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Overhead Conveyor Chain Wire rope is a type of rope which consists of several strands of metal wire laid (or 'twisted

') into a helix. Initially wrought iron wires were used, but today steel is the main material used for wire ropes. Historically wire rope evolved from steel chains which had a record of mechanical failure. While flaws in chain links or solid steel bars can lead to catastrophic failure, flaws in the wires making up a steel cable are less critical as the other wires easily take up the load. Friction between the individual wires and strands, as a consequence of their twist, further compensates for any flaws. Material — Material comparison chart Wire Rope Finish/Coating Material Plain Steel Galvanized Stainless Zinc-Plated Steel FEP-Coated Iron Nylon-Coated Monel Polypropylene-Impregnated and Phosphor Coated Bronze Vinyl-Coated Construction — Construction comparison chart The number of strands, and the number of wires per strand. For example, a 6 x 7 rope consists of six strands, each made with seven wires.

1x7 Strand

1x19 Strand

3x7 Hollow Core

6x7 Class Fiber Core

6x19 Class Fibe

6x19 Class Heavy Duty IWRC

6x37 Class Fiber Core

6x37 Class IWRC

6x37 Class Heavy Duty IWRC

6x42 Fiber Core

7x7 Strand Core Performance Characteristics

7x19 Strand Core

7x19 Class IWRC

8x19 Class Fiber Core

19x7 Strand Co

Improved-Flexibility Preferred construction for maximum flexibility, but with minimal crush resistance.

Rotation-Resistant Has outer strands that lay in the opposite direction of its internal wire core.

Long-Wear Made of compacted strands for increased life and strength.

Nonsparking Nonsparking and nonmagnetic, re atmospheric and chemical corrosi as salt water.

Diameter — Diameter comparison chart The correct way to measure wire rope is with the faces of the caliper in contact with the crowns of two opposing strands.

Wire rope construction [edit]Wires Steel wires for wire ropes are normally made of non-alloy carbon steel with a carbon content of 0.4 to 0.95%. The wires are patented [6](heat process) 70 and 2450 N/mm²[vague]. The very high strength of the rope wires enables wire ropes to support large tensile forces and to run over sheaves with relatively small diameters. [edit]Strands In the so-called cross lay strands, the wires of the different layers cross each other. In the mostly used parallel lay strands, the lay length of all the wire layers is equal and the wires of any two superimposed layers are parallel, resulting in linear contact. The wire of the outer layer is supported by two wires of the inner layer. These wires are neighbours along the whole length of the strand. Parallel lay strands are made in one operation. The endurance of wire ropes with this kind of strand is always much greater than of those (seldom used) with cross lay strands. Parallel lay strands with two wire layers have the construction Filler, Seale or Warrington. [edit]Spiral ropes In principle, spiral ropes are round strands as they have an assembly of layers of wires laid helically over a centre with at least one layer of wires being laid in the opposite direction to that of the outer layer. Spiral ropes can be dimensioned in such a way that they are non-rotating which means that under tension the rope torque is nearly zero. The open spiral rope consists only of round wires. The half-locked coil rope and the full-locked coil rope always have a centre made of round wires. The locked coil ropes have one or more outer layers of profile wires. They have the advantage that their construction prevents the penetration of dirt and water to a greater extent and it also protects them from loss of lubricant. In addition, they have one further very important advantage as the ends of a broken outer wire cannot leave the rope if it has the proper dimensions. [edit]Stranded ropes

Left-hand ordinary lay (LHOL) wire rope (close-up). Right-hand lay strands are laid into a left-hand lay rope.

Right-hand Lang's lay (RHLL) wire rope (close-up). Right-hand lay strands are laid into a right-hand lay rope. Stranded ropes are an assembly of several strands laid helically in one or more layers around a core. Most types of stranded ropes only have one strand layer over the core (fibre core or steel core). The lay direction of the strands in the rope can be right (symbol Z) or left (symbol S) and the lay direction of the wires can be right (symbol z) or left (symbol s). This kind of rope is called ordinary lay rope if the lay direction of the wires in the outer strands is in the opposite direction to the lay of the outer strands themselves. If both the wires in the outer strands and the outer strands themselves have the same lay direction, the rope is called a lang lay rope (formerly Albert’s lay or Lang’s lay). Multi-strand ropes are all more or less resistant to rotation and have at least two layers of strands laid helically around a centre. The direction of the outer strands is opposite to that of the underlying strand layers. Ropes with three strand layers can be nearly non-rotating. Ropes with two strand layers are mostly only low-rotating. More details in EN 12 385 or ISO 17 893. [edit]Classification of ropes according to usage Depending on where they are used, wire ropes have to fulfil different requirements. The main uses are: Running ropes (stranded ropes) are bent over sheaves and drums. They are therefore stressed mainly by bending and secondly by tension. Stationary ropes, stay ropes (spiral ropes, mostly full-locked) have to carry tensile forces and are therefore mainly loaded by static and fluctuating tensile stresses. Track ropes (full locked ropes) have to act as rails for the rollers of cabins or other loads in aerial ropeways and cable cranes. In contrast to running ropes, track ropes do not take on the curvature of the rollers. Under the roller force, a so called free bending radius of the rope occurs. This radius increases (and the bending stresses decrease) with the tensile force and decreases with the roller force. Wire rope slings (stranded ropes) are used to harness various kinds of goods. These slings are stressed by the tensile forces but first of all by bending stresses when bent over the more or less sharp edges of the goods. [edit]Rope drive [6] There are technical regulations for the rope drives of cranes, elevators, rope ways and mining installations not exceeding a given tensile force and not falling short of a given diameter ratio D/d of sheave and rope diameters. A general dimensioning method of rope drives (and used besides the technical regulations) calculate the five limits Working cycles up to rope discarding or breakage (mean or 10% limit)

Donandt force (yielding tensile force for a given bending diameter ratio D/d) Rope safety factor, minimum breaking force (ability to resist extreme forces) Discarding number of wire breaks (detection to need rope replacement) Optimal rope diameter (economic reasons) [edit]Safety The wire ropes are stressed by fluctuating forces, by wear, by corrosion and in seldom cases by extreme forces. The rope life is finite and the safety is only given by inspection for the detection of wire breaks on a reference rope length, of cross-section loss as well as other failures so that the wire rope can be replaced before a dangerous situation occurs. Installations should be designed to facilitate the inspection of the wire ropes. Lifting installations for passenger transportation require that a combination of several methods should be used to prevent a car from plunging downwards. Elevators must have redundant bearing ropes and a safety gear. Ropeways and mine hoistings must be permanently supervised by a responsible manager and the rope has to be inspected by magnetic method with that inner wire breaks can be detected too. The lay of a wire rope describes the manner in which either the wires in a strand, or the strands in the rope, are laid in a helix. [edit]Terminations

Right-hand ordinary lay (RHOL) wire rope terminated in a loop with a thimble and ferrule. The end of a wire rope tends to fray readily, and cannot be easily connected to plant and equipment. There are different ways of securing the ends of wire ropes to prevent fraying. The most common and useful type of end fitting for a wire rope is to turn the end back to form a loop. The loose end is then fixed back on the wire rope. Termination efficiencies vary from about 70% for a Flemish eye alone; to nearly 90% for a Flemish eye and splice; to 100% for potted ends and swagings. [edit]Thimbles When the wire rope is terminated with a loop, there is a risk that it will bend too tightly, especially when the loop is connected to a device that spreads the load over a relatively small area. A thimble can be installed inside the loop to preserve the natural shape of the loop, and protect the cable from pinching and abrading on the inside of the loop. The use of thimbles in loops is industry best practice. The thimble prevents the load from coming into direct contact with the wires. [edit]Wire rope clamps/clips A wire rope clamp, also called a clip, is used to fix the loose end of the loop back to the wire rope. It usually consists of a u-shaped bolt, a forged saddle and two nuts. The two layers of wire rope are placed in the u-bolt. The saddle is then fitted over the ropes on to the bolt (the saddle includes two holes to fit to the u-bolt). The nuts secure the arrangement in place. Three or more clamps are usually used to terminate a wire rope. As many as eight may be needed for a 2 in (50.8 mm) diameter rope. There is an old adage which has over time became the rule; when installing clamps to secure the loop at the end of your wire rope make sure you do not "saddle a dead horse." The saddle portion of the clamp assembly is placed and tightened on the opposite side of the terminal end of the cable (the load-bearing or live end). According to the US Navy Manual S9086-UU-STM-010, Chapter 613R3, Wire and Fiber Rope and Rigging, "This is to protect the live or stress-bearing end of the rope against crushing and abuse. The flat bearing seat and extended prongs of the body (saddle) are designed to protect the rope and are always placed against the live end."[3] The US Navy and most regulatory bodies do not recommend the use of such clips as permanent terminations. [edit]Swaged terminations Swaging is a method of wire rope termination that refers to the installation technique. The purpose of swaging wire rope fittings is to connect two wire rope ends together, or to otherwise terminate one end of wire rope to something else. A mechanical or hydraulic swager is used to compress and deform the fitting, creating a permanent connection. There are many types of swaged fittings. Threaded Studs, Ferrules, Sockets, and Sleeves a few examples. Swaging ropes with fibre cores is not recommended. [edit]Wedge sockets A wedge socket termination is useful when the fitting needs to be replaced frequently. For example, if the end of a wire rope is in a high-wear region, the rope may be periodically trimmed, requiring the termination hardware to be removed and reapplied. An example of this is on the ends of the drag ropes on a dragline. The end loop of the wire rope enters a tapered opening in the socket, wrapped around a separate component called the wedge. The arrangement is knocked in place, and load gradually eased onto the rope. As the load increases on the wire rope, the wedge become more secure, gripping the rope tighter. [edit]Potted ends or poured sockets Poured sockets are used to make a high strength, permanent termination; they are created by inserting the wire rope into the narrow end of a conical cavity which is oriented inline with the intended direction of strain. The individual wires are splayed out inside the cone, and the cone is then filled with molten zinc, or now more commonly, an epoxy resin compound.[4] [edit]Eye splice or Flemish eye

The ends of individual strands of this eye splice used aboard a cargo ship are served with natural fiber cord after the splicing is complete. This helps protect seaman's hands when handling. An eye splice may be used to terminate the loose end of a wire rope when forming a loop. The strands of the end of a wire rope are unwound a certain distance, and plaited back into the wire rope, forming the loop, or an eye, called an eye splice. When this type of rope splice is used specifically on wire rope, it is called a "Molly Hogan", and, by some, a "Dutch" eye instead of a "Flemish" eye.[5 About Pulley Blocks

Pulley blocks, also known as shell blocks, consist of a single, double, or triple pulley enclosed in a housing that has mounting hardware for suspending the block. A rope end is fed through the housing for operation. Most often the mounting hardware is a hook, eye, or shackle (see mounting hardware styles below). However, some units have mounting holes so you can attach your own mounting hardware (this style is also known as a tail block). Pulley-access blocks, also known as snatch blocks, open from the side (see styles below) so it's easier to install the rope—no free rope end is needed. They consist of a single or double pulley enclosed in a housing that has mounting hardware for suspending the block. Most often the mounting hardware is a hook, eye, or shackle (see mounting hardware styles below). Some units also include a tie-off bracket (also known as a becket) mounted to the housing for easier set up in multiple-block applications. Mounting Hardware Styles

Rigid Eye

Shackle Swivel Eye

Swivel Shackle

Swivel Hook

Mounting Holes Rigid Hook with Latch Swivel Hook with Latch

Cross Bolt

Pulley-Access Styles

Split Side Pulley Blocks for Wire Rope

Removable Pulley

Spring Latch

Hinged Top

(1-4, 6-10, 12) Steel— The strongest pulley blocks we offer. Zinc-plated and galvanized steel are corrosion resistant. Heavy duty steel are heavier gauge to withstand the most demanding conditions. (5&11) Stainless Steel— Offer superior corrosion resistance. Bearings— Plain bronze bearings are long lasting for use in slower moving applications. Roller bearings spin freely without resistance. Ball bearings have less friction, making them ideal for faster applications and quick direction changes. Plain bore pulleys ride directly on the shaft. For Work Mounting Mounting PulleyRope Pulley Load Hardware Hardware Access O'all Dia. OD Limit, lbs. Style Opening Style Lg. Each Pulley Blocks with Single Pulley Zinc-Plated Steel Housing with Zinc-Plated Steel Pulley— Plain Bronze Bearings (Unless Noted) 1 3/16" 2" 600 Swivel Hook w/Latch 5/16" ___ 1 3/16" 2" 600 Rigid Eye 3/8" ___ 1 3/16" 2" 600 Swivel Eye 5/8" ___ 1 1/4" 2 1/2" 685 Swivel Hook w/Latch 1/2" ___ 1 1/4" 3" 800 Swivel Hook w/Latch 1/2" ___ 1 1/4" 3" 800 Rigid Eye 3/8" ___ 1 1/4" 3" 800 Swivel Eye 7/8" ___

1 With Rigid Eye 2

4 3 4 5 6 4 " 5

5/8" 3/4" 1/4" 3/4" 1/4" 13/16 5/8"

3099T49 3099T54 3099T14 3099T53 3099T59 3099T58 3099T18



1 5/16" 3 1/2" 1,550 Swivel Hook w/Latch 13/16" 1 5/16" 3 1/2" 1,550 Rigid Eye 9/16" 1 5/16" 3 1/2" 1,550 Swivel Eye 1 3/16" 1 3/8" 3 1/2" 1,550 Swivel Hook w/Latch 13/16" 1 3/8" 3 1/2" 1,550 Rigid Eye 9/16" 1 3/8" 3 1/2" 1,550 Swivel Eye 1 3/16" 2 1/2" 4" 2,000 Swivel Eye 1 3/8" Painted Steel Housing with Cast Iron Pulley and Tie-Off Bracket— Plain Bronze Bearings 3 3/8" 6" 6,000 Shackle 2 11/16" Heavy Duty Steel Housing with Manganese Pulley— Roller Bearings 4 3/8" 4" 10,000 Shackle 1 1/4" 4 1/2" 6" 13,000 Shackle 1 1/2" 4 5/8" 8" 13,000 Shackle 1 3/4" 4 3/4" 10" 13,000 Shackle 1 3/4" 4 7/8" 12" 25,000 Shackle 2 1/4" Type 300 Stainless Steel Housing with Plated Steel Pulley— Ball Bearings (Unless Noted) 5 3/16" 1 1/4" 166 Mounting Holes 3/16" 5 3/16" 1 1/4" 166 Swivel Eye 3/8" 5 1/4" 1 3/8" 166 Swivel Eye 3/8" Pulley Blocks with Double Pulley Zinc-Plated Steel Housing with Zinc-Plated Steel Pulley— Plain Bronze Bearings 6 3/16" 1 1/2" 525 Swivel Eye 5/8"

___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___

8 6 7 8 6 7 8

1/2" 1/2" 5/8" 1/2" 1/2" 5/8" 3/4"

3099T61 3099T62 3099T22 3099T68 3099T69 3099T108 3170T27 3129T65 8545T32 8545T33 8545T34 8545T35 8545T36 3213T52 3213T57 3213T59

17 5/16 " 7 3/4" 10 1/2" 14 1/2" 16 1/2" 19 3/4" 1 3/4" 2 3/4" 2 13/16 "

5 With Mounting Holes


___ 3 13/16 3099T23 " 6 1/4" 3" 800 Swivel Eye 7/8" ___ 5 5/8" 3099T26 6 5/16" 3 1/2" 1,550 Swivel Eye 1 3/16" ___ 7 5/8" 3099T27 Pulley-Access Blocks with Single Pulley 7 Zinc-Plated Steel Housing with Zinc-Plated Steel Pulley— Plain Bronze Bearings 7 3/16" 2" 600 Swivel Eye 5/8" Removable Pulley 4 1/4" 3099T13 7 1/4" 2 1/2" 685 Swivel Eye 5/8" Removable Pulley 5" 3099T15 7 5/16" 3 1/2" 1,550 Swivel Eye 1 3/16" Removable Pulley 7 5/8" 3099T21 7 3/8" 3 1/2" 1,550 Swivel Eye 1 3/16" Removable Pulley 7 5/8" 3099T41 * Pulley is powdered metal. Has roller bearings. •Pulley is nylon. Has no bearings. A chain is a series of connected links which are typically made of metal. A chain may consist of two or more links. Chains are usually made in one of two styles, according to their intended use: Those designed for lifting, such as when used with a hoist; for pulling; or for securing, such as with a bicycle lock, have links that are torusshaped, which make the chain flexible in two dimensions (The fixed third dimension being a chain's length.) Those designed for transferring power in machines have links designed to mesh with the teeth of the sprockets of the machine, and are flexible in only one dimension. They are known as Roller chains, though there are also non-roller chains such as block chain. Two distinct chains can be connected using a quick link which resembles a carabiner with a screw close rather than a latch. A block and tackle[1][2] is a system of two or more pulleys with a rope or cable threaded between them, usually used to lift or pull heavy loads. The pulleys are assembled together to form blocks so that one is fixed and one moves with the load. The rope is threaded, or reeved, through the pulleys to provide mechanical advantage that amplifies that force applied to the rope.[3] Hero of Alexandria described cranes formed from assemblies of pulleys. Illustrated versions of Hero's "book on raising heavy weights" show early block and tackle systems.[4] Overview

This block and tackle on a davit of theMercator is used to help lower a boat.

Seamen aboard the now-defunct USNS Southern Cross freighter rigged this block and tackle to make heavy lifts during cargo operations. Although used in many situations, they are especially common on boats and sailing ships, where motorized aids are usually not available and the task must be performed manually. A block is a set of pulleys or "sheaves" all mounted on a single axle. When rope or line is run through a block or a series of blocks the whole assembly is called a tackle. [edit]Mechanical advantage If frictional losses are neglected, the mechanical advantage of a block and tackle is equal to the number of parts in the line that either attach to or run through the moving block, or the number of supporting ropes. The formula is derived using virtual work in detail in the article mechanical advantage. An ideal block and tackle with a moving block supported by n rope sections has the mechanical advantage,

where FA is the hauling, or input, force and FB is the load. The mechanical advantage of a tackle dictates how much easier it is to haul or lift the load. A tackle with a mechanical advantage of 4 (a double tackle) will be able to lift 100 lbs with only 25 lbs of tension on the hauling part of the line. Ideal mechanical advantage correlates directly with velocity ratio. The velocity ratio of a tackle refers to the relative velocities of the hauling line to the hauled load. A line with a mechanical advantage of 4 has a velocity ratio of 4:1. In other words, to raise a load at 1 metre per second, the hauling part of the rope must be pulled at 4 metres per second. [edit]Example Block and Tackle Configurations Notice that there are two parts of the rope through each pulley in a block, and an additional part for the start of the rope that is attached to one of the blocks. If there are p pulleys in each of the blocks then there are 2p parts for one block and 2p+1 for the other block. This means if the block with the rope attachment is selected for the moving block, then the mechanical advantage is increased by one. This configuration requires the hauling rope to move in the same direction as the load. The Gun tackle, Double tackle and Threefold purchase have the same number of pulleys in both blocks, one, two and three, respectively.

Various ways of rigging a tackle.[5] For example, consider a block and tackle with two sheaves on both the moving block and the fixed block. One block has four lines running through its sheaves, and the other block also has four lines including the part of the line being pulled or hauled, with a fifth line attached to a secure point on the block. If the hauling part is coming out of the fixed block, the block and tackle will have a mechanical advantage of four. If the tackle is reversed, so that the hauling part is coming from the moving block, the mechanical advantage is now five. In the diagram on the right the mechanical advantage of the tackles shown is as follows: Gun Tackle: 2 Luff Tackle: 3 Double Tackle: 4 Gyn Tackle: 5 Threefold purchase: 6 An O-ring, also known as a packing, or a toric joint, is a mechanical gasket in the shape of a torus; it is a loop of elastomer with a disc-shaped cross-section, designed to be seated in a groove and compressed during assembly between two or more parts, creating a seal at the interface. The O-ring may be used in static applications or in dynamic applications where there is relative motion between the parts and the O-ring. Dynamic examples include rotating pump shafts and hydraulic cylinder pistons. O-rings are one of the most common seals used in machine design because they are inexpensive, easy to make, reliable, and have simple mounting requirements. They can seal tens of megapascals (thousands of psi) pressure. Theory and design


ring mounting for an ultra-high vacuum application. Pressure distribution within the cross-section of the O-ring. The orange lines are hard surfaces, which apply high pressure. The fluid in the seams has lower pressure. The soft O-ring bridges the pressure over the seams. Orings are one of the simplest, yet most engineered, precise, and useful seal designs ever developed. They are one of the most common and important elements of machine design. O-rings are available in various metric and inch standard sizes. Sizes are specified by the inside diameter and the cross section diameter (thickness). In the US the most common standard inch sizes are per SAE AS568C specification (i.e. AS568-214). ISO 3601-1:2008 contains the most commonly used standard sizes, both inch and metric, worldwide. The UK also has standards sizes known as BS sizes, typically ranging from BS001 to BS932. Several other size specifications also exist. [ed it]Typical applications Successful O-ring joint design requires a rigid mechanical mounting that applies a predictable deformation to the O-ring. This introduces a calculated mechanical stress at the O-ring contacting surfaces. As long as the pressure of the fluid being contained does not exceed the contact stress of the O-ring, leaking cannot occur. Fortunately, the pressure of the contained fluid transfers through the essentially incompressible o-ring material, and the contact stress rises with increasing pressure. For this reason, an o-ring can easily seal high pressure as long as it does not fail mechanically. The most common failure is extrusion through the mating parts.

The seal is designed to have a point contact between the O-ring and sealing faces. This allows a high local stress, able to contain high pressure, without exceeding the yield stress of the O-ring body. The flexible nature of O-ring materials accommodates imperfections in the mounting parts. But it is still important to maintain good surface finish of those mating parts, especially at low temperatures where the seal rubber reaches its glass transition temperature and becomes increasingly crystalline. Surface finish is also especially important in dynamic applications. A surface finish that is too rough will abrade the surface of the o-ring, and a surface that is too smooth will not allow the seal to be adequately lubricated by a fluid film. [edit]Vacuum applications In vacuum applications, the permeability of the material makes point contacts quite useless. Instead, higher mounting forces are used and the ring fills the whole groove. Also, roundback-up rings are used to save the ring from excessive deformation [5][6][7] Because the ring feels the ambient pressure and the partial pressure of gases only at the seal, their gradients will be steep near the seal and shallow in the bulk (opposite to the gradient of the contact stress [8] See: Vacuum_flange#KF.2FQF. High-vacuum systems below 10−9 Torr use copper ornickel O-rings. Also, vacuum systems that have to be immersed in liquid nitrogen use indium O-rings, because rubber becomes hard and brittle at low temperatures. [edit]High temperature applications In some high-temperature applications, O-rings may need to be mounted in a tangentially compressed state, to compensate for the Gow-Joule effect. A winch is a mechanical device that is used to pull in (wind up) or let out (wind out) or otherwise adjust the "tension" of a rope orwire rope (also called "cable" or "wire cable"). In its simplest form it consists of a spool and attached hand crank. In larger forms, winches stand at the heart of machines as diverse as tow trucks, steam shovels and elevators. The spool can also be called the winch drum. More elaborate designs have gear assemblies and can be powered by electric, hydraulic, pneumatic or internal combustion drives. Some may include a solenoid brake and/or a mechanical brake or ratchet and pawl device that prevents it from unwinding unless the pawl is retracted. Applications

Anchor winch of the polar research vessel Polarstern. The rope is usually stored on the winch, but a similar machine that does not store the rope is called a capstan. When trimming a line on a sailboat, the crew member turns the winch handle with one hand, while tailing (pulling on the loose tail end) with the other to maintain tension on the turns. Some winches have a "stripper" or cleat to maintain tension. These are known as "self-tailing" winches.[1] Winches are frequently used as elements of backstage mechanics to move scenery in large theatrical productions. Winches are often embedded in the stage floor and used to move large set pieces on and off. Winches have recently been fabricated specifically for water and snow sports (e.g. wakeboarding, wakeskating, snowboarding, etc.). This new generation of winches is designed to pull riders swiftly across a body of water or snow, simulating a riding experience that is normally supplied by a boat, wave runner, or snow mobile. [edit]Tirfors Tirfors, also commonly known as griphoists, are winches that use self-gripping jaws instead of spools to move rope or wire through the winch. Powered by moving a handle back and forth, they allow one person to move objects several tons in weight. [edit]Types of winches [edit]Snubbing winch

Example of winch designed forwakeboarding. These winches consist of a small four-cycle gasoline engine, clutch, and spool all housed inside of a steel frame. A rider is towed rapidly toward the winch as the rope winds around the spool. This is a vertical spool with a ratchet mechanism similar to a conventional winch, but with no crank handle or other form of drive.[2] The line is wrapped around the spool and can be tightened and reeled in by pulling the tail line, the winch takes the load once the pull is stopped with little operator tension needed to hold it. They also allow controlled release of the tension by the operator using the friction of the line around the ratcheted spool. They are used on small sailing boats and dinghies to control sheets and other lines, and in larger applications to supplement and relieve tension on the primary winch mechanisms. [edit]Wakeskate winch Wakeskate winching, which is the popular term today, is a growing hobby for many watersports enthusiasts. It consists of an engine, spool, rope, handle, frame, and some sort of simple transmission. The person being towed walks (or swims) away from the winch and pulls out all of the rope. When the winch is engaged, it pulls the boarder usually between 15 to 25 miles per hour (24 to 40 km/h). Winches are popular for people wanting to board on ponds and lakes, or just don't have a boat. Also, the winch can either be mounted on the trailer hitch of a vehicle, set into the ground by stakes, or tied to a tree. These winches have also been modified for use by skiers and snowboarders in cities. [edit]Glider winch Gliders are often launched using a winch mounted on a heavy vehicle. This method is widely used at European gliding clubs, as a cheaper alternative to aerotowing. The engine is usually a large diesel, though hydraulic fluid engines and electrical motors are also used. The winch pulls in a 1,000 to 1,600-metre (3,000 to 5,500 ft) cable, made of high-tensile steel wire or a synthetic fiber, attached to the glider. The cable is released at a height of about 400 to 700 metres (1,300 to 2,200 ft) after a short, steep climb.[3] A hoist is a device used for lifting or lowering a load by means of a drum or lift-wheel around which rope or chain wraps. It may be manually operated, electrically or pneumatically driven and may use chain, fiber or wire rope as its lifting medium. The load is attached to the hoist by means of a lifting hook. Types of Hoist The basic hoist has two important characteristics to define it: Lifting medium and power type. The lifting medium is either wire rope, wrapped around a drum, or load-chain, raised by a pulley with a special profile to engage the chain. The power can be provided by different means. Common means are hydraulics, electrical and air driven motors. Both the wire rope hoist and chain hoist have been in common use since the 1800s. however; Mass production of an electric hoist did not start until the early 1900's and was first adapted by Germany. A hoist can be built as one integral-package unit, designed for cost-effective purchasing and moderate use, or it can be built as a built-up custom unit, designed for durability and performance. The built-up hoist will be much more expensive, but will also be easier to repair and more durable. Package units where once regarded as being designed for light to moderate usage, but since the 60's this has changed. Built-up units are designed for heavy to severe service, but over the years that market has decreased in size since the advent of the more durable packaged hoist. A machine shop or fabricating shop will use an integral-package hoist, while a Steel Mill or NASA would use a built-up unit to meet durability, performance, and repairability requirements. NASA has also seen a change in the use of package hoists. The NASA Astronaut training pool for example utilizes cranes with packaged hoists. [edit]Wire Rope Hoist or Chain Hoist Builder's hoist, with small petrol engine More commonly used hoist in today’s worldwide market is an electrically powered hoist. These are either the chain type or the wire rope type. Now many hoists are package hoists, built as one unit in a single housing, generally designed for ten-year life, but the life calculation is based on an industry standard when calculating actual life. See the Hoists Manufacturers Institute site[1] for true life calculation which is based on load and hours used. In today's modern world for the North American market there are a few governing bodies for the industry. The Overhead Alliance is a group that represents Crane Manufacturers Association of America (CMAA), Hoist Manufacturers Institute (HMI), and Monorail Manufacturers Association (MMA). These product counsels of the Material Handling Industry of America have joined forces to create promotional materials to raise the awareness of the benefits to overhead lifting. The members of this group are marketing representatives of the member companies. Common small portable hoists are of two main types, the chain hoist or chain block and the wire rope or cable type. Chain hoists may have a lever to actuate the hoist or have a loop of operating chain that one pulls through the block (known traditionally as a chain fall) which then activates the block to take up the main lifting chain. A hand powered hoist with a ratchet wheel is known as a "ratchet lever hoist" or, colloquially, a "Come-A-Long". The original hoist of this type was developed by Abraham Maasdam of Deep Creek, Colorado about 1919, and later commercialized by his son, Felber Maasdam, about 1946. It has been copied by many manufacturers in recent decades. A similar heavy duty unit with a combination chain and cable became available in 1935 that was used by railroads, but lacked the success of the cable only type units. [2]

A ratchet lever hoist (Come-A-Long). Ratchet lever hoists have the advantage that they can usually be operated in any orientation, for pulling, lifting or binding. Chain block type hoists are usually suitable only for vertical lifting. For a given rated load wire rope is lighter in weight per unit length but overall length is limited by the drum diameter that the cable must be wound onto. The lift chain of a chain hoist is far larger than the liftwheel over which chain may function. Therefore, a high-performance chain hoist may be of significantly smaller physical size than a wire rope hoist rated at the same working load. Both systems fail over time through fatigue fractures if operated repeatedly at loads more than a small percentage of their tensile breaking strength. Hoists are often designed with internal clutches to limit operating loads below this threshold. Within such limits wire rope rusts from the inside outward while chain links are markedly reduced in cross section through wear on the inner surfaces. Regular lubrication of both tensile systems is recommended to reduce frequency of replacement. High speed lifting, greater than about 60 feet per minute (18.3 m/min), requires wire rope wound on a drum, because chain over a pocket wheel generates fatigue-inducing resonance for long lifts. The unloaded wire rope of small hand powered hoists often exhibits a snarled "set", making the use of a chain hoist in this application less frustrating, but heavier. In addition, if the wire in a wire hoist fails, it can whip and cause injury, while a chain will simply break. [edit]Construction hoists

A hoist on the Trump International Hotel & Tower-Chicago Also known as a Man-Lift, Buckhoist, temporary elevator, builder hoist, passenger hoist or construction elevator, this type of hoist is commonly used on large scale construction projects, such as high-rise buildings or major hospitals. There are many other uses for the construction elevator. Many other industries use the buckhoist for full time operations. The purpose being to carry personnel, materials, and equipment quickly between the ground and higher floors, or between floors in the middle of a structure. The construction hoist is made up of either one or two cars (cages) which travel vertically along stacked mast tower sections. The mast sections are attached to the structure or building every 25 feet (7.62 m) for added stability. For precisely controlled travel along the mast sections, modern construction hoists use a motorized rack-and-pinion system that climbs the mast sections at various speeds. While hoists have been predominantly produced in Europe and the United States, China is emerging as a manufacturer of hoists to be used in Asia. In the United States and abroad, General Contractors and various other industrial markets rent or lease hoists for a specific projects. Rental or leasing companies provide erection, dismantling, and repair services to their hoists to provide General Contractors with turnkey services. Also the rental and leasing companies can provide parts and service for the elevators that are under contract. [edit]Mine hoists Main article: Hoist (mining)

A water-powered mine hoist used for raising ore from De re metallica. In underground mining a hoist or winder[3] is used to raise and lower conveyances within the mine shaft. Human, animal and water power were used to power the mine hoists documented in Agricola's De Re Metallica, published in 1556. Stationary steam engines were commonly used to power mine hoists through the 19th century and into the 20th, as at the Quincy Mine, where a 4-cylinder cross-compound corliss engine was used.[4] Modern hoists are powered using electric motors, historically with direct current drives utilizing solid-state converters (thyristors), however modern large hoists use alternating current drives that are variable frequency controlled.[3] There are three principal types of hoists used in mining applications, Drum Hoists, Friction (or Kope) hoists and Blair multi-rope hoists.

Seal (mechanical) From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Compression seal example A mechanical seal is a device which helps join systems or mechanisms together by preventing leakage (e.g., in a plumbing system), containing pressure, or excluding contamination. The effectiveness of a seal is dependent on adhesion in the case of sealants and compression in the case of gaskets.[1] End face mechanical seal From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (Redirected from Rotating face mechanical seal)

Elements d1 and a1 bear and slide on each other, creating a seal at their interface. One group of parts is connected to the rotating shaft and the other to the machine's case. The spring keeps the elements tight against each other, maintaining the seal and allowing for wear. An end face mechanical seal, also referred to as a mechanical face seal but usually simply as a mechanical seal, is a type of seal utilised in rotating equipment, such as pumps, mixers, blowers, and compressors. When a pump operates, the liquid could leak out of the pump between the rotating shaft and the stationary pump casing. Since the shaft rotates, preventing this leakage can be difficult. Earlier pump models used mechanical packing (otherwise known as Gland Packing) to seal the shaft. Since World War II, mechanical seals have replaced packing in many applications. An end face mechanical seal uses both rigid and flexible elements that maintain contact at a sealing interface and slide on each other, allowing a rotating element to pass through a sealed case. The elements are both hydraulically and mechanically loaded with a spring or other device to maintain contact. For similar designs using flexible elements, see Radial shaft seal (a.k.a "lip seal") and o-rings. How to Select Compression Packing Seals Compression packing seals or gland seals are used to seal a variety of fluids under a range of conditions. They are used to help contain water, acids, solvents, gases, oil, and other chemicals that are subjected to various temperatures and pressures. Compression packing is a common sealing process where a gland along the top ring is tightened, and the packing compressed onto the surface to be sealed. Applications also include packing for valves, pumps, and rotating equipment. Most compression seals feature a braided, twisted, plaited, or laminated construction. In addition to packing construction, the use of a wet or dry lubricant should be considered when selecting products. Some lubricants are approved for use with food processing applications by the U.S. Food and Drug administration. Types of Compression Packing Seal Designs The GlobalSpec SpecSearch Database contains information on various types of compression packing seal designs. Braid-over-braid is also called jacket-over-jacket. This design is fabricated by braiding one or more covers over a center core of braided, twisted, or homogeneous materials. Products can be braided round, then calendared square. The weave is soft and dense because of the individual jacket-over-jacket construction, and can carry a high amount of lubricant. Braid-over-core designs are produced by round-braiding one or more jackets of yarn, rovings, ribbons, or other forms of materials over a core that may be extruded, twisted, wrapped, or knitted. Multi-braid or lattice designs consist of strands that are diagonally-braided for greater strength and longer life. Each strand passes diagonally through the body of the packing at an angle of approximately 45°. This design is resistant to permeation leakage and will not be damaged entirely even if the surface becomes worn. Laminated compression packing seals consist of either asbestos and rubber or duck and rubber laminated into slab form and then fabricated into spirals, coils, or rings. Plaited packing is constructed from interwoven yarns with pockets formed between each plait to retain lubricant. Twisted products have yarns or metallic strands that are twisted around each other to obtain the desired size. One packing size can be used for various size stuffing boxes. A sealant may be viscous material that has little or no flow characteristics and stay where they are applied or thin and runny so as to allow it to penetrate the substrate by means of capillary reaction. Anaerobic acrylic sealants generally referred to as impregnants are the most desirable as they are required to cure in the absence of air, unlike surface sealants that require air as part of the cure mechanisum that changes state to become solid, once applied, and is used to prevent the penetration of air, gas, noise, dust, fire, smoke or liquid from one location through a barrier into another. Typically, sealants are used to close small openings that are difficult to shut with other materials, such as concrete, drywall, etc. Desirable properties of sealants include insolubility, corrosion resistance, and adhesion. Uses of sealants vary widely and sealants are used in many industries, for example, construction, automotive and aerospace industries. The main difference between adhesives and sealants is that sealants typically have lower strength and higher elongation than do adhesives. Since the main objective of a sealant is to seal assemblies and joints, sealants need to have sufficient adhesion to the substrates and resistance to environmental conditions to remain bonded over the required life of the assembly. When sealants are used between substrates having different thermal coefficients of expansion or differing elongation under stress, they need to have adequate flexibility and elongation. Sealants generally contain inert filler material and are usually formulated with an elastomer to give the required flexibility and elongation. They usually have a paste consistency to allow filling of gaps between substrates. Low shrinkage after application is often required. Many adhesive technologies can be formulated into sealants. Sealants fall between higher-strength adhesives at one end and extremely low-strength putties and caulks at the other. Putties and caulks serve only one function – i.e., to take up space and fill voids. Sealants, on the other hand, despite not having great strength, do convey a number of properties. They seal the substrate at the glue line; they are particularly effective in keeping moisture in or out of the components in which they are used. They provide thermal and acoustical insulation and may serve as fire barriers; sometimes they contain electrical properties. They may also be used for smoothing or filleting. In short, sealants are often called upon to perform several of these functions at once. No matter what the application, a corking sealant has three basic functions. It fills a gap between two or more substrates. It forms a barrier through the physical properties of the sealant itself and by adhesion to the substrate. It maintains sealing properties for the expected lifetime, service conditions and environments. The sealant performs these functions by way of correct formulation to achieve specific application and performance properties. Unlike adhesives, however, there are not many functional alternatives to the sealing process. Soldering or welding can perhaps be used as a sealant in certain instances, depending on the substrates and the relative movement that the substrates will see in service. However, the simplicity and reliability offered by organic elastomers usually make them the clear choice for performing these functions. Silicone is an example of a sealant. [edit]Types of sealants Acrylic sealants Asphalt sealants Pipe thread sealants Acoustic sealants Adhesive sealants Aerospace sealants Aircraft sealants

Aquarium sealant Butyl rubber sealants

A labyrinth seal is a type of mechanical seal that provides a tortuous path to help prevent leakage. An example of such a seal is sometimes found within an axle's bearing to help prevent the leakage of the oil lubricating the bearing. A labyrinth seal may be composed of many grooves that press tightly inside another axle, or inside a hole, so that the fluid has to pass through a long and difficult path to escape. Sometimes screw threads exist on the outer and inner portion. These interlock, to produce the long characteristic path which slows leakage. For labyrinth seals on a rotating shaft, a very small clearance must exist between the tips of the labyrinth threads and the running surface. Labyrinth seals on rotating shafts provide non-contact sealing action by controlling the passage of fluid through a variety of chambers by centrifugal motion, as well as by the formation of controlled fluid vortices. At higher speeds, centrifugal motion forces the liquid towards the outside and therefore away from any passages. Similarly, if the labyrinth chambers are correctly designed, any liquid that has escaped the main chamber, becomes entrapped in a labyrinth chamber, where it is forced into a vortex-like motion. This acts to prevent its escape, and also acts to repel any other fluid. Because these labyrinth seals are non-contact, they do not wear out. Many gas turbine engines, having high rotational speeds, use labyrinth seals due to their lack of friction and long life. Labyrinth seals are also found on pistons, which use them to store oil and seal against high pressure during compression and power strokes, as well as on other non-rotating shafts. In these applications, it is the long and difficult path and the formation of controlled fluid vortices plus some limited contact-sealing action that creates the seal.

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