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Fundamentals of Distance Protection

GE Multilin

Outline
Transmission line introduction What is distance protection? Non-pilot and pilot schemes Redundancy considerations Security for dual-breaker terminals Out-of-step relaying Single-pole tripping Series-compensated lines
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Transmission Lines
A Vital Part of the Power System:
Provide path to transfer power between generation and load Operate at voltage levels from 69kV to 765kV Deregulated markets, economic, environmental requirements have pushed utilities to operate transmission lines close to their limits.

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Transmission Lines
Classification of line length depends on:  Source-to-line Impedance Ratio (SIR), and  Nominal voltage Length considerations:  Short Lines: SIR > 4  Medium Lines: 0.5 < SIR < 4  Long Lines: SIR < 0.5
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Typical Protection Schemes


Short Lines

Current differential Phase comparison Permissive Overreach Transfer Trip (POTT) Directional Comparison Blocking (DCB)

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Typical Protection Schemes


Medium Lines

Phase comparison Directional Comparison Blocking (DCB) Permissive Underreach Transfer Trip (PUTT) Permissive Overreach Transfer Trip (POTT) Unblocking Step Distance Step or coordinated overcurrent Inverse time overcurrent Current Differential
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Typical Protection Schemes


Long Lines

Phase comparison Directional Comparison Blocking (DCB) Permissive Underreach Transfer Trip (PUTT) Permissive Overreach Transfer Trip (POTT) Unblocking Step Distance Step or coordinated overcurrent Current Differential
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What is distance protection?


Intended REACH point F1 Z I*Z - V I*Z V=I*ZF

RELAY (V,I)

For internal faults: > IZ V and V approximately in phase (mho) > IZ V and IZ approximately in phase (reactance)

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What is distance protection?


F2 Intended REACH point

Z I*Z - V

I*Z V=I*ZF

RELAY (V,I)

For external faults: > IZ V and V approximately out of phase (mho) > IZ V and IZ approximately out of phase (reactance)

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What is distance protection?


Intended REACH point

RELAY

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Source Impedance Ratio, Accuracy & Speed Relay


System Voltage at the relay:

Lin e

VR } V N

f LOC [ PU ] f LOC [ PU ]  SIR

Consider SIR = 0.1 Fault location 75% 90% 100% 110% Voltage (%) 88.24 90.00 90.91 91.67 Voltage change (%) 2.76 0.91 N/A 0.76
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Source Impedance Ratio, Accuracy & Speed Relay


System Lin e Voltage at the relay:

VR } V N

f LOC [ PU ] f LOC [ PU ]  SIR

Consider SIR = 30 Fault location 75% 90% 100% 110% Voltage (%) 2.4390 2.9126 3.2258 3.5370 Voltage change (%) 0.7868 0.3132 N/A 0.3112
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Challenges in relay design


> Transients: High frequency DC offset in currents CVT transients in voltages
High Voltage Line

30 20 10 0

steady-state output

C1 1 C2

6 3 5

voltage, V

-10 CVT output -20

Secondary Voltage Output

-30 0

2 power cycles

7 4 8

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Challenges in relay design


> Transients: High frequency DC offset in currents CVT transients in voltages
High Voltage Line

60 40 voltage, V 20 0 steady-state output

C1 1 C2

6 3 5

-20 -40

CVT output

Secondary Voltage Output

-60

2 power cycles

7 4 8

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Challenges in relay design


100 80 60 40 Voltage [V] 20 0 -20 -40 -60 -80 -100 5 -0.5 0 0.5 1 1.5

vA

vB

vC

100

Reactance comparator [V]

50

SPOL
0

Sorry Future (unknown)

-50

iA
4 3 2 1 0 -1 -2 -3

SOP
-100 -0.5 0 0.5 1 1.5 power cycles

Current [A]

iB, iC

-0.5

0.5

1.5

> In-phase = internal fault > Out-of-phase = external fault

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Transient Overreach
Fault current generally contains dc offset in addition to ac power frequency component Ratio of dc to ac component of current depends on instant in the cycle at which fault occurred Rate of decay of dc offset depends on system X/R
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Zone 1 and CVT Transients


Capacitive Voltage Transformers (CVTs) create certain problems for fast distance relays applied to systems with high Source Impedance Ratios (SIRs): > CVT-induced transient voltage components may assume large magnitudes (up to 30-40%) and last for a comparatively long time (up to about 2 cycles) > 60Hz voltage for faults at the relay reach point may be as low as 3% for a SIR of 30 > the signal may be buried under noise

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Zone 1 and CVT Transients


CVT transients can cause distance relays to overreach. Generally, transient overreach may be caused by: > overestimation of the current (the magnitude of the current as measured is larger than its actual value, and consequently, the fault appears closer than it is actually located), > underestimation of the voltage (the magnitude of the voltage as measured is lower than its actual value) > combination of the above

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Distance Element Fundamentals

Z1 XL

End Zone

R XC

15 34 42 44

Actual Fault Location

10

Reactance [ohm]

30 5

dynamic mho zone extended for high SIRs

Line Impedance
18 22

Trajectory (msec)

0 26

-5

-10

-5

0 Resistance [ohm]

5 10 Impedance locus may pass below the origin of the Z-plane this would call for a time delay to obtain stability
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CVT Transient Overreach Solutions


> apply delay (fixed or adaptable) > reduce the reach > adaptive techniques and better filtering algorithms

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CVT Transients Adaptive Solution


> Optimize signal filtering: currents - max 3% error due to the dc component voltages - max 0.6% error due to CVT transients > Adaptive double-reach approach filtering alone ensures maximum transient overreach at the level of 1% (for SIRs up to 5) and 20% (for SIRs up to 30) to reduce the transient overreach even further an adaptive double-reach zone 1 has been implemented

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CVT Transients Adaptive Solution1: The outer zone


> is fixed at the actual reach > applies certain security delay to cope with CVT transients
X
Delayed Trip

The inner zone 1:

> has its reach dynamically controlled by the voltage magnitude > is instantaneous

Instantaneous Trip

R
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Desirable Distance Relay Attributes Filters:


> Prefiltering of currents to remove dc decaying transients Limit maximum transient overshoot (below 2%) > Prefiltering of voltages to remove low frequency transients caused by CVTs Limit transient overreach to less than 5% for an SIR of 30 > Accurate and fast frequency tracking algorithm > Adaptive reach control for faults at reach points

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Distance Relay Operating Times

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Distance Relay Operating Times


35ms 25ms 20ms 30ms

15ms

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Distance Relay Operating Times


SLG faults LL faults

3P faults

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Actual maximum reach curves


10 0 90 80 70 M axim um R ach [% ] 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 0 5 10 15 S IR 20 25 30

Relay 4 Relay 3

Relay 2 Relay 1

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Maximum Torque Angle


Angle at which mho element has maximum reach Characteristics with smaller MTA will accommodate larger amount of arc resistance

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Mho Characteristics
Traditional

Directional angle slammed

Directional angle lowered and slammed Both MHO and directional angles slammed (lens)

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Load Swings
+XL
+ = LOOKING INTO LINE normally considered forward

Load Trajectory Operate area No Operate area Typical load characteristic impedance

+R
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Load Swings

Lenticular Characteristic

Load swing

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Load Encroachment Characteristic

The load encroachment element responds to positive sequence voltage and current and can be used to block phase distance and phase overcurrent elements.

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Blinders
Blinders limit the operation of distance relays (quad or mho) to a narrow region that parallels and encompasses the protected line Applied to long transmission lines, where mho settings are large enough to pick up on maximum load or minor system swings

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Quadrilateral Characteristics

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Quadrilateral Characteristics

Ground Resistance (Conductor falls on ground) R Resultant impedance outside of the mho operating region

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Distance Characteristics Summary Mho Lenticular


JX

Quadrilatera l

R
Standard for phase elements Used for phase elements with long heavily loaded lines heavily loaded Better coverage for ground faults due to resistance added to return path

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Distance Element Polarization


The following polarization quantities are commonly used in distance relays for determining directionality: Self-polarized Memory voltage Positive sequence voltage Quadrature voltage Leading phase voltage

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Memory Polarization
> Positive-sequence memorized voltage is used for polarizing: Mho comparator (dynamic, expanding Mho) Negative-sequence directional comparator (Ground Distance Mho and Quad) Zero-sequence directional comparator (Ground Distance MHO and QUAD) Directional comparator (Phase Distance MHO and QUAD) > Memory duration is a common distance settings (all zones, phase and ground, MHO and QUAD)
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Memory Polarization
jX ZL
Dynamic MHO characteristic for a reverse fault Static MHO characteristic (memory not established or expired)

Dynamic MHO characteristic for a forward fault

Impedance During Close-up Faults

R ZS
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Memory Polarization
jX ZL
Static MHO characteristic (memory not established or expired)

Dynamic MHO characteristic for a forward fault

RL R ZS

Memory PolarizationImproved Resistive Coverage

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Choice of Polarization
In order to provide flexibility modern distance relays offer a choice with respect to polarization of ground overcurrent direction functions: Voltage polarization Current polarization Dual polarization
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Ground Directional Elements


> Pilot-aided schemes using ground mho distance relays have inherently limited fault resistance coverage > Ground directional over current protection using either negative or zero sequence can be a useful supplement to give more coverage for high resistance faults > Directional discrimination based on the ground quantities is fast: Accurate angular relations between the zero and negative sequence quantities establish very quickly because:  During faults zero and negative-sequence currents and voltages build up from very low values (practically from zero)  The pre-fault values do not bias the developing fault components in any direction
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Distance Schemes
Pilot Aided Schemes Non-Pilot Aided Schemes (Step Distance)

Communication between Distance relays

No Communication between Distance Relays


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Step Distance Schemes


Zone 1:
Trips with no intentional time delay Underreaches to avoid unnecessary operation for faults beyond remote terminal Typical reach setting range 80-90% of ZL Zone 2: Set to protect remainder of line Overreaches into adjacent line/equipment Minimum reach setting 120% of ZL Typically time delayed by 15-30 cycles Zone 3: Remote backup for relay/station failures at remote terminal Reaches beyond Z2, load encroachment a consideration
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Step Distance Schemes


Local Z1

Z1 Remote
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Step Distance Schemes


Local Z1 End Zone

End Zone

Z1 Remote
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Step Distance Schemes


Local Z1 Breaker Tripped

Breaker Closed

Z1 Remote
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Step Distance Schemes


Local Z2 (time delayed) Z1

Z1 Z2 (time delayed) Remote


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Step Distance Schemes


Z3 (remote backup) Z2 (time delayed) Z1

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Step Distance Protection

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Distance Relay Coordination


Over Lap Local Relay Z2

Remote Relay Z4

Local Relay
Zone 2 PKP

Remote Relay
Zone 4 PKP

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Need For Pilot Aided Schemes

Local Relay

Remote Relay

Communication Channel
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Pilot Communications Channels


Distance-based pilot schemes traditionally utilize simple on/off communications between relays, but can also utilize peer-to-peer communications and GOOSE messaging over digital channels Typical communications media include: Pilot-wire (50Hz, 60Hz, AT) Power line carrier Microwave Radio Optic fiber (directly connected or multiplexed channels)
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Distance-based Pilot Protection

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Pilot-Aided Distance-Based Schemes


 DUTT Direct Under-reaching Transfer Trip  PUTT Permissive Under-reaching Transfer Trip  POTT Permissive Over-reaching Transfer Trip  Hybrid POTT Hybrid Permissive Overreaching Transfer Trip  DCB Directional Comparison Blocking Scheme  DCUB Directional Comparison Unblocking Scheme
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Direct Underreaching Transfer Trip (DUTT)


Requires only underreaching (RU) functions which overlap in reach (Zone 1). Applied with FSK channel GUARD frequency transmitted during normal conditions TRIP frequency when one RU function operates Scheme does not provide tripping for faults beyond RU reach if remote breaker is open or channel is inoperative. Dual pilot channels improve security
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DUTT Scheme

Zone 1

Bus Line

Bus

Zone 1

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Permissive Underreaching Transfer Trip (PUTT)


Requires both under (RU) and overreaching (RO) functions Identical to DUTT, with pilot tripping signal supervised by RO (Zone 2)

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PUTT Scheme
Zone 2

Zone 1

To protect end of line Bus Line

Bus

Zone 1

Zone 2

Rx PKP Zone 2 Zone 1


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& OR

Local Trip

Permissive Overreaching Transfer Trip (POTT)


Requires overreaching (RO) functions (Zone 2). Applied with FSK channel: GUARD frequency sent in stand-by TRIP frequency when one RO function operates No trip for external faults if pilot channel is inoperative Time-delayed tripping can be provided
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POTT Scheme
Zone 2

Zone 1 Bus Line

Bus

Zone 1

Zone 2

(Z1)

Tx

Zone 1 Trip Line Breakers

(Z1)

Rx AND

OR

Zone 2

t o

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POTT Scheme
POTT Permissive Over-reaching Transfer OverTrip
End Zone

Communication Channel

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POTT Scheme

Local Relay FWD IGND Local Relay Z2

Remote Relay FWD IGND

Remote Relay Z2 Communicatio n Channel


POTT RX POTT TX

TRIP

Local Relay
ZONE 2 PKP OR Ground Dir OC Fwd

ZONE 2 PKP OR

Remote Relay

Ground Dir OC Fwd

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POTT Scheme

Communications Channel(s)

POTT RX 1 POTT RX 2 POTT RX 3 POTT RX 4

POTT TX 1 A to G POTT TX 2 B to G POTT TX 3 C to G POTT TX 4 Multi Phase

Local Relay

Remote Relay

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POTT Scheme
Current reversal example
TRIP

Local Relay Timer Communication Start Expire Timer Channel GND DIR OC FWD GND DIR OC REV
POTT RX POTT TX

Remote Relay

ZONE 2 OR GND DIR OC REV GND DIR OC FWD


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POTT Scheme
Echo example
Remote FWD IGND

Open

Remote Z2

OPEN

Communication Channel
POTT TX

TRIP

POTT RX

Local Relay

POTT TX

POTT RX

Remote Relay

Communication Channel

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Hybrid POTT
Intended for three-terminal lines and weak infeed conditions Echo feature adds security during weak infeed conditions Reverse-looking distance and oc elements used to identify external faults

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Hybrid POTT
Zone 2

Zone 1 Remote Bus Line Local Bus Weak system

Zone 1

Zone 4

Zone 2

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Directional Comparison Blocking (DCB)


Requires overreaching (RO) tripping and blocking (B) functions ON/OFF pilot channel typically used (i.e., PLC) Transmitter is keyed to ON state when blocking function(s) operate Receipt of signal from remote end blocks tripping relays Tripping function set with Zone 2 reach or greater Blocking functions include Zone 3 reverse and lowset ground overcurrent elements
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DCB Scheme
Zone 2

Zone 1 Remote Bus Line Local Bus

Zone 1

Zone 2

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Directional Comparison Blocking (DCB)


End Zone

Communication Channel

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Directional Comparison Blocking (DCB)


Internal Faults
Local Relay Z2

FWD IGND

TRIP Timer Start Expired

TRIP

Zone 2 PKP
OR

NO

Dir Block RX

Local Relay GND DIR OC Fwd

Remote Relay
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Directional Comparison Blocking (DCB)


External Faults
Local Relay Z2

FWD IGND TRIP Timer Start No TRIP


Dir Block RX

Remote Relay Z4 REV IGND

DIR BLOCK TX

Local Relay
Zone 2 PKP OR

Communication Channel

Zone 4 PKP OR

Remote Relay

GND DIR OC Fwd

GND DIR OC Rev

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Directional Comparison Unblocking (DCUB)


Applied to Permissive Overreaching (POR) schemes to overcome the possibility of carrier signal attenuation or loss as a result of the fault Unblocking provided in the receiver when signal is lost: If signal is lost due to fault, at least one permissive RO functions will be picked up Unblocking logic produces short-duration TRIP signal (150-300 ms). If RO function not picked up, channel lockout occurs until GUARD signal returns
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DCUB Scheme
Forward

Bus Line

Bus

Forward

(Un-Block)

Tx1

Trip Line Breakers

(Block)

Tx2

Forward

(Block)

Rx2 AND t AND o AND

AND

(Un-Block)

Rx1

Lockout

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Directional Comparison Unblocking (DCUB)


End Zone

Communication Channel

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Directional Comparison Unblocking (DCUB)


Normal conditions

Load Current

FSK Carrier

FSK Carrier

GUARD1 RX

GUARD1 TX

Local Relay
NO Loss of Guard NO Permission
GUARD2 TX GUARD2 RX

Remote Relay
NO Loss of Guard NO Permission
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Communication Channel

Directional Comparison Unblocking (DCUB)


Normal conditions, channel failure

Load Current

Loss of Channel FSK Carrier FSK Carrier

NO RX GUARD1 RX

GUARD1 TX

Local Relay
Loss of Guard Expired Block Timer Started
GUARD2 TX NO RX GUARD2 RX

Remote Relay
Loss of Guard Block Timer Expired Started Communication Channel

Block DCUB until Guard OK

Block DCUB 79 / GE until Guard OK / January 18, 2012

Directional Comparison Unblocking (DCUB)


Internal fault, healthy Relay Z2 Local channel

Remote Relay Z2

TRIP
FSK Carrier

TRIP Z1
FSK Carrier

Local Relay
Zone 2 PKP Loss of Guard Permission

TRIP1 RX GUARD1 RX TRIP2 TX GUARD2 TX

GUARD1 TX TRIP1 TX

Remote Relay
ZONE 2 PKP

TRIP2 RX GUARD2 RX

Communication Channel

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Directional Comparison Unblocking (DCUB)


Internal fault, channelRelay Z2 Local failure

Remote Relay Z2

TRIP
FSK Carrier

Loss of Channel

TRIP Z1
FSK Carrier

Local Relay
Zone 2 PKP

NO RX GUARD1 RX TRIP2 TX GUARD2 TX

GUARD1 TX TRIP1 TX

Remote Relay
ZONE 2 PKP Loss of Guard

NO RX GUARD2 RX

Loss of Guard Block Timer Started Duration Timer Started Expired

Communication Channel

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Redundancy Considerations
Redundant protection systems increase dependability of the
system:  Multiple sets of protection using same protection principle and multiple pilot channels overcome individual element failure, or  Multiple sets of protection using different protection principles and multiple channels protects against failure of one of the protection methods. Security can be improved using voting schemes (i.e., 2-outof-3), potentially at expense of dependability. Redundancy of instrument transformers, battery systems, trip coil circuits, etc. also need to be considered.
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Redundant Communications
End Zone

AND Channels: POTT Less Reliable DCB Less Secure More Channel Security
Loss of Channel 2 Communication Channel 1 Communication Channel 2

OR Channels: POTT More Reliable DCB More Secure More Channel Dependability
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Redundant Pilot Schemes

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Pilot Relay Desirable Attributes


Integrated functions: weak infeed echo line pick-up (SOTF) Basic protection elements used to key the communication: distance elements fast and sensitive ground (zero and negative sequence) directional IOCs with current, voltage, and/or dual polarization
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Pilot Relay Desirable Attributes


Pre-programmed distance-based pilot schemes:
 Direct Under-reaching Transfer Trip (DUTT)  Permissive Under-reaching Transfer Trip (PUTT)  Permissive Overreaching Transfer Trip (POTT)  Hybrid Permissive Overreaching Transfer Trip (HYB POTT)  Blocking scheme (DCB)  Unblocking scheme (DCUB)

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Security for dual-breaker terminals


Breaker-and-a-half and ring bus terminals are common designs for transmission lines. Standard practice has been to: sum currents from each circuit breaker externally by paralleling the CTs use external sum as the line current for protective relays For some close-in external fault events, poor CT performance may lead to improper operation of line relays.
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Security for dual-breaker terminals

Accurate CTs preserve the reverse current direction under weak remote infeed

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Security for dual-breaker terminals

Saturation of CT1 may invert the line current as measured from externally summated CTs

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Security for dual-breaker terminals


Direct measurement of currents from both circuit breakers allows the use of supervisory logic to prevent distance and directional overcurrent elements from operating incorrectly due to CT errors during reverse faults. Additional benefits of direct measurement of currents:  independent BF protection for each circuit breaker  independent autoreclosing for each breaker
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Security for dual-breaker terminals


Supervisory logic should: not affect speed or sensitivity of protection elements correctly allow tripping during evolving external-tointernal fault conditions determine direction of current flow through each breaker independently: Both currents in FWD direction p internal fault One current FWD, one current REV p external fault allow tripping during all forward/internal faults block tripping during all reverse/external faults initially block tripping during evolving external-tointernal faults until second fault appears in forward direction. Block is then lifted to permit tripping.
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Single-pole Tripping
Distance relay must correctly identify a SLG fault and trip only the circuit breaker pole for the faulted phase. Autoreclosing and breaker failure functions must be initiated correctly on the fault event Security must be maintained on the healthy phases during the open pole condition and any reclosing attempt.
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Out-of-Step Condition
For certain operating conditions, a severe system disturbance can cause system instability and result in loss of synchronism between different generating units on an interconnected system.

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Out-of-Step Relaying
Out-of-step blocking relays Operate in conjunction with mho tripping relays to prevent a terminal from tripping during severe system swings & out-of-step conditions. Prevent system from separating in an indiscriminate manner. Out-of-step tripping relays Operate independently of other devices to detect out-of-step condition during the first pole slip. Initiate tripping of breakers that separate system in order to balance load with available generation on any isolated part of the system.
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Out-of-Step Tripping
When the inner characteristic is entered the element is ready to trip

The locus must stay for some time between the outer and middle characteristics

Must move and stay between the middle and inner characteristics

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Power Swing Blocking


Applications: > Establish a blocking signal for stable power swings (Power Swing Blocking) > Establish a tripping signal for unstable power swings (Outof-Step Tripping) Responds to: > Positive-sequence voltage and current

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Series-compensated lines
Benefits of series capacitors: Reduction of overall XL of long lines Improvement of stability margins Ability to adjust line load levels Loss reduction Reduction of voltage drop during severe disturbances Normally economical for line lengths > 200 miles
Xs SC XL

Infinte Bus

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Series-compensated lines
SCs create unfavorable conditions for protective relays and fault locators: Overreaching of distance elements Failure of distance element to pick up on low-current faults Phase selection problems in single-pole tripping applications Large fault location errors
Xs SC XL

Infinte Bus

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Series-compensated lines
Series Capacitor with MOV

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Series-compensated lines

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Series-compensated lines
Dynamic Reach Control

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Series-compensated lines
Dynamic Reach Control for External Faults

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Series-compensated lines
Dynamic Reach Control for External Faults

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Series-compensated lines
Dynamic Reach Control for Internal Faults

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Distance Protection Looking Through a Transformer


Phase distance elements can be set to see beyond any 3-phase power transformer CTs & VTs may be located independently on different sides of the transformer Given distance zone is defined by VT location (not CTs) Reach setting is in ;sec, and must take into account location & ratios of VTs, CTs and voltage ratio of the involved power transformer
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Transformer Group Compensation

Depending on location of VTs and CTs, distance relays need to compensate for the phase shift and magnitude change caused by the 106 / power transformer GE /
January 18, 2012

Setting Rules
Transformer positive sequence impedance must be included in reach setting only if transformer lies between VTs and intended reach point Currents require compensation only if transformer located between CTs and intended reach point Voltages require compensation only if transformer located between VTs and intended reach point Compensation set based on transformer connection & vector group as seen from CTs/VTs toward reach point
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Distance Relay Desirable Attributes distance zones > Multiple reversible


> Individual per-zone, per-element characteristic: Dynamic voltage memory polarization Various characteristics, including mho, quad, lenticular > Individual per-zone, per-element current supervision (FD) > Multi-input phase comparator: additional ground directional supervision dynamic reactance supervision > Transient overreach filtering/control > Phase shift & magnitude compensation for distance applications with power transformers
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Distance Relay Desirable Attributesflexibility, it is desirable to have the following > For improved
parameters settable on a per zone basis: Zero-sequence compensation Mutual zero-sequence compensation Maximum torque angle Blinders Directional angle Comparator limit angles (for lenticular characteristic) Overcurrent supervision

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Distance Relay Desirable Attributes > Additional functions


Overcurrent elements (phase, neutral, ground, directional, negative sequence, etc.) Breaker failure Automatic reclosing (single & three-pole) Sync check Under/over voltage elements > Special functions Power swing detection Load encroachment Pilot schemes
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