
Shaykh Mansur and Italian monk Dominican Giovanni Battista Boetti scarcely can be
defined as misunderstanding. In XX century after the end of the First World War and
postwar construction of the world a known role in the Caucasian events has played the
refusal of military intervention in the Georgia in 1919 of the prime minister of Italy
Francesco S. Nitti. From the beginning of 90th years of XX century the Caucasian region became in the center of political, economic and ideological diplomacy of the Western states. In May, 2000 Italy became chairman of the Council of Europe and has precisely designated its position on a problem of war in the Chechen Republic and also on
problems of settlement of conflicts on Southern Caucasus and prospects of mutual relations between the Europe and Republics of Southern Caucasus. The cultural-historical
and ideological potential of Italy allows playing more active role in the further development of mutually advantageous communications and cooperation between the European Union and Caucasus.

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2010

l. mirianaSvili (Tbilisi)
qarTul-somxuri konfesiuri Semwynarebloba
Sua saukuneebSi
garejis mravalmTis marTlmadidebluri udabnoebis sxvadasxva daniSnulebis qvabTa Selesilobam momlocvelTa uamravi nakawri warwera Semogvinaxa, maT Soris ociode somxur enazec. leon
meliqseT-begs, saqarTveloSi moRvawe mecniers, romelic pirveli
iyo, vinc garejis somxuri nakawri warwerebi gamoaqveyna, miaCnda,
rom isini im somex moqalaqeTa mier iyo Sesrulebuli, romlebic
bagratunianTa somxeTis samefos dacemisa da, kerZod, 1319 wlis
damangreveli miwisZvris Semdeg somxeTidan saqarTveloSi gadmosaxldnen (meliqseT-begi 1940, 163). garejSi gvxvdeba Semdgomi periodis warwerebic. maT Sorisaa orstriqoniani somxuri warwera,
romelic udabnos monastris mTavar eklesiaSi iyo amokawruli
(amJamad es warwera aRar arsebobs): `me, hovanes tfilelma davwere
es, welsa 916 (=1467)~ (meliqseT-begi 1940, 168; jojua 2001, 149). imave
eklesiaSi, oRond sxva kedlebze, hovaness kidev sami warwera
amoukawravs, amjerad qarTul enaze, da rac yvelaze ufro sayuradReboa, erTi warwera mxedruliTaa Sesrulebuli, ori ki _
asomTavruliT. warwerebi gamarTuli xeliTaa amokawruli. anu
konkretulad es somexi erovnebis momlocveli, somxurTan erTad
qarTul enasa da ori saxis qarTul anbans srulyofilad flobda.
mogvyavs mxedruli warweris teqsti, romelic danarCen or warweraze ufro vrcelia da met informacias Seicavs: `q. me, codvili
iovane xucesi, moqalaqe somexTa, veRirse wmida daviTisa saflavs.
vinca erTi piri Sendoba brZanoT, misiTa madliTa cxondebiT. daiwera qronikons rne (=1467)~ (meliqseT-begi 1940, 168; jojua 2001,
148). T. jojuam specialurad Seiswavla iovane xucesis vinaoba da
konfesiuri kuTvnileba. aRmoCnda, rom iovane ganswavluli mwignobari da kaligrafi iyo. igi Tbilisis erT-erT somxur eklesiaSi
moRvaweobda. am faqtisa da iovanes mier gadawerili xelnawerebis
anderZ-minawerebis
Sinaarsis
gaTvaliswinebiT,
danamdvilebiT
SeiZleba iTqvas, rom igi monofiziti xucesi iyo (jojua 2001, 155).
amgvarad, T. jojuam faqtebiT Seamagra manamde p. muradianis mier
argumentebis moyvanis gareSe gamoTqmuli mosazreba ioanes monofizitobis Sesaxeb. monofiziti xucesis mier qarTuli siwmindis
molocvis faqtidan SegviZlia davaskvnaT, rom XV saukunisaTvis

qarTul-somxuri konfesiuri Semwynarebloba Sua saukuneebSi

469

(da gacilebiT adrec) daviwyebuli iyo is akrZalva, romelic


608/609 wels somexTa kaTalikosma abraamma Tanamorwmune somxebs
daudgina: monofizit somxebs ekrZalebodaT qarTvelebTan erTad
erToblivi locvis aRvlena, maT Soris, mcxeTis jvris taZris
molocva, qarTveli marTlmadideblebis somxur taZrebSi SeSveba,
maTTan qorwineba, megobroba, dedamZuZeoba da erTad puris Wama.
akrZalvebSi mcxeTis jvris calke moxsenieba somexTa mxridan
misdami gansakuTrebuli mowiwebiT iyo ganpirobebuli. amasTan dakavSirebiT gavixsenebT istoriul cnobas, romlis Tanaxmad smbat
bagratuni, vrkanis marzpani, mravalwliani uSvilobiT daRonebul
mSoblebs mxolod mas Semdeg SesZeniaT, roca mcxeTis jvars Sevedrebian da misTvis Sesawiravi uboZebiaT.
monofiziti somxebis survili, moelocaT marTlmadidebluri
siwmindeebi, ver ganxorcieldeboda, rom ar earseba keTil nebas
qarTvel marTlmadidebelTa mxridanac. Tumca, garkveuli SezRudvebi mainc arsebobda. amaze miuTiTebs 1831 wels saqarTveloimereTis sasinodo kantoris mier udabnos arqimandrit antonisadmi gamocemuli gankarguleba, romelic mas avalebda daviTgarejis
Zmobis gafrTxilebasa da xelwerilis CamorTmevas imis Taobaze,
rom araviTar SemTxvevaSi ar dauSvebdnen marTlmadideblur eklesiebSi somexi xucesebis mier paraklisis gadaxdas ( 1985,
192). imaze, rom garejis udabnoebis mosalocad mxolod erTeuli
somexi moqalaqeebi ar irjebodnen, metyvelebs udabnos monastris
mTavar eklesiaSi 1682 wels Sesrulebuli somxuri warwera, romelic vinme barseRs amoukawravs: `me codvili (da) uRirsi ufali
barseRi movedi (am) wmida adgils aseuli krebuliTa salocavad.
vinc waikiTxoT, erTi piri Sendoba sTqviT. welsa 1131 (=1682)~ (meliqseT-begi 1940, 169). igive barseRi berTubnis monastris mTavari
eklesiis kedelze somxuradve wers: `me, ufali barseRi, movedi aq
mravali mlocvelebiTurT, welsa 1131 (=1682)~ (meliqseT-begi 1940,
172). asi somexi momlocvelis garejSi erTad stumroba rigiTi
movlena ar unda iyos. am bolo SemTxvevaSi somex momlocvelTa
konfesiuri kuTvnileba specialurad aravis Seuswavlia. isini, SesaZloa, diofizitebic yofiliyvnen. danamdvilebiT monofizitis
mieraa Sesrulebuli warwera udabnos monastris mTavar eklesiasa
da satrapezos Soris mdebare sameurneo qvabis kedelze: `arasruli sarwmunoebiT da keTili saxeliT RvTivcxebulni wmidani
mRvdelni garejisani welsa 723 (= 1274), mona ... dmanelma mivaRwieT
saxlsa amas~ (meliqseT-begi 1940, 170). anu, vinme dmaneli somexi sasuliero piri qebiT moixseniebs garejel berebs, magram iqve uwu-

470

l. mirianaSvili

nebs marTlmadideblobis samsaxurSi yofnas, rac, misi azriT,


`arasruli sarwmunoebiT moRvaweobis tolfasia.
somex grigorianelTa gansakuTrebuli momlocvelobiTi interesi daviT-garejis savanisadmi, sxvasTan erTad, rasakvirvelia,
imiTac iyo ganpirobebuli, rom somxebs wm. daviTi, qarTvelTa
darad, TavianT mfarveladac miaCndaT ( 1985, 198), magram,
Cveni azriT, es ar yofila gadamwyveti mizezi. saqme isaa, rom garejis udabnoebis somxuri warwerebidan arc erT maTganSi wm. daviTi ar ixsenieba1. arada, qristianuli piligrimobis tradiciidan
gamomdinare, momlocveli mosaloc Zeglze tovebda im wmindanisadmi mimarTul savedrebel warweras, romeli wmindanis saxelsac
es Zegli ukavSirdeboda. swored amitom vfiqrobT, rom somexi, ise
rogorc bevri sxva erovnebis momlocvelisaTvis, garejis udabno,
pirvel rigSi, ierusalimis madlis matarebeli wminda adgili iyo.
rogorc cnobilia, wm. daviTis mier ierusalimidan madlis qvis
Camotanis Semdeg am mxarem ierusalimis madlis mesamedi SeiZina
(qarTlis cxovreba 1955, 210). Sua saukuneebSi yvelas ar hqonda imis fizikuri da materialuri SesaZlebloba, rom macxovris saflavis mosalocad ierusalimSi gamgzavrebuliyo, amitom kavkasiis
regionSi mcxovrebi sxvadasxva erovnebis qristianebi ierusalimis
moulocvelobiT gamowveul ukmarisobis grZnobas garejis samjeradi molocviT awonasworebdnen.
saintereso cnobebi Semogvinaxa XVII saukunis saqarTveloSi
arsebuli sazogadoebrivi da politikuri viTarebis Sesaxeb mefe
Teimuraz I-is miwveviT 1638 wels kaxeTSi myofi ruseTis elCobis
angariSma, romelic, sxvasTan erTad, Seicavs cnobebs imdroindeli
sasuliero cxovrebis Sesaxebac. elCebi xazgasmiT aRniSnaven, rom
qarTul marTlmadideblur taZrebSi siamovnebiT dadian somexi
mlocvelebic, umetesad im wmindanis xsenebis dResa da im dResaswaulze, romlis saxelzec taZaria nakurTxi, agreTve im dReebSi,
roca marTlmadidebluri da somxuri saeklesio dResaswaulebi
erTmaneTs emTxveva ( 1892, 18). CvenTvis cnobilia imis magaliTic, roca qarTveli marTlmadideblebi gansakuTrebul
SemTxvevaSi somxur taZrebs moilocavdnen. es cnoba niko nikolaZis mogonebebSia daculi. rogorc avtori wers, papis loginad Cavardnis Semdeg, rCevis sakiTxavad mowveul `sapatio xucessa~ da
mkiTxavs ojaxis wevrebisTvis urCeviaT, avadmyofTan erTad Cxaris,
skandes, cxinvalisa da goris wm. giorgis saxelobis eklesiebi
moelocaT. gorijvris eklesiaSi asvlamde, ojaxis wevrebs goris
yvela qarTuli da somxuri eklesia moulocavT da iq dabrZane-

qarTul-somxuri konfesiuri Semwynarebloba Sua saukuneebSi

471

buli wm. giorgis xatebisTvis ZRvenic miurTmeviaT (nikolaZe 1984,


17).
sruliad gamorCeul movlenad migvaCnia 1820 wels somxur
locvaTa krebulis dastambva, romelSic somxuri teqsti qarTuli
transkrifciiTaa mocemuli (mwyemsi 1886, 5)2. 1845 wels TbilisSi
somxuri locvebis qarTuli Targmanic gamouciaT. winasityvaobaSi
somexi episkoposi Semdegs aRniSnavs: `radgan saqarTveloSi mcxovreb somxebis umetesma nawilma Tavis samSoblo ena ar icis da
amitom ekklesiaSi RvTis msaxurebis, romelic sruldeba somxur
enaze, araferi gaegeba, amitom me somxuris enidam es vrceli locvani qarTulad gadmovTargmne da davbeWde. Cemis azriT, am saxiT
is somxebi, romelTac Tavisi deda-ena ar ician da mudam qarTul
enaze laparakoben, ufro Seigneben RvTis msaxurebis mniSvnelobas
da Zalas~ (mwyemsi 1886, 5). Cven SesaZleblad migvaCnia, rom somex
moqaleqeebs somxurad wera ara scodnodaT, magram naklebad savaraudoa, rom maT XIX saukunis pirveli naxevrisTvis mSobliuri
ena daviwyebuli hqonodaT. swored amitom, vfiqrobT, rom somxur
`locvaTa~ orive gamocema ZiriTadad grigorianul sarwmunoebaze
moqceuli qarTvelebisTvis iyo gankuTvnili. am mosazrebas ganamtkicebs is faqtic, rom grigorianel mRvdelTa prozelituri saqmianoba saqarTveloSi, gansakuTrebiT, XIX saukunis 20-iani wlebidan gaaqtiurda.
konfesiuri Semwynareblobis gamorCeuli magaliTia ganviTarebul SuasaukuneebSi somex monofizit moxeleTa saqarTvelos
saxelisuflo samsaxurSi Cayenebis faqtebic. kargadaa cnobili,
rom konfesiurma gansxvavebam xeli ar SeuSala mefe Tamars amirspasalaroba zaqaria mxargrZelisTvis, xolo aTabagoba _ ivane
mxargrZelisTvis eboZebina iseve, rogorc somexTa monofizitoba
ar gamxdara barieri daviT aRmaSeneblisa da erekle II-Tvis, raTa
`mwvaleblebi~ xelosnobisa da vaWrobis gasacxoveleblad saqarTveloSi daesaxlebinaT. somxebsa da qarTvelebs Soris arsebuli
konfesiuri Semwynarebloba xSirad politikuri saWiroebiT iyo
ganpirobebuli. am TvalsazrisiT sainteresoa TxzulebaSi `cxovreba qarTvel mefeTa~ gamJRavnebuli armenofiluri tendenciis
Taobaze istorikos al. abdalaZis mier gamoTqmuli mosazreba.
mkvlevars miaCnia, rom amgvari tendenciis erT-erTi mizezi is unda yofiliyo, rom Txzulebis Seqmnis droisaTvis, anu XI saukuneSi, rodesac dRis wesrigSi mTeli seriozulobiT dadga saqarTvelosaTvis somxeTis SemoerTebis amocana, warmoiSva somxeTsa da
saqarTveloSi mcxovrebi somexi erovnebis mosaxleobis mxardaWeris mopovebis aucilebloba, rac saqarTvelos gavlenian saekle-

472

l. mirianaSvili

sio da saero wreebSi arsebuli antimonofizituri ganwyobilebis


Serbilebis SemTxvevaSi ufro advili mosapovebeli iqneboda (abdalaZe 1987, 189). Tumca, zemoT moyvanili magaliTebi saSualebas
iZleva davaskvnaT, rom konfesiuri Semwynareblobis erTaderTi
ganmsazRvreli piroba mxolod politikuri saWiroeba ar yofila.
arsebobda gacilebiT ufro martivi cxovrebiseuli mizezebi, kerZod, somxebisa da qarTvelebis mravalsaukunovani Tanacxovreba,
istoriuli maxsovroba da saerTo mtris winaaRmdeg gaerTianebis
gamocdileba.
L
literatura
abdalaZe 1987 _ a. abdalaZe, `cxovreba qarTvelTa mefeTas~
armenofiluri tradiciis mizezebisTvis. macne, # 4. Tbilisi.
mwyemsi 1886 _ `mwyemsi~, # 33. 1886.
meliqseT-begi 1940 _ l. meliqseT-begi, garejis `mravalmTis~
somxuri epigrafika da poligloturi warwera _ qarTul-somxursparsul-uiRuruli. akad. n. maris saxelobis enis, istoriisa da
materialuri kulturis institutis moambe. V-VI. Tbilisi.
nikolaZe 1984 _ n. nikolaZe, mogonebebi. Tbilisi.
qarTlis cxovreba 1955 _ qarTlis cxovreba. t. I. teqsti dadgenilia yvela ZiriTadi xelnaweris mixedviT s. yauxCiSvilis mier.
Tbilisi.
jojua 2001 _ T. jojua, garejis udabnos monastris 1467
wlis qarTuli da somxuri warwerebis avtoris identifikaciisaTvis. Analecta Iberica. I. aRmosavleT da samxreT evropis kldis Zeglebi. Tbilisi.
1892 . ,
, 11. 1892.
1985 . , : .
, 1985.

kavkasiologiuri Ziebani CAUCASIOLOGIC PAPERS


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477

L. Mirianashvili (Tbilisi)
The Georgian-Armenian Confessional Liberalism in the Middle Ages
Summary
Numerous Medieval graffiti scratched by pilgrims, some twenty of them written
in Armenian, are found on the plastered walls of different caves in the monasteries of
Gareji wilderness. Leon Meliqset-Beg, Armenian scholar who was a citizen of Georgia,
was the first to publish Armenian graffiti of Gareji. He considered that the graffiti were
scratched by those Armenians, who moved to Georgia and settled there after the fall of
the Armenian kingdom, and after the disastrous earthquake of 1319. Graffiti of the later
period are also found in Gareji. One of them is a graffito, which was earlier found in the
main church of Udabno Monastery (The inscription did not survive): I, Hovanes of
Tbilisi, wrote this in the year of 916 (=1467). Three more graffiti scratched by the
same Hovanes, though in Georgian language, are found on other walls of the church. It
is of special note that one of the three Georgian inscriptions is written in mkedruli
script, and the remaining two in asomtavruli script. The graffiti are scratched with
skilled hand. One can conclude that Hovanes, apart from the Armenian spoke Georgian
as well, and he could write by use of two different Georgian scripts. Here follows the
graffito in mkhedruli script, which is more informative than the two others: I, the sinner priest Iovane, Armenian citizen, had a grace to visit the grave of St. David. Those
who pardon me, may find salvation thanks to his grace. Written in qronikoni rne
(=1467). Temo Jojua has identified Hovanes / Iovane and established his confessional
belonging. As it turned out, Hovanes was a bookman and calligrapher, priest of an Armenian church in Tbilisi. Taking into consideration his occupation, as well as the content of colophons on margins of the manuscripts copied by Hovanes, we can say for
sure that he was the Monophysite priest. Temo Jojuas research resulted in arguments,
which corroborate opinion on Monophysite belonging of Hovanes under consideration,
earlier expressed by Paruir Muradyan. The fact of pilgrimage of a Monophysite priest to
the Orthodox Holy place is an evidence for abolishment of the restriction issued in
608/609 by Catholicos of Armenia Abraham. According to the restriction, Armenian
Monophysites were forbidden: to say a prayer jointly with the Georgian Diophysites, to
pray in the Holy Cross Church in Mtskheta, to admit the Georgians to Armenian
churches, to merry them, to make friends with them, to feed children of each other, and
to participate in joint feasts. Special emphasis on the Holy Cross Church in Mtskheta
was made because the church was especially popular among the Armenians. It is worth
to mention an account, according to which Smbat Bagratuni was born only after his

478

childless parents supplicated to the Holy Cross Church in Mtskheta and made it a donation.
The Monophysite Armenians could not have fulfilled their goals of pilgrimage to
the Orthodox Holy places if not the will on the part of the Orthodox Georgians. Such
willingness undoubtedly existed. Though, one should recollect a special enactment issued by the Synodal Office, forbidding the Georgian monks to open doors of their
churches to the Armenian pilgrims, and demanding from them to be cautious of services
delivered by Armenien priests. Armenian graffiti scratched on the wall of one of the
caves in Gareji wilderness shows that not only the single Armenian pilgrims visited the
site: I, the sinner and worthless Barseg, visited this Holy place together with 100 pilgrims in 1131 (=1682). This is indeed an impressive number. Confessional belonging
of the above pilgrims has not been studied yet. They might have been Diophysite Armenians as well.
The Russian ambassadors visiting Kingdom of Kakheti in1638 noted in their accounts that the Armenians readily visited Georgian Orthodox Churches, especially during Church Festivals, and during the feasts when they coincided with the Armenian
ones. We are also aware of the fact that in extraordinary circumstances the Orthodox
Georgians went to pray to the Armenian church. The account is found in memoirs of the
prominent public figure Niko Nikoladze. According to the account, when the grandfather of Niko fell seriously ill, his family was suggested to go on pilgrimage to the Orthodox churches consecrated in the name of St. George in Ckhara, Scande, Tskhinvali
and Gori. While in Gori, prior to ascending the mountain where the Gorijvari church
stood, the family said prayer in several churches, including the Armenian ones.
From the examples given above we can draw the conclusion that cohabitation of
the Georgian and Armenian people and their joint expectation for invasions of the enemies have promoted confessional liberalism in them. This becomes apparent not only in
admission of Armenian pilgrims to Orthodox churches and monasteries, but in engagement of the Monophysite Armenians in state affairs. As it is well known, Zakaria and
Ivane Mkhargrdzelis, despite their confessional belonging, held high posts at the court
of Queen Tamar. The same attitude towards Monophysite Armenians was observed
during the reign of king David the Builder and king Erekle II, who settled Armenians in
Georgia to promote craftsmanship and trade. I consider that the confessional liberalism
among Armenians and Georgians was conditioned by the worldly necessities.

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, 60- 70 . XVIII .
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kavkasiologiuri Ziebani CAUCASIOLOGIC PAPERS


II

2010

j. raxaevi (nalCiki)
XVI_XIX saukuneebis osmaluri wyaroebi
adiReelTa (CerqezTa) Sesaxeb
reziume
istoriuli adiRemcodneobis erT-erT prioritetul mimarTulebas dRes warmoadgens aRmosavluri, upirveles yovlisa, osmalur-yirimuli wyaroebis gamoyeneba.
yabardosa da CrdilodasavleT CerqezeTis gviandeli Sua saukuneebis politikuri istoriis adekvaturi asaxvisaTvis naSromSi Cven SevecadeT gadmogveca aRniSnuli problemis Sesaxeb xelmisawvdom wyaroTa mokle
analizi. statiaSi warmodgenilia mniSvnelovani osmaluri naratiuli wyaroebi Crdilo kavkasiis xalxTa, kerZod, adiReelTa Sesaxeb.

J. Rakhaev (Nalchik)
Ottoman Sources of the 16-19th cc. on Adygens (Circassians)
Summary
One of the priorities of the historical adygology at the present stage is
to include the eastern, primarily Ottoman-Crimean source sfor adequate display of the
political history of Kabarda and North-Western Circassia in the late medieval period. In
this paper I attempt to give a brief overview of sources available to me on this issue.
The article presents information about the principal Ottoman sources of the 16-19th
cc. about the peoples of the North Caucasus in particular about Adygens in particular.

kavkasiologiuri Ziebani CAUCASIOLOGIC PAPERS


II

2010

i. tatiSvili (Tbilisi)
erTi xeTuri formulis warmoSobisTvis
boRazqois
arqivSi
aRmoCenil
xeTur
lursmul
ZeglTa
mniSvnelovan nawils religiuri Sinaarsis teqstebi Seadgens. maT
Soris gansakuTrebuli adgili uWiravs sxvadasxva ritualis
mravalricxovan aRwerilobebs, rac adasturebs ritualebis did
rols xeTuri sazogadoebis cxovrebaSi. xeTur aRwerilobebSi
damowmebuli samefo sadResaswaulo ritualebis erT-erT ZiriTad
moqmedebas da struqturul elements warmoadgenda RvTaebis
daleva. am moqmedebas umravles SemTxvevaSi win uZRoda mefisa da
dedoflis saritualo taxtze dasma sxvadasxva saritualo
moqmedebis TanxlebiT. RvTaebis dalevas axlda msxverplis
Sewirva, msxverplSesxureba, simRera da sxvadasxva musikalur
instrumentze dakvra.
RvTaebis daleva aRiniSneba formuliT, romelSic zmna
daleva (xeT. eku-) SeiTanxmebs RvTaebis saxels sxvadasxva
brunvaSi. es sakulto-saritualo formula didi xania xeTologTa
diskusiis sagans warmoadgens. azrTa sxvadasxvaobas iwvevs am
SeTanxmebaTa interpretacia.
CvenTvis saintereso formulaSi RvTaebis saxeli umravles
SemTxvevaSi dgas akuzativSi, rac gamoixateba an brunvis
daboloebiT (-n), an sintaqsuri konstruqciiT: zogjer saxels
nulovani maCvenebeli aqvs, magram brunva akuzativad unda
miviCnioT magaliTad, dZuliyan akuanzi (isini) svamen RvTaeba culias

(isini) svamen RvTaeba


(KBo 20.5 obv. 9); dKarmahilin akuanzi
qarmaxilis (KUB 11.34 V 51-52). RvTaebaTa saxelebi am SemTxvevebSi
fonetikurad aris gadmocemuli da akuzativis daboloeba aqvs (-n).
RvTaebis saxeli SeiZleba logografiuladac iyos gadmocemuli.
aseT SemTxvevaSi akuzativis daboloeba (-n) aisaxeba fonetikur
komplementSi: magaliTad, dUTU-un ekuzi (is) svams mzis RvTaebas
(KUB 33.79 IV? 12); dDAG-in ... NAG-anzi/aku(w)anzi (isini) svamen
RvTaebriv taxts (KUB 55.60 IV? 7- 8 // KUB 58.31 rev. 20-21).
formulis akuzatiuri konstruqcia SeiZleba sxva gziTac
gadmoices: magaliTad, apn DINGIR-LUM ... ekuzi (isini) svamen am
RvTaebas (KUB 10.72 V 18-19) (akuzatiur konstruqciaze miuTiTebs
CvenebiTi nacvalsaxelis brunva); n-u DINGIRME... akkukizzi maT _
RvTaebebs ... (is) svams xolme (KUB 27.16 IV 26-27) (akuzatiur
konstruqciaze
miuTiTebs
mesame
piris
piris
enklitikuri
nacvalsaxelis brunva); dUD-AM akuwanzi (isini) svamen RvTaebriv
dRes (KUB 39.64 6) (Sumerogramis aqaduri Sesatyvisi MUM dRe,
fonetikuri komplementis mixedviT, dgas akuzativSi _ MAM); dUTU

erTi xeTuri formulis warmoSobisTvis

489

LAMMA takna dUTU-un kuinna arhayan ... ekuzi (is) svams mzis RvTaebas,
mfarvel RvTaebas, miwis mzis RvTaebas _ TiToeuls cal-calke
(KUB 30.24 II 19-20, KUB 39.33 III 7-9) (akuzatiur konstruqciaze
miuTiTebs erT-erTi RvTaebis saxelis (dUTU-un) da nacvalsaxelis
kuinna
brunvis
daboloeba.
danarCeni
RvTaebebis
saxelebi
gadmocemulia ideogramebiT fonetikuri komplementebis gareSe,
magram eWvs ar iwvevs is, rom am CamonaTvalSi es saxelebic
akuzativSi unda idges).
gvaqvs am sakulto-saritualo aqtTan dakavSirebiT RvTaebaTa
ufro grZeli siebic: magaliTad, [... eku]zi dUTU dMe[zzu]lla [dTel]ipinn
d
GAL.ZU [dTa]hpill[a]n [d?GUN]NI-an duumahin ... (is) svams: mzis
RvTaebas, meculas, Telifinus, galzus, Taxfilanus, RvTaebriv
keras, susumaxis (KUB 2.6 I 2-5). mocemul siaSi Tavmoyrilia
akuzatiuri konstruqciis gadmocemis sxvadasxvanairi SemTxveva _
zmna
dalevis
obieqti/RvTaebis
saxeli
gadmocemulia:
logogramulad,
brunvis
daboloebis
mqone
fonetikuri
komplementiT ( [d?GUN]NI-an) da mis gareSec (dUTU, dGAL.ZU);
fonetikurad, akuzativis niSniT (duumahin); nulovani daboloebiT
(dMe[zzu]lla); bolo xmovnis dagrZelebiT ([dTa]hpill[a]n) an akuzativis
markeriT
da
imavdroulad
bolo
xmovnis
dagrZelebiTac
([dTel]ipinn).
zogierT SemTxvevaSi ki RvTaebis saxeli dgas dativSi
(magaliTad, ANA dU ekuzzi (is) svams amindis RvTaebisTvis /mis
sadideblad (KBo 21.36 marjvena sveti 7), sadac RvTaebis saxeli
logogramulad aris mocemuli, xolo datiur konstruqcias
gadmoscems aqaduri windebuli ANA) an nominativSi, rogorc es
Semdeg frazebSia: dKatahzipuri ... ekuzi (is) svams qalRmerT
qaTaxcifuris (Bo 4846:10); ... dGule dKuduili dKuduahili d[Drawa
d
Anzil]i dZukki GUNNI dZilipri [dEN.ZU MUL(-) ... GE6-a]nza dHaammeli .
MUNUS.LUGAL-a dHaritai[ dHilai] ... annarin tarpin ... ekuzi. RvTaebaTa am
grZel CamonaTvalSi nominativis brunvaSi gvxvdebian: bedisweris
qalRmerTebi/ dGule, quduili, qudusaxili, ancili, cuqi, cilifuri,
RvTaebis epiTeti Savi/ GE6-a]nza, xasamili, xarisTasi, [xilasi]) (
KUB 32.87 rev. 21-25 + KBo 23.72 rev. 31-33).
sadavoa rogorc am formulaTa urTierTmimarTeba, aseve maTi
Sinaarsi.
vinc
am
formulebs
erTmaneTisagan
funqciurad
ganasxvavebs, cxadia, maT gansxvavebuladac Targmnis. formula,
romelSic eku- gvxvdeba irib obieqtTan _ RvTaebis saxelTan
dativSi, Cveulebriv, iTargmneba rogorc daleva RvTaebisTvis,
RvTaebis sadideblad. formula nominatiuri konstruqciiT
Secdomad aris miCneuli. magram rogor unda gavigoT es formula
im SemTxvevaSi, rodesac RvTaebis saxeli pirdapir damatebad
gvevlineba? aq vxvdebiT Targmanisa da interpretaciis sxvadasxva
versias: RvTaebis daleva = dalevineba, dasalevad micema;1
msxverplSesxureba, romelic ZiriTadad mefe-dedoflis mier
sruldeboda xaTuri warmoSobis sadResaswaulo ritualebis
dros; mistikuri moqmedeba, msgavsi qristianuli ziarebisa.1

490

i. tatiSvili

arsebobs
mosazreba
mocemuli
formulis
datiuri
da
akuzatiuri konstruqciebis identurobis Sesaxeb. magram am
SemTxvevaSic sadavod rCeba rogorc am faqtis axsna, aseve
formulis interpretacia. Cemi azriT, xeTuri enisaTvis am ucxo
sintaqsur konstruqciebSi gasarkvevad aucilebelia CvenTvis
saintereso formulis warmoSobis gaTvaliswineba.
pirvelad i. fuhvelma gamoTqva mosazreba imis Sesaxeb, rom eku+ RvTaebis saxeli akuzativSi identuria formulisa, romelSic
saxeli dativSi dgas. i. fuhvelis Tanaxmad, orive SemTxvevaSi
fraza unda vTargmnoT rogorc daleva RvTaebis pativsacemad,
sadideblad.1 am mosazrebas bevrma mecnierma dauWira mxari. k.
melCertis TqmiT, ritualur gamoTqmaSi _ RvTaebis daleva
arsebiTad iribi obieqti, damatebiTi sintaqsuri transformaciis
Sedegad, formalurad pirdapir obieqtad iqceva. akuzatiuri
konstruqcia
mxolod
da
mxolod
sintaqsuri
variantia
struqturisa RvTaebis saxeliT dativSi. is xedavs msgavs
struqturebs xeTur saritualo konteqstebSi da gamoTqvams
varauds
xeTurSi
dadasturebuli
am
fenomenis
winareindoevropuli warmoSobis Sesaxeb.1
diskusia, romelic jer kidev 1917 wels b. hroznim wamoiwyo
imiT, rom pirvelma miaqcia yuradReba aRniSnul sakultosaritualo formulas, dRemde grZeldeba. amas adasturebs
uaxlesi gamokvlevebi, romlebic ekuTvnis o. soisals1 da p.
godegebuures1.
o. soisalis azriT, es ritualuri formula, marTalia, ar aris
xaTur teqstebSi dadasturebuli, magram unda momdinareobdes
xaTuri gamoTqmidan. xeTur frazaSi RvTaebis saxelis -n
daboloebaSi unda amovicnoT xaTuri dativis markeri, romelic
formalurad Tanxvdeba xeTuri akuzativis daboloebas. soisalis
TqmiT, savaraudoa, rom xeTebs, am formaluri msgavsebis gamo,
xaTuri
datiuri
konstruqcia
frazisa
aReqvaT
akuzatiur
konstruqciad, Tumca xeTur teqstebSive dadasturebuli ANA
windebuliani datiuri konstruqciebi ufro zustad gamoxatavs
xaTur gamoTqmas, romelic ase iTargmneba: daleva RvTaebisTvis/
RvTaebis sadideblad. iqidan gamomdinare, rom frazis xmarebis
SemTxvevaTa umravlesobaSi RvTaebis saxeli swored akuzativSi
gvxvdeba, soisali askvnis, rom RvTaebis saxelis Tavdapirvelad
formaluri /fiqtiuri xeTuri akuzativi iqca ukve namdvil
xeTur akuzativad.1
me viziareb mosazrebas, rom mravali kultisa da maTTan
dakavSirebuli ritualis msgavsad, CvenTvis saintereso sakultosaritualo moqmedeba da misi gamomxatveli formulac xeTebs
xaTebisgan unda aeRoT. swored religiisa da kultis sferoSi
gansakuTrebiT didi iyo xaTebis gavlena xeTebze. marTalia,
teqstebi, romlebSic es formulaa dadasturebuli sxvadasxva
qronologiuri Tu eTnikuri plastis gamoyofis saSualebas
iZleva, magram yvelaze Zvel saritualo aRwerilobebSi swored
xaTuri RvTaebebi gvxvdebian aRniSnul frazaSi.

erTi xeTuri formulis warmoSobisTvis

491

Cemi azriT, eWvs arc is unda iwvevdes, rom aRniSnuli


formulis sxvadasva sintaqsuri konstruqcia erTsa da imave azrs
gamoxatavs.
zemoT
naxsenebi
akuzatiuri
da
datiuri
konstruqciebis gverdiT, Cemi azriT, ar aris ugulebelsayofi
arc nominatiuri konstruqciac.
aRniSvnis Rirsia isic, rom xeTur
sakulto-saritualo
konteqstebSi eku-s msgavs, xeTuri enisTvis ucnaur sintaqsur
struqturebSi sxva xeTuri zmnebic gvxvdeba. magaliTad, irhai(Semovla, wris dartyma, saritualo teqstebSi: RvTaebebis
Semovla maTTvis msxverplis SewirviT); ipant- msxverplSewirva,
msxverplSesxureba, wahnu- (gardamavali zmna) rxeva, qneva,
triali. sanimuSod movitan ramdenime frazas:
nu takna dUTU-i (dativSi) BAL-andahhi/ipandahhi nu kian temi miwis
mzis qalRmerTs msxverpls Sevwirav da Semdegs vityvi (KBo 17.28 I
18-19);
[nu] mahhan lSANGA ITU GAL ANA DINGIR-LIM ipanti [da] rodesac
qurumi TasiT RvTaebas msxverpls usxurebs (KBo 13.164 IV 12)
(dativs gadmoscems aqaduri windebuli ANA);
nu DINGIRME URUHatti tuzziyas dIKUR-an dZA.BA.BA-an ipanzakizzi
xaTis RvTaebebs _ laSqris amindis RvTaebas (akuzativSi) (da)
zababas (akuzativSi) msxverpls swiravs xolme (KUB 4.1 III 8-9).
xeTurSi erTi da imave azris sxvadasxva sintaqsuri variantiT
gadmocema SeiZleba, marTlac, aixsnas SecdomiT xaTuridan am
formulis SeTvisebisas. magram soisalisgan gansxvavebiT, me
naklebad damajerebeli mgonia, rom xeTi qurumebi an gadamwerebi
ver garkveuliyvnen brunvis daboloebaSi (-n) da areodaT xaTuri
dativi xeTur akuzativSi maTi formaluri msgavsebis safuZvelze.
Cemi azriT, ufro savaraudoa, rom Secdomis safuZveli yofiliyo
xeTebisTvis ucxo struqtura xaTuri enisa.
indoevropuli xeTuri ena tradiciulad iTvleba akuzatiuri
wyobis enad1 _ rogorc gardamavali, aseve gardauvali zmnis
subieqti dgas nominativSi, gardamavali zmnis pirdapiri obieqtis
brunva akuzativia.
rac Seexeba, xaTurs, aq mecnierTa azrebi iyofa. erTni,
aRiareben ra xaTuri winadadebis konstruqciis ergatiul xasiaTs,
xaTurs ergatiuli tipis enad miiCneven,1 sxvebi
ki mis
ergatiulobas eWvqveS ayeneben. magaliTad, i. klingeris azriT, ver
vilaparakebT xaTuris ergatiulobaze iqidan gamomdinare, rom
gardamaval da gardauval zmnaTa subieqti TiTqos ar ganirCeva
arc brunvis niSnis da arc zmnis piris niSnis doneze.1
winamdebare statiaSi Cems mizans ar warmoadgens xaTuri enis
ergatiuli wyobis mtkiceba an misi uaryofa. ubralod, minda
gavavlo paraleli qarTul enasTan, rac SeiZleba meTodologiuri
TvalsazrisiT saintereso aRmoCndes Cven mier ganxiluli xeTuri
formulis
sintaqsuri
variantebis
asaxsnelad
da
xeTebis
savaraudo Secdomis meqanizmSi gasarkvevad. aqve aRvniSnav, rom am
naSromSi me ar vexebi sakiTxs xaTuri enis genetikuri kavSirebisa
da kavkasiur enebTan misi mimarTebis Sesaxeb. 1 vimedovneb, rom am

492

i. tatiSvili

problemas sxvagan kidev movubrundebi. qarTulis magaliTi aq


mxolod imisTvis momaqvs, rom vaCveno qvemoT gamoTqmuli varaudis
Teoriuli SesaZlebloba. magaliTebis motana, cxadia, sxva
(kavkasiuri) enebidanac SeiZleboda.
rogorc cnobilia, qarTul enaSi, romelic amJRavnebs rogorc
nominatiuri, aseve ergatiuli wyobis niSnebs, I seriis formebSi
gardamaval da gardauval zmnebSi ar gansxvavdeba subieqturi
piris niSnebi, Tumca pirdapiri obieqtis brunva, nacvlad
akuzativisa (romelic qarTulSi saerTod ar gvaqvs) micemiTia
(magaliTad, mefe svams RvTaebis sadidebels).
subieqti ergativSi (moTxrobiT brunvaSi) mxolod gardamavali
zmnis namyo srul formasTan gvxvdeba (anu meore seriis formebSi).
aseT
SemTxvevaSi
pirdapiri
obieqti
saxelobiT
brunvaSia
(magaliTad, mefem dalia/Sesva RvTaebis sadidebeli).
me am SemTxvevaSi mainteresebs, xom ar SeiZleba msgavsi ram
vivaraudoT xaTurSi?
xaTurSi, codnis dRevandel doneze, rig SemTxvevaSi, obieqtis
brunvis niSnad SeiZleba gavigoT -u/-tu. mkvlevarTa Soris sadavoa,
romel brunvas Seesabameba igi dativs/irib brunvas Tu
akuzativs.1 rogorc r. gordeziani aRniSnavs, gaugebrobas is
qmnis,
rom
am
daboloebis
Semcveli,
sakmaod
iSviaTad
dadasturebuli formebi SeiZleba sintaqsur konstruqciaSi
gaviazroT rogorc pirdapiri damateba (rac akuzativs unda
moiTxovdes indo-evropul enaTa gaTvaliswinebiT) da aseve
rogorc iribi damateba (rac dativs moiTxovs).1 es winaaRmdegoba
advilad ixsneba qarTveluri enebis gaTvaliswinebiT, sadac
micemiT brunvas SeuZlia winadadebis konstruqciis Sesabamisad
gadmosces rogorc pirdapiri, aseve iribi damateba.
magram davubrundeT isev xeTur saritualo formulas. advili
warmosadgenia, rom akuzatiuri tipologiis enaze molaparakeAKE
indoevropeli xeTebisTvis, romelTac pirdapiri obieqtisTvis
hqondaT mxolod akuzativi (an nominativ-akuzativi saSualo sqesis
arsebiTi saxelebisTvis), ar unda yofiliyo advili xaTur
sintaqsur konstruqciebSi garkveva. iqneb, amiT SeiZleba aixsnas
maTi gadmocemisas sxvadasxva variantis gaCena _ obieqtiT dativSi,
nominativsa Tu akuzativSi?
iqidan gamomdinare, rom yvelaze xSirad mocemuli formulis
akuzatiur versias vxvdebiT, xeTebi RvTaebis saxels, albaT,
pirdapir obieqtad warmoidgendnen, xolo versiebi RvTaebis
saxeliT sxvadasxva brunvaSi SeiZleba asaxavdes im faqts, rom
pirdapiri
obieqti
xaTurSi
SeiZleba
sxvadasxva
brunvaSi
mdgariyo. magram rogor unda gavigoT xaTuri gamoTqma RvTaebis
daleva? rogor unda gavigoT RvTaebis saxeli pirdapiri
obieqtis rolSi? rogorc Cans, es iyo idiomaturi gamoTqma,
erTgvari
abreviatura, romelic
SeiZleba
aRdges
rogorc
RvTaebis Tasis /sadideblis daleva.
aRsaniSnavia, rom Zveli axlo aRmosavleTis sxva qveynebSi
(SuamdinareTSi, aRmosavleT xmelTaSuazRvispireTSi...) amgvari

erTi xeTuri formulis warmoSobisTvis

493

sakulto-saritualo moqmedeba _ RvTaebis sadideblis daleva _


dadasturebuli ar Cans. amaSi xedavda, sxvaTa Soris, CvenTvis
saintereso
frazis
aseTi
interpretaciisTvis
erT-erT
kontrarguments a. kamenhuberic, romelic aRniSnavda, rom Targmani
_
RvTaebis
sadideblis
daleva
iqneboda
dRevandeli
sadRegrZeloebis Tavs moxveva xeTi morwmunisTvis, mkrexeloba da
a.S.1
magram SeiZleba gavixsenoT aRmosavleT saqarTvelos mTianeTis
zepirsityvier
tradiciaSi
SemorCenili
sakulto
teqstebi.
TvalSisacemia am teqstebis struqturuli msgavseba xeTur
aRwerilobebTan. xeTuri saritualo teqstebis im pasaJebs, sadac
RvTaebaTa dalevaa aRwerili, Cemi azriT, sakmaod hgavs agreTve
svanuri sadResaswaulo nadimebi, romlis drosac aucileblad
unda Sesmuliyo im RvTaebis sadidebeli sadRegrZelo, romlis
saxelzec imarTeboda dResaswauli. 1
me vfiqrob, rom es analogiebi qarTvelur samyarosTan
mravalmxriv aris saintereso: isini amyareben Cven mier ganxiluli
da
Zveli
axlo
aRmosavleTis
masStabiT
erTi
SexedviT
uprecedento xeTuri saritualo formulis Targmans da mis
interpretacias rogorc RvTaebis (sadideblis) dalevas; es
dakvirveba, SesaZloa, gasaTvaliswinebeli iyos xaTur-qarTveluri
kontaqtebis Seswavlisas, amis garda, es dakvirvebebi, Tavis mxriv,
SeiZleba mniSvnelovani aRmoCndes qarTul eTnografiul masalaSi
(svanuri dReobebi, aRmosavleT saqarTvelos mTianeTis xucobani)
uZvelesi plastis kvlevisas da kidev erTxel adasturebdes imas,
rom qarTuli sadRegrZelo (/warsaTqmeli) magiuri sityvierebis
erT-erTi Janris _ dalocvis, locva-vedrebis ganviTarebul
formas warmoadgens, gamoxatavs ra saweso sufris sakralur
funqcias.1

Lliteratura
giorgaZe 1999 _ gr. giorgaZe, xaTuri (protoxeTuri) ena da
xaTebi (protoxeTebi). kr. xeTologiuri da qarTvelologiuri
Ziebani. Tbilisi.
gordeziani 2007 _ r. gordeziani, mediteranul-qarTveluri
mimarTebebi. I. sawyisebi. Tbilisi.
gociriZe 2007 _ g. gociriZe, kvebis xalxuri kultura da
sufris tradiciebi saqarTveloSi. Tbilisi.
tatiSvili 2010 _ i. tatiSvili, erTi xeTuri formulis
interpretaciisTvis. kr. kulturul-saistorio Ziebani. Tbilisi.
quTelia 2009 _ n. quTelia, akad. arnold Ciqobava lazebisa
da lazuris Sesaxeb qarTvelTa kulturul-istoriul arealSi.
kr. kavkasiologiuri Ziebani I. Tbilisi.
jvar-xatTa ... 1998 _ jvar-xatTa sadideblebi (Semdg.: z.
kiknaZe, x. mamisimediSvili, t. maxauri). Tbilisi.

494

i. tatiSvili

1980 _ . ., , .
.
1957 _ . ,
. .
1967 _ . . , () . .
. .
Friedrich - Kammenhuber 1988 _ J. Friedrich, A. Kammenhuber.
HethitischesWrterbuch. Zweite, vllig neuarbeitete Auflage auf der Grundlage der
edierten hethitischen Texte. Bd. II: E, Lief. 9-10. Heidelberg.
Girbal 1986 _ Ch. Girbal, Beitrge zur Grammatik des Hattischen. Frankfurt
a.M.
Goedegebuure 2008 _ P.M. Goedegebuure, Hattian Origins of Hittite Religious Concepts: The Syntax of to Drink a Deity (again) and other Phrases, Journal of
Ancient Near Eastern Religions 8.1, 67-73.
Goedegebuure 2010 _ P.M. Goedegebuure, The Alignment of Hattian: An
Active Language with an Ergative Base, Proceedings of the 53e Rencontre Assyriologique Internationale. Winona Lake, Indiana, 949-982.
Hoffner-Melchert 2008 _ H. A. Hoffner Jr., H.C. Melchert, A Grammar of
the Hittite Language (Languages of the Ancient Near East 1/1 and 1/2). Winona Lake,
Indiana.
2010 _ . . , . . .
Klinger 1994 _ J. Klinger, Hattisch und Schprachverwandtschaft. Hethitica
XII, 23-40.
Melchert 1981 _ H.C. Melchert, God-drinking. A Syntactic Transformation
in Hittite. Journal of Indo-European Studies 3-4, 246-254.
Puhvel 1957 _ J. Puhvel, On an alleged eucaristic expression in Hittite rituals
1. Mitteilungen des Instituts fr Orientforschung 5, 31-33.
Soysal 2004 _ O. Soysal, Hattischer Wortschatz in hethitischer Textberlieferung. Handbuch der Orientalistik, Abt. 1, Bd. 74.
Soysal 2008 _ O. Soysal, Philological Contributions to Hattian-Hittite Religion
(I). Journal of Ancient Near Eastern Religions 8.1, 45-66.
Tativili, Gordeziani 2010 _ I. Tativili, L. Gordeziani, Zur Erforschung der
hethitisch-kartwelischen religisen Parallelen. Acts of the VIIth International Congress
of Hittitology. Ankara, 309-318.
Taracha 1993 _ P. Taracha, Zum Stand der hattischen Studien: Mgliches
und unmgliches in der Erforschung des Hattischen. Atti del II Congresso
internazionale di hittitologia. Pavia, 351-358.
Taracha 1998 _ P. Taracha, Neues zu Sprache und Kultur der Hattier. Orientalistische Literaturzeitung 93/1, 9-18.
Yakubovich 2010 _ I. Yakubovich, recenzia wignze: H. A. Hoffner Jr.,
H.C. Melchert, A Grammar of the Hittite Language (Languages of the Ancient Near
East 1/1 and 1/2). Winona Lake, Indiana, 2008 _ Bibliotheca Orientalis LXVII No 1-2,
148-154.

kavkasiologiuri Ziebani CAUCASIOLOGIC PAPERS


II

2010

. ()


.
,
.
,
, .. .
,
. :
, ,
.
, (. eku-)
. -
.
, .

, (-n)
. ,
: , dZuliyan akuanzi ()
(KBo 20.5 obv. 9); dKarmailin akuanzi ()
(KUB 11.34 V 51-52).
-n.
. (-n)
: , dUTU-un ekuzi ()
(KUB 33.79 IV? 12), dDAG-in ... NAG-anzi/aku(w)anzi ()
(KUB 55.60 IV? 7- 8 // KUB 58.31 rev. 20-21).

: , apn DINGIR-LUM ... ekuzi ()
(KUB 33.79 IV? 12) (
); n-u DINGIRME... akkukizzi ... (,
) (KUB 27.16 IV 26-27) (
); dUD-AM akuwanzi ()
(KUB 39.64 6) ( MUM ,
, MAM,
); dUTU dLAMMA takna dUTU-un kuinna arayan ...
ekuzi () , -, _
(KUB 30.24 II 19-20, KUB 39.33 III 7-9) (

496


_ dUTU-un kuinna .
,
, ).
, : , [...
eku]zi dUTU dMe[zzu]lla [dTel]ipinn dGAL.ZU [dTa]pill[a]n [d?GUN]NI-an
d
uumain () , , , , ,
, (KUB 2.6 I 2-5),
: o
,
([d?GUN]NI-an), (dUTU, dGAL.ZU); ,
(duumain); (dMe[zzu]lla);
([dTa]pill[a]n)
([dTel]ipinn).
(, ANA dU ekuzzi
() / (KBo 21.36 7),
,
) (, dKatazipuri ... ekuzi ()
(Bo 4846:10);
... dGule dKuduili dKuduaili d[Drawa dAnzil]i dZukki GUNNI dZilipri
[dEN.ZU MUL(-) ... GE6-a]nza daammeli . MUNUS.LUGAL-a daritai[
d
ilai] ... annarin tarpin ... ekuzi ( ,
: / dGule, , ,
, , , / GE6-a]nza,
, , , []) (KUB 32.87 rev. 21-25 + KBo 23.72 rev.
31-33).

. , ,
-.
, eku- _
, : /
-.
.
,
?
: 1, ,

, .1

.
, . ,

.
, eku- +
,

497

, / . 1
. . ,

.
.


.1
, 1917 . ,
, .
. 1 . .1
.
,

,
. (-n)
,

ANA,
/
. ,
, O. ,

.1
,
,
.
. , ,
, ,

.
, ,
.

.
, -
, ,
eku- . , irai- ( ,
), ipant( , /), wanu- (,
).
:
nu takna dUTU-i (. ) BAL-andai/ipandai nu kian temi
(KBo 17.28 I 18-19);

498

[nu] mahhan lSANGA ITU GAL ANA DINGIR-LIM ipanti


(
ANA) (KBo 13.164 IV 12);
nu DINGIRME URUatti tuzziyas dIKUR-an dZA.BA.BA-an ipanzakizzi
( !) ( !)
(KUB 4.1 III 8-9).

.
. , ,
-n
. ,
.

1 _ ,
,
. , .
,
1, . , .
, ,
, ,
,
.1

,


. ,

.1 .
,
.
, , () .
, ,
, ,
,
(
), (, mefe svams vtaebis sadidebels).
c
(.. ) .
: (, mefem dalia/Sesva vtaebis
sadidebeli).
,
?
, , ,
-u/-tu. ,

499

/
.1
. , ,

(,
, )
( ).1 ,
, ,
, ,
.
.
, ,
,
( -
), .
,
, .
,
, , ,
.
,
. ?
? ,
, ,
(/ ) , ,
, .
, (
, )
.
. ,
,
, ..1
,
.
. , ,
, ,
, .1
,
:
(
) ( ) ;
- .
, ,
(
, )

500

, (sadegrzelo/arsatkmeli) .

. 1

1980 _ . . , .
.
1957 _ . ,
. .
1967 _ . . , () ,
. , 166-176.
Friedrich - Kammenhuber 1988 _ J. Friedrich, A. Kammenhuber, HethitischesWrterbuch. Zweite, vllig neuarbeitete Auflage auf der Grundlage der edierten
hethitischen Texte. Bd. II: E, Lief. 9-10. Heidelberg.
Giorgadze 1999 _ Gr. Giorgadze, Hattian (Protohittite) language and Hattians
(Protohittites), Hittitological and Kartvelogical Researches.Tbilisi, 168-172 ( .
.).
Girbal 1986 _ Ch. Girbal, Beitrge zur Grammatik des Hattischen, Frankfurt
a.M.
Goedegebuure 2008 _ P.M. Goedegebuure, Hattian Origins of Hittite Religious Concepts: The Syntax of to Drink a Deity (again) and other Phrases, Journal of
Ancient Near Eastern Religions 8.1, 67-73.
Goedegebuure 2010 _ P.M. Goedegebuure, The Alignment of Hattian: An
Active Language with an Ergative Base, Proceedings of the 53e Rencontre Assyriologique Internationale, Winona Lake, Indiana, 949-982.
Gordeziani 2007 _ R. Gordeziani. Mediterranea-Kartvelica I. Origins, Tbilisi
( . .).
Hoffner-Melchert 2008 _ H. A. Hoffner Jr., H.C. Melchert, A Grammar of the Hittite
Language (Languages of the Ancient Near East 1/1 and 1/2), Winona Lake, Indiana.
Gotsiridze 2007 _ G. Gotsiridze, Folk culture of food and the traditions of
Georgian feast and cuisine, Tbilisi ( . .).
Hoffner-Melchert 2008 _ H. A. Hoffner Jr., H.C. Melchert, A Grammar of
the Hittite Language (Languages of the Ancient Near East 1/1 and 1/2). Winona Lake,
Indiana.
2010 _ . . . . . , 168184.
Klinger 1994 _ J. Klinger. Hattisch und Schprachverwandtschaft. Hethitica
XII, 23-40.
2009 _ . , .
- . . I.
, 209-212.

501

Melchert 1981 _ H.C. Melchert, God-drinking. A Syntactic Transformation


in Hittite, Journal of Indo-European Studies 3-4, 246-254.
Puhvel 1957 _ J. Puhvel, On an alleged eucaristic expression in Hittite rituals
1, Mitteilungen des Instituts fr Orientforschung 5, 31-33.
Ritual Oral Texts 1998 _ Ritual Oral Texts of North-East Georgian Highlanders (eds.: Z. Kiknadze, Kh. Mamisimedishvili, T. Makhauri). Tbilisi ( . .).
Soysal 2004 _ O. Soysal, Hattischer Wortschatz in hethitischer Textberlieferung, Handbuch der Orientalistik, Abt. 1, Bd. 74.
Soysal 2008 _ O. Soysal, Philological Contributions to Hattian-Hittite Religion (I), Journal of Ancient Near Eastern Religions 8.1, 45-66.
Taracha 1993 _ P. Taracha, Zum Stand der hattischen Studien: Mgliches
und unmgliches in der Erforschung des Hattischen, Atti del II Congresso
internazionale di hittitologia, Pavia, 351-358.
Taracha 1998 _ P. Taracha, Neues zu Sprache und Kultur der Hattier,
Orientalistische Literaturzeitung 93/1, 9-18.
Tativili, Gordeziani 2010 _ I. Tativili, L. Gordeziani, Zur Erforschung der
hethitisch-kartwelischen religisen Parallelen, Acts of the VIIth International Congress
of Hittitology, Ankara, 309-318.
Tatishvili 2010 _ I. Tatishvili, To the Interpretation of a Hittite Formula, Cultural-Historical Researches, Tbilisi, 28-31 ( . .).
Yakubovich 2010 _ I. Yakubovich, : H. A. Hoffner Jr.,
H.C. Melchert, A Grammar of the Hittite Language (Languages of the Ancient Near
East 1/1 and 1/2), Winona Lake, Indiana, 2008 _ Bibliotheca Orientalis LXVII No 1-2,
148-154.

I. Tatishvili (Tbilisi)
Towards the Origin of One Hittite Formula
Summary
The present article studies a Hittite ritual formula d(DN) eku- (to drink a deity) which is still in dispute among the scholars owing to its syntactic structures unusual
for the Hittite language.
I suggest that this formula is an erroneous adoption from the Hattian. Presumably, the Hittites who spoke the language of an accusative structure typical for an
Indo-European language could have misunderstood the Hattian syntactic structures with
an underlying direct object.
Parallels from Georgian are proposed as the methodological basis to interpret
the various equivalent syntactic structures of the Hittite ritual expression to drink a
deity and to explain the mechanism of the suggested erroneous adoption.

kavkasiologiuri Ziebani CAUCASIOLOGIC PAPERS


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2010

q. quTaTelaZe (Tbilisi)
qarTvelTa gasomxebis sakiTxisaTvis
XIX-XX ss-is mijnis qarTuli periodikis mixedviT
saukuneebis manZilze saxelmwifoebriobas moklebuli somexi
eri yovelTvis cdilobda somxuri saxelmwifos aRdgenas. magram
xSir SemTxvevaSi maT am miswrafebas dampyrobeli qveynebi
TavianTi
interesebisTvis
iyenebdnen
da
amiT
fizikurad
azaralebdnen ara marto somxobas, aramed mis mezobel xalxebsac.
es politika aRvivebda xalxTa Soris SuRls, rac xSirad
dapirispirebis mizezic xdeboda. somxuri saxelmwifoebriobis
aRdgenis sakiTxis gamoyenebiT dainteresebuli iyo ruseTis
imperia. saqarTvelo, rogorc subieqti, Tavisi xelsayreli
mdebareobiT yovelTvis dominantis rols asrulebda kavkasiaSi da
zogadkavkasiuri kulturis centri iyo, ris gamoc igi ruseTis
imperiisTvis naklebad dasayrden Zalas warmoadgenda. amitom es
ukanaskneli
cdilobda
qarTvelebis
diskriminaciis
fonze
daewinaurebina
sxva
eTnikuri
elementi,
romelic
ufro
uerTgulebda ruseTs. aseT kulturul elementad somxoba
miiCnies,
romelic
gansakuTrebiT
gamoirCeoda
erovnuli
konsolidaciisken swrafviT da mas yovelTvis zurgs umagrebda
mdidari somxuri diaspora. Tavis mxriv, somxoba, romelic
yovelTvis
iRebda
TavSesafars
saqarTveloSi,
ruseTis
mfarvelobis qveS cdilobda misTvis sasurveli qarTuli miwa
daekanonebina.
kavkasiaSi mosuli mesame Zalis mier samxreT kavkasiaSi
somxebis sxvadasxva adgilebidan fizikuri gadmosaxlebis garda,
xeli ewyoboda somexTa konfesiur politikas, Tumca amas
rwmenasTan aranairi kavSiri ar unda hqonoda da igi ufro
politizirebuli iyo, romlis mizanic gaxldaT adgilobrivi
qarTuli mosaxleobis grigorianul mrwamsze dawera, anu e.w.
`gasomxeba,
rom
eTnikuri
suraTis
mixedviT,
teritoriis
miTvisebisa da Semdeg misi kuTvnilebis sakiTxi gaemarTlebinaT.
somexi eris gamijvnas sxva erebisgan ZiriTadad gansazRvravda

qarTvelTa gasomxebis sakiTxisaTvis XIX-XX saukunis mijnis . . .

503

konfesia, romelic eris konsolidaciis mTavari berketi iyo.


maTTvis
sarwmunoeba
(ebraelebis
msgavsad)
asocirdeboda
erovnebasTan, anu vinc grigorianul mrwamss miiRebda, is maSinve
`somexi~ xdeboda iseve, rogorc marTlmadideblobaze moqceuli
somexi
`qarTvelad
iwodeboda.
`gasomxebis~
politikas
emsaxureboda,
agreTve,
qarTveli
kaTolikebis,
romlebic
RvTismsaxurebis laTinur tipikons aRiarebdnen, gadawera somex
kaTolikeTa somxur tipikonze, ris Semdegac aseT qarTvelebs
eTnikurad somxebad acxadebdnen.
ruseTis imperiis mier somxuri elementis dawinaureba
nebismier sferoSi mimdinareobda qarTvelobis lanZRvis fonze,
rodesac Cveni eri gamoyvanili iyo arafris mcodne da arafris
mqone saeWvo da gaurkveveli reputaciis naciad. mis dasacavad xma
aRimaRles XIX-XX ss-is mijnis sazogado moRvaweebma, romelTa
saerTo azri ilia WavWavaZem gaaJRera `qvaTa RaRadSi~.
XIX s-is bolosa da XX s-is pirvel meoTxedSi qarTvelTa
`gasomxebis sakiTxebs~ mTeli rigi statiebi miuZRvnes qarTuli
presis furclebze Cveni eris TvalsaCino warmomadgenlebma. ivane
gvaramaZe `vinme mesxis~ fsevdonimiT beWdavda werilebs 177-78, 1880,
1882, 1883 ww-is gazeT `droebis~ furclebze, sadac saTanado
pasuxebs scemda im somex pirebs da somxur gazeTebs, romlebic
yovlad
usafuZvlod
amtkicebdnen,
kaTolike
eTnikuri
qarTvelebis somxobas.
amasTan dakavSirebiT, Zalzed mniSvnelovania somxuri gazeT
`mSakis~ statia `qarTvelebi da somxebi~, romelic dabeWda gazeT
droebis redaqciam 217-e nomerSi. `mSakis~ redaqcia Cveuli
damamcirebeli toniT erTmaneTs adarebs
somxur da
qarTul
faseulobebs, sadac akninebs qarTuls. mas aseve eTnikur somxebad
gamohyavs kaTolike qarTvelebi, romlebic mxolod qarTuli enis
wyalobiT arian gaqarTvelebulni. `vinme mesxis~ werilebidan
gansakuTrebiT mniSvnelovania 1880 wlis `droebis~ #239 da #240Si dabeWdili statia `mSakis mza pasuxi~, sadac avtori somxuri
gazeT `mSakis~ mikerZoebul werils pasuxobs. aseve mniSvnelovania
1882 wlis #185-Si dabeWdili statia _ `xma xizabavridan~, sadac
avtori kategoriulad uaryofs qarTveli kaTolike mRvdlebis
gamocxadebas e.w. `somxis mRvdlebad~. iv. gvaramaZe aRniSnavs, rom
`sasomxeTSi somxoba ar gauvidaT da aq samesxo saqarTveloSi ara
marto wmida somxobas Cemuloben, aramed sxvebis dasomxebasac
lamian~ (droeba 1882, #185).

504

q. quTaTelaZe

1901 wlis gazeT `iveriis~ #125, 132, 198-Si da `cnobis


furcelis~ #1445 nomrebSi z. WiWinaZe beWdavda statiebs
istoriuli mesxeTis qarTveli kaTolikebis Sesaxeb, romelTac
aseve `gasomxebis~ safrTxe emuqrebodaT. statiebSi aRniSnulia,
Tu sad iyvnen isini gabneuli, ramdeni komli laparakobda
qarTulad, ramdeni iyo gasomxebuli, vinaidan zogierT sofelSi
wirva-locva somxurad mimdinareobda. 1904 wels z. WiWinaZem es
sakiTxebi dabeWda wignSi `saqarTvelos dakarguli soflebi da
qarTveli kaTolikeni~, sadac avtori mraval saintereso ucnob
istoriul masalas gvTavazobs qarTveli kaTolikebis Sesaxeb,
romlebic Tavs eTnikur qarTvelebad Tvlidnen da ara somxebad.
z. WiWnaZis cnobebs ndobiT unda movekidoT, radgan man fexdafex
Semoiara e.w. `osmalos saqarTvelo~, sadac qarTvelobis waSlas
droc da adamianebic erToblivad axdendnen (WiWinaZe 1904).
1903 wlis gazeT iveriis furclebze (#228, 230, 231, 233, 236)
ibeWdeboda
m.
TamaraSvilis
pasuxebi
mxiTaristebis
warmomadgenlis kaTolike somexi mRvdlis gabriel nahapetianis
werilze _ `somxis kaTolikebi saqarTveloSi da sakiTxi
kaTolike somexTa da qarTvelTa Soris~, romelic veneciaSi
italiur enaze dabeWda 1903 wels. am statiebSi m. TamaraSvili
akritikebs somexi mRvdlis usafuZvlo gayalbebul faqtebs
saqarTveloSi kaTolikobis gavrcelebisa da qarTvel kaTolikeTa
somxebad gamocxadebis Sesaxeb. es pasuxebi Semdeg m. TamaraSvilma
gamoaqveyna 1904 wels istoriul gamokvlevaSi _ `pasuxad somxis
mwerlebs,
romelnic
uaryofen
qarTvel
kaTolikobas
(TamaraSvili 1904). Aam naSromiT m. TamaraSvilma gailaSqra im
somex mweralTa winaaRmdeg, romelnic aseve amtkicebdnen, rom
TiTqos kavkasiaSi kaTolikebi mxolod somxebi iyvnen, rom
qarTveli kaTolikebic eTnikurad somxuri warmoSobis arian da
qarTvelTagan mxolod ena aqvT SeTvisebuli. m. TamaraSvili
usafuZvlod miiCnevs somexi avtoris interpretacias, TiTqos
kaTolikoba saqarTveloSi somex uniTorebs gauvrcelebiaT da
isic mxolod mahmadianTagan devnil somxebSi. aseTi somxebis
ricxvi imdenad didi yofila, rom TiTqos maT saepiskoposo
kaTedra dauarsebiaT TbilisSi da Svidi episkoposi hyoliaT,
saqarTveloSi Tu vinme kaTolike iyo, yvela eTnikurad somexi
yofila. qarTveli mecnieri samarTlianad akritikebs somex avtors
da dasZens, rom somexi uniTorebi XVI s-Si Semovidnen, manamde ki
kavkasiaSi moRvaweobdnen dominikianTa da franciskanelTa ordenis
warmomadgenlebi. igi aseve uaryofs somexi kaTolikebis mier

qarTvelTa gasomxebis sakiTxisaTvis XIX-XX saukunis mijnis . . .

505

TbilisSi saepiskoposos daarsebis Sesaxeb. `Cven dRes xelSi


gvaqvs utyuari sabuTebi _ wers m. TamaraSvili _ tfilisSi 13
laTinis episkoposis daniSvnis Sesaxeb. amaTSi erTi sityvac ar
aris somxebis gamo. papebi roca episkoposebs niSnavdnen, maT
usazRvravdnen qveyanas da ers am sityvebiT: `qarTvelebis samefo~,
anu qarTvelebis samefos warCinebuli qalaqi tfilisi da sx.
fiqradac-ki warmosadgeni ar aris, rom qarTvelebSi gamogzavnili
episkoposebi maTTvis ar yofiliyvnen, aramed sxva tomisaTvis~
(iveria 1903, #230).
somexi kaTolikebis mier qarTveli kaTolikebis eTnikur
somxebad gamocxadebis yovlad usafuZvlo zemoaRniSnuli azris
gasaqarwyleblad m. TamaraSvils mohyavs erTi metad saintereso
cnoba, romelic aris amonaweri Tbilisis I laTini episkoposis
biografiidan: `yovlad ganaTlebulma ioane patrma, saqarTvelos
tfilisis episkoposma Tavis wesis Zma berebTan erTad, dauRalavad
iSroma qarTvelebis gasakaTolikeblad. am eris gasawurTnavad
kaTolike sarwmunoebaSi bevri wigni sTargmna qarTul enazedao~
(iveria 1903, #230). rac Seexeba Tbilisis kaTolikur eklesias, mis
daarsebas saxelovani qarTveli moRvawe dominikianelTa ordenis
warmomadgenelebs miawers da dasZens, rom masSi somexi mRvdlebi
SemTxveviT, an droebiT iyvnen xolme. kerZod, kapuCinebs Tu
polonel mRvdlebs, igini droebiT mouwveviaT marto aRsarebis
sasmenlad ucxo qveynidan mosul mefurneTa da vaWar-muSa
somxebisaTvis~ (TamaraSvili 1904, 250). m. TamaraSvili aseve pasuxs
scems somexi kaTolike mRvdlis ciliswameblur gancxadebebs,
TiTqos qarTvelma kaTolikebma motyuebiT laTinur wesze
gadiyvanes somxebi da qarTveloba daaCemeso. `rodesac jer
xsenebac ar iyo qarTvel laTinis wesis mRvdlebisa, _ ganmartavs
m. TamaraSvili _ zogierTi somexi kaTolikeebi stovebdnen
kaTolike eklesias da grigorianebs uerTdebodnen~ (TamaraSvili
1904, 257). amis TvalsaCino magaliTia, m. TamaraSvilis mier
motanili grigorianul sarwmunoebas SeerTebuli erT-erTi aseTi
kaTolike somxis werili, romelsac qvemoT moviyvanT. igi aseve
pasuxobs somexi avtoris kidev erT gancxadebas, rom TiTqos
qarTvelebs kaTolikuri eklesiidan somxuri kvali wauSliaTo. aq
ki m. TamaraSvili Zalian kategoriulad pasuxobs: ` ... TviT b.
avtori da misi damqaSebi arian amnairi barbarosobis Camdeni, rom
Zvel yvela qarTul taZrebSi, saca ki xeli miuwvdebaT, yvelgan
spoben qarTul kvals da warwerebs da maT adgils somxurs
akraven~ (iveria 1903, #233).

506

q. quTaTelaZe

`gasomxebis
sakiTxs,
oRond
amjerad
grigorianul
sarwmunoebaze qarTvelTa daweras istoriuli mimoxilva miuZRvna
zaqaria WiWinaZem Semdegi saTauriT: `qarTveli grigorianebi
(somxis sarwmunoebis qarTvelebi), romelic 1906 wels dabeWda
TbilisSi SavSelis fsevdonimiT. avtoris azriT, sarwmunoeba ar
unda gansazRvravdes erovnulobas, anu rogorc TviTon uwodebs
`gvar-tomobas~. grigorianuli sarwmunoebis mimdevari, somexis
garda, SeiZleba qarTvelic yofiliyo da rusic, magram es ar
niSnavs imas, rom isini somxebi arian. iseve rogorc erovnebiT
somexi SeiZleba iyos marTlmadidebeli, kaTolike, protestanti
da sxv., rac ar unda cvlides mis erovnul cnobierebas (WiWinaZe
1906, 120). 1916 wlis gazeT `samSoblos #332, 333, 334 is
furclebze z. WiWinaZem am sakiTxTan dakavSirebiT dabeWda
samecniero sazogadoebiTvis naklebad cnobili statiebis cikli
`somxeTi saqarTveloSi (somxis samRvdeloebisa da daSnakTa
ocneba), romelic aseve `gasomxebis problemebs exeboda. z.
WiWinaZe zemoaRniSnul naSromebSi asaxelebs
im soflebsa da
dabebs, sadac cxovrobdnen grigorianul mrwamsze gadasuli
qarTvelebi, aseve CamoTvlis `gasomxebul qarTul gvarebs,
qarTveli kaTolikebis gasomxebas da maTTvis qarTuli enis
daviwyebas. z. WiWinaZe grigorianobas moixseniebs rogorc `gvari
Wamia, anu naciaTylapiaT~. igi mouwodebs qarTvelebs Seagnebinon
grigorian qarTvelebs, rom isini mxolod rjuliT arian
`somexni~, sxva SemTxvevaSi ki yvelanairad qarTvelTa toms
ekuTvnian. Tu am sakiTxs qarTvelebi gulgrilad moekidebian,
maSin somxebi yovelmxriv ecdebian, rom saqarTveloSi dacemuli
somxeTi aRadginon. mkvlevars somxuri elementis saqarTveloSi
dawinaurebis da e.w. `gasomxebis mizezad Semdegi miaCnia:
1. Tbilisis garSemo da kaxeTSi somexTa mier miwebis Sesyidva
da iq gadmoxvewilebis dasaxleba.
2. somexi mRvdlebis mier eCmiawinis daxmarebiT qarTuli
soflebis yidva Tavis glexebianad da Semdeg maTi `gasomxeba.
3. ugvano mebatonisgan gaqceulni xSirad sjuls icvlidnen
da grigorianul mrwamss iRebdnen.
4. zogierTi mebatonis mier Tavis ymis qalTan ukanono gziT
SeZenil Svils somxurad naTlavdnen.
5. JamTa siavis Sedegad musulmanobis ar miRebis gamo qarTvelTa nawili iZulebuli iyo grigorianul mrwamsze gadasuliyo.
6. qarTveli kaTolikebis kaTolike somxebis somxur tipikonze dawera da eTnikurad somex kaTolikebad miCneva.

qarTvelTa gasomxebis sakiTxisaTvis XIX-XX saukunis mijnis . . .

507

zemoaRniSnuli statiebis I werilSi z. WiWnaZe CamoTvlis


ramdenime magaliTs, sadac Cans, Tu rogor euflebian somxebi
Tbilissa da mis SemogarenSi qarTul miwebs da iq mcxovrebi qarTuli mosaxleobis Seviwroebas iwyeben. avtoris TqmiT, somexTa
natvris _ `somxeTis aRdgena saqarTveloSi~ _ gansaxorcieleblad
`...somxis nacionalistebi TbilisSi iZenen did adgilebs da aSeneben didron Senobebs, xolo Tbilisis garSemo ki xelSi igdeben
cariel adgilebs da zed asaxleben somexTa gadmoxvewilebs~ (samSoblo 1916, # 232).
z. WiWinaZis cnobiT, maT miznis misaRwevad Seqmnes partia,
romelsac evaleboda kaxeTSi qarTvelTa mamulebis SeZena da iq
somxebis dasaxleba. maT partiis wesdeba mTavarmarTebelsac ki
warudgines, magram am ukanasknelma igi ar daamtkica (samSoblo:
1916, #233). maSin somxebma gegma Secvales da cdilobdnen qarTvelebi somxuri eklesiisTvis daekavSirebinaT. am niadagze qarTlSi
120 sofeli daukavSires somxur grigorianul sarwmunoebas, kaxeTSi ki 80. z. WiWinaZe aRniSnavs, rom dResdReobiT am gasomxebul qarTvelebs Tavi namdvil somxis STamomavlebad miaCniaT da
TavianT soflebsac somxeTad Tvlian, saqarTveloc somxeTi hgoniaT. am saqmeze daxelovnebuli `somxis patriotebi~ ki maT qarTul gvar-saxelebs somxurad scvlian (samSoblo 1916, #333).
Mmkvlevari gansakuTrebul yuradRebas qarTuli enis sakiTxs
aniWebs, romlis daviwyebiT advilad xdeboda qarTvelTa gadajiSeba im dros, rodesac im soflebSi, sadac e. w. `gasomxebuli
qarTvelebi cxovrobdnen, salaparako ena jer kidev qarTuli iyo.
qarTuli enis sakiTxs aseve did yuradRebas uTmobda somxuri
mxarec, romelsac igi qarTvelTa erTianobis
erT-erT ZiriTad
berketad miaCnda. amitom cdilobdnen, romGgrigorianul mrwamsze
gadasul qarTvelebSi somxuri ena CaenergaT da maTTvis cnobiereba SeecvalaT. amave motiviT xdeboda qarTvel kaTolokeTa somxur
tipikonze gadawera, rac, rogorc aRvniSneT, `gasomxebis erT-erTi
gza iyo. z. WiWinaZis cnobiT, `qarTvel kaTolikebSi, somxis xucebs, somxuri locvebi qarTuli anbanis meoxebiT uvrcelebiaT,
magaliTebr somxur locvebs, e.i. somxur sityvebs swerdnen qarTulis anbaniT da aseTis ostatobiT avrcelebdnen qarTvel kaTolikebSi somxur enas, aseT locvebis xelTnaweri me TviT minaxavs dasavleT saqarTveloSi, swored aseTisave ostatobiT, 1830
wels, TbilisSi daibeWda somxuri eniT locvis wigni, xolo qarTuli asoebiT, saqarTvelos somexTaTvis, romlis msgavsma wigneb-

508

q. quTaTelaZe

ma saqarTveloSi daudo safuZveli somxuri enis gavrcelebis


saqmes~ (WiWinaZe 1898, 63).
1880 wlis gazeT `droebis #217 dabeWdilia statia saTauriT
_ `somxur gazeTebis polemika~. am statiaSi aRwerilia ori somxuri gazeTis `mSakisa~ da `meRu haiastanis~ polemika im sakiTxTan
dakavSirebiT, Tu ra unda iyos ama Tu im xalxis cnobierebis
ganmsazRvreli, romliTac igi gansxvavdeba sxva xalxisagan. gazeTi `mSaki~ amtkicebs, rom erovnuli cnobierebis ganmsazRvreli
aris ena da samSoblo miwa _ `visac marto somxis grigorianis
sarwmunoeba aqvs da ena ki ar icis somxuri, is somexi ar ariso~.
`mSakis~ redaqcias Tavisi azris gansamtkiceblad qarTvelTa
magaliTi mohyavs, romlebic, miuxedavad sxvadasxva konfesiebisa,
enis wyalobiT `erTs xalxs, erT gvartomobas Seadgendnen,
sarwmunoebis gansxvavebas yuradRebas ar aqceven da amiT arian
isini Cvenze, somxebze, ufro Zlieri da ufro dawinaurebuli~
(droeba 1880, #217).
meore gazeTi `meRu haiastani~ ki piriqiT wers, rom erTi
xalxis meorisgan ganmamsxvavebebli marto sarwmunoeba ariso.
SeiZleba or adamians sxvadasxva ena da xasiaTi hqondes, `magram
Tu isini erTis rjulisani arian, ueWvelia erT xalxs, erT toms
ekuTvnian~ (droeba 1880, #217).
droebis redaqcia orive somxuri gazeTis azrs akritikebs
da dasZens: miuxedavad imisa, rom erovnuli cnobierebis gansazRvraSi enasac da sarwmunoebasac didi mniSvneloba aqvs, isini
calke aRebulni ar aris sakmarisi. aseve didi mniSvneloba aqvs:
`saerTo istorias am xalxis yvela Svilebisas, erTgvar xasiaTs,
znes, Cveulebas, erTgvar Wkuisa da gonebis mimarTulebas, TiTqmis
erT tanisamossa da sxv.~ (droeba 1880, #217).
amis Semdeg, rogorc ukve avRniSneT, `droebis redaqcia
beWdavs `mSakis~ statias `qarTvelebi da somxebi~. gazeTi `mSaki~
Cveuli toniT erTmaneTs adarebs qarTvelebsa da somxebs da
guldawyvetiT
ambobs,
rom
erT
rameSi
mainc
gvjobian
qarTvelebio:
`marTalia
qarTvelebs
somxebsaviT
mdidari
istoriuli warsuli ara aqvsT (?), Cveni Zveli literaturisTana
mdidari literatura ara aqvsT, Cveni axali enasaviT warmatebis,
mimReobis niWi, Tanamedrove mdidari ena ara aqvsT (?), ara aqvsT
damoukidebeli TavianTi gvaris eklesia, _ magram sxva mxriT
gvarovnobis TviT mcnobeloba imaTSi umetesad aris warmatebuli,
aRirZinebuli, vidre somxebSi~ (droeba 1880, #217). am statiis
mixedviT qarTvelebs erTi upiratesoba hqoniaT somxebTan

qarTvelTa gasomxebis sakiTxisaTvis XIX-XX saukunis mijnis . . .

509

SedarebiT, rac aris qarTul enaze ucxo tomelebisa da sxva


aRmsareblobis
xalxis
alaparakeba.
somexi
ki
Tu
sxva
aRmsareblobisaa, misi moZme somexad aRar miiCnevs. gazeTi `mSaki~
somex ers did naklad uTvlis imas, rom isini orientacias
sarwmunoebaze axdenen da arafrad agdeben enas. igi iqve
mouwodebs somxobas: `Cveni mezobleb qarTvelebisagan mainc
aviRoT magaliTi, romelnic Cvenzed umetesad daxelovnebulni,
gawvrTilni ar arian, magram Cvenzed ukeTesi TviTmcnobeloba
aqvsT~.
`mSakis~ redaqcia darwmunebulia, rom Tu vinme kaTolike iyo
saqarTveloSi, is yvela eTnikurad somexia. `arc erTi qarTveli
ar aris, rom kaTolikis sarwmunoebisa iyos, _ vkiTxulobT statiaSi _ yovelni naTesaobiT da saxis moxazulobiT somxebi arian.
magram qarTvelebma SeiZles imaTi gaqarTveleba enis SemweobiT, da
TviTon isini darwmunoebuli arian, rom qarTvelebi arian~. `mSakis~ azriT, swored amitom aris, rom `somexT-kaTolike Tbilisis,
axalcixis da yarsis mazrebSi Tavis-Tavs qarTvels uwodebs~
(droeba 1880, #217).
iv. gvaramaZis azriT, kaTolikur eklesiaSi nebismier enaze
SeiZleboda Catarebuliyo wirva da ratom amkvidrebdnen somxur
enas wesad? (droeba 1882, #185). saqme is aris, rom somxoba nebismier sarwmunoebas (am SemTxvvevaSi kaTolikobas) Tavis erovnul
interesebs argebda, romlis SenarCunebis ZiriTad atributad ena
miaCnda. amitom cdilobdnen isini, rom kaTolikuri RvTismsaxureba somxurenovani yofiliyo. am politikis erTaderT xeliSemSlel
faqtorad ki qarTvel mosaxleobaSi qarTuli ena da qarTuli
cnobiereba iyo. miznis misaRwevad somexi erovnebis saero da sasuliero pirebi istorias ayalbebdnen da ZirZvel qarTvelebs ena
daviwyebul eTnikur `somxebad~ acxadebdnen. aRniSnul yalb konfesiur politikas aqarwylebs is, rom Sua saukuneebSi TiTqmis
SeuZlebeli iyo, eTnikur somexs da ara gaqarTvelebuls qarTuli
cnobiereba hqonoda.
rogorc aRvniSneT, gazeT `mSakis~ am usafuZvlo da mikerZoebul werils saTanado pasuxi gasca iv. gvaramaZem (vinme mesxi)
`droebis~ imave wlis #239 da #240-Si saTauriT `mSakis mza pasuxi~. avtori I nawilSi saTanado argumentebiT pasuxobs `mSakis~
gancxadebas, rom qarTvelebs somxebis msgavsi istoria, literatura da mdidari ena ara aqvTo da Tavis mosazrebas Semdegnairad
ayalibebs: `rogorc Zvel Txzulebaebzed, ise axali enis dawinaurebazed SegviZlia Tqma, rom arc erT adgils da arc erTs

510

q. quTaTelaZe

SemTxvevaSi qveS ar darCeba Cveni qarTuli ena somxurs enasa ...


magierad warmoTqmiTi, sitkboTi da zrdilobiani ganwyobilebiT
da poeturis TxzulebiT mudam maRla mdgara qarTuli ena somxurzed da idgeba kidec~ (droeba 1880, #239).
statiis meore nawili Seexeba sarwmunoebis sakiTxebs. `qarTvelebs ar aqvT damoukidebeli eklesiao~ _ iv. gvaramaZes ar miaCnia did tragediad. marTlac, damoukidebeli eklesia aq qristianobis damoukidebel mimarTulebas ufro gulisxmobs, radgan qarTlis eklesiam damoukidebloba, anu avtokefaloba vaxtang gorgaslis droidan moipova da igi yovelTvis samociqulo iyo. iv.
gvaramaZe aRniSnavs, rom somxebi, romlebis damoukidebel eklesias
Cemuloben _ `mTeli somxis tipikoni somxis eklesiisa warmoadgens
berZnis tipikonsa cota gnsxvavebiT~ (droeba 1880, #240).
avtorisTvis Cveulebriv misaRebia, rom adamianma romel
qveyanaSic cxovrobs, im xalxis ena unda iswavlos, sadac mSobliur enas yvelaze maRali Rirseba da pativi aqvs mopovebuli,
mag.: saqarTveloSi qarTuli, ruseTSi _ rusuli, safrangeTSi _
franguli, somxeTSi _ somxuri da sxv.
iv. gvaramaZe sastikad akritikebs mosazrebas, rom arc erTi
qarTveli kaTolike ar ariso, aramed naTesaobiT da saxis moxazulobiT somexiao. marTlac, nakvTebis mixedviT eTnikurobis
gansazRvra Zalian pirobiTia, radgan somxebi Cvens teritoriaze
permanentulad didi xnis winaT saxldebodnen, zogjer qarTvelebTanac naTesavdebodnen. iv. gvaramaZe dasZens, rom `mSakis~ statiis avtors ganmasxvaveblad rom daesaxelebina `...zogierTi gvarovnuli zne, xasiaTi, midrekileba da enis siwamxdre ... romliTac
irCevian cxadad somxebi qarTvelebisgan, SesaZlebeli iyo~ (droeba 1880, #240).
iv. gvaramaZe punqtobrivad amtkicebs, rom umravlesoba saqarTveloSi kaTolikobisa, romelic sul axalcixidanaa, sul
qarTvelebi arian, garda arzrumidan gadmosaxlebuli somexi kaTolikebisa. es mtkicdeba qarTuli eniT, winaprebiT (mesxebi da
qarTvelebi), gvariSvilobiT, xasiaTiT, zne-CveulebiT, tradiciebiT. igi svams kiTxvas, rom Tu es yvelaferi `Cven namdvil qarTvelobas amtkicebs da riRaTi-Ra viqmnebiT Cven somxebis modgmidan?~ (droeba 1880, #240). rac Seexeba tipikons, iv. gvaramaZe dasZens: `da Tu somxurs tibikons xedven CvenSi, eg imisTvis, rom osmaleTis devnulebaSi qristianobis dacvisaTvis meti Rone ar
gvqonia, somxis tibikonSi unda SevsuliyaviT. berZnebsa, maT tipikonismqoneT da zogjer laTinebsac, ise mtrobdnen osmaloebi,

qarTvelTa gasomxebis sakiTxisaTvis XIX-XX saukunis mijnis . . .

511

rom imaTi saxelis gagoneba arc ki undodaT, metadre bevr qarTvelT mebatoneTa, moqalaqeTa, xelosanTa Tu glexTa ZaladobiT
da aTasnairi mizezeobiT amahmadianebdnen! mTels qristianobaSi
osmalebisaTvis somxebisTana kargni aravin iyvnen; rdagan didi
mterni da gamcemni iyvnen berZnebisa, evropielebisa da qarTvelebisa. maT fadi mahmadman (mehmed II q. q.) konstantinopolis amRebman somxebi gaamravla da patriarxi daujdina berZnebis samtrod
da sxvaTa; somxobas mravalgan mravali samsaxuri misca iqamdis,
rom TiTqmis mesamedi nawilni isaulTa da moxeleTa sul somxebi
iyvnen~ (droeba 1880, #240).
iv. gvaramaZe somxur tipikonze gadasvlis TariRad 1844
wels asaxelebs da iqve dasZens: maSasadame somxis tibikoniT Cven
mesxebi _ qarTvelni aras dros somxebi ar gavxvdebiT, rogorc
slavianebi, rusebi da danarCeni qarTvelebi berZnis tibikoniT mis
dReSi berZnebi ar gaxdebian~ (droeba 1880, #240).
sainteresoa is faqti, rom miuxedavad kaTolikuri da
grigorianuli sarwmunoebis radikaluri gansxvavebisa, rodesac
grogorianuli somxuri eklesia agresiulad iyo ganwyobili
kaTolikuri eklesiis da laTini patrebis winaaRmdeg, kaTolike
da grigoriani somxebi orive erTnairi meTodiT (qarTuli enis
diskriminacia,
qarTuli
gvar-saxelebis
Secvla
da
sxv.)
cdilobdnen qarTvelTa gasomxebas. grigoriani da kaTolike
somexi,
romlebic
sarwmunoebrivad
erTmaneTs
emijnebodnen,
qarTvelTa gasomxebasTan dakavSirebiT erTi xedva hqondaT, rom
maTTvis
mSobliuri
ena
daeviwyebinaT,
da
somxuri
enis
saSualebiT, somxuri cnobiereba CaenergaT. swored amitom iyo,
rom grigorianul mrwamsze gadasuli qarTveli da somxur
tipikonze miwerili kaTolike qarTveli, romlebic jer kidev
qarTulad saubrobdnen, TiTqmis erTsa da imaves amboben. kerZod,
z. WiWinaZes mohyavs sxvadasxva magaliTi, rodesac grigorianul
mrwamsze gadasuli dasZens: `Cven adre am sofelSi (borCalos
mazris
sof.
enageTi)
sul
qarTvelebi
viyaviT,
mere
gavsomxebulvarT
TaTrebis
SiSiTao~.
qarTvel
kaTolikeTa
STamomavali ki aRniSnavs: Cven winad aqeT (SavSeTis sof. korZeli)
sul qarTul gvaris kaTolikeni viyaviT, mere gavsomxdiT da
qarTuli enac mitom dagvaviwydao~ (samSoblo 1916, #333). qarTvel
grigorianebSi da somxur kaTolikur tipikonze miweril qarTvel
kaTolikebSi da mrevlSi propaganda eweoda somxuri enis,
istoriis,
kulturis
swavlebas,
rom
amiT
eTnikuri
qarTvelebisTvis erovnuli TviTSegneba SeeryiaT. am saqmeSi

512

q. quTaTelaZe

gansakuTrebiT ZalRones ar iSurvebdnen veneciis mxiTarianTa


somxuri
Zmobis
warmomadgenlebi,
romlebTanac
zogierTi
qarTveli kaTolike ganaTlebas iRebda da iviwyebda Tavis
warmomavlobas (samSoblo
1916,
#333).
somex
da
qarTvel
kaTolikeTa jgufs absoluturad radikaluri mosazreba gaaCniaT
maTi
erovnuli
TviTSegnebis
Sesaxeb.
somexi
kaTolikeni,
gansakuTrebiT
ki
mxiTarianTa
Zmobis
warmomadgenlebi
amtkicebdnen, rom yvela kaTolike kavkasiaSi eTnikurad somexi
iyo. mxolod qarTvelebTan urTierTobaSi maTgan SeiTvises
qarTuli ena da amitom miaCniaT Tavi qarTvelebad.1
rogorc Cans, konfesiuri sakiTxi maTTvis maincdamainc
arsebiTi ar unda yofiliyo, aramed mas politikur sarCuls
adebdnen da TavianTi interesebisTvis iyenebdnen. m. TamaraSvils
Tavis naSromSi `pasuxad somxis mwerlebs~ mohyavs erTi kaTolike
somexis
avetik
ezekovis
werili,
romelic
Semdeg
somex
grigorianebs SeuerTda. avtors werili erT-erT somxur gazeTSi
daubeWdavs. igi mouwodebs sxva kaTolike Zmebs, rom SeuerTdnen
grigorianul sarwmunoebas _ `Cveni Taosnoba Tavis uSiSar
myudroebas somxis erT morwmunoebaSi hpovebs. Cveni sarwmunoeba
uar ar vyoT da ar SevcvaloT sxva sarwmunoebad. mamaTa CvenTagan
agebulis sakurTxevelis qvakuTxeds magra xeli movsWidoT, iq
aris Cveni xsna... virCev mraval gzis moqcevad dasarCenad im
sarwmunoebaSi, romelic mamaTa CvenTa dauvedrebiaT CemTvis,
rogorc
uwmindesi
samkvidrebebli,
romelic
Cem
didebul
winaparTa sakuTrebaTagan mxolod es mowevnila Seumusvrelad,
metadre roca es aris Cemi damakavSirebebli ricxviT mraval Cem
ZmebTan (TamaraSvili 1904, 28-29). avtori kaTolikur eklesias
moixseniebs, rogorc somexi eris `gambnevels
da STamTqmels~.
Tumca, gasomxebis procesisTvis kaTolikur da grigorianul
sarwmunoebas orives iyenebdnen. kerZod, gasomxebis ori gza
arsebobda: I. qarTvelTa dakavSireba pirdapir grigorianul
sarwmunoebasTan da II. qarTveli kaTolikebis somex kaTolikeTa
tipikonze dawera. orive SemTxvevaSi isini somxebad iwodebodnen.
am SemTxvevaSi CarTuli iyo rogorc konfesia, aseve enac. somxebi
kargad xvdebodnen Tu ra mniSvneloba hqonda qarTvelisTvis enasa
da
sarwmunoebas.
amitom
isini
cdilobdnen
grigorianul
sarwmunoebas miweril qarTvelebSi CaenergaT somxuri ena da
maTTvis cnobiereba SeecvalaT. rogorc ukve aRvniSneT, igive
motiviT xdeboda qarTvel kaTolikeTa miwera somxur tipikonze,
rac iyo gasomxebis erT-erTi gza. xelovnurad gazrdili `somxur~

qarTvelTa gasomxebis sakiTxisaTvis XIX-XX saukunis mijnis . . .

513

elementze dayrdnobiT cdilobdnen qarTvelTaTvis waerTmiaT III


cneba samSoblo, romlis dauflebas cdilobdnen mesame
Zalis daxmarebiT.
zemoaRniSnuli politika pirdapir kavSirSi unda yofiliyo
e.w. `didi armeniis cnebasTan, romlis mixedviT, somxeTi
kavkasiidan xmelTaSuazRvispireTamde iyo gadaWimuli. samxreT
kavkasiis mniSvnelovani nawili, romelic istoriuli saqarTvelos
kuTvnilebaa,
xelovnurad
gazrdili
somxur
elementze
dayrdnobiT, somxeTad cxaddeboda. Aam mizans emsaxureboda, aseve,
somxuri elementis samoxeleo postebze dawinaureba da somxuri
kapitalis dagroveba TbilisSi. XX s-is dasawyisSi `gasomxebis~
zemoaRniSnul problemas Tan daerTo osmaleTis imperiidan devnili eTnikurad somxuri mosaxleobis masiurad Semosvla saqarTveloSi. e.w. `didi armeniis Tema gansakuTrebiT I msoflio omis
dros gaJRerda, rodesac imperialisturi qveynebis (ruseTi, inglisi) survili iyo osmaleTis imperiis daSlis fonze Canacvlebuliyo somxuri avtonomia. Tumca did saxelmwifoTa politikuri
TamaSebi somex ers Zvirad daujda. somexTa masiuri Jletis Semdeg
osmaleTis imperiidan devnili somxuri mosaxleobis didi nawili
saqarTvelosken daiZra. am Temas erovnul-demokratiuli partiis
organom 1915 wlis Jurnalma `kldem~ da gazeTma `saqarTvelom~
miuZRvnes statiebi saxelwodebiT: `gamoqceulebi da `samxreTis
safrTxe~, sadac gaJRerda redaqciis azri, rom saqarTvelos gaukacrielebul sazRvrispira adgilebSi ucxo elementis dasaxleba
da `gasomxeba~ safrTxes uqmnida Cveni qveynis teritoriul mTlianobas. es ori sakiTxi qarTvelTa mimarT arakeTilmosurne III Zalis kavkasiuri politikisTvis mWidrod unda yofiliyo erTmaneTTan gadajaWvuli.
Jurnal `kldis~ me-2 nomerSi ,,gamoqceulebis saxelwodebiT
dasaTaurebul I statiaSi, JamTa siavis Sedegad saqarTvelos gaukacrielebul sazRvrispira adgilebSi ucxo elementis dasaxleba
,,sxvis ubedurebazed agebul bednierebad~ aris wodebuli,
,,rodesac igi surviliT ki ara, gareSe ZalTa zegavleniT aris
gamowveuli~ (klde #2, 1915, 3). gazeT `saqarTvelos~ 108-e nomerSi
statiebis rubrikaSi ,,baasi aRniSnulia, Tu rodis da rogor
moedineboda somxoba samxreT kavkasiaSi da saqarTvelos samxreT
sasazRvro zolSi. cnobebi ZiriTadad XIX saukunes emTxveva. statiaSi aRniSnulia, rom 1896 wlidan samxreT kavkasiaSi 300 000 kacia Semoxiznuli (`saqarTvelo~ 1915, #8). ,,aravisTvis saidumloebas ar warmoadgens _ vkiTxulobT Jurnal `kldis~ furclebze, _

514

q. quTaTelaZe

rom winandeli omebis gamo gamoqceulma somxobam uomrad daipyro


magaliTad mTeli axalqalaqis mazra da nawilebi borCalosi da
yarsis olqisa ... ,,somexTa dasaxleba qarTvelTa teritoriaze ki
qarTvelebis
umtkivneules
sakiTxs
Seadgens.
Tanamedrove
qarTvelis erovnul msoflmxedvelobad aRiarebulia aucileblad
Senaxva da dacva saqarTvelos teritoriisa. qarTvelis erovnuli
azri araviTar kompromisebs ar icnobs am sakiTxSi da, ai, swored
amitom aris, yovelTvis qarTvel-somexTa saurTierTaSoriso
daobaSi umTavresad teritoriis sakiTxi aris xolme niadagad
(klde #3, 1915, 4). Jurnal kldis redaqcia ganagrZobs, ,,rom miwawylis sakiTxi, yvelazed mtkivneuli sadavidarabo adgilia Cveni
da somxebis urTierTobisa, romlis gadauWrelobis gamo yovlad
SeuZlebelia Cveni megobroba, mezobloba da TanxmobiTi cxovreba.
amis simwvaves da friad safrTxilo Sedegebs unda yvelani
vgrZnobdeT (klde #3, 1915, 4).
swored mesame Zalis mier zurggamagrebuli somxis oziciidan
gamomdinare gamoTqvamda azrs qarTvelebis siZulviliT aRsavse
gazeT `mSakis~ redaqtori gr. arwruni: `yvelaze ufro somxebs
saqarTveloSi emarjvebaT cxovreba, saqarTvelo somxebisaTvis
cxovrebis baRdadia, amitom unda vecadoT, rom am kuTxeSi
SemovkriboT
Cveni
somxoba
da
amis
gansaxorcieleblad
yovelnairi zoma unda miviRoT~. es is grigor arwrunia, romelmac
ilia WavWavaZis cnobiT, erT-erT evropel Jurnalists saqarTvelo
somxeTad gaacno, Tbilisi ki somxur qalaqad, qalaqis sakrebulo
somxur parlamentad da a. S. (WavWavaZe 1987, 49-54).
am politikis zusti Sefaseba da yvela drois qarTvelis
azri ilia WavWavaZem Camoayaliba `qvaTa RaRadSi: `gana aSkara ar
aris? undaT qveyanas daanaxvon, rom somexze ukeTesi gamZle eri,
yovlis niWiTa da unariT Semkobili sxva aravin aris mcire aziaSi
da nametnavad amierkavkasiaSi. marTalia, amierkavkasiaSi es raRac
`vracebi~ hyrian da cotad Tu bevrad amaTac axseneben, magram
aseTs saqmes davmarTebT, ase gavubiabruebT saxels, rom
saxsenebelic-ki aRar darCeT. Tu istoria aqvT, gavuyalbebT, an
Cven daviCemebT, miwa-wyali aqvT da Cven CamovarTmevT, da qveyanas,
tyuili iqneba Tu marTali, davajerebT, rom qarTveloba
gadaSenebis gzazea Semdgari da dResa Tu xvale an amoswydebian
deda-budianad, an gasomxdebian~ (WavWavaZe 1987, 109). somxebis
zemoaRniSnul
politikas
gansazRvravda
gamZafrebuli
nacionaluri TviTSegnebis grZnoba, romelic gadajaWvuli iyo
ganyenebul, sxvebisgan `gansxvavebul~ konfesiaze, romelic eris

qarTvelTa gasomxebis sakiTxisaTvis XIX-XX saukunis mijnis . . .

515

TviTmyobadobis SenarCunebis ZiriTadi berketi xdeboda. somexTa


religiuri gansxvavebuloba istoriulma pirobebmac gansazRvra.
nebismieri dampyrobeli, romelic Tavisi interesebiT modioda
mcire aziasa da kavkasiaSi, somxebs yovelTvis sayrdenad iyenebda,
rom amiT daemorCilebina adgilobrivi urCi elementi. Zalian
xSirad
es
politika
mimdinareobda
somexTa
konfesiuri
mxardaWeriT. am politikas Tan erTvoda zogjer somexi vaWrebis
dasaxleba wamyvan qalaqebSi. yovelive es xels uwyobda somxuri
diasporebis Seqmnas, sadac xalxi grigorianuli eklesiis garSemo
erTiandeboda. igi aseve ierTebda sxva eTnikur jgufebsac,
romelic am sarwmunoebis miRebis Semdeg maSinve `somexi~ xdeboda.
mahmadianur samyarosTan brZolam didad daazarala somexi eri.
maT saxelmwifoebrioba dakarges. TavSesafari xSir SemTxvevaSi
saqarTvelo iyo. TavianT istoriul adgilebSi darCenili somxoba
ki cvlis taqtikas da xmlis nacvalad Zlieri saTvistomos
Seqmnis mizniT mSvidobian urTierTobas amyarebs dampyroblebTan.
isini misdevdnen vaWrobas, xelosnobas da mewarmeobas. somexi eris
ultranacionalizmi gansazRvra maTma istoriulma pirobebma. isini
gabneuli cxovrobdnen sxvadasxva qveynebSi da iZulebulni iyvnen,
rom dominanti saxelmwifo ena SeeTvisebinaT, Tumca sxva eTnoss
naklebad erwymodnen, radgan TavianTi eklesiis wiaRSi xedavdnen
TviTmyobadobis SenarCunebas. sxvadasxva qveynebSi Camoyalibebuli
somxuri
saTvistomos
warmomadgenlebi
sazogadoebrivi
ganviTarebis TiTqmis yvela sferoSi imdenad iyvnen funqciurad
datvirTulni, rom adgilobriv mosaxleobas naklebi asparezi
rCeboda, radgan somxebi yvela sferoSi sadaveebs igdebdnen xelT.
rogorc, S. lomsaZe aRniSnavs, `XV-XVI ss-Si berZenTa
winaaRmdegobis daZlevis mizniT, Turqebma stambolSi, rogorc
mesame Zala, win wamowies somxuri elementi. mianiWes ra mTeli
rigi upiratesobani somxur kompradorul burJuazias, isini
daupirispires
ara
marto
berZnul
social-politikur
mimarTulebas, aramed berZnul qristianul (marTlmadideblur)
eklesiasac, rasac mohyva q. konstantinopolis centraluri
ubnebidan berZnebis TandaTanobiTi gamodevna da iq maSin maTTvis
ufro misando somxuri burJuaziis damkvidreba, ramac mere
TavisTavad
daayena
sakiTxi
stambolSi
mZlavri
somxurqristianuli sapatriarqo centris daarsebisa da imperiaSi
darCenili qristianuli mosaxleobis zonebad danawilebis Sesaxeb,
konstantinopolis
berZnul
marTlmadidebel
da
somxur
monofizitur
sapatriarqoebs
Soris.
Tu
samcxe-saaTabagos

516

q. quTaTelaZe

dasavleTi nawili lazeTis qristianebTan erTad aRricxes


berZnebad, samcxe-saaTabagos aRmosavleT regionebSi zogierT
gamonaklisis garda da gansakuTrebiT yars-arzrumis vilaieTebSi
darCenili qarTvelebis didi nawili eklesiurad da Semdeg
erobrivadac SeierTa somxurma grigorianulma eklesiam. XVIII s-Si
somxuri
elementis
dawinaurebas
xeli
Seuwyo
somxuri
kaTolikuri sapatriarqos daarsebam konstantinopolSi, romelsac
mTels osmaleTis imperiaSi mcxovrebi kaTolikuri aRmsareblobis
xalxi daukavSires (lomsaZe 1997, 95).
XV
s-Si,
rodesac
Turq-osmalebma
mTeli
maxlobeli
aRmosavleTi daipyres, bunebrivia, kaTolike misionerebs saqme
gaufuWdaT. amiT isargebles somex-kaTolike e.w uniTorebma,
romlebic kilikiidan da naxWevanidan iyvnen Semosulni. maT
osmaleTis imperiaSi darCenili kaTolikeni somex uniTorebs
daumorCiles. am ukanasknelebma ki maT sasargeblod damdgari
politikuri situacia Cinebulad gamoiyenes da saswrafod
qarTvel kaTolikebSi somxuri enis da somxuri tipikonis
gavrceleba daiwyes. TavianTi qmedeba rom gaemarTlebinaT,
rogorc aRvniSneT, somexi kaTolikeni yovlad usamarTlo da
gayalbebul
mosazrebas
avrcelebdnen,
TiTqos
qarTveli
kaTolikeni eTnikurad somxebi iyvnen da qarTvelebisgan mxolod
ena hqondaT SeTvisebuli. am mosazrebas mxars uWerdnen da xorcs
asxamdnen zemoaRniSnuli mxiTaristebi, romlebic iq Casul
morwmuneebs
somxurad
wvrTnidnen
da
somxur
ganaTlebas
aZlevdnen, Tan TavSi ubeWdavdnen, rom vinc kavkasiaSi kaTolikea,
yvela isini somxuri warmomavlobisaa. qarTvel kaTolikeTa
nawili somxdeboda, progresulad moazrovne nawili ki amxelda
kaTolike somxebis yalb gancxadebebs. maT samcxe-saaTabagoSi
qarTuli enisa da TviTSegnebis dacvis saqmeSi fasdaudebeli
wvlili Seitanes. kavkasiaSi rusuli mmarTvelobis damyarebis
drosac somxebi mTavrobis mxardaWeriT sargeblobdnen. Tbilisis
samxedro gubernatori aRniSnavda, rom laTinuris sapirispirod
mxari unda davuWiroT somxurenovan kaTolikur tipikonze
gadasvlas da TbilisSi somxurenovani eparqiis daarsebas (, .
9, 115).
miuxedavad qarTveli kaTolikebis didi winaRmdegobisa, 1886
wels mTavrobis dadgenilebiT gamovida umaRlesi brZaneba
kaTolikur eklesiebSi qarTuli enis akrZalvis Sesaxeb. 1890 wels
es brZaneba kidev gaimeores ufro mkacri toniT, kontroli
gamkacrdeboda da damrRvevi piri jarimas gadaixdida (lomsaZe:

qarTvelTa gasomxebis sakiTxisaTvis XIX-XX saukunis mijnis . . .

517

1997, 104, 106). miuxedavad aseTi Seviwroebisa, qarTveli kaTolikeni


far-xmals ar yridnen, gansakuTrebiT ivane gvaramaZe, romelmac
Zalze ostaturad ganaxorciela protesti aRniSnuli brZanebis
mier da somxuri ena ar gaakara qarTvel mrevls.
man
RvTismsaxureba samrevlo skolaSi qarTulad Caatara, taZarSi ki
Turqulad. iv. gvaramaZes somxebma es urCobad CauTvales, Tumca
Secdoma mTavrobam male gamoaswora, `romlis mixedviTac mRvdels
unda moewera xeli ara marto imaze, rom wirvisas qarTul enas
aRar ixmarda, aramed xeli unda moewera imazec, Tu ra eniT unda
ewira. wirvis nebadarTul grafaSi ki ori ena iyo miTiTebuli:
somxuri an rusuli~ (lomsaZe 1997, 106). mkiTxvelisTvis advili
misaxvedria,
Tu
ras
umiznebda
es
politika.
amitom
RvTismsaxurebisTvis qarTuli enis SenarCunebisTvis brZolam
erovnul-ganmaTavisuflebeli xasiaTi miiRo, rac kargad aris
asaxuli XIX-XX ss-is mijnis qarTuli presis furclebze.

literatura:
WiWinaZe _ WiWinaZe z., saqarTvelos dakarguli soflebi da
qarTveli kaTolikeni. Tbilisi, 1904.
WiWinaZe _ WiWinaZe z., umTavresi mizezi saqarTvelos mimarT
romis yuradRebisa. Tbilisi, 1898.
WiWinaZe _ WiWinaZe z., qarTveli grigorianebi (somxis
sarwmunoebis qarTvelebi). Tbilisi 1906.
WavWavaZe _ WavWavaZe il., qvaTa RaRadi. rCeuli nawarmoebebi
xuT tomad. t. V. publicisturi werilebi. Tbilisi, 1987.
TamaraSvili _ TamaraSvili mix., pasuxad somxis mwerlebs,
romelnic uarhyofen qarTvel kaTolikobas. Tbilisi 1904.
lomsaZe _ lomsaZe S., mesxebi. axalcixuri qronikebi. II. Tbilisi, 1997
droeba: 1880, #217, #239, #240.
iveria: 1903, #230, #233.
klde: 1915, #2, #3.
saqarTvelo: 1915, #108.
samSoblo: 1916, #232, #233.
, . 9.

kavkasiologiuri Ziebani CAUCASIOLOGIC PAPERS


II

2010

. ()

XIX-XX .
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,
. , ,
,
. ,
,
, .
,
, .
, ,
.
,
, , .

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,,~ ,
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,
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. XIX-XX .
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XIX XX

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519

`~ 1877-78, 1880, 1882, 1883.,


,
-.
` ~
`~, `~
217. `~
, . `~ ,
.
, , .
.
`~ 239 240
` ~. . ,
1882 185 ` ~,

`
~. . , `
, , ,
~ ( 1882: #185).
`~ 125, 132, 198 1901 1445 `
~ . -
, `~.
, , - ,
,
. 1904 . `
-~,
-,
, (: 1904).
1903 `~ (228,230,231,233,236)
.
-, - `-
~.
1903 . .

-
. . 1904
- ,, -,
~ (: 1904).
. -, ,

520

,
.
.
, -
, , .
,
.
, XVI ,

. . ` .
13 .
. ,
: ` ~,
. , ,
, ~ ( 1903, #230).
-
.
, I :
` ,
.
~ (
1903, #230). ,

, ,
. , ` -
- ,
.
, ~ ( 1904, 250).

-, -
. `
, - . , -
~ (: 1904, 257).
-, ,
. . .
,

. . .

521

. `. ...
, - . , -
, ,
~ ( 1903, #233).
"~ ,
,
,,- ~ ( ),
1906 .
, . ,
, ,
, , ,
, , , .
( 1906, 120).
,,~ 332, 333, 334 1916 .
,
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,,. .
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