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6.

4
Universal Set What are you going to learn?
 To comprehend the
concept of a universal set and the symbol of universal set. To determine a universal set for a set. To sketch a Venn diagram. To determine if a set is a subset of another . To comprehend the concept of an empty set and its symbol.

Suppose A = { red, white }. B = { red, green}. C = { red, white, blue }. Does set C contain all elements of A? Does set C contain all elements of B?  Because C contains all elements of A, C can be said as “a universal set” of set A.  Because there is an element of B that is not included in C, that is green (green ∉ C), C is not a universal set of set B. We can form a new set, say set D = { red, yellow, white, violet }. Does set D contain all elements of A? (Answer: Yes) Therefore set D can be said as “a universal set” of A. Does set D contain all elements of B? (Answer: No) Set D does not contain all elements of B, meaning that set D cannot be a universal set of set B.

   

Key Terms:
• • • universal set. Venn diagram subset

If we have set A = { red, white }, then the possible universal set of set A is: 1. C = { red, white, blue }, or 2. D = { red, yellow, white, violet}. Can you write other possible universal sets of set A? Can you conclude what a universal set is?

From the above explanation, it can be concluded that:
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Universal Set

The universal set is a set containing all elements of the set being talked about.The universal set is also called the discussion universe. The universal set is denoted by U.

Now consider the following example.

Suppose we have set P = { 1, 3, 5, 7 }. The possible universal set of P are: 1. U = { 1, 3, 5, 7, 9 } 2. U = Set of the first ten natural numbers 3. U = { 1, 2, 3, . . . , 100 } 4. U = { 1, 3, 5, 7, . . . , 51 } 5. U = Set of natural numbers.

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Mention two possible universal sets of each of the following sets: 1. A = { 1, 2, 3 }. 2. B = { a, i, u }. 3. C = { x ¦ 2 < x < 10, x is natural number}. 4. D = { x ¦ x ≥ 100, x is whole number}. 5. E = { n ¦ n < 15, n is prime number}. 6. F = set of even prime numbers. 7. G = set of numbers divisible by 6. 8. H = set of composite numbers between 1 and 10. 9. I = set of even numbers divisible by 3. 10. J = set of prime numbers less than 20.

Link to Daily Life
Mention two possible universal sets of each of the following sets: 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. K = {buffalo, horse}. L = {Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore}. M = {red, yellow, green}. N = {orange, mango, pineapple}. O = {June, July}. P = {hen, duck, goose} Q = {Surabaya, Bandung, Semarang}. R = {SD, SMP, SMA}. S = {pencil, ruler}. T = set of teachers who teach your class.

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Venn Diagram
The easy way to represent and to see the relationship between several sets is by means of Euler circles, or they are usually called Venn diagrams. In drawing a Venn diagram, we consider the following: 1. The universal set is usually represented by a rectangle. 2. Every set under consideration is represented by simple closed curve. 3. Each element of a set is a represented by node or point. 4. If the number of elements of a set is quite large, or infinite, then each element of the set does not need to be represented as a node or point. If given universal set U = {a, b, c, d, e, f, g} and A = {b, d, f, g}, then the Venn diagram of U is as follows: U a• c• b• f• d• g• e• a

and the Venn diagram describing the relationship between sets U and A is:

U A
a• b• c•
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d• g•

e•

f•

Given U = {1, 2, 3, ..., 10} A = set of prime numbers not greater than 10 B = set of even numbers between 1 and 10 Determine the Venn diagram. Given U = set of whole numbers A = set of natural numbers P = set of prime numbers, Draw the Venn diagram describing the relationship between the sets.

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Draw the Venn diagram of the following sets. 1. U = { 1, 2, 3, . . . , 10 } A = { 3, 5, 7 } 2. U = { 1, 2, 3, . . . , 10 }

A =Set of even whole numbers between 1 and 10 3. U = { a, b, c, d, . . . , j } A = { a, i, e } B = { b, c, d, i, e } 4. U = { 1, 2, 3, . . . , 10 } A = Set of squared natural numbers less than 10 B = Set of odd numbers between 1 and 10 5. U = { 1, 2, 3, . . . , 10 } A = { x ¦ x < 4 , x is natural number} B = { x ¦ x ≤ 10, x is prime number} C = { 4, 7, 8, 9, 10 }

Work Together
Draw the Venn diagram of the following sets. 6. U = set of triangles. A = set of isosceles triangles. B = set of right angled triangles. 7. U = set of all students at your school. A = set of boy students at your school. B = set of girl students at your school. C = set of boy students in your classroom. D = set of girl students in your classroom. 8. U = set of natural numbers. P = set of multiple of 2. Q = set of multiple of 3.

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R = set of multiple of 4. 9. U = set of whole numbers. K = set of even whole numbers. L = set of prime numbers. M= set of composite numbers.

Critical Thinking
10. There are 50 families subscribing to daily newspapers, 25 families subscribing to magazines, and 10 families subscribing to both daily newspapers and magazines. Using a Venn diagram to describe the situation, determine the number of families that are neither subscribing to the daily newspaper nor to the magazines. 11. Consider the Venn diagram of the following: U = set of students at your classroom M = set of students who like mathematics B = set of students who like English K = set of students who like art.

b• a•

c•

B
g• f• m• r• p• l• s• j• o•

i• h•

U M
t• n•

d• e•

u•

o•

q•

K

If every student is denoted by a single node, then determine: a. how many students like mathematics.
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b. how many students like mathematics and art. c. how many students like English but do not like art. d. how many students like the three subjects. e. how many students like art only. f. how many students like mathematics and English but do not like art. g. how many students do not like the three subjects. h. how many students like only one of the three subjects.

Subsets and Empty Sets
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Consider the following two sets. A = {a, c, d} and B = {a, b, c, d, e, f}. If the two sets are presented as a Venn diagram, we may have the following figure: B b• f• A a• c• d• e•

Examine whether every element of A is also an element of B. Note that: a ∈ A and a ∈ B, c ∈ A and c ∈ B, d ∈ A and d ∈ B. So, is every element of A also an element of B? (Answer: Yes) In this case, it is said that set A is a subset of set B, written as “A ⊂ B“ Now, consider the following three sets: A = { 1, 2, 3, 4 }, B = { 0, 1, 2 }, and C = { 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6}. Examine: a. Is every element of A also an element of C? b. Is every element of B also an element of C? Solution: a. Yes, every element of A is also an element of C. So, A ⊂ C. b. No, because 0 is an element of B but not an element of C. Written in mathematical symbols, it is C”.
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Remarks
Some books use either the symbol “⊆ ”, or “⊂ ” to denote a subset. In this book, the symbol “⊂ ” is used.

“0 ∈ B” and “0 ∉

In this case, it can be said that set B is not a subset of set C, or: B ⊄ C. From the above example, it can be concluded as follows: Let A and B be given sets.

A Subset, Not a Subset

1. Set A is a subset of B, written as A ⊂ B, if every element of A is also an element of B. 2. Set A is not a subset of B, written as A ⊄ B, if there is an element of A which is not an element of B.

Next, consider some sets below. P = set of Year VII SMP students at your school taller than 5 m. Q = set of teachers at your school less than 10 years old. How many elements of P are there? How many elements of Q are there? Both of the sets do not have any elements. Therefore, Sets P and Q are called empty sets, and denoted by the symbol “∅” or “{ }”. Thus n(∅) = 0, or n({}) = 0. The empty set is the set having no element.

Empty set

Discuss with your friends and find other examples of empty sets. Of the following sets, decide which one is and is not an empty set. 1.Set of subjects taught at the first grade of SMP. 2.Set of your classmates who are up to 17 years old. 3.Set of astronauts having landed on the moon.

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4.Set of mathematics teachers who are less than 15 years old. 5.Set of ducks that breed their offspring. Now, look at these sets, ∅ and {0}, are they the same set? Of course not, since ∅ is a set that has no element, or an empty set, while {0} is a set which has one element, namely 0. Consider set A = { 1 }. The subset of A are ∅ and { 1 }. Thus, the number of subsets of A is 2

Given set B = {1, 2}, then all of its subsets are determined in the following way: ∅, { 1 }, { 2 }, and { 1, 2 }. Therefore the number of all subsets of B is 2 2 . Note that the empty set is a subset of every set. If not, we would be able to find an element of ∅ which is not in set A (or B). Because we are clearly unable to do this, we conclude that ∅ ⊂ A (or ∅ ⊂ B). Now, given C = {1, 2, 3}, using the above method: a. Write down on all subsets of C. b. How many subsets of C are there? Given D = {1, 2, 3, 4}, then: a. Write down all subsets of D b. How many subsets of D are there? Now, discuss with your friends. Given P = {1, 2, 3, ... , n}. How many subsets of P are there?

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1. Given P = { 1, 2, 3, 4, . . . , 10 } Determine which of the following sets is a subset of P. a. A = { 1, 3, 7, 9 } b. B = { 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10 } c. C = { 2, 3, 5, 7 } d. D = { 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 } e. E = { 5, 7, 9, 11 } f. F = set of natural numbers less than 7. g. G = { x ¦ x < 5, x is whole number} h. H = { x ¦ 2 < x < 8, x is natural number} i. I = { x ¦ x < 12, x is composite number} j. J = set of squared numbers less than 16. 2. Determine whether each of the following statements is true or false? a. { a, b, c } ⊂ { a, b, c, d } b. { a, b, c, d, e } ⊂ { a, d, e } c. {3} ⊂ Set of prime numbers. d. 3 ⊂ Set of prime numbers. e. {5} ⊄ Set of prime numbers. f. {1, 2, 3} ⊄ Set of natural numbers. g. {4, 7} ⊂ {3, 4, 5, 7} h. {0, 1, 2, 3} ⊂ set of natural numbers. i. {1, 2, 3} ⊄ set of prime number.s j. {0, 1, 4, 6, 8} ⊄ set of composite numbers. k. Set of letters in the Latin alphabet ⊂ {a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h} l. {1, 4, 9, 16} ⊂ set of squared natural numbers. m. o. {x¦ x < 5, x is natural number} ⊂ {1, 2, 3, ...} Set of prime numbers ⊂ {2, 3, 5, 7, 11} n. {2, 4, 6, 8} ⊂ {x¦ x is whole number}

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3. Determine whether

each of the following sets is an

empty set or not an empty set. a. Set of student’s parents who are less than 10 years old. b. Set of whole numbers which are neither odd nor even. c. Set of even prime numbers. d. Set of SMP students who are not older than 14 years. e. Set of SMP teachers having no motorcycles. 4. Determine all subsets of the following sets: a. { p, q } b. { i, d, a } 5. What is the number of subsets of: a. { a, l, b, u, m } b. { p, i, c, t, u, r, e }

Related to Real World
6. Given A = set of the colours of rainbow, or A = {red, magenta, yellow, green, blue, purple, violet}. Is each of the following statements true or false? a. violet ⊂ A b. {yellow, blue, red}⊄ A c. Set of the colours of Indonesian flag ⊄ A d. { x | x is traffic light colours} ⊂ A e. red, magenta, yellow, green ⊂ A 7. If P = set of quadrilaterals, which of the following sets is a subset of P? a. A b. B c. C = set of rectangles = set of rhombuses = set of parallelograms

d. D = set of squares e. E = set of isosceles triangles f. F = set of right triangles g. G = set of circles
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h. H = set of right triangles i. I = set of cubes j. J = set of cuboids k. K = set of kites l. L= set of trapeziums

Critical Thinking
8. Given A = {1, 2, 3};

B = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5}; and C = {1, 2, 3, 4, ... ,10} Is the following true or false? a. A ⊂ B b. B ⊂ C c. A ⊂ C

9. If P = set of prime numbers less than10 Q = set of prime numbers between 1 and 20 R = set of prime numbers not greater than 30 Is the following true or false? a. P ⊂ Q b. Q ⊂ R c. P ⊂ R 10. Based on questions 8 and 9 above, it can be concluded that: “If A ⊂ B and B ⊂ C, then A ⊂ C”. Explain your opinion. 11. Is each of the following statements true or false? a. {1, 2, 3 } ⊂ {1, 2, 3 } b. {a, b, c, d, e } ⊂ {a, b, c, d, e } c. { 2, 3, 5, 7, 11, . . .} ⊂ set of prime numbers d. { 0, 1, 2, 3, . . . } ⊂ set of whole numbers e. { x ¦ 1 ≤ x ≤ 5, x is natural number } ⊂ {1, 2, 3, 4, 5} 12. Based on question 8 above, it can be concluded that:
A ⊂ A, B ⊂ B for any set A or B. Explain your opinion.

13. Can we conclude that every set is a subset of itself? Explain your opinion.

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