ARTILLERY AMMUNITION

JAPANESE

8 cm (81 mm)

HE MORTAR [NAVAL]
P. 122.1

8 cm (88 mm) MODEL 100 HE POINTED AA
WEAPONS: 8 cm Model 99 AA Gun ............................... PROJECTILE: Caliber-88 mm Kind-Shell Type-HE Weight (with Fuze)-19.9 lbs. Color-Black Bands-One yellow Charge: Weight-1.98 lbs. Kind-T.N.T. has been found Tracer-None FUZE: Model 100 Mechanical Time Nose Fuze

WEAPONS: 8 cm Model 3 Mortar [Naval] .......................... PROJECTILE: Caliber-81 mm Kind-Mortar Shell Type-HE Weight (without Fuze)-6.99 lbs. Color-Black with red and green nose Bands-None Charge: Weight-Approximately 1.12 lbs. Kind-Picric acid and Dinitronaphthalene (Tridite) FUZE: Naval Mortar Fuze

REMARKS-The model number of this projectile and that of the fuze have not been determined.

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9 cm (90 mm) MODEL 94 HE MORTAR
WEAPONS: 9 cm Model 94 Light Infantry Mortar .................... 9 cm Model 97 Mortar ................................. PROJECTILE: Caliber-90 mm Kind-Mortar Shell Type-HE Weight (with Fuze-without Propelling Charge)-11.6 lbs. Color-Black Bands-One yellow or one yellow and one white Charge: Weight-2.36 lbs. Kind-T.N.T. has been found FUZE: Model 93 Mortar Fuze .P. 124 P. 125

9 cm (90 mm) HE MORTAR SEMI-STEEL
WEAPONS: 9 cm Model 94 Light Infantry Mortar .................... 9 cm Model 97 Mortar ................................. PROJECTILE: Caliber-90 mm Kind-Mortar Shell Type-HE WeightColor-Black Bands--One green or one yellow and one green Charge: WeightKindFUZE: Model 93 Mortar Fuze P. 124 P. 125

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10 cm (105 mm) MODEL 91 HE POINTED
WEAPONS: P. 114 10 cm Model 91 Howitzer ............................... P. 115 10 cm Model 92 Gun .................................. ... 10 cm Model 14 Gun ............................ 10 cm Model 38 Gun ................................. PROJECTILE: Caliber-105 mm Kind-Shell Type-HE Weight (with Fuze)-34.65 lbs. Color-Black Bands-One yellow or one yellow and one white Charge: Weight-5.55 lbs. Kind-Mixture of Ammonium Nitrate, Guanidine Nitrate, Cyclonite, or TNT Tracer-None FUZES: Model 88 Instantaneous (Howitzer-Mortar Type) Nose Fuze Model 88 Short Delay (Howitzer-Mortar Type) Nose Fuze Model 88 Instantaneous (Gun Type) Nose Fuze Model 88 Short Delay (Gun Type) Nose Fuze REMARKS-Captured documents indicate that the howitzer type fuze is used when this projectile is fired from a howitzer and that a gun type fuze is used when this projectile is fired from a gun.

10 cm (105 mm) MODEL 91 HE
WEAPONS: 10 cm Model 10 cm Model 10 cm Model 10 cm Model 91 92 14 38 Howitzer ............................. Gun ................................... Gun ................................ Gun ................................ P. 114 P. 115

PROJECTILE: Caliber-105 mm Kind-Shell Type-HE Weight (with Fuze)-35.3 lbs. Color-Black Bands-One yellow or one yellow and one white Charge: Weight-5 lbs. Kind-T.N.T. has been found FUZES: Model Model Model Model 88 88 88 88 Instantaneous (Howitzer-Mortar Type) Nose Fuze Short Delay (Howitzer-Mortar Type) Nose Fuze Instantaneous (Gun Type) Nose Fuze Short Delay (Gun Type) Nose Fuze

REMARKS-Captured documents indicate that the howitzer type fuze is used when this projectile is fired from a howitzer and that a gun type fuze is used when this projectile is fired from a gun.

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7.20

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12 cm (120 mm) HE AA [NAVAL]
WEAPONS: 12 cm Model 11 AA Gun [Naval] PROJECTILE: Caliber-120 mm Kind-Shell Type-HE Weight-(with Fuze)-45.5 lbs. Color-Maroon Body with green nose Bands-None Charge: Weight-3.7 lbs. Kind-Trinitroanisole Tracer-None FUZE: Navy Model 91 Mechanical Time Nose Fuze REMARKS--The model number of the projectile has not been determined. There are three known modifications of the Model 91 Fuze, giving four fuses, called Model 91, each varying only slightly from the others. ........................

12 cm (120 mm) HE [NAVAL]
WEAPONS: 12 cm Low Angle Gun [Naval] PROJECTILE: Caliber-120 mm Kind-Shell Type--SHE Weight (without Fuze)-45.37 lbs. Color-Maroon body with green nose Bands-One yellow Charge: Weight-3.92 lbs. Kind--4Picric acid has been found Tracer-None FUZES: Navy Model 88 Nose Fuse Navy Model 5 Nose Fuse REMARKS--When the Navy Model 5 Nose Fuse is used an adapter (brass) is necessary. The Model number of the projectile and that of the gun from which fired have not been determined. ..........................

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12 cm (120 mm) HE [NAVAL]
WEAPONS: 12 cm Low Angle Gun [Naval] ..........................

12.7 cm (127 mm) HE AA [NAVAL]
WEAPONS: 12.7 cm AA Gun [Naval] ...............

PROJECTILE: Caliber-120 mm Kind-Shell Type-HE (Base Fuzed) Weight (with Fuze)-45.12 lbs. Color-Maroon body with red and green nose Bands-One yellow Charge: Weight-4.6 lbs. Kind-Picric acid Tracer-None FUZE: Model 3rd Year Base Fuze REMARKS--The model number of the projectile and that of the gun from which fired have not been determined.

PROJECTILE: Caliber-127 mm. Kind-Shell Type-HE Weight (with Fuze)- -50.8 lbs. Color-Maroon body with green nose Bands-None Charge: Weight-4.15 lbs. Kind-Picric acid Tracer-None FUZE: Navy Model 91 Mechanical Time Nose F.uze REMARKS -The model number of the projectile and that of the gun have not been determined. There are three known modifications of the Model 91 fuze giving four fuzes called Model 91, each varying only slightly from the others.

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14 cm (140 mm) HE [NAVAL]
WEAPONS: 14 cm Low Angle Gun [Naval] .......................... PROJECTILE: Caliber-140 mm Kind-Shell Type-HE WeightColor-Maroon body with green nose Bands-None Charge: WeightKindTracer-None FUZE: Navy Model 88 Nose Fuze REMARKS-The model number of the projectile and that of the gun from which fired have not been determined.

14 cm (140 mm) HE [NAVAL]
WEAPONS: 14 cm Low Angle Gun [Naval] .......................... PROJECTILE: Caliber-140 mm Kind-Shell Type-HE (Base Fuzed) Weight (with Fuze)-84 lbs. Color-Maroon body with red and green nose Bands-None Charge: WeightKind-Picric Acid Tracer-None FUZE: Navy Base Detonating Fuze REMARKS-The model number of the projectile, that of the gun, and that of the fuze have not been determined.

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...... has been found Tracer-None FUZES: Charge: WeightKind Tracer-None....... FUZE: Navy Base Detonating Fuze REMARKS-The model number of the projectile.... and that of the fuze have not been determined. 116 14 cm Low Angle Gun [Naval] PROJECTILE: Caliber-140 mm Kind-Shell Type-HE (Base Fuzed) WeightColor-Maroon and green Bands-One yellow 15 cm Model 4 Howitzer . iPER INCH I20 242....75 3................. Model 88 Instantaneous (Howitzer........ that of the gun from which fired.. rPER INCH !9 THDS.. 15 cm Model 38 Howitzer........5 lbs.. Kind-T.f. 15 cm WEAPONS: (150 mm) MODEL 92 HE P....... 1945 OFFICE CHIEF 6 OF ORDNANCE RESTRICTED ....92 kit DfMErJljl( OI1DHANC pp rS AE.9 lbs...T...N... PROJECTILE: Caliber-150 mm Kind-Shell Type-HE Weight (with Fuze)-79. 334 1 May... 14 cm (140 mm) WEAPONS: HE-CAPPED CNAVAL] .05 507 8B mDS PER INCH 15THDS.ARTILLERY AMMUNITION JAPANESE 3..... Color-Black Bands-One yellow or one yellow and one white Charge: Weight-16.........Mortar Type) Nose Fuze Model 88 Short Delay (Howitzer-Mortar Type) Nose Fuze REMARKS-It is not known definitely but it is expected that this projectile can be fired from the 15 cm Model 96 Howitzer...

. Kind-T.. The picric acid burster is in the nose. has been found FUZE: Model 93 Mortar Fuze REMARKS-The Model 96 is called a medium mortar although it is 150 mm...... PROJECTILE: Caliber-150 mm Kind-Shell Type-Smoke Weight (with Fuze)-73....... It is not known definitely but it is expected that this projectile can be fired from the 15 cm Model 96 Howitzer.....9 lbs..... 15 cm Model 38 Howitzer ...N.. of Picric Acid Tracer-None FUZES: Model 88 Instantaneous (Howitzer-Mortar Type) Nose Fuze Model 88 Short Delay (Howitzer-Mortar Type) Nose Fuze REMARKS-The white phosphorus is inclosed in a brass can....9 lbs.T..... P.. Color-Black Bands-One yellow or one yellow and one white Charge: Weight-13 lbs..... of white phosphorus 2.. 116 15 cm (150 mm) MODEL 96 HE MORTAR WEAPONS: 15 cm Model 96 Medium Mortar ..6 lbs...ARTILLERY AMMUNITION JAPANESE 15 cm (150 mm) MODEL 13 SMOKE (WP) WEAPONS: 15 cm Model 4 Howitzer . 1945 335 ......... Color-Black Bands-One yellow or one yellow and one white Charge: 9..................... PROJECTILE: Caliber-150 mm Kind-Mortar Shell Type-HE Weight (with Fuze)-56.............4 lbs.. RESTRICTED OFFICE CHIEF OF ORDNANCE 1 May.....

Kind-Trinitroanisole Propellent-18........... 1945 OFFICE CHIEF OF ORDNANCE RESTRICTED .....ARTILLERY AMMUNITION JAPANESE 20 cm (203..4 lbs... of double base powder FUZE: Point Detonating Nose Fuze REMARKS-The model number of the rocket and that of the fuze have not been determined.. Rockets have been found both with and without the seat.6 lbs..... P... Color-Maroon Charge: Weight-34. The rocket is spin stabilized by inclined nozzles in the base..2 mm Kind-Rocket Type-HE Weight (with Fuze)-195 lbs.. PROJECTILE: Caliber-203..... 352 336 1 May.2 mm) ROCKET WEAPONS: Trough Type Launcher ... The case for the HE head is the same as the projectile body on 20 cm Naval HE Shell and may have a rotating band seat although there is no rotating band..

75 mm. TYPE 88 INSTANTANEOUS NOSE FUZE (FOR GUN AND HOWITZER TYPES) Type 88 Short Delay Nose Fuze (Gun and Howitzer Types) USE: 57 mm. OPERATION: The striker is held off the primer by four safety blocks surrounded by a ferrule and the arming collar. 70 mm. Superseded by Type 100 Small Instantaneous Fuze.PROJECTILE P. 150 mm guns and howitzers. Centrifugal force causes the blocks to move from under the striker against the ferrule. The howitzer type fuze has weaker stirrup springs and ferrule due to weaker setback force and centrifugal force. A pivoted shutter. The arming collar moves down on setback and is held down by the stirrup spring. OPERATION: Similar to the Type 88 Instantaneous Fuze. 105 mm. FUZES JAPANESE Type 93 Small Instantaneous Nose Fuze USE: 20 mm and 37 mm guns. which blocks the flash channel is also forced aside by centrifugal force. 70 mm. and 150 mm guns and howitzers. TYPE 93 INSTANTANEOUS SMALL NOSE FUZE Type 100 Small Instantaneous Nose Fuze USE: 20 mm and 37 mm guns. 1945 337 . Interchangeable with Type 88 Instantaneous Fuze. OPERATION: Arms by centrifugal force similar to Type 93 Small Instantaneous Fuze. TYPE 88 SHORT DELAY NOSE FUZE GUN AND HOWITZER TYPES) (FOR RESTRICTED OFFICE CHIEF OF ORDNANCE 1 Augu st. Supersedes Type 93 Small Instantaneous Fuze. The gun type fuze has a movable primer carrier and striker. 105 mm. 75 mm. OPERATION: The striker is held away from the primer by a spring-loaded forked detent which moves out by centrifugal force. TYPE 100 SMALL INSTANTANEOUS NOSE FUZE Type 88 Instantaneous Nose Fuze (Gun and Howitzer Types) USE: 47 mm. D. except that it doesn't have a centrifugal shutter. Interchangeable with Type 88 Short Delay Nose Fuze.

TYPE 89 SMALL TIME FUZE Type 93 Instantaneous-ShortDelay Fuze USE: 70 mm. which has a flash hole running through it with the delay pellet 90° removed. Choice of instantaneous or short delay is made by inserting or removing a delay pellet below the primer. 81 mm. TYPE 93 INSTANTANEOUS-SHORT DELAY FUZE Type 100 Instantaneous-Short Delay Fuze USE: 81 mm and probably 70 mm. 1945 OFFICE CHIEF OF ORDNANCE RESTRICTED . by turning the setting screw. but is mounted in a cylindrical tube.MORTAR PROJECTILE FUZES JAPANESE N Type 88 Small Instantaneous Fuze USE: 50 mm and 70 mm rifled mortars. and 150 mm mortars. OPERATION: On impact the striker hous- ing. 90 mm. SMALL INSTANTANEOUS FUZE TYPE 88 OPERATION: Arms due to setback and centrifugal force similar to the Type 88 Instantaneous Gun Fuze. TYPE 100 INSTANTANEOUS-SHORT DELAY FUZE 338 1 August. which holds a fixed striker. OPERATION: Functions in the same manner as the Type 93 Instantaneous-Short Delay Fuze. is forced in shearing a shear wire and at the same time the movable primer moves forward against the creep spring onto the firing pin. 90 mm. OPERATION: Setback forces movable striker onto primer firing black powder delay train in one fixed and one movable ring. without disassembling the fuze. The delay element is not removable. and 150 mm mortars. The fuze may be set for instantaneous or short delay. Type 89 Small Time Fuze USE: 50 mm mortar and 70 mm mortar and howitzer.

The clockwork mechanism is like that used in the D-2(a) bomb fuze. projectile for 75 mm antiaircraft gun and in target projectiles for 75 mm and 105 mm guns. OPERATION: On setback the movable primer overcomes the resistance of the arming collar and strikes the fixed firing pin thus starting the time rings. freeing the primer carrier which is held off of the firing pin by a creep spring. 194g33 339 . Type 100 Combination Impact-Mechanical Time Fuze USE: Japanese 9 cm (88 mm) antiaircraft gun reported to be used in 105 mm antiaircraft gun. The flash from the time ring sets off the black powder magazine in the base of the fuze. OPERATION: On setback. TYPE 10TH YEAR TIME FUZE Type 89 Long-Pointed Fuze USE: 75 mm antiaircraft guns and is reported to be used in 105 mm antiaircraft guns.ANTIAIRCRAFT FUZES Type 93 Small Powder Time Fuze USE: Has not been determined. 0-10. two being movable..000 yards. the primer-carrier moves against the creep spring onto the firing pin firing the primer. i. sets off the detonator. Impact-The impact feature consists of a separate fixed firin pin and a movable primer carrier which is held in the unfired position by two centrifugal detents. The time ring is graduated from 0-10 and is thought to represent 1. No impact feature is incorporated in this fuze.000 yards. Centrifugal force causes the detents to move out. the striker moves against a spring hitting the primer. The resulting flash ignites a variable powder delay train which. TYPE 100 COMBINATION IMPACTMECHANICAL TIME FUZE RESTRICTED OFFICE CHIEF ORDNANCEE OF ORDNANCE u1 1945 t 1 Aug ust. JAPANESE SMALL TYPE 93 POWDER TIME FUZE Type 10th Year Time Fuze USE: Reported to be used in ole H. Centrifugal force moves a brass safety disc from under the shoulder of the spring-loaded firing pin and at the set time 0-50 seconds the firing pin is released to fire a primer. TYPE 89 LONG-POINTED FUZE OPERATION: Time-Setback causes a starting plunger to disengage a locking disc on the clock and a setback pin frees the escape wheel allowing the clock mechanism to function. No impact feature is incorporated. in turn. There are three time rings. E. No impact feature is incorporated. On impact. e. which in turn actuates an auxiliary fuze below. On setback a movable OPERATION: primer overcomes a spring and strikes the fixed firing pin igniting a delay train.

/ 2 334 / I \\\ © ____ < Impact-The impact feature of these fuzes is separate. The flash from the primer passes down through two flash channels to ignite the black powder magazine in the base. year-maximum Type 5th year-maximum 36. freeing the primer carrier.---Impact-A separate small impact unit screws into the nose of the time fuze body. Centrifugal force causes a spring-loaded detent to move from under the striker. which is forced into the primer on impact. 1945 OFFICE CHIEF OF ORDNANCE RESTRICTED . consisting of a fixed firing pin and a movable primrer carrier held in the unfired position by a centrifugal detent. projectiles. OPERATION: Time-Setback causes the time striker to overcome its spring and set off the primer and powder time ring. strikes a fixed firing pin and ignites a powder delay train. The Type 3rd year has two time rings. held in the unfired position by a stirrup spring. S7 + SThe Sp Type 5th year has three time rings with two being movable. differing only in the maximum time settings which are: TYPE 3RD YEAR COMBINATION TIME AND IMPACT FUZE Type 3rd year-maximum 22 sec. E. 105 mm shrapnel and incendiary projectiles. and on impact it moves forward against the creep spring onto the firing pin functioning the fuze instantaneously. Time-On setback a movable primer. which ignites a black powder magazine at the end of the set time up to 44 seconds.ANTIAIRCRAFT FUZES JAPANESE Type 2 Combination Powder Time and Impact Fuze USE: Undetermined. Reported to be used in 75 o ///iII/iliiitil I\\\\\\\\\\\\\\ c mm incendiary. ) na ( TYPE 2 COMBINATION POWDER TIME AND IMPACT FUZE COMBINATION TIME AND IMPACT NOSE FUZES ° Type 3rd Year Combination Time and Impact Fuze Type 5th Year Combination Time and Impact Fuze USE: Type 3rd year-75 mm shrapnel and old 75 mm H. one being movable. /2 /3 /4 /5 is 17 8 19 20 Type 5th year-75 mm shrapnel.6 sec. centrifugal force moves the detent out. OPERATION: These two fuzes are identical in operation. After firing. TYPE 5TH YEAR COMBINATION TIME AND IMPACT FUZE 340 1 August. An anti-creep spring separates the primer and firing pin. and 150 mm shrapnel and illuminating projectiles.

wedging itself on the striker. OPERATION: This fuze has no arming features. On impact. the pimer moves down onto the firing pin and the primer flash passes through a small hole beside the firing pin into the delay. on impact. The flash of the primer passes through two holes beside the firing pin into the delay element. The movable SMALL MK. On impact. which is threaded into the forward part of the booster. projectiles for 57 mm tank guns. the primer carrier overcomes the creep spring and moves onto the striker. the striker overcomes the creep spring and moves onto the primer. P. MEDIUM MK. OPERATION: The movable primer carrier is held by two spring-loaded detents. P.BASE FUZES Type 94 Small Delay Base Fuze USE: 37 mm A. projectiles for the 70 mm tank gun and all 75 mm and 105 mm guns. the striker moves against the spring onto the primer. TYPE 94 SMALL DELAY BASE FUZE Type--Small Mk. projectiles for 47 mm antitank gun. OPERATION: The striker is held by two spring-loaded detents o TYPE 95 SMALL BASE FUZE which are moved out by centrifugal force. On impact. inertia firing fuze. projectile for 75 mm gun. OPERATION: Centrifugal force causes two spring-loaded detents to move out from notches in the striker which is separated from the primer by a creep spring. 1 BASE FUZE Type 95 Small Base Fuze USE: Reported to be used in A. RESTRICTED OFFICE CHIEF OF ORDNANCE 1 August. impinges the primer which in turn ignites a delay train and detonator. the inertia collar and striker overcome a creep spring and the striker. Type 92 Small Short Delay Base Fuze USE: A. 2 BASE FUZE ' -/ primer carrier is separated by a spring from the fixed firing pin. thus arming the fuze. These are moved out by centrifugal force and. 2 Base Fuze USE: A. projectiles for tank and antitank guns. 1 Base Fuze USE: A. o TYPE 92 SMALL SHORT DELAY BASE FUZE Medium Mk. P. setback causes an inertia collar to break a shear wire and move back. P. On impact. P. JAPANESE OPERATION: This is a simple setback arming. As the projectile is fired. 1945 341 .

600-2. Field Test * * * *Test 1.) 10.000 Field Test Aerial Burst Time Fuze How Stabilized Not Known Spin Spin Spin Fin Fin Fin Spin Weapons From Which Fired Triple Rail Guides on Revolving Carriage Mounted on Tripod Wooden Trough with Metal Bracket Type 4 Launcher (Looks like a Mortar) Wooden Rail Type Single & Triple 2-Wheeled Carriage w/61/2' Barrel and Split Trails Metal Trough (7'-6" long) on Fixed Bipod Type 10 Launcher ("V" Shaped Trough) Wooden W/2 Rail Trough Type 3 Rocket Launcher Truck Mounted Launcher Reported but not Recovered "V" Shaped Trough 22. Bomb Body W/ Permanently Bomb W/Rocket Bomb W/Rocket Attch.TABULATION OF JAPANESE ROCKETS 6.) 35.970 Field 1. 1945.000 estimate 11. * * * The Japanese mention three classes of these rockets under trial.5 286 38/4 or 37 41 approx.500 battle observation) 2.7 38. .8 cm Possibly a Line Throwing Device 12 cm Incendiary Shrapnel Rocket (Navy) 20 cm (202 mm) Army * 20 cm (210 mm) Navy ** 60 kg Type 97 No.094-1.250 yds.9 Motor 124 Bomb 616 w/o Propell.) 2000-3000 Controlled by 3.800 yard ranges. 1945.314 2.9' Long Wooden Launcher w/ Solid Wood Wheels and Tropgh Crude & Expendable * Four modifications of motor encountered in SWPA to 1 April.000 (7. 6 250 kg. Rocket Motor Motor (Large) Motor (Small) 45 cm Rocket Total Weight (Ibs) 51 200 to 205 198 Bomb only-124 91. 33-Motor 40%5/Motor 118 671/2 Filling WP Pellets TNT TNA Hexanite & TNA Hexanite & TNA TNA-HND Picric Acid Weight of Filling (lbs. 6 60 kg Type 97 No.5 50 50 212 Maximum Range (yds.* * 1. * ** * Other field tests resulted in 2. all differing in weight.514 Overall Length (ins. * * No propellant recovered to date 23 March.

..... 11.................44 ins... The propellant container is a cylinder with a cap welded on the front and a tail assembly and venturi tube secured on the rear. RESTRICTED OFFICE CHIEF 6 OF ORDNANCE 1 April........... 10 ins........ The propellant which weighs 12. The launcher is constructed of wood and metal with legs made of iron pipe. 4 ft............................. Length of propellant cylinder .... (132 lbs......... 11. Ranges up to 1.. Length of cable from baseplate to leg .... but it is felt that little..... Width outside of trough at front .............. 19 ft.. Diameter of venturi tube (outside) ............. 5....75 ins.......... Length of tail fin .. This is "V" shaped. 7. 11..... 33 ins...... 20 ft................ The rocket motor resembles a blunt...... .. if any........ 1... 6 ins......625 ins..........5 ins. fin to fin ...... 10 ins.. 1945 351 ..300 yards are claimed by the Japanese for this device.............. 3 ins.. 3.... short-bodied bomb...... 3 ins............... and hinged at three points on the lower right side of the launcher..... and between the legs.... Elevation is controlled by cables run from the base plate to the legs...........75 ins....... It is evidently designed to deliver fire on beachheads and other similar wide targets at fairly short ranges...... 8......... SPECIFICATIONS LAUNCHER Length of launcher (overall) ............... Width outside of trough at base . 8 ft...... ROCKET MOTOR Length of motor and bomb positioner (overall) ...5 ins...................... Diameter of leg .. Width of tail. Length of leg ...... Length of motor (overall) ....5 ins. Diameter of propellant cylinder (outside).......875 ins...5 ins.... When fired the motor propels'the bomb from the launcher and then drops off...... 11 ft. The rear is attached by a pin to a base plate with six wedge cut ground pins................... Width inside of trough at base . Width at leg shoes .....) slightly over four feet long..... 12 ft............. Width of tail fin .. 1........ 4 ins....... It is ignited by an igniter pad and an igniter fuze in the forward part of the motor by means of wires leading to a small hand blasting machine.......94 pounds consists of three cylindrical sticks tied in a yellow silk bag.. accuracy may be expected. Width inside of trough at front ........ The launcher channel is a right angle trough about twenty feet long with a motor and bomb positioner made of 1'/-inch pierced sheet metal...........ROCKET LAUNCHER AND ROCKET MOTOR MODEL 10 JAPANESE ROCKET MOTORED BOMB LAUNCHER This is a device designed to propel the 60 kg.. Height at 30° range setting .... (The motor and bomb positioner is not shown in the schematic sketch above..........5 ins............. 7....) aircraft bomb out of an inclined trough....

... Weight with propellant . NaC1...... However. 1.... without fuze..... Seven sticks of propellant (nitroglycerine............ Diameter of propellant sticks..28 ins. nitrocellulose........6 grams-1..... Type 91 (trinitroanisol). Weight of propellant ..... MOTOR Overall length of motor body........ D..-2........ The rocket is spin-stabilized... The explosive charge......... Angular cant of nozzles ...... Ignition is mechanical and from the forward end. Weight of high explosive filling ...591 ins. 12... The base plate which screws into the projectile body is also threaded to take the motor...41 ins....... rotating in a clockwise direction... The complete round. 38.... Weight of black powder ignition charge . The motor body.... and centralite) fit securely into the combustion chamber between the perforated cup and the grid..) Wall thickness ..39 in..20 cm ROCKET PROJECTILE AND LAUNCHER JAPANESE W 4 A...460 mm-18............: MOTOR ASE PLATE This ground-launched rocket is fired from a trough shaped launcher approximately 7 feet long.....0 mm-....... 25° Diameter of body. the Type 91 Time.......... Diameter of perforation ......... is approximately 41 inches long and weighs 198... all have only a single axial perforation.970 yds.....162 kg.-18..... which weighs approximately 175 pounds. 1945 OFFICE CHIEF ) OF ORDNANCE RESTRICTED . A black silk powder bag lashed to the perforated cup forms the ignition charge.. 352 1 April........ 58.....3 kg. ...........9 kg. 8... and Type 88 P.) at 50° elevation..... fuzes will also fit the fuze pocket... In addition to this standard fuze..... The Japanese claim a range of 1..... Six sticks form a circle around an identical central stick.. 290..-88 lbs..0 mm. 10..0 kg..... Weight of propellant sticks (eachvaries slightly) ... is cast directly into the lacquered interior of the case. it is not known whether the rocket will produce sufficient setback to arm these fuzes..........15.5 kg..- Overall length of projectile without 4 fuze ...4 ......0 mm-11. Length of propellant sticks. 210. 588..3 pounds....472 in....11 ins..30 ins......... A perforated cup fits against the motor closing plate at the forward end.. Minimum diameter of orifices.0 mm-.-110 lbs..... Wall thickness ..... a straight cylinder...23.56 lbs.800 meters (1.. Type 100 Combination. It is fitted with a centrifugally armed point detonating fuze. The projectile has a straight body and an ogival nose.... 49.6 lbs.... 17..... The motor base plate of hardened steel has six offset nozzles and a central threaded opening for a percussion type primer...... SPECIFICATIONS PROJECTILE Weight of projectile without fuze ..43 in.0 mm-2... 8... is closed at the rear by a base plate to which a grid is attached..0 mm-. 50... 40....77 ozs.....1 ins.3 lbs....5 mm (approx......... 11.0 mm-..

IAPANLS )RDNAN( MARKING .

#2) Baku 9 9 (Organization (o) Unit or 19 Sho Factory He) Gun 10 Torpedo (Aerial) Mines 20 n Arsenal Rai Sho . #18) Rocket Dan MG 11 Rifle Pistol Carbine J _ _ 2 12 Artillery Shell (W. #2) Ryi Cannon Howitzer Mortar 13~ !i~iI~Mark Go' Data on Bombs Number and H5 Explosives Ammunition Yaku 14 1 Metric Terms (Weight & Dimension) Sanchi Miri 5 Type 15 Aircraft Shiki . #12) Bomb (w.KEY CHARACTERS for Essential Japanese Ordnance Materiel TABLE CHARACTER ORDNANCE TABLE CHARACTER ORDNANCE 1* Tanks Trucks Cars Vehicles Sha Bullet Grenade Shell (w. Ki 6 Year Month Nen Getsu 16 Metals Tetsu 7 ~Fuel Yu Gasoline Oils Lubricating Oils 17 Fuze Cap Train Kan 8 Primer Shell Case Bangalore Torpedo Grenade Launcher Complete Round To' 18 Airplane Bomb (w.

RESTRICTED Translation of JAPANESE ORDNANCE MARKINGS AUGUST. RESTRICTED . D. F. 1945 A. S. OFFICE OF THE CHIEF OF ORDNANCE WASHINGTON. C.

................................................................ Key Characters for Essential Japanese Ordnance Materiel....... .... 76 RESTRICTED ......................................................... Method of Using the Key Character Tables in Translation................... 8 9 10 11 12 Tables of Basic Key Characters for Japanese Ordnance.... Japanese Markings Used to Indicate Arsenals........................ Japanese Markings on a Heavy Gun........... Explanation of the Key Characters and Their Use........................... Japanese Ballistic Terms ...................... 17 SECTION THREE-Practical Reading and Translation of Japanese Characters Japanese Markings Copied from a Tag Within an Ammunition Box....................... Japanese Characters for Type and Modification.................................................................... ............................................................... 5 SECTION TWO-Instructions for Translating Japanese Markings Different Japanese Calendar Systems..... 72 73 74 75 .........................................................RESTRICTED Table of Contents PAGE SECTION ONE-Introduction General Discussion of Japanese Characters.................... 1 Unusual Methods of Japanese Markings............................ Japanese Markings on an Airplane Bomb....................................

This book has been prepared as a practical guide to the translation of Japanese ordnance nomenclature. Because of their inability to read Japanese. many persons responsible for inspection of captured ordnance items are unable quickly and accurately to identify unfamiliar materiel. Its successful use does not require a prior knowledge of Japanese but depends only upon the application of simple principles that can be learned within a few hours. will enable the reader to translate markings that describe Japanese ordnance. boxes or pamphlets. It explains how the recognition of twenty key ideographs. Complete identification of Japanese . in conjunction with tables in the text.materiel often necessitates translation into English of the ideographs and phonetic alphabet characters stamped on equipment or printed on accompanying tags.

Most of these characters were adopted from the Chinese in the third century A." which means "Chinese characters.. this permits identification of the noun ideograph to serve as a key to the meaning of the combined characters. although the phonetic characters have considerable subsidiary use. several thousand ideographs have to be memorized for facility in reading or writing. the position of the noun does not correspond to that in English." During the long period that has elapsed since their adoption. "Kanji. Japanese ordnance inscriptions usually have an easily recognized noun character at or near the first part of the sentence.SECTION ONE INTRODUCTION General Discussion of Japanese Characters KANJI Until a phonetic alphabet was invented between 774 aid 835 A. color." The way in which ideographs are combined to designate a term or item is apparent from the combination of the three characters for picric acid in which the ideographs for yellow. the Chinese sounds for the ideographs have been modified until the present Japanese equivalents are quite different from the original Chinese.D. While each noun and its descriptive adjectives are represented by a separate ideograph.D. this Chinese origin being indicated by their name. Since-most of the words in the language are represented by an individual character. Japanese sentences do not follow normal English structure. Even today ideographs remain the principal medium for written Japanese. the Japanese depended entirely upon ideographs or picture-characters for written expression of their thoughts. as is shown in the section of this book entitled "Explanation of the Key Characters and Their Use. K Yellow f Shoku Color PICRIC ACID Yaku Powder . In translating. and powder are employed.

Sha Sha Sha In Japanese ordnance terms. for example. This "Sha" is the root word for all Japanese vehicles. and "sensha" (a battle tank). is always at the end of the group of characters. the . some of which are illustrated below. when so used." Unlike Kanji. where it is the terminal sound or ideograph. "jinrikisha" (a two-wheeled cart). CART TANK SJin (Man) Sen (Battle) j S Riki (Moves) Sha (Wagon) Sha (Wagon) This form of "Sha" appears in the nomenclature of all Japanese vehicular ordnance items. For instance. KANA The Japanese realized the disadvantages and limitations of their ideograph system in its inability to represent the constantly increasing number of foreign words being absorbed into the language. which cannot express the correct sound or proper construction of words. only the "Sha" character on the extreme left of this group of six selected pictures of the sound "Sha" is of value. This particular representation of "Sha" indicates a vehicle and. This problem was solved by use of the phonetic alphabet called "Kana. a single sound may have various meanings according to the context of" the sentence in which it is used. and is one of 20 key characters in the table of key ordnance characters which will be explained in detail later in this outline. there are numerous meanings of the word "Sha." each represented by a different ideograph. In written Japanese each of these meanings is clearly denoted by a distinctive ideograph.Because the number of word sounds in Japanese are limited.

JAPANESE ]KANA ALPHABET e jJka gki ga 'ku 'mu LTze be bau mi Lu E0 Lu ALI1 he tu E.1 p7aI 1:4f 7 ju LIII LYIa ts LXII buL Ez1 EZZ Lu0 Sshi Lilill LIII .

ay. or Kana character. These pronunciation sounds remain the same when they are converted into the two-letter syllables of the Kana Table. U. but also for each of the seventy-five two'letter sounds. The working plan of this table is simple. For example. generally ending a word. U. oh. Because of its phonetic nature Kana can be used for foreign words after they have been reduced to Japanese syllables as closely as possible imitative of the sounds in the original words. All these sounds appear in the Kana Table. H. Gu Ne Shiyu Mu SBROWNING Bu Ra U Ni En* Gu *A special character. To the Japanese. 0. 0. E. D. S. B. are pronounced ah. into the written Kana language: A ah Ne nay Ro ro I ee Do do ANEROID S MAGNESIUM Ma . R. in Japanese. E. Kana may be more accurately considered a syllabary than an alphabet. the consonant K produces five separate syllable sounds when added singly to each one of the five vowels. This can only be done after the English word is separated into a grouping of sounds closest to those in the Kana alphabet. These are KA. I. Magnesium. for not only each of the five vowels. P. KI. Y. There is a separate alphabet mark. The pronunciation of the vowel sounds is slightly different from the English pronunciation: thus A. K. Z. The table of Kana characters appears on Page 3. KU. I. When the Japanese want to convert a new English word such as "aneroid" into their printed language they use the Kana system of basic sounds. Note again that the Kana characters represent syllables. and KO. "aneroid" sounds like the following: ah/nay/ro/ee/do. ee. M. Since its characters represent sounds and not letters. and can be written by using the Kana characters. and Browning. . W. T. N. Kana is designed around the five vowels. The following are examples of the method of changing three words. These Kana characters are used not only for Japanese ordnance items but also for Japanese medical and chemical warfare terms. F. making a total of eighty individual Japanese Kana characters in the basic table. G. and the fifteen consonants. Aneroid. Examples of the use of Kana are set forth below.eighty Kana characters represent the basic syllables of the language. en or an. oo. KE. A.

By memorizing the Japanese numerals from one to ten." In the illustration Japanese numerals for "88" are the first two on the extreme right followed by the ideograph for "Shiki" (Type). hence it is common to find a vertical list of items headed by a Kana symbol instead of a number (when used as first. These are: (1) wooden shipping-cases. They may start either from left to right or from right to left. Japanese often use Kana to list ordnance items. Thus the direction of placing the characters on this shipping box is from right to left. The direction in which they are to be read can be found by noting the location of the character for Type ("Shiki") which invariably appears in inscriptions for all ordnance items. as illustrated: m The first step in translating such an inscription is to determine the order in which the Japanese characters are written. the Japanese generally describe the item by characters painted across one or more sides of the wooden box. as boosters and fuzes.). (2) metal parts of ordnance items. which in Japanese always precede the character for "Type. it is the third ideograph from the right. On artillery ammunition items. In the illustration. etc. but placed in the opposite direction from that found. or painted thereon. second.Since the Kana characters are easier to write than Kanji numerals. shown in Table No. Kana characters such as "To" are stamped into the metal. it is easy to recognize their ideographs. which either accompany the item within the wooden shipping case or are obtained among captured records found with the equipment. When right to left order has been followed in marking. third. 5 of Section Two. (3) cardboard tags. (1) On wooden shipping cases. The polished brass surface of an artillery shell cartridge-case lends itself readily to the paint- Hachi Hachi 88 Type Shiki Tan En Short-Delay Ki Shin Fuze Kan *Key Characters . (4) descriptive booklets. it is suggested (for simplicity in translation) that the characters be copied on paper as usual. discussed later in this publication. Unusual Methods of Japanese Marking There are four main types of material on which Japanese character markings describing ordnance items are placed. These are important identification marks. as follows: (2) Japanese mark metal parts of ordnance items with both Kanji and Kana characters. tied to the item by string or pasted on metal inner-cases.

" to mark the bottom of the cartridge case. or for quickly painting an abbreviated arsenal mark. The flexibility of Kana characters in describing various ordnance items is evident in the use of one of the plainest and most widely employed Kana characters. when the Japanese mark their machine gun ammunition for airplanes." This is illustrated by the view of a Japanese 150 mm howitzer shell. As an interesting sidelight on this abbreviated system of marking. it indicates that the shell was manufactured at the "Tokyo Army Branch Ordnance Depot." When "To" is painted on the body of an artillery shell. while "Yo" is used to mark the products of the Yokosuka Navy Yard in airplane machine gun ammunition. . although they use the same character. not for the purpose of translation of the markings. although intended for different weapons. but to show their position. "To. it indicates an entirely different place of manufacture. 1 However. The following illustration is arranged. Likewise the "A" of the Kana alphabet is used to indicate the Asahi Plant. the sound of the character "To" is the sound of the first part of the word Toyokawa. The markings here generally indicate the type of gun that is to fire this ammunition. just above the rotating band. (3) When the Japanese place characters on pasteboard tags or on paper labels attached to ordnance items.ing of the more intricate Kanji characters for marking purposes. These are to prevent mistakes when several types of shells resemble each other. Kana characters are simple in design and make good dies for stamping Japanese metal parts. they use Kanji. "To. In this case "To" refers to the Toyokawa Navy Yard.

These are shown not for the purpose of translation. Uf7 n -. using the system of selecting the key characters and subsequently referring to the tables in which they are located." . as explained in Section Two." while that to the right is the date.and look for key characters. The heavy-type column to the left is the name: "Artillery Ammunition. It is cautioned here that the Japanese put such general descriptions on what we would call the back page of our books. Holding the Japanese book in a normal position it is necessary to turn to the final page. The reproduction of characters on this label is accompanied by their actual translation. and to repeat the caution that the characters are to be read along a vertical line from top to bottom. This inscription demonstrates that when the Japanese print ordnance terms on paper they arrange the characters in a long. but merely to illustrate where to look for them in the book. "May 1938. For example.p SJapanese ' | (4) After study of this booklet it will be possible to translate the general descriptive matter in pamphlets accompanying Japanese ordnance items. vertical line reading from top to bottom.A sample of such a marking copied from a label glued to the cardboard shipping container for a shell is shown in Section Three of this text. illustrated here are two sections from the descriptive page of a captured Japanese booklet on artillery shells.

is referred to as the "Showa Era. Any ordnance materiel produced within one of these periods might be marked as "Showa Era. Ku Hachi Shiki 9 8 Type As an example of a date in a decade preceding that shown. and any Japanese models produced in that year would be called their "Type 81. or the golden era. The Japanese Kanji ideograph "Shiki. or by its reduced form 98 derived by dropping the first two digits as is done when our year 1945 is abbreviated to '45. howitzers. represented either by four digits. begun in 1926. There have been three different eras representing the reigns of individual Japanese emperors within the past seventy-seven years. as in the year 2598." REIGN OF EMPEROR OR ERA The Japanese also indicate the date in terms of the year of the reign of a Japanese emperor." meaning the bright period. Sho Bright Wa Era . The reign of the present emperor." always employed with the abbreviated date numerals. with a descriptive term indicating the year the item was officially adopted. For marking high explosives.SECTION TWO INSTRUCTIONS FOR TRANSLATING JAPANESE MARKINGS Different Japanese Calendar Systems The Japanese designate types of ordnance materiel. It is common for the Japanese to make liberal use of calendar dates.. It is designated by the characters shown at right. a date on the label of the package or outside of the shipping box indicates the date of manufacture. is shown with the numeral characters for nine and eight. etc. the year 1921 is the equivalent of the Japanese calendar year 2581. guns. each reign being known as an era. as explained later. rifles. such as mortars. BASIC JAPANESE CALENDAR One system employs the basic Japanese calendar years. but it must be remembered that four different systems are employed. 18 Year" (our year 1943).

For example. The following are some common markings used by the Japanese on their ordnance items to express Type and Type Numbers: Ni 2 Shiki Type Cha Brown TNT Katsu Saku Bursting Yaku Powder (Year) 1942 Bursting Charge Ju 11th Ichi Nen Year Shiki Type Sea Kai Gan Coast Gun Ho . Era 4 covers the Showa Era from 1926 to the present time. they employ the same general principle in relation to indicating a date marking.. the English equivalent of the 20th year of the Showa Era can be found by adding 20 to 1925. and Showa Eras. Table No. Era 2 covers the Meiji Era from 1868 to 1912. 6 describes the Kanji characters used by the Japanese to indicate the Meiji Taisho.Development of modern Japanese ordnance has occurred only in the three most recent eras. bombs. Conversion of a date within any Japanese era to one in our calendar can be accomplished by adding the given Japanese year to the English date for the year preceding the beginning of the era. 3 and 4 are designated by different ideographs. Japanese Characters for Type and Modification TYPE The Japanese always use dates or numerals with a character which refers to dates in classifying their ordnance items. and (b) give the particular year of this era to which the date applies. small arms. but always in association with numerals of one or two digits. fuzes. etc. These numerals are abbreviations for dates in the Japanese calendar. Only one character is used to indicate the type classification. Although Eras 2. which gives our year 1945." It appears on artillery shells. This character is "Shiki. Era 3 covers the Taisho Era from 1912 to 1926. The basis for each is to (a) name the era during which the item was designed or manufactured. howitzers. guns.

and in combination with it give the name of a specific Japanese ordnance item. 18 on Airplane Bombs." "weight. Note: It is common to find the ideograph for modification with a numeral placed together near the base of the shell. . Table No. another double-character group. the key character is always the last character in a related group of sounds or written characters. "Ryu. Note that this key character. One key character. Likewise the key character "Dan" just described is joined with a second key character "Baku. "Dan. Cars and Tractors.MODIFICATIONS The Japanese describe modifications of ordnance items in the following manner: Ichi Shiki Baka Modification 1 Dan 1 1941 Type Airplane Bomb ^rm." to form a double key character group." Explanation of the Key Characters and Their Use On page 11 and on the inside of the cover appears a table of key ordnance characters. such as "Sha" (a vehicle) is the terminal root word for four classes of ordnance items in the vehicular family. The meaning is "The new improved type No." and "design number. the Japanese use. three extra characters to indicate "mark. in addition to these characters. Each key character is a base or root word which the Japanese use in designating ordnance materiel." is added to another key character. 2 has a key character of "Dan. The particular type of vehicle referred to by "Sha" can be ascertained by using the table to identify the characters that precede the key ideograph. 2." These are discussed in Table No. the Japanese write additional characters which modify the root word to indicate the full description of the particular item. Modification 2 In marking bombs. modify it. 13." to form. namely: Tanks. From this combination is derived a new table (Table No. Except in rare instances. 12) to indicate Artillery Shells and Rockets." and includes such items as Bullets and Grenades. Trucks. Also in this section are tables of key characters that list those characters which normally accompany the key ideograph. giving us Table No. as "Sen Sha" (tank) or "Chu Sen Sha" (medium tank). but note that in following this rule the direction of writing must first be ascertained. Next to each key character.

#18) Rocket Dan 2 iShell 3 Ho' Gun Cannon Howitzer Mortar Explosives Ammunition Yaku 5 Type Shiki 6 Nen 1113 Getsu Year Month Gasoline 7 5 Yu Fuel Oils Lubricating Oils 8 f Primer Shell. Case Bangalore Torpedo Grenade Launcher Complete Round To _ 9 (Unit (or)1 ±~* Gun Organization or Hei 1t Rai Mines Torpedo (Aerial) .KEY CHARACTERS for Essential Japanese Ordnance Materiel TABLE CHARACTER ORDNANCE Tanks Trucks Cars Vehicles Sha Bullet Grenade (w. #12) Bomb (w.

Mark off the characters accompanying each key character. from left to right. into the compound group of characters." and "Sha" that compose the word for medium tank. Page 13 of this outline explains the method. Ascertain the direction in which the particular writing to be translated has been written." "Sen. Sha Vehicle Sen Battle Sha Wagon Chu Medium Sen Battle Sha Wagon Wagon TANK MEDIUM TANK The three characters "Chu. it is recommended that the writing be treated piecemeal in groups of three or four characters.. Select all the key characters in the writing. e. right to left. That is one reason why it is necessary to memorize the twenty key characters used in ordnance. Method of Using the Key Character Tables in Translation 1. The key character "Sha" is placed last. This may be done by drawing rectangles around each related group of characters (key characters plus accompanying modifying characters). 2. Become thoroughly familiar with each key character. The following example is employed to show the method used in building up "Ju" (meaning a small gun). to the right of the modifying characters "Chu" and "Sen.." When the Japanese mark ordnance items they do so without punctuation. "Ken Ju" (meaning a pistol) and then "Ji Do Ju" (meaning an automatic rifle). and with the characters for numerals from 1 to 10. The materiel to which the other tables relate appears on top of each table. 3. are shown above as the Japanese would write them from left to right on a wooden crating for the vehicle. i7 Small Gun Ken Hand Operated JR Small Gun Self- fi D Acting Ju Small Gun PISTOL AUTOMATIC RIFLE .These are the only tables which are made up from double key characters. i. selecting a key character from a group and translating that group before proceeding to the next group. more than 50). 4. or top to bottom. Note: Where the writing to be translated involves a considerable number of characters (i. e.

The only additions to it have been the placing of the letters A. turn to Table No. three. it is found that "Ku Hachi Shiki" means Type 98. The names of the Japanese characters are given in each case. the cross-line is beneath the key character. 11. the last character of the line (bearing in mind the direction of the writing of the group) is selected. Taking "Ju" and its two preceding characters (the Japanese usually write in groups of two. Ku Hachi Shiki Ji Self- D6 J]i Small Gun 9 8 Type Acting TYPE 98 AUTOMATIC . Note that there are no periods." plus its descriptive adjective ideographs. In the case mentioned there were 43 Japanese characters appearing in one consecutive vertical line which has been divided into four columns for convenience in printing. When .the Japanese string of characters proceeds from top to bottom. as is shown in Table No. The finding of "Shiki" (Type). It has been taken from a Japanese book on Japanese artillery shells. an airplane bomb. Since it is a key character. RIFLE The direction in which the Japanese wrote these characters must be determined. then the cross-line follows the key character but is to the left of it. The illustration below shows the ideographs for "automatic rifle" by a new key character. or four characters when describing ordnance). commas. Similarly. Elsewhere in this publication are illustrated actual markings found on a captured Japanese ammunition box. 11. Note that if the Japanese write from left to right. is the first step. Since the numerals for 9 and 8 are to the left of "Shiki" the writing plan is from left to right. and E for reference purposes and the drawing of a line . the key characters being set off from the long string of modifying characters by placing a cross-line just below the key character. The following illustration is employed to show how several vertical columns of Japanese characters may be broken down into the key characters for translation purposes. the cross-line follows the key character and is to the right of it.Up to now only one key character with its adjective ideographs has been described. If the Japanese write from right to left. B. as illustrated in Section Three (page 72)." a key character for small arms. It is always preceded by numerals. C. "Shiki. and a heavy gun. the character third from the left. The partial translation and the full translation are given with each example. D. It is "Ju. There the meanings of the three picture characters are found to be automatic rifle. or open spaces.

The best plan. Start at the foot of the column for the first key character. the method is to go to the foot of each vertical line for the first key character and strike a line under it. When the Japanese write in vertical columns. Here it is to be noted that "Ho" and "Po. is to work in groups of but two or three characters at a time." look through Table No. 4 shows that in this particular case only "Yaku" and its adjoining character "Dan" are in the table and mean Ammunition (General)." In questioning how many characters are to be included with "Ho. 4. Roughly. 3.beneath each key character to illustrate the method followed in determining key characters and the preceding characters which are used to describe them. Here the column marked A is the first to be read. the Sreading starts at the top right hand corner." denoted by the same ideograph. how many characters relate to "Yaku"? Table No. It is "Yaku. to avoid confusion in locating the next key character. are inter- ." found in Table No. The third character from the bottom is next found to be a key character "Ho. The next question is.

The translation of this phrase is thus "Type 91. makes translation easy." By this same method the ideographs in Column B are identified and translated into "Model 91 Streamlined Shell." Column D'has two sections." while the lower section means "Explosive Charge. TNT. The next key character "Sanchi." Column C is translated as "Fuze." meaning Howitzer." . an upper and a lower section. 5. the first of which is translated as "Projectile. It is quite evident that the next character "Shiki" is a key character and it is preceded by the numeral characters "Ku" (nine) and "Ichi" (one)." or "Shell Body." meaning centimeter. depending upon the type of weapon. In this particular case the key character is "Po" and the two characters next to "Po" in the Japanese text are included with the key character in line 5 of the table to form the Japanese word "Ryu Dam Po. With it is the numeral "Ju" (ten) to complete the term 10 CM. given in Table No.changeable when referring to artillery pieces and mortars.

TABLES OF BASIC KEY CHARACTERS FOR JAPANESE ORDNANCE .

TANK Sen Sha Battle Wagon gII !jf4 Kei Light LIGHT TANK Sha ______________ Sen Battle Wagon MEDIUM TANK Cha Sen Sha Medium Battle Wagon HEAVY Heavy Battle Wagon ______ TANK ________ MOTOR CAR Do Sha Self Moving Wagon Ji Self MOTOR TRUCK DI Moving a Sha Wagon (Continued on next page) Freight .

-- lIt Ki Do Ka Freight Sha Wagon CATERPILLAR TRUCK Cycled Track MOTOR CYCLE Ji Self-Moving Do Ji Self-Cycling Ten Sha Vehicle SIDE CAR Sokut - Sha Vehicle 4 Side i -- I S- S COMMAND Shi Command CAR K Sha Vehicle RECONNAISSANCE Ji Self-Moving Do Tei Scout Sha Vehicle ARMORED CAR So Ko> Sha i Armor-Plated Vehicle (Continued on next page) .7B TANKS TRUCKS VEHICLES Sha Vehicle ---.--.

Gen Ki Cycle Do Tractioned Hakai To Destroy Sen Battle Sha Wagon TANK DESTROYER AMPHIBIAN RiuSui iu Ryo Dojbie-Use Yo Sen Sha Wagon TN Sea and Land Baftle . KS ARMORED TROCA Sha Vehicle Dan Ammunition Yaku Sha Wagon AMMUNITION WAGON TRACTOR Ken Traction Y Sha Vehicle I I I Ka (An) Artillery Gun LJo Ken 4 Sha Conveyance ARTILLERY TRACTOR Tractioned ~J.~4~~'~' ~TANKS .~ #J ur U CTRPLA In Sha Vehicle ~ Ken WTRACTOR Mu Endless. t Hei Troop 4i S6 Armor-Plated.i'K VEHICLES /4 Sh4.

POINTED BULLET Sen Dan Bullet Cone-shaped RIFLE BULLET Sbo Small Gun Iii Dan Bullet TRACER BULLET Ei Kan Dan Tracer Bullet !~S1LLIGHT Ei Trace Ko Dan Bullet TRACER BULLET Light IW En Dan SMOKE TRACER BULLET Trace Smoke Bullet EXPLOSIVE Baku Retsu Ju Dan BLE Explosive-Burst Rifle-Bullet (Continued on next page) .

Small Arms I DanBUL (Bullet) Ko Zai Dan Bullet HARD WOOD BULLET Hard Timber (Wood) S DUM-DUM BULLET Da Dum Da Dum Mu Mu Dan Bullet ARMOR PIERCING BULLET Ha Pierce Ko Armor I Ju Rifle Dan Bullet I_-I- Dan Dan Shi Sh --- SHRAPNEL BULLET I -- GRENADE Grenade __ __ (Continued on next page) .i3 l D BULLETS GRENADES BOMBS (TABLE 18) SHELLS (TABLE 12) ROCKETS Dan INCENDIARY Sh Incendiary 1 (Used Yo by) Sho .

q 7- Dan BULLETS GRENADES BOMBS (TABLE 18) SHELLS (TABLE 12) ROCKETS | Shu Hand (Thrown) Ryu Shell Dan HAND GRENADE RIFLE GRENADE --Rifle- Iii ' ----(Use) Yo Teki Grenade Dan PHOSPHORUS GRENADE Rin Phosphorus Zai Filled (Dose) Teki Grenade Dan THERMITE GRENADE Shaku --- Nestu '-- Teki ---- Dan Intense Heat (Red Hot) Grenade 3 1 Fun Spitting Out Shin (as it Advances) STANDARD ROCKET Dan Tsu Known (as) J Regular Shell (PROJECTILE) (of the 20 cm type) A ROCKET STANDARD PROJECTILE .

) Gun U--I- FIELD GUN - CANNON Hei Sha Trajectory Ho Low Gun 15 CM CANNON J 15 Go Sanchi Centimeter Ka Cannon Non Ho Gun t Ut HOWITZER Ry7 (Common) Dam Shell Gun Po' Note: Calvary is "Kiho" P Ki HL H CAVALRY GUN Cavalry (Abbrev.--- Note: Ho and Po interchangeable Sam Sam Mountain Mounfaln Gun Gun MOUNTAIN GUN Po -r Note: Field is "Yagai" I iiT Field (Abbrev..) Gun (Continued on next page) .

. Man-the-Gun H Defenders Kai Gan IiIf H COAST DEFENSE GUN Sea Coast Gun Kak Ko3 H SMOOTH-BORE GUN Smooth-Bore Gun AUTOMATIC GUN ft Self-Acting ______ Gun Soku Sha QUICK-FIRING GUN H Rapid-Fire Gun (Continued on next page) .j / 7/' L4 5UE. GUN CANNON HOWITZER calibre Ju) than M R A b Kai Gun Ii~INAVAL H GUN Sea Branch Gun ~-ijf1~L~SIEGE Shu GUN 1.

PURPOSE GUN (HIGH-ANGLE GUN) Ka High-Angle Kaku Gun H BATTALION (INFANTRY) GUN Dal Tai Unit I 'p I A Multi-Sized Hei Sha Low-Trajectory Large-Size Gun I Is Tai Ii~ Gun Ho" Gun REGIMENTAL GUN Ren Unit INFANTRY CANNON Ho Infantry Hei MORTAR KyIi Ho Mortar RIFLED MORTAR Jhz Sen Ky7 ______ Rifling Mortar (Continued on next page) .l~1 /5 GUN CANNONFB HOWITZER Ho Gune MORTAR (larger DUAL.

GUN // HOWITZER MORTAR Gun (larger i1~ Kei Light _ _ _ _LIGHT Haku -Geki Gun Ho TRENCH MORTAR Close-Quarters (Attack) HEAVY Ji7 ../ ~ ~ ~'CANNON ~ "..:.4 Haku Geki t TRENCH MORTAR Gun Heavy Close-Quarters (Attack) Kyoku High-Angle Sha 4 Ho Infantry He) Ii~i 4 Ha INFANTRY MORTAR (81 mm) Fire Gun ANTIAIRCRAFT Tai Anti Ku Aircraft Ko High Angle (Elevation) Sha Gun Ho GUN Tai Anti Sen Sha Iio Gun Ho ANTITANK GUN Tank K. ANTIAI RCRAFT Ki Sh Kn Ko High Angle (Elevation) MACHINE CANNON Machine-Firing Large-Size Gun (Cannon)__________________ .

GUN CANNON Ho Gun (larger a~re tMan Ju) MORTARR ~ I Do ANTIAIRCRAFT MOBILE GUN KJ Sha H Mobile High-Angle (Elevation) Gun I4 1iir Ko Feb Ko Sha Ho ANTIAI RCRAFT FIXED GUN Tei Fixed High-Angle (Elevation) Gun "POM-POM" GUN MACHINE CANNON Ki Kan Machine-Firing Large-Sized Gun (Cannon) Cho Sha Tei IiTj Gun LONG-RANGE FIELD GUN Ho Long Range n____Ji Do Sha Ken TRACTOR DRAWN ARTILLERY Ho Self-Powered Vehicle With Traction (Carrying a) Yo Sgai Ho FORTRESS HEAVY ARTILLERY Fortress Heavy Gun ROCKET GUN Fun Shin Dan Shell Ho Gun Gun Spitting Out-(as it)-Advances Rocket .

BOOSTER CHARGE Booster Note: Explosion Burst is: "Sakurotsu" (Example.PROPELLANT CHARGE So Yaku " Ten Ignition Ka Yaku Powder PRIMING POWDER (IGNITER) BOOSTER CHARGE Den Booster K Yaku Powder B l Ko A Shu Grade 4 Shi O Rei 0 L Ga Gram IS Den A lA-GRADE. Ka Yaku Powder 40 GRAM. shrapnel) Saku (Abbrev.) Explosive Burst Yaku Powder EXPLOSIVE BURSTING CHARGE TTV I I ~ I ABURSTING Cha TNT Katsu Saku (Bursting) Yaku Powder CHARGE AMMUNITION (GENERAL) Dan Ammunition Yaku (Continued on next page) .

Powder FINE-GRAINED POWDER Small Grain Powder BROWN (COLORED) POWDER Kas Brown Shoku Color Yaku Powder GUN POWDER 6b% tPOWDER Koku Black BLACK (COLORED) GUN POWDER Shoku Color Yaku Powder (Continued on next page) .Z Ji 1 5 Go Sanchi Centimeter h Ka WS Non Dan Ammunition Yaku 15 GM ICANONR sAMMUNITON FOR Cannon SMOKELESS POWDER M4 Mu En En Ka Gun I Yaku Powder 4 Smokeless I Dai Dai Large Ryt Ya Ryu Grain Yaku LARGE-GRAINED POWDER .EXPLOSIVES Yaku Powder 6 Sen K Ryue Explosive Dan Shell Saku Bursting Yaku~z Powder Used to Perforate Armor Plate HOLLOW CHARGE AMMUNITION ti..

NH2 NITRATE (Continued on next page) .NH2NITROGUANIDINEAMMONIUM NHNO NH. SI ! Sho > ^ 4f (CH2)3 (N. and therefore no English words were placed under the characters as has been done in other tables in this outline. the Japanese have selected arbitrary symbols or characters which are used as a sort of code. Yaku Powder MEDIUM SIZE SQUARE FLAKE Ho Square POWDER STRIP POWDER Tai Jo Ka Gun i. Yaku CYCLONITE NITROGUANIDINE ISTHE CHEMICAL ("GUNIGIN.- Yaku Band-Shaped Powder p NOTE: To indicate the more modern varieties of military high explosives. 2 NH. U Yaku NO2)3 CYCLONITE (EQUIVALENT TO RDX OR HEXYL) SSr HTNT S| Cha Katsu Yaku C6H2CH 3 (N02) 3 Powder (TRINITROTOLUOL) Brown * An E! Ga i AC." TR) NITROGUANIDIN C. There are no known English equivalents for these symbols. NHN.I Sh? Ilt f NITRO-POWDER Yaku Powder Ka Nitro | Chu Medium (Size) >l Kei ^i Ryui Flake .

32 .'f NH4 0104 CnH~n-2 H2N.~ jat /~ '~' ~EXPLOSIVES C6H-2 (N0 2)4 NCH 3 TETRYL 't C(CH 2 0N02)4 PETN (PENTAERYTHRITE TETRANITRATE) Ak.iy " . SEE: (Nx NT AMTOLUO 5En To Yaku KI POTASSIUM CLRT 14C Yellow Color C6H2 (N02)3 OH Shoku PICRIC ACID YakuL Ko Powder SEE: PICRIC ACID AND TNT AI TNTI (Continued on next page.C 5[[~SE: CYCLONITE (NH) NH 2 HNO3 AMMONIUM PERCHLORATE (MIXTURE) CYCLONITE COH2 (0C H5) (N02)3 TRINITROP'HENETOL r NeiYak HeiA 'Iii.

j -~SEE: BOTH COMPOUNDS PICRIC ACID SEE: PICRIC ACID PARCAFI Jj jjjj JIL C 10 oH (N02)2 6 - DINITRONAPHTALENE NH4NO. NH4 NO3 C~oHNOCHEDDITE (NITRONAPHTALENE KCIO 8 POTASSIUM CHLORIDE) HgC N:O:FULMINATE p ~3J3HgC22O2(DETONATOR) Kai K OF MERCURY HgC2N2O2 Baku Fun FULMINATE OF MERCURY KCIO3s Sb2S 3 POTASSIUM CHLORATE ANTIMONY SULFIDE Pb(N Chik Ka En Pb(N3)2LEAD 3 AZIDE )2(DETONATOR) .~'«'~ /EXPLOSIVES '< ~ .

0001000 75Jzu 75 man Haku man .000 1.JAPANESE NUMERALS TYPE 99 0 1 2 3 Q - Rei JLJ)L Kujuku ~ ~ - Ichi Ni San ~ Shiki 4 5 6 7 [7LShi G L 99 TYPE 1 MODEL Roku Hichi - 8 Ichi Shiki 9 10 A 1tKu Hachi MODEL ONE 11th Year TYPE ti Ji ichi 11 12 13 ±-~1.000 tf t t -1t I Ju shicki Iii hachi ftki t tSan IL t L Ni j j Shi ju Go ji Hyaku Sen -h' 71Man 100. Ju ichi Nen Shiki t iii tu Ju n Jsan 11th Year MODEL 17 18 19 20 30 40 50jj 100 1000 10.

10th t Ju Getsu Month OCTOBER . the same as in our calendar system.ERAS TIME PERIODS DURING TIME DURING REIGN OF THREE RECENT EMPERORS NAMES NAMES CALENDAR DATES OF ERAS CALENDAR DATES OF ERAS j IiJ Mei Ji MEIJI ERA 1868 TO 1912 INCLUSIVE kE Tai Sbo TAISHO ERA 1912 TO 1926 INCLUSIVE UJ 1i ShA Wa SHOWA ERA 1926 TO PRESENT TIME There Are Three Ditferent Dates for the Following: h JI 10th Nen Year 10th YEAR 10th Year MEIJI ERA 1867 10 Mei Ji Ju Nen Meiji (Era) 10th Year 1877 Tai Sho Ju Nen Taisbo (Era) 10th Year 1 10th Year SHOWA ERA 1925 10 Sho Wa Ju Nen 1 Showa (Era) 10th Year 1935 Month Getsu The first month of the Japanese year is January and the twelfth month is December.

ENGLISH TRANSLATION 1 Ki Volatile Hatsu Oil Yu GASOLINE (KANJI) 2 Rin GASOLINE (KANA) Ga So 3 IB i ~Ud Pu Ordinary ORDINARY GASOLINE Ki Volatile Tsu Hatsu Oil Yu 4 Toku Shu 4j Ki Hatsu l Yu SPECIAL GASOLINE Special Volatile Oil 5 Bun Distilled Ryu Ki Hatsu GASOLINE l"CRACKING PROCESS" Yu Oil FROM (FRACTIONAL DISTILLATION) Volatile 6 7kLJI Ka Ku Ki Ki Hatsu Yu AVIATION GASOLINE Aviation Volatile Oil (Continued on next page) .REFERENCE LINE NUMBER THESE ARE USED IN PRINTED TEXT FOR ABBREVIATIONS ON CANS OR DRUMS. SEE PAGE 38.

[j Gen Rjo Ku Hatsu jj Yu Oil ADDING TETRA-ETHYL-LEAD) Raw Material Volatile 8 I KEROSENE 9' ________ " Lubricating Oil LUBRICATING OIL 10i' 10 Light Lubricating 11 Katsu ___________Heavy i Oil i YuOil LUBRICATING OIL LIGHT LUBRICATING HEAVY OIL Lubricating 12 9\ Pa 2 1 Ra Pin 41 Oil PARAFFIN OIL (Continued on next page) . SEE PAGE 38.'411 Oil REFERENCE NMER THESE ARE USED IN PRINTED TEXT FOR ABBREVIATIONS ON CANS OR DRUMS. UBFUEL O GASOLINEILS ENGLISH TRANSLATION Jiji 4 f4 .

11LUBRICATING Oil ~ItIIGASOLINE FUEL OILS OILS REFERENCE NMER THESE ARE USED IN PRINTED TEXT FOR ABBREVIATIONS ON CANS OR DRUMS. SEE PAGE 38. ENGLISH TRANSLATION 13 Nai Internal Eu Oil Yu INTERNAL (ENGINE) OIL 14 . Hi I)II)I Ma Castor-Bean 71 (I Shi Oil CASTOR OIL YU 17 1IJr1EI K5 YU MINERAL OIL Mineral Oil (Continued on next page) .15.Extfernal EXTERNAL Oil (GEAR) OIL 15 1% bi#I4Ii { Nen FUEL OIL Ry~ Yu Fuel Oil 16 gY.

GASOLINE LUBRICATING OILS FUEL OILS OIil Yu ABBREVIATED JAPANESE MARKINGS USED ON GAS AND OIL DRUMS ABBREVIATED JAPANESE MARKINGS USED ON GAS AND OIL DRUMS 2 K 1 or 2 1 SE KI or P No. 1 Internal Oil KU 90 KI 6 or A 90 G 14 ichi Gai Abbreviation: KOKUKI (Aviation) 90-Octane Aviation Gasoline Abbreviation: GAIBU No. 2 Gasoline Note: Abbreviation "KI" is derived from KIHATSUYU (Gasoline) 8 Abbreviation: SEKI YU (Kerosene) No. 1 Kerosene FU KI 3 or I 10 KEI YU or K Note: Abbreviation FUTSU (Ordinary) Abbreviation: KEIKATSU YU Light Oil 1 JU TT 4 91 G 11 Abbreviation: JUKATSU No. 1 External Oil KU 87 GEN KI 7 - or G 87 B *Numbers correspond to those in preceding table. 1 Heavy Oil Toku Special 91-Octane Gasoline BUN 80 5 or 80 CG 13 ichi Nai Abbreviation: BUNRYU (Distilled) 9 0-Octane Cracked-Gasoline Abbreviation: NAI BU No. (Key Character "Yu") Abbreviation: GENRYO and KOKUKI 87-Octane Aviation Base-Gasoline .

PRIMER Baku Explosive Tube To SHELL CASE Yaku TO Tube Case Powder CARTRIDGE: CASE . PRIMER Yaku Cartridge Kyo Case Baku Explosive Tube To BANGALORE TORPEDO Ha Demolition Kai Tube To BANGALORE TORPEDO Baku Yaku Tube To Explosive-Powder p Teki Grenade Dan T3 Tube GRENADE DISCHARGER (Continued on next page) .

7 43-J 9 .GRENADE SHELL CASE BANGALORE TORPEDO DISCHARGER ToI Tube (Shaped Container)A COMPLETE ROUND As' Dan Yaks Artillery Shell (Complete) fl T3 Tube COMPLETE ROUND [ItiJ Ryfl High Explosive Dan Dan Yakue k COMPLETE ROUND HE SHELL TJ Tube Artillery Shell (Complete) xgF xpoive41 .

iIi. Walking Zo m 1I Ho Hie He.Hei Ho Gun ARTILLERY Hei Troops ___ iLIGHT Ho Gun ARTILLERY Hei Troops (Continued on next page) Kei Light . INFANTRY Troops ORDANCE Hei I IJ I I Ir I I ' Manufacture (Arms) for Troops ENGINEERS Hei Construction mimi - Troops I CAVALRY Ki Horse Hei Troops I - -* .

..-SERVICE /DIVISION Hei Troo ps HEAVY ARTILLERY Heavy Gun Troops FIELD ARTILLERY Ya Field .. .... Hei Troops COAST ARTILLERY Kai Gan Hei Sea Coast Gun Troops MECHANICALLY-DRAWN ARTILLERY Ji Self-Moving Do Sha Vehicle Ken Tractioned In Gun Ho Hei Troops SELF-PROPELLED ARTILLERY Ju Self-Moving D Ho Hei Troops Gun b H5 Hei HORSE-DRAWN ARTILLERY Gun Troops (Continued on next page) Horse (drawn) . Sen Warfare p Ho Gun .

ANTIAI RCRAFT ARTILLERY K High A Angle Sha Gun H T Troops Hei DIVISIONAL ARTILLERY Shi Division Dan Gun H$ Hei Troops ARMY AIR Riku Land m m I Gun Unit Ko Air Ki I Hei Troops SERVICE Ka iKa U1 Gaku Gakue Sen Warfare CHEMICAL WARFARE SERVICE Hei Chemistry Troops I:1 I' I---- - 'F' Small 0IN4.16 Ka Fire Hei Troop (Branch) SMALL ARMS SMe (Continued on next page) .

//1/ DIVISION Hei' % Troops ~JL ARMY AND NAVY UNITS Gun Unit _ _ ARMY Gun Riku Land 1 Unit NAVY Kai Sea Gun Unit AIR FORCES Ku Air Gun UnitJ_______________ .SERVICE // .

LAND MINE Ji Land Rai Mine WATER MINE Sui Water Mine Rai m Shoku Contact Hatsu Land Ji Rai Mine LAND-MINE CONTACT Vuh Furu T * Sha - ANTITANK MINE Ji Land Sen Tank Rai Mine If' Tes Iron Sen Wire Kei Tripping Tei Purpose Rai Mine TRIP-WIRE MINE 1a Ji Self-Acting Ji fi Rai Rai CLOCK-WORK MINE Hatsu Land Mine (Continued on next page) .

Baku ________________Explosive Rai Mine MINE DEMOLITION Fu Floating. FLOATING MINE Yu Sui Rai Mine Wafer TORPEDO (Aerial) Ku Rai Air Mine 1 ___ .

II I Ki Kan 5~tt~ Gun MACHINE GUN Machine LIGHT Kei Light Ki Machine Kan Gun Ju MACHINE GUN HEAVY Aft MACHINE GUN Ki Kan ----~--~--- - Heavy Machine Gun MACHINE GUN Ko Tei Ki Kan FIXED J Gun Fixed Machine AFLEXIBLE MACHINE GUN Ja Flexible Nan Ki Machine Kan Gun Ji t h El Ko High-Angle Sha Ki Machine Kan Gun ® ANTIAIRCRAFT MACHINE GUN Ju (Continued on next page) .

MACHINE GUN AUTOMATIC RIFLE PISTOL Dimesiu Gun (Smaller RIFLE ~than "Ho") - I U RIFLE Sho GunJ Small Gun AUTOMATIC RIFLE Ji Self-Acting Do Gun J PISTOL Ken Hand-Operated Gun J CARBINE Ki Horse (Cavalry) Gun ]u .

E. 4 Toku Shu Ho Dan SPECIAL SHELL Gun-Shell Special COMMON ]in Common Jo Ryu Dan High Explosive Shell EXPERIMENTAL SHELL Shi Experimental Sei Dan Shell q Dai Ko e Kei 4 Ho 1 Gun-Shell e Dan LARGE CALIBER Large Caliber PA KUwy ________________________________________________________________________ HIGH-EXPLOSIVE SHELL a Ryu Dan Hiqh Explosive Shell (Continued on next page) .i Ryu Dan ARTILLERY A SHELL Shell (Type used for Artillery) H.

f. 9 fg GAS SHELL Dan -Gas Shell 7~f~h BSHELL Sen Pierce Through Ko Armor Plate Ryu Shell HI Dan ~HOLLOW CHARGE Dan Sb INCENDIARY SHELL ~ I ~----------Shell Dan Incendiary (Continued on next page) .7 ii ARTILLERY j SHELL / Ryu Dan pI i Ry Ei K5 R Dan Dan HE SHELL WITH LIGHT-TRACER Ryi Tracer (with) Light HE Shell O(for Ku Ni Shiki Ho Ryi Dan TYPE 92nHESHELL Infantry) HE Shell 9 2 Type Infantry A"Abb LONG-POINTED (Streamlined) SHELL Sen Come to a Sharp Point _ 4___ Dan Shell U _.

.STAR SHELL Sho Brilliant SMOKE SHELL Hatsu Emit En Smoke Dan Shell 4r Ko | i_- "ANTIAIRCRAFT _H . - ' Ei Dan Shell POINTED SHELL Sha Sen Pointed F High-Angle (Fire) Ha Pierce -e Ff1 Armor-plate F~h ARMOR-PIERCING HE SHELL Ryu HE Shell U Dan I' Tek is an abbreviation of Tekkyo (Remove) ml AP STEEL SHELL (AP Shot) Tek Remove. Destroy Armor-plate 4 Dan Shell 9 qIng B3 Armor-piercing AP SHELL WITH HARDENED CAP Dan Shell (Continued on next page) Cap .5Is S Ryu Dan ARTILLERY SHELL r l 111 Mei Glare Dan Shell (Illuminating) .

Possessing Shell (Continued on next page) .S~ N" ARTILLERY SHELL Ryu Dan / I~ Ko Semi ' 1 Sei Steel II 1|SHELL Sen Ryu Shell Dan SEMI-STEEL DRAWN-STEEL SHELL Tan Forge V Ko Steel I Rya Shell Dan I Ken Tetsu Dan Dan CHILLED STEEL (AP) SHELL Chilled Steel Shell a Ho S F J Tj Use j Y PROJECTILE Non Dan PDfCANNON Projectile Ka Gan FOR Gun-Turret un____ Cannon USE San Ryu High-explosive San SHRAPNEL Dan Case Shell (Finned Shell) MORTAR SHELL Yu Yoku Wings Dan SThis is an exception to the general rule that key characters are terminal characters.

RIFLE GRENADE Grenade Netsu 1* t Teki THERMITE GRENADE Dan Intense Heat (Red hot) Grenade POTATO-MASHER TYPE HAND-GRENADE E Tsuki Shu Ryu Dan Stick-Hand Hand Grenade BALL AMMUNITION jitsu Dan Solid Ammunition PROJECTILE Dan Shell Gan Body (Form) ________________ * This is an exception to the general rule that key characters are terminal characters. 4 .Shaku >' ~ /I/ ~'/ ARTILLERY SHELL /7uDa itp Rifle f Ere Ryi Dan 4.

Although there are 26 types of Special Purpose Bombs listed with mark numbers in Japanese ordnance catalogs. Baku Bomb Dan BOMB (Thin-cased HE-GP Bomb) Demoliion Blast Land-Use 2 Tsu ORDINARY BOMB (Heavy-cased HE-GP Bomb) Jo Baku Dan Demolition SAP General Purpose Bomb 3 3 SPECIAL PURPOSE 1BOMB Toku Special Kind Shu Baku Bomb Dan 14 Types (Mark No. These are set forth in Table No. being composed of a diversified list ranging from chemical bombs to rocket and incendiary bombs. While the Japanese characters "Baku Dan" (airplane bomb) appear on all aerial bombs. is by far the most important.TABLE No. If "mark" is present. Series) Group 3. or Special Purpose Bombs. 18. then the number following it describes the type (through reference to Table No. . look for "Baku Dan. or their shipping cases. f Go Mark 2 Ni MARK-2 Baku Dan BOMB Airplane Bomb When the ideograph for ."mark" is absent. there are but 14 known types in actual use and some of these are advanced only to the experimental stage. 13). 13 PRELIMINARY DESCRIPTION JAPANESE AIRPLANE BOMBS AND THEIR MARKINGS SLAND 1 Riku J . and just preceding "Baku Dan." The characters preceding it will describe whether it is a Land Bomb or an Ordinary (General Purpose) Bomb. the characters for "mark" number appear only on Special Purpose Bombs." Look first for the character "mark" and its number.

.... ........... ... .... 19 . Stick Cluster 22.. 2 . 6 . Type of Bomb .... chemical Antisubmarine Incendiary Rocket Armor-Piercing Magnesium Incendiary and Oil Incendiary ....... 8 ......... Type of Bomb Mark No.................... . 13............Long-delay 10. 4.... 3 . ...... Parachute Cluster 26 .. Unclassified 15............ 20 .... 14 .. .. Unknown ......... 24 ... 12 . Airdrome .....Gas... 18.......... .... 21.. . 9. Cluster......... 11 .... ... 7 . 23................ 16.......... Above Ground (Continued on next page) .... ... Parachute 25 ............ . ............. ....S Go Meaning is: MARK (Number) On "Special Series" bombs a number follows this character to indicate the type as follows: Mark No... 1 ...... 17 . Unclassified 5 ..............

. and the result is the weight of the bomb in kilograms.. In the example illustrated.NUMBER 6 Roku Ban The Japanese have several common weights for airplane bombs. 60 Kg.. Roku Ban means number 6.. 700 Kg. Examples: 30 Kg. (60 kg. . 250 Kg. The preceding character indicates the weight of the bomb. Multiply the 6 by 10. 800 Kg.) Meaning is: DESIGN NUMBER (so-and-so) Kata Meaning is: MODEL (so-and-so) Shiki Note: The Japanese characters on this page are related to markings found only on JAPANESE AIRPLAN E BOMB3S.

A //TABLES METRIC Sanchi7 CENTIMETER Sanchi MILLIMETER Miri Mi Ri ~ t GRAM (15.432 grains) Guramu ~ Byo _ _ 1 SECOND _ _ _ _ _ _ AKILOGRAM (2. K.96 momme) Pondo (Continued on next page) .2 lbs. 1 LITER (1.2008 gallons) 1 POUND (120.7607 pints) Rittoru i F Deka Rittoru DECALITER 1 (2.205 Kg.) Kilo 1. 205 = 1.

~'I %"~ ~4 J~j~ Fm' Sanchi METRIC TABLES .

5 Sui Sea Best (Use) (Flying) Machine SEA PLANE 1 Rai Water Mine 2 Geki Attack 3 TORPEDO I lAIRPLANE Ki (Flying) Machine (Continued on next page) .iAIRCRAFT _V K5 Flying (in) Air Ku Machine 1 Ki Riku Land Gun Branch (Flying) Machine Ki 7I I Kai Sea Gun Branch (Flying) Machine Ki NAVY PLANE " Riki Land Jo Best (Use) (Flying) Machine -PLANE Ki LAND ±.

-

I

Y

I

s5_
Armor

ARMORED AIRCRAFT
Ka

Hi Flight

Ko
(Flying) Machine

Plated

BOMBING AIRPLANE
Bomb 4 Attack (Flying) Machine

BOMB
Baku Bomb 4 Geki Attack 3 Sho Jun (Flying) Machine Ki

Sighting Device (For a)

FOOTNOTES TO TABLE 15
Abbreviations reference

Ki

Ni

MACHINE
Kio Air Rai Mine

TORPEDO

Aerial

Kai

Machine

ATTACK
Baku
Ko Geki
Baku Dan

ADan RPLANE

BOMB

IRON
Tetsu
Iron

b KJ Steel

STEEL Tetsu

~L~1"JBRASS
Yellow Copper
____________

~n
_________ Copper

COPPER
___________

R
Sei
Bluish

&'J
ILed

BRONZE
D
______ ______

Copper

LEAD
Namari

(Continued on next page)

11
Go

1
Kin

ALLOY

Compound Metal

CAST IRON
Chu Tetsu Iron

Cast

CHROMIUM STEEL
Ku Ro Ma Ko Tetsu Chromium Steel

SEMI-STEEL
Ko Sei Sen
Steel with Steel-type pig-iron

DRAWN STEEL
Tan Forged Ko Steel
*

CHILLED STEEL
Ken SKo is an-abbreviation of KoTetsu (steel) Chilled Tetsu Steel (Continued on next page)

.. ALLOY STEEL Ko Steel Kin .CAST STEEL Chu' Cast Ko Steel * Sf GO . Compound Metal * STEEL PLATE Ke Steel Bau Plate ZINC A Lead * Ko is an abbreviation of KoTetsu (steel) En . .

.Jt~II Dan Projectile Head TXShin n3I~SNOSE Kan Tube (Fuze) _____________ FUZE Communicating BASE Dan Projectile Tei Base Shin Fuze Kan FUZE Iris Ei Slow-moving Fire Ka Shin Fuze Kan TIME FUZE Chaku Arrival - Hatsu Departure jfa" Shin i PERCUSSION FUZE Kan Fuze Fuku Double-Motion -I-. D I Shin Fuze K an I COMBINATION FUZE (Time and Percussion) INSTANTANEOUS FUZE Shu 4 Matsu Depart (Fire) Shin lnstantaneous Kan Fuze Instant Ta Short-time hKi Late-Period finFUZE Shin Fuze Kan SHORT-DELAY (Cotinued on next page).

MEM'K FUZE POWDER A Pipe or TRAIN U h -~ I 5*~'z UNFUZED 1 Shin Kan Without Fuze FO~ Baku. I+rii Dan Shin I Kan BOMB FUZE Airplane _ __ Bomb Fuze _ FUZE ~ Baku Retsu Shin Kan DETONATING Explosive (Force) Fuze 4 Ka Do Shin Klan POWDER' TRAIN (of a Fuze) Fire-Road (Powder Train) Fuze K~lL Yaku Ban 1F Fuze I~jTIME aTRAIN (of Fuze) Kan Shin Powder-Block PERCUSSION CAP Rai Kan (of a Cartridge) Detonating Tube (Cap) PRIMER CAP Bak Explosive Kan Tube (Cap) _____________ .

__± Riku For (Land) Use (the) Best Jo R Baku Explosive Dan Shell LAND BOMB 41* I Tsu Known as Regular (Standard) LKEL GENERAL Jo Baku Bomb Dan PURPOSE (HE) (Ordinary) BOMB SPECIAL PURPOSE Toku Special Shu Kind (of) Baku Bomb Dan BOMB 19 Sho Incendiary- _ Baku Bomb INCENDIARY (Airplane) I Use Yo Dan 1120 RM2 Dan PHOSPHORUS BOMB Rin -I Baku Bomb Phosphorus A ' bk 45~ WP-Ka En Baku Bomb LIQUID Dan FLAME BOMB Fire-Flame (Continued on next page) .

for Gi Sei (Dummy) Bomb Ji~i Dan DUMMY BOMB Ha Demolition Kai Gi Dummy Sei .$% . BOMBS I Explosive (Bomb) p hJ~~ Sai (Into) Smallest I FRAGMENTATION' BOMB I - Baku Pieces I Dan Bomb hJ~~ Ga Gas GAS BOMB Su Baku Bomb Dan DEMOLITION BOMB Baku Explosive Ha Demoltion Yo Use Baku Bomb Dan PU ARMOR-PIERCING BOMB Ha Pierce Ke3 Armor Baku Bomb Dan ~ * Gi Baku Abbrev.1! Baku Dan Shell AIRPLANE.

U- L .S- FACTORY Sei Made in Z5 Work Sho Plant im' h Sho Small Rifle Jo SMALL ARMS FACTORY Sei Zo Work Sho Plant MP~VV B EfB Made in POWDER FACTORY Ka Fire (Gun) Yaku Powder Sei Zo Sho (Made in) Manufacturing Plant .

U KJ Work ARSENAL WORKSHOP Sho Shop -~ ARSENAL Gun K3 Work ARMY Riku Land Sho Shop ___________ Branch ARSENAL Zo Manufacture (Arms for) 1 Hei Troops Sho Shop 4 Gun KJ Arsenal Sho Kure Kure Kai Naval THE NAVAL ARSENAL AT KURE .

SECTION THREE PRACTICAL READING AND TRANSLATION OF JAPANESE CHARACTERS .

Sho i Table 19 Note: The Japanese characters on this page were copied direct from tags within ammunition boxes that had been captured in the Philippines. TAG WITHIN a Dan AMMUNITION Ni TYPE 2 To AIRCRAFT TOKYO I Ku Table 5 Yaku Table 4 Shiki Kyo Table 15 Ki IIa Sho SHOWA 18th YEAR Ei LIGHT TRACER Wa Ko Riku ARMY rn 20 MM 1943 AP Table 10 Gun Ha SHELL A Hachi K~i Zo ARSENAL Table 2 Metric Table 14 Nen Table 6 Dan He: Aqu Dan Table 20 Sho AMMO. r y . 111J Kan POM-POM GUN ii NOVEMBER ~ Yaku Table 4 COMPLETE ROUND Table 8 l 1 i!1 Sei FACTORY Table 3 GIi Getsu Table 7 TT.JAPANESE W MA AN AMMUNITION BOX Start at left top corner and read down. iy i f (P i.

(1941) 1 1 MODEL Shiki Type Ichi (No.JAPANESE MARKINGS ON AN AIRPLANE BOMB LA Ichi (No..) One TYPE 1 Ichi (No.) One . (Reference to Table 13) L1ASS'IFIED ..) One Kata Model Kai Modification MODIFICATIN * * Indicates KEY CHARACTERS that appear on bombs.

left to right. Ku Roku Shiki Ju Go Sanchi Ryu Dan Po TYPE 96 15 CENTIMETER HOWITZER Sho Wa Ju Go Nen 0 Saka Ke Sho SHOWA 15th YEAR (1940) OSAKA ARSENAL '.t IWD JAPANESE MARKINGS ON A HEAVY GUN Japanese 150 mm Howitzer Inscriptions on Weapon After transposing characters.I r .

JAPANESE MARKINGS USED TO INDICATE ARSENALS The following are the markings found on ordnance items. Nagoya Arsenal 3 1Heijo Arsenal Osaka Arsenal ~ Chiyoda Arsenal I South Arsenal Tokyo Explosives Factory 75 . such as Cannon and Artillery Shells. SYMBOL JAPANESE ARSENAL OR MANUFACTURING PLANT 9 ? Kokura Arsenal Tokyo Arsenal G p Gas and Electric Co. and represent Japanese Arsenals.

. .JAPANESE Lti SA TERMS TRAJECTORY Dan Do BALLISTICS Dan Do Gaku Sai I~ + Sha Dai MINIMUM RANGE Sha Tei MAXIMUM RANGE Sai Sha T ei MUZZLE VELOCITY Sho Soku ~1 u Sha I~JELEVATION ANGLE OF Kaku DEGREES OF __ _ __ _ _ _ Gy3 Do 'I./..PER Mei ~iJ~ METERS SECOND Toru Mai By3 _______________ u u.

JAPANESE BALLIS (Continued) TERMS TIME OF FLIGHT Kei Ka Ji Kan HIGH VELOCITY KJ Soku Do LOW VELOCITY Tei Soku Do STRIKING VELOCITY Mei Chuz7 Soku Do AZIMUTH Hai I Ka Ku I LAYING (of a gun) Sho fun Ii Kei KJ ~ Kei DIAMETER OF BORE LENGTH OF BORE Cho <~i~ 7 .

............................................................ 5 Month............. 12 Howitzers................................... ........ Shell Case ..................................... ................................... 11 Mark Number (Bombs). Metric Terms............................................................. ........ Fuzes 19 7 17 ......... Primers ............. Explosives.......................... 11 Powder Trains......... Automatic Rifle........ Gasolines.................................................................... 14 Mines ........ i....................................................................OF JAPANESE ORDNANCE ITEMS SUBJECT TABLE NUMBER SUBJECT TABLE NUMBER Aircraft.. Caps (Fuze)...................................................... 8 Guns............ Rocket ................. .......13...... Service Branch........ Bombs.......6 Mortars...... Arsenal............................................................... Tractor......... 8 1 10 11 ......... Fuel Oils...................................... Shells ................. ........... Bangalore Torpedo................ Carbine 2 3 17 1 ................... Cars...... Grenade Launcher ........................ Trains (Explosive)... Cannon ...................... Rifles. 13 16 ... ......................................................... . Torpedo (Air) ......................... .... 3 Hand Grenades .. Metals......................................... ..... 3 7 Bullets . Airplane Bombs......................................................... 10 Model (Type) .....2 Artillery Shells .....17 1 1 6 Grenades . 9 Pistol ....13...................... 2 Hollow Charge..................................................... 15 18 4 12 11 8 18 Machine Guns ....... 4................................... .......... Oils...................................................................... Tanks.................:........................ 1 8 4 17 11 2 12 Complete Round................................... Organization.............................. ................................ 7 Vehicles................ r............................... ............. a 1kY78 ....................... Year........ Trucks..............................3 Lubricating Oils.... Factory........ ............................................... Ammunition .....

ilk 1.6 1 R X A .

NOTES 5Um~_~2 .

tom is Vv- .Ail 1 Y .