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Wrought copper and copper alloys.

The making of brass and bronze wrought metal alloys by brass mills accounts for the largest share of copper recovery from scrap. Wrought copper and copper alloys are produced from purchased scrap, home scrap, refined copper, and other metal alloying additives. These alloys are fabricated into products such as sheets, tubes, rods and pipes. Wire rod mills produce continuous cast, pure copper rod for making wire that is drawn down to various types of coated and uncoated wire. Because of the stringent requirements for making copper wire, wire rod mills use mostly refined copper in making rod. The small amount of scrap that is used by wire rod mills must first be refined. Only one wire rod mill in the United States has a continuous system for fire refining, melting and rod casting from scrap. This mill uses the company's own customer-returned scrap from its wholly-owned wire mills in the fire-refining plant. The main consumers of copper and copper-based alloy scrap are smelters, refineries, ingot manufacturers, and the brass and bronze mills. Brass and bronze ingot-makers and mills make cast and wrought alloys mainly from brass and bronze scrap. Copper alloy scrap may be supplemented by other materials such as No. 1 copper scrap, small amounts of refined copper, and alloying additives such as tin and zinc and master alloys. According to data collected by the USGS (Dec. 2009 MIS), ingot makers accounted for 12% of total copper recovered. copper-base scrap consumption in 2009, 83% of which was from old scrap.