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HHO Research Encyclopedia

HHO Research Encyclopedia

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Published by: Christfer Tartaia on Jan 19, 2012
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Panacea-BOCAF On-Line University

The educational series covering clean energy technology towards building our children a future. Panacea-BOCAF is a registered non-profit organization, dedicated to educational study and research. All copyrights belong to their owners and are acknowledged. All material presented on this web site is either news reporting or information presented for non-profit study and research, or has previously been publicly disclosed or has implicitly or explicitly been put into the public domain. Fair Use applies. Contact us.

Hydroxy Course
Overview………………………………………………………………………………………………………………... Description……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… Installation and safety…………………………………………………………….…………….…………….……… Diesel engines and trucks….…………….…………….…………….…………….…………….………………….. EFIE construction and installation guide…………….…………….…………….…………….…………….……. Open source DYI EFIE circuits…………….…………….…………….…………….…………….…………….…… Faculty information on the EFIE and oxygen sensor…………….…………….…………….…………….……. Alternatives to the EFIE…………….…………….…………….…………….…………….…………….…………… Brute force DC hydroxy booster designs…………….…………….…………….…………….…………….…… Faculty information…………….…………….…………….…………….…………….……………..………………. Patents and related information …………….…………….…………….…………….…………….……………. Emissions tests and law related…………….…………….…………….…………….…………….………………. Newbie FAQ guide and general hydroxy information…………….…………….…………….…………….... Beginner’s FAQ …………….…………….…………….…………….…………….…………….…………...………. Booster supplies…………….…………….…………….…………….…………….……………….…………………. Links…………….…………….…………….…………….…………….…………….…………….…………….……… Technical support groups…………….…………….…………….…………….…………….………………………

Over View
Quote- I really hope that this helps others from having to spend a lot of time and money like I have had to in order to out these internet theories. Yes it's hard not to hoard the information I've discovered at my personal expense, however I'm looking to set an example. We have to be unselfish in these global matters. What one has to realize is that if we don't work together on these projects then we will scare off the newbee’s that may one day solve the issue of water cars. Yes, it would stink to think that a newbie may make billions of dollars off the royalties due to our hard work, but we will not have to worry about our children and our children's children surviving, long after we are gone.

The world is headed for disaster the way we are going. Fossil fuels will deplete. If we don't help secure our future by unselfishly sharing knowledge then there is nothing to stop our self destruction. If that is the case, however, then we deserve what’s coming to us. Open source hydroxy engineer – end quote. Before commencing reading, first it is important to understand that for any person who is inexperienced in experimenting with this technology, that hydroxy is potentially VERY dangerous to YOU. Hydroxy is a highly explosive gas, it certainly isn’t for people who like to blow up balloons, and it certainly is not for the beginner. It commands RESPECT and caution. Permanent ear damage is possible from the ignition of the gas from balloons. Explosions and a harmful shock wave can also result from unintentional combustion. Those who do not handle with care are posing a SERIOUS health risk to them self’s and others. If you cannot go along with this, then you are CERTAIN to in danger yourself and others. We must therefore state an obvious warning and disclaimer. If you are a beginner, PLEASE seek technical advice from professionals; do not experiment with it by yourself. Hydroxy gas may be dangerous to the inexperienced and to those who do not handle with care; however, hydroxy technology is manageable for safe operation. Stick to the EXACT guide lines listed and damage is preventable. Change these rules in ANY way, and you may not be back to read how to do it properly the next time. Please read the disclaimer before commencing any projects on the Panacea university site. The science described in this document is very old, in the 1800’s water was turned into hydrogen and oxygen, using a battery. In 1805 the first car with an internal combustion engine burned hydrogen from water. Jules Verne wrote in 1875 that WATER would be the fuel of the future. Reference As we are all aware, engines that run on gasoline won out over Electric, Hydrogen and Steam Technologies and in 1888 the first production automobiles were made by Karl Benz in Germany. But through the centuries interest has remained in hydrogen and Electric Technologies because of its sustainability. In the 1820 British scientist introduced the concept of renewable hydrogen in his paper, Science and the Future, by proposing that ”there will be great power stations where during windy weather the surplus power will be used for the electrolytic decomposition of water into oxygen and hydrogen.” Today Iceland is become energy independent by moving to a Hydrogen economy using their thermal energy to do exactly this. See Video In fact as far back as 1918; Charles H. Frazer received the first patent for a "hydro-booster". Charles’s research found that his hydro booster design worked the best with low grade fuelsReference.

Add to this, CH Garrett’s (and his Dad’s) 1935 electrolytic carburetor technology. It has been known for some time (since a 1974 paper by the Jet Propulsion Lab of the California Institute of Technology) that the addition of hydrogen to fossil fuels, burned in internal combustion engines, will increase the efficiency of that engine. This study has been validated by a number of papers published by the Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) .The hydroxy boost process is effective with any fossil fuel (diesel, gasoline, propane, natural gas) or bio-fuel (biodiesel, ethanol) though it is most effective in diesel engines. Among other, more subtle effects, the presence of the hydrogen alters the initial stages of the unfolding combustion dynamic, altering the kinetic chemical pathway which the combustion follows. The net effect is to alter the time at which heat energy is released relative to the power cycle. The end result is to increase the adiabatic efficiency of the engine, which, in turn, means decreased fuel consumption, decreased emissions, improved horsepower and torque and decreased maintenance expenses. There have since surfaced MANY scientific tests, patents and designs which prove this technologies worth and benefits. Yet car makers are not making hydroxy boosters in a standard

model to save fuel and prevent unneeded harmful emissions- Reference. Why have hydroxy boosters since been ignored? Why are they suppressed? Using Occam Razor’s logic, the simplistic answer is following the money. The answers are contained in what hydroxy boosters can do NOW, and in what their advanced designs WILL lead to. Not only does this technology Improve MPG (miles per gallon), SIGNIFICANTLY CUT EMMISSIONS down to a healthier level plus allow many more benefits. This technology also opens the door scientifically for 100% water based oxyhydrogen fuel systems for vehicles. This is an obvious threat to the multi trillion dollar OIL industry. Hydroxy technology has even shown to be effective at reduction of radioactivity. Hydroxy technologies also show that hydrogen power can be stored safely by being perfectly inert in water. As a result, hydrogen can be produced on DEMAND from water. This eliminates the need for dangerous hydrogen storage tanks on board cars and in any communities wishing to use hydrogen for power. Quote - " Hydrogen-on-demand does not need costly infrastructure and makes cars safer " Hydrogen-on-demand would not only remove the need for costly hydrogen pipelines and distribution infrastructure, it would also make hydrogen vehicles safer. "The theoretical advantage of on-board generation is that you don't have to muck about with hydrogen storage," says Mike Millikin, who monitors developments in alternative fuels for the Green Car Congress website. A car that doesn't need to carry tanks of flammable, volatile liquid or compressed gas would be much less vulnerable in an accident. "It also potentially offsets the requirements for building up a massive hydrogen production and distribution infrastructure," Millikin says-End quote Mike Millikin. Quote- Hydrogen-on-demand, whether from water or another source, could address two of the big problems still holding back the wider use of hydrogen as a vehicle fuel: how to store the flammable gas, and how to transport it safely. Today's hydrogen-fuelled cars rely on stocks of gas produced in centralized plants and distributed via refueling stations in either liquefied or compressed form. Neither is ideal. The liquefaction process eats up to 40 per cent of the energy content of the stored hydrogen, while the energy density of the gas, even when compressed, is so low it is hard to see how it can ever be used to fuel a normal car.-End quote New scientist magazine. This also shows that water can be used as a fuel. The public need not to be fooled into thinking that a hydrogen economy needs to be assimilated by the usage of the now redundant production of dangerous hydrogen storage in tanks, and or produced by none renewable methods. Add to this suppressive fallacy; there have since surfaced HIGHER efficient ways of producing hydroxy technology since 1918. A typical hydroxy booster operates by “brute force” DC electrolysis. This process functions in accordance with faradays laws of electrolysis. This is what the mainstream curricula attribute to ALL methods of possible hydrogen production from water. However unknown to the mainstream faculties there are OTHER more efficient ways of achieving the extraction of hydrogen from water. This is done by using pulsed DC under certain resonant conditions to create an open system which is able to extract additional (non thermal) energy from the environment.

Zigouras racing 100% hydroxy powered unit

The mainstream faculties have not yet explored, validated and or disproved this more efficient method in question. The Pulsed DC method under certain resonant conditions is by far the most efficient electrolysis process. References to this process accompanied with validated Panacea tests proving this will be provided later in this document and on the Panacea university site.

Paul Zigouras WORKING 100% hydroxy powered test engine

There have since recently emerged stories in the main stream media showing 100% water fuel powered cars, This is more solid proof that the Water fuel cars science is not going to be ignored now. Japanese company invents car that runs on water

Recently political legislation came in regarding new fuel standards. but those making the decisions ignored those warnings for the most part. companies have concentrated on efficiency so they can make a heavier vehicle with more power. the company that invented the technology. hydrogen fuel injected hybrid-Source The system provides Hydrogen on demand.-Source With this in mind it is therefore important to state. We have come so far in refinement of technology – you cannot justify that is not possible for mainstream manufacturers to push 80MPG or better. But this approach can be implemented NOW on EVERY car. The generator then releases electrons that produce electric power to run the car. If only gas were more expensive 50 years ago we would have already gone through these growing pains and would be cruising on . That is what taxes are supposed to pay them for. Also despite many others already having 100% water powered systems and suppressed like Meyers. It's time the world takes a new philosophy to transportation and manufacturing. The warnings were there. Even today a 40 year old Corvair gets better mileage than a good portion of midsized passenger cars made in the last 10 years. Xogen and Steven Ryan – reference. Hydroxy technology can be used NOW as a bench mark towards managing harmful emissions and improving fuel economy toward more ecologically friendly technologies for such sectors as public and private transportation. Genepax. Currently the Ronn Motor Company proposes to use hydroxyl hybrid technology in an expensive sports car. that the DC brute force method used in hydroxy boosters is not the most efficient and or only method in the science of extracting monatomic hydrogen out of water. Genepax. Leadership and DOE should have known better. can produce these results right NOW. as hydroxy boosters not to mention the EV-1 electric car. Instead of concentrating on efficiency for mileage.Kiyoshi Hirasawa. We could have avoided this whole global problem decades ago. aims to collaborate with Japanese manufacturers to mass produce it. This is hypocrisy. This alternative fuel approach allows an increase fuel mileage between 20-40 % and reduces CO2 emissions to nearly zero. So its kind of our own fault as consumers. a mid engine. CEO.Japanese company Genepax presents its eco-friendly car that runs on nothing but water. The SCORPION.The car has an energy generator that extracts hydrogen from water that is poured into the car's tank. It is however a very practical method which is critically needed implementation and application mean time until the higher more efficient pulsed DC resonant systems can be developed to capacity. which is injected directly into the motor. This legislation is an energy bill which calls to raise the fuel standard to 35 miles to the Gallon by 2020. and not limited to an expensive sports car. And we bought them in droves.

please Contact us. so technically this is not having a negative effect on the ECM’s ability to manage the cars emissions. please consult the Panacea University’s fuel saving vehicle modification document below. All this can be created in Panacea’s proposed granted research and development center. material costs and construction requirements.-Source Only one police department (a government agency) is actively using hydroxy gas enrichment. There is a great deal of benefits and income that can be generated by carbon credits. faculty recognition and security. For both a legal and practical public solution to address this. Panacea University’s fuel saving vehicle modification document.Click HERE to down load The Nonprofit organization Panacea-BOCAF intends to support open source engineers working with hydroxy and other suppressed clean energy technologies. For those able to help this effort. as currently she/he could be breaking state and federal law. Also the EFIE has been exclusively created by open source engineers and gives varied results.electric/hydrogen today. and reporting positive results and no complications. What is required is that we perform a Dyno and emission test with the EFIE to prove its ability to stop pollution. Is that David King the Police Chief of the Honea Path Police Department discovered how to use hydroxy to increase the gas mileage of his department's fleet of vehicles while saving the local taxpayers thousands of dollars every month. Panacea has also done a video production with these related political themes which can be found on the page mentioned. it is also advised that you check your state laws prior to asking your mechanic to install a hydroxy booster. It is illegal to tamper with the cars emission management systems. This is because modern cars have to have an additional circuit called an “EFIE” or electronic fuel injection enhancer installed to make sure the on board ECM does not inject more fuel due to the new oxygen content passing the oxygen sensor. Note for those with modern cars which have an electronic control module (ECM). This document will cover current open source hydroxy booster designs which are considered very practical given their out puts. These engineers require grants. What remains unknown to most of the world and those who do not know how to cut their carbon foot print and save energy. The order will range from the most recent validated designs to those currently being presented “as is” or described as . Material which can be used towards helping make this emission cutting device mandatory can be found on this page. It can be proven that hydroxy cuts emissions down. Please consider helping the open source engineer’s research in ANY way if you have found this document useful. hydroxy booster technology justifies (and needs) law for its mandatory implementation. lowering the carbon footprint. All government bodies can employ this technology to save the tax payer money and reduce the carbon foot print. The GM EV-1 disaster is an almost forgotten example of our ability but unwillingness to address the core problems we now face. However politicians are not aware of this. resources. Hydroxy technology can be proven to decrease or eliminate exhaust emissions. Then this is used to pressure politicians to work in conjunction with car makers to produce software which can re program the cars computer to work with hydroxy efficiently to help cut the carbon foot print. Don't let low oil prices lull you into a false sense of security. Yet why are they not using it? As an emission cutting device and power savings device alone.

The EFIE and other options will be covered in more detail below. All in all. It is important to note that modern cars fitted with an ECU may need SPECIFIC alterations and circuits installed in order for their hydroxy booster to function properly.With a 50A alternator you cannot run your booster higher than 25A. hydrogen and hydroxy are pretty safe as far as engine longevity go.a result of third party reports. For example an: “EFIE” device (electronic fuel injection enhancer). If you go higher then 25A you may need a higher amp alternator.PLEASE NOTE! DO NOT USE THE WATER4GAS BOOSTER OR ANY THING SIMILAR -THIS BOOSTER NOT ONLY IS AN IN EFFICIENT DESIGN BUT ALSO WILL PRODUCE TOXIC GAS! A glass jar containing wires wrapped around pieces of plastic. BUT . Or you can try The BB Smack which is designed handle over two hours of driving. If you’re using such a booster always check your electrolyte and temperature every 1 hour of driving. more details are included in the booster design section. Please note before choosing a design. heating from a generic booster design such as the original “Smacks” booster Gen I and Gen II design is not an issue. a 6 or 7 series flat plate cell or an all stainless steel tubular design (profiled below) will have no heating issues. Praveen’s and Wouer’s cells have so far proven the most reliable as they are all made out of solid stainless steel. As soon as you have a rainy day or have to use your headlights the whole day/night. and filled with baking soda is DANGEROUS electrolyzer! Dangerous booster designs. in fact 20A is already pushing it. it will draw too much power and your battery will get flat. Warning. For those that drive longer than two hours. Information will also be provided for those not able to construct boosters and who simply wish to purchase a readymade unit.Courtesy of this website Below is the end result of using one of these jar/wire/Baking Soda units as an electrolyzer Baking soda boosters are toxic-Courtesy of this website For those of you who commute for less than 2 hours a day.

It is a fine line and it requires some skills many do not have.etc. at this time mileage gains from boosters are variable. If you get too lean. Factors affecting the final result include the driving habits. If you don't go lean enough. whether running diesel (huger gains are usually possible to high compression) or gasoline which is two very different situations when adding hydroxy. The ICE conversion from the air / fuel mixture of chemical energy into useful mechanical energy wastes around 75% of potential energy. or you will destroy valves. you start to need extensive alteration to the timing. More details on this is address in the faculty section below. For the first time hydroxy booster enthusiast please read the FAQ’s in this document.when you change mixtures. the engine will go full rich and your gas mileage will plummet. This wasted energy results in harmful emissions and is expelled as a mixture of gases and heat losses evacuated through the engines exhaust. Currently each vehicle is a unique case. and even lower for a gasoline engine. you must monitor EGT. or the early burn will oppose the rising piston and work against you. you could use the tubular water fuel for all standard booster which is estimated to give out 2LPM at 20 amps. you will see no additional gain. CHT.If you drive a 2 liter engine. For example. The overall engine efficiency is about 25% for a diesel cycle. It is important to note that although the benefits of hydrogen boost technology are well proven. so that it becomes a fuel rather than a combustion improver. Description One of Panacea’s boosters -“Eletrik’s” open source “Smacks Booster” Energy losses occur in an internal combustion engine (ICE) due to the incomplete conversion of combustion energy (chemical energy) into mechanical energy. One size and gain to fit all is not possible. whether it’s a modern car with an on board ECM and how much hydroxy your injecting into the engine compared to its size. You do not need a lot of hydroxy to obtain mileage improvement by improving the burn. . to the liter engine size capacity for a “good boost”. you must take into account each type of engine. and that when you do that. HOWEVER anyone using a booster is assured of cutting pollution! At this time a popular experimental method is to match the hydroxy booster output in liters per minute. The theory is that you can add too much hydroxy. EFIEs need monitoring until you are sure it is right.

Hydrogen in combinations with other electrolyzed gases (H+H+O or Brown’s gas) can be produced by a hydroxy booster and introduced into the intake manifold of an ICE. Combustion will occur much closer to TDC with a hydroxy boost and translates to mechanical torque as each piston transfers more energy during its combustion cycle. Hydroxy gas improves the burn quality to such a degree that a catalytic converter is no longer needed. Instead of leaving harmful Carbon Dioxide (Co2) from the burning of gasoline (exhaust) you are now helping the environment by adding more Oxygen to the air. There is growing public concern about global warming and the buildup of toxic and smog producing gasses produced by internal combustion engines. preparing it for combustion. Exploding fuel before top dead center will not be very efficient due to the explosion of the gas fumes pushing the piston down and out of sequence. any UN burnt fuel coming out of an engine is burnt in a catalytic converter. Hydrocarbons attack the liver and also cause cancer.we actually need to feed less fuel into the engine to obtain the same power output literally. This will results in a COOLER and a cleaner burn. it is left in place and cannot wear out due to it not being used. Gasoline ignites before TDC (top dead center). The by-product of the Hydroxy Gas being burned is Oxygen. If we go from burning 62% of the fuel to burning 90%. As a result there will be an increase in horsepower and gas mileage from the better combustion of the gasoline or diesel. Although there is no UN burnt fuel reaching the catalytic converter. These toxic smog producing compounds are major contributors to pollution in heavily populated areas of the world. Also the compression ratios typically encountered with internal combustion engines coupled with elevated temperatures caused by the combustion process means the production of oxides of nitrogen (NOx).more bang for your buck. Normally. More efficient combustion will mean less fuel consumed and more work being done for the fuel being used.Hydrocarbon fuelled engines produce carbon dioxide (CO2). The Term “Hydroxy” refers to a mixture of gases that are produced as a result of an electrical current being passed through stainless steel electrodes which are housed in water. Hydroxy gas thus allows a more complete combustion of the gasoline in the combustion chamber due to a faster flame propagation and higher combustion temp. . Top dead center refers to the point where the piston is at the highest point of its motion. Carbon monoxide (CO) is poisonous to humans at certain concentrations and is considered a major contributor of environmental pollution. The hydrogen-oxygen mix brings the fuel to a temperature that allows more of the injected fuel to vaporize. This reduces your engine's need for total fuel and also reduces exhaust emissions. This is way too early so will go a bit in reverse. carbon monoxide (CO) and water vapor (H2O) as byproducts of the combustion process. This is ideal and critically needed “corrective surgery” to the ICE. This will accelerate the flame spread during combustion and allow more of the vaporized fuel to combust during the initial part of the power stroke.

above them is (white) hydroxy gas being produced in the water This process is usually achieved with the addition of an electrolyte added into the water housed in a PVC plastic container. Current reports have stated that hydroxy boosters can clean out carbon deposits in the engine. as well as improve the fuel economy and remove harmful emissions. Typically 10. This combination is what is coined as the “Hydroxy booster”. Introductory Information Hydroxy Energy Talk . 20 and even 30+ amps can be used and replenished by the cars alternator system to generate hydroxy gas and give up to 50%+ better millage.Pictured in the right container are stainless steel plates used as electrodes. Further in depth analysis and discussion of the process will be included in the faculty and FAQ sections below.source In a typical case the electrical system of the vehicle (battery + alternator) is used to generate the gas from the booster.Coast to Coast AM Facts That Every Citizen Should Know about Hydrogen Richard Harris article Installation and Safety . A generic booster design . Again the emphasis should be on the emission cutting attributes of the booster.

BEFORE being aware of certain safety guidelines and modifications which must be in place prior to operating a booster on your vehicle. The air filter aids in this diffusion. -Bob Boyce Cell pt. Bob Boyce explains this in great details.5 Taken from the Video showing the Hydroxy line installed into the inlet in the air filter Turbo . Pre preparation-For the DYI person. IMPORTANT NOTE: The hydroxy gas produced in your booster is highly flammable (explosive) and can only be ignited safely inside the engine. Not good for your engine. This will allow a short length of piping to be used to connect the booster’s bubbler to the intake of the engine. The typical installation procedure described herein this document should be handled with ease by any professional mechanic or mechanically inclined individual with the appropriate tools and knowledge of engines. The mounting of the booster’s safety bubbler (explained below) is needs to be done as close to the carburetor or throttle body. The reason for this is pretty simple really. do not commence construction and installation on your chosen booster design. This connection should be installed into the air box which houses the filter. You must insure that the gas is being feed only into the intake manifold ("upstream”) before the butter fly. THE CLOSER TO YOUR THROTTLE BODY THE BETTER YOU DON'T WANT HHO HANGING OUT IN THE AIR BOX. or put into the intake tube. In the following video.The closer to the butterfly valve the better. If you send it into an engine via closer points (or intake vacuum ports for that matter) this will ensure that some cylinders receive more boost than others.Only use the following advice as guidance in the installation of a motor bike or vehicle. You want to tap into the ductwork just before the "Throttle Body" ALWAYS as close to the butterfly as you can get.Please note. It is preferred to add in the hydroxy before the air filter and only second choice after the air filter. The by allowing diffusion of the hydroxy gas evenly into the intake air ensures thorough mixing for even boost into ALL cylinders.

for a waste spark fires when both valves are open to burn any remaining fuel in the piston. as this helps minimizing risk and also reduces the parts per million of hydrogen contained. The turbo housing temperature is nowhere near the intake air temperature.. LeVine. You can install a relay like this one:12V SPDT 30 AMP AUTOMOTIVE RELAY | AllElectronics. This has also been reported to work well to prevent any terminal heating or voltage drops. If you put two one-way valves in place. I have yet to test this on my turbo car.com . This is not desirable. and will give you some feedback on this soon! The following is by David G. In the “faculty information” section of this document. If it does have a waste spark it must be disabled. if using a Smacks booster. one for turbo pressure to feed the electrolyzer and one to prevent back feeding through the bubbler. the amperage draw is at around 20amps at 13+Volts DC.. You really want to be injecting hydroxy close to the intake valves. Even one spark in an intercooler full of hydroxy is unhealthy for your wallet.Regarding a turbo. Let's assume your system generates 1. so you have a cooler charge. the production is still lagging. This will ensure that the booster will not produce any hydroxy gas unless the motor is turned on. This circuit will have the electrical supply connection to the booster through your engines ignition circuit. You must use electrical wires that are rated slightly above the amperage your booster draws. This has been tried and tested by Eletrik (Smack) to run reliably. Bob has said that you need to make sure that you inject the hydrogen before the air filter. which will be in place now as a result of the booster. and that was the industries answer to the problem.02 LPS. The slightest possible HEAT leakage from poor connections or as a result of crimping could lead to combustion of explosive hydroxy gas. Air or "refill" supply =====>===[ELECTROLYZER]====>====[BUBBLER]===. This circuit does not have a manually switched on and off circuit. The EPA had that put in place to help with smog and green house gases.2 LPM and that looks like 0. You will also need to use a 30A fuse between the battery and relay in case of any short circuit. You will need wires rated to handle 30amps. For example. If you pressurize the cell with cooled turbo gasses. you can reduce the lag. A manual switch cannot insure against human error.04 L. Option one is to make use of a 30A relay which will be connected across your electric fuel pump. timing and engine adjustments will be discussed further in greater detail. The booster must be installed with a circuit that will ensure that the current from your battery will only reach the booster when your engine is running. Please check your wires and connectors regularly. you will have a two second lag between the turbo spooling up and the engine seeing hydroxyl again. The Smacks installation guide recommends using 10g wire with soldered and shring wrapped terminals. your ignition circuit must be protected from extra amperage draw..com They also sell a relay socket: SOCKET FOR AUTOMOTIVE RELAY | AllElectronics. Before connecting the booster to your ignition switch. All of this helps maintain the safety in working with a turbo car. and your "dead space" in the system is 0. Where =>= is a one-way valve. Remember to check the engine's ignition system and make sure it doesn't have a waste spark. ANY wires which are being connected to your booster MUST be soldered not crimped and need to have tight quality connectors. but the hydroxy feed does not need to be refilled by the system before the engine sees hydroxy.

NEVER EVER hook it up to any engine vacuum. This situation can cause a spark in the . The wires going to the plates inside the electrolyser will always need to be connected well below the surface of the water and electrolyte mix. This needs to be done in order to prevent a possible loose working connection with any vibration of the vehicle.It has been described above and in other guides to wire the relay by putting a fuse spade tap into the fuse slot for your fuel pump. Considering these things ahead of time will give us more credibility. Agreed it has small potential for a problem. The fuel pump line is ok. the fuel pump is already turned on. It is possible that this is not a safe method. If the engine is not started. Note the delay before the idiot light comes on or the pressure gauge reaches under 5PSI. When the ignition key is turned on. but need to be referenced early on to avoid problems. This will make it where it so it is only is on when your key is turned to the run position. it comes on with the key and oil pressure. With both fuel pump line and oil pressure switch. but this is the kind of issue that will prompt governments to impose restrictions or outright prohibitions. Both are here included because the oil pressure may take time to bleed off and you want the booster to go off with the key. Please note.Never use brass or copper fittings on these cells. and goes off if either is interrupted. IF there is no fuel pump relay (like some Toyota) use the oil presser sender. but it must be only "on" if the motor is running. Only one control point is needed. hydroxy is building up with no place to go. it will NOT turn off if the engine stops. The Fuel pump relay is the only way to power on your cell. but it should enable an on/off switch or go through a normally open pressure switch in the oil line. The oil pressure is the least effective of these as it often takes considerable time for the pressure to leak off. For safety you must provide positive disabling of the booster in an accident. If you use the fuel pump line to close the booster relay. before the starter is engaged. These are only details. This is portrayed as being the only "Safe" way to wire it. A secondary relay from oil pressure or RPM or some computer controlled point that actually changes when the motor stops must be used.

use that alone and no hydroxy will be generated until oil pressure is . On the Relay Wiring. [Must be normally open. Always keep this volume as low as possible. Mike Angerstein -How a booster can be shut off via an oil line sensor The relay method can be used if you can't get an oil line sensor installed. without oil pressure] If you can. An alternate option has been supplied By open source engineer: maxanthonybruce Another option provided by Wouter from the WaterFuelFor All design. the trigger input just says "Ignition On" Make sure it is tapped into a component that only cuts on with the "Ignition On and Not Accessory" like the Fuel Pump fuse.hydroxy gas production area above the surface of the liquid.

R2 is required to keep from back feeding the starter and trashing the teeth on the starter or flywheel." This will shut off the system in a few seconds if the engine stalls. get help. If you are not proficient in electrical devices.How to use an oil pressure sender to do a booster shut-off . For any who try the relays."Up. Individual cars and trucks may have hidden problems when adding things to the starter wiring. the isolation relay. Richard Coyle.

Check with a ohm meter: if one connects and the other one does not: your got a good relay.Starting the motor causes the oil pressure sender to open or come off ground. the booster needs protection from a potential “flash back” or back fire explosion.-Richard Coyle Before the booster can be connected to the intake manifold. relay one controls the ground for the two power relays by holding the contact open for them to ground. but with no path to ground for relays 2 & 3.Relay one controls the coil power to relay two and three by their grounds. The contact are: 85 (2) are the control coil lugs. . if both do not make a contact find a relay that does. It works like this. Relay one must have a normally open and closed contacts. This is done by using what is called a “flash back arrestor” or a “safety bubbler(s)”. this cuts the ground connection to relay one letting it shut down and thus CLOSE the OPEN connection now letting relay 2&3 power up and they close their contacts and power the fuel cell. or the normally closed contact (normally is at rest or unpowered). it being held open by relay one they do not connect. This is the tricky part. this coil controls the relay and #30 is the B+ lug with 87 and 87a being the out puts or switched contacts. key on and all coils are getting the B+ power. and relay one IS powered by having its ground connecting thought the oil pressure sender. that is: with no power one contact will connect to terminal 30 it will most likely be 87a and the other will not. so you want their ground connections on relays #30 lug and the ground hook up on the contact that is OPEN when relay one is powered up and to be connected when relay one’s power is cut. This will insure the fuel cell only runs when the motor runs making it safe.

even if there is no bubbler present. which may carry traces of electrolyte. The hose coming from the water trap is connected to the air intake before the air breather. Wouter has provided the following explanation. the air filter serves as a first line of defense protecting against a back flash coming from the engine. .Bubblers and safety If using an additional water trap. We are not interested in a vacuum because the manifold has greatest vacuum at the wrong time and no vacuum at the worse time. but rater connect the gas hose to the air filter box so that the hydroxy exits BEFORE the air filter.06”) thick stainless steel. A large volume of water will be used in the bubbler to help mask and stop any flashback from reaching the electrolyser. the bubbler will block the flame from passing back through the hose pipe and igniting the gas being produced in the booster. is so that the gases introduced into the intake are first filtered by the air filter. the WFA booster can easily withstand a flashback on its own. The reason why a check valve is needed between the bubbler and on the design like the Smack’s booster (detailed in the brute force hydroxyl design section below) is because the Smack is not designed to withstand the force of a flashback on its own and relies on the bubbler to protect it. Also. For this exact reason we do not connect the gas hose to any place that draws a vacuum. the air filter serves as additional protection against a possible engine backfire and the air filter also assist in filtering out any traces of electrolyte in the hydroxy gas. we want the hydroxy gas filtered of any mist. the plastic cap of the water trap will simply shoot off or one of the rubber seal connectors will pop out.5mm (0. this setup is both safe and easy to implement. the bubbler must remain filled with water at all time to serve as a protection mechanism and the one way check valve is suppose to keep the water in the bubbler from siphoning back into the booster. We are not interested in a vacuum because the manifold has greatest vacuum at the wrong time. the air filter serves as a first line of defense protecting against a flash back coming from the engine. For that reason the WFA comes standard with a water trap where the purpose of the water trap is mainly to catch water carrying electrolyte that might spill over from the booster while driving. The reason why it is recommend connecting the hose coming from the water trap to the air intake before the air breather. Boosters must be constructed with a tight fitted screw on lid. In this way. it is advised you use two of them If your engine produced a “backfire”. For an example of the cap coming off from an induced flash back please consult these videos: YouTube . the WouterfuelForAll booster outer side-wall is constructed from 1. In this way we prevent electrolyte from being sucked into the engine. Thus. to protect the booster. A tighter lid will mask or soften the explosion. So. we want the hydroxy gas filtered of any mist. so that the gases introduced into the intake are first filtered by the air filter. and no vacuum at the worse time. Note that the water trap has also been tested to act as an effective protection mechanism against a flashback.Above is a safety bubbler. On the other hand. which may carry traces of electrolyte. Should a flashback happen. As an additional benefit. Also. (Also note that the plastic cap is made of very light and soft HDPE plastic so there is no risk of shrapnel as with some other commercially available boosters!) So it is clear that on its own.Poor man's bubbler testing YouTube-hydroxy fuel cell explosion YouTube-hydroxy . thus much stronger than many other commercially available boosters. As an additional benefit.

Jim’s complete safety system with a check valve Mike Angerstein Bubbler . max current draw >20A).e. for systems generating less than 2 liters per minute (that implies a current draw <=20A). While fitting a one-way valve inbetween the booster and the bubbler prevents water from siphoning back into the booster. the water trap on its own is sufficient. the water in the bubbler serves as an additional protection against a flashback and also serves as an additional filtering mechanism to filter out traces of electrolyte from the hydroxy gas.Replacing the water trap with a heavy duty bubbler adds even more safety to the installation and the idea is to keep the bubbler at least half full of water at a time. some of the water in the bubbler may siphon back into the booster when the booster cools down and for that reason you should only fill the bubbler with distilled water or water that has been filtered by a Brita filter. but we recommend the heavy duty bubbler for systems generating more than 2 liters per minute hydroxy (i. In this way. Unless a one-way valve is fitted in-between the booster and the bubbler. Obviously nothing prevents you from having both a water trap and heavy duty bubbler which will give you the best of both worlds! As a rule of thumb. the bubbler will not be able to act as a water trap and thus more care has to be taken not to overfill the booster when refilling with water.

The T leading into the bubbler should be in the center of the bubbler. -End Never install any hydroxy unit or contraption IE. . This arrangement was in my design of 18 months ago and was mentioned here with no responders I can recall. Minimal gas space is assumed and a good quality back flow check valve capable of withstanding at least 150 PSI is required. That makes the area of the burst diaphragm almost equel to the area of the top of the bubbler using 1" fittings. You will need a micro switch on each diaphragm with the normally open contacts wired in series to insure the booster will be shut off. as the important factor is semitry. Only suitable places are the engine compartment.This is a bubbler design with 2 T sections to use as blast diverters to minimize pressures in the bubbler. The tube can be 1" tygon with a 1" barb fitting on the T. It followed a long discussion about forces in the flash back in which Bob Boyce carefully outlined all these same points about shock wave pressures and their destructive results. Not expensive and very effective design. Of a valid concern here is anyone placing a hydroxy generator in a luggage compartment is taking a big risk should their unit develop a leak. any booster or any bubbler near or inside the passenger compartment. The addition of a "blade style" micro switch will also turn off your booster if the diaphragm is burst. High priority warnings should be made available to everyone in case someone manages to ignite one and spoils it for the rest of us. If you are thinking about the boot or trunk where is the gas going to escape if there is a leak? Some commercial boosters like the Magdrive mention luggage space as being a considered place to put a hydroxy generator. No bubbler dimensions are given.

There are two options of bubbler design. Most prefer to install the booster behind the front bumper between the radiator (always facing upright). for example 3/8" or 5/16” (10 mm or 12 mm). (KOH. This one way valve can be placed in the pipe between the booster and the bubbler. not just for luggage compartments. they could go further.Common sense dictates doing things with safety at the fore. Should a hydroxy booster in a car boot leak and an explosion occur. hydroxy can ignite very easily. For a compact design Eletrik’s Smack booster is very practical. Use a larger diameter outlet hose. Do not use tap water if you’re choosing to use the Smack’s booster design. This is to prevent any water from being drawn into the booster when the booster is off and has cooled down. Also to limit the amount of any unprotected hydroxy gas. It is better to have as short a run of tubing as possible to the air ductwork of the engine. NaOH (lye)) use double bubblers to help catch any before going to your motor. For safety reasons. This will also help keep the booster cool when operating for long periods of time. The bubbler on the side of the unit should be filled about 1/3 to 1/2 full of water. You must ensure that the bubbler level is maintained at all times. ANY Failure to do so WILL result in backfire explosion. Beware of any systems that call for lots of chemical. This will also “filter” the electrolyte vapor out of the hydroxy gas when on its way into the engine. Always keep the hydroxy gas held at the top of each cell to a minimum. If your length of tube is 3 feet / 1 meter or above. Absolutely NO pipe containing gas should run through any part of the passenger area. then include another bubbler at the end of the tube for extra protection. Never perform electrolysis where the gas can escape freely. The other option is to have another bubbler connect as a water trap. it would have dire consequences for the cause. It is advised you do this to remove any traces of electrolyte fumes from the gas before it is drawn into the engine. The booster’s weight can be . Also you must protect your engine from other damage by using a one way valve. "in the interests of public safety". One option is to drill and tap a 1/4" (6 mm) NPT fitting into the plastic inlet tubing with a barbed end for connecting the 1/4" (6 mm) hose. Lawmakers would verily swoop on an event like that and very likely write in a new law banning hydroxy generators. Always position your booster in the best ventilated area of your engine. You can also add in a second bubbler on this design. ideally you want to reduce the volume of hydroxy gas hanging around in the intake system so use short hose connections.

Both KOH and NaOH are bad for aluminum car parts. one close to the top and one around the bottom. Please refer to the EFIE section below. If you use your car for an hour a day using this first Smack design. Never use table salt or baking soda! This will permanently damage the booster more information why is provided in the faculty section. etc. you will need to use the Smack Gen III. Wash it off with plenty of water and some vinegar or citrus juice. While working with the electrolyte solution. filters. it is probably this solution. Diesel Engines The benefits of hydrogen and oxygen being fed into diesel engines have been scientifically proven.supported by being housed in bracket with two hose clamps to secure the unit. Work in a well ventilated area and wear the surgical or painter's breathing mask. Please consult the recommended installation guides included later for further examples. These are weak acids and will neutralize the base. you must add in a specific circuit which will enable the car to accept the hydroxy booster. salt water or rainwater will have impurities in them and will clog and cause damage to your booster and affect your health! Always use KOH (potassium hydroxide) as an electrolyte. certain timing and adjustments need to be considered for your car in order to achieve the best performance. For those who have cars which have an ECU (electronic control unit) on board. It is normal to observe a drop in current after a few refills. It is also necessary to install an ammeter to monitor the current draw as you operate your booster. the solution will generate lots of heat. Do not breathe the fumes of this solution. If you want to stick to the Smacks low cost design and drive longer. researched and documented by the U. use latex or rubber gloves and eye protection as well as a surgical or painter's breathing mask. That is what bubblers. SAE Technical Paper 2000-01-2791:"A Before Treatment Method for Reduction of Emissions in Diesel Engines". If we don’t do this the car’s ECU will inject more fuel due to less emissions coming out of your exhaust. universities and research facilities globally. Caution. . stirring and giving the solution time to cool so it doesn’t overheat. If you ever have a substance on your skin that feels slippery. Various designs of boosters will be covered shortly. when mixing electrolyte with water. are supposed to prevent. All modern cars have a fuel computer (ECU) and this circuit is needed to adjust the sensor signal fed to the computer from the oxygen sensor built into the exhaust. They are used in the gas generator and should NEVER get to the engine parts. Also depending on your LPM (liters per minute) output of your chosen design. Add the electrolyte to the water a little at a time. It will depend on what booster design you use plus how frequently you use your car or bike as to how often the water and electrolyte mix will need topping up. Tap water. When adding distilled water check your current draw. typically you may only have to top it up (not completely refill) about once per week.S. ALWAYS MONITER THIS! The filling from a bubbler can be recovered and is to replenish so any electrolyte filtered from the gas can be reclaimed. Also Links to ready built boosters for sale are included below. Always use your booster with distilled water. This will be discussed I the faculty section below. More info on this is mention in the design section below. Government.

uk/research/rrpdf/rr615. the combustion process can be considerably enhanced in internal combustion engines producing significantly lower levels of exhaust emissions. International Fall Fuels and Lubricants Meeting and Exposition. At normal temperature and pressure. Do a run without hydroxy and then with very slowly increasing the hydroxy. Open source engineer Bob Boyce has also stated that diesel will run on 80% Hydroxy and 20% Diesel." -end Diesel is used in a high-compression engine. it is estimated that hydroxy can burn when it is between 4% and 94% hydrogen by volume. Bade Shrestha. Glow Plugs These should not have a negative effect and or cause a flash back. timing will be impacted.hse.gov.300º you will do things like melting heads and pistons. LONG ANSWER:Question: ignition temp for each fuel. Then the fuel is injected as a high pressure spray. ."Through an addition of a small amount of hydrogen to the main fuel. An oxygenenrichment of a fuel-air mixture also improves thermal efficiency and reduces especially particulate. The amount of hydroxy gas should not exceed four times the amount of diesel as engine overheating will occur if it does. Air is compressed until it is heated above the auto ignition temperature of diesel (210° C). Baltimore.by S. 30% and 19% respectively in comparison to the corresponding baseline diesel operation for the experiment considered. October 2000. the reduction. That means you are running on 20%. If you run above about 1. Major problem: "hot spots" [see Ford article] These are hydrocarbon deposits that are "fanned into flame" by the inrush of the "charging" of the cylender with air/fuel mix during intake cycle. but way higher than diesel]. or "preignition knock" if during compression cycle. and since hydroxy/diesel burns faster than pure diesel. This could be due to pre ignition or an increased fuel burn rate. The maximum reductions of PM. With using large volumes of hydroxy gas.""In comparison to the baseline diesel operation. CO and NOx emissions are up to 60%. [gas: 280*C] deisel: 210*C [many references] hydrogen: 585*C http://www.O. From logic: glow plugs don't preignite diesel. That is way up there in milage. It takes both compression and the glow plug to have ignition on manifold injection [where fuel is present during compression]. In Bob's data he states that you can only replace 80% of the diesel before having too little lube on the top end. carbon monoxide and unburned hydrocarbon emissions in exhaust. You could get an EGT pyrometer and watch that exhaust gas temperature. Diesel engines do not operate by using spark plugs hence there are no timing alterations which will need to be done to them in order to operate with a booster. the effect is to have over advanced the ignition. you will need to find out why. University of Calgary. the diesel engine is set to tick over on diesel and hydroxy gas is then added to “rev” the engine up and provide the power. If there is too much hydroxy. when the temperature rises. Hydroxy: unknown [probably somewhat lower than hydrogen.pdf. especially on PM and NOx emissions are attractive considering the simplicity and low cost of hydrogen generating systems used. This improvement in combustion can be mainly attributed to the faster and cleaner burning characteristics of hydrogen in comparison to conventional liquid and gaseous fuels. Maryland. After the engine has been run with hydroxy boost for some time the hydrocarbon is "cleaned" off the walls and piston face and the probability greatly reduced. If the spot is above the ignition temp it will ignite the fuel/air charge and cause backfire if the valve is still open.

No papers found to indicate this has been investigated. So far this is the lowest cost.fsec. Similar systems (not even made of solid stainless steel) which produce high out puts currently go for up to 10. Diesel and other trucks The benefits of hydroxyl on trucks and in reducing their emissions is already well reported in the environmental testing laboratory in California.000 USD! For trucks – it is recommend two bubblers where the first bubbler is empty and merely serves the purpose as a water trap while the second bubbler is filled with water. WHEN USING BOOSTERS ON TRUCKS. both gas and diesel.ucf. In most engines. for this reference and more related papers. On these engines. therefore safety must not be compromised. .edu/en/consumer/hydrogen/basics/utilization-ice. SHORT ANSWER: no. but where it is turned off. In-between the two bubblers we fit a one way check valve as to prevent the water in the second bubbler from siphoning back to the booster.The more common point of ignition is the sparkplug in gas [made worse if platinum because of intentional high retained heat at the tip] or the glowplug in diesel engines. no fuel until injection and ignition is at the point of injection from "boundry temps" [the heat caused by friction between fuel at high pressure and hot air] as well as compression. preignition of hydroxy is likely. YOU WILL NEED AT LEAST TWO HEAVY DUTY SAFTEY BUBBLERS. On engines where the glow plug is left on. The open source engineers have made the lowest cost designs. The reason being. For a good article on ice hydrogen use see [ford doc] http://www. reliable and compact retail booster.htm In most diesels the glow plugs are on for a timed interval at startup. please consult the Law and emissions section below. There are allot of retail units out there which are ridiculously priced given their output and material cost. If direct injected. a low level of hydroxy injection for a cleaning phase seems indicated. Trucks will require a high hydroxy boost to get a significant gain. CHECK VALVE PLUS A WATER TRAP. These designs are listed in this document. This is the Wouter fuel for all super deluxe trucking booster (center) next to the water trap (right). As these are "burning" at combustion temp. you are producing a HIGH concentration (up to 10LPM) of hydroxy. The Water Fuel for all Super Deluxe booster An example of one heavy duty safety bubbler (left). the deposits are the "glow" needed for best timing on "manifold" or port injection. many examples of success with diesel and all have glowplugs. The average price for a 7LPM Wouter fuel for all system is around 1500$. there are few deposits at the plug. the presence of hydrocarbon hot spots is likely. PLEASE NOTE.

This is because we can no more rely on the air cleaner to filter out trace elements of lye and thus we must have a bubbler filled with water to catch any remaining lye. for this purpose we recommend this setup: Booster > water trap > one way check valve > bubbler(s) Below you can see other examples of being able to create a truck booster installation.Do not forget that it is preferred to add in the hydroxy before the air filter and only second choice after the air filter. The air filter aids in this diffusion. who used a cheap “Smack Booster” design. then you MUST have a second bubbler filled with water. Johns “smack” design An example of housings for boosters . The by allowing diffusion of the hydroxy gas evenly into the intake air ensures thorough mixing for even boost into ALL cylinders. So. If you want to connect your gas hose AFTER the air cleaner. The following has been provided by open source engineer John. The reason for this is pretty simple really.

.4 liter engine. 1988 Toyota Dyna Pantec Engine – 2446 cc 4 cylinder diesel The wiring was done so that we take power for the relay from the oil pressure sender which only gives power when the engine is actually running. Panacea applied the ratio of 1LPM (one liter per minute of hydroxy) per liter of engine size.(see the Smacks Booster wiring diagram).Enclosure In the following installation Panacea installed the water fuel for all “super deluxe” truck booster on a 1988 Toyota Dyna Pantec Engine – 2446 cc 4 cylinder diesel. In this case it worked out to be around 3 liter per minute of hydroxy for a 2. .

Conversely. There are many vehicle configurations in the market place. Much safer. or the bed of your pickup. therefore the following can only be a general guide line which presents a typical installation. This can be mounted at the back of a tractor cab. not inside the cargo bay of a truck. the booster shuts down when the engine stops since it loses oil pressure and the oil pressure sender cuts the power to the relay even though the ignition can still be on. Keep in mind that you will most likely want to run the hoses and wire together along a frame member or other similar under vehicle location where you can attach wire or . The following is another option provided by the hydrogen junkie.Water fuel for all super deluxe with heavy duty bubbler and water trap When you turn on the ignition there is no power to the booster relay until the engine actually starts running. Then determine a path for your hydroxy hoses and electrical wire from the electrolyer to the engine compartment. First you must find an appropriate location to house your electrolyer. Although this may seem like a relatively simple process it should be handled by a professional mechanic or mechanically-inclined individual with the appropriate tools.

Splice one end of the small red electrical wire onto the hot/power side of the ignition circuit.) Re-attach the air-intake cowling and screw the 1/4 NPT x 3/8" hose barbs (2 fittings) into the 7/16" holes you drilled in the air-intake. providing enough slack near the electrolyser to allow you to position it conveniently when you want to fill/refill the electrolyte in the generating cells. Double check to be sure you have chosen a path that will avoid the hot exhaust manifold and exhaust pipes as well as avoiding any moving mechanisms that would entangle or wear the hoses. Then secure the hoses on the two hose barbs extending from the electrolyser. In the engine compartment of your vehicle use your electrical circuit checker/probe to locate a 12 Volt hot wire that will switch on/off when you switch your ignition on/off. There is no need to over-tighten the fittings. shorting.engine compartment. to re-constitute the original circuit after the switched current has passed through the solenoid within the electrolyser. or melting. and any other obstructions which would make it difficult for you to push or pull your hydroxy hoses and electrical wires through the holes you have drilled. For inside. to secure the hose barbs. Turn the ignition off while working on that circuit. You can bundle the hoses and wires together to make it easier to tie them up to and secure them along a frame member in the direction of the engine compartment. in-truck-bed. Now locate an area on your air-intake cowling as near the air-intake termination at the throttle throat as you can conveniently access. using the hose clamps. Attaching the 2 small solenoid activation wires to a switched source will prevent the device from continuing to generate hydrogen and oxygen when your ignition key is switched off.1/4" holes within 2" of each other (a circular pattern works well). Then either push or pull the 2 hydroxy hoses through the two 11/16" holes you drilled. Attach both vacuum hoses to the 2 hose barbs you attached to your air-intake cowling using 2 of the hose clamps. or move it to a position where the drilling debris won't fall into the throttle throat or intake manifold. Then push or pull the two large red and green wires through two of the 1/4" holes. Drill through the floor to the underside of the vehicle. You can a two crimp-on butt connectors (see photos below) provided to effect the splice connections. brake lines.7/16" holes about 2" apart. You must stay clear of the fuel tank. Its a good idea to follow the same path as the electrical wires so the 2 hoses and the wires can be bundled with electrical tape as you attach and support them with plastic ties . Drill 2. you can clean the area around the holes and use any good plastic glue. If you strip the threads or have trouble satisfactorily affixing the fittings into the air-intake cowling. Then attach one end of the small green wire extending from the electrolyser to the other end of the wire you cut and are splicing into. (Remove the air-intake. airplane glue.11/16" holes & 3. Cut the ignition wire in a convenient location and strip the 2 ends back about 3/8". Gorilla Glue. You MUST keep both hydroxy hoses and electrical wire at least 12" from the exhaust pipes and exhaust manifold to prevent them from burning.plastic ties to hold them in place. in-trunk. inserting each wire through separate 1/4" holes you previously drilled. such as PVC cement. Then push or pull both of the two smaller red and green wires through the last 1/4" hole. Note never the in-commercial-cargo-bay: combustible gases not allowed in-commercial-cargo-bay After the location where you wish to install your electrolyser then find a place where you can drill 2. Wrap all the electrical wires with electrical tape where they may rub against the side of the drilled holes to protect them from wear.

loosen each of the battery clamp nuts and slide one of the 3 circuit clip connectors between each of the 2 nuts and the 2 battery clamps. (see photo 1). Seek out and or make a port just BEFORE the blades of the turbine. Then push the female push-on connector on the red wire onto one of the male prongs of the circuit clip you previously attached to the positive post of the battery. On side mount batteries.and/or mechanics wire as they traverse along the vehicle framework between the location of the electrolyser and the engine compartment. loosen the 2 cable bolts and slide a circuit clip over each of the cable bolts between the battery and the cable connector. Attach a brass 3 circuit clip connector to each of the positive and negative battery posts. the electrolyte will eat them. It may not matter where as long as the hydroxy finds its way into the intake. Then do the same with the green wire. If no turbo: Do not use brass or copper fittings on the booster. It may not be necessary . where the strongest vacuum would be. Photo 1 Photo 2 Photo 3 Attach (crimp) a 1/4" yellow female push-on connector (see 2) to the battery end of each of the large red and green battery wires. attaching it to one of the male prongs of the circuit clip you previously attached to the negative post of the battery. then re-tighten each of the nuts to hold the 2 circuit clips in place. Care must be taken so any particles can be sucked into the blades and possibly damage them. On top mount battery posts. then re-tighten both of the bolts to hold the clips in place. Installation example on a Diesel Truck Turbo Diesel The following has not been tested and verified thus is experimental. This helps produce more Hydroxy. The next port option is to add a nipple onto the air filter box (preferably after the filter) or into the air duct itself.

One should do. Repeat offenses are very severe.just add Hydroxy. The Smack can be used at the 0. Experiment first without changing anything else . Original Smack’s Design on a Diesel One experimenter who experimented with several different variations of the Smack’s design reported his figures averaged closer to 1 LPM @20 amps. modify or disable any engine devices or emissions systems. Please check your local laws.youtube. Then configure or alter the mixture to see if it improves mileage without causing power loss and/or overheating.unlike gasoline engines for two connections. How ever if this does occur. just to make sure nearly all moisture has been taken out before released into the intake of ANY diesel. It is unclear if leaning the mixture is desirable or beneficial once you introduce Hydroxy. Also it is advised to use multiple stages of bubblers and filters.http://www. Do it a little bit at a time. .com/watch?v=P6hbAy4gGOM Installation examples Panacea-BOCAF .Mileage increased by over 50% Video. in order to keep the heat from building too fast making the unit unusable. change.com/watch?v=osWBMrEkuks Part 2.Alterative PWM installation on you car Safety links Car Care Basics Effie construction and installation guide Before we even get started please note . Part 1-http://www. You cannot allow water to enter your Diesel engine! Smack’s install videos Optional installation extra’s can be reference from our very own genius Eletrik in his Smack’s Mobile.How to build a HHO Generator for Auto Installation HOH Cells .Hydroxy Booster Installation of the Water fuel for all booster Recommended.5 LPM @ 10 amps level. We suggest getting an emissions test done first to then justify the use of these boosters and the needed alteration of your on board ECU.Smacks installation guide Video.It is in most states a crime to alter. Stick to the Smack’s recommendations with his design and allow for run time conditioning.youtube. In his replication (not representative of all) over heating temperatures amounting to 170 degrees produced lot of steam. especially for diesel engines.

extracting heat to boil off and thus cooling the flame.ECU in a gasoline engine. can they not substitute something in its place to prevent boosters giving better fuel economy. if car makers know the science of boosters. Car makers have known long enough how to give us better fuel economy and how to take care of emissions. This is obviously not very efficient and nearly all of the high mileage devices today and throughout history have been based on improving the fuel vaporization prior to the initial combustion. late in the power stroke and even continuing during the exhaust stroke. then are they not an advantage in knowing how to make it difficult to install them encase somehow they did catch on?. There are several competing objectives such as: * power output . the final temperature that is achieved will be less than you would think because of the expansion and work output during the power stroke.Source When a fuel burns it is only the fuel vapor which will burn. The heat vaporizes this liquid which can then ignite at some time later. All share the central task of supplying fuel to the combustion process. The liquid fuel which is vaporizing during combustion is quenching the flame. Liquid fuel droplets do not combust therefore will not contribute to powering the engine. When it does eventually burn completely. The scientific results detailing the benefits of boosters which can fix this problem have been established for over 80 years. Before we make the following points lets engage into some introspection. and can this substitution appear to do benefits in its place? This is the end of contemplation and the start of practical issues. There is no excuse given the years old patent applications. Modern carburetor and EFI systems thus cannot provide efficient fuel vaporization. and much of the fuel is still in the form of small droplets during combustion. First of all. scientific tests and recorded FACTS. but it is a design decision how a particular system will be optimized. Also if it is known what a booster can do. The EFI was made according to Wikipedia Quote: Objectives-The functional objectives for fuel injection systems can vary. What they do is ‘accurately’ meter the fuel.

we have had this problem (energy suppression) since the time of Nikola Tesla as far back in the 1800’s. these will be covered also. For those with a modern cars which has an EFI on board. The modern digital electronic fuel injection system is far more capable at optimizing these competing objectives than a carburetor Wikipedia. What is the excuse now? You can answer that by your own logic.* fuel efficiency * emissions performance * ability to accommodate alternative fuels * reliability * drivability and smooth operation * initial cost * maintenance cost * diagnostic capability * range of environmental operation Certain combinations of these goals are conflicting. The reason why modern cars equip with an ECU are not able to operate with a hydroxy booster is simply because the hydroxy booster will increase the combustion efficiency of an engine which then will increase the exhaust oxygen percentage. This is an out right hypocrisy. and we all better do more than just think about it. . There are other substitutions to the “EFIE” which have recently come to light. Practical issues to deal in the mean time are to now do the best we can with what we have until the next best thing is achieved. Those who are active towards helping assimilate a practical solution can support the nonprofit organization Panacea-BOCAF In any way possible. EFI engines use an oxygen sensor to infer the air/fuel ratio of the engine. to resolve our introspection. automotive engineers strive to best satisfy a customer's needs competitively. and it is impractical for a single engine control system to fully optimize all criteria simultaneously. how can oil and car makers justify a product which gets rid of the carburetor (making it additional laborious and complicated to install a booster) when it is already well know that a hydroxy booster can achieve MORE benefits then those mentioned above. you will need to install an additional circuit called an “EFIE” (electronic fuel injection enhancer) to allow you motor to function much the same as the old carburetor cars(could/did) to “accept” the booster. comparing the points of the invention of the EFI to enhance: * power output * fuel efficiency * emissions performance The EFI’s capacity to improve these is far surpassed by the substitution of a hydroxy booster in its place.-end Quote First of all. In practice.

. If your engine is running rough (it can be harmful to your engine). Fine tuning MAY take some time and effort depending on each individual’s car anatomy. if it is too lean the combustion temps in the cylinders can have detrimental effect on the valves and pistons (which is why racing engines are built with high strength Stainless Steel Valves. You can only help this by forwarding this information on this web page to them. This is hardly an invention which enables the acceptance of alternative fuels. An EGT [Exhaust Gas Temperature] gauge [Pyrometer] is an inexpensive way to safeguard your engine from expensive repairs due to excessive EGT. you will see a dramatic rise in EGT a minute or more before any damage can occur. can potentially harm your engine. If your engine is running too rich (gasoline can get into the crankcase). If you’re not experienced in adjusting your fuel air ratios please do not attempt it. the science behind them. Some find they need to adjust the lean mixture setting (explanation below) and ratio’s based on empirical performance. In the introduction one of the key claims is that an EFI achieves is the acceptance of alternative fuels. so your vehicle’s computer is configured to be completely unaware that the oxygen content of the exhaust has increased. Panacea intends to get relative data on individual models through dyno and emissions test and report these results here. You must understand WHY and HOW to ADJUST the EFIE circuit to find the sweet spots. so please check back for updates. This will then make the car fitted with a booster achieve worse fuel economy. You are also able to purchase a readymade EFIE if you’re not able to build this circuit yourself. and hi tech aluminum alloy components). Do NOT do this if you do not know what you’re doing as adjusting the senor too much could do PERMANENT DAMAGE your engine! It is advised that those without experience install an EGT gauge. go to a qualified mechanic or please check the link sections below for more information. planning and further testing. Modern mechanics need to get up to scratch with these benefits and accommodate motorist accordingly. video installations and readymade ones for purchase. Please participate! The EFIE circuit board needs to be added in order to appropriately configure the sensor signal of the computer into producing better suited air/fuel mixes for the hydroxy booster operation. The intent of the EFIE device is to take the original O2 signal and add a very small additional voltage to the incoming signal to read back to the ECU. This will make the ECU think it is running rich so it leans the mixture accordingly. This section will cover DIY (do it yourself) EFIE designs circuits. This will be updated into this document. The Electronic Fuel Injection Enhancer (EFIE) circuit is intended to offset the voltage coming from the oxygen sensor.As a result the electronic control unit’s oxygen sensor will think there is not enough fuel and will inject more fuel into the mix. This EFIE circuit and the installation of it is relatively is simple. A qualified mechanic can do this for you if you’re not able. After the EFIE installation it is advised that you take your car and get a dyno test done to indicate any bone fide MPG improvement and reduced emissions. links to technical advice. Everyone needs to pay attention to this point (another point also proven by the racing crowd . A lean burning engine is a hot burning engine All racers know this simple fact .who are well aware of this fact). This is a relatively new and experimental area which needs careful study. It also will allow you to keep the original signal level without leaning out the mixture. Anything you do. Some have had NO problems with the operation of the EFIE to fool their oxygen sensor.Just ask one.

it takes time for the ECU to adapt to the changes and stabilize. We are "Leaning" out the Fossil Fuel from the Ignition Process. Therefore it is suggested that you set the EFIE to its highest/ richest level and drive away. as most ECU systems use more than just distance driven and total injector pulse width to calculate estimated fuel consumed per hour and MPG. In proper proportions and replacing the removed fuel with Hydroxy gas. The Hydroxy is capable of filling that void of missing fossil fuels and still have energy left over. When O2 sensor modifiers are added to ECU equipped vehicles. Note . So. Initially before the open source engineers started doing research. for "pure" hydrogen it is like 1: 39. The ideal Fuel/Air Mixture for gasoline is like 1:14.7 (air : Gasoline). Instant MPG gauges are typically available only in ECU equipped vehicles. MAF. it takes time for the ECU to adapt to the changes and stabilize. 5. This link is included in the readymade EFIE’s links section below. you are not in effect actually leaning out the engine (you are just using less gasoline). 2. the most popular was the made and sold by Eagle Research. and when the engine has reached its normal operating temperature. or engine temperature sensor readings are altered. These surprise. It can take hundreds of miles of driving for ECU adapting to stabilize. air.BUT if you are leaning out the fuel going into the engine and making up the difference with Hydroxy . This accuracy is GREATLY affected if MAP.We are "Not" Technically running our vehicles Lean with hydroxy boosters. then turn the EFIE down very slowly until the engine starts to notice what you are doing. This EFIE as stated earlier is an acronym standing for “electronic fuel injector enhancer (EFIE). The eagle research unit generates a small voltage by using a 555 timer chip as an . Think about it If you are in fact optimizing your fuel mixture by supplementing Hydroxy Gas (not just leaning out the fuel/air mixture) then you should not have a serious knock issue. The O2 sensor needs to heat up to "Operating" Temp as It does not calibrate only according to the temp of the exhaust. Then set it slightly above that point. if you are only using 10% Hydrogen. 4. When boosters are added to ECU equipped vehicles. Sometimes O2 sensor changes can affect the instant MPG readings of the ECU. surprise are the best. So we will not have leaner car emissions.this is only a problem when you push the envelope of reality too far. Panacea will also include alternative ENHANCED circuits which are is designed to do the same thing. Individuals who used the George Wiseman's EFIE from eagle-research should be aware that it uses an NE555 oscillator which generates the output voltage level from the timing control of the oscillator alone and is not related to the operation of the sensor at all. Eagle researches EFIE has been listed as being compatible with all oxygen sensors. these will relate directly to the sensor signal and are there to adjust to the actual engine load conditions. As for the knock sensors. 3. But just because anything you do can harm your engine is only an excuse for not doing it.then you are not "leaning out" your engine (you are optimizing its efficiency). Bob Boyce has stated: 1. you conceivably are displacing over 20% of the gasoline -right? As for engine knocking . There are various EFIE’s around for available for sale. Only the open source ones have been included here.

oscillator and then rectifies the output to give a small adjustable voltage which is then added to whatever voltage is generated by the oxygen sensor. he reports that he has received feedback from 3 people who have installed this in their vehicles state: "It WORKS well". Open source DYI EFIE and PWM circuits For more information on the role of the pulse width modulation circuits (PWM) please consult the faculty section below. These circuits will intercept the O2 sensor signal and then sends out 1 set voltage. Although he has only bench tested his design. It is important to look at the components used in the circuit. if so it is a “wideband” sensor which measures both the oxygen content and the amount of un-burnt fuel. you must check If your sensor has five wires running to it. Usually you only need to be concerned with the O2 sensor in the manifold. By design you will find that some are more efficient than others. Stated again Note prior to making this circuit. A Modification to Correct the 02 Sensor Circuit .L. they all intend to do the same thing. CHEMELEC web site is located here. G.L. but all of them do not function the same way. CHEMELEC. The EFIE circuits which include the 555 timer or a coil are NOT very good at all. This is not practical as the engine load changes so do its delivered A/F Ratio requirements. Is ever single EFIE's the same? NO. This circuit is what is defined as a corrected version which had been originally published in the “D17” document from the practical guide to free energy devices. then this type of circuit described will not control it. The one after the catalytic converter does not control the fuel supply on most cars. If it I. This voltage is adjusted at installation time and is then left permanently at that setting. The following is an open sourced circuit designed by G.

the 6 position rotary switch.Parts over lay CHEMELEC also advises that you can save Money by Eliminating S1. He explains that this switch is only used to set the range and that it’s not needed as a switch. So .

Wait about 3 mins for the circuit to start operating 5 . First Apply Power to the Circuit. –Source. Or additionally you can seek professional advice. than solder in a permanent link (wire Jumper) to the Correct position. allowing the MSPA14 transistor to function so the LED Can Light. Installation and tuning guide to the above circuit Fuel Mixture control circuit . This happens in 50mv increments with each selection on the rotary switch. Check and see if your sensor has five wires running to it. After construction: 1 .your are able to just use a Jumper wire until you get the correct range. You will need to first we test the device in the vehicle before installation to verify it is functioning. Confusion can happen as some previous guides use the same term for different actions.Set rotary switch to richest position 4 .reduce 500mv test voltage down until the LED goes out 8 . The VR's set the thresholds for the low and high base toggle targets. This will also be MORE reliable with no chance of corrosion on this part. Any vehicles which have two sensors. But before adjusting this.0V 7 . so to speak. Leave VR2 set at 1. Locate the oxygen sensor in the engine compartment. This gives time for the 470uF Capacitor to Charge up.adjust VR1 so that the LED just comes on 6 . This occurs in 50mv increments with each turn of the rotary. However S2 should be installed as it may be needed at times. If so then this type of circuit described above here will not control it. if so then it is a “wideband” sensor which measures both the oxygen content and the amount of un-burnt fuel. The manual mentioned previously “Clymer or Haynes Maintenance Manual for your vehicle” will show you the exact position. if it does then the circuit is working correctly. must select the one which is nearest to the engine. The Rotary switch determines at what point this happens in relationship to the base. This Device alters the toggle points so it thinks its rich at leaner voltages.apply 500mv test voltage to signal line that will be coming in from O2 sensor 3 .0v. It reads High Then Low then shoots in Between to meet in the middle.adjust VR2 so that output line (to go to ECU) reads 1. you can’t calibrate this circuit. So what you are doing is forcing the computer to see rich when it’s not. So basically you are leaning it out at 50mv increments from stock settings.apply 12V power to the board 2 . That is how the ECU reads the Voltages from the O2 sensor. This has been re written it has been re-written it correctly as will be presented here.check to see that output line voltage drops to zero. If you don’t wait the 2 Minutes. MINIMUM. you MUST WAIT 2 Minutes.

FUEL MIXTURE CONTROL PARTS LIST: RESISTORS: 100 1K 2.7K 10K 470K 1M 10M CAPACITORS: 0.1 UF MYLAR 1 UF (MFD) TANTALUM 100 UF ELECTRO RADIAL 470 UF ELECTRO RADIAL *USED IN OTHER KITS ** VARIES WITH MT OPTIONS QTY: (1)* (2)* (1) (1)* (1) (3) (1) QTY: (1) (1)* (1) (1) SEMI CONDUCTORS: RECTIFIER DIODE 1N4005 SWITCHING DIODE 1N4148 ZENER DIODE 1N5246 PNP TRANS TO-92 2N3906 NPN TRANS TO-92 MPSA14 BARGRAPH DISP DRV LM3914 MISC: 10K TRIMPOT 18-PIN DIP SOCKET RED LED T 1 ¾ DPDT SWITCH** ROTARY SWITCH** QTY: (1)* (3)* (1) (1) (1) (1) QTY: (2) (1) (1) (1) (1) .

FUEL MIXTURE CONTROL PARTS LIST: RESISTORS: BANDS: BROWN / BLACK / BROWN / GOLD QTY: (1)* BROWN / BLACK / RED / GOLD (2)* RED / PURPLE / RED / GOLD (1) BROWN / BLACK / ORANGE / GOLD (1)* YELLOW / PURPLE / YELLOW / GOLD (1) BROWN / BLACK / GREEN / GOLD (3) BROWN / BLACK / BLUE / GOLD (1) CAPACITORS: 0.1 UF MYLAR QTY: (1) 1 UF (MFD) TANTALUM (1)* 100 UF ELECTRO RADIAL (1) *USED IN OTHER KITS ** VARIES WITH KIT OPTIONS 470 UF ELECTRO RADIAL (1) .

SEMICONDUCTORS: RECTIFIER DIODE 1N4005 QTY: (1)* (3)* SWITCHING DIODE 1N4148 (1) ZENER DIODE 1N5246 (1) PNP TRANS TO-92 2N3906 (1) NPN TRANS TO-92 MPSA14 (1) BARGRAPH DISP DRV LM3914 MISC: 10K TRIMPOT QTY: (2) 18-PIN DIP SOCKET (1) RED LED T 1 3/4 (1) DPDT / 4PDT SWITCH** (1) ROTARY SWITCH** (1) .

Claudio has his set to Max Lean so when the O2 sensor sends .Finished product Dual O2 sensor for monitor control by Claudio Cabete This EFIE provides a progressive voltage add to the source with a limit of 1 volt output. It uses a POT to adjust how lean or how rich you want to run.2 volts. It allows you to adjust to run leaner or richer. . it sends 1 volt to the computer.

Jason can construct both a single and Dual Oxygen Sensor Controller. Eagle Research's device almost replaces the sensor altogether. he makes this device cheaper than Eagle research and will send it handmade and hand tuned by himself.6v it makes the signal larger and the ECU sees . Circuit designer) to build the circuit for all at a small charge. Eagle research also charges for their plans. You tune this potentiometer on the bench so at no time will a signal greater than one volt will be transmitted to the ECU. these plans are open source and free to you. His oxygen Sensor Controller uses the signal coming from the oxygen sensor and amplifies it so the computer sees the actual signal. O2 sensor Control.8 or . All the EFIE circuits out there are analog because the sensor gives an analog signal not a digital one.sch O2_sensor_Control. For those not able to construct it. This circuit works because it just makes the signal bigger so instead of a signal that reaches only . electrojolt.Here is a PCB file of the circuit also freely provided by Claudio. on his website This circuit amplifies the signal coming from the sensor and trimpot at the end of the circuit acts as a voltage regulator. Xcel file DIY Dual O2 Sensor Control-Parts list O2 sensor circuit by Claudio and Jason Jason Riordan is an open source engineer and has recently received permission from Claudio Cabete (aka.pcb Note to view these files you will need to download the free software express PCB.

.9. Parts List 3x 100 ohm resistors 2x 1meg ohm resistors 1x 330 ohm resistor 1x 1k ohm variable resistor 1x 10k ohm trim variable resistor 1x 4.. Next tie the other side of the wire you just cut to the output of the device. Next add power from a source in your vehicles electrics that is only on when the car is running." Such a place is a MAF sensors power or a MAP sensors power. Once this is complete your circuit should work as intended. simply cut the wire coming out of your oxygen sensor and tie it to the input of the device. key turned to "on. Run a wire from the "-" terminal or "ground" terminal to a spot on your vehicles engine block or a grounding node on the chassis of your vehicle. If you tune it right there will NEVER be a signal over 1v sent to the ECU. The benefit of this circuit over adding a straight voltage is the circuitry at the end of the schematic.7k ohm resistor 1x 1k ohm resistor 1x 100uf capacitor 1x 7812 voltage regulator 1x lm324 quad operational amplifier 1x LED To install.

Back ground on this circuit compared to others In comparison to the Eagle Research EFIE and the COSM line of products: Firstly.com/ AS THIS GUY HAS STOLEN CLAUDIO’S INTELLECTIOAL PROPERTY AND REFUSES TO GIVE BACK TO THE OPEN SOURCE COMMUNITY Dustin (Smack) has since done an educational video and bench test of this circuit. In this video Smack explains how to adjust an EFIE unit to get the most out of your hydroxy booster.That is it for this side of the circuit. There is a switch that you can control whether the unit sends a modified or unmodified signal. The device we offer amplifies the existing signal instead of replacing it like the Eagle Research EFIE does. If you replace the signal of the O2 sensor with an oscillator circuit you’re negating the point of the sensor.This is the schematic for a single unit. The pot right before the ECU is a voltage limiter. Now perform the same steps for J2 and J4 and Pot 1a. There is a lot of extra expensive parts used in the EFIE that are not needed. Note: Pot 1a and Pot 1b is the Mixture adjustment and should be dual Potentiometer just like the ones used for Stereo volume control. If there is a problem with your exhaust . for a double unit just build the amplifier section twice. Snap courtesy of Claudio Thanks to Claudio for his dedicated open source work! PLEASE NOTE DO NOT PURCHASE THIS CIRCUIT FROM http://hhogear. if a signal greater than 1 volt gets to the computer it will trigger your check engine light and will become a hassle. this should be tuned be supplying a 1v input signal and adjust that pot until there is < or = to 1 volt at the output. Once you have the circuit built: Apply one VOLT to the O2 sensor input “J1” Adjust Pot 1b so you have MAX voltage on Output to ECM “J3” Also the LED should light up bright. Adjust VR3 so you have no more than one volt at J3. Pot 1 is your rich/lean pot. Smack’s -How an EFIE works Web page guide for Installation of this EFIE How to Adjust the Dual O2 Sensor Control circuit It is very important that you follow the following steps to adjust the circuit so it will not trigger your check engine light. This is to restrict any voltages over 1 volt from ever reaching your vehicles computer. using an oscillator as an EFIE device seems like an over-engineered solution to me.

The circuit listed above is simpler. . the output will be one volt any other voltages are amplified with gain adjustment (Mixture control).g. also since this circuit generates a constant voltage. (The way the device works. E. 1 volt zener diodes are tough to come by. and the voltage divider allows you to limit the output. it gives a 0 or 1 and the duty cycle determines the average the computer sees). it is just a Dual O2 Sensor voltage Amplifier with 1 Volt output limit. ) Sure these devices work the same but you really should put each to the extremes for tests.2v) with the dot/bar EFIE you may never get a high on the output. not replacing it.00 volts. If you select an output for your signal and the signal in isn't a high enough voltage you will be sending a constant 0v to the computer. The circuit above also has a voltage limiter. the output is also 0 volts.and your sensor is replace by a device like this you will never know there is a problem until you’re getting an inspection. If the O2 sensor is 1 volt. the problem seen with this is that the O2 sensors don't pulse. would need to build 2 for DUAL. generating a constant signal. they generate voltage from 0 to 1 volt. slow reaction or constant voltage. (Output <= 1. If you have a very lean signal to start with (. The 555 constantly pulses the transformer. The simplest solution in my point of view is an amplifier circuit. PWM circuits More are listed in the series cell design section below. The circuit mentioned that uses the dot/bar IC is also a bad idea as your basically getting the same result. it does not produce the 0 volts. the LED is part of this circuit. With an EFIE or COSM how will you see a bad sensor? You probably won't. Such as this one mentioned. some ECUs might trigger the check engine light. If you change the amplification factor you’re changing the fuel mixture. Duel EFIE links The Zero Fossil Fuel Dual EFIE – Note it has been reported that this circuit it too complicated for its purpose and It is difficult to how it can work properly to the O2 Sensor boost the signal. If the sensor is bad. If you use an amplifier circuit like the one above you are using the signal coming from the sensor. then the O2 sensor feeds the other side of transformer. If there is truly a problem with the sensor with an amplifier circuit you will know it. you will see a slow reaction or a constant voltage at the computer. Also that circuit is for one O2 sensor only. If the O2 sensor voltage is 0 volts. who wants to do that? That is begging for a rich/open loop mixture.

01 UF 1 UF (MFD) TANTALUM * USED IN OTHER KITS QTY: (1) (1)* (4) (2)* (1) (5) QTY: (2)* (1)* SEMI CONDUCTORS: RECTIFIER DIODE 1N4005 SWITCHING DIODE 1N4148 TIMER 8-PIN LM555 MISC: MOSFET N CH 50A 250K TRIMPOT 8-PIN DIP SOCKET SM HEAT SINK QTY: (1)* (2)* (1)* QTY: (2)* (1)* (1)* (2) .Hi Power Pulse Width Modulator PARTS LIST: RESISTORS: 68 100 330 1K 15K 47K CAPACITORS: 0.

HI POWER PULSE WIDTH MODULATOR WIRING DIAGRAM ALL CONNECTIONS MUST BE MADE AS SHOWN FAILURE TO DO SO WILL RESULT IN DAMAGE TO UNIT .

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01 UF 1 UF (MFD) TANTALUM * USED IN OTHER KITS (1) .Pulse Width Modifier PARTS LIST: RESISTORS: 100 1K 10K CAPACITORS: QTY: (2)* (1)* QTY: (1)* (2)* (1)* SEMI CONDUCTORS: QTY: RECTIFIER DIODE 1N4005 (2)* SWITCHING DIODE 1N4148 (2)* TIMER 8-PIN LM555 (1)* MISC: MOSFET N CH 50A 250K TRIMPOT 8-PIN DIP SOCKET LG HEAT SINK (1)* (1)* (1)* 0.

01 UF DIP QTY: (2)* (1)* 1 UF (MFD) TANTALUM (1)* SEMI CONDUCTORS: RECTIFIER DIODE 11\4005 QTY: (2)* SWITCHING DIODE 1N4148 (2)* TIMER LM555 MISC COMPONENTS: QTY: MOSFET N CH 50A (1)* (1)* 250K TRIMPOT 8 PIN DIP SOCKET LARGE HEAT SINK (1)* (1)* (1) *USED IN OTHER KITS **VARIES WITH KIT OPTIONS .PULSE WIDTH MODULATOR PARTS LIST: RESISTORS: BANDS: BROWN / BLACK / BROWN / GOLD QTY: (1)* BROWN / BLACK / RED / GOLD (2)* BROWN / BLACK / ORANGE / GOLD CAPACITORS: 0.

com/efie. It will automatically control the PWM as well. VMU. An eye on the road is the only way to go. it's the easy answer to controlling any hydroxy system.Electronic Fuel Injection How To Make a EFIE .mkiv. Nobody else makes a controller like this. then adds corrections to them with already predetermined voltages. With traffic laws being what they are.EFIE related How To Make a EFIE .The VMU detects the signals at the O2 and Map/Maf.com/techarticles/oxygen_sensor_simulator/ http://zerofossilfuel. You can manually control these settings. You can buy a special USB from Alexis. using temp and time to keep it all running sweet.PART 1 .html http://www. to input any updated settings and operating functions as they become available. any analogue controller is not practical. These uploads are free to anyone who buys a VMU.angelfire. or go "full auto".Electronic Fuel Injection Electronic Fuel Injection Enhancer How to build a Hydroxy Generator for Auto Hydrogen HHO Zero Cell EFIE CALIBRATION EFIE Installation Hydroxy VMU Computer. just to keep an eye on it. at all stages of operation. You only need to keep an eye on the 2 temp gauges on the VMU screen if you choose to. Watching gauges isn't illegal.com/memberadx. as per required. This approach will easily . for safety is the most important factor that any law maker will consider. due to the need to manipulate it at all times.html Chapter 10 from the practical guide to free energy device Installation and informational you.PART 2 . The VMU takes this "hand on" stuff completely out of the equation. in varying conditions.Alternative PWM circuits PWM Control for "Hydrogen Generators Other DYI EFIE circuit sources and guides http://better-mileage.tube videos Videos.

If you are sending an offset of . he never did post the schematic or file for making the pcb. Videos.com/techarticles/oxygen_sensor_simulator/ http://www.appease any law maker.1v and may throw a code. and the actual signal is . and will only aid in allowing hydroxy to be operated on public roads without restriction. then the ECU sees 1. the EFIE referenced here: http://www.Oxygen Sensor Smack EFIE testing Oxygen Sensor Voltage Boost Removing Oxygen Sensor (O2) HHO Hydrogen fuel cell . I would say that PWMpower's EFIE is totally useless. Third. it could be easily seen that it added so much noise to the signal that it caused a "out of range" error that threw a code from the ECU. a third party report stated that an engineer bought a completed EFIE from him and it was totally useless.youtube.fuelsaver-mpg. Unless someone else has had a completely different experience. Second.com/ http://www.O2 sensor voltage adder O2 sensor + MAP Enhancer –Part 1 2 O2 sensor + MAP enhancer –Part 2 HHO Hydrogen fuel cell . All the EFIEs he was aware of are analog.com/efie. you are adding so much voltage that you send the out of range voltage.com/ http://www.9v. He never did follow up and finish the instructions.pwmpower. ECU expects to see 0-1. That presents a problem.com/watch?v=lw8MtfTx2cU is incomplete. .0v. it did add voltage to the O2 signal. when placed on an ociscilloscope.O2 sensor voltage adder in operation O2 sensor Bench Test Fuel enhancing and readymade EFIE links http://www. the engineer in question stated that this experience inspired him to seek out alternatives to current EFIE thinking and design.html -> The EFIE information from PWM power may not be useful.2. Yes. With out being self-serving.better-mileage. by any motorist. However. First.mkiv. Simply adding voltage to the O2 sensor's signal means that it is possible that at the upper range. and most important.

No response yet. the ECU sees . To his surprise the next fill-up showed a ZERO increase in mileage.romraider.html Devices which can monitor fuel economy and the oxygen sensor ScangaugeII .8v. up from his normal 36ish.com Here is a simple circuit if you want to see what the O2 sensor is actually reading DIY Air / Fuel Ratio Meter Supplier of electronic components .1v.openecu. Specifically subaru vehicles which are supported by the efforts of the OpenECU and RomRaider projects.com/Hydrogen%20Products.2 or lower. Yes. The ScangaugeII can lie in that regard. A friend who is a master mechanic told me him that the turning points to lean or richen the AFR is .Note In the comments section under their You-tube video they explained that they had their generator wired so that it would turn on when they flipped the switch to the MAP sensor enhancer.3v. He set the MAP enhancer to show 65 MPG. or far exceed these numbers. the ECU will never see . So. even when using an EFIE.thehydrogenshop.2 and . they have that vehicle mapped. I believe the ECU is programmed to expect to see . their sudden increase in mileage must have to do with the MAP readings being altered.Basic Enginuity/RomRaider Datalogging How-To This video is geared towards beginners who have never logged their own vehicles.2v and this may also trigger a code.At the same time.org www. An engineer did the same thing in his Saturn. if the actual signal is . If you add too much v. He even posted a question under their video asking them whether they filled up at the pump to verify. www. OBD-II vehicles MEMOSCAN Megasquirt The AFR meters and wide band controllers Off Board Programming Harness – software to “hack” your EFIE Video. If you never see. This may be why a lot of people experience poor results. you will get a code and the ECU will trigger open loop. to the signal. http://www.

~1V with the average being . Narrow-band and Wide-band.mouser. wire it to the EFIE. they go about it differently.com Electronic and Electro-Mechanical Parts and Supplies at Discount Prices O2 Sensor Harness Casper's Electronics.7VDC. Though they do the same job. adjusts the air to fuel ratio accordingly. Inc.org/ A great source for information about doing tuning and fuel maps yourself and also a decent forum Faculty information on the EFIE and oxygen sensor Introduction courtesy of Colin Lyon The basic job of the o2 sensor is to measure the amount of "emissions" (oxygen and unburned fuel) in the exhaust. So. cut in half. This is sent to the vehicles computer. You should find a match because there are pretty much only a few different types used by all Manufacturers for the Narrow Band O2. Narrow-band Narrow band sensors operate on a principle of fluctuation and operate from 0. Related Tuning information and Forums http://www.pgmfi.: Honda This would be used to make an EFIE plug and play without cutting any of the vehicles wiring. Then just browse through all the connectors on their site. don't worry this is completely normal. There are two different types of 02 sensors.www. and you have a lean very reliable install! The link refers to a Honda but just look in the column to the left. If your vehicle isn't listed. Get the extension. if you have a monitoring device such as a scanguage or something similar and you notice that the signal from the 02 sensor is constantly going up and down. If there is an excess of emissions the vehicle leans out the mixture. just look at your O2 sensor Plug (right before the sensor) and remember what it looks like. This is extremely useful on lease vehicles. The computer will lean out the mixture until the o2 sensor indicates a "lean state" then the computer will richen the mixture until the o2 sensor indicates a "rich state" and will lean the mixture again and so on. Overall optimum mixture is attained by the computers attempt to minimize the time between too rich and too lean. If there are not enough emissions coming out of the exhaust pipe to indicate the proper air to fuel ratio the vehicle richens the mixture. In fact you should only be . and in any type of Fuel injected and some carbureted vehicles.

When altering the signal from the sensor to the computer thus changing the air to fuel ratio. load and in some newer vehicles Altitude (less oxygen in the air at higher altitudes). This can cause the upper portion of your engine(the Head) to seep oil into the cylinder through the valve stem passage and make your car smoke thus decreasing its overall efficiency. Wide-band The wide-band o2 sensor is a newer type of oxygen sensor that essentially does the same job but does it differently. They operate not from 0-1VDC but from 0 to around 4 or 5 VDC . What you want is an EFIE device that simply adds an adjustable amount of voltage to the signal that comes from the sensor itself. EFIE devices that replace the signal from the 02 sensor should be avoided. success or otherwise. I cannot speak on behalf of Hydroxy Technologies Corporation but I believe this is why . with EFIE devices and wide-band 02 sensors please feel free to post on the hydroxy forums. Negative incidences such as those described in this paragraph will not so much be the outcome of the o2 sensor offset as that of MAP/MAF sensor which provides the mixture adjustment in open loop situations (warming up and under load). Unburned Fuel AND Oxygen. The Base fuel mixture for different RPM's and engine loads are programmed into your vehicles computer as a non alterable baseline that is slightly modified by the various sensors that "fine tune" your Air to Fuel mixture according to the engines demands under changing conditions such as temperature. I cannot personally attest to this fact as i have not as of yet had the opportunity to play with one myself. Overshooting the settings for the 02 sensor and MAP/MAF sensor can do more harm than good. but to prevent the vehicle from over richening the fuel to compensate for the more complete burn. To learn about the other sensors that fine tune Air to Fuel mixture please see the "Air Fuel Mixture" forum. I have read on a number of different Sites of people who have had success with EFIE devices on Wide-band sensors. My personal recommendation dealing with wide-band sensors would still be to use a wideband controller of some sort such as the one below but if you have had any experience. Wide band sensors are easily identifiable by having 5 or more wires and measure the air to fuel mixture by taking two separate readings. When you over lean the air fuel ratio of your vehicle you can start to cause things like pre-ignition(the ignition of the fuel in the cylinder prior to the intake valve being completely closed.concerned when your signal does not change. If you are not using the Alexis VMU unit. o2 Sensors and Fuel Mixture Though o2 sensors have an effect of fuel mixture they are more of a fine tuning method for your car. please remember that the aim is not to lean out the mixture. which can be indicated by a ticking noise predominately under load) and excessive heat that will eventually burn out your valve seals.

7 to 1 for gasoline is a 'best overall' number (coincidentally? the same as atmospheric pressure at sea level . such as when an engine is running and using up or combining oxygen into other chemicals through combustion. If you have ever looked at an O2 sensor.14. it is the oxygen level that is being sensed. this produces a varying current flow in one direction because the higher oxygen content on the ambient side tries to balance out with the exhaust side to reach equal parts oxygen.their VMU limits the maximum MAP/MAF modification to 20%. lower MPG. the chemical oxygen content difference between outside air to exhaust oxygen leads to them wanting to equalize. at the early stages. thus .any misfire results in a huge amount of oxygen going down the exhaust pipe (as well as a ton of hydrocarbons – un burnt fuel) and so the computer senses this and richens up the mixture.7 pounds (not parts per) of air to 1 pound of gasoline. NOT the amount of un burnt fuel in the exhaust! The stoichiometretic ratio of 14. it has equal parts oxygen on both sides of the catalyst and won't produce voltage. or misfire. when you hold a sensor up in the air.14. You can see why lean is low voltage because as the oxygen content of the exhaust goes up. A 'lean' mixture leads to misfire which. but ends up giving up electrons through the sensor/barrier. approaching what is in the atmosphere. Thus. fuel mileage. The part of the sensor exposed to ambient air (outside O2) is compared to the exhaust stream O2 content with the zirconia ceramic and platinum sensor piece in between them (general design). in turn not providing the user with the opportunity to get over zealous with fuel savings and damage the engine. there will be an increasing voltage. Since there will always be more oxygen on the ambient side compared to the exhaust side of a running engine. air leaks upstream of the sensor. there would be less current . Thus. you will see the holes or slots where air can go in. this is also a measurement of pounds. and emissions. EFI function The EFI function is done by comparing the amount O2 in the exhaust with the O2 in the atmosphere. cannot be felt by you as a driver . It does this by chemical pressure. thus the free oxygen from the atmosphere will flow current (electrons) in conjunction with the catalyst (the platinum in the sensor) at different rates according to the comparison of oxygen and its electrons in the exhaust stream. The standard O2 sensor is actually a little current generator.) for power. is going to result in the computer richening the mixture = higher fuel usage. For gasoline. and specifically the part of the housing that is external to the exhaust pipe. Any malfunction of the O2 sensor system where it will read lean (low voltage).7 lbs per sq in. When an O2 sensor is at operating temperature and there is any difference in O2 content on either side of the sensor. Yes.

As mentioned above. during the lean swing of the burn cycle.7:1 ratio for gasoline) is to facilitate the function of the Cat. If you looked at this with a gas analyzer. However. What is the purpose of the Cat? To 'burn' or oxidize un-burnt fuel? Nope. So the computer purposely adjusts the swing of lean to rich to lean to give this pulse of oxygen to be stored in the Cat to help burn HCs. O2 sensors in conjunction with the 'magic' 14. since many were running dual fuel . Virtually all cars also have a Reduction side to deal . O2 sensors do not sense anything to do with the 'richness' in relation to the fuel content in the exhaust .gasoline and the alternate) on the alternate fuel and so the electronic box would just generate a typical rich/lean swing to the computer to make it think all was well in exhaust land.it is a very minimal swing. fuel economy.generated (less potential difference between outside to inside oxygen). thus the opposite. you would see very little. and emissions: Emphasis on emissions. a rich mixture has very little oxygen. Semantics maybe.the aftermarket propane and natural gas system manufacturers needed to do this to shut off the engine light that resulted from the different exhaust content of propane and natural gas conversions (from gasoline). Though the O2 sensor system plays around with some so-called magical 14. With the propane and NG. causing a much higher electron flow (read in voltage by the computer).what is its real purpose?? Answer: The next component in the exhaust system .7:1 ratio of air to fuel . This is just the oxidization side of the Cat. change in the values displayed.they read oxygen levels in comparison to atmospheric oxygen content only. There is a hierarchy system in the computer to still have a vehicle run. if any. Devices to bypass O2 sensors have existed for as long as there has been electronic fuel injection . Yes. the lean/rich swing of the standard O2 sensors (there are other designs as well) does not actually affect the actual content of the exhaust very much .7 ratio are not primarily there to prevent pre-ignition damage from lean mixtures but rather for the best overall (read: lowest common denominator) power. but its main purpose is to store oxygen. this was a totally different situation than adding devices to the gasoline engines that still ran on gasoline like we're discussing. This is actually done over a very small range of values in the literal content of O2 and Hydrocarbons.the catalytic converter. excess oxygen goes downstream and is stored in the converter to facilitate the burning of un-burnt fuel during the rich swing. The swing about stoichiometric (simply means the optimum 14. but it would have problems. even with a totally malfunctioning O2 sensor. If we were to play with the O2 sensor while STILL running on gasoline. it must be a more complicated device for the engine to run anywhere near right. Again. the engine was often set up with a gas analyzer for optimum running (while on the alternate fuel.

Take same sensor and put in pressure cooker and little to no volts output. not air. the new sensors have little toaster elements in them that heat them up during cold starts so they "come online" faster. If you introduce the leak slowly you will be able to observe the LOW voltage reading DECREASE until the mixture becomes too lean for the sensor. what the oil and car manufacturers have done is fool you into thinking it measures oxygen when in fact it really measures the amount of hydrocarbons (un-burnt fuel) mixed in the exhaust stream. The whole science behind O2 sensors and Catalytic converters is amazingly complex from a chemistry/engineering side. The reason the 02 sensor needs to be heated is to get the reaction between the bi metals to occur and produce electricity. Take notes of HI and low voltage. into the exhaust. Simply add 1 volt to the wire while using hydroxy. You may put this sensor in a vacuum and heat it up and see no voltage output. Take the same sensor and heat it up with atmospheric pressure and no voltage. Monitor the exhaust sensors output at idle without the hydroxy used. (Don't go too slowly or the ECM will be able to compensate) At some point the swaying will stop and a constant LOW voltage reading will be displayed until the ECM enriches the mixture. thus to fool the computer you will need to add voltage (not resistance) to the signal that the computer is seeing. Then the O2 reading will rise and hold steady at close to its high voltage limit and eventually start . I pulled the EVAP canister line and held my thumb over the tube so I could start and stop the leak and observe the O2 sensor's behavior. Here's a simple method. Installation data The 02 sensor really measures hydrocarbons. Turn your unit on and now measure. You will need to increase the voltage with increased hydroxy used. Introduce a vacuum leak into the intake manifold by disconnecting a vacuum line.with the Nox as well. this way the computer will think nothing has changed. The sensors bi metal is very sensitive to hydrocarbon fuels. Take instant reading (don't wait too long because computer will see drop in voltage and raise the injector pulse on-time to compensate and your voltage will go back up!) Lets say you note a 1 volt difference. The manufacturer already knows how much air is entering the engine and exiting the exhaust but needs to regulate the amount of fuel. They are referred to as H02 sensors. The vacuum leak causes a leaner mixture to occur. Here's why. Take the same sensor and heat it up in hydrocarbons and see the voltage spike up! Thus. meaning heated oxygen sensors. One approach is to start with a volt and work up. Observe the swaying needle indicating an operational O2 sensor. If you want to pump hydroxy into the engine you will increase the amount of oxygen in the exhaust stream. How to determine O2 sensor lean operating limit voltage Restart the engine. You will also notice an increase in engine RPM.

O2 Sensor monitored with analog gauge as test progressed.ECM parameters recorded using Launch CRECORDER. The test was done twice. Each test is denoted by a lighter colored boxed area in the graph below. O2 = . Narrowband O2 sensor and ECM operating characteristics while inducing a lean AF mixture. Idle Air Control motor disconnected to prevent ECM from adjusting Engine RPM. Note that the recording device takes readings in 4 second intervals. The O2 voltage will begin to vary normally once that point is reached. Lean mixture induced by venting a large vacuum line which is connected to the engine throttle body to atmosphere. ECM quickly t d O2 i .varying again. Stop the leak and the O2 will then swing back to the high voltage limit and remain there until the ECM can reverse its prior correction and lean the mixture back to what is was at the start of the test.88 v O2 Voltage switching stops O2 Voltage switching Vacuum leak causes O2 volts to drop Sealed Vac leak here causing O2 to Soar & Second test with vacuum leak introduced more slowly.

Then to get the best production. As the air passed through the carburetor it created a pressure indifference or lower pressure than the atmosphere. without electricity. Oxygen. The older systems worked the same way. I have been taught to fix the problem in my mind before I move my hands. Ok we need three things to start a fire. We are told normal mixture is 14. How do we keep heat under control. we must have the right balance of mix. But it is al the same. and timing. To make the engine run we have add timing (when we start the fire. even with the new systems coming out each year we still have the same job to do. Then look at the system being used to do the job. First we look at air. The parts may look different from one manufacture to another. At this mix you would have water coming out your tail pipe. Atmospheric pressure is also the first reading the ECM takes to calculate engine control. We use pounds per square inch and bars as common means to measure Atmospheric Pressure. Air is made up of 21% oxygen. 2. One thing I have noticed is people are not building large enough cells and what I mean is the cell should be at the bottom of your container and have plenty of water . Water circulation addresses the heat issue to a certain degree however over time heat will destroy a good system. Fuel.7 or 1 bar. Then Atmosphere pushed the fuel out of the float bowl by way of jets into the engine. Normal engine vacuum is 17 to 22 inches. Fidel Tips By Brian First My name is Bryan and I specialize in Standalone ECU programming. Atmospheric pressure is described as a force or weight applied to a given area. and heat. Next we must understand that what we use from the incoming air is the O2 only. At sea level AP is 14. I hope that what I share with you will save you some time and money. I've seen several designs come out. There is also speed timing that will be covered later. It takes two inches of vacuum to overcome one pound of pressure. 78% nitrogen. Next I will take you back to the mid 70's to early 80's Cat Convertor and ECM.7 (1 bar) parts of air (21% O2) to one part of Gasoline. 1. 2% what ever. The Ignition system used vacuum advance to change timing. Let’s go back to the basic system. More fuel gave us more power and higher emission. I wish all will have a wonderful day.Tips by Fidel Rivera I will also share some tips on how to change signals to the ECM to benefit from. So let’s begin. This timing change iscalled load timing. First you must focus on the job being done. Let me start by saying. Heat is caused by amps and electricity. heat. Less fuel gave us less power and less emission. rather atmosphere is pushing. Therefore normal engine vacuum cannot pull more than the atmosphere can push. It's a lot cheaper this way. Again we must not think that engine vacuum is pull .

5. 11. At the very least incorporate a rubber cork into your bubbler's at the top so if you do get flashback the cork will pop out and relieve the pressure in the bubblier rapidly. I do not think any cell should be located under the hood. Clear PVC works ideal for this. Always submerse your bolts well below the water line. Get good Rosin core solder not your cheap radio shack stuff. 10. However I feel this is unrealistic for the common man. Use good wire and always solder. The answer is the bolts. My feelings are if you’re not going to do it right get a professional builder to make your system. I defer to Bob Boyce at this point. Always make sure you get quality distilled water. This provides cooling. 9. All these companies use different processes make sure you get the best. 13. Protect your connection rings. 12. it is essential to hatch your plates using a belt sander. I've found production is higher and it's not caustic. In each system I build I use a three bubbler setup right off the device. I've done extensive testing with potassium carbonate and I believe it's the best electrolyte all the way around. You can submerse a cell three feet under water if you wanted too and your still going to get the Same Hydroxy output. Good rosin core solder is essential to any cell.above it. There is too much heat under the hood of the car. 3. 7. 8. The cell holds two and half gallons of water and the water temps never go above 101 degree's Fahrenheit. 6. I feel if you want a super high end system then by all means spend the money and get some of these guys who are pro's to get you started. I think safety is the number one priority. My latest cell runs off 6 amps of electricity optimally. 4. Always heat shrink your connections. Keep your wires inside your cell as short as possible. What creates the most heat when operating a cell?. . I mix three tablespoons per gallon of distilled water. Keep everything below the water line. Mr Boyce is right never handle your plates without gloves but I have found that the people who make the plates tend to handle them alot which kind of defeats the purpose. In my cells the bolts go as low as possible in the unit. Switch to potassium Carbonate.

Always use reinforced hose. Always do clean wiring do not leave loose wires exposed. I also feel there is no need for recirculation tanks for the average guy. I prefer making a fuse block myself and will line up 4 30 amp fuses. I am against them not because I don't like how they look but over time epoxy and other sealants will break down and it's a potential safety risk for leaks. 25. I incorporate two 40 amp relays into each system as well as a switch under the dash. I do however like clear PVC tube. 17. 23. Steam if you have steam you have a problem. 16. This gives you three electrical safety features and if one item fails the other relay and the switch are there as backups. Always incorporate at least two 30 amp fuses into your system. . 20. 15. 24. I've found for a system made for the beginner that getting rid of the heat and keeping the amps low will allow you to enjoy your system a lot longer. Clear acrylic boxes. 21. Make sure your one way valve selection allow free flowing of gas to prevent a lot of pressure building up in your lines. Make sure the car has to be cranked to start gas production. I also put fuses throughout the system. Next the second relay is activated then you flip the switch inside the car and now you start Hydroxy production. Check your amps daily for the first week then periodically. Even though the gas mixture dissipates rapidly into the air. If the wiring is done correctly and you submerse your bolts you reduce the risk of steam. 18. NO SMOKING AROUND Hydroxy 26. Here is how this works. It's a little bit more at the hardware store but will last a lot longer and holds pressure nicely. Wiring in series will help in keeping the amps low. 22. There are a lot of one way valves on the market. Some may say this is overkill but you can never be too safe.14. you crank the car one relay is cut on. 19. Tie all wires together using wire ties to make it neat and tidy and then protect them with wire looms or heat shrink them together. I am incorporating three blubbers and six one way valves into each system. Always use a relay in your system and find a spot on the fuse box under the hood and take a test light and make sure that when the cars off the system is off.

29. This gives live data like rpm. N. Write them all down. He made a change then walked off for at least 10 minutes. I can dial in any car with standalone engine management and other new and developing technologies. that told him that he needed to add ~200mV back to the O2 sensor going to the CPU. Especially since the introduction of electronic fuel control. Then do it with Booster running. E-manage ECT. I don't sell any items and have no desire to do so. Please feel free to distribute how you would like too. coolant temp.C members are welcome to use my DYNO for tuning at no charge. including O2 sensor voltages. In this case stock = 470mV booster on= 230mV. Feel free to contact me about engine management AF retarding timing. Nobody respects others takeing information that they didn't come up with. I took some reading at idle and at cruising speed. Lastly it may be useful to go to a local automotive performance shop and run your car on the dyno. It takes a while because of the capacitors in the circuit. New cars require engine management for Hydroxy production to benefit the automobile. Alot of people may have similar ideas however These are the things I've discovered in my own systems. I'm working on ECU modification and eventually a cost effective Standalone ECU option or incorporating things like Apexi air fuel controllers. If you’re going to incorporate an EFI and Pulse width modulator buy quality electronics or have your own board made and use proper heat sinks preferably made of copper with fan cooling. WATCH YOUR POLARITY!!! Then he tweaked the two pots to get to a 200mV output.2008 Another perspective on installation First of all you need to monitor your o2 sensors reaction to having hydroxy gas added to your engine. Be aware of flaky electronics being sold on eBay. THE ENGINE MUST be up to temp. Using a CANOBDII monitor. 28. Power cards. then after he got it set let it run all night to make sure. He used a analog (needle type) VOM as his load while testing . In this example the engineer monitored his engine stock to get his O2 voltages to CPU. I hope this guide helps the beginners and I program standalone automotive ECU. copyrighted@ Bryan Martin .27. You can get a good idea of your increase and usually they can dial the car in at the facility. When he got the circuit board he plugged it into a battery (14V drill) on the bench and turned it on. 30. I'm sharing these thoughts and information for free to the group. This guide is not for resale and is If you use somone elses idea make sure you site them as the source. etc.

but the O2 sensor provides negative feedback. MAF. The effect of each individual sensor is known as the loop gain. BAP. and that's what the O2 sensor measures directly. All the rest of the sensors have considerably less affect. Follow them. That is what your CPU wants to see. ie. and a specific gain is designed into the system for each sensor. When the sensing element is cold. In normal operation. O2. At elevated temperatures. He used bullet connectors on the O2 sensor wires so that If in the case where he took it out of the circuit he could just plug them back together. as it has decided that the sensor is defective. Then he road tested it verifying that it fluctuated above and below 450-500mV. which is the driver/machine interface which allows us to control acceleration. the output increases if the input signal increases. This is a system that can accept inputs (MAP. only provides a moderate change to the output. but the duration of the condition is most likely key in generating error codes. the TPS. The O2 sensing component uses a solid-state electrolyte made up of a zirconic ceramic material that acts like a galvanic battery electrolyte under certain conditions. IOW. For example. Most of the inputs provide positive feedback. and injectors form what is known in the trade as a "Process Control System". Types of O2 sensors One of the most common types of oxygen sensors is the zirconium dioxide oxygen sensor. based on how much affect each one should have on the output. the ECU will operate in closed loop. the pulse duration is mainly determined by the output of the O2 sensor. The engineer then installed it in the vehicle. RPM. and simply serve to reduce or increase the affect of the O2 sensor. the zirconia material behaves similar to an insulator. Open loop vs closed loop By Bernie The ECU. an open loop condition occurs. If something occurs that causes the ECU to not be able to adjust the pulse duration sufficiently to bring the mixture back within the design range.Mike has very good instructions on his site. which simply means that the calculated output pulse duration is within the range that the O2 sensor can handle. . the output decreases as the input signal increases. sensors. it becomes the primary sensor with the most control of the pulse duration. etc) to control an output (Injector pulse width). and can generate a characteristic voltage output on the sensor connections. In this mode the operating parameters are set so that the mixture is rich to avoid damage to the engine. I suspect that this condition might occur more often than most people think. and forcing the ECU to go to into a mode where it simply ignores the O2 sensor. the zirconia material performs more like a semiconductor. TPS. Since the goal of the entire system is to maintain a fixed A/F ratio.

resulting in a low voltage from the sensor. Oxygen content of outside air is approximately 21 percent. while hot gases in the exhaust stream surround the sensor's outer portion. the ECM supplies current to the sensor. With wideband. a porous platinum electrode material covers the inner and outer surfaces of the zirconia solid-state electrolyte. signal voltage output can range from near zero to 1 volt .In construction of the zirconia sensing element. Voltage produced by the O2 sensor depends on the amount of oxygen in the exhaust. The reason the engineer who made this report states REAL. A lean air/fuel ratio increases the exhaust oxygen content. EFIE for wideband o2 sensors by Ian It's a problem.45 volt rich/lean switch point for optimum fuel efficiency and emissions. and the electrolytic properties existing between the two platinum electrodes. the voltage output from the sensor may be as high as 1 volt. Basically. is because there are some vehicles with narrowband sensors which operate about 5V dc. The problem with wideband is that it functions very differently to narrowband. the higher the voltage produced. although they are not. Once the zirconia sensor element reaches an operating temperature of 572 degrees Fahrenheit to 680 degrees Fahrenheit. such as a rich air/fuel ratio. The goal of the PCM is to keep O2 voltage moving across the 0. allow ion transfer to take place and generate a small electrical charge. Oxygen ions are electrically charged particles that flow through the zirconia sensing element when there is a disparity in oxygen levels. and gets its measurement from the voltage it needs to apply to keep the . The inner surface of the sensing element is exposed to an outside air reference. the zirconium O2 sensor compares the oxygen content of exhaust gases with oxygen from outside air. In normal operation. The greater the ion flow. If the cleaner more efficient burning air /fuel ratio mixture was in fact using up more of the oxygen then just exactly how do you suppose the computer sees this as a lean condition and increases the fuel ratio? This is why the extra voltage needs to be supplied to the CPU to counter the effects of the left over oxygen in the stream. O2 signal voltage is routinely varying from almost zero to 1 volt. An O2 sensor signal voltage above approximately 0. and these get called wideband. Differences in the two oxygen levels.45 volts as a lean exhaust. So with this being said. If exhaust oxygen content is low. below 0. while exhaust gases have much lower oxygen content between 1 percent and 3 percent.depending on the oxygen content of the exhaust gases. Engineers have researched allot and there are no reports of success with EFIEs for REAL wideband sensors.45 volts is recognized by the PCM as a rich exhaust.

In fact.current constant. It has become painfully obvious by observing my apprentices on the mpg Research Forum that a comprehensive Guide to Tuning is desperately needed. Up to 20% gains have been reported. Narrow band: Low volts (less than . Simply making combustion more efficient these days isn’t enough. A logical format makes the tuning process more like science and less like a mystical black art. The fix? Tuning! Tuning a stock vehicle usually won’t deliver much of an increase in mileage. Our understanding on the wideband sensors is that they operate between 0 and 5 volts VS. much larger gains are common. Also they operate in reverse when comparing with the narrow band. and other devices. Sparky plugs. Related paper on the ECU by tuning for better Mileage So you installed the Acme Fuel Mizer. The factory ECU is programmed for the factory hardware. Once you deviate from that basic recipe. but typically fall into the 10% or less range. I’ve been seeing over 100 MPG regularly with Browns Gas. There are many devices and technologies on the market and the internet that are based on sound science that can’t seem to deliver the goods. Lets break the tuning process down into bite-sized steps. 0 and 1 volt on the narrow band. I have not been able to find it. the Presto Mileage Maestro. and a few other devices all claiming up to a 30% increase in mileage.4) = lean High volts (over . the ECU is no longer able to deliver optimal results. and cannot be accessed to be modified by an EFIE. fuel heaters. vaporizers. This means that the voltage generation and measurement is internal to the ECM. Once you add something to improve combustion efficiency. ozone. .6) = rich Wide band: Low volts = Rich High Volts = Lean Here is a web site advertising a Digital O2 Sensor Electronic Fuel Injection EFIE Adjuster 5-Wire Wideband. almost always in combination. but you are only seeing maybe a 10% gain. If there is a successful technique to achieve this.

Lower your lean-out limits 4. carboned throttle bodies. Short cuts usually shortcut your results. Some like to just toss several on at a time. follow the instructions implicitly. perhaps from the internet. Combustion efficiency enhancing technologies will easily take your maximized operating conditions beyond what the ECU will tolerate.Adjust your air/fuel mixture 5. clogged EGR circuits. Any other modifications called for in the instruction manual should also be done at this time. go back and start nit-picking the vehicle apart. Usually the vehicle runs perfectly fine. Without the other changes. The owner assumes that the vehicle is in top operating condition because he/she has no reason not to. You might even consider planning on a complete tune-up at this time. Many people like to install upgrades one at a time to determine the overall effect each addition yields.Verify the vehicle is in good working condition 2. Be sure to install the device(s) properly.Adjust your ignition timing 6.1. Install Mileage Device -The next step is to install your mileage device(s). The ECU works similarly to our brains. It uses multiple inputs and controls multiple outputs. no codes are set. this would be a good time to upgrade to Pulstar Plugs. In fact. Blue Streak or Neihoff cap and rotor. follow the manufacturer’s instructions to the letter. defective sensors. and the stock mileage is typical for that type of vehicle.Readjust your air/fuel mixture Verify Vehicle Condition . Check everything. . If it is a device you have built from plans. Install new filters and oxygen sensor.A common cause of vehicles fighting mileage gains is a hidden problem with the vehicle itself. Usually finances dictate the one-at-atime method. MPG Plus ignition wires. The solution is to change the parameters. Some devices require other changes in order to be effective. When the proper tuning procedure is followed and mileage gains just wont come. again. partially clogged catalytic converters. If it is a product you have purchased. ignition components that are not up to par. The parameters that are correct for your modified vehicle almost always fall outside the range the ECU is prepared to operate. Make sure the basics are in order. and a whole host of other problems have been found. Clean out your throttle body and PCV system.Install your mileage device(s) 3. the inventor cannot guarantee the results you seek. Tired oxygen sensors. Lower Lean-Out Limits -The ECU has parameters that it will not go beyond.

Now let’s look at the particulars. . At this point. the TPS (Throttle Position Sensor) sees a corresponding throttle angle. Consider the conditions needed for the ECU to accept lean fuel commands. If the engine is warmer than it actually is. When the ECU has leaned out the AFR (Air/Fuel Ratio) beyond what the programming claims is an acceptable range. thus sending a hotter temperature signal to the ECU. If you have a scan tool available to you. the ECU will want to deliver less fuel. A parallel circuit offers 2 paths of travel for the voltage. Adding a parallel resistor nets a lower total resistance value. from 195* to 205*). You may need to do a coolant flush or repair before proceeding. IAT. taste. Infiniti. check your cooling system for contamination or stuck thermostat. Last week we laid out the basic foundation for what is involved with tuning. less air entering the engine will require less fuel. the resistance goes down. If the engine is under less of a load. If the incoming air is hotter. TPS. the ECU will comply to a point. The average vehicle will use something like a 3. the ECU will accept lean commands more readily. If it is. As it warms up. Monitor the CTS temperature that the ECU sees. CTS -One of the easiest ways to lower lean-out limits is to install a resistor across the CTS and IAT sensors in parallel with the sensor. It should be noted that this trick applied to the IAT sensor will retard ignition timing in addition to lowering the lean-out limits. ECT. Most of the world uses similar resistance values to equate a given temperature. and often a trouble code is set. proceed. The ECU has its senses as well: MAP. If it isn’t. the CTS (Coolant Temp Sensor) sees a normal operating temperature.We have our 5 senses: hearing. use it.9K ohm resistor. Fords may like a 5K ohm or larger value. O2 and other inputs. With your engine at operating temperature. It then reverts to Look-Up tables for its source of information. and the O2 (Oxygen) sensor is saying the engine is too rich. If MAF (Mass Air Flow) sensor equipped. MAF. you will most likely run into cold start issues beyond the 10* offset. the ECU will go into Open Loop and ignore the O2 sensor. Even though higher numbers will work. sight. mileage will invariably go down. If the MAP (Manifold Absolute Pressure) sensor sees a given load. smell. check to see that the temp reading is close to the thermostat rating. A cold CTS will have very high internal resistance. This is important to know when selecting resistors. Tach. try different resistors across the CTS to raise the temp reading about 10* F (for example. and touch. The Ford based systems (including Mazda. the ECU will accept leaner. Next week will feature the final part of the series. Assuming you are getting reasonable numbers. Within each of these senses there are a range of different inputs possible. and Jaguar) use much higher resistance values.

Come June or August. Look at it this way. you may find out just how high of a signal you can generate before setting codes. than the signal will be higher. low signal voltage. If you are somewhat capable with electronics. You can add more temp to this signal than you can to the CTS. and it wont tolerate it. you can still add too much temperature offset. you can build one for about $10 to $15. If you raise the VREF. you are also retarding your ignition timing. high fuel requirements. After the engine overheats to a point. The MAP is a type of potentiometer. However. If you are tuning in the middle of February. If you lower the VREF. Most of the world uses a version that has a 5 volt VREF. the ECU starts dumping copious amounts of fuel. MAP -It is important to address your load sensing system in order to keep your mileage gains. The timing changes under load. The ECU has an internal cooling mode. and DC signal wire. Just keep in mind that you are not only lowering your lean-out limits. Often times addressing only a few of the ECU’s inputs will allow you to tune for a mileage gain. harmony is restored. low fuel requirements. The parts you will need are: .If your cooling fan runs continuously with your setting. Typically it is in the 240* F range. Instead of turning the knob with your hand. If you are tuning on the hottest day of the year. Any mileage gains from the hotter engine signal will be more than offset by the additional load on the alternator. This is why the ECU retards the timing. add more resistance to lower the temp reading. then the signal will be lower. at this point your mileage literally tanks. Allow for this when tuning. only to have the adaptive memory take it away as time goes on. The load sensing devices give the ECU a clue as to what you are up to. IAT -The IAT is less sensitive to cold start issues. High signal voltage. If you have a rear-wheel-drive with a belt driven fan. the knob is turned as the vacuum in the engine changes. There are 2 types of MAP sensors on the market. The excess fuel will evaporate. If you put a timing light on the engine as you adjust IAT values. A low vacuum reading will give a high voltage signal. A high vacuum reading will give a low voltage signal. then you can offset the signal from your base cold reading and things will be fine for now. By generating a lower voltage signal from the MAP sensor. Low vacuum means the engine is under load and needs lots of fuel. Hotter air is more prone to detonation. A lower signal tells the ECU lower load. thus cooling the engine from the inside. and your mileage gains are for keeps. A relatively simple method of lowering the VREF is with an LM317T adjustable voltage regulator. you wont see the timing change. ground. like a radio volume knob. this setting may be high enough to trip codes.

then counter-clockwise will raise the voltage. Simply cut the ground wire going to the sensor. A good starting point is about 10 ohms.Small heat sink for the LM317T . To install it on your vehicle. You may find an Ohm Ranger or small value potentiometer helpful here.. solder the 220 ohm resistor across the 2 left pins. Drill 2 holes in your enclosure. Looking at it from the front with the mounting tab at the top and the 3 pins at the bottom. The other type of MAP sensor used almost exclusively on the Ford based systems is frequency based. It is best to solder connections and seal with heat-shrink tubing. Run the right leg to a Key-On/Crank battery voltage source. cut the VREF wire going to the MAP. Adjust it to 5.Enclosure (box) The LM317T comes in a TO-220 case. It has a 5 volt VREF.0 volts to start with. DO NOT TAP THE VREF WIRE COMING OUT OF THE ECU! This will affect all sensors using the same 5 volt signal and will deliver disastrous results. . The method of dealing with the frequency based MAP sensors is different than that used for the DC voltage based MAPs. The more resistance. apply battery voltage to the battery and ground leads. Your upper limits will be between 15 and 20 ohms. Less load equals more timing advance. After you cut the wire. ground. If you use the other side. It takes very little resistance to accomplish the job. connect your adjusted voltage wire to the MAP sensor and tuck and tape the other end of the cut wire back into the harness. If you don’t have voltage when cranking. one for the wires and one to access the pot. Lowering the VREF voltage will lower your lean limits. and then add a small amount of resistance. Run a ground wire to one of the outside legs of the pot.LM317T adjustable voltage regulator . With your unit on the bench. but will also advance ignition timing. Notice I didn’t say 10K ohms. If you use one side. More load equals less timing advance. the more offset.3 different colors of 18 gauge wire . the ECU will not see a MAP signal and usually won’t start at all. Remember this when we get to step 5. Check the voltage output. It is important that you have voltage when the key is on AND when cranking. Bench test your unit to know which way it will work. Run a jumper wire from the left pin to the center of your 1K pot. then clockwise will raise the voltage.1K ohm multi-turn potentiometer .220 ohm resistor (1/4 watt is sufficient) . and frequency signal output. depending on the ECUs calibration.

it will want to hesitate and stall. I’ve seen complicated and expensive products that aren’t much better than this trick. no more than 30 ohms. AFR sensor. Some vehicles may have 2 bank sensors. and a DC voltage signal OUT.MAF -There are a couple different styles of MAF sensors that have been employed over the years. you want to monitor your Loop Status. Some of the MAF sensors work like the typical MAP sensors in that they have a DC voltage IN. once removed. You can shift the wiper arm to a clean spot on the resistive circuit to extend the life of your MAF while you’re in there. If you pop into Open Loop. As you begin to lean out the mixture you will probably feel an increase in power. you’re probably in Closed Loop. do it. After so much leaning out. There will be a peak in the power. A rich mixture is a lean . Most of the modern MAF sensors have a ground. any adjustments you make are irrelevant. Old Style O2 Sensor -The oxygen sensor was introduced in mass back in 1981 on GM vehicles. They had a spring loaded door that controlled a wiper arm across a resistive pad. and frequency based output. As long as the voltage is jumping around. If you have an older vehicle that doesn’t have data stream information. If the voltage goes steady. If your ECU pops into Open Loop. the leaner the AFR. Early versions were called Vane Air Flow (VAF) sensors. To do your adjustment. will allow access to this resistive circuit. Once you have set the stage by lowering your lean-out limits. cut the ground wire and install a small amount of resistance. It has an operating range of 0-1 volt. Just like the frequency based MAP sensors. If you can install a scan tool to monitor Loop Status. with averages in the 10 to 15 ohm range. you probably are in Open Loop. Dont worry about the downstream sensors (the ones after the cat) as they only tell the ECU that the converter is working. These aren’t that difficult to tune. There are 4 types currently on the market: old style oxygen sensor. your lean-out limits are still too high (or your oxygen sensor is bad). You’ll have to address both equally. and wide-band sensor. I try to tune about ½ way between peak and cliff. They can be dealt with the same as the typical MAP sensor. The higher the voltage the richer the detected AFR. There is a black plastic cover that. titania sensor. Again. The exact method will depend on the type of O2 sensor your vehicle uses. This is the easy way. then hook a digital volt meter to the O2 signal wire. and then it will gradually taper off. it will be like you just fell off a cliff. You have to stay in Closed Loop. The lower the voltage. battery voltage input. Raising spring pressure will lower lean-out limits. Each requires its own unique approach. There will be a dramatic loss in power. you can now adjust the AFR for better mileage.

and monitor the voltage coming out. they are current devices. This raises the voltage to the ECU indicating a richer-than-actual AFR. AFR Sensors -AFR sensors operate under a totally different set of rules. A lean mixture is a rich command. Either way. This pulls the sensor out of the exhaust stream and allows for leaning out the AFR.7:1. The one wide band that I modified used the blue wire for the signal. you may not be able to get away with more than about 0. A device that has been used for several years is the Electronic Fuel Injection Enhancer (EFIE) developed by George Wiseman of Eagle Research. There have been 2-. As the engine goes leaner or richer from the 14. Wide bands will have 5 wires. They have been used widely on VWs and Mazdas. you have 2 white wires for the heating element. the voltage changes get smaller and smaller. The principle is to create a small amount of voltage offset that is electrically isolated from chassis ground. since it is the only one. The old single wire sensors are easy to spot the signal wire. but comes with good recommendations is to drill out a spark plug anti-fouler for the mid-70s Ford products with the 18 mm plug.450 volts to the O2 signal. and a black wire for your signal out. Usually on a 4-wire sensor. If you have an older vehicle with loose parameters. Another method that I have not personally tried. 3-. The range will be 30 ohms or less. One method involves putting a fixed voltage on the reference wire (white) and varying the current to maintain a fixed voltage on the signal wire (blue). and 4-wire sensors used over the years. Since I haven’t tried it. It is like a free-floating battery installed inline with the signal wire.280 volts. That’s the dead give-away.7:1 AFR. It is commonly called a Narrow-Band sensor because it is only accurate within a narrow range of AFR operation. Most of the vehicles I’ve modified have liked the 7 to 18 ohm . Right at the 14. I cannot guarantee results. You may have to use a manual to determine which wire is the signal wire. a small change in AFR yields a large change in voltage. The same sensor is used in 2 different ways by various OEMs. you may be able to add as much as 0. cut the blue signal wire and install low value resistors. then screw the O2 sensor into the anti-fouler. Install the modified anti-fouler into the exhaust where the O2 sensor normally goes. a grey wire that is ground. To alter an AFR sensor.command. If you have a newer vehicle with tight parameters. Experimentation will dictate what your ECU will tolerate. not voltage devices. Another method is to apply a fixed voltage and current to the reference wire. Wide Band Sensors -Good news! You can use the same EFIE on the signal wire of a wide band.

More timing advance is required. A lower VREF will advance timing. but backwards. as you lean out the AFR. Thus. or a distributor that doesn’t affect timing. If you increased the power and vacuum. Again. The fuel burns faster and more thorough.range. so I can only give you guesses on what will work. If you have the DIS or COP. If you have a near ambient reading (no or large value resistor). Once you have adjusted your ignition timing for maximum power. you may find that you can lean out your AFR a bit more. If you advanced your timing. On the flip side. and distributor wrench. The spark plug anti-fouler may also work. timing light. If you lost power and vacuum. One possibility is to install an EFIE backwards so you are lowering the signal voltage. You will be able to feel 1 ohm resistance change. Readjust AFR -Improving combustion efficiency usually requires less timing advance to get the job done. Adjust Ignition Timing -If you have a distributor. Fortunately. Any more advance than that will increase the possibility of detonation. Sort of a catch-22. they were only used for about 3 years and only on select vehicles. A higher VREF will retard timing. try leaning out the AFR a bit more. start adding resistance to advance timing. you might be able to slightly enrich the AFR and get better power and mileage. it takes longer to burn across the leaner mixture. then you have to play with the MAP and IAT signals to dial in the spark. I haven’t yet had the opportunity to deal with these. To adjust with the distributor. Drive the vehicle down a relatively flat section of road at cruise speed. Watch your vacuum gauge. an Ohm Ranger or low value pot will be helpful in your tuning. If you have DIS. COP. Pull over and either advance or retard the timing by about 4 degrees. There is a balance between finding the right lean-out limit. adjusting the MAP VREF will alter timing. the solution is simple. If you retarded your timing. If you start high on your reading (smaller value resistor). adjust again by about 2 degrees. A leaner mixture requires more time for the flame to propagate across the cylinder. crank it the other way about 8 degrees and test again. and maximizing the timing. Another way might be to add resistance to the signal wire. reduce parallel resistance to retard timing. As stated earlier. adjust the IAT sensor reading by 10* F increments for maximum power. grab a vacuum gauge. You want the least amount of timing advance needed to maintain maximum power at cruise. I’ve never needed over 20 ohms as of yet. and will fight the piston on the compression stroke. Titania Sensors -They work similarly to the traditional O2 sensors. Loosen the holddown clamp and turn the distributor. it takes less time to convert the chemical energy in the fuel into kinetic energy at the crank. .

1 volts. Don’t get discouraged quickly.4 volt. but you can do it. A low concentration of oxygen (rich air/fuel ratio) produces a voltage signal greater tha 0. there was less tuning required for optimal performance and mileage. This practice .. These unequal excursions are used to run the system slightly lean or rich of stoichiometric. The HO2S generates a voltage between 0.7:1 during closed loop engine operation. At approximately 300ºC (600ºF) the engine can enter closed loop operation. The PCM will turn on the heater by providing the ground when the proper conditions occur. and track down poor connections. –End From FORD Heated Oxygen Sensor (HO2S) The HO2S detects the presence of oxygen in the exhaust and produces available voltage according to the amount of total oxygen detected. The PCM enters closed loop fuel control mode.Some calibrations will have determined time intervals between switches and short term fuel trim excursions that are not equal.. For the younger generation. The desired air/fuel control parameter is called short term fuel trim (SHRTFT 1 and 2). The 14. Lean air/fuel ratios indicate high nitrogen oxide emissions. The HO2S provides feedback to the PCM indicating air/fuel ratio in order to achieve a near stoichiometric air/fuel ratio of 14.6 volt. The heating element heats the sensor to a temperature of 800ºC (1400ºF). then the system is actually operation at stoichhiometric. The use of this heater requires the HO2S heater control to be duty cycled. The heater allows the engine to enter closed loop operation sooner.0 and 1.7:1 for gasoline). but never get to experience. As the vehicles became more complex. Since an oxygen sensor can only indicate rich or lean. Embedded with the sensing element is the HO2S heater. Rich air/fuel ratios indicates high hydrocarbon emissions. A high concentration of oxygen (lean air/fuel ratio) in the exhaust produces a voltage signal less than 0. Tech school grads coming into the work force these days are taught to follow flow charts. If the oxygen sensors are warmed up and the PCM determines that the engine can operate near stoichiometric air/fuel ratio (14. tuning is something they read about in magazines. the fuel control strategy continuously adjusts the desired air/fuel ratio between rich and lean causing the oxygen sensor to 'switch' or 'pulse' around the stoichiometric point. A voltage cotrolled circuit supplies voltage to the heater. If the time between rich and lean switches is the same. replace bad parts. but requires a learning curve just like anything else. to prevent damage to the heater.7:1 stoichiometric ratio was mandated by the EPA in 1978. NOx emissions increase logrythmically above 15:1. It may take a little time to get the hang of it. It isn’t difficult.Summary -Tuning was taught in tech schools up until about 30 years ago.

If this comparison shows little or no Oxygen in the exhaust manifold. all fuel is burned.7 parts of air to one part of fuel.2 to 0. When the engine has more fuel than needed. All spark combustion engines need the proper air fuel ratio to operate correctly.1 volts. it runs somewhat rich and makes more exhaust emissions. Fuel trim tables are based on engine speed and load and by bank for engines with 2 HO2S sensors forward of the catalytic converters. The mid point is about 0.is referred to as using bias.45 volts.7 volts. the short term fuel trim corrections are learned by the PCM as LONGFT 1 and 2 corrections. A fully warm O2 sensor *will not spend any time at 0. For example.45 through the O2 sensor wire. the sensor voltage goes lower than 0. This sends out a voltage greater than 0. In many cars. It is as if the circuit between the sensor and computer is not complete. and the extra Oxygen leaves the cylinder and flows into the exhaust. If the sensor is not warm. From GM An Oxygen sensor is a chemical generator (zirconium dioxide-platinum). It remains in open loop operation. and uses all sensors except the O2 to determine fuel delivery. It is constantly making a comparison between the Oxygen inside the exhaust manifold and air outside the engine. The values may change a great deal as the engine is operated at different RPM and load points. or if the circuit is not complete. all available Oxygen is consumed in the cylinder and gasses leaving through the exhaust contain almost no Oxygen.45 volts. oxygenates). Short term fuel trim values are not retained after the engine is turned off. Learning the corrections in memory improves both open loop and closed loop air/fuel ratio control. . it judges the sensor to not be ready. Long term fuel trim corrections may change depending on the operating conditions of the engine (RPM and load). This is neither rich nor lean. the computer picks up a steady 0. For gasoline this is 14. In this case. Since the computer knows this is an "illegal" value. the fuel system can be biased slightly rich during closed loop fuel to help reduce NOX. a voltage is generated. Values for SHRFT 1 and 2 may change significantly as the engine is operated at different RPM and load points. Any time an engine is operated in open loop. While the engine is operating in closed loop fuel control.45 volts*. these corrections are stored in memory fuel trim tables.45 volts. Usually the output range seen seen is 0. The sensor does not begin to generate it's full output until it reaches about 600 degrees F. The output of the sensor is usually between 0 and 1. ambient air temperature and fuel quality (% alcohol. Prior to this time the sensor is not conductive. the computer sends out a bias voltage of 0.45 volts. If the engine is running lean.

An analog voltmeter connected to one of the injector signal leads will work for this. Of course. Another thing that's relatively easy to monitor is injector pulse duty cycle. When the sensor signal stays at one voltage under differing driving conditions is when it's operating in closed loop. which have the diagnostic interface to which a PC may be connected.without the booster running. It is important to remember that the O2 sensor is comparing the amount of Oxygen inside and outside the engine.45 volt mark O2 cross counts. it is not possible to alter the AFR by very much. BUT. than when the booster is fired up you'll have a better idea of just what the ECU wants to see under different conditions. Some of those vehicles have ECMs which can be re-programmed thru that interface. If the outside of the sensor should become blocked. The third device is a tachometer. if you have a scan device to work with. The O2 sensor is constantly in a state of transition between high and low voltage. If you create a chart of these different parameters with the booster off. this is the signal that the booster will mess with. You have to know what you are dealing with. It gives a fair indication of the rate of gas flow. because the sensor is not capable of giving a useful control signal other than in the very narrow band of values over which it is sensitive. (among other things). undercoating or antifreeze. this comparison is not possible. Some are only in closed loop at cruising speed. Remember. the better the sensor and other parts of the computer control system are working. most do not. sound insulation. but the . not all OBDII vehicles use AFRs. so you'll know what you want it to do after the booster is running. or coated with oil. Manufacturers call this crossing of the 0. However if your car is pre-OBD2 that's generally not available. Tips I think the first thing that needs to be done. because that sensor is sensitive over a wide band of AFRs (that's why it's called wideband) If the vehicle has a narrowband sensor. The higher the number of O2 crosses counts. it would be even better. You can use these last two to get an indication of fuel flow at different RPM. It is not cheap. To find out about your engine I recommend tacking a lead to the O2 sensor signal lead and running it into the cab and connect it to a digital voltmeter so you can keep an eye on the voltage under different driving conditions. is to learn all you can about your ECU and sensors. which many cars already have. poor fuel economy and air pollution.This translates into lost power. so you want to know what it does under normal conditions . You need to know when it's in closed loop and when it's in open loop. Changing the Air Fuel ratio It is very simple to change the AFR if the vehicle is fitted with a "genuine" wideband sensor (aka AFR sensor). Genuine wideband (AFR) sensors are only found in vehicles with OBDII.

html Alternatives to the EFIE Hydroxy Systems on Older Honda’s The following information is intended for those who are using hydroxy systems on older Hondas.http://www.turboedit. This method will allow you to completely remap the fuel curve and ignition timing if you choose to do so.org/ Crome .asashop. http://www.http://www.pgmfi.fuelsaver-mpg.org/autoinc/dec2002/mech. Software: Turboedit .org/ (seems to be down at the moment) Hondata .OBD1 honda ecus .tunewithcrome.com/tips.This link gives some information on the socket you'll be soldering in and also mentions one of the few tuning software’s out there to accomplish this.OBD1 honda ecus . The open source engineer who has submitted this information did performance tuning.htm Oxygen sensor .superhonda.hondata. He states there are a few ways you can accomplish tuning on OBD0 and OBD1 Hondas. The process requires you to "burn" bin data onto chips which you insert into a ZIF socket that is soldered into the ECU board.com/ . the free encyclopedia Hydrogen boost article on leaning out fuel http://www.http://www.protiumfuelsystems. LM-1: Digital Air/Fuel Ratio Meter Suggested faculty reading related to the oxygen sensor and EFIE http://www.com/doc/TuningForMileage. and at least one person has reported using it with success. NOTE: This involves opening and soldering to your current ECU so make sure you're comfortable with that.Wikipedia.way to harness this technology for vehicles with narrowband sensors is already available.OBD0 honda ecus ..http://uberdata. These were meant to be used on high performance engines but since you basically have complete control over the fuel and ignition curves you can pretty much use it for whatever tuning you need.html http://www.com/tech/honda_ecu_programming.html .com/ Uberdata .

reliable designs and incorporate both simple and reliable together.com/.xenocron. et since the mixture may become too lean. The key is to find simple. .com/catalog/index. This method is EXPERIMENTAL. If you choose to look into the above products PLEASE do your research before jumping in to make sure it'll work with your application! This is only meant to be suggestions! Tuning is critical to engine performance and if you screw something up it could seriously damage your motor!.htm O2 Sensor modification using spark plug non-foulers Thanks to Lee AKA Redmeanie and Aaron from the energetic forum dot com for this information. there will be less detectable oxygen at the sensor tricking the fuel computer into thinking it is more rich than it actually is. Please visit the forum for more info.com/techarticles/914_timing/914_timing.It is believed that they also allow data logging to help with the tuning process. A testimonial will be posted below. By doing this. Adjustmenthttp://www. detonation.pelicanparts. Further http://www. The original author stated that he personally has never used SDS but had seen it run some very high performance motors (500hp+) hence believes it may work in an Hydroxy tuned atmosphere. The electronic way “EFIE” could be the only "reliable" way. 914 Timing and Dwell.php is a link to a place which the original poster used for chips. it is possible to cause pinging. It is recommended to only use this modification if you are using some type of fuel combustion enhancer that will actually allow a slightly leaner mixture to fully combust effectively such as various fuel additives like RXP or enhanced spark plugs like the Pulstar Plugs. The actual ROM burner also has a bin library for base maps although most of them enrich the mixture due to the fact that most people use these programs for turbocharged applications. This method is cheap and easy. This manipulates the voltage from the O2 sensor going to the fuel computer to cause the injectors to pump less fuel leaning out the air/fuel mixture. This results in a reduction in fuel consumption. There has been some success with this method. An Alternative to the above Megasquirt is a good alternative if you're not comfortable with physically modifying your ECU. If this is used by itself. Purpose: Non-foulers act as spacer to recede the O2 sensor probe out and away from the exhaust gases. SDS is another one which allows generic tuning (not Honda specific) http://sdsefi. water fuel “hydrogen booster” add-ons and other modification. it worked for some but definitely not "one size fits all. excess heat.

REMEMBER: It may take 1 to 2 weeks for the Computer to relearn the system.000 to 100. But I prefer to do it one step at a time.This document is documentation of one attempt at using this modification. It's up to you. 6. you are accepting full responsibility. Don't over tighten the Non-Fouler because the walls are pretty thin after drilling. A drill press is best. not the Tapered Seat. Which means. Be sure to get the Gasket Seat. Check and see what the recommendation is for your vehicle. 4. The actual discussion thread for this modification can be found here. Some people will also add the second. Be sure to use Anti-Seize on the threads. Most o2 Sensors need to be replaced in the 60. Put one non-fouler in a vice and drill through it with a 1/2" drill bit. 5. If reusing the old Sensor.000 range. DO NOT Touch or get any Anti-Seize on the sensor head!!! It will ruin the Sensor. DO NOT continue to drive if there is a lot of pre-ignition or detonation. 2. The o2 Sensor is actually a fairly delicate instrument. Original instructions: 1. Go to your local auto parts store and buy a pair of Non-Foulers (Anti-Foulers): Motormite 42009 or Dorman equivalent. . the motor will still run. First: Make sure there is enough room around the o2 Sensor to space it out. NOTE: Always use Anti-Seize on the threads. This makes room for the o2 sensor head and opens up the end.This may actually be a good time to buy a NEW o2 Sensor. When an o2 Sensor goes bad. between the exhaust pipe and the drilled non-fouler & o2 Sensor at this time. They are 18mm for Ford spark plugs. If you do this modification without professional advice and destroy your engine. because the exhaust system moves around a lot. (although poorly) but the Computer will set all the operating parameters into "Very Safe" zones. 3. 7. the Computer goes into "Limp In" mode. please note that no claims or guarantees are made. Disconnect the Battery while working on the o2 sensor to reset the computer and to prevent any electrical problems. apply AntiSeize to the threads and screw it into the drilled out anti-fouler. Now apply Anti-Seize to the threads of the Non-Fouler and reinstall into the exhaust pipe. which includes "Running RICH". Carefully unscrew and remove the old o2 senor. undrilled non-fouler.

Aaron DID use a gasket washer between the 2nd . it just takes time to remove o2 sensor. Not counting the drilling time. 1-5 minutes is all you need so this is a 15 minute project and about $6-7 cost + time. Aaron had to remove a heat shield from the exhaust manifold and the sensor which can be a tough nut to crack! With the anti-seize lubricant. besides a few dollars. Be careful not to get that stuff on the sensor probe. I put on the modified non-fouler adapter without any new washer/gasket onto the o2 sensor. If you have a drill press. I then put the unmodified non-fouler spacer on the modified one with lubricant and also no gasket/washer. I added anti-seize lubricant to the o2 sensor threads.The non-foulers were about $5 at auto-zone. Aaron left the compressed stock washer on the base of the o2 sensor. everything should be a breeze. There is enough anti-seize lubricant to do a couple dozen of these projects. No matter what. Anti-seize lubricant is about $3. It is much easier and more easily centered by using a drill press. attach to both non foulers and insert back into the exhaust manifold. removal and re-installation with spacers took about 10 minutes of time. The 1/2" hole was drilled by placing one of the non-fouler spacers in a vice and drilling with a hand drill.

A new one cost $40 but with the RXP.spacer and exhaust manifold and of course anti-seize lubricant on those threads going into the exhaust manifold. Aaron used the old O2 sensor. it causes almost everything to burn since it links all the hydrocarbon molecules together causing more to burn as it absorbs infrared heat. Aaron hooked up all the wires again and then drove around a bit just to make sure nothing funky immediately happened and didn't really expect anything to. So this sensor is in good shape and hardly had any carbon on it at all. That will disappear over a bit of time. . Some of the lubricant from exhaust heat smelled stopped.

Notes on construction and operation .

One suggestion is possibly trying to calibrate this via a hole size in the bottom plug and watching what happens via a system monitor. This would let us see what the computer is actually seeing and we could adjust the whole sizes to get our target A/F mixture. This would also be pretty close to universal (not perfect) for everyone to use. One other advantage about this, is since we are not modifying electronics of the O2 sensor, when we start the vehicle it will run in the loop mode (factory A/F settings programmed into the ecm.) until the O2 sensor warms up to proper operating temp. This gives the "Booster" time to generate Hydrogen. Also the size of the hole should be "tuned" and possibly sealed. One way in which this could be done is to make some discs out of stainless shim stock that would drop in the first Non Fouler. One will be with no hole and the rest with an index of sizes. Then to monitor the signal via a AF Mixture Gauge. That way you could calibrate your foulers to your vehicle and modifications. Open loop is designed to just get the car running well until the O2 is warmed up, thus the heaters most O2 sensors have nowadays. They want to be in open-loop for as short a time as possible as this is programmed to be on the rich side, and high emissions. It is when the ECM observes the change in V at the O2 that at some point it goes into closed loop. This is important that any modifications take this into account, for if we were to modify something and have it stay in open loop - that would be much worse on MPG and emissions! The O2 sensor needs to heat up to "operating" temp. It does not calibrate only according to the temp of the exhaust. So don't worry about the "Temp" with the spacers it will certainly get to its proper operating temp and function properly. It just won’t see as much O2. On adding the Non-Foulers it has been mentioned only adding to one Sensor. On a 1997 Ranger 4.0 L. V6 there are 2 more 02 Sensors right behind each Exhaust Manifold, one is very hard to find. You just need them on the upstream O2 sensors. The ones right off the exhaust manifold it should just have 2 one for each side of the engine. Successful testimony Taken from the energetic forum-Now I’ve settled on running the 2 front 02 Sensors with 2 Non-Foulers on each side. The first one next to the 02 Sensor with the ½ hole cut in it. The other Non-Fouler has the Factory size hole into the Exhaust. The back 02 Sensor next to the catalytic converter has only 1 Non-Fouler and it has a open ½” hole into the Exhaust. I’m getting better mpg at this point. I’m up to 6 to 7 mpg better than when I first started. The Protium Oxyisolator

Please note- it is possible that the O2 sensor "isolators" CANNOT WORK! They do exactly opposite of what is claimed. The O2 sensor output would have to be RAISED in voltage to lean out the mix. Taking the sensor out of the exhaust stream lowers the temperature, which LOWERS the voltage and causes the ECU to richen up the fuel air mix ratio! It also can cause the sensors to foul prematurely. The "Protium Oxyisolator" is an alternative to adding electronics. This device encases the existing oxygen sensor(s) in a spur fitting attached to the exhaust pipe. The device is designed to remove the sensor from the direct stream of exhaust gases, but allow it to operate as it heats up. By this function it can overcome the problem of the fuel computer pumping excess fuel. This experimental method has been found to work for some, where as others have found it in effective. It has been suggested that results depend on the particular vehicle and sensor involved.

The Protium connectors allow the oxygen sensor to be screwed into the outer connector piece which then itself will screw into the inner piece and takes the place of the existing sensor. The sensor will then be located in a T-junction spur off the main pipe. The Circuit output signal modifier (COSMII) by “Mad scientist” The Mad Scientist research site is a site describing research results on the COSMII. Video examples of his work can be found here. Mad scientist is offering to build this circuit for those not able to reproduce it from his free plans, please consult his web site.

COSM-II

Bear in mind that the COSM-II is only for NARROW-band O2 sensors It should be noted quote- “I’ve seen some forums around the Internet discussing the COSM/COSM-II, which in itself is very cool, but there is a a little misinformation out there. There are folks who are saying that COSM works by replacing the O2 sensor completely, thereby causing you to lose its benefit in changing driving conditions. Nothing could be further from the truth and I wanted clarify that. The COSM is designed to work WITH the O2 sensor by adding its oscillated voltage to the oscillating voltage already being generated by the O2 sensor, to push the combined voltage to the threshold where the computer sees the command to lean-out the engine, so that your HHO generator is then taking up the slack from the reduced amount of gasoline no longer being pumped into the engine which in turn saves you hard earned cash by making the fuel you buy go further between fill-ups. The COSM could be used TEMPORARILY to completely replace your O2 sensor if, say, your sensor has gone bad and your computer is running open-loop. In that event, the COSM's oscillated voltage would appear just like your O2 sensor's signal so your computer could run in closed-loop until you can replace the bad sensor. But this is just a side benefit of this device. Its primary function is to work WITH your O2 sensor by adding its voltage to what comes from your O2 sensor. It does not replace the O2 sensor, so you still always have the benefit of the sensor reacting to changing driving conditions. That also means when you power-off the COSM/COSM-II, you are back to just having O2 sensor voltage going to the computer. It's voltage is never replaced, just added to (hence the original name of the COSM, "Voltage Adder"). –End quote, mad scientist. The following has been provided as a back up resource. Please visit his site and forum for updates.

COSM-II Vehicle connections

Faculty information on the COSM What is the purpose of the oscillator and what does it do for the hydrogen intake. What is the difference between the COSM and the EFIE? If you hook a device that offsets the reading to the ECU, what does it do to the rest of the sensors? I have 2 oxygen sensors and a MAP sensor, how should the sensors be adjusted for a hydrogen booster? This web site describes the EFIE and what it does. In practice, the EFIE and the COSM do the same thing: Add voltage to what the O2 sensor is providing, so as to "fool" the ECM/ECU into thinking the engine is running richer than it really is, causing it to reduce the amount of gasoline or diesel fuel being injected into the cylinders and force a lean condition. This is important because you want your engine to rely more on the HHO you are feeding it, without the computer fighting you by seeing more oxygen in the exhaust stream, thinking we are actually running LEANER than we really are, and pumping in even more gasoline or diesel to compensate. The COSM was developed (and now COSM-II) to be a device that anybody could build because it does its job easily and is made in such a way that you could build it for just a few $'s in parts. The EFIE typically runs around $60. The COSM can be built for around $10-20. You only need to be concerned with the o2 sensor in the manifold. The one after the catalytic converter does not control the fuel supply on most cars. The post-cat sensors are only used to monitor effectiveness of the catalytic converter (and aren't used to maintain air/fuel mix ratios), you really only need a COSM-II on the pre-cat sensor(s). The pre-cat sensors are those near your exhaust manifold, usually visible somewhere under the hood (or bonnet) of your car. The oscillator is what makes the COSM act like an O2 sensor by acting like an O2 sensor. If you put a meter on your O2 sensor signal wire, you'll see that the voltage constantly fluctuates from between .1 and around .45 or so (or higher if you're adding volts or you are legitimately running too rich). When you are adding voltage, you want to bear in mind that the computer expects to see the volts fluctuate. If you send too much constant (non-fluctuating) voltage for too long, your computer might assume something is wrong and kick itself into open-loop. But if you are adding voltage that oscillates just as it does from the O2 sensor itself, the computer doesn't know the difference and happily complies with the "command" it's getting to lean out the mixture. Some computers work fine with constant voltage, and some require the voltage to fluctuate in order to remain in closed-loop. Bear in mind that the COSM-II is only for narrow-band O2 sensors. Wideband sensors don't oscillate. .45v is considered stoich (perfect). Low volts, like the .1v, means you're running lean and more gasoline is needed. When volts oscillate up

8v or so means the mixture is too rich and to lean it out. At that point.COSM-IIA in-vehicle demonstration .around . EFIE and the COSM devices work by upping the volts enough that the computer sees oscillations at or above that threshold so that it thinks we're running too rich. When you feel the engine just start to run rough again (and the RPM's will probably begin to drop again). power on the EFIE or COSM and start upping the voltage slowly. when you see your output volts oscillating up around . then power on your HHO cell. What you want to keep in mind is that . Turn the pot just a tiny bit and then wait for the computer to react.1v means that the mixture is too lean and to richen it whereas . COSM Videos HHO fuel cell . Second. At that point.8 to 1 volt. the RPMS will begin to drop and the engine will start to run rough and probably sputter. it means you're running rich and the computer needs to reduce the amount of gasoline being pumped into the engine. If you ground out your sensor. it will go from . making your Accord run extra rich. thereby reducing fuel it pumps in. your engine is efficiently tuned to run very lean and utilizing HHO in place of the gasoline or diesel you were previously pumping in before. When you hit the threshold where the ECM starts to see the "lean me out" command.1 volts to no volts and your computer will see no signal input and jump into open-loop. with the engine running and HHO cell OFF. Of course. If your cell has good output you should notice the roughness of the engine begin to subside and smooth out because your HHO gas is taking the place of the petroleum fuel that you previously leaned out of the engine. returning to normal operation with your petroleum based fuel is as simple as switching off your EFIE or COSM. The idea here is that you want to lean out the engine as much as you can so that the HHO from your generator is just enough to take the place of the gasoline or diesel fuel you were previously using. If you're using a meter to help with the tuning (which you really should). I would then do some fine-tuning by making the sure the engine is running smoothly and then VERY slowly back off on EFIE or COSM power again but again VERY slowly. the engine should be tuned so well for your HHO generator that switching off your generator should cause the engine to begin running rough again in just a few moments because you'll be starving the engine for fuel again (because you're now running so lean). turn power back up just a very tiny bit until the roughness goes away. COSM or EFIE Installation EFIE or COSM by doing the following: First.8v or so add volts from that point on VERY slowly in very small increments and then wait a few moments before adding more each time. At this point. Your computer will react in moments.

HHO fuel cell . Hydrogen and oxygen can be separated in another tank. Sacrificial oxidizinng metals such as aluminum. Membranes to spate hydrogen and oxygen . Also there have been suggestions of hydrogen into the air intake and oxygen into the intake manifold. Before you consider this option. Systems that generate the gases separately are inherently less efficient by design HT7 Pure Hydrogen generator it is not known in the open source community how this process is accomplished at this time. with strong electromagnets and permeable membranes such as DuPont Nafion: Fuel cell in reverse. iron and zinc will also remove oxygen while allowing hydrogen to pass.COSM-IIA READY! HHO custom box installed Using a boosters which separate the hydrogen from the oxygen A number of hydroxy boosters have surfaced which are designed to have their output to be 100% pure hydrogen (HOH) for the vehicles intake. What this will do to the engine is unknown. There are commercial patented devices (listed in patents) which are designed to separate the hydrogen. it does help restore some of that lost improvement. it has been reported that Hydrogen is not as efficient as hydroxyl. Adding oxygen into the intake manifold will reduce vacuum pressure which does rise idle due to the gas is unmetered like a vacuum leak. so why reduce the benefit? While gas separation does have the benefit of not interfering with the ECU it does reduce the amount of fuel economy improvement obtainable from a given watt hour of boosting power consumed. either as gas or in distilled water such as a wet flame suppressor/bubblier. Both go into the combustion cylinders. Now if you add the O2 back to the intake airstream elsewhere. It is possible this will not make sense as one gas is added before the throttle and the other is after. If you can find data on it and run time tests then please contact us and consider the first.

an engine will not last very long.The atmospheric air does a lot more than provide oxygen. It is an input . Straight hydroxy gas will destroy most good ICE engines in short order. one is an air volume transducer. One is a pressure transducer. It is a compressive / thermally expansive mass. MAF – stands for Mass Air Flow. First off the MAF stands for "Mass Air Flow". That would put an end to an engine real quick. Even the pressure and temperature caused by the compression stroke on a good tight engine can be enough to auto ignite pure hydroxy gas before TDC. and if enough is added – can prevent detonation damage to engine components! If you do not use atmospheric air in the combustion mix. –Bob Boyce. The following is an experimental design and idea found in the Yahoo energy hydroxy group Please goto the group mentioned above for technical discussion and further details on this concept. They are different and do different jobs. Manifold Absolute Pressure. All this sensor does is measure air flow and air temp it has nothing to do with controlling the injector pulse width. Misconceptions on using alternatives to the EFIE MAP -stands for.

For a beginner the Smacks booster is recommended. and the injectors are an output device. For those that drive longer than two hours. not just the MAF. Smack has since upgraded his design more details are in his section below.(long term). there are reports that allot of gas production is possible from the Archie Blue type of design. With this effect the water temp inside the booster never cross beyond 60 deg centigrade.Forget about adjusting the MAF or MAP sensors. Please check back here for new additions or subscribe to our news letter for updates. As far as the "booster" realm” is concerned. the computer will adjust the fuel to bring it back to normal. a growing number of people are uncovering new ideas by doing R and D into improving hydroxy booster designs. The computer sets injector duty cycles base on a lot of input sensors.for those of you who commute for less than 2 hours a day. and further that it is not a perfect booster for a beginner. Bob Boyce’s 7 plate cell is also considered an efficient design. heating from the original Smacks booster design is not an issue. than yes the computer will turn on the check engine light and go into stored memory. As the open source free energy community consolidates more and more each day. However when the water temp inside the booster is higher then it dissipates the heat to atmosphere from the 4" outer casing. To progress to a tubular or plate cell and others please study the faculty section below to understand plate cell booster dynamics. Trying to adjust a pot on a MAF sensor wire will just be removed when the O2 sensors see the change. a stainless steel tubular or plate cell design must be used. So at the starting time it takes heat from the engine compartment and increases the efficiency of the booster. THEY WON'T WORK! Brute Force DC Hydroxy Booster Designs NOTE. In tubular design the outer case is made of 4" SS pipe. 2. Please read the FACULTY section detailing booster operation prior to construction to understand the fundamentals of boosters. In a tubular design the space between each tube acts as separate compartment so . As soon as the O2 sees rich or lean. some prefer the Spiral Wassabe types of design. Tubular Cell designs The advantages / disadvantages are as given below: Stainless steel resistant-Hydrogen boost explosion 1. However none can argue that the “Smacks” booster design does not produce the most “bang for its buck”.sensor. If you go too far. others swear by the tubular route. this may also clear up allot of questions you have on designs.

3.there is not current leakage / energy loss. It is a compact design and can easily fit into the car engine compartment. 4. But the voltage drop difference is not very high from inner most cells to outer most cells and is well within 2 volts / cell in 6 cell design. However with this you will be loosing efficiency of the booster. WaterFuel for All Booster Email Website Panacea coverage Back round Information . You can provide a small hole at the bottom of the tube so that water gets leveled out. The major disadvantage of the system is unequal surface area from inner most tube to outer most tube.

The most important difference is the usage of a stainless steel washer to connect the inner tube with the centre rod. this becomes crucial. Wouter had received frequent mails from “Newbie’s” asking advice about what would be a good and reliable booster to be used to improve fuel consumption. Another subtle difference between the WaterFuelForAll (WFA) design and Fran's design includes the usage of s/steel rods to pull together and close of the cell with nylon blocks whereas Fran's design uses soft rubber seals. it does have some subtle but important differences. As a result. a non-profit organization advocating clean energy. This feature increases the total area of the centre electrode.com. do not have the skill and/or specialized equipment to build a proper series cell with little current leakage. we are decreasing the current density of the centre electrode. Quote. over the past months Wouter conducted his own (public disclosure) research in this regard. The majority of people out there.waterfuelforall. thereby leading to a centre electrode that will not overheat as quickly as a rod on its own. By increasing the inner electrode surface area.This part of the document has been prepared by Panacea-BOCAF. strengths and weaknesses whilst trying to find a balance between optimal performance and reliability at an affordable price. This change was made because it was found that the rods/nylon block combination is more robust than softer rubber seals and .Wouter Oosthuizen Wouter wishes to give full credit of the design to Fran Giroux who has been using a similar design since 2001.My goal is to provide the public with a reliable and efficient BUT also affordable electrolyzer.– Wouter End Quote Open source engineer . While Wouter’s design is similar to Fran’s. so that the centre electrode consists of a rod and tube combined. Since the current flow in a tubular cell is limited to the surface area of the smallest electrode. Wouter closely studied a number of commercially available boosters and evaluated their performance. The information is a compilation of posts made by Wouter Oosthuizen on the forum www.

5") Width 11. The WFA booster also uses its own unique design for inner spacers for easy assembly and accurate spacing of the tubes. 1.9-2. more information can be found on the panacea coverage page.3kg Height including cap 24cm (9. Another difference between the WFA booster is that Fran's design doesn't use equal spacing in between all the tubes.0 lpm @ 20A 2) WaterfuelForall Delux max 30A. Gas production will be +-2.5-2.Weight 0.5") . 25A continuous.Weight 3.8kg Height 27cm (10.5") Heavy duty bubbler . 1. whereas the WFA booster does.8V and will be the preferred model for large trucks. Wouter has started with the manufacture of three models: 1) WaterfuelForall Standard max 25A.5cm (4. 20A continuous.18kg Height 20cm (8") Width excluding connectors 9cm (3.Weight 4.1kg Height including cap 28cm (11") Width 11. please consider helping.5cm (4.5") WaterfuelForAll Standard . rated 25A continuous.5 lpm @ 25A 3) WaterfuelForall SuperDelux .5") 10cm (4") Width excluding connectors Standard water trap/bubbler .the rigid nylon blocks also allow for the use of a rigid water opening and water cap for easier refill. 13.Weight 0.5lpm @ 25A (gas production depends on whether booster is brand new or properly run in and is sustainable for 8+ hours continuously without overheating) From left to right : WaterfuelForAll Deluxe . Wouter has made these boosters available already built at an affordable price in order to fiancé further open source hydroxy technology for all.

2") for maximum gas production.g. a 30A relay.06"). The standard model is 23cm (9") high and the Deluxe is 28cm (11") high. A heavy duty bubbler is available at an additional USD30.Both models area 6 series cell tubular design. so it is likely that some of the screws might need to be tightened a little bit more. This price includes the electrolyzer. once the unit had a chance to settle. is no guarantee that it does not leak hydroxy! In fact. AWG 8 cables with soldered connectors. the Deluxe is USD 295 (excluding shipping). When receiving a brand new unit. all the seals are still settling. a standard water trap/bubbler and all necessary hoses.06").5mm wall thickness (0. With regard to the cap. The tubes have a 1. you should also tighten it properly after a water refill. although the booster will only reach its peak gas production after about 30 hours of operation. The WaterfuelForAll boosters' tubes are made of 316 grade stainless steel (ISO certified) which is more expensive and more corrosive resistant than the cheaper 302/304 grades. The reason why all screws should be properly tightened (but NOT overly tight!) is because we want to make sure that all seals are 100% tight. which is almost double the thickness than the electrodes of many other boosters. All units are fully assembled and individually bench tested for a period of at least 2 hours. Note . with same efficiencies. HDPE and polypropolene. before leaving our workshop. for the same reason mentioned above. Hydroxy has got the tendency to leak through places where nothing else will leak. and gas output just varying according to Amps. So you can start using it right away. one must always compare apples with apples. (Spacing less than 3mm inhibits the bubble flow at higher Amps) Plastics being used is Nylon. in-line fuse and switch is available at an additional USD 50. The tubes are already cross-hatch sanded on the outside as well as the larger ones on the inside. Wouter recommends that before you install the unit in a car. This also contributes to the fact that the boosters do not overheat. you should first run it standalone at full power e. During fabrication one does not want to over-tighten the screws. and the mere fact that the booster does not leak water.5mm (0. Wouter would like to emphasize that when comparing the quality and prices of various boosters. +-20A and then put the complete unit in a bucket/bin of water to make sure that you do not see any small hydrogen bubbles escaping from any seal including the cap. Spacing in between tubes is +-5mm (0. All tubes will be 316 grade (ISO certified) with wall thickness 1. The Standard model is currently advertised at USD195. amp meter. with both having a diameter of just over 10cm (4").

5" tall and 4. Wouter has added an extra large Super DeLuxe model which will be 14.5 hours per day.The past few days I have been approached by several people who wants to become a WaterfuelForAll booster agent so please forgive me for writing a general letter! As you all know by this time. For trucks On request. Gas production will be +-2.9 lpm @ 25A.5lpm @ 25A.8V and will be the preferred model for large trucks.The Deluxe and Super Deluxe unit keeps enough water to last 10-12 hours of driving time. Whereas the design is the result of many months of research. you can buy 3 Super Deluxe units and have a system that produces 7. . Wouter has expanded his range of boosters. You should expect to see an improvement after 30 hours of use.a brand new cell with no conditioning should be able to produce at least 1. the unit must be installed in such a manner that it will receive a constant airflow while driving.5" wide. To operate this unit at 25A continuous. we have only very recently launched the WaterfuelForAll (WFA) booster. as to assist with the cooling. the proof is in the real-time hydroxy gas production (with resulting fuel saving and emission benefits) and users quickly realized that the WFA booster is running circles around the competition. 13. So you have to check your water level at least every 6-8 hours of driving time. (this price does not include the wiring and bubbler) Thus for less than $1200. It will be rated 25A continuous. The "small" Standard size booster keeps enough water to last for 8 hours at a time. only needs to check his water level once every 5 days. Thus. e. Wouter states: Dear Waterfuel Enthusiast . while refilling with gas.g. the typical commuter that drives +-1. The Super Deluxe booster will be priced at USD 395.5lpm @ 75A continuously without overheating! Distributors wanted! In order for Wouter to help finance the advancement of OPEN SPOURCE hydroxy technology plus provide the public servie of dissemination of boosters at low cost.

Most individuals might not be in the position to do this and thus I had to come up with another option.I mention only the most important reasons: 1) The WFA booster does not overheat within 2 hours as many other commercially available boosters. robustness. Yet this option would only be viable for agents that have got the facilities to service larger fleets of vehicles and it would also require a substantial cash flow upfront to pay for the boosters. which is part of the reason why the booster does not overheat. even though a bubbler could still be added for additional reassurance 3) With a maximum gas production of up to 1 liters per minute for every 10A @ 13.com The order will be passed on to us with a reference as to identify the agent responsible for the order and we will execute the order by sending the unit directly to the customer. Thus. I propose the following: Smaller agents can simply act as a marketer to generate new orders.. reliability for implementation in an automobile 4) The booster is made of the more expensive 316 grade stainless steel electrodes with wall thickness of 1. long distance trucks) 2) Having an outer casing made of 1.waterfuelforall. the design is extremely efficient and found a delicate balance between efficiency.06") thick stainless steel. it is much stronger than most other booster designs and can even withstand a flashback without a bubbler.5mm (+-0.5mm (+-0.8V consumed.. Thus the electrodes are more corrosive resistant than the cheaper and less corrosive resistant 302/304 grade used by many other boosters. it is our duty to ensure that this technology gets through to the man in the street as soon as possible. the WFA booster is built to last a lifetime. . (Thus makes it ideal for heavy duty use e. it is still priced competitively 6) It is a very compact design and even "looks" nicer than other boosters! From the above it is clear the design has got the potential to become the standard for boosters and thus it comes as no surprise that people want to become agents! Also. Also the wall thickness of 1.5mm.. In short.. 5) Despite the quality materials used. The first possibility would be for an agent to import the boosters in quantity at a reduced price and may then sell it at a price determined by them self. These orders could either be placed on a web-site run by the agent himself or on our own web-site www. over the last few days I sat down and evaluated different possibilities to offer potential agents.g.06") is much thicker than the plate thickness of most other boosters.

the agent will receive a 10% commission for each unit sold as a direct result of his marketing/referral efforts. In many of these comments a lot of emphasis is placed on the fact that the voltage differential between tubular cells varies compared to square plate cells which have a constant voltage differential between plates. then we could also offer larger commissions to our agents) In this regard it must be remembered that our objective is not to have money making scheme. We know that there are other schemes offering larger commissions... but it is clear that those units are made of inferior materials and are sold with a much larger markup for a start. (If we were selling our product at twice the price. but rather to provide the public with a product that will last for years yet at an affordable price. Thus.Well that's it!Should you be interested in becoming an agent just let me know! Construction NEVER touch these tubes with bare hands and ONLY use NaOH or KOH! There have been various opinions about tubular cells on the internet. no upfront cash is needed although it would be expected from an agent to buy and install at least 1 unit for him self as to make sure that the agent fully understand what the WFA booster is all about.. What we do want to do is provide none biased thinking and considerations.. A majority of the people who criticizes the tubular cell design has never built one themselves and compared the .For his effort. So the question is: How severe is this effect and what is the net effect on our overall efficiency? In this regard we do not want to get involved in a debate with anyone. A common argument is that the uneven surface area from anode to cathode increases loss due to uneven current distribution. In the long run people will realize that a booster like the WFA is money much better spend.

(If you are using a stainless steel of a lesser quality I would not recommend going higher than 0. we are merely providing real data.1.2. because Wouter uses proper 316 grade tubes. instead of having equal spacing cells 1". you could have 1". Facts: Bench Tests by Wouter have shown that the Waterfuelforall 6 series tubular cell generates 2lpm @ 20A. E. 4". where the voltage differential between the inner tubes is slightly higher than between the outer tubes. 1.4".15A per square centimeter. 2".g. What people do not realize. when gas volume is measured at STP. In this regard t as long as one makes sure that the surface area of the smallest tube is large enough.5".1A per square centimeter) So the length of . 1. let's just look at the real time performance.5". 13. one does need a little bit more voltage to push through the same amount of current as with larger tubes.16W/LPH.8V x 20A = 276Watt 276/120 = 2. It is not claimed that the voltage differentials have no effect. So the tubular 6 series cell performance converts to 93.9% Faraday efficiency. it should require 2. 2. In this regard one must remember that the voltage is the driving force behind the current. then how is it possible for the tubular cell to achieve such good efficiency figures without overheating!? Note that the following figures are achieved with constant spacing between the tubes: 2lpm x 60 = 120lph 13.25". If the voltage differentials between cells were that much of an issue as is being portrayed by some. But this is merely to show that one could easily address the concern if it was really necessary.2". and then the voltage differentials will be closer to equal everywhere.5". then you could simply have a larger space between the outer tubes and a smaller space between the inner tubes. you will have NO problems! An example:As a rule of thumb I aim for max 0.5". What is being emphasized is that one can see by these results that the effect clearly has a minor impact on the overall performance of the tubular design. While the inner tubes does have a smaller total area. is that if one was really that concerned about the voltage differential between the tubes.36 W/LPH of hydroxy gas production.3". 3".5". So let's not speculate in theory and on paper.real time performance with a square plate series cell. and this is exactly the case in a tubular cell. By no means are we stating that this is a superior design over the plate cell. At room temperature this figure changes to 2.3.8VDC without overheating.3 W/lph According to Faraday predictions. Wouter has done a LOT of real-time testing in this regard and feels that it is unnecessary to complicate things.

The area of the inner tube is calculated as pi*Diameter*height. e. But since we are merely performing brute force electrolysis. it is not so much of an issue and we can take advantage of the benefits offered by a tubular design. once the cell has been run in properly. if you plan to run your cell at max 25 A and we only want max 0. then uneven voltage differentials between cells will have a greater effect and in such instance.6 lpm 1. Obviously the inner tube will have the least area and thus you will be basing your calculations on the inner tube's area.2 lpm 1. So for a 1" inner tube the required Height = 167/(3.g.5 lpm 1. Note that if we were trying to achieve resonance. Wouter reports that after the 6 series cell design has been conditioned.14x2.8 lpm 1 1/2 hour 15A 2 hours 3 hours 4 hours 5 hours 16A 17A 18A 18A . The 6 series tubular design stabilizes at +-1 liter per minute gas for every 10 amps consumed. that imply we need a minimum electrode plate area of 167 cm2 for each tube.5A 10A 12A 40 deg C 50 deg C 58 deg C 65 deg C 73 deg C 74 deg C Cold 0.5 lpm 0. Wouter does recommend people to go for a square plate series cell design.3 cm This will be the length of all the inner tubes and obviously the outer tube will be slightly longer.7 lpm 1.15A/cm2.8 lpm 1.0 lpm 1.the tubes will be determined by the maximum amount of amps that you want to run your cell at. the gas production has increased to +-3 liters per minute @ 30 amps.5) = 21.75lpm 1. One of the biggest advantages of the tubular design compared to the sandwiched series cell design is the fact that the sandwiched series cell can be prone to leaking of water and hydrogen. the typical temperatures and amp flow for the 6 series cell is: Amp flow Temperature Gas production Start 10 min 1/2 hour 1 hour 5A 7. For a concentration of 6 teaspoons (30ml) of lye to 1 liter of water (distilled recommended).

the shape nicely fits into any engine bay and is also a rather leak free design.8 lpm 1. Since gas production is directly related to the amount of amps. if used in a series cell configuration.8V = 1 lpm hydroxy gas for every 138Watt.6 hours 7 hours 8 hours 18A 18A 18A 75 deg C 74 deg C 73 deg C 1. Obviously the unit starting at 16A will pick up temperature faster and one must compare apples with apples! . The above figures is for a unit built from 7 tubes with diameters 4" / 3. 13. The performance tubular 6 series cell is good enough to be used as a booster for someone that only commutes between 1-4 hours per day but cannot be used for an indefinite period. The Tubes design is chosen for practicality.e. it follows that the formula for the expected gas production (once the cell has been run in) = 1 lpm for every 10A.5" / 1" and at least 20cm in length. When comparing operating temperatures it is also important to note the starting temperature and current after only a few minutes. It is not recommend a unit that is completely sealed and cannot be opened easily.e. Since we are performing normal electrolysis (no resonance or anything fancy) Wouter’s own testing indicated that tubes cells and plates gave pretty much the same amount of gas as plate cells.8 lpm 1.8 lpm One can see that after 4 hours of continuous operation. An important advantage of the "WaterfuelForAll" tubular design (when compared to other series cell designs) is the fact that the electrolyzer can easily be disassembled should you at any later stage want to do maintenance. efficiency (i. then airflow will have a cooling effect on the cell and the booster should stabilize at a lower temperature. Design considerations This is a straight forward series cell design that uses tubes instead of plates. maximum gas production at lowest power consumption) and reliability (i. As a bonus. because when evaluating operating temperature one must use relatively equal electrolyte solutions and one cannot compare a unit which starts of at 16A with a unit with much lower electrolyte concentration starting of at 8A for instance. measured with a water temperature not exceeding 75 degrees Celsius.5" / 2" / 1.5" / 3" / 2. the temperature stabilizes at +74 degrees Celsius which is ideal! Should the electrolyzer be used as a booster. not overheating too soon).

it is not done evenly. Wouter’s experience thus far showed that when he filled up with water. However. But adding some water leveling holes should not do too much harm as long as they are not aligned as to minimize current leakage. You will notice that at the top there is a flat polyprop disc with holes in it. If your tubes are not aligned properly or if you have lots of current leakage. The only electrical connection is to the inner most and outer most tubes. There are no connections between the tubes and they are isolated/seperated from each other with HDPE/polypropolene spacers. you could start of with say 8A (instead of 16A) and then you could find that your booster is still well below 60 degrees Celsius after 4 hours. In this regard. if you want to run the tubular 6/7 series cell at a lower electrolyte concentration. The outer tube is connected to negative and the centre tube is connected to positive. in this regard you will have to do your own testing to see what works best for you. look at the following. do not expect a high performing cell and also don't be surprised if your cell overheats quickly. The tubes have got polyprop spacers both at the bottom and at the top. This implies that one is concerned that when filling up all the cells. The following is a discussion about the need for small water leveling holes. he did not even have to move his hand across all cells because this flat disc channels the water rather evenly to all the different cells. Remember that the overall efficiency and speed at which your own cell will warm up will be a function of how precise you have built it and how much current leakage there is.So. At the bottom there is also a polyprop disc (with no holes in it as the top one) as to seal of the tubes from each other to prevent leakage of current and thereby delaying the rate at which the cell picks up heat. For ease of construction Wouter used a stainless steel clamp . You will have to measure gas out put as well as water temperature over time to find the best overall solution.

5" / 3" / 2. If it is leaking a lot. then I would not worry too much. but if the spacers are thick. The white discs and spacers inside is made of polypropolene which can withstand temperatures of up to 110 degrees Celsius.8V) the tubular cell generates 2lpm which is more than enough. The centre 1" tube is connected to a 8mm (5/16") stainless steel threaded rod with a 1 inch s/steel washer so that the rod provide an easy and secure outside connection to positive. To summarize. Wouter states say 3-4cm because this length will be determined by how thick the plastic spacers are and how much space they will be taking up. one could spot weld in a connection. The tricky part is to get the tubes to align properly and in Wouter’s prototype he used polypropylene spacers cut to an accuracy of 0. then a 4cm longer outer tube would be appropriate) Inner rod is this length plus how far you want it to protrude at the bottom. If the spacers are thin. if you go this route you must make VERY sure that the tubes are rock solid and won’t move because you do not want to end up with tubes touching each other creating a spark!!) Note -In a car it is recommended not to run it at more than 20A and at 20A (13. it is very easy. Alternatively. because you will probably lose about 10ml of gas in 1 minute which is nothing! If . the unit is a 6 cell unit using 7 tubes (diameters 4" / 3. but if you are the only person that is going to see the inside of your booster it should do the trick and will be the cheapest! (However. then I would recommend that you open up the unit by simply unscrewing the 4 bolts at the top and then apply some expoxy glue around the perimiter of the white thread on the inside (bottom) of the black flat plastic square. This could be expensive if done in small quantities and for someone that is merely experimenting they might try to use some clear plastic tubing and simply insert it in between the tubes (or bent some pieces around the tube edges). With regard to the measurements. For the Standard model Wouter is using 15cm long inner tubes and a 19cm long outer tube and for the Deluxe model He is using 20cm long inner tubes and the outer tube is 24cm in length.5" / 2" / 1. If your cell is leaking only very small bubbles rather slowly. It will not look very professional.around the outer tube to connect to the cathode. The outer tube will be slightly longer than the inner tubes which are all the same length. then 3cm should be enough.1mm. If you have purchased a booster from Wouter and want to get exact specifications you can physically measure all outside measurements and simply deduct 3-4cm from the length of the outer tube to get to the length of the inner tubes.5" / 1") The outer tube is connected to negative and the centre tube is connected to positive.

On top of the plastic spacer then comes another stainless steel washer with a diameter greater than 1" and finally a lock nut to keep everything together. Then place a stainless steel 1" dia. To ensure an extra good connection between the center rod and 1" inner tube. To do this. With regard to the top spacer for the groove alternative refer.you suspect gas leakage around the elbow. Wouter and Panacea would like to sincerely thank Alex for his work on these drawings you have him to thank for these! CAD files –down load . Additional water level indicator Just a few notes on a water level indicator: If the water indicator is connected to the bottom of the cell. This means drilling a hole in the outer stainless steel tube and fitting/welding a small pipe/tube connection on the side of the cell. These drawings are exceptional and he has done an extraordinary job in the detail. just remove the gas hose. then that will lead to current leakage and reduced efficiency. smear some silicon (not too much) around the elbow nipple and refit gas hose with secure clamp! The original nylon elbow fitting specified is made of HDPE and may be a little too soft. Solid works and CAD drawings courtesy of Alex A special thanks and credit must go to Alex (Paradox user name on the energetic forum) for his precise and quality work on these drawings. one can drill a 1" hole in the middle of the top spacer. clean the elbow nipple. washer also on top of the 1" dia tube and fasten with a s/steel nut. Wouter has since replaced them so look for new Nylon ones which are harder and while the black plastic square is also Nylon will also glue better. the top spacer must be thick enough to accommodate the height of the nut. thus less likely to leak.

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it must be noted that one cannot simply give a rule that is generally applicable.g. With regard to the amount of lye used. where the inner tubes are +-20cm in length. 6 or 7) 2) the size of the electrode surface area 3) the required starting/ending temperature required after a certain amount of time has elapsed Below describes figures to use as a guide when operating a WaterfuelForAll 6 series tubular cell. The recommended amount of electrolyte to be used together with the typical resulting current flow is as follows.1 liter of water without overflowing the upper rim of the inner tubes). Wouter recommends add enough NaOH to start with a current draw of 10A (but no more) when the booster is cold. Wouter used NaOH (Lye) and for a 6 series cell you should not need more than 1 tablespoon for every liter of water. and we do not want the amp flow to exceed 16A within the first 2 hours: Add 1/8 cup (+-6 teaspoons or 30ml) of lye to 1 liter of water (distilled recommended) Below is the typical temperatures and amp flow for the above concentration for the 6 series cell: .Lye Concentrations For electrolyte. As the booster heats up the current draw will also increase. since the amount of lye used is a function of: 1) the number of cells (e. with the smallest tube 1" and largest tube 4" in diameter (holding +.

8 lpm 75 deg C 1.g. If the booster is installed in a car with sufficient air flow.75lpm 1.5 lpm 58 deg C 1. the temperature stabilizes at +74 degrees Celsius which is ideal! Note that the above temperatures were measured during bench-testing with an outside temperature of +-21 deg C. 1lpm@10A.13 hours of driving time. 15A does not place too much of a burden on the alternator of the car. The amount of hydroxy gas produced is determined by the AMPS (e.2 lpm 50 deg C 1.5A 1/2 hour 10A 1 hour 12A 1 1/2 hour 15A 2 hours 16A 3 hours 17A 4 hours 18A 5 hours 18A 6 hours 18A 7 hours 18A 8 hours 18A Temperature Gas production Cold 0. Electrode spacing is another factor that influences the amount of electrolyte needed to allow a certain amount of amps. where peak gas production would be determined by the amps at that time. Note that in a series cell.7 lpm 73 deg C 1. Also note that the amount of gas is NOT related to the amount of water left in the container (except when no water is left and no current is flowing!). allowing maximum mileage gains. Whether you have 100ml of water left or 900ml of water left makes does not determine the amount of gas although the temperature of the water determines the resistance of the electrolyte and thus also influences the amps that are flowing.0 lpm 40 deg C 1. this will have a cooling effect which could see that the booster stabilizes at a lower maximum temperature. . because the electrolyte starts foaming and crawling up the tubes thereby reducing efficiency.5 lpm 0.8 lpm 74 deg C 1.6 lpm 65 deg C 1.8 lpm 73 deg C 1. 2lpm@20A). so filling up with 1 liter.Amp flow Start 5A 10 min 7.8 lpm 74 deg C 1. it consumes +-75ml water for every 1 hour of operation. spacing less than 3mm inhibits the bubble flow and resulting gas production at higher amps. These figures are estimated to be ideal for the average car with engine capacity ranging between 1000-3000cc. Once the booster has reached an operating temperature of between 60-75deg C. so you could have peak gas production right until the last moment before your cell runs completely dry.8 lpm One can see that after 4 hours of continuous operation. should last +.

Faraday calculation To exceed 100% Faraday efficiency you must go for a 7 series cell if you are using 13. 12A after 1 hour and 16A after 2 hours. a 7 series cell would be ideal for powering a generator 24 hours a day. Wouter performed the exact . Should we now add 900ml of ice cold water to reduce the water temperature to 40 degrees Celsius. For a 6 series cell. This is an extreme example but I use it to illustrate to you that the amount of water left is not the issue. let’s say you have only 100ml of water left in your booster with a given amount of lye. According to Faraday. (This is the figure Bob is using) BUT. and lets say the water temperature is 70 degrees Celsius.8V. one will typically see that 6 teaspoons of lye achieves a current flow of 5A at start-up. the temperature is likely to be higher resulting in more amps flowing than with more water! For example. So in this case adding the water actually reduced the amount of gas produced. when gas volume is measured at STP.5 liters per minute gas production.So with less water in the unit. 7 Series Cell design A 7-series tubular cell will need up to 6-7 TIMES MORE NaOH than a 6 series cell booster. it should require 2. at room temperature this figure changes to 2. However.9% Faraday efficiency. This is not practical as the increased NaOH electrolyte concentrations are not user friendly. Most important reason was how long the 7 series cell takes to warm up to a temperature high enough to get decent gas production.36 W/lph of hydroxy gas production. but most experimenters measure the gas at room temperature. So the 7 series cell is much more sensitive to this and will have to be topped up with electrolyte much more frequently.16W/lph. When driving in a car we do not have the luxury of having the cell sitting on a bench and can wait for hours to reach decent gas production. the electrolyte is indeed being slowly consumed by the reaction.3W/lph converts to 93. sitting at home. So at room temperature the tubular 6 series cell performance of 2. User wants to have good gas production already after the first 10 minutes of driving!! Another drawback of the 7 series cell is that it need much more (+-6 times more) electrolyte to pass the same current and as we know by know. It is important to note that using the Faraday figure when gas volume is measured at STP. rather the concentration of lye in the water (making the water more conductive) and the temperature of the water itself. For these parameters you might have 20A current flow resulting in 2liters per minute gas production. you might find that you amps suddenly drop to 15A and thus only 1.

same test on a 7 series tubular cell of similar size and after adding 7/8 of a cup of lye (that is 42 teaspoons!) the amp flow was only 4A at startup. More frustrating is the slow warm up period of the 7 series cell and after an hour the amp flow was only 5A and even after 2 hours, the amp flow was still only 6A! We need a decent amount of amps to generate a decent amount of gas, and after 2 hours the 6 series cell was generating 1.6 lpm compared to the 0.72lpm of the 7 series cell. So you can understand why Wouter say the 7 series cell is impractical for a car, apart from the fact that a concentration of almost a cup of lye on 1 liter of water is certainly not very user friendly. The WouterFuelForAll booster is anyway so easy to take apart, that if you feel very strong about using 7 tubes (or maybe just want to experiment yourself), you could easily open up the booster and add an 8th tube to form 7 cells. Depending on the model, you might have to drill an additional circular groove. Then simply buy a tube with diameter 1.25" and of the same length than the inner tubes, and insert this tube in between the 1" and 1.5" tube! No other changes needed. Note - The number of active cells depends on power supply voltage. For a battery and a brute force operation, an 8 tube 7 cell works well with 13.2-13.6 volt battery supply, but more electrolyte is required thus more heat. Series connections for higher LPM It is suggested to use a 6 or 7 cell version. If you build our tubular design using 8 tubes, 1", 1.5", 2", 2.5",3",3.5",4",5" then you have a nice LARGE 7 series cell booster which should produce 3lpm @ 30A. Alternatively you can use 7 tubes 1.5", 2", 2.5",3",3.5",4",5" and then you have a LARGE 6 series cell which should produce at least 2.2lpm @ 30A and will use less NaOH than the 7 series cell. Two tubular boosters should give you a good kind of gas production and you only have to unscrew two caps and refill two when refilling with water. The length of the tubes will be determined by the maximum amount of amps that you want to run your cell at. Obviously the inner tube will have the least area and thus you will be basing your calculations on the inner tube's area, e.g. if you plan to run your call at max 25 A and we only want max 0.15A/cm2 that imply we need a minimum electrode plate area of 167 cm2 for each tube. The area of the inner tube is calculated as pi*Diameter*height. So required Height = 167/(3.14x2.5) = 21.3 cm This will be the length of all the inner tubes and obviously the outer tube will be slightly longer. The fluid level can be any level as long as the water does not overflow from one cell to another to allow current leakage. You decide the lye concentration yourself upfront. Start with smaller amounts and if after an hour of operation the booster is still not at the desired amps, then add a little bit

of NaOH. In Wouters own testing the 7 series cell needed 6-7 times more NaOH than the 6 series cell, to allow the same amount of current to flow. So for example: If you add two tablespoons of NaOH to 1 liter of water on a 6 series cell, depending on the size of the tubes, the booster might eventually stabilize at 10A after warmup. However, you have to use 12 tablespoons of NaOH just to get the same amount of current flowing when using the 7 series cell of the same size, indeed a very caustic solution and definately not user friendly. Alternatively, to get the same gas production with a 7 cell unit, one would have to increase the electrode surface area a lot and therefore have to build a much larger unit. As we all know, space is a premium in an engine compartment not to mention the price of stainless steel. Recommendations for New Cells Here are some tips and recommendations for the new cells, based on some of our bench tests. Before we get started, make VERY sure you do not have gas leaks!!!!! Hold the whole booster and gas hose connections under water (while operating) to make sure. You need to also make sure you measure the voltage at a constant 13.8V. Starting off with a new cell, start with a 1 liter of distilled water containing 4-5 teaspoons of sodium or potassium hydroxide, make sure they are not heaped too much. Make sure the electrolyte does not overflow the edges of the inner tubes. The idea is to get a cold booster starting off at 10 amps and stabilizing at 20A. If you’re new booster does not do this with the recommended concentration of electrolyte, pour it into a suitable container and save it, mix up less so the current can stabilize. It is always better to start off with less then more electrolyte concentration, you can always add more easily out of your pre mixed 1 liter container of water. If you went over 20 amps initially, say 25 don't worry Let it run a few hours and then let it stand overnight filled with electrolyte. The next day do the same test and after about 3-4 hours you should already see some increase in gas production. Understand that since it is a new cell, the plates won’t be fully conditioned. Before they can perform to capacity after a couple of runs they need to be prepared or conditioned properly. if done right, then you should see an increase in gas production after a few runs which may continue the conditioning process. It has been reported that they build up some catalytic layer, but this is a topic for another document. Anyway, Wouter built a few tubular boosters and ran them for a few hours initially, no more than 8 hours. These were boosters that he tested at up to 30A and after 8 hours they would still only give the baseline 2.2-2.3 lpm @ 30A ( which is same as 1.8-1.9lpm @ 25A). Wouter then put these boosters away in one of his store rooms. He left them filled

with a solution of electrolyte. One month later he retrieved these boosters and without changing anything, literally tested them as is, all of them then produced the desired 1lpm @ 10A!!! So after he did some tests with this cell configuration he found that the conditioning / preparation of the stainless steel also have to do with TIME and not only number of hours it was operated. So at the start of your new cell your production should be in line with a brand new cell: 13.8V @ 25A continuous, 1.9-2.5 lpm the production is expected to be at the bottom end of the range. It is recommended that the cell is run at least 30 hours before there is an expected increased in production. Whether it is some kind of aging / chemical change that gradually takes place within the stainless steel electrodes, regardless one should simply be patient as sometimes it is the TIME that does the trick. Still for 1.9LPM,, depending on your engine , most are still going to get a good boost right away. Note please also refer to section 17 in the FAQ below for new cells. Note that one should not be fixated on getting exactly 2lpm @20A in the standard model design. If you get anything above 1.8lpm @ 20A, one should be happy and just start using it!! Also, when testing on the test vehicle, I suggest that one does two different tests: 1) Amps only varies between 5-12A max 2) Amps only varies between 10-20A max We might find that one of the setups produce much better savings and it is not necessary going to be with the most hydroxy gas. Car installation Wouter recommends connecting the hose coming from the water trap to the air intake before the air breather, so that the gases introduced into the intake are first filtered by the air filter.We are not interested in a vacuum because the manifold has greatest vacuum at the wrong time, and no vacuum at the worse time.Also, we want the hydroxy gas filtered of any mist, which may carry traces of electrolyte. As an additional benefit, the air filter serves as a first line of defense protecting against a back flash coming from the engine.

On the Relay Wiring, the trigger input says "Ignition On" Make sure it is tapped into a component that only cuts on with the "Ignition On and Not Accessory" like the Fuel Pump fuse.

Water Fuel for All FAQ
1. How can the WaterfuelForAll booster improve my mileage? Will I still get the same power I have come to expect from my vehicle? Adding a hydrogen-oxygen mix (also called hydroxy) to the fuel system of an internal combustion engine, increases the combustion of the gasoline (or diesel). This can be compared to putting a super high grade of gasoline in your engine. You get better overall performance, increased horsepower and gas mileage. The booster uses electrical power from the engine that is ultimately created by the fossil fuel, but the gain in efficiency of the engine exceeds the energy loss from generating the hydroxy mix. The increase in horsepower and gas mileage comes from better combustion of the gasoline. Usually, only about 15% of the available energy in gasoline is converted to mechanical energy in an internal combustion engine. The addition of hydroxy results in better combustion which means more of the available energy in the gasoline is converted to mechanical energy and that has nothing to do with creating energy or violating any laws of thermodynamics.

2. Is the WaterfuelForAll booster a "true series cell"? The 6 series cell tubular design is a "true series cell", since the cells are completely seperated/isolated from each other so that water cannot flow from one cell to an adjacent cell. In this regard readers might be interested to know who really is the father of the- “true series cell". The credit must go to William Rhodes, see US Patent no. 3,310,483, (1967) who built the first series cell electrolyzer. 3. Which booster is the best? There is no such thing as a booster that will always be the best under all circumstances. However, the two most important factors when comparing boosters are their efficiency, in other words, how much gas generated for a certain amount of power consumed, and also whether they overheat or not. Some boosters, claim impressive amounts of liters per minute gas production, but they do not tell us at how many amps were used and at what water temperature the measurement was taken. Knowing how many amps is needed is important because it tells us both how efficient the cell is as well as whether the design is likely to have overheating problems.

The less efficient a cell is, the more there is current leakage and as a result the more generation of waste heat. (So for instance generating 3 lpm @ 35A is less energy efficient than generating 2 lpm @ 20A, and one should not just look at the lpm!). Knowing at what water temperature the reading was taken will tell us if the gas was a high quality gas or maybe contained a lot of water vapour. As a rule of thumb, a series cell design is the most efficient design for straight forward brute force electrolysis. An open bath design will never be able to be as efficient as a series cell design such as the 6 series cell WouterfuelForAll design. (In a true series cell design, the individual cells are isolated from each other and water cannot move freely to adjacent cells, whereas with an open bath design, the cells are open and water can move freely in between the electrodes and from one cell to another.) The biggest problem with an open bath design is that because of excessive current leakage, it usually overheats rapidly and typically gets to 90+ degrees Celsius within +-2 hours. If an open bath design booster is not constructed from material that can handle those temperatures, you have a problem (e.g. PVC plastic which is only good for 60 degrees C)

be very careful when comparing the "claimed" gas production from various boosters.5liters per minute at 25A for the Delux model. Make sure that you know at what operating temperature the claimed amount of gas was measured and make sure the claim can be verified! Another important measure of the quality of the booster. 1. In this regard one must note that if a design needs some kind of external water cooling device or mechanism. and hotter water simply means more energy is wasted which could have been used to generate more hydroxy. 1. radiators. What models are available and what is their pricing? We manufacture two models: WaterfuelForall Standard max 25A. So a simple but very effective way to have a honest comparison between two boosters. The booster that has the highest water temperature after two hours will always be the least efficient while the booster with the lowest water temperature will always be the more efficient design! It is actually the energy that is wasted that heats up the water. Some boosters are constructed from cheaper stainless steel and not the more corrosive resistant 316 as is the case with the WaterfuelforAll booster. So the biggest advantage of the 6 series cell WaterfuelforAll booster is its efficiency. siphons etc.9-2. cooling fans.Excessive heat also means energy is lost unnecessary with resulting lower efficiency. which is up to 2 liters per minute at 20A (13. thus it is a lower quality of gas. is to put them next to each other and let them run at the same amps. Even more important is the fact that it can run 8+ hours continuously without overheating. 4.5 lpm @ 25A . Also the WaterfuelfoAll booster only uses plastics (e. polyprop) which are capable of handling higher temperatures as PVC. 20A continuous. If you measure the gas production of an open bath cell while it is running at >85 degrees Celsius. this might actually disguise the inherent inefficiency of the design.g. but at those temperatures the gas contains a lot of water vapour.0 lpm @ 20A . and up to 2.USD 395 . measured with a water temperature not exceeding 75 degrees Celsius. To make an accurate efficiency comparison there should be no external water cooling device or mechanism present (e.).USD 295 WaterfuelForall Super Deluxe max 35A. 1.8V) for the Standard model. it might look as if you are getting impressive gas production. So. 25A continuous.5-2.9-2. is to look at the stainless steel being used. heatsinks.5 lpm @ 25A .g.USD 195 WaterfuelForall Deluxe max 30A. nylon. 25A continuous.

China.7-10 days +. 8. amp meter and in-line fuse is available at an additional USD 50. Australia Europe Air mail USD 100 80 70 Surface mail USD 35 25 25 6.This price includes the electrolyzer with a 1 liter HDPE water trap/bubbler and the necessary hoses. Which unit do you recommended for my car? If your car's engine size is larger than 2500cc. 5. A "heavy duty" bubbler is available at an additional cost of USD30. with all the related problems. Canada. 7.5 hour to install.35 days . but the procedure is pretty straight forward and should not take longer than 1. 9. 10. and the reason is simple: we buy our materials in bulk and have designed a manufacturing process that is very cost efficient. AWG 8 cables with soldered connectors. How do you manage such competitive prices? We had several e-mails from individuals telling us that they cannot beat our price if they want to build it them self. We Delivery Time +. if so much. instead of trying to build a unit them self. so that the gases introduced into the intake are first filtered by the air filter. Our goal is to provide the public with a reliable booster but at an affordable price so that it make more sense for someone to rather buy a professionally built unit from us. Where must the booster be placed? Anywhere in the engine compartment but preferably in a place where it will have a constant airflow (just like the radiator) so that it can benefit from the cooling effect of airflow. Which shipping options are available? Two shipping options are available: Americas Asia. How difficult is it to install? Detailed installation instructions goes with every unit sold. How is the hydroxy injected into the engine? The hose coming from the water trap is connected to the air intake before the air breather. All units are fully assembled and individually bench tested for a period of at least 2 hours. a 30A relay. we recommend the Deluxe model otherwise the Standard model should be fine.

11. Also. then your booster is not offsetting the amps you are pulling. but do NOT feed the hydroxy gas into the intake. If the rpm went down. Listen to the engine pitch. put the gas hose back into the air intake and turn on the booster again. in other words.com/ In cooperation with Panacea. we want the hydroxy gas filtered of any mist. How much Hydroxy is needed for optimum mileage improvement? . Where do you buy your tubes? We are situated in South Africa. a reputable alternative energy research organization in Australia we will within the next few weeks be conducting in depth tests in this regard. Panacea will be testing various models of EFIE's as well to assist us in finding the best solution. 12. If you notice a change in engine pitch. As an additional benefit.fuelsaver-mpg. Next. turn off the booster. it is pulling too much amps and no/little mileage improvement is to be expected. If your booster is pulling too much amps. Next turn on the booster. before you will notice optimal mileage improvement. Examples of EFIE circuits available on the internet is: http://www. 13a. then that is a sign that you are pulling too much amps. Listen to the engine or watch the rpm's. What is the maximum amount of amps that my engine can handle for optimum mileage? Every engine has a sweet spot where the net energy gain because of the addition of hydroxy is the biggest.madcosm. the air filter serves as a first line of defense protecting against a back flash coming from the engine.com/ http://www. 13B.are not interested in a vacuum because the manifold has greatest vacuum at the wrong time and no vacuum at the worse time. your engine may need more petrol just to supplement the drag from the alternator (just like an air conditioner causes higher fuel consumption). using the WaterfuelForAll booster. the following procedure is suggested: Remove the hydroxy gas outlet from the intake and start your engine without the booster. To answer this question. All tubes are grade 316 ISO certified. and are buying our tubes locally. Do I need an EFIE? If the vehicle has fuel injection. it is likely that you will have to use an EFIE together with your booster. which may carry traces of electrolyte.

You can also use KOH but it is usually more expensive than lye and not so easily obtainable. What kind of water should I use? Distilled is recommended because tap water may cause sludge to build up and short the electrodes. at least once every 3 months. and to stabilize at between 15-18A you need to add +-30ml (6-8 teaspoons) of lye to 1 liter of water initially. chemical symbol NaOH). If the water/electrolyte overflows. 15. the current draw increases very fast with every additional teaspoon of lye added. and then you may add up to 50% more lye. Thus. there will be much more current leakage initially. How do I refill with water and how much? The booster has a removable cap for easy refill. 16. If your water contains too much impurity. it may contaminate the electrodes which may lead to reduced gas production. How do I control the current draw (amps)? Amps are controlled by how strong the electrolyte solution is. Hopefully these tests with advanced computer equipment will be able to answer all our questions in this regard. which should be rather quickly. If you are driving less than 2 hours at a time. using the WaterfuelForAll booster. If you by accident fill up a little bit too much. you do so at your own risk and in such case we advise that you should regularly open up and clean out the electrolyzer. it will simply be caught by the bubbler/water trap.I do not have the answer yet. for usage less than 2 hours. So rather start with too . but Panacea. What electrolyte should I use? We recommend lye (also known as caustic soda. and the current draw should not go above 30A within 2 hours. Yes. then its not such a big problem. a reputable alternative energy research organization in Australia will within the next few weeks be conducting in depth tests in this regard. but this will only last until that first bit of excess water has been used up. 14. Should you decide to use tap water. you can start with 9-12 teaspoons of lye to 1 liter of water. Do NOT use baking soda since it might damage the electrodes (tubes) which may lead to reduced gas production. Note that once you have reached the minimum required lye concentration (+-6 teaspoons). Just add the water until it wants to overflow the edges of the inner tubes. 17A. then you do not have to be too much concerned about the amps.

do a final rinse with clean distilled water. Optionally. 17B. than too much. you can use new solution each time you cleanse. now fill the cell stack with dilute solution. On the other hand. As the cell stack runs. You can always add another teaspoon of lye if you see that your booster does not get close to 25A within 2-3 hours. adding distilled water to just replace what is consumed. When cleansing is finished (typically 3 days of cleansing). KOH at 28% will not freeze even in Norway. Monitor current draw. How do I / Should I condition my booster before using it? Some successful commercial boosters do not recommend any specific conditioning procedure. continue with this conditioning phase straight for 2 to 3 days. NaOH (like KOH) at "moderate" (20%) concentration makes a reasonable anti-freeze. Rinse the cells well with distilled water. Filter the dilute solution through paper towels or coffee filters to remove particulate. Pour the dilute solution back in and repeat this cleansing process. 18. Run this cell stack at full power for several hours at a time. Be sure to do this in a well vented area. Bob Boyce strictly prescribes the following procedure for electrode cleansing and conditioning: Plate Cleansing -"During this stage."Using the same concentration of solution as in cleansing." My recommendation would be to try and stick as close as possible to the procedure prescribed by Bob. which can be 4 amps or more. the cell stack needs more cleansing stages. we are operating in submerged plate condition. the boiling action will loosen particulate from the pores and surfaces of the metal. but be forwarned."(Not that Bob's system use a 101 plate cell. thus full power is only 4 amps.little lye. where the liquid level is maintained just over the plates. but if you have added too much lye initially. full power would imply 20-25A) Plate Conditioning . Alternatively you can put a heating/cooling coil around the unit (engine coolant driven)or wrap the booster with fiberglass foil backed insulation. If current draw is fairly stable. For the WaterfuelForAll booster. Shut down and pour this solution into a container. After 2 to 3 days of run time. The bubblers can contain some antifreeze. for best results. How do I prevent freezing in sub zero temperatures? Electrolyte concentration needs to be high to prevent freezing. It will freeze at about -10 F. If the solution turns color or skims over with crud. You may have to rinse and repeat many times until the cells stop putting out particulate matter into the solution. Best would be to connect your booster to a . you can go through a lot of solution just in this cleansing stage. pour out the diluted solution and rinse well with distilled water. you may end up with the current draw increasing too quickly and after an hour you may be forced to switch off your booster.

However. but note that you will not have any improvement in efficiency.5lpm hydroxy and you now add a PWM and adjust the PWM so that it limits the current to 15A. During assembly we only handle the tubes with rubber gloves. for example. (I'm using a PSU rated max 32A) But at the same time I have to confess that I have experienced little difference between different conditioning methods tested by myself. However. Interrupt the procedure every time when the cell gets to +.I think the most important point is to stick to using distilled water and just know that your booster will not start out at maximum gas production. and while we are using a good quality grade 316 stainless steel. This is because every seal between a sandwiched plate is a potential leaking spot at a later stage when the cell gets older (hydroxy has got the tendency to leak at places where nothing else will leak!) 20.regulated power supply during the break in period. if you are frequently going to drive for more than 3 hours . While the WaterfuelForAll booster does not overheat (as long as you do not add too much lye!). If you do not have a PSU. Which are most efficient. I suspect that the exact method used for conditioning does not matter so much. you can add a Pulse Width Modulator (PWM) to your booster.5lpm A PWM is a necessity for boosters that quickly overheats. so you do not have to be worried about contamination for a start. the biggest advantage of the tubular design compared to the sandwiched series design is the fact that the tubular design is less prone to leaking of hydroxy than the sandwiched series cell. The gas production will merely increase/decrease as amp flow increase/decrease. as long as the plates are never touched by bare hands or any other chemicals than NaOH or KOH. Adding a PWM will allow you to manually control the amp flow as you like. a PWM is only is "nice to have" especially if you are only going to drive up to 3 hours at a time. just borrow your friends'! (I'm sure one of your friends will have one!) 19. For simple brute force electrolysis for purposes of boosting I will simplify Bob's procedure to: Connect your booster to a PSU and run at +-20 amps for +-24 hours before fitting to your vehicle. tubes or plates? A similar sized 7 plate series cell and 7 tube series cell should have similar efficiencies if built to the same precision. you will only get 1. if your unit is drawing 25A and producing 2. While we are not trying to achieve resonance (we are merely performing brute force electrolysis). but gas production will gradually increase during the first +30 hours of operation. Can I add a PWM to my booster and what would be the benefit? Yes.half full of water and replace with new water & electrolyte.

com/user/pvar06 .8VDC he only achieved very little energy gain. I don’t think it should cost more than 70-80 USD. and the cost is still high as far as the toroidal power system components is concerned. Bob said that at 13.1 : 1 to 1.youtube.This booster is easy to construct and very economical.This is a COMPLETE how to doc.continuously. Since the beginning Praveen had been struggling for the best design which is compact. was a creation from work done by all the open source hydroxy engineers. The following design although has been submitted by Praveen. In Hindu mythology the meaning of KARMA means the “WORK WE DO”. typically in the 1. Praveen has found that the following “karma” booster has all these design parameters. Hence Praveen rightfully decided to keep the name as KARMA BOOSTER. as the environmental energy gain is very low compared to the drive energy. Praveen’s karma booster Open source engineer Inventor: Praveen Email Web site Back ground information Quote.2 : 1 range.MB102 Auto Re Fill system http://au. That's why Bob's cell is typically running at 170VDC or higher. 21. New. So let us save the oil and clean the world. He specifically do not recommend low voltage systems. then adding a PWM will make your unit more users friendly since you would not have to worry about the lye concentration and can manually control the current flow. 12 Volt Ultra compact system . Can we achieve resonance with a 6 series cell? You need higher voltages to achieve the high resonance efficiencies that Bob Boyce is achieving. –Praveen A how to PDF has been given by Praveen and is included at the end of these instructions. suitable for longer operation and cost effective etc.How to by Praveen.

Gen IV – The BB (Bob Boyce ) Smack The B. That design never got published.no matter how small they may look. . Note – if you find this information useful please consider helping Eletrik advance with his research.Eletrik’s “Smacks Boosters” Dustin (Smack) is the inventor of the open source Smacks booster. The holes drilled in the plates take a pretty hard hit in efficiency . Smack Gen IV Dry Cell Above is the latest BB Smack cell design. he meant it to be completely isolated. Smack has since upgraded his design to Smack Gen II (for longer trips) Smack Gen III and finally BB smack Gen IV. It's tempting to make refill easier by just drilling that hole. He has already proven his worth by disclosing this information FREE and intends to improve his designs and keep them all in the public domain. When Bob designed this kind of cell. The original design is intended to operate only under 2 hours of driving time. aggressive (dedicated) and passionate as our own Dustin. There are very few open source engineers out there as charismatic. or contact Panacea for a tax deductable donation and please specify it is for Eletrik’s research. To help Eletrik’s EV-H2 hybrid R and D please consult his web page.B. If you run the original Smack Gen I design any longer than two hours will cause heating problems. but Bob has a refill design that keeps all the cells sealed. He is known on the yahoo energy group forums as “Eletrik”. but there is a way to overcome this challenge and make this cell construction easy to fill while maintaining efficiency.

The Smacks booster is designed to give the most gas for the least amount of materials needed FOR LESS THAN 2 HOURS OF DRIVING ONLY. People are already selling Smack’s booster plans on EBAY.7 liters’ of hydroxy gas per minute at 20 amps. Smack Gen III Smack Gen III. This has been done to prevent bottom feeders and cheap knock-offs of his design emerging plus cashing in on his hard work.LOOK AT THAT GAS (Go Smack) Youtube. Smack’s official site is listed below.Overal dimensions: 7"x7"x3" Plates: 22G 6"x6" 316L SS Gasket material: soft clear PVC sheeting All SS hardware. This does not mean that he does not intend to keep ALL his findings free and open source. The Smacks booster is designed to give out from 1 to 1. This is an insult to Dustin who has put his hard work and time into keeping it free and disclosing it for everyone to enjoy FREE. Easy multiple mounting options Please check for updates on these issues from the Smack’s site. You will need to run your unit for a while in order to condition it to get the max gas output. This . Eletrik is in the process of patenting and trade marking the “Smacks booster”.Smack Gen III Back round Smack Gen I and II The following is an overview and description of the Smack gen design. It is a compact design which is kept as cheap and effective as possible.

can also be paired together with another smacks for extra savings. These stainless steel switch-cover plates’s measure: 2.5 inch (70 mm x 115 mm) in size. The PVC pipe has been converted to a container to house the booster from using PVC glue to attach an end-cap on the bottom. You will need 16 of them as there are 2 pairs of 8 used. Note you can use 302 and 304 stainless steel. The container then has the gas-supply pipe fitting attached to the cap. The housing container size is comprised of 4-inch (100 mm) diameter PVC pipe. as shown below.75 inch x 4. as this will allow both of the connections to act as a pressure relief and muffle any flash back or “back fire”. The elbows connector joints on the bubbler measure half-inch in diameter which connects to the ends of the one-inch diameter bubbler tube. This is done as an added safety feature. This is suitable for most sized cars to eliminate their emissions and give the at least 20% better fuel economy for an average sized engine. In the USA they can be sourced from the local hardware store. these designs will be covered below. These have their threads pre coated with silicone before inserted into place. which is drilled with two holes to allow the connecting straps for the plate array to be bolted to the cap. Some people may confuse the need for 316L or 316 for the Smacks. This design has a clear bubbler and a water level monitor attached to its side. plus a screw-cap fitting on the top. Spending extra on 316SS is not necessary for the Smacks booster’s operation. The stainless steal electrodes used are made from standard electrical stainless steel wall switch covers. This is only necessary for booster or hydroxy designs intended on achieving resonance and .

The idea is to create miniature sharpcrested bumps covering the entire surface of each of the plates. It is predicted that even after a year of continuous use. It is estimated that this also increases the effective surface area of the plate by about 40%. This is done so we can insert plastic bolts which will be used to hold the plates together and make an array. The electrodes are attached to stainless steel connectors or steel straps. You must use rubber gloves when handling the plates. Then their existing mounting holes are drilled out to 5/16 inch (8 mm) diameter. Never use your fingertips as it will reduce the working area on the plates. By creating this type of surface it will help the hydroxy bubbles to break away from the surface as soon as they are formed.such as the work of Stan Meyers.taking advantage of the chromium content of the SS with your isolated series cell . the plates should look something like the above. Before the electrodes are used. or Bob Boyce. that these plates will remain shiny and will not be corroded in any way. These are handles cut from food cutlery or cooking utensils. Sanded Stainless steel wall switch After conditioning. they must be “conditioned” for the best gas production. . Dave Lawton. Pre preparation of the plates involves the surfaces being scored in an Xpattern by using 36-grade coarse sandpaper.

the tape must be wrapped tightly around the straps and stretched slightly as it is wrapped. Another option can be McMaster Carr tool dip. .Above you can see how the stainless steel straps coming from the screw cap (right) are connected to the stainless steal electrodes (left). You can also wrap the straps in electrical insulating tape however.6 mm gap between each of the eight pairs. Eletrik has insulated these to prevent any current from leaking directly between them through the electrolyte. The preferred insulation is made from shrink-wrap. The plates will be held in position by two plastic bolts which run through the original mounting holes. These plates will have a small 1. These gaps will be produced from putting plastic washers on the plastic bolts between each pair of plates.

6 mm gap spacing used. the section running underneath the plates is insulated before they are assembled. The electrical straps are then bolted to the screw cap at the top of booster: .This cells efficiency relies on the 1. robust and easy to construct. these will form the electrical connection between the adjacent plates. Note that when mounting the plate array. This spacing is an optimum in the electrolysis process. Stainless steel nuts are used between each pair of plates. This design of the plate array has been specifically chosen in order to be cheap.

This both positions the plate array securely and provides an electrical connection in the bolts on the outside of the cap while maintaining an airtight seal for the holes in the cap. The finished product should be close or like this: . More Information and insights into this boosters operation will be covered in the Smacks faculty sections below. Note some may perceive that by the way that the battery is connected that it should leave most of the plates unconnected. Specifically these plate pairs are called “floaters” and do produce gas in spite of looking as if they are not electrically connected at all.

RInse them with distilled water. You have to be real careful here because as the solution heats it will draw more amperage. stick to the installation guides and advice previously mentioned in description. take the center electrode piece out and top the booster up with distilled water to about 2" from the top. leave loose for now. then add an appropriate amount of "DISTILLED" Water. As mentioned in the beginning you must use. Next connect up a 12V power supply to the leads and monitor the current draw of the unit. Pour the used electrolyte solution into another container through some coffee filters to filter out debris. Make sure you wear gloves! Please check Smacks PDF on his site for more detail. You can also preheat the water for a few minutes and that way as you drop the KOH in it will be pretty close to full operating temp. Then start adding in a teaspoon of KOH or NaOH to the water. You don’t want a "RUN AWAY" amperage situation to occur. Generally you get your electrolyzer finished. the electrolyte which must be used has to be KOH or NaOH Conditioning Short version summary: You run the cell in the electrolyte solution at about 10 amps for 2 hours. Then slowly add small amounts of KOH to the water until you get about 10-15 amps depending on what the total amperage you want to run at. this is why you want to add small amounts of KOH at a time so you don’t over shoot your target final amperage of 20amps.Before adding wires and powering up your booster. Since the booster is cold. this should increase the current draw by about 4 amps to make . Then put the electrode piece inside but do not tighten the lid on. you are aiming to get 16 amps flowing. The water will heat up over time. add power to your cell. Your plates should have a bronze color to them. Repeat this process for about 20 hours of run time total. To Begin.

If you find that then the current is too low. IV and the 6 pack Smack. . If you cannot construct a Smacks booster yourself you can purchase one directly from Eletrik by gong to his web site below. Smack also has also achieved advanced designs including the Smack gen II. This cell is a 5 stack 2 series stack in parallel just like the old smacks except with one extra ell per side to reduce the cell voltage from 3 volts to 2 and a half volts which will also reduce heating for the same gas output. empty out some of the electrolyte (but save it in a suitable container ) and re fill with only distilled water. III. Eletrik intends on keeping these designs open source please consider helping him with his research if you have found this information useful. every tiny bit counts! Smack Gen II Taken from the video showing the shrink wrap The Smack GeII has extra insulated shrink wrap.20 amps total. If you find that the current draw is too high. re add a small amount at a time of your electrolyte until the target of 16 amps is reached. This is the reasoning why you are aiming to only draw 16 amps when the cell is cold.

Each plate pair separated by a . they are just plastic. Same with the straps.8mm gap which is similar to the bike unit. each separated by a 7/32 SS nut. They cannot be re-used easily due to stretching/stripping. This results in lower current and temperature delta's over a 4 hour test period. Also. No more spoons though you replicators can still use them.8mm nylon washer.10 cells. Check the following Smacks videos where he shows how to add 2 more cells to the original design. In short . The kits Smack is putting together have precut and drilled straps as well. Any 16 plate smack can be modified this way. Mods to the Smack Analyzing The GenII Double Smack Testimony form a Smack’s booster user details that he achieved a 49% increase in millage by using two units which drew 20/30amps each. Please note if you intending to modify an existing Smack design. Smack is still running more tests to confirm this solidly. Output of the GenII is basically the same as the GenI. Plates are cross sanded with 36 grit. These plates are not pinged as testing shows there is not enough difference in output to justify the extra work. but for now it looks like the pinging of these larger 304 SS plates is not needed. . Smack states that the design is still much the same as the GenI except that the plates are larger (3"x5") and precut/drilled. Generally.Smack GenII There is a link on E’s site that gives the part numbers and quantities of the parts used in the design. you should not white knuckle the connections. This may also be due to the smaller . as you will strip the threads. if I have to break down a unit I use new rods. The nylon rods are pretty much a onetime build. More cells means less volts per cell which equates to less heating over time and more current control. Higher starting current draw means more time making gas and less time ramping up. Remember.

4” shrink wrap 2 .1/4” NPT 90 deg.4” 5/16” nylon rods 2 .SS utensils for straps 7 .302 SS wallplates 3 .4” PVC female adapter 1 .5” 5/16” SS cap bolts 2 .18” 5/8 shrink wrap 1 .4” PVC plug 1 .nylon 6/6 1.6 Pack Smack The Six Pack Caddie Smack Smack Gen IV is the final and recommended design BB Smack Videos Smacks Gen I parts list – to order these direct please consult the Smacks web site.6MM washers 16 . 16 .7/32” SS jam nuts. Smack offers kits which include: 26 .5/16” rubber backed SS sealing washers 1 . swivel .1.5/16” SS washers 1 .

90 deg 1/4” elbows 1 .com/index.rutland.1/4” rubber cap 1 .4” PVC end cap 1 .Nylon Threaded Rod 5/16-18 90295A160 – Nylon Flat Washer 94709A318 – Neoprene Bonded Sealing Washer 91841A030 – 18-8 Stainless Steel Machine Screw Nut 47245K27 – Diaghram Check Valve 5233K578 – PVC Tubing 1/4” 5233K88 .8” x 1” O.D.8”x 4.com/ 98831A030 .mcmaster.php .1/2” NPT bubbler end caps 2 .1/8” NPT nylon fill port fitting 1 .1 . x 3/16” CAST acrylic container tube 1 .5” O.PVC Tubing 3/4” 8486K577 – Clear Cast Acrylic Tubing (optional) 4” x 1' 2974K156 – 90 NPT Male for 1/4” x 1/2” 5923K73 – Acetal Quick-Disconnect w/valve (optional) 1/4” Barbed 5923K43 – Acetal Quick-Disconnect w/valve (optional) 1/4” Barbed OPTIONAL FOR CAP MELTING PROBLEM http://www.1/4” check valve Smack Parts List (Modified) Parts: MCMASTER http://www. extruded acrylic bubbler tube 2 .D.

50” Stainless Steel Bolts (2 each) stainless steel washers (4each) (More washers may be needed with cap melting problem) 16 Stainless Steel Gangs (light switch plates without the hole for the switch)(Also available at Hom Depot or Lowe's) 2 each Stainless Steel Straps 3/4” x 12” 60 Grit Sandpaper .com/ PC-Fahrenheit (under products) RADIO SHACK 1 Voltmeter to check volts and amps (optional if you don’t have one) LOCAL HARDWARE STORE (minimum) 4” Schedule 40 PVC Pipe (12 inches) 1 4” End Cap 1 4” Plug (screw in cap) 1 4” Sleeve (to screw in the cap) PVC Cleaner and Glue (comes in clear and purple) GE Silicon II (clear) Teflon Tape 1 Gasoline (on/off valve to act as vacuum valve when Smack cools down.Rutland High Heat Silicon Sealant (under products/maintenance) http://www. You will have to open an close this each time manually.25 to 1.) (alternatively add another check valve this placed between the bubb and the booster) 1 T-Barbed Fitting to fit 1/4” PVC Tubing and connect into the on/off valve 5/16”-18-8 – 1.pcepoxy.

com/ . Fittings for tubes and bubbler TSC Tracter Supply Store 4.Fastenal (best price and quality buy 200 at a time.PVC Any good hardware or plumbing supply ie: Home Hardware. Nylon Rods. 5.tscstores. Dr Pepper bottle Smack parts in Canada 1. Canadian Tire and Home Depot Lowes are a cheaper thinner version and found that they touch when used. Stainless Nuts and Nylon Washers . Check valves . but supply Fastenal with some of the parts. McMaster-Carr will not ship to individuals in Canada anymore. So I use plastic coat hangers. Coke. Switch Plates.Rooto (Ace Hardware 100% Lye NaOH) AUTO PARTS 30amp In line Fuse Holder 30amp Fuse 40amp Relay Switch and Relay Harness 30amp In-line Circuit Breaker (optional safety feature) In-Line Circuit Breaker Holder 4 prong Emergency Flasher (Poorman's PWM – Optional-Testing this out) 1 on/off switch (wire into hot wire of auto radio) 10 and 14 gauge Wire for wiring (variable lengths as per vehicle) EGT Gauge (Exhaust Temperature Guage – Optional for short term) Ammeter Gauge AFR Gauge (optional) INSULATION FOR SMACK STACK 1 (for each stack) 2 ltr Pepsi. 3. Home Depot 2.web site http://www. Fastenal carries 3/8 in stock but you would require changing nuts etc to fit. Sprite.

when operating at a current draw of at least 20 amps. beware of any web site electrolyzer manufacturer that cannot (or do not want to) tell you exactly what the operating temperature will be after 3-4 hours.e. Also. yet they will be building the electrolyzer using materials like PVC that can only withstand . mainly because they are easier to construct than the series cell designs. DO NOT TRUST THESE BOOSTERS! Obviously cost is also a consideration. Smacks own web site with design instructions and installations guide Panacea’s registered technology page on the Smack Smack’s explanation of the EFIE Series Plate Cell Designs To single out the two most important points when choosing an electrolyzer design it would be: 1) Its efficiency. i. This is however being worked on. what material is being used and does the design have any overheating problems. Therefore a properly built series cell or a tubular (design is covered below) is the best long term solution. With an open bath design. the ratio of liters per minute hydroxy versus the amount of power (amps) consumed 2) The reliability of the design. the water can freely flow in between adjacent cells/electrodes and as a result there is a lot of current leakage around the edges of the electrodes.US Plastics Smack Links Please always check the Smacks site for the updated version of his booster. Currently we cannot find an open bath design that will not heat up to more than 60 degrees Celsius after two hours of operating (while drawing 15 amps or more).e. The main difference between a series cell and open bath design is that in a series cell electrolyzer the cells are properly sealed off from each other so that water cannot freely flow from one cell to another. This current leakage results in reduced efficiency and also the water heating up rapidly and eventually causing overheating problems. Even though without doubt a series cell design is the most efficient. i. people want to save money now and then they will build an open bath electrolyzer that will heat up to 90 degrees Celsius within 2 hours. open bath electrolyzes are rather popular.

it would have been a much better investment for them to build their electrolyzer from materials that could last for years and not only a few months. The control electronics allow 6 cells to operate at very high efficiency for the desired amount of boost. You will find a dead battery quickly otherwise. Then all the cells are connected in series to divide the voltage applied to the cell. This means for a 10 inch by 10 inch cell you can apply enough electrolytes to draw 50 amps. and rely on control electronics to adjust current. but not act independently. it is predicted that around 38% of the power will go to heat up the electrolyte. meaning more gas for less amps and the wasted heat energy is halved. For this reason. While 7 cell boosters are more efficient and can deliver more hydroxy gas per watt. In straight brute force DC only electrolysis. Even though this is series. 6 cells total. For larger productions you can build 2 sets of cells then connect them in parallel or build a single larger surface area series cell. This is within the limits of the car system as long as the car is running. Another short cut that people want to take is to use inferior quality stainless steel. I = E/R The amount of measured resistance of the total circuit divided into the total amount of DC voltage applied to the circuit will give you the total current the circuit will draw.60 degrees Celsius. this makes the system have 6 separated cells total in series. This can only happen when you have created this cell in one container with a separate compartment for each set of cell. although there is allot more involved in the construction and the cost is higher. hydroxy is a highly explosive gas and you do not want to endanger your own life or the lives of your family. 12 volts * 50 amps are 600 watts. After all. Bob Boyce has been recommending 6 cells for large volume application boosters that require fast warm-up times. the amount of current it will draw is determined by Ohms law. The total amperage will be amps (50) X cells (6) = 300 amps of gas production. but if they really took the time and did their calculations. The most popular are a 6 or 7 isolated cell. this electrolyzer is not going to last very long. Keep in mind the power draw is volts X amps. isolated cell design. For DC voltage. In the case of a 7-cell. This is due to the fact that a 6 cell booster can pass more current at full NaOH concentration than a 7 cell booster when cold. This effectively means that the gas-producing efficiency is doubled. they do take longer to warm up to pass higher current in larger engine boosting applications.but it will be a cell in an open bath. As for the amperage you want to maintain about 1/2 amp per square inch of cell. Note . a cell which has 7 isolated cells which will not get hot and produce at a good rate with 10% KOH by weight. For now they are saving a few dollars. This divides the 12 volts by the 6 cells to get about 2 volts per cell. ie car voltage at 12 volts the ideal plate configuration is about 7 plates in series. from a cold start right . the 50 amps will safely pass through each cell.

Connect negative to the center plate and positive to both ends. so that a 7 cell unit can be turned into a 6-cell when the needs demand. but it will allow for higher hydroxy gas production than a single 7 cell unit. This would turn -nnnnnn+nnnnnnInto -nnnnn+N+nnnnnWith that last central "N" not really separating active cells. The 7 cell (and dual 7 cell) units are best for applications where hydroxy gas production efficiency is highest priority. since it has the same potential (battery or PWM +) on both sides Maximum Brute Force Production . and/or where operational time is long enough to allow the units to warm up. but my own "drive cycles" are short trips during the week (prefer a 6-cell) with long (2+ hours) on the weekends (a 7 cell ). Adding layers of complexity for (perhaps) small gain. Conflicting magnetic is not as much an issue with low voltage boosters as they are with higher voltage systems. plus a switch. Normally Bob does not recommend this configuration due to slightly conflicting magnetic effects.15 and 29 plate Center tap design Scruffy Cell(s) If you’re looking for maximum brute force production. Experimental theory You could try having an extra exterior connection to the first (or last) "neutral" plates. . it has been suggested by Bob Boyce that you use a double 7 cell booster with 15 plates. for example as would be needed in a truck application. One way to look at it can be short trip vs long haul. Running it at "6 cell" would also warm it up at which point it could be switched over to "7 cell" for more efficient operation earlier than pure 7-cell would provide.up through warm-up.

He filled one side with water to check for tightness. and use an adjustable current regulator to set the desired output level. After edging all 15 plates Jeff stacked them in the box (very snug fit). This may be ok for some installations. He bought a couple while there. They fit the edges of the 16 ga. You may even be able to connect some current regulator installations to a throttle position sensor which can vary the hydroxy gas output according to instant engine demand.00 for 2 6" pieces. He made the box out of Azek PVC material like you used on your EV car. It took about 5 min for water to just start seeping to other side thru the plates. I felt that was good enough for a brute force box. Then clamped and glued blocks of Azek to keep them tightly in place. He tried on the first design to cut grooves for the plates but had too much current leakage. The lid is also Azek 1" thick with a 1/2 barb for a gas outlet. but at a loss of current and hydroxy gas production per cell. Jeff was in the local AutoZone store buying parts one day and stumbled on to a clear vinyl auto door protector edging. the more voltage is required for the cell stack. as the more cells there are. The distance between plates ended up exactly 1/8" apart. Using +------_------+ setup. He then pressed them together on a row. 18' 1x8 was $80. 1" thick. 6x12" plates laying on their side 6"high. but for a big rig you would want to have good hydroxy gas production right away without having to wait for the cells to warm up. This means it will stay rock-solid at that current and hydroxy gas output level. Cell warm up takes longer. efficiency increases.12"long. stainless perfect and make a tight seal.Above is Jeff’s (scuffy44) replication of this design The absolute best and most efficient way to control current in most booster installations is to run the electrolyte at full concentration. This left about 1 1/2 on each side for extra water. $3. The end plate and center plate have a tab above the cells where I used 1/4 stainless all thread . As per cell voltage decreases. You would not want to try adding too many cells to a booster.

It fit perfect on the step box of the big rig. tank was a 3 gallon marine gas tank. Very easy to work with They have a special glue and screws for it. If still at 10 amps and he may add a little more lye to get it to 14 amps. One morning cold amp draw was 7. It’s actually a type of PVC plastic that comes in many sizes and thickness. The box is made from a material can Azek. There is a rubber gas that goes around the top between the box and the top to make the seal. The total box size is 14" long 9" high 8" deep (about the size of a car battery). He used use 1" angle metal to make a frame for top and bottom of the box. He used two stainless screws through the side of the box at the level that he wanted to maintain the water level. Can be purchased from lumber stores.rod to pass through the side of the box for electrical connections. The bubbler/res. welded two 5/16 tubes on front and back of frames than I ran 1/4 bolts thru to clamp the lid down on the gasket. When full of water it leaves a very small area at the top of the tank for the gas outlet.9 amps. This is an innovation by using simple to craft Azek for the housing and off the shelf gasket material instead of precise machined slots to hold the plates. He further states he has tested the Azek to 180 degress f. Then the top is clamped down. The glue melts the material together. with no problems. This is a very . I had the 316l stainless plates sheared at a metal shop 6x12". 14-15 seems to be best run temp for max production. The plastic edging goes on the sides and bottom. This one is 1" thick 7 1/4 wide materials. Jeff made a metal frame bracket out of angle iron that fits around the top and bottom and is pulled down tight with all thread rods similar to Bob Boyces box. He has yet to report futher but states he will check again at the end of the 10 hour run. He then hooked a relay to a wind shield washer pump to a separate water tank/bubbler for auto refill.5 amps after 6 hours was at 10.

If It does the next project will be to build the 61 plate like engineer Larry’s (check the hydroxyl forums for this user name) to try for 100% increase close to what he got in the small box truck. Summery 7 cell booster with 15 plates 6x12" plates 6"high. PVC material. Jeff's work coupled with Bob's advice has produced a next generation brute force series cell. (2 strips per pack). it took its first 10 hour run today and I should have the results by Tuesday. 1" thick. Original testimony: I had a 90% increase with a small diesel box truck (3lpm) I Just installed my second one on a Peter built rig yesterday. 1 day to do plates. 1day to build box and let glue dry. Jeff is hoping to get couple a 2 mile per gal gain which would be a 30-40% increase. –End . The cell was made after Bob's recommendations. they are clear strips (they also have in black)Most stores only carry two or three packs in stock at a time. The driver did call me the afternoon and told me at the start it was drawing 7 amps and after 5 hours was at 10 amps. 316L 16 gauge Quarter " stainless all thread 12 stainless steel nutz 10 stainless steel spring washes 4 quarter inch large stainless steel washers 6" pieces.easy to duplicate that most anyone with basic skills can assemble.12"long. Original specs for the clear plastic door protector strips were Autozone part#3800 is probably correct. Box dimension are 14" long 9" high 8" deep Jeff states he that it takes two days to assemble.

Two series cells in parallel (I’m just completing a four 7 series cell. as we know by now uses 6-7 times more KOH than the 6 series cell equivalent and by placing 2 x 7 in parallel. . +nnnnnn-nnnnnn+nnnnnn-nnnnnn+ with 6x12" plates would this be close to equal output of the Bob Boyce 61 plate box with 6x6" plates with brute force.The reason why there is a 2 x 7 series cell in parallel is to decrease the current density resulting in an increase in efficiency.) After 10 hour run time temp runs from 85 degrees to 160 degrees. For the Quad 7 cell here are a couple modifications all might want to consider: Use an inch thick clear acrylic lid to observe the reaction and replace the 1/4" threaded rod with 3/8" threaded rod as this cell is capable of carrying much more amperage with greater electrolyte concentration. 29 Plate variant What I suggest is a series cell in the same box. It is a series cell as the liquid stays about 3/4 " below the top of the plates. The original cell has been in use for about 4 months with no signs of any problems. Increasing the size of the all thread to 3/8" would allow higher amp and a cooler cell. basically doubling the original. They also do this because a single 7 series cell on its own. one now can get double the amount of amps for the same electrolyte strength.

The glue actually melts the material together. add the two sides with clamps glue and screw the sides. For spacers I order from autozone. The 3/8" is the all thread bolt size. I placed a siphon break on the side of the box to break the vacuum during cool down. There are also special azek ss screws for it to hold it together while the glue dries over night. You tube Videos Scuffy cell -29 plate quad 7 booster cell 29 plate scuffy cell testing . The scuffy cell only seals on three sides (bottom and two sides The top is open to allow the gas to escape. This will stop the bubbler from siphoning back. After this dries I add the front last by clamping and pressing the plates in place even tighter.com part# t3500. After the plates with edging on I build the box around them using clamps to press the plates tightly together. I think it is 2. I cut the edging for the bottom and two sides at 45 degree angles where it meets at the corner. I would say it would hold up for years. I ran mine for two weeks at 2 amps to condition the plates. I build the back and bottom together first. place the plates in place. The vinyl is fairly soft and not only acts as spacers but seals the plates together very nicely the tighter the better. I usually order 20 packs at a time. The water level stays 1/2" below the top of the plates.99 for 2/30" pieces. It is a medium soft vinyl with an adhesive made inside. then Increased solution to 25% to increase amps.I use the azek glue that is made for product. Plate spacing is 1/8".

PDF 14cell CT Sealed series cell By Dave .Bill Williams Duplex Lite Industrial Electrolytic cell Duplex Lite Industrial Electrolytic cell .

When re filling is required it is done through a water manifold (piece of plastic tubing with a hole drilled between EACH plate to fill the cell chamber) with Distilled water only. he did not want to bother with a proper refill system. it is best to do it Before Install. When built right it will not have a HEAT problem. you fill it with Electrolyte solution to the proper level (about 1" below the holes for Brute force and ~2" for resonant) to get the level even in ALL cells you tip it so the fluid goes through the Gas holes and equalizes. . Make sure you have a one way check valve on the water inlet to the manifold so it doesn't try to push Hydroxy out and into your water reservoir. I have another method I am working on but it is still in the design stage. When first filling this.Using 8x8 plates in a dual 7 cell design using common Neg center plate and separate self watering system per side. Tero didn't do this with his. It uses the plastic tube from like WD40 and a check valve per cell with an external manifold. so he sacrificed efficiency for convenience.This is a Sealed Series Cell (corrected Boyce/TERO cell). This cell is NOT designed to be a wet bath or to circulate. Only the top holes for PROPER Operation have been done. Once the Initial Electrolyte solution level is set and if the cell is working right the level will drop evenly in each cell so you monitor one of them for low / high level and use this to control the pump.

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Generic 7 plate series cell design This is a standard. 7-cell. series electrolyzer designed to have 2 volts across each cell when the engine is running. .

In a properly designed system. This. Lexan // PSF = Polysulfone // PMP = Polymethylpentene // FEP . connected along the fuel line and by the design of the reactor chamber and gas storage buffer system. is prevented by any simple bubbler. however.Housing You can make the housing out of plexi glass or acrylic. NO . Always check you material with the compatibility site.PFA = Teflon // ECTFE/ETFE = Halar/Tefzel // PS = Polystyrene // PVDF = Polyvinylidene Fluoride. For example Lexan (=polycarbonate) does not like KOH! Some People are having great results with Acrylic Panels or Acrylic Castings (rated @ ~180*F) using interlocking panels with Capillary Bonding Glue such as Tenax R7 glue. NaOH is compatible with this plastics : LDPE = Low Density Polyethylene // HDPE = High Density Polyethylene // PP = Polypropylene // PA = Polyallomer // PC = Polycarbonate. KOH is compatible with these plastics: LDPE = Low Density Polyethylene // HDPE = High Density Polyethylene // PP = Polypropylene // PA = Polyallomer // PVC = Polyvinyl Chloride // PSF = Polysulfone // PMP = Polymethylpentene // FEP . Sodium hydroxide has a reactive affinity with aluminum and thus can corrode any aluminum parts like heads or pistons if it gets into the fuel line.PFA = Teflon // ECTFE/ETFE = Halar/Tefzel // PS = Polystyrene // PVDF = Polyvinylidene Fluoride.

NaOH will get into your engine. and one lid. In a generic 7 series design. Plexi Glass may be the best option. Alternate housing designs Designs courtesy of Jetijs Shown below are simple plate spacers made from plexiglass. You must make sure you have no leaks. All the machining has to be accurate. .Acrylic will become brittle over time. Note. you can make a standard box with pieces cut out for two sides. This way one can simply slide the plates in each compartment easily and the spacers hold them 3mm apart of each other and about 10mm from the bottom so that the water can flow around. one base.

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This is the disadvantage of the design. With three 5" x 4" plates per cell. .Completed unit The plate size depends on the current you plan to use it at. The plate array would be 7/16" thick (that is 3 x 1/16" for the plates. By skipping the locking nuts and using a press-fit between the partitions. you could use 20 amps which could potentially produce 4 LPM. Overall case size might be about 8" x 6" x whatever height you want. you could get it down to a 4" x 6" sized base. plus 2 x 1/8" for the gaps) so your cell width might be one inch. and whether or not you are bothered by replacing plates every year or two. it has a relatively large footprint and many vehicles would not have space for a case which has an 8" x 6" base. For long plate life. it is recommended to pick 2 to 4 square inches of working plate area per amp. however you are then starting to lose one advantages.

8 plate series cell variant of the design Construction device details: Design of the 8 plate series cell (8th chamber is for current limiting / reduced gas output mode . 2 of which are shown in the above drawing.switchable if needed or not. Adding in a larger number of plates helps to prevent the bubbles forming on the plates from hindering the electrolysis by masking the part of the plate under the bubbles. For standard in this design. This is done by using a plastic threaded rod and bolts positioned at each corner of the sheets. almost all the electrolysis will take place between the two active faces positioned close to each other. in. It is also estimated that it will also extends the working life of the plates. The threaded rods need to be cut to just the right length so there can be a push-fit between the partitions that holds the plates securely in position inside the cell. of plate area is available for effective electrolysis. 8th chamber shorted out runs cell at full power across 7 chambers).just a simple box with partitions (and a really good gasket between the lid and the sides). Cell construction will look like: Each water chamber is separate from the next. A generic choice features two plates per compartment. Bubbler . The methods of connecting the plates inside each compartment of this cell depend on the number of plates used in each set. There are 8 chambers in this design. The sheets are spaced accurately by placing plastic washers on the threaded rod between the plates. the plates will be 5” x 4” with 20 square inches of area on each face and should be held 3 mm (1/8 inch) apart for optimal gas-producing performance. In an example where the plates are 5" x 4".which is that it has no need to be a high-precision piece of construction . With two plates facing each other. this means that 20 sq.

This is one way to drop the applied voltage to a cell array efficiently.The bubbler for the plate cell can be built in and attached to the side of the housing compartment or housed separately. The “Smack Zilla” – Smack generation III The GenIII. Thanks to Jetijs. Leave at least 2 . this new design completely eliminates .5 inch space between electrolytes to top cover. a bubbler design The best electrolyte strength for 3mm gap series cell is 28 %( KOH) or 23%(NaOH).2. or "Smackzilla". This is to cater for frothing (foam) which happens when electrolyte is cold. Inspired by the 6 Pack Smack.

If you construct a 21 plate (20 cell) unit with minimal leakage and fit it with a 1/2" output tube. You do not need to have a compact 7 isolated series cell if space and . It combines parallel and series configurations and takes the best characteristics of open and isolated bath designs. The 7 series cell designs which have been covered earlier are specifically designed to be compact. but keep in mind this is the first prototype and the bugs are being worked out. That is all I can say about that for now. Kind of like a wet dry cell. builds up pressure and BOOM. and allows for huge current draws. at 22 amps you will get approx. If you should get greedy and raise the amperage to around 40 amps it WILL explode. it all depends on the quality of gas you are generating. You don't have to believe it. but IT IS NOT a good idea to try storing Hydroxy gas or putting it under much pressure. GenIII story parts 1-6. dramatically increases plate surface area. As you raise the amperage to 30 the output will increase. In his videos Smack describes how he came up with GenIII design and a little history on the step gap used. of course. cuts heating in half. Not as efficient as a dry cell thanks to magnetics.it can self combust between 10-15psi. Smack Gen III design This is a series design in parallel with 6 compartments. construct it and find out for yourself! The reason for the explosion is the 1/2" outlet tube restricts the flow. This was chosen in order to conserve space and manage the electrolyte concentration.parasitic current losses. Smack has detailed the background and open sourced how to get this cell operating. except to say. Multi Stacked Larger cell designs NOTE NEVER ATTEMPT TO STORE HYDROXY GAS. 14 lpm of gas out.

adding a larger volume of electrolyte is not a problem. However it is a trade off, you do not want to have a dangerous caustic amount of electrolyte, and you do not need to build a fairly large unit to get a good boost. There are many more different styles of cell. Larger cells which contain 61+ plates can be made for a higher gas output. Additional larger plate cell designs will be covered below. The following tips should be considered. With a separation of the electrolyte between the cell compartments, this cell produces the following series electrical connection.

This is a standard arrangement connected electrically with the opposite sides of a single plate forming part of two adjacent cells. In the picture you can see how the relative electrical connection between those two cells. 1. If it’s true series 7 cell, optimal electrolyte strength (28% KOH and 72% distil water). Don't use teaspoon measurement for electrolyte to get exact measurement. ExampleTo make 1 Kg of a 28% KOH solution by weight, add 280 grams of KOH to 720 cc of water. To make 1 Kg of a 20% KOH solution by weight, add 200 grams of KOH to 800 cc of water. To make 1 Kg of a 10% KOH solution by weight, add 100 grams of KOH to 900 cc of water. The total weight is always 1,000 grams containing whatever percentage of KOH that is wanted.

2. One option is to use double layer (3mm + 3mm) vinyl to increase cell spaces. This will not eliminate the foam (cold electrolyte) climbing to top but could lower the foam climbing height. 3. Parallel series cell design should eliminate foam climbing top problem totally because of larger cell spaces. 4. You need to measure the voltage across the cell and not from power source. 5. Properly conditioned cell should produce much better result. 6. Measure gas output after the electrolyte warmed up to get correct measurement. 7. For series cell conditioning, use less strength (< 10% KOH) electrolyte (< 3A) to conditioned the plate for 3 days. Pour out the electrolyte and fill up with new batch of electrolyte. Again power on for another 3 days and the process repeats until you see the color of electrolyte unchanged or minimal changes. First batch electrolyte will be very dark in color and becomes lighter and lighter in color on subsequent batches. 8. White smoking is gas with water vapor and KOH. That is why, Bob Boyce encourage using double bubblers. First is as scrubber and second is for safety when operating with brute force DC electrolysis operation all the gas production will be proportional to the current flowing through the cells. Using a standard 12 volt system, the current flow will be determined by the concentration of the electrolyte and its temperature. When first starting your vehicle, the electrolysis will begin with at a low temperature. After an increased amount of run time the electrolysis raises the temperature of the electrolyte. The heat increase will increases the current flowing through the electrolyser which will create even more heat. Therefore the gas production rate at start up is lower than the expected total capacity. Also after a considerable run time (4-8 hours for example) a temperature runaway effect can be created where the current gets out of hand. ALWAYS BENCH TEST YOUR UNIT IN RUN TIMES FOR AT LEAST 5 HOURS AND MEASURE THE TEMPERATURE BEFORE INSTALLATION. After your individual cell has given you an indication of how hot it will get after a certain run time. You have some options to address the long run time heating issues. The first option to control current is to use a pulse width modulation circuit, sometimes referred to as a Mark/Space Ratio circuit.

This is a circuit which is designed to switches the power to the electrolyser ON and OFF many times each second. How it effecting gas production are discussed in the faculty section below. The following design uses an ammeter to show the current, and a PWM Ratio control knob which will be mounted on the dashboard of the vehicle. This circuit will enable the driver to lower the current manually if it gets too high. You are also able to add in extra electrolysis cells (floater or “neural plates, discussed in the faculty section) which will serve both as a way of controlling the current and raising the efficiency of the gas production. One option is to install extra cells with a heavy duty 12V switch across them. When the switch is closed, the cell is starved of current and effectively is not operational at all. Heavy duty switches of this kind are found in ship chandlers and used extensively in boating for switching engine and lighting circuits. Another alternative is to use a high powered semiconductor to replace the switch and use cheap, low power switches to control the semiconductors.

Open bath flooded cell - mistakenly called a “Dry cell” design
Note when ever referring to this design, please use open bath or isolated cell. None are dry! People seem to get confused when someone uses DRYCELL as a term. DRYCELL is short for (sealed/closed/isolated series/parallel gasket separated plates not immersed in a bath of water where the outside is dry). They work better, are more efficient and have way less heat problems probably cause The outside is DRY and the CELL is not getting current leakage from plate edges because its DRY. Heat dissipates from the plate edges. Of course it is Wet on the inside. So I guess we could complicate even more by calling it A Dry outside, wet inside sealed/closed/isolated series/parallel gasket separated plates not immersed in a bath of water cell It just seems so much simpler to say Drycell , 95% of the Hydroxy world uses and understands the term when it is used . It is recommended for the following to to use 1/8" for standard cells. Use 1/8" for everything with 18g plates.

By Woodpecker
The following information has been donated to Panacea by Peter AKA “woodpecker”. Thanks to peter for his effort and time, he has also made them available in other languages and completed a video walk through.

PDF- Dry Cell by Woodpecker You Tube -How to build a Dry cell electrolyzer English version http://au.youtube.com/user/woodpecker1311 Note -an alternative method for an alternate method for filling can be used that has two holes, one at each end at the same place on the plates. A second fitting on the back is attached to the "fill system" auto or manual that puts fluid in the back and out the front to a "Y" that returns to the reservoir. The reservoir will be pressurized and the level is below the booster. The fill will be up to the lip of the gas hole out until it drops below the hole height during use. If a sight glass is added to one end and the pump is run manually, the cell can be tipped to the side during filling and then turned straight after stopping the pump. This will provide the desired gap below the gas out holes. Without the back fitting it is very difficult to get H2O into the cell through the outlet fitting. I have managed it with a funnel with a 1/4" tube attached that I was able to extend some distance into the cell. Filling from back to front with the cell tipped will solve this problem. [Mine has a sight glass, but it also leaked so I am changing the clamping arrangement. With these cell designs please keep in mind, you may have a high water vapor content as the level in the cells is not stable as it is in a constant flux between full flooded and isolated. This change will give very erratic voltage distribution and may also cause "lean" wetting currents. This is a condition where a very thin layer of fluid carries a current that changes the whole volume of the thin layer to water vapor or steam. This effect was used extensively in "flash boilers" in steam engines. It would be necessary to run his output through a "chiller" and then calculate the volume of the condensate to determine if this effect is present. It would be simpler to just raise the tank higher than the cell to minimize this possibility. If the volume goes down when the tank is raised, it is a dead giveaway to steam content.

Bill William’s flooded series design Duplex cell

Keep in mind that this cell has equalization holes and is a flooded series design. If you get rid of the holes your MMW will improve. The gas output holes will not reduce efficiency as long as the level is not above the holes as well. Thanks to Bill for this efficient design. Bill’s construction is essentially 2 x 6 series cells in parallel. This is expected to produce 3 liters @ 30 amp, 13.5V, We know that 30 lpm @ 30A,13.8V = +-94%. According to Faraday predictions, it should require 2.36 W/lph of hydroxy gas production, when gas volume is measured at STP. At room temperature this figure changes to 2.16W/lph. So 2.25 W/lph is equal to 2.16/2.25 = 96% Faraday efficiency. Bill has bench tested these units and reports: As far as the test the cells (duplex and single version) and all been tested with amperage setting 30 I and E settings of 14.5. These runs were continuous running of duration exceeding 90 day periods +. The operating temps run in at 110 degrees F. The only attention the units need was water. The electrolyte was set to 10% to 28% by weight (KOH). My water source was from my well(Borehole) and is extremely clean or clear of compounds usually associated, but do to varying waters throughout world I would recommend that others testers utilize Distilled version. The design has not presented itself with thermo runaway, it just stabilizes and keeps on producing Gas. As far as cleaning the SS floaters and SS Anode I always do a mild Acid dip with HCL with a DC charge to open up the lattice of the SS. Then it’s rinsed off with water and picked in NaOH or KOH solution. I have tested sanding the SS and this work very well,

So far both have worked out in the long duration testing.download DuPlex cell v2. I generally look for a 1/8 " crush for the typical setup. Inaddition when I first started working this concept I utilized plastic fittings but have changed over to Steel fitting due to heat growth issues.pdf Simple Pump Controller Circuit.youtube.xls Heavy duty switching for current control .com/user/ebninc http://greengasfuel. Bill Williams PDF .pdf Links to other “dry cell” designs http://au.but I prefer to Acid dip which not only cleans the material of organics as well as opens up the lattices of the material. Otherwise the fittings torque does not change as the device warms to is operating temperature.1.com/ Amoeba Cell with new no bottom hole reservoir A method of calculating MMW and factoring in temperature File – Bob Campbell MMW Calc with Temp Compensation V4. The O ring material of the Single cell version is EDPM and the Oring of the Duplex is Nitrile.4. where as a plastic fitting growth rate is small and a leak could start. Another nice aspect of this design is that the spacing between the plates can be control very simply by squeezing the Oring's more.

This switching arrangement is more complicated when driving along with one switch having to be opened and another having to be closed. Below a diagram will out line a configuration showing the switching for three additional cells. more then realistically needed in practice." . this is where twelve positions is the normal maximum for a standard wafer switch. No high current through the board traces.In the first schematic you have three switches and you are adding in three additional cells. This will have one switch per cell. This gives eleven additional cells. not Mike’s first choice. The first current device shown in the circuit uses traces on the board for the high current. The following information gives an alternative device that mounts on the board. In the second schematic. The three additional cells are adequate for a good boost. the switch arrangement shows a single rotary switch mounted on the dashboard that is used to select the number of additional electrolysis cells to be used. but monitors the current inductively by passing the high current output wire through the center. You can cheat on the in board device by soldering large conductors to the pins and also take the current "off trace. You can continue it for more cells if desired. we will be using the same three switches and it will allow twice as many extra cells to be switched in or off. In the electronic switching version. There is a practical limit in the rotary switch. PWM contriol By Mike and Garret The following PWM design has a true current control with industry standard parts.

20 from Digi-Key.This means ckt board in an enclosure and fan cooled. The limiting factor is it only goes to 25 amps and is only rated for 85C. preferably not under the hood. An alternative is the LA 55-P which is only $25 and does not carry the current in the circuit board. It should be easy to substitute in the circuit. . It has the same temp limit but at 50+ amps.The current [Aug 1 '08] price on the LTS-25 NP is $20.

.20Amp Version Here is the 40 amp version. 70 amps at a lower temp. Wiring is much easier as no high current traces on control board. The max current for the sensor is 55 amps at 70 deg C.

so no problem with heat if mounted on a fan assisted heat sink. driver board and external parts. The only expensive part is the current transformer.Here is a file with all parts values noted. The 5 parts in the output are each rated at 55 amps. control board. Even under the hood! 40amp version . divided into 3 areas.

which can be replaced by circuitry to automatically adjust the duty cycle based on measured current draw. switched on with positive voltage) or IRF9Z34 (Pchannel 140mΩ 18A. For the switch FET IRFZ44 (N-channel 17.5mΩ 49A. the PWM controller may be used to control the electrolyzer current draw manually. switched on with negative voltage) may be used. A fairly straight forward way is to use a Hall effect current transducer (such as LEM LTS25-NP). placed between electrolyzer positive and battery positive. .PWM current limiting from the “Terro Cell” PDF The best way to limit the current is to use PWM or pulsed DC and to adjust the duty cycle to maintain the average current. For the PWM controller a readymade DC motor speed control unit will do fine. which outputs a voltage proportional to the current and use this as a feedback to a PWM controller chip (TL494) to adjust the PWM duty cycle. If automatic setand-forget operation is not required. It usually has a potentiometer to adjust the duty cycle. placed between electrolyzer negative and ground.

This is best suited for welders operating on mains power (no heavy transformer needed) or hydroboosters running on modified alternators (diodes removed). Other current liming ideas There is a kit available here which could be easily modified by using a high current MosFet. For 230VAC 50Hz you need about 14uF for each Amp. but will not dissipate any power like a current limiting resistor. You can use any number of cells (even one). Capacitive current limiting Capacitive current limiting may be used for electrolyzers powered by rectified AC.g.0V per cell minimum. For mainspowered operation power-factor correction capacitors are the best. The switch FET may be directly driven with the microcontroller. The capacitor must be suitable for AC use (not an electrolytic capacitor). . but you need to figure about 2. It is based on putting a capacitor in series between the AC source and the bridge rectifier. For minimum parts count a microcontroller (e. Atmel AVR series) may be used with the Hall Effect transducer output routed to the AD converter input and the duty cycle adjustment and RMS current calculation performed in software. The reactance of the capacitor will limit the current to a certain value.For most accurate current limiting the RMS current value may be calculated with for example MX536A or AD536A True RMS-to-DC converter chips.

In this regard I provide below the comment I have given on the Hydroxy forum explaining the current density of the WaterfuelForAll Standard booster and its implications: In the Tero_series_cell_v1.728 sqr inch The outer 4" tube is 7. so the surface area is calculated as follow: Total area of centre electrode= 6" length x 1" diameter x 3. This centre 1" tube is 6" in length. we have the following current density figures: In a tubular cell the highest current density is experienced with the center electrode.In this regard my own experience is that the ultimate factor that determines how fast/slow the NaOH/KOH is being consumed. If one looks at the current density of our smallest model.5A/sqr inch is recommended. while it has the smallest surface area.In the case of the WFA Standard the centre electrode consists of a 5/16" rod that is connected to a 1" diameter tube.2)/2) = 0. so the surface area is calculated as follow: Total area for outer tube = 7.2. is the actual water temperature.14 = 18. the outer tube serves as an heat exchanger and together with the fact that the design is a true series cell.2 sqr inch The WFA Standard is rated 20A continuous.5" length x 4" diameter x 3. For that reason one can afford to run at a slightly higher current density.728+94.5A/sqr inch is used. it does not have the overheating problems experienced with some other designs.pdf document a good practical current density of around 0. In the case of the WaterfuelForAll tubular design. taking into account that we have equal spacing between the intermediate tubes. Thus many designs will quickly experience some overheating problems when a current density of higher than 0.5A/sqr inch is recommended. The question was asked how fast is NaOH/KOH consumed and some comment was given concerning current density. .3125" diameter x 3.5" in length.81 A / sqr inch for the smallest electrode and an average current density of around 20/((24. Thus one can see that at the recommended 20A. the design has a current density of 0.888 sqr inch Thus total area of centre electrode assembly = 24.Please note that these figures are ONLY illustrative and not an indication of the NaoH/KOH consumption of the WaterfuelForAll booster.14 = 94. The main reason why 0.84 sqr inch Add area of centre rod = 6" x 0. the WaterfuelForAll Standard.34A / sqr inch.There was a question on the Hydroxy forum about the tables with illustrative figures I used to demonstrate the difference between a PWM and a current limiter.14 = 5. is because higher current density will lead to hotter electrodes and resulting hotter water temperature.Water fuel for all universol current limiter Background.

we have found it overkill in the base model to use longer tubes. More important than the current density on its own. It is important to note that that is the stabilizing temperature when stationery with no air flow to aid with cooling. yet they will overheat even after less than two hours of operation! With regard to the consumption of NaOH/KOH. So one can see that in this case. thus if we want to be 100% accurate in our calculations. (Also note that the wall thicknes of the electrodes is 1.81A / sqr inch for the smallest electrode and an average current density of 0. the 1. so I would strongly recommend that one always choose a . when tested on a bench. One cannot only look at the current density because I know of several open bath booster designs that run at a current density of close to 0. we should look at cubic inch). which is proven by the water temperature stabilizing.06") which is thicker than many other designs. In my own testing I have experienced exponentially increased consumption of NaOH/KOH if the water temperature goes above 75 degrees Celsius. the water temperature will stabilize at between 70-73 degrees Celsius.34A / sqr inch is even lower than the recommended 0.5A / sqr inch.5mm (0. Obviously. is to measure the water temperature after several hours of operation. and can run so for many hours uninterrupted without overheating. the tubular design is so strong. Note that the WFA Deluxe and Super Deluxe models have indeed longer tubes.(Typically you will find that the WFA boosters run between 55-65 degrees Celsius during real time driving conditions. but are obviously more expensive. so one should actualy compare the volume of the electrodes as well. the stainless steel outer tube acts like a radiator and while the vehicle is moving the stabilizing temperature can be much lower than the 70-73 degrees Celsius. So I have explained that the current density contributes to the water temperature and as long as the water temperature is not too high.06") thick stainless steel tube makes the WFA booster arguably of one the safest (if not the safest! ) boosters on the market! In fact. the higher the water temperature.5mm (0. In the case of the WFA Standard.34A / sqr inch is indeed not too high. it can even withstand a back-flash on its own if a bubbler is not present or has failed.5A / sqr inch. nothing prevents one from increasing the length of the tubes to bring the current density further down.) As an additional benefit. When the booster is properly installed. we are ok! The water temperature after 4 hours of operation is a more reliable measure to ultimately determine if our current density is too high or not. but by the end of the day the grade 316 stainless steel is the most expensive material of the booster and while the water temperature stabilizes.So the average current density of 0. the higher the NaOH/KOH consumption will be. the current density of 0.

this current limiter is indeed UNIVERSAL. Then the addition of the current limiter makes the booster indeed much more user friendly. So the current limiter can be used by ANY brute force booster. while the outer tube is made of stainless steel that serves as a heat exchanger. Coming back to the current limiter and the reason why I am releasing this circuit. Note that the figures that I listed above about the decreasing current because of the NaOH/KOH being consumed is only illustrative to show the difference between a current limiter and a PWM and these figures are NOT real-time figures for the WaterfuelForAll booster. e. where the user wants to run his WFA booster day in and day out continuously. the WFA standard can run for several hours continuous without overheating. . trucks. Also. In other words. whereas it is almost a "must have" for open bath designs. The main reason why I am releasing the current limiter is for heavy duty applications. the current limiter is a "nice to have" for the WFA booster. It must be noted that the WaterfuelForAll tubular design is a true 6 series cell design and as such it does not have any overheating problems. So the current limiter can typically help users of open bath designs to control their current and prevent overheating. thus it actually does not need a current limiter! In fact.g.design where the water will not rise higher than 75 degrees Celsius after 4 hours of operation.

for true 2V operation.. The "Yikes" cell is based on 2v current which we all want. Each group needs electrical connections. Your car runs 14V from the alternator. using floating (or “neutral”) plates. arranger in multiple sets in parallel.47 volts was needed to kick start the action.Kits will be available at http://waterfuelforall. You can add lots of groups. (Personal note: I think that 1. But it was found that an additional .com/orderform. and so on.(7x2V=14volts)lets call the 7 cells a group. 8 groups would be 57plates with 9 electrical connections. This can be illustrated by the following.. Hovering around 2 volts per cell is where production gets going. He states a 1.htm Yikes Plate Cell Please note the Yikes cell is not suitable for a beginner’s cell. The biggest challenge is to seal the cells from each other. take the Smacks booster cell as an example: .24 voltage came from recombining h and o.. therefore in a perfect world that should be the voltage needed to separate them. ie:+nnnnnnnnnnnn+nn.73 will be the magic number when we find the system). At that voltage production is low but efficiencies are high. The Yikes cell is described as a: series. if you put 8 plates in a row you will have 7 ells.

So if in the case of the Yikes configuration this is in fact six series cells in parallel. The straps are stove pipe clamps $1.00/100.50 and 1/4" x 1.. Lowes $1. n= neutral..N +..e.63. then this would be in fact 6 individual cells using a neutral plate in each connected in parallel. N being neutral.N + + N ..N N N N N N +.this is considered a cell.5mm nylon washers $6. If the Yikes booster were in fact a true series cell then it would only have one positive and one negative connection i. SS . He states the plates are configured as follows: PnnnnnMnnnnnnPnnnnnnMnnnnnnPnnnnnnMnnnnnP with the p=positive.N + + N .79 Menards.This is in fact two series cells ran in parallel. and m= negative. Original instructions Those are SS electric blanking plates (kind of like switch plates but without the hole for the switch). Bob Boyce's series cells. So in other words for every instance of a + and . Now if say for instance you took 18 plates and did something like this: + N . The plate configuration goes like this: + N N N N N N . The 1/4" plastic threaded rod is from graingers $2.

nuts (4) and bolts (2). You will need lugs for that wire to make connections. 1 tsp per gallon of distilled water to start. Here is how I put together a booster that put out 3 to 5 lpm at 17 amps.). Also get sodium hydroxide which is red devil drain cleaner $4. The next 5 or 6 plates are not connected to anything. 1 small wire has 12v. 41 Plates. and the next plate is connected to negative. Overall is a good booster and the . the other large wire goes to the booster. Not all the plates are connected with wires. The electrical part is pretty straight forward. then I put in a switch by the driver so I could turn the booster on/off when I wanted. P=positive M=negative N=neutral. 7 stove pipe clamp straps (3 neg.00. So the first plate is connected to the negative. the next 5 or 6 plates are not connected to anything. no connection PnnnnnMnnnnnnPnnnnnnMnnnnnnPnnnnnnMnnnnnP Notice the 4 center stacks had 6 neutrals. and 4 pos. The outer stacks created some heat but not too much. the next plate is connected to the positive. 6 will not heat up but will not be as productive. the 2 outer stacks had 5 neutrals. You just continue like that. 5 will give more liters per minute but will have heat issues. 1 large wire has 12v coming from the battery. I spliced into a switched 12v wire to the window wipers. The relay has 4 connections (two for the small wire and 2 for the large wire. I use 4 gauge wires (overkill). they may come in handy later) to a relay (a relay is an electrical switch used so that you don't have to have large wires running very far). The water carries the current to most of the plates so that you don't have to. Tthe booster: here is the cute part of a series booster. You will want a plastic box to put it in. That wire then went to the engine compartment (run 2 or 3 wires while you are there. The large wire coming from the battery first goes to an ammeter (not necessary but nice to have) then to an ordinary house circuit breaker 30amp then to the relay. 1small wire goes to ground. I say 5 or 6 neutrals because you have to make that call.

If a backfire occurs the water will stop the flame from getting back to your box. and measuring is a little tough. It will take 2 weeks for the booster to get up to it's potential and you will need to refill with water once a week. hmmmm. Keep going until you get to the plate that needs an electrical connection.. On one rod put a strap (the pipe strap. Accumulations of HHO in the brake booster will eventually go bang. Put it in your box (put the bolts through the straps and through a 1/4" hole in your box sealed with plumbers goop (Lowes $4). This is the only protection that will always work. We do not put it in after the butterfly in the throttle body because the vacuum there would take some of the HHO to the brake booster.but you will piddle with it daily so it's not a problem. I then seal all the plates (except the top of course) with 3M window weld (napa $13). but the strap is on the other rod. Fill with solution and turn it on. The build: cut two plastic rods a little longer than what you want. then 2 nylon washers on each rod.. how do I know that??) Then slide on a SS plate (you will have to drill out the hole to 1/4" and grind off the remaining lip). I use 3/8 nylon tubing and fittings Lowes $1. There has not been a better method found. Put a 90 degree angle fitting threaded into the box sealed with goop and barbed on the other end. You just put on a strap before you put on the plate.79. this gives a 3 mm space. I use a 1" ID clear tubing about 8" long with bushing reducers 1" x 1/2" shoved into the ends Lowes $. You must not have any water leaks (easy to say. HHO will come through the tubing and bubble through the water in the bubbler which cleans off the very small amount of NaOH which surrounds the HHO. Put a SS nut on one end. then put on the next plate and then 2 more washers per rod. tough to do the first time) Let it dry 2 days. That's . so that you end up with all positive on one side and all negative on the other side (see pic). Tubing goes to a bubbler. After 4 weeks your booster will become just a tool that you use and life will settle down again. Keep going until you are done. This bubbler is extremely important. Nylon barbed to threaded fittings screw into the bushings. Tubing leaves the bubbler and goes to a fitting that is put into the rubber hose that is between the maf (mass air flow) sensor and the throttle body.. Without the bubbler that NaOH would get into the metal in your engine and WILL attack any aluminum.inventor states he has never had a problem. It does not make any difference which (p or m) you start out with..50. The bubbler is filled with plain water. Drill through the strap into a piece of wood or the bit will grab the strap and WILL cut you. Washer and nut the bolt tight. you must drill a 1/4" hole on both ends. put on your electric wire from the relay to the positive side and run a wire to ground on the other side.

gasket failures. all the stuff that the original design was designed to avoid. the electrodes can be cut geometrically perfect by guillotine shear. This is the original text taken from the “Terro” document. as there are many companies that will cut small quantities of electrodes with minimum lead time. We have since upgraded it with a better choice and stainless steal. The produced hydrogen and oxygen gasses are not separated to separate containers. The electrolyzer shown in Figure 1 is based on the common-duct series-cell electrolyzer concept originally developed and patented by William Rhodes. He chose to push his test cell way over normal voltage and current for maximum production in minimum space. . KOH) electrolyte to split distilled water into hydrogen and oxygen components very efficiently. It has been suggested by some that the electrode erosion has nothing to do with the hole at the bottom of the plate but it is simply on the surface area of the plate to handle the applied current. but also a lot of steam production. electrode erosion. Stud holes and gas holes will have to be made on a drill press.photobucket.about it. etc. In the Terro Ranta design. The produced oxyhydrogen gas is a stoichiometric mixture of hydrogen (2 parts vol. If you drill holes in the plates of series cell you are in danger of getting this result. Yull Brown and later refined by Bob Boyce.) and oxygen (1 part vol.) and can be combusted in vacuum.com/albums/x171/mryikes/booster/ The Terro Cell Design Please note before starting this design – it has been reported that he did not care about power efficiency. If you are going to make a series cell you should go the extra half mile and make it a true series instead of a leaky series. DO NOT DRILL HOLES IN THE PLATES OF SERIES CELLS! Be aware that making a hole at the bottom of the plate for water leveling is reducing the efficiency of the system. This leads to faster production and reduced cost. It uses an alkaline (NaOH. Either way please be aware that efficiency is lost do to the holes that simplify the design. He ended up doing modifications that sacrificed efficiency in return for convenience. Ernest Spirig. Reports given to us that the result was a lot of hydroxy gas. I welcome questions to clarify any part of this quickly written outline. Original pictures are posted at : http://s180. but kept mixed. If someone is willing to lose efficiency to make something that is slightly easier to build that should be there choice as long as they know all the facts. George Wiseman. NOT for maximum efficiency.

The electrolyzer shown in this report has about 80-90% total efficiency when all things are considered (ambient temperature. However. The electrolyte level is always about 25mm below the gas vent hole.8mm thick 160mm x 200 mm stainless steel (original stated 304 grades however it is recommended that you use 316L). The eight electrolyzer plates are about 0. There are also claims of various resonance phenomena (Boyce. ambient pressure.47V) as possible. at about 30-50 C depending on the current and electrolyte. Pulsing (PWM) or modulation of the input voltage waveform could increase the performance further.0V. accurate measurement of gas volume and current) when powered by straight DC. Meyer.85-2. There are 3mm diameter liquid level equalization holes drilled in the bottom corner of each plate (not shown) in such a way that adjacent plates have holes in opposite corners.The combination of series-cell topology is very efficient. A 10mm gas vent hole is drilled in each plate.1Vdc depending on temperature. because it allows the cells to operate as close to their optimal cell voltage (1. Staggering and using small holes minimizes any efficiency loss .9-14.) that supposedly dramatically increase the gas production rate vs. The electrolyzer has 7 cells with a target input voltage of about 12. The electrolyzer runs fairly cool. this author has not been able to replicate any resonance modes in any sort of electrolyzer. This makes the cell voltage about 1. thus lowering the cell voltage needed to push thru a certain amount of current and increasing the efficiency slightly. as it is known that in the beginning of each pulse larger current flows than in the steady state condition. input current when the electrolyzer is driven with a certain type of PWM rich in harmonics. etc.

He met failure over and over. Note on plate preparation given by Bob Boyce. and he questioned the validity of Bob’s design. The small square PVC blocks were meant to keep proper distance between SS plate centers. lowering peak efficiency.8mm gas vent hole. Nine spacers were cut out of 3mm thick soft and transparent PVC sheet with a knife. The wall thickness is 12mm. Other thread sealants may not be compatible with the electrolyte so it’s best to use epoxy or teflon tape. The two end plates have a small SS piece welded for electrical contact. There is a reason why George Wiseman’s units cannot even reach near Faraday efficiency! Make sure that you do not follow Teros later experiments. but they turned out to be unnecessary and were not used. After taking the picture the plates were sanded with an orbital sander to expose clear metal and then cross-hatch pattern was “engraved” on the plates with a rough file attached to a wooden block. Instead of following Bob’s instructions exactly. This is to increase the active surface area of the plates and seems necessary for ultra high efficiency. It wasn't until after he told Bob he was using the George Wiseman book for plate prep instructions that Bob found out why it was failing. so he used that. Other methods to increase plate area exist as well. The end plates were cut out of 12mm thick PVC plate. Never vent your cell in a manner that will allow ambient air to enter. And make absolutely sure not to contaminate the plates with any type of solvent or cleanser. store it in an airtight container. A valve and gas hose connector was epoxy glued to the ¼” tapped hole in both plates. follow the right instructions. NaOH and KOH will absorb carbon (CO2) from the air. which will poison the catalyst layers that form on the plates. Of course. little to no hydroxy gas production. he thought that the plate preparation advice in George Wisemans book was better. which involved drilling staggered liquid equalization holes in the plates. The PVC sheet is originally designed for door material for large room-size refrigerators. A ¼” pipe thread was tapped in a 11. The valve was lined up with gas vent hole in SS plates. but makes electrolyte refilling and level equalization significantly easier. The size of the plates was 200mm x 240mm.due to current leakage between cells. The first several times that Tero assembled this design given to him by Bob Boyce. NOTE: When the electrolyzer stack is tightened . and follow them "to the letter" this time. he did not tell me this for a long time. the unit began to work as it should. he made those mistakes. That led to losses of efficiency that crippled the unit from ever breaking Faraday performance levels. If you want something to work right. Bob told him to go back and read his instructions. If you must store mixed electrolyte. When he did. Make sure you properly prepare the plate surfaces prior to assembly. Eight 8mm holes were drilled for M8 size stainless steel through-bolts.

It would be wise to use a non-return valve between the electrolyzer and bubbler to prevent bubbler water being pushed back into the electrolyzer in case of backfire.Terro meets Bob Boyce Bro Andrew Plate cell design . Some form of metallic bracing should be used to prevent bending or the end plates made out of thick stainless steel plate. This softened the PVC gaskets and allowed the stack to be tightened up even further to provide an excellent seal. After initial tightening the electrolyzer was submerged in hot tap water (about 60 C) with the gas vent valves closed. The two PVC end plates are clamped together with 70mm long M8 stainless steel bolts with Nyloc nuts. The finished electrolyzer is shown below. Videos. The electrolyzer may be filled with slightly acidic water (use vinegar) to neutralize any residual NaOH vapors in the output gas. The finished electrolyzer equipped with a bubbler is shown below.up the PVC end plates tend to bend and bulge. Note that the 12mm PVC plates are quite soft and some bulging is visible. The bubbler is absolutely essential to prevent backfires from blowing up the electrolyzer. Two additional bolts would have been useful to equalize the bolt forces more evenly around the plates.

n n n + n n n -) = 3 volts. 13 plates = (. inches = 3. . 1.8 volts being ideal.4 volts.ie the thickness of the end plates and the SS/ gasket stack. – Bro Andrew.n n n n n + n n n n n -) = 2 volts between the plates.7 volts. Andrews plates are 2. Baby Bob Boyce Cell by Peter This is a 7 cell true series configuration (no water equalization holes) with outside perspex dimensions of 130mm by 155mm by 57mm. in this case 6mm dia nylon.5" x 6 = 15 sq. Peter first measured everything on the cell . into a 4" ID cell tubing. 15 plates = (.75 volts.5 . but that will not fit at . and then created it in a CAD program.n n n n + n n n n -) it will be 2. go for lower voltage between the plates. Andrew mentions that he would like to go 13. It involves a drilled plastic tube.125" spacing.n n n n n n + n n nn n n -) = 1. The Bro Andrew design is a 9 plate cell (. I can fit 11 plates max.Quote-If you want to get away from any heat. I making a 11 plate cell (.1.

93V-1.5A and had steadily risen to 2.8A voltage 13. Plate size is 100mm by 125mm.4Lpm over three tests and was sufficient to give a 25mm flame on an unmodified 21gauge hypo needle.9A with the weaker solution.87V-1. Actual voltages are from pos side 1. Plates were conditioned as per Bob Boyce recommendations 3days cleanse 3days condition with 5% solution and been running it only a day with the 22% solution.88V-1. It was an easy matter to transfer the measurements to the tube which he inserted in the back of the cell ( gas coming out the front).90V with 13. now occasionally touching the 4A mark with the stronger stuff. . Screen print from the measurements in CAD The control circuit for the pump motor. MTP6N60E-D Is the power FET device used for pump control. Wiring was looped through a drilled 3mm hole on the corner of the plate and soldered.47 V (recorded across the cell).05V of each other. The FET came out of an old 14" monitor with its own heat sink. Ambient temp was 25C max temp recorded on the center plate was 51C after 2hrs amps was 3. voltages were within 0.This gave consistent 400ml per minute or 0. with a gasket width of 10mm. Electrolyte he is using is caustic soda flake 22% by weight (30grams to 136CC's) which peter then filtered before pouring in the cell. One plate wetted area is 73sq cm to give a total area of 1022 sq cm.88V-1.88V-1.Pump driven water fill in the left via a check valve. hence the "baby bob" name. there is no pin out diagram in the datasheet so peter included the pin diagram in the washer control diagram.88V-1. Total run time is about 7 days.27V across the pos and neg. it started out at 1.

Here is a photo supplied by open source engineer Dave which makes use of a clever auto re fill design The Bob Boyce Brute Force DC 101 Plate cell . usually a 1/4 turn to take up the slack.Also with tightening the stack when hot caused overall dimension to reduce from 32mm at the start to 27mm after 3 tightening sequences. Peter is guessing the vinyl spacers didn’t all compress equally which might account for some discrepancies.

If you’re using this cell in a Ute and have a large amount of space then the plate size may be selected by allowing from two to four square inches of area on both sides of each plate. We will be Using a diode “bridge” of four diodes to convert the stepped up AC output of the inverter back into pulsing DC and produce this electrical arrangement. we will need to use a 60 hertz 110 Volt inverter. The inverter also needs to be mounted securely. To get this higher voltage.Bob’s Prius modification This cell makes use of 101 plates. Bob has found that to attain the highest efficiency pulsing. This unit has 101 metal plates and 100 separate bodies of electrolyte. . The electrolyzer and bubbler must never be installed in the passenger area of the vehicle. Each side of every plate is in a different electrolysis cell so a 6-inch by 6-inch plate will have 36 square inches on each face and so would carry between 36 / 4 = 9 to 18 amps of current. as the shock-wave is so fast that permanent hearing damage would be a serious possibility.5 volts DC with 316L grade stainless-steel electrode plates.5 x 100 = 150 volts DC to attain the maximum pulsed output. also it will be limited by the allowable current which is able to be generated by the battery and replenished by the cars alternator system. The choice of the amount of applied current is up to the builder. The alternating Current will be converted to pulsing Direct Current by passing the output through four diodes called a ‘Diode Bridge’. The width of a 100-cell electrolyser is about 20 inches. The bubbler must have pop-off caps are provided and a second protective outer housing is provided. one suggestion is to have it in the stream of air drawn in to cool the radiator. Bob is using a 6” x 6” plate size. This works out as the following: 1. This system uses straight DC electrolysis where the battery is connected directly across the electrolyser. the best performance was in the application of 1. The spacing between the plates is 3 mm (1/8 inch) and the plate thickness is 16 gauges (1/16 inch). The inverter will use a 12 Volt DC input and generate a 110 Volt AC output. bare in mind this will have to be matched by the inverter size and cost. per amp of current.

not the nominal AC voltage. Video’s Bob Boyce hydroxy cell .Brasov . being driven into the electrolyser incase of an explosion in the bubbler mounted beside the engine. You must have a one-way valve as shown between the two bubblers. This will mean that the pulsing DC has a voltage peak of just over 150 volts for the nominal 110 volt AC output from the inverter. you must calculate using the rectified and filtered DC voltage. is typically 150 to 160 VDC. when rectified and filtered. For the voltage on a large AC powered unit. A nominal 120 VAC power source.Romania 14 LPM hydroxy cell Bob Boyce design . this is to prevent the water in the bubbler mounted beside the electrolyser.The following mains voltage is quoted is an average figure (“root-mean-square”) which has a peak voltage of 41% more than that.

& and insuring an airtight seal of your generator box). Understanding your generator with all of its facets.2 Notes by Fiditti The 61 plate box is Bob Boyce hydrogen on Demand system using with 6”X6” Plates. Electronics to drive the generator .14 LPM hydroxy cell running small engine The Bob Boyce 61 Plate cell by Larry An example of a 61 plate cell done by Larry Video’s Bob Boyce Cell pt. Distilled water delivery system. Among other things. (i. a lot of interest. 5 psi pressure switch.e. One or two bubbler systems Piping for hydrogen. Wiring of system electronics. a genuine commitment to finishing the project. water shutoff valve. a lot of time. Tweaking of the system for the proper gas flow. and Strong platform to securely support your . proper insulation of plates to insure functionality. a lot of money. proper gas delivery system. Tweaking of the electronics for the proper frequency to get the highest efficiency hydrogen production. This is a multi faceted assembly. and you take it step by step.: sealed cells enclosed in one box. proper water dispensing system. Distilled water storage system.1 Bob Boyce Cell pt. you will need to understand the following: Impco carburetor gas delivery system. . a great mind. This is a fairly straight forward system to understand but a system quite difficult to fabricate unless you have really big ideas.

efficiency and total surface area. your generator is going to be heavy so it will need a good support. 81 Plate System: An 80 plate system will actually need 81 plates. The Electrolyte (Lye) What concentration of lye in solution is optimal for electrolysis with 81 plate is 28% Potassium Hydroxide by weight in water using distilled Water only. The sensor circuit can easily be built yourself. Water Sensor Valve: The water-level sensor can be just two wires down the side of the case. Bubbling air through cells to dislodge the gases compounds the issue of lost plate surface area. The reasons are simple. I suggest you ask the question to the Groups in general and do a search on Google. plus Eighty-one plate thicknesses (just measure the stack). Frequency Modified Inverter an adjustable frequency modified pseudo-sine wave inverter can be used for the drive electronics. The first plate and last plate are the only ones hooked up electrically. or two bolts through the case (the bottom of the upper one being at the required water level).Red Devil Lye or (Potassium Hydroxide) Potassium Hydroxide is more efficient but also more dangerous. plus Two end gaps of about 1" plus Two thicknesses of the housing material Valves & Switches: Suppliers of valves. The length of the case is not critical and it will be about the sum of: Eighty 3 mm gaps.Plastic box to contain the plates / (1/2” or greater thickness Plexi-glass) Plate Spacing 1/8" spacers to keep the rows of plates apart. GENERAL QUESTIONS YOU’LL NEED TO UNDERSTAND (81 Plate System With 6”X6” Plates) was used with a modified inverter setup of 600 Hz to 800 Hz. . depend on where you live.generator within the engine compartment. then the width of the casing needs to be such that the 6" wide plate just fits into the groove you cut in the case side. Optimum Distance Between Plates: 3mm / (1/8") seems to be the best compromise between I*R losses and bubble passage. Bob used 61 of the 6" square plates to give a large surface area and scoured the surfaces with coarse sandpaper in an "X" pattern to give a fine crosshatch grain to add fine sharp points. The inside depth of the case will be about 1" more than the height of the plates. Optimal Stainless Steel: Stainless Steel (316 or 316L) Optimum # of Plates: Bob tends to prefer 81 plates / cells for rectified 120 VAC source operation. Plastic Box . I found this improved efficiency as well. Electrolyte NaOH .: If you use 6" x 6" plates. Remember. etc. Dimensions Info.

but hydrogen has a much higher flame propagation speed so the copper mesh may not be reliable enough to risk using. Never use glass containers for mixing or storing potassium hydroxide! The unit does not use "normal brute force" electrolysis when operating in high efficiency mode. I coined the term "electrochemical reaction" to describe the process and I called the chamber an "electrochemical reactor".:Bob built a bubbler from a large home cartridge type water filter housing to prevent any backfire from traveling back up the fuel feed to the unit. Holes in Generator Box The top of the box had two threaded ports. He was running small engines before. Matting For Prevention of Sloshing: Under the top cover sitting on top of the plates I cut a piece of plastic matting to prevent sloshing. The carb will have to be modified for hydrogen use (different mixture rate than propane) and adjusted with the system running for best performance. small one for injecting replacement distilled water larger one for extracting the vapor. . Without some sort of bubbler you run the risk of the unit exploding if a flame front from the engine flows back to it. Place the unit close to the engine to limit the amount of monoatomic loss to diatomic recombination and feed the fuel vapor to the vapor portion of an LP carb system. 5 PSI Cutoff Switch: Bob placed a 5 PSI cutoff switch in a tee on the water injection port that shut the drive electronics down when the pressure in the unit hit 5 PSI. It relies mainly on a chemical reaction that takes place between the electrolyte used and the metal plates. be very careful of materials! Make absolutely sure they are compatible with the electrolyte used. This allowed the unit to be able to supply on demand without building up too much pressure in low demand situations.Bob recommends using 81 plates now. It's very important to keep the total electrolyte level at or below the tops of the plates to prevent voltage from bypassing any cells and creating excessive water vapor. which is maintained by electrical energy applied and stimulated into higher efficiency by the application of multiple harmonic resonances which help to "tickle" the molecules apart. I used multiple cells in series to lower the voltage per cell and limit the current flow in order to reduce water vapor production. DO’s NOT DO’s!: Whatever you do. It relies on the large surface area of the total number of cells to get the required volume of fuel vapor output. I have seen copper mesh screens designed for welding gasses offered for use on plans I seen years later online for similar devices. Bubbler Info.

voltages. electrolyte temperature. An inch would probably be better. The stepped sine wave output was fed through a bridge rectifier which turned each stepped sine wave into two positive stepped half waves. Attn:The frequency does vary a bit as to what electrolyte is used. Distilled Water .320 square inches of surface area. plenty of surface area to produce enough fuel for an automotive engine. etc. The Electrolyte Level. spaced 1/8" apart. Each of these half waves had 8 steps. The result was a pattern of 3 interwoven square waves rich in harmonics that produced optimal efficiency. so a single cycle was turned into 16 steps. through the bridge rectifier.When the original controller was stolen at the first break-in.800 hz. When he had the basics figured out he realized that he could just replace the custom controller/driver unit with a modified inverter much easier than building one from scratch. was still rich in harmonics. to create 60 cells in series.In Bob’s first prototype of this design. That gave 4. The desired effect is caused by the multiple harmonic resonances in the inverter output at higher frequencies. The resulting output. applied to the end plates only. the specific gravity of the electrolyte solution (how much electrolyte to water is in the mix). he used a custom built controller/driver that gave me a lot of adjustability so I could experiment with multiple frequencies. water purity. Response: Must be maintained at least ½” below top of plates at all times. The frequency range can change depending on the number of steps in the pseudo-sine wave of the inverter you choose since not all inverters are created equal. and waveforms individually and compare performance. with the 130 VDC power from the inverter.Distilled water was used to prevent contamination of the electrolyte which would result in reduced performance and efficiency. Controller Frequency. .800 hz. for an 81 plate system Bob favors an adjustment of 600 . and I found it much easier to dial in resonance than trying to tune 3 separate frequencies. Now. while not consisting of intermixed square waves. he then experimented using a 300 watt pseudo-sine wave inverter that had been modified so the base frequency could be adjusted between 700 . You will knowwhen you hit resonance by the dramatic increase in vapor output. Keep in mind that my electrochemical reactor tank was large enough to hold 61 plates of 316 grade stainless that were 6" X 6" each.Electrolyte level must be kept below the tops of the plates to prevent any current from bypassing the plates and creating excess water vapor through heating.

Water consumption was fairly slow so it was not hard to keep track of manually. rubber O-Rings rubber o-ring gaskets inside and out. Prevent Sloshing There was a mat of interwoven plastic fibers (air conditioner filter material) cut and fitted on top of the plates to help prevent sloshing. Electrolyte Level Sensor.Tweaking of gas flow while dialing in the inverter frequency. Tack welded to 316 grade stainless bolts that were through holes in the ends of the container. Each horizontal bar is a plate and the | + and . which could cause a severe reaction with some electrolytes. I made up this crude top view sketch with notepad.Tweak Gas Flow.There was a PVC spray bar attached on the inside of the chamber to the water injection port with tiny holes drilled along its length on the underside to supply replacement water evenly to the cells when the water pump was switched on.Inverter output was to be switched on and off to the plates by a 5 PSI pressure switch on the side of a tee at the water injection port. above liquid level. PVC Spray Bar. Back-flow Prevention Valve. like potassium hydroxide. Not clear about how this is accomplished yet! I speculate that this has something to do with adjustment of the throttle needle valve during idling. (pos) plate |# +------------------|--------------------+ |______ ____________|____________________| 1 |_______________________________________| 2 |_______________________________________| 3 |_______________________________________| 4 .Make sure to use plastic and not fiberglass mat. Mechanical Details.I had 316 grade stainless wires tack welded to the tops of the end plates.are the container walls except for the | in the ends which denote the electrical connections from the end plates to the outside of the chamber.It was originally planned to add an electrolyte level sensor arrangement to automate the addition of replacement water but that point was never reached. You may have to paste it into notepad for theends to look right.A back-flow prevention valve on top of the tee would keep the gas from flowing back into the water lines. Switching On Inverter.

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Circuit Module: The pulsing module is superior to a modified inverter and used instead. just drill holes in it. Fuel Injected Car Conversion: Should be straightforward. We doubled it up for strength. plus the inserts. so total wall and bottom thickness is 1 1/8" while the ends and top are 3/4" total. Any method of strong mounting will be ok. but Bob knows best. just adapt to where you intend to mount the unit in the engine compartment. Hydrogen Transfer Tubing:I think flexible steel reinforced piping.|_______________________________________| 55 |_______________________________________| 56 |_______________________________________| 57 |_______________________________________| 58 |_______________________________________| 59 |_______________________________________| 60 |_______________________________________| 61 +------------------|--------------------+ | | (neg) -Bob Boyce Hydrogen Generator Box: The plexi was supposed to be 1/2". Any plastic pipe will do.They should have been 1" and 1/2" respectively. Generator Incoming Water Dispensing Pipe: The pipe is not self-sealing.Bracket on the 1st Plate in Electrolyzer: The brackets are just shown as mounting lugs. remember that the electrolyser is heavy as it is full of water and metal. Spiral Electrodes Designs . You block off one end and the water pump seals off the other end.

Other web sites detailing cell designs http://waterfuel. A detailed back round on construction of this project and current results can be found on Ant’s OU forum project page.t35.com/own_electrolyser.htm Advanced resonant pulsed DC hydroxy booster designs.Stabilized hydrogen / Brown gas / Rhode's gas / Oxy hydrogen / Hydrogen oxygen / HHO / di-hydroxy / hydroxy / green gas / aquygen / watergas / Klein gas (HHO gas or Klein gas is another oxyhydrogen mixture made by water electrolysis. In place will be the abbreviations of the atoms as “H H O” with spaces HOH or hydroxy. . the trademarked “HHO gas” will not be used to describe the process. For the purpose of this write up.AntDavison’s spiral electrolyzer based on the Shigeta Hasebe design Should you decide to try these spiral electrolyzer designs the following walk through provided by Ant Davison may be useful in constructing the electrodes.html http://www. including Ravi’s/ Daves Lawton and Bob Boyce are covered in separate documentation on the Panacea university site.com/ http://www3.It is also compared to what inventor Santilli claims to have developed. Note all respective trademarks belong to their respective owners. Faculty information Hydroxy associated Names .oupower.telus.net/chemelec/Projects/Hydrogen/Hydrogen. being novel fuels he calls MagneGas and MagneHydrogen. which has been trademarked by Aquygen) .

which was derived from the Greek words “hydro” and “genes. As a result of a temperature increase. When power is first applied to an electrolyser. an increase in the current will flow through the electrolyser which will further heat up the electrolyte even more. highly flammable diatomic gas with the molecular formula H2. tasteless. the concentration of electrolyte is used in order to help regulate or “control” the current. The conditioning of the electrode pates will be discussed in more detail below. it will begin operation with a low temperature. The same is for the case for oxygen atoms. hydrogen is a colorless. nonmetallic. It is represented by the symbol H. This current flow will then break the bonding of the water molecules and convert the H2O into hydrogen H and oxygen O. this means we don't have to add any energy because the molecules are already in their simplest and highest energy atomic form.”In 1800 the English scientists William Nicholson and Sir Anthony Carlisle discovered that applying electric current to water produced hydrogen and oxygen gases.Hydrogen is the chemical element with atomic number 1. This process was later termed “electrolysis. The principle aim is to produce this current efficiently and to control it as accurately as possible. “meaning “water” and “born of. odorless. Antoine Lavoisier gave hydrogen its name. This means that a "perfect" hydroxy flame can have 3." 1807 . will join up with another H atom to form H2 called “diatomic” hydrogen. .8 times the possible 'heat' energy that an "ordinary" H2 and O2 flame has (442.Hydroxy gas production in a brute force DC electrolyser is reliant on current flow through the “conditioned” plates. At standard temperature and pressure.Yes 1807 Francois Isaac de Rivaz of Switzerland invented a first internal combustion engine to be used in an automobile he designed. Hydrogen (H) on its own is “monatomic” hydrogen and if given the right conditions. When an increased amount of current is applied to the electrolyser there will result an increased amount of gas production. In a hydroxy booster. After a longer run time the electrolysis will increase the temperature of the electrolyte. Hydroxy gas sometimes referred to as “Brown’s Gas” is one of the various forms of hydrogen. It used a mixture of hydrogen and oxygen for fuel.4 Kcal/115. Hydroxy gas is a mon-atomic hydrogen (H) and mon-atomic oxygen (O) flame.7 Kcal).

There are various construction designs and ways of connecting hydroxy cells.24 volts on each “plate” will go on to be wasted and heat the electrolyte. IE-using KOH or NaOH as an electrolyte with distilled water has nothing to do with sludge production.4 watts.24 volts through the cell.24 less than 13.24 volts. This has nothing to do with the electrolyte or water quality.5 volts x 10 amps = 125 watts. potassium hydroxide (KOH) is used with distilled water inside an electrolysis cell. This extra voltage applied to the cell is calculated to be around 1.5 volts. In the case where the car is . Red oxidized sludge will also result from “cooking” the electrodes with a voltage higher than 3 volts. current will flow through the water and electrolyte mix moving from one electrode to the next. Therefore there is excess power heating up the electrolyte at about 12. This is a very inefficient process which shows that we are wasting around ten times the power being used to produce gas. therefore it will be necessary to apply about 2 volts to the plates on each side of the cell. In an example of using a hydroxy cell in a car which is drawing 10 amps of current and using 1.The dynamics of a cells operation as it pertains to being used in an automotive system will be illustrated by the following. If our applied voltage across the plates goes over 1. In this case. After a voltage is applied.24 volts equals to 12. The alternator provides this extra voltage to drive current into the battery. which equals about 12. There will also a result a voltage drop across the plates. Whilst the engine is running typically the voltage at the battery is at about 13. this will produce no increase in the rate of gas production.8 or 14 volts. Any extra voltage above 1.8. 10 amps x 1.

it is an efficient and cost effective design that's suitable for 1-2 hour trips. There tubular series connected cell. IE. . The voltage that’s applied in an automotive system is at a relatively fixed value.23% of the expected Faraday output. with 6 or 7 plates) is more efficient than an open bath design. The following results we conducted and published on the misfit Jackie web site. The reasoning for this is discussed in further detail below. So far empirical tests have shown that gas production improves until the KOH concentrations reaches 28% (by weight).The reason why people would consider construction of an open bath is because it does require more skill to build a proper series cell. 7 series cells will produce the highest possible efficiency. series cell and step gap which will be discussed later. in other words. It is therefore necessary to regulate the current flow to the cell by various concentrations of KOH in the electrolyte and the plate area. increasing the concentration will result in a reduction in the rate of gas production.running off 12 volts. a series cell and a tubular design.g. where as the proper 7 series cell design’s produce between 89-99% efficiency. Researchers have recently done some comparisons between a series cell and the open bath design.8+ volts. If you study the results you will see that the Smack’s type cell will only produce 45. An independent researcher has recently done a very thorough test on a Smack’s open bath design and found that the booster reached a temperature of 90 degrees in less than 2 hours. This does not take any thing away from the Smacks booster. The most common designs of boosters are the open bath design. and optimum concentration can best be found by trial. plus the plate area of the electrolyser is fixed. for the same amount of amps consumed a series cell will ALWAYS produce more gas than an open bath cell. 6 cells connected in a row across the battery will produce the highest possible efficiency. Note the electrolyte of choice is ONLY KOH and NaOH. Above this density. From empirical testing it has shown that a properly built series cell (e. In the case where an engine is running and providing almost 13. A series cell is less likely to overheat because it has less current leakage and it is the current leakage that causes overheating.The Smack's booster step gap design. Thus a low concentration of KOH is ideal.

hence series cells are desirable as they cut the voltage down by the number of cells used. Basic electronics can explain this. now you have a 2 or more lane highway. while still not too expensive or difficult to construct. the most efficient and reliable cell which is least likely to overheat after several hours of operation. V=IR is the formula used to determine the values. The formulas specific to each circuit are derived from this formula. but unless you have a low voltage power supply. Voltages across each component add and equal the applied voltage of the circuit. they are very inefficient. The idea is to assimilate the best of both worlds. Consider the following configuration: . Further differences in cells which are connected either in a series or parallel can be explained as the following. A series circuit has all its components in line. Current is equal through all series components. Parallel cells are easy to make. one behind the other.Most are content to concentrate on a series cell as the science of boosters dictate that it is the most efficient.e. Currently a good alternative to a 7 series cell for 4 hour operation have been obtained by using a tubular cylindrical design which is detailed with all designs in the booster design section. Parallel circuits are kind of opposite. i. The Smack’s design uses both series and Parallel concepts together. As explained earlier anything over 2V will create waste heat. All voltages in a parallel circuit are equal to the applied voltage. Current on the other hand is divided amongst the components and when added up equal the total current of the circuit. Instead of a train. There are R and D efforts in effect to identify a series cell design that is easier and more cost efficient to build than an open bath. like a train.

This will not produce allot of gas production.Above is a 7 plate series ISOLATED cell. . this “step gap” is large which means there will be only one resulting area where gas generation is possible. it is calculated that an estimated 65% of the power in (20A) will heat the electrolyte. it’s calculated that 38% of the power can go to heat the electrolyte. In this design there will be 7 separate gas producing areas from all plates. This produces a gas output between each one of those sets of plates. The open bath electrolyser design like the Smack’s Booster. More Faculty information on Smacks booster operation will be included further below. In the first example we will begin by a simple two plate arrangement. In this 7 plate series connection all of the current flows through all of the seven set of plates. Note the pockets of electrolyte are isolated from each other. The Smack’s Booster design (not including Smack Gen II) has only four pairs of plates. The gas flow and efficiency in a series 7 plate cell can be shown by Panacea’s series cell. gives the current the option of bypassing the central plates and “skipping” direct to the final plate. In the case of a 7 plate isolated cell design.

in the following two plate area there is just one area of electrolysis. A plate which affords 20 square inches of area on each face. I = E/R The amount of measured resistance of the total circuit divided into the total amount of DC voltage applied to the circuit will give you the total current the circuit will draw. The above examples is using 5” x 4” (20 inches) plates which are spaced 3 mm (1/8 inch) apart in order for the best gas-producing performance. so the hydroxy electrolysis will take place on both sides of the central plate in each isolated compartment. Electrolysis will take place in the gaps between the plates.In straight brute force DC only electrolysis. . In the three plates section of the cell. will allow up to 10 amps of current in the electrolysis area. the amount of current it will draw is determined by Ohms law. there are two inter plate spaces.

there are three inter plates spaces so the electrolysis will be taking place on both faces of the two inner plates in isolated compartment. so this will allow a current of up to 20 amps through the electrolyser. In the case of four plates in cell.With the three plates the electrolysis area in this cell will amount to 40 square inches. With the two plates in the cell facing . this will allow up to 30 amps to be passed through the cell. The electrolysis area of the electrode plates adds up to 60 square inches.

Working plate area is 40 square inches. On top of this. In the Panacea case we are dealing with 13. This is an undeniable fact of physics. it produces reduced leakage and current losses. plate 2 to plate 3. one between each of the outer plates and the inner middle plate. and the increased spacing at key points. then alternatives are sought. In a true series cell. In the open bath design. the cells are properly sealed off from each other so that electrolyte cannot freely flow from one cell to another. even if there are zero leakage current flows. the applied voltage is evenly divided between the cells because the surface area is even. The best solution is a true series cell design that has near zero leakage current. In summary. When this is not possible due to space or cost constraints. This current leakage results in reduced efficiency and also the water heating up rapidly and eventually overheating problems. It relies upon the higher I*R losses of a more dilute electrolyte mix. there will always be some electrolyte heating from the I*R losses within each cell. With three plates in this cell. There are three gas producing working gaps (plate 1 to plate 2. Overheating and electrode corrosion will come from to a high a voltage per cell. Use seven cells in a single row.8 or 14 volts produced by the cars alternator. while not a true series cell. The significant difference between the above 7 series cell example and the Smacks open bath design is that in a true series cell electrolyzer. In the case of the Smack Booster. This design will give a decent amount of gas and no significant heating. Series cell and Smack’s step gap summery. High amperage with seven cells isolated in series will have little heating of the electrolyte and allow a stable operation. electrolyte conductivity adjusted to peak of conduction (lowest I*R losses). the electrolyte can freely flow in between adjacent electrodes. and the cell count set to exactly match the supply voltage at the desired per-cell voltage. With four plates of the Panacea cell. Both sides of the inner plate will have active working surfaces. and we are using both sides of each plate. there are two of these active gaps. the cell plates are 5" x 4" meaning that 20 square inches of plate area will be available for effective electrolysis. just about all the electrolysis takes place between the two active faces positioned close to each other. it does use a clever stepped-gap design that when coupled with a lower than normal electrolyte concentration. each with 2 volts across them. The solution is to minimize these losses. plate 3 to plate 4) and the working plate area is 60 square inches. to . This will result in a significant current leakage around the edges of the electrodes. at all times that power is applied there will be heating of the liquid from I*R losses in leakage current flows.each other. there are two inner middle plates. Heating will always occur unless each and every pocket of electrolyte in each and every cell is fully electrically isolated from one another.

is the point above which stainless steel electrodes begin to measurably deteriorate during electrolysis. The tradeoff is higher I*R losses in the desired current flow paths.5 to 15 amps A plate 6" x 6" has a face area of 36 sq. 3rd. To start out he did multiple tests. requiring more and more voltage to meet the water / metal potential loss. The following test was conducted to reinforce his ideas plus expound further to include the high voltage information. and can carry 9 to 18 amps A plate 9" x 6" has a face area of 54 sq. . in. All tests are done with the same 5 plate generator (+nnn-) the KOH concentration varied but only to set a constant amp setting of 30 amps due to (foreshadowing)the FACT that gas production is absolutely and completely relative to amps. in. and can carry to 13. the power efficiency of stainless steel electrodes begins to drop rapidly. A flat plate has the same area on each face. and can carry 7. Recently further test to surface area were conducted on the hydroxy forum. Above that. He since proved himself wrong with further tests.24volts @ 30 amps = 1/2 gallon per minute. An engineer intended to experiment with voltage and sizes of hydroxy generators.5 to 27 amps A plate 12" x 12" has an area of 144 sq. 4th -56volts @ 30 amps = 1/2 gallon per minute. Note the “nnn” are floater plates or “neutral” and are explained below in more detail. Which lead him to believe that the wattage was the determining factor. and can carry 36 to 72 amps These currents are for the least plate wear and can be exceeded if you choose to do so. i produced 1/2 gallon a minute. 2nd -12volt vehicle ran which tests at 13.5v @ 25 amps and only produced a little over a liter per minute. Another other limit he also mentioned. He states it is a point in the bell curve of applied power vs power efficiency. This has been partially offset by closer cell spacing in the desired cells. 1/2 amp per square inch. in. in. which concentrates most operational current in those locations. Referencing the area of just one of those faces: A plate of 5" x 4" will have a face area of 20 square inches and can carry 5 to 10 amps A plate 6" x 5" has a face area of 30 sq.minimize leakage current heating losses. 1st -12volt car charger powered on the 40 amp setting which puts out @15v and 30 amps. That 1/4 amp per square inch figure come from Bob Boyce.

We are talking about variance of tenths or even hundredths of a volt per cell. start varying voltage on a running cell stack with high concentration electrolyte. 12v @ 30amps @ 1/2 gal = 98 degrees temp from ambient temp 24v @ 30amps @ 1/2 gal = 108 degrees 56v @ 30amps @ 1/2 gal = 120 degrees 120 @ 30amps @ 1/2 gal = 132 degrees 240 @ 30 amps @ 1/2 gal = a whapping 168 degrees All of these tests were at one minute. very hard to read sometimes in poor efficiency units of low cell count. Now. it would be very hard for you to even see a 5% change in efficiency. In order to measure this the easiest.85% overall change. that same 5% change in efficiency is a 10% change. and excess voltage. 6th. The IR losses of dilute electrolyte. makes it so much harder to tell the difference in metal / liquid voltage drop at the electrode surfaces. that it is much better to use less voltage and higher concentration electrolyte to decrease losses that manifest as waste heat. Also if you’re even thinking about running higher voltage please consider the following. Amps = production. However. the report still insists that surface area is not important. and the electrolyte at maximum concentration. why would this be important if it is such a tiny amount? Using a highly accurate DVM. since a quick calculation shows that from this reported figures it is running that unit at a high of almost 37% efficiency. To say voltage is the .5th. but much easier in high efficiency high cell count units. In conclusion. But if you were running a 200% efficient series cell stack. for maximum efficiency. a little more apparent. So voltage = waste and heat flashes. you should run the cells with the voltage / current right on the edge of endothermic / exothermic.120volts @ 30 amps = 1/2 gallon per minute. In Conclusion to this Bob Boyce has stated that it is very good data collection. as it would only be a 1. and it confirms what he has been saying all along. Yet this test model is not correct for measuring the factor of surface area upon overall power efficiency. and watch how much current can swing with just a tenth of a volt of change! Look at it this way. In a cell there are multiple parts that must be diagnosed independently.240volts @ 30 amps = 1/2 gallon per minute. The application of ohms law takes further distinctions to get to the base facts.

All of this is to say that 2 cells in parallel is more efficient then one at twice the current if they are the same size plates. At 10 amps and 4.e. you only count 1 surface of 1 electrode.5 amps per sq in. and a very complex "electrochemical" impedance that has many parts. the current and voltage are simple ohms law. plates should = ~ 20 sqin / <1> platesides = 20 sq / side = <5"W x 4"H>). i. Revision of important factors The recommended target is . cleaned and conditioned see the faculty section below on plate preparation and conditioning). Plates sized for target amperage @ 2 sqinch / 1 amp (ie. double your current figure of a single surface. [ball park] A good cell at 2 to 3 LPM will use 2 Fl OZ per 500 miles. If you test your cell at 6 amps for gas out and then at 12 amps you will see that 12 is not twice as much as 6. from wires and plate material.e." If he can detect a decrease in water level in an 8 hour test at 10 amps. The Load is both simple resistance. at a current density of . the resistance in the plate and liquid become a larger factor in heat production. To the outside world.5 number is midline in the min of . and fluid dynamics produce the overall effect. It also produces a decrease in impedance within the liquid.driving force is correct only when viewing the cell from the battery terminals. when in perfect balance. which is a loss in efficiency. same square inch. Those parts. you must also count the current flowing through both surfaces. It takes a lot of work to get the surface texture right for good gas production and you will tear off all those points you carefully sanded on the plates with a noticeable decrease in efficiency. for a 10 amp system. at 20 amps over 36 to 50 sq in of plate. Within the cell. The only way to tell is by the "water usage per hour.25 and max of 1] As you get above 2 amps per sq in you are wasting a lot of the drive voltage and will begin moving a lot of metal as well as current. [Note: The .75 amps per square inch. Plates as thin as possible for the durability of the material chosen (given a caustic solution) in order to minimize plate resistance (properly crosshatched. it should use less than a fluid ounce per 30 hours of test.4 volts per cell it must be a lot of vapor. thermal dynamics. i. Water vapor tests If a cell is producing mostly water vapor and not steam. A productive design keeps the water temperature to most productive zone of 50-60 deg centigrade. If you count both surfaces of an electrode for surface area. In that size container. For surface area calculations. 2. With 24 sq inch plate area[counting one plate of one cell] it should be only 12 amps. produce almost no heat for a given current density below about . Also. As you exceed this target. chemistry. 1. it is a lot of vapor. the cell will be between 50*C and 80*C. Go higher and the reaction within the chemistry produces a lot of heat. because the same current passes through ALL active electrode surfaces in a series cell.

starving the electrolyser of its operating voltage. That is 7 isolated cells. as it can greatly increase the bubble occlusion factor.48 V per cell depending upon the actual alloy used. especially if there are any undesired "hot spots" in a cell(s). Isolated bath (the electrolyte held in each plate-gap-plate physically isolated). 2. otherwise there will be a serious voltage drop along the wire. you are not leaving yourself any safety margin to prevent erosion. The reaction voltage [voltage within the liquid] is 1. solid soldered & insulated connections and safety switches. The wiring between the cells and the plates inside the cells has to be stainless steel. At 1. . This is a 6 isolated cell booster. 6. there are four things which resist current flow: 1. severely in an extreme over-square layout 3. 4. 5.1/2 amp per square inch.47 to 1. Distance between plates of 1/8" (to allow for bubble dislodgment). The resistance to current flow between the plates and the electrolyte. of course. In your electrolyser. For SS that corrected break even (zero current flow) voltage would be 1. The resistance of the electrode plates to current flow through them. I use 1.9 to 2 volts per cell to make the system produce well and have a minimum of heat.6 volts the reacting gasses will begin to "cluster" forming large bubbles quickly. hearing and eye protection while experimenting as well as bubbler(s preferably 2).4 volts is rather the maximum single cell voltage that will be useful without producing too much water vapor. line dryers. pop-offs. The resistance of the electrolyte to current flow through it. The additional required voltage is to overcome the resistance in the plates and "kick start" the reaction. 3.1 volts. which is about 14 volts. Electrolyte at maximum concentration (for KOH that is probably around 28% by weight ) To include. the voltage must exceed that figure. The wiring to the electrolyser and between cells. Looking at these in order: 1. To pass usable current.24V. The wiring to the electrolyser needs to be thick copper wire. the recombination rate is almost equal to the production rate. 4. 2. which retards recombination. otherwise there will be heavy erosion of the wires or plates due to them acting as a battery. If you have about 1. Cell height should not be taller than the width. the ever-present proper safety precautions (for both man & machine) such as (but not limited to) full coverage clothing.

where 200 grams of pure sodium hydroxide is added to 800 cc of water. there will be a serious voltage drop across these links. Neutral or “floating” plates The term neutral is confusing in this application. we have to accept the plate resistance as an unavoidable resistance to current flow. The resistance to current flow through the electrolyte alters dramatically with the concentration of the electrolyte. when the electrolyser is fully assembled and operating. The resistance caused by the interfaces between the plates and the electrolyte is often overlooked but is very important the material with the lowest resistance here is 317L-grade stainless steel but it generally costs too much to be used and 316L-grade is the next best material. so those wires need to be thick. "lye" or "caustic soda") the optimum mix is 20% by weight. Physically they are neutral since there is no "direct" electrical connection from the source (although the electrolyte . very low resistance connections whether they are welded or bolted. If. These concentrations should give you too much current flow through your electrolyser and normally. Â This resistance is reduced dramatically by building up a bronze-colored catalytic layer on the surface of the plates. The connections at the ends of the wires are critical and these connections need to be high-quality. it should give an indication if voltage starvation is the problem and the wiring needs attention. That catalytic layer produces a dramatic difference to the cell performance. It may well be that your NaOH is far from pure and that it is causing weak-electrolyte problems. 2. For sodium hydroxide (NaOH. the current needs to be kept down by using a PWM circuit or a Constantcurrent circuit. for potassium hydroxide (KOH or "caustic potash") the optimum concentration is 28% by weight where 280 grams of KOH is added to 720 cc of water. 3. otherwise. To achieve this coating. The fact that you are not getting enough current through your electrolyser indicates a problem with one of the items described above.The wiring connections are high on the list of possibilities. There is nothing much we can do about the resistance of the plates themselves. 4. the voltage across each cell should be a constant.Stainless steel is a poor conductor of electricity. other than to provide 2 to 4 square inches of plate area per amp of current. The plate resistance is pretty much fixed by choosing 316L-grade stainless steel and that choice is based on years of experience of testing various plate materials. cleansing again. So. A better term would be "floating" meaning not connected directly to that input voltage. starving the cells of the voltage they need across them to work properly. so if you can connect your 14-volt power supply to just six cells. taking the safety precautions for mixing. more than a few millivolts difference between cells indicates a constructional problem. and then a conditioning process which builds up the catalytic layer. etc. the plates need to go through a lengthy process of cleansing. rinsing.

you have 7 cells with the voltage divided between the cells. The neutral plates are voltage dividers or absorbers. insulated pairs are the cells. The purpose of these plates is to divide the input voltage to get closer to 2 volts per "plate pair" which is the more accurate term for a "cell. The voltage is distributed according to the individual resistances and the current is determined by the total resistance and current is the same for all points in the string. as that is what carries the charge from one cell to the next. is that they are charges relative to the next . When those neutral plates are submerged in an electrolyte solution they DO conduct electricity over those plates and a voltage can be read off those plates so electrically they are no longer neutral. uses 2 groups of cells. the resistance [figuratively and actually] will be different and therefore the voltage also different. So to keep it simple. or set of cells better called a cell system. If room was not an issue. Connecting 12 volts up to a plate arrangement such as: ." Common terminology tends to reference the whole device as a cell. The reason for the plate pairs with a shorting "jam nut" between is to help isolate the pairs with the insulating spacer. If you have 8 plates in a row with the voltage only applied to the ends. nylon washers. these are not connected to anything and are just In the way of the real anode and cathode plates or tubes. to get the job done. It is like a string of resisters connected end to end.n n n n + n n n n -will produce about 2-3 volts between the plates or tubes. This is the most likely reason for unequal gas production within a device. In a 12 volt plate configuration it will produce 12 volts between each plates. each cell would be in a separate bath or container. The neutral plates are not directly connected to either hence the term neutral. or about 2 volts each for 14 volts applied.[ F for floater instead of n for neutral is far more appropriate] each gap between a pair of plates is a cell. The Smack cell.come into play. they resist the voltage and split up the 12 volts IN. each 4 cells in series. This looks like this + n n n n n n . "n" = neutral plates. not neutral.makes them electrically conductive) made to those plates. The conductivity of the plate is desired. This is a principle factor in running a cool cell rather than a steam producing cell. An interesting experiment has also shown how the neutral plates generate hydroxy gas. The narrow gapped. "neutral" in our case simply means there are no direct electrical connections from the source to those plates. You positive plates are connected to a positive power source and the negative plates are connected to the negative side of the power source. All the plates have voltage on them because it will be distributed across all gaps depending on how close the distances match. from each other. If the gaps are not the same. Where the + and . Neutral plate hydroxy production video Note with the term "neutral plates". every plate in a series cell is active.

So if you have 6 compartments of water between a bunch of plates and the positive on one end and the negative on the other then each cell gets 2 volts. To make the neutral plate’s work you need to have the plates go all the way to the side of the housing and seal each compartment of water off from the next. So if you don’t isolate each plate space from the other then neutral cells are counterproductive. that means that current can leak from one cell to the next.connection.in relation to the next plate over in the other direction. Each cell (plate pair) is a dipole.plate over in each direction. The electricity is mostly going to go around the neutral plates. towards the + connection. When edges are exposed. The plates are just shared poles in this string of series dipoles. Running "pure" straight voltage (Brute Force Electrolysis) through it at say 14V. one side is + in relation to the next plate closer to the . then you will have a plus plate and a minus plate separated by a wide distance with a bunch of metal in between. then the current is forced to go through the neutral plates and then they become actually active plates. the neutral plates will eat up amperage.pole(plate). then you should not separate the plates with a cell divider. and the other side is . They need to be separate cells to be effective. So while the entire plate is at one potential. An example using neutral with a series cell design . Neutral plates won’t work unless the space between the plates is isolated from the next space. If you use neutral plates. then you get more cells with the same current draw and more gas output. and has a + pole (plate) and a . produce more gas and help control temperature of the electrolyte. If you have neutral plate’s just wide open in a tank of liquid they won’t work. just think of a stack of batteries. they are in series. the plus connects to the minus of the next one and so on. bypassing the plates in between.

it can not be considered as a neutral plate as these in between tubes also takes part in gas production. If the electrolyte is isolated from tube to tube. voltage is evenly divided between the cells because surface area is even. |||||||| +NNNNNNAbove is a seven plate electrolyzer which will be more efficient below 14 Volts and won't work well below 9 Volts. however slight. The one quote recently posted showed 1.: ||||||||||||||| +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ This describes a 15 cell electrolyzer with an all parallel connection. as this varies the impedance of the tube to tube cells. Both sides of the plates are used. This reduces as you go outwards to the outer tubes. The net effect is that you have a fairly large difference in voltage distribution from inner cells to outer cells. The smaller inner tubes have less surface area so current density is higher. the voltage will be close to the same. In a tube design. This does not completely happen with tubular electrodes. Although In a true series cell.5 volts on the outside and 2 volts at the inside [check to see this is not backwards]. “Neutral” or floating plates in tubular or cylindrical designs With cylindrical electrodes the system works close to the true series cell design (you must ensure there is not much leakage from top and bottom edge of the cylinder). . the above ONLY describes the interconnection.Positive power---==--==--==--==--==--==--== Negative power---==--==--==--==--==--==--== Where positive power and negative power are connected to the two Volt supply and -is wiring and == are plates. you have a true series cell. So on the tubular case. In such a system these plates are connected in series to break the voltage in range of 2 volt per cell. For example. hence voltage and waste heating effects are higher. The concept of neutral plates is there in open bath system. The difference is totally dependent on tube area so each design will be different. if the spacing is the same. However so far it has proved to be minimal and still an effective solution. If not you have leakage losses. The differences in cells voltage is a function of the differences in area of the tubes. but it will only be efficient at below 2 Volts. The seven plates can be put in any topology.

the neutral tube does not produce as much as gas when compared with the 1st and last tube. In isolated flat plate cells. In Summery -The neutral plates are more or less just that they do not get a connection to power if in the case of an open bath type design these plates will produce gas if spaced properly and the basic concept is that of a series cell design wherein the power travels from one plate into the one next to it and then to the next and so on until it reaches the other side of the cell stack. but there is still enough to limit efficiency. The "flooded" Tero cell is a "full up" design that is actually a common bath cell. flooded cell.This is minimized by using the largest inside tube practical in the space used and the least gap between tubes. This is a flooded cell. like the plates in a smack or other open bath design are not neutral. It will pass both gas and fluid up the tube and "suck" liquid back in the return on the back if the tank level is below the booster. just floating between the parts that have power directly attached. It is a Varity of open bath that tries s to minimize the cross currents. In a plate design it is built in by design but will only be equal if no leakage currents. The likelihood of this in a tube design is slight. This primarily because when they say dry cell it is not dry but the bulk of the electrolyte is in a separate container same as the Ameba cell. For an open bath arrangement. It is a "limited communicating. meaning there is minimum communication between individual plate pairs. This reduces the effective voltage of each of the sets of plates and you would have to use the proper number of plates for a given input voltage and type of design you are building. The following are some examples. open bath. So the cell does not get immersed in water. It WILL have heat like any other common bath design. [not new]. If each cell is the same area and therefore the same voltage each gap will produce the same gas. It circulates electrolyte and the reservoir acts as a bubbler. the gas is produced most equally in each cell. it is just less efficient than the Tero WITHOUT the extra holes. The tubes. The lack of efficiency is not a mystery. It is not a bad design. Dry Cell Tubular drycell design . The top one brings electrolyte and hydroxy to a reservoir and a second line goes from the reservoir to the cell. It is a "Tero" cell (listed in the design section) with the "leveling" holes AND an external tank for a seperator/bubbler. The Open bath flooded cell design Often this design is attributed to and called a “Dry Cell” which is a total misused term.

the ionic attraction through that leakage path is stronger than the direct path through the plates. A Parallel plate arrangement is a little different as it does not matter how many plates you have in it will only require 2v and the more plates you have the More AMPS it needs. it makes it clear that it is not as simple of . +-+-+-+-+-+. For a Series cell you have a Higher Voltage Lower Amp arrangement you can build the cell for whatever V you need by adding or subtracting plates so you have ~2v per cell IE: 8 plates = 7 cells =14v (Standard in Most Automobiles when running). If there is a leakage path. then the ionic attraction of the end to end of the next 2 cells from the end is still way stronger then the ionic attraction of the cell to cell path. as in the Stepped Gap "Smacks Booster" an excellent compromise between Series performance and open bath convenience. The actual Electrolyzer can be a combination of any of these but the wrong combos will result it terrible performance. Ionic attraction The involvement of the power of ionic attraction in a cells operation can be explained as the following. If you seal only the end plate cells. Either Series or Parallel can be used in either a sealed cell or open bath but the Current in a Series cell will basically By pass the neutral plates in an open bath arrangement rendering about useless. 2) There is the OPEN Bath in which ALL Cells SHARE the SAME common bath. Other combos work great. even between a couple of cells.Summary of designs As for actual Cell Design terminology: 1) There is the SEALED Cell in that EACH Cell is physically Sealed from each other with its own water chamber(Plate Spacing). 3) There is a SERIES Plate Arrangement that works as a Voltage Divider sharing the same Current (Amps) + nnnn 4) There is the PARALLEL Plate arrangement that Divides the Current and shares the Voltage. still due to the barrier voltages of each plate surface in the path. Once you factor in the barrier voltages of each and every plate. So if you were to use a parallel plate arrangement in a 12v situation you would need to have 6 separate parallel units connected in series to bring the V into a usable range..

This can be done in a series cell with intentional leakage paths and diluted electrolyte.48 VDC for each and every "neutral" plate in the cell. Now. What is preferable is to design a . This is because it is the current flow that makes the gas in brute force.1. Now open a single hole or leakage path somewhere. as is described in the booster designs section in the example of the “Tero cell”. that barrier voltage is about 1.48 VDC = 4. With stainless steel. A little too strong electrolyte concentration and the balance is lost. at the cost of total efficiency. even though there are multiple paths of leakage. and some ions zooming through the leakage path. and you will see that a multi cell series cell with a lot of leakage becomes very inefficient.48 VDC added up. works as well as it does. Peak efficiency should always be sought in design construction and any leakage should not be an acceptable design consideration. with some ions flowing to or from the "neutral" plate. it does behave as a current divider. while dealing with the leakages by increasing distance between undesired leakage points.1. typically at or near the ends. you have 4 VDC between plates of 2 adjacent cells -minus the single surface of one plate in each of those 2 cells 1. Measuring voltage drop across multiple leaking cells will show a variation in divided voltage due to the uneven current distribution.52 VDC of potential for ionic attraction between the plates of that cell.52 VDC of potential pulling on those ions to coax it through the leakage path. Across 4 cells that ionic attraction is 6. say to the next cell. resistance is increased to the point that it tips the scale of the current divider to favor the desired path.48 VDC means there is 1. In this sealed cells by drilling holes in the plates. This is why a Smacks booster. 4 VDC . At this point. which is why it must be built and run as close as possible to the design or it fails to deliver expected results. and so on. The result is the "neutral" plate(s) work and bubble less. creating unwanted heat in the solution while doing so. But the increased I*R losses associated with higher resistance in the electrolyte solution is not desirable for high efficiency hydroxy gas production. and the leakage path make the other path surfaces bubble more. and moving desired ion paths really close together.a voltage divider as everyone assumes. Leakage across 3 cells (6 VDC applied) will have an ionic attraction potential of 6 VDC . Any current leaking past the plates will only make gas once.52 VDC potential to pull ions to the "neutral" plate in between. or about 0. and that 0. not multiple times at each and every cell. By diluting the electrolyte. If 2 VDC per cell is applied (brute force). this means about 0. Only the physical friction of the solution limits how many ions can bypass the "neutral" plate(s). Multiply it times the number of leakage paths. as compared to the 0.74 VDC per surface.52 VDC has to compete with another stronger potential.52 VDC.52 VDC.

Their relative identical position will determine where the current flows. All the plate spaces and sizes were bench tested to find the best gas production. The benefits of using a step gap means that the additional electrode plates which are not connected electrically are closely spaced and are done so in order to provide an extra gas output. Elektrik eventually settled on using four plate pairs. . The Smacks booster uses a single-bath design (single container not isolated form each other). Smack’s arrangement employs two sets of identical plate sizes.cell in order to get the most amount of hydroxy gas for the least amount of energy cost possible. This design uses a step gap. This produced the best efficiency and had a draw of about 3. Smack has added a second set of an identical number of plates to increase the plate area. This compacted design sits in a single container (open bath).45 volts across each pair of plates. Faculty information on the Smack’s Step gap The Smacks booster is a series cell connected in parallel. This will be shown with one half of the circuit.5 volts was tested to be the best setting. this is a specific case and 3. All this was discovered by Elektric through trial and error.

There will be some useful current. This step gap is made specifically as large as possible. The intent of doing this is to direct the current to only flow through the electrodes. each of them will be functioning . Elektrik will then try and direct this current flow by the spacing of the plates.8 volts. This will be at about 3. The amount of 4 plates is to divide he voltage evenly. The flow gap of 1. All the wasted leakage current will not produce gas.Above shows one half of the circuit.45 volts across each of the electrode pairs. A typical cars electrical system is about 13. This is not totally possible in this open bathed design. Although they allocated back to back. There are two of these making a total of 16 plates.6mm in the Smack’s design will put the wastage current path as long as possible. There are four pairs of 2 sets of plates. The edges of the plates are closed off to prevent any possible current paths passing through the electrolyte. these plates are series connected.

Each plate pair has a negative electrical connection on one plate and a positive connection on the other. or in the cell. Temperature: Looking at the cell some may claim that that one cannot quantify the volume of gas output due to the possible introduction of steam from boiling water. Granted that some evaporation must occur since the water is in fact heated.independently. It can be shown that water does not boil at 60C. The voltage drop is the same as a normal series resistor circuit. This is shown in the following video Temperature test In Dustin’s video it is clearly shown that that the water in the Smacks design does not boil. This series stack connected in parallel will have a steady voltage drop across the plates. but . Dustin’s (Smack) Analogy Dustin (Smacks booster inventor) has done his own tests to validate how he perceives hydroxy booster technology. There will be a current leak from one set of 4 plates to the next tho.

6 (7 plate) Voltage per cell . Smack has proven the use of SS beyond any question of a doubt by running 303/304 SS plates in his own personal unit for well over a year. Also. That was one of the most important design aspects.I Number of cells .the water is not boiling.0 Excess power to heat the water . Assumption: Electrolyzer quantity .1. It was NOT designed to be the best performing device! It was designed to be the bet performing device for the dollar. anyone who knows anything about this technology knows series isolated baths is more efficient than open cell designs.13.000 miles on the unit with ZERO plate degradation. Case .True series cell i.60 minute In the case of the above example the water should not heated up at all because there is no excess power available to heat up the water. but it is easily available. Next is the plate issue. putting 13.28 Deg centigrade Voltage applied .0 Watt Operation time . They are also more expensive and harder to construct. It is also granted that PVC is not the best container.5 liters Initial temperature .97 volts Excess voltage over 2 volt .1.8 volts Current applied . Praveen’s tests were based on his tubular cell design called the “Karma Booster” which is covered in the cell design section. The Smack Booster is the perfect compromise between cost and efficiency. But this is not the fact.10 Amps Cell type . in this case the water temperature will go up by around 10 deg centigrade in 60 minutes because of following reasons: . The unit had to be affordable and easy to build with easy to get parts. no current leakage. There are dozens and dozens of replicators out there observing the same longevity. End Heating issues and tests The following test has been done by open source engineer Praveen.e.

24 volts. Anything over 18 Deg centigrade in case II comes from the current leakage. d. But in open bath system the water temperature rise in one hour would be around 40 deg centigrade. Unequal gap between the plate so unequal distribution of voltage.a.76 Volts Excess power to heat the water .e.28)x 1000 / (60X60) T2 = 45.76-2)*4*10 Amps = 31 Watts Operation time .2.78 ~ 46 deg centigrade So with so much excess voltage the water temperature is reached only up to 46 deg centigrade from 28 deg centigrade i. c. b. However as mentioned in point (d) above the increase in temperature will have multiplying effect i. At the same time with increase in water temperature the current will rise.5 liter x 4. Case . excess voltage with more current.60 minute Considering no current leakage then the temperature of water after 60 minutes can be calculated by using following formula: Excess power = Qty of water x4.76 volts Excess voltage over 2 volt . more and more energy loss and more and more temperature rise.76-2) = 0.184x(T2-T1)x1000 / Time in Seconds 31 Watts = 1. Hence it will have double effect i. When the cell temp goes up the voltage required to break the water molecules goes down slowly up to 1.(2.e.(2. Absorption of heat from ambient. Because of this reason the Terro cell runs cool and reaches to maximum 50 deg centigrade. Somebody may ask-"WHY IS IT THAT NORMALLY TEMPERATURE DOES NOT GO BEYOND 90-95 DEG CENTIGRATE AND WHY THE TEMPERATURE RISE GET SLOW DOWN ABOVE 80 DEG CENTIGRATE"? . In this case the excess voltage will be available in the cell to heat the water.5 (6 plate) Voltage per cell .II Number of cells .184 x (T2 .e. 18 deg centigrade rise in 60 minutes.

5 cells. The importance of bubble propagation and release must not be underestimated. The Stainless steel electrodes plates are “conditioned” to prevent the bubbles of gas “sticking” or remaining on the surface of the electrodes and impeding the electrolysis process. Keep the 7 number of cells to get around 1. Of course anything above 2 volts also has an impact on heating but the main is current loss or parasitic current. the effect is too much current bunching and the result is water and electrolyte vapor production. then select the device and build it. The main usage parameter would be time of operation.76 volts. Conclusion is that the heating of the water is mainly because of the current loss in the system.This is mainly due to the higher temperature difference with ambient temperature. Again operate it for 4 hours.3 volts to the cell with around 8-10 Amps. Current is not a thing which can be hold using some stuff like plastic wrap. In third trail. while sand blasting produces "micro divets. So the booster eliminates the waste full heat to atmosphere at faster rate. Sanding in a cross hatch pattern will produce points. This can be seen by building Tero design with 6 plates i. In second trail. You will see significant heat in spite of the voltage being lower than 2 volt. make a parallel plate arrangement and apply 3. This testimony is not based on THEORY. In this case also you will not get much heat. The preferred electrode .97 volts per cell. In the extreme you will also get steam if the cell voltage is over 2 volts. Sealing the plates is not going to control the heat in the open bath system. One must understand the technology before making a booster. Run this booster for 4 hours and measure the temperature. You will not get too much heat even at 2." These divits improve surface area but do not have as big an effect on the electrolyte to plate efficiency. Again operate this booster for 4 hours and measure the temperature.76 volts per cell. they will have a positive effect. If these sites are done in the size created by 30 to 60 grit sandpaper. ambient temperature. But in any case we should not allow it go up to that level. One must decide the usage parameter before making the booster. Sharp edges = more bubble formation and easier release into the electrolyte. space in car engine compartment etc etc. Plate conditioning The actual purpose of the surface prep is to create "low resistance current sites" that greatly improve the efficiency of the electrolyte to plate interface. build a open bath system either step gap or with neutral plate. With this you will have 2. but reported results based on tests which were conducted.e. If this same "micro current bunching" is enlarged to the size of "thread edge" of a screw or sharp edges on a plate in open bath boosters. Enough bubbles being present on an electrode can prevent it from “touching” the electrolyte and stop electrolysis altogether. coca bottle etc etc.

The first option is to do this by grit blasting. Store conditioned plates in clean distilled water. Always wear rubber gloves when handling the plates to avoid getting finger marks on the plates.plates to use are made from 16 gauge 316L-grade stainless steel. There is the possibility that your stainless steel plates can be rendered useless as far as electrolysis is concerned. Allowing them to dry can cause some catalytic layers to crack. which will poison the catalyst layers that form on the plates. You must not to contaminate the plates with any type of solvent or cleanser. lowering peak efficiency. Reports state that using a 6-inch x 48-inch belt sander is great for preparing the plates with 60 or 80 grit. If conditioning is done very slowly. and at low current. usually from permanent magnets have been suggested. It is advised that there is to be between 2 and 4 square inches of plate area on every face of every electrode for each amp of current passing through the cell. Other methods include the use of piezo electric crystals attached to the plates to vibrate the plates and shake the bubbles free. NaOH and KOH will absorb carbon (CO2) from the air. When using brand stainless steel. At no time are the plates to be handled with bare hands. it will be finer and better bonded to the base metal. The reason for this. Various experimental methods to aid electrolysis and prevent the bubbles from remaining include the use of an ultrasonic transducer underneath the plates to vibrate the bubbles off the plate surfaces. Other open source engineers configure the engine suck its input air through the electrolyser in order for the air drawn through the electrolyte to dislodge the bubbles. so the catalytic layers may not be as well adhered to the base metal as they should be. care must be taken that the grit used does not contaminate the plates. Also magnetic fields. and it should be able to survive being dried out without damage. Never vent your cell in a manner that will allow ambient air to enter. If you must store mixed electrolyte. Plate conditioning needs to be done in order to “condition” your cell to produce the most gas out put. The aim here is to treat both surfaces of every plate in order to encourage the gas bubbles to “break away” from the surface of the plate. not everyone conditions at low enough current. store it in an airtight container. Wearing these gloves is very . protecting the surfaces from scratches. the new shiny surface cannot be used in an electrolyser. Use clean rubber gloves to handle the plates. Sandblasting or using an orbital sander will NOT work the same as hand sanding. This sanding is typically done by hand or on a belt sander using 60 or 80 grit sandpaper. this will need to receive careful treatment and preparation before it can produce a peak level of gas output. The surfaces need to be cross-scored with coarse sandpaper before the cleansing and conditioning process is started. The following information has been originally provided by open source engineer Bob Boyce.

ready for the next stages of their preparation. This can be done with clean tap water (not city water though.important as the plates must be kept as clean and as grease-free as possible. Diagrams courtesy of http://aquauto. Sharp points and ridges are ideal for helping bubbles to form and break free off the plates. The safe way is to score the plate surface with coarse sandpaper in two different directions to produce a cross-hatch X pattern. but only use distilled water for the final rinse. .com First sand from left to right from side to side -on the side.Then from top to bottom downwards. This is done to produce microscopic “sharp peaks” and “valleys” on the surface of the plates. Any particles created by the sanding process should now be washed off the plates. due to all the chlorine and other chemicals added).

1. Plate Preparation First, you must deeply crosshatch the plates in an X pattern. Rinse the plates clean of particulate matter. Acids or other cleansing chemicals are never to be used on the plates. The only chemicals that should EVER touch these plates are sodium hydroxide. Clean water (not city water though due to all the chlorine and other chemicals added) may be used to rinse, but distilled water only is to be used for final rinse. 2. Cell Assembly Assemble the plates into the series cell container. Mix up a dilute solution (5% to 10% by weight) of sodium hydroxide in distilled water. Pour this solution into the series cell container until the solution is just covering the plates totally. 3. Plate Cleansing During this stage, we are operating in submerged plate condition, where the liquid level is maintained just over the plates. Run this cell stack at full power for several hours at a time, which can be 4 amps or more. As the cell stack runs, the boiling action will loosen particulate from the pores and surfaces of the metal. Be sure to do this in a well vented area. Shut down and pour this solution into a container. Rinse the cells well with distilled water. Filter the dilute solution through paper towels or coffee filters to remove particulate.

Pour the dilute solution back in and repeat this cleansing process. You may have to rinse and repeat many times until the cells stop putting out particulate matter into the solution. Optionally, you can use new solution each time you cleanse, but be forewarned, you can go through a lot of solution just in this cleansing stage. When you’re cleansing is finished (typically 3 days of cleansing), do a final rinse with clean distilled water. 4. Plate Conditioning Using the same concentration of solution as in cleansing, now fill the cell stack with dilute solution. Monitor current draw. If current draw is fairly stable, continue with this conditioning phase straight for 2 to 3 days, adding distilled water to just replace what is consumed. If the solution turns color or skims over with crud, the cell stack needs more cleansing stages. After 2 to 3 days of run time, pour out the diluted solution and rinse well with distilled water. In Summary, the following is essential to get the most gas production out of your cells, do not expect to get any significant gas flow if you do ensure the following: 1. Good solid series cell design with no bypass leakage. 2. Good preparation; a) Cleanliness (wear gloves when handling electrodes). b) Thorough, uniform, and deep crosshatch sanding. c) No contamination (no cleaning chemicals used on electrodes). d) Thorough electrode rinsing with clean (distilled best) water. e) Follow thorough cleansing (base passivation) procedure. f) Follow thorough conditioning (catalytic layer build) procedure. 3. Operate unit within recommended electrolyte type/concentration. 4. Operate unit within recommended current density specifications for catalytic operation Bob Boyce plate cleansing Bob has recently stated that plate cleansing and conditioning HAS to be done with sodium hydroxide (NaOH) and can't be done with potassium hydroxide (KOH).Plate cleansing and conditioning is done with a NaOH solution from 5% to 10% in strength. A 5% solution ("by weight") is 50 grams of NaOH in 950 cc of water. A 10% ("by weight") solution is 100 grams of KOH in 900 cc of water.

Walk through conditioning by http://aquauto.com Electrode "plates" are the most common type of electrode so when you read "plates" below, I am just referring to the electrolyzers electrodes. Why do this? This process can be somewhat of a pain and take several days to do (if done properly). So why you do you want to spend the time to do this? This process will make your booster much more efficient and will help it perform the best it can. Before Starting Bob Boyce states in numerous places around the internet (see the yahoo group "hydroxy") that you should not EVER touch your plates with your hands. This will add oil's to the plates and will decrease their efficiency. Scoring Scoring is the simplest part of "preparation" process. In short, all it involves is sanding the plates vertically, then horizontally using 60-80 grit sand paper. This can be done by hand or with a belt sander. Don't use an orbital sander or sandblast the plates, they do not work the same. This will help produce very small grooves on the surface of the steel allowing more bubbles to form and makes it easier for them to break away from the surface. After sanding the plates, rinse them with clean water. Don't use tap water as it contains chemicals and can affect the ability of the plates to produce hydroxy. Finally make sure that your "last" rinse is with distilled water. Plate Cleansing To clean the plates of grease, fingerprints, etc... Thoroughly rub the plates with rubbing alcohol. Be sure to use gloves when you do this so you don't get more prints on the plates. Assemble the plates in series and place them in a container. Mix up some sodium hydroxide (NaOH) in distilled water, 5% to 10% by weight. Pour the NaOH solution in to the container until the plates are totally covered. Apply voltage to the plates of at least 2 volts per cell, but not over 2.5 volts. Also, start out pulling about 4-5 amps Temperature is more important than amps here; your system should run at 120-140 deg F for the cleansing process Shutdown the system and pour the solution into a separate container. Rinse the cells thoroughly with distilled water. Filter the previously used solution through paper towels or coffee filters to remove any particulate

Pour the solution back in too the first container and repeat step 4. Repeat steps 4 through 8 until the cell stops leaving particulate matter into the solution. When cleansing is finished (this can take unto 3 days) do a final rinse with distilled water. Safety: Only do this in a well ventilated area (such as the outdoors). The cell will be producing hydroxy gas which is explosive and can get trapped in ceilings. Note: you can use new solution every time you cleanse, but you will go through A LOT of solution. Explanation As the cell stack runs, the boiling action will loosen particulate from the pores and surfaces of the metal. This will help the electrolyzer to produce at its peak. Step by Step PDF of conditioning by Andre Shori Choice of what “grade” of water to use in a booster Rainwater, spring water, or tap water contains impurities. A typical analysis will show minerals, suspended solids and more contained in these varieties. These impurities will precipitate out of the water when subjected to electrolysis. These appear in the form of brown, black and green scum in water or any discoloration of the water itself. These impurities has a solid mass which in turn will clog up the electrodes and further impede the operation of the cell overall. Of further concern is the fact that these solids accompany known gases which mix with the hydroxy to go on to create unknown chemical reactions which are toxic to the environment. Therefore ONLY DISTILLED WATER MUST BE USED FOR THIS TASK. Electrolyte and mixing There are many different electrolytes that CAN work in an electrolysis process, but does that mean they are suitable? NO. Some common ones considered for hydroxy boost application include: KOH- Potassium Hydroxide- Used in soap making NaOH- Sodium Hydroxide- Lye- Used to open drains NaCI- Sodium chloride- Table Salt- Raises blood pressure – DO NOT USE! NaHCO- Baking Soda- Makes bubbles and poisonous gas– DO NOT USE! H2SO4- Sulfuric acid- Car battery acid- Makes bad gases and burns! – DO NOT USE!

Vinegar (5 to 10% solution of acetic acid ) – DO NOT USE! Sodium sulphate - DO NOT USE! There are many other electrolytes in the acid, base and salt families, but generally these are the common off the shelf ones considered for use in most hydroxy electrolyzers. The best choice of electrolyte is judged by its ability to remain unchanged as the reaction takes place. Note first understand what is a catalyst? An electrolyte such as he KOH acts as an ionizer for conduction of the electricity, whereas the nickel in stainless steel acts as the catalyst (hence the finish on the surface of the plates after iron is leached out). Other papers refer to nickel as a catalyst in this electrolysis process. The better the flow of electricity the better the splitting of water to a point, current is the generator of heat. Once most of the free iron has been cleansed from the cells, the KOH or NaOH combines with the nickel (and molybdenum in 316L) to form the catalytic layers. The anode and cathode each take on a slightly different characteristic patina and chemistry. KOH is a even strong base and also a bit more conductive then NaOH, so it was clearly not the way to lower amps and or reducing the heat problem. By using distilled water it must be understood that this water cannot conduct electricity on its own, therefore a catalyst is required in order to aid electrolysis. The ideal catalyst is a substance that enables the reaction to take place without becoming a part of that reaction. From empirical testing, it has been found that Potassium hydroxide (KOH) and sodium hydroxide (NaOH) are two substances that catalyze efficiently. Tests have shown that when combining distilled water with one of these two catalysts that a cleaner cell bath and more homogeneous hydroxy mix results. This results in a more efficiently operating unit thus an in improved mileage gains, performance and less emissions. Therefore KOH is what you want to use. It is the most stable, and it is not consumed during the electrolysis. So once you have your cell working at the target amperage you just need to add distilled water as the water is consumed, no more KOH. About once a month you want to use the water from your primary bubbler to replenish your cell. This will put back any of the KOH that may have been carried by pressure or steam to your primary bubbler back into your cell. Every couple of months you need to check your amp draw to confirm you haven't had any MAJOR Changes. About every 6 months it is a good idea to drain your cell and refill with fresh electrolyte. This is because as you run your booster it should get more efficient and require less KOH to get the same result.

air-tight container which is clearly labeled "DANGER! Potassium Hydroxide". This causes less power to flow. and also prevent any spillage if your mixture should “boil over”. Therefore. and use another means to control current. Current flow is limited by the increased resistance of the solution. put the lids back on you storage container. That means if you add more KOH then more conductivity and less resistance hence more current and more gas production for applied voltage and vice versa. it is just like inserting resistance in series with a cell. even at brute force DC. socks and long trousers. . Hence the concentration of KOH is directly related to the current draw / gas production. always add the KOH to the water. When working with dry KOH flakes or granules.Potassium hydroxide also known as “caustic potash” is highly caustic. the use of vinegar will neutralize the burning. rubber gloves. When mixing the electrolyte. Additionally wear a face mask which covers your mouth and nose. by adding water on the effected area will cause it to react and heat up. stirring continuously. Note that this cannot be applied to a Smacks Booster. and use a plastic container for the mixing. Always store it in a sturdy. then wash it off with allot of rinsing. Electrolyte concentration DOES have a direct impact upon maximum obtainable efficiency. If you are mixing solid KOH with water. If the electrolyte concentration is run at below peak conductivity. With the quantity of KOH / NaOH we control the current draw by the booster. Keep the container in a safe place where it can’t be reached by children. If any splashes come in contact with you. Since his design has these criteria. BUT. it cannot be improved in efficiency by increasing electrolyte concentration to peak conductivity. and if you stop stirring for any reason. Without KOH / NaOH the current does not pass through the water from +Ve to -Ve. one would want to run the electrolyte concentration at peak conduction. if one wishes to achieve peak efficiency. KOH is added into distil water to bring conductivity. and not the other way round. is wasted as heat. This needs to be handled carefully and kept away from ANY contact with skin. There results a chemical reaction between the water and the KOH which generates allot of heat. Add only a small amount of KOH (table spoon) at a time. and even more importantly your eyes. more of the power that does flow. By placing the mixing container in a larger container filled with cold water will help to keep the temperature down. such as a current regulator.Warning. preferably one which has double the capacity of the finished mixture. never use warm water. This design actually uses the increased resistance of more dilute electrolyte to obtain it's step-gap current differential. wear safety goggles. a long sleeved shirt. The mixing should be done in a wellventilated area which is not draughty as air currents can blow the dry KOH around. pets or people who won't take any notice of the label.

The following is based on an engineer’s empirical example. For that you can use a battery hydrometer . Example.com/ezrsp101.handymath.To make 1 Kg of a 28% KOH solution by weight. The total weight is always 1.s gal of h20? *roughly* 280*4*.10% KOH concentration (by weight) is so far reported and understood to be the optimum. not just "good/poor")A 28% solution of NaOH has a specific gravity (density) of 1. add 200 grams of KOH to 800 cc of water. NaOH weighs 1.cgi.cgi And http://www.com/cgi-bin/spcfgrvkoh.html Or http://www.handymath.buyhardwaresupplies.000 grams containing whatever percentage of KOH that is wanted. add 280 grams of KOH to 720 cc of water.com/cgi-bin/spcfgrv. Adjust concentration based on amperage draw. To make 1 Kg of a 20% KOH solution by weight. KOH it weighs 11 grams per heaping teaspoon.35 pounds (280 grams per liter * 4 liters * .829 g/cm3. PDF-NaOH Hand book PDF-KOH Hand book Using Baking soda as an electrolyte . To make 1 Kg of a 10% KOH solution by weight.3064 A 28% solution of KOH has a dnesity of 1. This was based on using a Smacks booster where it took @ 3liters of water to which 1 TEASPOONFUL of KOH was added. He removed 1 liter of the electrolyte and replenished with distilled water and my starting amperage is now @ 15 amps.95 = 1064 grams = 2. Such as: http://www.95 liter per quart) but an even more interesting question is "what's the concentration -now-?" after you've been running a while.2609 (source: http://www. Recommended starting amperage draw for a cold booster is @ 16 amps per the instructions. The amperage reading on startup was @ 20 AMPS which is too high. Using NaOH If using off the shelf NaOH (drain cleaner or “caustic soda” you must check that there are no other impurities in it.One of those "baster-like bulb with glass tube with calibrated float in it" car battery testers. Warning about Drain Cleaners for use in Hydroxy Production How much NaOH is 28%in a u.com/?t=5&m=g1&itemNumber=80530 (you want one that shows -numbers-.sjdiscounttools. If you can find out how many cm3 in a teaspoon this will be very useful. add 100 grams of KOH to 900 cc of water. This is close enough as the normal loss of water due to use will gradually increase the concentration and subsequent amperage draw as it runs.

Some carbon binds with the electrodes and causes damage to the surface structure. There is NO oxygen produced until ALL of the carbon has been reacted from solution. it decomposes as a part of the reaction during electrolysis. While it is still baking soda. And worst of all. Baking soda decomposes into NaOH during electrolysis. sodium hydroxide. if you have expensive SS electrodes. but also cause permanent damage to the electrode surfaces during its transition into sodium hydroxide. This is why it keeps on working. Salt is also unsuitable as is battery acid. and carbon dioxide (CO2). you end up with a caustic. It will eventually stabilize. there is hydrogen. the rest of the carbon binds with oxygen to produce other products of reaction during electrolysis. That is why it has to be sanded or ground off. some CO2. the end users are lulled into a false sense of security. they become damaged as the carbon will also poison the catalytic capabilities of stainless steel. the baking soda is transformed into NaOH.Empirical tests have shown that using baking soda as an electrolyte gives a false sense of security. and even those that DO burn the gas in an engine often-times have leaks in their systems. So they are unlikely to take proper safety precautions. Baking soda does not lose potency. DO NOT USE BAKING SODA PERIOD END OF STORY! Further you would have to add 84 grams of baking soda (NaHCO3) to obtain the same amount of sodium as you would for 40 grams of Sodium Hydroxide (NaOH). thinking that it remains safe baking soda. and the way it effects hydrocarbon fuel combustion during boosting. To recover them would require a real good sanding to get rid of the surface damage and start over. it does not produce hydroxy gas. If your looking to “escape” the usage of caustics by substation of baking soda. Many experimenters who use baking soda are burning the gas when they are doing their experiments. And the worst part of this is. Empirical tests have shown that after the gas was analyzed. It is not suitable to state that the gas produced is to be burned and not inhaled. Note Baking Soda is very dangerous to use. but as the carbon is consumed. also enough CO to be lethal. and then the cleansing and conditioning started all over again. it produces a blend of hydrogen (H2). A reliable and repeatable performance increase is not going to happen during the decomposition phase of baking soda. This is relevant because it is the Sodium that is driving the electrolysis process. As this occurs. . Most are venting the gas into the air in the room they are in. the way the gas burns (it changes from bingo fuel gas into hydroxy gas). Baking soda it will permanently damage the surface structure of stainless steel. Baking soda will not only remain baking soda in use. carbon monoxide (CO). but not until all of the carbon is consumed.

-----> CO + H2O Also CO + 2H+ + 2e. it has been found to also release CO2! The results were that the percentage of CO to CO2 was directly related to the temperature of the electrolyte solution. there is hydrogen. If calculations are correct.0667 % in the atmosphere you are breathing is enough to bind with 50 % of your Hemoglobin.+ 2H2O -----> 2NaOH + H2 and HCO3. the one sure conclusion is that Hydroxides will be formed.On electrolysis of NaHCO3. But when someone intentionally publishes that using baking soda is safe and does not put out carbon monoxide. this is a life threatening situation! For non chemistry people who wish to get a grasp of the toxicity of Carbon Monoxide. then a concentration of just 0. one can access the progress of the carbonate solution (pH will increase with increasing Alkalinity). but my advice is play it safe. If one takes pH readings of the electrolytic solution over time. How many of these people that use baking soda actually is burning the gas when they are doing their experiments? Most are venting the gas into the air in the room they are in. when you think Carbon Monoxide. and sure. and even those that DO burn the gas in an engine often-times have leaks in their systems.------> C + H2O Conclusion: On adding NaHCO3 a whole range of chemical processes can take place but due to the nature of alkali metals. sure. there is some CO2. The argument that the gas is to be burned and not inhaled does not mean it is safe. where PPE. Even at room temperature (78 F) there was enough CO produced to be lethal if inhaled directly. a good rule of thumb is. There is NO oxygen produced until ALL of the carbon has been reacted from solution. think Cyanide! Reference A glass jar containing wires wrapped around pieces of plastic. the Na+ ion will rush to the cathode and you will get:2Na+ + 2e. DO NOT BE DECIVED into thinking that if you make a completely safe electrolytic solution using NaHCO3 or other carbonates that you end up with a completely safe electrolytic solution after use.+ H2O -------> H2CO3 + OHAlso H2CO3 --------> H2O + CO2 Also CO2 + 2H+ + 2e. and filled with baking soda is NOT a suitable Hydrogen Electrolyzer! Reference the picture of the result of a baking soda booster shown in the overview to remind you! Bob Boyce has also done tests with baking soda. but there is also enough CO to be lethal. the . As temperature rises.

amps go down. It's not a good electrolyte. allot of water vapor ( steam) AND also allot of acetic acid vapors will escape such a Cells. and your possible gain in MPG is pretty fast back to zero. you'll be left with plain water. and it has a boiling point not much higher than water. The reason given was the carbon reaction is more endothermic than electrolysis.percentage of CO to CO2 increases dramatically. there was no measurable CO2 production. Further See : http://en. resistance goes up.org/wiki/Kolbe_electrolysis The Kolbe electrolysis From Wikipedia. and absorbing heat energy from exothermic electrolysis alters the results of that carbon reaction. As an example. and it is very safe you can drink it. Using Vinegar A common person may reason that Vinegar (a 5 to 10% solution of acetic acid) is a suitable electrolyte for DC Electrolysis to make Hydroxy. electrolysis of acetic acid yields ethane and carbon dioxide: CH3COOH ---> CH3-CH3 + CO2 (Shorter form without in between steps) Acetic Acid gives Ethane gas + Carbon dioxide gas So you get an un-useful gas CO2 (it extinguish flames not promotes explosions) and Ethane gas which is a flammable gas that will behave as a fuel. only CO. not so with NaOH and KOH. At temperatures above 125 F. you can imagine that besides your Hydroxy gas. sometimes cheaper then bottled water. the free encyclopedia reaction is an organic reaction named after Adolph Wilhelm Hermann Kolbe. Why not? It’s cheap. it stinks pretty strong).wikipedia. And because many Cells and Boosters are run on elevated temperatures.The Kolbe reaction is formally a decarboxylative dimerisation and proceeds by a radical reaction mechanism. Thus you are loosing your electrolyte if you use Vinegar. some above 90°C. while sniffing on a bottle of cold Acetic acid may let your nose fall off. (Water = 100°C. Your electrolyte is also by the electrolysis process itself falling apart and vanishes trough your engine. WRONG. but pure Acetic Acid is a liquid. with a certain vapor pressure (you cannot smell cold KOH. everybody can buy it around the corner. gas production goes down. and you can NOT count on its stability. Using Sodium Sulphate (Glauber's salt) . without electrolyte. Acetic Acid = 118°C ). One of the reasons is that is not a solid with an high boiling point like the preferred KOH or NaOH.

scissors. This electronic device is basically a DC motor controller.The electrolysis of an aqueous solution of sodium sulphate using inert electrodes produces hydrogen at the cathode and oxygen at the anode and a neutral solution of sodium sulphate remains unaltered by the electrolysis. . This is currently being experimented with in a "Booster" to control current from a "Run away" situation. The frequency and pulse width is adjusted by the variable (adjustable) resistor and the capacitors used in the Circuit. when used as electrolyte.) you simply need to be responsible and keep it out of the reach of your children.g. Cathode Reaction : 4 H2O + 4 e(-) ==> 2 H2 + 4 OH(-) Anode Reaction : 2 H2O ==> O2 + 4 H(+) + 4 e(-) The overall cell reaction is : 6 H2O ==> 2 H2 + O2 +4 H(+) +4 OH(-) BUT sodium sulphate is much weaker than lye. The run away current is caused by your electrolyte heating and therefore allowing more current to flow through your cell.) This is probably why it in not used. so you would need much more electrolyte and WORSE: it quickly turns your water into a brown/red substance. Using Ammonia Ammonia is consumed in the process which means you would have to continuously add more Ammonia instead of distilled water in the case of NaOH. medicine etc. It takes a Direct Current (DC) Voltage and pulse's it at a steady preset rate. Lye(NaOH) or KOH. Usually “step gap” designed boosters have heating issues after a certain amount of run time. but just like any object or substance that can be potentially dangerous in the wrong hands (e. common in a "Brute Force" direct current cells. Note an isolated-cell 7-cell series-connected booster will not have heating problems as it has a much higher electrical efficiency and far less of the current goes in heating the electrolyte. The PWM should be used in open bath to control the supply /modulated supply so that the heating can be reduced at the cost of less gas. it really does not look good!!So the bottom line is that after all my experimentation I simply decided to stick to lye. Pulse width modulation on brute force DC booster technology Pulse Width Modifier (PWM) -The issue of using pulse width modulation with existing brute force DC designed boosters is considered to address the issue of heating problems. Also Nitrogen is being produced instead of oxygen again in the NaOH case. Yes it is a drain cleaner and thus caustic. etc. is clean and will never damage your electrodes. Though it does not damage your electrodes. So what you end up with is no oxygen (good stuff) and nitrogen ( good fertilizer but it won't burn but occupies space in the combustion chamber therefore bad in this application.

the quantity of hydroxy gas that benefits combustion increases as well. As an engine load and RPM’s increase. By adjusting the duty cycle setting of the circuit. This is a perfect fit for a Smacks or series cell type of booster. It is understood that a pulse width modulator (PWM) in a brute force DC design will not increase the amount of gas produced. although the PWM can solve the cell overheating problem your overall gas production could be lower compared to without the PWM. As the booster is fully ON or fully OFF nearly all the time. It will in fact produce less gas as the current will be limited by the duty cycles on and off times. but only if the booster is efficient enough to make enough hydroxy gas at full boost to assist in high demand applications.The "Pulse-Width Modulator" or PWM circuit is a circuit which switches the power to. and RAVI’s. The . This you will need to verify with out put and heat tests. A PWM power control board tied into the throttle position sensor could help. While a PWM can be “the quick way” to solve any overheating problems on a booster. Typically you do not get this operation with just an ordinary PWM circuit in a brute force DC operation. you alter the ON time to OFF time ratio and so control the average power fed to the booster. The usefulness and merit of using a PWM is sometimes confused with the benefits of using a PWM in pulsed DC resonant circuits. the booster ON and OFF thousands of times per second. These systems include Stan Meyer's. both which is capable of higher hydroxy gas output levels. So. and solve long operating time booster overheat issues by cutting back on hot booster current. Bob Boyce's. This is where the pulsing is sharp and at resonance with the cell. These configurations produce a unique “resonant tuned waveform” that allows more gas for LESS current. The units in question typically do not produce enough hydroxy gas output to benefit combustion enough during times of high demand. the excess hydroxy gas produced does nothing to offset the excess high load of the alternator caused by the booster. However experiments where the duty cycle fluctuates between 50%-70% and 100% can be experimented with to give an “averaged out” practical result. not very much power is wasted in the switching circuit. A Pulse-Width Modulator circuit can be installed with a control knob mounted on the dashboard beside an ammeter. one must also remember that most PWM's have large heat sinks to get rid of a lot of heat and that heat is simply energy that is lost. So if at idle the booster is always running at full power. This could also help with excessively low startup output by increasing cold booster current. This has been the bane of poor quality boosters that consume way too much power for the amount of hydroxy gas consumed. Dave Lawton's.

It just changes how you set the device. 3." which is the % of "ON TIME. The heat sink is also rated for an ambient temp and it too has a "de-rating" for higher temps. to say 7 amps. grouped into two types: A "OPEN LOOP" control. The Prius is one example where a throttle position sensor on the throttle pedal would not work. The output devices. The cheaper PWMs like the MC12 are open loop controllers. and R=resistance in OHMs I[7] = E[14] / R [2] COLD . ALL PWMs are rated for amps at a specific ambient temp. and therefore the current when the cell is cold. He states In this setting. so I would adjust the control to peak MPG as displayed on my instant MPG indicator. As the bath heats up the resistance goes down. This means that at 100% on time [which none will do] the current in the load is the same as with no PWM. PWM facts design and use By Mike. the gen-set engine cycles on and off to meet net power demand. ie with feedback from the load [cell] that changes the control point. the AVERAGE current is 50% of the uncontrolled DC value. Once on the highway at speeds over 50 MPH. For example take the scenario a booster power control is fitted. The only time I would set for maximum boost was for climbing hills or any other situation that required full throttle operation. I would turn the booster control off. The onboard computers manage the genset throttle position based on instant power requirements. WHY? If you set the duty cycle. The driver of the example in question drives a Prius in low demand applications. I= E/R I=current in amps.boilermakers and steaming behemoths just don't put out enough hydroxy gas per amp of power consumed to make this very feasible. a Prius hybrid is a completely different motor operation to the ICE. Let's do the math." If you set the control for 50%. B "CLOSED LOOP" CONTROL. ie no feedback either internally or externally from the load [cell] being controlled. The "PEAK CURRENT" is only determined by the load [cell] resistance. and the traction battery unit powers the electric drive. 1 PWMs come in many flavors. This is not all bad. usually a FET or several FETs in parallel are mounted on heat sinks to help control the heat. as the system is "fly by wire" with no direct link from the throttle pedal to the gen-set engine throttle. Above this the max current is "de-rated" by some amount listed in amps / degree C. the gen-set would typically stay running. that only applies to the temp. Please note. The adjustment only sets the "duty cycle. E=voltage. 2 ALL PWMs DECREASE the "duty cycle" to control the output.

If the resistance goes down to 1 OHM [a reasonable number for a common bath] the math is: I = 14 / 1 = 14 AMPS Still OK! Now: if you start at 18 amps you are in big trouble.NOW. After some use you will see how fast the current changes and set the start accordingly. REMEMBER IT WILL HEAT UP MORE AFTER YOU READJUST IT SO DON'T GO TO 20 AMPS ON THE MC12. These PWMs can be set to the desired amps and as the cell changes. It is often just as practical for the user to control the max amps by adjusting the concentration of electrolyte. HOW WELL WILL THIS WORK IN AN OPEN BATH CELL? The big difference in open bath is the change in efficiency with temp. You must add electrolyte slowly to get a low amp draw and then watch where the amps go when it gets hot. . IS THERE A BETTER WAY? The trade off is price. the PWM will control the current to the set amount.5 = 28 amps on a 20 amp device already likely to be running at way over its designed temp! Is this a stopper? NO.5 ohms you have: I = 14 / . This process also takes patience. TRY 14 AMPS AND SEE HOW THE TEMP DOES. That means the setting is maintained regardless of load resistance. A better. As the temp goes up. you can adjust the current for the length of the trip. I recommend starting with 6 to 8 amps cold until you see where it goes when hot.77 OHMS If the rise in temp changes this to . you just have to set the current when HOT! SET YOUR CURRENT TO A LOW VALUE FIRST AND THEN ADJUST AFTER THE CELL HAS WARMED UP. 18 = 14 / R R = 14 / 18 = .When the cell gets hot the resistance goes down and the current goes up." [actually water vapor mostly]This is a large part of the trade off to get an inexpensive booster that is easy to build. and likely more costly PWM will have some feedback from the load [cell] that controls the output. The result is more power wasted making "steam. The best ones have current sensing within the controller. The stray current increases as the bath temp goes up. All this requires you to have an amp meter in the circuit to monitor the current. the % of applied power making gas [hydroxy] goes down. If it is easy to adjust from the drivers position.

EVERY CELL WILL BE DIFFERENT. And it takes a few tank fills to average out all the errors. Measuring your MPG gains with a hydroxy Booster As you diminish the number of miles driven and the gallons used. monoatomic hydrogen also yields twice the energy of parahydrogen of the same volume. That becomes a "statistically significant test. It is a reasonable compromise if it remains simple to use and maintain. Both tests require drying the gas before measurements. Actual distance traveled divided by actual volume consumed." With Bob's trip. If measuring combustion energy. Caution is advised to not rely on an instant MPG gauge. and comare that against the amount of water consumed. Also. This figure falls dead center of your 60% to 80% figure. . If the test is repeated for 500 miles instead of under 50. Measuring hydroxy by Bob Boyce No lab test that Bob is aware of has the ability to detect monoatomic hydrogen production in real time. they may be confusing orthohydrogen for monoatomic hydrogen. trade off are the choice of the user. There are only two "easy" ways to tell the difference. Like all the other factors. so this is also a good way to measure for it. It's lying to you. When combusted. the statistical error goes up to an unusable %. THIS PROCESS IS NOT MAINTENANCE FREE! I do not generally recommend a PWM on open bath boosters because of all the increase in temp. as monoatomic hydrogen weighs about half that of orthohydrogan or parahydrogen of the same volume. note the average was 63MPG but the short run peaks of level driving was 100MPG! Small sample error will kill the creditability of results. There is only one correct way to measure fuel consumption. Like a fluke DMM. The second is to measure the volume of hydroxy gas generated. It leads me to think that your cell is making a 70%/30% ratio blend of ortho/para diatomic hydrogen. orthohydrogen yields twice the energy of parahydrogen of the same volume. you need a real amp meter. The reason Bob mentions this is that regular electrolysis will produce hydroxy gas that contains hydrogen in the ratio of about 70% orthohydrogen to 30% parahydrogen. Monoatomic hydrogen occupies twice the space of diatomic hydrogen. the % probable error will be 1/10 as much. True monoatomic hydrogen is very short-lived once it leaves highly negatively charged environment. When combusted. Note how E does the smack tests over long miles and multiple fill ups. The first is to measure by weight. ANY ONE CELL WILL BE DIFFERENT IN DIFFERENT OUTSIDE TEMPS. That is why so many members ask for a 5 fill up average before getting too excited about numbers.

Otherwise the pressure wave will reach the piston so early that it will attempt to drive the engine backwards. That’s why it is called “ignition timing”. attempting to push the crank in the opposite direction desired. the temperature increases tremendously and the pressure increases – that ideal gas law thing again. Reports of automobile engines running on 100% hydroxygas have all stated that they run with the ignition timing set after TDC. So what happens when we blend hydroxygas and gasoline? .Hydroxy Engine timing and adjustments Timing is everything! What do we mean when we talk about this “timing” concept? We need to understand “timing” as related to the fuel burning pressure wave being applied to the piston. It is far easier for the hydrogen and oxygen to combine with hydroxygas burning than for the oxygen to combine with complex (large) organic molecules to form carbon dioxide when burning petroleum products. This is not instantaneous -it takes time for the pressure/force wave from the burning gas to reach the piston. Burning regular gasoline. Now let’s say we change the fuel to Premium gasoline. Because the burn rate. The ideal gas law (PV = NRT) tells us that the pressure is increasing. again according to the ideal gas law. Increasing the pressure requires work and consumes energy. is so much faster with 100% hydroxygas you must retard the ignition timing. The fuel burns. The spark plug fires and ignites the fuel. Premium gasoline burns slower than Regular gasoline. the force wave arrives too soon the majority of the force will be exerted on the piston before it reaches TDC. the piston is on the down stroke. If the spark occurs too late in the cycle. The pressure gained from burning the fuel is being lost from the increased volume of the down stroke. Net power turning the engine in the correct rotation is lost. and therefore the velocity of the pressure/force wave reaching the piston. This is an extremely fast burning fuel when compared to gasoline. We also lose time to burn the gas between the ignition and the exhaust stroke of the engine so net power is lost with unburned fuel. the volume in the cylinder is rapidly increasing and. Now let’s go the opposite direction – hydroxygas. The piston is on the upstroke approaching top dead center (TDC) and is compressing the air/fuel mixture above the piston. If the spark occurs too soon in the cycle. the force wave arrives after TDC. Engine timing is an attempt to ignite the fuel to optimize the piston position with the arrival of the burned fuel pressure wave. the pressure is dropping. There are several examples on the www of lawnmower engines running on hydroxygas and the biggest challenge for most was to retard the ignition. This means we need to advance the timing (ignite the fuel sooner) since it will take longer to reach the piston surface.

ignites the petroleum fuel at numerous sites instead of just from the spark plug and then across the cylinder as seen in non-hydroxy gas augmented systems. Continued increases in hydroxygas fuel augmentation have generated a lot of reports of engines running “tight” and other issues which I believe are primarily related to ignition timing and power/force wave generation from a faster burning fuel. If you do NOT make the proper adjustments. The higher the percentage of hydroxy gas added the more important and sensitive these parameters are. etc. The hydroxy gas is going to burn faster and set up a faster initial pressure wave. This is not some mystical science or flaw in the technology. parts fail. the AFR readings must be altered to compensate for the cleaner burn. It is also plausible that with a more intimate mixture of the two fuels with increased hydroxy gas concentrations. But until that time. Also. and different burn temps than gasoline. the petroleum fuel weakens or delays the effect. You have reached your goal when you are using no gasoline at all. One needs to also adjust timing. It is of the upmost importance that all researchers continue to strive towards more hydroxy output. This is magnified the more gas you add. That is to say. catastrophic engine failure and the like. and the more you add. This is due to improper engine management. We do know however that the petroleum fuel burns more efficiently. Almost like the spark plug ignites the fuel blend but the hydroxy gas ignition travels quickly across the cylinder and. for MPFI vehicles. your mileage will in fact peak and then drop off. in effect. the more of an effect its superior properties will have over your engine. the hydroxy gas spreads the flame through the petroleum fuel faster that it would normally go across the cylinder. perhaps the petroleum fuel just interferes with the hydroxygas ignition.Small additions don’t seem to cause much of an issue with the ignition timing. either due to the higher percentage of petroleum fuel or. . all of you must be aware that adjustments to the engine management system MUST be made. the better your mileage. Note for boosters that produce over 3 LPM. This is why you may see mileage and performance tank. So much so that with increasing hydroxygas concentrations modern automotive systems will add more fuel based on higher exhaust Oxygen Sensor readings – compensated by in some systems with an EFIE. timing. you must expect to have to adjust EVERYTHING including. This is especially prevalent when using over 3 LPM. Fuel mix. Hydroxy gas is not gasoline. This may be because the percent of hydroxygas is not sufficiently high for the effect to be major as far as the majority of the force/pressure wave arrival at the piston. The more gas you add. Hydroxy gas has no lubricating qualities. a faster flame front.

but a lot is not better. we cannot not give the exact details of the adjustments needed (1. As far as spark timing. 2)you should not physically have to lean out the fuel at all. for example a 86 Toyota Trecel with a feedback carb. even if not optimal. while decreasing engine horse power or mpg. it has to be retarded to achieve maximum efficiency.Hydrogen Fuel . with a carbureted car it is already tuned and if you lean it (by say putting a smaller main jet in) it can cause serious damage. or just after. otherwise. it means you don’t have to use as much pedal to achieve the same result (= less fuel used). On most carburetors you adjust the air fuel mixture with the needle valves which are controlled by screws in the base of the carb. Different carbs will have the brand and modification number of the carb is.) Air fuel mix is controlled by these needle valves and the opening of the butterfly type flaps on the air intake of the carb. we will be increasing engine wear. those with the proper skills can experiment with more elaborate engine control modifications. PulseStar Plugs.Engine Fundamentals #3 The first step most of us will take is to add a booster to an unmodified engine in order to get an initial gain as quickly and easily as possible. or just after the piston reaches top-dead-center of the cylinder. or anything else that increases flame spread speed. However note Just because you have a carbureted car doesn't mean that there is not an O2 sensor. top-dead-center. It has already been mentioned in the overview that modern fuel injected cars need the “EFIE”. this is best done by a qualified mechanic. so understanding the limits of such a configuration is indeed valuable. its basically adding more fuel and a perfect fuel at that (already has a oxidizing agent so no air has to be added) so its completely automatic. In most cases you loosen the distributor and give it a little turn to increase rpm. A little is good. we should be sure that the timing for the firing of our spark plugs needs to be only at. Timing is another issue. 2. HHO. Hydrogen. This is not the same as a throttle body which has injector in the top of the unit. 2 main things you must do: 1) Adjust timing. As we gain experience and confidence with using hydroxy. Video. There are plenty of feedback carbs out there that are computer controlled and will have the same reaction as EFI systems. According to Roy McAlister. As you are only boosting you . The timing should be after top dead center not before which means restarted not advanced.If you are using fuel additives. or 4 barrel carb etc. it can be advanced a little since hydroxy kicks out high octane. then you need to be sure that your timing is retarded to at.

remember you never get back what you put in so any more will LOWER your mileage. It is recommended you have a cylinder head temp gauge and keep a close watch on the temp. If you are going to change your timing. engine compression and vacuum to name a few. Your standard timing may be around 6 degrees before top dead center (TDC) moving it closer to TDC may prevent back flashes and give performance improvements. There are too many variables to give a set number. the hydrogen combines with oxygen releasing their energy and forming water vapor. if the heat is to high nitrogen also bonds with oxygen making nitrous oxide. tumble velocity of your HHO. igniting the gasoline in many places at once rather than just at the spark plug.5 to 3Liters per minute of hydroxy is not needed)however you may get some improvement by advancing the timing a few degrees depending on how much boost you are doing. if you put in just enough hydroxy to make the process efficient you will see extra power and mileage. etc. you don't need it if you’re not going anywhere. On carbureted vehicles this is almost always done by rotating the distributor while observing timing light attached to the no. You may just have to go by the sound of the motor. to allow the fuel time to burn. Retard until engine pings. Unless. of course you happen to have a $3000 snap on scanner. it should be off at idle. 2.probably will not need much timing adjustment. The carbon also bonds with oxygen forming carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide etc. Boost should be highest when . 1 plug wire. then set in the middle of that range. and how it does when you press the accelerator. This process takes time and is the reason gas engines need to have timing advance. When a spark ignites gasoline the heat causes the hydrogen carbon bond to break. Timing depends on several factors: 1. Hydroxy engine calculations related to timing Why do boosters work? The boost comes from the more efficient burn of the gasoline not the hydroxy. When hydroxy is well mixed in the charge it ignites instantly throughout the cylinder. then you can read emissions with it. such as booster output. Electronic units. Distributor ignition. More is better? NO. Then over the course of several tanks of gas. advance timing 2 degrees per tank until you get optimum performance. (from 0. however the % of hydroxy you are adding to the fuel mix will determine how much advance will help. air temperature. The focus should be to make the booster work as efficiently as possible. Advance timing until the engine revs increase slightly. play with it to get optimum performance.

To run 100% on hydroxy alone it is estimated that the volume needed is about 4% of the amount of fuel/air mix entering the engine. no timing adjustment is needed. As the volume increases beyond 3LPM. the control for the PWM could be physically connected to the throttle linkage with the same effect. It is also reasoned that water does not enter the engine go through the exhaust. low vacuum. If 4% (or 1/25th) of that amount is hydroxy. the hydroxy ceases to be just an enhancer of the gasoline burn and starts to take part as an additional fuel in its own right. so the total intake amount is 5 x 2000 / 2 = 5.0 LPM will give excellent pollution free operation. At volumes of 1. One can look for a vacuum sensor that will give a resistance proportional to manifold vacuum. the spark timing will be about 8 degrees after TDC (Top dead center) as hydroxy burns enormously faster than gasoline droplets do. When calculating how much hydroxy is needed for your particular size engine. which increases the engine life. increased torque. In example: A 5 liter capacity. With hydrogen. one way to do this is to monitor manifold vacuum and adjust the booster accordingly. Larger engines will need much larger amounts of hydroxy for a boost. boost low. needing a progressive retarding of the spark as the ratio of hydroxy increases. . four-stroke engine running at 2000 rpm. In this case.5 LPM (liters per minute) upwards will give an improved gasoline burn.accelerating or going up hill and level off for cruising. mostly because it's in liquid form. boost high. Extra compression will only strain the engine. but upon exist of the exhaust where it can cool and is where the water will surface. LOWER compression ratios are better.5 to 3. hydroxy will burn completely with no compression whatsoever. the full engine capacity is drawn in during two revs. any hydroxy volume from 0. and will run in as low 4. then the hydroxy required would be 5. It is reasoned that in the mean time before having technology and or EV (electric cars) are mainstream. However some wish to also run on 100% hydroxy.000 LPM. as long as it is in a sealed chamber. One idea is so this can then be used to control a PWM hooked to the booster. Gasoline atomizes very poorly. The ICE is by far out dated and impractical. It is ESTIMATED that when using a hydroxy booster.5 to 3. There are various designs predicted to be able to do this these will be mentioned on the Panacea university site. High vacuum. Hydrogen mixes with the air perfectly.000 / 25 = 200 LPM which is a large amount. In this situation where the fuel is hydroxy and the gasoline is just an additive. smoother running and cleaning out of any old carbon deposits inside the engine. There are no issues of the engine rusting or hydrogen embritlement reported so far. Steam may be produced. more detail on this is included below. Amounts of 1.0 LPM. that a booster is in fact productive to strop pollution and save fuel.1 compression.

3-cylinder car at 3. selling new for $2.500. The following is provided courtesy of Eletrik inventor of the “Smacks booster”. which may not be a small amount of hydroxy gas but is possible. Engine capacity can vary enormously in the amount of power needed to make them run. To calculate what volume is likely to be required: The 1. Please keep in mind that these volume calculations should only be used as a ball point figure and may not be accurate in real life. A Geo Metro 1 liter. the hydroxy is metered into the engine and mixed with air similar to the way propane or natural gas is.6 liter is practical. That means the same vehicle would need 8. that's a consumption rate of 135 LPM gaseous propane. These figures are based on third party reports. they have launched a 4door.6 liter engine capacity is drawn into the engine when two revolutions are completed. it is far more practical to pick a smaller capacity engine of 2 liters or less for a conversion.600 cc engine. Hence the amount of hydroxy gas needed per minute is 2. Hydrogen gas has an energy density of 270 BTU/ft3 at 1 atm.oxygen mix in its monatomic form has more energy in it than a similar volume of propane. at an expansion rate of 270:1 that’s 81 L/Km gaseous propane.3 liquid liters per Km of propane. This works out to be 68 LPM. Hydrogen .000 LPM.000 / 25 which is 80 LPM of hydroxy. But only 4% of that volume needs to be hydroxy gas and the remaining 96% can be air. More examples: A 1. This is far more feasible to generate. typically. 85% of the cylinder contents on the exhaust and intake strokes. Also a 1.When running at 3.500 rpm. For this reason.6 liters will be taken 1. Also miscalculations result from basing them on using hydrogen properties instead of hydroxy (monatomic) properties to perform their calculations. Further that you cannot add any air to the hydroxy mix.5 LPM H2 gas. only succeeds in replacing. The water is split first and resulting gasses are what combust.3K BTU/ft3 at 1 atm. Reference Propane gas has an energy density of 2. Travelling at a very normal speed of 100 Km/hr.5 times the propane fuel rate. Remember this number you will see it come up again in close proximity later in this post.000 rpm would only need 60 LPM. The amount would be 300 LPM. This is not the case. Then only 85% of that 80 LPM will be needed to run a 1. Next is failing to convert the liquid volume of water into a vapor volume. A typical propane company work vehicle consumes . Automotive experts have calculated that an engine running at speed. Reference . 1. In India.250 times per minute. Common calculation mistakes results from the incorrect assumptions on the following: ALL the CFM requirement of the engine must be met by hydroxy production.000 rpm. This is not the case.5-seat car with a 650 cc engine giving 33 horsepower. That is exactly 2.600 cc engine running at 2. A 2 liter engine running at 3000 rpm will need 3000 / 25 = 120 LPM of hydroxy gas to run 100%. or 1147.

Reference Note the tank on this car holds 590 standard cubic feet of H2..97 ft3 = 112L of liquid H2 to go over 125 miles (201.165 LPM liquid gas. My Olds motor is less than 1/2 the size of this beast. engine speed determines airflow.000 KJ/m3 of energy at 1 atm. First of all. Most of us will be using air metering devices. Now take into account that hydroxy is NOT H2. not throttle position) and they engineered the engine to run at a crazy fuel ratio of 80:1 in order to eliminate the Nox emissions we have been talking about.432 lbs/ft3) =3.6 lbs.. The BMW would need 130 LPM hydroxy gas. Let's talk about the Olds some more. it’s a huge bored and stroked 527CI. running an A/F closer to 34:1. Secondly. or .but this is the lowest one I could find so I chose it for the worst case scenario. Not many of us are going to try and build our engines like this. My Olds would need 170 LPM hydroxy gas based on the comparison to the Cobra. or 17. But this is not your typical engine. and closer to the 350CI range or smaller. The Cobra would need 560 LPM hydroxy gas. Keep in mind our ongoing discussions about the mysterious "soup" some of our cells generate. Here is where we all need to sit up straight in our chairs: One researcher calculated via experimental data hydroxy gas contains 60. On that note . There is that number range again.150. that is what was consumed at WOT during a land speed attempt. or 3342 LPM.. and you get a fuel demand of 787 LPM.000 BTU/m3 liquid compared to .look at this next H2 car: The BMW hydrogen car uses 17. so if I wanted to set it up with this configuration (which I wouldn't) I would be using around 1400 LPM H2 gas.2Km)= . Now there have been varied reports up to ten times this value . My Olds gets about 23 MPG at 60 MPH. Somewhere in the ballpark of what I predicted for the olds and calculated for the propane rig above. Put some throttle plates on it and drive it normally and I'd be closer to 1000 LPM. Reference Compare this to hydrogen gas which contains 10. and it empties in 5 min while doing a run.000 KJ/m3 at 1 atm.6 lbs/(4. Thats 118cfm. let us substitute hydroxy into the previous calculations: The propane powered rig would need 190 LPM hydroxy gas.56L/Km. Assume a nice speed of 100KPH.There are plenty of hydrogen powered ICE cars out there. Here is a hydrogen powered Cobra built to break a land speed record. That’s 1/6th the energy of hydroxy! With that observation. Gasoline has an energy density of 31. Reference Hydrogen has an expansion rate of 1:848 which means the car uses 472L/Km H2 gas. There is no air metering (no throttle plates. This would seem to support some of those outrageous claims.

that’s 560 LPM gaseous H2. This would mean that almost 4 times the amount of liquid hydrogen would be needed. This means that you would need approximately 4000 liters oxyhydrogen for each liter of gasoline your engine currently uses. which would convert to about 4000LPH of oxyhydrogen consumption. Notice how this calculation supports my previous statement concerning the comparison with that bad ass Cobra. Idling the same scooter would probably take 500-1000LPH. Even that beast could be designed to run on less fuel. while oxyhydrogen gas would contain approximately 7-8kJ per liter. assuming the engine efficiencies are approximately the same on oxyhydrogen than on gasoline. Thus you would need 100Amps thru the 60-cell to .66 LPM.g. so the projected demand for my Olds is 93 LPM based on my observed gasoline mileage and the conservative reported BTU's of hydroxy. Perhaps with the proper tuning. How about a 100cc scooter powered by a 60-cell series electrolyzer running of an 120V inverter and bridge rectifier powered by the 12V battery? Estimated gasoline consumption while riding at 70km/h would be about 1LPH gasoline. The 60-cell electrolyzer would produce about 40 LPH per Amp measured at room temperature. Thus if your car uses 6 liters of gasoline per hour while driving down the highway. which is not enough to idle even the smallest 4-stroke engine (at least 300-400LPH would be required to idle a small 1hp brush cutter 4-stroke). With an expansion ratio 848. The electrolyzer shown in this report produced approximately 57LPH at 11A.5 W per LPH) you would need 60kW of electrical energy to run the electrolyzer.000 BTU/m3 liquid H2. an order of 2 magnitudes less than other's estimates.30 LPM with his Taurus which is not that far from my own Olds estimate and certainly no where near to being close to 3000 LPM. Assuming a super-efficient series cell electrolyzer (2. I calculated that hydroxy has at least 6 times the energy of H2.8. or . Now. Driving down the highway would probably consume 20000-30000 LPH of oxyhydrogen. 5hp) would require 500-1000 LPH (liters per hour). One liter of gasoline contains approximately 30MJ of energy. correct hydroxy mix and good driving habits I could get into the 30 LPM range like Frank did. Figuring in the alternator efficiency (~50%) you would actually need 160hp on the engine shaft to produce 24000LPH of oxyhydrogen gas. Frank Roberts has made a claim of 20 . That brings the technology right back into the realm of possible! Running internal combustion engines on oxyhydrogen By Terro The amount of oxyhydrogen needed to run an internal combustion engine is spectacular. This corresponds to about 80hp.491. prepare for 24000 LPH oxyhydrogen consumption. Idling a small engine (e. which is significantly more than the amount of engine power used at highway speeds (~20hp). while idling a car engine would probably consume about 3000LPH of oxyhydrogen.

with no outside air used at all. you need to power it with about 120Vdc (assuming 2. The gas was collected for 1-2 minutes which later ran the engine for some 20 seconds. The engine ran fully choked.5:1. An often quoted air:fuel ratio for hydrogen combustion in air is 34:1.76 liters) of air for each gram of hydrogen (=11. The 43000LPH of hydrogen contains about 43m^3/h*2. powered by a current limited welding transformer running at about 40A producing approximately 200 LPH of gas. If the scooter had a fully charged 5Ah battery it would last for 18 seconds at 1000A until it would run out. Assuming the engine has 100% volumetric efficiency. Assuming 25% engine efficiency you would get about 30kW or 37hp shaft horsepower. The oxyhydrogen was admitted thru a narrow (1-2mm) orifice to the intake of the carburetor. but the oxyhydrogen gas was first collected in a balloon and then used to run the engine. Below is shows the experimental setup that was used for idling a 6. it would draw 1000 Amps from the 12V battery to produce 120Vdc 100A.1 liters). but this is a MASS ratio. . This means that you need 34 grams (=27.0L auto engine running at 2500RPM would have a total air intake flow of 150000LPH. The electrolyzer did not produce enough oxyhydrogen to run the engine continuously.0V cell voltage) from the inverter. which makes perfect sense because air contains approximately 20% of oxygen by volume and you need 0. The engine timing was not changed in any way. The electrolyzer gas output tube was routed to a propane adapter bolted at the intake of the carb. a 2. Oxyhydrogen gas is in itself a perfectly proportioned mixture of hydrogen and oxygen gasses. The engine would not run without the narrow orifice or without being fully choked.5hp 200cc 4-stroke Honda copy on oxyhydrogen gas. Running this engine fully un throttled at 2500RPM to produce the maximum power would take about 43000LPH of hydrogen gas and 107000LPH of air for stoichiometric operation. Approximately 600-800LPH of gas would have been needed to idle the engine continuously. The 7-cell unit was used. which combusts perfectly leaving no hydrogen or oxygen but only water vapor and heat. Adding any air will make it combust imperfectly and release less energy for same volume of gas. Converted to VOLUME ratio this is 2. Because the electrolyzer has 60 cells. Thus you need 2.5 liters of oxygen for each liter of hydrogen.produce 4000LPH.5 liters of air for each liter of hydrogen for perfect combustion (leaving nitrogen and other atmospheric trace elements). Assuming 100% efficient inverter. A common misconception is to think that you can dilute oxyhydrogen gas with air and run the engine with very small amounts of gas.8kWh/m^3 = ~120kW of power. The scooters “alternator” would produce probably about 5A maximum.

then conditioned by operating the unit at very low power levels. is resonance drive mode. This is where the applied DC voltage is intentionally reduced to suppress electrolysis. The hydrogen content of the hydroxy gas produced is typically composed of about 70% orthohydrogen and 30% parahydrogen. This is the mode that a brand new unit will operate in until it has been cleansed and conditioned well. 3 Modes of operation to achieve hydroxy production by Bob Boyce There are 3 primary modes of operation on such a unit. In place of electrolysis. while production efficiencies of up to twice that of Faraday have been obtained. which is much harder to obtain.Additional reading on this subject can be found in the Arizona collage study “hydrogen use in internal combustion motors”. In extreme cases. is brute force electrolysis. The power in vs hydroxy gas out figures are different for each. The second. This is where the electrode plates have been cleansed (base passivated) to remove free iron and other contaminants. which will typically deliver at or near Faraday efficiency. this has resulted in measured efficiencies of up to 238%. which is by far the easiest. While still running from straight brute force DC. The result is a highly . Construction accuracy and tuning are super-critical in order to obtain even distribution of these standing waves amongst all of the cells in the unit. The first. is catalytic mode. where power levels are kept low. The third. which is a little harder to get to. the formation of hydroxy gas is enhanced by the catalytic layers and cell magnetism’s. a specially constructed toroidal power system is connected that is tuned to produce high energy LEM standing waves in the cell cavities. The hydrogen content of the hydroxy gas produced is typically composed of about 25% orthohydrogen and 75% parahydrogen. This is done in order to form desirable catalytic coatings on the electrode plate surfaces.

Enter known mileage data about a car you intend to convert and calculate the volume of Hydroxy required to replace 100% of the gasoline.htm Axial vector engine http://www.com/about_history.com/ani.htm Hydrogen fusion engine http://nanodetonator.negatively ionized form of hydroxy gas that contains a high concentration of monoatomic hydrogen and orthohydrogen.ca/ETypeHydrogen.com/2007/06/21/nevis-the-internal-combustion-enginerei\nvented/ Papp engine (non-fuel) http://video. Hydroxy Volume Required to Replace Gasoline Fuel required Fuel Required version 1.promci. 2 H2 molecules for every O2 molecule.com/TECHNICAL_OVERVIEW. Hydroxy Volume Required Replacing Gasoline.com/engines/index.q=documentary+p\hysics+duration:long Bourke engine http://bourke-engine.htm MYT http://www.html Free-Piston HCCI engine http://www.com/watch?v=_MBYg1NPzMY&NR=1 Quasiturbine http://quasiturbine.axialvectorengine.html .youtube.com/videoplay?docid=2850891179207690407&amp. Hydroxy Volume required replacing Gasoline.html# NEVIS engine http://www.qc.hydrogencarsnow. Links to potentially excellent engine candidates for running on hydrogen or hydroxy Mazda http://www. Calculate the amount of Hydroxy required replacing 100% of gasoline to run your car. PDF –Air fuel mixtures possible for Hydrogen introduction into ICE's Xcel files Calculate the amount of Hydroxy required replacing 100% of gasoline to run your car.google.1 Ratio as in water.com/mazda-rx8-renesis-re-hydrogen. This highly energetic form of hydroxy gas is so potent that only about 25% of the volume is required to equal the combustion energy of normal stoichiometric parahydrogen / oxygen.greencarcongress.autobloggreen.

Because hydroxy gas does NOT implode. even if it were slowed down to a few RPM to give time for implosion to occur.php ROTOBLOCK engine http://www. (Do not attempt this as you are liable to damage your hearing permanently).850 times larger in volume than the water which was split. If hydrogen and oxygen were to implode immediately after combustion. This can be seen in the example of lighting up a balloon with hydroxy gas inside. That same gas mix can then be ignited and it will convert back to water. and the heat of combustion could be drawn away fast enough to allow implosion to occur even at that low speed. There is not enough time during engine cycles for burned hydroxy gas to implode.html Larsen RADAX Hydrogen ICE engine http://www. and only occurs when the burned torch flame output gas (water vapor) contacts a surface that is cool enough to cause condensation of the water vapor to occur. Therefore Hydroxy Implosion = urban legend.Linear Combustion engine http://www. in this case. even IF it were run pure with no air. Hence. Atmospheric pressure is not enough to run an engine of this type.org/en/principle/functional-model. so an overall rapid expansion will take place (commonly called an explosion). pushing the piston down. Condensation of the gas phase of water to the liquid phase can be rapid. the ignition causes a very high temperature which causes the resulting water to be in the form of a large volume of water vapor at high temperature. Once can simply look at it this way.rotoblock. it is properly called condensation.lceproject.com/blog2/index. when burned in a normal reciprocating internal combustion engine the expansive media (air) expands. If this conversion resulted in the form of water at the original temperature. but not rapid enough to be violent. then it would be exactly the original volume.org/energy/shilton. . Implosion will only occur if the surroundings are capable of bleeding off the temperature gain instantly.linux-host.php/hydrogen-cars/larsen-radaxhydrog\en-internal-combustion-engine-video/ Issue of hydroxy gas imploding in an engine Calculations state that liquid water can be broken into a hydrogen and oxygen gas mixture some 1. The balloon does not have the thermal capacity to perform this cooling.com/howitworks.shtml Hilton Centrifugal engine http://www. which is a RAPID and VIOLENT increase in volume. You will find that this is condensation.hydrogencarsnow. similar to "explosion". The definition of "implosion" is a RAPID and VIOLENT decrease in volume. But.

Steam will not condense on the hot cylinder walls of the engine and you won’t get a vacuum in the cylinders as a result of oxyhydrogen combustion.-End There is a common misconception that when the engine runs on oxyhydrogen it operates by imploding the oxyhydrogen gas in the cylinders supposedly creating a vacuum that pulls the cylinders up. Happy testing. It certainly is cold enough at altitude to allow for rapid condensation. Turn electrolyser power on and let the excess water spill off. creating a rapid pressure/heat increase which then runs the engine. it will occupy a volume of about 30. Why this happens if hydroxy explodes? If the electrolyser could not produce much gas.6 liters (one mole of 100 deg C steam). In one engineers experiment. Assuming the steam is at 1 atm pressure. and correspondingly one liter of oxyhydrogen turns into 1/1860 = 0. Pour water into bubbler until bottle neck. Now the water level reduced in bubbler and more space between water level and bottle neck. Now set fire on torch tip and let the flashback happens until reach bubbler. One mole of water (~18ml) will turn into 33.then how can this be used as a rocket propellant? The space shuttle would be trying to suck itself backwards against the thrust of the solid rocket boosters.-End Could it both explode and implode. Set fire again and check the impact on soft drink bottle.6 liters of oxyhydrogen at 0 deg C. but when the oxyhydrogen is combusted it will turn into 100 deg C steam. An observation. he believe everybody still can simulate explode and implode using 600mL soft drink bottle. But you only get a vacuum if the produced water vapor (steam) can condense. The explosion cause back pressure to push the water into electrolyser.53 milliliters of water. the soft drink bottle shrinks after each explosion. One mole of water (~18ml) turns into 33.What makes the most sense on the explosion and implosion is that the gas explodes and when it instantly turns back into water. The answer is. but not as rapid as an implosion would be. Thus you get about 1860 liters of oxyhydrogen for each liter of water. Here is an experiment to try see for yourself. as it burns a mix of hydrogen and oxygen in the main engines. and you only get condensation if the combustion chamber is very cold. it is rapid. his electrolyser is able to produce about 2LPM hydroxy. Use a 600mL soft drink bottle as bubbler. Patents and related information .6 liters of oxyhydrogen gas. thus requiring altered engine timing. Just pour water 3/4 of the bottle and set fire. that shrinkage of volume creates a vacuum effect (implosion) that quick follows the explosion. In reality the oxyhydrogen gas combusts in the engine just as any gas (even though the flame front proceeds quite fast).

124. Archie Blue.Recommended Patent reading -Diesel applications. US4. This is not very "green” technology. This electrolyzer is operated from a heavy duty alternator driven by the IC engine. 2008.org/collection. you must oxidize a quantity of aluminum that required 5 KW to 8 KW of electricity to refine. Patent # 4. is just another "burning" aluminum underwater technology. now in the public domain.When the hydrogen enriched air is compressed. and should be avoided like the plague. 1976. the aluminum oxide crud left over has to be dealt with. was reported by numerically analyzing an on-board hydrogen reformer operating at 80% efficiency. E. U S Pat 7378063 -Radio Frequency Hydrogen and Oxygen Generator and Method.936. There is a compressed air source fed to the input so that the output will be at standard atmospheric pressure. On top of that. Cornish patent.Note the Cornish patent is well known.573. Minutillo (January 2002) " Performance and fuel Consumption Estimation of a Hydrogen Enriched Gasoline Engine at Part-Load Operation" SAE Technical Paper Series (2002-01-20196): p. A 50% reduction in fuel consumption. not ones that waste way more energy than they can yield.lonelantern. For every 1 KW worth of hydrogen you get out. and like many others of its kind.html HFI system an Efficient Canadian patent for big trucks: Web site . dated May 27. it seems to me that that this patent describes a new approach to applying radio wave resonance to the process of splitting and utilizing water to generate Hydrogen and Oxygen" . E Galloni.435 (1986) Glen Shelton Apparatus and method for generating hydrogen gas for use as a fuel additive in diesel engines. the diesel fuel is introduced with a resulting improvement in fuel efficiency and maximized combustion of the fuel. We need clean and green technologies. A carburetor which operates by drawing the intake air of an IC engine through an electrolyzer composed of horizontal plates with holes in them. at idle. G.463 applied on On Dec 29. Electronics World & Wireless World ( January 1991) Dan Danforth: Molecular Dissociation of Water Water Fuel Cell News Release (Winter/Spring 87/88) Water Fuel Cell R&D Format Infinite Energy 19: 50-51 (1998) Obituary Water-Powered Car Video http://www. Fontana. 4-5.961 ~ Method for the Production of a Fuel Gas . Jannelli and M. Enhance electrolysis by controlling spin states-APPARATUS FOR DECOMPOSITION OF AQUEOUS LIQUID by HASEBE SHIGETA -Patent number US4105528 USP # 4.

5.343.S.735 ~ Water Fuel Injection System WO 92/07861 ~ Control & Driver Circuits for a Hydrogen Gas Fuel Producing Cell USP Appln.394.699. ENERGY STORAGE SYSTEM.613. (See U. Roy McAlister patents ELECTROLYZERS and FUEL CELLS.304 ~ Gas Electrical Hydrogen Generator USP # 4. long life. USP # 4.981 ~ Hydrogen Gas Injector System for Internal Combustion Engine Canadian Patent # 2.071 and numerous pending patents) These inventions enable much higher annual delivery of power by technology that holds the world’s record for converting solar energy into line-voltage electricity. (See U.450.661 ~ Gas Generator Voltage Control Circuit USP # 4. numerous pending patents) This family of inventions allow hydrogen to be stored at energy densities comparable to gasoline and provide much greater safety than gasoline storage. Links Water fuel cell patents can be sourced from here Patent search by number can be done at: Link Other patent office search sites are: Canada: Link .067.465.899.421.155. Patent 6. (SparkInjector) TECHNOLOGY (See U.065. 1984 for a Bi polar electrolytic cell. SOLAR ENERGY CONVERSION. Patent 5.S. Patents 5. last longer. PRECISION SPARK INJECTOR.798. 2005/0246059 ~ Hydroxyl Filling Station (Stephen Meyer) Raum & Zeit 1(6) 63-68 (1990) Patents Granted (@ 1990) United States Patent 4.826. and 6.389.852. (Numerous pending patents) A family of inventions to provide efficient.060 Gonzalez May 22. and dependable operation for production and utilization of hydrogen in applications ranging from distributed energy systems to transportation.015.S. and clean the air that passes through the engine.455 ~ Start-up/Shut-down for a Hydrogen Gas Burner USP # 4.581 ~ Controlled Process for the Production of Thermal Energy from Gases.474 ~ Hydrogen Gas Burner USP # 4.USP # 4.212) These inventions allow virtually any engine to utilize hydrogen to: produce more power.

the CHEC HFI hydrogen injection system. He later affirms: "A small amount of hydrogen added to the air intake of a gasoline engine would enhance the flame velocity and thus permit the engine to operate with leaner air to gasoline mixture than otherwise possible.Main US: Link World (WIPO): Link Europe & WIPO: Link Patent to pdf: Link Free patents on line Papers The Hydrogen Injection System The technology of using hydrogen as a combustion enhancement in internal combustion engines has been researched and proven for many years." The process yielded benefits in improved combustion stability and reduced nitrogen oxides and hydrocarbon emissions. Jamal and Wyszynski. The benefits are factual and well documented. Eng.. PE of the American Hydrogen Association states the "Use of mixtures of hydrogen in small quantities and conventional fuels offers significant reductions in exhaust emissions" and that "Using hydrogen as a combustion stimulant it is possible for other fuels to meet future requirements for lower exhaust emissions in California and an . Here is a synopsis of a sampling of the research that has been done: In 1974 John Houseman and D. designed and patented a device to transform internal combustion engines to run on hydrogen. i. demonstrated the advantages of "Fractional addition of hydrogen to internal combustion engines by exhaust gas fuel reforming. Our own utilization of this technology." In 1995. Roy MacAlister. entitled "Feasibility Demonstration of a Road Vehicle Fueled with Hydrogen Enriched Gasoline. has also been tested and proven both by institutions and in hundreds of practical applications in road vehicles.W. In 1974 F. at the Birmingham.W. Wagner. of University Engineering. The result. California Institute of Technology produced a report for the Society of Automotive Engineers entitled "On-Board Hydrogen Generator for a Partial Hydrogen Injection Internal Combustion Engine". ex-professor of Dynamics and Canadian inventor." In the early eighties George Vosper P.e. Hoehn and M.J/Cerini of the Jet Propulsion Lab. Mechanical and Manufacturing>. prepared a report for the 9th Inter society Energy Conversion Engineering Conference. Dowy of the Jet Propulsion Lab. far less pollution with more power and better mileage.

These studies and other research on hydrogen as a fuel supplement generated big efforts in trying to develop practical systems to enhance internal combustion engine performance." Additionally. the mixture can rapidly burn in hydrogen-gasoline mixture fueled engines. Corrections Canada tested several systems and concluded. thus toxic emissions are restrained. a team of scientists representing the Department of Energy Engineering." In the Spring of 1997. zero emissions were observed on CO. A few of them materialized in patented devices that didn't’t reach the level of performance. Northern Alberta Institute of Technology. June 26-29. the group elaborated an explanation of the mechanism of forming toxic emissions in spark ignition engines. 1995. UK. The results of their experimental investigation conclude that because of the characteristics of hydrogen. yields benefits in improved combustion stability and reduced nitrogen oxides and hydrocarbon emissions. China. at an international conference held by the University of Calgary. presented a study about hydrogen as a fraction of the fuel. reducing the amount of fuel consumed by increased mileage. "The hydrogen system is a valuable tool in helping Corrections Canada meet the overall Green Plan by: reducing vehicle emissions down to an acceptable level and meeting the stringent emissions standard set out by California and British Columbia. when used as a fractional additive at extreme lean engine operation. a group of scientists from the University of Birmingham." At the HYPOTHESIS Conference. University of Cassino. They subsequently stated: "CEE feels that the result of this test verifies that this technology is a viable source for reducing emissions and fuel consumption on large diesel engines. Using the theory of chemical dynamics of combustion. Zhejiang University. presented a mathematical model for the process of formation and restraint of toxic emissions in hydrogen-gasoline mixture fueled engines." The American Hydrogen Association Test Lab tested this technology and proved that: "Emissions test results indicate that a decrease of toxic emissions was realized. Environmental Award." Again. their analysis pointed out that this solution is the most cost effective.S. For their research they granted the C. Relatively small amounts of hydrogen can dramatically increase horsepower and reduce exhaust emissions. safety or feasibility that would allow them to reach marketing stages. Italy. California Environmental Engineering (CEE) has tested this technology and found reduction on all exhaust emissions.C. In the abstract of that study it stated: "Hydrogen. Vehicle subjected to dynamometer loading in controlled conditions showed drastic reduction of emissions and improved horsepower.increasing number of additional states. .

entitled "Feasibility Demonstration of a Road Vehicle Fueled with Hydrogen Enriched Gasoline. This has resulted in increased effectiveness on engine performance. Here is a synopsis of a sampling of the research that has been done: In 1974 John Houseman and D. prepared a report for the 9th Inter society Energy Conversion Engineering Conference. Hydrogen Injection -The technology of using hydrogen as a combustion enhancement in internal combustion engines has been researched and proven for many years. Eng. Our own utilization of this technology. He later affirms: "A small amount of hydrogen added to the air intake of a gasoline engine would enhance the flame velocity and thus permit the engine to operate with leaner air to gasoline mixture than otherwise possible. . has also been tested and proven both by institutions and in hundreds of practical applications in road vehicles. We have since increased the hydrogen/oxygen production significantly. Jamal and Wyszynski." The process yielded benefits in improved combustion stability and reduced nitrogen oxides and hydrocarbon emissions. P. Mechanical and Manufacturing>.W." In 1995. at the Birmingham. Eng. we achieved important breakthroughs as far as the designs of the components were concerned. In 1974 F. Source End Hydrogen boosters work.We also conducted extensive testing in our facility in order to prove reliability (MTBF. Wagner. As a result of these tests. life expectancy. The benefits are factual and well documented. designed and patented a device to transform internal combustion engines to run on hydrogen.) and determine safety and performance of the components and the entire system. The result. Here is how and why: By George Vosper. California Institute of Technology produced a report for the Society of Automotive Engineers entitled "On-Board Hydrogen Generator for a Partial Hydrogen Injection Internal Combustion Engine". the horsepower will increase and the fuel consumption will be reduced. etc. i. demonstrated the advantages of "Fractional addition of hydrogen to internal combustion engines by exhaust gas fuel reforming. the hydrogen injection system. far less pollution with more power and better mileage. Dowy of the Jet Propulsion Lab." In the early eighties George Vosper P..W. Hoehn and M. June 1998.e. ex-professor of Dynamics and Canadian inventor.J/Cerini of the Jet Propulsion Lab. The results of these tests were able to confirm the claims made about this technology: the emissions will be reduced. of University Engineering.

the mixture can rapidly burn in hydrogen-gasoline mixture fueled engines. at an international conference held by the University of Calgary. presented a mathematical model for the process of formation and restraint of toxic emissions in hydrogen-gasoline mixture fueled engines." Again. Using the theory of chemical dynamics of combustion. Relatively small amounts of hydrogen can dramatically increase horsepower and reduce exhaust emissions.1995. "The hydrogen system is a valuable tool in helping Corrections Canada meet the overall Green Plan by: reducing vehicle emissions down to an acceptable level and meeting the stringent emissions standard set out by California and British Columbia. They subsequently stated: "CEE feels that the result of this test verifies that this technology is a viable source for reducing emissions and fuel consumption on large diesel engines." At the HYPOTHESIS Conference." The American Hydrogen Association Test Lab tested this technology and proved that: "Emissions test results indicate that a decrease of toxic emissions was realized. yields benefits in improved combustion stability and reduced nitrogen oxides and hydrocarbon emissions. Corrections Canada tested several systems and concluded. June 26-29. Northern Alberta Institute of Technology. California Environmental Engineering (CEE) has tested this technology and found reduction on all exhaust emissions. In the abstract of that study it stated: "Hydrogen. Vehicle subjected to dynamometer loading in controlled conditions showed drastic reduction of emissions and improved horsepower. These studies and other research on hydrogen as a fuel supplement generated big efforts in trying to develop practical systems to enhance internal combustion engine performance. a group of scientists from the University of Birmingham." In the Spring of 1997. PE of the American Hydrogen Association states the "Use of mixtures of hydrogen in small quantities and conventional fuels offers significant reductions in exhaust emissions" and that "Using hydrogen as a combustion stimulant it is possible for other fuels to meet future requirements for lower exhaust emissions in California and an increasing number of additional states. a team of scientists representing the Department of Energy Engineering. The results of their experimental investigation conclude that because of the characteristics of hydrogen. presented a study about hydrogen as a fraction of the fuel.Roy MacAlister. reducing the amount of fuel . zero emissions were observed on CO. the group elaborated an explanation of the mechanism of forming toxic emissions in spark ignition engines. when used as a fractional additive at extreme lean engine operation. safety or feasibility that would allow them to reach marketing stages. thus toxic emissions are restrained. University of Cassino. China. Italy. Zhejiang University. A few of them materialized in patented devices that didn't't reach the level of performance. UK.

We also conducted extensive testing in order to prove reliability and determine safety and performance of the components and the entire system. the concept is ridiculous. From researching the Internet we also found the following information To best describe how Hydrogen Enhanced Combustion works. the resulting energy balance should be negative." Additionally.. written by Mr. including for very fast flowing mixtures. it feeds small amounts of hydrogen and oxygen into the engine's air intake. Environmental Award. then this system does make sense. putting more pressure on the piston through a longer effective power stroke. have shown that flame speeds increase when small amounts of hydrogen are added to airfuel mixes. . speeds up the rates of initiation and subsequent propagation of flames over the whole combustible mixture range. their analysis pointed out that this solution is the most cost effective. The results of these tests were able to confirm the claims made about this technology: the emissions will be reduced. Does it work? Independent studies. i. Its makers claim savings in fuel. we achieved important breakthroughs as far as the designs of the components were concerned. For their research they granted the C. P.L. it is no surprise that a few of them say the idea won't work.P.A..consumed by increased mileage. concept has unquestionably demonstrated that the addition of small quantities of gaseous hydrogen to the primary gasoline significantly reduces CO and NOx exhaust emissions while improving engine thermal efficiency A recent study at the University of Calgary by G.. If the aim is to create hydrogen by electrolysis to be burned as a fuel.e. reduced noxious and greenhouse gases and increased power. On the other hand. The 2nd law of thermodynamics is a likely source of those doubts. from engineers can't be dismissed without explaining why I think these Hydrogen Generating Systems do work and are not just another hoax. we are providing this excerpt from a University Technical Report. the horsepower will increase and the fuel consumption will be reduced.Eng. if hydrogen shortens the burn time of the main fuel-air mix. As a result of these tests. at its Jet Propulsion Lab Pasadena. A study by the California Institute of Technology. . GeorgeVosper. Such opinions. using various fuels. Meaning the law would lead you to believe that it will certainly take more power to produce this hydrogen than can be regained by burning it in the engine.. Karim on the effect of adding hydrogen to a methane-fuelled engine says .C. The addition of some hydrogen to the methane. We have since increased the hydrogen/oxygen production significantly.. This has resulted in increased effectiveness on engine performance. Mounted on a vehicle.S. at different universities. in 1974 concluded: The J. The auto industry is not devoid of hoaxes and as engineers are skeptics by training.a Hydrogen Generating System (HGS) for trucks or cars has been on the market for some time. and in doing so takes more work out.

with it on. produces more torque and thus more work from less fuel. Time plus high temperature are both essential for nitrous oxides to form. which initiate a chain reaction. They found with the HGS on. in the exhaust were either eliminated or drastically reduced and at the same R.. no flame front can exist and without it there is no pressure wave to create knock. verifies that higher pressure from a faster burn. to eliminate thermal distortion from the catalytic converter.2% and a fuel savings attributable to the unit of 29. The chain reaction initiated by those free radicals will cause a simultaneous ignition of all the primary fuel. CO and NO. The results of tests at Corrections Canada's. As it all ignites at once. reduces the Ignition delay and combustion period in both spark ignition and compression ignition engines which should lead to noticeable improvements in the combustion process and performance What happens inside the combustion chamber is still only a guess.18% From the forgoing. The considerable reduction in nitrous oxides (NOx} was a surprise.2481 km/li. A temperature sensor from an accurate pyrometer kit had been inserted directly into the exhaust manifold. gives the whole mix a much faster flame rate. Brant Peppley. nascent). Dr. the engine produced more torque from less fuel. Cooler exhaust temperatures show that more work is taken out during the power stroke. giving a mileage increase of 41. I had assumed that the extreme temperatures from such a rapid intense burn would produce more NO. unburned hydrocarbons. It is more probable that high temperature in the combustion chamber breaks down the oxygen and hydrogen molecules into free radicals (i.P. Recently I took part in the highway test of a vehicle driven twice over the same 200kilometre course. once with the system off and once with it on. As the extreme burn temperatures are of such short duration and temperature through the remainder of the . the near absence of carbon monoxide and unburnt hydrocarbons confirms a very complete and much faster burn. and 7. Bowden Alberta Institution and other independent tests reinforce the belief that combustion is significantly accelerated.P.M. Royal Military College.This enhancement of flame initiation and subsequent flame propagation. which may or may not reach the engine as nascent. In an earlier explanation I suggested that the extremely rapid flame speed of the added hydrogen oxygen interspersed through the main fuel air mix. and oxygen. Hydrogen Systems Group. On average. I now completely agree. the exhaust manifold temperature was 65°F lower during the second trip when the Hydrogen Generating System was switched on. He feel's that the faster burn is most likely due to the presence of nascent (atomic) hydrogen and nascent oxygen..e. Kingston.13253 km/li. on cruise control. The fuel consumption with the unit off was 5. acting through a longer effective power stroke. Electrolysis produces "nascent" hydrogen.M. More torque from less fuel at the same R. at the same speed. has convinced me that insufficient hydrogen is produced to have much effect by just burning it.

consideration should be given to what these systems can do now. Faster more complete burns are the keys to improving efficiency in internal combustion engines. less the power to the electrolysis unit. Even on a compact car. is a real gain. An engineering classmate suggested a grass fire as a useful analogy to understand combustion within an engine. the actual quantity of CO2 produced is reduced by roughly the same ratio as the savings in fuel. Such a burn will be both rapid and intense. That loss should not. . While the auto industry searches for the perfect means of eliminating harmful emissions. is the measure of real gain or loss. Assume a fuel-air mix is so lean as to normally take the entire power stroke (180°) to complete combustion. It follows from the foregoing paragraph that even a modest gain in thermal efficiency will be greater than the power used by an electrolysis unit. If an alternator efficiency of 60% is assumed. The piston would have moved less than 2% of its stroke by the end of the burn. fuelled by diesel. noxious gas is almost eliminated and greenhouse gas is decreased in proportion to the reduction in fuel consumption. but as less fuel is used. exceed V4%. Almost all unburned hydrocarbons. will. a unit would use less than ¼ % of its engine's output. Reducing hydrocarbons and CO causes a slight rise in the percentage of CO2 in the exhaust. the burn would be complete at about 14° past top dead centre.power stroke and the entire exhaust stroke. on average. since the HGS considers reduction of harmful emissions even as the engine ages. Thus onboard electrolysis systems supplying hydrogen and oxygen to internal combustion engines. then 0. small amounts of nascent oxygen and hydrogen present in the fuel-air mix will cause a chain reaction that ignites all the primary fuel molecules simultaneously. then all blades will ignite almost in unison. are eliminated. Educated estimates suggest the presence of nascent hydrogen and oxygen decreases the burn time of the entire mix by a factor of ten (10). or about what is used by the headlights. If a spark advance of 4° is assumed. CO and NO. should substantially increase efficiencies. With this in mind. so that any increase in the engine's thermal efficiency more than ¼ %. gasoline or propane. Power gained from increased thermal efficiency. be much cooler. In much the same way. If grass is first sprayed with a small amount of gasoline to initiate combustion. The lower exhaust manifold temperatures observed when the Hydrogen Generating System was in use can be viewed as evidence for this occurrence. Power consumed by this model of the electrolysis cell is about 100 watts. The net result should therefore be positive.. The flame front of a grass fire is distinct and its speed depends in part on the closeness of the individual blades.2233 horsepower will produce enough wattage. In brief. allowing over 98% of its travel to extract work. The energy regained from burning the hydrogen in the engine is so small that virtually all of the power to the electrolyser must be considered lost. however. it is not so surprising that less NOx is produced when the HGS is operating.

Immediately after launching the Henes venture. Prior to that time. in this example they do and have been troublesome. melting everything into blue-white puddles. Company of Phoenix sold many thousands of their trademarked 'Water Welder' in several sizes. the Henes Mfg. entraining the vapor for a reducing flame. Using hydrogen and oxygen immediately when generated through a common duct was not found in the literature and it appeared to be a new technology. Physicist HISTORY-This concept was discovered in 1961 by request from a manufacturer for a new and novel means for producing torch flame temperatures beyond those of that era. Yet. ceramics and carbon (in argon atmosphere). The torch flame from that unit was 20 inches long. 1966 dealt with intermixing the gases in an electrolyzer." as opposed to other electrolyzers using separate ducts for each gas. This patent claims use of loosely fitting grooves for holding the plates in tank 8"x8"x16"x3/4" Plexiglas. Such system was conceived and developed involving electrolytic production of mixed hydrogen and oxygen.262. Rhodes. Starting in 1962. including firebrick. William A. REFERENCE PROBLEMS. MULTICELL OXYHYDROGEN GENERATOR (3. The patent appears to establish my precedence in the art. I began research on a large electrolyzer patented in March 1967 under the title.872 issued July 26. The first patent -Apparatus For The Electrolytic Production of Hydrogen And Oxygen For The Safe Consumption patent # 3. but these were not tank gases and three major .483). Many experts in such gases contributed important knowledge hoping such would answer our questions.Of all elements.310. nickel plated on the oxygen generating side and iron on the hydrogen side. His contribution was limited to an additional small alcohol booster tank.It contained 60 iron plates.Nothing I have learned so far has lessened my belief that the benefits of using electrolysis units to supply hydrogen to most types of internal combustion engines are both real and considerable. literature on the subject focused exclusively on separation of such gases and conducting them out of the electrolyzer for tank storage. Their offerings were accurate for tank gases. I previously discovered that current could not bypass such plates loosely fitting in grooves of proper design. 9 claims in the patent read on."an outlet for said generator to conduct a mixture of hydrogen and oxygen gases there from. hydrogen and oxygen should hold no secrets.. presently continuing under another name. End COMMON DUCT ELECTROLYTIC OXYHYDROGEN Parameters & Variables by Dr. issuing through a common duct for instant use in a torch. The patent contains the financing party as co-inventor.

SETUP: A phototransistor cell was attached to a Plexiglas base containing a groove to locate the start and finish marks on a known length of transparent plastic tubing. marking the beginning and ending of the flash. With exception of the small error between sea level and 1150 ft above sea level. FLAME PROPAGATION RATE DETERMINATION . The "ashes" from burning are of course pure water. This combination has MAXIMUM INSTABILITY. and delivered in a common duct for immediate consumption should contain both molecular and atomic components. An ignition chamber with sparkplug was attached to a 2500 v transformer controlled with a button switch.226 seconds. or 8160 ft/sec div 1088 ft/sec (speed of sound not compensated for our 1150 ft above sea level) was mach 7. SIX SEQUENCES: Recorded timing for 10 feet of tubing was consistently 1. These tests were made with the plastic tubing wound into a small donut with phototransistor mounted on the focal plane of a camera lens. burn illumination produced a slightly rounded flat area with a baseline to baseline rise and fall of . * 3. The first marked tubing position was placed in the phototransistor groove.sults of these tests appear reliable. The tubing beyond the measured marks was covered to prevent errors from their exposure.000 ft in 1. A flat-black background behind the donut and floodlight illumination allowed the donut image to be adjusted to cover the active area of the phototransistor. and the 20 ft mark was placed on top of the first tubing mark. Rise and fall pulse duration via memo-scope was . memoscope and recorder running and standardized.(Previous test shots allowed strip chart recorder gain . * 1. The electrolyzer was attached to the input end of the spark chamber. NIST WWV clock ticks were coupled to all. TESTS: Electrolyzer gas purged the tubing.225 milliseconds = 10. Recording equipment included a dual pen strip-chart recorder with parallel connection to a memo-scope and audio tape recorder. Instrumentation and standardization was identical to the previous test. re. and since the flame is in the UV.5 millisecond with a total baseline to baseline duration of .6 milliseconds as before. Allowing the gases to mix at the moment of generation. Any electrostatic discharge can trigger a very mild explosion compared with tank H2 & O2. Stripchart. * 2. the electrolyzer was allowed to run until a trace of KOH allowed visual spectra to produce a slight pink-white. Spark initiated.6 millisecond. LUMPED FLAME RATE CONFIRMATION The previous rate was resolved from pip spacing’s. Until these were examined through experiment and observation. Recorded data of the previous were pips.obstacles remained. Flame temperature is far greater than tank gases. With this setup we hoped to capture precision measurements of flame front velocity plus rise and fall time. conjecture and theories were invalid. This time. a 22 ft length of tubing was attached to the output side of the chamber. flame propagation rate (burning velocity) was unusually high.5.

1 mg.Over the years many suggested if such gases were collected and remained unused. Past that point no reference exists. several kinds of re combinations would spontaneously occur regardless of temperature. Gas input was allowed to flow for 30 minutes for accuracy. and such gases introduced in the igloo would show a slight weight increase as the combination spilled *downward* through the doorway. (1000 ml was from a standard 1000 ml flask. FLAME TEMPERATURE -Flame tests in an argon atmosphere directed on several layers of carbon fiber fabric with its micron size filaments (Used on the stealth fighter & bomber. but its boiling point 4827C/8720F is not attained." SETUP: Our test volume chosen was 1 liter single duct electro. An igloo from a plastic pop bottle was cut to provide exactly 1000 ml volume between the flat igloo door top. An L shaped tube on lab stand extended through the doorway and bent upward ending near the dome top.5 minutes after gas cutoff.adjustment for approximately 3 cm reading. and gave readings identical with the others. Determining volumetric changes of stored . if a stoichiometric mix of H2 & O2 were present.First.) Time measurements of six sequences were identical to the previous. From the CRC handbook: "Lifting power of 1 cu/ft hydrogen is about 0. There is also theory vs experimental evidence to contend with. The igloo was filled with pipe smoke. These should provide sufficient evidence of the flame propagation rate of such mixed gases. marking the door top. where it was lathe cut and the doorway snipped out. The flat tracing showed gradual rise and fall of about 2 mm from beginning to end of a sequence.0311 lb. data being absent from NIST and the literature.Here we must consider single atoms of hydrogen 1 and oxygen 16 for lifting power against atmosphere (29+). LIFTING POWER OF ELECTROLYZED MIXED GASES . 1 liter mixed gases multiplied to 1 cu/ft provided lifting power of 0. No tubing rupture occurred and explosion sound was muffled. This means carbon's melting temperature 3550C/6422F is exceeded. Comparing H2 lifting power.) melted carbon filaments into brilliant globules. rounded off to the nearest mg. leaving the balance completely free of interference. The gas generator was purged of air 15 minutes. O2 alone would have a molecular weight of 32. The gas tube was attached and maximum weight reduction of 0.ing the igloo another 2". The balance was tare arbitrarily adjusted for 30 grams +. The last test was made with the tubing exit clamped off. Or 41% that of H2. and extend. transferred to the pop bottle. be aware we are dealing with common-ducted gases. It was located inverted on the pan of our Mettler milligram balance. -6 mg deflection noted due to warmer air.lyzed gases.075 lb at 760 mm pressure. Of course.510 grams was attained. the balance returned to the pre-gas reading caused by rapid diffusion of electrolyzed gases into atmosphere. and the upper dome. TESTS FOR STATIC GAS CHANGES.

The unit was set on a stand in the open and ignited. A cock on the metal L tube was turned off. and generator switched off.ance eg. with an L shaped gas entry tube extending upward under the bell. The only evidence of ignition was a sharp click.) To prevent any light activity.electrolyzed gases was done with a calibrated 100 ml domed bell of 1/4" thick Plexiglas open at the bottom and sliding inside a closely fitting Plexiglas container.5" diameter returnable diaphragm of food grade Saran wrap. Room temperature was adjusted for 80 F. comparing lifting ability as being 41% that of H2. The bell was held in place to prevent upward movement. When the temperature of the oil over the bell read 75 F. The cock was turned off. with no damage to the vessel. On the other hand. a duplication of the original multi cell unit was constructed of 3/4" Plexiglas with an interior volume of 8 liters. At the end of 6 months. 500 viscosity silicone oil was poured into the outer cylinder as air inside the bell was slowly exhausted. Being slowly depleted by mist generated during electrolysis. (Plus or minus 2% error. ADDITIONAL CONDITIONS . specific gravity must occasionally be corrected by addition of KOH. Such indicated the sonic wave front was responsible in. A recent report revealed one experimenter was wounded with shrapnel from such explosion. It is noted that any sharp metallic whisker in the storage atmosphere could cause an explosion. The cock was cracked to bleed gas down to the 100 ml level and turned off. highest electrical conductivity. Gas filled the bell from top downward below the 100 ml mark. However. Volume change was not measureable. gas electrolysis began. to eliminate all air. These tests allowed us to design electrolyzer tanks of materials and thicknesses that could contain flashbacks. allowing the plastic line to be purged of air.tact. Calculations gave the same answer as previous. where the entire contents can burst into high pressure steam with disastrous results. room temperature again increased oil temperature to 75F. and then connected to the cock which was turned on. The gas was then allowed to fill the inverted bell on the gram balance. these mixed gases were ignited repeatedly in a 4 liter container of 16 gage iron with flat ends and sparkplug. or one made from an easily fractured plastic.The only purpose of KOH is to create the lowest possible resist. just because somewhere in the interior someone forgot to round off a sharp edge. gas line pulled. The resultant pop splintered the case into many pieces which were all deposited within a radius of 5 feet around the stand. and the plastic tube pulled from the L and cleared of oil.stead of pressure which would have ruptured the diaphragm. The multi cell had a 2. . the system was covered with black polyethylene. (Identical to the volume of the iron container. continuing to flow slowly into the plastic vacuum tubing. The diaphragm remained in. The only way this might happen is from accumulation in an unusually thin container. similar to the dangers of storing high percentage hydrogen peroxide. Half of this was filled with electrolyte leaving 4 liters for foam and gas accumulation. causing the oil to fill the bell completely.

the Butane rate is 60 ft/sec. half-waves.Be aware of this: If a current i flows for a time t and reacts with water whose electrochemical equivalent is e. they will always show results exactly following this equation. burning velocity was precision measured in our lab. this is not conclusive. Extrapolation of chart curves indicates a possible diesel type explosion as pressure approaches 400 psi.Rhodes. 3-13-2000 Original OxyHyd discovery from 12/97/00 End Related Links to Papers on Hydrogen . unless lightening produces them. Note: Data on gas species percentages are incomplete. Some claim that under certain electrical manipulations. two aquarium aerator stones are adequate.Flame propagation rates refer to complete combustion mixtures to fill a measured length of tubing and after ignition. if precision measurement instruments are avail.er restricted by this equation. For small units of one or two liters total tank capacity. FLASHBACK ARRESTERS . Direct current wave shapes. However. ENERGY CONVERSION LIMITATIONS . For larger units water filled U-tube is service free and best.There are two types of arrester. Since no literature could be found for mixed atomic gas. [INCOMPLETE] FLAME PROPAGATION RATES OF SEVERAL GASES . An alternate to the U-tube is two tubes of different diameters. since its inertia disallows flame movement through the water. Amperage readings made of rectified direct current by some hang-on ammeters produce enormous errors. full-waves.able. W. Acetylene 330 ft/sec. but at maximum elevation allows sufficient gas space above. nothing will allow gas delivery approaching unity. leading the observer to believe cell efficiency has improved. From the literature. Over time they tend to clog with KOH vapor. electrolyte foam rises upward. Yet. This requires special attention to exhibit trustworthy data. mass of the gases released is: m=eit.A. Generation of such single ducted gases appears to be an event not found in nature. combustion speed is measured against standard time pulses from WWV transmissions from the National Institute of Standards and Technology. or may produce more gas than before. Tank Hydrogen (H2) 680 ft/sec.Viewing the permanent Plexiglas multi cell in operation. Therefore no purpose is served with designs containing more gas than necessary for conduction out of the reservoir. cells run cooler. frequencies. No reference source exists for atomic gases. This means present chemistry is forev. but can be easily cleared by back flushing with 50% phosphoric acid.

which is a big plus for those that live in the CARB states. One must address the political side of the technology. Now if you add the O2 back to the intake airstream elsewhere. What is needed is grass roots activism and public appeal or pressure.http://mysite.du. Another example can be seen in the following booster. Reference If just 1% of the billions in compensation payouts were put into the development hydroxy research.100free.html First images made of hydrogen burning in working internal combustion engine Faraday electrolysis efficiency Enriched Hydrocarbon Combustion Emissions tests and law related Government bodies in Australia are talking about paying massive compensation to the coal burners if emission restrictions are put on power stations. This can be seen in the example from rebates being available from the installation of various renewable energy technologies like solar power and others. then. Electricity prices will rise. Also one must address the very realistic issue of any possible hindrance in dissemination of the technology being created by GREEDY retailers of the technology. System X separates the gases at generation in order to allow their booster systems to work with more vehicles. Given the critically needed nature of this technology and the difference it can make to the environment and in the prevention of disease.com/water_dissociation_1. One can see this being evident in the example of overpriced solar panels. They also seem to have the CARB approval at this time. There are currently rebates by government bodies in place in order to reduce emissions from fossil fuels. Systems . it does help restore some of that lost improvement. Please forward this information and participate. Panacea is an organization with the tools which can be used towards this task. While gas separation system has the benefit of not interfering with the ECU on modern cars. the emission problems would disappear overnight as would carbon trading. it does reduce the amount of fuel economy improvement obtainable from a given watt hour of boosting power consumed. it is important to address a few issues which could play a role in preventing the technology from surfacing to capacity. There is still no rebate available for GEET technology or hydroxy booster all which via easy an installation can ELIMINATE Co2 emissions in cars where it is needed the most.edu/~jcalvert/phys/hydrogen. GEET technology and others.htm#Line http://waterfuel. without altering the vehicle emissions systems.

000. it does not fall into a category which lends its merit to being dependent on profit for dissemination. Resources must be managed in order to ensure stability and balance.that generate the gases separately are inherently less efficient by design. Grass roots activism is needed also!. Panacea endorses the open source engineer’s LOW cost designs and has made them available. These can ruin the whole hydroxy name entirely. ENHANCED 4 cylinder with AC or Fuel Injection price: $899.00. in modern cars boosters require modification to be done to the ECU. Pressure must be applied from the public to make the politician work for us (sadly).00. Booster implementation is now a survival issue. GEET or a vaporizer for both a health and environmental incentive. Hydroxy boosters can create 80% less emissions in diesel engines. This is because it is only understood that by messing with your ECU .00 Typical installation costs $200. In one example of how they Police the smog laws in California relating to a diesel exhaust emission.000 pounds: RETAIL PRICE $2195. That does not mean that they are any less viable than other booster designs. and a warning is stated against water4gas type boosters. up to 15. all components must be made to a standard. but also any revenue raised form them goes back into more research and development into sustainable energy. In law issues. hydroxy boosters. It is against the law to add anything to an engine or mess with the ECU that is not approved first by ARB. Boosters must be fitting by approved and qualified licensed installers.00 TYPICAL INSTALLATIONS RUN ABOUT $300. This is not a realistic price which encourages and or enables every motorist to have one fitted in their car. Add the fact that we need this technology on the diesel engines the most and it is the most overpriced. Laws must be mandated done TODAY to ensure a mandatory use of ANY fuel reforming technology being. These designs are not only the most efficient and cost effective. that it . One company was fined $88. Based on the capacity boosters and other fuel reforming technologies have. BASIC UNIT price: $799. 4 cylinder basic gasoline engines.00 System 2 This product for Diesel vehicles. maintenance and smoke output. something retailers in the energy business do not do. However the costs of the following unit start from: System 1 this product is for passenger vehicles.

The European Union [EURO 4] and India [Bharat Stage III] emission standards are less stringent than either American standard. The State of California has been aggressive promoting fuel cell and hydrogen technologies.000. The Federal Enviromental Protection Agency and the California Air Resource Board. During combustion. Federal emission standards are less stringent than C.B. not all HH-O recombines to water vapor. Show members of your local communities your EFIE car to influence the local communities to write to their local members to look at the emissions/Dyno fuel saving reports then get them to work with the manufactures to help implement this in an agreed voted emission standard. Next year. Tier 3 standards will include eleven 'pollutants' including methane and carbon dioxide. The theme must be too demonstrate the POLLUTION CUTTING attributes and fuel savings in order to influence the LOCAL parliament members to work in conjunction with the CAR companies to work towards a diagnostic re programming route.A. A Certified mechanic can ensure that the ECU and booster operation are on par with the emission standards. Oxygen sensors will react to increase O levels in the exhaust by adding more fuel.R.R. ignition timing retardation and/or adding more exhaust gas recirculation. Start LOCAL. Oxygen has a nasty habit of attaching to nitrogen and sulpher. In fact it produces FEWER emissions. There are currently products in trials with C. An EFIE that modifies emission data to the engine computer and management systems and are strictly forbidden by law. Certification can take more than 16 months and can cost more than $100. get the car manufactures to produce soiftware which can re program the air fuel raito. Here is an example of various emission tests conducted in different countries on hydroxy technology.would produce more emissions.B. There are two major environmental regulatory and certification hurdles in the United States. A mechanic can inspect and stamp an approval which can be presented to the department of transport to meet their regulations. Seven other states use California standards as well.A. Adding a booster and configuring the ECU to accept its operation does NOT produce worse emissions. In other words. These laws must extend to this acceptance based on the capacity hydroxy technology has to reduce emissions. NOx being of particular interest in California [smog]. In fact a booster will blow the emission standards out of the water (pun intended). Start locally to influence your LOCAL members. as political campaign contributions . although a great deal of energy is being expended by the Continentals to include carbon dioxide. At this time it is logical for those who have had some success with the EFIE to present their findings to an official government body City Council.

If you modify your vehicle and it exceeds the maximum amounts. The OEM's with multi-million dollar labs spend tons of money trying to find ways of reducing the pollution (just take a tour of GM engine lab). unplug the EGRs and MIL eliminators. your vehicle's engine modifications show low or ultra-low emissions. HELLO? Without the endorsement. participation and validation of these technologies it can only be reasoned that the OEMs have behaved like bed partners with the oil companies. Electrolyzers and electronics are non-permanent installations for those living on the left coast. you pass the test and the inspector will want to know how you did it as all ICE's pollute to some extent(the EPA would then mandate your mods to all ICE's). Instead. the OEM’s should be beating a path to hydroxy technologies door. retard ignition timing and whatever else they can undo the other 50 weeks of the year to extend MPG and improve performance.7 mpg cars.6 mpg trucks). 28. dating back to the early 20th century that reduced or eliminated exhaust pollution altogether?. Oxygen is too valuable during hydrocarbon combustion.If you could show and prove your modification reduces emissions(which hydroxy technology does) under all operating conditions. however. An electrolyzer which separates oxygen from hydrogen before gas introduction would make sense and look good in a press release.come from primarily Japanese automotive manufacturers. and they have always shown a reticence to promote such technologies. If. passed in December 2007 mandates the setting of separate attribute-based maximum feasible standards for passenger cars and for light trucks at levels sufficient to ensure that the average fuel . we have the wasteful reburn of unused fuel in a catalytic converter. because reduced emissions has meant lower fuel consumption. They have annual and bi-annual vehicle emission testing hence why they reinstall the catalytic converters. Currently the EPA has emission regulations that cannot be exceeded for the particular year model vehicle being tested. first promoted by a politician who was himself poised to manufacture them. The Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 (EISA). What a sad commentary on the human species! Further in the USA the NHTSA Introduced a Proposed Fuel Economy Targets for 20112015. EFIE is required to lean fuel even more as well as modify O2 sensor signals. The US Department of Transportation’s (DOT) National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) has issued a notice of proposed rulemaking for new vehicle fuel economy standards that would bring the US average to about 31. HOWEVER where is the OEM’s endorsement of the GEET technology or hydroxy technology? Why have they not taken into account numerous patented inventions. you fail the tests and need to remove or re-tweak your modifications and retest.6 miles per gallon in 2015 (35.

3% Carbon monoxide 0.Hydroxy Booster Installation Plus .economy of the combined fleet of all passenger cars and light trucks sold by all manufacturers in the US in model year (MY) 2020 equals or exceeds 35 mpg -Reference.12% -33. public participation into pressure and even at a grass roots activism level.3% At 80km/h Hydrocarbons 125ppm 41ppm -67. Hydroxy technology can do better than this right now. the emissions decreased as follow: At idle Hydrocarbons 797 ppm 364ppm -54. The MPG gains and pollution cutting facts and figures of the GEET and hydroxy technology speak for themselves.18% 0.2hp 42. Regulation is thus practical.2% .5hp Torque 314lb 325lb At 80 km/h. These CURRENT facts and figures must make their way into legislation. Panacea-BOCAF .Dyno and Emission Tests Sponsored by PKW performance Sydney Australia These tests show conclusively: At 80km/h the horsepower and torque increased with the boosters as follow: With boosters Horsepower 41.

He later affirms: “A small amount of hydrogen added to the air intake of a gasoline engine would enhance the flame velocity and thus permit the engine to operate with leaner air to gasoline mixture than otherwise possible. the ARB must approve any devices installed on motor vehicles that may affect the emissions. In 1974 F.82% 1. at the Birmingham. entitled “Feasibility Demonstration of a Road Vehicle Fueled with Hydrogen Enriched Gasoline. Jamal and Wyszynski. has also been tested and proven both by institutions and in hundreds of practical applications in road vehicles. the hydrogen injection system. but not all initially. when you add hydrogen you use less fuel and release less CO2. Eng. This legislation needs to extend to allowing hydroxy booster technology and even the mandatory implementation of it! Further in the sate California in the US only one business which has an overpriced unit which has approval for the IRS Section 535 TAX CREDITS to cover the cost of the unit(s). ECU. catalytic converter.W. It shows that. Our own utilization of this technology. The benefits are factual and well documented. Mechanical and Manufacturing>. Wagner. Obviously these need to extend to every state. Dowy of the Jet Propulsion Lab.It also shows that the other pollutant levels drop. ex-professor of Dynamics and Canadian inventor.” In 1995. The CO and NOx levels initially raise. then drop away. The result.J/Cerini of the Jet Propulsion Lab. Smog testing stations are under penalty of Law to report violators. . Hydrogen Injection by -Hydrogen boost dot com Archived here in case the site ever goes down-The technology of using hydrogen as a combustion enhancement in internal combustion engines has been researched and proven for many years.e.47% -19.” In the early eighties George Vosper P.W. prepared a report for the 9th Inter society Energy Conversion Engineering Conference. not only that the rebates must be extend to other western countries. Hoehn and M.Carbon monoxide 1. designed and patented a device to transform internal combustion engines to run on hydrogen. Here is a synopsis of a sampling of the research that has been done: In 1974 John Houseman and D. etc. Violators could have their car confiscated and crushed. California Institute of Technology produced a report for the Society of Automotive Engineers entitled “On-Board Hydrogen Generator for a Partial Hydrogen Injection Internal Combustion Engine”. far less pollution with more power and better mileage. i.2% In the USA.. Less CO2 produced by using hydroxyl booster technology The following is a very useful report. of University Engineering. for the same mechanical output (same performance). Please lobby your local member or continue to pay for fuel and have UN needed smog.

demonstrated the advantages of “Fractional addition of hydrogen to internal combustion engines by exhaust gas fuel reforming. The results of their experimental investigation conclude that because of the characteristics of hydrogen. Zhejiang University.” In the Spring of 1997. when used as a fractional additive at extreme lean engine operation.” The American Hydrogen Association Test Lab tested this technology and proved that: “Emissions test results indicate that a decrease of toxic emissions was realized. zero emissions were observed on CO. June 26-29. Roy MacAlister.” Again. UK.” The process yielded benefits in improved combustion stability and reduced nitrogen oxides and hydrocarbon emissions. Vehicle subjected to dynamometer loading in controlled conditions showed drastic reduction . thus toxic emissions are restrained. at an international conference held by the University of Calgary. the mixture can rapidly burn in hydrogen-gasoline mixture fueled engines. They subsequently stated: “CEE feels that the result of this test verifies that this technology is a viable source for reducing emissions and fuel consumption on large diesel engines. In the abstract of that study it stated: “Hydrogen. the group elaborated an explanation of the mechanism of forming toxic emissions in spark ignition engines. a group of scientists from the University of Birmingham. safety or feasibility that would allow them to reach marketing stages. China. presented a study about hydrogen as a fraction of the fuel. Using the theory of chemical dynamics of combustion. A few of them materialized in patented devices that didn’t’t reach the level of performance. yields benefits in improved combustion stability and reduced nitrogen oxides and hydrocarbon emissions. University of Cassino. a team of scientists representing the Department of Energy Engineering. 1995. presented a mathematical model for the process of formation and restraint of toxic emissions in hydrogen-gasoline mixture fueled engines. Italy. Northern Alberta Institute of Technology.” At the HYPOTHESIS Conference. California Environmental Engineering (CEE) has tested this technology and found reduction on all exhaust emissions. PE of the American Hydrogen Association states the “Use of mixtures of hydrogen in small quantities and conventional fuels offers significant reductions in exhaust emissions” and that “Using hydrogen as a combustion stimulant it is possible for other fuels to meet future requirements for lower exhaust emissions in California and an increasing number of additional states. Relatively small amounts of hydrogen can dramatically increase horsepower and reduce exhaust emissions. These studies and other research on hydrogen as a fuel supplement generated big efforts in trying to develop practical systems to enhance internal combustion engine performance.

For their research they granted the C. shortens the burn time of the main fuel-air mix. in 1974 concluded: .. using various fuels. the concept is ridiculous. The 2nd law of thermodynamics is a likely source of those doubts. Does it work? Independent studies. their analysis pointed out that this solution is the most cost effective. George Vosper. i. the resulting energy balance should be negative...of emissions and improved horsepower. written by Mr. Meaning . putting more pressure on the piston through a longer effective power stroke. reduced noxious and greenhouse gases and increased power. and in doing so takes more work out. As a result of these tests. have shown that flame speeds increase when small amounts of hydrogen are added to airfuel mixes. it feeds small amounts of hydrogen and oxygen into the engine’s air intake. We also conducted extensive testing in order to prove reliability and determine safety and performance of the components and the entire system. From researching the Internet we also found the following information: To best describe how Hydrogen Enhanced Combustion works. P.. it is no surprise that a few of them say the idea won’t work. If the aim is to create hydrogen by electrolysis to be burned as a fuel. the horsepower will increase and the fuel consumption will be reduced. The results of these tests were able to confirm the claims made about this technology: the emissions will be reduced.S. at different universities.C. Mounted on a vehicle. We have since increased the hydrogen/oxygen production significantly.the law -would lead you to believe that it will certainly take more power to produce this hydrogen than can be regained by burning it in the engine. Such opinions. at its Jet Propulsion Lab Pasadena. “The hydrogen system is a valuable tool in helping Corrections Canada meet the overall Green Plan by: reducing vehicle emissions down to an acceptable level and meeting the stringent emissions standard set out by California and British Columbia. The auto industry is not devoid of hoaxes and as engineers are sceptics by training. Corrections Canada tested several systems and concluded. we are providing this excerpt from a University Technical Report.Eng. On the other hand.a Hydrogen Generating System (HGS) for trucks or cars has been on the market for some time. This has resulted in increased effectiveness on engine performance. reducing the amount of fuel consumed by increased mileage. we achieved important breakthroughs as far as the designs of the components were concerned. Environmental Award. A study by the California Institute of Technology. Its makers claim savings in fuel.. if hydrogen. . from engineers can’t be dismissed without explaining why I think these Hydrogen Generating Systems do work and are not just another hoax.e.” Additionally. then this system does make sense.

The results of tests at Corrections Canada’s.The J.P. In an earlier explanation I suggested that the extremely rapid flame speed of the added hydrogen oxygen interspersed through the main fuel air mix.. which may or may not reach the engine as nascent. concept has unquestionably demonstrated that the addition of small quantities of gaseous hydrogen to the primary gasoline significantly reduces CO and NOx exhaust emissions while improving engine thermal efficiency A recent study at the University of Calgary by G. CO and NO. The addition of some hydrogen to the methane. What happens inside the combustion chamber is still only a guess.L. including for very fast flowing mixtures.P. gives the whole mix a much faster flame rate. Kingston.. Royal Military College. It is more probable that high temperature in the combustion chamber breaks down the oxygen and hydrogen molecules into free radicals (i. They found with the HGS on. reduces the Ignition delay and combustion period in both spark ignition and compression ignition engines which should lead to noticeable improvements in the combustion process and performance . Hydrogen Systems Group. the engine produced more torque from less fuel.M. has convinced me that insufficient hydrogen is produced to have much effect by just burning it.e. Dr. I now completely agree.A. As it all ignites at once. Karim on the effect of adding hydrogen to a methanefuelled engine says . Bowden Alberta Institution and other independent tests reinforce the belief that combustion is significantly accelerated. no flame front can exist and without it there is no pressure wave to create knock. unburned hydrocarbons. The chain reaction initiated by those free radicals will cause a simultaneous ignition of all the primary fuel. in the exhaust were either eliminated or drastically reduced and at the same R. This enhancement of flame initiation and subsequent flame propagation. Brant Peppley. Electrolysis produces “nascent” hydrogen. which initiate a chain reaction. Related links EPA guide Rancho SMOG California Environmental Engineering Hydrogen Injection Hydroxy Dyno and emission tests reports . nascent). speeds up the rates of initiation and subsequent propagation of flames over the whole combustible mixture range. He feel’s that the faster burn is most likely due to the presence of nascent (atomic) hydrogen and nascent oxygen. and oxygen.

2. your deduction is generally the additional cost of permitting the use of the clean-burning fuel. Liquefied petroleum gas. . Ohio 44135. 3.html Hydrogen use in internal combustion engines – Collage of Alabama Emissions And Total Energy Consumption Of A Multi cylinder Engine Summary of emission tests California environmental testing laboratory – Truck related IRS deduction Following are excerpts from IRS Publication 535. Any property installed on a motor vehicle (including installation costs) to enable it to be propelled by a clean-burning fuel. 1.EMISSIONS AND TOTAL ENERGY CONSUMPTION OF A MULTICYLINDER PISTON ENGINE RUNNING ON GASOLINE AND A HYDROGEN-GASOLINE MIXTURE Johz F. 4. Download. Any other fuel that is at least 85% alcohol (any kind) or ether. Clean-fuel vehicle property is either of the following kinds of property.Hydrogen-Gasoline Mixture http://www. You are allowed a limited deduction for the cost of clean-fuel vehicle property and clean-fuel vehicle refueling property you place in service during the tax year.For vehicles that may be propelled by both a cleanburning fuel and any other fuel. Electricity. Clean-burning fuels. NASA Emission and Energy Test . The following are cleanburning fuels. Hydrogen. Deduction for Clean-Fuel Vehicle Property The deduction for this property may be claimed regardless of whether the property is used in a trade or business Clean-fuel vehicle property. The property is an engine (or modification of an engine) that can use a clean-burning fuel. Liquefied natural gas. Natural gas. Cassidy Lewis Research Center Chehnd. 5. 6.hydrogen-boost.com/September%202007. or The property is used to store or deliver that fuel to the engine or to exhaust gases from the combustion of that fuel.

They are not interested in patenting and profiting off of their efforts.asp http://www. If you go on to a forum and ask obvious questions. You can find more information on these political issues on this page. PLEASE USE THE GROUPS SEARCH FUNCTION FIRST.savefuel. After you have successfully completed this project we suggest researching other systems in the files section. While the hydroxy forum engineers are all very happy to answer any questions. Please keep this in mind when developing systems of your own and when participating on the forums. you soon will be regarded as lazy and taking up UN necessary time. At least 80%! YES 80% of the questions can be answered in these guides simply by READING thoroughly. The Water car forums are not interested in the political discussion of the issue. The water car forums are a group objective to work together in a friendly environment to develop systems of water as fuel technologies. .com/hydrogen/tax-deduction. The water car forums are NOT for skeptics who have got 101 "scientific" reasons why Water fuel technologies won't work.ca/oxy-hydrogen/ Newbie FAQ Guide and General Hydroxy Information NOTE – PLEASE READ ALL OF THIS SECTION PRIOR TO GOING TO ANY TECHNICAL SUPPORT FORUM AND ASKING A QUESTION. If you are a beginner and eager to get started it is recommend to start with the Smacks booster. you may save the time of having to wait for the answer by reading the files in the group’s files section.mimousa. But there are others as well for example in the case of the suppression of medical devices and the banking cartels that have ties with the energy industries. The reason for this is that ALL who have attempted to do so in the past have had their technology suppressed via threats from entrenched institutions.Related Links http://www. It is not intended to be a 100% water power system for your vehicle. YOUR QUESTION HAS MOST LIKELY ALREADY BEEN ANSWERED HERE. then moving straight on to theoretical 100% water powered car via the Bob Boyce’s cell. Engineers on the forums are better off doing advanced research and development rather then spending their time answering obvious questions. but actually freely giving away information as a gift to society. The energy industry is one such institution. but mainly on the technical side. but it is virtually guaranteed to improve your gas mileage. Members of the water car group’s work together in order to discover and resurrect water fuel as a viable alternative energy solution and are simply not interested to hear the opinion of anything otherwise.

[surface prep] 6. then do not hesitate to share this with other members. low heat produces the least water vapor. . The principle aims of the hydroxy groups is to produce and use boosters with the goals of reducing and eliminating the need for fossil fuels. then you are most welcome to join the forums.If you do have a viable suggestion which can further improve the efficiency of proposed designs. Mean time you can ask on the forums about who is in your area. high heat produces the most water vapor. but again. All boosters make "gas. Water vapor SLOWS DOWN THE BURN!] 4. [all have some] b. a. 5." The major difference is what else they do. This can lead to training and the possibility of getting together for joint projects and to help each other out with your particular skills. some low and some high. a. creating an open source community and also improving the research. [for the same design. You are request to respect the opinion of existing members the forums and communicate in an OBJECTIVE way. if you are a newcomer to water fuel/hydroxy. all boosters have different surface topography. However. and are eager to learn the real facts. or unknowingly has been indoctrinated by misinformation about water fuel. all boosters do not have the same efficiency. The Panacea university site will have technical forums coming soon where you can register your area. forums members do not have any time for people who are still questioning the viability of hydroxy technology. all boosters produce heat. cleaning up pollution. [or don't] 1. not emotional. some produce 5 or more HP load for 1 LPM [computed by watts applied to produce 1 LPM] 3. all boosters have different electrolyte concentrations. 2. This movement is by no means limited to the internet forums. some produce 1 horsepower load for 1 LPM [relative numbers] b. It is quiet likely that other forum members could live locally to you. all boosters produce load on the engine. all boosters have different amps per sq in. In fact it is advisable to locally join with others to form an enthusiast group.

This list only has some of the differences between boosters. If all the power from the gas is released before 45* ATDC. The Hydrogen causes the fuel to be consumed completely and in that process incinerates all of the toxins and particulates resulting in lower emissions and clean air exhaust discharge. road conditions . On a larger engine. The next 80* exerts the maximum convertible torque on the crank. IE less gas produced. It doesn't include the differences incountered in the ICE. Power increases are also noticeable as pickup and performance increases also. The ICE will stand the pressure of causing all the fuel to burn by 15 to 30* ATDC and then all the energy is recovered except for heat and friction. Q-Why can’t I use the term “HHO” on forums? A-The term “HHO” refers to hydroxy and is a registered trademark. especially small diesels the power and MPG improvements are really noticeable. The Hydrogen then passes out the exhaust system cleaning the cat and muffler and tailpipe of carbon deposits and returns back into the air as Hydrogen to return back to the Planet. The largest ICE parameter NEVER talked about is the "time spent at maxpressure" and the rod angles of this force. all the available power can be converted to angular motion in the crank. If the engine size is small. again the small engine will have a bigger improvement on a small LPM. When the exhaust valve opens. This is why there is such a big improvement in adding Hydroxy. “HOH” or even “hho” in lower case. and on several vehicles. The Hydrogen blends with incoming outside air and acts as a catalyst with the existing fuel source. Despite how much this doesn’t make sense to you. DO NOT REFER TO HYDROXY AS “HHO” on ANY public forums. all boosters have different external IR drops in the wiring. there needs to be a larger amount of LPM to get the same burn improvement. weather conditions and hilly terrain. all that energy from 120* ATDC to valve open is lost. Q-What is Hydroxy gas and how is it made? . the 1 to 2 LPM will produce a larger % complete burn at an earlier crank angle and therefore a greater performance improvement. the conversion ends and if the gas is still burning. NONE of the burn pressure exerted after 120* ATDC converts to crank power. You may use the term “hydroxy”. currently the owner of the “HHO” trademark is enforcing his copyright and is shutting down public forums who mention his trademark. The Hydrogen cleans up all of the carbon in the engine and exhaust system. which will be a much larger list.7. The ideal burn duration is from TDC to 45*. gas or diesel. as is typical. If the HP load is also reduced. Most see an average of 20+% increase in average mileage. in any case no less than 5% improvement in MPG. of course it depends on the driver and driving habits.

In the individual case of the Bob Boyce unit. If no bubbler is used it will detonate the cell then YOU. Seek professional advice before experimenting for the first time. life and property insurance companies may not appreciate your experimentation and potential carelessness/recklessness. DO NOT use galvanized. . Do not attempt to ignite the Hydroxy from the end of the output hose from the cell. Never operate a hydroxy unit without A BUBBLER. It refers to monatomic hydrogen or “Browns gas” (there are other names associated with it) that has been created by separating H2O into molecules by passing an electrical current through water. and you do so at your own risk. Do not’s with hydroxy Never use glass as a container for holding/creating/piping this gas. Connect wires to the electrodes at the bottom of your container. This is experimental technology. There are two popular methods which are used for hydroxy creation. They give off poisonous gasses when electrolyzed. Your health. flammable and powerful. it will detonate the bubbler. Use common sense. Be organized. Always use stainless steel. Any spark will ignite Hydroxy. or zinc plated steel. HYDROGEN. OXYGEN and the HOH mixture of the two obtained from electrolyzing water is EXTREMELY EXPLOSIVE and DANGEROUS gasses.A-The term “Hydroxy” is a word coined by open source engineer “Bob Boyce”. if electrodes are close enough to touch make sure they are always submerged in water. this is coined as “Brute force DC”. aluminum and platinum. The second is by using pulsed DC under certain resonant conditions and is understood to be “water splitting” or water fractioning as first described by Stanley Meyers. Do not use aluminum connectors to electrodes. Metals which are completely unsuitable include copper. A bubbler is the most basic form of safety for you and your equipment. A pop off cap must always be used when producing Hydroxy. both electrolyte and Pulsed DC under resonant conditions are used in the process. USE A BUBBLER ALWAYS. clean and systematic when experimenting. Always handle it as if it is about to explode. Engines are prone to backfiring at anytime. The first is to use straight DC using water mixed with electrolyte. Hydroxy is very static sensitive and will ignite given the opportunity. DO your research and be confident about what you are doing before you attempt it. and could cancel or not honor your contracts of coverage (your policy). Hydroxy is usually attributed to the case where this monatomic hydrogen or “browns gas” is being created in order to boost and or power an engine or a generator. Hydroxy is extremely volatile.

this is located as close as possible to the butterfly valve. This is due to the fact that the drop in pressure allows water molecules to escape their liquid confinement and be liberated into a vaporous state more easily. Other 1 cylinder engines for lawn care also use “waste sparks”. Only use KOH (potassium hydroxide) and NaOH (sodium hydroxide). spring water or tap water in your booster. this is done by connecting the hydroxy to as close as possible to the throttle plate. In small quantities. This can be done by restricting the output of the booster with a needle valve.or a pop off device of some sort and a bubbler. a face shield and protective clothing are highly recommended. or metal to metal contact from turbine blades on casing and ignite the hydroxy. Do not use Rain water. Do not connect your booster to an engine vacuum source. ALWAYS wear proper safety gear when experimenting with hydroxy gas. Do not under any circumstances hook your electrolyzer unit up to an engine vacuum source. More information as to WHY and on all these topics can be found in the faculty section above. ALWAYS connect your boosters output to the intake piping. In the Case of adding a booster to turbo engines. This will ignite the incoming hydrogen and detonate your bubbler. This will ensure you will have hydroxy production throughout the operating range. Do not forget a pressure relief also . The reason for this is because of the impurities contained in them. then use a 1” polycarbonate (plexiglass) blast shield to place between you and your experiment. Eye goggles. They use a waste spark which is triggered when the intake valve is open. They are very caustic and so be very careful when using these electrolytes. It is suggested to operate the booster 10PSI above max boost pressure. Only use Distilled water. this can be desirable when attempting to improve . more GEET details are posted on the Panacea university site). Do not use Baking soda for your electrolyte. similarities can be seen in the example of the normal connection on an aspirated engine. There are three important reasons for this: Exposing the surface of a body of water to pressure that is less than atmospheric results in a lower boiling temperature. If you can afford them. DO NOT use salt as an electrolyte as it will create poisonous chlorine gas that can kill you. and then connecting the booster power through a relay activated by a pressure switch to prevent over pressurization. DO NOT EVER connect hydroxy to the inlet of the turbo.Do not attempt to add Hydroxy to a lawnmower engine (use a GEET instead. There is flammable gas with its own oxidizer just waiting for a stray spark from a faulty sensor to backfire.

almost instantly sometimes. As you raise the amperage to 30 the output will increase. of course. You want the unit to be outputting its maximum when the throttle is wide open.but there is a problem even more serious than boiling. Think of how manifold vacuum works. This causes large fluctuations which cause bubblers and cells to be evacuated very quickly . not fully closed. Manifold vacuum is not stable. It pulses violently with every cycle. DO NOT STORE HYTDROXY GAS ANY WHERE. Now add this to the problem of already hot running cells and after a very short period of operation you basically have nothing but a big steam generator piped into your manifold vacuum. it can self combust between 10-15psi. This will nullify any fuel efficiency gains you may otherwise have had. So hook your cells output to the intake piping just before and as close as possible to the butterfly valve as you can. Those of you using engine vacuum now on your boosters probably have no idea how much and of what quality your cells output has. This is the exact opposite of what you desire. This can wreak havoc on sensors and components within your engine. to much steam and you may actually decrease your mileage. Too much vapor/steam will dilute to hydroxy mix and render it useless by reducing its volatility.the performance of an ICE. NEVER ATTEMPT TO STORE THE GAS! Storing hydroxy gas is very dangerous. If you construct a 21 plate (20 cell) unit with minimal leakage and fit it with a 1/2" output tube. If one wishes to use vacuum to increase production. Vacuum is at its lowest value when the valve is wide open. one would need to use a vacuum pump that provided a consistent value.DO NOT STORE HYTDROXY GAS ANY WHERE. So the temptation to do this is great . In fact. construct it and find out . The problem is there is no easy way to monitor just how much and under what conditions this is maximized. This minimizes the stored hydroxy volume while still avoiding the vacuum phenomenon. The problem with that . For those of you that have a gage you know that vacuum is the highest when the throttle plate/s is/are closed.now you have a larger volume of flammable hydroxy gas prone to ignition and being pumped through a mechanical device which could fail and blow up. NEVER ATTEMPT TO STORE THE GAS! Again . 14 lpm of gas out. The way to utilize vaporous water is by mist injection where the process can be monitored and controlled. and surges with every movement of your right foot. It is true that putting an electrolyzer unit under vacuum will increase its hydroxy output as long as the temperature of the bath remains below its new boiling point. This will cause engine management problems and reduce the effectiveness of your fuel savings. If you should get greedy and raise the amperage to around 40 amps it WILL explode. You don't have to believe it. at 22 amps you will get approx.

this news report showed Stan’s 100% water powered dune buggy. but it is amusing to watch as long as the cell is designed to handle this sort of repeated abuse. Before all this a person in the Philippians named Daniel Dingel had a 100% water powered car. this also ran into suppression. Most famous is the Stan Meyer system which first appeared on mainstream TV in the Mid 90’s.Is it possible to make 100% water powered car driven by hydroxy gas? YES.The issue with pressurization comes from the fact that the orthohydrogen content of freshly generated / pure hydroxy gas will avalanche decay into parahydrogen at about 15 PSI. This electricity is then used to produce hydroxy gas inside an electrolyzer. Stan patented his designed but was killed and suppressed. You should not compare stoichiometric hydrogen oxygen to hydroxy gas for this criteria. The Meyer’s system became popular again recently in 2004-2007. There are other designs which have been suppressed. Next came Bio’s fuel corporation headed by Steven Ryan. the engine needs more Hydroxy gas to run it than the electrolyzer can produce. so go figure. it is understood that each design differs in operation but is still using hydroxy to power the vehicle. This gas is burned in the engine just like gasoline and will improve the burn of the gasoline. Q. igniting it. That is all I can say about that for now. You would be comparing stable parahydrogen to unstable orthohydrogen. except to say. BOOM! We have demonstrated this repeatedly by operating a well designed cell unit into a blocked off output port and watch what happens as it gets to 15 PSI. he had a 100% water powered motor bike. when the engine turns the alternator mechanical energy is converted back into electrical energy and is stored in the battery as electricity.an electrical discharge occurs within the gas.for yourself! The reason for the explosion is the 1/2" outlet tube restricts the flow. However it did not . Bruce force DC booster designs containing electrolyte cannot accomplish this job at this time. Further research on this can be found on this page. it all depends on the quality of gas you are generating. therefore giving more MPG and less emissions. In the case of a hydroxy booster. With the physics of the typical booster. When that happens. Now he only offers a 50% water system. Later his brother formed the Xogen Company which attempted to resurrect the technology. I am not condoning this for everyone to try. Other systems which include using use pulse DC under certain resonant conditions have been reported to be able to produce enough hydroxy gas to power a car 100%. he was unable to get support due to suppression. Typically gasoline is burned in your engine in order to convert chemical energy into mechanical energy to power your car. builds up pressure and BOOM. but IT IS NOT a good idea to try storing Hydroxy gas or putting it under much pressure. Two engineers re popularized the design by re producing similar results off the patent.

The Boyce cell is certainly not recommended for newcomers because of the complexity of achieving resonance and all the specialized and extensive work needed.“Unconventional” water electrolysis systems HHO gas production reports: Yull Brown suggested that one gallon of water could propel an 8 cylinder car for 1000 miles. but is still an exceptional booster. This could power an engine of up to 2 liter’s or 4 cylinders on 100% hydroxy with out the need for fuel. mixed with air from the car's breather. There is another option proposed in the open source design by Bob Boyce. working demos that have been presented on TV and in theory. His figures were the following:1 US gallon of water = 1860 gallons of HHO gas. One average car alternator output would be needed with his system. This has been reported by him to be able to produce 100 LPM of hydroxy at 350 watts. Q-How much water is needed on 100% hydroxy powered systems A. This design can be found on this page. 1860 gallons x 4 liters / gallon = 7440 liters of gas. Using one 12 Volt battery. using only two car batteries and his electrolyzer. Daniel Dingel stated that his system can drive a car one hour on a liter of water. or check for up dates on the Les Bank circuits. He didn't say what alternator(s) he used. At this time this current design is not suitable to power a vehicle on 100% water alone. says that his system takes 4 ounces of water to run a car 100 miles. a Stan Meyer spin-off company in Canada. Xogen.produce the same efficiency but still proved that the principle is sound. A list of these patents can be found on Panacea patent’s page under “water car patents”. Stan Meyer suggested that his car required one gallon of water to drive 100 miles. Dennis Klien. provides home energy & heating & waste treatment. third party replication reports. So far open source engineers have researched water fuel systems through the patents which they appear in. With 128 ounces per gallon / 4 = 32 33. He says his Hydroxy is six times more powerful than gasoline. & one solenoid on each spark plug.695 Watts per Gallon / 32 / 3 = 350 Watts of generator power is needed to operate this system. because he regulates the H & O mix. of Aquygen. . Further R and D can get it there based on the already promising results. More Information on this design can be found on the Panacea university site. It is advised for those who are working on the open source Meyer’s replication and or Bob Boyce design to use a booster in the mean time. a honeycomb plate electrolyser.

Hydrogen in its lowest energy form requires 4% H2 diluted in 96% air to achieve the same power as gasoline. The kind of hydrogen that comes from a tank and has had the excess energy bled away.34 W/h per L/h of hydroxy gas production. how many BTU's or calorific values are needed to produce certain power and what are those characteristics for hydrogen and hydroxy. Most do not understand that we are referring to monatomic hydrogen rather then dia atomic. Hydrogen in a high energy state can deliver the same power at just under 1% when diluted with about 99% air.” This is referring to the published ratio for parahydrogen. which is diatomic parahydrogen. with about 2X more energy than that of parahydrogen. There are other states as well. but those are obtained through different processes. .Water Car Car Using Water As Fuel 1 Car Using Water As Fuel 2 Commonly people (who could be dis info agents) appear on the forums and throw around theories (and figures) as to why Water fuel cannot work. Others do not understand the much touted Faraday prediction. such as deuterium and tritium (radioactive). it should require 2. The Faraday prediction never was. Some class Faraday’s law to be a method on how to measure “unity”. nor will it ever be a measure of “unity”. the low energy state of hydrogen. keep in mind that according to Faraday predictions. on several Internet sites. This is not so much in reference to brute force DC designs but to pulsed resonant designs like those mentioned above.” This technology DOES NOT follow those “simple chemistry” rules! This has been REPEATEDLY explained by several people. the lowest energy form of hydrogen. including popular experimenter Bob Boyce. There is much speculation on the amount of hydrogen or hydroxy gas required to run an engine. All of the published figures for calculating the amount of hydrogen gas it takes to run an engine are based on normal tank hydrogen. Resonant reaction created monohydrogen is in an even higher energy state. When dealing with efficiencies.You tube Videos Daniel Dingel . The same statements have been regurgitated for years. Power consumption below this could be considered above unity by many. Even low pressure brute force electrolysis will typically produce hydroxy gas in which about 75% of the hydrogen exists in the orthohydrogen state. “It gets back to simple chemistry. with about 4X the energy of parahydrogen. This is because not all hydrogen or hydroxy gases are equal.

Platinum causes the H and O to recombine acting as a catalyst for that reaction and should be very detrimental to extracting energy from Hydroxy according to Bob Boyce. his recommendation is not to have any platinum touching the gases. Any information and help can be sent to the non profit organization. but some other factors appear to be at work there. Iridium plugs are also acceptable. when its more water vapor. It's as if the electrolyte is literally boiling from heat. But all in all. Faraday did his research so long ago. Q. pressure slows the water vapor production down. Faraday does not apply to catalytic reactions. but the oxygen energy content as well.Freshly generated hydroxy from a resonance reaction contains 4 times the energy content. Q-Can I use a booster with a diesel engine? Yes. Any People clinging to ancient rules as if they were gospel will be the defining element that holds back progress. while the electrolyte temperature actually drops from what it was at prior to the resonant reaction starting.What spark plugs can I use with hydroxy? A.You should put your inlet connection before . maybe you think more hydroxy is being made. output can be brought to above Faraday efficiency. The limiting factor seems to be how fast the gas can get out of the way of the electrodes when in that mode of operation. At this time a unified effort is underway to present strict safety guide lines to follow for those wishing to boost their vehicle.Is modifying your car to have a booster illegal? A-You must check with your state and federal emission laws and with the department of transport. replace them with standard copper core plugs such as Autolite.” When catalysts are involved. only to electrolysis. you increase the production of water vapor and steam. but it would be nearly impossible to produce hydroxy gas fast enough to exceed this upper limit. There is a theoretical limit where there must be 20% of diesel fuel in the cylinder. Even the hydroxy gas generated from straight DC electrolysis contains much more energy content than tank hydrogen.when you have a vacuums. After all. and what he had to work with was very limited. So. You are needed to help these efforts. This is not just the hydrogen energy content.If you currently are using platinum plugs. Q-What about vacuum pressure? A. Faraday efficiency is pretty much worthless to use in gauging anything. Q. Electrolyte is used as the catalyst. including platinum plugs. Contact us. about twice as much. We have so much better to work with nowadays.

Q-What is “brute force DC” and what is pulse DC under resonance? A.Brute force DC refers using straight DC current to power a booster with electrolyte in it. Pulsed DC refers to using a pulse width modulator and resonance refers to using it under certain conditions. but they are also cheaper. The only exception is the Bob Boyce system which employs electrolyte and resonant conditions. All current boosters use brute force DC created from their cars battery in order to produce the hydroxy gas. Please consider them before others. Not only are the open source designs better. Other designs are on the way.Can I buy a readymade booster and who can I get to install it? A-Currently there are a few open source engineers doing readymade boosters in order to help themselves fiancé their open source research and development. There are numerous posts concerning this and where to connect your output (not to a vacuum). This is done by booster being added to the air entering the engine. produce more power and to clean out old carbon deposits inside the engine. . Beginner’s FAQ Q-What is a hydroxy booster? A-The Term” hydroxy booster” describes an electrolyzer that is designed to be simple. improving the burn quality of the fuel thus reducing any unwanted emissions. Vacuum does not increase production of hydroxy. Booster materials Q-What safety devices are needed? A-It is essential to install TWO “bubblers” to prevent damage encase the engine backfires. you can keep up with thee designs by checking the Panacea University site. stay away from the vacuums on your car. Q. compact and to produce hydroxy gas. Currently as of mid 2008 the most respected booster is Wouter’s and Praveens Tubular cells. so every piston gets the same charge. It lowers the boiling point of water and thus your unit is making more steam. Two bubblers also wash any traces of electrolyte vapor out of the gas being fed to the engine.your air filter so you will completely mix up the hydroxy and incoming air before it enters the combustion chamber. IE with no electrolyte and with additional circuitry like a “choke” (Bifilar coil) to limit current and produce resonance. Bob series cells and the “Smacks: booster. Hydroxy gas is being produced in order to “boost” the vehicle or generator by improving MPG (miles per gallon) performance.

and shielded from splashes. Erosion reduces and gas production is improved with increasing electrode area up to 4 square inches per amp. 350 watts is needed. Q. Above that. The pipe carrying the gas is inserted through the lid to near the bottom of the container. These materials are selected in the brute force booster’s case to be the best corrosive resistant materials. The best electrode material to use is commonly agreed to be 316L-grade (“food-grade”) stainless steel. Q-How thick should electrodes be? . Both KOH and NaOH have been found to be the best. which is then filled to at least a 5-inch depth of water. There are several designs which you could build which vary in efficiency. In the case of Bob Boyce’s unit.What is an electrode? An electrode refers to a piece of metal which is placed in an electrolyte in order to allow electrical current to be passed through the electrolyte.What is an electrolyzer? A-An electrolyzer is a device made up of stainless steal and electrolyte intended to convert water to hydroxy gas. You can also use 304 or 302 stainless steal in brute force DC boosters.Q-How are bubblers made? The generic bubbler is made from any tall plastic container with a tight lid. Q-What current is needed? Electrical current for boosters usually ranges from 10 to 35 amps. The gas takeoff pipe is inserted through the lid for half an inch or so. In the Dave Lawton circuit typically up to 4 amps of pulsed DC are desired. no noticeable improvement has been seen is seen. typically 20 amps and 15 amps. The best one to use is evaluated by its ability to not be consumed during electrolysis. Q. The Aim is to do this in considerable volumes and at the minimum possible current. Q-What is electrolyte? An electrolyte is a catalyst chemical added to water to make water more conductive to current or to make electrolysis easier. in the case of resonant hydroxy systems are 316L (Seamless not wielded) is chosen Q-How big should electrodes be? Electrodes get eroded with use if the area of (one side of) the electrode is less than 2 square inches (1290 square mm) per amp of current carried.

Q. It is usual for the gap between electrodes to be quite small. shatters with sharp edges. materials and fittings readily available most anywhere. the first is how thin the electrode material is in comparison to how difficult it would be to hold it securely in place.There are a few things to consider. Q-Do the electrodes wear out? A-In a properly designed and operated electrolyzer. the plates will be in first-class condition after a year of use. and usually much less costly. acetone and I think gasoline. cost more and take up more space. this will use 1 liter of water in 18 hours of running. Q-Can I use any kind of water? Use ONLY distilled or de-ionized water as other varieties like rain. In the example of the reported output of the Bob Boyce design. Thicker plates weigh more. Q-What happens if I forget to top the booster up with water? The electrodes will become partially uncovered and the gas production will drop off. so 20 gauge or 22 gauges . distilled water and KOH or NaOH for electrolyte. no special solvents to buy or try and deal with (Weldon-4 can be tricky).850 liters of hydroxy gas. for example a motor vehicles engine compartment.say 1/16 inch is generally chosen. this is an electrolyzer which can produce 100 LPM of hydroxy gas. The best shelf life reported so far is from using stainless steel. Q. Q-How can I measure gas output? .7 LPM (liters per minute) of hydroxy gas. It also doesn't take impacts as well as PVC and when it does fail.090 hours of running.Which is better Acrylic or PVC? Experience with acrylic in other fabrication projects has shown that it doesn't like heat. In the example of the Smacks booster which can produce 1. this will use 1 liter of water in 1. vibration or many chemical substances especially in a prolonged exposed environment. It gets brittle and will craze (small cracks) when exposed to many chemical or solvent compounds such as lacquer thinner. From a practical building stand point PVC is a cheap preferred choice and easy to work with. spring and tap water leave residues behind when the water becomes gas.How much water will be used? A-It is estimated that one liter of water produces about 1. so you should keep an eye on the water level.

To get more accurate. Example. thus making your reading very accurate. Metric gas measurement .If the bottle is 2 liters and it takes four minutes to fill it with gas.The cheap and easy way to measure hydroxy flow is to do what is called a displacement test. but you started with a bottle that was filled 100% with water. cut off the bottom. Obviously the gas bubbles coming out of the tube will immediately start replacing the water. Fill a plastic soda bottle with water and position it upside down with the neck under the water in the basin. use a 1. Once the bottle is completely under water and filled with water. Right is the elctrolyiser connected to a hose going into a bucket of water Contianing a 1 litre bottle of water. then the gas production rate is 2 liters / 4 minutes = 0. Then place the whole bottle under water with the open mouth at the top and the open footend of the bottle at the bottom with the gas tube exiting for underneath inside the bottle. and unscrew the cap. then you have a bottle that is 100% full of water at that moment. First fill a basin with water. Feed the tube from your bubbler up into the neck of the bottle. simply screw the cap on again. and measure the length of time taken to fill the bottle with gas.5 lpm.5 liter plastic bottle.

If the mark moves up to the surface of the water as it fills with bubbles in 1/2 minute. You can figure out the math for other volumes/arrangements. and immersed it in water and routed output bubbles thru the bottom. marked the 1/2 liter point at the bottom. Leave the cap unscrewed when you are not measuring. Unscrew the cap to let the bottle go back down to reset the instrument.This open source hydroxy engineer cut the bottom off a 1/2 liter bottle. then you are making 1 liter of gas per minute. Alternative method .

except if by to high a voltage the temperatures run high. in a cell with clean SS plates. so you will ( or can) also make allot of steam. = OxyHydrogen. At 3LPM the hydroxy gas ceases to be a fossil fuel enhancer and starts to become a second fuel in its own right. the spark timing needs to be delayed (“retarded”) gradually. Hydroxy gas is understood to be a very helpful additive and/or fuel. Video -Alternative Example of a flow meter connected Engine related Q-How is a booster connected to a vehicle? A-The hydroxy booster is first connected through two bubblers and then into the air filter. and you add a DC voltage to it. . As the gas production rate increases further. and an electrolyte like KOH or NaOH. then the by product is steam which then only becomes water as it condenses and cools OUT SIDE of the cars exhaust. Q-Does the engine timing need to be changed? When using a booster which produces LESS then 3LPM there is no need to adjust any thing. Hydrogen first burns inside the engine.Alternatively if you have distilled water. No need for a steam in hydroxy analyzer. no other gases. Q-Will my engine rusts from using a hydroxy booster? No. The maximum delay is to a point some 12 degrees after Top Dead Center. you'll get a stochiometric mix of hydrogen and oxygen. aka Hydroxy. run your output gas trough a freezing cold empty bubbler and the water vapor will condense and can be measured.

Q-what is the best booster to use? A-Currently the best booster to use based on efficiency and cheap construction materials is the Smacks booster. And these tanks are still in use today. Hydrogen has been stored in pressure tanks like oxygen since WWI. Q-Can I use a booster with a turbocharger? This can be done by feeding the hydroxy gas to the low-pressure side of the turbocharger. Alternatively you can put a heating/cooling coil around the unit (engine coolant driven)or wrap the booster with fiberglass foil backed insulation. hydrogen embrittlement is unlikely to occur with the low concentration of hydrogen we are seeing. however for those who do longer trips in their car. it is advised to use a “7 series plate cell” or a tubular cell design. Iron has so much space between the atoms that hydrogen can seep right through it. when it is heated the hydrogen is released to mix with oxygen from the air.Electrolyte concentration needs to be high to prevent freezing. we have other major problems. Q.Can a booster work on fuel injected cars and what is an EFIE? A-EFIE is an acronym standing for “electronic fuel injection enhancer”.Q-what about Hydrogen embrittlement? A-Reports have stated that hydrogen embrittlement does not occur. The point is that unless you are making pools of liquid metal. In an engine all iron parts are covered with a thin film of oil which helps prevent the hydrogen from contacting the metal. for example 2 Hour + trips . NaOH (like KOH) at "moderate" (20%) concentration makes a reasonable anti-freeze. And no embrittlement was found. Storing hydrogen does not cause metal embrittlement. Since gasoline is composed of about 500 different hydrogen carbon compounds. It is required for all fuel injected cars to accept or use a booster. More reading on this is described above. Some have been tested by Roy McAlister just for that purpose. Q-what of Ozzie freedom’s design advertised on the water for gas sites? . This is mainly a concern in storage tanks under high pressure. KOH at 28% will not freeze even in Norway. A common ICE generally doesn't run that hot. Q-What can I do to prevent freezing of the water ion my booster? A. The bubblers can contain some antifreeze. It will freeze at about -10 F. or any special type of metal was used for the tanks. if it does. a spark ignites it and the carbon is left inside the cylinder to foul the oil and accelerate wear of all the moving parts.

So while it is true that with electrolysis it is the amps that make the gas.try your local hydroponics supplies as an alternative to soap makers etc. Booster supplies Electrolyte NAOH. The tiny amount of surface area is what is limiting current.com Fast service. the more POWER is consumed per liter of gas produced.com Potassium Hydroxide Plastic Supplies Liquid/Gas Check Valves .This produces a TOXIC gas. Q-What about other free energy devices? A-Please visit this page for introductory information and the Panacea university site for further technical details. it is also true that the more voltage you have to use to push those amps. It is not going to do anything but add water vapor to your intake. It is also understood by some as NOT performing as a hydroxy gas booster. which will only help a little if you live in a dry.aaa-chemicals. The poor efficiency means that it does not put out much gas. it is an intake air humidifier. Check Values . It costs only $3-6 per kg depending on quantity purchased.com/ Potassium Hydroxide [KOH] – For supply of the KOH . The only reason the Ozzie Freedom design does not heat the water with the hugely poor efficiency of the device is because of the relatively low amount of power applied vs the volume of water contained. at the cost of POWER! Surface area directly translates into how much VOLTAGE is required to push CURRENT.A-This uses both an in efficient design and the wrong electrolyte (Baking soda).US Plastic Corporation AZEK adhesive For Barbs.00 with shipping Saltcitysoapworks. KOH http://www. [usually about 2-3 days] price is about $22. Others use the Chemistry store. arid environment.

com/misfitjackie/ http://www. Torque. plus clear containers to hold plates Stainless Steel Bolts Materials compatibility web site http://www.brianspdr.co.org/ . Fuel Efficiency.html http://www.php Electronic Odds and Ends All Electronics http://mouser.watervan.com/hydrogen-fuel-cell.20. Links Individual open source hydroxy project pages http://au. Greater Horsepower.uk/templates/page_01.For quick Disconnect Fittings.co.elliott/Club.php?cfp=page:0004S MMW Calculator Mililitres per Minute per Watt http://www.shaw.com/ Digital temp meter Gas flow metering videos Good Video on how to set up a gas measuring device Example of a gas flow meter attached to the cell Miscellaneous Alternator charging Boat electric alternator charging Pulse Plugs .uk/tools.flotronicpumps.000X More Powerful Than Spark Plugs.geocities.alt-nrg.html http://members.ca/w.

com/user/kevlauenterprises http://www.com/user/srawofni http://www.com/daddyo44907 Tube cells and flat plate cell construction experimentation http://www.com/watch?v=DL90PDiceQ8 Hydrogen gas made with variable capacitor http://www.com/user/wwwbrianspdrcom http://www.youtube.youtube.com/user/wwwbrianspdrcom http://www.com/user/camster6 http://www.com/user/delvis11 Roy Teaching Chem and Manufacture of H2 Part 1 Roy Teaching Chem and Manufacture of H2 Part 2 http://www.net/ You tube Users and Videos Hydrogen Fuel .http://www.energybuilders.youtube.youtube.youtube.youtube.youtube.youtube.youtube.youtube.com/user/criwebb http://www.com/user/mdbreedi http://www.com/byte312 http://www.youtube.Engine Fundamentals How to assemble the HHO generator http://www.livevideo.com/user/babyella07 Hydroxy Booster Presentation Technical support groups Yahoo energy groups Hydroxy group Water car group .

faculty info and or additional data please contact the non profit organization.panacea-bocaf.replication details. http://www.panaceauniversity.org .Radiant Energy WaterFuel Cell Research Group http://www.com/ Credits The Open source engineering community! If you are able to contribute to this document in ANY way.mpgresearch. IE.org http://www.com/forum/ http://ecomodder.

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