You are on page 1of 91

LEATHER & LEATHER PRODUCT TECHNOLOGY INSTITUTE

2002 E.C

LEATHER GARMENT AND GOODS MANUFACTURING TECHNOLOGY DIRECTORATE

QUALITY CONTROL FOR LEATHER GARMENT TECHNOLOGY


Prepared by:
GETACHEW ADHENA (BSC TEXTILE ENGINEERING)

Thursday, March 25, 2010

Quality control for leather garment technology ADHENA

BY GETACHEW page 1

LEATHER & LEATHER PRODUCT TECHNOLOGY INSTITUTE

2002 E.C

ADISS ABEBA_ ETHIOPIA

Table of Contents Chapter1Introduction to quality control...................................................................................................1 Chapter2 Quality control definition.........................................................................................................3 2.1. Basic concept of quality.......................................................................................................3 2.2. Dimension (parameter) of quality........................................................................................5 2.3. Basic concepts of quality control.........................................................................................7 2.3.1 The meaning of control.........................................................................................7 2.3.2. Stages of quality control......................................................................................7 2.4. Why quality is important.....................................................................................................8 Chapter 3 Quality control.........................................................................................................................9 3.1. Quality determination..........................................................................................................9 3.2. Main aspects to be considered in quality control.................................................................9 3.3. What to control..................................................................................................................10 3.4. When to control..................................................................................................................11 3.5. Approaches to apply quality control..................................................................................11 3.6. Who shall be involved in quality control? ........................................................................11 Chapter 4 Process inspection.................................................................................................................13 4.1. Definition of inspection.....................................................................................................13 4.2. Objectives of inspection.....................................................................................................14 4.3. function of inspection........................................................................................................14 4.3.1. Raw material inspection.....................................................................................15 4.3.2. in-process inspection..........................................................................................19 4.3.3. Final inspection..................................................................................................24 4.4.4. purchased parts inspection.................................................................................25

Quality control for leather garment technology ADHENA

BY GETACHEW page 2

LEATHER & LEATHER PRODUCT TECHNOLOGY INSTITUTE

2002 E.C

4.4.5. Tools inspection.................................................................................................25 4.4. Systems of inspection........................................................................................................25 4.4.1. Floor inspection.................................................................................................25 4.4.2. Central inspection..............................................................................................26 4.4.3. combined inspection..........................................................................................26 4.5. Types of inspection............................................................................................................26 4.5.1. 100% inspection.................................................................................................27 4.5.2. Sample inspection..............................................................................................27 4.5.3. First off inspection/initial inspection.................................................................28 4.5.4. Working inspection............................................................................................29 4.5.5. Functional inspection/last-off/...........................................................................29 4.5.6. Final test and inspection....................................................................................29 Chapter 5 Physical testing for leather garment......................................................................................31 5.1. Conditioning......................................................................................................................31 5.2. Measurement of flexibility.................................................................................................32 5.3. Measurement of tear strength.............................................................................................34 5.4. Measurement of tensile strength........................................................................................37 5.5. Measurement of color fastness...........................................................................................40 Chapter 6 Statistical quality control.......................................................................................................41 Chapter 7 Quality assurance and ISO quality management system.......................................................50 Chapter 8 Total quality management (TQM)........................................................................................66 8.1. Introduction to TQM..........................................................................................................66 8.2. TQM tools..........................................................................................................................67 8.3. Quality gurus......................................................................................................................69 8.4. Quality costs.......................................................................................................................74 8.5. Implementation of TQM....................................................................................................77

Quality control for leather garment technology ADHENA

BY GETACHEW page 3

LEATHER & LEATHER PRODUCT TECHNOLOGY INSTITUTE

2002 E.C

Reference ..............................................................................................................................................86

CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION TO QUALITY CONTROL


There is today a noticeable increase of interest in quality control on the part both of industries and society in general. There are several reasons for this greater interest: Higher demands for quality from customers Greater competition Demand for better profitability. Often however there is a lack of knowledge of ways of dealing with product quality. It is not only for the users of industrial products that quality is meaningful. It is also an important matter for the manufacturers. Poor quality means costs for manufacture in finding and rectifying (repair or correct) defects. Poor quality leads to reduction in market share due to a loss of confidence on the part of the customers. It is apparent to most manufacturers that poor quality has a negative effect on profitability. It is not so obvious to many manufacturers, however, that possibilities exist to improve profits by systematic work on product quality even where the situation is considered to be satisfactory. Single results will not be achieved through work on single department in the enterprise, it is necessary for all those functions which comes into contacts with the products during its developments, manufactures and use to co-operate in this work. This means that quality must be considered and controlled by all these functions. Market research Product development

Quality control for leather garment technology ADHENA

BY GETACHEW page 4

LEATHER & LEATHER PRODUCT TECHNOLOGY INSTITUTE


Manufacturing engineering Purchasing Production Inspection Marketing and after-sale service Our lives are dependent in many ways of industrial product, shelter, nutrition,

2002 E.C

communication, heath care work and national security. One basic aspect of products of this type (regardless of whether they are goods or services ) if that must be fit for uses failure in this respect can lead to death, injury, discomfort or economic loss.

Quality control for leather garment technology ADHENA

BY GETACHEW page 5

LEATHER & LEATHER PRODUCT TECHNOLOGY INSTITUTE

2002 E.C

CHAPTER TWO QUALITY CONTROL DEFINITION


2.1. Basic concept of Quality
Meet specification, fitness for use, anything that can be improved, absence of variation, conformance to requirements and bad quality is social loss.

Control
Preventing defects from happening The subjective definition of element of quality relation to the design, style, color, and \aesthetics. Objectively, quality is the ability to meet consistently the return and clearly started specification. These aimed at producing a product suitable for end use and price. Different scholars or authors define quality; however Professor David Garvin, from Harvard University defines in to the following principal. 1. Product-based quality view
2. User (customer) based quality view

3. Manufacturing based quality view 4. Value-based quality view

1. Product based quality views


Quality control for leather garment technology ADHENA BY GETACHEW page 6

LEATHER & LEATHER PRODUCT TECHNOLOGY INSTITUTE

2002 E.C

In this view, quality is determined as a precise and measurable variable and difference in quality reflects differences in the quality of some ingredient or attitude seen to be possessed by a product. In this view quality and quantity has direct relation

2. User (customer) based quality view


In this view, definitions are based on the premise that solely the user determined quality. Individual customers are assumed to have different wants or needs and goods that best satisfy the preference are the one they regarded, as having the highest perceived quality. Quality is fitness for use that this view also reflects a highly personalized and subjective view

3. Manufacturing based quality view


This view focuses on manufacturing and engineering practices. It emphasis conformance to specified requirements. The higher the degree that meets specified requirements the higher the quality. This view seeks to ensure that the deviations from standards set design specifications are minimized. To achieve the quality of conformance means improving in the design of the Equipment Materials Supervision Control Training

4. Value based quality view


The base for this view is physiological understanding of the meaning of value. Consequently, customers have been conditioned to accept that the quality of product is determined by the price. There for price and quality have a direct relation ship

5. Trader based quality view


Quality control for leather garment technology ADHENA BY GETACHEW page 7

LEATHER & LEATHER PRODUCT TECHNOLOGY INSTITUTE

2002 E.C

This views deals about that we shall get the right product to the right place at the right time while exceeding our customers expectation. Quality has not specific or common definition or meaning. Some of general definition of quality Quality is a system which produces a product service, information or delivery on target with manual variance which meets customers needs. Quality is complete satisfaction (performance, appearance, longevity (long life) at the lowest possible cost. Quality is to reach customers needs at low rates (costs) to the company and achieving employ satisfaction. Quality is the extent to which products, services, products and relationships are free from defects, constrains (limitation) and items which do not add value for customers
The AMERICAN NATIONAL STANDARDS INSTITUTE define<< quality as the

totality of features and characteristics of a product or services that bear (accept or allow) on its ability to satisfy given needs Quality connotes different meaning to different peoples. Its concepts may be easy to grasp but formulating a universal definition is difficult. Some definitions are given below. Quality is fitness for purpose or use. Or quality is customer satisfaction. (Jurdan 1974G.C) Quality should be aimed at the needs of the customer, present and feature. (Deming)
Quality is the degree of excellence (fineness). (Webster)

Quality means best for the certain condition a. The actual use and b. The selling price (Feugenbaum 1983 G.C) Quality control for leather garment technology ADHENA BY GETACHEW page 8

LEATHER & LEATHER PRODUCT TECHNOLOGY INSTITUTE 2.2. Dimensions (parameters) of quality
Quality is an important factor which customers looks for in a product to give total satisfaction. Some of the important parameters of quality are listed below:

2002 E.C

1. Performance: (will the product do the intended (planed or proposed) job). Potential

costumer usually evaluate a product to determine if it will perform certain specific functions and determine how well it perform them. Example: producing document case leather bag, for what purpose does this bag produced, does the bag has multi function pocket?
2. Reliability: (how often does the product fail?) different products may need repair

over their service life. The leather machineries should be also reliable so as to increase productivity. Example: when we produce the leather garment, it needs higher attention during stitching. Because the nature of the needle is like cuter edge type and stitch the component by cutting the part. So re stitching is not done, means no repaired and the product is rejected.
3. Durability: (how long does the product last?). This is the effective service life of the

product customer obviously want products that performed satisfactorily over a long period of time. Example: producing leather garment coat for a big man and if the coat is not with his physical structure. Does the garment have long life? No, because the person may loss his comfort and reject the product in short period of time.
4. Serviceability: (how easy is it to repair the product?). There are many industries

where the customers view of quality is directly influenced by how quickly and economically a repair or routine maintenance activity can be accomplished. Example: planed maintenance of stitching machine.

Quality control for leather garment technology ADHENA

BY GETACHEW page 9

LEATHER & LEATHER PRODUCT TECHNOLOGY INSTITUTE


5. Aesthetics :( what does the product look like?). this is the visual appeal of the

2002 E.C

product, often taking into account factors such as style, color, shape, packaging alternatives and other sensory features.
6. Features :( what does the product do? ). Usually customer associate high quality with

products that have added features: that is, those that has features beyond the basic performance of the competition.

2.3. Basic concepts of quality control


Quality control is concerned with the operational techniques for detecting, recording and taking action to eliminate quality problems. It refers to all activities (process) and technologies that are used to achieve or maintain the quality of a product or service Quality control focuses on finding and eliminating of source of defects and monitoring the manufacturing process. Quality control consists of developing, designing producing, marketing, service products and services with optimum cost- effectiveness and usefulness, which customers will purchase with satisfaction. In leather industry, quality control should be concerned with the evaluation of test data and its application to the control of the leather process, raw materials, intermediate products and final products. For effective quality control, it is necessary to exercises control over the input material, process, and employment of skilled labor, management techniques and use of appropriate tools, equipment and machines Quality control in eliminating of material wastes and ensures in quality product and full customers satisfaction. 2.3.1. The meaning of control Any control system has certain essential features, as follows

Quality control for leather garment technology ADHENA

BY GETACHEW page 10

LEATHER & LEATHER PRODUCT TECHNOLOGY INSTITUTE


1. There is a plan / in our case the quality standard/ 2. We prepare to carry out that plan

2002 E.C

3. We carry it out, and all the time we compare what is being achieved with our plan. 4. If we begin to deviate from the plan we feed back instruction, so that we return to the plan 2.3.2. Stages of quality control There are five stages of quality control and which is written in quality control terms are 1. Set the quality standard or quality desidgn required by the customers 2. Plan to achieve the required quality. This will involve. a. Planning methods b. Planning equipment c. Obtaining satisfactory materials d. Selecting and training operators e. Planning inspection and shop floor quality control 3. Manufacture right first time 4. Correct any quality deficiencies 5. Provide for long term quality control and planning.

2.4. Why quality is important?


According to Korathi (1999 G.C), various reports have indicated the following six benefits of quality: 1. Greater market share 2. Higher growth rate 3. Higher earning Quality control for leather garment technology ADHENA BY GETACHEW page 11

LEATHER & LEATHER PRODUCT TECHNOLOGY INSTITUTE


4. Premium price
5. Loyal customers 6. High motivated employs

2002 E.C

CHAPTER THREE QUALITY CONTROL


3.1 Quality determination
Quality can be determined through the following methods A. By visualizing (inspecting) This means that, if you feel better by observing on the product, we can say the product has good quality. The reverse is true. B. By touching This means that, when we are touching the product and if it has shine and smooth surface we feel better as compare to the product which has rough surface and we can say the product has better quality. C. By testing This means that we takes sample of the product and taste some property in the laboratory then compare the taste result with the given standard value. If the test result is approaches to the standard given value, then we can say the product is good quality. Quality control for leather garment technology ADHENA BY GETACHEW page 12

LEATHER & LEATHER PRODUCT TECHNOLOGY INSTITUTE 3.2. Main aspects to be considered in the quality control
A. set-up

2002 E.C

If the set-up is correct, the whole lot will conform to the specification, such process includes labeling, and cutting and checking is done by first inspection. B. machine tools During production time to-time change can occur which leads to defects and necessary checking production.

c. operators The process is such that the results depend on the skill and attention of the operators. It is important in manufacturing planning to decide on the operators working methods, aptitude and experience must be considered when selecting operators. D. Material components Raw material and component influence results. A process of this type is assembling different component. In this case it is very important to assure quality in earlier stage by in process inspection

3.3. What to control


From the definition of quality, what we understand about preventing defect from happening, so we should control anything that may made defects from the raw material up to finished leather Controlling in leather processing Control the amount of chemical added in each production step Control the duration for each production time Quality control for leather garment technology ADHENA BY GETACHEW page 13

LEATHER & LEATHER PRODUCT TECHNOLOGY INSTITUTE


Control the temperature Control the ph value Controlling in leather garment spreading and cutting Controlling the size of cutting blade, sharpness of the blade Cleanness of the cutting table Pattern mixed Controlling in sewing room Needle damage Feed damage Thread broken Inoperative zipper

2002 E.C

3.4. When to control


In the garment industries quality control is practiced right from the initial stege of sourcing the raw material to the stage of final finished garment, so quality control is carried out throughout the whole system from starting to ending of the process. To ensure at minimum practicable cost, that the requisite quality of product is being achieved at every stage of manufacture from raw material to boxed stock.

3.5. Approaches to apply quality control

Itemize the variable that occurs in fabric and garment production in order to provide a complete specification.

Develop a specification in a number of parts of sections to ensure that all design and production staff has clear idea as what is needed

Establish acceptable working tolerances in relation to all values on the specification BY GETACHEW page 14

Quality control for leather garment technology ADHENA

LEATHER & LEATHER PRODUCT TECHNOLOGY INSTITUTE


Establish fault rate recording systems Improve technical understanding of the product including Fabric properties (skin and hide) Sewing problems Causes and prevention of seam break down

2002 E.C

3.6. Who shall be involved in quality control?


Responsibility for the production of good quality lies with and in the hand of The person teaching the job Primarily by good communication By making new comer aware of specifications and tolerances, faults themselves, their effect and the appropriate action to take. Such communication or training if properly planned and executed (implemented) will greatly assists in minimizing the cost of poor quality. For controlling the quality, the following groups are involved: Individual operator Supervision Mechanics Quality control inspector Quality control head Trainer Instructor Chief executive

Quality control for leather garment technology ADHENA

BY GETACHEW page 15

LEATHER & LEATHER PRODUCT TECHNOLOGY INSTITUTE

2002 E.C

CHAPTER FOUR PROCESS INSPECTION


4.1. Definition of inspection
What is garment inspection? Inspection in reference to quality control in the apparel industry can be defined as the visual examination or review of raw materials (such as fabric, buttons, zippers, sewing threads, etc), partially finished components of the garments and completely finished garments in relation to some standards, specifications, or requirements including the measurement of the garments to ensure the satisfaction of the customers. Principle involved in inspection

Inspection

Quality control for leather garment technology ADHENA

BY GETACHEW page 16

LEATHER & LEATHER PRODUCT TECHNOLOGY INSTITUTE


Detection of defects Correction of defects Feed back of these defects to appropriate personnel

2002 E.C

Determination of causes and defects

Advantage and importance

Avoid wastage of time and money Avoid the unnecessarily use of resource Helps in timely delivery of goods Guarantees customers satisfaction

4.2. Objectives of inspection


1. Various objectives of inspection are: 2. Isolate good lots from bad lots 3. Isolate good items from bad items 4. Rate the capacity of the process 5. Measure the product quality 6. Rates the inspection accuracy 7. Measure the degree of precision of the measuring instrument used in inspection 8. Procure information about product design and Quality control for leather garment technology ADHENA BY GETACHEW page 17

LEATHER & LEATHER PRODUCT TECHNOLOGY INSTITUTE


9. To calibrate measuring standard and instrument

2002 E.C

4.3. Function of inspection


There are different types of inspection function. Raw material inspection Process inspection Finished (final) inspection Purchased part inspection Tools inspection

4.3.1 raw material inspection Fabric inspection: After fabric is received, it should be inspected to determine its acceptability from a quality view point; otherwise, extra cost in garment manufacturing may be incurred due to either the loss of the material or time, to say nothing of customer returns and dissatisfaction due to poor quality. Some garment manufacturers rely on their fabric suppliers to perform fabric inspection and mark fabric defects. Fabric inspection is usually done on fabric inspection machines, such machines are designed so that rolls of fabric can be mounted behind the inspection table under adequate light and rolled as they leave the table. Defects in a fabric can be seen readily with these machines ,as the inspector has a very good view of the fabric and the fabric does not need to be reversed to detect defects .These inspection machines are either power-driven or the inspector pulls the fabric over the inspection form. Such machines are also equipped to accurately measure the length of each roll of fabric as well as monitor the width of the fabric. There are various fabric inspection systems such as 4-point system, 10-point system and Graniteville 78 system.

Quality control for leather garment technology ADHENA

BY GETACHEW page 18

LEATHER & LEATHER PRODUCT TECHNOLOGY INSTITUTE

2002 E.C

A. 4-point system: The 4 point system, also called American Apparel Manufacturers Association (AAMA) point grading system for determining fabric quality, is widely used by producers of apparel fabrics. Fabric flaws or defects are assigned point values based on the following: Points allotted

Length of defect in fabric, either length or width Up to 3 inch 1 2 3 4

Over 3 inches and up to 6 inch Over 6 inches and up to 9 inch Over 9 inches Holes and openings (Largest dimensions) 1 inch or less Over 1 inch

2 4

Total defect points per 100 yd2 are calculated, and normally those fabric rolls containing more than 40 points /100 yd2 are considered seconds However a garment manufacturer, based on the price line and type of garments produced, may use more or less than 40 points / 100 yd2 as an acceptance criteria. For example, a fabric roll 120 yd long and 48 inch wide contains the following defects: 2 defects up to 3 inch 5 defects over 3 inch but less than 6 inch 1 defect over 6 inch but less than 9 inch 1 defect over 9 inch Total defect points 2x1 = 2 points 5x2 = 10 points 1x3 = 3 points 1x4 = 4 p0ints = 19 points

Quality control for leather garment technology ADHENA

BY GETACHEW page 19

LEATHER & LEATHER PRODUCT TECHNOLOGY INSTITUTE


Therefore, Total points scored in the roll x 3600 Points /100 yd2 = = Fabric width in inches x total yards inspected 19 x 3600 48 x 120 = 11.9 defect points /100 yd2

2002 E.C

So if the acceptance criteria are 40 points /100 yd2, then this roll is acceptable. The maximum number of defects to be counted against any one linear yard is 4 points. Overall, fabric quality is assessed on the basis of the number of defect points per 100 yd2 of fabric.

B. 10-point system Under this system, fabric defects are assigned point values based on the following Length of defects Warp defects Up to 1 in. 1 to 5 in. 5 to 10 in. Pointed allotted 1 3 5 10 1 3 5 10

10 to 36 in. Filling defects Up to 1 in. 1 to 5 in. 5 in to half width Larger than half width

No linear yard of fabric is assigned more than 10 points, no matter how bad or frequent the defects are. Fabric is considered first quality if the number of defects point is less than the number of yards of fabric inspected. In the case of fabrics wider than 50 in., the fabric is Quality control for leather garment technology ADHENA BY GETACHEW page 20

LEATHER & LEATHER PRODUCT TECHNOLOGY INSTITUTE

2002 E.C

considered first if the total defect points do not exceed the number of yards of fabric inspected by 10 %. Powderly speaking compared 4 point and 10 point systems and noted that a 4 point system tends to classify more fabrics at first. C. Graniteville 78 system This inspection is used for the woven and knitted fabrics only, not concerned for non woven fabric like leather. Sewing threads: During the sewing process in a high speed lock stitch machine, the thread is subjected to complex kinematics and dynamic conditions. The speed at which it passes through the needle eye can reach 140 165 km/hr and at the moment at which the thread is caught by the sewing hook , the speed reaches 2000 m/sec ,while moving at such speeds ,the thread is subjected to friction from a number of guides ,from the needle eye ,from the fabric being sewn , from bobbin case assembly ,and from the bottom thread. At the same time, the thread is subjected to many stresses, all of which take place very quickly and at high speed. Therefore ,sewing threads should be checked for the following characteristics : Construction of yarn ( count ,number of twist, strength ) Sewability (ability to sew). Imperfections (should be free from slubs, knots, etc). Finish ( yarn should be smooth ,lubricate ,etc ) Colour (should match with the standard). Package density. Winding (winding should be uniform). zippers : it should check for the following : Dimensions ( check for the correct width of tape ) Top and bottom stops should be fastened securely. Zipper tape should be uniform in colour if that is important. Pull tab should be affixed firmly to the slider body. BY GETACHEW page 21

Quality control for leather garment technology ADHENA

LEATHER & LEATHER PRODUCT TECHNOLOGY INSTITUTE


Slider should ride freely but must not be so free that it is loose on the chain. Check also to be sure the slider locks securely.

2002 E.C

buttons, buckles, snap fasteners, and so on: Buttons: should have large, clean sew holes that are free from flash and will not cut the thread. Holes must be located properly in relation to the edge of the button. Buttons should be of uniform thickness. Buckles: should be checked for any visual defects such as sharp, burred edges. If a buckle is cloth or vinyl covered, there should not be an appreciable difference in the buckle and garment materials. Snap fasteners: The attaching machinery should locate the snap fasteners accurately and at proper pressure .Component parts should be checked to close tolerances and free from dirt and other foreign substances so that they will feed rapidly through the hopper and permit uniform and trouble free assembly.

4.3.2.

In process inspection

In process inspection means the inspection of parts before they are assembled into a complete product. In apparel manufacturing, this means inspection at various points in the entire manufacturing process from spreading fabric to pressing /finishing. In process inspection can be either quality control inspector or individual operators themselves after they perform their respective operation (s). Spreading: Various factors that can affect spreading should be checked, such as the cleanness of the spreading table, surface area of the table, the position of the table whether inclined or not, spreading of the leather whether tight spread or spread with low tension. Defects during spreading: Pattern defects: during preparing the patterns of a garment, we should take care so that it is possible to avoid the defects of garment. The following are the pattern defects. 1- Pattern parts missing: correct number of parts for all sizes not included by the marker maker. Quality control for leather garment technology ADHENA BY GETACHEW page 22

LEATHER & LEATHER PRODUCT TECHNOLOGY INSTITUTE

2002 E.C

2- Mixed parts: parts not correctly labelled in marker, therefore a marriage of wrong sized parts. 3- Patterns not all facing in the same direction (either way). 4- Patterns not facing in the correct direction on napped fabrics. 5- Patterns not aligned with respect to the fabric grain. 6- Line definitions poor (e.g. chalk, too thick, etc) leading to inaccurate cutting. 7- Not enough knife clearance of freedom. 8- Mismatched checks and stripes. 9- Notches and drill marks omitted, indistinct, or misplaced. cutting : Cutting quality is a prerequisite for quality in a finished product. In addition, cut work quality affects the ease and cost with which construction is accomplished. The quality of work leaving the cutting room is determined by how true the cut fabric parts are to the pattern, how smooth or rough the cut surface is material or fabric defects in the cut fabric parts, shade differences between cut fabric pieces within a bundle. Advantages of in-process inspection 1. Reduction of major supervision from the customers due to bad quality. 2. Decrease in labour cost due to a decrease in repair rates. The operators and supervision are constantly reminded that the company has a specific quality level to meet, just be the very presence of the inspectors in their section on daily basic. Because each worker will realize that his/her work is subject to being inspected at any time throughout the day the quality of the work produced by workers will improve. The data obtained can be effectively analyzed and utilized by the production supervision and part manager in correcting problems or improving quality. Sewing defects: defects of garment occur due to some problems of sewing .It is possible to list some defects of sewing as follows. Quality control for leather garment technology ADHENA BY GETACHEW page 23

LEATHER & LEATHER PRODUCT TECHNOLOGY INSTITUTE


1-

2002 E.C

Needle damage as evidenced by holes, picked threads, ruptured threads, or other damage

to the fabric, caused by wrong size or type of needle, blunt needle, needle heat, or machine feeding difficulty. 2Feed damage, particularly on thicker or sheer fabrics, or when machining over traverse seams, arising from incorrect type of teeth, excessive pressure by foot, excessive machine speed. 345Skipped stitches, from the hook irregularity failing to pick up the loop of thread from a Thread breaks, arising from too thick a thread for the needle, too thin a thread, needle Broken stitches ,arising from the wrong stitch type ,too tight tensions, a body formed needles eye owing to a number of causes. heat, too tight tension, etc. joint in the seam where the second line of stitch runs over the first and cracks it ,sharp feeds ,too great a pressure ,etc. 6789Seam grin arising from too loose a tension or too large a stitch, or the use of the wrong Seam pucker, because of incorrect handling by the operator, misaligned notches, tight Pleated seams, where operator failed to ease in fullness evenly. Wrong stitch density: too many give rise to jamming and rupture of fabric threads, weak stitch type. thread tensions, etc.

seams. 10- Uneven stitch density: due to carelessness of the operator. 11- Improperly formed stitches, caused by bad tension, incorrectly adjusted timing. 12- Oil spots or stains.

Seaming Defects: It is the other type of defect of garment. Usually cased by errors arising from the interaction of the operator and machine in the handling of the garment. Some of the seaming defects are listed below. 1- Incorrect or uneven width of inlay, arising from bad handling by operator, incorrectly set guide, incorrectly adjusted folder. In extreme cases, the seams burst open raw edges show, slippage of weave threads occurs, or notches are exposed. 2- Irregular or incorrect shape of sewing line (sometimes called run-offs) in top stitching, arising from lack of or badly set guide, not following a mark. Quality control for leather garment technology ADHENA BY GETACHEW page 24

LEATHER & LEATHER PRODUCT TECHNOLOGY INSTITUTE

2002 E.C

3- Insecure back stitching, because subsequent rows do not cover the first row of stitching. 4- Twisted seam leading to irregular puckering or the garment parts not hanging correctly when worn, caused by improper alignment of fabric parts. 5- Mismatched checks or stripes. 6- Mismatched seam, where traverse seams do not match (eg inside leg seams at the fork of trousers). 7- Extraneous part caught in seam, an unrelated piece showing through the seam. 8- Reversed garment part where part is sewn with face side opposite from specification, perhaps when the part cut for one side of garment is sewn in the other, or when the whole garment is assembled inside out. 9- Wrong seam or stitch type used. 10- Wrong shade of thread used. Assembly defects : ( perhaps caused by errors arising in marking and cutting ,as well as sewing operations in the sewing room, or a combination of these).The following are an examples of such defects. 1- Finished garment not to size, arising from incorrect patterns, inaccurate marking or cutting, shrinking or stretching fabric incorrect seam widths. 2- Finished components not correct to size or shape or not symmetrical. 3- Parts, components closures or features omitted, caused by bad work flow, and wrongly printed work tickets, parts omitted in cutting. 4- Components or features wrongly positioned or misaligned arising from incorrect marking ,or sewing not following the mark ( e.g. Pockets ,bar tracks, top stitching buttonholes ,buttons, hooks and bars ,hooks and eyes, zips). 5- Interlining incorrectly positioned, twisted, too full, too tight cockling. 6- Lining too full, too tight, showing below the bottom of the garment, twisted, incorrectly pleated, etc. 7- Garments parts cockling ,pleated, twisted, showing bubbles and fullness ,for example, collar in relation to the under collar or the neck ,sleeve in relation to the arm hole ,pockets ,tapes zips, pads in relation to the shoulder. 8- Garment parts shaded owing to being mixed after cutting. 9- Parts in one way fabrics in wrong direction, usually only small parts, such as pockets. Quality control for leather garment technology ADHENA BY GETACHEW page 25

LEATHER & LEATHER PRODUCT TECHNOLOGY INSTITUTE


10- Mismatched trimming. Controlling of fusing operation

2002 E.C

Adjustment of time, temperature and pressure for given types of material to be fused based on the manufacture recommendation in order to attain certain peel strength. Control screen printing operation Placement of design Ink coverage Pressing /finishing Appearance is the basic of most consumers judgment on whether or not to purchase a garment. The quality of a pressing operation can be measured by evaluating the following: 1. Broken zipper or button 2. Creased not correctly formed 3. Fabric of finished garment not smooth, wrinkle free and showing its proper appearance 4. Pocket not smooth 5. Lining showing creases 6. Shrinkage due to heat and moisture Methods of controlling of garment defects Since manufacturers vary in organizational structure, products manufactured, technological levels, and so on .there cannot be a standard text book answer on how to start a quality control program. However, the following are some general guide lines that are used to plan and start a quality control program for the manufacturers. To obtain an overall picture of where you stand in terms of quality, perform 100 % final inspection of all styles for at least two or three weeks to collect information. Then analyze this information. The following are various defects to look for during quality control. Broken button. Broken snaps. Broken stitching. Defective snaps. Different shades within the same garment. BY GETACHEW page 26

Quality control for leather garment technology ADHENA

LEATHER & LEATHER PRODUCT TECHNOLOGY INSTITUTE


Dropped stitches. Exposed notches. Exposed raw edges. Fabric defects. Holes Inoperative zipper. Loose/hanging sewing threads Misaligned buttons and buttonholes. Missing buttons. Needle cuts /chews. Open seams. Pulled /loose yarn. Stains. Unfinished button holes. Zipper to short

2002 E.C

4.3.3. Final inspection Final inspection consists of inspecting finished garments from the customers point of view ,size measurement ,form fitting ( putting garments on the proper size mannikins to see if they properly fit the labelled sizes ),and live modelling if necessary ( again to see if the garments properly fit the labelled sizes ). Final inspection may occur before or after garments are packed in poly bags and boxes. It is done after garments are packed, then proper size and style markings on the package can also be checked .In any case, there should be a list of points to be checked in a garment, including a table of finished measurements. Let us see for instance final quality inspection of mens shirt.

Quality control for leather garment technology ADHENA

BY GETACHEW page 27

LEATHER & LEATHER PRODUCT TECHNOLOGY INSTITUTE


Serial No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Location Collars Buttons and Button holes Pocket Hems Yoke or shoulder Side seams Cuff Finished appearance

2002 E.C

Inspection For Both points same length, uniformly stitched, No broken stitches, should lay flat. Properly spaced, No puckering or fullness, No cut stitches, No broken buttons. Top of the pocket horizontal, uniformly stitched, corners securely tacked, should lay flat. Uniformly stitched, No puckering, skip or broken stitch. Pleats properly placed, Uniformly stitched, No puckering, Skipped or broken stitches. Stripes, plaids, checks or patterns should match. Stripes, plaids, checks or patterns should match the sleeve. Clean of all loose thread. No oil /dirt stains. Free of any fabric defect.

4.4.4. Purchased parts inspection


The purchasing department will state in the purchased order that the vendor /seller/ is to provide an initial sample before the first delivery. The aim of initial sample is to give the customer an idea of how the vendors production will turn out in terms of quality. The sample must be made by the same methods and in the same machines and tools which will be used in future production. Both the size of the sample and the latest time for delivery must be given. Before the initial sample is shipped, the vendor must inspect and test it to be sure that the customers quality requirements are fulfilled. In order to avoid misunderstanding, only pone department should have the contacts with venders on initial samples.

4.4.5. Tools inspection


Tools inspection helps to prevent lots too many defects getting through to production and causing problem there.

Quality control for leather garment technology ADHENA

BY GETACHEW page 28

LEATHER & LEATHER PRODUCT TECHNOLOGY INSTITUTE

2002 E.C

Tools inspection means identify and problem on the tools and justify whether the right tools are used to the right position or place. Tools inspection is done at each production department. For example, in case of leather garment production, tools inspection is done in leather processing department, in cutting department, in design and pattern making department, in sewing department and last finishing department.

4.4
4.4.1

systems of inspection
floor inspection

It is a fast process as no material movement is involved in it. It is a cheaper process too as a cost of transportation of the material from the floor to the inspection room is nil. It is highly efficient and most probably the only way of inspection for Buckley items. The two main problem associated with floor inspection are
1. Service conditions at floor are not suitable for precision work. 2. There is a real possibility of the inspector being influenced by production personnel.

4.4.2

central inspection

It has certain advantages over floor inspection. So far as it can be carried our more precisely and rapidly due to availability of all equipment at one place and the working condition are better Minimum possible interference is encountered in central room inspection. It is well suited to incoming material inspection, finished production inspection and inspection of high precision and delicate product; however, it is a time consuming inspection as material movement is involved. 4.4.3 combined inspection BY GETACHEW page 29

Quality control for leather garment technology ADHENA

LEATHER & LEATHER PRODUCT TECHNOLOGY INSTITUTE

2002 E.C

Both floor inspection and central inspection are employed in a production unit, known as combined inspection. On this case some component may be inspected at the floor level where as other are inspected at the central room.

4.5. Types of inspection


There are different types of inspection: A. 100%inspection B. Sample inspection C. First of inspection D. Working inspection E. Functional inspection F. Testing complete product

4.5.1. 100% inspection


Every item in a lot is inspected for one or more characteristics. It has its own advantages: 1. Inspection is done seriously and faults can be easily identify 2. Increase internal and external customer satisfaction But the disadvantage is 1. Time consuming because of lot product for inspection each is difficult. 2. Cost for inspection is increased.

4.5.2. Sample inspection


Quality control for leather garment technology ADHENA BY GETACHEW page 30

LEATHER & LEATHER PRODUCT TECHNOLOGY INSTITUTE

2002 E.C

A sample of the lot is inspected for one or more characteristics. Sampling inspection may be divided into: 1. Spot check 2. Statistical sampling inspection In spot check inspection Just a few items in the lots are inspected; the items for inspection might not be selected at random. In statistical sampling inspecting Procedures based on statically theory are used. The procedures provided information on the sample size and criteria of acceptance or rejection. The sampling done at random. The probability of acceptance is considered. Every item in the batch has an equal chance of being selected from the sample

Taking sample from a batch Every sample which we take must be representatives of the batch, because we are going to judge the quality of the batch by the quality of the sample. Some care and experience are necessary in doing taking of samples from a batch, the following point will help:
1. Never take the whole sample from one part of the batch

2. Make sure that the sample does not come entirely from the top layers of the batch. The bottom must be represented as well as the top, and one side as much as other 3. If a consignment (batch) consists of more than one package, then from each package we take a sample which is roughly proportional to its size.

Quality control for leather garment technology ADHENA

BY GETACHEW page 31

LEATHER & LEATHER PRODUCT TECHNOLOGY INSTITUTE

2002 E.C

4. We should never mix two small batches to gather to make one large for economically in sampling, unless we know that both consignments are from the same production runs. 5. We must beware of sampling bias if we have a batch in which some items are obviously defective. Examples: suppose that finish is important and we received a batch in which some items are obviously blemished (marked). It will be very difficult to sample this fairly.

4.5.3. First off inspection / initial inspection


Initial/ first off/ inspection is a well known and valuable aid to quality control. Whenever and wherever a production run is started, it will be prudent (careful) to check, the first piece, assembly etc before the main run commence (began/start/). We can detect many defects by checking the first off and so prevent the whole batch from being wrong. The following are some of examples 1. We can check whether the machine or the equipment is correctly set up 2. We can discover whether the operator has fully understood his instructions 3. In many case we shall be able to detect the use of incorrect material.

A first off inspection is almost always worth doing, but some value of the work being produced and partly on how far a correct first off ensures a correct run. The more expensive, the work being made and the more it costs to put it right of it is incorrectly made, so the more it will pay us to make sure that the run starts off correctly. First off inspection ensures that the job starts correctly.

4.5.4. Working inspection


The objective of this type of inspection is to help the operators to make the whole run correctly. From time to time the inspector will visit the machine or the operator concerned and take a sample of the latest work made. If the quality is wrong on any point, then this must Quality control for leather garment technology ADHENA BY GETACHEW page 32

LEATHER & LEATHER PRODUCT TECHNOLOGY INSTITUTE

2002 E.C

be corrected as quickly as possible. If an operator goes wrong, it is much kinder to tell him quickly, so that he can correct himself before he has made a lot of out of limit work. The primarily task of a working inspector is to help keep running correctly and therefore, whatever the sample size, it should always include the last or almost the last item made because this gives the latest news of the machines condition. It will tell the inspector and operator whether the machine is still running correctly.
4.5.5.

Functional inspection/last-off/

At the end of the run, the last piece made should be checked to see whether the tools etc are still satisfactory condition. If they need regrinding or any other attention before they will be fit for another run, this must be arranged before they are returned to store. The functional inspection/ last-off/ can usually be combined with the last working inspection. It is usually desirable to do a working inspection at end of run, in order to check on work made since the last routine inspection.

4.5.6. Final test and inspection


The term final test and inspection is usually used to denote any inspection done after manufacture has been completed, with the object of making sure that the goods concerned are satisfactory to send to the customers or may be to another department for the next operation.

This type of inspection should therefore, be regarded as a check that out production quality control is working satisfactory, and not as the quality control system itself.

Quality control for leather garment technology ADHENA

BY GETACHEW page 33

LEATHER & LEATHER PRODUCT TECHNOLOGY INSTITUTE

2002 E.C

CHAPTER FIVE PHYSICAL TESTING FOR LEATHER GARMENT


5.1.
Scope This method describes the conditioning to be given to test specimens prior to physical testing. Procedures Quality control for leather garment technology ADHENA BY GETACHEW page 34

conditioning

LEATHER & LEATHER PRODUCT TECHNOLOGY INSTITUTE

2002 E.C

During the 48 hours immediately preceding its use in a test, keep each specimen for physical testing in a standard atmosphere of temperature 20+ 20c and relative humidity 65+2%. Support the specimen so that air has free access to its surfaces and keep the air in continuous rapid motion by a suitably placed fan. Perform all physical tests in the same standard atmosphere unless otherwise specified. Note The required relative humidity of 65 +2% at 20+ 20c can be maintained in a closed space either by the use of saturated solutions of certain salts in water (in which the solid phase is also present in excess) or by the use of a solution of given concentration of sulphuric acid in water the selected solution should be placed in a large shallow dish inside the enclosure. Saturated solutions of either pure ammonium nitrite or pure sodium nitrite are satisfactory. A solution of sulpheric acid 35.6 % by weights=1.270 is satisfactory. It is necessary to check the density from time to time and restore it to the value 1.270 as require by appropriate additions of either water or more concentrated sulpheric acid. Continuous circulation of air is essential. Rapid conditioning procedure can follow for light leather (excluding heavy leather, e.g. sole, belting) may be carried out by placing the leather in an oven for 2 h at 40 0c, followed by standing overnight in the standard atmosphere: 200c/65%RH.

5.2.

Measurement of the flexibility of light leather and their surface

finishes
Scope This method can only be used for light leathers. Outline of the method Quality control for leather garment technology ADHENA BY GETACHEW page 35

LEATHER & LEATHER PRODUCT TECHNOLOGY INSTITUTE

2002 E.C

The specimen is folded as described below and is clamped at each end to maintain it in a folded position in machine designed to flex the specimen. One clamp is fixed and the other moves backwards and fore wards causing the fold in the specimen to return a long it. The specimen is examined periodically to assess what damage has been produced. Specimens The specimens are rectangles 70 mm by 45mm and well conditioned. Apparatus

15 j

50

c 25

22.50

E A 55

F D

25 fig 1

The upper lamp consists of a pair of flat plates. One has the shape of a trapezium ABCD (fig 1), with sharp corner at D rounded to a radius of 2 mm. it has a ledge EF on which the folded specimen rests. The other plate has the shape EGHCF. The two plates can be screwed together, so as to hold one end of the specimens between them. The screw K which draws the plates together acts as a stop, which prevents the end of the specimens from being thrust too far towards the back of the clamp. Between the plates near the edge AB is a stop which prevents them from coming together near AB, and so ensures that they clamp the leather firmly near F. the upper clamp can be reciprocated by a motor about a horizontal axle J (fig1). In the position shown in fig 1, the ledge EF is horizontal and the end F is at its height point. The clamp descends through an angle of 22.50 and returns 100+5 time per minute. The number of cycles is recorded by a counter. The lower clamp is fixed and lies in the same vertical plane as the upper clamp. It consists of a pair of plates which can be screwed together to hold the end of the specimen between them. Quality control for leather garment technology ADHENA BY GETACHEW page 36

LEATHER & LEATHER PRODUCT TECHNOLOGY INSTITUTE

2002 E.C

If the upper clamp has been turned to the position where the ledge EF is horizontal (fig1), the upper edges of the plates of the lower clamp are 25mm below the ledge EF. Insertion of the specimen in the clamps Term the motor until the ledge EF is horizontal. Fold the spacemen so that the two longer sides are brought together, turning inwards that surface of the leather which is to be observed during the test. Clamp the folded specimen in the upper clamp with one end of the specimen against the stop and the folded edge against the ledge. Test procedures
1. Clamp the specimens in the machine in the manner described above and switch on the

motor. After 100, 1000, 10,000 cycles, switch off the motor and example the leather finish to see whether it has been damage. Record any damage observed its nature and the number of cycles at which it was observed.
2. After 2, 4, 6, 8, 12, 16, 24 hours flexing, examine the leather itself to see whether it has

been damaged. Record any damage observed its nature and the number of cycles at which it was observed. Damage to finish may be of the following (and other kinds: Change of shade (graying) of the finish film without other damage. Crazing of the finish with smaller or greater surface cracks. Loss of adhesion of the finish to the leather with slight or considerable changes of color in the folded area. Loss of adhesion of one finish layer to another, with slight or considerable changes of color. Powdering or flaking off of finish, with slight or considerable changes of color. Damage to the leather may be the following kinds (among others) Quality control for leather garment technology ADHENA BY GETACHEW page 37

LEATHER & LEATHER PRODUCT TECHNOLOGY INSTITUTE


Development of coarse grain folds Loss of an embossed grain pattern. Cracking of the grain layer

2002 E.C

Continuation of the breakdown of fibers to such an extent that a hole develops through

the entire thickness of the leather


5.3.

Measurement of tearing load (tear strength ) a. Double edge tear

Scope This method is intended for use with any type of leather. Preparation of specimens The specimen is rectangle 50mm and 25mm wide in which a slot, having the shape and dimensions shows in fig 1, has been cut, preferably by use of a pres knife which cuts out the specimen and slot in one operation. Cut the specimens by pressing the press knife through from the grain to the flesh side.

25

A R=5

15

20

15 BY GETACHEW page 38

Quality control for leather garment technology ADHENA

LEATHER & LEATHER PRODUCT TECHNOLOGY INSTITUTE


Fig 1 specimen (dimension in millimeter)

2002 E.C

Apparatus Use a tensile strength machine having a uniform speed of separation of the jaws of 100+ 20mm per minute, and such that readings of lad fall in that part of the scale which has been shown by calibration to be correct within 1 % Attach to the jaws of the machine a pair of specimen holders of the type, each consists of a strip of steel 10mm wide and 2mm thick, bent through a right angle at one end and welded to a bar which makes the strip rigid, and which fits one pair of jaws of the tensile strength machine or replaces them. Procedure
1. Condition the specimen and measure the thickness.

2. Adjust the machine so that the turned up ends of the specimen holders are in contacts with one another. Slip the specimen over the turned up ends, so that they protrude through the slot with the widths of the turned up ends parallel to the straight edges of the slot. Press the specimen down firmly on to the holders. 3. Run the machine until the specimens torn apart and record the highest lad reached during tearing as the tearing load. 4. Report the tear load in kgf and the thickness in millimeter.

b. Single edge tear


Scope To determine the resistance of all types of leather using single edge tear Sampling

Quality control for leather garment technology ADHENA

BY GETACHEW page 39

LEATHER & LEATHER PRODUCT TECHNOLOGY INSTITUTE

2002 E.C

The specimen is rectangle 70mm and 40mm wide in which a slot, having the shape and dimensions shows in fig 2, has been cut, preferably by use of a pres knife which cuts out the specimen and slot in one operation. Cut the specimens by pressing the press knife through from the grain to the flesh side. 70mm 50mm
20mm

40mm

Fig. 2 Procedure 1. Determine the average thickness


2. Set the separation rate of the jaws of the tensile testing machine to 100 + 20mm/min

and the distance of the jaws to 50+ 2 mm. 3. Clamp the ends of the test piece in the jaws for a length of 20mm, ensuring that the slot is aligned to the traction axis. 4. Start the test and record the load- extension plot 5. Divided the plot in 4 equal parts from the first peak to the last one.

6. In the second and third sections record the load value of the two higher and two lower peaks. 7. Determine the single edge tear load making the arithmetic mean of the tested sample.

Quality control for leather garment technology ADHENA

BY GETACHEW page 40

LEATHER & LEATHER PRODUCT TECHNOLOGY INSTITUTE 5.4.


Scope These tests are intended to used will all kinds of leather. Preparation of specimens

2002 E.C

Measurement of tensile strength

Fig 1 shows the shape and dimensions of the internal surfaces of the press knife which must be used to cut the specimen. When specimens are used for tensile strength measurement the leather must be conditioned before the specimens are cut. 30 25 A B R=5 E C 10

50mm D 110

Machine to be used

Use a tensile strength machine having a uniform speed of separation of the jaws of 100 + 20mm/minute.

The jaw shall measure at least 40 mm in the direction of the applied load. They shall be designed to apply, by pneumatic or mechanical means, a clamping force which remains constants as the end pieces of the specimen compress and whose center of action shall lie as close to the center of the clamped end pieces as possible and in any case never outside it. The texture and design of the inside faces of the jaws should be

such that at the maximum load attained in the test the specimen should not slip at either jaw by an amount exceeding 1% of the original jaw separation.

Quality control for leather garment technology ADHENA

BY GETACHEW page 41

LEATHER & LEATHER PRODUCT TECHNOLOGY INSTITUTE


Procedures A. Tensile strength

2002 E.C

1. Measure the width each specimen to the nearest tenth of a mm at the positions on the grain and at three positions on the flesh side: in each group of three , make one measurement at the mid-point E of the waist of the specimens (fig 1) and the other two at position approximately midway between E and linen AB,CD. 2. Measure the thickness of the specimen and make three measurements at appoint equally spaced, between AB and CD. Take the mean of the three thickness measurements as the thickness of the specimen. 3. Calculate the area of the cross section of each specimen by multiplying its width by its thickness. 4. Set the jaws of the tensile machine 50mm apart. Clamp the specimen in the jaws so that the edge of the jaws lies along the lines AB, CD. When it is clamped the grain surface of the specimen shal lies in one plane
5. Run the machine until the specimen breaks and take the highest load reached as the

breaking load.
6. Calculate the tensile strength by dividing the breaking load by the area cross section

of the specimen. Express the results in Mpa. Tensile strength Tn = F/w*t [N/mm2]

B. Percentage elongation caused by a specific load.

Quality control for leather garment technology ADHENA

BY GETACHEW page 42

LEATHER & LEATHER PRODUCT TECHNOLOGY INSTITUTE

2002 E.C

1. Clamp the specimen between the jaws of the machine and measure the distance

between the jaws to the nearest half mm and take this distance as the initial length of the specimen for the purpose of the test.
2. Start the machine. Unless the machine automatically draws a load extension graph

with the necessary accuracy, follow the distance between the pairs of the load increases with the aid of dividers. 3. Note the distance between the pair of the jaws at the instant when the load first reaches the specified value. Take this as the length of the specimen at this load.
4. Calculate the elongation at the specified load by taking the difference between the

initial length and the length at the specified load. Express this difference as the percentage of the initial length (L1). Percentage elongation E1 = L1-L0 L0 c. Percentage of elongation at break 1. Take the same principle with percentage of elongation. 2. Note the distance between the pairs of jaws at the instant when rupture of the specimen occurs. Take this as the length of the specimen at break. 3. Calculate the elongation at the break by taking the difference between the initial length and the length at break. Express this difference as a percentage of the initial length. Eb = L1-L0 L0 [%] [%]

Quality control for leather garment technology ADHENA

BY GETACHEW page 43

LEATHER & LEATHER PRODUCT TECHNOLOGY INSTITUTE 5.5. Test for colo0r fastness

2002 E.C

Color fastness to TO AND FOR RUBBING.


Scope To determining the behavior of the surface of a specimen to rubbing. Condition of test pieces. For tests with wet test pieces: Immerse the test piece in a vessel containing distilled water. Dispose the vessel in the desiccators and produce a 5kpa.Vacuum for 2 minutes. Restore the atmospheric pressure and repeat the procedure twice again. Dry the test pieces using filter paper. Test pieces must not be immersed more than 1 hour.

Procedure 1. Cut a rectangular test piece with length not less than 120mm and width not less than 20mm. 2. Dispose the test piece in the holders. 3. Put the test piece in traction corresponding to a 10% elongation. 4. Dispose the 1 k.g weight on the piston. 5. Set the number of cycles and star the test. 6. After reconditioning the wet component, assess the change in color of leather

Quality control for leather garment technology ADHENA

BY GETACHEW page 44

LEATHER & LEATHER PRODUCT TECHNOLOGY INSTITUTE

2002 E.C

CHAPTER SIX STATISTICAL QUALITY CONTROL


Statistica1 quality control (SQC) is the term used to describe the set of statistical tools used by quality professionals. Statistical quality control can be divided into three broad categories: 1. Descriptive statistics are used to describe quality characteristics and relationships. Included are statistics such as the mean, standard deviation, the range, and a measure of the distribution of data. 2. Statistical process control (SPC) involves inspecting a random sample of the output from a process and deciding whether the process is producing products with characteristics that fall within a predetermined range. SPC answers the question of whether the process is functioning properly or not. 3. Acceptance sampling is the process of randomly inspecting a sample of goods and deciding whether to accept the entire lot based on the results. Acceptance sampling determines whether a batch of goods should be accepted or rejected. The tools in each of these categories provide different types of information for use in analyzing quality. Descriptive statistics are used to describe certain quality characteristics,such as the central tendency and variability of observed data. Although descriptions of certain characteristics are helpful, they are not enough to help us evaluate whether there is a problem with quality. Acceptance sampling can help us do this. Acceptancesampling helps us decide whether desirable quality has been achieved for a batch ofproducts, and whether to accept or reject the items produced. Although this information is helpful in making the quality acceptance decision after the product has been produced, it does not help us identify and catch a quality problem during the production process. For this we need tools in the statistical process control (SPC) category.

Quality control for leather garment technology ADHENA

BY GETACHEW page 45

LEATHER & LEATHER PRODUCT TECHNOLOGY INSTITUTE

2002 E.C

All three of these statistical quality control categories are helpful in measuring and evaluating the quality of products or services. However, statistical process control (SPC) tools are used most frequently because they identify quality problems during the production process. For this reason, we will devote most of the chapter to this category of tools. The quality control tools we will be learning about do not only measure the value of a quality characteristic. They also help us identify a change or variation in some quality characteristic of the product or process. We will first see what types of variation we can observe when measuring quality. Then we will be able to identify specific tools used for measuring this variation. Variation in the production process leads to quality defects and lack of product consistency. The Intel Corporation, the worlds largest and most profitable manufacturer of microprocessors, understands this. Therefore, Intel has implemented a program it calls copyexactly at all its manufacturing facilities. The idea is that regardless of whether the chips are made in Arizona, New Mexico, Ireland, or any of its other plants, they are made in exactly the same way. This means using the same equipment, the same exact materials, and workers performing the same tasks in the exact same order. sources of variation: common and assignable causes If you look at bottles of a soft drink in a grocery store, you will notice that no two bottles are filled to exactly the same level. Some are filled slightly higher and some slightly lower. These types of differences are completely normal. No two products are exactly alike because of slight differences in materials, workers, machines, tools, and other factors. These are called common, or random, causes of variation. Common causes of variation are based on random causes that we cannot identify. These types of variation are unavoidable and are due to slight differences in processing. The second type of variation that can be observed involves variations where the causes can be precisely identified and eliminated. These are called assignable causes of variation. Examples of this type of variation are poor quality in raw materials, an employee who needs more training, or a machine in need of repair. The machine may need to be readjusted. This would be an assignable cause of variation. We can assign the variation to a particular cause (machine needs to be readjusted) and we can correct the problem (readjust the machine). Quality control for leather garment technology ADHENA BY GETACHEW page 46

LEATHER & LEATHER PRODUCT TECHNOLOGY INSTITUTE

2002 E.C

1. Descriptive statistics

Descriptive statistics can be helpful in describing certain characteristics of a product and a process. The most important descriptive statistics are measures of central tendency such as the mean, measures of variability such as the standard deviation and range, and measures of the distribution of data. We first review these descriptive statistics and then see how we can measure their changes. A. The Mean In the mass of leathers box, the average mass of the box is 190 K.g. The arithmetic average, or the mean, is a statistic that measuresthe central tendency of a set of data. Knowing the central point of a set of data is highlyimportant. Just think how important that number is when you receive test scores!To compute the mean we simply sum all the observations and divide by the totalnumber of observations. The equation for computing the mean is

n where x _ (x bar)the mean xi _ observation i, i _ 1, . . . , n n _ number of observations

B. The Range and Standard Deviation In the leather box, we can state that the amount of natural variation in the box is between 100 & 200 K.g.This information provides us withthe amount of variability of the data. It tells us how spread out the data is around themean. There are two measures that can be used to determine the amount of variationin the data. The first measure is the range, which is the difference between the largestand smallest observations. In our example, the range for natural variation is 180K.g. Another measure of variation is the standard deviation. The equation for computing Quality control for leather garment technology ADHENA BY GETACHEW page 47

LEATHER & LEATHER PRODUCT TECHNOLOGY INSTITUTE


the standard deviation is

2002 E.C

n-1 where _ standard deviation of a sample

X- (x bar)_ the mean xi _ observation i, i _ 1, . . . , n n _ the number of observations in the sample Small values of the range and standard deviation mean that the observations are closely clustered around the mean. Large values of the range and standard deviation mean that the observations are spread out around the mean. The given below figure illustrates the differences between a small and a large standard deviation for our leather box. You can see that the figure shows two distributions, both with a mean of19K.g. However, in the first distribution the standard deviation is large and the data are spread out far around the mean. In the second distribution the standard deviation is small and the data are clustered close to the mean.

Small standard deviation

Quality control for leather garment technology ADHENA

BY GETACHEW page 48

LEATHER & LEATHER PRODUCT TECHNOLOGY INSTITUTE

2002 E.C

Large standard deviation

100

120

140

160

180 Mean

200

220 240 260

280 K.G

Symmetric distribution

Skewed distribution

100

120

140

160 180

200

220

240 260

280 K.G

Example; the production of ELICO leather industries is given below and also the production item is mens leather jacket. Week 1_ 35, 35, 30, 30, 35, 25, 30 Week 2_40, 35, 40, 35, 30, 30, 30 Calculate the mean, the range and standard deviation? A. mean = x1 + x2 + x3.....+xn n Quality control for leather garment technology ADHENA BY GETACHEW page 49

LEATHER & LEATHER PRODUCT TECHNOLOGY INSTITUTE


=35+35+30+30+35+25+30+40+35+40+35+30+30+30 14 =32.857 33 B. range = maximum -minimum = 40-25 =15

2002 E.C

C. standard deviation =

sum of (individual-mean) 2 n-1

(35-33)2 + (35-33)2 + (30-33)2 + (30-33)2 + (35-33)2 + (25-33)2 + (30-33)2 + (40-33)2 + (3533)2 + (40-33)2 + (35-33)2 + (40-33)2 + (35-33)2 +(30-33)2 + (30-33)2 + (30-33)2 14-1 = 4+4+9+9+4+64+9+49+4+49+4+9+9+9 13 = 236/13 = 18.153

=4.2654 C. Distribution of Data A third descriptive statistic used to measure quality characteristics is the shape of the distribution of the observed data. When a distribution is symmetric, there are the sam number of observations below and above the mean. This is what we commonly find when only normal variation is present in the data. When a disproportionate number of observations are either above or below the mean, we say that the data has a skewed distribution. The above Figure shows symmetric and skewed distributions for the bottling operation.
2. Statistical process control methods

Quality control for leather garment technology ADHENA

BY GETACHEW page 50

LEATHER & LEATHER PRODUCT TECHNOLOGY INSTITUTE

2002 E.C

Statistical process control methods extend the use of descriptive statistics to monitor the quality of the product and process. As we have learned so far, there are common and assignable causes of variation in the production of every product. Using statistical process control we want to determine the amount of variation that is common or normal. Then we monitor the production process to make sure production stays within this normal range. That is, we want to make sure the process is in a state of control. The most commonly used tool for monitoring the production process is a control chart. Different types of control charts are used to monitor different aspects of the production Process. Types of Control Charts Control charts are one of the most commonly used tools in statistical process control. They can be used to measure any characteristic of a product, such as the number of leathers in a box, or the volume of bottled water. The different characteristics that can be measured by control charts can be divided into two groups: variables and attributes. A control chart for variables is used to monitor characteristics that can be measured and have a continuum of values, such as height,weight, or volume.
1. control charts for attributes

A control chart for attributes, on the other hand, is used to monitor characteristics that have discrete values and can be counted. Often they can be evaluated with a simple yes or no decision. Examples include color, taste, or smell. The monitoring of attributes usually takes less time than that of variables because a variable needs to be measured (e.g., the bottle of soft drink contains 15.9 ounces of liquid). An attribute requires only a single decision, such as yes or no, good or bad, acceptable or unacceptable (e.g., the apple is good or rotten, the meat is good or stale, the shoes have a defect or do not have a defect, the lightbulb works or it does not work) or counting the number of defects. 2. control charts for variables Control charts for variables monitor characteristics that can be measured and have a continuous scale, such as height, weight, volume, or width. When an item is inspected,

Quality control for leather garment technology ADHENA

BY GETACHEW page 51

LEATHER & LEATHER PRODUCT TECHNOLOGY INSTITUTE

2002 E.C

the variable being monitored is measured and recorded. For example, if we were producing candles, height might be an important variable.We could take samples of candles and measure their heights. Two of the most commonly used control charts for variables monitor both the central tendency of the data (the mean) and the variability of the data (either the standard deviation or the range). Note that each chart monitors a different type of information. When observed values go outside the control limits, the process is assumed not to be in control. Production is stopped, and employees attempt to identify the cause of the problem and correct it.
3. Acceptance sampling

Acceptance sampling, the third branch of statistical quality control, refers to theprocess of randomly inspecting a certain number of items from a lot or batch in orderto decide whether to accept or reject the entire batch. What makes acceptancesampling different from statistical process control is that acceptance sampling is performedeither before or after the process, rather than during the process. Acceptancesampling before the process involves sampling materials received from a supplier,such as randomly inspecting crates of fruit that will be used in a restaurant, boxes ofglass dishes that will be sold in a department store, or metal castings that will beused in a machine shop. Sampling after the process involves sampling finished items that are to be shipped either to a customer or to a distribution center. Examples includerandomly testing a certain number of finished leather from a batch to make such that meet the requirement free from chromium and randomly inspecting the accessories to make shore they are not defective. You may be wondering why we would only inspect some items in the lot and not the entire lot. Acceptance sampling is used when inspecting every item is not physically possible or would be overly expensive, or when inspecting a large number of items would lead to errors due to worker fatigue. This last concern is especially important when a large number of items are processed in a short period of time. Another example of when acceptance sampling would be used is in destructive testing, such as testing eggs for salmonella or vehicles for crash testing. Obviously, in these cases it would not be helpful to test every item! However, 100

Quality control for leather garment technology ADHENA

BY GETACHEW page 52

LEATHER & LEATHER PRODUCT TECHNOLOGY INSTITUTE

2002 E.C

percent inspection does make sense if the cost of inspecting an item is less than the cost of passing on a defective item. As you will see in this section, the goal of acceptance sampling is to determine the criteria for acceptance or rejection based on the size of the lot, the size of the sample, and the level of confidence we wish to attain. Acceptance sampling can be used for both attribute and variable measures, though it is most commonly used for attributes.

Quality control for leather garment technology ADHENA

BY GETACHEW page 53

LEATHER & LEATHER PRODUCT TECHNOLOGY INSTITUTE

2002 E.C

CHAPTER SEVEN QUALITY ASSURANCE AND ISO QUALITY MANAGEMENT SYSTEM


Introduction What is quality assurance? Quality assurance is the process of verifying or determines whether products or services meet or exceeds customer expectation. Quality assurance is a process driven approaches with specific step to help define and attain goals. This process considers design, development, production, and service. Quality assurance process Step in quality assurance process 1. Define the objective First step while understanding quality assurance of any project is to define its requirement. Example, if the quality planning process has to be evolved for launching a new product or service in market, then the first step in quality planning should be to understand and documented the need of this project and its ultimate goal. At this stage it is necessary to document the quality goal. These goals should be set according to the quality standards, customer requirement, with reference to organizations own benchmark performance, and competition performance. 2. Understanding customer needs All needs should be fully explained and documented so that it can be accessed by all the involved personnel whenever required, understand both internal and external customers. 3. Design the product

Quality control for leather garment technology ADHENA

BY GETACHEW page 54

LEATHER & LEATHER PRODUCT TECHNOLOGY INSTITUTE

2002 E.C

Product should be designed keeping in view the quality goals and needs of customer define in step1 & 2 respectively. The cost benefits analysis also has to be done in order to ensure that the product will be manufactured at low cost, with high quality in order to be successful in the market. 4. Product pilot testing Once the product design is ready, next the product is tested. The pilot batch of the product is manufactured. The product is tested for various attribute in accordance with the standards, customer requirement and regulatory requirements. This is to ensure that the product meets the set goals. Once everything is found satisfactory, the product is approved. 5. Process development The activities for manufacturing are listed. The work floe plan is developed. The teams are formed and given specific responsibilities. The time for each and every task are specified. 6. Start manufacturing Tools like process failure mode and effects analysis are used to identify the likely models of failure of the process and effect of those failures on the product performance. Actions are initiated for high risk items. Audits are planned to periodically measure the performance and give feedback to the manufacturing and design department

What is quality management system?


An organisation will benefit from establishing an effective quality management system (QMS). The cornerstone of a quality organisation is the concept of the customer and supplier working together for their mutual benefit. For this to become effective, the customer-supplier interfaces must extend into, and outside of, the organisation, beyond the immediate customers and suppliers. A QMS can be defined as: A set of co-ordinated activities to direct and control an organisation in order to continually improve the effectiveness and efficiency of its performance. These activities interact and are affected by being in the system, so the isolation and study of each one in detail will not necessarily lead to an understanding of the system as a whole. The Quality control for leather garment technology ADHENA BY GETACHEW page 55

LEATHER & LEATHER PRODUCT TECHNOLOGY INSTITUTE

2002 E.C

main thrust of a QMS is in defining the processes, which will result in the production of quality products and services, rather than in detecting defective products or services after they have been produced. The benefits of a QMS A fully documented QMS will ensure that two important requirements are met: The customers requirements confidence in the ability of the organisation to deliver the desired product and service consistently meeting their needs and expectations. The organisations requirements both internally and externally, and at an optimum cost with efficient use of the available resources materials, human, technology and information. These requirements can only be truly met if objective evidence is provided, in the form of information and data, to support the system activities, from the ultimate supplier to the ultimate customer. A QMS enables an organisation to achieve the goals and objectives set out in its policy and strategy. It provides consistency and satisfaction in terms of methods, materials, equipment, etc, and interacts with all activities of the organisation, beginning with the identification of customer requirements and ending with their satisfaction, at every transaction interface. Management systems are needed in all areas of activity, whether large or small businesses, manufacturing, service or public sector. A good QMS will: Set direction and meet customers expectations Improve process control Reduce wastage Lower costs Increase market share Facilitate training Involve staff Raise morale International Organization for Standardization (ISO)

Quality control for leather garment technology ADHENA

BY GETACHEW page 56

LEATHER & LEATHER PRODUCT TECHNOLOGY INSTITUTE

2002 E.C

The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) is the world's leading developer of international standards. ISO standards specify the requirements for state-of-the-art products, services, processes, materials and systems, and for good conformity assessment, managerial and organizational practice. ISO standards are designed to be implemented worldwide. ISO is a network of the national standards institutes of 157 countries, on the basis of one member per country, with a Central Secretariat in Geneva, Switzerland, that coordinates the system. ISO is a non-governmental organization: Its members are not, as is the case in the United Nations system, delegations of national governments. Nevertheless, ISO occupies a special position between the public and private sectors. This is because, on the one hand, many of its member institutes are part of the governmental structure of their countries, or are mandated by their government. On the other hand, other members have their roots uniquely in the private sector, having been set up by national partnerships of industry associations. Therefore, the ISO is able to act as a bridging organization in which a consensus can be reached on solutions that meet both the requirements of business and the broader needs of society, such as the needs of stakeholder groups like consumers and users.

Implementing ISO 9000 Quality Management System Implementation of ISO 9000 affects the entire organization right from the start. If pursued with total dedication, it results in 'cultural transition' to an atmosphere of continuous improvement. The process of implementing ISO 9000 depends on: The sophistication of your existing quality program, The size of your organization, and The complexity of your process. The 14 essential steps, briefly described below, are to be followed through in order to implement ISO 9000 quality management system successfully. Step 1: Top management commitment Step 2: Establish implementation team Quality control for leather garment technology ADHENA BY GETACHEW page 57

LEATHER & LEATHER PRODUCT TECHNOLOGY INSTITUTE


Step 3. Start ISO 9000 awareness programs Step 4: Provide Training Step 5. Conduct initial status survey Step 6: Create a documented implementation plan Step 7. Develop quality management system documentation Step 8: Document control Step 9. Implementation Step 10. Internal quality audit Step 11. Management review Step 12. Pre-assessment audit Step 13. Certification and registration Step 14: Continual Improvement Step 1: Top Management Commitment The top management (managing director or chief executive) should demonstrate a

2002 E.C

commitment and a determination to implement an ISO 9000 quality management system in the organization. Without top management commitment, no quality initiative can succeed. Top management must be convinced that registration and certification will enable the organization to demonstrate to its customers a visible commitment to quality. It should realize that a quality management system would improve overall business efficiency by elimination of wasteful duplication in management system. The top management should provide evidence of its commitment to the development and implementation of the quality management system and continually improve its effectiveness by:

Communicating to the organization the importance of meeting customer as well as statutory and regulatory requirements, Defining the organization's quality policy and make this known to every employee, Ensuring that quality objectives are established at all levels and functions, Ensuring the availability of resources required for the development and implementation of the quality management system, Appointing a management representative to coordinate quality management system activities, and

Quality control for leather garment technology ADHENA

BY GETACHEW page 58

LEATHER & LEATHER PRODUCT TECHNOLOGY INSTITUTE


Conducting management review. Leading the organization by example, Participating in improvement projects, Creating an environment that encourages the involvement of people.

2002 E.C

The top management should also consider actions such as:

This type of top management commitment may be driven by:


Direct marketplace pressure: requirements of crucial customers or parent Indirect marketplace pressure: increased quality levels and visibility among Growth ambitions: desire to exploit market opportunities. Personal belief in the value of quality as a goal and quality management systems

conglomerates. competitors.

as a means of reaching that goal. The top management should identify the goals to be achieved through the quality management system. Typical goals may be: Be more efficient and profitable Produce products and services that consistently meet customers' needs and expectations Achieve customers satisfaction Increase market share Improve communications and morale in the organization Reduce costs and liabilities Increase confidence in the production system Step 2. Establish Implementation Team ISO 9000 is implemented by people. The first phase of implementation calls for the commitment of top management - the CEO and perhaps a handful of other key people. The next step is to establish implementation team and appoint a Management

Quality control for leather garment technology ADHENA

BY GETACHEW page 59

LEATHER & LEATHER PRODUCT TECHNOLOGY INSTITUTE

2002 E.C

Representative (MR) as its coordinator to plan and oversee implementation. Its members should include representatives of all functions of the organization - Marketing, Design and development, Planning, Production, Quality control, etc. In the context of the standard, the MR is the person within the Organization who acts as interface between organization management and the ISO 9000 registrar. His role is, in fact, much broader than that. The MR should also act as the organizations "quality management system champion," and must be a person with: Total backing from the CEO, Genuine and passionate commitment to quality in general and the ISO 9000 quality management system in particular, The dignity - resulting from rank, seniority, or both - to influence managers and others of all levels and functions, Detailed knowledge of quality methods in general and ISO 9000 in particular. The members of the implementation team should also be trained on ISO 9000 quality management systems by a professional training organization. Step 3. Start ISO 9000 Awareness Programs ISO 9000 awareness programs should be conducted to communicate to the employees the aim of the ISO 9000 quality management system; the advantage it offers to employees, customers and the organization; how it will work; and their roles and responsibilities within the system. Suppliers of materials and components should also participate in these programs. The awareness program should emphasize the benefits that the organization expects to realize through its ISO 9000 quality management system. The program should also stress the higher levels of participation and self-direction that the quality management system renders to employees. Such a focus will go far to enlist employee support and commitment. The programs could be run either by the implementation team or by experts hired to talk to different levels of employees. Step 4. Provide Training Quality control for leather garment technology ADHENA BY GETACHEW page 60

LEATHER & LEATHER PRODUCT TECHNOLOGY INSTITUTE

2002 E.C

Since the ISO 9000 quality management system affects all the areas and all personnel in the organization, training programs should be structured for different categories of employees - senior managers, middle-level managers, supervisors and workers. The ISO 9000 implementation plan should make provision for this training. The training should cover the basic concepts of quality management systems and the standard and their overall impact on the strategic goals of the organization, the changed processes, and the likely work culture implications of the system. In addition, initial training may also be necessary on writing quality manuals, procedures and work instruction; auditing principles; techniques of laboratory management; calibration; testing procedures, etc. When in-house capacity to carry out such training is not available, it may be necessary to participate in external training courses run by professional training organizations. Alternatively, an external training institution could be invited to conduct in-house training courses. Step 5. Conduct Initial Status Survey ISO 9000 does not require duplication of effort or redundant system. The goal of ISO 9000 is to create a quality management system that conforms to the standard. This does not preclude incorporating, adapting, and adding onto quality programs already in place. So the next step in the implementation process is to compare the organizations existing quality management system, if there is one -- with the requirements of the standard (ISO 9001:2000). For this purpose, an organization flow chart showing how information actually flows (not what should be done) from order placement by the customer to delivery to this customer should be drawn up. From this over-all flow chart, a flow chart of activities in each department should be prepared. With the aid of the flow charts, a record of existing quality management system should be established. A significant number of written procedures may already be in place. Unless they are very much out of date, these documents should not be discarded. Rather, they should be incorporated into the new quality management system. Documents requiring Quality control for leather garment technology ADHENA BY GETACHEW page 61

LEATHER & LEATHER PRODUCT TECHNOLOGY INSTITUTE

2002 E.C

modification or elaboration should be identified and listed. This exercise is some times referred to as " gap analysis''. During these review processes, wide consultation with executives and representatives of various unions and associations within the organization is required to enlist their active cooperation. In the review process, documents should be collected, studied and registered for further use, possibly after they have been revised. Before developing new quality management system documentation, you need to consider with which quality requirements or department you should start. The best is to select an area where processes are fairly well organized, running effectively and functioning satisfactorily. The basic approach is to determine and record how a process is currently carried out. We can do this by identifying the people involved and obtaining information from them during individual interviews. Unfortunately, it often happens that different people will give different, contradicting versions of a process. Each one may refer to oral instructions that are not accurate or clear. This is why the facts are often not described correctly the first time around, and have to be revised several times. Once it has been agreed how to describe the current process, this process has to be adapted, supplemented and implemented according to the requirements of the quality standard (ISO 9001:2000). This requires organizational arrangements, the drawing up of additional documents and possible removal of existing documentation (e.g. procedures, inspection/test plans, inspection/test instructions) and records (e.g. inspection/test reports, inspection/test certificates). In introducing a quality management system, the emphasis is on the improvement of the existing processes or the re-organization of processes. In general, the steps to follow are the following: Ascertain and establish the following: What is the present operation/process? What already exists? Analyze the relevant sections of the quality standard - ISO 9001:2000: Quality control for leather garment technology ADHENA BY GETACHEW page 62

LEATHER & LEATHER PRODUCT TECHNOLOGY INSTITUTE


What is actually required? If necessary, supplement and change operational arrangements in accordance

2002 E.C

with the standard, develop documents and records, and describe operations/processes: What is the desired operation/process? What is required? (ISO 9001:2000) Figure 1: Steps in introducing a quality management system How does it work? Determine and document the operation/proc ess?

The above gap analysis can be done internally, if the knowledge level is there. Or a formal pre-assessment can be obtained from any one of a large number of ISO 9000 consulting, implementing, and registration firms. Step 6. Create a Documented Implementation Plan Once the organization has obtained a clear picture of how its quality management system compares with the ISO 9001:2000 standard, all non-conformances must be addressed with a documented implementation plan. Usually, the plan calls for identifying and describing processes to make the organizations quality management system fully in compliance with the standard. The implementation plan should be thorough and specific, detailing: Quality documentation to be developed Objective of the system Pertinent ISO 9001:2000 section Person or team responsible Approval required Training required Resources required Estimated completion date These elements should be organized into a detailed chart, to be reviewed and approved. The plan should define the responsibilities of different departments and personnel and set target dates for the completion of activities. Once approved, the Management Representative should control, review and update the plan as the implementation process proceeds. Quality control for leather garment technology ADHENA BY GETACHEW page 63

LEATHER & LEATHER PRODUCT TECHNOLOGY INSTITUTE

2002 E.C

Typical implementation action plan is shown in Figure 2. Use ISO 10005:1995 for guidance in quality planning.

Month 1

Month 3

Month 5

Month 7

Month 9

Month 11

Month 13

Appoint MR + establish implementation team ISO 9000 awareness campaign Initial status survey + planning Develop Quality manualLevel A Write Level B documents Write Level C documents Monitor implementation process

First internal audit Clear nonconformities

Quality control for leather garment technology ADHENA

BY GETACHEW page 64

LEATHER & LEATHER PRODUCT TECHNOLOGY INSTITUTE

2002 E.C

Pre-registration audit Quality training Compliance audit Compliancediscrepan cies Registration

Figure 2. Typical action plan

Step 7. Develop Quality Management System Documentation Documentation is the most common area of non-conformance among organizations wishing to implement ISO 9000 quality management systems. As one company pointed out: "When we started our implementation, we found that documentation was inadequate. Even absent, in some areas. Take calibration. Obviously it's necessary, and obviously we do it, but it wasn't being documented. Another area was inspection and testing. We inspect and test practically every item that leaves here, but our documentation was inadequate". Documentation of the quality management system should include: Documented statements of a quality policy and quality objectives, A quality manual, Documented procedures and records required by the standard ISO 9001:2000,and Documents needed by the organization to ensure the effective planning, operation and control of its processes. Quality documentation is generally prepared in the three levels indicated in the box that follows. Use ISO 10013:1995 for guidance in quality documentation.

Quality control for leather garment technology ADHENA

BY GETACHEW page 65

LEATHER & LEATHER PRODUCT TECHNOLOGY INSTITUTE


Level A: Quality manual

2002 E.C

States the scope of the quality management system, including exclusions and details of their justification; and describes the processes of the quality management system and their interaction. Generally gives an organization profile; presents the organizational relationships and responsibilities of persons whose work affects quality and outlines the main procedures. It may also describe organization's quality policy and quality objectives. Level B: Quality management system procedures Describes the activities of individual departments, how quality is controlled in each department and the checks that are carried out. Level C: Quality documents (forms, reports, work instructions, etc.) Work instructions describe in detail how specific tasks are performed; include drawing standards, methods of tests, customer's specifications, etc. Presents forms to be used for recording observations, etc. In small companies, the above levels of documentation could be presented in one manual; otherwise, separate manuals should be prepared. A list of the documents to be prepared should be drawn up and the responsibility for writing the documents should be assigned to the persons concerned in various functional departments. They should be advised to prepare the drafts within a specific time frame. Step 8: Document Control Once the necessary quality management system documentation has been generated, a documented system must be created to control it. Control is simply a means of managing the creation, approval, distribution, revision, storage, and disposal of the various types of documentation. Document control systems should be as simple and as easy to operate as possible -- sufficient to meet ISO 9001:2000 requirements and that is all. Document control should include: Approval for adequacy by authorized person (s) before issue, Review, updating and re-approval of documents by authorized person (s), Quality control for leather garment technology ADHENA BY GETACHEW page 66

LEATHER & LEATHER PRODUCT TECHNOLOGY INSTITUTE


Identification of changes and of the revision status of documents, Availability of relevant versions of documents at points of use, Identification and control of documents of external origin, Assurance of legibility and identifability of documents, and Prevention of unintended use of obsolete documents.

2002 E.C

The principle of ISO 9000 document control is that employees should have access to the documentation and records needed to fulfil their responsibilities. Step 9. Implementation It is good practice to implement the quality management system being documented as the documentation is developed, although this may be more effective in larger firms. In smaller companies, the quality management system is often implemented all at once throughout the organization. Where phased implementation takes place, the effectiveness of the system in selected areas can be evaluated.

It would be a good idea initially to evaluate areas where the chances of a positive evaluation are high, to maintain the confidence of both management and staff in the merits of implementing the quality management system. The implementation progress should be monitored to ensure that the quality management system is effective and conforms to the standard. These activities include internal quality audit, formal corrective action and management review. Step 10. Internal Quality Audit As the system is being installed, its effectiveness should be checked by regular internal quality audits. Internal quality audits are conducted to verify that the installed quality management system: Conform to the planned arrangements, to the requirements of the standard (ISO 9001:2000) and to the quality management system requirements established by your organization, and Quality control for leather garment technology ADHENA BY GETACHEW page 67

LEATHER & LEATHER PRODUCT TECHNOLOGY INSTITUTE


Is effectively implemented and maintained. Even after the system stabilizes and starts functioning, internal audits should be planned and performed as part of an ongoing strategy. A few staff members should be trained to carry out internal auditing. Use ISO 19011 for guidance in auditing, auditor qualification and programmes. Step 11. Management Review

2002 E.C

When the installed quality management system has been operating for three to six months, an internal audit and management review should be conducted and corrective actions implemented. The management reviews are conducted to ensure the continuing suitability, adequacy and effectiveness of the quality management system. The review should include assessing opportunities for improvement and the need for changes to the quality management system, including the quality policy and quality objectives.

The input to management review should include information on: Results of audits, Customer feed back, Process performance and product conformity, Status of preventive and corrective actions, Follow-up actions from previous management reviews, Changes that could affect the quality management system, and Recommendations for improvements. Management reviews should also address the pitfalls to effective implementation, including lack of CEO commitment, failure to involve everyone in the process, and failure to monitor progress and enforce deadlines. Step 12. Pre-assessment Audit When system deficiencies are no longer visible, it is normally time to apply for certification. However, before doing so, a pre-assessment audit should be arranged with an independent Quality control for leather garment technology ADHENA BY GETACHEW page 68

LEATHER & LEATHER PRODUCT TECHNOLOGY INSTITUTE

2002 E.C

and qualified auditor. Sometimes certification bodies provide this service for a nominal charge. The pre-assessment audit would provide a degree of confidence for formally going ahead with an application for certification. Step 13. Certification and Registration Once the quality management system has been in operation for a few months and has stabilized, a formal application for certification could be made to a selected certification agency. The certification agency first carries out an audit of the documents (referred to as an "adequacy audit"). If the documents conform to the requirements of the quality standard, then on-site audit is carried out. If the certification body finds the system to be working satisfactorily, it awards the organization a certificate, generally for a period of three years. During this three-year period, it will carry out periodic surveillance audits to ensure that the system is continuing to operate satisfactorily.

Step 14: Continual Improvement Certification to ISO 9000 should not be an end. You should continually seek to improve the effectiveness and suitability of the quality management system through the use of: Quality policy Quality objectives Audit results Analysis of data Corrective and preventive actions Management review

ISO 9004:2000 provides a methodology for continual improvement.

Quality control for leather garment technology ADHENA

BY GETACHEW page 69

LEATHER & LEATHER PRODUCT TECHNOLOGY INSTITUTE

2002 E.C

CHAPTR EIGHT TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT (TQM)


8.1. Introduction to TQM What is Total Quality Management?
Definition: TQM is a management philosophy, a paradigm, a continuous improvement approach to doing business through a new management model. TQM is a comprehensive management system which:

Quality control for leather garment technology ADHENA

BY GETACHEW page 70

LEATHER & LEATHER PRODUCT TECHNOLOGY INSTITUTE

2002 E.C

Focuses on meeting owners/customers needs, by providing quality services at a reasonable cost. Focuses on continuous improvement. Recognizes role of everyone in the organization. Views organization as an internal system with a common aim. Focuses on the way tasks are accomplished. Emphasizes teamwork There is no single definition to TQM but Pretty Wholesome is from US department of defense << TQM is both a philosophy and a set of guiding principles that represents the foundation of a continuously improving organization. TQM integrate fundamental management techniques, existing improvement effort, and technical tools under a disciplined approach focused on continuous improvement. >>

8.2. TQM tools


There are different types of TQM tools, among these: 1. Gantt chart 2. Cause and effect diagram 3. Action plan 4. Histogram 5. Control chart check sheet 6. Mission statement 7. Vision statement Quality control for leather garment technology ADHENA BY GETACHEW page 71

LEATHER & LEATHER PRODUCT TECHNOLOGY INSTITUTE


For these materials we are focused on the first three types of TQM tools.
1. Gantt chart

2002 E.C

It is graphic method of showing tasks of a project in a sequential order. When to use it? When planning a project whose steps and their sequence are know When progress of a project needs to be monitored. Advantages When such a chart is kept in visible place every one is informed of the progress and everyone is motivated.
Make clear the dependencies of the various tasks in a project.

2. Cause and effect diagram This is a tool developed by Ishikawa for the purpose of representing the relationship between an effect and the potential or possible cause influencing it.

When to uses?
When we want to find out a solution to a fairly large problem which could have a

number of causes. When we want to find the root causes of defects. Advantages It provides a structure and focus for open discussion of a specific quality concern and challenge.

Quality control for leather garment technology ADHENA

BY GETACHEW page 72

LEATHER & LEATHER PRODUCT TECHNOLOGY INSTITUTE

2002 E.C

It forces to discover many possible causes for a specific effect, making this visible and understanding. It encourages employees involvement at all levels and promotes better communication. Structure of cause and effect Cause branch
Cause twig cause twiglet

EFFECT

3. Action plan This is a tool for breaking down objectives into tasks and deciding who will do what and when.

When to use it? When planning initiatives. When tasks are outside the normal responsibilities. When embarking on a project Advantage It is a way of planning how best to use people to achieve particular objectives. Quality control for leather garment technology ADHENA BY GETACHEW page 73

LEATHER & LEATHER PRODUCT TECHNOLOGY INSTITUTE


It makes some people know exactly what their responsibilities are.

2002 E.C

8.2. Quality gurus


What is a quality guru? A guru, by definition, is a good person, a wise person and a teacher. A quality guru should be all of these,plus have a concept and approach to quality within business that has made a major and lasting impact. Thegurus mentioned in this section have done, and continue to do, that, in some cases, even after their death. As already mentioned in the history of quality, these have been quite a few gurus who have made immense contribution to quality science and have shaped contemporary thinking. Limited accounts of the major philosophies have been mentioned below:

1. W.Edward Deming
Deming developed Japanese road map to quality. He emphasized that the key to quality problem in the managements hand-85% quality problem are due to the system and only 15% due to employee. The heart of quality strategy is statically quality control to identify special cause and common causes of variation. Demings management principle

7-deadly disease for work place 1. Lack of constancy of purpose 2. Emphasis on short-term profits 3. Evaluation of performance merit rating or annual review 4. Mobility of management 5. Management by use of visible figures 6. Excessive medical costs Quality control for leather garment technology ADHENA BY GETACHEW page 74

LEATHER & LEATHER PRODUCT TECHNOLOGY INSTITUTE


7. Excessive cost of liability.

2002 E.C

Demings 14 point serves as the basis of his quality philosophy, among, the 14 points: 1. Learn the new philosophy, top management and everybody 2. Institute training 3. Teach & institute leadership 4. Drive out fear, create trust, create a climate for innovation 5. Take action to accomplish for transformation He believed that adoption of, and action on, the fourteen points was a signal that management intended tostay in business. Deming also encouraged a systematic approach to problem solving andpromoted thewidely known Plan, Do, Check, Act (PDCA) cycle. The PDCA cycle is also known as the Deming cycle,although it was developed by a colleague of Deming, Dr Shewhart. It is a universal improvement methodology, the idea being to constantly improve, and thereby reduce thedifference between the requirements of the customers and the performance of the process.

The cycle is about learning and ongoing improvement, learning what works and what does

Plan what is needed


ACT PLAN

Do it Check that it works Act to correct any problems or improve performance

CHECK DO Quality control for leather garment technology

ADHENA

BY GETACHEW page 75

LEATHER & LEATHER PRODUCT TECHNOLOGY INSTITUTE

2002 E.C

The cycle is about learning and ongoing improvement, learning what works and what does not in asystematic way; and the cycle repeats; after one cycle is complete, another is started.

2. Joseph M.Jurdan
Jordan played a major role in the Japanese quality success story. He primarily introduced the quality management element and defines quality as fitness for use of customers Jurdan emphasized the necessity of full management commitment to the quality effort, not only in leadership role but also with hands on involvement. The central focus of his work is jurdan trilogy. They are
1. Quality planning- a process that identifies the customer their requirement the product

and service feature the customer expect.


2. Quality control- a process in which product is actually examined and evaluated

against the original product and problem detected are correct.


3. Quality improvement- a process in which the sustaining mechanism are put in place

so that quality can be achieved on continuous basis. This include Allocating resources Assigning people to pursue quality projects. Training those involved in pursuing projects.

3. Philip B.Crosby
He developed the quality management maturity grid that traces corporate quality awareness and quality maturation from a level of uncertainty to one certainty. His approaches to quality based on 4 absolutes of quality management they are: 1. Quality is defined as conformance to requirement 2. The system for causing quality is prevention not appraisal 3. The performance standard is zero defects. Quality control for leather garment technology ADHENA BY GETACHEW page 76

LEATHER & LEATHER PRODUCT TECHNOLOGY INSTITUTE


4. The measure of quality is price of non conformance not indexes.

2002 E.C

4. Armand V.Feingehaum
His approach is that quality responsibility extends beyond the manufacturing department. He developed the concept that quality in manufacturing could not be achieved if the products were poorly designed, inefficiently distributed, incorrectly marked and improperly supported in the customers life. His development is known as total quality control. He talks about 9Ms of quality. They are: 1. Markets 2. Money 3. Management 4. Men 5. Motivation 6. materials 7. Machine and mechanization 8. Modern information methods 9.meeting products equipment

5. Kauru Ishikawa
He developed the concept of true substitute quality characteristics. This is products view of product performance. His concept of quality control contains six fundamental principles. They are: 1. Quality first
2. Consumer orientation

Quality control for leather garment technology ADHENA

BY GETACHEW page 77

LEATHER & LEATHER PRODUCT TECHNOLOGY INSTITUTE


3. Beeking down the barrier of sectionalism 4. Utilization of satisfaction methods 5. Participatory management 6. Cross-functional management

2002 E.C

He also developed the quality circle concept in early 1960s on the premise that neither the worker nor the manager knows the correct solution to the problem, but by working together they will be better able to find a solution. He has associated with the developed of the following tools Cause and effect diagram Check sheet Histogram Stratification and scatter diagram

6. Genichi Taguchi
He developed on engineering approaches to quality. He emphasized producing to target goals or requirement with minimal performance variation in customers environment. He termed variation noise

His objective is to minimize noise through on line and off line quality activities. Taguchi targets on design for quality by defining three design levels:
1. System design/primary/_ functional design focused on partner technology

2. Parameter design/secondary/_ a means of both reducing cost and improving performance without removing cause of variation. Quality control for leather garment technology ADHENA BY GETACHEW page 78

LEATHER & LEATHER PRODUCT TECHNOLOGY INSTITUTE

2002 E.C

3. Tolerance design/tertiary/_a means of reducing variation by controlling cause, but of an increase cost.

7. Shigeo Shingo
Shingo says that statically based quality control is not conductive is zero defects. He proposed the poka-yoka (mistake proofing) system to totally eliminate defects. The mistake proofing concept is a human or a machine based services of 100 % source inspection, self checks, when or as they occur and correct them on the current unit of production as well as system wide. His zero quality control system comprises the following principles. 1. Use source inspection 2. Always use 100% source inspection 3. Minimize the time required to carry out corrective action 4. Set-up poka-yoka devices.

8.3. Quality costs


Quality cost concept Development, design, manufactures and selling of product involves cost for the enterprise. The enterprise must bear some of these costs of there are to be any products manufactured and if these are to generate income. Apart from these, the enterprise has costs which can be avoided to a varying degree, or limited depending on the efficiency with which the activities related to product quality are carried out. These costs are called quality costs. What are the benefits of quality costs? 1. It gives an over view about which area of business should be profitable intermesh of improvement activities. 2. It gives a quantifiable measure for progress made on the road to total quality Quality control for leather garment technology ADHENA BY GETACHEW page 79

LEATHER & LEATHER PRODUCT TECHNOLOGY INSTITUTE

2002 E.C

To plan and control quality activities, the quality costs should be divided into four categories. 1. Prevention costs 2. Appraisal costs 3. Internal costs 4. External costs.
1. Prevention costs_ are costs for activities which aim to prevent defects from

occurring. These include the following.


Systems development Quality engineering Quality training Quality circles statistical process control Supervision of prevention activities Quality data gathering, analysis, and reporting Quality improvement projects Technical support provided to suppliers Audits of the effectiveness of the quality system

2. Appraisal costs_ are the costs of inspecting and testing that products, parts and

materials conform to the quality requirement. These costs include:


Test and inspection of incoming materials Test and inspection of in-process goods Final product testing and inspection BY GETACHEW page 80

Quality control for leather garment technology ADHENA

LEATHER & LEATHER PRODUCT TECHNOLOGY INSTITUTE


2002 E.C

Supplies used in testing and inspection Supervision of testing and inspection activities Depreciation of test equipment Maintenance of test equipment Plant utilities in the inspection area Field testing and appraisal at customer site

3. Internal failure costs_ include the costs of the products, parts and materials which

deviate from the quality requirements if such deviations (defects)are detected internally, i.e. by manufacture before delivery to the customer. Internal failure costs include:

Net cost of scrap Net cost of spoilag Rework labor and overhead Re-inspection of reworked products Retesting of reworked products Downtime caused by quality problems Disposal of defective products Analysis of the cause of defects in production Re-entering data because of keying errors Debugging software errors

4. External failure costs_ are made up of costs for defects which are found after

shipment to the customer. External failure costs include:

Cost of field servicing and handling complaints BY GETACHEW page 81

Quality control for leather garment technology ADHENA

LEATHER & LEATHER PRODUCT TECHNOLOGY INSTITUTE


2002 E.C

Warranty repairs and replacements Repairs and replacements beyond the warranty period Product recalls Liability arising from defective products Returns and allowances arising from quality problems Lost sales arising from a reputation for poor quality.

8.4. Implementation of TQM


Steps in implementing TQM 1 Obtain CEO Commitment 2 Educate Upper-Level Management 3 Create Steering Committee 4 Outline the Vision Statement, Mission Statement, & Guiding Principles 5 Prepare a Flow Diagram of Company Processes 6 Focus on the Owner/Customer (External) & Surveys 7 Consider the Employee as an Internal Owner/customer 8 Provide a Quality Training Program 9 Establish Quality Improvement Teams 10 Implement Process Improvements 11 Use the Tools of TQM 12 Know the Benefits of TQM 1. Obtain CEO Commitment.
2. Educate upper level management.

Quality control for leather garment technology ADHENA

BY GETACHEW page 82

LEATHER & LEATHER PRODUCT TECHNOLOGY INSTITUTE


To educate the upper level management we have to conduct the following: Undergo quality training Commit to TQM and provide the necessary resources. Assist in the development. Serve as a model of expected behavior. Actively lead the way. Drive fear out of the organization Provide suitable recognition. Drive decision making and problem resolution.

2002 E.C

3. Create a steering committee.

Upon completion of upper managements commitment and training, a steering committee must be created to guide the company through the process of implementing TQM. Steering committee roles are. Review and evaluate customer surveys. Determine processes to be improved. Appoint task process improvement teams. Monitor process improvement. Oversee employee recognition for quality improvement.
Communicate successes and progress.

4. Outline the Vision Statement, Mission Statement, & Guiding Principles Establishing guiding principles:

Quality control for leather garment technology ADHENA

BY GETACHEW page 83

LEATHER & LEATHER PRODUCT TECHNOLOGY INSTITUTE

2002 E.C

Important principles to consider including in the companys vision statement, mission statement, and guiding principles are as follows: Owner/customer Satisfaction. Improved Safety. Elimination of errors and defects. Doing things right, the first time. Reputation as the best in the field. Continuous Improvement. Employee Empowerment

5. Prepare a Flow Diagram of Company Processes: A mechanical engineering firm created the TQM flow diagram illustrated in the figure below:

6. Focus on the Owner/Customer (External) & Surveys Focusing on a customers concerns Quality control for leather garment technology ADHENA BY GETACHEW page 84

LEATHER & LEATHER PRODUCT TECHNOLOGY INSTITUTE


Several areas to survey, and to take care to provide or honor, are listed here: Safe operating procedures Accident experience Attitude Professional competence Technical competence of the work force Overall responsiveness to owner/customer requests Planning Condition of equipment Timeliness

2002 E.C

Successful TQM companies have asked their owner/customers the following questions: How well do we deliver what we promise? How often do we do things right the first time? How often do we do things right on time? How quickly do we respond to your request? How accessible are we when you need to contact us? How helpful and polite are we? How well do we speak your language? How well do we listen to you? How hard do you think we work at keeping you a satisfied owner/customer? How much confidence do you have in our products or services? Etc Quality control for leather garment technology ADHENA BY GETACHEW page 85

LEATHER & LEATHER PRODUCT TECHNOLOGY INSTITUTE


7. Consider the Employee as an Internal Owner/Customer

2002 E.C

In order to conduct an analysis of the internal processes following steps should be applied: List several of your internal owners/customers within your company Choose one of these owners/customers to focus on for the application of this technique

Determine the Outputs (products, services, information) that must be provided to this internal owner/customer

Determine the work Processes your company uses to produce these Outputs Learn how your customers expectations are met and how satisfaction is measured

8. Provide a Quality Training Program Which employees are trained first? The successful TQM Company provides training to employees in the order illustrated in the list below: Upper Management Remaining Management In-House Trainers & Facilitators Front-Line Supervisors Non-Supervisory Employees Team Training Training of Subcontractors & Suppliers

9. Establish quality improvement teams A quality improvement teams focuses on following areas for improvement: Quality control for leather garment technology ADHENA BY GETACHEW page 86

LEATHER & LEATHER PRODUCT TECHNOLOGY INSTITUTE


Increased Employee Value Informed Employees Technical Training Quality Training Employee Suggestions Employee Participation Higher Quality of Artistry Personal Development The quality improvement team tasks are: Identify the customers of the process Determine customer expectations Flowchart the process Identify all of the inputs and interfaces Identify the output(s)

2002 E.C

Systematically review the procedures currently being used in the process Collect and analyze available quantitative data Determine the need for additional data Identify the problem(s) Determine the root cause of the problem Determine potential solutions Select a trial solution Quality control for leather garment technology ADHENA BY GETACHEW page 87

LEATHER & LEATHER PRODUCT TECHNOLOGY INSTITUTE


Present recommendations to the steering committee Implement the solution on a pilot-project basis Analyze the data to discern if there has been improvement
10. Implement Process Improvements:

2002 E.C

The structure approach to process improvement is as follows: Problem is brought to the attention of the steering committee Steering committee forms a team to examine the process and make necessary recommendations for improvement Team meets, reviews its mission, and determines how often it will meet Training is initiated for team members Team meets weekly for an hour or two to analyze the problem and develop a solution Solution is initiated on a pilot basis Results of pilot study are examined Solution is implemented company-wide

Administrative

Project Management and Engineering

Logistical

Construction

Quality control for leather garment technology ADHENA

BY GETACHEW page 88

LEATHER & LEATHER PRODUCT TECHNOLOGY INSTITUTE


Payroll Invoices Personnel actions Investments Insurance Marketing Training (safety, quality, technical Subcontracts Partial payment requests Progress review meetings Estimating Scheduling Interfacing with architect/engineer Shop drawing review Survey and layout Testing Storage Warehousing Delivery Maintenance Layout Rough grading Forming Placing concrete

2002 E.C

Placing reinforcing Erecting precast panels Framing drywall Pulling electrical cable Hanging ductwork

11. Use of Tools:

Seven classical tools of quality and process improvement, plus one, are presented below Flowchart: Portrays all the steps in a process. Helps understand the process. Cause and Effect Diagram: Portrays possible causes of a process problem. Helps root cause Control Chart: Shows if a process has too much variation. Histogram: Portrays the frequency of occurrence. Check Sheet: Tabulates frequency of occurrence. Pareto Diagram : Visually portrays problems and causes in order of severity or frequency. Helps determine which problem or cause to tackle first. Scatter Diagram: Helps determine if two variables are related. determine

Quality control for leather garment technology ADHENA

BY GETACHEW page 89

LEATHER & LEATHER PRODUCT TECHNOLOGY INSTITUTE

2002 E.C

Run Chart : Shows variation and trends with time. Provides baseline data, and helps to determine if a process is improving or not. Examples of the seven classical tools used for continuous improvement

Control charts are time plots that also indicate the range of variation built into the system. They are used to monitor a process to see whether it is in statistical control.

Control charts

References
Quality control for leather garment technology ADHENA BY GETACHEW page 90

LEATHER & LEATHER PRODUCT TECHNOLOGY INSTITUTE


1. Teaching material for garment technology. 2. Teaching material for apparel industry. 3. Training course for UNIDO (mechanical, physical, and color fastness test). 4. A practical approaches to quality control 5. Statistical process control and quality improvement. 6. www.businessballs.com 7. www.qsae.org 8. www.wiley.com Official method of analysis

2002 E.C

Quality control for leather garment technology ADHENA

BY GETACHEW page 91