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: SK0013 CHEMISTRY : 02 : DETERMINATION OF THE FORMULA UNIT OF A COMPOUND
GROUP MEMBERS :
Aisyah Firzanah Binti Abd Malik
(FS11110019) (Group 1) Suhaimi (FS11110003) Muhammad (FS11110111) Meidin Bin Mantedan (FS11110012) DATE OF PRACTICAL DEMONSTRATOR : 20/06/2011 : Encik Mohd. Hafiz Bin Abd. Maid Aiman Bin Osman Nursakinah Najwah Binti
1 mole of silver and 0. To synthesise zinc chloride compound. Although qualitative analysis is very useful. you will prepare a simple compound of zinc and chloride. 2. Introduction One of the main properties of a compound is its chemical composition which can be identified simply by determining the elements present. For example. its formula unit can be determined. chemists also need to know the quantitative aspect of the compound. To determine the formula unit of zinc chloride. A quantitative analysis can be used to determine the composition of an unknown compound. measuring cylinder (10mL). Once the composition of the compound is known. a compound containing 0. white tiles. glass rod. analytical balance. the mass of chlorine can be determined.EXPERIMENT 2: DETERMINATION OF THE FORMULA UNIT OF A COMPOUND Objectives 1. the percentage composition of the product can be determined and the formula unit can be calculated. Once the mass of zinc and the mass of the compound are known. Apparatus Hot plate. crucible tongs.1 mole of bromine will have a formula unit of AgBr. In this experiment. Using these masses. .
Approximately 0. Procedure 1. Zinc powder. 6. When the zinc powder has not dissolved completely.Chemical reagents 6M HCl. 10 mL of 6M HCl solution is added carefully into the crucible containing the zinc powder and the contents is gently stirred using a glass rod. The crucible weighed with its contents and the exact mass of zinc is determined. 4. The compound is gently heated until it is completely dry and is ensured not to melt. 5 mL of 6M HCl is added at a time until all of the zinc is dissolved. A vigorous chemical reaction occurred and hydrogen gas was released. . 2.02 g.25 g of zinc placed into the crucible. 8. The crucible placed on a hot plate in the fume cupboard and the content slowly heated so that the compound does not splatter during the heating process. 5. The amount of acid used cannot exceed 20 mL. The crucible is allowed to cool to room temperature then it is weighed. Precaution: This step is carried out in a fume cupboard. The crucible is reheated and kept to cool in room temperature then it is weighed again. 3. This procedure is repeated until the difference in mass does not exceed 0. The crucible is weighed and the exact mass is recorded. 7. A fire source is kept away because wet hydrogen gas can cause explosions.
. The formula unit of zinc chloride is calculated. 2. 10. 4.85 0. the grey solution become clear and then turned yellow. After heated for about 2 hours. white precipitate was formed.9. The mass of zinc chloride is determined from the final weight of the sample and the mass of chlorine in the zinc chloride is calculated. x (g) Mass of zinc chloride. When HCl is poured into the crucible content zinc powder.6 25. z (g) 25.25 Observations: 1.1 0. 3. While heated. y (g) Mass of chlorine. w (g) Mass of zinc. bubble gas was released and grey solution was formed.25 26. v (g) Crucible + content (zinc powder). Results: Mass of crucible. Hydrogen gas was released while the heating process (until solution is almost dry).
Cl 0.Discussion: 1. The heating process was done in a fume chamber because hydrogen gas is flammable and may cause an explosion. 3.823 x 1010-3 =1 3 = 1. Based on the result. This will alter the air pressure above the object unpredictably and produce unstable readings of the object being massed.823 x 7.823 x 10-3 / 3.052 x 10-3 3. The reason why the content is not weighed while it is still hot because it is always poor laboratory procedure to weigh something when it is still hot because the hot object will radiate heat in the form of convection currents in the air above the scale. Zn Mass Number of moles Ratio 0.25g/ 65. the equation for the reaction between zinc and Hal is : Zn(s) + 2HCl(l) H2(g) + ZnCl2(s) 4.052 x 10-3 / 3.25g / 35. To calculate formula unit of zinc chloride: Zinc. Mass of chlorine. When the suspension of zinc and hydrochloric acid was heated. z (g) = y – w 6. 2.25g 0.25g 0.45 g mol= 7. a white gas was released. Mass of zinc.823 x 10-3 Chlorine.845 2 Simplest whole ratio 1 . This gas is hydrogen gas. x (g) = w – v 5.4 g mol= 3.
Furthermore. the formula unit of zinc chloride is ZnCl2 Conclusion: By conducting this experiment. So. The equation of the reaction: Zn(s) + 2HCl(l) H2(g) + ZnCl2(s) . we were able to synthesise zinc powder to become zinc chloride by mixing it with acid and then heating it. we were also able to determine the formula unit of zinc chloride. which is ZnCl2.