wNsudkj;a ;dreKHh

^;reK wdl,am ixj¾Okhg nqÿoyu&

wd,xl=,fï fmauisß ysñ
uyñ;j m[a[dr;k ysñ

m%:u uqøKh

( Y%S nqoaO j¾I 2553
jHjydr j¾I 2009

wNsudkj;a ;dreKHh
^;reK wdl,am ixj¾Okhg nqÿoyu&

© wd,xl=,fï fmauisß ysñ
uyñ;j m[a[dr;k ysñ
ISBN 978 - 955 - 51523 - 1 - 0
l[apql ks¾udKh

( nqoaëm r;akdhl

mß.Kl j¾Kfhdackh ( l=udß úfÊj¾Ok
uqøKh

( rejkamyrej
fkd' 14$10" m<fjks mgqu."
ms<sld frday, mdr" uyr.u'
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m%ldYkh

( fmd;ay,a lñgqj"
isß jðr[dK O¾udh;kh"
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ÿr we( 060 2098704

l;=jrekaf.a fjk;a lD;s
wd,xl=,fï fmauisß ysñ
úYajh yd Ôjh ms< sn| fn!oaO ixl,amh - 2000
m%Kdu
- 2002
wïó
- 2003
oïro lsre<
- 2005
nqoaOY%djlfhda ljryq o@ - 2005
yev.efik NslaIqj
- 2007
uyñ;j m[a[dr;k ysñ
ud.ë Ydia;%Sh ix.%yh

^Y%S chj¾Okmqr úYajúoHd,h&

O¾urdc

- 2006
- 2007

^rc; chka;s Ydia;%Sh l,dmh&

ud.ë Ydia;%Sh ix.%yh

- 2009

újrK

- 2009

^Y%S chj¾Okmqr úYajúoHd,h&

^w;smQcH fldiaj;af;a wßhúu, ysñmdKka úiska rÑ;
O¾uYdia;%Sh ,sms iuqÉph&

úÿoh ñKs myk

- 2009

^yslalvqfõ Y%S iqux., kdysñ ixlaIsma; pß;dmodkh&

md,s yd fn!oaO wOHhk - 2009 ^uqøKfha&
^iïudk uydpd¾h T,sj¾ wfíkdhl"
md,s yd fn!oaO wOHhk ,s ms iuqÉph&

udkdjq¨ ixfoaY úuiqu - 2009 ^uqøKfha&

fï fmd; .ek
;reKhd hkq rgl Ôjkd,sh hehs wm fndfyda úg wid we;af;uq' ;dreKHfha Yla;sh
tla;eka jQ úfgl uq¿ uy;a cd;shgu Yla;sh ,ndÈh yels nj wm úYajdi lruq'
.; jQ oYl lSmh ;=< furg ;dreKHh .uka lrkqfha ljr udj;la lrd o hkak .eg¿jls'
jir lsysmhl mgka furg ;dreKHhg .e<fmk whqßka lD;shla rpkd lsÍfï wfmalaIdfõ
m%;sM,hla f,ihs fuu zwNsu dkj;a ;dreKHhZ kï l=vd .%ka:h iïmdokh jkafka' fndfyda úg
;reKhkag wjeis mßÈ nqÿoyu weiqßka l< lD;Ska olakd ,efnkafka w,am jYfhks' tfyhska
furg ;reK ;reKshka we;eïúg is;d isákqf ha nqÿoyfï ;reKhka iok u. fkdue;a;dla
fihsks' ta ksidu wfkl=;a fmd;a m;a mfil ;nd ;%smsglhu muKla weiqre lrf.k fuu
.%ka:h rpkd lsÍug W;aidyj;a jqfkuq' fuys uqLH wruqK jkafka furg ;reK ;reKshka
fn!oaO Ñka;kfhys msysg qjd ksjerÈ udj; lrd fhduq lr ùuhs' fuu lD;sh lshjd thska wd;au
ffO¾hhla f.k wNsu dkj;a f,isk a ;dreKHh yev.iajd .kafka kï thhs wfma i;=gg lreK'

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077-9898302$071-8268693

wd,xl=,fï fmauisß ysñ
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l=i,a m~qre
)

rdclSh mKaä; Ydia;%m;s w;smQcH ;sßl=Kduf,a wdkkao wkqkdysñ mdKka g"

)

rdclSh mKaä; Ydia;%m;s mdkÿf¾ mikak ysñhka g"

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isß jðr[dK O¾udh;kfha idik fiajl iñ;sh g"

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lÓldpd¾h" ómsáfha iS,r;k ysñhkag"

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miqjoka iemhQ uydpd¾h tÉ'ã'tka' mS' ´md;" wdpd¾h m%KS;a wNhiqkaor" wdpd¾h m%ikak
uOqrx. m%kdkaÿ wE úoaj;=ka g"

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fn!oaO n, flakaøfha ruKS úl%ur;ak ue;sK sh g"

) úfYaI{ ffjoH i;Sld lu,odi ue;sKsh yd lKsIal lu,odi ue;s;=uka we;=¿ mjqf,a ieu
g"
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le<Ksh úYajúoHd,fha lÓldpd¾h wreK fla .uf.a uy;d g"

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mß.Kl msgq ieliQ l=udß úfÊj¾Ok uy;añh g"

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ljr ks¾udKh l< nqoaëm r;akdhl fidhqrd g"

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uqøK lghq;= isÿl< rejkamyrej uqøK wdh;kfha úfÊnKavdr ue;s;=uka we;=¿ ieu g"

O¾urdc msßfjka uydúydrh"
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077-9898302$071-8268693

wd,xl=, fï fmauisß ysñ
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msÿu
zzudf.a foaYh wjÈl< y~ZZ
mQcH" .xf.dvú, fidau ysñmdKkaf.a
Y%S kduhg'''

mgqk
fï fmd; .ek

v

l=i,a m~qre

vi

msÿu

vii

01' wNsudkj;a ;dreKHhfha jD;a;sh"
jDoaêh yd ydksh

1

02' m%pKav;ajh úma,jh wNsfhda. yd ;dreKHh

59

03' fhdjqka fm!reIfha Woa.dó yd
wm.dó ,laIK

88

04' fn!oaO ;reKhd

113

05' ;reK fn!oaO NslaIQka jykaf ia

137

wdka;sl igyka

174

1
wNsudkj;a ;dreKHhfha
jD;a;sh" jDoaêh yd ydksh
;reKhd kjuq oE wkqN+;Ska lr .ksñka .fõIKYS,S j fuka u ks¾udKYS,S j wk,ia j
Yla;su ;a j ls%h dlrkakl= úh hq;= h' ldh Ñ;a; ;dreKH fya;=fldgf.k we;eï ;reKfhda
uohg m;afj;s' uoh m%u dohg o m%udoh úkdYhg o fya;=jla nj i,ld fhdjqka uofhka fkd
u;a j ;reKHh /l .ekSu ;reKhl= i;= úYd, j.lSuls' fuu ;=reKq úh Yla;su ;a j .;
fkdl<fyd;a wk;=reodhl h' i;su ;a jqj fyd;a iM,odhS h' ;dreKHh M,odhs;dj flfrys
iauD;su ;a j fhoúh hq;= wdldrh ms<sn| j nqÿrcdKka jykaf ia wjjdofhkq;a wdo¾Yfhkq;a
f,dalhdg ukdj meyeÈ,s lr § we;'
we;a; ke;a; l=ula±hs ±k ls%h d lsÍu b;d jákd ;dreKH .=K hls' Ôú;h hkq
.eg¨j,ska .yK jQjls'1 tlS .eg¨ .Kk fuf;lehs lsj fkdyels h' ta ieu .eg¨jla wìhi
u fkdie,S isg wmrdïuqL j úi÷ula fiùug W;aiql úh hq;= h' tlS úi÷u úi÷ula ñi ;j;a
Bg jvd nrm;, .eg¨jla biau;= lrkakla fkdúh hq;= h' ta i|yd mQ¾j ks. ukhkag
fkdmeñK úu¾YkYS,S j ls%hd l< hq;= h' úu¾Yk nqoaêfhka lghq;= fkdlrkakdg ;ud isák
;;a;ajfhka by< ;;a;ajhla lrd <Õd úh fkdyels h' fkdis;d fkdúuid ls%hd lrkakka weia
we;a;ka jqj;a wkaOhka yd iudk h'2 Tjqkag i;Hdi;H f;areï.; fkdyels h' we;a; ke;a;
f,i o ke;a; we;a; f,i o jrojd f.k lghq;= lrk Tjqkag lsis úfgl idrh ,nd.;
fkdyels h'3
;reK wjêfhys fndfyda fofkl=g ùrfhda isá;s' we;eïyq Tjqk a wkqlrKh lsÍug uy;a
wNsreÑhla olaj ;s' ;ukag o ùrhl= ùug kï ta pß; f;fï o wkql rKh l< hq;= hehs is;hs'
th ;dreKHfha idudkH ,CIKhls' th yß fyda jerÈ hehs tlfy,d ks.ukh o l<
fkdyels h' th yß fyda jerÈ jkafka ;uka wkq. ukh lrk kdhlhd tfia;a ke;akï ùrhd
fldf;la ÿrg wkq. dñlhdj ksjerÈ o¾Ykhlg fhduql rkakg YlH;d we;af;la o hkak u; h'
we;eï j[apkslfhda ;reKhsk af.a nqoaêhg wduka;%K h fkdfldg ye.Sï wjqiaid iajlSh
wNs,dIhka uia;l m%dma; lr.ekSu msKsi ;reKhskaf.a Ôú; ovóud lr .ks;s' h:d¾:h
fkdúuik" nqoê
a fhka fkdj yeÕSfuka ls%h d lrk we;eï ;reK msßia Tjqkaf.a l+fGdamdhkag
yiq ù ñß.=j c,h hehs is;d ta miqm i Èj fjfyfik uD.hka fia ;u ld,h;a" Okh;a Y%uh;a
ta i|yd jeh fldg wd;aud¾:hg;a mrd¾:hg;a ydks muqKqjd .ks;s' 1971 iy 1989 we;s jQ wm
rfÜ wNHka;r flda,dy,;a ^we;uqka th úma,hla f,i ye¢ka jqj;a tys úma,ùh ,CIK ±lsh
fkdyels h' úma,jh ms<sn| fjk mßÉfþohl lreKq idlÉPd flf¾'& iy jir úismyla mqrd jQ
;%ia;jdoh;a fya;=fldg f.k rgg wysñ ù .sh jákd ;reK ;reKshkaf .a Ôú; ta i|yd tla
WodyrKhla f,i ±laúh yels h' ta i;H we;ul=g wñysß úh yels h' tfy;a i;Hh i;Hu h'
i;Hh wi;Hhla lr.kq ,nkafka i;Hh ms<s.kakg fkdleue;af;da h' tneúka ;reKhskaf.a
yeÕSug fkdj nqoaêhg wduka;%Kh lrk wdo¾Y iïmkak kdhlhska u ;reK ;reKshka
fufyh úh hq;= h' tjeks kdhlhska u ;u ùrhska lr .ekSug ;reKhka nqoaêu;a úh hq;= h'

;=reKq iúh jerÈ f,i fhdojd .ekSu iy fhoùu hk folu ;uka g ;a rgg iudchg;a
uy;a úkdYhls' tneúka tlS Yla;sh u;= m%fhdackh msK si wdfhdackh lsÍu l< hq;= h' tys §
ieu ;reK ;reKshl u ukd isyskqjKsk a ls%hd l< hq;= h' lsisjl=g ysxidjla mSvdjla fkdl< ta
ksid u wysxil hk kï ,o l=u re yq§ ckhd ku weiQ muKska fjõ¨j wx.=,su d,hl= njg
m;ajQfha o tu ;reKhd u miqj il, ck myka is;a jvjk fY%aIaGhl= njg m;ajQfha o fkdukd
fm<Uùu;a ukd fm<Uùu;a iy f;fï ta fm<öïys kshqla;ùu;a ksid h'4 ta nj ;reK
;reKshka fuka u Tjqkag kdhl;ajh imhkakka o wjOdrKhg .ekSu b;d u wjYH h'
isoO
a d¾: f.!;u fndai;dKka jykafiaf.a ;=reKq Èúh ish¨ ;reK msßig mrudo¾Yhls'
;reKhl= f,i isoO
a d¾: l=u ref.a isf ;ys o we;a; ke;a; ±k .ekSfï ±ä wjYH;djla mek
ke.sKs' ta i|yd t;=u d wkq.ukh l< ms<sfj; b;d nqoê
a u;a tlls' zzlsx l=i, .fõiSjZZ ieß
ierE fndai;dKka jykafia fndfyda fokd yß hehs ms<s. ;a u;h ;uka o yßhehs fkdms<sf.k
tfy;a m%;sfCIam o fkdfldg ta ms< sn| úYd, .fõIKhl fhfoñka iajhx m%;HCIhla njg
fndfyda woa±lSï m;alr .ksñka ±k W.;a nqoê
a u;=ka wdY%h lrñka w;s ±jeka; {dk .fõIK
5
ls%hdoduhl ksr; jQy' tys È Ôú;fhys wka ljrodlj;a w;a fkdúkao ;rï ÿla lïlfgd¨"
m%Yak" ndOl yd úúO wNsfhda.j,g uqyqK mdkakg isÿ úh' 6 tfy;a ta tllsksÿ úms<sir fkdù
ix.%dufhys ir myr ú| bÈßhg u hk wNS; yia;s rdchl= fia fkdie,S fkdìh j bÈßhg
.uka l<y' .uk w;ru. k;rlr .kakjdkï th idOdrKSl rKh lr .ekSu msKsi fndfyda
lreKq ldrKd Wkajykafia bÈßfhys ;snqKs' tfy;a ta tll=ÿ ndOd fkdlrf.k ;uka jykafia
wfmaCIs; mrud¾:h fj; .uka lsÍu i|yd wod< ls%hdoduhkays wk,ia j wm%ud§ j ksr; jQy'
tfyhska Ôú;h Èkkakg Wkajykafia g yelsh dj ,enqK s' ta t;=ukaf.a Èúfhys Nø fh!jkh hs' 7

bÉPdNx.;ajh
ljr rgl jqj o ljr ;rd;srul jqj o fndfyda ;reK ;reKshka ;=< ±l .; yels
,CIKhls" bÉPdNx.;ajh' bÉPdNx.;ajh ;reK ;reKshka i;= jQjla muKla hehs woyia
fkdflf¾' ry;a W;=uka yer wka ´kE u mqoa.,hl= ;=< bÉPdNx.;aj h we;s úh yels h'
n,dfmdfrd;a;= iqkaùu fya;=fldgf.k m%d¥¾N+;jk fõokdldÍ ;;a;ajh bÉPdNx.;ajh f,i
ye¢kaúh yel' n,dfmdfrd;a;= iqka ù hdu fuhska woyia flf¾' bÉPdNx.;ajh yg .ekSug
n,mdk m%Odk tla fya;=jla ±laú h fkdyels h' ta i|yd m%lg fuka u wm%lg fya;+ka o uQ,sl
úh yelsh' m%Odk fya;=jla f,i ndOl ±laúh yels h' wd¾Ól" idudðl" foaY md,ksl"
wOHdmksl wdÈ jYfhka úúO fõ' iq<Õska fkdfi,ajk uy mõjla fia fkdie,S isák wlïmH
.=Khla tys,d we;s lr .; hq;= h'8 wNsfma%ß;d¾:hka uia;l m%dma; lr .ekSug is;Sï ud;%h
muKla m%u dKj;a jkafka ke;' ta i|yd ls%hdfjys fh§u w;HjYH h' 9 .Õl fuf;r isák
tf;rg hdug wjYH mqo.
a ,hl=g .fÕys fuf;r we;s ÿIal r;d;a tf;r we;s wisßh;a ms< sn| j
is; is;d isà fuka fyda l;d lr lr isàfuka tf;rg hd fkdyels nj;a ta i|yd yels
W;aidyhla f.k ;rKh lsÍfï ld¾h wdrïN l< hq;= nj;a jgyd .; hq;= h' tfia u ksÈ.;a
isxyhkaf.a uqjg i;=ka mkskafka ke;' isxyhd jqj o jEhñka u i;=ka ovhï lr.; hq;= h' tfia
u W;aidyfhka u úkd ukfod<ska ld¾h isoê
a hla fkdjkafka h' fmd,a ;snqK dg W;aidyhla
fkd ue;sj f;,a .; fkdyels h' ksOdkh ;ud bÈßmsg ;snqK;a wkqfoHda.shdg th .; fkdyels
h' Tyq lrkafka tys w;s jákdlu .ek jK_k d lr lr isàu muKls' wdrïNh" ù¾h" mrdl%u h"
:duh" ia:djr;ajh ms<sn| mqoa., wêldrhla ´kEu flkl= i;= j mj;S' 10 ta ;=<ska woyia
is;=ï me;=ï iuDoaO lr.; yels h' tys § meñfKk ndOl yuqfjys bÉPdNdx.;aj hg fkdm;a j
bÈßhgu hd hq;= h' W;aidyh;a" isysh;a" ixhuh;a" bkaø sh ixjrh;a we;s mqoa.,hdg ndOd yuqfjys

bÉPdNx.;ajhg m;a fkd ù fkdie,S isáh yels h' hii" lS¾;sh wfmaCId lrk ;eke;a;d
W;aidyfhka o isysfhka o ksiïuldÍ .=Kfhka o" ixhufhka o Od¾ñl j o wm%ud§ j o ls%hd
l< hq;= njhs" nqÿrcdKka jykafiaf.a b.ekaùu jkafka' 11

wd¾Ól ndOd ch .ekSu
w,ilu;a" ÈÜGdkq. ;sh;a" ikaksêldr mßfNdackh;a hk m%Odk fya;+ka ;=k ksid
iuiudch úiu iudchla njg m;a jQ nj nqÿ oyu fmkajd fohs' 12 iu iudchl isysk ujk wh
ta i|yd fm<md,s hduj;a úYd, fõÈldj, iuiudchla we;slr .ekSug foaYk meje;aùuj;a
m%udKj;a jkafka ke;' ta i|yd hf:dala; fya;= kdYkh lsÍug jEhï ±ßh hq;=h' wo iuiudch
.ek l;d lrkakdjQ fndfydaf okd ;=< we;af ;a ta ms<sn| jQ ñksiqka uq,dlrk ,iaik
jokaud,djla muKs' tneúka by; lS ldrK;%h úiu iudc m%Njfhys,d uQ,sl fya;= fia i,ld
tlS fya;= kdYkfhka iu iudchla ìys lsÍug W;aiql úh hq;= h' tfia fkdjqkfyd;a yqfola
iuiudch hk kdu fYaIhla u muKla wm w;r mj;S' iuiudchg úiu iudch m%úIag jQ od
isg wd¾Ól iïndO rdYshla mqo.
a ,hd jgd tal rdYS jkakg fhÿKs' 13
fulS iïndOlh yuqfjys we;eïyq W;aiql j ls%hd fldg wd¾Ól ,dN Wmhdf.k hï
;rñka fyda wd¾Ólh chf.k isá;s' fl;rï wd¾Ól ÈhqK qjla ,enqj ;a ;Dma;su ;a fkdùu
idudkH ñksia .;shls' ta w;Dma;sh ÿrelr .ekSu fjk u ls%hdoduhls' we;eïyq fuu wd¾Ól
iïndOlhg ksjerÈ j uqyqK § .; fkdyelsj fkdfhla iudc úIudpdrhkays fh§ wh:d l%u
u.ska ch.%yKh ,nd .ekSug f.dia fkdfhla jO nkaOkdÈhg f;fï ,lajkjd muKla fkdj
wkHhkag o úYd, wk;=re muqK qj;s' we;eïyq tlS iïndOlhg uqyqK § .; fkdyels j Ôú;
ydksh mjd isÿlr .ks;s' wOd¾ñl j Okh;a" iuDoaêh;a fkdm;k ;eke;a;d is,ajf;la o
m%{djka;fhla o Od¾ñlfhla o jk njhs" nqÿrcdKka jykafiaf .a foaY kh jkafka' 15 tfia u
l=iS; j ySk ù¾h we;s j jir ish .Kkla Ôj;a jkjdg jvd wl=iS; j ù¾h iïmkak j tla
ojila Ôj;a jk ;eke;a;df.a Ôú;h W;a;u njhs" nqÿrcdKka jykafia foaYkd fldg
jodrkafka'16 tneúka wd¾Ól iïndO ch .ekSu msKsi ;reK msßia f,i Y%udNsu dkfhka hqla; j
wl=iS; j wk,ia j isys l,amkdfjka ls%h d l< hq;= h' ;reK ld,fhys" ke;s Okh kQmojdf.k
Wmka Okh wdrCId fkdfldg f.k m%u d§ j lghq;= lrkakdg Èh iqka j .sh fyhska uiqka ke;s
úf,l yso f.dÿre we;s ú,lg hd.; fkdyels fldiajd ,sysK shl=fia o úÈk ,o Bh jegqKq ;ek
u ;sî Èrd úkdY jkak dla fuka o fmr ld î we| me<o isá whqre isys lrñka ;efjkakg
isÿjk nj nqÿrcdKka jykafia fmkaj d fo;s' 17 w;aÓ iqLh fyj;a wd¾Ól iuDoaêh mqo.
a ,hl=
úiska f,!lsl jYfhka idOkh lr.; hq;= nj nqÿrcdKka jykafiaf.a b.ekaùu hs' ta i|yd
Y%udNsudkfhka ls%h d lsÍu wjYHu h'18
f,dal h:d¾:h wks;H" ÿlaL iy wkd;au hk ,CIK;%h nj m%:ujrg f,dalhg fy<sl<
tlu oyu nqÿ oyu muKs'19 wks;H "ÿlaL" wkd;au ms<sn| j W.kajk nqÿ oyu wd¾Ól iïndOd
ch.%yKh lsÍu ms<sn| j lreKq lshkafka flfia±hs fndfyda fokd ;=< idOdrK ielhla
biau;= ù ;sf í' fuys§ jgyd.; hq;= jeo.;a u lreK jkafka wks;H ÿlaL" wkd;au hkq nqÿ
oyfuys ,CIKhla fkdj f,dal h:d¾:hla nj hs' nqÿ oyu isÿ lf<a fmr lsisjl= úiska fy<s
fkdl< tfy;a h:d¾:hla j mej;s tlS ,CIK wkdjrKh lr§u hs' 20 ljr foa isÿ l<;a fuu
f,dal h:d¾:h u; msysgd isÿ l< hq;= fõ' leu;s jqj;a ke;;a th blaujd hdug lsisjl=g fkd
yels h' fuys i|yka ÿl .ek úuik úg nqÿ oyu ta ÿl ixidßl .ukg fya;=jk ika;dk.;
ÿl;a iudch yd noaO iudc.; ÿl;a jYfhka fojoEreï j fmkajd foñka ta foflka u
úks¾uQla; j ;djld,sl j iy iodld,sl j iemj;a úh hq;= wdldrh fmkajd § we;' 21 ish ¨

i;a;ajfhda iem leue;af;da h' ÿl ms<sl =,a lrkafkda h' 22 iudc.; ÿflys È<s÷ nj tla ÿlls'23
tfyhska È<sÿ nj ke;sfldg wd¾Ól ia:djr;ajhla f.dvk.d .ekSu i|yd Y%udNsudkfhka hqla;
j ls%hd lsÍu wjYH h' w÷rg idmlr lr isà u nqÿ oyu wkqu; lrkafka ke;' mykla
o,ajdf.k w÷r kid.kakg hs" nqÿ oyu Wmfoia fokafka' 24
we;eïyq ÿmam;alu ÿrelr iemj;a j Ôj;a ùu msK si Kh fj;s' Kh nßka ksoyia úh
fkdyels jQ úg ;ukag ysñ j ;snQ jia;=j foam< o wysñ lr.kakg isÿjk wjia:d Woa.; fõ'
we;eïúg isr o~qjïj,g mjd ,lajkakg isÿfõ' Bg;a jvd udkisl jy,a;dj biau ;= j ths'
rgla jYfhka .;al, ish¨ YS% ,dxlslhka fuh wjOdkhg .; hq;= h' .ik .ik mohg
kgkakg isÿjkafka tlS jy,aNdjh ksid h' Khùu ksid rElv fia kegfjkakg ùu
fkdje<elaúh yels h' wKk iqLh f,i nqÿ oyu y÷kajd fokafka Kh fkdù Ôj;a ùu iemhla
nj hs'25 tys woyi hfula Kh jkafka kï ÿflka Ôj;a jk nj hs' fndfyda fokd Kh jkafka
iefmka Ôj;a ùug hehs is;df.k h' tfy;a fndfyda fofkl= yd iïnkaOfhka th i;Hhla
fkdfõ'
Kh fkdù Ôj;a ùfï wKk iqjh we;slr .ekSu msK si Y%udNsu dkfhka ls%hd lsÍu fia u
iu whjehla mj;aj d .ekSu wjYH njhs" nqÿ oyu fmkajd fokafka' 26 tfiau hul= iS;" WIaKdÈ
jev l,a ouk fya;= fkdi,ld ld¾hCIu j ls%h d lrkafka kï Od¾ñl wd¾Ól iuDoaêh we;s
lr .; yelsh'27
Ok rdYSlrKfhys Y%uh j.=rejkak d ;=< .=K dx. y;rla mej;sh hq;= nj nqÿrcdKka
jykafia fmkaj d fo;s' tkï" WÜGdk iïmod ^W;aidyh& wdrlaL iïmod ^wdrCIdj& l,HdK
ñ;a;;d ^fyd| ñ;=rka we;snj& iuÔúl;d ^whjeh iuj mj;aj d .ekSu& hk lreKq y;r h' 28
wl=is; j wk,ia j WmdhYS,s j bÉPdNx.;ajhg m;a fkdù ,dN mdvq foflys§ u Woa fhda.fhka
ls%hd lsÍfï yelshdj WÜGdk iïmodj hs' fjr ùßfhka Wmhk foh wkjYH fohg jeh lrñka
úkdY
uqLh lrd hkakg bv fkd § wdrCId lr .ekSu wdrCId iïmodj hs' we;eï kqjKe;s hym;a
ñ;=rl= ,eîu l<HdK ñ;a;;d kï fõ' weiqre lrkakd ;udg jvd Wiia .=K we;a;l= kï b;d
uekú' tfia ;udg jvd Wiia .=K we;s ñ;=rl= fidhd.; fkdyels kï ;ud yd ioDYhl= fyda
wdY%hg f;dard.; hq;= h' whjeh iu;=<s; j mj;aj d .ekSf ï yelsh dj iuÔúl;dj hs'
wo wfma ;reK iudch foi n,k úg fndfyda fihska fkdjqk;a we;eï ;reK Ôú;
whdf,a hñka wdY%h lrk múgq ñ;=rka ksid ujqmsh d§ka yßyïn lr odhdo jYfhka b;sßlr §
;sfnk Okh" foaf md, úkdY lr ;=u Q yßyïn lr.;a NjfNda. Ok OdkHdÈhla fkdue;sj
fh!jk;ajfhys iqkaor;ajh ú|.; fkdyels ;;a;aj hg m;aj ;sfí' nd, uy¨ whg fkdue;s Y%u
Yla;shla fh!jk;aj h i;= j mj;sk ksid ;u Y%uh Od¾ñl j j.= rejd ix;Dma;su;a wd¾Ól
ia:djr;ajhlg m;aúh hq;= h' tfia ±yeñ j Y%uh j.=rejñka ;ukag;a ;u ujqmshkag ;a ;ud
fjfik iudchg;a nrla fkdue;s j Ôú; .; lrk ;reK msßi uq¿uy;a iudchgu jevodhS
h'29 tfy;a Ofkdamd¾ckhg iqÿiq /lshdjla ke;ehs we;eï ;reK ;reKsf hda ;du;a fida iqiqï
,ñka wm iudcfhys jdih lr;s' fuh isÿ fkdúh hq;a;ls' bf.k.;a fohg iß,k rcfha fyda
fm!oa.,sl wdh;khl /lsh djla ,efnk f;la ;ud n,d isá h hq;= ke;' ish Y%uh j.=rejd l<
yels iajhx /lshdjla wdrïN l< hq;= h' zzilafldaZZ ^ug yelsh& Ñka;kh wNsudkh ;ud ;=<
mej;sh hq;= h' wo wm rfÜ we;eï f,dal m%lg jHdmdßlhka uq,ska taj d iajhx /lsh d jYfhka
iq¿fjka wdrïNlr wm%u d§ j W;aidyfhka ls%hd lsÍu ksid jeä ÈhqKq lrf.k úYd, jHdmdrhka
njg m;al rf.k ;sfnk nj ie,ls,a,g .; hq;= jákd lreKls' CIKhlska Okj;=ka jkakg

isysk f,dalj, Ôj;ajk wh tu pß; wdo¾Yhg f.k ufkdardðl f,dalfhka wE;a j h:d¾:jd§
j Ôú;hg uqyqKÈh hq;= h' ta mqoa.,hka i;=j mj;akd wd;au úYaj dih" W;aidyh" Wmdh
fl!Y,Hh wNsfhda. hkag uqyqK §fï ±jeka; fm!reIh" mrdl%uh wd§ úYsI ag .=Khka ;uka i;=
j o mj;akd nj f;areï f.k w¨;a w¨;a tfy;a ;ukag;a iudchg;a ydkshla fkdjk oE
ks¾udKh lsÍug fh!jk;ajh fufyhúh hq;= h' wyl ouk ó l=Klska úYd, Okj;l= jQ
mqj;la fn!oaO idys;Hfhys i|yka fõ'30
wfkl nqÿ iuh rdcH fiajh muKla jeo.;a /lshdjla f,i fkdi,lhs' rdcH fiajhg
wu;r fm!oa.,sl wdh;khkays fiajh lsÍu" lDIsl ¾uh" úúO Ys,am Ydia;%" l¾udka;" fjf<|dï
wd§ mqo.
a ,hl=g lsÍug fhda.H ±yeñ jD;a;Ska rdYshla nqÿ iuh olajd we;' tfia u u;aøjH
fj<|du" uiaudxY fj<|du" úI j¾. fj<|du" wú wdhqO fj<|du jeks wOd¾ñl fj<|dï l%u
kqiqÿiq nj;a lsÍï uekSï wdÈfhka j[apd lsÍu kq iqÿiq nj;a31 ±yeñ Y%ufhka u Wmhk jia;=j
W;=ï nj;a32 nqÿrcdKka jykaf ia meyeÈ,s lr § we;'33
we;eï ;reK msßia uykaisfhka Okh Wmhd .;a;;a Ok mßyrKh ms< sn| ksjerÈ
±kqula fkdue;slu ksid Wmhk Okh ksis f,i rCIKh fkdfldg wkjYH ±fhys fhdojñka
wd¾Ól wmyiq;djkg ksr;=re j ,lafj;s' tneúka Ok ydks jk fodrgq ms<sn| ukd úuis,af,ka
lghq;= lsÍu wjYH u h'
nqÿrcdKka jykafia fNda. úkdYjk fodrgq yhla fmkaj d § we;'
tkï"
1' u;aøjH Ndú;h
2' wdfõ,dfjys uxudj;aj, yeisÍu
3' W;aij o¾YkdÈh fidh fidhd hdu
4' ¥ fl<sfhys fh§u'
5' mdm ñ;%dY%h
6' w,ilu34

u;aøjH Ndú;h
u;aøjH Ndú; lsÍu ;=<ska Okh úkdYùu muKla fkdj Tfí ;dreKHh yd
iïnkaOfhka o .eg¨ rdYshla biau;= fõ' we;eïyq u;aøjH Ndú; lrkaf ka .eg¨ wu;l lr
±óug hehs mji;s' ta ;=< ska m%Y akh wu;l jQjd hehs is;uq' tfy;a m%Yak hla wu;l lr ±óu
m%Yakhg úi÷ula jkafka ke;' tfia m%Yak wu;l lsÍfuka úi|d.; yels kï th b;d myiq
l%uhls' m%Yakhla wu;l lr.kakg u;aøjH Ndú; lrkakd ta ;=< ska ;j;a m%Yak rdYshla we;s
lr .kS' u;aøjH Ndú;fhys tl u fya;=j f,i .eg¨ ±laúh fkdyels h' ta i|yd ;j;a
fkdfhla fya;= mj;S'
wm rfgys u;aøjH Ndú; lrkakka w;r mqreI mCIh by,ska isà' ldka;d m%;sY;h b;d
wju h' th ldka;d mrmqrg uy;a wdvïnrhg ldrKhls' tfy;a mqreI mCIh yd iïnkaOfhka
tu ;;a;ajh b;d fYdapkSh fuka u ,Êcd iy.; jQjla o fjhs'
m%Yakhla we;=j fyda fõjd ke;=j fyda fõjd hï mqo.
a ,hl= u;aøjH Ndú; lrkafka kï
Tyq fyda weh uy;a jq Ok ydkshlg m;ajkafka u h' tla tla mqoa.,hdf.ka mqoa.,hdg m%f ;Hl
.;a l, fuka u rgla jYfhka fmdÿfõ .;a l, o tlS wd¾Ól fidaodmd¨j tfia u h' uOHidr

wf<úfhka rchg ,efnk wdodhu .sh jir ;=< 12] la nj;a ta uoHidr Ndú; lrkakjqkag
je<fok w;=re wdndO fjkqfjka 22] l jehla o orkakg isÿù we;s nj .Kka n,d ;sf í' ta
;=<ska rgla jYfhka fl;rï wd¾Ólfhka m%md;hlg f.dia ;sf í o hkak jgyd .; yels h'
tlS mdvqj u;aøjH Ndú; lrkakjqkag muKla we;sjkakla fkdfõ' iuia; m%cdjg u ±ä f,i
n,mdkakls' wd¾Ól nxfldf,d;a Ndjhg wu;r j my; i|yka wdÈkjhkag o u;aøjH Ndú;h
ksid uqyqKmdkakg isÿ jk nj nqÿrcdKka jykafia fmkaj d § we;'
1'
2'
3'
4'
5'

l,flda,dy,j,g meg,Su
frda.dndOhkag ,laù u
wmlS¾;shg nÿkaùu
,Êcd ke;a;l= ùu'
m%{dj ÿ¾j,ùu'35

fuys uq,ska o i|yka l< mßÈ ;=reKq úh hkq b;d isysl,amkdfjka f.úh hq;= ld,
jljdkqjls' fuu ld,h fyd¢ka .; fkdl<fyd;a mYapd;a;dmhg m;aj kakg isÿfõ' ;reK
cjh;a iu. l,flda,dy,hkag msú iSfï m%jk;dj jeäh' thg u;aøjH o tla jQ úg th fo.=K
f;.=K ù biau;= ù ths' tneúka iudcfhys fyd| fm!reIhlska hqla;j jdih lsÍug leu;s
;=reKq úhe;a;ka f,i l,flda,dy,j,g fkdmeg,S wfkHdkH iqyoYS,s wdl,amfhka jdih
lsÍu wjYH h' tfia fkdjqK fyd;a Tn ms<sn| wmlS¾;sh iudch ;=< me;sf rkq we;' kskaod
wmydihkag ,laùug isÿjkq we;' ta u.sk a ;reK Ôú; id¾:l;ajh lrd .uka lrkafka ke;'
wfkl ;reK úfhys § u Tn úiska u frda. shl= njg m;aùu fl;rï wfhda.H o@ frda. S jQ
Tfnka Tng;a iudchg;a we;s m%fhdackh l=ula o@ hï hï l¾u úmdl fyda fjkhï idOl u;
Tn frda.shl= úh yels h' th Tn úiska we;slr.kakd frda. S ;;a;ajhla fkdfõ' tys,d fYdalhg
lreKla ke;' tfy;a u;aøjH Ndú; lr ldhsl jYfhkq;a udkisl jYfhkq;a f;fï u ;ud
frda.sfhl= lr .ekSu fudk;rï nrm;, jrfola±hs ;uka u is;d ne,Su b;d hym;a h'
iodpdruh th fl;rï fkd.e,fmk iudc úfrdaë ms<sfj;la ±hs is;d ne,Su hym;a h'
m%{djka;lu th ñksidg uy;a jQ mykls' 36 ta W;=ï mek rejk ls,sá lrk wmú;%
ldrlfhls" u;aøjH' fuys§ wm úfYaIfhka wd¾Ól ndOdjka ms< sn| idlÉPd lrk fyhska ta
ms<sn| ch.%yKh ysñlr .ekSug kï u;aøjH Ndú;h ÿßkau ÿre l< hq;= nj i|yka l< hq;= h'
Tn hï fyhlska u;aøjH Ndú;hg weíneys jQjl= kï thska w;a ñ§u w;sYh ÿIal r
ldrKhla f,i is;kjd úh yels h' tys hï i;Hhla o ke;af;a fkdfõ' hulg weíneys jQ
;rï blaukska thska .e,ùu we;uqk ag myiqjkafka ke;' tys § ±ä wêIaGdkhla we;slr .;
hq;= h' tljr neß kï ;ud Ndú; lrk u;aøjHhkays m%u dKh áflka ál wju lr .ksñka
wêIaGdkYS,S j ls%hd l<fyd;a wêl j u;aøjH Ndú; lrkafkl=g jqj o wmyiqfjka kuq;a thsk a
w;añÈh yelsh' we;ful=g ±ä wêIaGdkYS,S j tljr u jqj o tu krl weíneysùfuka ñ§ isáh
yels h' tneúka Tn i;= ;dreKH fyd¢ka /l .ekSu msKsi;a iudch ms<s. ;a ;eke;a;l=j jdih
lsÍu msK si;a iduh iu.sh w.hk W;a;u mqo.
a ,hl= ùug;a uykaisfhka Wmhk Okh
wrmsßueiafuka Ndú; lrk kshu l<ukdlrejl= jYfhka wNsudkj;a fm!reIhlska lghq;=
lsÍu i|yd;a u;aøjH Ndú;fhka uq¿ukska u fjka j jdih lrkak'
fï uE; mdi,a ;reK ore msßila u.=,a f.orlg f.dia iÕjd ;snQ wrlal= fnda;,hla
fidfrka f.k mdkh fldg frday,a. ; lr bkamiqj urKhg m;a jQ mqj;la miq.sh Èfkl
jd¾;d úh' wrlal= hehs is;d Tjqka yÈisfha ? mdkh lr ;sf nkafka iÕjd ;snQ ji fnda;,hls'

f,da,;ajfhys ;sf nk nrm;,lu fl;rï o hkak bka jgyd .; yels h' rch fl;rï kS; s
iïmdokh l< o fydr u;aøjH cdjdrï o kj;sk afka ke;' tfia u Ndú;d lrkakka o
ke;sjkafka ke;' th keje;aù ug kï Ndú; lrkakd u ±ä wêIaGdkfhka f;fï u kj;ajd
.; hq;= h'

fkdl,ays wfhda.HprKh
;=reKq úfhys isák wh f,ig ksr;=re j ;u ;dreKHfhys n,h Yla;sh wmf;a fkdhk
mßÈ ;ukag ;a wkqkag ;a jevodhS M,odhS wdldrhg .; lsÍu wjYH h' wkjYH f,i ;u jákd
ld,h úkdY fkdlr .ekSug j.lSf uka hqla; j ls%hd l< hq;= h' wo we;eï ;reKfhda ;u
Ôú;fhys fl;rï m%Yakj,g uqyqK md isáh o tajdg ms< s;=re fiùug W;aidy fkdf.k tajdhsk a
u.yer fjkaj jdih l< hq;= hehs is;d wk¾:ldÍ úúO úl,am ud¾. wkq.ukh lr;s' bka tla
l%uhls" f.or idudðlhkag t;rï uqyqK fkd§ u.yer hd¿jka iu. úúO ;ekaj , ixpdrh
lrñka ixpdrl Ôú;hla .; lsÍu' idudkH f,dal jHjydrfhys tjeks ;eke;a;d
ria;shdÿldrhl= f,i ye|skafõ' m%fhdackj;a lghq;= rdYshl fhÈh yels ld,h kslrefKa úkdY
lr ±óu msßySug fya;=jls' th wdldr lSmhlska Ôú;hg wksis f,i n,mdk wdldrh nqÿrcdKka
jykafia fmkajd § we;'
1'
2'
3'
4'
5'
6'

wd;au drCIdjg ndOd meñKSu
újdylhl= kï ;u wUqorejkaf .a wdrCIdjg ndOd meñKSu
;u Ok iïm;a wdÈfhys wdrCIdjg ndOd meñKSu
;ud úúO isÿùï úIhfhys iellghq;= mqoa.,hl= ùu'
wN+; j fodaI o¾Ykhg ,laùu'
fndfyda ÿlaL fodaukiaihka fmrgq lrk ,oaol= ùu' 37

nqÿrcdKka jykafia fmdÿfõ fkdl,a ixpdrfhys wd§kj f,i olajd we;s fï lreK
úfYaIfhkau ;reK ¥ mq;=ka b;d fyd¢ka f;areï .ekSu wjYH h' wNsu dkj;a fm!reIhlsk a
fyì ;dreKHlska hq;a Ôú;hla .; lsÍug fï Wmfoia b;d w.fka h' wo iudcfha fndfyda
fihska wd;au wdrCIdj ms<sn| j .eg¨ biau;= j mj;S' jOysxid" meyer .ekSï" ñkSuereï wdÈh
nyq, j mj;S' tlS uxfld,a,lrejkag" ysxilhkag' ñkSure jOlhkag wmf.a wfhda.H ixprKh
Tjqkaf.a ukfod< imqrd .ekSug úYd, msájy,ls' tneúka wd;au drCIKh f;fïu ;yjqre lr
.ekSu msKsi ls%hd lsÍu wjYH h' wfkl Tn fkdl,a ixprKfhys fhfokakg ùu Tng
muKla fkdfõ Tfí mjqf,a wfkla idudðlhkag o Nj fNda.dÈhg o th wkdrCIs; ms<sfj;la
nj jgyd .kak' f.or ;reKhl= isàu tu .Dyhg uy;a Yla;shls' f.afodr iïm;a meyer
.ekSug udkn,ñka isák fidr i;=rkag Tfí wkjYH ixpdr Tjqkag wkqn,hla ,nd§uls'
we;eï úg Tn iu. b;d lsÜgq in|;d we;s lr f.k §¾> ld,Sk j Tn j wdY%h lrk Tng
wk¾:ldó msßia Tn j fkdu. hjd f.oßka msgj f.dia fyda hdug bv i,iajd Tn i;=
NjfNda. iïm;a meyer .ekSug ie,iqï ilia lrkjd úh yels h' tneúka ;reKhl= f,i fï
ms<sn| ±ä wjOdkfhka miqùu wjYH h' úYaj dijka; nj o flfkl= tljrla fojrla fyda
lSmjrla wdY%h lsÍfuka we;slr .; fkdyelalls' ta i|yd §>_ ld,Sk j wdY%hla wjYH h' tfia
u m%{dfjka weiqre lsÍu o fuys,d jeo.;a fõ' È.= l,la weiqre l,;a is ys l,amkdfjka wdY%h
fldg ke;akï ;uka fndfyda l,la wdY%h lr we;a;df.a o iajNdjh f;areï .; fkdyels h' 38
tneúka Tn j hï hï kqiqÿiq ixpdrhkays fmd<Ujd .kakg hul= ñ;% ,S,dfjka meñK fm<öï
lrkafka kï tys§ ±ä úuis,af,ka lghq;= lsÍu ish¨ fokdf.a;a NjfNda. iïm;a wdÈfhys;a
wdrCIdjg buy;a msájy,la u jkafka h'

wfkl fkdfhla wmrdO ¥IKdÈh isÿjk fï iudcfhys fkd;ekays isÿ lrk ießieÍï
fya;= fldg f.k Tn ta i|yd lsisÿ iïnkaOhla ke;a;l= jqj o ksrmrdOfhys Tn iellrejl=
úh yels h' pQÈ;hl= njg m;a ùug bv ;sfí' Bg w;sf ¾l j n,dfmdfrd;a;= fkdjk
;;a;ajhkag uqyqKmEug bv ;sf í' ta yefulla u Tfí hym; msKsi fkdj whym; msK si u
w¾:h msKsi fkdj wk¾:h msKsi u iemh msK si fkdj ÿl msK si u fya;= jk nj jgyd
.kak' hï wk;=rla isÿùug m%:ufhka wk;=r jgydf.k thska je<lSu g W;aidy .kafka kï
b;d jeo.;a fõ' wk;=r isÿ jQ miq fYdal lsÍu ksIam%fhdackj;a h'

iuÊcdNsprKh
fuhska woyia lrkafka kdgH" Ñ;%má" ix.S; ikao¾Yk wdÈ fkdfhla fl<s fi,a,ï
fidh fidhd tajd keröu msKSi ;eka ;ekaj, hdu h' kdgH" ix.S;h" fl<sfi,a,ï wdÈh
.syshkag fkdl< hq;= fyda fkdne,sh hq;= foaj,a hehs nqÿoyu lsisúfgl i|yka lrkafka ke;'
tajd w.h l< wjia:d o nqÿ oyu ;=< we;' 39 tajd jD;a;Ska f,i lrkakjqka tajdfhys ksrka;r
fhdackfhka tys m%d.=KH;ajhla ,nd.; hq;= u h' th ta whf.a wNsjD;a;sh ;a wNsjDoaêh;a i|yd
u mj;shs' tfy;a úfkdaoh msK si fjk;a jD;a;sl hkao taj dfhys fhfo;s' tysÿ jrfola fkdfõ'
tfy;a ta ;=<ska yqf ola úfkdaowdiaj doh muKlau kï ,efnkqfha ta ms<sn| j jeäÿr is;d ne,sh
hq;= h' úfõl ld,h ±yeñ j úfkdaofha fl<fof,ka .; lsÍfuys we;s jrola ke;' tfy;a tys
hï hï iSudjka mkjd .ekSu b;d jeo.;a fõ' ;u tÈfkod lghq;= mjd mfil,d taj dfhys we,S
.e,S jdih lrkafka kï th wd¾Óluh jYfhka muKla fkdj ;j;a úúO wxYj,ska mßydkshg
m;aùug m%n, fya;=jla fjhs'
kQ;kfhys fï i|yd fhduqùfuys bv lv b;d nyq, h' tajd fidh fidhd hdfï
wjYH;djla o wo t;rï ke;' f.or isg u jqj o iuÊcdNsprKfhys fh§ug fndfyda fihsk a
bv wjldY ,eî ;sf í' úoHq;a ckudOH w;r rEmjdysksh .;fyd;a tys úúO kd,sld ls%hd;aul
fõ' .=jka úÿ,sh .;a;;a th tfia u h' ta ta kd,sl d w;r Tjqfkdjqka wìnjd hEfï wr.,hla o
mj;S' tfia fkdjqkfyd;a tajd mj;aj d f.k hkakkag tjdfhys meje;au ms<sn| j úYd,
.eg¨jlg o uqyqK mdkakg isÿfõ' tfy;a ck;d ys;jd§ i;aldrlhla f,i fkdi,ld wd¾Ól
,dNdfmaCIdjkaf.ka muKla hq;a iuyr udOH wdh;k ish j.lSfuka neyer j lghq;= lrk
wjia:d o nyq, h' jákd ld,h úkdY ùu muKla fkdj wm ixialD;shg iodpdrhg
fkd.e,fmk úúO oE fmkajñka ;srYaÖk .;s jvjñka ixialD;sluh jQ;a iodpdruh jQ;a úYd,
fidodmd¨jla we;s lrk hï ckudOHhla fjhs kï th ck;d ñ;=rl= fkdj i;=rl= nj jgyd
.; hq;= h'
flia ke;s ñksidg fyda mkdj úlsKSu fjf<kaol=f.a l+g nqoê
a h hs' flia ke;a;d mkdj
fkdf.k isàug f;fï ±k.; hq;= h' ñksiqkaf.a ;srYaÖk ye.Sï wjqiaid fyda ;u uäh ;r lr
.ekSu we;uqkaf.a wNsm%dh ù ;sf í' uqo,a bmhSu muKla wruqKq fldg we;s Tjqyq ldfudakaudol
úlD;s udkisl;ajhla f.dv k.d wkaO mrïmrdjla ìyslsÍu msK si fydr ryfia ls%hd;aul fj;s'
wiNH Ñ;%mg we;=< ;a úúO ixhqla; ;eá wf<úlrKfhys ksr; jk Tjqyq rfÜ wkd.;
mrïmrdjg w;suy;a wk¾:hla" úkdYhla isÿlr;s' úfYaIfhka mdi,a ;reK orejka fndfyda
fihska fïjdg f.dÿrefjñka mj;akd nj fmfka' ta yd iïnkaO úkh m%Yak rdYshla fndfyda
mdi,aj, mj;sk nj fmfka' fhdjqkaúfhys m%d.a wjia:dfjys u orejka tjka úlD;s
udkisl;ajhla we;a;jqka njg m;aùfuka Tjqkaf.a wOHdmkh wvd, fõ' th Tjqkaf.a uq¿ Ôú;h
u w÷reùug fya;=jla fõ' tmuKla fkdj tjka mqoa.,hka iudchg o uy;a wk¾:h msKsi u
fya;= fõ' Bg j.lsh hq;af ;da ljryq o@ tneúka i;=rd ñ;=re fjia f.k ;ud iómhg u meñK

we;s nj;a ;u wdrCIdj ;u ;ud u jvd jvd;a i,id .; hq;= nj;a tfia fkdjqkfyd;a ñ;=re
fjiska meñK ;ud <Õ jdih lrk ta i;=re n,fõ. ;u Yla;sh l%u l%u fhka ySk lr ;ud j
úkdY uqLhg u weo ouk nj;a ;reK ¥ orejka fyd¢ka f;areï f.k wm%ud§ j ukd isy s
l,amkdfjka hq;=j lghq;= l< hq;= h' iuÊcdNsp rKfhys úmdl ±k ls%h d l< hq;= h'
wfma ;reK ¥ orjka Wiia l,d risl;ajhla we;a;jqka úh hq;= h' iuÊcdNspdßlfhda
Wiia l,d risl ;ajhla we;af ;da fkdfj;s' l,dlrejl= fyda l,d rislhl= njg m;aùu ojisk a
follska wjqreoaolska yudrlska isÿ l< fkdyels h' ck udOHhg ojfika foflka m%;srEml
l,dlrejka yd rislhka ìysl< yels h' tfy;a úYsIag l,dlrejl= fyda rislhl= ìys lsÍu b;d
ÿIalr ld¾hhls' ojiska folska m%;srEml l,dlrejka ìyslsÍu ksid lgqiaidf.a lf¾ r;a;rka
nekaod fia wkjYH wdvïnrhla w;s lr .kakd Tjqk a b;a;ka iy .e;a;ka fia ls%h d lrñka
úYsIag l,dj w;=reoyka lrùfï ld¾hhg Wr§ ls%hd lr;s' Wiia úkaok fCIa;%fhka ;reK
;reKshka uqojd .ks;s' my;a úkaok fCIa;%hka lrd Tjqk a fhduq lr;s' oCI l,dlrejkag w; §u
Bg YlH;d we;ajqkaf.a j.lSuls' tfy;a yqfola th jdKsc mrud¾:fhka u muKla fkdj Bg
tyd .uka .;a W;a;u mrud¾:hlsk a u úh hq;= h' r;a;rka fkdjkak la r;a;rka fõYfhka
my< fkdjk ;dla l,a r;a;rka m%lg j mj;afka h' tfia my< jQ od isg r;a;rka f,i fmkS
isák oE nyq, j ienE r;a;rkay s wm%lg Ndjh we;sjk nj nqÿrcdKka jykafiaf.a foaYkh hs'40
tfia u ienE l,dlrejkaf.a fõYfhka ta yd iudk fjia. ;a msßila my< jQ úg ienE
l,dlrejka hgm;aj m%;srEml l,dlrejka biau ;=j tau fkdje<laúh yelsh' thska isÿjkafka
l,dj;aa l,d risl ;ajh;aa folu mßydkshg m;aùu hs' tneúka ;reK ¥ orejka f,i l,dj yd
iïnkaOfhka Wiia úkaokhla mj;aj d .ekSug wjYH fiau wkjYH my;a fmf<a ;srYaÖk yeÕSï
okjk m%;srEml l,d ks¾udKhka lrd fid~ ùfuka je<lS isáh hq;=h' th nqoê
a u;a ;dreKH
,CIKhls'

m%;srEml ñ;%dY%h
wd¾Òlh ch.ekSug we;s wfkla ndOlh f,i ±lafjkafka krl ñ;=re weiqr fyj;a ñ;%
m%;srEmlhkaf.a wdY%h hs' fuh wd¾Óluh jYfhka muKla fkdj f,!lsl jYfhka ieu wxYhl
u mßydkshg;a f,daflda;a;r mßydkshg o lreKls' tneúka f,!lsl jYfhka o f,daflda;a;r
jYfhka o wNsjDoaêh wfmaCId lrkafka kï l,HdK ñ;%dY%h u wfmaC Id l< hq;= h' jrla
wdkkao f;rKqjka nqÿrcdKka jykafia yuqfjys nqoaO Ydikfhys wvla r|d mj;skafka l,HdK
ñ;%hka ksid hehs ;ukag yef.k nj m%ldY l< úg tfia fkdlsj hq;= nj;a wvla fkdj
iïmQ¾Kfhkau l,HdK ñ;%hka u; r|d mj;akd nj fmkaj d ÿkay' 41 ñ;% m%;srEmlhla isj q
fofkl= o wdY%hg .; hq;= l,K ñ;=rka isjq fofkl= o Wkajykafia fmkajd jod<y' 42 weiqrg
wfhda.H isjq fokd kï"
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2'
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w[a[o;a:qy r
jÖmru
wkqmamshNdKS
wmdhiydh hk isjq fokd h'
weiqrg fhda.H l,HdK ñ;%hka isjqfokd kï

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iudk iqLÿlaL

3'
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w;a:laL dhs
wkqlïml

flkl= tljrla ÿgq muKska Tyq ljr ;eke;af ;l= ±hs y÷kd.; fkdyels h' wdY%h
lsÍfukau wjfndaO lr.; hq;= h'43 tfy;a ál l,la fkdj fndfyda l,la wdY%h lsÍfuks' hula
fyda hfula tljr m%;sCIam lsÍu fyda ms<s.ekSu nqoaêu;a nfõ ,CIKhla fkdfõ' isysfhka wdY%h
lsÍu ;=<ska Tyq ljrl=±hs y÷kd.ekSug yelsfõ' ieuúg u ;udg jvd Wiia .=K we;a;l=j
wdY%hg f;dard .ekSug fm<ôh hq;= h' 44
w[a[o;a:qy r ñ;% m%;srEmlhd y÷kd.; yels ,CIK lSmhls' Tyq ;j flkl= yd wdY%hg
tlajkafka ta ;eke;a;df.ka flfia fyda hula ,nd .ekSfï yqÿ wd;au d¾:ldó my;a
fÉ;kdfjks' ish wNsu;d¾:h idOkh lr .ekSu msK si flfia fyda weiqre lrkakdj rjgd .kS'
b|ysg f;fï o hï hï iq¿ iq¿ oE Tyqg ,nd fohs' tys woyi jeähula ,nd.ekSug hs' we;eïyq
fndfyda l,la wdY%h lr wúYajdihla we;s fkdjk mrÈ ielhla my< fkdjk mßÈ is;a Èkd
f.k ta we;s lr.;a úYaj dijka;Ndjh u;u úYd, Kh wdÈh o wfkl=;a ;j fndfyda Woõ
Wmldr wdÈh o ,ndf.k wNsud¾: idOkfhka miq wehs fyd|hs lï mjd ke;s lr f.k
jxpkslj ieÕù isá ;s' Kh wdÈh f.k b,a,k l, fkd§ m,dhkafkda ji,fhda h' my;a
mqo.
a ,fhda h' iajlSh wk;=re úm;a wdÈfhka .e,úug we;s l, meñK ñ;% ,S ,d mdñka ish
wNsu;d¾: idOkfhka miq bj; n,d .kafka ta w[a[o;a:qyr m%;srEmlhd h'
;udg hula hul= ,jd lrjd .ekSug wjYH jQ l, muKla meñK b;d f,ka.;= j wdY%h
lsÍug udk n,k tjeks ;eke;a;kaf.ka úfYaIfhka wdrCId ùu wjYH h' úfYaIfhkau fï
ms<sn|j óg jvd ;j;a me;a;lska úuid ne,Su wjYH h' we;eï Okj;a yd n,j;a mqo.
a ,hka
Okfhka yd n,fhka ySk ;eke;a;ka yd ñ;%lï f.dvk.d f.k hï hï wjia:dj, úYd, f,i
Woõ WmldrdÈh o isoaO lr;s' we;eïyq th b;d fyd| is;sk a isÿlr;s' tfy;a iuyre tfia
lrkafka ta u.ska Bg jvd hula Tjqka ,jd lrjd .ekSfï woyisks' we;eï bf.kSfuys oCI
;reK ¥ orefjda ta whf.a weu .s, bf.kSï w;ru. lvdlmam,a lrf.k Ôú;h w÷re lr
.ks;s' we;eï wNsudkj;a Y%ñlfhda ysf ¾ ú,x.=fjys jefg;s' tu Tfí wd¾Ól ÿIalr;d ovóud
lrf.k Tnj b;a;ka fldgf.k Tfí Ôú;;a iu. fi,a ,ï lrkakg iQodkï jk tjka ñ;%
m%;srEmlhka f.ka ±ä f,i mßiaiï ùu wjYHfhkau l< hq;= h' uqo,a j,g ;sfnk wdYdj ksid
thska jk úkdYh fkdi,ld Tn hï fyhlska wjHdmdr úIfhys jHdmdr jkafka kï tys
;udf.a úkdYh ±l ±l thg m%;sl¾u fkdlr .ekSula f,i i,lkak' hï fyhlska tjeks mgq
mrud¾:hka bIaglr .ekSu msK si lsisfjla lsisjl= wdY%h lrkafka kï Tyq ñ;% fødayshl= ñi
ñ;=rl= fkdjk nj jgyd .kak'

weiqrg kqiqÿiq fojekakd ^jÖmru&
zzl;dj foda,dfjka .uk mhskaZZ hkqfjka isxy,hka w;r msre<la we;' zzláka n;, o¿
isgqjkjdZZ hkq ;j;a tjeks u Wla;shls' thska woyia lrkafka fkdflfrk fohla ms<sn| j
mqridrï foãuls' jÖmru kï jQ fojekakdf.a ,CIKh o mqridrï foäu muKs' jpkfhka
muKla Woõ lsÍu hkak jÖmru hkakg fkd.e<fmhs' Bg fya;=j jpkfhka jqj o flfkl=g
Woõ lsÍu w;sY h jeo.;a fohls' jpkfhka l< yels Wmldr y;rla ms<sn| j nqÿiufha i|yka
fõ'
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fndrefjka uq,d fkdlr i;H m%ldY lsÍu

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fNao Nsk ak;d we;sjk fla,ñka je<lS iu.s ikaOdkhka f.dv kef.k mßÈ idu l;d
lsßu
Y%jK lgql r¿ niaj,ska je<lS ñysß j l;d lsÍu
jevlg ke;s fndfyda oE l;d lsÍfuka je<lS ñ;NdKSj w¾: iïmkak fohla l;d
lsÍu46 hkqfjks'

jpkfhka Woõ lsÍu ñ;% m%;srEml ,CIKhla fkdj l,HdK ñ;% ,CIKhla nj uq,sk a
u i|yka l< hq;= h' tneúka jÖmru hkq jpkfhka muKla Woõ lrkakd hk w¾:hg jvd
fndre m%ldY lrñka mqridrï fodvñka jxpd lrkakd hk w¾:h fhda.H hehs yefÕa'
hfula hul=f .ka Woõjla f.k miqj tu Wmldrh l< ;eke;a;d ;udg Wmldrhla
wjYH jQ l, ;uka l,ska Wmldr l< ;eke;a;d fj; .sh l, fmr<d Woõ fkdlr mqridrï
fodvd Tyqj msg;a lrkafka kï th ji, .;shls' ñ;%fødayS luls' 47 tfia jQfjda to;a isáhy' wo;a
isá;s' u;=jg o isákafkda fj;s' tneúka ta wh y÷kdf.k weiqre l< hq;= h' úYajdikSh ;ajh
we;sjk mßÈ ls%h d l< hq;= h' 48 fndai;dKka jykafia nqoO
a ;ajhg fmr wd;auNdjj,§ úúO jerÈ
isÿfldg we;;a inji fkdlv fldg /l.;ay' fndre lshkakdg fkdl< yels jerÈ jevla ke;s
njhs" nqÿrcdKka jykaf iaf.a foaYkh jkafka'49 tfyhska jpkfhkqÿ Woõ fkdlrk iÕjd l;d
lrk tlS ñ;% m%;srEmlhd fyd¢ka jgyd f.k w¾:j;a Èúhla f.ùug wfmaCId lrkakka ls%h d
l< hq;= h'
ñ;% m%;srEml jÖmruf.a ,CIKh jkafka w;S;fhka ix.%y lsÍu;a wkd.;fhka ix.%y
lsÍu;a ksr¾:l ysiajpkj,ska ix.%y lsÍu;a j¾;udkfhys Woõ lsÍug fkdyels lD;H jHikh
±laùu;a h'

w;S;fhka yd wkd.;fhka ix.%y lsÍ u
;uka Woõ ,nd.;a ñ;=rl= ;ukaf.ka Woõjla wfmaCIdfjka ;ud fj; meñKsúg Woõ
lsÍfï YlH;dj ´kE ;rï ;sìh § lsisu Woõjla fkdlr jHdc ñ;%;aj h /l .ekSf ï l=yl
ms<sfjf;ys muKla msysgd isg ;ukag ta Woõj lsßug" l,ska ;snQ yelshdj ms<sn|j lshd tkï
Bfha fmf¾od tfia;a ke;akï i;shlg l,ska wd§ jYfhka w;S;h isyslrñka ta Èkj, tlS
Wmldrh lsÍug yelsh dj ;snqKq nj mjid wod< Wmldrh l< yelsj ;sìh § u u.yer hEu
w;S;fhka ix.%y lsÍu hs' tjekafkda wm iudcfha ´kE;rï isá;s' th múgq ñ;% ,CIKhls'
tjeks ñ;%f ødaySka weiqre lsÍfuka mßydkshla u ñi wNsjDoaêhla we;sjkafka ke;'

ysia jpk yd j;auka lghq;=j, úkdYh ±laùu
hïlsis wjYH;djla msK si meñKs miq ta wjYH;dj ms<sn| j wjOdkh fhduq fkdlr bka
mßndysr oE ms<sn| l;dny lrñka isg l,a hjd wjYH ldrKh bgql r fkd§ ksr¾:l l;dfjka
ix.%y lsÍu ysia jpkj,ska ix.%y lsÍu hkafkys woyihs' j¾;udk lD;Hhkays jHikh ±laùu
hkafkka woyia lrkafka hï Wmldrhla ,nd.ekSu msKsi ñ;=rd meñKs l, ta Wmldrh lsÍug
wlue;af ;ka tfy;a yelsh dj ;sìh § th lsÍug we;s fkdyelsh dj ms<sn| fmkaj d §u hs'
WodyrKhla f,i hï lsis NdKavhla b,a,d .ekSu msKsi meñKshd hehs is;uq' túg ta NdKavh
ysñlre tu NdKavh Èh yelsj ;sìh § fkd§ isà u msKsi tys wij,a wij,a foh leã we; wd§
jYfhka tfia ke;skï th iÕjd ;ndf.k th fjk fohlg fhdojd we;ehs fyda ldg fyda §
we;ehs fyda wdÈ jYfhka Wmldrh lsÍug we;s wlue;a; m%l dY fkdfldg Wmldrh lsÍug we;s

fkdyelshdj jHikhl iajrEmfhka lshd iÕjd l;d lsÍu hs' th ñ;%fødayS ùula nj ie,l=j
ukd h'

weiqrg kqiqÿiq f;jekakd ^wkqmamshNdKS&
krl foh;a fyd| foh;a hk folu wkqu; lrk tfia u <Õ isáh § .=K lshk ke;s
;ek fodia lshk ;eke;a;d wkqmamshNdKS kï múgq ñ;=rd h' we;fula ;u ñ;=reoï iq/lsh hq;=
hehs is;d tfy;a th /flkafka flfia ±hs yßyeá fkd±k ;ud wdY%h lrk ;eke;a;d lrk
lshk fyd| foa;a krl foa;a folu fyd| hehs wkqu ; lrñka tys,d Tyqj f;o .kaj;s' ;uka
ñ;=rd l< lS foa jerÈ nj ±k ±k;a th fyd| hehs wkqu; lrkafka ;ud flfrys wys;la
wukdmhla we;s lr.kS hk woyisks' tjeks wh wm iudcfhys fndfyda fj;s' tfy;a th W;=ï
ñ;% ,CIKhla fkdjk nj jgyd .; hq;= ' ienE l,HdK ñ;%h d hkq ;u i.hd je/oafoys fh§
we;akï th jerÈ nj fmkajd § ta je/oaf oka ñ;=rdj uqojd .kakg W;aidy orkakd h' tfia
fkdue;sj weúf,k .skakg msÿre ±óu l,HdK ñ;% ,CIKhla fkdjkaf ka h' we;s foa we;ehs
lSu;a ke;s foa ke;ehs lSu ;a úYsIag i;amqreI .=Khls' 50 hul=f.a je/oaola fmkajd § thsk a .,jd
.ekSug fjfyikakd ksOdkhla fmkaj d fok ;eke;a;l= yd iudk jákd mqoa.,fhls' tneúka
l,K ñ;=rl= wdY%h lsÍu ;=<ska jevla ñila wjevla isÿjkafka ke;' 51 we;eï úg ;ukag lshk
lrk foh jerÈ fohla hehs fkdf;af ¾' tys yß je/oao ñ;=rl=g f;areï.; yels h'
;ud bÈßmsg ;udf.a ke;s .=K mjd lshñka ke;s ;ek§ .=K jkik .=K ul= .;sh fï
ñ;% m%;srEmlhdf.a ÿIag .;shls'52 fujeks ;eke;a;l= wdY%h lsÍfuka fuf,da jYfhkq;a mrf,da
jYfhkq;a mßydksh lrd <Õd jk nj o; hq;= h'

weiqre fkdl< hq;= isjq jekakd ^wmdh iydh&
;ud krl mqreÿ flfrys fmd<Ujd.kakg fjr ork ;eke;a;d fukñka ye¢kafõ' ÿlg
fya;=jk m%;smodjg u keUqre lr .ekSug fudyq lghq;= lrhs' ;u my;a udkisl is;=ï me;=ï
wkHhkag o fma%IKh lrñka ;u woyi yd ixhqla; lr .ekSfï my;a woyiska ks;r ls%hd lrk
fudyq f;fï muKla fkdj wkHhka o msßySfï fodrgq fj; le|jdf.k hhs' Tyq tfia lrkafka
;ud b;d fyd| ñ;%hl= nj;a ;udg jvd fyd| ñ;=rl= fkdue;s nj;a wÕjñks' tneúka ;ud
fj; meñfKkafka wk;=rla o keoao hkak ±k.ekSf ï kqjKla ;reK Tn i;=j mej;sh hq;= h'
;ud fj; meñfKkafka wk;=rla nj jgyd .;fyd;a thska ñÈh yels h' wk;=rela nj
fkdo;fyd;a f;fï thg yiq ù úkdY fjhs' ;ud fld;rï fyd| ;eke;a;l= jqj o krl wdY%h
ksid úkdYhg m;aúh yels h' 53 tneúka múgq ñ;%dY%h ÿr l< hq;= h'
l,K ñ;=re weiqr
uq¿ uy;a iudch u i;amqreIlñka nef|k rejkaouls" l,K ñ;=re nj' iudcfha
lsisjl=g ;ksj Ôj;aúh fkdyels h' Tjqfkdjqk a wfkHdkHj ne£ we;' tneúka ish,af,da u
ish,a,kaf.a u l,HdK ñ;%hka ùug W;aidy l< hq;=h' úfYaIfhka ;reK msßia bÈßh
ie,eiaulg wkqj f.dvk.kafkda fj;s' hï wdOHd;añl jQ o ndysr jQ o wNsjDoaêhla wfmaCId
lrkafka kï ta i|yd <Õska u isáh hq;a;d l,HdK ñ;%h d h' jrÈk ;eka olsk tajd fkdj<yd
wkqlïmdfjka hq;=j fmkajd fok" mud fjk ;eka ±l fkdmudfjys f;o.kajk" wkdrCIs;fhys
wdrCIdj imhk" ìfhys ks¾Nh Ndjh we;s lrk" fkdo;a fofhys ±kqu we;slrk fkduf.ys
u. fmkajk' wkNsjDoaëfhys wNsjDoaêh we;s lrk wdmodjkays w;a fkdyer <Õska isák

;eke;a;d l,K ñ;=frls' tn÷ wdY%hg f;dard.; hq;= l,K ñ;=rka isjq fokl= ms< sn| j
nqÿrcdKka jykafia y÷kajd§ we;'
1'
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wkqlïml54
m%udofhys § ñ;=rd /l.kakd" ñ;=rdf.a jia;=j /l .kakd" ìfhys § msysgjkakd iy hï
lghq;a;la t<ô l, wjYH m%udKh fuka fo.=Khlsk a Woõ lrkakd Wmldrl ñ;=rd h' ;u
ñ;=rd wdmodjkag m;a jQ úg w; fkdyer <Õ isáñka wod< rCIdjrK N=la;sh i,iñka ñ;=rdf.a
wNsjDoaêh wfmaCId lrk tjka Wmldrl ñ;=rd ksid ;ukaj hym;la isÿjkjd ñi lsis úfgl
whym;la isÿjkafka ke;'
we;eïyq flkl= úm;g m;a fkdjk;dla l,a iómj weiqre lr;s' úm;la lrorhla jQ
úg weiqf rka wE;afj;s' ta w;r we;eïyq úmf;a § b;d iómj lghq;= lr;s' flfkl= fndfyda
l,la isys kqjKska wdY%h lsÍfuka ta nj o; yels h' úmf;a§;a iemf;a§;a w;a fkdyer ióm j
isákakd l,HdK ñ;%f hls' Tyq y÷kajkafka iudk iqLÿlaL hk kñks' ñ;=rd iu. ish ryis. ;
foa mjd m%ldY lrk" ;u ñ;=rdf.a ryia uekúka wdrCId lrk" úmf;a § w;afkdyßk" ish Èú
fojeks fldg ñ;=rdf.a lghq;= fjkqfjka ls%hd lrk .;sh iudk iqL ÿlaL l,K ñ;=rdf.a
,CIK hs'
iudk iqLÿlaL ñ;%hdf.a úfYaI ,CIK w;r tk ryia ms< sn| kHdh iïnkaOfhka úfYaI
hula i|yka l< hq;= h'55 nqÿrcdKka jykafia foaYkd lr jodf<a f,dfjys ryila fkdue;s nj
hs' tys woyi ryila hkq ;j;a flkl= fyda lSmfokl= iïnkaO jQjla nj hs' iuyreka ;=<
wkqkag ydkshla fkdjk tfy;a ta ;=< ska fy<sorõ jqjfyd;a ;ukag hï wk;=rla fyda
wjudkhla isÿjk hï hï ryia mej;Sug bv ;sf í' we;eï úg th ;j flfkl=g m%ldY lsÍu
;=<ska úYd, udkisl iykhla we;s fõ' tfy;a th fndfyda fokd ±k.;fyd;a Bg jvd udkisl
mSvkhlg ldrKhla fõ' tneúka ryia wdrCId lsÍu w;sY h udkqISh jQ ,CIKhls' bka woyia
lrkafka ´kEu krl jevla jqj fldg th fy<sorõ fkdlr /l.ekSu hym;a nj fkdfõ'
tfia jerÈ jev lrkakjqkag th ryila f,i iÕjd f.k fkdisg m%ldYhg m;alr wdh;s
ixjrhl msysàfï ksoyi o nqÿ iuh úiska ks¾ÈIag h' 56 th úkh msglfhys fndfyda YsCId yd
iïnkaOfhka m%lg ,CIKhls'
we;eïyq hï hï oE wkdjrKh fkdlr is; ;=< ;o lrf.k isá ñka uy;a mSvd ú¢;s'
thg tla fya;=jla jkafka th fy<slsÍug ;rï iqÿiq ñ;%hl= we;ehs ;udg úYajdihla
fkdue;slu hs' th fy<sorõ fkdlrk ryila f,i mj;ajd .kakg is;=j;a udkisl j ±ä
lïmkhlg wdrjq,lg ia;íO Ndjhlg m;afõ' we;eï úg tys wjidk m%;sM,h Ôú;ydks
lr.ekSula o úh yels h' Ôú; ydkshla olajd th j¾Okh jQfha mQ¾j ks.ukhlg t<öfï
idjoH M,h ksid úh yels h' we;eïyq m%ldYs; ryia wdrCId fkdù th ;ukag wmydih msKsi
mj;akd l,ays th ú| ord.; fkdyelsj o tlS ydksh isÿlr .ks;s' Bg fya;=j ryi wdrCId
lrkakg iu;a l,HdK ñ;%;ajhl W!k;dj hs'
flfkl= ñ;=rl=g ryila m%ldY lrkafka Tyq th fyd¢ka wdrCId lrdú hk ±ä
úYajdih ksid iy ñ;=rdf.ka Bg hï iykodhs ms<shula n,dfmdfrd;a;=fjka o úh yels h' túg
ryi lshQ Tyqg o ydkshla fkdjk mßÈ Bg wod< m%;sl ¾uhla isÿ lr§u ñ;=rdf.a j.lSu hs'

f.orl § kï ;u ujqmshka iïnkaO fyda ifydaor ifydaoßhka iïnkaOfhka fyda tfia;a
ke;akï ;uka fiajh lrk ia:dkfhys m%Odkshl= fyda fjkhï flfkl= iïnkaO j ;uka t<s
orõ l<fyd;a kqiqÿiq hehs yef.k hï fohla ryila f,i o mj;aj d fkdf.k Bg m%;sl¾uhla
wfmaCIdfjka ±ä úYajdifhka ñ;=rl=g m%l dY lrkafka thsk a ;ukag o wk;=rla fkdjk f,i
.eg¨jg wod< ;eke;a;kaf.a o is;a fkdßfok l,n, fkdjk wdldrhg ryi t<sorõ l<
;eke;a;df.a iy Bg wod< md¾Yjhka w;r iïnkaOhg o ydkshla fkdjk wdldrhg hï
m%;sl¾uhla isÿ lsÍug iqyoYS,S w;rueÈlrejl= f,i ñ;=rdg ls%h d lsÍug isÿfõ' th W;=ï ñ;=re
.=Khls' tneúka ;udg ryila lsh Q l, th Wmfhda. S lrf.k ñ;=rdj fm<Su l=ñ;=relula f,i
i,ld ryi /lSu;a ;udg Bg hï ms<sirKla úh yels kï tfia lsÍu;a W;=ï l,HdK
ñ;=rl=f.a j.lSuls' úfYaIfhka ;=reKq úfhys fndfyda oE ryis.;j úifokq ±lSu fndfyda
;reK ;reKshkaf.a woyi h' tfyhska úYajdijka; l<K ñ;=rl= wjYHfhkau weiqre l< hq;=
h' úYajdih W;=ï u kEhd f,i nqÿ oyu y÷kaj d fohs'
lrk" lshk" is;k iEu fohla u ksjerÈ hehs wkqu; fkdlrñka jerÈ foh jerÈ nj
jgyd f.k fkdj<yd th jerÈ hehs ñ;=rdg m%l dY fldg je/oafoka ñ;=rd uqojd .ekSu;a ^mdmd
ksjdfr;s& is;k" lrk" lshk foh ksjerÈ kï jerÈ hehs m%ldY fkdfldg ksjerÈ hehs m%l dY
lrñka ñ;%hd ;j ;j;a hym;a ls%h d úIfhys f;o .ekaùu;a ^l,HdfK ksf jfi;s& fmr fkdwiQ
msrE w¾:j;a foa ms<sn| Y%e;uh {dkh ,nd§u;a ^wiaiq;x idfj;s& fï fï wdldrhg ls%hd
lsÍfuka fuf,dj muKla fkdj mrf,dfjys § mjd i. iem ,o yels nj lshd§u;a ^i.a.iai
u.a.x wdÑlaL;s& wdÈ jYfhka ñ;%h df.a wNsj Doaêh msKsi w¾:dkaú ; ud¾. o¾Ykh lsÍu
wF:laLdhs ñ;=rdf.a úYsIag ,CIKhka h'
;u ñ;%hd yd iïnkaO hï mdßcq[a[ ;djla ±l fyda wid wk;a;uk ùu ñ;=rdf.a hï
fNda. hi biqre wd§ jDoaêfhla fõ kï tys§ kkaÈ;uk ùu lsisjl= ;u ñ;=rd yd iïnkaOfhka
Wmjdo lrk l,ays thska j<lajd ñ;=rdf.a .=K m%ldY lsÍu' ñ;=rd ms< sn| j¾Kkd uqLfhka l;d
lrk úg ta ;eke;a;dg m%Yxid fldg ;u ñ;=rdf.a tlS .=K ;yjqrejk fia l;d lsÍu
wkqlïml iqyo ñ;=rdf.a ,CIKhs'
odkfhka" ms%h jpkfhka" w¾:p¾hdfjka" iudkd;au;dfjka yd fkdrjgk nfjka ;u
ñ;=rkag ix.%y l< hq;= nj;a tfia ix.%y ,nkakd m%udo ñ;%h d /l .ekSu;a m%udo ñ;=rdf.a
iïm;a /l §u;a ìfha § msysgùu;a wdmodjkays § w;fkdyer isàu;a wdÈfhka m%;Hqmldr ±laúh
jq;= nj nqÿrcdKka jykafia fmkaj d § we;'
ñ;%fødayS fkdùu W;=ï .=Khls' ñ;%fødayS fkdjkak d yd fndfyda fofkla weiqrg ms%h
lr;s' tfia u tu ;eke;a;d hï hï ;eklg hkq ,efío ta ta ;ekaj ,§ .re iïNdjkdjg md;%
fõ' fidrekaf.ka jk ìh fndfyda ÿrg ÿrefõ' wjudkfhka fndfyda ÿrg je<fla' i;=rka
ke;a;l= fõ' Tyq iNdfjys i;=áka isà' tfia u Tyq {d;Skag fYa% IaGfhla fjhs' mQcd i;aldrhkag
n÷ka fõ' .sk akla fia f;acjka; o fõ' foúhl= fia nn<hs' YS%h Tyq w; fkdyßhs' i;=rkag Tyqj
uevmeje;aùu o l< fkdyels h' 57
fï wkqj mdm ñ;%dY%h wd¾Óluh jYfhka muKla fkdj iEu wxYhlskau mdrdð;hl=
njg m;aùug fya;=jk nj;a l,HdK ñ;%dY%h iEu wxYhlska u wNsj Doaêldß nj;a f;areï f.k
l,HdK ñ;%dY%hg yqreúh hq;= h'

iQÿj
wd¾Ólh ch .ekSug bj;a lr .; hq;= ;j;a m%Odk ndOlhls" iQÿj" hul= ¥ fl<sfhys
fhfokafka kï th ,nk ,nk Okfhys úkdYhg fya;=jls' 58 thska wd¾Ól ,dNhka ,o yels
hehs tys kshqla;slhka l,amkd l<;a isÿjkafka bka wfkla me;a; hs' fuhska w;aú£ug isÿjk
ÿ¾úmdl yhla nqÿrcdKka jykafia fmkaj d § we;'
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;ud ÈkQ l< ;udg merÿkq mqo.
a ,hd ;=< ffjrh we;slrjhs' ^chx fjrx mij;s&
;ud merÿkq l,ays mrdð; jia;=j ms<sn|j fYdalhg meñfKhs'^ðf;d Ñ;a;ukqfidp;s&
;ud n,disá h § Okh úkdY fõ' ^iJÈÜÀld Okxcdks&
kskaod wmydihkag ,lafõ' ^ñ;a;duÉpdkx mßN+f ;dfyd;s&
lshk foh ms< s fkd.efka' ^jpkx k rEy;s&
wdjdy újdylhka úiska m%d¾:kd fkdlrkakl= fjhs' ^wdjdy újdyldkx wmFÓf;d
fyd;s&

Èkqj;a merÿk;a we;sùula fyda fíÍula ke;s tla me;a;lska ìh ckl jQ o ;j;a
me;a;lska .e,ùula ke;a;djQ o mqreoaols" iQÿj' ÈkQ l, ;ud Èkqjd hehs Èkqu Ndrf.k ksYaY íoj
isáh fkdyels h' merÿkjqk a flfia fyda ;ukag lkakg wÈkakg ;sf nk foh fyda Wlialr
Tyqj flfia fyda mrojkakg fjr ork w;r ÈkQ ;eke;a;dg h<s Tjqka yd noaO jkakg isÿfõ'
merÿKq l, ;ud <. uqo,a ke;akï ;udf.a hehs úlsKSug o fohla fkdue;s kï fydrlï lr
fyda ta i|yd fhdojhs' we;euqka ;ud meñKs jákd hdk jdyk mjd Wlia lr fírd .; fkdyS
f.org o uqyqK § .; fkdyS úúO ÿla .eyegj,g uqyqKmdñka ÿisß;a ÿrdpdrhkag fm<ö ls%h d
lrk isÿùï jd¾;d fõ' we;eïyq úúO l,flda,y,j,g meg,S Ôú; ydks mjd isÿlr.ks;s'
fid÷re fhdjqk a úh OQ¾;hl= ùfuka wiqkaor fh!jk;a j hlg m;a fkdlr jdih lsÍug fhdjqk a
Tn is;g .; hq;= h' iudc Ôú;fha § pß;h b;d jeo.;a jk ksid pß;h flf,ik wCI
OQ¾;;ajhg fkdmeñK pß;j;a wdo¾Y iïmkak fhdjqka Èúhla f.ùug wêIaGdk lr.; hq;=h'
th Tfí Ôú;fha fndfyda foa i|yd WmldÍ fõ'

w,ilu
wd¾Ólh ch .ekSug ;sf nk yhfjks ndOlh f,i nqÿrcdKka jykafia fmkajd
fokafka w,iluhs' ;dreKHh;a iu. w,ilu biau;= jqjfyd;a wkd.;h b;du ÿ¾oidmkak
;;a;ajhlg m;afõ' w,ilu ksid ikaksêldr mßfNdackh;a" ÈÜGdkq.;sh;a" biau;=j
iuiïfNda. S Ôú; rgdj iïmq¾Kfhka u fjkia j iu iudch úiu iudchla njg fn§
fjkajkakg jQ whqre nqÿ oyu meyeÈ,slr § we;' tla m%Y akhla fkdj m%Yak rdYshlg m%n,
fya;=jla f,i w,ilu ±laúh yelsh' ;udg fldmuK ;=reKq iúh ;snqK o n,h mrdl%uh
;snqK o kqjK ;snqK o ta ish ,a, uev,Sug w,ilug yelsh dj ;sf í' tneúka th i;=rl= f,i
ye¢k we;s jQ jyd ke;slr .ekSu g W;aiql úh hq;= h' w,ilu biau;= jqjfyd;a ld¾h
idM,Hhla fkdjkq we;' w,ilug m%;súreoaO O¾uh jk WÜGdk ù¾h we;sl r .; hq;=h'
ksÈ.;a isxyhsk af.a uqjg i;d isjqmdjqka mkskafka ke;' iïm;a meñfKkafka WfoHda.su ;a
;eke;a;d fj; ñi w,ihd fj; fkdfõ' w,ihdg Ys,amhla o yod< fkdyels h' Ys,am
fkdo;a;l=g Okfhla o ke;' ldhsl udkisl w,ilu ÒkñoaO f,i nqÿ oyu y\qk ajhs' th
kSjrKfhls' mdßißl iajNdjhka jk YSf ;daI aKdÈh .ek is;ñka o Wfoa" uoaoyk" iji .ek
is;ñka o l=i.skak yd mQß; Worh .ek is;ñka o lghq;af;ys m%u do nj we;slr .ekSu
w,ihdf.a ,CIKhls' thska ;ukag ,nd.; yels Okhla .=Khla n,h;a {dkhla we;af;a ke;'

ÈhqKqjg lreKq y;rla
wd¾Òlh ch.ekSug we;s iïndOl y÷kaj d foñka tajdhska úks¾uqla;j w¾Òl
ch.%yKhka ,nd.ekSu msKsi u. fmkajd fok nqÿ oyu mqo.
a ,hdf.a iuDoaêh Wfoid fya;=jk
lreKq y;rla fmkaj d § ;sf í'
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W;aidyh
wdrCIdj
iqyo ñ;%;ajh
iuÔúl;dj

fuu lreKq y;ßka uq,a ;=k u l,ska idlÉPd ù ;sf í' bka y;rjekafkka lshfjkafka
whjeh iuj jvd jehjk Okh blaujd .sh fyd;a wd¾Òl iuDoaêhla we;slr.; fkdyels h'
túg isÿjkafka Kh fjù Ôj;a ùug h' Kh ùu ÿlls' Kh fkdùu iem;ls' i;r jeoEreï
iqjhg iuÔúl;dj m%n, f,i n,mdkq ,nhs' ;DIaKdfjys odihl= jk ñksidg fl;rï iïm;a
;snqK o ;Dma;sf hla ke;'60 nyq mßfNdack wd¾Ól rgdj ;=< wiSñ ; iïm;a rdYsl rKfhys
mqo.
a ,hd kshe,S isá hs' Wmfhda.s;d wju jYfhka we;s oE o fjkqfjka kslrefKa úYd, jehlsÍï
isÿ lr;s' tfia u úúO fkdlghq;=lï úIfhys o uQ,H úi¾ckh lrhs' ta ;=< whg iu jehla
mj;ajd .ekSï wiSre;djg uqy qK § isà' ta ksid bis,sh fkdyels Kh nrlg fndfyda fofkla
hg;aj isá;s' W;aidyfhka Okh fiùu fia u ukd uQ,H l<ukdldß;ajhla we;sl r .ekSu
wd¾Ól ÈhqKqj úIfhys wjYH u h' uQ,H l<ukdldß;ajh ms<sn| hï wdo¾Ylhka nqÿrcdKka
jykafia fmkajd § we;' fkdld fkdî fkd we| fkdme<| Ok rdYSlrKh lsÍula thsk a
wfmaCId fkdlrk nj uq,ska u isysm;a l< hq;= h' tjeks Okh ksIam%fhdac k h' rdCIidê.Dys;
mqIalrKshla yd iudk h' fNda. iqLh f,i nqÿoyu fmkajd fokafka Okh fhdod fNdala;jH oE
wkqNj lsÍu;a we¢h me<Èh hq;= oE we£u me<§udÈh;a h' tfy;a ta ish,a, ukd
l<ukdldß;ajhlska isÿ lsÍuhs" iuÔúl;d hkafkka b.ekafjkafka' Wmhk fNda. isj q
fldgila lr thska tla fldgila mßyrKhg;a fofldgila iajlSh l¾udka;fhys wNsj doaêhg;a
y;rjeks fldgi wdmod wjia:djkays .ekSu msKsi ;ekam;=jla f,i;a mj;ajd.; hq; = nj
nqÿrcdKka jykafia uQ,H l<ukdlrKhg Wmfoia fo;s' 61 túg Kh fkdù iunr Ôjk rgdjla
mj;ajd .; yels h'

iudc ndOl ch .ekSu
mqo.
a , fõu;a;;dj iudc ,CIKhls' tl u mjq,l jqj o idudðlfhda tl yd iudk
is;sú ,s we;af;da fkdfj;s' úúO woyia we;af ;da fj;s' mjq, ;=< ieñhd yd ìß| hk l=vd u
tallh .;a; o Nskak reÑl;ajfhka yd wdl,amj,sk a hqla; h' úia;D; iudch ms<sn| j lshkqu
ljf¾ o@ Nskak reÑl;ajfhka msreKq iudch ;=< ;reK ;reKshka yd iïnkaOfhka úYd,
.eg¨ yd .egqï /ila biau;= úh yels h' we;eï ;reK ;reKsfhda iudc m%Yak yuqfjys fndfyda
wdfõ.YS,S fj;s' uqÜGiai;slfhda fj;s' wÿro¾YS fj;s' ta wfõ.YS,s;aj h" uqÜGiai;sl;ajh"
wÿro¾YS;ajh" wk¾:ldÍ jQjla nj jegfykafka ta ;=<ska wñysß úmdl ú£ug isÿjk úg § h'
we;eïyq wdfõ.YS,s;ajh ksid jeäÿr fkdis;d CIKsl j hï hï oE lsÍug hEfuka Ôú;fha
fyd| u ld,jljdkqj isrueÈßj, .; lr;s' th úYd, wNd.Hhls' tneúka iudc ndOl fyd¢ka
jgyd .ekSug wjYH h' ndOlh" ndOlhla f,i jgyd .;fyd;a muKs" thska ñfokakg yels
jkqfha" th ndOlhla f,i fkdolak d fkdokakd l,ays tlS ndOlhg hg;a ù f;fï úkdYh
lrd meñfKhs' tneúka ndOl fyd¢ka jgydf.k tls ndOl ;ud fj; fudkhï fyda

fudfyd;l meñKsh yelshs n,dfmdfrd;a;=fjka isák úg thg id¾:lj uqyqK § thsk a
úks¾uqla;ùug yelsjkq we;' tjeks iudc ndOl lSmhla úuid n,uq'

mrïmrd .egqu
nd," ;reK yd jeäysá hkqfjka mrïmrd;%hla iudch ;=< oDYHudk h' fuhsk a nd,;reK yd nd,-jeäysá mrïmrd w;r hï .egqï Woa. ; jQj;a tajd m%n, f,i W;aikak jk
wjia:d b;d ÿ,n h' tfy;a ;reK yd jeäysá mrïmrd fol w;r we;sjk .egqu b;d m%n, h'
tfia u iq,n h' mkai,a' m,a,s" fldaú ,a wdÈfhys o jeäysá iy ;reK NsCIQka jykafia,d yd
mQcljre w;r o fï .egqu ksr;=re j mj;S' idudkH iudch ;=< fuh m%n, f,i ±lsh yelalls'
wfkHdakH wjfndaOfhka f;drùu Bg tla fya;=jla jk w;r tfia wjfndaOhla mej;sh;a
fomd¾Yajfhys ls%h dldrlï ms< sn| j fomd¾Yajh ;=< u iq¿ iq¿ wkNsreÖka mej;Su tlS .egqug
uq,afõ' tys § úfYaIfhka u fomd¾Yajh w;r idlÉPdjka isÿ fkdjqKfyd;a .egqïldÍ
;;a;ajhka jvd;a biau;= úh yels h' we;eïúg tjeks ;;a;ajhka ;=< bÉPdNx.;ajhg m;ajk
we;eïyq m%pKav;ajhg fhduq fj;s' we;eïyq iajlSh ðú; ydksh mjd isÿlr .ks;s' we;eïyq ta
ndOlhkag fkdie,S nqoê
a u;a j uqyqK § taj d chf.k úYsIagfhda fj;s'
f.or mßirh ;=< § uy¨ ujqmshka iy ;reK ¥ orejka w;r we;eïúg .eg¿ldß
;;a;ajhka biau;=ùug fomd¾Yajhkays yeisÍï rgdjkays kqreiakd nj fya;= úh yels h' ;u ¥
orejka hk tk .uka ìuka" w¢k we÷ï me<÷ï" lrk l;d ny" wik n,k" .S;" kdgH" Ñ;%mg"
weiqre lrk ñ;=rka wdÈh ujqmshkag kqreiakd úg Tjqyq ¥ orejka iu. .egqïldÍ ;;a;ajhka
we;slr .ks;s' foudmshka iïnkaOfhka orejka o tfia u h' we;eï úg rEmjdysksh keröfï §
ujqmshka reÑ lrk kd,sl dj orejkag reÑ fkdùu fya;= fldg f.k jqj o w¾nqoldÍ wjia:d
biau;= fõ' tn÷ wjia:dj, § fomsßi u wfkHdkH wjfndaOfhka hq;=j Nskak reÑl;ajhka
y÷kdf.k Tjqfkdjqkaf.a u;jdo u;fNao njg m;a fkdlr f.k iu.s oduhg ndOdjla we;s
fkdjk mßÈ lghq;= lsÍug isy s l,amkdfjka hqla; j lghq;= l< hq;= h'
we;eï wjia:dj, ;reK ¥ orejka iy ujqmshka ukdj iJëhj lghq;= lrkjd olsk
we;eïyq tu mjq,a ;=< iu.sh ì| oud Tjqfkdjqka w;r fNao Nskak ;d we;slr mjq,a wjq,a lsÍu
i|yd úúO fkdlghq;=lï lr;s' Tjqk afkdjqka ;=< fNao Nskak;d we;s lsÍu i|yd Tjqfkdjqkag
fla,dï lshd ì|j;s' tn÷ whf.ka mßiaiï j isàu wjYH h' úfYaIfhka tn÷ wjia:djka
biau;= jk úg tlg tlaj ta ms< sn| iu.sfhka hq;=j woyia yqjudre lr .ekSu b;d w.fka h'
tfia fkdjqkfyd;a fomsßi w;r ks;r wúYaj dih rch hs' túg ys;jd§ nj m<dhhs' iu.sh
ì£hhs' mjqf,a Yla;sh úkdY ù hhs' tfyhska fï yd iïnkaOfhka ;reK ¥ orejka úfYaI
´kElñka ls%h d l< hq;= h'
úia;D; iudch ;=< o fuh fufia u h' ;reKhkaf .a ls%h d l,dmhkag jeäysáhka
t;rï jeo.;a njla ,nd fkdfok w;r jeäysáhka iïnkaOfhka ;reK msßia o fndfyda fihska
tfia i,l;s' wfkl ;reK msßia m%u qL;ajh f.k ls%hd lrkjd ±lSug jeäysáhkaf.ka we;uqk a
leu;s ke;' Tjqk ag úúO ndOd muqKqj;s' jeäysáhka i,lkafka th ;uka fkdl<fyd;a
uekúka isÿ fkdfõh lshd úh yels h' tneúka tys § o fomd¾Yajh u kuHYS,S m%;smodjla
wkq.ukh lsÍu wjYH h' úfYaIfhka ;reK msßia f,i jeäysáhka wNsnjd fkdhñka ta whf.a
o wjjdo wkqYdikd ,nd .ksñka ta wh m%uqL ;ajfhys,d ;nd lghq;= lsÍug W;aidy .;fyd;a
tlS jeäysá wm%idoh jQmiukh lr .ekSu g fndfyda fihska yelsjkq we;' jDoaOdmpdhk nqÿoyu
b;d w.h fldg i,lk .=Khls' jDoaOhka ke;s ;ek iNdjla o ke; hkq mqrdfKdal a;shls' ^k
id iNd h;% k ika;s jDoaOd#& wfkl ;reK msßia iuyr úg w¨;a ±kqñka jDoaOhkag jvd by<

uÜgul isáh yelsh' tfy;a lsisjla kQ.;a uy,a,l=f.a woa±lSï iïNdrh ta ;reK ±kqug jvd
b;d mD:q, nj o ie,l=j ukd h' tfia u jDoaO;ajh hkq yqf ola flia meyS" o;a jeà" yu
/<s .ekaù ;sîu u fkdj bka tyd jQjla nj o jeäysá ckhd ie,lsh hq;= h' .=K jDoaO" ;fmda
jDoaO" [dK jDoaO wd§ ish,a,;a jfhda jDoaO;ajh iu. mj;aj d .;fyd;a mrïmrd .egqu fndfyda
ÿrg ikaisojd ;nd .; yelsh' tneúka fï yd iïnkaOfhka ;reK jeäysá fomd¾Yajhg u
jeo.;a j.lSula mj;akd nj fmfka' ;ud u ksjerÈh hk u;fhys u t,a,S fkdisg ;udf.a hï
wvqmdvqjla weoa±hs úuid ne,Sug ;rï fomd¾Yajh u kuHYS,S úh hq;= h' úh,s o~qhs" fudavhkqh s
fkdkefuk nj;a keuqfkd;a ìf|k nj;a mqrdfKdala;shls' kuHYS,S nj hkq ksjg .;shla hehs
we;eïyq i,l;s' Tõyq w{dkfhda h' wkuHYS,S nj ;ud úkdY lrk wioaO¾uhla nj f;areï
f.k ;reK úh kuHYS,S j mj;ajd .kakg fjr ±ßh hq;= h' M, ke;s jDCIfhda fl,ska
jefv;s' tfy;a M,e;s jDCI YdLfhda N+uHdjk; j u isá;s' tfia u únQO jQ ckhd kuHYS,S h'

wdjdy újdy iïnkaO ndOl
wdjdy hkq m;s l=,hg m;skshl f.k tau hs' újdy hkq m;sksh m;sl=,hg §u hs' orejka
ksis úhg m;ajQ úg wdjdy újdy lr§u ujqmshka i;= hq;=lfuls' 62 fuys§ iqÿiq ld,h b;d jeo.;a
h' we;eïúg ujqmshka leu;s j isáh § orejka wlue;s ùu ksid;a orejka leu;sj isáh §
ujqmshka wlue;sùu ksid;a iuyr orejkaf .a ld,h fkd±kqj;aj u blau hhs' foaf md," ±k
W.;alï" ,iaik" l=,h' fmdfrdkaoï wd§ fndfyda oE fya;=fldg f.k leue;a; wlue;a;
;SrKh lsÍu ksid ld,h ms< sn| .eg¿jg fndfydaÿrg uqy qK mEug isÿfjhs' fuu ndysr fya;+kag
jvd wdjdy újdyjk whf.a pß;h woyia fldf;la ÿrg hym;a o whym;a o hkak úuid ne,Su
b;d jeo.;a h' we;eï úg l=, .¾jh /l .ekSug f.dia fkd.e,fmk újdyhla isÿ fldg
f.k miqj fkdfhla w¾nqohkag újdyl hqj, uqyqK md;s' we;eï úg msg rEmhg wdidfjka
muKla isÿ flfrk wdjdy újdyhka o wid¾:l fõ' foam<g ;DIaK dfjka isÿjk wdjdy
újdyj,§ o fndfyda ÿrg tu ;;a;ajh tfia u h'
úfYaIfhka újdy Ôú;hg msúfik fofokdg fofokd ms< sn| wfkHdkH wjfndaOh;a
uQ,sl jYfhka ;sîu wjYH fõ' l=,h ksidj;a Okh ksidj;a ÿgq muKska ukd rEimqfjka iy
lvjiï fmkqulska hq;= ksidj;a Tyq fyda weh uf.a iylre yd iyldßh úh hq;= hehs ;SrKh
fldg blauka ;SrK .ekSu o kqiqÿiq h' újdy Ôú;h hkq tla ojila folla .; fldg wjika
jkakla fkdfõ' uq¿ Ôú; ld,h ;=< u újdyl hqj, Tjqk afkdjqka mEyS jdih l< hq;= h'
tneúka wdjdy újdy ùug .kq ,nk ;SrKh yÈis ;SrKhla fkdj uekúka is;d n,d úuid
wfkHdakH wjfndaOfhka yd úYajdifhka hq;= j isÿ lr.; hq;a;ls' tljrla fojrla fkdj
wfkal jdrhla uekúka l,amkd fldg is;d n,d úuid tlS ;SrKh .; hq;= h' my jQ fhdjqk a
nj we;a;l= ;reKshl újdy lr .;fyd;a wE flfrys B¾IHdfjka iaj dñhd miqjk nj fmkaj d
fok nqÿrcdKka jykafia th msßySug fya;=jla f,i myod § we;'63
Ôú;h ms<sn| .eUqre wjfndaOhla ke;s lD;S%u j ilik i;a;ajhkaf .a udxi iy
wfkl=;a wdydr wkqNj lsÍu fya;=fjka blaukg jeäúhg m;ajk ±ßhka ldu rd.fhka uQ¾ý;j
we;eï úg ;ukaf.a jhia iSu djkakg jvd úYd, mr;rhla we;s fkd.e,fmk msßñka iu.
ydolï mj;aj d bÈß wkd.;h w÷re lr .ks;s' nd, jhial drhka újdy lr .ekSu ;ykï jQj;a
ta i|yd wksh ï úÈ fndfyda fia ;sfn;s' túg isÿúh hq;a; isÿù yudr ksid ta ms<sn| l,ska is;d
ks.uk .ekSu b;d jeo.;a h' we;eï úg mdi,a hk úfhys fh!jk;aj fha uQ,sl wjia:dfõ
miqjk ÈhKsjre ldud.aksfhka ±fjk i,a,d,hkag /jà ;u wOHdmkh o lvdlmam,a lr
.kakd w;r wkd.; fyd| újdyhlg ;sf nk wjia:dj o wysñlr .ks;s' tneúka bf.kSï lrk

wjêfha § ta ms<sn| fjfyiSu msßñ ldka;d fomCIhg u wk;=reodhl h' isiq ld,fha bf.k
.; hq;= h' mria;djlg l,ska riaidjla .ek is;Su ;a .eyeKshl= .kakg l,ska fyd| msßñhl=
úh hq;= nj;a m%p,s; lshuka h' ta ms< sn|j o is;d ne,sh hq;= h'
wdjdy újdyhkays § jia;= iduH;ajh ms<sn| j hï ie,ls,a,la ±laùu mS%;su;a újdy
Ôú;hlg u. mdohs' we;eï mjq,aj, msßñhd .eyeKsh f,i;a .eyeKsh msßñhd f,i;a lghq;=
lrk wjia:d we;' Bg m%Odk fya;=jla fomCIfhys jia;= widoDYH h' msßñhdg jvd Okj;a núka
.eyeKshf.a md¾Yjh hqla; jqjfyd;a ta n,h u; msysgd wdvïnrj we;eïúg iajdñhd mSvkhg
,la lrk ldka;d pß; we;' iajdñhdf.a md¾Yajh jvd;a Okj;a jk úg o th tfia u isÿùug
bv lv ;sfí' tneúka jia;= idoDYH o hï ;rulg wdjdy újdyfha § jeo.;a fõ' wo hq.fhys
mqreIhd;a ia;%sh ;a fndfyda ÿrg /lsh d kshqla;slfhda h' tys § fofokd tlu jD;a;sfhys
fkdfhÿk;a jD;a;sf hys bmhSï wxYh iudk;ajhl meje;au o hï;dla ÿrg ffjjdyl
Ôú;fhys,d jeo.;a fõ'
hf:dal a; idOl fl;rï iïmQ¾K j mej;sh;a wfkHdakH wjfndaOfhka úYajdifhka yd
f.!rjfhka ls%h d lrkjd ;rï ta tllaj;a m%n, jkafka ke;' újdy ùug fmr fma%ufhka
uqim;a jk we;eïyq wm fofokd fofokl= fkdj tla whl=u hehs fnd<| fma%ud,dm ìKqj;a
újdy ù ál fodylg miq tajd wu;l j fokak fouy,a,ka úril jk wjia:d ±l.; yels h'
tneúka fofokd fofofkl= ñi lsisúfgl tla whl= fkdjk nj f;areï .; hq;= h' fuys,d
.eUqßka is;d ne,sh hq;= hula ;sf í' fofokd tla whl= ùu ;=< .egqï /ila ks¾udKh fõ' ta
ula ksid o iajdñhd is;kqfha ;ud is;k m;k ls%hdlrk wdldrhg u iyldßh o mej;sh hq; =
nj;a ìß| l,amkd lrkafka ;ud is;k m;k ls%hd lrk wdldrhg iylre mej;sh hq;= nj;a h'
tfy;a mqoa., fõu;a;;dj u; fndfyda ÿrg wx. iïmQ¾K j tfia jkaf ka ke;' fofokd tla
whl= hehs is;d ls%h d lsÍfuka Tjqfkdjqkag mriamr woyia is;=ï me;= ï yd ls%hdjka fofokd
w;ska isÿjk úg fomd¾Yaj h w;r w~onr we;súh yels h' úh hq;af ;a th fkdfõ' fofokd
lsisúfgl tla whl= fkdjk nj;a fofokdf.a kdk;aj ix{djka fomd¾Yajh úiska u uekúka
f;areï f.k Tjqfkdjqkag úreoaO woyia bÈßm;a jk úg fomCIh u tlaj idlÉPd fldg
fomCIfhys u is;a fkdßfok wdldrfhka kuHYS,S j ls%hd lsÍug fofokd u wfkHdkH
wjfndaOfhka f.!rjfhka hq;= j ls%hd lsÍu hs'
m;s l=,hg msúfik ÈhKsj rekag újdy Ôú;h id¾:l j .; lsÍu i|yd Wmfoia /ila
fn!oaO idys;H ;=< yuqfõ' Okxch isgqjrhd ish ÈhKsh jk úYdLdjg újdyhg fmr ÿka wjjdo
oyh iEu újdyfmaCIs; hqj;shlg u jeo.;a h' tu wjjdo oyh kï"
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we;=< ; .sk s msg;g fkdfokak
msg; .sks we;=<g fkd.kak
fok ;eke;a;dg u fokak
fkdfok ;eke;a;dg fkdfokak
fokakdg;a fkdfokakdg;a fokak
iqjfia ys¢kak
iqjfia wkqNj lrkak
iqjfia ksokak
.sks foúhka mqokak

10' we;=< ; foúhka mqokak
hï m%fya,sl d iajrEmhla ork fuu wjjdo oyh w¨;a ksjil Ôú;h w¨;ska wrUk
hqj;Skag udkisl ix;Dma;sfhka .egqïj,ska f;drj mS%;su;a j Ôj;aùu i|yd ufydamldß fõ'
fuys m<uqjekafkys tk we;=<; .sks hkq mjq, we;=<; we;s wvqmdvqlï h' fldmuK
hi biqrej,ska msß mjq,l jqj o wNHka;rfhys hï hï mqoa., noaO jQ fyda wvqmdvqlï
mj;skakg mq¿jk' tajd we;=<; wh iu. u idlÉPd fldg úi|d .; hq;= h' ndysr wh iu. tlS
wvqmdvqlï .ek l;d lrkakg .shfyd;a isÿjkafka taj d ilia ùu fkdj ;j ;j;a W.% ùu hs'
;udg úi|d.; fkdyels hula we;akï ta ms<sn| j Wmfoia .; hq;= iudcfha úYsIag
;eke;a;kaf.ka wjjdo wkqYdikd ,nd.ekSu fhda.H h' ;u .eg¨j m%ldY lsÍfuka ;j;a
.eg¨jla biau ;= fkdfõ hehs úYajdi lrk l,HdK W;=ul=g u th m%l dY l< hq;= h' yels;dla
ÿrg wNHka;r m%Yak Tjqfkdjqka iÕjd o fkdf.k msg ;g o fkd§ ;=uQ u idlÉPd fldg úi|d
.ekSu id¾:l újdy Ôú;hlg w;sYhska jeo.;a h'
msg; .sks we;=<g fkdf.fkkak hkq ndysr wh iajlSh ieñhd ms< sn| j lshk ´md¥m
ieñhdf.a lfKa fkd;eîu hs' tajd W¨mamd olajñka ieñhdg wjuka fkdlsÍu hs' ;udg iaj dñhd
ms<sn| hï idOdrK ielhla we;akï ta ms< sn| ieñhd úuid ±k .ekSu ìß|lf.a hq;=luls'
tfy;a tla tlaflkd we;eï úg fofokd ì|ùfï my;a wruqK q we;sj ke;s foa ujd mdñka
fla<dï lshñka fofokd w;r .egqï we;s lsÍug W;aidy .kakjd úh yels h' tneúka b;d
úuis,su ;a j wkqka lshk oE ms<sn| j lghq;= lsÍu wjYH h'
fok ;eke;a;dg u fokak hkafkys woyi Khla Èh hq;af ;a wdmiq fokakl=g muKla
nj hs' fuhsk a biau;=jk ;j jeo.;a lreKla we;' tkï" .Dy md,kh .DyKsh i;=j
mj;skakla nj hs' f.or ftYaj ¾h iaj dñhd úiska ìß|g Ndr§u iajdñhdf.a hq;=lula fldg
nqÿrcdKka jykafia fmkaj d § we;' ìß|g zzmjq,ZZ hk jokla isxy,hka w;r mj;S' tys woyi
mjq, ord isákafka md,kh lrkafka ìßo hkak hs' fokakdg;a fkdfokakdg;a fokak hkafkys
w¾:h {d;Skag lrk ix.%yhka h' {d;shl= hula .;a úg th ÿkak;a fkdÿkak;a {d;s;ajh
ksid th hq;=lula fldg i,ld ;ukag YlH;djla we;akï th bgql r §u hs' fuhsk a woyia
lrkafka' iqjfia ys|skak" wkqNj lrkak" ksokak hkafkys woyi .Dy l<ukdldßKsh f,i
f.or wfkla wh ms<sn| hq;=lï fldÜGdih;a uekúka bgqlr weoa±hs iqmßCIdldÍ j ls%hd lsÍu
hs' iqjfia ys§ug" wkqNj lsÍug" ks§ug yelafla túg h' .sks foúhka mqokak hkafkys woyi
kekaod" udud iy iajdñ mqreIhd .sks fia i,ld .re nqyquka iys; j weiqre lrkak hkak hs'
iajdñhdf.a md¾Yajfha {d;Skag iqyo is;ska ie,lSu we;=< ; foúhka mqokak hkafkys woyi hs'
we;eï ;reK ;reKshka ;uka leu;s újdyhg ujqmshka úreoaOjk wjia:dj, § ±ä
wiykldß ;;a;ajhg m;a ù ys;=jlaldr f,i újdy .súi .eksu isÿlr;s' ;j;a iuyre ;ud
fmïlrk ;eke;a;d fyda ;eke;a;sh iu. újdy ùug fkdyels jqjfyd;a ±ä bÉPdNx.;aj hg
m;aj Ôú;dka;h f;la wújdyl j Ôj;a ùug ;SrKh lr;s' wjfndaOfhka wk.dßl Ôú;hl
.; lsÍug yelskï th b;d úYsIag h' tfy;a wdYdj;a nh;a l,lsÍu;a w;r ysrù wd;=r
ukilska wújdyl j jdih lrkakg .kq ,nk ;SrKh Ôú;h yd iïnkaOfhka iqNjd§
;SrKhla fkdfõ' ;ud m;k ;eke;a;d fyda ;eke;a ;sh iu. mdKs. %yKh lsÍug fkdyelsjk
wjia:djkay s§ we;eï wh ish Èú kid .ekSug .kq ,nk ;SrKh o wkqjK luls' ms%h jia;+k a
ksid ÿla fodïkia Wmdhdihkag m;aùug isÿjk nj nqÿrcdKka jykafiaf.a foaYkh hs' 65 th
uekúka f;areï .; hq;= h' ;ud is;k m;k foh ta whqßka u isÿjka kg;a fkdjkakg;a yels

nj f;areï f.k Ôú;hg fkdie,S uqyqK §fï YlH;djla we;slr .; hq;= h' tfia
fkdjqkfyd;a ;ud ms%h lrk whf.ka fjka lrkakg W;aidy ork ujqmshka" ifydaor
ifydaoßhka {d;s ys;j;=ka fyda fjkhï ljrl= flfrys fyda tÈßjdÈlï we;slr f.k
fkdlghq;=lïj,g fm<öug bv ;sfí' tfia;a ke;skï ;udf.a Ôú;h úkdY lr .ekSu;a
fofokdf.a u Ôú; ydksl r .ekSu ;a isÿ úh yels h' tjeks isÿùï ks;r ks;r wikakg
olskakg ,efí' ÿrd;S;fhys È tnÿ isÿùï jd¾;d fõ' fï Njfhys tlg Ôj;aùug
fkd,efnkafka kï B<Õ Njfha § fyda tlg uqK .efiuqhs hk n,j;a fma%ud;=r Ndjfhka
fofokd u tlg Èú f;dr lr .kakd mqj;a wo o fndfyda fihska jd¾;d fõ'
mshcd;sl iQ;%f hys o tn÷ jd¾;djla ths' 66 B<Õ Njfha wUqq ieñhka f,i tlajkakg
m%d¾:kd we;a;jqka tlg ishÈú kid .ekSf uka th isÿ fkdjkakls' isÿ jqj;a th
ÈjH fyda ukqIH Njhla kï úh fkdyels h' tfia hï fofokl= B<Õ Njfha § o wUqieñhkaj
jdih lsÍug m%d¾:kd lrkafka kï fofokd u ioaOd" iS," pd." m[a[d hk .=K y;ßka iudk
j lghq;= l< hq;= nj nqÿrcdKka jykafia fmkajd § we;' 67
wdjdy újdyhg fmr we;sjk .eg¨j,g;a jvd nrm;, f,i ±fkkafka újdyfhka miqj
Woa.;jk .eg¨ h' wfkHdkH wjfndaOfhka f;drj mdKs.%yKh lsÍu ksid;a wdjdy újdyfhka
miqj fofokdf.a iajdëk;ajhg ´kEjg jvd fomd¾Yajfhys u ujqmshka jHjydr NdIdfjkau
i|yka lrkjd kï weÕs,s .eiSu ksid;a msgia;rhkaf.a lg¨ l;d úYajdi lr wfkHdkH
úYajdih m¿ÿ lr .ekSu ksid;a fkd.e,fmk weiqr ksid;a we;eï úg /lS rCIdÈh ksid;a kEoE
wi,ajeis wd§ka ksid;a hk úúO lreKq fya;=fldg f.k mYapd;a ffjjdysl .eg¨ biau;= ùug
bv ;sf í'

mYapd;a ffjjdysl .eg¨
újdyhg mQ¾jfhka b;d f,ka. ;= j lghq;= l<;a we;eïyq újdy ù fkdfnda Èklsk a
úúO .egqïldÍ ;;a;ajhka ueo fkdfyd| fkdal aldvq we;sl rf.k w;Dma;sl r j mjq,alk wjia:d
we;' tu ksid u Èlalido kvqj,ska o Widú msÍ ;sfí' fï ;;a;ajh ngysr rgj, b;d ±ä j
mj;akd nj flÍ we;s iudc úoHd m¾fhaIK ;=<ska ikd: ù ;sf í' ±kg flÍ we;s
m¾fhaIKhkag wkqj weußldfjys újdyj,ska 1$3 la Èlalido ù we;' újdyj,ska 21] la l,sk a
tlajrla fyda lSmjrla újdy jQ wh h' ta wkqj ngysr újdy ixia:dj b;d fõ.j;a j foord
f.dia we;s njhs fmfkkafka' thska úYd, f,i ydks meñfKkafka wkd.; ¥ orejkag h'
foudmsh úixfhda.h ksid foudmshkaf.ka ,eìh hq;= wdorh /ljrKh wysñ orejka úúO iudc
úIudpdrhkag fm<fUhs' udkj ysñlï <ud whs;sjdislï ms<sn| j Tjqka f,dalhdg fudr.d
m%ldY l<;a Tjqka tlS whs;sj dislï /l .kakg yokafka iudch ;=< iodpdrh wfkHdkH
f.!rjh" fma%uh" úYaj dih we;s lr Yla;su ;a iudc jHqyhla f.dvke.Sug fkdj ta ish,a,la ì|
fy,d iudch ;=< mqo.
a , yqol,dNdjh f.dvke.Sug nj ta ms< sn| j .eUqßka is;k úg meyeÈ,s
fõ' ,dxflah iudch ;=< fï ;;a;ajh fu;rï nrm;, f,i olakg fkd,enqK ;a th
we;af ;ka u ke;ehs m%ldY l< fkdyels h' ta i|yd keUqrejla we;s ù ;sfí' ngysr rgj,aj,
;rï tlS ffjjdysl ixia:dj Y%S ,dxflah iudch ;=< foord f.dia ke;af ;a fn!oaO ixialD;sh
;=<ska ,nk YsCIKh ksid nj wújdofhka ms<s. ; hq;= h' ta whs;sj dislï fkdj hq;=lï
uQ,sl;ajfhys,d W.kajk ksid h' tfy;a ixlr iudchla ;=< tlS fn!oaO ixialD;sl yr
moaO;Ska .s,sfyñka mj;ak d nj fmfka' ta ms<sn| j kej; is;d n,kakg w¨;a mrïmrdjg isÿ ù
;sfí'

iajYla;sf hka ke.S isàug wd;au Yla;shla fkdue;slu ksid fyda fjk;a fya;+ka u;
ksid fyda újdyfhka miqj oreu,a,ka o ,nd we;eïyq úfoaY /lshd i|yd msg ;aj h;s' wd¾Ól
fn,ySk;dj Ôú;h yd iïnkaOfhka úYd, .eg¨jla jQj ;a Bg ms<sirKla wfmaCIdfjka úfoia
/lshd i|yd msg ;aj hEfuka mjq,a ixia:dj yd iïnkaO .eg¨ rdYshla ta u.ska biau ;= fõ'
újdyl hqjf,ka ljqre úfoia.; jqj;a tlS ndOlhkag uqyqK §ug isÿfõ' úfYaIfhka ¥jreka
,nd isák ujqjre úfoaY.; ùfï § we;eïúg ;u wdrCIlhd jYfhka isá k mshd ksid u úúO
w;jrhkag ,laùug ta ÈhKshkag isÿ jQ wjia:d jd¾;d fõ' úYd, n,dfmdfrd;a;= iuqodhla fmdÈ
ne|f.k úfoia.; jqj ;a we;eïúg ;ud úfoaYhkays § Wmhd tjk Okh iajdñhd úúO ÿisß;a
ÿrdpdrhkag fhdojd ;ud isá ;;a;ajhg;a jvd my< ;;a;ajhlg m;ajkakg isÿjk wjia:d o
;sfí' tfia u wkshï iïnkaO;d f.dv k.d .kak d iajdñhka ksid úfoia.;jk ldka;djg
úúO lïlfgd¨j,g uqyqK mEug isÿ fõ' ìß| isá h § iaj dñhd úfoia .; ùfuka o fndfyda
ÿrg by; lS .eg¨ iudk h' úfYaIfhka u ¥ orejka" ìß| jia;=j foaf md, iïnkaOfhka ±ä
wkdrCIs; njla tys§ Woa.; fõ' tys woyi jkafka id¾:l mjq,a Ôú;hla .; lsÍu i|yd
iajdñ-Nd¾hd fofokdf.a ióm iïnkaOh w;HjYH nj h' jia;=j foaf md, l=ula jqj;a wkd.;
mrïmrdj ksjerÈ udj;lg fhduq lsÍug ujqmsh fom, ±ä Wjukdjla we;slr .; hq;= h'
orejkaf.a wkd.;h ieliSug hehs is;d fndfyda fofkla úfoaY.; jqj;a wjidk m%;sM,h
we;eï úg Bg yd;amiska fjkia jQjls' ujq msh wdorh /ljrKh ,eìh hq;= ld,fhys orejkag
wjYHfhka u ta wdorh /ljrKh fkdjvqj ,nd Èh hq;= h' tfia fkdjqk fyd;a orejka whdf,a
f.dia wkd.; Ôú;h w÷re lr .kq we;' tneúka hym;a ore iïm;la wfmaCId lrk hqj;sm;Sk a
fï .ek wjOdkh fhduq lsÍu b;d jeo.;a h' we;eïúg újdy ùug fmr úfoia .;jk
;reKshka kej; ,xldjg meñfKkafka mshjre ke;s orejka iuÕ h' túg wEg w;ajk
l,oidj l=ula o @ orejkaf.a wkd.;hg l=ula fõo @
kekaoïud yd f,a,sh ms<sn| .egqu o újdy Ôú;fha nyq, j olakg ,efnkakls' mrïmrd
.egqfuys u tla wjia:djls th' tu .egqu ta fofokd w;r we;s ù ta fofokd ;=<ska u fl<jr
jkafka ke;' th m%Odk jYfhka iajdñhdg n,mdhs' tys § iajdñhd ±ä w¾nqoldÍ ;;a;ajhlg
uqyqK mEug isÿ fõ' Tyq uj ksjerÈ hehs ÿgqj ;a ìß| ksid;a ìß| ksjerÈ hehs ÿgqj;a uj ksid;a
.s, .; o judr.; o fkdyels ;;a;ajhg m;a fõ' we;eï úg ìß|f.a lSï wid ujqmshka iuÕ
wehs fyd|hslï ke;s lr .kakd mq;=ka o we;eïúg ujqmshkaf.a lSï wid Tjqkaf.a me;a; f.k
ìß|g fkdfhla ysßyer ;dvk mSvk lrk mq;=ka o olakg ,efí' mrïmrd folla tl;ek úiSu
;=<ska hï hï .eg¨ biau;= ùu iajNdúl h' tfy;a tajd ÿrÈ. f.k hkafka ke;sj wfkHkH
wjfndaOfhka hq;= j tajd úi|d .; hq;= h' tn÷ .eg¨ biau;=jk nj ±k f.k isy s
l,amkdfjka wfkHdkH f.!rjfhka hq;= j l%sh d l< hq;= h'
újdyl hqj,la f,i .Dyia: nkaOkfhka neÿKq úg meñfKk wNsfhda.hkag id¾:l j
uqyqKmdñka m%S;su;a j Tjqfkdjqka blaujd fkdf.dia l%shd lsÍug fofokd u lghq;= l< hq;= h'
úfYaIfhka u fofokd u ;u pß;h fyd¢ka wdrCId lr .; hq;= h' hï fyhlska fofokd w;r
wúYajdihla biau ;= jqjfyd;a ljr iïm;a mej;sh ;a m%S;su;a újdy Ôú;hla .; l< fkdyels h'
hqj;sm;Skaf.a .e<mSï wkqj j¾. y;rla nqÿ oyu fmkajd § we;'
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u< ñkshla u< ñkshla yd úiSu
u< ñkshla foõÿjl yd úiSu
foaj mq;%hl= foõ ÿjl yd úiSu
foaj mq;%hl= u<ñkshl yd úiSu68

fuys foaj hkafkka ixfla;j;a lrkafka iodpdr iïmkak .;s we;s YSCIs; mqoa.,hka
h' u< ñksh hkafkka w¾:j;a jkafka my;a" WodiSk pß; we;a;jqk a h' thska jvd;a iudk j
Woafhdaa.fhka wfkHkH wjfndaOfhka úYajdifhka ukd pß;j;aNdjfhka wdpdrYS,S j lghq;=
lrk ksid fofokdg u m%S;su ;a j Ôj;a úh yels h' ìß| iajdñ mqreIhd flfrys ms< smÈk
wdldrh wkqj i;a j¾.SlrKhla o nqÿrcdKka jykafia fmkajd § ;sfí'
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4'
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jOl iu ^jOlhl= jeks&
fpdß iu ^fyrla jeks&
whH iu ^wêm;skshl jeks&
ud;= iu ^ujl jeks&
N.sks iu ^fidfydhqßhl jeks&
iÇ iu ^ñ;=ßhl jeks&
odis iu ^odishl jeks&69

hï ìß|la m%¥IH is;a we;a;S o ^mÿÜÀ Ñ;a;d& ys;dkqlïmd ke;a;S o ^wys;dkqlïmS&
mrmqreIhka flfrys we¨kS o ^w[af[aiqr;a;& iajlSh ieñhd blaujd is;d o ^ w;s u[a[f;
m;sx& jO lsÍug W;aiql fõ o ^jOdh Wiai qld& wE jOl iu ìß| kï fõ' ieñhd Wmhk
Okfhka iaj,amhla fyda meyer.kq leu;s ìß| ^wmamxms wmyd;= ñÉP;s& fpdßiu kï fõ' hï
Nd¾hdjla lghq;= lsÍug fkdleu;s o ^wlïuldud& w,i o ^w,i& ysf;k ysf;k oE fndfyda
fldg wkqNj lrkq leue;af;a o ^uy.a>id& r¿ jQfha o ^Mreid& pKav jQfha o ^pKavd& kmqre
jpk l;d lrkakS o ^ÿre;a;jdÈkS& mqreIhd uevf.k isákakS o ^wNsN+h H j;a;;S& ´ whHiu
ìß| kï fõ' hï Nd¾hdjla ieuúg ys;dkqlïmd we;a;S o ^ys;dkqlïmS& ujla mq ;l= rlakd fia
iajdñhd wdorfhka /ln,d .kafka o ^ud;dj mq;a;x wkqrlaLf; m;sx& tfia u iaj dñhd Wmhk
Okh wjYH oEg muKla fhdojñka wdrCId lr .kakS o ^lf;d Okx iïN;uiai rlafL;S& wE
ud;d iu fyj;a ud;= Nßhd kï fõ' fcHIaG ifydaorhd flfrys lKsIaG fidfydhqßh hï fia
mj;S o tfia u iajlSh ieñhd flfrys f.!rjfhka hqla; jQ ^h:dms fcjdGd N.skS lksÜGd i.drfjd fyd;s ilïys idñfl& ,Êcd is;a we;s ^ysßukd& iajdñhd jif`.ys mj;akd jQ
^N;a;=j idkqj ;a;skS& hï Nd¾hdjl fõ o ´ N.sks iu Nßhd kï fõ' hï ìß|la fndfyda l,lsk a
meñfKk ñ;=rl= ±l i;=g q jk fhfy<shl fihsk a ish iaj dñhd ±l m%uqÈ; jkakS kï ^hdÖO
Èiajdk m;sx mfudo;s& l=,isß;a wkq.ukh lrkakS kï ^fldf,hHld& is,aj;a jkakS kï
^iS,j;S& m;sj %;d we;a;S kï ^m;sín;d& weh ilS Nßhd kï fõ' iajdñhd lsmS ;¾ckh lrk
l,ays o fkdlsmS ^wlal+oaOika;d& ÿIag is;a ke;sj ^wÿÜGÑ;a;d& iajdñhd lud lrk ^m;sfkd
;s;sl aL;S& fkdlsfmk iq¨ ^wlafldOkd& iajdñhdf.a jiÕfhys mj;sk ^Nla;=jidkqj;a;kS& hï
Nd¾hdjla fõ o ´ odis kï fõ' fuu Nd¾hdjrekaf.ka uq,a ;sf okd b;d wfhda.H nj;a wfkla
isjq fokd fhda.H nj;a ie,lsh hq;= h'
ìß|;a iajdñhd;a fofokd Tjqfkdjqka flfrys bgq l<hq;= hq;=lï fldÜGdihla o mj;S'
;u ;ukaf.a hq;=lï uekúka y÷kdf.k bgqlrk úg Tjqfkdjqkaf.a whs;sjdislï ms<sn|
.eg¨jla biau ;= jkafka ke;' iajdñhd úiska ìß|g bgql< hq;= hq;=lï myla o ìß| úisk a
iajdñhdg bgql< hq;= hq;=lï myla o olaj d ;sf í' iajdñhd úiska iajlSh ìß|g bgql< hq;=
hq;=lï mykï"
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f.!rjdkaú; j l%shd lsÍfuka ^iïudkkdh&
wjuka fkdlsÍfuka ^wkjudkkdh&

3' ÿisßf;ys fkdfh§fuka ^wk;sp ßhdh&
4' iïm;a mjrd §fuka ^biaißh fjdiai.af.k&
5' we÷ï me<÷ï wdÈh ,nd§fuka
^w,xldrdkqmamdodfkk&
fufia wdorfhka" f.!rjfhka" úYajdifhka hq;=j ìß| flfrys iajdñhd l%shdlrk úg
ìß| o my; i|yka hq;=lï my iajdñhdg bgq l< hq;= h'
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ksjfia lghq;= ukdj ie,iqulska hq;= j isÿ lsÍfuka ^iqixúys; lïuka;d&
mßjdr ckhdg ukdj ix.%y lsÍfuka ^iqix.ys; mßckd&
ÿisßf;ys fkdfh§fuka ^wk;spdßkS&
iajdñhd /ial rk foh wdrCId lsÍfuka ^iïN;x wkqrlaL ;s&
ish¨ lghq;=j , wk,ia j oCI j fh§u ^olaLdp fyd;s wk,id iínlsÉfpiq&

fufia mQ¾j yd mYap d;a ffjjdysl ndOl ch .ekSug i|yd b;d fyd| isys nqoaêfhka hq; =
j wfkHdkH f.!rjh wdorh úYaj dih we;sj Tjqfkdjqk af.a hq;=lï o ksishdldrj bgq lrñka
wlïmj wfldamHj l%shd l< hq;= nj iEu ;reK ¥ orejl= u ukd wjfndaOhla ,nd .; hq;= h'

;;a;ajh yd .re;ajh
iudc ndOl yd iïnkaOfhka i,lk úg ;;a;ajh yd .re;ajh o m%uqL ;ajhla .kakd
ixl,amhls' fuh o yqfola ;dreKHhg muKla iSu d jQ ndOlhla fkdfõ' fmdÿfõ uq¿ uy;a
iudchg u n,mdkq ,nkakls' tfy;a fuys § wod< lr.kq ,nkafka ;dreKH yd iïnkaOfhks'
;;a;ajh yd .re;ajh hkq fkdf;af rk jpk folla fkdfõ' tfy;a ;;a;ajhla .re;ajhla
f.dv k.d .ekSu iïnkaOfhka bÉPdNx.;ajhlg m;aúh yels h' fï yd iïnkaOfhka lreKq
folla m%Odk fõ'
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m%d¾:kd
l%shdldß;ajh

fulS wxY fol u ;=,kh jk úg tlS ;;a;aj h;a .re;aj h;a we;s lr .; yels h'
m%d¾:kd hkq tla tla b,lalhka ms< sn| ukfia we;s lr .kq ,nk woyia h' is;sú,sh' fn!oaO
wdpdr úoHd;aul moku u; ixidßl jYfhka o iifrys meje;af uys,d o keje;afuys,d o hk
foflysu m%d¾:kh m%uqL ;ajhla .kS' f,!lsl m%d¾:kdjka fhduq ù ;sfnkafka ;ud yd
iïnkaOfhka iudcfhka hï ;;a;aj hla we;sl r .ekSu i|yd h' iudch ;=< mqoa.,hdf.a
;;a;ajh u;hs" .re;ajh o ,efnkqfha'70 tneúka ;;a;ajh;a .re;ajh;a /l .ekSu i|yd
m%d¾:kh;a l%shdldß;ajh;a folu wjYH h'
mqo.
a , fõu;a;;dj u; ;ud wij,a flkl= fyda ;k;=rla orkakl= úh hq;= hehs úúO jQ
m%d¾:kdjka ;reK ;reKshka ;=< fjhs' tlS iudc ;;a;ajh ,nd .ekSu msKsi m%d¾:kh u
m%udKj;a jkafka ke;' ta i|yd wod< l%sh d ms<sfj;ays ksr; úh hq;= h' Ôj;a ùug leu;s tfy;a
.fÕys fuf;r we;s ndOl ksid Ôj;a ùu wmyiq tneúka ks¾Nh jQ fCIauia:dkhla jQ .fÕys
tf;rg hdug wfmaCId lrkafka kï ta i|yd .fÕys fuf.dv isg ;ud fj;g meñfKkakg
tf.dvg wdrdOkd lsÍfuka hd{d lsÍfuka tf.dv lsis úfgl hd{dlre <Õg meñfKkafka
ke;' tf.dv fuf.dvg jvd fyd| hehs f;fï i,lkafka kï hd{dfjka tf.dv fuf.dvg
ióm fkdjk nj o f;areï f.k ;sf nkafka kï lrk hdÈks kj;d ta i|yd fuj,ula ;kd

ù¾h fhdod tf.dvg hd hq;= h' tfia jQ úg ta fCIauia:dkhg <Õdúh yels h' tfia u iudch
;=< hï hï ;;a;ajhla yd .re;ajhla wfmaCId lrkafka kï ta ;;a;ajhg m;aù u msK si Tn
fuj,ula ;kd.; hq;= h' Tn fjkqfjka ;ekQ fuj,ï ke;' th f;fïu ;kd .; hq;= h' tla
tla iudc ;;a;ajhkag <Õdùu i|yd úúO jQ fuj,ï j¾. we;' tl u fuj,ulska iEu
;;a;ajhlgu m;aúh fkdyels h' kejla yod f.dv hkakg ;e;a lsÍu;a r:hla idod Èfhys
hkakg ;e;a lsÍula ksIaM,h' tneúka ;uka ;kd .; hq;= fuj,u;a ta ;ekQ fuj,ñka ;udg
hd yels ;ek;a ms<sn| fyd| jegySula we;s lr .; hq;= h' fuys § fuj,ï hkafkka woyia
lrkafka ;ud ,nd .kakd fhda.H;djka h' ;ud hd hq;= b,lalh fjklla j ;nd Bg yd;amisk a
m%;súreoaO fhda.H;djla we;s lr .ekSfuka wod< b,lalhg hd fkdyels h' tys § isÿjkafka
bÉPd Nx.;ajhg m;aùu muKs' tneúka tlS ;;a;ajfhka uqla; j iajlSh m%d¾:kdkql+, j wod<
l%shdfjys ksr; ùfuka b,lalh lrd hdfuys fhda.H;dj cks; lr.; yels h' ;ud wfhda.H j
tkï kqiqÿiail= j m%d¾Ó; ;;a;ajhkag yd .re;ajhkag md;% úh fkdyelsh' hul= kqiqÿiail=j
tlS ;;a;ajhka wfmaCId lrkafka kï th msßySug lreKla f,ihs nqÿrcdKka jykafia meyeÈ,s
lr fokafka'
wmamfNdf.d uyd;Kafyd
L;a;sfh cdhf; l=f,
fid p rÊcx mF:h;s
;x mrdNjf;d uqL x71
hkqfjka mrdNj iQ;%fha § ta lreK fmkaj d § we;' thska fmkajd fokaf ka w,am jia;=j
we;s tfy;a wêl ;DIaKdfjka hq;a hul= rclu m%d¾:kd lrkafka kï th msßfyk lreKla
f,ihs" tys woyi' ÿmamf;l=g rcúh fkdyelsh hkak fkdj ta i|yd woyila we;akï
m%:ufhka iajlSh oßø;dj ÿrelr .ekSu i|yd uq,ska l%sh d l< hq;= nj hs' È<s÷lu ÿlls' tneúka
th ÿrelrf.k Okjf;l=g n,jf;la úh yelsh' ioaOd" iS," pd." m[a[d" iq;" ysß" T;mam
hkqfjka ima; wd¾h Okhla ms<sn| j o nqÿoyu W.kajk nj u;l ;nd.; hq;=h' 72 ta Okh;a
iuÕ n,h iuq;amdokh fõ'
Yia;% yd Ydia;% úoHd yod< kuq;a Tyq ;=< ukd yslaóu;a ixjrh;a m%{ dj;a ke;akï Tyq
o;a
Ys,am Ydia;% ;=< ska md;%;aj .=Khlg Tyq n÷ka jkafka ke;' iudcfha f.!rjKSh
;;a;ajhlg fkdhhs' nd,hd ;uka okakd Ys,am Ydia;% ;=< ska f;fï u úkdY lr .kakd
njnqÿrcdKka jykafiaf .a foaYkh hs' kqjKe;s ms<l= o;a Ys,amh rdc fNda. iïm;a ,nd .ekSu
msKsi;a kqjK ke;s ms<l=ÿ fkdjQ ;eke;a;l= tu Ys,amhu ±k f.k urKhg;a wmdhg;a m;a jQ
whqre fn!oaO l;d mqj ;l ±lafõ' Ys,amhla yod< muKska fudavlu ke;sjkafka ke;s nj;a
Ys,amh yiqrejkakg m%{ djka; úh hq;= nj;a fn!oaO b.ekaùu hs' 73

;;a;ajh yd .re;ajh /l .ekSu
wm ,nd .kak d ±kqï uÜgu iy ,nd f.k we;s Ok uÜgï wkqj wmg hï hï iudc
;;a;ajhka yd Bg wod< .re ie,ls,s ysñ fõ' úYd, ;reK msßila tlS ;;a;ajhka ,nd f.k
isák w;r ;j;a fndfyda ;reK msßila tlS ;;a;ajhka Wodlr .ekSu i|yd úúO Ys,am
Ydia;%dÈh yodrñka ta i|yd mqyqK qùï ,nd .ks;s' fï fomd¾Yajfha u ;reK msßia is;g .; hq; =
jeo.;a u lreK jkafka Tng Tn okak d Ys,am Ydia;% wkqj hï /lsh djla lsishï wdh;khlsk a
msßkeuqj;a tfia;a fkdue;s kï f;fï u hï jHdmdrhla wdrïN l<;a th Tng iudch ;=< hï
;;a;ajhla .re;ajhla msKsi jQjdg tlS ;;a;ajh yd .re;ajh /l .ekSu hkq bka mßndysr jQjla

nj hs' th /l .ekSu msKsi ;uhs" Tng l,ska isysm;a l< YS, m%{dÈh wjYH jkafka' we;eïyq
±kqug ,enqKq ;;a;ajhka ksid Woaoduhg;a" wdvïnrhg;a" wyxldrhg;a m;aj wfkla wh my;a
fldg i,lñka ;,d fm,d l;d lrñka l%sh d lrñka ;;a;ajh yd .re;ajh flf,id .ks;s' .re
l< hq;a;dg .re lrk msÈh hq;a;dg mqok ;eke;a;kauhs fmr<d .re ie,ls,s ms§ïj,g md;%
jkafka hkq nqÿrcdKka jykafiaf .a b.ekaùu hs' 74 we;eïyq ys;=jlaldr j l%shd lr;s' ;udg jvd
woa±lSï we;s whf.ka lreKq fkdúui;s' ±k úuid l%sh d lrk .=Kh ksiïuldÍ .=Kh f,ihs
nqÿrcdKka jykafia fmkaj d fokafka' th hii" lS¾;sh wNsj¾Okh jk lreKls'75 ;ud u
;Srlhd f,i is;kjdg jvd úuid n,d l%sh d lsÍu w;sYhska M,odhS fõ' fuf,dj fndfyda oE
ms<sn| j tla whl= ±k .kakjdh hkak b;d l,d;=rlska isÿjkakls' tfyhska ;ud ish,a,
okakjd hehs is;d w;a;fkdau;sl j l%shd lsÍu ;udf.a ;;a;ajh yd .re;a jh mßfykafkls'
iudcfha Wiia ;;a;ajhkag m;a we;eïyq krl wdY%h ksid u;aøjH wdÈ krl
ÿYapß;hkag yqre ù tlS ;;a;ajfhka yd .re;ajfhka msßfy;s' we;eï úg ;ud b;d W;aidyfhka
wmyiqfjka tjka ;;a;ajhka Wodlr f.k ;sf nkafka' tfy;a ñ;% m%;srEmlhka ksid fkdfhla
ÿisß;a ÿrdpdrhkag yqre ùfuka b;d blauKska tlS ;;a;ajhkaf.ka msßyS ;uka muKla fkdj
wdh;k;a mßydkshg m;a lrkq we;' tfy;a ;reK cjh yd Yla;sh o Wmfhda.S lr.ksñka ;u
;;a;ajh;a .re;ajh;a uekúka /l f.k ;ud fiajh lrk wdh;k o ÈhqKqj lrd fhduq lrñka
l%shd lrk pß;j;a keKj;a ;reK msßia wm w;r isák nj i;=áka isysm;a l< hq;a;ls'
wm rfÜ úúO rdcH yd rdcH fkdjk wdh;kj, jir wdrïNfh a§;a ueo §;a wjidkfha
§;a úúO kïj,ska tk ms%h iïNdIfKda;aij fndfyduhla meje;afõ' th jrola fkdfõ hehs
is;uq' tfy;a ta i|yd flfrk wkjYH jeh
tu wdh;kfha fyda bka mßndysr j úYd,
ixj¾Ok l%sh dj,shlg fhduq lr.; yels j ;sfí' wdh;kfha fiajh lrk wh fjkqfjka Tjqk a
Èß.ekaùu i|yd tjeks oE isÿ lsÍu tla w;lska jeo.;a .=Khls' nqÿoyñka o th wkqu ; h'
tfy;a ta .=Kh w.=Khla njg mßj¾;kh jkafka th fkdukd wdldrfhka isÿ lrkakg
hdfuks' úfYaIfhka tjeks wjia:djkag wêl j úhoï fldg u;aøjH fhdojkq ,efí' tys fodia
olakd wkd.; ±lSula we;s ;reK kdhlhska ±ka wm rfgys ;eka ;ekaj , fyda olakg ,eîu
wkd.; iqn ksñ;a;ls' iudc kdhl;ajh fuys§ úfYaIh' kdhlhd hkq ksjerÈ ;ekg
muqKqjkak d h' Tyq lshkakka jdf,a lshk lrkakka jdf,a lrk rElvhla fkdúh hq;= h' fyd|
krl jgyd .ekSfï úfYaI yelshdjla kdhlhd i;= úh hq;=h' tfia fkdjkafkda ;;a;ajfhka yd
.re;ajfhka msßfykafkda fj;s'
we;eïyq fydr fndre jxpd isÿ lrkafka ÿmam;alu ksid h' 76 tfy;a th mru i;Hhla
fkdfõ' w.a.[a[ iQ;%d.; b.ekaùug wkqj f,djg m%:ufhka fydrlu b.ekajQfha
fmdfydif;ls'77 we;eï wh b;d wmyiqfjka hï hï iudc ;;a;ajhka ysñ lr f.k ta ;ud
<Õd jQ ;;a;ajhka ;=< isá ñka úúO jQ fydr fndre jxpd ¥IKdÈh isÿ lr;s' thsk a f;fï u
;udf.a ;;a;aj yd .re;aj ydksh isÿlr .kS' m[ap ÿYap ß;fhys fhfokakd Gdk mßydkshg
m;ajkakl= f,ihs" nqÿrcdKka jykafia fmkajd § ;sfnkafka' 78 iudc ;;a;ajhka yd .re;ajhka
,nd .kak d fia u tys ukd ixia:dmkh o j.lSfuka hqla; j mj;aj d .ekSu msKsi isy s
nqoaêfhka l%shd l< hq;=h'

úYajúoHd,hSh YsIHhkaf.a ;;a;ajh yd .re;ajh
úYajúoHd,hSh wOHhk m%c dj ish,af,da Nø fh!jkfhys miqjkafkda h' iriú wOHdmkh
i|yd fndfyda ;reK ;reKshka iqÿiqlï ,enqj ;a úYajúoHd,hSh m%úIaghg jrï ,nkafka tlS

iqÿiqlï we;a;jqka w;ßka o b;d w;f,diaila muKs' ta ;;a;ajh lrd meñKSu msKsi ;ukq; a
;u foudmshka iy .=rejreka o wmuK lem lsÍï isÿ lr we;' ta ish ,a,la lem lsÍï isÿ
lrkqfha rg ±h iuhg jeve;s .=K n, imsß nqoaêu;a mqrjeishka ks¾udKh lr .ekSu i|yd h'
úYajúoHd,hSh m%fõY ndOlh ch.%yKh lsÍu i|yd Tn ord we;s m%h;akhka ms<sn|
m%;Hjf,dalkhl kshqla; jqjfyd;a Tn fl;rï lem lsÍulska tlS ndOlh chf.k ;sf nkafka
o hkak jgyd.; yels h'
fldmuK ndOl chf.k tu wjia:dj ysñlr.;a;;a we;eï iriú isiqkaf.a ^.sys -meúÈ&
l%shd ms<sfj;a foi n,k úg tlS ch.%yKh ;=<ska ,eìh hq;= W;a;Í;r M, ,nd .ekSug W;aiql
jk njla fkdfmfka' we;eïyq tlS iïm;a;sh úm;a;shla njg fmr,d .ks;s' .fï mdif,ka
/f.k .sh fndfyda úYsIag wdpdr O¾u úkdY fldg f.k ysß T;ma ke;s .%duH wdpdr O¾u
mß.Dys; wYa,S, ïf,aÉP wreu mqÿu i;a;ajfhda fj;s' orejd úYajúoHd,hg f;aÍu ujqmshkag
tla me;a;lsk a i;=gla ±fkõj;a ;j me;a;lska Tjqka l=ulska l=ula lr .kSú o hk NS;sldj o
mj;S' ta i|yd jQ idOdrK fya;= ksidhs" ta NS;sldj ujqmshka ;=< we;s ù ;sf nkafka' ,CI ixLHd;
ore le,lf.ka ±kqñka fmrd.;a oyia ixLHd; ore msßil=hs úYajúoHd,j, isákafka' idudkH
ms<s.ekSu wkqj Tjqyq nqoaêu;ayq h' tfy;a tlS ;;a;aj h Tjqka Tjqkaf .a l%shd ms<sfj;a ;=<sk a
;yjqre lrf.k fkdue;s nj we;uqkaf.a l%shd ms<sfj;a ;=<ska iaMqg fõ' iuia; úYajúoHd,hSh
m%cdj u tfia fkdjqk;a iq¿;rhl nyq;r ksfhdackh ;=<ska ta nj oDYHudk h' ta ;=<sk a
úYajúoHd,hSh YsIHhkaf.a ;;a;aj h msßyS hk w;r iuia; ck;dj ;=< Tjqka flfrys wm%idoh
nyq, ;;a;ajhg m;a ù ;sf í'

kjl jO wd.u
iriú isiq isiqú hkaf.a ;;a;ajh yd .re;ajh msßfyk tla ñf,aÉP wOu ÿ¾odka;" wYsIag"
Y%duH l%shdjla kï kjl jOh hs' nqoaêu;a iudchl fkd;sìhu hq;= ñf,aÉP .;shls th' oil
.Kkdjla ;siafia úYajúoHd, ;=< isÿjk tlS wudkqIsl kjl jOh ksid iodld,sl wdndê;hka
^ldhsl udkisl& muKla fkdj m%dK;Hdð;fhda o jQy' tfy;a ±ä úma,jldßka f,i ;uka yqjd
olajkakg ks;r fjfyfik úYajúoHd,hSh YsIHhkaf.ka tlS wudkqIsl ñf,aÉP l%shdjka
msgq±lSug Woaf >daIK j¾ck isÿ lrkakg lsisÿ YsIH lKavdhula bÈßm;a fkdjkafka l=ula ksid
o @ th ñf,aÉP l%sh djla nj jgyd .kakg Tjqkag nqoê
a hla fkdue;slu o @ iriú jrï ,enQ
NsCIQka jykafia,df.ka o nyq;rhla kjl joh wkqu; lrk wkaO nd,hska ùu wNd.Hhg
lreKls' .sys meúÈ fomd¾Yajh ;=< u Bg ±ä f,i úreoaO woyia orkafkda fj;s' tfy;a
wNd.Hhg fuka Tjqkaf.a u;jdo iDcq j l%shd;aul lsÍug ;nd m%ldY lsßug;a tlS ñf,aÉP
lKavdhï u.ska Tjqkag bv ,nd fokafka ke;' hul= fyda hï lKavdhula ta i|yd úreoaO j
l%shd;aul jqjfyd;a ta ;eke;a;dg fyda lKavdhug .sys meúÈ fomCIfhka u ±ä tÈßjdÈlï
biau;= jk nj okakd ksidu foda i;H ±k ±k fndfyda fokd uqksj ; rls;s' tfy;a th isÿ
fkdúh hq;a;ls' úYajúoHd,hSh YsIHhska ñf,aÉP;ajfhka YsIag ;ajhg m;aùu i|yd úma,j l<
hq;= h' wd.ï woykakjqka ±ä f,i úfõpkhg ,la l< wd.u wìka yd iudk hehs m%ldY l<
udlaiaj doh u wd.u lr .;a;jqk a fia úYajúoHd,h ;=< kjl jOh o wd.ula f,i ms<sf.k
weoySu úYajúoHd,hSh YsIHhkaf.a nqoaêhg uy;au jQ kskaodjls' wmydihls' uÈmqxÑluls'
foaYmd,k u;su;dka;r yd l,a,sj doh;a fjkqfjka ykaÈhla .dfka Woaf>daIK Wmjdij,g .sy s
isik
q a iuÕ iyNd.S fjñka tajdg iyfhda.h olajk iriú NsCIQka jykafia,dj;a ukqIHlug
ks.d fok kjl jOh msgq ±lSu i|yd Woaf >daIK Wmjdi fkdj wju jYfhka nekrhlaj ;a
m%o¾Ykh fkdlsÍu nrm;, hq;=lï meyer yeÍuls' fl;rï kS;s iïmdokh ù ;snqK ;a udkj
ysñlï y;rjáka weia o,aj d f.k isáh;a úYaj úoHd,hla ;=< isÿjk tjeks ñf,aÉP l%shdjkag

ta lsisjlska o~qjï fkd,efnkafka úYajúoHd,h ;=<g fuu kS;s wod< fkdjk ksidj;ao @ tfia
fkdue;s kï úYajúoHd,hkays jQfjda udkj .Kfhys,d fkdie,flk ksidj;ao hkq weish hq;=
m%Yakhls'
iuiudchla f.dv ke.Su kjljOfhys wruqK nj th wd.ula fldg .;af;da mji;s'
tfiau Wm ixialD;sh fjkia fkdfldg /l .ekSu hq;= lula fldg o i<l;s' .;sl f,dalhla
;=< ú.;sl ixl,amhka ms<sn| j is;kafkda fld;rï w{dkfhda o @ úYaj úoHd,hSh wOHdmkh
,enqj ;a ;ju ;srYaÑk wdl,amhkaf.ka ñ§ ke;s njhs" ths ka jegfykaf ka' ;ukaf.a /fyag
w¨;a hfula meñKs úg ;rul úreoaOdl,amhla ±laùu ;srYaÑk iajNdjh hs' th blaujd hkakg
iriú isiqkag fkdyels ùu w;sY h fÄojdplfhls' iuiudchla f.dv k.kakg
úiudpdrhkaf.ka fkdyels njj;a f;areï .ekSu g ;rï fkdyels uq. aOhka ùu úYaj úoHd,hSh
YsIH kduhg fld;rï wf.!rjhla o @
iudkd;au ;dj" iduqysl yeÕSu wd§ w¾:dkaú ; jpk kjljoh fmruqf Kys ;ndf.k
;snqK;a kjl jOh muqK qjkakka ;=< tlS yeÕSï we;af ;a ke;' tajd yqfola jpk muKs' fuys,d
we;af ;a úfYaIfhka udkakfhka uqiq jQ B¾IHdj" ffjrh" m,s.ekSu wdÈfhka lelEreKq ÿIag
fÉ;kdjla yd iajlSh uq.aO u;jdohka bÈßhg weof.k hdfï jDIN kHdh;a hk fol hs' tlS
my;a wruqK q fol idOkh lr .ekSu i|yd Wodr ixl,amhkag uqj d ù iqiql ms< sfj;l
úYajúoHd,hSh YsIHhka fh§ isàu Tjqkaf.a ;;a;ajhg yd .re;ajhg ydkslr f,i n,md ;sf í'
lrkakka jdf,a lrk lshkakka jdf,a lshk úYajúoHd,hSh YsIHhd ksh u úma,jjdÈhl= fkdfõ'
Tyq uq.aO wkaOfhls' wd.ka;=lhka ms<s.ekSu Tjqkag mßirh y÷kajd §u b;d m%shYS,s j ñ;%YS,S
j lsÍu fn!oaO ixialD;shla ;=< yeÿKq jevqKq Tng u;la l< hq;= lreKla fkdjkafka h'
úYajúoHd,hSh uq.aO msßila úiska y÷kajd § we;s kjl jOh keue;s uq.aO wd.u woyk úYd,
uq.aO msßila wm rfÜ ìys ù yudrh' mdif,a§ ;u orejdg je/oaolg .=rejrhl= wjjdohla fyda
iq¿ o~qjula fyda muqKqjkjdg wlue;s ujqmsfhda .=rejrhdg úreoaOj kvq u.g neiai;a tu
orejdu úYajúoHd,fha § w;aú¢k wfkal úO ldhsl udkisl jO ysxidj, § foudmshka ta nj
±k ±k;a uqksj; rlskafka kjljOh ú¢h hq;a;la f,i th wd.ula fldg woyk ksid úh hq; =
h' fl;rï hq;=lï whs;sj dislï ms< sn| j mdif,a § .=rejreka YsIHhkag W.kaj d ;snqK;a
kjljOh iïnkaOfhka fndfyda .=rejre o th ukqIH whs;sjdislï W,a,x>kh lrk l=ßre
ms<sfj;la f,i ;u YsIHhkag myod fkdfokafka;a úYajúoHd,hSh jrï ,nd we;s YsIHhkag
kjljOfha § lshk lrk fohla lshdk lrdk bkakg wjjdo fokafka;a .=rejreka o jy,a
Ñka;kfhka fkdñ§ wdkaOdkql rKfhka kjljoh wd.ula f,i ms<sf.k lghq;= lrk ksid h'
úYajúoHd,hg w¨;ska msúfikakka o ;ud wksj d¾hfhkau kjljOh ú¢h hq;= hehs ta i|yd
ie§ meye§ hkafka Tjqka o tu kjljO wd.u je<|f.k isák ksid h' kjl YsIHhkag kï
NS;sl dj o fya;=jla úh yels h' tfy;a ìh ksid wd.ï je<| .kafkda w÷frka t<shg
fkdhkafkda h' iriú isiqkag isÿ ù we;af ;a o th hs' úfYaIfhka u úo.aO msßila úisk a ´kE u
fohla ms<s.; hq;af;a tys we;s WÑ;dkqÑ; Ndjh ukdj msßlaid n,d úuiqï kqjKska h' tfia
fkdjkakka wkaOhka yd iudk nj hs" nqÿrcdKka jykaf iaf.a foaYkh'
úYajúoHd,hSh isiqkaf.a wdNdih ,nd wfkl=;a wOHdmk wdh;k fndfydauhlg tlS
kjljO Wïu;a;l frda.h je<£ ;sf í' úoHd mSG" mqyqKq wdh;k" we;eï mdi,a yd msßfjka
muKla fkdj ;j fkdfhla wixúê; ixúOdk ;=<g o tlS frda.h je<§ ;sîug iriú frda.
ldrlhd j.lsj hq;= h' fndai;a orejkaf.a W;=ï .=Khla úh hq;af;a ;udg meñKs ÿla lror
jOysxid wka whg isÿ fkdfjkakg j.lSfuka hqla; j mdrñ;djla f,i mQrKh lsÍu hs' wfkl
;ukag jO ysxid lrkafka ;j msßils' thska m<s .kafka Bg lsisÿ iïnkaOhla ke;s wirK

wysxil msßilf.ks' th w;sYh ySk fm!refIah ,CIKhla nj nqoaêu;a iriú isiq is iqúfhda
jgyd .ks;ajd'

;j;a wjHdmdr
kjljOhg wu;r j úYajúoHd,hSh YsIH m%cdj úiska ;u ;;a;ajh yd .re;ajh /l
.ekSu i|yd is;d ne,sh hq;= ;j lreKq .Kkdjla we;' jir ;=kl y;rl úYajúoHd,hSh
wOHdmkh i|yd wdOdr jYfhka yd wfkl=;a myiqlï jYfhka wka ljr rglj;a fkdue;s
;rï w;s úYd, msßjehla tla YsIHhl= fjkqfjka rchla úiska orkq ,efí' ta uyck uqo,a h'
rfÜ iEu mqrjeishl= u Tfí wOHdmkh ,nd.ekSu i|yd odhl fõ' tneúka úYajúoHd,hSh
wOHdmk ld,h ;=< Tn tys kshu M, fk,d .; hq;= h' tfia fkdjqk fyd;a Tn úYd, Kh
lrejl= njg m;a fõ' fndfyda úYaj úoHd,hSh YsIHhka ;u ld¾hNdrh ksishdldr j f;areï
f.k ;sfí o hkak ;u ;ud u úuiqï kqjKska jgyd .; hq;= h' we;eï úYajúoHd,hSh YsIHhka
^.sys-meúÈ& ;u wOHdmk lghq;=;a úúO iudc i;aldrhkq;a isÿ lrñka M,odhS f,i iriú
Ôú;h u,aM, .kajd .ks;s' tfy;a we;eïyq ;ukag;a m%fhdackhla ke;s iudchg;a ydksodhs jQ
wkOHhk ms<sfj;l iriú Ôú;h fhdojd ;sf í' uq¿ iriú ld,h u jeo.;a wruqKla ke;s
lvdlmam,aldÍ Wmjdi" Woaf >daIK yd fmdaiag¾ jHdmdrhkays fhfoñka tfia u láka iudcjdoh
f.dv k.kakg W;aidy ork mqia foaYmd,k u;jdo bÈßhg /f.k hdfuys leg fyd,a,ñka nr
wÈk jDIN m%;sm;a;Skays msysgd uq¿ rgla uy;a jQ n,dfmdfrd;a;= ;nd isá ñka mj;soaÈ tajd ;U
fodhs;=jlg fkdi,ld l%shd lrk tjeks YsIHhka kej; kej; ;u ld¾hNdrh l=ula o hkak
uekúka fufkys lr .; hq;= h' Tfí wOHdmkh iqrCIs; lr§u i|yd Tn jeks u w;súYd,
;reK ¥ ore msßila ;%súO yuqodjg ne£ we;s uy;a ÿIalr ld¾hhla lrñka ±jeka; Ôú;
wNsfhda.hkg uqyqK mdñka isákd nj o wu;l fkdlrkak' tfia u tjeks u ;j úYd, msßila
fï uy fmdf<dj iuÕ .efgñka ±jeka; Y%ujHhla isÿ lrk nj o wu;l fkdlrkak' iriú
YsIHhd j,au;a jQ yirla fkdokak d wJOjQjl= fkdúh hq;= h' Tyq wjYH oE ksjerÈ j lsÍug
iu;a ksoyia ksjy,a Ñka;kh .re lrk iodpdr u¾hdodjka blaujd fkdhk úma,jlrejl=
úh hq;= h'
uyck uqo,a u; hefmk úYajúoHd,hSh .sys -meúÈ m%cdj wiSñ; f,i uyck uqo,a ÿisß;a
ÿrdpdrlïys fhoùu o iriú YsIHhkaf.a ;;a;ajhg yd .re;ajhg wfhda.H h' kjl
YsIHhkaf.ka m<sf.k ms<s.ekSu i|yd;a fcHaIaG YsIHhkaf.a iuq. ekSu i|yd;a" úNd. wjika
ùu ieuÍu i|yd;a l%Svd§ wfkalúO W;aij ksñ ;af ;kq;a" fm%au iïnkaOhka we;slr .ekSu
ksid;a wd§ fndfyda wjia:djkays fmdÿfõ isÿjk idohkay s § o jirla mdid flfrk úfkdao
pdßldÈfhys § o isiq isiqúhkaf.a {d;s u<f.j,aj, hdïBï ys§ o Bg wu;rj iq¿ iq¿ lKavdhï
jYfhka iy fm!oa.,sl j o wrlal= is./Ü" .xcd wd§ u;aøjH i|yd .sys meúÈ fomd¾Yajfha u
fndfyda YsIHfhda jirlg ,CI oyhl myf<djl uqo,a jeh lsÍï isÿ lr;s' lgfyd,a,,d Wmhd
f.k o we;eïyq tlS ÿisß;ays fhfo;s' ta l%shdjkag m%;sú reoaO lKavdhï n,fõ. .sys meúÈ
jYfhka úYajúoHd,hkays ìysù ;sîu ksid;a Tjqka hï hï ck yoj;a ;=<g ±fkk i;aldrl
jev igyka l%shd;aul lrk ksid;a úYajúoHd,hSh YsIHhkaf.a ;;a;ajh yd .re;ajh hï;dla
ÿrlg fyda wdrCId ù ;sf nk nj ta ienE úma,jldÍ YsIHhkag Wmydrhla f,i igykalr ;eìh
hq;= h' tfy;a fyd| foag jvd krl foh biau ;= j fmfkk ksid hym;a l%shdldßkag o
wufkda{ l%shd lrkakjqka ksid wmydi Wmydihkag ,lajkakg isÿ fõ'
wrlal= fnda;,h idlal=fjys odf.k is./Ügqj fof;df,ys r|jd.;a .xcd ñg
fud,jd.;a láka iudcjdoh m;=rejk ;uka iudcjd§ka hehs lsh d.kakd Bkshd we;eï ;%ia;jd§

fínÿ YsIH lKavdhï wisñ; f,i úYajúoHd, iïm;a o lvd ì| úkdY lr ou;s' mßirh
¥IKh lr;s' úYajúoHd,hSh wdpd¾hjreka yd YsI Hhka w;r .=re isiq in|;d ÿria lr;s' wd.ñl
wkkH;djka yd iodpdr O¾u úkdY lr ou;s' ienE úma,jldÍ YsIH lKavdhïj,g uer m%ydr
t,a, lr;s' wkH u;jdo u¾okh lr;s' ta lsisjla iriú YsIHhdf.a ;;a;aj h yd .re;ajh
wdrCId fkdlrk nj iEu iriú YsIHfhl= u wjfndaO lr.; hq;= h'
) fuys úfYaIfhka i|yka lrk ;eka yereKq úg Ndú; ish¨ ;%smsgl .%ka: nqoaO chka;s ixialrKhg
wh;a nj i,lkak'
wdka;sl igyka
1'
wkaf;d cgd nyscgd cgdh cá;d mcd
ix'ks' 1" cgd iq;a;" 26 msg'
2'
3'

u'ks' ii" pxlS iq;a;" 656 msg'
widfr idru;sfkd - idfrpdidroiaisfkd"
f; idrx kdê.ÉPka;s - ñÉPdixlmamf.dprd
Lq'ks' 1" O'm' 28 msg'

4'

u'ks' ii" wx.=,sud, iq;a;" 516-528 msgq'

5'

u'ks' i" wßhmßfhik iq;a;" 394-424 msgq'

6'

u'ks' i" uydiSykdo iq;a;" 164-198 msgq'

7'

u'ks' i" wßhmßfhik iq;a;" 394" 242 msgq'

8'

Lq'ks' i" O'md' 42 msg'

9'

u'ks' i" w,.oa¥mu iq;a;" 336 msg'

10'
11'

wx'ks' v" w;a;ldr iq;a;" 94 msg'
WÜGdkjf;d i;suf;d - iqÑlïuiai ksiïuldßfkd"
i[a[;iai p OïuÔúfkd - wmamu;a;iai hfidNsjâv;s'
Lq'ks' i" O'm' 30 msg'

12'
13'
14'

È'ks' iii" w.a.[a[ iq;a;" 144-150 msgq'
- tu - 156 msg'
k lydmK jiafik ;s;a;s ldfuiq úÊc;s
Lq'ks' O'm' 72 msg'
k w;a;fya;= k mriai fya;= - k mq;a;ñÉfP k Okx k rÜGx"
k bÉfPhH wOïfuk iñoaêu;a;fkd - iiS,jd m[a[jd Oïñfld ishd
Lq'ks' i" O'm' 42 msg'
- tu - 50 msg'

15'

16'
17'

wpßFjd n%yaupßhx - w,oaOd fhdínfk Okx"
ýKaK fld[apdj ®dhka;s - ÇKuÉfPj m,a,f,'
- tu - 64 msg'

18'

wx'ks' v" jika;smÊc iq;a;" 236 msg'

19'

ix'ks' wc®;a;dksÉp iq;a;" 2 msg'

20'

ix'ks' ii" k.r iq;a;" 162 msg'

21'

ix'ks' i" tlmq.a., iq;a;" 286 msg'

22'

Lq'ks' i" O'm' 150 msg'

23'

od<soaÈhx NsCLfj ÿlaLx f,dliañx'
w'ks' iv, 118 msg'

24'

Lq'ks' O'm' 145 msg'

25'

bO .ym;s l=,mq;af;d liaiÑ ls[aÑ Odfr;s wmamx jd nyqx jd fid k liaiÑ" ls[aÑ Odfrñ wmamx jd
nyqxjd;s wê.ÉP;s iqLx" wê.ÉP;s fidaukiaix'

wx'ks' iv" wKk iq;a;" 130 msg'
26'

È'ks' iii" is.d, iq;a;" 308 msg'

27'

- tu -

28'

wx'ks' v" jH.a>mÊc iq;a;" 236 msg'

29'

w;a;dkx iqfL;s mSfK;s" ud;dms;frd iqfL;s mSfK;s''''

30'

pq,a, fiÜÀ cd;lh" cd;l fmd; 14 msg" fõrf.dv wurfuda,s ysñ ixialrKh

31'

m[aÑfu NsCLfj jKsÊcd wlrKShd" iF:jKsÊcd i;a;jKsÊcd uxijKsÊcd" uÊcjKsÊcd úijKsÊcd'
wx'ks' iii" jKsÊcd iq;a;" 338 msg'

32'

§'ks' i" idu[a[M, iq;a;" 112 msg'

33'

wx'ks' ii" wKk iq;a;" 130 msg'

34'

§'ks' iii" is.d, iq;a;" 292 msg'

35'

- tu -

36'

m[a[d f,dliañx mÊfcdf;d
ix'ks' i" mÊfcda; iq;a;" 82 msg'

37'

§'ks' iii" is.d, iq;a;" 292 msg'

38'

ixjdfik fLd uydrdc iS,x fjÈ;ínx" ;[ap fLd Èf>k woaOqkd k b;a;rx ukis lfrd;d fkd
wuksislfrd;d m[a[j;d fkd ÿmam[af[k
ix'ks' i" i;a;cá, iq;a;" 146 msg'

39'

§'ks' ii" ilalm[ay iq;a;" 402 msg'

40'

ix'ks' ii" ioaOïumárEml iq;a;" 338 msg'

41'

ix'ks' i" l,HdKñ;a; iq;a;" 160 msg'

42'

§'ks' iii" is.d, iq;a;" 298 msg'

43'

k jKaKrEfmk kfrd iqcdfkd - k úiaifi b;a;r oiaifkk
ix'i' i" i;a;cá, iq;a;" 146 msg'

44'

prx fp kdê.ÉfPhH - fihHx iÈiu;a;fkd"
tlpßhx o<ayx lhsrd - kFÓ ndf, iydh;d'
Lq'ks' i" O'm' 42 msg'

45'

fhd yfj bK udodh - pqÊcudfkd m,dh;s"
kys f; bKuFÓ;s - ;x c[a[djif,d b;s
iq'ks' ji, iq;a;" 38 msg'

46'

§'ks' i" wïnÜG iq;a;" 174 msg'

47'

iq'ks' ji, iq;a;" 40 msg'

48'

úiaididmrud[d;s
Lq'ks' i" O'm' 76 msg'

49'

tlx Oïux w;S;iai - uqidjdÈiai cka;=fkd"
ú;sKaKmrf,dliai - kFÓ mdmx wldßhx'
Lq'ks' i" O'md' 68 msg'

50'

ika;x wFÓ;s j;a;ínx - wika;x kFÒ;s j;a;ínx

51'

ksêkxZj mj;a;drx - hx miafi jÊcoiaiskx"
ks.a.hayjdÈx fuOdúx - ;dÈix mKaä;x Nfc
;dÈix Ncudkiai - fifhHd fyd;s k mdmsfhd'
Lq'ks' i" O'md' 40 msg'

52'

mrïuqLdiai wjKaK Ndi;s
§'ks' iii" is.d, iq;a;" 196 msg'

53'

u'ks' i" wkÙ.K iq;a;" 58 msg'

54'

§'ks' iii" is.d, iq;a;" 300 msg'

55'

kFÓ f,dfld rfyd kdu - mdmlïux ml=ínf;d
wx'ks' i" ;sl ksmd;h" 270 msg'

56'

i;r mdrdðld yer wfkla YsCId mo yd iïnkaOfhka'

57'

cd'md' uq.mlaL cd;lh" 4 msg'

58'

bFÓOq;af;d iqrdOq;af;d - wlaLOq;af;d p fhd kfrd"
,oaOx ,oaOx úkdfi;s - ;x mrdNjf;d uqLx'
iq'ks' mrdNjiq;a;" 34 msg'

59'

§'ks' is.d, iq;a;" 294 msg'

60'

W!fKd f,dfld w;s;af;d ;Kaydodfid
u'ks' ii" rÜGmd, iq;;
a " 446 msg

61'

tflk fNdf. N=[afchH - oaùys lïux mfhdcfh
p;=F:x p ksOdfmhH - wdmodiq Núiai;s
§'ks' iii" is.d, iq;a;" 302 msg'

62'

m;srEfmk odfrk ixfhdfcka;s
§'ks' iii" is.d, iq;a;" 304 msg'

63'

w;S; fhdínfkd fmdfid - wdfk;s ;sïnreF:ksx"
;iaid biaid k iqm;s - ;x mrdNjf;d uqLx'
iq'ks' mrdNj iq;a;" 34 msg

64'

OïumoÜGl:d" úidL jF:q

65'

mshmNú;d fLd n%yauK fidlmßfojÿlLfodukiaiqmiaid
u'ks' ii" mshcd;sl iq;a;" 500 msg

66'

- tu - 530 msg

67'

WfNd wiaiq iuioaOd iuiS,d iupd.d ium[a[d hd ÈÜfGj Oïfu w[a[u[a[x mshika;d wNsiïmrdh[ap'
wx'ks' iii" ÿ;sh kl=, ^iuÔúl& iq;a;" 118 msg'

68'

wx'ks' ii" mGuixjdi iq;a;" 110 msg'

69'

wx'ks' iv, i;a;Nßhd iq;a;" 414 msg'

70'

mQcfld ,Nf; mQcx - jkaofld májkaokx

71'

iq'ks' mrdNj iq;a;" 34 msg'

72'

i;a;sudks NsCLfj Okdks ioaOd Okx iS,Okx ysßOkx T;a;mamOkx iq;Okx pd.Okx m[a[dOkx
wx'ks' iv" úF:; Ok iq;a;" 284 msg'

73'

hdjfoj wkF:dh - [F:x nd,iai cdh;s
Lq'ks' i" O'm' 42 msg'

74'

cd'md' uq.mlaL cd;lh" 4 msg

75'
76'

Lq'ks' i" O'm' 30 msg
od<soaÈhx fjmq,a,x .f; wÈkakdodkd fjmq,a,u.udis wÈkakdodfk fjmq,a,x .f; iF:x fjmq,a,u.udis
wOïurdf.d úiuf,dfNd ñÉPdOïfud fjmq,a,u.udis
È'ks' iii" plalj;a;s iq;a;" 118 msg'
w[a[;frd i;af;d f,d,cd;sfld ilx Nd.x mßrCLkaf;d w[a[;rx Nd.x wÈkakx wdÈhsFjd mßN=[að
È'k' iii" w.a.[a[ iq;a;" 154 msg'

77'
78'

wx'ks' iii" rdc iq;a;" 338 msg'

2
m%pKav;ajh" úma,jh" wNsfhda. yd ;dreKHh
wNshqÊ

Od;=fjka ksmka wNsfhda. hkafkys woyi fh§u hkak hs' wNs hkq kd¾:j;a jQ
wjH mohls' fuys,d úfYaI" Wiia iy bF:ïN+;d§ w¾:hkays .; yels h' túg úfYaI f,i
fh§u" Wiia f,i fh§u" wod< ldrKfhys fh§u hkd§ w¾: .; yels h' ta wkqj wNsfhda.hla
hkq fh§ula ksr;ùula ch .ekSula ñi ieÕù ìh ù m,dhdula fkdjk nj jgyd.; hq;= h'
tys úreoaOd¾:h wkNsfhda.h hs' tkï" fkdfh§u hs' wNsfhda.hla wkNsf hda.h;a hk fol u
fmkajd fok tlu oyu nqÿ oyu muKhs'
wod< m%ia;=;hg ÿßka iïnkaOjkakla jqj ;a fuh fuys § m<uqj olajkaf ka wo fndfyda
fokd Okd;aul Ñka;kh ms<sn|j ±ä Wkkaÿjla olajk ld,jljdkqj la ksid h' Okd;aul
Ñka;kjd§ka úiska wkjfndaê; tfy;a nqÿ oyu úiska fy<sorõ lr§ we;s jákd woyils"
wNsfhda. yd wkNsfhda. hk folu' m[apiS, m%;sm;a;sh ;=< u jqj o fï nj oDYHudk fõ'
we;eï Okd;aul Ñka;lhka m[apYS, m%;smodj ;=< úruKhla fyj;a je<lSula olajk ksid
th iDKd;aul wdl,amhla f,i fmkajd §ug fm<fUk nj fmfka' th nqÿiufhhs W.kajk
wkNsfhda. l%u h hs' wkNsfhda.h fkdy÷kkakl=g wNsfhda.hg uqyqK Èh fkdyels h'
wkNsfhda.h ;=< skauh" wNsf hda. h W;amdokh jkafka' WodyrKhla f,i l¾lI ksiaidr N+ñ hla
.kak' flfkl= ta ksire ìfuys idrj;a jDCIhla wNsj ¾Okh lr .ekSug ys;d tlS ksire
ldIagl fmdf<dfjys me<hla frdamKh l<fyd;a isÿjkafka l=ula o @ idrj;a jDCIhla fjkqjg
flavEß jDCIhla j¾Okh ùu hs' tfia fkdjqkfyd;a me,h ueÍ hdu hs' tfy;a tu N+ñfhys u
wkjYH ksire mia bj;,d ire mia fhdod me,hla frdamKh l<fyd;a ireidrj;a jDCIhla
j¾Okh jkq we;' ;=j d,hlg fnfy;a ±óug fmr ;=j d,fhys úIîc fidaod yeÍu l< hq;= h'
tfia fkdue;sj fnfy;a fh¥ muKska ;=jd,h iqj jkafka ke;' we;eï úg tfia fkdl<fyd;a
jKh úYd, úh yels h' nqÿiuh m%:ufhka úruKh fyj;a je<lSu tfia;a ke;fyd;a
wkNsfhda.h olajkafka tu ksid h' wmsßisÿ nj bj;a fkdlr flfia msßisÿ nj we;s lr .kak
o@ tneúka nqÿoyu m%:ufhka je<lsh hq;a;la fojkqj fhÈh hq;a;la olaj hs' 1 ta wkqj wNsfhda.
yuqfjys wkNsfhda.j isákakd o wkNsfhda.fhys wNsfhda.j isákakd o hk fofokd u u. jroaod
.;a;jqka f,ihs i|yka l< yelafla'
;jÿrg;a wNsfhda. ms<sn| j idlÉPd lsÍug m%:ufhka úma,jh yd m%pKav;ajh ms< sn|j
o jpkd¾:hka ú.%y lr .ekSu iqÿiq h' úma,jh hk jpkh wefik úgu fndfyda fokdf.a
is;g ±fkkafka m%pKav;ajfha Pdhdjls' ienúka u úma,jfhys;a m%pKav;ajfhys;a hï
idoDYHhla mj;skafka±hs úuid ne,sh hq;= h' fndfyda fokd w¾: .kajk wdldrhg úma,jh
hkak ;=< wr.,h flda,dy,h wd§ m%pKav;ajhg iïnkaOj w¾:hla úoHdudk fõ' tfy;a bka
tyd .sh .eUqre w¾:hla úma,jh hkafkys wka;¾.;h' ú ma¨ Od;=fjka ksmka úma,j hkafkys
w¾: lSmhla we;' msyskSu" mdùu" .e,Su hk w¾: we;s mohls" ma,j hkak ú hk wjHfhys o
úúO w¾: ;sf í' .Õla .,kafka my<g h' .,k Èfhys .,k me;a;g msyskSu o myiq h' úma,jh
hkq thska m%;sú reoaO ÈYdjg .uka lsÍu hs' .Õla .,df.dia uqyqog jgfyd;a tys úfYaI ;ajhla
ke;' we;af;a tl u ¨Kq rihla muKs' tfy;a tu .Õ yriafldg úreoaO ÈYdjlg fhduq

l<fyd;a thska úYd, msßilg uy;a jQ w¾:hla i,id.; yels h' úma,jh ;=<ska isÿjkafka; a
thu h' fndfyda fokd je/oao yß hehs ks. ukh lr ;snqK;a yßhg yßfoa f;a reï f.k tys
fh§u úma,jhls' fndfyda fokd yß foh jerÈ hehs ;SrKh lr ;snqK ;a yß foh yß úÈyg ±l
tys fh§u úma,jhls' f,dalfha fY%aI aghka my<jkafka túg h' tfia fkdjqkfyd;a ish,af ,da
idudkHfhda h' lrkakka wkqj lrk lshkakka wkqj lshk udkisl jy,l= úma,jlrejl= f,i
ye¢kaúh fkdyels h' ksjerÈ j is;d ksjerÈ wdldrhg lrk lshk ;eke;a;d úma,jlrefjla
fjhs' f,dj m%:u woaú ;Sh úma,jldß W;=fuda nqÿrcdfKda h' fkdleue;a;d jQ ujqmshka úiska y~d
je<fmñka isáh § l¿ flia we;s Nø fh!jkfha § rdcH iïm;a ;dkdka;r ish,a,la w¨hu Æ
fl, msvla fia m%;sfCIam fldg Wvq.ï n,d msyskq úma,jldÍ W;=f uls" Wka jykafia' 2
Wkajykafia f.a ta ±ä úma,jh ksid fndfyda fofkla ksù iekiqKy' úma,jfhys wjika M,h
úh hq;af ;a ksù u;a iekiSu ;a h' tneúka ;reKhd úma,jlrejl= úh hq;= h hkafkka woyia
lrkafka f;fï o iudch o ksjd ikik ;eke;a;l= ùuhs'
m%pKav;ajh hkq úma,jfhka úhqla; ixl,amhla ñi iïm%h qla; ixl,amhla fkdjk nj
B<Õg jgyd .; hq;= ldrKh hs' r¿ .;sl;ajh m%pKav;ajfha iajNdjh hs' Y=ø hk kduh iudc
jHjydrhla njg m;ajQfha o tlS r¿ mr¿ .;sh ksid u nj nqÿoyu fmkajd § we;' 3 idudkH
jHjydrfhys pKaä hkqfjka ye¢kafjkafka m%pKav;ajh we;s ;eke;a;ka h' ta wkqj wNsfhda.
yd úma,jh ixhqla; ixl,amhla f,i .;yels jQj;a úma,jh yd m%pKav;aj h úhqla; ixl,amhla
nj f;areï.; hq;= h' we;eïyq wNsfhda.fhys,d m%pKav;ajh biau;= lr .ks;s' th fkdukd h'
wfkl úma,jh udkqfÊh jQjla h' m%pKav;ajh i;d isj qmdjgo fmdÿ h' we;eï úg ÈjH
ldhslhka ;=< o th oDYHudkjk nj ienE h' 4
m%pKav;ajh úIfhys n,mdk tl u tl fya;=jla ms<sn|j nqÿiuh kQ.kajhs' nqÿ iuh ta
ms<sn|j orkafka nyq fya;=l wdl,amhls' tfy;a nqÿ iuh Bg uQ,hla f,i we,Su ;a .eàu;a
uq,dj;a olajhs' mdßißl idOl" wd¾Ól mSvkh" wiykh" w;Dma;sh" n,f,daNS;aj h wdÈ úúO
ldrKd tys,d fya;= mdol jk whqre nqÿ oyu fmkajd § we;' we,Su ;a .eàu;a uq< dj;a ksid
m%pKavldÍ udkisl;ajhla f.dv kef.k whqre ia;%shl Wmud lrñka nqÿrcdKka jykafia
fmkajd § we;' ´kE;rï ia;%S mqreIhka l;d ny lrñka isák whqre Tn ±l we;s nj;a ta ;=< sk a
lsisÿ Ñ;a; úfCIdaNhla ;uka ;=< yg fkd.;a nj;a fmkaj d fok nqÿrcdKka jykafia tfy;a
;uka fmï lrk ;eke;a;d fyda ;eke;a;sh fjk;a ;eke;a;shl fyda ;eke;a;l= iu. fndfyda
fõ,d l;d lr lr isák whqre ±lSfuka Ñ;a; úfCIdaNhg m;ajkafka we,Su;a .eàu;a uq,dj;a
ksid nj fmkajd fo;s' .Dyia: fukau iudc m%pKav;ajh úIfhys fndfyda fokdg f;areï lr
.ekSug fkdyels jQj ;a uQ,sl fya;+ka jkafka we,Sula .eàu;a uq<dj;a nj ukd isyskqjKska
úuid n,k l, meyeÈ,s fõ'
foaYmd,ksl jYfhka .;a l, úúO kïj,g uqjd ù n, f,daNs;ajh u; m%pKav
l%shdjkag fm<fUk whqre wE; w;S;fha isg fï olajd WodyrK idOl .; yels h' tys §
urdf.k ueÍug ;rï m%pKav;ajh oreKq ù ;sfí' fuys úfYaI ;ajh jkaf ka n,f,daNsh d iajlSh
ukfod< iïmQ¾K lr .ekSu msK si úúO kduhkaf.ka wkqkaf.a is;a rjgd ¥IKh lr fkduÕ
heùu hs' ta i|yd leue;af;ka fyda wlue;af ;ka ;ud jgd msßia tal rdYsl rKh o m%pKav;ajh
;=<ska u isÿ lr.kS' wo wm rfgys .;a úg fldá ;%ia;jd§ka o we;eï foaY md,ksl mCI o b;d
fid÷re kï ^fou< B<dï úuqla;s fldá ixúOdkh wd§ jYfhka& Ndú; lrñka ck;dj uq< d
fldg m%pKav;ajh ±ä f,i m;=rejd we;s njla m;=rejk nj ljqre;a oks;s' úfYaIfhka u
;reK ;reKshka ta i|yd Tjqyq ovóud lrf.k isá ;s' ksoyia ksjy,a Ñka;khla fjkqjg odi

jy,a Ñka;khlg jákd ;reK Ôú; ì,Snd .ekSf ï l+g foaY md,k jHdmdrhkaf.ka w;a ñ§
fomhska ke.S isg nqoê
a fhka l%sh d lrk ;reK mrïmrdjl wjYH;dj wm rgg ±ä f,i wjYH
hq.hls" fuu hq.h' ´kE u foaY md,k u;hl msysgd l%sh d lsÍfï mrudêm;Hhla ´kEu
mqrjeisfhl=g we;' tlS mrudêm;Hh o Wÿrd .ksñka foaY md,ksl m%pKav;aj h m;=rejk
we;eïyq W;aidy orkafka udkisl jy,aNdjh f.dvk.kakg fkdfõ o @
;dreKH iajNdjfhka u yeÕSï nr h' tu ksidu we;eï m%dpKaäl l%shd úIfhys Tnj
fhdod .ekSug nqoaêhg fkdj ye`.Su g wduka;%Kh lsÍfuka yels nj we;eï n,f,daNSka okak d
ksid Tfí f,a l=ms; lrjk yeÕSï W;aikak lrk isysk f,dalhl u;jdo bÈßm;a lrñka Tfí
yeÕSï wjqiaid Tn wk;=f rys oud .sks.;a /jqf,ka iqreÜgq m;a;=l r .ekSfï wOu l%shdfjys
iQCIau f,i Tõyq ksr; fj;s' tneúka yeÕSug jy,afkdù nqoê
a hg uq,a;ek § l%shd l< hq;= u
wjÈhlhs" Tn miqjkafka hk ldrKh ;reK ;reKshka úiska jgyd .; hq;= h' wdldYfhys
yg.kakd fõrïN jd;hg yiqjk mCIsh df.a msh dm;a tla me;a;lg;a w;amd wdÈh ;j;a
me;a;lg;a .id f.k hhs' tfia u foaYmd,k fõrïNjd;hg yiq jqj fyd;a jákd ;reK
Ôú;j,g o isÿjk úkdYh b;d nrm;, h'
m%pKav;ajh úIfhys mdßißl idOl o hï whqrl n,mEula isÿ lrkq ,efí' b;d
wysxil mqoa.,hka pKav fr!ø mqoa.,hka njg m;aùu msKsi iudc mßirfhka ,efnk wdNdih
fnfyúka n,mdk nj fmfka' i;a;s .=ïN cd;lh;a5 wx.=,su d, pß;h;a6 ta i|yd m%n, WodyrK
folls' b;du iq¿ ldrKhlska jqj m%pKav;ajh biau;= úh yels h' we;eï úg iudch ;=<
hym;a hehs iïu; whj¨ka w;ska o m%pKav;ajh biau ;= jkakg bv ;sf í' wefik wm%sh mqxÑ
jpkhla Wmdodk lrf.k we;eïúg m%pKav;aj h biau ;= j ths' we;eï úg olsk wm%sh isÿùula
ta i|yd fya;=ùug bv ;sf í' th md,kh lr .ekSug fkdokak d w{dkhka m%pKavldÍ
udkisl;ajhg f;fï u hg;aj ldhslj tfia ke;fyd;a jdpisl j tlS m%pKav;ajh uqod yßhs'
fõoysld kï b;d ckdorhg m;a iqjp fi!r;H .DyKshla jQjd h' wehg ld,s kï
fufyldßhla o jQj d h' bjik iq¨ ksy;udkS .=K we;s ;u iajdñjßh ieneúka u tlS .=K
ksid f,dalhd w;r fyd| kduhla ,nd f.k weoa±hs msßlaid ne,Sug Èkla ld,shg is;a my< úh'
ld,sh w¨hñka u ke.sg fõoysldj msì§ug fmr f.or uQ,sl jevlghq;= fndfyduhla ksu
lrk fõoysldjf.a o m%idoh Èkdf.k isá läir fiaúldjls' wE Èkla fõoysldj mßCId lr
ne,Sf ï wáfhka fndfyda fõ,d ksod.;a;d h' fõoysldj meñK Bg fya;= úuiQ úg ld,shf.a
ms<s;=r jQfha úfYaI fya;=jla ke;s nj hs' tu ms<s;=f rka fõoysldj ;=< ks,Sk j mej;s m%pKav
udkisl;ajh nqr nqrd mek ke.S jpkhg fmr,S bßhõ u.ska o m%lg jkak g úh' fojeks ojil
o ld,sh tu mßCIKh u isÿ l<d h' fõoysldj m%:u Èkhg jvd ;u m%p Kav;ajh m< l<d h'
f;jeks Èkl o ld,sh tu mÍCIKh u l<d h' f;jeks Èk fõoysldj jpkfhka m%pKav;ajh
uqod yeßhd h' <Õ ;snQ fodr fmd,a, f.k ysig myr § ld,shf.a ysi ìkaod h' 7 fuh b;du mqxÑ
isÿùuls' tfy;a fl<jr jQfha ±ä m%pKav;ajhlsks' md,kh fkdlr .kak d is;la we;s ´kE u
flkl= ;=< tjeks m%pKavldÍ udkisl;ajhla we;s ùug bv ;sf í' Ndú; is; u iqj f.k fok
nj nqÿrcdKka jykaf ia foaYkd l<y'8
liSNdroaj dc ;=< nqÿrcdKka jykafiaf.a o¾Yk ud;%fhka muKla m%pKavldÍ
udkisl;ajhla biau;=j iuKl jdofhka ji, jdofhka jpkfhka m%pKav;ajh uqody<
wjia:djla o jd¾;d fõ' tfia u ;u wiqfkys nqÿrcdKka jykafia jev isák whqre ±l wd,jl
o w;sYhska m%pKavldÍ j Wkajykafiag ldhsl j joysxid muqKqjkakg;a jyis nia fodvkakg;a

úh'10 Y%jK ud;%fhka u fyda o¾Yk ud;%fhka u hul= m%pKavldÍ ;;a;ajhg m;aúh yels nj
ñka meyeÈ,s jk lreKls'
tlg lld ìî isá ñ;%hka fofokl= tla whl=f.ka isÿ jQ mqxÑ kqreiakd jpkhla ksid
ìî isá fnda;,h u ì| thska weK wfkld Ôú;CIhg m;al< isÿùï wms fldf;l=;a ±l wid
we;af ;uq' we;eï úg iajdñhd ìß|g myr §ï jeks .Dyia: m%pKav;ajh l%shd;aul jkafka úYd,
me;sreKq m%Yak ksid fkdfõ' b;d mqxÑ isÿùï ud;%hlsks' mqxÑ isÿùula jqj ;a m%pKav;ajh biau ;=
úug th b;d m%u dKj;a h' fuhg jhia fNaohla o fkdue;' tfy;a úfYaIfhka u ;reK
wdfõ. yd Yla;sh iuÕ m%pKav;ajh biau;= jk úg th jvd;a n,j;a jk ksi hs' ;reK Tn ta
ms<sn| ±ä wjOdkh fhduq l< hq;= j we;af ;a' we;eï úg Tn fkdfhla Yío Ydia;% yod< W.;l=
úh yels h' tfia u is,aj ;a j jdih lrkafkl= o úh yels h' tfy;a m%p Kav;ajh biau;= ùug
tajd ndOd fkdfõ' hï fyhlska Tn ;=< m%pKav;ajh biau;= jqjfyd;a Tfí ,iaik ;dreKHh
wj,iaik jk nj u;l ;nd .kak' Tn u Tn ;=< biau;= j tk m%pKav;ajh ms<sn| jegySfuka
miqúh hq;= h' túg ;udgu ;udf.a wvqj ±l .; yels h' 11 Tn u is;d thska ñfokjd úkd Tn
fjkqfjka tu ld¾h fjk whl=g isÿ l< fkdyels h' ;udf.a Y=oê
a h;a wY=oaêh;a we;slr
.kafka f;fï u h'12
fl%daOdNsN+; j m%pKav j l%shdlrk mqreIhl=g fyda ia;%shlg ffjrlal drhka j m%sh jQ
Tjqkag w¾:j;a jQ ima; O¾uhla meñfKk nj nqÿrcdKka jykafia fmkajd fo;s' i;=rl=
i;=rl=f.a j¾Kj;a nj fkdleu;s jkakd fia thska ix;Dma; fkdjkakd fia fl%daOdNsN+;j
m%pKavldÍ j yeisf rkakdyq uekúka iakdkh lf<a kuq;a ^iqk dyf;d& uekúka .e,ajQ wdf,am
we;af ;a kuq;a ^iqú<s;af ;d& fudkjg ;enQ wkaoï we;s flia rjq,a we;af;a kuq;a ^lmams;
fliuiaiq& iqÿ jia ;% y¢kafka kuq;a ^Tod;jF:jikd& ÿ¾j¾K ùu isÿfjhs' fl%daOdksN+; fl%dO
jiÕhg meñKs ;eke;a;d fld÷ m<fiys ksokafka kuq;a ÿlfia u ihkh lrhs' fl%daOdNsN+;
m%pKav jQjyq w¾:h wk¾:h f,i f.k wk¾:h w¾:h f,i f.k fndfyda ÿlg m;afj;s' tfia
u kEhka yd ñ;=rka úiska ÿre lrkq ,n;s' tfia u ldhsl ÿYapß;hkays o jdpisl ÿYapß;hkays
o udkisl ÿYap ß;hkays o fhfo;s' ta ksid u fuf,dj o ÿla ú¢;s' mrf,dõys ÿ¾.;s úksmd;
ksrhg msúfi;s'13
m%pKav;ajh biau ;= jQ ;ek úma,jldß;ajh ;=rka fõ' Tng ienE úma,jlrejl= ùug
wjYH kï m%pKav udkisl;ajfhka ñ§fï YlH;dj we;slr.; hq;= h' ysxil m%;sm;a;sfhka
w;añÈh hq;= h' lreKdfjka yd m%{dfjka uKaä; úh hq;= h' W;aidyfhka wkQk úh hq;= h'
ù¾hfhka iu,xlD; úh hq;= h' bjiSfuka YsCIs; úh hq;= h' fkdlg hq;af ;ys ,Êcdìh we;a;l=
úh hq;= h' ix.dudjpr yia;srdchl=fia ord .ekSfï Yla;sjka;hl= úh hq;= h' YS,h wdrCIl
j,,a,la lr .; hq;= h' ksjerÈ úma,jhlg tlaùug fuu .=K dx. wjYHfhka u Tn ;=< msysg d
;sìh hq;= h' tfia fkdjqK fyd;a ma,jhla muKs isÿ jkafka' úma,jhla isÿjkafka ke;'
wNsfhda. yd úma,jh hk fol fndfyda fihska tal dnoaOj mj;ak d ksid ;udg we;s wNsfhda.
ljf¾± hs jgyd .ekSu o wjYH h'

;ud y÷kd .ekSu
Tn yuqfjys we;s m<uq wNsfhda.h ;ud y÷kd .ekSu hs' th Noaoj.a.sh ;reKhkag
nqÿrcdKka jykafia foaYkd l< y' wkqka l< fkdl< oE fjkqjg ;uka l< fkdl< oE ms<sn|
j m%;HfõCIKfhys fh§ug nqÿrcdKka jykafia wkq. dñlhka fufyh jQy' 14 tfia u mrd¾:h
fjkqfjka wd;au d¾:h úkdY fkdlr .ekSu g o Wkajykafia Wmfoia ÿkay' 15 tys woyi wd;aud¾:
idOkfhka f;drj mrd¾: idOkh w¾:j;a fkdjk nj hs' w;a;ka;m ^;udg ÿla muqKqj d

.kakd& mrka;m ^wkqkag ÿla muqKqjkak d& w;a;ka;m mrka;m ^;ukag;a wkqkag;a fomCIhgu
ÿla muqKqjkak d&jYfhka mqoa.,hka isj q fokl= nqÿrcdKka jykafia fmkajd § we;' 16 ;ukag;a
wkqkag;a wk;=rla fkdjk mßÈ fomsßif.a u hym; isÿ lrk mqoa.,hl= úh hq;=h' ta i|yd
wd;au djfndaOfhka l%shd l< hq;= h' th ;reK Tn i;= wNsfhda.hls' tys,d úma,j lrkak'
fndfyda fofkl=g ;ud f;areï .ekSug wmyiq h' ;ud f;areï .ekSu hkq ;uka miq jk
;;a;ajh ms< sn| wjfndaOhla ,nd .ekSu hs' ;ud ms<sn| j wjf,dalkfhys § ;udg u ;udf.a ±k
W.;alï" wd¾Ól ;;a;ajhka iudc ;;a;ajhka wdÈh fiau wOHd;añl m%n,;d ÿn,;d o jgyd
.ekSug yels fõ' ;ud ms< sn| m%;Hjf,dalkhl fkdfhÿk fyd;a we;eïúg ;ud ÿn,fhl= j
m%n,hl= fia o kQ. ;l= j W.;l= fia o jerÈlrejl= ksjerÈlrejl= fia o wd§ jYfhka ;ud
ms<sn| jerÈ ks.ukhkag m;a ù Ôú;h w÷re lr .ekSu g mq¿jk' tneúka ;ud y÷kd .kakg
jEhï lrk ;eke;a;dg ;udf.a wvqmdvqlï ;udg u ±l tajd ksjerÈ lr .ekSu ms<sn|
wjfndaOh we;s fõ' ;ud ;=< jerÈ wvqmdvqlï we;ehs okakd ;eke;a;d tfia fkdokakd
;eke;a;dg jvd hym;a nj;a tfia u ;ud ;=< wvqmdvqlï jerÈ ke;sj ta ke;s nj fkdokakd
;eke;a;kag jvd okak d ;eke;a;d hym;a nj;a nqÿ oyu fmkajd fok jeo.;a lreKls' 17 ;ud
;=< wvqjla we;ehs ;ud fkdokakd ;dla l,a ;ud th wvqjla jYfhka fkd.kakd w;r th lsis
úg iïmQ¾K lr .ekSug woyila my< jkafka ke;' hï úfgl ;udf.a wvqj ;udg
jegyqKfyd;a tys§ th iïmQ¾Klr .ekSu msK si is;a my< fõ' ;ud ;=< fkdue;s jerÈ
wvqmdvqlï ms<sn| j o ;udg jegySula fkdue;s jqjfyd;a we;eïúg ;ud fkd±kSu ksid jerÈ
wvqmdvqlï we;s lr .kakg bv ;sfí' fuh kqjKska m%;HCI lr .; hq;= jeo.;a Ñka;khls'
hï wkqjKhl= ;ud wkqjKhl= nj jgyd .kafka o thska u Tyq kqjKe;a;l= jk nj foaYkd
fldg we;af;a o fuu w¾:fhks'18 tneúka ;ud y÷kd .ekSfï wNsfhda.fhys m%:ufhka úma,j
lrkak'

iqÿiail= ùu
Tng hï m%;s,dNhla w;am;a lr .ekSu msKsi Bg wod< iqÿiqlï iïmQ¾K lr.; hq;= h'
th Tng we;s wfkla wNsf hda. h hs' tys,d úma,j l< hq;= h' wo iqÿiaika isáh hq;= ;ekaj,
kqiqÿiaika fndfyda fihska wr.af.k isák nj ienEh' ta ksid u wfma wOHdmkh ixialD;sh"
iodpdrh wdÈh mßydksh g m;afjñka ;sf nk nj ms<s.; hq;= lreKls' m%f;Hl j iqÿiaika
fjkqjg kqiqÿiaika m;aùu isÿj;a tys m%;sM,h iduqysl j ú¢h hq;= j we;' tneúka iqÿiaika
iqÿiq ;ekaj , isáh hq;=j d fia u ta i|yd fhda. H;d f.dvk.d .ekSu g W;aiqlj l%shd l< hq;= h'
;ud úiska we;s lr .; hq;= iqÿiqlï /ila ms<sn| j nqÿrcdKka jykafia wkq.dñlhkag
u. fmkaj d § we;' ysß iy T;a;mam ^mjg we;s ,Êcd" ìh fol& uQ,sl u iqÿiqlu f,i ;nd
f.k ta u; msysgd isg we;s lr .; hq;= wd;audNsjDoaêhg;a mrdNsjDoaêhg;a fya;=jk iqÿiqlï
/ila fmkajd § ;sfí' nyqY%e; ùu" Ys,am yod,l= ùu" yslauqKq ;eke;a;l= ùu fyd| jpk l:d
lrkakl= ùu" ujqmsh jeäysáhkag .re ie,ls,s i;aldr lrkakl= ùu" ÿisß;a ÿrdpdrhkay s
fkdfhfokakl= ùu" u;aøjH Ndú; fkdlrkakl= ùu .re l< hq;a;kag .re lrkakl= ùu"
ksy;udkS ùu" ix;Dma; ùu" lD;fõ§ ùu" hym;a foa weiSu" bjiSu" iqj p nj wd§ lreKq
wg;sfila i|yka fldg ;sfí'
fulS tlsfklla iqÿiqlï ms<sn| j úuiSug .shfyd;a ta ms< sn| j b;d §¾> úia;rhla
l< hq;= j we;' tfy;a ta ixCIsma;h §¾> j jgyd .kakg bv ;nd tla lreKla .ek muKla
igyka lrñ' tkï" ;ud hïlsis m%;s,dNhl ysñlrejl= ùu i|yd Bg wod< iqÿiqlï we;s

fkdlrf.k fkd,efnk fohla ms<sn| j me;=ï m;ñka iqrx.kd f,dalj, jdih lsÍfuka lsisÿ
m%fhdackhla fkdue;s nj hs' ;udg iqÿiqlï we;sl r .ekSu msK si ug yels h ^ilafld& hk
W;=ï wêIaGdkh ;ud ;=< mj;ajd .; hq;= h' wfkla jeo.;a u foh jkafka jD;a;shlg
iqÿiqlula we;s lr .ekSu muKla m%u dKj;ajfhys,d nqÿoyu fkdie,lSu hs' idudðl
i;a;ajhl= f,i iudcfha Ôj;a ùug lrkq ,nk jD;a;shg wu;r j ;j iqÿiqlï rdYshla mj;sh s'
tu iqÿiq lï fkdue;s ;ek whs;sjdislï ms<sn| .egqï biau ;=j iudch fNao Nskak ù leã úisÍ
f.dia tffll jQ yqol,d wirK wixj¾ê; iudchla njg m;afõ' tlS mqoa., yqol,dndjh ;=<
wiïu; iudc p¾hd my< fõ' fndfyda Okjd§ rgj,a ;=< fuh ±kg u isÿ ù yudr h' wm rg
;=< ;du;a tlS ;;a;ajh ;rula ÿrg fyda wdrCId ù ;sfnkafka whs;sjdislïj,g jvd hq;=lï
ms<sn|j i,lk fn!oaO ixialD;sh ;=< yeÿKq jevqKq ñksiqka isák ksid h' tneúka iqÿiail=
njg m;aùu ;=reKq Tng we;s uy;a wNsfhda.hla fldg i,ld tys,d úma,j lrkak'

ksoyia Ñka;lhl= ùu
jy,a Ñka;kfhka ñ§ ksoyia Ñka;lhl= njg m;aùu o wNsf hda. hls' tneúka ;reK ¥
mq;=ka tu wNsfhda.fhys,d o úma,j l< hq;= h' ksoyiaj fkdis;kakdg úfYaIhla ,o fkdyels
h'20
ksoyia ksjy,a Ñka;lhl=f .a úYsIag ,CIKhla jkafka lsisjla weiQ ÿgq muKska ms< sfkd.ekSu;a
m%;sfCIam fkdlsÍu;a h' m%;sfCIam o fkdfldg fkdms<s f.k o ta ms<sn| j úuid ne,sh hq;= h' 21
iodpdr úksYaph ms< sn| j tl, mej;s idïm%odhsl Ñka;kh m%;sfCIam l< nqÿrcdKka jykafia
ksoyia j is;Su msKsi wkq.dñlhka fufyhjñka Y%e;s ud;%fhka ^wkqiaifjk& mdrïmßl
úYajdihka u; ^mrïmrdh& fmr fufia lsh d ;sf nk ksid ^b;slsrdh& fmd;a m;aj, i|ykaj ;snQ
muKska ^msgl iïmodfkk& ;¾lhg .e,fmk ksid ^;lalfya;=& kHdhg .e<fmk ksid ^kh
fya;=& iajlSh l,amkdjg wkql+, ksid ^wdldr mßú;laflk& oDIaáhkag .e,fmk ksid ^ÈÜG
ksÊCOdklaLka;shd& fyd| hehs fmfkk ksid ^NínrEm;dh& Y%uKhka jykafia kula lshQ ksid
^iufKd fkd.re& hula fkdms<s. ; hq;= nj fmkajd ÿkay'
ksoyia Ñka;kh ms<sn| úfYaIfhka wjOdkhg .; hq;a;la ;sfí' tkï nqÿoyu fmkajd
fok ksoyia Ñka;kh iodpdr u¾hdodjla hgf;a mj;ak d nj h' iodpdr u¾hdodfjka Tíng hk
ksoyia Ñka;khla nqÿoyu w.h lrkafka ke;' iodpdr u¾hdodjka blaujd .sh ksoyila N=l a;s
ú¢k we;uqka ksid iudcuh jYfhka úYd, ydkSka isÿjk wjia:d we;' we;eï wjia:dj, hï
hï lreKq ms<sn|j ;SrKj,g t<öfï wYlakq;djla we;súh yelsh' tys§ wmKaKl m%;smodj
wkq.ukh lsÍug nqÿ oyu wkq.dñlhka fufyhjhs' wmKaKl hkafkys flfia jqj;a lï ke;
^hym;a mCIfhys,d& hk w¾:hhs mj;skafka' iuyfrla §fuys úmdl ke;" hd. fydau wdÈfhys
úmdl ke;' fyd| krl l¾uj, úmdl ke;' fuf,dj isáhyqg mrf,dj ke;' mrf,dj isáhyqg
fudf,dj ke;' ujg mshdg lrk Wmldr wmldrhkays úmdl ke;" ´mmd;sl i;a;ajfhda ke;"
f,dj úYsI ag [dKfhka ±l iuHla .; iuHla m%;smkak uyK nuqKka ke; wdoS jYfhka jQ oi
jeoEreï ñ;Hd oDIaáhla nqÿka oji ±rEy' 23 Bg b÷rd fjkia woyia ±refjda o fndfyda jQy' tjeks
ixl,amuh jYfhka tlsfklg b÷rd fjkialï we;s l,ays kqjKe;s ;eke;a;d lrkqfha jvd;a
M,odhS ^;ukag;a wkqkag;a f,!lsl jYfhkq;a f,daflda;a;r jYfhkq;a& foh f;dard .ekSu hs'
wmKaKl m%;smodj hkq th hs' wmKaKl iQ;% foaYkdfjys ta ms< sn| §>_ úia;rhla ths' 24
wmKaKl cd;lh ;=<ska jqj o wmKaKl m%;smodj hkq l=ula±hs jgyd .; yels h' tu
cd;lhg wmKaKl ku fh§ we;af;a tu m%;smodj ksid u h' fj<÷ka fofokdf.ka m<uq .sh

fjf<kaod hCIhdf.a udhdldÍ jokaj ,g iy ujd mEïj,g yiq ù ;ud wmyiqfjka kuq; a
fndfyda ÿr f.k wd w;HjYH u jQ Èh bj; oud ;ud;a ;u fj<| lKavdhu;a úkdYhg m;alr
.;af;a h' Bg fya;=j rl=idf.a jpk fkdúuid ms<sf.k l%sh d lsÍu h' fojkqjg .sh fj<|
lKavdhug o tu Wml%uh u fhdod ish .%yKhg .ekSug hCIhd l,amkd l< kuq;a ta i|yd
Wml%u fh¥ kuq;a j;=r wdikakfha we;;a ke;;a f.kd j;=r bj; fkdoud hkakg ;SrKh
lf<ka fojeks fj<| lKavdhu ish .%yKhg .kakg fkdyels úh' thska tu lKavdhug Èú
fírd f.k iajlSh wNsu;d¾:h idOkh lrkakg yels úh' wmKaKl hkq fojeks fjf<kaod
wkq.ukh l< flfia jqj;a lï ke; hkqfjka i,ld w¾:j;a foh lsÍug W;aidy lsÍu h'
flfia jqj;a lï ke; hkqfjka i,ld whym;a foa wk¾:ldÍ foa lsÍu wmKaKl m%;smodj
fkdjk nj jgyd .; hq;=h'

wjfndaOfhka l%shd lsÍu
iajhx l¾u m%;sfõokh ms<sn| jQ wNsfhda.h ;reK ;reKshka i;= úh hq;= B<Õ wNsf hda. hhs'
we;eï ;reK msßia wkjfndaOfhka l¾u /ialrk nj fmfka' l¾u hkq l%shd nj uq,sk a u
wjfndaO lr .; hq;= h' to fÉ;kd;aul jQjkah' th fyd| iy krl jYfhka m%Odk m%fNao
follska hqla;h' ld, jYfhka ;%súOdldr h' is;" lh" jpkh ;=<ska tlS l¾u isÿ fõ' l=i, wl=i," mq[a[ - mdm - iqlg - ÿlalg wd§ jYfhka ye¢kafjkafka ta ;sfodßka isÿjk fyd|
krl l%shdfjda h' we;eï l%sh djkays m%;sM, l< ieKska ,eìh yels jQj;a we;eï l%sh djkay s
m%;sM, ,efnkafka l,a f.dia h'26 we;eï krl l%sh d lrk l, b;d ñysß h' tfy;a tys úmdl
ú£ug isÿjk l, b;d lgql h'27
we;eïyq miqj lsÍug we;s foa uq,ska lsÍug;a l,ska lsÍug we;s foa miqj lsÍug;a f.dia
mYapd;a;dm fj;s' we;eï bf.kSfuys oCI orefjda ðú;fhys miqj ,nd.; hq;= oE l,sk a ,nd
.ekSug f.dia w;ru. wOHdmkh k;r lr §ma;su ;a wkd.;hla w÷re lr .ks;s' tfy;a miqj ta
ms<sn| j lkiai,a,g m;afj;s' tfy;a túg isÿ fkdúh hq;a; isÿ ù yudr ksid fjk fohla o
l< fkdyels h' tneúka miqj ,nd .kakg ;sf nk fohlg yÈis j l< hq;= oE mfil,d l%sh d
lsÍu §¾>ld,Sk j Ôú;hg wk¾:h msKsi;a mYap;a;dmh msKsi;a mj;skak la nj jgyd .; hq;=
h' nqÿrcdKka jykafia foaYkd fldg jodf<a hula lsÍug fmr ta ms<sn| j fyd¢ka isysl r n,k
f,i hs' hï l%shdjla isÿ fldg ta ms<sn|j we~Q l÷,ska issys lrkakg isÿjkafka kï tn ÷ oE
l,ska u fkdlr isàug fjr ±Íu hym;a nj hs" nqÿrcdKka jykafiaf.a foaYkh jkafka'28
lï flf<iSï y;rla nqÿoyu fmkajd fohs' 29 m%dK>d;" wo;a;dodk" lduñÉPdpdrh"
uqidjdo jYfhks' iqrdmdkh wl=i, wdlrhla f,ihs" olajkafka' i;=ka ueÍu" fydrlï lsÍu"
fndre lSu" fla,dï lSu" mreI jpk l;d lsÍu" ysiajpk lSu" iqrdmdkh hk fïjd wmdh
ixj¾;ksl m%;smodjka f,iska fmkajd fok nqÿrcdKka jykaf ia tfia hï fyhlsk a
fkdù ñksil= jkafka kï ta l¾u fya;=fjka ms<sfj<ska w,amdhqIal njg" fNda. jHikhg"
i;=rka iys; ffjrhg" wN+; fpdaokdjkag" ^ñ;%fNaohg&" wukdmhg weoysh yels jpk ke;s
njg yd Wïu;a;l njg fya;=jk nj olajd ;sf í' tfia u m%dK>d;fhys fhfokakd ÈÜGOïu
jYfhka fNda. jHikhg m;ajk nj o fmkajd fohs' tfia u m%dK>d;dÈ ÿYapß;hkaf.ka
j<lakd ;eke;a;d wm%udK jQ i;a;ajhkag wNh § wffjrh § ksÿla nj § wm%u dK jQ wNhg"
wffjrhg" ksÿlanjg ysñlï lshk nj o nqÿrcdKka jykafia fmkajd § we;'
ÿYapß;hkays fh§ isák mqoa.,hka iqjfia fyd¢ka l,a .;lrk nj iudcfha hï hï
mqo.
a , pß; kso¾Yk fldg f.k we;eïyq fmkajd fo;s' idudkHfhka neÆ ne,aug tlS
mqo.
a ,hka iqjfia isák whqre olakg o ,efnk nj i;Hhls' neyeßka fmfkk ;rñka Tjqk a

iqjfia miqjkafka o hkq úuid ne,sh hq;a;ls' ndysßka fmfkk wdfgdamfhka flkl= iqjfia
fjfikjd hehs ks.ukh lsÍu wmyiq h' flkl=g Okh fyda jia;=j hkq tla;rd iqj hla ñi
wx. iïmQ¾K iqjhla fkdfõ' ;ud Wmhk Okh o ±yeñ Okhla jQ muKghs" ta u.ska i;=g ;ud
fj; f.k tkafka' wfkl tn÷ ÿYapß;j;a jQ úYd, msßila kdkd jHikhkag m;a ù wm%u dK
ÿla fuf,dj § u ú¢k nj wmg ±l.; yelsh' isrf.j,a f.k n,kak' tys ÿla ú¢kafka hym;a
ls%hd l< wh o@ ke; wdfrda.H Yd,dj, fl;rï msßila ;u ÿYap ß;hka ksid yg.;a f,v frda.
fya;= fldg f.k m%;sldr ,nd.kakjd o@ thska wdfrda.H Yd,dj, m%;sldr ,nk ish ,a,ka woyia
fkdlrk nj ie,l=j ukd h' jerÈ ldufiajkh ksid iqj l< fkdyels wdidê;hka f,dj
fldmuK jdih lrkjd o@ tneúka we;eï ÿYap ß;j;a mqo.
a ,hkaf.a nys fidaNudk;ajh ms<sn|
is;d krl jev lrkakka hym;a j Ôj;a fj;shs hk ks.ukhg meñKSu kqiqÿiq h' wfkl tjka
mqo.
a ,hka yd iïnkaOfhka mqrd;k mqKH uysuhlehs flkl=g is;sh o yels h' Bg wu;r j
;j;a ms<s;=re ta i|yd nqÿoyñka fidhd .; yels h'
fï f,dalfhys hym;a iy whym;a ls%hdjka lrkakjqka wdrCId lr .ekSug;a úkdY
lsÍug;a we;eï wjia:dj, foúfoaj;d hCI N+; msYdpd§yq o bÈßm;a fj;s' hym;a ls%h djkay s
ksr;jkakkag we;eï úg foúfoaj;djkaf.a wdrCIdj ie,fihs' we;eï úg tn÷ mqo.
a ,hkag
hCI N+;d§ka úreoaO ùug o bv ;sfí' tfy;a krl jevj, fhfok mqo.
a ,hkag hCId§ we;eïyq
ms%h lr;s' ta nj wdgdkdáh iQ;% foaYkdfjka meyeÈ,s fõ' nqÿrdcdKka jykafiag mjd fndfyda
hCIhka wlue;s nj tu iQ;%fhys i|yka fõ' Bg fya;=j jYfhka olajd ;sfnkafka nqÿrcdKka
jykafia m%dK>d;d§ ÿYapß;hkaf.ka je<lS wfkla wkq.dñlhka o tfia je<lS isàu i|yd
wkqYdikd lrk ksid;a h' ta wkqj tlS krl jev lrk mqo.
a ,hkag we;eï úg hCI ne,au jeà
;sfnkakg mq¿jk' ta l=ulg o@ tajd ÈhqKq ùfukqhs iudch krl ls%hdjkag jeämqr
fhduqjkafka" iudch kmqrg fhduq lsÍu hl=kaf.a jevls' ta i|yd Tjqyq wkq.%yh o ,nd fo;s'
hCI iud.u jeäÈhqKq jkafka túg h' ;u j¾.hd ÈhqK q lr .ekSu ldf.a;a woyi fkdje'
tneúka is;sh hq;af ;a wm fkdis;kafka jQj;a fjk;a krl cd;Sk a úiska wmj wdl%uKh
lrkakg bv we;s nj;a thska ñ§ isàug;a h' tlS wdl%u Khkag wfma ;reK msßia fldf;la
m;aù ;sf n;a o@ tneúka thska ñ§fï wNsfhda.h Ndrf.k tys,d úma,j lsÍu ;dreKHh i;=
j.lSuls'
;ukg isÿjk f;la fndfyda fokl= fkdms< s.kakd isoO
a dka;hls" hCI N+;dÈkaf.ka
;ukag jk n,mEï' we;eï mqoa.,hkag hCI N+;d§yq wfõY fj;s' fn!oaO idys;Hfhka o ta
i|yd WodyrK ;sfí' tla;rd wdrKHjdiS NsCIQka jykafia kula wukqI HdndOhla iE§ W!rka
urk ;eklg f.dia wuq W!reuia ld wuq f,a mdkh l< mqj ;la jd¾;d fõ' tfia u
wukqIHhkaf.ka úúO M, m%fhdack .kakd Ydia;% úoHdjka o l=udr m[ay" l=udß m[ay" wdodi
m[ay wd§ jYfhka tl, mej;s njg idCIH ;sfí' 33 ful, o fndfyda fokdg wukqIH Wmøj
mj;sk nj fmfka' th fjku u wOHhkh l< hq;= úIh fCIa;%hls' fuys,d fuh i|yka lf<a
fjk u lreKla fmkajd §ug h' tkï ljqre ljqre;a tlS wjia:djkag uqyqK mEug isÿ jQ
wjia:dj, § msß;a lshjd .ks;s' hka;% uka;% n,s f;dú,a wdÈh lrjd .ekSu fydr ryfia kuq;a
isÿjkakls' lsj hq;= lreKq th o fkdfõ' Ydka;s l¾u lsÍfuka miqj fjoÿrka jeo.;a wjjdohla
lr;s' tkï" fuys .=K ,eîug kï uia ud¿ lkjd ;nd f.or m<d;lg ms<syqvq cd;shla
f.akakg tmd hkqfjks' Bg fya;=j l=ulao@ tajdg hCI fma%;d§ka ms%h ksid t<jQ Tjqka h<s
meñfKk ksid h' túg jvd;a n,h we;af;a hka;% uka;% ;=< o Tfí ukd p¾hdj ;=<o hkak
is;d ne,Sug Tng wjia:dj ;sf í' tfy;a ta nj f;areï .kafka lSfhka lS fokd o@ tneúka
;reK ;reKshka f,i fï .ek fyd¢ka is;d ls%hd l< hq;= h'

wd¾Ól ÈhqKqj we;slr .ekSu
;=reKq Tng we;s ;j;a wNsfhda.hls¦ Okj;l= ùu' nqÿ oyu fmkajd fok Okj;alu
wd¾Ólh blaujd .sh tlls'34 wd¾Ólh o tys,d tla;rd idOlhla f,i .efkk ksid fuys,d
i|yka lrkafka tlS wd¾Ól ÈhqK q ms<sn|j hs' È<s÷lu ÿlls' 35 tneúka È<s÷nj ÿre lr.ekSu
msKsi Okh Wmhd .; hq;= h' Okh bmhSu o ±yeñj l< hq;=j we;' 36 Okh bmhSu muKla
È<s÷núka ñ§ug fya;=jla jkafka ke;' Ok mßyrKh ms<sn| j ukd l<ukdldß;ajhla wjYH
fõ' Okh bmhSu fiau whjeh iu j mj;ajd .ekSu" ;ekam;=jla mj;ajdf.k hdu" úkdY
uqLhkaf.ka /l.ekSu wjYH fõ' Okj;l= ùfï fÉ;kdj muKla m%u dKj;a jkafka ke;' ta
i|yd WÜGdk ù¾hh w;HjYH h' ±yeñ jQ jHdmdrhla wdrïN l< hq;= h' th wdrïN Od;= kï
fõ' we;eïyq is; is;d muKla isá;s' hula wdrïN fkdlr is;Sfuka muKla Okh bmhsh
fkdyels h' hï jHdmdrhla iq¿fjka fyda wdrïN lsÍu msKsi W;aidyj;a j ls%hd l< hq;= h'
we;eïyq jHdmdr wdrïN lr;s' wdrïN fldg ;nd tys ÈhqKqj msKsi fkdfh§ ksy~j isá;s'
hula wdrïN l< muKsk a u ÈhqK qjla isÿjkafka o ke;' tys ÈhqKqj msK si fjfyiS ls%h d l<
hq;= h' w,ilu ÿr,d tys kshe,Su y÷kajkafka kslaLu Od;= f,i h' fyj;a fh§fï ù¾h f,i
h' hul fhÿKq muKkska u ÈhqKqjla we;sfõ hehs fkdis;sh hq;= h' úúO fya;= idOl u;
jHdmdrhkays ÈhqK qùï iy lvdye,Sï fol u isÿúh yels h' ;ukaf .a jHdmdr wvd,jk
wjia:djkay s§ tys wvd,jk wxYhka ms<sn| ukd úuis,af,ka hq;=j lghq;= lr tajd j<lajd
.ekSu i|yd mrdl%ufhka hq;=j ls%hd l< hq;= h' th y÷kajkafka mrlalu Od;= f,i h' fyj;a
mrdl%u ù¾h f,i h' we;eï úg meñfKk úúO ndOl ksid wdrïN l< foh w;ru. k;r
lsÍug ;rï Ñ;a; mSvdjka o yg .efkkq we;' tfy;a ljr jQ u iïndOlhla yuqfjys j;a werUQ
foh w;r;=r fkdkj;ajd bÈßhg mj;ajdf.k hdfï ±ä ù¾hhla mj;ajd .; hq;= h' th
y÷kajkafka :du Od;= f,i h' ljr fya;=jla ksidj;a w;afkdyßk ia:djr ù¾hhla we;sl r hq;=
h' th y÷kajkafka À;s Od;= f,i h' ta ish,a,ka iu. Wml%uYS,SNdjh o w;HjYH h' th
Wmlalu Od;= f,i nqÿoyu y÷kajhs'37 th jxpdfjka úuqla; jQjla úh hq;= h' fuu ijeoEreï
ù¾h Okh yd iïnkaOfhka muKla fkdj wfkla ls%h d úIfhys o Wmfhda.S lr.; yels h'
fuys§ isÿ lf<a Okh bmhSu yd iïnkaOfhka hï .e,mSula muKs'

is; y÷kd .ekSu
;ud y÷kd .ekSu ms<sn| jQ uy;au wNsfhda.hls" ;u is; y÷kd .ekSu' is; ish ,af ,ys
uQ,h fõ'38 f,dalh fufyhjkq ,nkafka is; úiskq hs' 39 ÿ¾odka; wNdú; is ; ;rï ;ukag
wk¾:h msKsi fya;= jk fjk;a lsisjla fkdue;s nj;a Ndú; is; ;rï w¾:ldÍ jQ fjk;a
lsisjla fkdue;s nj;a nqÿrcdKka jykaf iaf.a b.ekaùuls' 40 is; iqodka; o ÿ¾odka; o hk nj
jgyd .; yelafla isf ;ka is; msßi| n,k flfkl=g h' iajlSh f,!lsl yd f,daflda;a;r
wNsjDoaêhg Ñ;a; oukh wjYHu h' tfia fkdjqkfyd;a f,!lslj;a f,daf lda;a;rj;a mßydkshg
,lafõ'
is; iajNdjfhka msßisÿ jQjls' tfy;a wd.ka;=l j meñfKk Wmlaf,aY ksid wmsßisÿ
fõ' wei" lK" lk" kdih" Èj" YÍrh" uki hk bkaøshkaf.ka rEm" Yío" .kaO" ri" iam¾Y"
O¾u hk wruqK q ,nk úg ms%h wruqfKys we,Su ;a wms%h wruqfKys .eàu;a isÿfõ' we,Su;a
.eàu;a ksid ÿlg m;afõ' is; ,yqmßj;a;ksh jQjls 42 jyd fjkiajk iq¨h' tla fj,djlg
rd.fhka .sksf.k we;' ;j fj,djlg oafõYfhka .sksf .k we;' ;j;a fj,djlg fudayfhka
uq<d ù we;' ;j;a fj,djl l,n,hg m;a ù we;' we;eïúg WodiSk ù we;' ;j;a fj,djlg
b;d ikaiqka njg m;a ù ;sf í' isf;ys mj;ak d iajNdjh jgyd .ekSu id¾:l Ôú;hlg uÕ
mdohs'
41

isf;ys kqiqÿiq wdfõ. my<jk wjia:djkays § tajdg hg;aj ls%h dlrkak g .sh fyd;a
id¾:l Ôú;hla .; l< fkdyels h' wmeyeÈ,s jQ is;lska h:d¾:djfndaOhla lr.; fkdyels h'
h:d¾:h fkd±l ls%h d lsÍu ;=< ska isÿjkafka ydkshls' fndfyda fokd hï .eg¨jla yuqfjys ±ä
wdfõ.YS,s njla is; ;=< we;slrf.k tlS .eg¨j úi£ug W;aidy .ks;s' we;eï úg túg
isÿjkafka ;j m%Yak lSmhlg uqyqK mEug h' we;euqka i,lkafka hï m%Yakhla úi£u msKsi
wdfõ.YS,sùu hym;ah lshd h' we;eïyq th ;udf.a fyd| fm!refIah ,laIKhla fldg o
i,l;s' tfy;a th tfia fkdjk nj jgyd .; hq;= h' is; ms<sn| fndfyda ú.%yhka ,shù
;sfnk fyhska fuys§ ta ms<sn| úia;rhla imhkakg woyia fkdlruq'

iudch y÷kd .ekSu
y÷kd fkd.;a iudchl Ôj;a ùu buy;a ÿIalr ld¾hhls' tneúka iudch y÷kd
.ekSfï wNsfhda.h Tng ;sf í' mqo.
a , fõu;a;;dj iudch ;=< m%lg ,CIKhls' fl;rï O¾uh
wid ±k .;a;;a we;eïyq th fkdms<smÈ;s' we;eïyq álla O¾uh wid ±k ms<smÈ;s' ;j;a iuyre
O¾uh wid okafka o ke;' ms<smÈkafka o ke;' iuyre fndfyda O¾uh wi;s' th ms< sme§u o
lr;s'45 tneúka ;udg wdY%h g iudcfhka mqoa.,hka f;dard.kak d úg ;udg jvd weiQ msrE ;eka
we;s O¾uOr O¾udkqO¾u m%;smkak l,HdK ñ;%hl= u f;dard.; hq;= h' tfia fkdue;s kï
yqol,d jdih fhda. H fjhs' 46 tneúka iudch y÷kd .eksu úYd, wNsfhda.hls'
ÿgq muKska flkl= y÷kd.; fkdyels h' flkl=f.a j¾Kfhka yd rEmfhka fudyq
wij,a flfklehs ±k.; fkdyels h' Bg fya;=j fyd| ñksiqkaf.a fjia f.k krl ñksiqk a
iudcfhys yeisfrk" Ôj;a jk ksid h' 47 krl ñksiqkag iudcfha krlska m%lg ùu ÿIalr
ld¾hhls' túg Tjqk af.a r|d meje;aula isÿjkafka ke;' tuksid krl we;a;ka fyd| whf.a
fjia .ekSu fndfyda úg isÿjkakls' túg neÆ ne,aug krl we;a;ka hehs jgyd .; fkdyels
h' neÆ ne,aug fmfkkafka uy;aud .;s we;s mqoa.,hka f,i hs' we;eïyq meúoaokaf.a o fjia
f.k úúO cdjdrïys fh§ ls%hd lrk mqj ;a wikakg ,efí' ta krl mqo.
a ,hkaf.a iaj Ndjh hs'
;uka fyd| mqoa.,hl= f,i rÕ mEfuka ñksiqka j rjgd .ekSug yels nj okakd krl
;eke;a;ka fyd| whf.a fõYfhka ish wNsu ;d¾: idOkh lr .ekSu i|yd lghq;= lrk nj
ms<sn| jegySfuka jdih l< hq;= h'
úfYaIfhka u ia;%S mqreI fomCIh u mqreI ia;S%kaf.a rÕmEïj,g yiq ù wmyiq;djkag
,lajk wjia:d nyq, h' mqreIhd ia;s%hg nef|k wiqjk" ia;s%h mqreIhdg nef|k wiqfjk lreKq
wgla nqÿrcdKka jykafia olaj d ;sf í' rEmfhka" iskdfjka" l;d nfyka" .dhkfhka" we`ãfuka"
we÷ï me<÷ï wdÈfhka" u,a wd§ ;E.s fNda. §fuka iy iam¾Yfhka hk lreKq wg hs' 48 fulS
lreKq wáka m%n, u nkaOkh f,i olaj d ;sfnkafka iam¾Yh hs'
we;eïyq ñ;%hka hehs /jà ñ;% m%;srEmlhka iu. weiqrg f.dia úkdY fj;s' ta ms<sn| j
uq,a mßÉfþofha lreKq idlÉPd úh' tneúka wdY%hg ukd l,HdK ñ;=rl= fidhd .; hq;= h'
lrKq y;lska iukaú; ñ;%hl= wdY%hg iqÿiq nj nqÿrcdKka jykaf ia fmkajd § we;'
1'
2'
3'

§ug ÿIal r foa fok ^ÿoaoox ood;s&
lsÍug wmyiq foa lr fok ^ÿlalrx lfrd;s&
fkdbjish yels foa bjik ^ÿlaLux Lu;s&

4'
5'

;u ryia lshk ^.hayuiai wdúlfrd;s&
ryia iÕjd ;nd .kak d ^.=h ayx wiai mß.=hay;s&

6'
7'

wdmodjkays w;a fkdyßk ^wdmodiq k cy;s&
Okh ke;s l, wjuka fkdlrk ^ÇfKd kd;su[a[ ;s&

hk ñ;%hd h' 49 ms%h ukdm .=re jQ ^.re& nqyquka l< yels ^NdjkSfhd& jla;D jQ ^jla;d& jpkCIu
jQ ^jpklaLfud& tkï weoysh yels jpk we;s" .eUqrla we;s fohla lshk ^.ïNSr[ap l:x
j;a;d& fkdu. fkdhjk ^fkdj wÜGdfk ksfhdafc;s& meúÈ ñ;=rd o wdY%hg iqÿiq nj
nqÿrcdKka jykafia fmkajd § we;' meúoaol= jQj;a weiqrg iqÿiq fukau kqiqÿiq o úh yels nj
tys w¾:h hs' 50
flkl=f.a pß;h wd;au Yla;sh" is;=ï me;=ï yd keK kqjK wdÈh ±k .ekSu msKsi
l,la .; úh yels h' flkl=f.a pß;h wjfndaO lr .ekSu i|yd È.= l,la isysl,amkdfjka
wdY%h l< hq;= nj;a fufkys lsÍfuka u ñi fufkys fkdlsÍfuka pß;h y÷kd.; fkdyels
nj;a to m%{djka;hl=gu yer ÿIam%d{hl=g fkdyels nj;a nqÿrcdKka jykafia fmkaj d § we;'
tfia u flkl=f.a ùhH_ ±k.; yelafla wdmod wjia:djkays § Tyq ls%h dlrk wdldrh foi ukd
úuis,af ,ka È.= l,la isàfuka m%{ djka;hl=g u nj;a flkl=f.a is;=ï me;=ï wjfndaO lr.;
yelafla l;d jHjydrfhka nj;a to b;d úuis,af,ka fufkys lsÍfuka m%{djka;hsk a úiska u
nj;a tfia u flfkl= m%{djka; o ÿIam%d{ o hk nj jgyd .; yelafla idlÉPdfjka u nj;a
to fufkys lsÍfuka u ñi fufkys fkdlsÍfuka fkdjk nj;a m%{djka;hl= u úisk a ñi
ÿIam%d{hl= úiska fkdjk nj;a nqÿrcdKka jykafia tla wjia:djl § fldi,a rc;=udg foaYkd
l<y' we;=<; wmsßisÿ j msg ;ska fYdaNdu;a jQ we;fula msg ;ska rka wdf,ams; we;=< ; ueáj,ska
hq;a fldf~d,la fia o f,dayfhka l< rkska wdf,ams; wvuiaila fia o nn<ñka msßjßka
.ejiSf.k yeisfrk nj;a tys § ;jÿrg;a Wkajykafia fmkaj d § we;' 51 ukd isyskqjKska hq;= j
mqo.
a ,hka y÷kdf.k wdY%h l< hq;= njghs" thska Wmfoia fokafka' tfia u úúO fjia
.;a;jqkag fkd/jà m%{dfjka ls%h d l< hq;= nj hs' tfyhska ufvys yg.;a fk¿u ufvka Wvg
ú;a Èfhys fkd.Eù ú,g w,xldrhla j mj;ak d fia fï f,dalh keue;s uv j.=f rys Wmka
;reK Tn o ukdj f,dalh f;areï f.k ta f,dalh iu. fkd.Eù f,dalhg u wdf,dalhla
fjñka jdih lsÍfï úma,jhg tlaúh hq;= h'

mfrdamldrh
i;a mqreIhd fndfyda fokdg ys; jev msKsi u lghq;= lrhs' O¾ufhys msysá is,aj;a jQ"
i;Hjd§ jQ" mjg ,Êcd we;s oUrka ldishla jka Tyqj foúfhda o rls;s' 52 WÜGdk ù¾hfhka
/ial< oyÈh uykaisfhka Wmhd.;a ±yeñ j ,;a fNda.hka ksid l=, mq;%f hda ;ud o ujqmshka o
wUqorejka o ±is oialï lrejka o iqjm;a lr;s' {d;s ix.%y lr;s' wd.ka;=lhkag ix.%y lr;s'
u<.shjqkag mska fo;s" rdcH fmdaIKh lr;s' wd.u oyu fmdaIKh ls Íu lr;s'53
w;scd;" wkqcd; yd wjcd; jYfhka orejka ;=k a j¾.hla isák nj nqÿrcdKka jykafia
fmkajd § we;' 54 foujqmshkag jvd my;a .=Khkaf.ka hq;= j yefok jefvk orejka wjcd;
f,i;a foudmshka yd iudk .=K we;s orejka wkqc d; f,i;a foudmshkag jvd W;=ï .=K oyñka
hq;a orejka w;sc d; f,i;a ye¢kafõ' w;sc d; mq;%hl= úh yels kï th b;d w.fka h' w;scd;
mq;%hd f;fï o wNsj Doaêhg m;ajk w;r mrdNsjDoaêh o we;s lrhs' f,dalhdg Wmldr lsÍu
W;=ïu nqoaO mQcdj o fõ' mfrdamldrh fndaêi;a;aj p¾hdjls' mfrdamdldr lsÍu msKsi o
m%:ufhka u f;fï iqÿiail= úh hq;= h' mrd¾:h msKsi wd;aud¾:h úkdY fkdlr .ekSu o
wjYH h'55

fndai;a ;reKhka f,i isoaOd¾: fndaê i;a;ajhkaf.a pß;h wdo¾Yhg .; hq;= h'
§mxlr nqÿka oji iqf ïO ;dmi j isáh § w;am;a ksjka yer f>dar ixidrhg msúisfha mrd¾:
idOkh msK siu h' mrd¾: idOkh fndaêi;a;aj pß;hl W;=ïu ,CIKh hs' tneúka ;=reKq
iún, mrd¾:h fjkqfjka fhduq lsÍfuka fndai;a iudchla f.dv k.d .; yels h'
mrd¾:fhys fh§u i|yd ñ, uqo,a u wjYHjkafka ke;' úúOdldrfhka mrd¾:pd¾hdfjys
kshe,sh yels h' u> kï ;reKhd ;udg isÿ jQ jHikh u mrd¾:hla f,i fhduqlr .;a whqre
Tn okafkys h' we;uqka ;ud uykaisfhka Wmhk tfy;a wd;aud¾: ydksh msKsi fhdojk uqo,a
lkaordj isysfhka hqla; j l<ukdlrKh lf<a kï mrd¾:fhys,d Tng Okh fhoùu o
.eg¨jla jkafka ke;'
ÿï jeáhla Wrk ;eke;a;l= WodyrKhla f,i f.k n,kak' Tyq wd;au d¾: ydksh fia
u mrd¾: ydksh o hk WNhd¾: ydksh u isÿlrkafkls' fkdfhla ÿisß;a ÿrdpdrlï úIhfhys
we;eïyq úúOdldrfhka uqo,a fhdoj;s' ;ukaf.a uqo,a ;uka flfia mßyrKh l<;a ldgj;a
m%Yakhla ke;ehs flfkl=g isf ;kakg bv ;sf í' tfy;a lS fofkl=g thska m%Y ak rdYshlg
uqyqK mdkakg isÿjkafka ±hs tjeks wh isys l,amkdfjka úuid ne,sh hq;= h' u;aøjH Ndú;h
ksid muKla je<f|k frda. mSvdjkag m%;sldr lsÍu i|yd fl;rï uqo,a m%udKhla ;ukag fyda
;u mjqf ,a idudðlhkag fyda jeh lrkakg isoO
a fjkjd o@ rchla f,i tjekakl= ksid
fl;rï mdvqjla ,nkafka o@ th wd;aud¾: fuka u mrd¾: ydkshla fkdjkafka o@ uqo,a ydkshg
wu;r j ta ;=<ska yg.kakd ;j m%Y ak wm%u dK h' tneúka ;u Ôú;h iqpß;hg fh§ï ud;%f hka
u mrd¾:hg ksïk j" fmdak j" m%d.aNdr j mj;ak d nj jgyd .; hq;= h'
;ud iqp ß;fhys msysgd mrd¾:hg m%d.aNdr jQ l,ays mrd¾:hg mßfhda.<ay úh yels h'
tkï" mrd¾: p¾hdfjys nei.; yels h' mrd¾: p¾hdfjys m%Odk wx.hls odkh' fndaêldrl
O¾uj,;a oirdc O¾ufhys;a isj q iÕrd jia;+kays;a wdÈ fndfyda ;ekaj, odkh uqLH fõ' odkh
hkq §u hs' §ï w;ßka jákd u §u jkafka O¾uh hs' 56 Bg fya;=j jkafka thska ,efnk
Ôú;djfndaOh ;=<sk a úYd, w¾:hla we;s jk ksid h' O¾uh lshd fohla fkd;snqKd kï iudch
fl;rï l=ßre m%pKav" ;"wYsIag iudchla jkafka ±hs is;d n,kak' O¾uh ksid fl;rï
YsCIKhla iudch ;=< f.dv kef.kafka o@ th jd.a úIhd;sl%dka; h' wO¾uh n,j;a ;ekay s
.yurd .ekSï nyq, h' ìh iel nyq, h' ÿla fodïkia nyq, h' tfy;a O¾ufhys ls%hdldÍ n,h
we;uqkag f;areï .; fkdyels h' ldg f;areKd fyda fõjd ke;d fyda fõjd ta O¾ufha n,h
wiSñ; nj mru i;Hhls' tneúka O¾uh §u u fYa%IaG odkh fjhs'
nqÿrcdKka jykafia mrd¾:p¾hdj msKsi fhduq l< ish Y%djlhka jykaf ia,dg foaYkd
fldg jodf<a uq, ueo w. ukd jQ O¾uh foaYkd lrk f,i hs' 57 tfia fkdue;s j we;eï ñ:Hd
,íëkag yrjd .ekSu msKsi udkisl w,a,ia jYfhka ,nd fok fN!;sl NdKav /f.k f.dia
ÿmam;=kag udkisl w,a,ia fokakg nqÿrcdKka jykafia kshu fkdl< y' tlS fN!;sl NdKav
,nd § ñ:Hd ,íëkag ñksiqka fmd<Ujd .ekSu tla w;lsk a wYsI ag ls%h djla jk w;r ;j;a
w;lska wdkka;¾h mdm l¾uhg o jvd nrm;, mdml¾uhls' ÿmam;=ka fjkqfjka ta ÿmam;alug
yolïmd ù wkqlïmdfjka m%;sIaGdjla ùu i|yd muKla bka tyd lsisÿ n,dfmdfrd;a;=jla
fkdue;s j tfia lrkafka kï th b;d w.h l< hq;= h' wfma we;eï NsC IQka jykafia,d m%u qL
fndfyda .sys ckhd o tlS wdOdr Wmldr lr;s' tys§ cd;s wd.ï l=,u, fNao fkdi,ld
kshef,;s' tfy;a lsisúfgl udkisl w,a,ia fkdfo;s' ish ñ:Hd ,íê w;er nqÿoyu je<o
.kakg hehs fkdlsh ;s' tfia lSj o tys we;s jrola ke;' ñ:Hdfjka ñoùu uy;a jQ mskla jk
ksid h' flfkl= tf,dj;a fuf,dj;a fof,dju msßySu i|yd bjy,a jk ñ:Hd ,íêkag k;=
lr .ekSu nrm;, mdmhla jk w;r ta i|yd u nei.;a is;lska hq;= j lemù
fflrdállïj,ska msÍ ñksiqka uq<d lsÍu i|yd lreKdfjka fjia f.k wldreKsl j

yeisfrkakjqkaf.ka neÆ ne,aug isÿjkafka hym;la hehs fmkqk ;a w;súYd, wk¾:hla isÿjk
nj f;areï .; hq;= h'
O¾u odkh W;=ï u odkh nj m%l dY lsÍug f.dia wkjYH úia;rhla l<d hehs
flfkl=g isf;kakg mq¿jk' tfy;a ta ál fkdlshdu neß ;;a;ajhg m;a ù ;sfnk ksihs"
u;la lrkakg fhÿfKa' nqÿrcdKka jykafia fYa%IaG;u m%d;sy d¾h f,i jodf<a wdfoaikd
m%d;syd¾h hs'58 tkï O¾u odkh hs' O¾uhg mqo.
a ,hka f;o .ekaùfuka fhduq lsÍfuka o O¾u
odkh isÿ l< yels h' O¾u foaYkd lsÍfuka lrùfuka O¾u f,aLk ,sùfuka ,shùfuka o O¾u
odkh kue;s W;=ï mrd¾: p¾hdjg fhduqúh yels h' ksiaidrKdOHdifhka wm rfgys ls%hd;aul
jk oyï mdi,a u.ska b;d úYsIag jQ O¾u odkhla isÿfõ' tys,d ;reK odhl;ajh úYsIag
iudchl fmr ksñ ;a;ls'
O¾u odkhg wu;r j ;j;a b;d jeo.;a odkhls" wNh odkh' ìhg m;a i;a;aj hka thska
uqojd .ekSu wNh odkh kï fõ' ìh i¾j idOdrK jQjls' thskq;a urK ìh m%Odk h' ;ud
Wmudjg .ekSfuka ish,a,ka flfrys wNh odkh ,nd §u msKsi hs' 59 nqÿ oyu lshd isákafka"
;ukaf.ka wdríOj fmfkk" fkdfmfkk" l=vd" wkql=vd" uOHu" uy;a" §¾>" y%iaj" N+;"
iïNfõis ish¨ i;a;ajhka flfrys wm%udK jQ ffu;s%h we;sl r .ekSfuka wNh odkh mqreÿ l<
yels h' wm rfgys muKla fkdj fndfyda rgj, ñksiaiq odk mj;aj;s' ta úúO wruqqKq we;sj h'
úfYaIfhka u wo odkh hkak fndfyda úg w¾: .ekaù we;af ;a wdydruh jQjlg h' th o
odkhla nj ienE h' tys o uy;a M, uydksixi we;af ;a h' tfy;a fuys § tjeks oka mj;ajk
ieu fofkl=f.a u úfYaI wjOdkhg ,laúh hq;a;ls" wNh odkh wdrCId lr .ksñka tjeks odk
meje;aùu jvd;a jeo.;a nj' odkh hk fyd| ud;Dldj bÈßfhka ;ndf.k i;a;aj >d;kdÈh
isÿ fldg mj;ajk jHdc odkhkaf .ka ienE odkh fjkafldg y÷kdf.k ls%hd l< hq;= h' taj d
y÷kajkafka odk f,i fkdj hd. f,i h' tjeks hd. fldmuK isÿ l< o mska isÿ fkdfõ' th
wmdh.dó m%;smodjla ñi iaj¾..dó fyda ks¾jdK.dó m%;smodjla fkdfõ' 61

odkh yd okai,
fn!oaO ixialD;sh ;=< úfYaIfhka fhdjqka msßia w;r b;d ckms%h msxluls" jk okai,'
okai, fmrÈ. ixialD;sh ;=< olakg ,efnk úYd, ixial D;sluh jákdlulska fyì
w;Hq;alDIag msxluls' tys b;sydih fndfyda wE;g Èfjkakls' fndaêldrl O¾uhkaf.a m%:u
fndaêldrlh jk odkh iduQysl j isÿ l< jeo.;a wjia:djls" okai,' tjeks úYsIag mrdud¾:hla
th lrkakjqka ;=< mej;sKs' tneúka Tjqyq b;d u .reire j tys mrud¾:hg ydkshla isÿ
fkdjkakg th isÿl<y' tfy;a j¾;udkh jk úg mrud¾:fhka neyer j tlS ud;Dldj
l%shdjg kexfjk nj fmfka' we;eïyq ;u ;ukaf .a udkakh n,mq¿jkal drï m%o¾Ykh lrk
wjia:djla njg th m;alr f.k we;s w;r ;j;a iuyreka úfkdaoh mS%;sh i|yd fhdodf.k
we;s nj fmfka' úfkdaoh mS%;sh nqÿoyug mgyeks fkdjqk o hul mrud¾: flf,id ,nk mS%;sh
wOd¾ñl jQjls' th isÿ fkdúh hq;a;ls'
wm rfÜ nyq, jYfhka okai,a mj;ajk ld, jljdkq jkafka fjila iy fmdfidka
fmdfyda Èkhka h' ta wiydh W;=uka fofokl= wkqiaurKh lsßfï Èk folls' tneúka fuu
wkqiau rKSh Èkhkays isÿ lrk tu okai, b;d w¾:dkaú; jQjla njg m;aúh hq;= h' ta W;=ï nj
flf,id fkd±ñh hq;= h' wo we;uqkaf.a mgq mrdud¾: ikais÷jd .ekSu i|yd lrk okai,a ta
W;=ï Èkhkag fkd.e,fmk mßÈ isÿfjk nj fmfka' we;eï okai,a wjika jkafka iqrdi,a
njg m;aùfuks' .yurd .ekSïj,sks' nhs,lrejkaf.a nhs,dj,g kgñka lEfudr foñka

wiS,dpdr f,i yeisf rñka flfrk tu okai, ta W;=ukag flfrk uy;a u wf.!rjhla nj
ie,l=j ukd h'
wfkl mqrd;kfhys okai,a meje;ajQfha ÿr neyer jkaokd pdßldjkays fhfok
ie±yej;=kaf .a id mji ixis|ùfï Wodr fÉ;kdfjks' ta ie±yej;ay q o thska hula wkqNj fldg
o ÿkakjqkg o msx foñka ;=uQ o msx /ial r.;a y' tfy;a wo isÿù ;sf nkafka bka yd;amisk a
fjkia jQjls' okai,a lkakg u msßila iQodkï j isá;s' ta Èkhkays Tjqka hkafka ta i|yd u h'
we;eï úg rd wrlal= o î okaif,ka ld mkai,la ÿgqjfyd;a t;kg o f.dv je§ mkai,g
hfkk whg o úúOdldr ndOdlsÍï o Tjqyq lr;s' okai,a mj;ajk whf.a hï wvqmdvqjla
ÿgqjfyd;a l,flda,y, fldg okai, o úkdY lr ouk ;;a;ajhg m;aj ;sfí' wfkl" okai,la
meje;aùu i|yd hul= ljrdldrhlska fyda iïudoula isÿ l<d kï tu okaif,ka wkqNj
fkdlsÍfï jeo.;a isß;la fmr ;snqKs' tfy;a wo ;=u Q u okai,g iïudoï j ;=uQ u okai, ld
±ófï .%duH isß;la we;' ta wkqj wo fndfyda ÿrg okaif,ys W;=ï mrud¾: .s,sy S f.dia we;s nj
fmfka' fuh okai,a lrjk wh wffOH_ lsÍu msKsi fkdu lshk ,È' ms<sf j<lg lsÍu msKsi u
h' fkdi,ld oka§u wmdh .dó m%;smodjla f,ihs" nqÿrcdKka jykafia foaYkd lr jodf<a' 62 Tn
tfia okai, i|yd lrk jehlsÍï Bg jvd M,odhS wdldrhg fhdojd .ekaug is;sh hq;= h'
fudavhkaf.ka ,efnk kïnq kdu" lS¾;s m%Yxid wdÈh wfmaCId fkdlrkafka kï Tng ta jeh
lsÍu Bg jvd M,odhS f,i fhoúh yels h' fudavhkaf.ka m%Y xid ,nkjdg jvd
mKaä;hkaf .ka .¾Ndjla ,eîu W;=ï njhs" nqÿrcdKka jykafia jodf<a'
;reK Tn u u;= fï fmdf<dj md,kh lrk rcjreka úh yels ksid odkh rdcH
md,lhka yd iïnkaO jk whqre o fláfhka kuq;a isysl r Èh hq;= h' by; lS ish ,a,la tfia u
rdcH md,lhkag o wod< jk w;r Bg w;sf ¾l jYfhka odkh w¾:j;a jk whqre fuys,d
ie,fla' rdcH md,lhka ìysùfï b;sy dih ms<sn| fn!oaO u;hg wkqj ck;dj ck;djf.a
md,kh i|yd iajlSh Pkaofhka iajlShka w;ßka iqÿiail= f;dard m;al r .;af ;a w.;sfhka
f;dr j ish¨ fokdg idOdrK;ajfhka Tjqkaf.a wNsjDoaêh fjkqfjka lghq;= lrdú hk
woyisks'63 ta i|yd Tjqyq md,lhdg noaola f.jQ y' ta ;;a; ajh wo o tfia u h' ta wkqj
ck;djf.ka nÿ .kakd md,lhka Pkao" oafõY" Nh" fuday hk i;r w.;sfhka f;dr j iufia
ish¨ ck fldgiaj ,g uqod y< hq;= h' md,lhdg odkh w¾:j;a jkafka túg hs' tfia fkdue;s
j tajd f.k f;fï iqriem ú¢ñka rfÜ Y%uK n%dyau Khskag jßka jr wdydrmdkdÈh yd frÈ ms< s
mQcdlsÍu fkdfõ' Y%uK n%dyauKhka úIfhys okajeg meje;aùu ;=<ska muKla rdcH
md,lhkaf.a odkh iïmQ¾K jkafka ke;' ñksiqkag wjYH wdydrmdk f.afodr fi!LH" we÷ï
me<ÿï" wOHdmkh /lS rCId wdÈh úIhfhys taj d imhd .ekSu i|yd rdcH md,lhkaf.a
odlhl;ajh mQ¾K jYfhka ,ndÈh hq;= h' ck;dj ±ä mSvkhg ,la fkdlr Tjqkaf.a uQ,sl
wjYH;d fuka u wfkl=;a wjYH;d imqrd .ekSu i|yd md,lhka iykodhS úh hq;= h' ta i|yd
rdcH NdKavd.drh ksishdldr j jxpd ¥IKdÈfhka f;dr j mj;ajd .ksñka ish¨ ckfldgia
flfrys iudk j fhoúh hq;= h' md,lhka i;= odkh th hs' ta i|yd md,lhka oCI úh hq;= h'
tfia fkdjqk fyd;a rg ;=< úúO ler,s flda,y, biau;= úh yels h' 64
wdka;sl igyka
1'
2'

È'ks' i" n%yaucd, iq;a;" 6 msg'
fid fLd Nføk wmfrk iufhk oyfrdj iudfkd iqiqld<flfid Nføk fhdínfkk iukakd.f;d
mGfuk jhid wlduldkx ud;dms;=kakx wiaiquqLdkx reoka;dkx fliuiaiqx TydfrFjd ldidhdks jF:dks
wÉPdfoFjd w.driaud wk.dßhx mínðx
u'ks' i" wßhmßfhik iq;a;" 400 msg'

3'

¿oaodpdrd LqoaodpdrdZ;s fLd jdfiÜG iqoaod
È'ks' iii" w.a.[a[ iq;a;" 160 msg'

4'

ix'ks' i, Oc.a. iq;a;" 390 msg'

5'

cd;l fmd;" i;a;s.=ïN cd;lh" 1002 msg" wurfuda,s ysñ ixia'

6'

u'ks' ii" wx.=,sud, iq;a;" 516 msg'

7'

u'ks' i, llpQmu iq;a;" 314 msg'

8'
9'

Ñ;a;x NslaLfj Ndú;x uyf;d wF:dh ixj;a;;s
wx'ks' i
woaoid fLd w.a.slNdroajdfcd n%dyaufK N.jka;x ¥rf;dj wd.ÉPka;x Èiajdk N.jka;x t;ofjdp" ;f;%j
uqKavl" ;f;%j iuKl" ;f;%j ji,l" ;sÜGdys
iq'ks' ji, iq;a;" 36 msg'

10'
11'

iq'ks' wd<jl iq;a;" 55 msg'
u'ks' i" oafõOdú;lal iq;a; 288 msg'

12'

iqoaë wiqoaêmÉp;a;x - kd[a[u[af[d úfidOfh
Lq'ks' 1" O'md' 66 msg'
wOïupßhd úiupßhd fya;= fLd .ym;fhd tjñfOlÉfp i;a;d ldhiai fya;= mrïurKd wmdhx ÿ.a.;sx
úksmd;x ksrhx WmamÊc;s
u'ks' i" idf,hHl iq;a; 662 msg'
k mfrix úf,dudks - k mfrix l;dl;x"
w;a;fkdj wfjlafLhH - l;dks wl;dksp
Lq'ks' O'md' 36 msg'
w;;oF:x mfrfF:k - nyqkdZms kydmfh"
w;a;oF:uNs[a[dh - ioF: miqf;d ishd
- tu - 66 msg

13'

14'

15'

16'

u'ks' ii" f>daguqL iq;a;" 628 msg'

17'
18'

u'ks' i" wkÙ.K iq;a;" 58 msg'
fhd ndf,d u[a[;S nd,Hx - mKaäf;djdZms f;k fid
Lq'ks' i" O'md' 38 msg'

19'
20'

Lq'ks' i" Lq'md' ux., iq;a;" 6 msg'
kÑka;hkaf;d mqßfid úfiiuê.ÉP;s
jÜgl cd;l
;iai NslaLfj NslaLqfkd Ndis;x fkj wNskkaÈ;ínx kmamálafldis;ínx
wx'ks' ii" uydmfoifoikd iq;a;" 326 msg'

21'
22'

wx'ks' i" ld,du iq;a;" 336 msg'

23'

§'ks' i" idu[a[M, iq;a;" msg'

24'
25'

u'ks' ii" wmKaKl iq;a;" 108 msg'
fÉ;kdyx NslaLfj lïux jodñ" fp;hsFjd lïux lfrd;s ldfhk jdpdh ukid
wx'ks' iv" ksífíêl iq;a;" 208 msg'
kys mdmx l;x lïux - iÊcq ÇrxZj uqÉp;s"
vyka;x nd,ukafj;s - NiauÉPkafkdaj mdjfld
Lq'ks' i" O'md' 60 msg'
uOqjd u[a[;s ndf,d - hdj mdmx k mÉp;s"
hod p mÉp;s mdmx - w: ndf,d ÿlaLx ks.ÉP;s
- tu - 40 msg
k;x lïux l;x idOq - hx lFjd wkq;mam;s
- tu -

26'

27'

28'

29'

30'
31'

32'

33'
34'

35'
36'

37'
38'
39'

40'
41'
42'
43'
44'
45'

46'

mdKd;smdf;d lïu lsf,fid wÈkakdodkx lïulsf,ix ldfuiq ñÉPdpdfrd lïulsf,fid uqidjdfod
lïu;sf,fid
È'ks' iii" is.d, iq;a;" 288 msg'
foj;d rlaLka;s' ukqiaidkx msfhdfyd;s
wx'ks' iv, fu;a;dksixi iq;a; 644 msg'
fhN=fhHk fLd mk Nkaf; hlaLd wmamikakdfhj N.jf;d ;x ;siai fya;= N.jdys Nkaf; mdKd;smd;d
fõruKshd Oïux fofi;s wÈkakdodkd fõruKshd'''
§'ks' iii" wdgdkdáh iq;a;" 314 msg
f;k fLd mk iufhk w[a[;riai NslaLqfkd wukqiaisldndfOd fyd;s ;x wdpßhqmÊ®dhd WmÜGyka;d
kdilaÅxiq wfrd.x ld;=x fid iQlriQkx .kaFjd wduluxix p LdÈ wdulf,dys;[ap msú ;iai fid
wukqiaidndfOd mámamiaidó;s
u'md' ii" fNiÊclaLJOlh 528 msg'
È'ks' i, n%yaucd, iq;a;" 18 msg'
ioaOdOkx iS,Okx - ysßT;a;mamshx Okx"
iq;Okx p pdf.dZj - m[a[d fu i;a;ux Okx
wx'ks' iv" úF:; Ok iq;a;" 286 msg'
od<soaÈhx fLd NslaLfj ÿlaLx f,dliañx ldufNda.skx
wx'ks' iv" bK iq;a;" 118 msg'
i fLd fid .ym;s wßhidjfld WÜGdkúßhdê.f;ys fNdf.ys ndydn,mßÑf;ys fiodjlaÅ;af;ys Oïñflys
Oïu,oafOys budks p;a;dß m;a;lïudks l;a;d fyd;s'
wx'ks' iv" m;a;lïu iq;a;" 128 msg'
wx'ks' iv" w;a;ldr iq;a;" 94 msg'
ufkdmqínx.ud Oïud - ufkdfiÜGd ufkduhd
Lq'ks' i" O'm' 26 msg'
Ñ;af;k kShH;s f,dfld - Ñ;af;k mßliai;s"
Ñ;a;iai tlOïuiai - iífnj jiukaj.='
ix'ks' i" Ñ;a; iq;a;" 72 msg'
kdyx NslaLfj w[a[x tlOïux ms iukqmiaidñ hx tjx Ndú;x nyq,Sl;x uyf;d wF:dh ixj;a;;s h:hsox
Ñ;a;x
wx'ks' 1" wlïukSh j.a." 12 msg'
mNiairñox NslaLfj Ñ;a;x' ;[ap fLd wd.ka;=flys Wmlalsf,fiys Wmlals,sÜGx
wx'ks' i" mNiair j.a." 1 iq;a;" 28 msg'
kdyx NslaLfj w[a[x iukqmiaidñ hx tjx ,yqmßj;a;x h:hsox Ñ;a;x
wx'ks' i" iQl j.a." 8 iq;a;" 18 msg'
wx'ks' 1" 6 msg'
ix'ks' v ^1& ÿ;sh ixÅ;a; iq;a;" 356 msg'
wmamiaiqf;d iqf;k wkqmmkafkd wmamiaiqf;d iqf;k Wmmkafkd nyqiaiqf;d iqf;k wkqmmkafkd nyqiaiqf;d
iqf;k Wmmkafkd
wx'ks' iv" wmamiaiq; iq;a;" 14 msg'
prx fp kdê.ÉfPhH - fihHx iÈiu;a;fkd"
tlpßhx o<ayx lhsrd - kFÓ ndf, iydh;d
Lq'ks' O'm' 38 msg'

47'

ix'ks' i" i;a;cá, iq;a;" 148 msg'

48'

wx'ks' v" mqßinJOk yd bFÓnJOk iq;a;" 80-82 msgq'

49'
50'

wx'ks' iv ñ;a; iq;a;" 330 msg'
i;a;ys NsCLfj Oïfuys iukakd.f;d NslaLq ñ;af;d fiú;ífnd" Nð;ífnd" mhsremdi;ífnd
wx'ks' iv" NslaLqñ;a; iq;a;" 330 msg'
m;srEmfld u;a;sld l=Kavf,d j
f,dyâVudfidZj iqjKaK Pkafkd
prka;s tfl mßjdrPkakd

51'

52'

53'

54'
55'
56'
57'

58'
59'
60'

wkaf;d wiqoaOd nys fidNudkd
ix'ks' i" i;a; cá, iq;a;" 148 msg'
OïuÜGx iS,iïmkakx - iÉpjdÈx ysÍukx
fklaLx cïfndkoiafij - fld;sx ksoaol=ury;x
fojdZms kx mikaika;s - n%yauqKdZms mixisf;d
wx'ks' iii" imamqßi iq;a;" 72 msg'
imamqßfid fLd uydrdc W<dfr fNdf. ,NsFjd w;a;dkx iqfL;s mSfK;s ud;dms;frd iqfL;s mSfK;s mq;a;odrx
iqfL;s mSfK;s" odilïuldr fmdßid iqfL;s mSfK;s ñ;a;duÉfp iqfL;s mSfK;s iuK n%dyaufKiq
WoaO.a.slx olaÅKx m;sÜGdfm;s'
ix'ks' i" mGu wmq;a;l iq;a;" 164 msg'
;fhd fu mq;a;d ikaf;d ixúÊcudkd f,dliañx l;fu ;fhd@ w;scdf;d wkqcdf;d wjcdf;d ;s
Lq'ks' b'md' mq;a; iq;a;" 404 msg'
Lq'ks' O'md' 66 msg'
iínodkx Oïuodkx ðkd;s
- tu - 112 msg
fofi: NslaLfj Oïux wdÈl,HdKx" uÊf®l,HdKx" mßfhdidk l,HdKx" idF:x" ijH[ackx
flj,mßmqKaKx mßiqoaOx n%yaupßhx mldfi:'
u'md' 42 msg'
È'ks' i" fljâV iq;a;" 488 msg'
iífn ;ika;s oKaviai - iífn Ndhka;suÉpqfkd"
w;a;dkx Wmux lFjd - k yfkhH k >d;fh'
Lq'ks' 1" O'md' 56 msg'
iq'ks' fu;a; iq;a;" 44 msg'

61'
62'

wx'ks' iv" WÊcdh iq;a;" 84 msg'
wimamqßfid wilalÉpx odkx fo;s" wÑka;slFjd odkx fo;s" wmúoaOx odkx fo;s" wkd.ukÈÜÀfld odkx fo;s"
tjx wimamqßiodkx oFjd ldhiaifNod mrïurKd hd wimamqßidkx .;s ;F: WmamÊc;s" ldp NslaLfj
wimamqßidkx .;s" ksrfhd ;srÉPdk fhdks jd'
u'ks' iii" pQ,mqKaKu iq;a;"

63'

È'ks' iii, w.a.[a[ iq;a;" 156 msg'

64'

È'ks' iii, pla;j;a;s iSykdo iq;a;" 116 msg'

3
fhdjqka fm!reIfha Woa.dó yd wm.dó ,laIK

kQ;k

ufkdaúoHdj ;=< úfYaI wjOdkhla fhduqlrkq ,nk ud;Dldjls" fm!reIh' fï
ms<snoj úúO jQ ks¾jpk mj;sk w;r thska u;+jk NdIduh ir,d¾:h i,ld .eyeKq mssßñ
fomlaIh u thska ksfhdackh fkdjk nj;a thska msßñ mlaIh muKla ksfhdackh jk nj;a
mjik we;eïyq jHjydrfhys iaùh;ajh hkak Ndú;d lsÍu fhdA.H nj wjOdrKh lr;s' tfy;a
fm!reIh yd iaùh;ajh hk mo foflka u woyia lrkqfha tl u woyila nj m%:ufhka i|yka
l< hq;+h'
tlu foa ye¢kaùu msKsi tlu NdIdjl jqj o úúO wiudk Ndú;d mej;sh yels nj;a
f;fï reÑ lrk Ndú; lrk jHjydrh muKla ksjeros hehs f.k wkH jHjydrhka ksjeros
ke;ehs ie,lSu kqiqÿiq nj hs" NdId jHjydr ms<sn| j nqÿrcdKka jykafiaf.a fy<sorõ lsÍu
jkafka'1 tfia iajlSh jHjydrh muKla ksjeros hehs f.k th u i;Hh wkH ysia m%,dm hehs
yqjd ±laùug m%h ;ak ±Ífuka isÿjkafka NdId jHjydr wjfndAOhg ydksh la u h' iajlSh NdId
{dkh ms<sn| j w,am;ajhla u h'
flfia jqj;a fndfyda fokdf.a ys; iqj msKsi fm!reI hkafkys ksrela;H¾:h fidhd
ne,Su fuys,d jeo.;a fj;ehs is;ñ' zzfm!reIhZZ hkakg úúO ks¾jpk bÈßm;a lrñka thg
jeä jákdlula fndfyda fokd ,nd§ ;snqK;a ta ms<sn| ksrela;H¾: myod .ekSula fuf;la wm
±l ke;' tneúka tA ms<sn|j Wkkaÿjla olajk whg fukau fï i|yd iaùh;ajh hkak u Ndú;
l< hq;=h hkqfjka ±äj t,an isákakjqkg thska hï m%fhdackhla jkq we;'
zzfm!reIZZ hkak mqreI Yíoh yd iïnkaOhla olajk ksid we;eï úg NdIdj ms< sn|
m%d.=KHhla we;s tfy;a ta ms< sn| j .eUqßka w¾: mÍlaI d fkdlrk ;eke;a;l=g jqj o tys
u;=msg w¾:h foi n,k úg th ldka;d mlaIhg wod< fkdjkakla f,i isf;kq we;' bx.%Sis
NdIdfjys tk "personality" hkafkka tjka .eg¿jla biau ;= ùfï bvlvla ke;' ula ksido h;a
"person" hkafkys ia;%S mqreI fNaohla fkdjk ksi d h' tfy;a zzfm!reIZZ hkak iE§ ;sf nkafka
mqreI Yíohg zzKZZ m%;Hh tla ùfuks' zzKZZ m%;Hh .eka ùfuka wdÈ iaj r jDoaê ù fm!reI hk
Ndjd¾: ;oaê; moh iE§ we;' mqreI iajNdjh hkakhs" tys w¾:h jkaf ka' t;kskqhs .egMj
biau;= jkafka mqreI iajNdjh hehs lS úg ia;%S Ndjh u;=jkafka ke;ehs flfkl=g idOdrK
ielhla u;=ùu wreuhla fkdfjhs' t neúka tA i|yd fhda.H u jpkh iaùh;aj h hehs lSug
;rï flkl= blauka ùug bv ;sfí' tfy;a th ;jÿrg;a úuid ne,Sfuka tlS blauka núka ñ§
m%nqoO
a ukilska th újrKh l< yels h' mqreI hkafkka msßñ nj muKla ksfhdackh fkdjk
nj jgyd .; yels h'

fuh myod .ekSu msKsi ir, WoyrKhla .ksuq' NdIdOHhkfha § kdu mo yd wdLHd;
mo mqreI ;=klg fhdod wms bf.k .ksuq' tkï m%:u mqreI" uOHu mqreI yd W;a;u mqreI
jYfhks' W;a;u mqreI hkq uu wms h' ta fol o idOdrK ,sx.sl h' uu" wms hkq msßñ ^mqreI& o
ia;%S o hehs ks.ukh l< yelafla th jHjydr lrk mqo.
a ,hkag wkqj hs' msßñhl= uu lSfjd;a
th mqreI ,sx.sl h' ia;%shl uu lSfjd;a th ia;%S ,sx.sl h' uOHu mqreI hkq <Õ isák ia;%S fyda
fõjd msßñ fyda fõjd ljr u fyda flkl= ksfhdackh lrkakls' uu" wms iy ud iómfhys
isák flkl= fyda msßila yer wfkla ish ¨ fokd fyda foaj,a ia;%S" mqreI ^msßñ& kmqxil
fNaohlska f;dr j y÷kajkafka m%:u mqreI f,i h' fuys we;s úfYaI;ajh jkafka mqreI
Yíofhka msßñ ia;%S hk fomlaI h u muKla fkdj kmqxil;ajh o thska lshfjk nj hs'
bx.%Sisf hys mqreI ye¢kaùu óg jvd ;rula fjkia h' tys m%:u mqreI" oaú;Sh mqreI yd ;D;Sh
mqreI hkqfjkqhs mqreI y÷kajkafka' tys m%:u mqreI ^First person) hkq uu" wmsh' oaú;Sh mqreI
tkï uOHu mqreI ^Second person) hkq kqU" kqU,dh' Second person yd uOHu mqreIfhys
fjkila fkdue;' ;D;Sh mqreI ^Third person) hkq thska ^First person and Second person) wkH
jQ mqreIh hs' ia;%S" mqreI" kmqxil ish,a, tys,d .efka' tneúkaa mqreI Yíoh wefik úg thsk a
.efkkafka msßñ mlaIh muKlehs f.k fm!reI hkafkka ia;%S mlaI h ksfhdackh fkdjkaafka
hehs i,ld tu jpkh m%;slafIam lsÍug blauka fkdúh hq;= h'
mqreI hkafkys zzmssßñZZhk w¾:hla o mj;sh s' tfy;a fuys,d tlS w¾:fhka tyd .sh msßñ
.eyeKq fomlaIh u ksfhdackh lrk w¾:h u .ekSfuka fm!reIh hkq msßñ nj muKla
lshfjkakla fkdjk nj;a ia;%S;ajh o tA ;=<u ksf hdackh jk nj;a jgyd.; yels h' mqßi
Yíoh nqÿrcdKka jykafia o ia;%S mqreI fomlaIh u ksfhdackh jk f,i fhdodf.k ;sf nk
njg idCIh yuqfõ' mqßi mq..," mqßi n," mqßi mrlalu" mqßildr" mqßi ùßh wd§ mo nqoO
a
foaYkdj ;=< yuqfõ' thska woyia lrkafka msßñ hkak muKla fkdj .eyeKq msßñ fomCIh u
h' mqßiiai ys cd;iai l=Gdß cdhf;a uqfÄ ^Wmka mqreIhdf.a uqLfhys flfÜßhla we;&' 3
ÿ,a,fNda mqßid c[af[d'4 ^W;a;u mqßi f;fï ÿ¾,N h&' NfÊ: mqßiq;a;fï 5 ^W;=ï mqreIhl=
weiqre l< hq;= h&' wdyqkx mqßid Oux6 ^Tyq wOu mqreIhl= hehs lsh;a&' wÜG mqßi mq.a.,d7 ^mqßi
mqo.
a ,fhda wg fofkls&' wd§ fndfyda fhÿï nqoO
a foaYkdjkay s yuqfõ' tys tk zzmqßiZZ Yíofhka
yeÕfjkafka zzmsßñhdZZ hk w¾:h muKla fkdjk nj jgyd .; hq;= h' ia;s%h hk w¾:h o
thska lshfjk nj o; hq;= h' mqßi Yíoh zzmsßñZZ hk w¾:h ksfhdackh lrk wjia:d o foaYkd
md,sfhka yuqfõ'
zzl:sx ys kdu mqßfida mqßi lsÉpx lß;ajd
bFÓx Ôú;d fjdfrd fmiai;sZZ8
^flfia kï msßñfhla fujqk aoï fiajkh fldg ia;%Shl Ôú;fhka f;dr lrkafka o@&
hk ;ekays mqßi Yíoh fhdodf.k we;af;a msßñhd hk w¾:h yeÕùu i|yd h'
fï wkqj mqßi hk Yíoh zzmsßñZz hk w¾:h;a .eyeKq msßñ hk foh¾:hu;a ksfhdackh
flfrk Yíohla nj jgyd.; hq;= h' tneúka fm!reIh .;a l< ia;%S;ajh ksf hdackh
fkdjkafka hehs fkdie,lsh hq;= h' mqreI Yíoh idOdrK ,sx.sl Yíohls' tjeks Yío
fndfyduhla NdId jHjydrhkays oDYHudkh" <uhd" od¾Ykslhd" fodia;r" úoHd{hd" Tjqyq"
YsIHhd" .=rejrhd wd§ jYfhka Yío rdYshla ±laúh yels hs' wm l:dlrk fh!jk;ajh o
tnkaols' tys hï mqreI ,sx.l njla lg yqrejg wkqj jegfyk ksid we;eï Yío YsIHdj"
.=rejßh" úoHd{jßh wd§ jYfhka ia;%S ,sx.sl nj we;slr .ekSu g tA Yíoj,g úúO fjkialsÍï
isÿlr .kakd nj meyeÈ,s h' tfy;a tfia fkdl<d hehs ia;%SmCIh ksfhdackh fkdjkafka

fkdfõ' fuh NdIduh .eg¿jls' th ksrdlrKh lr .ekSug iu;ajkafkda NdIdfjys ffjIduH
m%fhda. f;areï .kakg iu;a jkafkda u h'
fhdjqka fm!reI;ajh ms< sn| j lreKq i|yka lrkakg f.dia mqßi Yíoh ms<sn| j §¾>
úia;rhla lsÍug isÿjQfhA fm!reIh mqreI Yíofhka ielfik ;oaê; mohla ksid;a thska
ia;%S;ajh ksfhdackh fkdfjkjd hehs jerÈ u;hla we;euqka ;=< mj;akd ksid;a iaùh;ajh
hkak u tA i|yd iqÿiq hehs mjik u;h ksjerÈ u u;h fkdjk nj;a fmkajd § zzfm!reIhZZ
hkafkys ksrjoH;dj mejiSu i|yd;a h' msßñ fyda fõjd .eyeKq fyda fõjd mqo.
a ,;ajh
fm!reIh hkafkka woyia jkafka u h' tA wkqj nqÿ oyu mqo.
a , fm!refIah ,CIK folla
fmkajd fohs'


Woa. uk fm!reIh



wj.uk fm!reIh

jYfhks' ;fuda ;u mrdhK iQ;%fhka tA nj ukdj oDYHudk h' tys mqo.
a ,hka y;r fokl=f.a
j¾.SlrKhla we;'
1'
2'
3'
4'

;fuda
;fuda
fcda;s
fcda;S

;u mrdhK ^w÷frka w÷rg hkak d&
fcda;s mrdhK ^w÷frka t<shg hkak d&
;u mrdhK ^t<sfhka w÷rg hkakd&
fcda;s mrdhK ^wdf,dalfhka wdf,dalhg

hkakd&9

fuu mqo.
a ,hka j¾. fldg we;af;a tA ta mqoa., iajNdjh ke;fyd;a fm!refIah ,CIK
i,ld h' fuhska uq,ska lS fofokd wj.uk fyj;a wm.dó fm!reIhla we;a;ka fõ' wfkla
fofokd Woa.uk fm!reIhla we;s fofofkls'
mqo.
a ,hd wm.uk fm!reIfhka uqodf.k Woa.dó fm!reIfhka hqla; jQj l= lsÍu i|yd
wka ljr wd.ul o¾Ykhl ±l .; fkdyels mßÈ fkdjrÈk u. fmkaùu lrk tlu oyu
nqÿoyu hehs i|yka ls Íu ksjerÈ h' fm!reI ixj¾Ok l%sh dj,sf hys ia;r lsysmhla nqÿoyu
fmkajd fohs' fm%dhsâ" fydúia" ksÜfIa" fIdmkayj¾" jeks lsisÿ ufkdaúoHd{hl= tjeks
b.ekaùïj, fidf<diska mx.=jla ;rïj;a W.kajd fkdue;' lsisÿ ufkda úoHd .=rel=,hlg
nqÿoyu W.kajk tlS fm!reI;aj ia;rhka iam¾Yù fkdue;' úfYaIfhka u fm!reI ixj¾Okfha
jeo.;a u wx.h f,i ie,flk udkisl ixj¾Okfhys,d nqÿ oyu W.kajk ixj¾OkSh
ia;rhkaf.a m%d:ñl wjia:djka ms<sn|j muKs" ieu ufkdaúoHd .=rel=,hlska u W.kajkq
,nkafka nqÿoyñka W.kajk tu fm!reI ixj¾Okh ksIag m%dma; jkafka ks Iam%mxp ksIamqoa.,
;;a;ajhla ;=< uki l%sh d;aul lrùug YlH;dj iaÒr j msysàfuks' 10 tn÷ úYsIag fm!refIah
,CIKhla fn!oaO ufkdaúoHdfõ yer wkH ufkda úoHd .=rel=,hl ±lsh fkdyels h'
wdfkCoacm%dma; úYsIag udkisl ;;a;ajhla ;=<ska úYsIag fm!reI idOkh;a nqÿoyu W.kaj hs' tA
ms<sn| §¾> f,i lreKq idlÉPd l< hq;= jqj;a fuys,d tA i|yd wjia:djla lr fkd.kafka
lreKq lsysmhla ie,ls,a,g f.k h' mqoa., fm!reI j¾Okh isÿjkqf ha ujq l=i ;=< § u
h'zz.íNmdßydßhZZfyj;a zz.eífm<yrZZ ±laùfuka isÿlrkafka tlS fm!reI j¾Okhg wjYH
rel=,a §uls' fuh nqÿoyu we;sùug;a fmr isg u mej;shls' isoaOd¾: l=u drhka uõ l=i ms<sis|.;a
Èkfhys uydudhd foaúh iqj| meka kd fmfyjia iudoka j isáhd h' thska meyeÈ,s jkafka
ujf.a ú{dk fCIa;%h orejdf.a fm!reIh úIfhys n,mdk njvhs' Woa. dó iy wm.dó hk
fm!refIah ,CIK folg u ujf.a yeÕSï ujq l=fia isáh § orejdg n,mE yels h'

ud;Dldjg m%úIag ùug fmr fuu lreKq iaj,amh bÈßm;a lf<a fm!reI ixj¾Okh
l=ula±hs fkdjgydf.k fm!reI ixj¾Okh .ek l:d lsÍu ksIaM, ksid;a fh!jkhl= njg
m;ajk úg fm!reIh úYd, f,i ixj¾Okh ù ;sf nk ksid;a h' úfYaIfhka fh!jk;ajh ;=<
j¾ê; fm!reIfha wm.ukh;a Woa. ukh;a hk folu isÿúh yels h' tneúka fhdjqka úfha §
Woa.dó fm!refIah ,CIKhka ;j ;j;a j¾Okh lr.kakg;a wm.dó fm!refIah ,CIKj,sk a
neyerjkakg;a wêIaGdkYS,S j l%sh d l< hq;= h' Woa.dó yd wm.dó fm!reIh úIfhys fya;=jk
m%Odk idOl yhla nqÿoyu fmkajd fohs'
1'

we,Su

2'
3'
4'

.eàu
uq<dj
fkdwe,Su

wm.dó fm!reIhg;a

5'
6'

fkd.eàu
kquq<dj

Woa. dó fm!reIhg;a

11

fya;= fjhs' fïjd ufkda m%;snoaO wNHka;r fm%arKfhda h' fïjd ksid ukfiys wmsßisÿ nj;a
msßisÿ nj;a hk fol f.dv kef.a' th wm.dó yd Woa.dó fm!reIh úIhfhys ±ä f,i n,mdhs'
ks;r u f,dalhd l%shd lrkafka ;DIaK djg odifhla j h' 12 ;DIaKdj hkq mqk¾Njhg mqoa.,hd
f.k hk wdidfjka tA tA ;eka nkaOkh lrkakd h' ldu" Nj" úNj" jYfhka th f;joEreï
fõ'13 ;DIaK djg odij ;DIaK dj úiska W;af;að ; j we,Su .eàu yd fkd±kSu hk fm%arKhka
ñksia is; fufyhjd whym;a me;a;g fhduql rkq ,nhs' wf,daN" wfodai" wfuday ;=<sk a ñksia is;
hym;a me;a;g fhduq lrhs' whym;a ufkdaNdjh ksid whym;a l%sh djkag ;a hym;a ufkdaNdjh
ksid hym;a l%sh djkag;a mqo.
a ,hd fm<fUhs'
;DIaK dj uq,a fldg f.k f,daN" fodai" fuday mßjdr fldg f.k wm.dó fm!reIhla
flfrys fya;= idOl jk ufkdaNdj myla nqÿoyu fmkaj d fohs' lduÉPJo" jHdmdo" ÒkñoaO"
WoaOÉpl=lal=Ép" úÑlsÉpd" hkq ta lreKq my hs' mxp kSj rK f,i fïjd olajd ;ssf í' wm.dó
fm!reIh úIfhys n,mdk ufkdaN dj oyihla jF:Qmu iQ;%fhys olaj d ;sf í'
1'
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13'

;uka i;= foA .ek;a wkqka i;= foa .ek;a we;sjk f,daNh ^wNsÊ®dúiu f,dafNda&
flaka;s hdu" ;ry ^jHdmdfoda&
fl%daOh ^fldfOd&
±äf,i ffjr ne| .ekSu fyj;a noaO ffjrh ^Wmkdfyda&
wkqkaf.a .=K uld ±óu fyj;a .=K ul= nj ^ulafLda&
hq. .%dyh fyj;a ;uka Wiia wh yd iufldg ie,lSu ^m,dfida&
B¾IHdj ^biaid&
uiqrelu ^uÉPßh&
udhdj ^udhd&
lmálu ^idfGhH&
kuHYS,S fkdù ±äj isàu ^:ïfNda&
tlg tl lsÍu ^idrïN&
udkakh ^udfkd&

14' wêl udkakh ^w;su dfkda&
15' uoh ^ufod&
16' isys uq<dj ^mudfoda&
óg wu;r j wm.dó fm!reIh flfrys fya;= jk ufkdaNdj fyj;a Ñ;a;fõ. /ila
;j;a iQ;% foaYkdj, nqÿrcdKka jykaf ia fmkaj d § we;' mshcd;sl iQ;%fhys tn÷ wm.dó
fm!reIhg fya;= jk lreKq myla fmkajd § we;'
1' yoj; we;=<ska we`ãu ^fidal&
2' ysfiys <fhys w;a .iñka we;=< ; fYdalh msgg m%ldY lsSÍu ^mßfoaj&
3' lh yd iam¾Yùfuka Wmkakd jQ ÿla jQ l¾lI jQ fõokdj ^ÿlaL&
4' wm%sh wruqKq iam¾Y ùfuka isf;ys yg.kakd wuOqr Ndjh ^fodaukiai&
5' hï hï jHikhkaf.ka ÿlaL O¾uhkaf .ka hql a; jQ úg we;sjk wdhdih ^la,dka;
.;sh& n,j;a wdhdih ^±ä la,dka; iajdNdjh& ^Wmdhdih& 15
fuu tlsfklla iajNdjhka ms<sn|j fuyss,d úia;r iemhSu fkdlrk kuq;a fulS ish¨
ufkda úlD;Ska ksid iajlSh fm!reIfhys wm.dó;ajhlau isÿjk nj jgyd .; hq;= h' ukd
fm!reIhlska Wm,CIs; ùug kï tlS iajNdjhka yels muK Wmßufhka md,kh lr.ekSug
iu;a úh hq;= h' f,daN" fl%daO" jHdmdo" B¾IHdj" ud;ai¾h" :ïu" uoudk" m%udo" fidal mßfoajd §
ish,a,la u we;s jk ;ek ±k tAjd neyer lrñka mú;% udkisl;ajhla we;slr .; hq;= h' taa
u.ska ukd fm!reIhla we;s lr .; yels fõ'
fuu Ñ;a;fõ.hka yg .;a l,ays tajdg hg;a j tys jy,l= njg m;aù ls%h d fkdl< hq; =
h' flkl= ukd fm!reIhlska fyì ;eke;a;l= f,i fyda tfia fkdjkakl= f,i f;areï
.ekSug tnÿ Ñ;a; fõ. biau;= jk wjia:d bjy,a fõ' we;eïyq tn÷ Ñ;a;fõ. ;ud ;=< yg
fkdf.k we;s l,ay s f;fï tnÿ wjia:djkays § wlïms; j" nqoaêu;a j ú¾hfhka hq;= j lghq;=
lrk njg mqridrï fovqj ;a tn÷ Ñ;a;fõ. yuqfjys tajd ord.; fkdyels j iajlSh ukd
fm!refIah ,CIK ì|fy,d f.k lghq;= lrk wjia:d fldf;l=;a iudcfha ±l.; yels
,CIKhls' flfkl=f.a hulg uqyqK §fï ù¾h ±k.ekSu i|yd hï wdmodjla isÿúh hq;= hehs
jrla fldfid,a uy rc;=u dg nqÿrcdKka jykafia foaYkdfldg jodf<a fï ksid h' ;ukag
wdmodjla isÿ fkdjk ;dla l,a f;fï uy;a ù¾hjka;hl= f,i Yla;sjka;hl= f,i yqjd olajk
we;eïyq wdmodjla meñKsúg y~d je<fmñka iajlSh ld¾h úIhfhys wkq ;aiql j úmß;
nqoaêfhka ±ä l,amkdjg neif.k l<lsreKq iaj Ndjhlska i¾j wY=Njd§ j uqÜGiai;sl j
fyj;a isys uo.;sfhka ls%hd lr;s' th mqoa.,hl= i;= fkdukd fm!refIah ,CIKhls' nkaOq,
u,a,sl dj iajlSh mq;%hka ish¨ fokd;a iajdñ mq;%h d;a hqoO
a fha § ñh .sh mqj; ±k tys,d
lsisfia;a is; úms<sir fkdfldg f.k f;dfuda ksh qla; j isá ld¾hfhys lsisÿ fjkila
fkdue;s j kshe,S isáfha tlS ;;a;ajhkag uqyqK§fï we;s ukd fm!reIh ksid u h' mgdpdrd j
uqyqK mEfõ o tnÿ u jQ brKulg h' tfy;a weh Wu;= jQjd h' fYdal jQjd h' je<mqKd h'
tfy;a fYa%IaG .=rEmfoaYhka ksid tlS ;;a;ajhka u.yrjdf.k úYsIag ;u fm!reIhla we;slr
.ekSug o wE iu;a jQjd h'
we;eïyq fkd±kSu fya;=fldg f.k by; i|yka l< Ñ;a; úlD;Skag wkq.; j ls%hd
lsÍu fyd| fm!refIah ,CIKhla f,i o jrojd f;areï f.k we;' wm iudcfhys we;eï wh
fl%daOdNsN+; j wkHhkag ;,d fm<d lghq;= lrkafka th ;uka i;= ukd fm!reIhla f,i
i,ldf.k h' tfy;a thska ;udf.a wm.dó fm!reIh u m<jk nj jgyd.; hq;= h'

iajlSh wêldrh yuqfjys hg;a jdiSkag we;eïúg .¾ydjg wekqï nekqïj,g md;%
jkakg isÿ fõ' ish n,h fmkaùu i|yd we;eïyq ;ry wdfrda mKh lr.ks;s' msßila bÈßmsg
flfkl=g je/oaola we;s j fyda ke;s j fodaIdfrdamKh fldg neK je§u iajlSh
uyka;;a;ajlu fmkajk wm fm!reI ,CIKhla ñi úYsIag fm!reI ,CIKhla fkdfõ' tfia u
flkl= i;Hfhka fyda wi;Hfhka jQjlska fyda fkdjqjlska" fyd¢ka fyda krlska ;ukag
fpdaokdjla lrk úg tys,d o úCIsma; fkdù thg uqyqK §fï úYsIag fm!refIah ,CIKhla we;s
lr .; hq;= h'16 ;udg neK jÈkakd yuqfjys f;fï o tfia u isÿ lrkakg .sh fyd;a
wfm!refIah jqjl=f.a bÈßfhys f;fï o ;u ukd fm!reIh ì|fy,d .;af;la fjhs' n,a,l=
ll=, imd lEúg n,a,df.a ll=, imd lk isß;la ke;' ^fhd id hiai vfi mox ;iai mdox k
fid vfi& l< hq;af;a tjeks imd lk n,a,kaf.ka je<lS isàug wod< msh jr i,id .ekSu hs'
.sks.;a f,dalhd yuqfjys isys,a Èh oyrla ùug flfkl=g yels kï th úYsIag fm!reI
,CIKhls' ;K iq<lska .ÕÈh WKq l< fkdyelald fia o wdldifhys is;=jï fkd wekao
yelald fia o uy fmdf<dj fkdfmdf<djla l< fkdyelald fia o wkHhkaf.a r¿ mr¿ nia
ksid ;ukaf.a is;a úCIsma; fkdfldg f.k bjiSfuka ffu;s%fhka ls%hd l< hq;= nj hs"
nqÿrcdKka jykafiaf.a b.ekaùu jkafka' 17 th úYsIag fm!reI ,CIKhls'
;reK msßia f,i iajlSh úYsIag fm!reIfhys wdo¾Yh f,i nqoaO pß;h;a wd¾h Y%djl
pß;;a ;nd.; hq;= h'
ÿYaYS,Ndjh fm!reIh jekfik m%Odk ldrKhls' iqis,aj ;d ukd fm!reIfhka
iudcfhys jdih lrhs' nqÿrcdKka jykafia uy msßia ueo oï foiñka isá h§ ÑxÑ ;reKsh l=i
msßuÈñka Wkajykaf ia fj;g uy msßia ueÈka meñK f,dalhdg nK lshkak fkdfõ ud
fjkqfjka lrkakg wjYH hq;=lï ál lrk f,i Wmydifhka Wkajykafiag okaj d isá úg
Wkajykafia lsisÿ fjkila l,n,ùula ke;s j zzke.Kshks" tu ryi okafka wm fofokd
muKhsZZ hehs jodf<a wÉðø YS,fhys n,fhks' liS Ndroajdc" wd,jl jeks wh bÈßfhys
Wkajykafia bßhõ meje;ajQ whqre ;reK Tfí úYsIag fm!reIhg uy;a wdf,dalhls'
¥YaYS,;ajh fyj;a idjoH p¾hd rgdj fya;=fldg f.k ìh ;e;s .ekSu" m,dhEu"
ieÕùu jeks wm fm!refIah ,CIK biau;= úh yels h' 18 my fkdl< rd.h we;s" my fkdl<
oafõIh we;s" my fkdl< fudayh we;s idudkH mqo.
a ,hka ;=< Nh ;e;s.ekSï m<dhEï ieÕùï
19
±l.; yels h' tajd úYsIag fm!refIah ,CIKhka fkdjkafka h'
wdNHka;ßl ufkdaNdjhka msg ;g m%ldY ùfï § lh;a jpkh;a m%u qL fõ' tneúka ldhsl
j iy jdpisl j msg;g hym;a j fyda whym;a j t<s ±lafjkafka wNHka;r.; i;a wi;a ufkda
Ndjhka ksid úYsIag fm!reIhla i|yd wdNHka;ßl mdßfYdaOkh w;sY hska jeo.;a fõ' rd."
oafõI" fuday" uo" udk" B¾IHdÈfhka lelEreKq wNHka;rh lh;a jpkh;a fol u.ska msg ;g
W;=rd hkakg mgka .;a l,ays tlS pß;h iudch úiska ms< sl=<ska hq;= j neyer lrhs' hï
pß;hla iudcfhys ms<sl =<g Ndckh jkq ,efí o tu pß;h ;=< we;af;a wm fm!reIhls'
m%dK>d;h" wo;a;dodkh" ldu ñ:Hdpdrh" uqidjdoh" fla,u" mreI jpk" hk ish,a,la wm
fm!refIah ,CIKfhda h' i;H jQj;a tys we;s Wmfhda. s;d w¾:h jgydf.k u m%l dY lsÍu hs"
úYsIag fm!reIhl ,CIKh jkafka' ta ms<sn| j fuys,d nqÿrcdKka jykafiaf.a meyeÈ,s lsÍu
jgyd .ekSu úYsIag fm!reIhlg ;reK Tng uy;a msájy,la jkq we;' hula i;H jQ muKsk a
u th m%ldY lsÍug fhda.H fkdjk nj nqÿrcdKka jykaf ia fmkajd §fuka fl;rï jpkh

ms<sn| j ie,ls,su;a úh hq;= o hkak jgyd.; yels h' i;H jpkh iïnkaOfhka lreKq
y;rla ie,ls,a,g .; hq;= h'
1'

we;eï úg ;ud lshk foh fyda lshkakg woyia lrk foh i;H úh yelsh' tfy;a ta
;=<ska isÿjk w¾:hla ke;' tu i;H wkdjrKh lsÍfuka isÿjkafka wk¾:hla u h'
th wkHhkag o wms%h" wukdm jQjla úh yels h' i;H jQj;a wk¾: iys; jQ wkHhkag
wms%h wukdm jpk l:d fkdl< hq;= h'

2'

l;d lrk fyda lrkakg woyia lrk fyda jpkh i;H úh yels h' wkHhkag th ms%h
o ukdm o úh yels h' tfy;a th l;d lsÍu ;=<ska ;udg fyda wkqkag lsisu
m%fhdackhla isÿjkafka ke;akï fomCIhg u tnkaola l;d lsÍu ;=< ska wk¾:hla
isÿjkafka kï tnÿ i;H jQ o ms%hukdj jQ o wk¾:ldÍ jpkh l;d fkdl< hq;= h'

3'

we;eï úg ;uka lshk fyda lshkakg woyia lrk foh i;H úh yels h' tfy;a th
wkHhkag wms%h wukdm úh yels h' kuq;a th m%l dY lsÍu ;=<ska uy;a w¾:hla
ie,fikafka kï i;H jQ tfy;a wms%h wukdm jQ w¾: iys; jQ th m%ldY lsÍu l< hq;=
h' tfy;a ta i|yd iqÿiq ld,h ±ku th l< hq;= h' th fkdl,ays m%l dY lsÍfuka
wfmaCIs; w¾: idOkh lr.; fkdyels jkq we;' th lshkafka flfiao hkqfjka lshk
wdldrh ms<sn|j o tys § jegySula ;sîu wjYH h'

4'

;ud lshk fyda lshkakg woyia lrk fyda foh i;H jkafka o wkHhkag ms%hukdm
jkafka o w¾: iys; jkafka o tn÷ jQ o jpkh iqÿiq ld,fhys m%ldY l< hq;= h' 20

i;H jQ fohla jqj o l;d lsÍu i|yd fl;rï ie,ls,a,la ±laúh hq;= o hkak fuhsk a
meyeÈ,s fõ' wi;H .ek lshkqu ljf¾ o@ wi;H jQ fjys o wdldr folla oDYHudk úh yels h'
iuyr wi;H oE wms%h wukdm h' iuyr wi;H oE ms%h ukdm h' tfy;a foflka u lsisÿ w¾:hla
ie,fikafka ke;' tneúka thska je<lS isáh hq;= h' tneúka fld;ekska fyda hula ^i;H&
fidhd f.k ú;a tys wk¾:h fkdi,ld m%isoaêfha m%ldY lsÍu úYsIag fm!reIhl ,CIKhla
fkdjk nj f;areï.; hq;= jeo.;a fohls' we;uqka we;uqkaf.a l=K qlkao,a wjqiaiñka ;=uQ úYd,
ld¾h Ndrhla lrkakka f,i yqjd ±laùug wNsreÑhla olajk nj fmfka' tfy;a th úYsI ag
fm!refIah ,CIKhla fkdfõ' ;ud m%l dY lrk foh i;H jQj;a tys Wmfhda.s;dj ms<sn| úYd,
ie,ls,a,la we;s lr f.k u tn÷ foh m%l dY l< hq;= o keoao hkak ;SrKh l< hq;= h'
lsisjl=g wmydi lsÍugj;a ;ukag lS¾;s m%Yxid ,nd.ekSu gj;a fkdj hï w¾:hla isÿ lsÍï
woyiska u jpk Ndú; l< hq;= h' th úYsIag fm!refIah ,CIKhls'
iajlSh úYsIag fm!reIh úIfhys ie,ls,su ;a úh hq;= ;j;a jeo.;a wxYhla flfrys
nqÿoyu wjOdkh fhduq lrhs' tkï" i;a - ffp;isl iu. ñY% j fhfok wi;a ffp;islhka h'
tajd j[apl O¾u f,i ye¢kafõ' th tfia lSfuka fkdjegfykjd úh yels h' tys woyi fuh
hs' wm ;=< we;sjk we;eï ufkdaNdjhka fmfkkafka hym;a ufkdaNdjhka f,i h' tfy;a tu
hym;a ufkdaNdjh biau ;= ù we;af ;a we;eïúg rd." oafõI" fuday" uo" udk" B¾IHd" fl%daO"
ffjr wdÈfhka fm<öï ,ndf.k h' i;a fjia .;a wi;a ffp;isl hehs tajd ye¢kaúh yels h'
we;eï úg wkqka úiska fkd/jáh yels m%d{fhda mjd iaj ika;dkfhys mek kef.k tu
j[apl O¾uhkag /jfg;s'
WodyrKhla f.k fuu lreK úuid n,uq' mrd¾:ldñ;ajh b;d W;=ï .=Khls' B¾IHdj
my;a udkisl;ajhls' mrd¾: lduH;d fõIfhka B¾IHdj biau;= jk whqre úuid n,uq' flfkl=

ÿmam;=kag hï mß;Hd.hla l<d hehs is;uq' th i;amqreI O¾uhls' thsk a fok ;eke;a;dg o hï
lS¾;shla m%Y ixidjla ,efí' Tyqg ,efnk lS¾;s m%Yxid bjish fkdyels ;eke;a;l= th ñksiqk a
;=< w,ilu we;s lrk fohla f,i olajñka ñksiqkaf.a wNsjDoaêh leue;a;l= úiska l< hq;af;a
th fkdfõ hehs mrd¾:lduH;d fõIfhka B¾IHdj biau ;= j odhlhdf.a §u ye,a¨jg ,la l<
yels h' fokakd yd iïnkaOfhka o fuh fufia u úh yels h' we;eïyq lS¾;s m%Yxid
wfmaCIdfjka fo;s' túg th mrdkqoaoh;d fõIfhka ;uka ;=< my< jQ f,daNhls'
fï wdldrhg j[apl O¾u rdYshla fjiaj,df.k ;ud ;=< my< úh yels nj fyd¢ka
jgydf.k tu p[apl O¾uj,ska uki fírdf.k W;a;u fm!reIhla f.dvk.d .ekSu i|yd
O¾ufhka ukd iqY sCIs; njla ,eìh hq;= u h' O¾uh ms<sn| jegySï we;a;ka o j[apl
O¾uhkag yiqjk l,ays O¾uh fkdokakjqka ms<sn| ljr l;d o@
;ukag i;=rl= lrk ydkshlg jvd úYd, ydkshla ÿIag ffpislhkaf .ka hq;a is; isÿ
lrk nj hs" nqÿrcdKka jykafiaf.a foaYkh' 21 th iajlSh fm!reIfhys wm.dó;ajhg m%n,
fya;=jla jk w;r hul= tlS ÿIag ffp;islhkaf.ka is; uqodf.k hym;a is;sú,s we;s lr
.ekSug jEhï lrkafka kï ;ukaf.a ujqmshka fyda kEoE ys;ñ;=rka fyda isÿlr fkdfok úYd,
hym;la ;ukag isÿlr fohs' tneúka nqÿiuh ;=< wm.dó fm!reIhlg fya;=jk ,CIK fmkajd
§ thska úks¾uqla; j Woa.dó fm!reIhla we;sl r .ekSu i|yd wod< fhduqlsÍï lrkq ,efí'
fm!reI wm.dñ;ajhg fya;=jk ÿYaYS,HdÈh úIhfhys mQ¾jx.u jk lreKq folla nqÿ
oyu fmkajd § we;' tkï" ysß iy T;a;mam hk fol hs' ;reKhl= f,i Tfí fm!reIh ;=<
lsishï u fyda wm.dñ;ajhla f.dv ke.S we;akï th Woa.dó fm!reIhla njg m;alr .ekSug
Tng lsisu ndOdjla ke;' ù¾h m%u qL fldg f.k tu fm!reIh f.dvk.d .ekSug is;d ne,sh
hq;=h' ysß T;a;mam mQ¾jx.u iS,h tys uQ,sl u wjia:dj f,i ie,lsh hq;= h' hï whym;a
ls%hdjla ksr; ùfuys ,Êcd" ìh" ysß" T;a;mam kï fõ' is,aj ;a jkafka ysß T;a;mam fol ;=<sks'
is,a j¾Okh lr .ekSu úIfhys i;amqreI wdY%h wjYH h' m[ap YS,h u jqj o .syshkag úYsIag
fm!reIhla úIfhys m%dudKsl;ajfhka .sK sh yels h' tfy;a w;súYsIag fm!reIhlg th m%udK
jkafka ke;' tfy;a m[apYS, m%;smodj ;=< isákakd ta w;súYsIag fm!reIhg keUqrej isák nj
fhduqj isák nj f;areï f.k iajlSh úYsIag fm!reIfhys wdrCIl j<,a, f,i iS,h
mj;ajd.; hq;= h'
m[ap YS,fhka tlla fyda lv lrkakl= jqjfyd;a Tn ;=< f.dv kef.k wm.dó
fm!reIh ksid Tng fndfyda oE wysñj hk nj fkdryils' tu YsCIdj,ska tlla fyda lvlrk
;eke;a;d iudcuh jYfhka o iïNdjkdjg ,la fkdfõ' tn÷ mqo.
a ,hd iudch úiska ms< sl=,a
lrkq ,nhs' Tng hï hï Okhla ±kqula fyda fNda. hla we;akï tys wdrCIl j<,a, iS,h nj
i,lkak'
fuys l,skq;a i|yka l< wdldrhg Tnf.a Woa.dó fm!reIh úIfhys úúO ndOd t,a, úh
yels h' tys,d wfõ. YS,S fkdù bjis,sjka; j we,Sï .eàï uq< dùïj,ska f;drj fhdak sfida
ukisldrfhka hq;= j ta ndOd yuqfjys ls%h d l< hq;= h' hï ndOlhla yuqfjys Tn ls%hdlrk
wdldrh wkqj wm.dó yd Woa.dó fm!reIfha ,CIK ;SrKh fõ' .eg¨j y÷kd fkdf.k th
úYaf,aIKh fkdfldg CIKsl j úi|d .ekSu i|yd m%f hda.ldÍ j wfõ.d;aul j m%pKavYS,S j
hul= ls%hd;aul jkafka kï Tyq iajlSh wm.dó fm!reIhla we;af;ls' fyf;u ta nj ±k
fm!reI j¾Okhg W;aidy .; hq;= h' úfYaIfhka ;=reKq úh wfõ.hkag ;rula kuHYS,S jk

ksid ta ms< sn| úfYaI wjOdkhlska ls%h d l< hq;= h' nqoaêhg uq,a;ek § ls%h dlsÍu úYsIag
fm!refIah ,CIKhls'
iodpdr u¾hdodjla hgf;ys mj;ajkakd jQ iajÉPkao;djla o mj;ajd .ekSu úYsIag
fm!reI ,CIKhls' wfkHdkH wêldrhkag hg;a fkdùu iajÉPkao;dfjys ,CIKh hs' tjeks
lreKq oyhla úIhfhys nqÿrcdKka jykafia wfma wjOdkh fhduq lr we;' 22
1'

wkqY%jh fyj;a Y%e;s ud;%h úuiSulg ,la fkdfldg fkdms< s.; hq;= h' ^ud wkqiaifõk&
wkaOhka /<lghs" tnÿ wkqY%j ud;%f hka hula ms< sf.k th i;H hehs is;d lghq;= lsÍu
nqÿrcdKka jykaf ia olaj d ;sfnkafka' wkaOfõKsfhys m<uq wkaOhdg;a ueo wkaOhdg;a
wjidk wkaOhdg;a wdf,dalh fkdfmfkkak d fia Y%e;s ud;%fhka fkdúuid
ms<s. ekSfuka i;H ±l.; fkdyels h'

2'

mdrïmßl úYajdihka u; msysg d fkdms<s.; hq;=
lsisÿ yrhla ke;' tfy;a iajlSh mrïmrdfjka
we;' ta lsisjl=;a ta ms<sn| úuiSï kqjKsk a m%Y ak
tajd úuiSug ,la fldg thska yrhla we;akï
fkdue;s kï tajd m%;sfCIam lsÍu;a isÿl< hq;= h'

3'

fmr fufia lshd ;sf í¨" isÿù ;sf í¨ wdÈ lfgd¨ l;d m%dudKsl;ajfhys,d fkd.; hq;=
h' ^ud b;slsrdh&

4'

fmd; mf;ys tk muKska fkdms<s.; hq;= h' ^ud msgl iïmodfkak& fmd;a m;ays jqj o
ksjerÈ foa we;ehs ks.ukh l< fkdyels h' úfYaIfhka ful, iodpdr u¾hdodjka
blaujd t<solsk .%ka: ±l .; yels h' ud wij,a .%ka:fhka fuh ±k.;af;a hehs o;a
fofhys ksrjoH;dj m%u dK lsÍug fmd;m; we;eïyq m%udKsl;ajfhka i,l;s' th
kqiqÿiq h' hula fyd| o keoao hehs ;SrKh lsÍug fmd;mf;ys i|yka ù ;sîu
m%dudKsl;ajfhys,d .sk sh fkdyels h'

5'

;¾ldkql +, muKska i;H hehs fkdms<s. ; hq;= h' ^ud ;lal fya;=& i;H o¾Ykfhys
;¾lfhka hï msájy,la ,efnk kuq;a i;H o¾Ykfhys,d ;¾lh im%udKsl idOlhla
f,i nqÿoyu fmkajd fokafka ke;' we;a; ke;a; f,i;a" ke;a; we;a; f,i;a" we;a;
we;a; f,i;a" ke;a; ke;a; f,i;a ;¾lfhka ±lsh yels h' tneúka ;¾ldkaú ; jQ
muKska i;H u hehs ks.ukhg t<öu kqiqÿiq f,ihs" nqÿ oyu olajkafka'

6'

kHdhg .e,fmk muKska i;Hh hehs fkdms< s.; hq;= h' ^ud kh fya;=& mj;sk ms< sfj<
isÿfjk Í;sh kHdh kï fõ' hï hï wh hï hï foaj ,a b;d ms<sfj<lg Í;shlg isÿ
lr;s' th ±lSfuka Ñ;a;dl¾IKhla o isÿúh yels h' ms< sfj<lg hula isÿ jQ muKsk a
i;H thu hehs ks.ukhlg meñKSug blauka fkdúh hq;= h' hul mj;akd ms<sfj<
i;Hfhys ks¾Kdhlhla lr.ekSu wfhda.H nj hs" thska fmkajd fokafka'

7'

hym;a j mj;akd wdldrh foi n,d i;Hh hehs ks.ukhg blauka fkdúh hq;=h' ^ud
wdldr mßú;laflk& we;eïúg lSfuys ,sùfuys oCI;d we;a;ka ;¾ldkql+, j fkdmels,s
j ,hdkaú ; j yDohdx.u j w.%duH j b;d ms%hYS,s j ksrjq,a j hïlsis fohla lshkjd
,shkjd úh yels h' lshk ,shk fofhys wdldrh" mßú;¾lkh fyj;a is;k ;eke;a;l=
tys mj;akd ksrjq,a" ;¾ldkql =, <.kakd iq¿ iajNdjh fyj;a wdldrh wkqj th i;Hh

h' ^ud mrïmrdh'& we;eï ls%hdldrlï
mrïmrdjg tajd isÿ lr f.k meñK
fkdlr ìfhka wkq. ; j we;' tfy;a
muKla Bg wkq.; ùu;a bka yrhla

úh hq;= hehs ks.ukhlg t<ôh yels h' tfy;a hula bÈßm;a lrk wdldrh th i;H
hehs ks. ukh lsÍfï m%u dKsl idOlh f,i fkdie,lsh hq;= h'
8'

;ud t,anf.k isák oDIaáhg" u;hg .e,fmk muKska hula i;Hh hehs fkdms<s. ;
hq;= h' ^ud ÈÜÀksÊ®dklaLka;shd& tys woyi iuyr wh i;Hh hehs fyd| hehs ks.ukh
lsÍfï ks¾Kdhl lr .kafka ;ud reÑlrk wdldrhg hula isoO
a ùfuka nj hs' fuh
nyq, j ±lsh yels wm fm!refIah ,CIKhls' ;ud ordf.k isák u;h yß fyda fõjd
jerÈ fyda fõjd ;j flfkl= ta u;hg wkq.; j thg wúreoaOj ta u;hu ;yjqre jk
mßÈ lreKq i|yka lrk úg Tyqf.a woyi uf.a woyi iu. b;d fyd¢ka ixëh jk nj
±k thska f;o ,nd thska buy;a i;=gg m;aj bka tyd hula jgyd .kakg W;aiql
jkafka ke;' tneúka ;ud ms<s. ;a u;hg .e<fmk muKska th i;Hfhys m%u dKslhla
f,i fkdie,lSu úYsIag fm!refIah ,CIKhls'

9'

fyd| hehs fmfkk muKska ms<s.ekSu fkdl< hq;= h' ^ud NínrEm;dh& we;eï úg by;
i|yka l< hï hï lreKq o mdol fldg f.k fyd| f,i fmfkk tfy;a fyd|;a
fkdjk fohla fyd| fohla f,i .kak d wjia:d we;' th /jàuls' uq< djls' tneúka
hym;a fjia.;a krl foh krlla f,i jgyd .ekSfï nqoaêhla we;sl r.; hq;= h'
tneúka ndysrg fyd| hehs fmkSï ud;%h fyd| hehs ;SrKh lsÍfï ks¾Kdhlhla
fkdfldg f.k úuis,su ;aj lghq;= l< hq;= h'

10'

iajlSh Y%uKhka jykafia fyda .=rejrhd lsh Q muKska .=re ne;sfhka fkdms<s. ; hq;= h'
^ud iufKd fkd .re& úYsIag fm!reIhla f.dvk.d .ekSu i|yd fld;rï úu¾YkYS,S
j ls%hd l< hq;= o hkak fuu ksfIaOkfhka meyeÈ,s fõ' fuh ;uka jykafia yer
foaYkd lrk ,oaola fkdfõ' oyu wkq.ukh lrk Y%djlhkag nqÿrcdKka jykafia
.=rejrfhls' Wkajykaf iaf.a b.ekaùï o f.!rjfhka ms<s.ekSu fkdj iaj lSh nqoaêfhka
mßCId fldg ms<s. ekSuhs" l< hq;= jkafka" hkak hs thska meyeÈ,s jkafka' th
nqÿrcdKka jykaf iag lrk wf.!rjhla fkdfõ' f.!rjhla u h' fYa%IaG .=rejrhl=f.a
wNS; iSykdohls" fuu m%l dYh' f.!rjh Nla;sh i;Hfhys m%dudKsl idOlhla fldg.;
fkdyels nj hs" thska fmfkkafka' fkdjegySu ;=< ska we;slr.kakd f.!rjh fkdj
jegySu ;=<sk a we;sl r .kakd f.!rjh hs" jeo.;a jkafka' th ±ä f,i uq,anei.;a
f.!rjhls'

fuu ksfIaOk l%u oyh foi úuis,af ,ka n,d ls%h d lrk ;eke;a;l=g úYsIag
fm!reIhla ;uka ;=< f.dvk.d .; yels h'
Woa. dñ fm!reIh úIfhys fya;=jk ;j;a jeo.;a lreKq yhla w;a;ldr iQ;%fhys yuqfõ'
tkï'
1'

wdrïN Od;=

2'
3'
4'
5'
6'

kslaLu Od;=
mrlalu Od;=
:du Od;=
À;s Od;=
Wmlalu Od;=23

oE;a ne|f.k l=iS; j ÈhqKqj ;ud fj; meñfKk f;la n,d fkdisg YS% ldka;djg ;ud
fj; meñfKk fuka hd{d lr lr fkdisg wNsjDoaêh i|yd lghq;= wdrïN lsÍfï W;aidyhla
mej;sh hq;= h' ÈhqKq úh fkdyelsh hk iDKd;aul wdl,amfhys fkdisg yels h hk Okd;aul
fÉ;kdfjys msysgd lghq;= wdrïN lsÍfï ù¾h wdrïN Od;= f,i y÷kajhs' lghq;= wdrïN lsÍu
i|yd l=is; lñka kslaóu kslaLu Od;= kï fõ' w,ihdg hula werôh fkdyels h' l=ula fyda
fohla bÈßhg oudf.k hula wdrïN fkdlr isg u l=is; ,CIKhls' wm.dó fm!reI
,CIKhls' lïue,slu ÿr,d lghq;= weröug kslaLu Od;=j mj;ajd .; hq;= h' lghq;= wdrïN
lrkakd fiau tys ÈhqKqj msK si lemù lghq;= l< hq;= h' th mrlalu Od;= kï fõ' ÈhqKqj
i|yd lemùï lrk úg úúO ndOl meñKsh yelsh' ta ndOl yuqfjys wffO¾hj;a fkdù ndOl
chf.k wNsu ;d¾: idOkh msKsi ù¾h n,j;a fia mj;ajd.; hq;= h' th y÷kajkafka :du Od;=
f,i hs' fl;rï ndOl meñKsh;a Bg fkdie,S Yla;su ;a j uqyqK foñka lghq;= lrk úg ;ud
;=< ù¾h ia:djr njg meñfKa' th y÷kajkafka À;s Od;= f,i h' tfia u fï ish,af,ys ,d
Wml%uYS,s j lghq;= lsÍfï YlH;dj o b;d jeo.;a fõ' th Wmlalu Od;= f,i ye¢kafõ'
úYsIag fm!reIhla i|yd fuu lreKq yh ;=reKq Tng uy;a msájy,ls'
nqÿoyu ;=< tk Woa. dó fm!reIhla i|yd wod< lreKq ldrKd rdYshls' tajd ish,a,
fujekaklska úia;r lsÍu iqj diqoyila fhdÿka .eUq/ ;s uqyqo f.dv lruehs f,fykl= l<
;ekla jeks h' isÿ l< fkdyelalla u h' nqÿoyu ;=< tk iEu lreKla u w;súYsIag
fm!reIhlg fya;=fõ' tlsfklg úia;r l< fkdyels jqj ;a úYsIag fm!reIhla f.dvk.d .ekSu
i|yd nqÿoyu fmkajd fok lreKq lSmhla leáfldg ±laùu fhda.H hehs isf;a'
1'

i;a;aj >d;kfhka yd jO ysxidj,ska je<lS ish¨ i;=ka flfrys ñ;%;ajfhka lghq;=
lrkakl= ùu'

2'

fidrlñka je<lS iafjda;aidyfhka lghq;= lrk tfia u mß;Hd.YS,S j ls%hd lrk
;eke;a;l= ùu'

3'

jerÈ bJøsh mS%Kkfhys fkdfh§ ksjerÈ bJøsh mS%Kkfhys fh§u fukau n%yau p¾hdj'

4'

fndrefjka je<lS i;H l;d lrkakl= ùu i;Hh jqjo w¾:j;a kï muKla l;d lsÍu'

5'

Tjqfkdjqka ì|jk l;d fkdfldg Tjqfkdjqka ;=< iduh iu.sh iudodkh we;sjk jpk
l;dlrkakl= ùu'

6'

wms%h wukdm jpk l;d fkdfldg ksfodia ^fk,d& lkal¨ ^lKay iqLd& fma%uKsh
^fmauKSh d& yDohdx.u ^yohx.ud& YsIag ^fmdaß& fndfyda fokdg ms%h fndfyda fokdf.a uk
jvk ^nyqckldka; nyqck ukdmd& jpk l;dlrkakl= ùu'

7'

w¾: úrys; fnd,a jpk l;d fkdfldg wjYH foa jqj o iqÿiq ld,fhys u l;d lrk
^ld,jd§& i;H jqjla u lshk ^N+;jd§& w¾:j;a fohlau lshk ^wF:jd§& ±yeñ jQjlau lshk
^Oïujd§& yslaóu we;s lrkakla u lshk ^úkhjd§& isf ;ys ;nd.kakg iqÿiailau lshk
^idmfoix& w.uq,a we;s m%udKj;a jpk u l;d lrk ^mßhka;j;sx& fuf,dj muKla fkdj
mrf,dj i|yd o hk WNhd¾:hg u bjy,ajkakla lshk ^wF: ixys;x& ;eke;a;l= ùu'

8'

álla l;d lrñka fndfyda jev lrkakl= ùu'

9'

lshk foh lrk" lrk foh lshk ;eke;a;l= ùu'

10' uiqka fjd< .ekafuys fljq,ka fia f>daI dldÍ ùfuka j<lskakl= ùu'
11' wkqkaf.a kq.=K fkdu wid fkdlshkakl= ùu" weiQ l, o yqjd fkdolajkak l= ùu'

12' wkqkaf.a .=K fkd úuik ,ÿju lshkakl= ùu" úuiQ l, fndfyda fldg lshkakl= ùu'
13' wkqka krl jpkj,ska fodaIdfrdamKh lrk úg f;fï o tfia u lrkakl= fkdùu'
14' ,dN" w,dN" whi" hi" kskaod" m%Yxid" iem" ÿl hk wgf,da oyñka lïmd fkdjkakl= ùu'
15' wd;afud;al¾IKh;a mrdml¾IKh;a fkdlsÍu'
16' hula lshkak lrkak fmr;a" lshk lrk úg;a" lshQ flrE miq;a" tys fyd|krl nj"
Wmfhda. S;dj fyd¢ka isyslrkakl= ùu'
17' wkqkaf.a jerÈ yuqfjys ;uka fldamjkakl= fkdùu fiau wkqkaf.a jerÈ ±l je/oafoka
uqojd .ekSu msKsi lreKdfjka wkq.%y olajkakl= ùu'
18' u;aøjH Ndú;fhka yd fj<|dfuka je<lS isákakl= ùu'
19' Wmldr l< hq;= wh fidhd n,d ,dN" lS¾;s" m%Y xid wdÈh ms< sn|j wfmaCIdfjka f;drj Woõ
Wmldr lrkakl= ùu'
20' Ôúld jD;a;shg wjYH ±yeñ Ys,am Ydia;%hkays mqyqKqj we;a;l= ùu'
21' fndfyda oE ms<sn| j weiQ msrE ;eka we;s ;eke;a;l= ùu'
22' ks;r u úkh .rel ùu'
23' ujqmshdÈ ish¨ fokd flfrys iajlSh hq;=lï uekúka bgqlrkakl= ùu'
24' lrk lghq;= úuis,su;a j ksjerÈ j ksrjq,a j lsÍu'
25' wk,ia j ld¾hCIu j lghq;= lrkakl= ùu'
26' ke;s foa fidhk" ;sf nk oE úkdY fkdlr wdrCIdlrk" lefvk ìf|k oE úkdY fkdlr
wdrlaI d lrkakl= ùu'
27' .re l< hq;a;kag .re lrk" msosh hq;a;kag mqok" i;aldr l< hq;a;kag i;aldr lrk
;eke;a;l= ùu'
28' odkfhys ;;amr jQjl= ùu'
29' wk;sudkS j kuHYS,S j lghq;= lrkakl= ùu'
30' ys;=jlaldr f,i lghq;= fkdfldg wkH u;jdohkag o lka fhduq lrñka jvd;a ksjerÈ foa
lrkakl= ùu'
31' w¨hu wjÈj is; is;d muKla fkdisg l=iS;lï ÿr,d fkdmiqng ù¾hfhka hqla; j
lghq;= lrkakl= ùu'
32' m%udKj;a j ñi muK blaujd wdydr fkd.kakd fia u ;ukag ys; jQjla ñi wys; jQjla
wyr fldg fkd.kakl= ùu'
33' ;udg jvd keK .=K msß wh ks;r weiqre lrkakl= ùu' ;udg jvd .=K keK ySk wh
weiqre l,;a ;ud tA ;;a;ajhg fkdm;aj ta wh;a keK .=K msß wh njg m;alsÍug W;aiy
lrkakl= ùu'
34' .+V l%shdjkaf .ka je<lS újD; j lghq;= lrkakl= ùu'
35' ;udf.a jerÈ wjfndaO lrf.k ´kElñka u tu jerÈ ksjerÈ lrkakg W;aidy lrkakl=
ùu'

36' ;ud <Õ we;s jerÈ ke;s lr .kakg;a" ke;s jerÈ we;s fkdjkakg;a" ke;s fyd| we;s lr
.kakg;a" we;s fyd| jeä ÈhqKq lr.kakg;a W;aiy .kakl= ùu'
37' hfula lshQ fohla tlfy<d m%;slafIam lrkafka o ke;s j ms<s.kaafka o ke;s j tA ms<sn| j
uekúka úuid n,d ÿla msKsi" wys; msKsi" wk¾:h msKsi" mj;skak la kï m%;sCIam
lrkakl= ùu;a iem msK si" ys; iqj msK si" w¾:h msKsi mj;skafka kï ms<s.kakl= ùu'
38' fl%daOh" ffjrh" B¾IHdj" udkakh" wdÈ ÿIag is;=ú,sj ,ska ñ§ jdih lrkak l== ùu'
39' wdfõ.YS,S fkdù nqoê
a u;a j is;d n,d l%shd lrkakl= ùu'
40' ;ukag;a wkqkag ;a jevodhS j .;lrkakl= ùu' mrd¾:ldóhl= úu' mrd¾:h fjkqfjka
wd;au d¾:h úkdY fkdlr.kakl= ùu'
41' h:d ,dN" h:d n," idremH ika;=Iaáfhka jdih lrkakl= ùu'
42' ufkda rdðl f,dalhkays fkdisg b,lalh fj; <Õd ùu i|yd ù¾hfhka hqla; j lghq;=
lrkakl= ùu'
43' fkdkej;S bÈßhg hkakl= ùu'
44' OHdk ,dNshl= ùu'
45' ud¾.M, ,dNS W;=ul= ùu'

wdka;sl igyka
1'

u'ks' iii" wrKúNx. iq;a;" 490 msg'

2'
3'

hx ;x mqßi:dfuk mqßiúßfhk mqßimrlalfuk myd;ínx
wx'ks' i" Wm[a[l iq;a;" 100 msg'
iq'ks' fldld,sl iq;a;" 206 msg'

4'

Lq'ks' i" O'md' 74 msg'

5'

- tu - 42 msg'

6'

Lq'ks' i' b'md' jqÜÀ iq;a;" 406 msg'

7'
8'
9'
10'

ix'ks' 5^2& ÿ;sh uydkdu iq;a;" 186 msg'
Lq'ks' i" W'md' iqkaoÍ iq;a;" 214 msg'
wx'ks' iv" ;fud;umrdhK iq;a;" 162 msg'
iq'ks' ;=jgl iq;a;" 288 msg'

11'
12'
13'

wx'ks' ;sl ksmd;h" 248 msg'
u'ks' ii" rÜGmd, iq;a;" 446 msg'
idhx ;Kayd fmdfkdNúld kkaÈrd. iy.;d ;;% ;;%dNskkaÈkS fihHÒox ldu;Kayd Nj;Kayd úNj;Kayd
ix'ks' v ^2& Oïuplalmamj;a;k iq;a;" 270 msg'
u'ks' 1 jF:Qmu iq;a;" 82 msg'
u'ks' ii" mshcd;sl iq;a;" 330 msg'

14'
15'
16'

fh;s fjd mfr joudkd jfohHqx ldf,k jd wldf,ak jd N+f;k jd wN+f;k jd iKafyk jd Mrefik jd
wF:ixysf;k jd wkF:ixysf;k jd fu;a;Ñ;af;k jd fodi;a;rdj''' ;;%dms f; NsCLfj tjx islaÅ;ínx
kfpj fkd Ñ;a;x úmßK;x Núiai;s'
u'ks' i" llpQmu iq;a;" 31 msg'

17'

- tu -

18'

fh fLd flÑ iuKdjd n%dyauKdjd wmßiqoaOldh lïuka;d wmßiqoaO jÖ lïuka;d wmßiqoaO ufkd lïuka;d
wmßiqoaOdðjd''' wmßiqoaOdðj ikafodi fya;=''' wl=i,x NhfNrjx wõyhka;s
u'ks' i" NhfNarj iq;a;" 40 msg'

19'

wù;rdf.d wù;fodfid wù;fudfyd NsreÉP;s W;%dis m,dhS;s
ix'ks' i" Oc.a. iq;a;" 390 msg'

20'
21'

u'ks' ii" wNhrdc l=udr iq;a;" 96 msg'
Èfid Èix hx ;x lhsrd - fjÍjd mk fjßkx"
ñÉPdmKsys;x Ñ;a;x - mdmsfhd kx ;f;d lfr'
W'md' f.dmd, iq;a; 204 msg'
t: ;=ïfy ld,dud ud wkqiaifjk ud mrïmrdh ud b;slsrdh ud msgliïmodfkk ud ;lalfy;= ud khfy;=
ud wdldrmßÑ;laflk ud ÈÜÀksÊ®dklaLka;shd ud NínrEm;dh ud iufKd fkd .rE;s
wx'ks' i" ld,du iq;a;" 336 msg'

22'

23'

wx'ks' iv" w;a;ldr iq;a;" 94 msg'

4
fn!oaO ;reKhd
wrgqjlska

m%fhdack we;s ;eke;a;l= wrgqjla we;s .ila fidhñka f.dia úysÿKq fld<
we;s idrj;a j jevqKq úYd, lo,s jDCIhla ±l wrgqj we;s ±jeka; jDCIhla ,enqfKa hehs
buy;a ikaf ;daI hg m;aj wmyiqjlsk a wudrejlska f;dr j f,fyisfhka th is| ìu fy,d
wrgqj fidhkq jia ,ys ,ysfha m;=re .,j .,jd bj;a lrñka fjfyiqk ;a lsis úfgl thsk a
yrhla ;nd t,hlaj ;a u;=l r .; fkdyelafla u h' isÿù ;sfnkafka /jà ls%hd lsÍula muKs'
w,shl= myrk ,o Èjq,la ±l fidïkig m;a nd,hl= iu o M,hla ,±hs uy;a wdYdfjka f.k
Èjq,a u| fidhkafka kuq;a thsk a flfia kï u| ,o yelafla o@ fkdyelaf la u h' rka n÷klsk a
m%fhdack we;a;l= msáka rka wdf,ams;hla ±l /jà ienE rka n÷kla ,oafoa hehs ;Dma;su ;a
jkafka kï th uq<djls' wkjfndaOh ksid isÿ jQjls' tfia u fï f,dalfhys úúO oDIaákaf.ka
n|kd ,o u~kd ,o we;eïyq oDIagHkq. ; j úúO wd.ï yd o¾Ykjdo iu. m%;snoaO fj;s'
fndfydauhla wd.ï yd o¾Yk jdo ;=< neyeßka mqoa.,hkaf .a fk;a is;a weo ne| ;nk ufkdayr
,CIK olakg ,enqK o wNHka;rfhys yriqka h' .eUqrla we;af ;a u ke;' uq< d lrk iq¿
fndfyda wdfgdam idfgdamj,ska mQß; h' we;eïyq ta wd.ï yd o¾Ykjdo ysi u; ;ndf.k uq< dù
ls%hd lr;s'
i;Hh wkdjrKh lr .ekSug mQ¾jfhka isoO
a d¾: udKjlhd o tjka yriqka wdfkalúO
wd.ñl úYajdi miq mi hñka idr .fõIKh l< nj nqoaOpß;fhka m%lg j fmfkk lreKls' 1
thska isoO
a d¾: udKjlhdg ÿlla u fjfyila u wys;la wk¾:hla u isÿ jQjd ñi hym;la isÿ
jQfha ke;' tuksid tlS ñiÈgq ms<sfj;aj,ska úuqla; j ueÿï ms<sfj;ska iuHla {dkh ;=reKq
úfha § u idCId;a l<y'2 ta m%;sfõÈl O¾uh uq," ueo" w. b;d hym;a j w¾: iys; j" flaj,
mßmQ¾K j msßisÿ j ukd j foaYkd fldg we;' 3 Wkajykafia úisk a ta foaYs; O¾uh iaj hx
oDIaál h' tkï" ;u ;uka úiska m%;HCI lghq;= h' wfkll=f.a m%;HCIfhka ;udg M,
fkd,eìh yelalls' tfia u wkq. ukh lsÍfuka ,eìh yels M, we;s oyuls' l,a fkdhjd
m%;sM, ,o yels oyuls' ´kE u flfkl=g meñK úuid n,d wkq.ukh lsÍug fhda.H oyuls'
iajika;dkhg muqqKqj d .ekSug fhda.H oyuls' m%d{hka úiska kqjKska jgyd .; hq;= oyuls' 4
.=ma; lsisjla nqÿoyfuys ke;' ish,a, újD; h' tfia u foaj wkdjrKhla o fkdfõ'
iïmQ¾Kfhka u W;a;r udkQISh wkdjrKhls' 5 .eUqßka úuikak¦ úuikak yr ,efnkakls'
ir, j wdrïN ù .ïNSrd¾:hla lrd muqKqjk oyuls'6
wo ;=,kd;aul j wd.ï" o¾Yk yd oyu wOHhkh lsÍu ckms%h jQjls' ta u.ska hï
wd.ñl iyÔjkhla Wodfõh hkq úYajdih hs' tfy;a wd.ï o¾Yk yd oyu ;=,kh lsÍfuka ta
ish,a, tl yd iudk h¦ ish¨ Ydia;Djreka foaYkd fldg we;af ;a tllau h¦ hehs m%ldY lrk
;ekg meñKSu u.ska lsisf ia;a wd.ñl iyÔjkhla Wodlr .; fkdyels nj m%{dfjka wjfndaO
lr .; hq;= h' tfia lsÍu wd.ï l;_Djrekag flfia fj;;a úYsIag oyula fy<s l< nqÿrcdKka
jykafiag lrk uy;au wmydihls' wf.!rjhls' tfia lshkakd jQ ;eke;a;d f;fï fn!oaO hehs

lshd .kafka kï .sysf hla fyda fõjd meúoafoala fyda fõjd Tyq .syshl= meúoaol= ñi fn!oaO;ajh
ms<sk lsÍug wfhda.H h' tjekakyqg nqÿ oyfï WKqiquj;a ,eî fkdue;'
;=,kd;aulj wd.ula o¾Ykhla fyda oyula wOHhkh l< hq;af;a ish,a, iudk hehs
lSug fkdj bka tyd we;s úYsIag mrud¾:hla i|yd nj f,djg y÷kajd ÿka m%:u uyd
mqreIhdfKda nqÿrcdfKda h' Nj yd úNj oDIaákays nei.;a iuhdka;rfhda ysiajQ Y+kH jQ fohla
f,i;a tlS wka;jd§ oDIaáhlg nei fkd.;a nqÿ oyu ;=< tls oDIaájdohka ;=< lsisúfgl
fkd±lsh yels ia;r y;rl fYa%IaG mqo.
a ,hka isák njg fkdìh j iSykdo lrk f,ig;a
iajlSh wkq.dñl msßi iuq;af;ackh l< w;s fYa%IaG Ydia;DjrhdKka flfkls" nqÿrcdKka
jykafia'7 Wka jykafia wiS;Hkqj H[aPK yd fo;sia uyd mqßi ,l=Ksk a fyì mßmQ¾K foay
iïm;a;shla ,oafoa kuq;a iy p;=¾ ffjYdroH {dk" Iâ widOdrK {dk" oin, {dkdÈfhka
ukd m%{d iïm;a;shla9 ,oafoa kuq;a weoysh fkdyels uyd n,.;= woDYHudk foúhl= fyda tnÿ
foúhl=f.a ¥;hl= fyda fkdfj;s'10 rd." oafõI' fuday ÿrel< fYa%I aG W;a;Íh ukqIHfhls' 11
tjeks W;=ul= wkdjrKh l< oyula iudk jkafka tjeks jQ u W;=uka jykafia kula
wkdjrKh l< oyulg muKs' tjeks W;=uka jykafia kula iu jkafka o tnÿ jQ u W;a;uhka
jykafia kulg muKs' nqÿrcdKka jykafia fyda Wkajykafia foaYs; O¾uh wd.ñl l;=jrhl=g
fyda b.ekaùulg iu fldg ;=,kh lsÍug hdu nrm;, ñ:HdoDIaáhls' fudavlu M<g lsÍuls'
fndfyda oE ms<sn| ksr;=re wjOdkfhka fukau úu¾YkYS,S j miqjk ;reKhd ;u
Ôú;h iEu wxYhlska u wNsj¾Okh lr .ekSu i|yd wod< ksjerÈ Ôjk oDIaáhla we;slr f.k
;sîu o wjYH h' tys § ksjerÈ ud¾f.damfoaYlhl= fidhd .ekSu wjYHfhka u isÿ lr.;
hq;a;ls' f,dalhd w;r idOq iïu; tjeks fndfyda fokd ud¾f.damfoaYl;ajfhys ,d isáh yels
h' we;eï úg ;u ujqmsh wdÈ mdrïmßlhka mrïmrdfjka mrïmrdjg lsisÿ .fõIKhlsk a
f;drj wkaO Nla;sfhka ^thg nqÿ oyu mjikafka wuQ,sld ioaOd f,i hs& hï hï wh flfrys
uq<d ù woyñka wk¾:ldÍ mqo mQcdÈfhys fhfoñka meñKshd úh yels h' tfy;a nqoaêu;a
;reKhka f,i ;uka o th tfia u l< hq;= ±hs is;d ne,sh hq;= h' nqoaêu;df.a ,CIKh
w÷frka w÷rg fyda wdf,dalfhka w÷rg hdu fkdj w÷frka wdf,dalhg;a wdf,dalfhka
wdf,dalhg;a .uka lsÍu hs' ta i|yd .fõIKYS,S ;dreKHhla wjYH h'
n%yauhd kï ±k W.;a b;d m%isoaO wkHd.ñl mQclhl= hgf;a bf.k ls hd .;a Tyq
^n%yaudhq& ;rïu ±k W.;alñka hq;a W;a;r kï ;reKfhla nqÿrcdKka jykafia ms<sn| i;a
uil m¾fhaIKhla fldg m¾fhaIK jd¾;dj .=re;=udg bÈßm;a lf<ah' ta jd¾;djg wkqj Tjqk a
<Õ ke;s .=K rdYshla nqÿrcdKka jykaf iaf.ka wkdjrKh fldg f.k wjqreÿ tlish úiaila
;siaf ia ;uka wkq.ukh l< ñ:Hd oDIaál ms<sfj; w;yer nqÿoyu je<o .kakg W;a;r
;reKhdf.a .=rejrhd fm<UqfKa nqoaêu;a j ksjerÈ u foh l=ula ±hs jgyd .ekSug W;aiql jQ
ksid h'12 oDIaá.; j wd.ï woykakjqkag tjekakla lsis u úfgl l< fkdyels h' oDIaákag
fkdmeñK m%{ dfjka ls%hd lsÍfuka ksjerÈ Ydia;D;ajhla hgf;a O¾uh m%.=K lrk ;reKhl=
ùug Tng o yels h'
wkHd.ulg wh;a W;a;r ;reKhd ms<sn| l:dj tla oDIagdka;hla muKs' ;j fndfyda
oDIagdka; bÈßm;a l< yelsh' úúO oDIaákays msysá wkHd.ñl msßia nqÿrcdKka jykafiag tfrys
j úúO l=uka;%Kj, kshe¨K;a tys wjika m%;sM,h jQfha fndfyda ÿrg Tjqka YsCIs; nqoaO
Y%djlhka njg m;aùu hs' n, we;s mqreIhl= t¿jl=f .a rjq,ska w,a,d f.k tydg fuydg
wÈkakdla fuka u rd fmrkakl= rd fmrk ugq,a, f.k tys fofldkska w,a,d .ikakdla fuka o
Y%uK f.!;uhka jdofhka weo mSvkhg ,la lruqh s l;sldfldg f.k meñKs wkHd.ñlfhda

nqÿrcdKka jykafia flfrys m%ikakfhda jQy' 13 wd.ñl wr., fkdl<y' we;eïyq fufia
weiqfjd;a fufia lshuq tfia lSfjd;a fufia wiuq¦ wd§ jYfhka úúO m%Yak ;kdf.k nqÿrÿka
fj; meñK nqÿrcdKka jykafiaf.a idlÉPdjkag lka fhdud ;u ;uka f.k we;s ;SrK jerÈ
nj;a nqÿrcdKka jykafia ksjerÈjQ u u. fmkajd fok nj;a nqoaêfhka mila fldg f.k ñiÈgq
ÿr,d iñÈgq jQy'14 nqÿrcdKka jykafia wkHd.ñl u;jdoj,g tfrys jQyhs Tjqyq wr.,
fkdl<y' iajlSh u;hg úreoaO j fjk;a u;hla bÈßm;a jk úg ta ms<sn| j fkdúuid thg
WrK j ls%hd lsÍu ÿIam%d{ ,CIKhls' tneúka ;=,kd;aul j wd.ï yodrkakjqka ksj erÈ j
fkdyodrd oDIaá.;sl j ish ¨ wd.ñl Ydia;Dka tl yd iudk h" ta ish¨ b.ekaùï talioDY hehs
o f.k yer ±laùug W;aidy lsÍfuka wd.ñl iyÔjkhla we;s fj;ehs is;Su W.yg h' thsk a
.egqïldÍ ;;a;ajhla biau;= ùug ;sfnk bv lv kï nyq, h' nqÿoyu wd.ula fyda o¾Ykhla
fkdjk ksid wka ljr ljr wd.ï o¾Yk ;=,kh fldg iudk;d biau;= fldg .;a;;a nqÿoyu
yd iïnkaOfhka th idOdrK fkdjk nj jgyd .; hq;= h'
fuys,d wjOdrKhg .; hq;= ;j;a jeo.;a lreKla we;' tkï" nqÿoyu me;srùu
iïnkaO j ms<sfj;hs' f,dal b;sy dih ;=< fï jk f;la ta i|yd lsis÷ wr.,hla fkdlg
hq;a;la isÿ ù fkdue;' tfy;a we;eï yriqka wd.ï n,y;aldrfhka me;srùfuys,d hqo
l,flda,dy, isÿ l<y' bia,dï wd.u me;sr ùfuys,d wd.ñl hqoaOh Tjqkaf.a jla;DDka úiska u
wkqu; lrk ,oaols' no¾ Wyoa' w.,a wd§ igka uqia,su qka meje;ajQfha wd.u yd iïnkaO u;jdo
ksid h' ðydâ fyj;a wd.ñl hqoO
a h mqKH hqoO
a hla f,ihs" bia,dï Nla;slhka úYajdi lrkq
,nkafka'
ls%ia;shdksh jHdma; lsÍu i|yd fld;rï wr., isÿù o@ wjidkfhys l=reisfha weK .id
urKhg m;ajkakg wd.ñl jla;Djrhdg o isÿúh' wm rfgys ls%ia;shdksh jHdma; lrùu i|yd
mD;=.Sis" ,kafoais" ì%;dkH hq.j, fuka u ful, o wkq.ukh l< iy lrk ms<sfj; b;d .%duH
h' b;sydifhka th jika lsÍug fkdyels h' ñksiqka ìhjoaoñka wdhqO n,h fmkajñkau
n,y;al drfhka wd.ug n|jd .ekSu Tjqka wkq.ukh l< m<uq mshjr hs' tlS kskaÈ; ms<sfj;sk a
muKla iajlSh ukfod< iïmQ¾Kfhka uia;lm%dma; fkdjk nj jgyd .;a Tõyq fkdfhl=; a
;dkak udkak ,ndfoñka udkisl w,a,ia §fï fojeks mshjrla o wkq. ukh l<y' thska o
woyia iuDoaO fkdjk l,ays ñksiqk af.a ÿmam;alu ovóud lrf.k lvd jeàf.k hk
ls%ia;shdksk af.a jia;=j wYajhdg lerÜ w,hla fia ^wYajhdf.a .uk fõ.j;a lsÍug wiq
bÈßfhka t,a,k tfy;a ta miqmi ,nd.ekSfï wdYdfjka ÿjk lsisÈfkl fkd,efnk& Ndú;
lrñka f;jeks kskaÈ; ms<sfj;l o ksr; j we;' ful, fndfyda ÿrg Ndú; jkafka fojeks
;=kajeks l%u hs' tfy;a nqÿoyu me;srùu iïnkaOfhka nqÿrcdKka jykaf iaf.a mgka tod fuod
;=r tjeks lsisÿ wfhda. H ls%hdjl kshe,S fkd;sîu nqoaêu;a ;reK Tn is;d ne,sh hq;= jeo.;a
lreKls'
wfkl ,xldj ;=< frmrudÿ" lf;da,sl" bia,dï .egqï yg.;a wjia:djkay s tlS
ne;su;=k a /l.;af ;da fn!oaO NsCIQka jykafia,d h' ñ:Hd oDIaál u;jdohka jHdma; jk úg
NsCIQka jykafia,d m%u qL fldg .;a fn!oaO ckhd isÿ lf<a ñ:Hd oDIaálhka m,jd yeÍu i|yd
wd.ñl l,flda,dy, we;slsÍu fkdj Tjqka j ta uyd mdml¾ufhka .,jd .ekSu msKsi uyd
lreKdfjka m%{ d f.dapr j ls%hd lsÍu hs'
fuu lreKq iaj ,amh fmkajd ÿkafka Tn hï wd.ula o¾Ykhla oyula ms< s.ekSug
wkq.ukh lsÍug fmr Tn wkq.ukh lrk wd.u oyfuys wdrïNh jHdma;sh wdÈh Tng
wkq.ukh lsÍug fhda.H mßÈ úYaj dikSh j fkdìh j úu¾YkYS,S j ms<s.; yels idOl tys

wka;¾.; j mj;skafka o hkak is;d ne,Su msK si h' tfia msßlaid n,k úg nqoê
a f.dapr
fkdjk iykYS,s m%;smodfjka f;dr wúYajdikSh njla hula ;=< Tng jegfykafka kï tfy;a
Tn ta ;=< u ;j ;j;a ìfhka we<,S mdrïmßl ms< sfj;a /l.kakg hehs is;d ta ;=<u .e,S
isákafka kï Tn w{dk ;sñ rfhka .e,ù wdf,dalh olskakg fkdleue;a; we;af;ls' tjekakd
.;ska ;reK jqj ;a nqoaêfhka <orefjls' wkqlïmdj ±laúh hq;af ;ls'
we;eï udlaiajd§ wd.ñlhka úiska ^udlaia wd.u wìx f,i i|yka lrñka wd.u
fkdie,lsh hq;= ;;a;ajhlg oud ;snqK;a wo udlaiajdoh ms<s.kafkda udlaiaj wd.ñl kdhlhl=
fldg woy;s ms<s.ks;s' lsisÈfkl ienE fkdjk Tyqf.a wd¾Ól ksh;h ysia uqÿfkka ms<s.ks;s'
woDYHudk foúhka woyk ne;su;=ka thska iekfikak d fia lsis lf<l ienE fkdjk udlaiaf.a
wd¾Ól ksh;hg wdjvñka th lr mskakd f.k tlS udlaiajd§ wd.ug iajlSh m%dK mß;Hd.
lrkakg o we;eïyq wkaO j issá;s' udlaiajdoh wd.ula njg wo m;aù yudr h' fjkilg
we;af ;a udlaiag je÷ï msÿï fkdlsÍu muKs' tlS wd.ñl ms<sfj; o fkdfnda l,lska mqreÿ fjkq
we;' wd.fuka ñksid u;afjk nj m%l dY lrñka th wìx yd iufldg wfkla wd.ïj,g udlai a
.eiQ mdrdj<,a, ±ka udlaiag u jeà we;s nj fmfka' wkaO j wo ta jgd we;uqka tla j isák
fyhsks' tfyhskqhs fuys udlaiaj d§ wd.ñlhka hehs i|yka lf<a& wfma we;eï ;reKhskaf.a is;a
;=<g oud we;af ;a nqÿ oyu hkq wY=Njdohla f,i hs' nqÿoyu wks;H" ÿlaL" wkd;au ms< sn| j
W.kajk oyula ùu Bg m%Odk fya;=jla úh yels h' ljqre leu;s fyda fõjd wlue;s fyda fõjd
fï f,dal h:d¾:fhka úhqla; j lsisjl=g fyda lsisjlg mej;sh fkdyels h' tlS f,dal
h:d¾:h jgyd .eksug uq.aONdjh ndOdjls' wks;H" ÿlaL" wkd;au hkq nqÿoyu fkdj nqÿrcdKka
jykafia wkdjrKh lr ÿka f,dal h:d¾:h hs' ljr wd.ula weoyqj;a ljr Ñka;khl msysgd
isáh;a tlS f,dal h:d¾:hg msgqmdkakg lsisjl=g fkdyels h' tneúka ;s%,CIKh hkq
fn!oaOhkaf.a h:d¾:hla fkdj iuia; f,dalfhys u h:d¾:h nj jgyd .; hq;=h' fï f,dal
h:d¾:h wjfndaO fldg f.k O¾ufhys fh§fuka iekis,sodhS Ôú;hla .; l< yelsh'
ish,af ,da iem leue;af ;da h' ÿla ms<sl=,a lrkafkda h' ÿl ms<sl=,a lrkafkda ÿla jvjk foaj,a u
lsÍfuka ;j ;j;a ÿla jeä jkjd ñfil ÿla wvqjkafka flfia o@ nqÿoyu ÿl ms<sn|j
W.kajkafka ta ÿflys .e,S isáh hq;= nj fmkajd §ug fkdfõ' thska W;a;rKh ù iem; lrd
<Õd ùu i|yd h' nqÿoyu mru iqLjd§ oyula f,i ye¢kajqj o ksjerÈ h' ta ulaksido h;a
f,!lsl jQ o f,daflda;a;r jqj o iem fidhk u.g nqÿ oyu úiska mqoa.,hd fufyhjk fyhsks'
nqÿoyu iem jYfhka W.kajk tlS iem ms<sn| j¾.SlrKfhka oyifhka mx.=jla ;rïj;a
iqLidOkSh;ajhla udlaiaj dofha fkdb.ekafõ'
wfkl iuyre nqÿoyu mrf,dj iem muKla l;d lrk oyula f,i o jrojd .ks;s' ta
Tjqkaf.a nqÿoyu ms<sn| ±kSfuys muK h' f,!lsl iemh fty f,!lsl ^fuf,dj& mdrf,!lsl
^mrf,dj& jYfhka fojeoEreï j nqÿ oyu fmkaj d § we;' 15 ÈÜGOïu iqL yd iïmrdh iqL
jYfhka olajkafka thhs' f,daflda;a;r iqjh o fuf,dj § idOkh lr.; hq;a;la ñi urKsk a
u;= ,efnk ;;a;ajhla fkdfõ' tneúka lsisjl=g nqÿoyu mrf,dj .ek muKla W.kajk oyula
hehs lsj fkdyelafla u h'
iodpdr úfrdaê j kï iqLdkafõIKfhys kshef,kafka th nqÿiufhka m%;sCIsma; h'
wd;au iqL úyrKh msKsi iodpdr u¾hdodjka fkdblauúh hq;= nj hs" nqÿoyu wjOdrKh lrkq
,nkafka'16 fndfyda fokd ú¢k ldufhys wdiajdoh nqÿrcdKka jykafia fy<d fkdÿgqjy'
tjekakla ke;ehs o foaYkd fkdl<y' ldufhys wdYajdohla fkdue;s kï ñksiqka ldu iïm;a
fkdfidhk nj;a tnkaola mj;akd ksid u ldu iïm;a fidhkd njla nqÿrcdKka jykafia

foaYkd l<y' tmuKla fkdj tu ldudiajdoh ±yeñ j ,nd .kak d l%u o foaYkd l<y'
ldufhys wdiajdohla fkdue;s kï ñksiqka ldu iïm;a fkdfidhk nj;a tnkaola mj;akd ksid
u ldu iïm;a fidhkd nj;a nqÿrcdKka jykafia foaYkd l<y' 17 tmuKla fkdj tu
ldudiaj doh ±yeñ j ,nd.kakd l%u o foaYkd fldg ;sîu nqÿoyfuys iqúfYaI ,CIKhls'
tmuKla o fkdj ldu iïm;a mßyrKh lrk ;eke;a;d tys wdiajdoh u muKla fkdj
wd§kjhl=ÿ mj;akd nj f;areï .ekSfï wjYH;dj nqÿoyu fmkajd fohs'18 fkdwe,S fkd.eà lï
iem ú£u i|yd lduhkays wd§kj jgyd f.k ;sîu b;d m%fhdackj;a h' ldufhys wdiaj doh
wd§kjh muKla fkdj thska ksiairKh ùfuka ,nk ldu úuqla; iqjhla o nqÿoyu fmkajd
fohs'19 ffkIal%uH ixl,amh hkq th hs' lduhkays wdiaj doh iu. u fidlmßfoaj ÿlaL
fodaukiai Wmdhdi wd§ ish¨ wd§kjhka we;s nj f;areï f.k wfidal" wmßfoaj" wÿlaL"
fidaukiai" wkqmdhdi we;s lduhkaf.ka fjkajk ffkIal%uH iqLh ldufhys wdiajdohg jvd
b;d W;al DIag nj nqÿrcdKka jykafia fmkaj d fo;s'
tneúka f,!lsl jYfhka o f,daflda;a;r jYfhka o hk fowxYfhka u wNsjDoaêh i|yd
f;o .kajk oyula fj; iómj úuid n,d wkq.ukh lsÍu i|yd ish¨ ;reKhkag nqÿoyu
fhda.H h'
;reKhkaf.ka fndfyda fofkla iudcjdoh ms%h lr;s' tfy;a ienE iudcjdoh hkq
l=ula ±hs fndfyda fokd fkdoks;s' tneúka iudcjdoh we;s lsÍu i|yd fudr.dk fndfyda fokd
;=< ienE iudcjdohla ±l .; fkdyels h' Bg fya;=j iudcjd§ka hehs ;uka j y÷kajd .kakd
jQ fndfyda kdhlhka foìä ms<sfj;l ksr; ùu hs' ;reKhka ovóud lrf.k ;ud jecfUk
m%;sm;a;sh fndfyda iudcjd§ kdhlhka isÿfldg ;sf í' th ienE iudcjdoh fkdfõ' iudcjdoh
hkq bf.k.; hq;a;la muKla fkdfõ' hdjÔj ls%hdldrlula úh hq;= h' tfy;a wm rfÜ Bkshd
iudcjd§kaf.ka nyq;rhla Okjd§yq h' ;u w;ñg irejk f;la fndfydau hla iudcjd§yq fj;s'
Tjqyq iudcjdohg uqjdù ks¾Okhka fm<;s' foaYjd;ai,H ke;sNx.ia:dk lr;s' iodpdrh
flf<i;s' wOHdmkh úkdY lr;s'
wkd: kd: jQ wirK irK jQ mrÿlaL m%;sIaGdml jQ nqÿrcdKka jykafia iudcjdoh
flfia ilia úh hq;= o hkak uq¿ Ôú; ld,h ;=< u f,dalhdg wdo¾Yfhka fmka jQ wiydh
kdhlhdfKda h' ck;d úfrdaê iudc ixia:d ±ä úfõpkhg ,la lrñka tfy;a Tjqka yd lsisÿ
.egqula we;s fkdlrf.k wNS; j Wkajykafia iudcjdoh f,djg fy<s l<y' uyd lreKdj yd
uyd m%{ dj iudcjdofha uQ,sl mokuhs' i;r wk.;sh tys foayh hs' PoaÈid m%;sÉPdokh tys
jy,h hs' tneúka iudcjdoh m%sh lrk hï ;reKhl= fyda ;reKshl jkafka kï ksjerÈ
iudcjdoh msKsi nqÿoyug ióm úh hq;= h' ienE iudcjdoh fkdy÷kd.;fyd;a uyd lreKdj
yd uyd m%{dj fjkqjg biau;=jkafka B¾IHdj" ffjrh" fl%daOh" uq<dj wdÈh hs' thska
cks;jkafka m%pKav;ajh hs' tys§ úma,jh úhelS hhs' tneúka ;reK ;reKshka f,i ienE
iudcjdoh hkq l=ula±hs f;areï f.k ta i|yd ksjerÈ úma,jhl fh§ug fn!oaO iudcjdoh
yod< hq;= u h'
;reKhd fn!oaOhl= ùfï jvd;a wjYHu hq. hls" fï hq.h' wo fndfyda ;reK msßia
úYd, ´>hkag yiqù ;sf í' fõrïN jd;hg yiqjk mCIshd hk ksYaÑ ; ÈYdjla fkdue;af ;a h'
tfia u wo we;s ù ;sf nk hï hï iudc m%jk;d fõrïN jd;hg;a jvd oreKq h' wo fndfyda
;reK ;reKsfhda Bg yiq ù isá ;s' .skafkys iekiqu fidhk m<.eáhd Bg mek úkdY fjhs' wo
fndfyda ;reK ;reKsfhda o tjeks .sks f.dvj, iekiqu fidh;s' rd." oaf õY" udk" uo" B¾IHd"
fl%daO" ffjrd§ w.aksialkaOhkaf.ka iudch .sksf.k ±fõ' 20 úYd, ;reK msßila ta .sks

cd,djkag ueÈù isá;s' ckudOHlrejkag fï jHikfhka .,jd .ekSug iqúYd, j.lSula
mej;sh o th f;areïf.k ;sfnk ckudOHlrejka we;af;a b;d w;f,diaila muKs' .sksf .k
±fjk ;reK yoj;a ksjkjd fjkqjg fndfyda ckudOH lrkafka fndrÈfha ud¿ nEuls'
weúf,k .skakg msÿre ±óuls' Ñ;%má" fg,sk dgH" .S;h" kjl;d" flál;d jeks fndfyda oE
mdrdð; pß; ksrEmkh lrk¦ Ôú;fhys cv mCIhg m%n, jákdlï ,ndfok¦ isysk ud,s.dj,
i;mamjk¦ Ndj m%fldam lrk¦ ri{;dj fudg lrk¦ wúpdrYS,s nj j¾Okh lrk¦ foaYsh ;ajh"
cd;sldkqrd.h úkdY lrk¦ wiykh" w;Dma;sh " wiu.sh jvjk oE h' ñksiqka ;=< ckudOHlsk a
j¾Okh l< hq;= wd;au úYajdih" iodpdrh" mrys;ldó;ajh" foaY Sh ;ajh" cd;sj d;ai,Hh"
ri{;dj wdÈ fndfyda oE mj;S' we;eï ckudOHhka tajd we;s lrk oE b;d wvqfjka fldg taj d
úkdY lrk oE nyq, j lrhs' l=Kq rihg yqre fldg w;ßka m;r ñysß ri ,nd ÿkakdg ñysß
ri w;yer wjqiai wjqiaid fidhkafka u l=Kq rih hs' we;eï ckudOH ;=< fidhkak fidhkak
,efnkafka u tlS l=Kq ri u h' úpdrYS,s ;reKH ;=< ;ukag úk lrk ñ;=re fjiska rÕmdk
i;=rka fyd¢ka jgyd .; hq;= h' Tn fn!oaO ;reKhl= kï meñfKk ish¨ l=Kq lkao,a Tfí
uäiai,fha mqrjd .kafka ke;' fn!oaO ;reKhdg fyd| krl jgyd .ekSfï ;shqK q nqoaêhla
mej;sh hq;= h' Tn j ovóud lr f.k ksrej; úl=Kk we;eï ckudOH Tng hym;la lsÍfï
wáfhka tfia lrkjd fkdj Tfí cv mCIh f;o .kajd iajlSh fj<| wNsu;d¾: idOkh lr
.ekSu hs" Tjqkaf.a wNs,dIh nj jgyd .; hq;= j we;'
wfma rfÜ wiNH Ñ;%mglrKh kS;sf hka ;ykï h' we;eï Ñ;%mglrejka jeäysáhkag
muKhehs Ñ;%mg ilid tajd iïNdjH hehs f,an,a fldg m%isoaêfha ffk;sl .eg¨jlska o f;dr
j m%o¾Ykh lr;s' Ñ;%mgYd,dj, § Wmka Èk mÍCIK lrkjd o hkak hs" .eg¿j' wfkl ±ka
wiNH Ñ;%mg ixhql a; ;eá rg yeu ;ek wiaila uq,a,la kEr wm%isoê
a fha m%isoO
a j we;' ta
fya;=fjka jhiska fkdjeäysáhka j u fndfyda ¥ orejka jeäysáhka njg m;a ù ;sîu m%n,
m%Yakhla j we;' wo we;eï <uhskag <udúhla lsh d fohla fkdue;' fh!jk;ajhla fkdue;' ta
ish,a,la Ôú;fha cv mCIh fjkqfjka úkdY fldg f.k we;' fndfyda fokd ta ksid u úYd,
wiykldÍ udkisl ;ajhlska miqfj;s'
;reK Tn jgyd .; hq;af;a fuh hs' tkï" Tng ys; mCImd;S ,S,dfjka úYd, i;=re
n,fõ. rdYshla Tnj ì,snd .ekSu i|yd Tn jgd talrdYS ù we;s nj hs' i;=rd Tn fj,df.k
isà kï thska fíÍu i|yd b;d nqoaêu;a j ls%hd lrk fn!oaO ;reKhl= njg Tn m;aú h hq;= h'
tfia fkdue;s j i;=rdf.a m%n,;ajh .ek is;d i;=rdg f.dÿreùfï NSrel kHdhla nqÿoyu Tng
fmkajd fokafka ke;' Tfí fn!oaOlu kñka fkdj ls%hdfjka úh hq;= h'
wo fndfyda isxy, fn!oaO ;reK ;reKshkaf .ka cd;Hdkqrd.h" foaYjd;ai,Hh" fn!oaO
iodpdrh úkdY lsÍu i|yd fid÷re fjia f.k i;=re n,uq¿ /ila ls%h d;aul j we;' isxy,
cd;sfhka tlS wdl,am ;=rka lsÍug fldf;la n<uq¿ ls%h d;aul jqj;a isxy, fn!oaO iodpdrfhka
fmdaIs; Yla;su ;a keKj;=ka msßila ;ju;a isák ksid tlS jEhu ;du;a wid¾:l h' tlS Yla;sh
úkdY lsÍu i|yd i;=rka meñK ;sf nkafka i;=rka f,i fmkS isáñka fkdj ñ;=rka f,i
fjiaj,df.k nj ;reK ;reKshka jgyd .; hq;= h' ;u cd;sh ms< sn| j l;d l<fyd;a Tjqk a
cd;sjd§ka hehs yxjvq .iñka Y=oaO cd;sl ;ajhla j ms<sk l< fkdyelafla ;reK ¥ orejkaf.a
iajlSh wd.u oyu yd thg isÿfõf.k hk w;=re wka;rdjka ms<sn| j l;d l<fyd;a wd.ñl
uQ,O¾ujd§ka f,i fkdukd kula mgn¢ñka Tjqka j j<laj;s' tys úfYaI;ajh jkafka
isxy¨kag muKla tfia ùuhs' leglsß,a, ;u le±,af,a isg rdj m% ;srdj lsÍu wfkla l=re,a,kag
m%Yakhla lr .ekSug fohla fkdfõ' ta wEf.a le±,a, h' 21 fjk le±,a,lg ßx.df.k wE tfia
l,d kï jerÈ h' tfia u ta ta cd;slhka ;u ;ukaf.a cd;sfhys jD;a;sh jDoaêh yd mßydksh

ms<sn| j l;d lsÍfuys jrola ke;' tfia lsÍfuka wkH cd;slhkag ydks hla isÿjkafka flfia
o@ ;u cd;sfhys wd.fuys iaÓ;sh ms<sn| j l;d lsÍu wkH wd.ï cd;skays úkdYhg flfia kï
n,mdkafka o@ fuh f;areï .kakg nqoê
a h wjYH h' ;u wd.u cd;sh ms< sn| l;d lrñka
mej;sh hq;af;a th u muKla hehs is;k wka;jd§kag kï isxy,hska iaj lSh cd;sh wd.u .ek
l;d lsÍu m%Yakhla ùug bv we;' isxy, cd;slhka ;=< fiiq wd.ï cd;ska Nx.fõjd hk
Ñka;khla flfiaj ;a fkdue;s ksid Tjqk af.a ta oDIaáh iaj iduH;ajfhka ie,lSula úkd
ksjerÈ oDIaáhlsk a m%dma; ksIagdjla fkdjk nj kï mejish hq;= h' iajlSh meje;au wNsjDoaêh
;u ;uka l;d fkdfldg ;ud fjkqfjka wka ljr cd;shla kï l;d lrkafka o@
we;eï rEmjdyskS kd,sl d u.ska ;dreKHfhys úkaok fCIa;%h o úkdY lrñka we;'
lsishï lD;shlska Ndj m%fldamkhla isÿjkafka kï th wúYsIag h' Ndfjdao§a mkh lrñka
rid,sma; j hï lD;shla ks¾udKh lsÍu m%;sNdmQ¾K ri{hl= úisk a u l< hq;= h' tfia fkdjQ
ks¾udmlhdf.a lD;sf hka oDYHudk jkafka .%duH;ajh hs' riyõ fkdokafkda tlS .%duH;ajh
rij;a f,i i,l;s' wiQÑialJOhla rij;a fia i,ld tysu ,.akd ó<aylhka fiah' isxyhdf.a
Wmldrfhka ish Èú .eg.id f.k .sh cr isÕ d,hl= ál l,lska y% IagmDIagdx.j f;fï fufia
is;S¨' isxyhd lõo@ uu lõo@ ug isxyhdf.a Wmldr wkjYH hs' uu isxyhd lrk whqre fyd¢ka
±ka oksñ' tfia is;d Èkla w¨hu wjÈj .=ydfjka t<shg ú;a yd;a mi n,d f;jrla iSykdo
lrkakg hehs is;d Wia yäka lE .eiSh' ysj,dg leKys,a y~ ñi ljr isykdohla o@ tfiau
úYsIag idys;Hlrejka isáh;a ;=uQ o tfia úYsIag hehs ;=uQ u Wml,amkh fldg f.k we;eïyq
fndfyda idys;Hdx.hkays leKys,a ,l=Kq ix{d fldg ;sf í' rEmjdysksh wka ljr fohlg;a jvd
ck;djg ióm ksid Wor mQrKh mrud¾: fldg .;a ienE ks¾udKlrejkaf.a fjia .;a we;eïyq
ienE ldjH idys;H ri kiñka ta fjkqjg l=Kq ri biau ;= lrñka fm%aCIlhdg krUkakg
i,iaj ;s' tys Nhdkl m%;sM,h jkqfha tlS l=Kq rig yqre jQ fma%CIl msßi nyq, ùfuka ñysß
rih w;=reoka ù l=Kq rih ñysß rih fia biau ;= ùu hs' ta ;=<ska idys;H ri{;dj úhelS hhs'
hf:dal a; ffjYHrEV ks¾udKlrejka ±kgu;a úúO fg,s is;a;ï u.ska ri Nx.ia:dk
fldg we;' iodpdrh msgq ±l we;' wOHdmkh fudg lr we;' udmsh ¥ore in|;d ÿria; lr
we;' újdy ixia:dj foorjd we;' <uhskaf.a <ud f,dalh úkdY lr we;' fma%u h wdorh jeks
ye.Sï fjkqjg ÿIag rd.h ffjrh ckkh fldg we;' cd;s jd;ai,H uq,a,g oud we;' udkisl
ixysÈhdj fjkqjg wix;Dma;sh ixlS¾K;ajh frdamKh fldg we;' nqoê
a ySk uq.aO cd;shla u;=
rg;=< ìysùfï ixfla;hka h" ta' ta ish,a,la msßfyk ,l=Kq ñi ÈhqKqjk ,l=Kq fkdfõ' tajd
Tn fj<df.k isákqfha ñ;=rka f,i h' tfy;a Tng lrkqfha i;=relï h' i;=re ñ;=re fjia
f.k meñfKk úg Tyqg yiq fkdù ls%h d lsÍug fndai;a ;reKhl=f.a ,CIKhls' wmKaKl
cd;lfhka fmkajd fokafka o th hs'22
wOHdmkh ,o iy fkd,o /lsh d hqla; iy úhqla; Okh we;s iy ke;s fndfyda ;reK
;reKsfhda mj;sk iudc rduqj ;=< úúO fya;+ka ksid úYd, wiykldÍ udkisl;ajhla hgf;a
Èú f.j;s' tfia wiykldÍ udkisl ;ajhla hgf;a mj;sñka fndfyda fofkla lrkafk;a"
wykafka" olskafk;a wiykh jvjk foa u h' thska úuql a;j ikaiqka is;lska úiSfï u.la
fidhkafka kï ta i|yd Tng nqÿ u. wjYH fjhs'
wo fndfyda ;reK lKavdhï ;=< wd.ñl jYfhka hï m%f ndaê; ,CIK we;s nj ndysr
,CIK ksÍCIKfhka hï ks.ukhlg t<ôh yels h' tfy;a ta m%fndaê;h ksIag m%dma; uQ,hka
u; fkdmsysgd ;sîu fya;=fldgf.k hï /,a,l iajNdjhla f.k ;sf í' uQog /,a, w,xlD;hla
jqj;a th fjrf<ys yemS iqKq úiqK q ù hhs' tfia u wo fndfydauhla ;reK lKavdhï ;=< we;s

fn!oaOd.ñl m%f ndaOh hï hï isoaëka yd mqo.
a ,hka iïnkaO j iïmQ¾K j mj;akd ksid m%;s
úfrdaOfhys,d Èhdre ù hk iaj Ndjfhka hqla; h' nqÿ oyu Wmfhda.s;d uQ,sl j wkq.ukh l<
hq;a;la ñi wkaOdkqlrKfhka fiajkh l< hq;a;la fkdfõ'
lreKq ldrKd fkdúuid n,d mqo.
a , pß; flfrys tlajr wiSñ; whqßka m%idoh ckkh
lr f.k ta pß;h u ;u úuqla;sodhl f,i i,ld ls%h d lsÍug hdfï jro fya;=fjka we;eïyq
lsxl¾;jH;djg m;aj isá;s' mqoa., ndysr pß; ,CIK foi n,d meye§u we;sl r .ekSfuka
isÿjkafka tlS ndysr ,CIK wdNHka;ßl j oDYHudk fkdjk úg úYdohg m;aùu hs' tneúka
mqo.
a , pß;j,g meye§u fyda wmeye§u fjkqjg O¾uhg meye§u isÿl< hq;= h' O¾uhg
meyeÿKq úg mqoa., pß; ;ukag ndOdjla jkafka u ke;' we;eï pß; w;a;ys; m%;smkak h'
tkï" ;ud ksjerÈ ldhsl jdpisl udkisl ls%h dfjys fh§u hs' wkHhka tys,d iudoka lrjkafka
ke;' we;eï pß; mrys; m%;smkak h' w;a;ys; m%;smkak fkdfõ' tkï" ;ud hymf;ys msysgd
ke;' wkqka hymf;ys msysgqj ;s'23 O¾uhg fkdmeyeÿkfyd;a tys,d flkl= wm%ikak úh yels h'
tfyhska O¾ufhys we;s jeo.;a luhs" i,ld ne,sh hq;af;a' O¾uhg m%ikak mqo.
a ,hd pß;hl
we;s b;d jákd ,CIK Wlyd .kakd w;r wkqkaf.a fodaIhka ksid iajlSh wdOHd;auh wmú;%l r
fkd.kS' tajd neyer, hs' ;u msßisÿ wmsßisÿ nj we;slr.kafka ;ud ñi wka ljrl=j;a
fkdfõ'24 l,HdK ñ;%dY%h;a" O¾u Y%jKh;a fhdaksfidaukisl drh;a iajlSh Y=oê
a h úIfhys m%n,
25
f,i fya;=fõ'
nqÿoyug ióm ùu i|yd Y%oO
a dj uQ,sl fjhs' 26 tkï" f,daN oafõY fuday m%ySK l<
W;=ul= ms<sn| j lreKq ldrKd úuid n,d we;sl r .kq ,nk úYajdih hs' tfia fkdue;s j
lsisjla fkdúuid ndysr fmkqug wkqj jpkhla ñysß j l;d l< muKg ixjrYS,s j hk tk
muKg meye§fï wkaO Nla;sh fkdfõ' nqÿrcdKka jykafia ;uka jykafia nqÿ ù o keoao hkak
úuiSug ,lal r wjfndaOfhka u ±k.kakd f,i Y%djlhka fm<UjQy' 27 nqÿrcdKka jykafiaf.ka
O¾u Y%jKh fldg tljr u Wkajykafia flfrys meyeÿkq wkH ,íêlhka ;uka Wka
jykafiaf.a Y%djlhka f,i ms<s.kakd f,i b,a,d isá wjia:dfõ§ Wkajykafia Tjqkag mejiqfha
;jÿrg;a is;d n,d ls%h d lrk f,i h'28
nqÿrcdKka jykaf ia;a O¾uh;a wd¾h uyd ix>r;akh;a ms<sn| m%ikak ùu ;=<ska O¾uhg
nei .ekSug O¾ufhka n,j;a ùug yelsfõ' tfia O¾ufhka n,j;a jQ ;eke;a;d wd¾h fkdjk
pß; úIfhys mj;akd lsish ï fyda ÿn,;djla yuqfjys lkiai¨jkafka ke;' O¾uhg mrdïuqL
j ls%hd lrkafka ke;' wd¾h fkdjk mqo.
a , pß; úIfhys mj;akd fodaIdNsuqLfhys O¾uhg
mrdïuqLùfuka msßfykafka f;fï u nj nqoaêfhka jgyd.; hq;= h' 29
nqÿrcdKka jykafia úiska wjfndaê; O¾uh uq," ueo" w. hym;a f,i id¾:lj
ijH[ack j foaYkd fldg we;' tu O¾ufhys wys; msKsi" ÿla msKsi" wk¾:h msKsi mj;ak d
lsisjla fkdue;' iajhx m%;HCIfhka jgyd.; hq;= foaj wkdjrKhla fkdjk w;Skaøsh udkqfIah
wkdjrKhls' ;¾l úIh blau jQ {dk úIfhys mj;ak d fohls'30 tneúka O¾uh úIfhys
wm%ikak ùug lsisÿ lreKla fkdue;' th wkq.ukh fldg tys m%;sM, w;aú¢ wd¾h W;=uka
ms<sn| j o Wkajykafia,df.a wej;=ï mej;=ï úIfhys wm%ikak ùug fya;=jla fkdue;' tneúka
nqÿoyfuys wdiaj doh ,nkq leue;af ;da nqÿrcdKka jykafia;a O¾uh;a wd¾h uyd ix>r;akh;a
wdo¾Y jYfhka ;nd .; hq;= h' túg ta u.g msú is tfy;a wd¾h Ndjh m%;s{d fkdl< wfkl=;a
Y%djl pß; ms< sn| j fodaIhka yuqfjys ks¾fõohg m;ajkafka ke;' wd¾h fkdjk wkH Y%djl
pß; ;=< úúO wvqmdvqlï ±lSug mq¿jk' th isÿ fkdúh yelalla fkdfõ' tlS wvqmdvq ilid
.ekSug lreKsl j wkq.%yh ±laùuhs" Y%oaOdjka;hl= úiska isÿ l< hq;af ;a' tfia lsÍu W;=ï

i;amqreI .=Khls' tfia fkdue;s j jerÈ tlla folla fjkqfjka fndfyda .=K ulk fldamfhka
oafõIfhka mßNj lrk wi;amqreIhka fkdúh hq;= h' úmdl ,efnkafka je/oao l< ;eke;a; dg
h' th Tng Ndr.; fkdyels h' ta je/oao yuqfjys Tn WrK úh hq;= ke;' túg Tn o O¾uh
jroaod .;a;l= njg m;afjhs' th isÿ fkdúh hq;a;ls' tys,d ls%h d l< hq;af;a fldamfhka"
oafõIfhka fkdj ffu;s%fhka ohdfjka h' túg Tn ksjerÈlrejl= fjhs' u.a.ðk ^ud¾.h ÈkQ&
u.a. foaYl ^ud¾.h foaYkd lrk& u.a.Ôú ^ud¾.fhys Ôj;a jk& u.a. ÿiS ^u. flf,i.;a&
hk p;=¾j¾.fhys u Y%uK;ajhla ms<sn| j nqÿrcdKka jykafia fmkaj d § we;' 31
u. ÈkQ we;eï W;=fuda iajlSh Èkq u. we;eï úg wkHhkag m%ldY fkdlr isá;a' tjeks
we;eï W;=fuda ta ud¾.h wkHhkag fy<s fmfy<sl r fo;s' we;eï ud¾. foaYlfhda ;=uQ u.
fkdÈkq kuq;a th wkHhkag uekúka fmkajd fo;s' we;eï Y%uK msßia u. wkq.ukh lrk
kuq;a wkHhka tys fhoùug W;aiql fkdfj;s' we;eïyq ;=u Q u. flf,id .;af;da h' tfy;a
wkHhka ta uf.ys fhoùug W;aiqlfhda h' we;eïyq ;=uQ o flf,iS isák w;r wkHhka o
flf<iSug wkqn, fokafkda fj;s' ta nj uekúka f;areï f.k ls%hd lsÍu nqoê
a u;a
;dreKHfhys ,CIKhla úh hq;= h' ta nj jegySf uka ls%h d lsÍfuka l,HdK ñ;%dY%hg;a ioaO¾u
Y%jKhg;a fhduqúh yels h' fhdaksf idaukisldrh ;=<ska iajlSh Y=oê
a h ;ukagu i,id.; yels
h' l,HdK ñ;%dY%h;a ioaO¾u Y%jKh;a w¾:j;ajkafka fhdaksf idaukisldrh ksid u nj f;areï
.; hq;= h'
nqÿoyu ;=< lsisÿ .+V O¾uhla o ke;' foaj ryia lsisjla nqÿoyfuys ke;' Ydia;Djrhd;a
Wkajykafia úiska wkdjrKh lrk ,o oyu;a tu oyfuys ksIag m%dma; wd¾h Y%djlhd;a ´kEu
flfkl=g újD; h' úuid ne,sh yels h' tjeks Ydia;D;ajhla fyda O¾uhla fyda Y%djl;ajh wka
ljr ;eklj;a oDYHudk fkdfõ' újD; jQ foa u nn<k njhs" nqÿrcdKka jykafiaf.a foaYkh' 32
tneúka ;reK Tng fkdúuish yels hehs lsisÿ fohla fuys fkdue;'
fuys uq,skau ±la jQ Wmudj h,s;a isysl< hq;= h' wrgqjla ,nd.kakg kï wrgqj we;s
.ila <Õg ñi ke;s .ila <Õg f.dia jEhï l<dg m%fhdackj;a fkdfõ' tys wfkla fmkajdÈh
hq;= lreK jkafka wrgqj we;s .i <Õg f.dia .fia fijK hg isg .i .ek j¾Kkd lr lr
thg ;j;a .re nqyquka yd mqo mQcd ie,ls,s olajñka isá muKska o tys wrgqj ,o fkdyels nj
hs' wo fn!oaOhka hehs lsh d .kakd fndfyda fokd lrkafka o nqÿoyu kue;s yr we;s jDCIh
iómhg meñK tys yr ,nd .kakjd fjkqjg t .ek j¾Kkd lr lr Bg mqo ie,ls,s i;aldr
lr lr hd{d fufyjrl fh§ isàu hs' thska flfia kï yr ,nkak o@ .fÕys fuf;r ìh
nj;a tf;r fkdìh nj;a okakd ;eke;a;l= .fÕys fuf;r isg tf;rg ;uka fj;
meñfKkak hehs hd{d l<dg tf;r fuf;rg lsis Èkl meñfKkafka ke;'
tf;rg hEu f;fï u l< hq;= h' fuhska fn!oaO ck;dj lrk jkaokdudk mqo mQcd ms<sfj;a
.¾ydjg ,la fkdl< nj lsj hq;=h s' wmg ksjerÈ u. fmkajd fok W;a;uhl=g Ôjudk j
isáh;a ke;;a mqo mQcd jkaokdudkk .re ie,ls,s ±laù u úYsIag ,CIKhls' tn÷ W;=uka
jykafia kula jevu l< ia:dk;a" jev isá ia:dk;a" mßfNdackh l< oE;a" iod mQckSh fõ'
ful, ;=uQ ud¾.M, ,dNSka hehs lshd yd lshjd .kakd we;eïyq tfia ie±yej;=ka lrk
jkaokdudkk mqo mQcd wdÈh w;sY h .¾ydjg ,lal r;s' nqÿrcdKka jykafiaj;a fkdl< tjka
.¾Ndjla ;=u Q ud¾.M, ,dNSka hehs lshd.kak d Bksh d fn!oaOhkag flfia kï l< yels o@ tfia
m%ldY lrkafka kï Tjqyq nqÿrcdKka jykafia blau .sh {dkhlska iukaú; úh hq;= h' th
uq<djls' tfy;a fuys,d jeo.;a fohla wjOdkhg .; hq;= h' tkï" nqÿrcdKka jykaf iag;a
wf.!rjhla jk mßÈ Ydia;D f.!rjfhka úhql a; j fjk;a wruqKq Tiaf ia lrk kdkdúO mqo

mQcdjkaf.ka Nla;sjdohla njg nqoaêf.dapr O¾uh m;al sÍfï jrog mK fmdjkakg fjr fkdord
Ydia;D f.!rjh u; u msysg d isg ksjerÈ u. fmkaj d§u fjkqfjka f.!rj mqo mQcd
jkaokdudkdÈh nqoê
a u;a j l< hq;= nj hs' ta u.ska ;j ;j;a Ydia;D f.!rjh" O¾u f.!rjh"
wd¾h Y%djl f.!rjh ;Sj% ù ta fYa%IaG ud¾.fhys .uka lsÍug Yla;sh j¾Okh fõ'
wkjfndaOfhka mgq wruqK qj,ska tfia lsÍfuka kï m%f hdackhla jkafka ke;' Nla;sjdohlg
fhduqjkafka túg h' nqÿrcdKka jykaf iaf.a wkqrejlg tfia;a ke;akï m%;sudjlg" od.enlg"
fndaëka jykafia kulg jkaokudk lsÍfuka we;súh hq;af ;a tlS Ydia;D m%idohhs' j¾Okh úh
hq;af ;a o th u hs'
;uka ud¾.M, ,dNSka hehs fYa%IaG wd¾h W;=ukag o wjuka jk mßÈ od.eí m%;su d
jkaokh nd, ls%h djla hehs fkdl< hq;a;la hehs m%ldY lrk we;uqk a ;=< ud¾.M, ;nd Ydia;D
m%idohj;a yßyeá msysg d fkdue;s nj i|yka l< hq;= h' Tjqkaf.a ysia is;a ;=< g tajd
fmfkkafka .,a f.dvj,a ueá f.dvj,a f,i h' iajlSh Ydia;Djrhd Ôjudk j ke;sl,ays ta
W;=ukaf.a wkqrejlg Ydia;Dm%idofhka jkaokdudkk mqo mQc d lsÍu ;=<ska ksjka u.
weysfrkafka ke;' thg Yla;shla jkjd ñi nqÿrcdKka jykafiaf.a fo;sia uyd mqßi ,l=Ksk a
iy wiS;HkqjH[ack ,CIKhkaf.ka fyì tu nqoO
a ldfhys wkqrejla ta whqßka u ilid
.ekSug fkdyelsùug mq¿jka' tfy;a th l,dlrejka úiska wiSñ ; uyd lreKdj;a" uyd
m%{dj;a jEfyk f,i iajlSh Wmßu Yla;sfhka tlS nqoO
a ldh ks¾udKh lrkakg iu;a j we;'
m%idodjy f,i od.eí ilia lrkakg iu;a j we;' Ôjudk Ydia;Dka jykafia f,i i,ld tajdg
jkaokd udkk lsÍu u.ska ksjka u.g ndOdjla jkafka ke;' Ydia;D m%idoh ksjka uf.ys
w;HjYH u h' Ydia;D m%idoh we;sl r .ekSug ta od.eí ms< su wjYHu o hkak flfkl=g
isf;kakg mq¿jka iuyr fokdg th wjYH fkdjkakg mq¿jk' tfy;a mqoa., fõu;a;;dj
jgyd.; hq;= h' nqÿrcdKka jykafia fjkqjg fn!oaO ixfla;hlg je÷ï msÿï lsÍfuka Ydia;D
f.!rjh m%idoh we;s jkjd kï th kqiqÿiq hehs i|yka lrkafka flfiao@ od.eí ms<su jkaokh
úuqla;sh fkdjk nj ienE h' od.eí ms< su jeks foa úuqla;sh fkdjkakd fiau iS,h" iudêh"
m%{dj o úuqla;sh fkdjk nj jgyd .; hq;= h' 33 úuql a;sh g ta ish,a,la mdol lr.; yels h'
wfkl fï Ydikfhys fidajdka ùu muKla fkdj ry;a ùu hkq o mQcH;ajh úIfhys
wmQcH;ajh ms< sk lrkakla fkdjk nj jgyd .; hq;= h' mQcH;ajh úIfhys isri fkdkuk
oro~q ;;a;ajhla f,i ta W;=ï ry;a moúh o fkdie,lsh hq;= h' ry;a W;=fuda l< hq;= foa
fldg ksujqfjda h' ^l;x lrKshx& tys woyi iir meje;au i|yd l< hq;= lghq;= h' tfia
fkdue;s j ;uka l< hq;= foa fldg wjika hehs .,a ms< su fia isájk u isg .re nqyquka ±laúh
hq;= W;=ukag .re nqyquka fkdolajk Ôú;h mj;ak d fjkqjg Ôj;a jk wl¾uKH ;;a;ajhla
f,i fkdie,lsh hq;= h' ry;a W;=fuda o nqÿrcdKka jykafiag .re ie,ls,s jkaokdudk isÿ
lr;s' thsk a Wkajykafia,dg Njhla ielfikafka ke;' Njh ielfikafka Wmdodkhla mej;sh
fyd;a muKs' tfia fkdue;s kï Njhla ielfikafka ke;' ry;ka jykafia kula u,amyka mqod
Ydia;Dka jykafiag jkaokd udkk l<dhehs Njhla ielfikafka ke;' Bg fya;=j Wmdodkh ta
;=<ska Wkajykafia,d ;=< we;s fkdjk ksid h' f,dal jHjydrh uekúka ±k th fkdblaujd
tfy;a th Wmdodk fkdlr f,dal jHjydrh ;=< isáñka bßhõ meje;aùu ry;a W;=ukaf.a
,CIKhls'34 ^f,daflu[a[x l=if,da úÈFjd - fjdydr u;af;k fid" fjdyfrhH& ;uka wd¾h
Ndjhg fkdm;a j uq< dù ;=uQ wd¾hhka f,i yqjd olajñka jkaokdudkkdÈh fkdlghq;= oE hehs
.¾Ndjg ,lalrk Bkshd Y%djlhka ;=< wju jYfhka Ydia;D m%idohj;a hï;ñka fyda mj;S ±hs
úuish hq;a;ls' ;¾lh wúh fldg.;a Tõyq O¾uh ;¾lhg f.dapr lr.kakg jEhï lrkafkda
muKs' Tjqkaf.a {dkhg f.dapr jkafka Tjqkaf.a ;¾lhg wkqrEm fldgi muKls' ta ;¾lfhys

,CIKh hs' tneúka ksjerÈ {dk ud¾.hla f,i ;¾lh i,ldf.k ;sîu uq< djls' ;¾lh
{dkh fldg .;af;da nqÿrcdKka jykafiaf .a foaYkd ;=< iajlSh mCIhg wod< hï hï fldka
.%yKh fldg f.k Bg úreoaO oE we;s úg tajd nqoO
a foaYkd fkdjk f,i m%;sfCIam lsÍug
blauka fj;s' th Ydia;D m%idohj;a fkd;sîfï ,l=Kls' ;¾lfhka hï m%udKhlg i;Hh
biau;= jqj ;a i¾j iïmQ¾K i;H thska wê.ukh l< fkdyels h' ;¾lh ksid t<ôh yels
ks.uk y;rla we;s nj nqÿrcdKka jykafiaf.a foaYkh hs'
1'
2'
3'
4'

;¾l
;¾l
;¾l
;¾l

lrk
lrk
lrk
lrk

whqre
whqre
whqre
whqre

ksjerÈ h' ks.ukh o ksjerÈ h'
ksjerÈ h ks.ukh jerÈ h'
jerÈ h ks.ukho jerÈ h'
jerÈ h ks.ukh ksjerÈ h'35

tneúka ;u Èú u. ire lrk m%{df,dalh m%Ndu;a lrk fn!oaO m%;smodj ;=< jkaokd
udkk ms<sfj;a ;=< hï lsis Wmfhda.s;d ±laula mj;akd nj ;¾lfhka t<fUk ks.ukj,sk a
neyer j wjfndaO lr.; hq;= h' jkaokd udkj,ska muKla fn!oaO m%;smodj iïmQ¾K fkdjk
nj;a thska ksjerÈ u. fmkajd fok Ydia;D;ajhg ta O¾uhg yd ta u. .uka .kak d
Y%djl;ajhg .re lsÍula lDf;damldr ±laùula mQfcdamydr lsÍula nj jgyd.; hq;= h'
nqÿoyfuys yr fiùu bka tyd .sh fohls'
nqÿoyu keu;s jDCIfha o¨" fld<" fmd;=" isú" M<" yr hk ish ,a,la we;' tneúka taj d
fjk fjk u f;areï .ekSug nqoaêu;a úh hq;= h' tfia fkdjqKfyd;a we;eïyq yrh hehs is;d
o¨ fld< .ekSug bv ;sf í' thska iEySug m;a jqj fyd;a nqÿoyu ;=< yr fiùug W;aiql
fkdjkq we;' tfia u o¨ fld< w;er yrh hehs is;d fmd;= .kakd ;eke;a;d hï m%u dKhlg
nqÿoyu ;=< yrhg ióm jQj;a yr fkd,enqfjda u h' thsk a iEySug m;a fkdjqKfyd;a muKs" idr
.fõIKhg fhduq jkafka' o¨ fld< o" fmd;= o yer yrh hehs is;d we;eïyq isúh .ks;s'
we;eïyq o¨" fld<" fmd;=" isúh" yer t,h yrh fldg .ks;s' ta lsisjl=g yrfhka ,eìh yels
m%fhdack ,eìh fkdyelafla u h' ;u ;udf.a ±kqfï m%udKfhka yrh fkdjkakla yrh hehs
is;d .%yKh lr .ekSula muKs" Tjqka isÿ fldgf.k ;sfnkafka' ;ud.;a oDIaáka w;yer kshu
yrh ms<sn| wjfndaOfhka th milalr .ekSu msKsi ls%hdfjys ksr; úh hq;= h' yrh fkdjk ta
ta oE yrh fldg .ekSfuka w;a;=l alxikh;a ^;ud Wiia fldg ie,lSu& mrjïNkh;a ^wkqk a
my;a fldg ie,lSu;a& isÿ úh yels h' yrh yrh f,i olskafka kuq;a th m%;HCI lr .ekSug
jEhï fkdlrkak isÿ lrkafka" hd{dj h' yrh ;uka fj; meñfKk f;la Tyq hd{lrkq we;'
tfy;a lsisúg yrh ;ud fj; meñfKkafka ke;' ;ud u yrh fj; <`.d úh hq;= h'
nqÿoyfuys YsCIKh ,nk ;eke;a;d iudcfha .re nqyqukaj ,g md;%fjhs' Tyqg ,dN"
lS¾;s" m%Y xid ysñ fjhs' tfia ysñjk ,dN lS¾;s m%YxidÈh nqÿoyu kue;s yr we;s jDCIfha o¨
fld< f,ih" olajkafka' tfia ,efnk ,dN lS¾;s m%Yxid yuqfjys we;eïyq isys úl,a j th u
m%udK;ajfhys,d i,lñka we;eï úg thu ,nd.ekSfï wáfhka j[apksl m%;smodjkag f.dia
;=uQ wdOHd;auh iïmQ¾Kfhka flf,id .ks;s' ;udg ,efnk lS¾;s m%Yxid yuqfjys ;uka uyd
Nd.Hjka;hl= fldg i,lñka wkHhka fy<d ols;s' úYd, wY=ÑialkaOhla ,en i;=gq jk
mKqjl= f,ihs" tjeks ;eke;a;d nqÿrcdKka jykafia y÷kajd we;af ;a' 37 ,dN i;aldr lS¾;s
m%ixid jeo.;a fldg fkdi,lk nqÿoyfuys yrh th fkdjk nj jgyd .kakd we;eïyq is,aj ;a
fj;s' iS,h u yrh fldg i,ld bka tyd yrhla ms<sn|j .fõIKh fkdfldg th u yrh
fldg f.k fjfi;s' nqÿoyu kue;s idr jDCIfhys fmd;= .ekSu hkq th hs' is,a fkdrlakjqk a

yd ;ud ii|d n,d is,a fkdrlakjqka my;afldg i,ld ;=uQ Wiia fldg i,ld mrjïNkh;a
w;a;=lalxikh;a we;sl r .ks;s' thsk a yr iqka ù hhs'
nqÿoyu keue;s idr jDCIfhys yrh hkq iS,h o fkdjk nj jgyd .kakd we;eïyq
iS,fhka WmlD; iudêh iam¾Y lrhs' iudêh iam¾Y fldg thu yrh f,i is;d bka tyd idr
.fõIKhl fkdfhfohs' iudêh yrh fldg .ekSu nqÿoyu kue;s idr jDCIfhys isúh yrh
fldg .ekSula f,i hs' nqÿrcdKka jykafia fmkaj d§ jodrkafka' iudêh yrh fldg
i,lkakdyq wiudys;hka my;a fldg;a ;=uQ Wiia fldg;a i,lk mrjïNk" w;a;=lalxik
folg meñK yr iqkal r .ks;s'
nqÿoyu keue;s idr jDCIfhys zziudêhZZ hkq o yrh fkdjk nj jgyd .kakd
;eke;a;d idudêfhka WmlD; {dk o¾Ykh we;slr .ks' th yrh fldg is;d fjfihs' bka
tyd jQ idr .fõIKhl fkdfhfohs' {dk o¾Ykh yrh fldg .ekSu .fiys t,h yrh fldg
.ekSu yd iu hehs nqÿrcdKka jykafia fmkajd ÿkay'
nqÿoyu kue;s idr jDCIfhys yrh hkq [dK o¾Ykh o fkdjk nj jgyd .kakd
we;eïyq boaêúO" Èínfida;" mrÑ;a; úcdkk" mqífíksj didkqiai;s" ÈínplaLq wd§ w;Skaøh
s
{dkhka we;sl r .ekSu ;=<ska nqÿoyfuys wrgqj iam¾Y l< yels h' wdijlaLh[dKh ;=<skqh s"
wrgqjg wkqm%dma; úh yelafla' fï wkqj nqÿoyu ;=< wkqmQ¾j YsCIKhla mj;akd nj;a ta ;=<
YsCIKh ùfuka úmq, M, ,nd.; yels nj;a f,!lsl jQ;a f,daflda;a;r jQ;a iqjhla Wodlr .;
yels nj;a m%{ dfjka jgydf.k tlS ;;a;ajh iajhx ù¾hfhka we;sl r .; hq;a;la ñi fjk hï
ydialulska isÿ fkdjk nj;a f;areï f.k ;reK Tn uyÕ= is;=ñKla jka nqÿoyu u odhdo
lr.; hq;= h' thska lsisúg hym;la ñi whym;la isÿ fkdjkafka u h'

wdka;sl igyka
1'
b;s tj rEmx wfklúOx ldhiai wd;dmkmß;dmkdkqfhd.ukqhq;af;d úyrdñ' boxiq fu idßmq;a; ;miaisldh
fyd;s' ;;%iaiqfu box idßmq;a;iañx fyd;s''' fc.=Éýiañx fyd;s''' úú;a;iañx fyd;s'''' uyd úlgfNdckiañx
fyd;s'
u'ks' i" uydiSykdo iq;a;" 188 msg'
2'
tf; f; NslaLfj Wf;d wkaf; wkqm.ïu uʯud mámod ;:d.f;k wNsiïnqoaOd
ix'ks' v ^2& Oïuplalmamj;a;k iq;a;" 207 msg'
3'
fid bux f,dlx ifojlx iudrlx in%yaulx iiaiuKn%dyauKsx mcx ifojukqiaix ihx wNs[a[d iÉðlFjd
mfjfo;s' fid Oïux fofi;s" wdÈl,HdKx uÊf®l,yKx msßfhdidkl,HdKx idF:x ijH[ackx
flj,mßmqKaKx mßiqoaOx n%yaupßhx mldfi;s'
È'ks' i" wïnÜG iq;a;" 150 msg'
4'
iajdlaLdf;d N.j;d Oïfud ikaÈÜÀfld'''
ix'ks' v^2& fj¿oajdfrhHl iq;a;" 156 msg'
5'
u'ks' wßhmßfhik iq;a;" 394 msg'
6'
kdyx NslaLfj wdÈflfkj w[a[drdOkx jodñ' wmsp NslaLfj wkqmqínislaLd wkqmqínlsßhd wkqmqínmámod
w[a[drdOkd fyd;s'
u'ks' ii" lSgd.sß iq;a;" 246 msg'
7'
bO NslaLfj iufKd bO ÿ;sfhd iufKd bO ;;sfhd iufKd bO p;=fF:d iufKd mq[a[dmrmamjdod
iufK;s w[af[ys tjfuj NslaLfj iSykdox ;o:'
u'ks' i" pQ,iSykdo iq;a;" 154 msg'
8'

È'ks' iii" ,laLK iq;a;" 236 msg'

9'

u'ks' i" uydiSykdo iq;a;" 164 msg'

10'

11'

wyx n%dyauK f,dfl i[acdf;d f,dfl ixjoafOd f,dlx wNsN=hH úydrdñ' wkqm,smaf;d f,dflk nqoafOd;s
n%dyauK ux Odfrys'
wx'ks' ii" fødK iq;a;" 78 msg'
iíndysN+ iín ú¥yuiañ - iífniq Oïfuiq wkqm,s;af;d iínx cfyd ;KaylaLfhd úuq;af;d - ihx
wNs[a[dh luqoaÈfihHx
u'ks' i" wßhmßfhaik iq;a;" 414 msg'

12'

u'ks' ii" n%yaudiq iq;a;" 594 msg'

13'

u'ks' i" pQ<iÉpl iq;a;" 54 msg'

14'

f; iufKk f.d;fuk Oïñhd l:dh ikaoiaiskd iudoms;d iuq;af;ð;d iïmyxis;d k fpp iuKx
f.d;ux m[ayx mqÉPka;s l=;iai jdox wdfrdfmiaika;s w[a[F:q iuKiai f.d;uiai idjld iïmÊcka;s'
u'ks' i" pQ<yFÓjfodmu iq;a; 430 msg'

15'

p;a;frd fu jH.a>mÊc l=,mq;a;iai
ixj;a;ka;s'
wx'ks' v" jH.a>mÊc iq;a;" 238 msg'

16'

k w;a;fya;= k mriaify;= - k mq;a;ñÉfP k Okx k rÜGx
Lq'ks' 1 O'md' - 42 msg'

17'

bfu fLd m[apldu.=fK máÉp WmamÊc;s iqLx fidukiaix whx ldudkx wiaidfod
u'ks' ii" pQ<ÿlaLlaLJO iq;a;" 218 msg'

18'

- tu -

19'

- tu -

20'

fldkqydfid lsudkkafod - ksÉpx mÊc,sf; i;s"
wJOldfrk ´koaOd - m§mx k .fõiai:
Lq'ks' 1" O'md' 46 msg'

21'

,gqlsldZms fLd wïnÜG il=Ksld ifl l=,djfl ldu,dmskS fyd;s
§'ks' i" wïnÜG iq;a;" 157 msg'

22'

cd;l fmd;" wmKaKl cd;lh"

23'

p;a;dfrd fu NslaLfj mq.a.,d''' fkj w;a;ys;dh mámkafkd fkd mrys;dh' mrys;dh mámkafkd fkd
w;a;ys;dh' w;a;ys;dh mámkafkd fkd mrys;dh' w;a;ys;dh p mámkafkd mrys;dh p'
wx'ks' ii" Pj,d; iq;a;" 180 msg'

24'

w;a;kdj l;x lïux w;a;kd ixls,siai;s'
Lq'ks' O'md' 66 msg'

25'

wx'ks' i" 24" 26 msgq'

26'

l;u[ap NslaLfj wkqmqínislaLd wkqmqínlsßhd wkqmqínmámod w[a[drdOkd fyd;s' bONslaLfj ioaOdcdfkd
Wmixlu;s'''
u'ks' ii" lSgd.sß iq;a;" 248 msg" nq'c'uq'

27'

úuxiflk NslaLfj NslaLqkd mriaifpf;d mßhdix wcdkkaf;k ;:d.f; iukafkikd ld;índ
iïudiïnqoafOd jd fkdjd b;s'
u'ks' i" úuxil iq;a;" 744 msg" nq'c'uq'
wkqúÉPldrx fLd .ym;s lfrdys' wkqúÉpldfrd ;=ïydÈidkx idOq fyd;s
u'ks' ii" Wmd,s iq;a; 70 msg'
Oïuldfud Njx fyd;s - Oïufoiais mrdNfjd
iq'ks' mrdNj iq;a;" 32 msg'
wê.f;d fLd uHdhx Oïfud .ïNSfrd ÿoaofid ÿrkqfndfOd ikaf;d mKSf;d w;laldjpfrd ksmqfKd
mKaä;fõokSfhd
u'ks' i" wßhmßfhik iq;a;" 40 msg'
p;=frd iuK k m[apuFÓ - f; f; wúlfrdñ ilaÅmqÜfGd" u.a.ðfkd u.a. foifld - u.af. Ôj;s
u.a.¥is

28'
29'
30'

31'

ÈÜGOïuiqLdh"

ÈÜGOïuys;dh

iïmrdhys;dh

iïmrdhiqLdh

32'

iq'ks'pqkao iq;a; 24 msg'
pJouKav,x NslaLfj újgx úfrdp;s' fkd máÉPkakx iqßh uKav,x''' ;:d.;mamfjoaf;d Oïuúkfhd újfgd
úfrdp;s fkd máÉýkafkd
wx'ks' i" NrKavq j.a." 9 iq;a;" 510 msg'

33'
34'

u'ks'i" pQ<idfrdmu iq;a;" 478 msg'
f,dfl iu[a[x l=if,d úÈFjd - fjdydru;af;k fid fjdyfrhH
ix'ks' i" wry;a; iq;a;" 29 msg'

35'

u'ks' ii" ikaol iq;a;" 322 msg'

26'

u'ks' i, pQ,idfrdmu iq;a;" 478-498 msgq'

27'

ix'ks' ii" ñ<ayl iq;a;" 348 msg'

5
;reK fn!oaO NslaIQka jykafia
f,dalh

CIK Nx.=r h' tkï" fudfyd;ska fudfyd; fjkiajk iq¨ h' 1 kQ;kfhys
kùlrKh f,i th y÷kajhs' Bkshd kùk;ajh ;=< is;=ï me;=ï reÑ wreÑlïys o tlS ,CIKh
m%;Shudk h' ;;a iajNdjhg wkjk; j lsisjl=g fyda lsisjlg mej;sh fkdyels h' thg
.Dyia: m%j %ð; fNaoh lsisfia;a wod< jkafka ke;' ta fol u fjkia ùfï m%jdyhg yiq fõ'
fomd¾Yajh úiska u tu .;sl ,CIKh wjYHfhka u f;areï .; hq;= j o we;' tfy;a
fjkiaùu ;=< wys;lr ,CIK .%yKh lr .ekSfï wjYH;djla fomd¾Yajhg u we;ehs
fkdie,lsh hq;= h' tkuq;a .Dyia: ixia:dj ;=< nyq;rhla ksire foa ire f,i i,lñka ire
foa ksire f,i neyer lrñka mdmdjk; j ixialD;sl yr moaO;Skag mrdïuqL j ñ:Hdm%;smkak
j ÿ¾.;s m%d.aNdr j isák nj fndfyda fokdf.a woyi hs' ñ:Hd oDIaá h fuhg m%Odk fya;=jls'
ñ:Hd oDIaáfhka m%;snoaê; lsisjl=g idr iy widr ixl,am m%f;Hl j .%yKh lr .ekSu b;d
wmyiq h'2 .sys iudch thska uqojdf.k hymf;ys fhduq lsÍu m%j%ð; ixia:dfjys úfYaI
j.lSuls' úfYaIfhka ;reK fn!oaO NsCIQka jykafia,d ta i|yd úfYaI wjOdkh fhduq l< hq;=
j we;' jeäysá NsCIQka jykafia,df.ao wksjd¾h m%uqL ;ajfhka ta ld¾hNdrhg ;reK NsCIQk a
jykafia fhduq úh hq;= h' .sy s iudch fjkqfjka bgql< hq;= hq;=lï yhla NsCIQka jykafia,dg
nqÿrcdKka jykafia fmkajd § we;' tkï"
1'
2'
3'
4'
5'
6'

mdmfhka j<laj d .ekSu
hymf;ys fhoùu'
l,K is;ska wkqlïmd ±laùu'
fkdokakd oyï lshd§u'
okakd oyï msßisÿ lr§u'
iq.;shg u. lsh d§u'3

f,!lsl f,daflda;a;r foj¾. iïm;a;Ska flfrysu" .sys ck;dj fufyhùfï w;sYh
j.lSï iys; ld¾hNdrhla NsCIq uyd ix>r;akh úIfhys mejÍ we;s nj fï wkqj fmfka' fuu
j.lSu b;d fyd¢ka f;areï f.k ls%hd lsÍu NsCIQka jykafiaf.a hq;=lu h' fuys tk m%:u yd
oaú;Sh ldrKd fol iïnkaOfhka flfkl= ;=< fujeks woyila w;s úh yels h' lreKq folla
f,i ix.%y jQj ;a tl u foa fkdfõo lsh fjkafka hkqfjks' tfy;a th tfia fkdfõ'
m<uqjekafkka úruK l=i,;dj;a fojekafkka fhdack l=i,;dj;a .ek lshfõ' whym;ska
je<lS isá h muKska hymf;ys fhÿkd jkafka ke;' hymf;ys fh§ug whymf;ka je<lSu
wjYH h'4 whym; ;=< hym; m%Njh fkdjkafka h' ;=j d,hl úIîc yrKh hkq tlls'
fnfy;a .,ajd iqj lsÍu hkq ;fjlls' tfy;a fnfy;a .,aj d iqj lsÍug wjYHfhka u úIîc
yrKh l< hq;= u h' úIîc ;sìh § fnfy;a .e,aùfuka ;=jd,h ;j ;j;a krla úh yels h'
tneúka m<uqfjka krl fohska uqojd .ekSu isÿl< hq;= h' fojekqj hymf;ys fhoùu l< hq;=
h' ta i|yd úYd, odhl;ajhla fn!oaO NsCIQka jykafiaf .ka iemhsh hq;= h'
fuys tk f;jeks lreK o b;d jeo.;a h' tkï l,K is;ska wkqlïmd lsÍu hs' fuhsk a
biau;= jk jeo.;a i;Hhla we;' tkï" wkql ïmdj" l,HdK fkdjk is;l o we;súh yels nj

hs' tu wkqlïmdj jxpksl h' jHdc h' j[apksl O¾u ms<sn| j l,sk a mßÉfþofhys lreKq
idlÉPd úh' wd;au ,dNh msKsi wkqlïmdj ujdf.k fyj;a ldreKsl fjia f.k fp!r
prKhl kshe,Su l,HdK fkdjk is;l wkqlïmdfjys iajNdjh fõ' i[a[;hkaf.a fjiaf.k
wi[a[;hka fuf,dj yeisf rk neúka ndysr fmkqfuka iy ÿgq muKska flkl= flfrys
úYajdih fkd;nk f,i nqÿrcdKka jykafia meyeÈ,s lr jodf<a tu ksid h' 5 ñksiqkaf.a
ÿmam;alu;a kQ.;alu;a ovóud lr f.k f,dalfha nqoaêu;=ka w;ßka m%;sfCIam jk ls%ia;shdks
uQ,O¾ujdoh /l .ekSu i|yd tys we;eï ñ:HdoDIaálhka úisk a fndfyda fihska tlS j[apksl
m%;smodfjys kshe,S isák whqre fï i|yd WodyrKhla f,i ±laúh yels h' ieu ls%ia;=
Nla;sfhl= u tfia hehs thska woyia jkafka ke;' Tjqkaf.a fjiaj,d .;a ohdj" lreKdj ;=<
ieÕù ;sfnkafka y,dy, úI h' tfy;a thska uqim;a jk wirKhkag th jgyd .ekSu i|yd
l,la .;fõ' nl cd;lh ;=<ska o wmg fmkakqï lrkafka tlS fjia .;a lreKdfjys fp!r
prKh hs'6
wd;au ,dNh msKsi fm<UqKq is;a we;s we;eï fn!oaO NsCIq fjia .;af;da o fuu fp!r
prKfhys ksh e,S isàu ±l .; yelsh' th fn!oaO NsCIQ;ajhg lrk uy;a jQ ks.djls' ,dNi;aldr lS¾;s-m%Yxid yuqfjys O¾ufha fõYfhka wO¾uh m;=rejk we;eï fjia .;a NsCIQk a ;=<
we;s wkqlïmdj o fjia uqyqKls' thska uqim;a jk we;eï .sysfhda o isá ;s' tfy;a ienE NsCIqjf.a
ld¾hNdrh úh hq;af ;a wdÈ" uOH" m¾hjidk fudkjg foaYs; O¾uh m%:u j f;fï uekúka
f;areï f.k Ydia;D yd O¾u f.!rjh wdrCId lrf.k fu;a is;sk a myod §u hs'7 tfia fp!r
prKfhys fhfok fjia. ;a NsCIQka ms<sn| j is;d we;eï is,aj;a .=Kj;a NsCIQka jykafia,d NsCIq
ixia:dfjys tjeks uyKqka isàu ms< sn| j WrK j we;' l,lsÍ we;' úfCIdaNhg m;aù we;'
tfy;a th tfia isÿúh hq;= o ke;' wkqkaf.a ÿis ,anj u; ;ukaf .a wdOHd;aufhys tjeks ls< sgla
we;slr .; hq;= ke;' yels kï thska uqojd .ekSu msKsi lreKdfjka ls%hd l< hq;=h'
ix>dêlrKh n,j;a fldg Ydik úfYdaOkhg hï ls%hdud¾.hla .ekSu g yelskï th b;d
w.fka h' th o l< hq;af;a oafõYfhka fkdj ldreKslj u h' tfy;a is ,aj;a keK .=K msß
NsCIQka jykafia,d ksy~ j isàfuka ;ukaf.a WfmaCId .=Kh fyda ldreKsl .=Kh mßmQ¾K lr
.ekSula hehs fkdis;sh hq;= h' lreKdfjka iy WfmaCIdfjka tlS úfYdaOkhg .eg¨jla u;=
fkdjk fia úi÷ï fidhkafka kï th b;d úYsIag h' Ydikhg we¨ï we;a;ka thg we;sjk
jHikhka yuqfjys ksy~j isàu ;=<ska isÿjkafka ÿ¾u;OdÍka nyq, j ienE iiqk a ms<sfj; .s,sy S
hdu hs' úfYaIfhka is,aimka ±k W.;a ;reK NsCIQka jykafia,dg iqú i,a ld¾hNdrhla tys,d
mj;sk nj i|yka l< hq;= h'
O¾uh ms< sn| fkdjegySu O¾ufhys fkdfh§ug m%Odk fya;=jls' 8 O¾ufhys fkdfh§u
whym;a iudcfha ,CIKhls' tneúka iudc hym; fjkqfjka lghq;= lrk NsCIQka jykafia,d
.sys ck;djg O¾uh lsh d Èh hq;= h' tys u wjfndaOh we;s l< hq;= h' O¾ufhys u meye§u we;s
l< hq;= h' O¾ufhys u iuq;af;ackh l< hq;= h' isjqjeks iy miajeks hq;=lïj,sk a
fmkajdfokafka tu lreK hs' ful, O¾uh foaYkd lrkakg hehs nKiqfkys jdäù wO¾uh
§mkh lrk l=ula fyda lsh d ckms%h ;ajh ,nd .; hq;= hehs i,lk nyq;rhla fkdj b;du w,am
NsCIq msßila o ke;af ;a fkdfõ' ta wh nqÿrÿkaf.a wjjdoh h<s h<s;a isyslsÍu b;d jeo.;a h'
túg ;ukag ,eî ;sfnk ckm%idoh;a iu. iqúi,a fufyjrla o l< yels jkq we;' ta nj
f;areï fkd.;fyd;a nqÿ nK úlD;sl r O¾uh fõYfhka wO¾uh me;srùfï nrm;, mdm
l¾uhg ±k ±k u iïnkaO ù wmdh ixj¾;ksl m%;smodkq.; j jkq we;' th nrm;,
fÄojdplhls' foaYlhd;a Y%djlhd;a hk fomsßig u thska nrm;, f,i ydks meñfKkq we;'
tneúka fkdokakd O¾uh lsh d Èh hq;= h' okakd O¾uh msßisÿ l< hq;= h' hk hq;=lï fol

úfYaIfhka ;reK NsCIQk a jykafia,d ldreKsl j wjOdkhg .; hq;= h' O¾uh foaYkd lsÍug
fmr th flfia l< hq;= o hkak ms<sn| j ilia lr .ekSula wjYH h' fuys,d lreKq myla wm
Nd.Hj;=ka jykafia foaYkd fldg we;'
1'
2'
3'
4'
5'

wkqms<sfj, l:dj lsh ñhs wkHhkag O¾uh foaYkd l< hq;= h' ^wkqmqíì l:x&
f;areï .ekSug myiq wdldrhg úúO khska lreKq f.kyer olajñka O¾uh foaYkd l<
hq;=h' ^mßhdh oiaidú&
wkqka flfrys wkqlïmdfjka u O¾uh foaYkd l< hq;= h' ^wkqoaoh l:x&
wdñi ,dNhla fkdi,ld u O¾uh foaYkd l< hq;= h' ^k wdñika;frd&
;uka yd wkqka fkd.gd O¾uh foaYkd l< hq;=h' 10
^w;a;dkx p mrxp wkqmyÉp&

O¾u foaYlhka jykafia ;=< fl;rï Ndr¥r ld¾hka mj;skafka o hkak thska jgyd.;
yels h' we;eï whg iycfhka msysá lÓl;ajhla we;' tfy;a th O¾uh foaYkd lsÍfï
m%udKsl idOlhla fldg fkd.; hq;= h' id¾:" ijH[ack" flj, mßmQ¾K" mdßY=oaO n%yaupd¾h
m¾hjidkfldg we;a;la njg O¾ufoaYkh iliaúh hq;= h' i¾j iïmQ¾Kfhka tjeks O¾u
foaYkhla l< yelafla nqÿjrekag iy ry;a W;=ukag h' tfy;a th fndfyda fihska /l .ekSu
i|yd wkH Y%djlhka o yels iEu m%h ;akhla u ±ßh hq;= h' úfYaIfhka ud fï O¾udikfhys
jev isg foaYkd lrkakg hkafka uq¿ ;=k a f,djgu fYa%IaG jQ" fcHIaG jQ W;=uka jykafiaf.a YS%
ioaO¾uh h hk f.!rjh m%:ufhka ;uka ;=< ukdj msysg df.k u O¾uh foaYkd l< hq;= h'
ikaiqka ukiska" ixjr bÿrkaf.ka" yia; úldr" uqL úldr wd§ fodaIhkaf.ka je<lS tlS
O¾uh foaYkd l< hq;= h' úfYaIfhka u NdIdj ms< sn| ±ä ie,ls,a,la ±laúh hq;= h' fk,d
^ks¾fodaI nj& lKay iqLd ^lkal¨ nj& fmuKSh ^fma%uKSh nj& yohx.ud ^yDohx.u nj& fmdß
^YsIag nj& nyqcklka;d ^ckldka; nj& nyqck ukdmd ^fndfyda& fokdf.a uk jvk nj&" w¾:
iys; nj ^w;a: ixys;d& wdÈ ish¨ hym;a ,CIK Ndú; lrk NdIdfjys wka;¾.; úh hq;= h' 12
wfkl ;uka jykafia isoaO lrkafka nqoO
a lD;Hhla lshkd nj ks;r isysf ha mj;aj d .; hq;= h'
;uka fkd.e<fmk f,i th isÿ lsÍfuka nqÿrcdKka jykafiag o uy;a wf.!rjhla isÿ l<d
fjhs' th nrm;, mdm l¾uhls' ta lsisjla .ek fkdi,ld iajlSh uqLßnj tys,d tl u
m%dudKsl idOlh fldg .kakd w,am jYfhka jQ w,am Y%e; NsCIQka nKiqk flf,id myka is; a
fkdmyka fldg fkdmyka is;a ;=< ydfiHda;amdokh fldg ke;fyd;a fYdalh fl%daOh wdÈh ;j
;j;a we;s fldg ta u.ska nqÿrcdKka jykafiag wf.!rjhla isÿ fldg tfy;a ;ud tfia l< nj
ms<sn| j ;ukag jegySula fkdue;slu ksid;a tfia lsÍfuka w{dkhkaf.ka .,df.k tk
ia;=;s m%Yxid keu;s uv myßka wd,sma; j ;uka m%ikak iqj|lska wd,sma; jQjl= fldg i,ld
;uka iudch fjkqfjka wúfõlSj fjfyfikakl= f,i yqj d olajñka ysia udkakhlska o m%hqla;
j iiqka u. flf,id .kakd whqre ful, oDYHudk h' th Ydik ÑriaÓ;sh yd iïnJOfhka
iqn ksñka;la fkdfõ' flá l,la ;=< tjekakka ck;dj m%;sfCIam lrk kuq;a ta flá ld,h
;=< O¾uhg lrk ydksh w;sYhska nrm;, h' fuu Ydik fidaod md¨j j<lajd .ekSug Ydik
NdrOdÍ jDoaO iajdóka jykaf ia,df.ka hï wdrCIKhla wjYH jqj ;a Wkajykafia,dg ta i|yd
l%ñl jev ms<sfj,la fkdue;' fndfyda foaj,a ms< sn| j jev ms<sfj< Èh;a l<;a O¾uhg jk
úkdYh yuqfjys Wka jykafia,d uqksj; /lSu fl;rï wfhda.H o hkak kej; kej;;a úuid
ne,sh hq;= lreKls' tneúka ;ju;a ksl dh" md¾Yaj" l=,fNaoj, t,a,S fkdisg fï .ek hï
mshjrla .ekSug iqÿiqu ld,hls" fuh' ta i|yd ;reK NsCIQka jykafia,df.a l%ñl fm<.eiaula

w;HjYH h' ta fm<.eiau O¾ufhka u ikakoaO jQjla úh hq;= h' úkfhka YsCIs; jQjla u úh
hq;= h'
hfula fï O¾uh w;=reoyka lrkafka kï ta fuda> mqreIhd my<jkafka fï Ydikfhka
mßndysr fjk;a iïm%odhl fkdj fï Ydikh ;=< u nj nqÿrcdKka jykafia fmkajd § we;'
O¾uh w;=reoyka jkafka O¾ufha fõYfhka wO¾uh my< ùfuks' r;a;rx fõYfhka r;a;rx
fkdjkakla my< ùfuka ienE r;a;rx w;=reoka ù hkakdla f,ihs" WodyrKhlska meyeÈ<s lr
§ we;af;a'13 tys,d ;reK NsCIQka jykaf ia,d O¾ufhka ikakoaO j we;akï tlS jHikfhka
iiqk /l .ekSug úYd, odhl;ajhla ,nd Èh yels h'
oidry rcjrekaf.a wK fnrfhys y~ u,ska fodf<dia fhdÿkl me;sr .sfha h' tlS
fnrfha l| l,ah dfï § me<S .sfha h' ta wh thg weKhla .eiQy' fï wdldrhg kej; o fnr
l| fjk ;eklska me<sK s' h<s;a weKhla .eiQy' fï ls%h dj,sh È.ska È.g u fufia isÿúh'
wka;sfï § fnr l| w;=reoka j weK l| muKla b;sß úh' fodf<dia fhdÿka me;sr .sh fNaß
kdoh wjidkfha § oidry rcjreka /iajk iJ:d.dr Yd,djg muKla iSud úh' tu l;dj
WodyrK fldg .ksñka nqÿrcdKka jykafia wkd.;fhys fï Ydikhg o we;eïyq úúO weK
.ikakg mgka .kak d nj;a túg ienE Ydikh hgm;a j .ikakd jQ ta weK ál muKla
Ydikh f,i y÷kdf.k lghq;= lrk nj;a tfy;a th ienE Ydikh fkdjk nj;a wdKs
iQ;%f ha § foaYkd fldg jod<y'14 ±ka tjeks weK /ila Ndrlrejka úiska Ydik foayhg .id
we;s nj;a we;uqk a .iñka mj;akd nj;a fmfka' iyNd.s;aj ksÍCIKhlska f;dr j ndysßka
olsk wfhl=g yef.kqfha Ydikh /lSf ï ksjerÈ ms< sfj; th f,i h' th uy;a uq< djls' thsk a
isÿjkafka Ydikh b;d blaukska hgm;a j w;=reoka ùu hs' tfyhska O¾uh /l.ekSu msKsi
;reK NsCIQka jykafia,d O¾ufhka u ikakoaO ùu wjYH h'
hï hï úfYaI pß; ^fyd| fyda krl& foi n,d úfYaIfhka nd, mrïmrdj ta ta
pß;j,g wkq.; ùu iy ta ta pß; wkqlrKh lsÍug;a fhduq fõ' meúÈ iudch ;=< o ta
,CIKh tfia u h' fmdä yduqÿrejre wdo¾Yhg .kafka o NsCIq iudch ;=< ls%hd;aul ta úfYaI
pß; h' tneúka ta pß; wdo¾Y iïmkak úh hq; = h' isjqjeks iy miajeks NsCIQka jykafia,df.a
hq;=lï ms<sn| j idlÉPd lrk ksid O¾u ikaksfõokfhys,d tys kshqla; jQ msßi b;d wdo¾Y
iïmkak j th bgqlsÍu hq;=lula yd j.lSula nj jgyd .; hq;= h'
wo we;eï ;reK NsCIQka jykafia,df.a O¾u foaYkd we;eï úg ujqmsh ¥ore is h¨ fokd
tlg jdä ù fkd weish yels ;rfï .%duH;ajhla f.k we;' Ndú; lrk NdIdj wduka;%Kh
lrk úê Y%djlhka fhdod .kak d whqre we;eï NsCIQka yd iïnkaOfhka b;du my;a uÜgul
mj;S' O¾uh lshjd ,nd.;a YsCIKhla fyda uyd f:ardmodk u.ska ,nd.;a wdo¾Yhla fyda we;eï
;reK NsCIQka jykafia,df.a O¾u foaYkd ms< sfj;a ;=< ±l.; fkdyels h' .%duH;ajh ish,a,
uev bÈßhg meñK ;sîu iuia; ;reK NsCIQka jykafia,dg muKla fkdj iuia; NsCIq
ixia:djg u isÿjk le<,hs' we;eï NsCIQk a iudcfha fjÉp flßÉp oE ta whqßka u yia;úldr"
uqLúldr" fka;%úldr olajñka nK iqfkys isg rx.kh lr;s' rÕmEu NsCIQka i;= ld¾hhla
fkdfõ' tajdg ckudOH ;=< o úYd, m%p drhla ,nd§u ;=<ska th olsk lsh k fmdä yduqÿrejre o
th wkqlrKh lsÍug bv ;sf í' tneúka O¾u foaYl iajdóka jykaf ia,d fï ms<sn| ±ä
úuis,a,la we;s lr .ekSu b;du wjYH h'
we;eï úg foaYl iajdóka jykafia,d foik lreKq i;H úh yels h' tfy;a i;H jQ
muKska th lSug iqÿiaila fkdjk nj jgyd.; hq;= h' 15 tfia u tu i;H m%ldY lrk ksjerÈ

u l%ufõohla wkq.ukh l< hq;= h' i;H wkdjrKh lsÍfuka wfmaCId l< hq;af;a tys we;s
w¾:h u h' ms%h ukdm jQj ;a i;H wk¾: iys; kï fkdlsh hq;= h' ta ms< sn| ú.%yhla fhdjqk a
fm!reIh hgf;a úia;r l< ksid kej; fuys th i|yka fkdlruq' tneúka úYsIag ikaksfõok
l=i,;djla NdIdj ;=<ska w;slr.; hq;= h' iuyr oE orejka bÈßfhys fkdlsj hq;= h' iuyr oE
iuyreka bÈßfhys lSug iqÿiq ke;' tfy;a tajd i;H úh yels h' tneúka ;reK NsCIQk a
jykafia,d fuu hq;=lï yfhys y;r jeks iy miajeks hq;=lï fol flfrys o ±ä wjOdkhla
fhduq l< hq;= h'
by; lS lreKq my f,!lsl jYfhka o f,daflda;a;r jYfhka o wNsjDoaêh i|yd .sy s
ck;djg meúÈ mCIfhka bgqjk hq;=lï myls' yhfjks lreK iïmQ¾Kfhka f,!lsl;ajh u;
f.dv ke.S we;' iq. ;shg u. lsh d §u hs' W;=ï f,daflda;a;r iqjfhka fid<isk a mx.=jla
;rïj;a fkdjákd hehs nqÿrcdKka jykafia iaj ¾. iïm;a;sh olaj d ;sìh § ñksiqkag iaj ¾.hg
u. lshd fokakg hehs foaYkd lsÍu ;=< jeo.;a wre;la .eí ù ;sìh hq;= h' l=ula o ta w¾:h'
fï ixidrfhka mdrm%dma; jkafkda b;d iaj ,am h' fiiaf ida fï iir u ießir;a' 16 iifrys
ießieÍu b;d ìh ckl h'17 tys iq.;s fuka u ÿ.;s o mj;akd fyhsk s' ldhsl" jdpisl" udkisl
whym;a ls%hd ÿ.;shg fya;= fõ' ldhsl" jdpisl" udkisl hym;a ls%hd iq .;shg fya;= fõ'18 ksjka
u. .uka fkdlrkakd jQ m%cdjg ;djld,sl j fyda iqjhla we;sl r .ekSu g yels kï th b;d
w.fka h' tneúka wmdhg hkakg fkd§ iq. ;s.dó jkakg wkq.%yh ±laùu i;amqreI l,HdK ñ;%
O¾uhls' ta hq;=lu NsCIQk a jykafia,dg mkjd we;af;a NsCIQka jykafia,dg ta i|yd mj;akd
YlH;dj fya;=fldg f.k h'
fuf;la wm úia;r lrkakg fhÿfKa .Dyia: iudch fjkqfjka NsCIQka jykafia,df.ka
bgqúh hq;= hq;=lï h' fuu hq;=lï fmr jevisá iajdóka jykaf ia,d o uekúka bgqlr we;'
j¾;udkfhys o ta ld¾h isÿfõ' úfYaIfhka we;eï ;reK NsCIQka jykaf ia,d fï i|yd ±ä
WfoHda.hlska o lghq;= lrk nj lsj hq;= h' tfy;a fndfyda fofkl=g mj;akd m%Odk .eg¨j ù
mj;skafka ;uka jykafia,dj m%udKj;a O¾u [dKhla Wmojdf.k fkd;sîu hs' tys wvqj
fndfyda fihsk a ±fkk ksid ta ms< sn| fndfyda fihska wjOdkh fhduq fldg O¾uh bf.kSu
úIfhys Wkkaÿfjka ls%h d lsÍu b;d jeo.;a h' fn!oaO NsCIQka jykafia wka ljr úIh
fCIa;%hl oCIhl= jqj;a O¾ufhka ,nk ksmqK;ajh ;rï tajd jeo.;a jkaf ka ke;'
fuu mßÉfþofhys fn!oaO NsCIqj hkqfjka fn!oaO hkak úfYaIfhka úfYaIK fldg
±lajQfha fn!oaO NsCIqj ue~ wfn!oaO NsCIQ;ajh ysi Tijd f.k tk nj f;areï f.k fn!oaO
NsCIQka jykafia wjêfhka isáh hq;= nj fmkajd §ug hs' wfn!oaO NsCIQyq ful, muKla fkdj
m%d.a fn!oaO yd iuld,Sk nqoO
a hq.fhys;a isáhy' tuksid u fn!oaO NsCIQ;ajfhys iqúfYaI;ajh
wkH NsCIq iïm%odhkaf.ka fjkiajk ,CIK biau;= fldg fmkajd foñka meyeÈ,s lr §ug o
nqÿrcdKka jykafiag isÿjQ wjia:d we;'19 nqoaO Öjrh ordf.k u fn!oaO NsCIqj iy fn!oaO
fkdjk NsCIqj hk fofokd u isák ksid ndysr idOlhlska ful, fn!oaO yd wfn!oaO NsCIqj
yÿkd.; fkdyels h' tfy;a úu¾YkYS,S j isàfuka ta fofokdf.a fjki uekúka jgyd.;
yels h' tneúka ;reK fn!oaO NsCIQka jykafia,d wfn!oaO" wdY%u Ksl ms<sfj;a ms<sl=<ska neyer
fldg fn!oaO NsCIq;ajfha .re;ajh wdrCId lr .ekSu i|yd ie§ meye§ ls%hd l< hq;= h'
we;eï NsCIQka nqoaO Öjrhg uqj d ù fjk;a wNsu;d¾:hka idOkh lr .ekSu i|yd fjr
ork nj fmfka' nqÿrcdKka jykafiaj wkq.ukh fkdlr Tõyq mgq Ñka;khkag keUqrej ta
fjkqfjka Ôú; mß;Hd.fhka jqj o lghq;= lrkakg fm<ö isá;s' yr we;s jDCIhla iómhg
meñK bka yr ,nd fkdf.k th fCIau ia:dkh fldg f.k jiñka fkdlghq;= jHdmdrhkag

iydh foñka iiqka u. flf,id .ks;s' NsCIQka jykafia nqÿrcdKka jykaf iaf.a u O¾uhg .re
lrñka Bgu keUqrej th u m%lg lrñka jdih l< hq;= h' 20 iudchg jákd NsCIQka jykafia
kula jkafka túg hs'

.egqï ksrdlrKh lr .ekSu
.sys iudch ;=< fuka u meúÈ iudch ;=< o hï hï .egqïldÍ ;;a;ajhka ke;af ;a
fkdfõ' mq:qÊck Ndjh ;=< th tfia isÿùfuys úfYaI ;ajhla ke;' tfy;a meúoaod ks;r
.syshkaf.ka wkH jQ wdl,am mj;ajkakl= nj wNsKay m%;HfõCIKhla fldg i,lkakghs"
nqÿrcdKka jykafia foaYkd fldg jodf<a' 21 mrudo¾Ys wd¾h uyd ix>r;ak h ;=< tlS .egqïldÍ
;;a;ajhla Woa.; fkdjqk;a tfia fkdjk NsCIQ;ajh ;=< tlS ;;a;ajhka biau;= úh yels h'
tys,d wm%udÈ j ls%hd lsÍfï wjYH;dj we;'22
úfYaIfhka u .sys iudcfhys fuka u meúÈ iudch ;=< o mrïmrd .egqu ±l .; yels
h' tkï" jeäysá NsCIQka jykafia,d iy ;reK NsCIQka jykafia,d w;r .egqu'23 fuys,d ;reK
NsCIQka jykafia,df.a wjOdkhg .;hq;= lreKq lSmhla we;' Tn we;eï úg ±k W.;alïj,sk a
jfhda jDoaO iajdóka jykafia,dg jvd jDoaO úh yels h' tn÷ wjia:dj, § ±k W.;alïj,sk a
u;a fkdù jDoaOdmpdhkh m%uqL ;ajfhys ;ndf.k lghq;= isoO
a lsÍ u wjYH h' nqÿiiqk ;=< m%uqL
jkafka ±k W.;alï fyda ;k;=re kïnqkdu fyda ckms%h;ajh fkdfõ' tneúka wk;sudkS j ls%h d
lsÍfï YlH;dj we;sl r .; hq;= h' tfia fkdjqk fyd;a ;reK NsCIq mrmqr;a jeäysá NsCIq
mrmqr;a w;r .egqïldÍ ;;a;ajhka biau ;= j ÿria:Ndjh we;súh yels h'
Ydiksl m%;sm;a;Ska blaujd hñka iudc fiajdjkag fhduqjk lreK NsC Iqj flfrys o
hï wm%idohla jfhdajDoaO NsCIQka jykaf ia,d ;=< we;' iudc fiajhg lemùu;a iu. Ydiksl
ms<sfj;a ,>q fldg ie,lSu ;reK NsCIQka jykaf ia,d w;ska nyq, j isÿjkakls' th mdrdðld
ùula fkdjkakg mq¿jks' tfy;a mdrdðld fkdjQj;a we;eï mqxÑ mqxÑ YsCId mo fya;= fldg
f.k úYd, f.!rjhla NsCIq ixia:dj flfrys uyckhd we;s lr f.k ;sfí' tnÿ m%;sm;a;Sk a
.s,syS hdfuka jeäysá iaj dóka jykafia,d ;=< wm%ido ckl yeÕSï we;sùu fya;=fldg f.k
fomd¾Yajh w;r hï hï .egqïldÍ ;;a;ajhka we;sù ug bv ;sf í' tfia jQ úg ;reK NsCIQk a
jykafia,d yd jeäysá NsCIQka jykafia,d w;r iïnkaO ÿria: ù Ydikh ;=< hï w¾nqoldÍ
wjia:d mek ke.sh yels h'
we;eï jeäysá NsCIQka jykafia,df.a ;reK NsCIq mrïmrdj ms<sn| wdl,amh t;rï u
hym;a fkdfõ' ;reK NsCIQka jykaf ia,df.a wvqmdvqlï ±l tajd ksjerÈ fldg .ekSu i|yd
lreKdfjka wkq. %yh ±laùuhs" jeäysá NsCIQka jykafiaf .ka isÿúh hq;af ;a' ta fjkqjg we;eï
jfhdajDoaO NsCIQka jykafia,d lrkqfha je/oaola ÿgq ;ek t,j t,jd myr §u h' tfia ke;akï
iuÉp,hg ,la lsÍuh' fï Ydikh flfrys we¨ï ke;slsÍu h' tfia fkdù je/oaola we;akï
th fmkajdfoñka wjjdo wkqYdikd lrñka Ydikfhys we¨ï we;sl r .ekSug u. fmkajd §uh
l< hq;af ;a' we;eï úg jeäysá NsCIQka jykafia,d ;reK NsCIQka jykaf ia,df.a ls%hd ms<sfj;a
fyd| o krl o hehs ks¾Kh lsÍu i|yd tlu ks¾Kdhlh jYfhka ;ndf.k isákqfha ;uka h'
úfYaIfhka .=re YsIH .egqï i|yd th o tla m%Odk fya;=jls' tys wjika m%;sM,h úh yelafla
;reK NsCIQka jykafia isjqre yerhdu úh yels h' tfy;a isjqre yer hdfï tlu fya;=j th
fkdfõ' ta i|yd úúO fya;= ;sìh yels h' fuu fya;=j we;eï wh úIfhys fya;=jla fkdjkakg
mq¿jk' ta ms<sn| j miqjg lreKq idlÉPd jk fyhska ±lajQ m%ia;=;h ms< sn| hula i|yka l<
hq;= h'

;reK NsCIQka jykafiaf .a fyd| krl úksYaph i|yd jeäysá iajdóka jykafia,d ;uka
jykafia,df.a pß; ks¾Kdhl jYfhka ;nd .ekSu we;eï iaj dóka jykafia,d úIfhys b;d
hym;a úh yels h' tfy;a we;eï NsCIQka jykaf ia,d úIfhys th tfia jkafka fkdfõ' flia
meiqK q muKska we;eï wh uy f;rjreka fkdjk nj nqÿrcdKka jykafiaf.a b.ekaùuls' 20
we;eï úg jeäysá NsCIQka jykafiaf.a ldhsl" jdpisl ls%h d fukau is;=ï me;=ï b;d hym;a h'
tn÷ wjia:dj, § ;uka ks¾Kdhlh jYfhka ;nd .ekSfuys t;rï u je/oaola fkdúh yels h'
th o i¾j iïmQ¾K ks¾Kdhlh f,i .%yKh lr .ekSfï wjYH;djla ke;' Bg jvd fyd|
ldhsl" jdpisl ls%h d yd is;=ï-me;=ï we;s ;reK NsCIqjla yuqfjys tlS ks¾Kdhlh lsisfia;a
m%dudKsl fkdfõ' tnÿ wjia:dj, fkdu.g hdug bv ;sfí' tneúka O¾u úkh u
im%u dKsl;ajfhys,d .ekSu b;d jeo.;a fõ'25
fuu ;uka ks¾Kdhlh fldg .ekSfuys .egqu nrm;, f,i biau;= jkafka ldhsl"
jdpisl" udkisl ls%hdjkaf.ka t;rï by< uÜgul fkdisák jeäysá NsC IQka jykafia,d fya; =
fldg f.k h' we;eï úg r¿" mr¿" ;o" wyxldr" udk wdÈh iajlSh fldg f.k isák jeäysá
NsCIQka jykafia,d ;reK NsCIQka jykafia,d tfia fkdjk úg ta whg lsisÿ fm!reIhla ke;s"
hula l< fkdyels tfia u ;ukag wjk; ke;s iïm%odhg tfrysj hk msßila f,i i,ld ta
whf.a ls%hd úIfhys hï hï ndOd lsÍï isÿ lrkq ,efí' túg ;reK NsC IQka jykafia jeäysá
f.!rjh;a ksjerÈ ;SrKh;a w;r hï f;rmSulg ,lafj;s' ta f;rmSug ljr fyda l%uhlsk a
msgdr .e,Sulg ,lafõ' th hym;a fyda whym;a hk foúêfhka tla úêhla .kq ,efí' tys,d
;reK NsCIqjg u fodia mejßh fkdyels h'
;uka lshk lrk" is;k wdldrhg u f.da,hd;a lshk lrk" is;k flkl= úh hq;= hehs
is;Su hym;a jkafka ta pß;h hym;a u pß;hla kï muKs' tfia fkdjk pß; we;a;l= tfia
is;kafka kï th nrm;, uq<djls' tfia u jrols' ;ud hï foaY md,k mCIhlg wdjvkafkla
kï ish f.da,hd o tfia l< hq;= hehs is;Su ksjerÈ o@ ;uka wkau d¾.Sj f.da,hd o tfia úh hq;=
hehs is;Su ksjerÈ o@ ;uka kQ.;a j f.da,hd o tfia ú hq;= hehs is;Su ksjerÈ o@ we;eï jeäysá
NsCIQka jykafia,d iy ;reK NsCIQka jykafia,d w;r hï hï .egqï ks¾udKh ùug fuh m%n,
f,i n,mdkq ,efí'
we;eï wjia:dj, óg yd;amiska fjkia whqßka o fï .eàu isÿfõ' ;uka jykafiag jvd
f.da,hd W.;l= lrkakg wjYH j lghq;= lrk úg f.da,hd úiska tfia fkdlr fjk fjk
me;sj ,g fhduq ùu ksid o" ;uka jykafia foaY md,k mCI nodf.k lghq;= l<;a f.da,hd tfia
lrkjd ±lSug wlue;s j tfy;a ta .ek fkdi,ld f.da,hd o tfia u foaYmd,kh nodf.k
lghq;= lsÍu ksid o ;uka fkdlrk hï hï jeo.;a lghq;= f.da,hd lrdú hehs is;d isák úg
f.da,hd o ta lghq;= isÿ fkdlr isàu ksid o ;ukaf.a pß;fhys we;s wvq¨yq~qlï iajlSh
f.da,hdf.a pß;h ;=<ska ±lSug wlue;s jqj;a f.da,hdf.a pß;fhys o ta wvqmdvqlï olskakg
,efnk ksid o wd§ jYfhka ;ukag jvd by< uÜgulska f.da,hd isákq olakg leu;s úg th
tfia isÿ fkdùu fya;= fldg f.k o isÿjk .egqïldÍ wjia:djka jeäysá wdpd¾h NsCIQk a
jykafia,d iy YsIH NsCIQka jykafia,d w;r ±l .; yels h' tneúka fomd¾Yajh u mqoa.,
fõu;a;;dj uekúka jgyd .; hq;= w;r O¾uh yd úkh u uQ,sl ;ajfhys,d ;nd.; hq;= h'
.sys iudch iu. .egqï we;s fkdlr f.k iajlSh mrm%;snoaO Ôú;h w¾:j;a lr .ekSu
i|yd ;reK fn!oaO NsCIQka jykaf ia úfYaI wjOdkhlska ls%hd l< hq;= h' ,dNdfmaCId" l=,u,"
ÿmam;a fmdfydi;a wd§ fNao fkdi,ld iudkd;au;dfjka wkdila; j" iDcq yd uDÿ j wk;sudkS
j lghq;= lsÍug yqre úh hq;= h' nys fidaNudk;ajh fkdj wdNHka;ßl mdßY=oO
a ;ajh u

msysgqjdf.k ls%h d l< hq;= h'26 bjiSf uka ls%hd l< hq;= h'27 hï fyhlska ;uka kqiqÿiq f,i
yeisreK fyd;a th nqÿrcdKka jykafiag;a wd¾h W;=ukag ;a lrk ks.rejla nj ie,lsh hq;= h'
iajlSh pß; mdßY=oaO;aj h uekúka we;s l,ays meñfKk ndOl" .egqï" ndOl .egqï fkdlr
f.k jdih l< yels h' fkdìhj iudcfhys iDcq j ls%hd l< yels h' ìh iel meñfKkafka
wmßY=oO
a jQ ldh l¾u" jdlal¾u yd ufkda l¾u fya;= fldg f.k njhs" nqÿrcdKka jykaf iaf.a
foaYkh jkafka'28 tneúka iajlSh pß; mdßY=oaO;ajh ;ukag uy;a Yla;shla ,ndfok nj
ie,lsh hq;= h' pß; mdßY=oaO;ajhlska f;dr jQ Tyqg ìfhka ieflka f;drj hula lshkakg
lrkakg fkdyels h' pß; mdßY=oaêh ke;af ;a ta iÕjd fnfK;s' iÕjd ls%hdlr;s' 29
O¾u úkh t;rï ÿrg fkdyod< we;eï ;reK NsCIQk a jykafia,d .sys wh iu. mEyS
lghq;= lrkakg hk úg iajlSh Öjrh wd{dodhl;ajfhys m%dudKsl i,l=Kla fldg f.k
lghq;= lrkakg hEfuka .sys ckhd iu. úúO .egqï we;slr .ks;s' tfy;a th tfia ie,lSu
wfhda.H h' nqoaO Öjrh orkakd hï;dla o ldhsl" jdpisl" udkisl" ixjr Ndjh we;slr f.k
;sfnkafka ta;dla m%u dKhghs" .sys ck;dj o ta meúoaodf.a wkqYdikd ms<smÈkq ,nkafka'
wd{dodhl;ajh ;=<ska isÿjkafka .egqula ks¾udKh lr .ekSu hs' is,a imka W;=uka iu. .sy s
ck;dj fkd.eà isákjd hehs thska woyia lrkafka ke;' tfy;a is,a imka W;=ukag Tjqk a
iu. .eàula wjYHjkafka ke;' nqÿrcdKka jykafia iu. fldmuK msßila kï .eàug
meñKsfha o jdo újdoj,g meñKsfha o@ tfy;a Wkajykaf ia ta lsisjl= iu. jdo újdoj,g
meg¨fKa ke;' .eàï we;s lr .;af ;a ke;'30 tfy;a i;H" i;H f,i fmkajd §ug Wkajykafia
ieuúg ls%hd l<y'31 ta uyd m%{dfjka yd uyd lreKdfjka hql a; j h' fkd.eà isáh hq;= hehs
i;H wkdjrKh fkdfldg fkdisáh hq;= h' .eàulsk a f;drj th lsÍug NsCIQka jykafia iu;a
úh hq;= h' ta i|yd wdo¾Yh nqÿrcdKka jykafiaf .ka ,nd.; hq;= h' fldamfhka" oafõYfhka
f;drj m%{dfjka yd lreKdfjka bjis,sjka; j ta ld¾h l< hq;= h' tys,d pß; mdßY=oO
a ;ajh
m%n, Yla;shla nj jgyd.; hq;= h' iDcq" uDÿ yd wk;sudkS nj o tys,d uy;a Yla;shla imhk
nj;a jgyd f.k ;sîu wjYH h'
we;eï wjia:dj, bisj;=kaf.a wN+; fpdaokdÈhg o Ndckh ùug bv ;sf í' tys,d
w;sYhska nqoê
a u;a j lghq;= lsÍug ;reK fn!oaO NsCIQka jykafia iu;a úh hq;= h' we;eïúg
fpdaokd l< yels úúO wxYhkag fhduq lr .ekSu i|yd l=uka;%KYS,s n,fõ. ryis.; j fï
iudch ;=< ls%hd;aul fõ' fn!oaO NsCIQka jykafiaf.a wkkH;djg ydks muqKqjkag wr w¢ñka
isák tlS n,fõ. fn!oaO NsCIQka jykafia,d úúO foaj,g l=uka;%KYS,S j fhduq fldgf.k
Wka jykafia,df.a y~ ksy~ lsÍfuys,d jEhï lr;s' tys,d úfYaI wjOdkfhka miqùu
w;HjYH h' lsisjlska fpdaokd l< fkdyels wjia:dj, § w;:Hfhka" wN+;fhka jqj fpdaokd
fldg ls%hdYS,s ;reK NsCIQka jykaf ia,d wl¾uKH lsÍug úúO n,fõ. ls%hd;aul h' ;uka
ksjerÈ kï ta wN+; w;:H fpdaokd yuqfjys fldamh" oafõYh we;s lr fkdf.k bjiSf uka
m%{dfjka ls%hd l< hq;= h'31 ÑxÑ udkúldj" iqkaoÍ mßn%dðldj" wd,jl" liSNdroaj dc" iÉpl
wd§ka yuqfjys nqÿrcdKka jykaf ia wkq.ukh l< bjis,sjka;" uDÿ" kuHYS,s" iDcq m%{dkaú;
ls%hd ms<sfj; wdo¾Yhg .; hq;= h' .eg¨jla yuqfjys ls%hd l< hq;= ksjerÈ u wdldrh l=ula±hs
jgyd .ekSfï tl u ks¾Kdhlh f,i nqoaO pß;h ;nd .ekSu w;sYh jeo.;a h'

isjqre ±Íu yd yeÍu
nqoaO Ydikfhys meúoao ,nd .kak d fndfyda fokd n,j;a Ydiksl yeÕSulska hqla; j
tys kshqla; jk w;r we;eï msßia Y%oO
a dfjka meúÈ jQj;a meúÈ ùfuka l,a blaóu;a iu.
Ydiksl m%;sm;a;Skag we¨ï fkdlr;s' tu Ydiksl m%;smodjkays kshe,Sfuys wYlH;dj u;

WmeúÈùï isÿfõ' iajlSh wYlH;dj u; fndfyda fokd WmeúÈ jQj ;a ta wh ;=< nqoO
a f.!rjh;a
O¾u f.!rjh;a mj;S' l,d;=rlska flkl= ;=< tfia fkdjkakg mq¿jk' tfy;a .eg¨j
mj;skafka ta ;=< fkdj NsCIQka jykafia,df.ka Ydikh Y+kH jk úg iiqka u.g ndOd meñKSu
hs' mdrdðldm;a;shlg meñKs NsCIqjg isj qre yer hdu fyda idufKar j lghq;= lsÍu fyda l<
yels nj nqoO
a m%{ma;sh hs' tfy;a we;eï isjqre ork yd yßk NsCIQka jykafia,d ms<sn| j i,ld
n,k úg iiqfkys isáh hq;= we;eï wh neyer hk nj;a" iiqfkka neyer úh hq;= we;eï wh
isák nj;a we;eï wjia:dj, § fmfkk ,CIKhls' tfy;a isjqre ork yd yßk ish,a,kag th
idOdrK fkdjk nj fuys,d i|yka l< hq;= h' we;eïyq isjqr m<sy la fldg f.k úúO
fkdiremalïj, fhfok nj fmfka' i;H jYfhka u ta wh isjqre ±Íu Ydiksl f.!rjh
msßySug ldrKhls' Ydikfhys isáh hq;= ±k W.;a is,a imka NsCIQka jykafia,d isjqre ±Íu
Ydik ÑriaÓ;shg úYd, ndOdjls' úYd, ±k W.;alï fkdue;s jQj ;a is,a imka NsCIQka jykafia
iiqkg uy;a wdf,dalhls' nyqY%e; jqj;a O¾udkqO¾u m%;sm;a;s fkdjQ NsCIqj f.ka iiqkg t<shla
ke;' nyqY%e; nj;a O¾udkqO¾u m%;smkak nj;a hk foflka u hqla; kï tjeks NsCIQk a
jykafiaf.ka iiqkg ,efnkafka uy;a wdf,dalhls'
isjqre yer hdu iïnkaOfhka m%Odk tla fya;=jla ±laúh fkdyels h' ta i|yd úúO fya;=
mej;sh yels h' ;reK NsCIQka jykafia kula isjqre yer hdu yd iïnkaOfhka fndfyda fofkla
olskafka lsishï fma%u iïnkaOhla mej;sh yels nj hs' tfy;a th tl u fya;= idOlh fldg
ie,lSu kqiqÿiq h' we;eï úg .=re YsIH .egqï o ta i|yd fya;= úh yels h' we;eï úg odhl
ldrld§ka iu. we;s lr .kakd .egqï o fya;= úh yels h' we;eï úg ;u is;g ;Èka ld jeÿKq
iudcfhka ;ukag iuia; NsCIq ixia:djg isÿ jQ hï wkqfõokSh isÿùula úh yels h' meúoaol=
úiska hd fkdyels hï hï moú ;dkdka;rdÈhg meñKSf ï wdidfjka o úh yels h' ta ljr
fya;=jla fyda fõjd thska meyeÈ,s jk tla m%Odk lreKla jkafka Ydiksl m%;smodj wkq.ukh
lsÍug we;s wYlak q;dj hs' ta ms<sn| j wka;.dó j talSh oDIaáhlska fkdne,sh hq;= h' ;=u Q
m¾fhaIK lD;shla hehs lsh d .kakd iurisxy .=Kfialrf.a zzisj qre yer hduZZ kï lD;sfha
isjqre yer hdug fya;= fndfyduhla olajd ;snqK;a we;eï fya;= b;d w.;s.dó j iajhx ks¾udK
f,i bÈßm;a lr we;s nj fmfka' th lshjk fndfyda fofkla fkdu. hd yels h' f,dl=
yduqÿrejkaf.a uD; foayh n,a,ka weof.k f.dia lk isoaëhla ±l l<lsÍ isjqre yeß isoê
a hla
tys i|yka fõ' NsCIQka jykaf ia kulg ;nd ysÕk ñksil= u<;a ta u< isrerg tjeks
;;a;ajhlg m;ajkakg fuu fn!oaO ixialD;sh ;=< ;ju bvla fkdue;s nj fkdlsjukd h' th
ix> ixia:djg wmydi lsÍfï woyiska is;d u;d u f.d;k ,o l;d mqj;la njhs fmfkkafka'
fujeks wiajdNdúl f.;=ï .Kkdjla tys ths' we;eï mqj;a i;H úh yels h' tfy;a b;d mqxÑ
ixisoaêhla w;suy;a fia f.k b;d fkdirema f,i ±laù u ;=< ska m¾fhaI K .=Kh bla u wYa,S,
nj biau;= j ;sîu tlS .%ka:h ;=< nyq, j ±lsh yels h' ta ms<sn| óg jvd úfõpkhlg hdug
woyia fkdlrñ'
isjqre yer hEu nqoO
a ld,fha isg isÿjQjls' nqÿrÿkaf .a Wmia:dhl j isá iqk laL;a; NsCIqj
o isjqre yf<ah'32 nqÿrÿkaf .ka ljr widOdrKhla whqla;shla isÿjqjdg o@ isjqre yerhdug
fya;=jk ìh y;rla nqÿrcdKka jykafia fmkaj d § we;' Èhg niakl=g we;sjk ìh y;rla
fmkajd foñka ta ìh y;r Ydikhg nisk meúoaodg ii|ñka fmkaj d § we;'
1'
2'
3'

W!ñNh ^r< ìh&
l=ïNS< Nh ^lsU q,a ìh&
wdjÜg Nh ^iq< s ìh&

4'

iqiqld Nh ^pKav u;aiH ìh&33

Èhg nisñhs is;d meñKs we;efula Èhg jka l, uy;aj ke. tk r<g yiq ù úkdY
fj;s' tfia u ie±yefhka iiqka jka we;efula fl%daOmdhdih ksid iiqka u.g fkdf.dia isjqre
yer h;s' iiqqka u. úkdY lr .ks;s' fl%daf Odamdhdih we;slr .kafka in%yaupdÍka jykafia,d
ms<sn| j hs' meúoaod .syshdg jvd fjk;a wdl,amhlska hqla; úh hq;= h' Tyqf.a hdï Bï" b§ï
ysàï" ne,Sï" w;amd È. yeÍï" yels,Sï" md;%d isjqre ±Íï wdÈh isÿúh hq;af ;a b;d ms< sfj<lg h'
b;d ixjr j h' olsk lshk whf.a m%idoh jeäjk f,i h' .syshka hk tk" l;dny lrk"
w¢k m<¢k wdldrhg jvd th b;d fjkia h' fï i|yd kjl meúoaokaj in%yaupdÍka
jykafia,d yslauj;s' .sysf .or isáh § kï tjeks yslauùulsk a f;drj ;ukag ßisf ia hdug Bug
yels whqre l;d ny lsÍug yels whqre w¢kakg m<¢kakg yels whqre is;d meúÈ Ôú;fha § ta
lrkq ,nk yslauùu lrorhla f,i is;d yslaóug fkdyels fyhska we;eïyq meúÈj WmeúÈ
fj;s' tfia WmeúÈ jkafka ;ukaj yslaujk in%yaupdÍka jykafia,d úIfhys fl%daOfhks'
;ukag ßisfia mj;skag bv fkdfok ksid h' in%yaupdÍka jykafia,d flfrys we;sl r .kakd ta
fl%daOQmdhdih y÷kajkafka W!ó ìh f,i h' tkï r< ìh f,i h'
Èhg niakg hehs is;d meñKs we;fula Èhg jkal< l=ïNS,hka ksid fyj;a lsUq,ka
ksid úkdYhg h;s' tfiau ie±yefhka iiqkajka we;fula Toßl nj m%udKfldg .ekSug hdu
fya;= fldg f.k iiqfkys fkdmsysg d isjqre yer h;s' Toßl nj hkq Wor mQrKh ms< sn| jQ
yeÕSu hs' .sys l, fia meúÈ jQ l, ;ukag ßis foa ;ek fkd;ek l, fkdl, fkdn,d lEug
îug yelsjkafka ke;' l,a fkdl,a ±k lmamsh wlmamsh ±k ixjrYS,S j m%;HfõCId fldg
wdydrmdk .ekSu meúÈ ms<sfj; hs' meúÈ jQ miq in%yaupdÍyq ta i|yd kjlhka mqreÿ lrj;s'
.sysl, ;uka wNsu; mßÈ ßis fia foa l,a fkdl,a fkdn,d hf:mais; mßÈ lE î whqre .ek
i,ld meúÈùfuka miqj uqL djrK fhdod we;ehs tys YsCIKhla ,eîug wfmdfydi;a jkafkda
isjqre yer fh;s' th iiqkajka ;eke;a;dg we;s l=ïNS, ìh hs'
Èhg niakg meñKs we;fula Èfhka u;=j Èh iq<sj,g yiqù úkdY fj;s' tfia u iiqk a
jka we;fula m[apldu .=K kue;s iq<shg yiqù iiqka u.sk a .s,syS isjqre yer h;s' iiqk a
jkayqf.a wdjÜg ìh hkq m[apu .=K NS;sh hs' wjg we;s foa ;ud fj; weo .ekSfï Yla;shla
iq<shla fj; we;' m[aplduhka o iq<shla jeks h' thg fndfyda fokd we§ h;s' ie±yefhka
meúÈ jQ kuq;a wkdrCIs; lh" jpk" is;a we;s fkdt<ô isys we;s" meúoaod b;d myiqfjka rEm"
Yío" .kaO" ri" iam¾Y hk m[ap lduhkag wefo;s' m[aplduhkaf.a we,S thska wdiaj doh ,nk
.syshka foi n,d meúÈùfuka tlS wdiaj dohg ndOd meñKs nj i,ld h<s .sysj mialï iem ú|
mska oyï o lr .; yelehs is;d lh jpk is; /l.; fkdyelsj mialïys we¨ï fldg isjqre
yer hdu wdjÜg ìh f,ihs" nqÿrcdKka jykafia fmkaj d § we;af;a'
Èhg niakd we;eïyqg pKav u;aiHhkaf .ka ìh yg .ks;s' tfia u ie±yefhka iiqkajka
we;eïyq iqiql d Nfhka NS; j YsCId m%;HdLHdkh fldg isj qre yer fh;s' iqiqld Nh hkq
ud.uqkaf .ka we;s jk ìh hs' ia;S%k af.a fkdukd fm<öï u; rd.fhka mSä; j uqÜGiai;slj
we;eïyq iiqfkka .s,syS h;s' nqÿrcdKka jykafia ia;S%ka yd iïnkaOfhka úúO YsCId mekùï
isÿfldg we;' jrla wdkkao ysñhka NsCIQk a jykafia,d ia;S%ka ms<sn| flfia ms<smeÈh hq;= ±hs
úuiQ úg nqÿrcdKka jykafia foaYkd fldg jodf<a ia;S%ka foi fkdn,d isákakg lshd h'
^woiaikx wdkkao& hï fyhlska ia;s%hl ÿgqjfyd;a l=ula l< hq;= ±hs wdkkao ysñhka ke.+
m%Yakhg nqÿrcdKka jykafiaf.a ms< s;=r jQfha l;d l<fyd;a isysh ukdj msysgqjd .kakd f,i
hs'34

ix.%dudjpr oCI hqO Nghl= meñfKk ish¨ u wNsfhda. yuqfjys ÿ¾uqL fkdù bÈßhg u
hkakd fia ud.uqka yuqfjys isys l,amkdfjka isg meúÈ Èúfhka mrdð; fkdù Y%uK O¾uhkay s
fhÈug W;aiql úh hq;= nj fhdOdÔj iQ;%hkays nqÿrcdKka jykaf ia fmkajd § we;'35 úfYaIfhka
;dreKHfhka hq;a NsCIQka jykafia,d ms<sn| úfYaI jEhulsk a ls%h d l< hq;= h' ;u is;g meñKs
hï rd. oafõId§ is;sú,a,la fõ kï ta ms<sn| ks;r ks;r fufkys lrk úg is; thg u keUqre
fõ' tys u nei .kS'36 tneúka thska wkH jQ hym;a is;sú ,a,lg is; fhduqlr .ekSug oCI úh
hq;= h' túg is;sú ,a,g jd,a fkdù iajlSh Y%uK;ajh /l .ekSug myiq jkq we;'
fuu lreKqj,g wu;r j ;j fndfyda lreKq isjqre yer hEu iïnkaOfhka mej;sh
yels h' kuq;a ta ish,a,la iajlSh wYlakq;dj u; f.dvkef.k fya;= nj i,ld iiqka u.g
we¨ï lrñka th ¥IKh fkdfldg ta ;=< /§ isàug hï oyr NsCIqjla fyda W;aidyhla .kafka
kï j<d.eìka ñÿKq pkaøhd fia fï iudch ;=< nenf<k nj ie,ls,a,g .; hq;= h' 37 hul=
fï Ydikh ;=< u /£ isáñka fkdfhla ÿisß;a ÿrdpdrlïys kshef,kafka kï thska f;fï o
.¾Ndjg ,lajk w;r ta ;=< ska iajlSh Ydia;Djrhdg;a wd¾h uyd ix>hdg;a uy;a wmydihla
isÿlrk nj o f;areï f.k jdih l< hq;= h'38

NsCIq wOHdmkh
;reK fn!oaO NsCIQka jykafia,d jYfhka ukd wOHdmkhla ,nd ;sîu wjYH h' wo
mj;akd wOHdmk l%u h hgf;a NsCIQka jykafia,dg wkql%ufhka wOHhkh lsÍu i|yd ieliq K
fn!oaO wOHhk l%uhla ke;' kdñl j by< úNd. iu;a ùug yelsh dj ;snqK;a nqÿoyu ms<sn|
j l%udkql+, j wOHhkh lsÍfï l%ufõohla NsCIq wOHdmkh ;=< § olak g fkdue;' tu ksid
fndfyda ±k W.;a NsCIQka jykafia,d jqj;a O¾u {dkfhka ysia h' O¾u {dkfhka NsCIQk a
jykafia ysiajk ;rug u tu NsCIqjf.a iudc Wmfhda.s;dj o wvqfõ' úfYaIfhka ;reK fn!oaO
NsCIQka jykafia fï ms<sn| wjOdkfhka miq úh hq;= h' wka ljr foa wOHhkh lrkakg;a m%:u
iajlSh Wreuh ms<sn| j mßphla ,nd .; hq;= j we;' iajlSh Wreuh kï nqÿka jod< O¾uh
ms<sn| Wreuh hs' ta ms<sn| j jegySu uoùu fya;= fldg f.k ñ:Hd oDIaá lhkag iajlSh ñ:Hd
u; m%n, lrkakg ,efnk wjldYh buy;a h' O¾uh úlD;s lr olajñka Tjqyq Tjqkaf.a
wNsu;d¾: idOkh lr .ks;s' m%dudKsl O¾u {dkhla fkdue;s ùu ksid wirK j ta foi n,d
isàu yer fjk;a fohla l< fkdyels jkq we;' túg O¾ufha m%;sIaGdj fkdj ta
ñ:HdoDIaálhkaf .a wm%;sIagdj u m%;sIaGdj lr.kakg o isÿjkq we;' tneúka ;reK fn!oaO
NsCIQka jykafia O¾uh wOHhkh lsÍu úIfhys wka ljr foalg;a jvd Wkkaÿfjka ls%h d l<
hq;= u h' ta;a iu. u wfkl=;a úIh fCIa;%hka ms< sn| {dfkdamd¾ckh lsÍu jrola fkdfõ'

wdo¾Y iïmkak nj
zzwjjdohg jvd wdo¾Yh W;=ïZZ h hkqfjka lshukla wm w;r m%p,s; j we;' fn!oaO
NsCIq ixia:dj wdo¾Yfha m%;suQ¾;sh úh hq;= h' úfYaIfhka ;reK fn!oaO NsCIQka jykafia,d
jYfhka fï lreK wjOdkhg .; hq;= h' fhdjqka úfha miqjk NsCIQka jyka fia,df.ka
fndfyduhla tlS wdo¾Yj;a nj fmkajd we;;a we;eï ;reK NsCIQka jykafia fkdukd mej;=ï
ksid hï m%udKhlg we;eï .sys iy meúÈ fomd¾Yjfha u lKavhï ;=< wm%idohla o ke;af;a
fkdfõ' we;eï wh meúÈ jQj;a O¾uh ms<sn| wjfndaOhla fkdue;slu ksid w,amY%e; j
O¾ufhys fkdyeisfr;s' we;eïyq w,amY%e; jqj ;a okakd O¾u úkh ;=< ukdj yslafu;s' we;eïyq
nyqY%e; jqj;a Y%e;h ;=< ska Ôú;h fkdilid .ks;s' we;eïyq nyqY%e; j Ôú;h o ta wkqj ukdj
f.dvk.d .ks;s'39 tneúka w,amY%e; fyda fõjd nyqY %e; fyda fõjd fkdiremalïys fhfok

NsCIQka ms<sn| j mqÿu úh hq;a;la fyda l<lsßh hq;a;la fkdue;s jqj;a iuia; NsCIq ixia:djg ta
;=<ska we;s jk wys;lr n,mEu NsCIq ixia:djg muKla fkdj .sys iudchg o m%n, f,i
n,mdhs'
;uka jykafiaf.a .uk ìuk" wdydrmdk .ekSu" l;d ny" b§ï ysàï wd§ ish,a,la ;=<
hï iqúfYaI hym;a njla mj;ajd .ekSug NsCIQka jykaf ia hï jEhula ±ßh hq;= h' fiaÅhd O¾u
u.ska ta p¾hdjka mj;ajk wdldrh ms<sn| ukd mqyqKqjla ,nd fohs' thska YsCIKh ,nk NsCIQk a
jykafia ;=< f.dv kef.k úYsIag fm!reIh iuia; f,dalhdg u w;suy;a wdo¾Yhls' tfy;a
iuyr NsCIQka jykafia,d ta ms<sn| b;d ,>q fldg i,ld ls%h d lrk nj fmfka' tlS fiaÅhd
O¾u iajlSh fldg fkd.ekSu fya;=fjka isÿjkafka ;u úYsIag fm!reIhg ydks meñKSu hs'
iudchg ;udf.ka ,nd.; yels wdo¾Yhla fkdue;s ùu hs' w¢k fmdrjk whqre" wdydr mdk
.kakd whqre" hk tk isák whqre" O¾u foaYkd lrk whqre" fukau u<uq;%d lsÍfuys mjd
iodpdrd;aul l%u fiaÅhd O¾u ;=< ska W.kaj d we;' 40 tajd ieu NsCIQka jykafia kula u mdvï
lr .; hq;= h' l=vd l, ta ms<sn| j jegySula fkdue;s j mdvï l< o ±kqï f;areï we;sjk
úgj;a ta ms<sn| j ukd wjOdkfhka isàfï YlH;dj we;sl r .; hq;= h' úfYaIfhka ;reK
NsCIQka jykafia,d'
fiaÅhd O¾u ;=< m%:ufhka u W.kajkafka w|k isjqre w¢k fmdrjk whqre hs' w|kh"
isjqr hkq NsCIqjf.a we÷u hs' th fl;rï ms< sfj<lg m%ikak j we¢h fmrúh hq;= o hkak
fmkajd § we;' tajd tfyka fufyka t,a,df.k fkdisá h hq;= h' we;eï NsCIQka jykafiaf.a
we£ï fmrùï fol t;rï m%idodjy fkdfõ' ukdj msßu~q¨ fldg fyj;a jgfldg jeish hq;=
ia:dk ukdj jefik mßÈ iqm%;sÉPkak j we£u fmrùu l< hq;= h' taldxi mdremkh yd
WNhdxi mdremkh hk l%u fol muKs" Öjr mdremkfhys we;af ;a' bka wfkla l%ufhla ke;'
th b;d uekúka isÿ l< hq;= h' tfia u ks,amdg" lymdg" r;=mdg" uoáhmdg" l¿mdg" jKqlamdg
ñY%mdg Öjr fkdfmrúh hq;= nj nqÿrcdKka jykafiaf.a mekùuls' 41 ldidh j;a: hkq lymdg
jia;% fkdfõ' lymdg jia;%hkag hkakg lshkafka mS; jF: h'
wdydr-mdk .ekSfï§ fyj;a odkh" .s,kami je<§fï § o b;d ie,ls,su;a ùu wjYH h'
fNdack ud;%{ ;dj fyj;a wdydrfhys m%u dKh ±k je<§u l< hq;= h' 42 ;ukag je<§ug
fkdyels ;rï md;%fhys mqrjdf.k álla j<od úisl rk isß; we;eï wh ;=< ±lsh yels h' th
wfhda.H h' ;ukag je<¢h yels muK mqreoafoka jqj ±k .; yels h' wfkl odkh je<§fuys,d
we;s lr .; hq;= YsCIKh w;sYh wdo¾Yj;a h' isysl,amkdfjka odkh je<§u" md;%f hys
;ukaf.a me;af;a isg wkq ms<sfj,ska je<£u tkï" md;%fhys ;eka ;ekaj,ska fkdf.k je<£u"
n;g m%u dKj;a mßÈ muKla jH[ack f.k je<£u" md;%f ha uqÿkska wkd odkh fkdje<£u"
jH[ack n;aj,ska fkdjeiSu" uy;a fia n;a ms~q fkdlsÍu" .rykq leu;s j wkqkaf.a md;%h foi
fkdne,Su" n;a ms~ uqjg <xjk ;=re uqj újr fkdlsÍu" iïmQ¾K w; uqj ;=<g fkd±óu" l;d
ny fkdlrñka je<§u" n;a ms~q uqjg úisl rñka fkdje<£u' uqúka lv lvd fkdje<£u" j÷rka
fuka wdydr ylafla ;ndf.k fkdje<£u w; .id ouñka fkdje<£u" Èj t,shg ou oud
fkdje<£u" ;¨ .iñka fkdje<£u iqre iqre hk y~ we;sjk fia fkdje<£u" w; f,j
fkdlEu" Èfjka f;d,a f,j lñka fkdje<£u" b÷,a iys; w;sk a meka Ndckh fkd.ekSu wd§
jYfhka je<§u yd iïnkaOfhka yslañ h hq;= l%u .Kkdjla fmkaj d § we;' thska YsCIs; jQ úg
fl;rï w.fka o@ Bg wu;r j hdï Bï b§ï ysàï wdÈh ms<sn| fiaÅ hd O¾u ;=< ska we;slrkq
,nk YsCIKh meúÈ Èúfhys w;sYh jeo.;a h' ;uka jykaf iaf.a ±kg bßhõ mj;ak d wdldrh;a
nqÿrcdKka jykafia bßhõ meje;aúh hq;= wdldrh ms< sn| j l< mekúkq;a fol ii| ii|d
m%;HfõCIKh lrk úg ;uka jykafiag u ;ukaf.a wvq mdvq ±l ksjerÈ lr .; yels h'

ldidh jia;%h ±Íï ud;%fhka ta YsCIKh we;s jkafka ke;' ta i|yd isysfhka fjr ùßh ±ßh
hq;= h' fndfyda oE ±k bf.k ta o;a foh b;d uekúka foaYkd lsÍug iu;a jkafka kuq;a ta
foaYkd lrkq ,nk O¾uh w,am ud;% jYfhka fyda iajlSh Ôú;fhys ,d ls%hdjg fkdkxjk hï
meúoaol= jkafka kï tu meúoaod Y%uK;ajhg fhda.H fkdjkafka h' yqfola tu ;eke;a;d
isÿlrkafka O¾uhg wdrCIdj i,ik tl hs' tfy;a úh hq;af;a th fkdfõ' O¾ufhka ;uka
wdrCId ùu hs" isÿúh hq;af ;a' ;uka O¾ufhka fkd/lS ;ud O¾uhg wdrCIdj i,ikakg hdu
yqfola f.dm¨ ls%hdjla f,i hs nqÿrcdKka jykafia fmkajd fokafka' 43 f.dm,a,d lrkafka o
;udf.a wdrCIdj .jhkag ie,eiaùuhs' tfy;a .jhkaf.ka wdrCIdj i,id .kafka .jhkaf.a
whs;sl re h' tfia u O¾uh iajlSh fldg f.k isákakd muKs" O¾ufhka wdrCIdj i,id .kq
,nkafka"

YS% ,dxflah ;reK fn!oaO NsCIQka jykafiag mejfrk iqúfYaI ld¾hNdrhla
nyqY%e;" O¾uOr" O¾udkqO¾u m%;smkak úfYaIfhka ;reK fn!oaO NsCIQka jykafia fï
ms<sn| j o úfYaI wjOdkh fhduq l< hq;= h' tkï" rg ±h iuh hs' rg ms<sn| j i,ld n,k
úg fï rg isxy,hkaf.a rgls' isxy, rÜG" iSy, §m hkq furg ye¢kaùu i|yd fh¥ mo hs' ta
b;sydih wu;l l< fkdyels h' isxy¨kaf.a rg hkq tys woyi hs' ta wkqj ráka fjka fldg
±h fyda ±hsk a fjka fldg rg fyda ye¢kaúh fkdyels h' tfia u isxy,hd hehs lS úg fn!oaO
hkak o fjka l< fkdyels h' fojk mE;sia rc;=ud iuia; isxy, rfgys Ndrlre f,i wU;,
mõ mduq, isg nqÿoyu rdcH wd.u f,i Ndr .ekSfï ft;sydisl isÿùu isÿ jQ od isg isxy,
lu;a fn!oaOlu;a .ig fmd;a;;a fmd;a;g .i;a f,i wúfhdackSh j mej;=Ks' nqÿoyu
meñKSu ;a iu. iSy, oSmfhys isÿ jQ cd;sl" wd.ñl" wd¾Ól" wdOHdmksl" ixialD;sl jYfhka jQ
m%f ndaOh fldf;la o hkakg idCIH b;sydifhka ;ju;a wmg b;sß ù ;sfí' zzfkdfndai;ay q
furg rc fkdl< hq;= hZZ hk w;súYsIag udkisl fmr<shla furg jdiSka ;=< we;s úh' tn÷
Ñka;khla wdliañl j my< fkdjkakls' isxy, fn!oaOhdf.a Ñka;k úma,jfha we;s iqúfYaI
wjia:djls" th' fndai;l= yer fkdfndai;l= furg md,kh fkdl< hq;= h" hkafkka .uH jk
woyi iq¿mgq fkdfõ' fl;rï ±yeñ iduldó iuDoaêu;a Ñka;khla o" th hkak jgyd.;
hq;af ;a fndai;a p¾hdj ms<sn| wOHhkhlsk s' tn÷ w;súYsI ag udkisl ixysÈhdjlska fyì cd;shla
jYfhka isxy, cd;sh m;aù isáhy' ta udkisl úma,jh isxy, cd;sh ;=< f.dvke.Sfï w;suy;a
f.!rjh ysñjkafka fn!oaO NsCIQka jykafiag h' tlS udkisl úma,jh isxy, ck;dj ;=< we;s
lf<a nqoaêuh fy<so rõ lsÍï ;=<ska ñi jxpksl ls%hd l,dmhkaf.ka fyda wdl%uKYS,S j fkdfõ'
rfÜ wNHka;r jYfhka yd úfoaY Sh jYfhka l=uka;%KldÍ n,fõ. meñfKk úg rg" cd;sh"
iuh fjkqfjka ksjerÈ kdhl;aj hla iemhSu fn!oaO NsCIQka jykafia,d úiska isÿ lr we;'
rdcH md,lhkag rdcH ;ka;%hg wod< ksjerÈ u. fmkaùu Wkajykafia,d isÿ l<d fia u rdcH
md,lhka o fn!oaO NsCIQka jykafiaf .a wjjdo wkqY dikd Wmfoia mßÈ iajlSh rdcH md,kh
lrf.k hEug nqoaêu;a jQy' meñfKk w¾nqo yuqfjys NsCIQka jykafia,df.a u. fmkaùu hgf;a
iy Wkajykafia,df.a mQ¾K ueÈy;aùu hgf;a tu w¾nqoldÍ ;;a;ajhka jqmiukh lr.;ay'
tys,d ix> idud.s%h fnfyúka Wmia;ïNl úh'
1505 miqj isÿ jQ úfoaYSh wdl%uK yd ñIkdß jHdma;sh yuqfjys fn!oaO NsCIQk a
jykafiaf.a iy fn!oaO .sys m%n,hkaf.a Yla;sh l%ufhka CIh jkak g ùu furg cd;sl"
wd.ñl" ixialD;sl" wdOHdmksl jYfhka úYd, miqnEulg fya;= úh' tfy;a ta yuqfjys iajlSh
j.lSu yd j.lSu f;areï.;a fn!oaO NsCIQk a jykafia,d iajlSh Ôú; mß;Hd.fhka ish hq;=lu
rg ±h iuh fjkqfjka bgqlrkakg miqng jQfha ke;' fn!oaO NsCIQka jykafia wvmK lsÍu
isxy, cd;sf ha wju.=, nj f;areï f.k fn!oaO NsCIQka u¾okh lsÍfï jev ms<sfj<j,a Èh;a

lrkakg fhÿk;a ta yuqfjys fkdie,S isg iajlSh Ôú; mß;Hd.fhka rg" ±h" iuh iqrCIs; lr
.ekSu i|yd wjika m%dK jdhqj f;la wNS; j ls%h d lsÍu ksid iajlSh ukfod< ßisfia iïmQ¾K
lr .ekSug tlS i;=re n,fõ.hkag fkdyels úh' tys,d Tjqyq fn!oaO NsCIQkaf.a n,h ySk lsÍu
i|yd úúO l+fgdamdh l%u wkq. ukh l<y' fn!oaO NsCIQka ksy~ lsÍug úúO ;k;=re kïnqkdu
kdhllï ilid NsCIQkag msßkeuQy' Tjqka flfrys mCImd;s;ajh we;s lr .ekSug thska W;aidy
.;ay' we;eï NsCIQkaf .a y~ tajdhska ksy~ lsÍug yels jqj ;a iaj lSh hq;=lu uekúka
f;areïf.k ls%h dl< h;sjrhka jykaf ia,d Tjqkaf.a l+fgdmdhkag fkd/jà iajlSh j.lSu rg"
±h" iuh fjkqfjka bgq l<y' ta fya;=fldg f.k i;=re n,uq¿ wfmaCId l< mßÈ u ukfod<
iïmQ¾K lr.; fkdyels úh' tfy;a ;eka ;ekaj, Tjqka úIîc ±uQ ksid tu isxy, fn!oaO rg
;=< wisxy, wfn!oaO j,a frdamKh jkakg úh' isxy, fn!oaO keue;s ±jeka; jDCIhkaf.a u
m%;sIaGdj we;sj Wvg ke.s ta j,a .ia ±ka ;ukag m%;sIaGd jQ ta isxy, fn!oaO jDCIhkag
wNsfhda.d;aul j mek kef.ñka isá' nqoaêu;=ka l< hq;af ;a isxy, fn!oaO uyd jDCIhka j,a ìys
jkakg bv yer n,d isà u o tfia ke;fyd;a j,a ìysùfuka /l .ekSu o hkak ±ka ;SrKh l<
hq;=j we;' tys,d ;reK fn!oaO NsCIQka jykafiag bgql< hq;= iqúfYaI ld¾hNdrhla we;'
;dkak" udkak" ls¾;s" m%Yxid" .renqyquka" l=,u," ,dNi;aldr fkdi,ld ta i|yd ;reK fn!oaO
NsCIQka jykafia bÈßm;a úh hq;= h'
hïlsis ls%hdjl m%;sM,hla tlúg W;amdokh jkafka ke;' ta i|yd l,la .; úh yels
h' fojq flfKys lsß fkdñfokakdla fia h' 44 YS% ,dxflah isxy, fn!oaO foayh úkdY lsÍfï
ls%hd ms<sfj;a wrUd ±ka fndfyda l,a h' tys hï hï wksgq úmdl wms w;a±l we;af;uq' wksgq M,
weia mkdmsg olsñka isg fYaIh o tfia ùug bv yer n,d isàu ìh.=¿" ksjg" kshd¨" wufkd{"
kskaÈ; ms<sfj;ls' tneúka .sys ckhd o fm<.iajd .ksñka ;reK fn!oaO NsCIQka jykafia ta
i|yd ueÈy;a j ls%h d l< hq;= h' tys,d O¾u úkh m%uqL úh hq;= h'
wm rg ;=< oYl ;=kla ;siaf ia ls%hd;aul ;%ia;jdohla we;' fou< úuqla;s ixúOdkhla
f,i Tjqka ;ukaj y÷kajd .kakg W;aidy l<;a Tjqkaf.a fjia uqyqK ±ka .e,ù yudr h'
wysxil fou< ckhd m<syla f,i Ndú; lrñka iajlSh mgq woyia ls%h d;au l lr .ekSug Tjqka
fjr orñka we;' Tjqkag úreoaO isxy, muKla fkdj fou< kdhlhska /ilf.a Ôú; Tjqk a
ì,sf .k we;' tfia we;s úg fou< úuqla;s ixúOdkhla f,i Tjqka ye¢kaùu hqla;s iy.;
fkdfõ' nyq;rhla isxy, ck;dj fjfik iq¿;rhla wkH cd;slhka fjfik isxy, fn!oaO rg
;=< iq¿;rhla jQ fou< cd;Ska w;r b;d iq¿;rhla jQ m%Ndlrka we;=¿ ;%ia;jd§ lKavdhula
ksid we;eïyq furg ckjd¾.sl w¾nqohla mj;sk nj;a tu ksid cd;s wd.ï ms< sn| l;d lsÍfuka
tlS w¾nqoh W;aikak jk nj;a tneúka ta ms<sn| l;d ny fkdfldg uqksj; /lsh hq;= nj
m%ldY lr;s' Tjqkaf .a jeÈnK wik isxy, fn!oaOfhda ±ka ±ka cd;sh wd.ï .ek l;d ny
fkdlr;s' tfia l;d l<fyd;a cd;sjdÈhl= wd.ïjdÈhl= hehs ms< sl=,a lr;s' isxy,hdg iajlSh
cd;sh wd.u .ek l;d lsÍug tfia isxy, fn!oaOhka u uqL djrK ±óug jEhï l<;a wfkla
cd;slhka yd wd.ñlhka th .Kklgj;a .kafka ke;' Tjqyq iajlSh cd;sh yd wd.u ms <sn| j
l;dny lrkjd fiau cd;su dul;ajfhka iy wd.ñl ,eÈhdfjka ls%h d lr;s' cd;sh wd.u .ek
l;dny lsÍug Tjqkag uqLdjrK ke;' Tjqka tfia l;dny l< o cd;sj d§ka fyda wd.ïjd§ka hehs
y÷kajkafka o ke;' Tjqkag isÿù we;s widOdrKlï ksid tfia lrk nj iajlSh n,hg ks,hg
lEor we;eïyq m%l dY lr;s'
i;H jYfhka u mj;akd ;;a;ajh ;%ia;jdohla ñi ckjd¾.sl w¾nqohla fkdjk nj
jgyd.; hq;= h' lsisÿ jd¾.sl w¾nqohlska f;drj isxy," fou<" uqia,sïyq nyq;rhla isxy, rg
;=< jdih lr;s' tfia we;s l,ays fou< ckhdf.kq;a iq¿;rhla ;%ia;jd§ ms< sfj;ys isg

nyq;rhla isxy, iy iq¿;rhla fou< uqia,sï msßia úkdY lroa§ th ckjd¾.sl w¾nqohla f,i
w¾: olajkafka flfia o@ ish¨ ck fldgiaj ,g wys;lr ;%ia;jd§ ms<sfj;l kshe,S isák
Tjqka iu. foaY Sh fyda úfoaYSh ljr n,fõ.hla meñK hqoO
a fkdl< hq;= hehs mejiqj;a
nyq;rhla fokdf.a iyÔjkh i|yd rchla úiska i;=rka uev,Su isÿ l< hq;= h' th rchl
j.lSuls' fn!oaO NsCIQka jykfia,d jYfhka tod ÿgq.euqKq wjÈfha isg uyskao rdcmCI wjÈh
f;la ta i|yd wjYH ksjerÈ u. fmkaùu lr ;sf í' bÈßhg ta j.lSu tfiau bgq l< hq;= h' Tn
jykafia,df.a
hq;=lu
jkafka
nyqck
ys;iqj
msKsi
lghq;= lsÍu ñi ckao" oafõI" Nh" fudayfhka tla tla lKavdhï fmdaIKh lsÍu fkdfõ'
.re;r uyd ix>r;akh nyqck iqj msKsi lghq;= lroa§ th ydiHhg ,lalrñka ;%ia; iq¿
lKavdhïj, mgq mrud¾: idOkh lr .ekSug rel=,a fok we;eï mQcl lKavdhï Bg tfrysj
Woaf >daI K jHdmdr ls%h d;aul lr;s' tajd ;U fodhs;=jlg fkdi,ld yeßh hq;= h' tajd
wjia:djdÈ leKys,a m%;sm;a;Ska nj jgyd .; hq;= h' wm rfÜ lsisÿ ckj¾.hlg úreoaO j
hqoO
a hla fkdue;' w;S;fha me;sfha o ke;' tjeks oE we;s lsÍug bv Èh hq;= o ke;'
rdjKd rdc b;sydifha isg fï olaj d iqoO
a isxy, rc orejka whqla;sh widOdrKh
yuqfjys jyd ls%h d;aul jQy' ñY% isxy, md,lhka hï hï mdjd§ï l<;a widOdrKlï l<;a
nqÿoyñka YsCIKh ,o md,lfhda fï rg ±yefuka md,kh l<y' isxy,hkaf.a wd§ rdc jk
rdjK rcq mjd whqla;sh yuqfjys hqla;sh mis|Æ fY%aIaG rc flfkls' n,sì,s hd. l¾u lrk
hd{d fufyhkag ±ä f,i úreoaO j isá rdjKd rcqf.a ke.Ksh jk iqm¾Ksldjg wYS,dpdrhl=
jQ rdu l< pKavd, ls%h dj yuqfjys rdjK rcq iS;dj meyer f.k ú;a ;nd .;a uq;a ta rcqf .ka
wnu,a f¾Kqjlj;a jrola isÿ fkdlsÍug ;rï rdjKd rcq YS,dpdr úh' ta nj iS;d Tmamq l<d h'
tu rdjK mrmqßka mej; tk isxy, ckhd to;a wo;a idOdrKhg .re l<y' ;ukag isÿjQ
widOdrKh yuqfjys hqla;sh bgql rkjd úkd wka whf.a whs;sj dislï Wÿrd .kafka ke;' tfy;a
úNSIK jeks wjia:djd§ka ksid isxy,hdg wNsudkj;a j ls%hd lsÍug we;s YlH;dj wvmK
fldg we;' fodka cqjka O¾umd,,df.ka mej;f.k tk wY=oO
a isxy,fhda isxy,h .ek l;d
lrkjdg úreoaO h' Tjqkag isxy,h .ek l;d lrkafkda cd;sjd§yq h' nqÿoyu .ek l;d
lrkafkda wd.ï jd§yq h' fï ñ:Hdfjka .,jd .ekSfï j.lSu ±ä f,i ;reK fn!oaO NsCIQk a
jykafia i;=j mj;S' furg isxy,hkaf .a ksid fiiq cd;slfhda wo fuys hy;ska fjfi;s' fï rg
fjk;a cd;shlg wh;a jQjd kï wo fuys wkH cd;slhka jdih lrk wdldrhg isxy,hkag
jdih lrkakg yels jkafka ke;' wo furg isú,a kS;sh g jvd iq¿ cd;sl we;euqkaf.a wd.ñl
kS;sh m%n, j ls%hd lrk nj we;a;ls' tn÷ ksoyila Tjqyq isxy, rg ;=< fjfiñka N=la;s ú¢;s'
tfy;a fn!oaOd.ñlhkag ßisf ia ish wd.ñl ls%hdjkays ksr; ùug kS;sh yria ù we;' ta i|yd
wêlrK wjirh me;Sug fn!oaOhkag isÿù we;' fodka cqjka O¾umd,,df.ka mej; tk
wisxy,hka ysi Tijk whqrehs" thsk a fmfkkafka' rgl kS;shla ilia úh hq;af ;a trfgys
ixialD;shg wkqnoaOj hs' furg ixial D;sh isxy, fn!oaO ixialD;sh ñi wka ljfrlaj;a
fkdfõ' tneúka ;reK fn!oaO NsCIQka jykafia fï isÿfõ.k hk cd;sl ixialD;sl fidaodmd¨j
yuqfjys uqksj; /lsh hq;= ke;'
YS% ,dxflah ;reK fn!oaO NsCIQka jykaf ia i;= wfkla Ndr¥r ld¾h jkaf ka ñ:HdoDIaál
.%yKfhka ck;dj fírd .ekSuhs' m%Ndlrkaf.a ;%ia;jd§ ls%h d jgd o ñ:Hd wd.ñl pl%hla
N%uKh jk nj ie,lsh hq;= h' fn!oaO NsCIQka jykaf ia,d muKla fkdj yskaÿ mQclhka o
ñf,aÉP f,i >d;kh lrk m%Ndlrka /l .ekSu i|yd wdYs¾jdo lrk wd.ñl idu ¥;fhda
fj;a' Tjqyq fjiaj ,d .;a wd.ñl fp!rfhda fj;s'

rdcH fkdjk ixúOdk yryd fvd,¾ ,CI fldaá .Kka ,en wd¾Ól m%Yak ovóud
lrf.k ls%ia;shdks uQ,O¾ujdoh m%p,s; lsÍu i|yd m%isoê
a fha ls%hd lrk wjêhls" fuh' YS%
,xldfõ Y=oO
a k.rh f,i ie,flk wkqrdOmqrh wjg j¾. lsf ,daóg¾ y;<syla muK m%foaYfha
Ôj;a jk isxy, fn!oaO ck;dj wh:d Wml%u ;=<ska ls%ia;sh dkshg yerùu i|yd muKla fvd,¾
ñ,shk .Kkl jHdmD;shla ls%hd;aul jk nj wkdjrKh lr f.k ;sf í' ta i|yd ,xldfõ
ls%hd;aul ls%ia;shdks uQ,O¾ujd§ ixúOdk fj; uqo,a ,ndfokafka Unification church of America,
International council of church, Harvest church we;=¿ ;j;a ixúOdk rdYshlska nj wkdjrKh
fldg f.k ;sf í' fï ms<sn| ;reK fn!oaO NsCIQka jykafia,d úuis,su ;a úh hq;= h'
´kEu flfkl=g iajlSh wNsu ;h mßÈ leu;s wd.ula weoySug whs; shla we;' tfy;a
lsisjl=g ;j flfkl=f.a wd.ñl ksoyi W,a,x>Kh jk mßÈ n,mEï lsÍug fkdyels h' th
cd;Hka;r isú,a yd foaY md,ksl m%{ ma;sfha ^ICCCR& 18 jeks j.ka;sf ha meyeÈ,s j i|yka fldg
we;' fulS ksoyi m<uqjrg ,ndÿka W;a;u mqreIhdfKda nqÿrcdfKda h' Wkajykafiaf.ka O¾uh
weiQ we;eïyq iajlSh ,íêh w;er fn!oaOhl= f,i ;uka Ndr .kak hehs nqÿrcdKka
jykafiaf.ka b,a,d isá úg Wkajykafia m%l dY fldg jodf<a Tn wkH Ydia;Djrhl=f.a
wkq.dñlhl= nj;a tneúka ;j fndfydaÿrg ta ms<sn| j ;uka u is;d ne,sh hq;= nj;a h'
Ñka;kfha Wmßu ksoyi ,nd§ we;s whqre thska fmfka' ;ud fn!oaOhl= úh hq;= nj kej;
kej;;a lsh d isák úg Wka jykafia jodf<a ;uka fmr wkq.ukh l< Ydia;Djrekag nqÿoyu
je<|.;a;dhska miqj o tfia u .re ie,ls,s i;al dr olajk f,ighs' 45 tjeks Ñka;k ksoyila
nqÿrcdKka jykafia yer wka ljr kï wd.ñl jla;Djrhl= m%ldY fldg we;af ;a o@ bia,dï"
ls%ia;shdks jeks wd.ï weoySug ñksiqkag yqre lf<a n,y;aldrfhka ;%ia;jdohlsks' tls wd.ñl
;%ia;jdoh f,dj mqrd Tjqyq me;srjQy' tfy;a nqÿoyu f,dj me;sr .sfha lreKdj yd m%{dj uQ,sl
fldg f.k u h' nqÿoyu me;srùu yd iïnka Ofhka lsisjl=g tjeks wjkvqjla wikakj;a
fkdue;'
ls%' j' 1099 § l=rei lrejka w;ska fhaiqia ls%ia;=iaf.a kdufhka fo,CIhla ^200000& muK
hqfoõ yd uqia,sï Nla;sl .eyeKq msßñ yd <uhska iuQ, >d;kh fldg we;' m<uq jk l=rei
hqoO
a fha § muKla oi ,CIhlg wêl msßila wd.ñl wka;jd§ka w;ska uereïlEy' lf;da,sl
Nla;slhkaf .a i;a m%idoh ms<sfkd.ekSu ;a" lf;da,sl m,a,sf ha ¥IK fy<s lsÍu;a" ms< sl=,a lsÍu;a
l=rei Tijd fkd.;a;ka ùu;a ksid muKla m%xYfha we,aìf.kaishka jrekag úreoaO j l<
l=rei hqoO
a fha § oi ,CIhla muK wysxil ñksiqka fhaiqiaf .a kdufhka >d;kh lr we;' tfia
uereï lEfjda o ls%ia;= ,íêlfhda u h' fuu iuQ, >d;kh ms<sn| j Ydka; wkaf;daks m%l dY
lf<a Tjqka lf;da,sl Nla;s úfrdaëka lshd h' ;ukag úreoaO jQjka iuQ, >d;kh lsÍug ;rï
idyisl jk wd.ñl Ñka;kfhys we;s yrh l=ula± hs m%Yakhla fkdjkafka o@
19 jeks ishjfia kefmda,shka úiska jxYlal drhkaf.ka hqfrdamd jy¨ka hqo fldg uqojd
.kakd f;la wjqreÿ 1400 la muK ld,mßÉfþoh ;=< lf;da,sl m,a,sh úiska wirK ck;dj
md.df.k ;snqKs' Tjqka Y=oaO hehs y÷kajd .kq ,enQ wY=oaO ,shú,a,g mßndysr j hula is;S u
iïmQ¾Kfhka u ñksiqkag ;ykï úh' thg úreoaO j is;Sï ud;%h mjd ie,l=fKa nrm;,
wmrdOhla f,i h' ta ms<sn| l;d ny lsÍug flfiaj;a wjia:djla fkd;snqKs' tfia l;d lf<da
prmqreIhka fhdojd w,ajdf.k ±ä ovqjï muqKqjkq ,enQy' zzfy,a fyd,aZ Z kï wmd .=ydj,g
f.k f.dia urK o~qj u o Tjqkag ,ndÿKs' mqÉpd urd ±óu;a t,a,d urd ±óu;a folg u wY=oaO
,shú,a,g úreoaO jQjkag uqyqKmdkakg isÿúh' zzfoúhka úYaj di lrmkak" nõ;siau fjhkak'
ke;akï lsisodl fkdksfuk wmd .skafka msÉÑ msÉÖ ysgmkakZZ hkq m,a,sh úiska uyckhd ;=<
we;s l< ìh .ekaùu h' fla'tÉ' fviak ¾f.a t<sorõ lsÍug wkqj ls%ia;sh dks iNdj fufyh jQ

iamd[a[ cd;sl f;d¾ludod kï mQclhd úisk a ñksiqka tla ,CI ody;r odyla muK úkdY
fldg we;' ta úkdY l< ñksiqk af.a jia;=j j;sldkq m,a,shg weo.kak d ,È' j;sl dkqj i;=
jia;=j tjka kSp ls%hdjkaf.ka ilid .kakd ,oaols' idufha i¿ fmdrjd isxy, §mhg
meñfKkakjqkaf .a f,da.=j hg ;sfnkafka tjeks l=ßre ñf,ÉP;aj h nj jgydf.k ;sîu wjYH
h'
tfia idu pdßldfjys ießirkakg ;ju Tjqkag iodpdrd;aul whs;shla fkdue;' fya;=j
tlS ñf,aÉP;ajh ;ju Tjqka w;yer fkdue;slu ksid h'
ls%'j' 1492 § weußldj iamd[a[ lsÍghg mjrd foñka mdma mejiqfõ foúhkaf.a wKsk a
weußldj hg;a úð;hla lrk f,i h' hg;a jQ ñksiqka foúhka lrd f.k tk f,i o tfia
fkdjkak;a iuQ,>d;kh lrk f,i o ksfhda. lrk ,È' oi,CI .Kka weußldkq
iajfoaYslhka urd oud weußldfõ mej;s YsIagdpdrh iyuq,skau jkidÆy' ta uEka yeïka úisk a
wkdjrKh lr we;s mßÈ fojk f,dal hqoO
a fha § mdmaf .a wkque;sh mßÈ lf;da,sl mQcljreka
úiska mj;ajdf.k hk ,o >d;k l|jqre /ila ;sî we;' ta ls%'j' 1942-43 j¾Ij, h' 1994
rejkavdfõ ;=kais yd yqg q jd¾.slhka oi ,CIhla >d;kh lrñka f.k hk ,o j¾. ixydrhg
frdaudkq lf;da,sl mQcljre fofokl= fpdaokd ,nk ,ÿj urK oKavkhg kshu jQy' tod isg
fuod olajd tlS wd.ñlhkaf.a wdl%uK fkdkej;S ke;' bia,dñlhkaf .a o ;;a;ajh tfia u h'
,xld b;sy dih mqrd n,y;aldrfhka iajlSh wd.ï jHdma;shg Tjqka ±rE ñf,aÉP iy iglmg
ls%hdjka È.yeßh hq;= ke;' wms ta .ek ukd wjfndaOfhka hqla; jQfjda fjuq' ljr kduhlsk a
fmkS isg ljr foa /f.k wdj;a Tjqkaf.a we;af;a tlu woyils' tkï foajrdcH hs' isxy, rg
;=< o tlS foajrdcHh ìysjkq ±lSu Tjqk af.a wNs,dIh hs' tfy;a fn!oaO NsC IQka jykafia b;du;a
wjÈhlska to;a wo;a mej;s mj;sk ksid Tjqkag ta ld¾h b;d wiSre ù we;' tfy;a hï hï ÿn,
;eka n,d Tjqka b;d ishqï f,i ßx.df.k isák nj ;reK fn!oaO NsCIQka jykafia,d f,i ±ä
wjOdkhg f.k lghq;= fkdl<fyd;a m,a,sfha jOld.drhg f.dia m%dK ;Hckhg isÿjkq we;'
todg isxy, cd;sfha;a fn!oaOd.fï;a u<.u m,a,sh b;d mS%;sfhka iurkq we;'
kS;suh jYfhka flfkl=f .a fm!oa.,sl ksoyi tfia u udkisl ksoyi hkak lsisjl=g
m¨ÿ l< yelalla fkdjqj;a øjHuh wdOdr §fuka" uqo,a §fuka" ;reK lfuka" wirK lfuka"
kQ.;a lfuka mqoa.,hl=f .a is;Sfï ksoyi W,a,x>Kh l< fkdyels jQj;a l%ia;sh dks
uQ,O¾ujd§yq ta lghq;= ta whqßka lsisÿ m%Yakhlska f;drj isxy, rg ;=< ls%hd;aul lr;s' ;ukag
úreoaO j y~la fkdk.sk ;ekg;a tfia y~la ke.=k fyd;a Tjqk a úiska udkisl w,a,ia §
n,y;al drfhka iajlSh wd.ug .kq ,enQ isxy, fn!oaOhka ,jd u ta y~ ksy~ lsÍug iQCIau
jev ms<sfj<j,a Tjqka ilid we;' tfia u foaj rdchhla isxy, rg ;=< ks¾udKh lsÍug wjYH
urdf.k uefrk fldá ;%ia;jd§yq o ±ka Tjqka ks¾udKh fldgf.k ;sfnk nj ms<sn| j
;reK fn!oaO NsCIQka jykafiaf.a ±ä wjOdkhg ,laúh hq;= h' .re;r uyd ix>r;akfha uQ,sl
ùulska f;drj fï rg cd;sh fírd .ekSug lsisjl=g yelshdjla ke;' fm!oa.,sl;ajh by jyd
f.dia we;s ful, iudch ;=< rg cd;sh wd.u ms<sn| yeÕSï we;s wh b;d wvq h' ta yeÕSï
;ju;a uyd ix>r;akh fj; we;' Wka jykaf ia,d ±fha orejkag ta yeÕSï we;s lrñka rg ±h
iuh /l .ekSu i|yd Yla;su ;a jev ms< sfj<la werôh hq;= h'
m%Ndlrkaf.a l=ßre ;%ia;jdofhys wNs,dIh fou< úuqla;shla h hkq /jàuls' tla
me;a;lska B<uh;a wfkla me;af ;ka foaj rdcH;a Tyqf.a wNs,dIhhs' m%Ndlrkaf.a i.hl= jk
fmka;fldia; iNdfõ mQclhl= jk k.=,ka keue;a;d fld<Ug urdf.k uefrk fndaï n melÜ
m%jdykh lr wiq úh' Tyqf .a w;a wvx.=jg .ekSu ;a iu. kqf.af.dv msysá ls%ia;shdks wd.ñl

uOHia:dkhl § fldá ;%ia;jd§ka fodf<dia fokl= mQclhka f,i mqyqKqù ï ,ndf.k we;s njg
f;dr;=re wkdjrKh lr .ekSug yels úh' fldá mQclhka f,i mqyqKqj ,nkafka idufha foõ
mKsúvh f,dj m;=rejkag o@ B<duh ke;akï foaj rdcHh fyda foflka tlla isxy,fha
msysgqùu Tjqkaf.a wNsm%dh ù ;sf í' ls%ia;shdks iNdjka úiska l< hq;af;a tlS ;%ia;jdohg Woõ
fok mQcljreka iajlSh wd.ñl ixia:djkaf .ka fkrmd yeÍu h' tfy;a tx.,ka; iNdfõ
ro.=re Ñflard m%ldY lr isáfha udOH fï .ek fy,s fkdlr isáhd kï jvd;a fyd| nj h'
thska ta whf.a idufha ¥;hdf.a ;ru f;areï .ekSug lsisjl=g wmyiq jkaf ka ke;'
idufha fjia f.k ohdjg" lreKdjg" bjiSug uqj dù wd¾Ól m%Yak ;reKlu wdÈh
ovóud lrf.k isxy, fn!oaO úYd, msßila foaj rdcHhg le|jd .kakg nl ;mia fp!r
prKhl ls%ia;sh dks uQ,O¾ujd§kaf.ka fldgila fh§ isák w;r tfia udhdfjka le|jd.;
fkdyels Y=oO
a isxy, fn!oaO ck;dj l=ßre f,i jkid foaj rdcHh m%;sIaGdmkh lsÍu msK si
;j;a msßila f,da. =jg uqjdù wú mqyqKqjl ksr; jk nj isÿ jQ iy isÿ jk ls%ia;shdks
uq,O¾ujd§kaf .a ls%hd foi n,k úg meyeÈ,s fõ' tneúka isxy, rg;a cd;sh;a iïnqoaO
Ydikh;a /l .ekSfï úfYaI j.lSu ;reK fn!oaO NsCIQka jykaf ia i;=f õ' fï rg ;=< isxy,
fn!oaO ixialD;sh mj;ak d ;=re wkH cd;slhkag yd wd.ñlhkag o ßisfia mej;sh yels h'
isxy, fn!oaOhka ksid fï ;dlal,a wkH cd;Skag fyda wd.ñlhkag ysßyerhla isÿ ù ke;s nj
wm Tjqkag b.ekaúh hq;= h' wkH cd;s yd wd.ï úIfhys f,a ;ejreKq b;sydihla isxy,
fn!oaOhkag fkdue;' isxy, fn!oaOhkaf.a ;sf nk ta wysxil m%;smodj ±ka Tjqka Tjqkaf.a my;a
wruqKq idOkh lr .ekSu úIfhys ±ä f,i fhdod f.k ;sf nk nj fmfka' isxy, fn!oaO
ckhd wjÈfhka ;nd .ekSu msKsi ;reK fn!oaO NsCIQka jykafia uQ,sl;aj h f.k ls%hd l< hq;=
h'
fï wd§ jYfhka lreKq ldrKd rdYshla ms< sn| j ;reK fn!oaO NsC IQka jykafia
ie,ls,su;a j ls%hd l< hq;= j we;'

wdka;sl igyka
1'
2'
3'

4'
5'
6'
7'
8'

wx'ks' vi" .sßudkkao iq;a;" 196 msg'
widfr idru;sfkd - idfr pdidroiaisfkd"
f;idrx kdê.ÉPka;s - ñÉPd ixlmamf.dprd
Lq'ks' O'md' 28 msg'
mdmd ksjdfrka;s" l,HdfK ksjfika;s" l,HdfKk
mßfhdofmka;s" i.a.iai u.a.x wdÑlaLka;s
È'ks'iii" is.d, iq;a;" 308 msg'
È'ks' idu[a[M, iq;a; 110 msg'
ix'ks' i" i;a;cá, iq;a;" 146 msg'
cd;l fmd;" nl cd;lh" 38 msg'
u'md' 42 msg'
wx'ks' iv" wmamiaiq; iq;a;" 14 msg'

ukid

wkqlïmka;s"

wiaiq;x idfjka;s"

iq;x

9'
10'

wx'ks' v" mGu ioaOïuiïfudi iq;a;" 286 msg'
k fLd wdkkao iqLrx mfrix Oïux foi;=x mfrix wdkkao Oïux fofikaf;k m[ap Oïfu wÊ®;a;x
WmÜGfm;ajd mfrix Oïfud fofi;ífnd
wx'ks' v" Wodhs iq;a;" 300 msg'

11'
12'

È'ks' i" wïnÜGiq;a;" 150 msg'
È'ks' i, f;úÊc iq;a;" 620 msg'

13'
14'

ix'ks' ii" ioaOïumárEml iq;a;" 338 msg'
ix'ks' ii" wdKs iq;a;" 412 msg'

15'
16'

u'ks' ii" wNhrdcl=udr iq;a;" 92 msg'
wmamldf; ukqiafiiq - fh ckd mdr.dñfkd"
w:dhx bkrd mcd - ;SrfujdkqOdj;s'
O'md' 42 msg'

17'
18'

ix'ks' ii" ÿ.a.; iq;a;" 288 msg'
ldfhk ÿÉpß;x pßFjd jdpdh ÿÉpß;d pßFjd" ukid ÿÉpß;x pßFjd" ldhiaifNaod mrïurK wmdhx ÿ.a.;sx
úksmd;x ksrhx WmmÊc;s'

19'

k uqKavflk iufKd - wínf;d w,slx NKx"
bÉPdf,dNiudmkafkda - iufKd lsx Núiai;s
Lq'ks' i" O'md' 90 msg'

20'
21'

u'ks' i" Oïuodhdo iq;a;" 30 msg'
w[af[d fu wdmmafmd lrKSfhdZ;s mínðf;k wNsKayx mÉpfjlaÅ;ínx
wx'ks' vi" oiOïuiq;a;" 156 msg'

22'
23'
24'

§'ks' ii" uyd mßksíndK iq;a;" 222 msg'
u'md'" 152 msg'
k f;k f:frd fyd;s - fhkiai m<s;x isfrd
O'md' 88 msg'

25'

wx'ks' v" uydmfoifoikd iq;a;" 326 msg'

26'

u'ks' i" wkÙ.K iq;a;" 58 msg'

27'

u'ks' i" iíndij iq;a;" 26 msg'

28'
29'

u'ks' i" NhfNrj iq;a;" 38 msg'
wx'ks' idrÊc iq;a;" 298 msg'

30'

ix'ks' ii" f,dldh;sl iq;a;" 118 msg'

31'
32'

ix'ks' ii" lÉpdkf.d;a; iq;a;" 28 msg'
iqklaL;af;d h:d ;x wmdhfld fkrhsfld wmlalfuj buiaud Oïuúkhd'
È'ks' iii" mdÀl iq;a;" 8 msg'
bfOlÉpiai l=,mq;a;iai buiañx Oïuúkfh ioaOd w.driaud wk.dßhx mínð;a;d p;a;dßudks Nhks
mdálÙÅ;índks' l;udks p;a;dß W!ñNhx l=ïNS,Nhx wdjÜgNhx iq iqldNhx
wx'ks' ii" WoldfrdyNh iq;a;" 238 msg'
l:x uhx Nkaf; ud;=.dfu mámÊð;ínka;s@ woiaikx wdkkao" oiaifk iF;s l:x mámÊð;ínka;s@
wkd,dfmd wdkkao' wd,mkaf; mk Nkaf; l:x mámÊð;ínka;s@ i;s wdkkao WmÜGdfm;índ;s'
È'ks' ii" uyd mßksíndk iq;a;" 220 msg'

33'

34'

35'
36'
37'

wx'ks' ii" fhdOdðj iq;a;" 332 msg'
hx p NslaLfj NsCLq nyq,ukqú;lafl;s wkqúpdfr;s ;:d k;s fyd;s fp;fid
u'ks' i" oafõOd ú;lal iq;a;" 290 msg'
fhd yfj oyfrd NslaLq - hq[ac;s nqoaOidifk"
fid bux f,dlx mNdfi;s - wíNduq;af;dZj pkaÈud'
O'md' 118 msg'

38'

wx'ks' iv" foj;d iq;a;" 220 msg'

39'
40'
41'

wx'ks' ii" wmamiaiq; iq;a;" 14 msg'
md;sfudlaL fiaÅhd Oïu
k NslaLfj iínkS,ldks" iínmS;ldks" iínf,dys;ldks" iínu[afcÜÀldks iínlKaydks iínuydrÙ.dks
Odfr;índks'
u'md' ii" ÑjrlaLJOlh" 742 msg'

42'
43'

44'

45'

Lq'ks' i" O'md' 28 msg'
nyqïms fp iys;x Ndiudfkd"
k ;lalfrd fyd;s kfrd mu;af;d
f.dfmdZj .dfjd .Khx mfrix
k Nd.jd idu[a[iai fyd;s'
O'md' 30 msg'
kys mdmx l;x lïux - iÊcq ÅrxZj uqÉp;s"
vyka;x nd,ukafp;s - NiauÉPkafkdZjmdjfld
Lq'ks'i" O'md' 40 msg'
u'ks'ii" Wmd,s iq;a;" 60 msg'

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