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CRIMINAL LAW II Mae Vallada, 1-D REVISED PENAL CODE, BOOK II PROVISIONS Title 1: Crimes Against National Security and

the Law of Nations People v. Adriano ARTICLE 114: Treason
  DEF:  Breach  of  allegiance  to  a  government,  committed  by  a  person  who  owes  allegiance  to  it.       NATURE:  violation  by  the  subject  of  his  allegiance  to  his  sovereign  or  to  the  supreme  authority  of  the  State.       Phil  law  on  treason  is  of  Anglo-­‐American  origin.                    

Any Filipino citizen who levies war against the Philippines or adheres to her enemies, giving them aid or comfort within the Philippines or elsewhere, shall be punished by reclusion perpetua to death and shall pay a fine not to exceed 100,000 pesos.
  Citizenship  may  be  proved  by:                        [a]  Prison  record,  sets  out  his  personal  circumstance  identified  as  having  been  filled  out  by  the  accused  himself                        [b]  By  testimony  of  witnesses  who  know  the  accused  to  have  been  born  in  the  Phils.  of  Filipino  parents.       Treason  is  a  war  crime  –  measure  of  self-­‐defense  and  self-­‐preservation,  emergency  measure;  treasonable  acts  may  be  perpetrated  during  peace   time,  but  there  are  no  traitors  until  ware  has  started.    

Laurel v. Misa (J. Perfecto, concurring)
         

No person shall be convicted of treason unless on the testimony of two witnesses at least to the same overt act or on confession of the accused in open court.

  Cannot  be  proved  by:  [a]  circumstantial  evidence  OR  [b]  extrajudicial  confession  of  the  accused     WAYS  OF  PROVING  TREASON:   (1)  Testimony  of  at  least  two  witnesses  to  the  same  overt  act    overt  act,  not  necessary  to  prove  adherence     (2)  Confession  of  the  accused  in  open  court         2  witness  rule  is  “severely  restrictive”  =  each  witness  must  testify  to  the  whole  act  or  if  separable  acts,  there  must  be  two  witnesses  to  each  part   of  the  overt  act.    

People v. Adriano

Likewise, an alien, residing in the Philippines, who commits acts of treason as defined in paragraph 1 of this article shall be punished by reclusion temporal to death and shall pay a fine not to exceed 100,000 pesos.

ELEMENTS:     (1) Offender  is  a  Filipino  citizen  or  an  alien  residing  in  the  Philippines     (2) There  is  a  WAR  in  which  the  Philippines  is  involved   (3) That  the  offender  either:    [a]  Levies  war  on  the  Government  or                                                                                                                        [b]  Adheres  to  the  enemies,  giving  them  aid  or  comfort         “Levies  war”  -­‐-­‐-­‐  requires  concurrence  of:  [1]  Actual  assembling  of  men                                                                                                                                                                    [2]  Purpose  of  executing  a  treasonable  design  or  force.                                                                  -­‐-­‐-­‐  must  be  in  collaboration  with  a  foreign  enemy;  if  merely  a  civil  uprising,  then  it  is  not  treason             “War”  -­‐  must  be  directed  to  overthrow  a  government             “Adheres  to  the  enemies”  -­‐-­‐-­‐  requires  the  concurrence  of:    [1]  Adherence                                                                                                [2]  Giving  aid  or  comfort      -­‐-­‐-­‐  means  intent  to  betray;  a  citizen  is  intellectually  or  emotionally  favors  the  enemy  and  harbors  sympathies  or                         convictions    disloyal  to  his  country’s  policy  or  interest     People v. Perez -­‐-­‐-­‐  may  be  proved  by:  [1]  one  witness  –  in  the  mind  of  the  accused;  not  a  susceptible  proof  by  direct  testimony                                                                                [2]  from  the  nature  of  the  act  itself                                                                                  [3]  from  the  circumstances  surrounding  the  act       ”Aid  or  comfort”    -­‐-­‐-­‐  act  which  strengthens  or  tends  to  strengthen  the  enemy  in  the  conduct  of  war  against  the  traitor’s  country                                                                            -­‐-­‐-­‐  act  which  weakens  or  tends  to  weaken  the  power  of  the  traitor’s  country  to  resist  or  to  attack  the  enemy   Laurel v. Misa

  2  witness  rule  shall  mean  that  the  two  witnesses   must  coincide  with  any  one  specific  deed  to  be   admissible  as  a  ground  for  coviction                    

-­‐-­‐-­‐  general  rule:  to  be  treasonous,  the  extent  of  the  aid  and  comfort  must  render  assistance  to  them  as  enemies,  not   merely  as  individuals,  in  furtherance  of  the  enemies’  hostile  designs     -­‐-­‐-­‐  must  be  intentional  (no  treason  by  negligence)       “Allegiance”    OBLIGATION  OF  FIDELITY  AND  OBEDIENCE  which  the  individuals  owe  to  the  government  under  which  they  life  or  to  their  sovereign,  IN   RETURN  for  the  protection  they  receive.     (1) Permanent  -­‐-­‐-­‐  obligation  of  fidelity  and  obedience  which  a  citizen  or  subject  owes  to  his  gov’t  or  sovereign     (2) Temporary  -­‐-­‐-­‐  obligation  of  fidelity  and  obedience  which  a  resident  alien  owes  to  our  government       When  other  crimes  such  as  murder  are  charged  as  OVERT  ACTS  OF  TREASON,  cannot  be  regarded  as:     -­‐ Separate  crimes     -­‐ Complexed  with  treason     Treason  as  a  continuous  offense  =  may  be  committed  by  a  single  act,  series  of  acts,  several  series  thereof,  not  only  in  a  single  time  by  in  different  times.     AGGRAVATING:  Cruelty,  Ignominy   NOT  AGGRAVATING:  Evident  premeditation     INHERENT:  Superior  strength,  Treachery  

  Sovereignty  is  not  suspended,  what  is  suspended  is   the  exercise  of  sovereignty      

People v. Prieto

  the  accused  was  a  Japanese  spy  and  took  part  in   the  killing  of  some  guerillas  and  infliction  of  physical   injuries       SC:  murder  and  physical  injuries  were  inherent  in   the  crime  of  treason,  characterized  by  giving  aid  and   comfort  to  the  enemy    

ARTICLE 115: Conspiracy and proposal to commit treason. Penalty – The conspiracy and proposal to commit the crime of treason shall be punished respectively, by prision mayor and a fine not exceeding 10,000 pesos, and by prision correccional and a fine not exceeding 5,000 pesos.
  Conspiracy  to  commit  treason  =  time  of  war,  2  or  more  persons  come  to  an  agreement  to:   a. levy  war  against  the  government   b. adhere  to  the  enemies  and  give  them  aid  or  comfort   c. decide  to  commit  it       Proposal  to  commit  treason  =  in  time  of  war,  a  person  has  decided  to     a. levy  war  against  the  government     b. adhere  to  the  enemies  and  give  them  aid  or  comfort   c. proposes  its  execution  to  some  other  person  or  persons    

ARTICLE 116: Misprision of treason Every person owing allegiance to the (US or) the Government of the Philippine Islands without being a foreigner and having knowledge of any conspiracy against them, who conceals or does not disclose and make known the same, as soon as possible, to the governor or fiscal of the province, or the mayor or fiscal of the city in which he resides, as the case may be, shall be punished as an accessory to the crime of treason.
ELEMENTS:   (1) Offender  must  be  owing  allegiance  to  the  Govt  and  not  a  foreigner     (2) He  has  knowledge  of  any  conspiracy  to  commit  treason  agains  the  Govt   (3) He  conceals  or  does  not  disclose  or  make  known  the  same  as  soon  as  possible  to  the  governor  or  fiscal  of  the  province  or  to  the  mayor  or  fiscal   of  the  city  in  which  he  resides         does  not  apply  when  the  crime  of  treason  is  already  committed    

ARTICLE 117: Espionage The penalty of prision correctional shall be inflicted upon any person who: 1. Without authority therefor, enters a warship, fort or naval or military establishment or reservation to obtain any information, plans, photographs, or other data of a confidential nature relative to the defense of the Philippine

2.

Archipelago; or Being in possession, by reason of the public office he holds, of the articles, data, or information referred to in the preceding paragraph, discloses their contents to a representative of a foreign nation.

The penalty next higher degree shall be imposed if the offender be a public officer or employee.
Espionage    offense  of  gathering,  transmitting,  or  losing  information  respecting  the  national  defense  with  intent  or  reason  to  believe  that  the  information   is  to  be  used  to  the  injury  of  the  Republic  of  the  Philippines  or  to  the  advantage  of  any  foreign  nation.       not  conditioned  by  the  citizenship  of  the  offender  [Santos  v.  Misa]     May  be  committed  in  both  time  of  peace  and  in  time  of  war.       2  WAYS  OF  COMMITTING  ESPIONAGE   ELEMENTS   1.  By  entering,  without  authority  therefore:     1. Offender  enters  any  of  the  places  mentioned                    a  warship   2. He  has  no  authority  therefore   fort   3. The  purpose  is  to  obtain  information,  plans,  photographs  or  other   naval  or  military  establishment     data  of  a  confidential  nature  relative  to  the  defense  of  the   reservation     Philippines.   to  obtain  any  information,  plans,  photographs  or   other  data  of  a  confidential  nature  relative  to  the   defense  of  the  Philippines.     2.  By  disclosing  to  the  representative  of  a  foreign   1. Offender  is  a  public  officer   nation  the  contents  of  the  articles,  data  or   2. He  has  in  his  possession,  articles,  data  or  information  referred  to  in   information  referred  to  in  par.  1  which  he  had  in  his   par.  1  by  reason  of  the  public  offide  the  offender  holds.     possession  by  reason  of  the  public  office  he  holds.     3. He  discloses  their  contents  to  a  representative  of  a  foreign  nation     MENS  REA   -­‐ Must  have  intention  to  obtain  information  relative  to  the  defense  of  the  Phils.     -­‐ It  is  sufficient  that  he  has  a  purpose  to  obtain  the  information  when  the  offender  entered  a  warship,  fort,  naval  or  military  establishment.     Persons  who  can  be  liable:     1. For  PAR.  1    Any  person,  a  citizen  or  foreigner,  private  individual  or  public  officer     2. For  PAR.  2    A  public  officer/employee  who  has  possession  of  articles,  data  or  information  by  virtue  of  the  public  office  he/she  holds.    

ARTICLE 118: Inciting to war or giving motives for reprisals.1 The penalty of reclusion temporal shall be imposed upon any public officer or employee, and that of prision mayor upon any private individual, who, by unlawful or unauthorized acts, provokes or gives occasion for a war involving or liable to involve the Philippine Islands or exposes Filipino citizens to reprisals on their persons or property.
ELEMENTS:   1. The  offender  performs  unlawful  or  unauthorized  acts   2. Acts  provoke  or  give  occasion  for  a  war  involving  or  liable  to  involve  the  Philippines     OR     Expose  Filipino  citizens  to  reprisals  on  their  persons  or  property     [Reyes  quoting  Viada]     MENS  REA:  The  intention  of  the  accused  is  immaterial;  what  the  law  considers  are  the  effects  produced;  crime  is  committed  regardless  of  intentions.         inciting  to  war  OR  giving  motives  for  reprisals  is  committed  in  time  of  PEACE.        

                                                                                                               
1

 Reprisals  –  act  of  retaliation  

ARTICLE 119: Violation of neutrality The penalty of prision correccional shall be inflicted upon anyone who, on the occasion of war in which the Government is not involved, violates any regulation issued by competent authority for the purpose of enforcing neutrality.
ELEMENTS:   1. There  is  a  WAR  in  which  the  Philippines  is  NOT  involved.     2. Regulation  issued  by  competent  authority  for  the  purpose  of  enforcing  neutrality   3. Offender  violates  the  said  regulation     “NEUTRALITY”    a  state  wherein  a  nation  or  power  takes  no  part  in  a  contest  of  arms  going  on  between  other  nations  or  powers.    

ARTICLE 120: Correspondence with hostile country Any person, who in time of war, shall have correspondence with an enemy country or territory occupied by enemy troops shall be punished:
  “CORRESPONDENCE”  =  communication  by  means  of  letters;  OR  letters  which  pass  between  those  who  have  friendly  or  business  relations.    

1. 2. 3.

By prision correccional, if the correspondence has been prohibited by the Government. By prision mayor, if the correspondence be carried on in ciphers or conventional signs; and By reclusion temporal, if notice or information be given thereby which might be useful to the enemy. If the offender intended to aid the enemy by giving such notice or information, he shall suffer the penalty of reclusion temporal to death.

ELEMENTS:     1. That  it  is  in  a  time  of  war  in  which  the  Philippines  is  involved     2. Offender  makes  correspondence  with  an  enemy  country  OR  territory  occupied  by  enemy  troops     3. Correspondence  is  either  –     a. prohibited  by  the  government     b. carried  on  in  ciphers  or  conventional  signs   c. containing  notice  or  information  which  might  be  useful  to  the  enemy       If  prohibited  by  the  Government,  even  friendly  or  innocent  matters  contained  in  the  correspondence  are  prohibited.     The  following  must  concur:  [a]  notice  or  information  might  be  useful  to  the  enemy       [b]  offender  intended  to  aid  the  enemy  

ARTICLE 121: Flight to enemy’s country The penalty of arresto mayor shall be inflicted upon any person who, owing allegiance to the Government, attempts to flee or go to an enemy country when prohibited by competent authority.
ELEMENTS:     1. There  is  a  war  in  which  the  Philippines  is  involved.     2. Offender  must  be  owing  allegiance  to  the  Gov’t   3. Going  to  enemy  country  is  prohibited  by  competent  authority         “Allegiance”  =  natural  or  temporary  allegiance;  therefore,  an  alien  resident  can  be  held  liable       mere  attempt  consummates  the  felony  

homicide. 3.com]     4  Complement  –  number  of  people  required  to  crew  a  ship     .  equipment  or  personal  belongings  of  its  complement  or  passengers   ARTICLE 123: Qualified piracy The penalty of reclusion perpetua to death shall be imposed upon those who commit any of the crimes referred to in the preceding article under any of the following circumstances:   “crimes”  =  refers  to  piracy  and  mutiny  on  the  high  seas     regardless  of  number  of  victims.         “Vessel”  =  any  vessel  or  watercraft  used  for  transport  of  passengers  and  cargo  from  one  place  to  another  through  Philippine  waters. Vessel  is  on  high  seas  or  Philippine  waters     2. not being a member of its complement4 nor a passenger.  breadth.     The same penalty shall be inflicted in case of mutiny on the high seas or n Philippine waters. 3 of RA7659] ELEMENTS:   1. [as amended by Sec. shall attack or seize any vessel or.  including  territorial   sea. Offenders  either  [a]  attack  or  seize  a  vessel  on  the  high  seas  or  in  Phil  waters     [b]  seize  the  whole  part  of  the  cargo  of  the  vessel.  gulfs. its equipment. or rape (as amended by RA7659)                                                                                                                 2 3  Depredation  –  act  of  attacking  or  plundering      Animo  furandi  –  the  intention  to  steal  [law-­‐dictionary.ARTICLE 122: Piracy in general and mutiny on the high seas or in Philippine waters “PIRACY”    robbery  or  forcible  depredation  on  the  high  seas. Whenever they have seized a vessel by boarding or firing upon the same Whenever the pirates have abandoned their victims without means of saving themselves   “pirates”  =  excluding  mutineers     Whenever the crime is accompanied by murder.  length  or  dimension.  qualified  piracy  is  punishable  by  reclusion  perpetua  to  death.  without  lawful  authority  and  done  with  animo  furandi  and  in  the  spirit  and  intention  of   universal  hostility. or personal belongings of its complement or passengers.     “MUTINY”    unlawful  resistance  to  a  superior  officer  OR  raising  of  commotions  and  disturbances  on  board  a  ship  against  the  authority  of  its  commander.     PIRACY   MUTINY     Offenders:  Strangers  to  the  vessel   Offenders:  Members  of  the  crew  or  passengers   Mens  rea:  There  is  intent  to  gain   Mens  rea:  intent  to  ignore  the  ship’s  officers  OR  there  is   desire  to  commit  plunder     2 3 The penalty of reclusion perpetua shall be inflicted upon any person who.  seabed. Offenders  are  not  members  of  its  complement  or  passengers   3. physical injuries. on the high seas or in Philippine waters.  territorial  seas. 2.  internal  waters  of  a  state  or  in  the  archipelagic   waters  of  an  archipelagic  state         “Philippine  waters”  =  all  bodies  of  water  around  between  and  connecting  each  of  the  Islands  of  the  Philippine  Archipelago  (seas.  although  such  waters  may  be  in  the   jurisdictional  limits  of  a  foreign  govt     =  UNCLOS:  parts  of  the  seas  that  are  not  included  in  the  EEZ.   “High  seas”  =  any  waters  on  the  sea  coast  which  are  without  the  boundaries  of  low-­‐water  mark.  insular  shelves  and  other  submarine  areas  over  which  the  Philippines  has  sovereignty  or  jurisdiction. shall seize the whole or part of the cargo of the said vessel.     1.   irrespective  of  depth.  bays).  All  types   of  vessels  including  boats  used  in  fishing.  and  all  other  waters  belonging  to  the  Philippines  by  historic  or  legal  title.

      5 A  and  B  =  cases  when  suspect  is  caught  in  flagrante  delicto  or  immediately  thereafter     C  =  escaping  prisoners         “In  his  presence”  =  officer  sees/  hears  a  disturbance  or  commotion  of  the  offense  being  committed. The (1) commission of a crime. Arbitrary  detention  by  detaining  a  person  without  legal  grounds  [Art.  other  agents  of  the  law. ELEMENTS:     1.     “Personal  knowledge”  =  must  be  based  upon  probably  cause  which  means  an  actual  belief  or  reasonable  grounds  of  suspicion. 3. The penalty of prision mayor.  is  actually  committing  or  is  attempting  to  commit  an  offense.       ”Without  legal  grounds”     =  [a]  when  one  has  not  committed  any  crime  OR  there  is  no  reasonable  ground  for  suspicion  that  he  has  committed  a  crime        [b]  when  one  is  not  suffering  from  violent  insanity  or  any  other  ailment  requiring  compulsory  confinement  in  a  hospital     1. detains a person shall suffer:   “Public  officer”  =  any  person  who  is  vested  with  authority  to  detain  or  order  the  detention  of  persons  accused  of  a  crime.  and   c.  mayors. or (2) violent insanity or any other ailment requiring the compulsory confinement of the patient in a hospital. Delaying  release  [Art. without legal grounds.  125]   3. 2. He  detains  a  person   3. The penalty of arresto mayor in its maximum period to prision correccional in its minimum period. shall be considered legal grounds for the detention of any person.Title 2: Crimes against the Fundamental Laws of the State They  violate  certain  provisions  of  the  Bill  of  Rights  (Art.     b. Detention  is  without  legal  grounds     LAWFUL  ARREST  WITHOUT  WARRANT:  [Section  5  Rule  113. Delay  in  the  delivery  of  detained  persons  to  the  proper  judicial  authorities  [Art. if the detention has continued more than 3 but not more than 15 days.  barangay  captain.  the  act  of  detaining  another  is  Illegal  Detention.  Revised  Rules  of  Criminal  Procedure)   a. if the detention shall have exceeded 6 months. who.  although  at  a  distance. The  offender  is  a  public  officer  or  employee   2. 4.  the  person  to  be  arrested  committed.  and  he  has  probable  cause  to  believe  based  on  his  personal  knowledge  of  facts  and   circumstances  that  the  person  to  be  arrested  has  committed  it.                                                                                                                     5  Flagrante  delicto  –  “in  a  blazing  offence”  or  caught  in  the  act     . if the detention has not exceeded 3 days.  They  are  charged   with  arbitrary  detention  when  they  have  no  legal  grounds  therefor. The penalty of prision correccional in its medium and maximum periods.  126]       ARTICLE 124: Arbitrary Detention   “DETENTION”  =  actual  confinement  of  a  person  in  an  enclosure  OR  any  manner  detaining  and  depriving  him  of  his  liberty     =  person  is  detained  when  placed  in  a  confinement  or  there  is  restraint  on  his  person   Any public officer or employee. When  the  person  to  be  arrested  is  a  prisoner  who  has  escaped  from  penal  establishment  where  he  is  serving  final  judgment  or  temporarily   confined  while  his  case  I  pending  or  has  escaped  while  being  transferred  from  one  confinement  to  another.  III  of  1987  Constitution)       Classes  of  Arbitrary  Detention:     1. if the detention has continued for more than 15 days but not more than 6 months. When  an  offense  has  just  been  in  fact  committed. When  in  his  presence.  (policemen.  judges.   municipal  councilor)       if  detention  is  by  a  private  person. That of reclusion temporal.  124]   2.

  =  must  be  within  the  personal  knowledge  of  the  complainant  or  the  witnesses  but  not  based  on  mere  hearsay.  for  crimes  or  offenses  punishable  by  light  penalties  or  their  equivalent     b.  BECAUSE  the  arresting  officer  can  not  transfer  to  the  judge  and  the  latter  does  not  assume  physical  custody  of  the  person   arrested.  Misa]     Art. 36  hours.         REASON  for  the  provision:  Intended  to  prevent  any  abuse  resulting  from  confining  a  person  without  informing  him  of  his  offense  and  without  permitting   him  to  go  on  bail  [Laurel  v. That  the  offender  is  a  public  officer  or  employee   2. for crimes and offenses punishable by afflictive or capital penalties. to communicate and confer at any time with his attorney or counsel (amended by EO 272)   Rights  of  the  person  detained   ELEMENTS:     1.   does  not  apply  when  arrest  is  by  virtue  of  a  warrant  of  arrest     Because:  There  is  already  a  complaint  or  information  filed  against  the  person  to  be  arrested  with  the  court  which  issued  a  warrant  of  arrest.  for  crimes  and  offenses  punishable  by  afflictive  or  capital  penalties.     “PROBABLE  CAUSE”  =    such  facts  and  circumstances  which  could  lead  a  reasonable  discreet  and  prudent  man  to  believe  that  an  offense  has   been  committed  and  that  the  object  sought  in  connection  with  the  offense  are  in  the  place  sought  to  be  searched.       “Proper  judicial  authorities”  =  courts  of  justice  or  judges  of  said  courts  vested  with  judicial  power  to  order  the  temporary  detention  or   confinement  of  a  person  charged  with  having  committed  a  public  offense.       In every case.  125:  Detention  is  legal  but  the  illegality  of  detention  starts  from  the  expiration  of  the  periods  specified  w/out  the  detained  person  being  delivered  to   the  proper  judicial  authority   The penalties provided in the next preceding article shall be imposed upon the public officer or employee who shall detain any person for some legal ground and shall fail to deliver such person to the proper judicial authorities within the period of: 12 hours. He  fails  to  deliver  such  person  the  proper  judicial  authorities  within:     a.  may  be  detained  indefinitely  until  the  case  is  decided  by  the  court  OR  posts  a  bail  for  temporary  release     detention  becomes  illegal  after  a  certain  period  of  time         “Fail  to  deliver  to  proper  judicial  authorities”  =  not  physical  delivery  but  in  making  an  accusation  or  charge  or  filing  of  an  information  against   the  person  arrested  with  the  corresponding  court  or  judge.  124:  Detention  is  illegal  from  the  beginning   Art. 18  hours  for  crimes  or  offenses  punishable  by  correctional  penalties  or  their  equivalent     c. for crimes or offenses punishable by light penalties or their equivalent 18 hours for crimes or offenses punishable by correctional penalties or their equivalent 36 hours. or their equivalent   “shall  detain  any  person  for  some  legal  ground”  =  person  detained  was  arrested  under  any  of  the  circumstances  where  arrest  without  warrant   is  authorized  by  law   …  if  made  with  a  warrant  of  arrest. 12  hours. the person detained shall be (1) informed of the cause of his detention and shall be (2) allowed upon his request.  it  is  not   necessary  to  deliver  the  person  thus  arrested  to  that  court.  where  the  latter  acquires  jurisdiction  to  issue  an  order  of  release  or  of  commitment   of  the  prisoner.       ARTICLE 125: Delay in the delivery of detained persons to the proper judicial authorities.  or  their  equivalent             . That  he  has  detained  a  person  for  some  legal  ground   3.

      only  a  court  by  final  judgment  can  order  a  change  of  residence       ejectment  proceedings.         ARTICLE 127: Expulsion The penalty of prision correccional shall be imposed upon any public officer or employee who. not being authorized by judicial order.       “search  papers. He  expels  any  person  from  the  Philippines  or  compels  a  person  to  change  his  residence     3.  128)   2. That  the  offender  without  good  reason  delays:  (a)  the  service  of  the  notice  of  such  order  to  the  prisoner.  etc. or unduly delays the service of the notice of such order to said prisoner or the proceedings upon any petition for the liberation of such person.     3.  expropriation  proceedings  and  destierro       Crimes  under  VIOLATION  OF  DOMICILE:     1. By  entering  a  dwelling  against  the  will  of  the  owner  thereof  making  search  without  previous  consent  of  the  owner. shall enter any dwelling against the will of the owner thereof.       ELEMENTS:     1. and being required to leave premises. Searching  domicile  without  witnesses  (Art.  280)       “not  being  authorized  by  judicial  order”  =  when  armed  with  a  search  warrant  duly  issued  by  court       “against  the  will  of  the  owner”  =  there  must  be  opposition  or  prohibition  by  the  owner  whether  express  or  implied       =  crime  is  not  committed  when  there  is  no  consent  nor  if  the  owner  consented  to  the  entrance.   “public  officer  or  employee”  =  if  a  private  individual. Delaying  the  performance  of  a  judicial  or  executive  order  for  the  release  of  a  prisoner   2. There  is  a  judicial  or  executive  order  for  the  release  of  a  prisoner  or  detention  prisoner. By  expelling  a  person  from  the  Philippines   2. shall refuse to do so.  or  (b)  the  performance  of  such  judicial   or  executive  order  for  the  release  of  the  prisoner  or  (c)  the  proceedings  upon  a  petition  for  the  release  of  such  person. shall expel any person from the Philippine Islands or shall compel such person to change his residence.  silence  of  the  owner)     “search”  =  merely  looking  at  the  sala  and  kitchen  for  a  pen  knife  is  not  considered  a  search  of  papers  and  other  effects       “papers  or  other  effects  found  therein”  =  does  not  cover  search  outside  the  dwelling  of  a  person  without  search  warrant   . Offender  is  a  public  officer  or  employee     2. or. not being thereunto authorized by law. The  offender  is  a  public  officer  or  employee   2.    (Art. Unduly  delaying  the  service  of  the  notice  of  such  order  to  said  prisoner   3. The  offender  is  not  authorized  to  do  so  by  law. search papers or other effects found therein without previous consent of such owner. Search  warrants  maliciously  obtained  and  abuse  in  the  service  of  those  legally  obtained  (Art. having surreptitiously entered said dwelling.  126:     1.  129)   3.  without  previous  consent  of  such  owner”     =  right  to  be  secure  from  unreasonable  search  may  be  waived  expressly  or  impliedly(e.g.   ARTICLE 126: Delaying release. ACTS  PUNISHABLE  UNDER  ART. ACTS  PUNISHABLE  UNDER  ART.  130)     ARTICLE 128: Violation of domicile The penalty of prision correccional in its minimum period shall be imposed upon any public officer or employee who. Unduly  delaying  the  proceedings  upon  any  petition  for  the  liberation  of  such  person.  127:     1.  crime  is  trespass  to  dwelling  (Art. By  compelling  a  person  to  change  his  residence       ELEMENTS:     1. The penalties provided for in Article 124 shall be imposed upon any public officer or employee who delays for the period of time specified therein the performance of any judicial or executive order for the release of a prisoner or detention prisoner.  or  that  there  is  a  proceeding  upon  a  petition  for  the   liberation  of  such  person.

or.  4  Rule  126)         Examination  of  complainant:  By  the  judge.  in  the  presence  of  2  witnesses  of  sufficient  age  and  discretion  residing  in  the  same   locality.  (Sec. Searching  papers  or  other  effects  found  therein  without  the  previous  consent  of  such  owner     3.  with  respective  penalties.  1  Rule  126. Papers  or  effects  not  constituting  evidence  of  a  crime  are  not  returned  immediately  after  the  search  made  by  the  offender.  8  Rule  126)     .  the   complainant  and  the  witnesses  he  may  produce  on  facts  personally  known  to  them   -­‐  sworn  statements  are  attached  to  the  record  together  with  any  affidavits  submitted  (Sec.  (Sec. Not  authorized  by  judicial  order  to  enter  the  dwelling  and/or  to  make  a  search  therein  for  papers  or  other  effects.  signed  by  a  judge  and  directed  to  a  peace  officer.       ELEMENTS  (COMMON):     1.   “in  addition  to  the  liability  attaching  to  the  offender…”  =  public  officers  procuring  a  search  warrant  without  just  cause  may  also  be  held  liable  for  perjury   if  they  made  a  willful  and  deliberate  assertion  of  falsehood  in  the  affidavits  filed  in  support  of  the  application  for  search  warrant  .  128:     1. shall exceed his authority or use unnecessary severity in executing the same.     2. the penalty of arresto mayor in its maximum period to prision correccional in its minimum period and a fine not exceeding 1000 pesos shall be imposed upon any public officer or employee who shall procure a search warrant without just cause.     If the offense be committed in the nighttime. or if any papers or effects not constituting evidence of a crime be not returned immediately after the search made by the offender. Offense  committed  at  nighttime. the penalty shall be prision correccional in its medium and maximum periods.  before  issuing  the  warrant…   -­‐  must  personally  examine  in  the  form  of  SEARCHING  QUESTIONS  AND  ANSWERS. Entering  any  dwelling  against  the  will  of  the  owner  thereof   2.  5  Rule  126)       Required  presence  of  2  WITNESSES:  No  search  of  house.  Revised  Rules  of  Criminal  Procedure)       What  types  of  PERSONAL  PROPERTY  can  be  seized?     (a) Subject  of  the  offense     (b) Stolen  or  embezzled  and  other  proceeds  or  fruits  of  the  offense   (c) Used  or  intended  to  be  used  as  the  means  of  committing  an  offense  (Sec. Refusing  to  leave  the  premises  after  having  surreptitiously  entered  said  dwelling  and  after  having  been  required  to  leave  the  same.   =  these  must  be  found  in  the  dwelling       “having  surreptitiously  entered  said  dwelling”  =  an  exception  because  this  is  an  instance  where  a  public  officer/employee  may  commit   violation  of  domicile  even  if  the  entrance  is  only  without  consent  of  its  owner.         “Search  warrant”  =  is  an  order  writing  issued  in  the  name  of  the  People  of  the  Philippines.  commanding   him  to  search  for  personal  property  described  therein  and  bring  it  before  the  court  (Sec. having legally procured the same. In addition to the liability attaching to the offender for the commission of any other offense.  room  or  any  other  premises  shall  be  made  except  in  the  presence  of  the  lawful  occupant   thereof  or  any  member  of  his  family  or  in  the  absence  of  the  latter. Offender  is  a  public  officer  or  employee     2.  BUT  it  is  the  refusal  to  leave  the  premises  when  required  to  do   so  is  what  constitutes  the  crime.  and  particularly  describing  the   place  to  be  searched  and  things  to  be  seized  which  may  be  anywhere  in  the  Philippines.         ARTICLE 129: Search warrants maliciously obtained and abuse in the service of those legally obtained.     Qualifying  circumstances:     1.  even  if  perjury  was  a   necessary  means  to  commit  crime  of  search  warrant  maliciously  obtained  –  separate  and  distinct  crimes. ACTS  PUNISHABLE  UNDER  ART.  in  writing  and  under  oath.  3  Rule  126)       Requisites  for  issuing  search  warrant:  Upon  PROBABLE  CAUSE  in  connection  with  one  specific  offense       -­‐  to  be  determined  personally  by  the  judge  after  examination     -­‐  under  oath  or  affirmation  of  the  complainant  &  the  witness  he  may  produce.

in any member of his family.  3  of  the  Constitution  is  INADMISSIBLE  in  any  proceeding  if  presented  as  evidence. He  is  armed  with  a  search  warrant  legally  procured   3.     ELEMENTS:     1. Exceeding  his  authority  or  by  using  unnecessary  severity  in  executing  a  search  warrant  legally  procured. That  there  is  no  just  cause. Procuring  a  search  warrant  without  just  cause. shall search the domicile.  “Probable  cause  for  a  search”  =  such  facts  and  circumstances  which  would  lead  a  reasonably  discreet  and  prudent  man  to  believe  that  an  offense  has   been  committed  and  that  the  object  sought  in  connection  with  the  offense  are  in  the  place  sought  to  be  searched.     Elements  of  this  act:     (a) Offender  is  a  public  officer  or  employee   (b) He  has  legally  procured  a  search  warrant     (c) He  exceeds  his  authority  or  uses  unnecessary  severity  in  executing  the  same     ELEMENTS:     1. without the presence of two witnesses residing in the same locality.       doesn’t  apply  to  vehicles  or  other  means  of  transportation  because  it  is  not  made  in  the  dwelling.       SECTION  8  RULE  126  (REVISED  RULES  OF  CRIMINAL  PROCEDURE)     “No  search  of  a  house. When  search  and  seizure  without  warrant  is  incident  to  lawful  arrest   2.   When  papers  and  effects  are:    (a)  obtained  during  unreasonable  searches  and  seizures     (b)  under  a  search  warrant  issued  without  probable  cause  &  not  in  accordance  with  the  procedure  described       (c)  in  violation  of  the  privacy  of  communication  and  correspondence   ACTS  PUNISHABLE  UNDER  ART. The penalty of arresto mayor in its medium and maximum periods shall be imposed upon a public officer or employee who.         Test  of  lack  of  JUST  CAUSE:  Whether  the  affidavit  filed  in  support  of  the  application  for  search  warrant  has  been  drawn  in  such  a  manner  that  PERJURY   could  be  charged  thereon  and  affiant  be  held  liable  for  damages  caused. That  he  procures  a  search  warrant.  129:     1. That  the  offender  is  a  public  officer  or  employee. He  searches  the  domicile. in cases where a search is proper. in the absence of the latter.  room  or  any  other  premises  shall  be  made  except  in  the  presence  of  the  lawful  occupant  thereof  or  any  member  of  his  family  or  in   the  absence  of  the  latter.     2. Search  and  seizure  of  vessels  and  aircraft  for  violations  of  the  custom  laws  (why?  Because  vessels  can  be  moved  out  quickly  before  the  warrant   can  be  secured)         ARTICLE 130: Searching domicile without witnesses.  or  any  member  of  his  family.”     .  2  and  Sec.     3.  two  witnesses  of  sufficient  age  and  discretion  residing  in  the  same  locality. That  the  owner.     search  without  warrant  under  the  Tariff  and  Customs  Code  does  not  include  a  dwelling  house. When  peace  officers  enter  the  house  of  an  offender  who  committed  an  offense  in  their  presence.  or  2  witnesses  residing  in  the  same  locality  are  not  present.  to  examine       papers  and  other  belongings  must  be  in  the  dwelling  of  their  owner  at  the  time  the  search  is  made.     2. or other belongings of any person.       *Evidence  obtained  in  violation  of  Sec. Offender  is  a  public  officer  or  employee   2.     Oath  required:  refer  to  the  truth  of  the  facts  within  personal  knowledge  of  the  applicant  for  search  warrant  OR  his  witnesses  and  NOT  just  reported  by  any   person  even  if  that  person  can  be  considered  credible.       EXCEPTIONS:  (When  is  this  legal?)     1.     3.   “in  cases  where  search  is  proper”  =  the  public  officer  at  the  time  of  the  search  is  armed  with  a  search  warrant  legally  procured.  papers  or  other  belongings  of  any  person   4.       “SEARCH”  =  to  go  over  or  look  through  the  purpose  of  finding  something. or in their default. papers.

      Qualifying  circumstance:  if  committed  with  violence  or  threats         there  is  no  provision  which  requires  religious  service  to  be  conducted  in  approved  orthodox  style  in  order  to  merit  protection  against  interference  and   disturbance.  any  petition  to  the  authorities  for  the  correction  of   abuses  or  redress  of  grievances.     2.     Crimes  AGAINST  RELIGIOUS  WORSHIP       1. That  religious  ceremonies  or  manifestations  of  any  religion  are  about  to  take  place  or  are  going  on.  131:   1.     . By  prohibiting  or  interrupting  without  legal  ground.  the  holding  of  a  peaceful  meeting. He  performs  any  of  the  acts  punishable  under  Art.  either  alone  or  together  with  others. without legal ground. either alone or together with others. or shall dissolve the same. The same penalty shall be imposed upon any public officer or employee who shall prohibit or hinder any person from addressing.  or  by  dissolving  the  same.  153)     must  be  a  stranger.     3. interruption.  133)       ARTICLE 132: Interruption of religious worship The penalty of prision correccional in its minimum period shall be imposed upon any public officer or employee who shall prevent or disturb the ceremonies or manifestations of any religion.  INTERRUPTION  AND  DISSOLUTION  OF  PEACEFUL  MEETINGS     ARTICLE 131: Prohibition.Crimes  under  PROHIBITION.  If  a  private  individual  =  Disturbance  of  public  order  (Art. ACTS  PUNISHED  UNDER  ART.   to  constitute  a  violation:  (a)  the  meeting  must  be  peaceful.  132)     2. Offending  the  religious  feelings  (Art.     3. Interruption  of  religious  worship  (Art. who.  131     *Right  to  peaceful  meeting  (Right  to  freedom  of  speech  and  to  peacefully  assemble)  =  not  absolute    may  be  regulated  in  order  that  it  may  not  be   “injurious  to  the  equal  enjoyment  of  others  having  equal  rights  NOR  injurious  to  the  right  of  the  community  or  society”     exercised  under  the  POLICE  POWER  OF  THE  STATE  =  power  to  prescribe  regulations  to  promote  the  good  order  or  safety  and  general  welfare  of  the   people.  and       (b)  there  is  no  legal  ground  for  prohibiting. Offender  is  a  public  officer  or  employee     only  a  public  officer/employee  can  commit  this  crime. shall prohibit or interrupt the holding of a peaceful meeting. By  hindering  any  person  from  joining  any  lawful  association  or  from  attending  any  of  its  meetings. and dissolution of peaceful meetings. The  offender  is  a  public  officer  or  employee     2.  or  interrupting  or  dissolving  that  meeting     “no  legal  ground”  =  when  (a)  the  danger  apprehended  is  not  imminent      (b)  evil  to  be  prevented  is  not  a  serious  one     The same penalty shall be imposed upon any public officer or employee who shall hinder any person from joining any lawful association or from attending any of its meetings. By  prohibiting  or  hindering  any  person  from  addressing.  not  a  participant  in  the  peaceful  meeting   2. the penalty shall be prision correccional in its medium and maximum periods.       COMMON  ELEMENTS:     1. The  offender  prevents  or  disturbs  the  same. If the crime shall have been committed with violence or threats. ELEMENTS:     1. The penalty of prision correccional in its minimum period shall be imposed upon any public officer or employee. any petition to the authorities for the correction of abuses or redress of grievances.

That  the  acts  complained  of  were  performed:  (a)  in  a  place  devoted  to  religious  worship. The penalty of arresto mayor in its maximum period to prision correccional in its minimum period shall be imposed upon anyone who.       “acts  notoriously  offensive  to  the  feelings  of  the  faithful”  =  must  be  directed  against  religious  practice  or  dogma  or  ritual  for  the  purpose  of   ridicule    . (as amended by R. 24.    mocking  or  scoffing  at  OR  attempting  to  damage  an  object  of  religious  veneration. the territory of the Republic of the Philippines or any part thereof. The crime of rebellion or insurrection is committed by rising publicly and taking arms against the Government for the purpose of removing from the allegiance to said Government or its laws.  giving  aid  and  comfort       -­‐  involves  taking  up  arms  against   -­‐  committed  by  mere  adherence  to   the  Gov’t  .  giving  aid  or  comfort  is   the  enemy  giving  him  aid  or   not  criminal  to   comfort   rebellion/insurrection     .   “in  a  place  devoted  to  religious  worship”  =  the  religious  ceremony  need  not  be  celebrated  in  a  place  of  worship. or depriving the Chief Executive or the Legislature.  or       (b)  during  the  celebration  of  any  religious  ceremony   2. in a place devoted to religious worship or during the celebration of any religious ceremony. No.   also  constitute  adherence  to     enemy.     2.   ARTICLE 133: Offending religious feelings.     REBELLION   INSURRECTION   TREASON     SUBVERSION   -­‐  used  where  the  object  of  the   -­‐  employed  in  reference  to  a   -­‐  crime  against  national  security   -­‐  crime  against  national  security   movement  is  completely  to   movement  which  seeks  merely  to   overthrow  and  supercede  the   effect  some  change  of  minor   existing  gov’t     importance  OR  to  prevent  the   exercise  of  governmental  authority   with  respect  to  particular  matters   or  subjects     -­‐  levying  war  against  the     -­‐  levying  war  against  the  Gov’t     government  during  peace  time  for   when  performed  to  aid  the  enemy.  wholly  or  partially. of any of their powers or prerogatives.   any  purpose  in  Art. approved Oct.       “religious  ceremony”  =  religious  acts  performed  outside  of  a  church  such  as  processions  and  special  prayers  for  burying  dead  persons. That  there  be  (a)  a  public  uprising.  naval  or  other  armed  forces   (b) To  deprive  the  Chief  Executive  or  Congress.  or   (2) any  body  of  land.  of  any  of  their  powers  or  prerogatives. naval or other armed forces. or any body of land.  and  (b)  taking  arms  against  the  Government.     *There  must  be  deliberate  intent  to  cause  the  hurtful  feelings  of  the  faithful. wholly or partially.       Title Three: Crimes Against Public Order ARTICLE 134: Rebellion or insurrection – How committed. 6968.     ELEMENTS:     1. That  the  purpose  of  the  uprising  or  movement  is  either  –   (a) To  remove  from  the  allegiance  to  said  Government  or  its  laws:     (1) the  territory  of  the  Philippines  or  any  part  thereof. 1990) ELEMENTS:     1. shall perform acts notoriously offensive to the feelings of the faithful.A.  134. That  the  acts  must  be  notoriously  offensive  to  the  feelings  of  the  faithful.     *WON  an  act  offends  the  feelings  of  a  member  of  a  religious  group/sect  should  be  viewed  or  judged  from  the  complainant’s  point  of  view  and  not  from  the   point  of  view  of  the  offender.

 for  the  purpose  of  overthrowing  the  same   by  force. No.  an  accused   knowingly  identifying  with  the  Huk)         the  PURPOSE  of  the  uprising  must  be  shown. strategy or stealth. 6968) ELEMENTS:   1.g. directed against duly constituted authorities of the Republic of the Philippines. or any military camp or installation. (as amended by R. accompanied by violence.   communication  networks.A. with or without civilian support or participation.     -­‐ and  it  is  not  necessary  that  the  purpose  be  accomplished       REBELLION  is  CONSUMMATED  =  very  moment  a  group  of  rebels  rise  publicly  and  take  arms  against  the  Gov’t.  To  succeed  in  overthrowing  the  government  is  not  necessary       NORMATIVE  ELEMENT  =  Rising  publicly  &  Taking  arms  against  the  Gov’t     SUBJECTIVE  ELEMENT  =  Intent  or  purpose  to  overthrow  the  Government     ARTICLE 134-A: Coup d’etat – How committed. INSURRECTION and/or COUP D’ETAT   REBELLION  /    INSURRECTION   COUP  D’ETAT   LEADERS   Any  person  who:  (a)  promotes    (b)  maintains    (c)  heads     Any  person  who:  (a)  leads    (b)  directs    (c)  commands  to   undertake     PARTICIPANTS     Any  person  who:  (a)  participates    (b)  executes  the   commands  of  others   Any  person    in  the  government  service  who:  (a)   participates      (b)  executes  directions  or  commands  of   others   Any  person  not  in  the  government  service  who:     (a)  participates    (b)  supports    (c)  finances    (d)  abets       (e)  aids  in  undertaking     . intimidation. That  it  is  committed  by  means  of  a  swift  attack  accompanied  by  violence. belonging to the military or police or holding any public office or employment. for the purpose of seizing or diminishing state power.  or  any  military  camp  or  installation.   4. That  the  attack  is  directed  against  duly  constituted  authorities  of  the  Republic  of  the  Philippines. threat.*NATURE  of  Rebellion  (or  of  Inciting):     -­‐  it  is  a  crime  of  masses  or  of  a  multitude   -­‐  vast  movement  of  men  and  a  complex  net  of  intrigues  and  plots     -­‐  evokes  not  merely  a  challenge  to  the  constituted  authorities. singly or simultaneously carried out anywhere in the Philippines by any person or persons.  threat. That  the  purpose  of  the  attack  is  to  seize  or  diminish  state  power.  (e. communications networks.   Who are the persons liable for REBELLION.  strategy  or  stealth   3. That  the  offender  is  a  person    or  persons  belonging  to  the  military  or  police  or  holding  any  public  office  or  employment     2.  public  utilities  or  other  facilities  needed  for  the  exercise  and  continued  possession  of  power.  but  also  civil  war  on  a  bigger  or  lesser  scale       *Actual  clash  of  arms  not  necessary  to  convict  the  accused  who  is  IN  CONSPIRACY  with  those  actually  taking  arms  against  the  Government. The crime of coup d’etat is a swift attack. public utilities or other facilities needed for the exercise and continued possession of power.  intimidation.

 Silence  or  omission  is  NOT  punishable     2. That  the  following  acts    of  disloyalty  are  present:     (a) By  failing  to  resist  a  rebellion  by  all  the  means  in  their  power. respectively. ELEMENTS:     1.       ARTICLE 136 – Conspiracy and proposal to commit coup d’etat. There  is  NO  COMPLEX  CRIME  OF  REBELLION  with  murder  or  other  common  crimes    “engaging  in  war”  and  “committing  serious  violence”   already  connotes:  resort  to  arms.  restraint  of  liberty.000).     4.         ARTICLE 138 – Inciting to rebellion or insurrection.       a  private  individual  appointed  to  office  will  not  be  liable  under  this  article.  insurrection  or  coup  in  case  he  is  unknown:  ANY  PERSON  who  (a)  directed  the  others  (b)  spoke  for  them  (c)  signed   receipts  (d)  does  similar  acts  on  behalf  of  the  rebels. The penalty of prision mayor in its minimum period shall be imposed upon any person who.  Amin)     *POLITICAL  CRIMES  =  directly  aimed  against  the  political  order.     (2) Proposal  to  commit  rebellion    when  the  person  who  has  decided  to  rise  publicly  and  take  arms  against  the  Government  for  any  of  the   purposes  of  rebellion  proposes  its  execution  to  some  other  person  or  persons. The  offender  must  be  a  public  officer  or  employee. The penalty of prision correccional in its minimum period shall be imposed upon public officers or employees who have failed to resist a rebellion by all the means in their power.  even  though  are  crimes  in  themselves  are  deemed  absorbed  in  one  single  crime  of  rebellion  (Enrile  v. or shall continue to discharge the duties of their offices under the control of the rebels or shall accept appointment to office under them. Deemed  leaders  of  rebellion.  damage  to  property. by prision correccional in its maximum period and a fine which shall not exceed five thousand pesos (P5. The  offender  must  not  be  in  conspiracy  with  the  rebels.000).     2.  requisition  of  property. The conspiracy and proposal to commit rebellion or insurrection shall be punished.     3.       *Acts  committed  in  furtherance  of  rebellion  .  physical   injuries  and  loss  of  life.  or     (c) By  accepting  appointment  to  office  under  them.000) and by prision correccional in its medium period. The conspiracy and proposal to commit coup d’etat shall be punished by prision mayor in its minimum period and a fine which shall not exceed eight thousand pesos (P8. That  there  is  an  existence  of  rebellion  by  other  persons   4.  or     (b) By  continuing  to  discharge  the  duties  of  their  offices  under  the  control  of  the  rebels.  collection  of  taxes  and  contributions.  as  well  as  such  common  crimes  may  be  committed  to  achieve  a  political  purpose.POINTS  TO  REMEMBER:     1. Not  a  defense:  that  the  accused  never  took  oath  of  allegiance  to  or  they  never  recognized  the  Gov’t    because  the  Government  has  the  right  to   maintain  its  existence  and  authority  against  a  certain  class  of  the  population.     3.       *Merely  agreeing  and  deciding  to  rise  publicly  or  merely  proposing  =  already  subject  to  punishment       NO  Conspiracy  when:  NO  agreement  and  NO  decision  to  commit  rebellion           ARTICLE 137 – Disloyalty of public officers or employees. without taking arms or being in open . and a fine not exceeding two thousand pesos (P2. rebellion or insurrection. A  public  officer  must  ACTIVELY  TAKE  PART  in  order  to  be  liable  for  rebellion. (as amended by RA 6968) TWO  CRIMES  DEFINED  AND  PENALIZED:     (1) Conspiracy  to  commit  rebellion    when  two  or  more  persons  come  to  an  agreement  to  rise  publicly  and  take  arms  against  the  Government  for   any  of  the  purposes  of  rebellion  and  decide  to  commit  it.

ELEMENTS:     1. That  the  offenders  rise  (a)  publicly  and  (b)  tumultuously     2.     (b) To  prevent  the  National  Government. The crime of sedition is committed by persons who rise publicly and tumultuously in order to attain by force.     2. To prevent the National Government. emblems.       “Shall  incite  others  to  the  execution  of  any  of  the  acts  specified  in  Article  134  of  this  Code”    the  offender  shall  incite  others  to  rise  publicly  and  take  arms   against  the  Government  for  any  of  the  purposes  of  rebellion. That  he  incites  others  to  the  execution  of  any  of  the  acts  of  rebellion. That  the  offender  does  not  take  arms  or  is  not  in  open  hostility  against  the  government. writings. shall incite others to the execution of any of the acts specified in Article 134 of this Code. banners or other representations tending to the same end.       .  and     (e) To  despoil. by means of speeches.       ARTICLE 139 – Sedition – How committed. intimidation.  or  any  public  officer  thereof  from  freely   exercising  its  or  his  functions. or any provincial or municipal government. That  they  employ  force. To commit.  any  act  of  hate  or  revenge  against  private  persons  or  any  social  class.       INCITING  TO  REBELLION   PROPOSAL  TO  COMMIT  REBELLION     Offender  induces  another  to  commit  rebellion   Offender  induces  another  to  commit  rebellion   It  is  not  required  that  the  offender  has  decided  to  commit   Person  who  proposes  has  decided  to  commit  rebellion   rebellion   The  inciting  is  done  publicly     Person  who  proposes  the  execution  uses  secret  means     Rebellion  should  not  be  actually  committed     Rebellion  should  not  be  actually  committed     *if  rebellion  is  committed.  or  any  provincial  or  municipal  government. and To despoil for any political or social end. That  the  inciting  is  done  by  means  of  speeches.  intimidation.  the  proponent  or  the  person  inciting  becomes  principal  by  inducement  in  the  crime  of  rebellion. (as amended by CA 202) 3. That  the  offenders  employ  any  of  those  means  to  attain  any  of  the  following  objects:     (a) To  prevent  the  promulgation  or  execution  of  any  law  or  the  holding  of  any  popular  election. ELEMENTS:     1.  for  any  political  or  social  end  any  person. or the National Government (or the Government of the US) of all its property or any part thereof.  writings.  emblems. proclamations.     3.   (c) To  inflict  any  act  of  hate  or  revenge  upon  the  person  or  property  of  any  public  officer  or  employee. 2. municipality or province. or prevent the execution of any administrative order. 5.  proclamations. or any public officer thereof from freely exercising its or his functions. for any political or social end.  or  other  means  outside  of  legal  methods   3. To inflict any act of hate or revenge upon the person or property of any public officer or employee.  banners  or  other  representations  tending  to  the  same  end. or by other means outside of legal methods. any act of hate or revenge against private persons or any social class.  or  prevent  the  execution  of  any  administrative  order.  municipality  or  province.hostility against the Government. To prevent the promulgation or execution of any law or holding of any popular election.     (d) To  commit  for  any  political  or  social  end.  or  the  National  Government  of  all  its  property  or   any  part  thereof. 4. any of the following objects: 1. any person.       NATURE  OF  THE  CRIME:     Sedition    raising  of  commotions  or  disturbances  in  the  State     the  ultimate  object  of  sedition  is  a  violation  of  the  public  peace  or  at  least  such  a  course  of  measures  as  evidently  engenders  it.

000 pesos. or who shall knowingly conceal such evil practices. (as amended by CA 202) . There  must  be:  Agreement  +  Decision  to  rise  publicly  and  tumultuously  to  attain  any  of  the  objects  of  sedition. or which tend to disturb or obstruct any lawful officer in executing the functions of his office. The leader of a sedition shall suffer the penalty of prision mayor in its minimum period and a fine not exceeding 10.         ARTICLE 141 – Conspiracy to commit sedition. Other  persons  participating  in  the  sedition.       SEDITION   REBELLION   There  must  be  public  uprising     There  must  be  public  uprising     Sufficient  that  public  uprising  is  tumultuous     There  must  be  taking  up  of  arms  against  the  government     Purpose  of  the  offenders  may  be  political  or  social     Purpose  is  always  political       SEDITION     TREASON     “raising  of  commotions  or  disturbances  in  the  State”   “violation  by  a  subject  of  his  allegiance  to  his  sovereign  or  liege.         ARTICLE 142 – Inciting to sedition. writings. or which lead or tend to stir up the people against the lawful authorities or to disturb the peace of the community. write. emblems. The  leader  of  the  sedition     2. cartoons.  People  v. The penalty of prision correccional in its maximum period and a fine not exceeding 2000 pesos shall be imposed upon any person who. PERSONS  LIABLE  FOR  SEDITION:     1.  lord  or  to   the  supreme  authority  of  the  State”       “Tumultuous”    caused  by  more  than  three  persons  who  are  armed  or  provided  with  means  of  violence. the safety and order of the Government.         ARTICLE 140 – Penalty for sedition. or upon any person or persons who shall utter seditious words or speeches.000 pesos.     *PUBLIC  UPRISING  +  OBJECT  OF  SEDITION    must  concur     Common  crimes  absorbed  in  sedition?  NO.  141  punishes  only  conspiracy  to  commit  sedition. or any of the duly constituted authorities thereof.  Rebellion    the  distinguishing  factor  is  the  OBJECT  or  PURPOSE  of  the  uprising.000 pesos.  Cabrera  –  offenders  were  found  guilty  of  separate  crimes  of  sedition  in  one  case  and  multiple  murder   with  grave  injury  in  another  case. without taking any direct part in the crime of sedition.  Proposal  to  commit  sedition  is  not  punishable.     Art. Persons conspiring to commit the crime of sedition shall be punished by prision correccional in its medium period and a fine not exceeding 2. or which tend to instigate others to cabal and meet together for unlawful purposes. proclamations. or which suggest or incite rebellious conspiracies or riots. publish or circulate scurrilous libels against the Government (of the US or the Government of the Commonwealth) of the Philippines.Sedition  vs. should incite others to the accomplishment of any of the acts which constitute sedition. Other persons participating therein shall suffer the penalty of prision correccional in its maximum period and a fine not exceeding 5. banners or other representations tending to the same end. by means of speeches.

That  he  incites  others  to  the  accomplishment  of  any  of  the  acts  which  constitute  sedition.  writings.  which  tend  to   disturb  the  public  peace.  circulate  and  spread  rumors.  distribute.       ELEMENTS:     1.     “Scurrilous”    low.     -­‐  words  must  be  of  such  nature  that  uttering  them  is  a  danger  of  a  public  uprising  and  the  danger  is  both  clear  and  imminent.  banners  or  other  representations  tending  to  the   same  end.  if  government  official  or  employee.  divisive  effects  among  people. Uttering  seditious  words  or  speeches  which  tend  to  disturb  the  public  peace. That  the  inciting  is  done  by  means  of  speeches.  emblems.     3.  discredit  of  or  distrust   for  the  duly  constituted  authorities.  distribution. Inciting  others  to  the  accomplishment  of  any  of  the  acts  which  constitute  sedition  by  means  of  speeches.  which  tend  to  cause  panic.  or     (d)  They  lead  or  tend  to  stir  up  the  people  against  the  lawful  authorities  or  to  disturb  the  peace  of  the  community.  publish.     -­‐  there  must  be  a  reasonable  ground  to  believe  that  the  danger  apprehended  is  imminent  AND  that  the  evil  to  be  prevented  is  serious.  vulgar.     2. The  dangerous  tendency  rule.  then  THE  RIGHT  TO  PROTECT  ITSELF  would  come  simultaneously  with  the  overthrow  of  the  Gov’t       Unlawful  RUMOR  MONGERING  and  SPREADING  FALSE  INFORMATION     Committed  by  any  person  who  shall  offer.     -­‐  there  is  inciting  to  sedition  when  words  uttered  or  published  could  easily  produce  disaffection  among  the  people  and  a  state  of  feeling  in  them   incompatible  with  a  disposition  to  remain  loyal  to  the  Government  and  obedient  to  the  laws. Writing.  and  writing.     3.       *Knowingly  concealing  such  evil  practices  =  under  Art.  the  act  is  treated  and  punished  as  that  of  the  principal.  ‘danger’  =  must  not  only  probable  but  very  likely  inevitable       2.     2.  mean  or  foul     *Uttering  seditious  words  or  speeches.  endanger  the  public  order.  emblems.       Why  seditious  utterances  are  prohibited?       the  legislature  has  the  authority  to  forbid  the  advocacy  of  a  doctrine  designed  and  intended  to  overthrow  the  Government  WITHOUT  WAITING  until   there  is  a  present  and  immediate  danger  of  the  success  of  the  plan  advocated.  circulation  or  spreading  of  the  same.  identified  with  imminent  and  immediate  danger  .  142.  publishing  or  circulating  scurrilous  libels  are  PUNISHABLE  when:     (a)  They  tend  to  disturb  or  obstruct  any  lawful  officer  in  executing  the  functions  of  his  office.  proclamations.     *Disturbance  or  disorder  is  not  necessary  in  inciting  to  sedition       2  RULES  RELATIVE  TO  SEDITIOUS  WORDS  :   1.  or   (c)  They  suggest  or  incite  rebellious  conspiracies  or  riots.  with  accessory  penalty  of  absolute  perpetual  disqualification  from  holding  any  public   office             .  undermine  the  stability  of  the  Government  and  the  objectives  of  the  New  Society. That  the  offender  does  not  take  direct  part  in  the  crime  of  sedition.  or  cause   damage  to  the  interest  or  credit  of  the  State.  publishing  or  circulating  scurrilous  libels  against  the  Government  or  any  of  the  duly  constituted  authorities  thereof.  proclamations.  the  safety  and  order  of  the  Gov’t.         penalty:  prision  correccional  .     -­‐  there  must  be  a  probability  of  a  serious  injury  to  the  State.  false  news  and  information  and  gossip     OR     Cause  the  publication. The  clear  and  present  danger  rule.  writings.   -­‐  ‘present’  =  time  element.  cartoons.  139.ACTS  OF  INCITING  TO  SEDITION:     1.     (b)  They  tend  to  instigate  others  to  cabal  and  meet  together  for  unlawful  purposes.     -­‐  if  the  words  used  tend  to  create  a  danger  of  public  uprising.         it  is  not  inciting  when  not  proved  that  a  person  incited  people  to  rise  publicly  and  tumultuously  in  order  to  attain  the  ends  mentioned  in  Art.  etc.  IF  the  State  were  compelled  to  WAIT  until  the  apprehended  danger  became   certain.

 constitutional  commissions  or  committees  or   divisions  thereof.     2.  threats  or  frauds  to  prevent  any  member  of  the  National  Assembly  from:     (1) Attending  the  meetings  of  the  Assembly  or  of  any  of  its  committees  or  subcommittees. And the penalty of prision correccional shall be imposed upon any public officer or employee who shall. intimidation.  or  of  any  provincial  board  or  city  or  municipal  council  or  board.     ARTICLE 144: Disturbance of proceedings.  144  may  also  be  punished  for  CONTEMPT  by  the  Assembly. . That  the  offender  who  may  be  any  person  prevents  such  meeting  by  force  or  fraud. threats or fraud to prevent any member of the National Assembly (Congress of the Philippines) from attending the meetings of the Assembly (Congress) or of any of its committees or subcommittees. constitutional commissions or committees or divisions thereof. That  there  be  a  projected  or  actual  meeting  of  the  National  Assembly  or  any  of  its  committees  or  subcommittees. shall be imposed upon any person who.       may  be  commenced  upon  written  complaint  of  the  member  of  the  board. (as amended by CA 264) ELEMENTS:     1.000 pesos shall be imposed upon any person who disturbs the meetings of the National Assembly (Congress of the Philippines) or of any of its committees or subcommittees. from expressing his opinions or casting his vote. That  the  offender  does  any  of  the  following  acts:     (a) He  disturbs  any  of  such  meetings. or of any provincial board or city or municipal council or board.     2. by force or fraud.       *It  must  be  a  meeting  of:  LEGISLATIVE  BODY  or  of  PROVINCIAL  BOARD  or  CITY  OR  MUNICIPAL  COUNCIL  OR  BOARD. By  using  force. or in the presence of any such bodies should behave in such manner as to interrupt its proceedings or to impair the respect due it.       implied  power  to  punish  for  contempt  –  coercive  in  nature      . except in case such member has committed a crime punishable under this Code by a penalty higher than prision mayor.  constitutional  committees  or   divisions  thereof.       *Who  may  file  complaint?  May  be  filed  by  a  member  of  a  legislative  body     not  among  those  which  may  not  be  prosecuted  de  oficio. constitutional commissions or committees or divisions thereof.  constitutional  commissions  or  committees  or   divisions  thereof.Chapter Two: CRIMES AGAINST POPULAR REPRESENTATION ARTICLE 143: Acts tending to prevent the meeting of the Assembly and similar bodies. Acts  punishable  under  Art.  !44:     1. or of any provincial board or city or municipal council or board.     (b) He  behaves  while  in  the  presence  of  any  such  bodies  in  such  a  manner  as  to  interrupt  its  proceedings  or  to  impair  the  respect  due  it.  or  from     (2) Expressing  his  opinions. That  there  be  a  meeting  of  the  National  Assembly  or  any  of  its  committees  or  subcommittees. (as amended by CA 264) ELEMENTS:     1. prevents the meeting of the National Assembly (Congress of the Philippines) or of any of its committees or subcommittees.  intimidation.  or  any  provincial  board  or  city  or  municipal  council  or  board.      power  to  punish  crime  –  punitive  in  character   ARTICLE 145: Violation of parliamentary immunity.  or     1. constitutional commissions or committees or divisions thereof. The penalty of arresto mayor or a fine from 200 to 1. The penalty of prision correccional or a fine ranging from 200 to 2000 pesos or both.     *Offenders  under  Art. arrest or search any member thereof. while the Assembly (Congress) is in regular or special session. The penalty of prision mayor shall be imposed upon any person who shall use force.

Persons merely present at such meeting shall suffer the penalty of arresto mayor.  whether  armed  or  not.  rebellion  or  insurrection.   ELEMENTS:   1) That  there  is  a  meeting.  sedition.  is  incited  to  the   commission  of  the  crime  of  treason. in which case the penalty shall be prision correccional. unless they are armed. That  the  purpose  of  the  offender  is  to  prevent  any  member  of  the  National  Assembly  from  –     (a) Attending  the  meetings  of  the  Assembly  or  of  any  of  its  committees  or  constitutional  commissions.       DOES  NOT  protect  the  legislator  from  responsibility  before  the  legislative  body     Chapter Three: ILLEGAL ASSEMBLIES AND ASSOCIATIONS ART.       ELEMENTS  (#2):     1.  IT  IS  SUFFICIENT.  intimidation.     2) That  the  meeting  is  attended  by  armed  persons.  a  gathering  or  group  of  persons.  has  the  PURPOSE  to  prevent  a  member  from  exercising  any  of  his  prerogatives.   whether  in  a  fixed  place  or  moving. That  the  Assembly. sedition or assault upon a person in authority or his agents..  threats   or  frauds.         “to  prevent  any  member  from  attending”  =  not  necessary  that  a  member  is  actually  prevented.  is  in  regular  or  special  session. whether in a fixed place or moving.  rebellion  or  insurrection.     . (1)  Any  meeting  attended  by  armed  persons  for  the  purpose  of   committing  any  of  the  crimes  punishable  under  the  Code.  a  good  number  is  that  at  least  4  must  be  armed.     2) That  the  audience.   sedition  or  direct  assault.  According  to  Reyes. it shall be presumed that the purpose of said meeting.   or  assault  upon  a  person  in  authority  or  his  agents.(3) Casting  his  vote       ELEMENTS  (#1):    *the  offender  is  any  person   1.  whether  armed  or  not.  or     (b) Expressing  his  opinions.   (2)  Any  meeting  in  which  the  audience.  a  gathering  or  group  of  persons.     ELEMENTS:     1) That  there  is  a  meeting.       PARLIAMENTARY  IMMUNITY    guarantees  the  legislator  complete  freedom  of  expression  without  fear  of  being  made  responsible  in  criminal  or  civil  actions   before  the  courts  or  any  other  forum  outside  the  Congressional  Hall.  at  the  time  of  arrest  or  search. That  the  offender  is  a  public  officer  or  employee     2. If any person present at the meeting carries an unlicensed firearm. and he shall be considered a leader or organizer of the meeting within the purview of the preceding paragraph. rebellion or insurrection.   3) That  the  purpose  of  the  meeting  is  to  commit  any  of  the  crimes   punishable  under  the  Code.  or     (c) Casting  his  vote       2. That  the  member  arrested  or  searched  has  not  committed  a  crime  punishable  under  the  Code  by  a  penalty  higher  than  prision  mayor. 146: Illegal Assemblies The penalty of prision correccional in its maximum period to prision mayor in its medium period shall be imposed upon the organizers or leaders of any meeting attended by armed persons for the purpose of committing any of the crimes punishable under this Code or of any meeting in which the audience is incited to the commission of the crime of treason. As used in this article the word “meeting” shall be understood to include a gathering or group. is to commit acts punishable under this Code. That  he  arrests  or  searches  any  member  of  the  National  Assembly     3.  except  in  case  such  member  has   committed  a  crime  punishable  under  the  Code  by  a  penalty  higher  than  prision  mayor.  etc. That  the  offender  uses  force.  threats  or  fraud     2. By  arresting  or  searching  any  member  thereof  while  the  National  Assembly  is  in  regular  or  special  session.  is  incited  to   the  commission  of  the  crime  of  treason.  intimidation. insofar as he is concerned.   whether  in  a  fixed  place  or  moving.       *law  does  not  state  how  many  persons  must  be  armed.   4.  that  in  using  force.

organizers/leaders  of  the  meeting     2. Direct  assaults  –  Crimes  against  public  order. persons  present         Chapter Four: ASSAULT UPON. the penalty of prision correccional in its minimum period and a fine not exceeding P500 pesos shall be imposed.  licensed  firearms:  prision  correccional                …  if  carrying  an  unlicensed  firearm:  presumed  that  the  purpose  of  the  meeting  is  to  commit  acts  punishable  under  the  Code         considered  a  leader  or  organizer  of  the  meeting       st ART. or on occasion of such performance.       Persons  liable:     1. PERSONS IN AUTHORITY AND THEIR AGENTS ART.  directors.  directors  and  president   1. while engaged in the performance of official duties. ILLEGAL  ASSOCIATIONS:     (1) Associations  totally  or  partially  organized  for  the  purpose  of  committing  any  of  the  crimes  punishable  under  the  Code. 147 – Illegal Associations.       Persons  liable:     (1) Founders. 148 – Direct Assaults Any person or persons who. Persons  merely  present    they  must  have  a  common  intent  to  commit  the  felony.  president   (2) Mere  members     ILLEGAL  ASSOCIATION   ILLEGAL  ASSEMBLY   Not  necessary  that  there  be  an  actual  meeting   Necessary  that  there  is  an  actual  meeting  or  assembly  of  armed   persons   The  act  of  forming  or  organizing  and  membership  in  the   It  is  the  meeting  and  attendance  at  such  meeting  that  are   organization  are  punished. If none of these circumstances be present. or when the offender lays hands upon a person in authority. and presidents of associations totally or partially organized for the purpose of committing any of the crimes punishable under this code or for some urpose contrary to public morals. or shall attack.  Absence  of  intent  =  person  exempted  from  liability. The  organizers  or  leaders  of  the  meeting   2. employ force. or seriously intimidate or resist any person in authority or any of his agents.                  -­‐  not  armed:  arresto  mayor                -­‐  carried  arms. directors.  the  audience  is  incited  to  the  commission  of  rebellion  or  sedition. The penalty of prision correccional in its minimum and medium periods and a fine not exceeding 1.     (2)  Inciting  to  rebellion  or  sedition  –  the  one  inciting  is  concerned. Mere members of the said associations shall suffer the penalty of arresto mayor. without a public uprising.*an  unarmed  person  in  the  1  form  is  criminally  liable     *if  in  a  meeting. AND RESISTANCE AND DISOBEDIENCE TO . shall employ force or intimidation for the attainment of any of the purpose enumerated in defining the crimes of rebellion and sedition.  and  (b)  persons  merely  present.     (2) Associations  totally  or  partially  organized  for  some  purpose  contrary  to  public  morals.000 pesos shall be imposed upon the founders. members   2.000 pesos.  triable  by  RTC   Ordinary  assaults  –  Crimes  against  persons     .  crimes  committed  are:     (1)  Illegal  assembly:  (a)  organizers  or  leaders.   Persons  liable:     Persons  liable:     1.     punished. founders. shall suffer the penalty of prision correccional in its medium and maximum periods and a fine not exceeding P1. when the assault is committed with a weapon or when the offender is a public officer or employee.

President  of  Sanitary  Division   3.  by  attacking. That  there  is  no  public  uprising.     4.     3.  by  employing  force  or  intimidation  for  the   attainment  of  any  of  the  purposes  enumerated  in  defining  the  crimes  of   rebellion  and  sedition       ELEMENTS:     1. Postmaster  (Director  of  Posts)     4.  by  employing  force. Municipal  Treasurer  (Provincial  Treasurer)   3.       st ELEMENTS:     1.  or  by   seriously     *1  ELEMENT   “shall  attack”    any  offensive  or  antagonistic  movement  o  action       “employ  force”    only  an  agent  of  a  person  in  authority  –  force  employed  must  be  of  serious  character  to  indicate  determination  to  defy  the  law  &  its   representative  at  all  hazards     if  a  person  in  authority  –  force  employed  need  not  be  serious     intimidation  or  resistance  –  must  be  serious  whether  the  offended  party  is  an  agent  only  or  a  person  in  authority     “resistance”    must  be  active  resistance     “intimidation”    must  be  serious.  dignity  and  respect  while  in  the   performance  of  their  official  duties. Barangay  Captain     “agents  of  persons  in  authority”     1. That  the  offender:   (a) makes  an  attack   (b) employs  force   (c) makes  a  serious  intimidation   (d) makes  a  serious  resistance     2. That  at  the  time  of  the  assault. Teachers  –  only  when  inside  a  classroom  or  when  doing  an  official  duty  |  reason:  to  give  teachers  protection.     5. Division  Superintendent  of  Schools     2. That  the  aim  of  the  offender  is  to  attain  any  of  the  purposes  of   the  crime  of  rebellion  or  any  of  the  objects  in  the  crime  of   sedition. Sheriff   6.2  WAYS  OF  COMMITTING  DIRECT  ASSAULTS:       (1)  Without  public  uprising. Policeman  (Chief  of  Police?)   2.     4. Barangay  Chief  Tanod  (Barangay  Captain)     *even  if  a  person  in  authority/agent  agrees  to  fight. Rural  Policeman  (appointed  by  Mayor  of  Town  and  provided  with  badge)   5.       ND *2  ELEMENT   “person  in  authority”    any  person  directly  vested  with  jurisdiction.     . That  the  offender  employs  force  or  intimidation   2.         may  be  by  direct  provision  of  law  or  by  election  or  by  appointment  by  competent  authority   1. That  there  is  no  public  uprising   (2)  Without  public  uprising.  the  person  in  authority  or  his   agent:   (a) is  engaged  in  the  actual  performance  of  official  duties. That  the  offender  knows  that  the  one  he  is  assaulting  is  a   person  in  authority  or  his  agent  in  the  exercise  of  his  duties.  or   (b) that  he  is  assaulted  by  reason  of  the  past  performance  of   official  duties. Malacanang  confidential  agent     8.  it  must  produce  effects  immediately  and  not  a  threat  of  some  future  evil.  has  the  power  or  authority  to  govern  and  execute  the  laws. That  the  person  assaulted  is  a  person  in  authority  or  his  agent     3. Agents  of  BIR   7.  it  can  still  constitute  direct  assault     *self-­‐defense  may  be  appreciated  in  a  case  of  direct  assault.

    *Mens  rea:  Defendant  must  have  the  intention  to  defy  authorities     “on  occasion  of  such  performance”    the  impelling  motive  of  the  attack  is  the  performance  of  official  duty.  When  both  parties  are  persons  in  authority  descending  to  matters  which  are  private  in  nature       *Offender  may  also  be  a  person  in  authority  against  another  person  in  authority     *Knowledge  of  the  accused  that  the  victim  is  a  person  in  authority  or  agent  is  essential     *Information  must  allege  knowledge.Disobedience to summons issued by the National Assembly. its special or standing committees and subcommittees. Qualified  assault     Qualified  when…     a.  the  offended  party  in  indirect  assaults  may  be  private  person     ART. the  offender  is  a  public  officer  or  employee   c. when required by them to do so in the exercise of their functions. having been duly summoned to attend as a witness before the National Assembly. The penalty of prision correccional in its minimum and medium periods and a fine not exceeding P500 pesos shall be imposed upon any person who shall make use of force or intimidation upon any person coming to the aid of the authorities or their agents on occasion of the commission of any of the crimes defined in the next preceding article.  stones.  no  official  duty  was  being  discharged.  or  other  objects  with  which  some  physical  injury  may  be   inflicted   b.  Exceeding  power  or  acts  without  authority   2. or records in his possession.*when  a  person  in  authority/agent  s  NOT  in  the  performance  of  official  duties:   1. its committees or subcommittees. The same penalty shall be imposed upon any person who shall restrain another from attending as a witness. The penalty of arresto mayor or a fine ranging from two hundred to one thousand pesos. committed  with  a  weapon  =  firearms. subcommittees or divisions.  clubs. subcommittees. or both such fine and imprisonment shall be imposed upon any person who.  Makes  unnecessary  use  of  force  or  violence  to  make  him  respected  beyond  his  powers   3.  then  the  crime  may  be  sedition.  148   2. (Congress). to obey such summons. or divisions. refuses. Simple  assault     2.       “without  public  uprising”    because  if  there  is  public  uprising. refuses to be sworn or placed under affirmation or to answer any legal inquiry or to produce any books.       2  KINDS  OF  DIRECT  ASSAULT:     1. That  a  person  comes  to  the  aid  of  such  authority  or  his  agent. 149 – Indirect Assaults.  sharp  or  cutting  instruments. That  a  person  in  authority  or  his  agent  is  the  victim  of  any  of  the  forms  of  direct  assault  defined  in  Art.     3. its committees. papers. or who shall induce disobedience to a .     ART. by the Constitutional Commissions. or being present before any such legislative or constitutional body or official.       *committed  only  when  direct  assault  is  committed   *a  person  in  authority  or  his  agent  must  be  the  one  being  attacked   *BUT. or before any commission or committee chairman or member authorized to summon witnesses. without legal excuse. ELEMENTS:     1. 150 . the Constitutional Commissions and its committees. That  the  offender  makes  use  of  force  or  intimidation  upon  such  person  coming  to  the  aid  of  the  authority  or  his  agent.  because  or  by  reason  of  the  past  performance   of  official  duty  even  if  at  the  very  time  of  the  assault. offender  lays  hands  upon  a  person  in  authority     *Slight  physical  injuries  absorbed  in  direct  assault. documents.

    2.     4. the penalty of arresto menor or a fine ranging from 10 to P100 pesos shall be imposed upon the offender. That  an  agent  of  the  person  in  authority  is  engaged  in  the  performance  of  his  duties  or  gives  a  lawful  order  to  the  offender. That  a  person  in  authority  or  his  agent  is  engaged  in  the  performance  of  his  official  duties  or  gives  a  lawful  order  to  the  offender   2. Who shall be deemed as such.  its  special  or  standing  committees  or  subcommittees. By  refusing. board.  the   Constitutional  commissions  and  its  committees. 151 . Acts  punished:     1. or the agents of such person.       “without  legal  excuse”  =  only  disobedience  without  legal  excuse  is  punishable     “when  required  by  them  to  do  so  in  the  exercise  of  their  functions”  =  matters  must  be  upon  matters  into  which  the  National  Assembly  has  jurisdiction  to   inquire.Resistance and disobedience to a person in authority or the agents of such person. The penalty of arresto mayor and a fine not exceeding 500 pesos shall be imposed upon any person who not being included in the provisions of the preceding articles shall resist or seriously disobey any person in authority.     3. any person directly vested with jurisdiction.     DIRECT  ASSAULT   SERIOUS  DISOBEDIENCE     Person  in  authority/agent  must  be  engaged  in  the  actual   Only  when  the  person  in  authority  is  in  actual  performance  of  his  duties     performance  of  duties  OR  by  reason  of  a  past  performance  of  a     duty   nd Committed  by:  (2  form)  (1)  Making  an  attack  (2)  Employing   Commited  by:  (1)  Resisting  (2)  Seriously  disobeying     force  (3)  Serious  intimidation  and  (4)  Serious  resistance     There  is  force  employed  –  serious  and  deliberate     There  is  force  employed  –  not  so  serious.     ART.  subcommittees  or  divisions.     3.  papers. By  refusing  to  answer  any  legal  inquiry  or  to  produce  any  books.  or  by  any  commission  or  committee  chairman  or  member   authorized  to  summon  witnesses. .     2. In applying the provisions of the preceding and other articles of this Code.  when  required  by  them  to  do   so  in  the  exercise  of  their  functions.  without  legal  excuse. That  the  offender  resists  or  seriously  disobeys  such  person  in  authority  or  his  agent.summon or refusal to be sworn by any such body or official. while engaged in the performance of official duties. By  restraining  another  from  attending  as  a  witness  in  such  legislative  or  constitutional  body     5. By  refusing  to  be  sworn  or  placed  under  affirmation  while  being  before  such  legislative  or  constitutional  body  or  official.     3. 152 .  documents.  148  –  150       “Disobedience”  =  failure  or  refusal  to  obey  a  direct  order  from  the  authority  or  his  agent. or commission. whether as an individual or as a member of some court or governmental corporation.  to  obey  summons  of  the  National  Assembly.Persons in authority and agents of persons in authority.  no  manifest  intention  to  defy   the  law     ART. shall be deemed a person in authority. When the disobedience to an agent of a person in authority is not of a serious nature. That  the  offender  disobeys  such  agent  of  a  person  in  authority. That  the  disobedience  is  not  of  a  serious  nature. A barrio captain and a barangay chairman shall also be deemed a person in authority. ELEMENTS:  RESISTANCE  AND  SERIOUS  DISOBEDIENCE   1. By  inducing  disobedience  to  a  summons  or  refusal  to  be  sworn  by  any  such  body  or  official.  lawful  order  must  be  addressed  to  the  offender       ELEMENTS:  SIMPLE  DISOBEDIENCE   1.  or  records  in  his  possession. That  the  acts  of  the  offender  is  not  included  in  the  acts  punished  by  the  provisions  in  Art.

A person who. or shall interrupt or disturb public performances. teachers. 153 . 873. shall be deemed persons in authority. Municipal  Mayor   2. In applying the provisions of Articles 148 and 151 of this Code. 1985). functions or gatherings. professors and persons charged with the supervision of public or duly recognized private schools. The penalty of arresto mayor shall be imposed upon any person who in any meeting. shall be deemed an agent of a person in authority. or public place. The penalty of arresto menor and a fine not to exceed P200 pesos shall be imposed upon these persons who in violation of the provisions contained in the last clause of Article 85. PERSON  IN  AUTHORITY  =  a  person  who  is  directly  vested  with  jurisdiction     1. Municipal  Councilor   9.000 pesos shall be imposed upon any person who shall cause any serious disturbance in a public place. Sept.Tumults and other disturbance of public orders. shall make any outcry tending to incite rebellion or sedition or in such place shall display placards or emblems which provoke a disturbance of the public order. or peaceful meetings.     ART. . June 12.  or     (c) By  appointment  by  competent  authority     Person  who  is  charged  with…   (1) the  maintenance  of  public  order   (2) the  protection  and  security  of  life  and  property     *as  amended:  Any  person  WHO  comes  to  the  aid  of  persons  in  authority  is  an  agent  of  a  person  in  authority. Justice  of  the  Peace   8. 19. Public  and  private  school  teachers  =  when  they  are  in  the  performance  of  professional  duties     4. Barrio  Captain  and  Barangay  Chairman     10. The penalty next higher in degree shall be imposed upon persons causing any disturbance or interruption of a tumultuous character. office. such as a barrio councilman. The disturbance or interruption shall be deemed to be tumultuous if caused by more than three persons who are armed or provided with means of violence. barrio policeman and barangay leader and any person who comes to the aid of persons in authority. Provincial  fiscal     7. 299. if the act is not included in the provisions of Articles 131 and 132. Provincial  Treasurer  (agent:  municipal  treasurer)       GENERAL  RULE:     (a) By  direct  provision  of  law   (b) By  election. and lawyers in the actual performance of their professional duties or on the occasion of such performance. (As amended by PD No. President  of  the  Sanitary  Division     6. colleges and universities. is charged with the maintenance of public order and the protection and security of life and property. Teacher-­‐nurse   5. Division  Superintendent  of  Schools     3. shall bury with pomp the body of a person who has been legally executed. Tumultuous disturbance or interruption liable to cause disturbance The penalty of arresto mayor in its medium period to prision correccional in its minimum period and a fine not exceeding 1. association. 1973 and Batas Pambansa Blg. or establishment. by direct provision of law or by election or by appointment by competent authority.

or by words. 2. firecracker.“serious  disturbance”  =  must  be  planned  or  intended     “outcry”  =  to  shout  subversive  or  provocative  words  tending  to  stir  up  the  people  to  obtain  by  means  of  force  or  violence  any  of  the  objects  of  rebellion  or   sedition   “tumultuous”  =  caused  by  more  than  three  persons  who  are  armed  OR  provided  with  means  of  violence     OUTCRY     INCITING  TO  SEDITION/REBELLION   More  or  less  an  unconscious  outburst   Necessary  that  the  act  is  done  with  the   which  is. provided that the circumstances of the case shall not make the provisions of Article 153 applicable. utterances or speeches shall encourage disobedience to the law or to the constituted authorities or praise. justify.  etc. Any person who shall maliciously publish or cause to be published any official resolution or document without proper authority. while intoxicated or otherwise. rocket.       Reason:  to  prevent  more  serious  disorders   . or distributed books.  tins. shall discharge any firearm.  not  intentionally  calculated  to   idea  of  “inciting”  the  readers  or  hearers   induce  others  to  commit  sedition  or   to  commit  the  crime  of  sedition  or   rebellion.  horns. Any person who by the same means.  [in  relation  to  Art. 2.Alarms and scandals. periodicals. Any person who by means of printing.  designed  to  annoy  or  insult       *it  is  the  RESULT  not  the  intent  that  counts. or 4. or 4. shall cause any disturbance or scandal in public places. The penalty of arresto mayor and a fine ranging from P200 to P1. 154 .     rebellion     *should  be  applied  if  disturbing  or  interrupting  a  meeting  or  religious  ceremony  is  not  committed  by  public  officers. *Actual  public  disorder  or  actual  damage  is  not  necessary  =  mere  possibility  of  causing  such  danger  or  damage  is  sufficient. “Shall  discharge  a  firearm”  =  should  not  be  aimed  at  a  person     “Charivari”  =  medley  of  discordant  voices. The penalty of arresto menor or a fine not exceeding P200 pesos shall be imposed upon: 1.  3. Any person who shall print. published. Any person who within any town or public place.000 pesos shall be imposed upon: 1. Any person who. or distribute or cause to be printed. or other explosives calculated to cause alarm or danger.     *The  offender  must  know  that  the  news  is  false     ART.  a  mock  serenade  of  discordant  noises  made  on  kettles. 155 .  The  act  must  produce  alarm  or  danger  as  a  consequence     *discharge  of  firecrackers  or  rockets  during  fiestas  or  festive  occasions  are  not  covered. shall disturb the public peace.  3. Any person who. or leaflets which do not bear the real printer's name. or any other means of publication shall publish or cause to be published as news any false news which may endanger the public order.  131]     ART. or extol any act punished by law. publish. Any person who shall instigate or take an active part in any charivari or other disorderly meeting offensive to another or prejudicial to public tranquility.Unlawful use of means of publication and unlawful utterances. pamphlets. or which are classified as anonymous. or before they have been published officially. while wandering about at night or while engaged in any other nocturnal amusements. or cause damage to the interest or credit of the State.  or  if  committed  by  public  officers  they   are  participants  therein. lithography.

conflagrations. or bribery. the penalty shall be prision correccional in its maximum period.  false  keys. shall give themselves up to the authorities within .  violence  or  intimidation   4. Evasion of service of sentence.  deceit.     2. the same penalties shall be imposed in their minimum period. or by using picklocks. deceit.  disguise. or similar catastrophe. That  he  evades  service  of  his  sentence  by  escaping  from  the  penal  establishment  during  the  term  of  his  sentence       “escape”  =  to  flee  from.  to  get  out  of  the  way  as  to  flee  to  avoid  arrest       *Final  judgment  is  necessary     *not  applicable  when  detained  pending  the  investigation  or  when  the  case  is  on  appeal  or  when  sentence  is  by  deportation     Qualifying  circumstances:     If  the  evasion  of  escape  takes  place  –     1. ELEMENTS:     1. Delivery of prisoners from jails. violence or intimidation.  roofs  or  floors   3. explosion.       *Person  confined  can  be  a  (a)  mere  detention  prisioner  OR  (b)  convict  by  final  judgment   *Includes  hospital  or  asylum  as  extension  of  jail     *May  apply  to  ANY  PERSON  :  Outsider  or  Employee  of  the  penal  establishment       Qualifications  (the  penalty  is  higher)     -­‐  When  committed  by  means  of  violence. If the escape of the prisoner shall take place outside of said establishments by taking the guards by surprise. which in no case shall exceed six months. under the circumstances mentioned in the preceding paragraph. 158. by  means  of  a  lawful  entry     2.  windows. if he shall fail to give himself up to the authorities within forty-eight hours following the issuance of a proclamation by the Chief Executive announcing the passing away of such calamity. on the occasion of disorder resulting from a conflagration. the penalty of arresto mayor shall be imposed. However. The penalty of prision correccional in its medium and maximum periods shall be imposed upon any convict who shall evade service of his sentence by escaping during the term of his imprisonment by reason of final judgment. intimidation. by  using  picklocks. The penalty of arresto mayor in its maximum period of prision correccional in its minimum period shall be imposed upon any person who shall remove from any jail or penal establishment any person confined therein or shall help the escape of such person. Evasion of service of sentence on the occasion of disorder. or during a mutiny in which he has not participated. by means of violence. or other calamities. That  he  is  serving  his  sentence  consisting  of  a  deprivation  of  liberty     3. ELEMENTS:     1. if such evasion or escape shall have taken place by means of unlawful entry.  intimidation  or  bribery   Art. Convicts who. roofs. by leaving the penal institution where he shall have been confined. earthquake. 156.  to  avoid.  walls. That  the  offender  is  a  convict  by  final  judgment.Art. windows.  gates.     2. shall suffer an increase of one-fifth of the time still remaining to be served under the original sentence. false keys. A convict who shall evade the service of his sentence. or floors. walls. That  a  person  is  confined  in  a  jail  or  a  penal  institution. 157. connivance  with  other  convicts  or  employees  of  the  penal  institution       Art. gates. That  the  offenders  remove  therefrom  such  person  or  helps  in  his  escape  of  such  person. by  breaking  doors. earthquakes. If other means are used. by breaking doors. or through connivance with other convicts or employees of the penal institution.

That  he  committed  another  new  felony  before  beginning  the  service  of  his  sentence  or  while  serving  the  same.  shall  commit  a  new  felony  while  serving   the  same. shall be punished by the maximum period of the penalty prescribed by law for the new felony. 159. That  he  violated  any  of  the  conditions  of  such  pardon       “Conditional  pardon”  =  contract  between  the  Chief  Executive.  who  accepts  it.  a  revolt   *What  is  punished  is  the  offender  not  being  able  to  give  himself  up  to  the  authorities  within  48  hours. shall violate any of the conditions of such pardon. Other cases of evasion of service of sentence. unless by reason of his conduct or other circumstances he shall not be worthy of such clemency. who is not a habitual criminal. before beginning to serve such sentence.     3.       “Mutiny”  =  implies  an  organized  lawful  resistance  to  a  superior  officer. That  the  offender  was  already  convicted  by  final  judgment  of  one  offense   2. “Quasi-­‐recidivism”  =  a  special  aggravating  circumstance  where  a  person. That  the  offender  was  a  convict     2. any person who shall commit a felony after having been convicted by final judgment.     2.  not  as  he  chooses.  a  sedition.  need  not  be  of  different  character  from  the  first  crime     .  (Penalty:  maximum  period  of  the  penalty  for  new  felony)     ELEMENTS:     1. having been granted conditional pardon by the Chief Executive. That  there  is  a  disorder  resulting  from:  (a)  conflagration  (b)  earthquake  (c)  explosion  (d)  similar  catastrophe  or  (e)  mutiny  in  which  he  has  not   participated. Besides the provisions of Rule 5 of Article 62. or while serving the same.  having  been  convicted  by  final  judgment. That  the  offender  fails  to  give  himself  up  to  the  authorities  within  48  hours  from  the  issuance  of  the  proclamation  by  the  Chief  Executive  of  the   passing  away  of  such  calamity.the above mentioned period of 48 hours. shall be entitled to the deduction provided in Article 98.  but  according  to  its  strict  terms. ELEMENTS:     1. the convict shall then suffer the unexpired portion of his original sentence.  serving  his  sentence  in  a  penal  institution. shall be pardoned at the age of seventy years if he shall have already served out his original sentence.  and  the  convict.       Penalty:     Prission  correccional  (min)  –  penalty  remitted  <6  years   Unexpired  term  –  penalty  remitted  is  >6  years     *Condition  extends  to  special  laws   *Offender  must  be  found  guilty  of  the  subsequent  offense     Art. That  he  is  granted  a  conditional  pardon  by  the  Chief  Executive     3. or when he shall complete it after reaching the said age. ELEMENTS:     1. if the penalty remitted by the granting of such pardon be higher than six years.  who  grants  pardon. That  the  offender  is  a  convict  by  final  judgment. [VIOLATION OF CONDITIONAL PARDON] The penalty of prision correccional in its minimum period shall be imposed upon the convict who. Any convict of the class referred to in this article.       First  crime:  Any  crime  –  special  law  or  felony     Second  crime:  exclusively  must  be  a  felony. Commission of another crime during service of penalty imposed for another offense. However.     Art. That  the  offender  evades  sentence  by  leaving  the  penal  institution  where  he  is  confined  on  the  occasion  of  such  disorder  or  mutiny   4. 160. Penalty.  In  the  contract  the  pardoned  convict  is   bound  to  fulfill  its  conditions  and  accept  all  its  consequences.

    2. 162. The penalty of prision mayor shall be imposed upon any person who shall knowingly make use of the counterfeit seal or forged signature or stamp mentioned in the preceding article.     “Import”  =  to  bring  to  port.000 pesos.  imports  or  utters  such  false  or  counterfeited  coins   3. Prision correccional in its minimum and medium periods and a fine of not to exceed P2. That  in  the  case  of  uttering  such  false  or  counterfeited  coins. (As amended by R. Prision mayor in its minimum and medium periods and a fine not to exceed P10. 161.     2. ELEMENTS:     1. approved June 19. The penalty of reclusion temporal shall be imposed upon any person who shall forge the Great Seal of the Government of the Philippine Islands or the signature or stamp of the Chief Executive. 163. That  the  offender:  makes. Making and importing and uttering false coins.A.       “Coin”  =  is  a  piece  of  metal  stamped  with  certain  marks  and  made  current  at  a  certain  value.Title Four: Crimes Against Public Interest Chapter 1: Forgeries Section 1: Forging the Seal of the Government of the Philippine Islands.  delivery  or  act  of  giving  away   . Any person who makes.000 pesos. or utters. in connivance with counterfeiters. ELEMENTS:     1. Prision correccional in its minimum period and a fine not to exceed P1. 2. if the counterfeited coin be currency of a foreign country. 3. Counterfeiting the great seal of the Government of the Philippine Islands.000 pesos. That  the  offender  knows  of  the  counterfeiting  or  forgery   3. the Signature and Stamp of the Chief Executive Art. forging the signature or stamp of the Chief Executive. That  the  Great  Seal  of  the  Philippines  is  counterfeited  or  the  signature  or  stamp  of  the  President  is  forged. That  there  are  false  or  counterfeited  coins. Acts:     1. shall suffer: 1. imports. Using forged signature or counterfeit seal or stamp. That  he  uses  the  counterfeit  seal  or  the  forged  signature  or  stamp     *the  offender  is  not  the  forger     Section 2: Counterfeiting Coins Art. if the counterfeited coin be silver coin of the Philippines or coin of the Central Bank of the Philippines of ten centavo denomination or above. 4202. 3.     FALSE  OR  COUNTERFEITED  COIN:     -­‐ if  it  is  forged   -­‐ if  it  is  not  authorized  by  Government  as  legal  tender. or importers. false coins. if the counterfeited coins be any of the minor coinage of the Philippines or of the Central Bank of the Philippines below ten-centavo denomination. No.  complete  before  entry  at  the  customs     “Utter”  =  to  pass  counterfeited  coins.  the  offender  connived  with  the  counterfeiter  or  the  importer. Forging  the  Great  Seal  of  the  Philippines   Forging  the  signature  of  the  Chief  Executive     Forging  the  Stamp  of  the  Chief  Executive     Art. 2. 1965).  regardless  of  intrinsic  value   -­‐ if  it  is  spurious  –  there  must  be  an  imitation  of  the  design  of  the  genuine  coin     “Counterfeiting”  =  imitation  of  a  legal  or  genuine  coin.

 to  diminish  by  ingenuous  means   the  metal  in  the  coin.  meaning  subject  to  one’s  control.     2. The .  with  the  further  requirement  of  connivance  with  the  mutilator  or  importer  in  case  of  uttering. 165.  physical  possession  or  constructive  possession. Forging treasury or bank notes on other documents payable to bearer. Coin  of  the  minor  coinage   3. 164.Kinds  of  coins:     1. shall possess false or mutilated coin with intent to utter the same. or in connivance with mutilators or importers. counterfeited. Knowledge       ELEMENTS:  ACTUALLY  UTTERING     1. 166. The person who knowingly.000 pesos. Acts  punished:     1. Mutilation of coins. is an obligations or security of the United States or of the Philippines Islands. Knowledge       *Does  NOT  REQUIRE  that  the  coin  is  legal  tender     *Constructive  Possession  included  =  not  only  actual. and uttering such false or forged notes and documents.       “Mutilation”  =  means  to  take  off  part  of  the  metal  either  by  filing  it  or  substituting  it  for  another  metal  of  inferior  quality. The forging or falsification of treasury or bank notes or certificates or other obligations and securities payable to bearer and the importation and uttering in connivance with forgers or importers of such false or forged obligations or notes. Coin  of  a  foreign  country       *FORMER  coins  withdrawn  from  circulation  may  be  counterfeited  BECAUSE  there  is  possibility  that  the  counterfeiter  my  apply  the  trade  of  making  coins  in   actual  circulation    to  protect  the  public  in  general     *includes  all  “moneda”  =  those  of  legal  tender  as  well  as  those  out  of  circulation     Art.     *Article  punishes  mere  holding  of  the  false  or  mutilated  coin  with  intent  to  utter. or altered.     =  to  take  advantage  of  the  metal. ELEMENTS:  POSSESSION  OF  MUTILATED  OR  COUNTERFEITED  COIN  BY  ANOTHER  PERSON     1. or shall actually utter such coin. Mutilation  of  coins  of  legal  currency  with  the  further  requirement  of  intent  to  damage  or  defraud  another.000 pesos shall be imposed upon any person who shall mutilate coins of the legal currency of the United States or of the Philippine Islands or import or utter mutilated current coins. Posession     2. although without the connivance mentioned in the preceding articles.     Section 3: Forgery Art.  thus  diminishes  its  intrinsic  value       !!!  coin  MUST  BE  LEGAL  TENDER  IN  MUTILATION     *coins  of  foreign  country  not  included     Art. Selling of false or mutilated coin. Actually  uttering     2. shall be punished as follows: 1. By reclusion temporal in its minimum period and a fine not to exceed P10. Importation and utterance of mutilated coins. if the document which has been falsified. The penalty of prision correccional in its minimum period and a fine not to exceed P2. With  intent  to  utter   3. shall suffer a penalty lower by one degree than that prescribed in said articles. without connivance. importing. Silver  coin  of  the  Phils  or  coin  of  the  Central  Bank     2. Importation  or  Utterance  of  mutilated  coins.

and other representatives of value.  with  a  representation  that   they  are  genuine  and  with  intent  to  defraud. or drafts for money.     2.  words  or   order. drawn by or upon authorized officers of the United States or of the Philippine Islands.  169   FORGING     FALSIFICATION     By  giving  treasury  or  bank  note  or  any   By  erasing. Forging  or  falsification  of  treasury  or  bank  notes  or  other  documents  payable  to  bearer     2.  documents  than  counterfeit  coins  AND  profit  is  greater       Art. That  there  be  an  instrument  payable  to  order  or  other  document  of  credit  not  payable  to  bearer.  imported  or  uttered  such  document     3. national bank notes.  counterfeiting   instruments  payable  to  bearer  or  to   or  altering  any  figures. if the falsified or altered document is a circulating note issued by any banking association duly authorized by law to issue the same.  knowing  them  to  be  false  or  forged.2. certificates of deposit. Uttering  of  such  false  or  forged  obligation  or  notes  IN  CONNIVANCE  with  the  forgers  or  importers. any instrument payable to order or other document of credit not payable to bearer. By prision mayor in its minimum period and a fine not to exceed P2. when the forged or altered document is a circulating note or bill issued by a foreign bank duly authorized therefor. bills.       “payable  to  bearer”  =  when  can  be  negotiated  by  mere  delivery   “national  bank  notes”  =  money  bills  issued  by  Central  Bank       WHY  IS  THIS  PUNISHED  SEVERELY:     -­‐ tends  to  bring  documents  to  discredit.000 pesos.  whether  accepted  or  not. By prision mayor in its maximum period and a fine not to exceed P5.  produces  lack  of  confidence  on  the  part  of  the  holders  to  the  prejudice  of  the  interests  of  society  and   State.     -­‐ Easier  to  forge  certificates. which have been or may be issued under any act of the Congress of the United States or of the Philippine Legislature.000 pesos. certificates of indebtedness. That  in  case  of  uttering.     .000 pesos. importing and uttering instruments not payable to bearer.  he  connived  with  the  forger  or  importer. in connivance with the forgers or importers.  substituting.  letters.  negotiated  by  indorsement  and  delivery     REASON:  maintain  integrity  of  the  currency  and  thus  insure  the  credit  standing  of  the  government  and  prevent  the  imposition  on  the  public  and  the   government  of  worthless  notes. shall suffer the penalties of prision correccional in its medium and maximum periods and a fine not exceeding P6. That  the  offender  either:  forged. Importation  of  such  false  or  forged  obligation  or  notes     3. Counterfeiting. 4. ELEMENTS:     1.       ART. word "obligation or security of the United States or of the Philippine Islands" shall be held to mean all bonds.  notes. if the falsified or counterfeited document was issued by a foreign government. By prision mayor in its medium period and a fine not to exceed P5. 3. 167. Acts  punishable:     1.000 pesos. fractional notes. checks. import or utter. Any person who shall forge.  the  appearance  of  a  true  and   signs  contained  therein     genuine  document   To  make  false  instrument  intended  to  be     passed  for  a  genuine  one     “importation”  =  to  bring  to  the  Philippines     “uttering  false  or  forged  obligations  or  notes”  =  offering  them.       “payable  to  order”  =  it  is  drawn  payable  to  the  order  of  a  specified  person  or  to  him  or  his  order. of whatever denomination.

That  he  performs  any  of  the  following  acts  –   (a) Possess  with  intent  to  use  any  of  such  forged  or  falsified  instrument     (b) Using  any  of  the  false  or  falsified  document       To  prove  a  bank  note  is  forged  -­‐-­‐-­‐  through  evidence. 2.  cash  files.Art.  airway  bills)   .  resolution  or    ordinance  must  be  genuine  =  does  not  include  fabricated  or  simulated  document     *ANY  PERSON  can  be  the  offender  as  long  as  he  has  no  proper  authority   *Act  is  LIMITED  TO  ALTERING  which  changes  its  meaning     Art.  official  receipt.  deposit  slips.000 pesos shall be imposed upon: 1. words or signs contained therein.  bank  checks.g. to the damage of a third party. That  a  treasury  or  bank  note  or  certificate  or  other  obligations  and  securities  payable  to  bearer  or  any  instrument  payable  to  order  or  other   document  of  credit  not  payable  to  bearer  is  forged  or  falsified  by  another  person.  used  by  merchants  or  businessmen  to  promote  or  facilitate  trade.  books. shall in any private document commit any of the acts of falsification enumerated in the next preceding article. The forgery referred to in this section may be committed by any of the following means: 1.  receipts  of  assessments  and  collections. or ordinance enacted or approved or pending approval by either House of the Legislature or any provincial board or municipal council.  bank  note  questioned  does  not  check  with  the  genuine  one  issued  with  the  same  number     Art.  journals.  official  cashbook)     (3) Private  document  =  executed  by  a  private  person  without  the  intervention  of  a  notary  public  or  other  persons  legally  authorized     (4) Commercial  document  =  defined  and  regulated  by  the  Code  of  Commerce. with the intent to cause such damage. or with the intent to cause such damage. resolution. Falsification by private individual and use of falsified documents The penalty of prision correccional in its medium and maximum periods and a fine of not more than P5. Any private individual who shall commit any of the falsifications enumerated in the next preceding article in any public or official document or letter of exchange or any other kind of commercial document. By erasing. and 2. *includes  all  acts  of  falsification  in  Art. any person who shall knowingly use or have in his possession. 169.  quedans. 170. 168. *Bill. 172. By giving to a treasury or bank note or any instrument. How forgery is committed. shall be punished by the penalty next lower in degree.  ledgers. Illegal possession and use of false treasury or bank notes and other instruments of credit. That  the  offender  knows  that  any  of  those  instruments  is  forged  or  falsified. without proper authority therefor alters any bill. Any person who.  letters  of  credit. counterfeiting or altering by any means the figures. Unless the act be one of those coming under the provisions of any of the preceding articles.   (e.     3. letters. shall suffer the penalty next lower in degree than that prescribed in said articles. the appearance of a true genuine document. shall use any of the false documents embraced in the next preceding article. ELEMENTS:     1.     =  any  instrument  authorized  by  a  notary  public  or  a  competent  public  official  with  solemnities  required  by  law     (2) Official  document  =  issued  by  a  public  official  in  the  exercise  of  the  functions  of  his  office  (e. payable to bearer or order mentioned therein.  171  except  Paragraph  7     4  KINDS  OF  DOCUMENTS:     (1) Public  document  =  created.000 pesos shall be imposed upon any person who.  executed  or  issued  by  a  public  official  in  response  to  the  exigencies  of  the  public  service  or  in  the  execution  of  which   a  public  official  intervened. Any person who shall knowingly introduce in evidence in any judicial proceeding or to the damage of another or who.g. Art.  customer’s  order.  bank  statements. Falsification of legislative documents.  burial   permit. substituting. with intent to use any of the false or falsified instruments referred to in this section. The penalty of prision correccional in its maximum period and a fine not exceeding P6. or in any of the foregoing subdivisions of this article.     2.

and use of said falsified messages. Falsification of wireless.  THERE  IS  NO  COMPLEX  CRIME  OF  ESTAFA  THROUGH  FALSIFICATION  OF  A   PRIVATE  DOCUMENT  &  NO  FALSIFICATION  OF  PRIVATE  DOCUMENT  THROUGH  RECKLESS  IMPRUDENCE. When  the  attention  is  called  and  the  offender  tries  to  conceal  or  insist  or  virtually  attest  to  the  authenticity  of  the  said  document     3.  official  or  commercial  documents  can  form  a  complex  crime  (e.       *Private  documents     there  must  be  intent  to  defraud  in  falsification  of  a  private  document.  Theft)     …BECAUSE  the  before  the  falsified  document  is  used  to  defraud  another.       KEY  DIFFERENCE  BET  FALSIFICATION  OF  PUBLIC  OR  OFFICIAL  DOCUMENTS  with  PRIVATE  DOCUMENTS:       Public  or  official     Private     The  principal  thing  punished  is  the  violation   Prejudice  to  a  third  party  is  primarily   of  public  faith  and  the  perversion  of  truth   taken  into  account     which  the  document  solemnly  proclaims   If  there  is  no  intention  to  cause  it. Any person who shall use such falsified dispatch to the prejudice of a third party or with the intent of cause such prejudice.  Estafa. telegraph and telephone messages.  profit  or  hope  to  profit  is  not  necessary.   falsification  is  not  punishable       [PARAGRAPH  3]     How  to  prove  “knowledge  of  the  falsified  document”  in  an  offender  who  “Uses”  false  documents:   1. . The penalty of prision correccional in its medium and maximum periods shall be imposed upon officer or employee of the Government or of any private corporation or concern engaged in the service of sending or receiving wireless.  attesting  to  it  not  being  genuine.  THUS. 173. shall suffer the penalty next lower in degree.       COMPLEX  CRIMES:     *Only  falsification  of  public.   FALSIFICATION  IS  ONLY  A  NECESSARY  MEANS  TO  COMMIT  ESTAFA.  the  Falsification  is  already  consummated.g.  therefore  the  damage  caused  is  consummated  by  just  the  crime  of  falsification/  the   immediate  effect  of  falsification  of  private  documents  is  the  same  as  estafa. the  use  was  so  closely  connected  in  time  with  the  falsification     2. If  the  offender  is  privy  to  the  document  and  he  should  have  known  the  falsity     4.     Actually  using  the  falsified  document  to  defraud  or  damage  another  is  a  new  felony  (can  be  Estafa)  committed  by  means  of  Falsification.  THUS.     2. cable or telephone message who utters a fictitious wireless. cable.  Malversation. That  the  evidence  shows  that  the  look  of  the  falsified  document  appears  to  be  blatantly  irregular. he  has  the  capacity  to  falsify  the  document     Art. telegraph or telephone message of any system or falsifies the same.  damage  not  being  an  element. That  the  user  could  have  benefitted  differently  from  the  false  document  or  if  there  is  damage  done     User  is  DEEMED  AUTHOR  when:     1.   NOT  public/official/commercial  documents:     -­‐ Cash  disbursement  vouchers     -­‐ Last  wills  and  testaments     -­‐ Mere  blank  form  of  an  official  document       *What  is  punished:  Violation  of  public  faith  and  the  Destruction  of  truth     *Defense:  lack  of  malice  or  criminal  intent  in  falsification  of  a  public  document       [PARAGRAPH  2]     in  falsification  of  a  private  document:  “With  the  intent  to  cause  such  damage”  =   -­‐ offender  must  have  counterfeited   -­‐ he  must  have  performed  an  independent  act  which  prejudice  a  third  person   *damage  is  not  material  .

shall suffer the penalty of prision correccional in its minimum and medium periods.g. *there  must  be  positive. or who. Usurpation of authority or official functions.  USING  FICTITIOUS  NAME  and  CONCEALING:  Publicity  and  the  Purposes     . Manufacturing and possession of instruments or implements for falsification. shall have in his possession any of the instruments or implements mentioned in the preceding paragraphs.000 pesos shall be imposed upon any person who shall make or introduce into the Philippine Islands any stamps. Private  individual   Art. 178. The penalty of arresto mayor and a fine not to exceed 500 pesos shall be imposed upon any person who shall publicly use a fictitious name for the purpose of concealing a crime. Any physician or surgeon who. false certificates of merits or service. or other instruments or implements intended to be used in the commission of the offenses of counterfeiting or falsification mentioned in the preceding sections of this Chapter. Physicial  or  surgeon   2. with the practice of his profession. and 2.  express  or  explicit  representation     *mere  not  denying  does  not  amount  to  a  crime  committed     *may  also  be  violated  by  a  public  officer       Additional  penalty:  Usurping  the  authority  of  diplomatic  or  consular  or  any  other  official  of  a  foreign  government  WITH  intent  to  defraud  such  foreign   government  or  Phil. Art. Using false certificates. The penalties of arresto mayor in its maximum period to prision correccional in its minimum period and a fine not to exceed P1. 177. evading the execution of a judgment or causing damage. Using fictitious name and concealing true name. good conduct or similar circumstances. Persons  liable:     1.  signing  fictitious  name  in  a  passport  application)       Difference  bet. Any person who shall knowingly and falsely represent himself to be an officer. Public  officer   3.chan robles virtual law library Any person who. Any person who conceals his true name and other personal circumstances shall be punished by arresto menor or a fine not to exceed 200 pesos. shall suffer the penalty next lower in degree than that provided therein. 176. without being lawfully entitled to do so. “Fictitious  name”  =  any  other  name  which  a  person  publicly  applies  to  himself  without  authority  of  law     *damage  must  be  to  public  interest  (e. The penalty of arresto mayor shall be imposed upon any private person who shall falsify a certificate falling within the classes mentioned in the two preceding subdivisions. shall issue a false certificate. marks. etc. dies. in connection. 175.000 pesos shall be imposed upon: 1. Any public officer who shall issue a false certificate of merit of service. shall perform any act pertaining to any person in authority or public officer of the Philippine Government or any foreign government.  government     Art. Art. The penalty of arresto menor shall be imposed upon any one who shall knowingly use any of the false certificates mentioned in the next preceding article. 174. The penalty of prision correccional in its medium and maximum periods and a fine not to exceed P10. under pretense of official position. with the intention of using them. False medical certificates. or any agency thereof. agent or representative of any department or agency of the Philippine Government or of any foreign government.Art.

181. 180.   Art.  punishes  even  when  testimony  is  not  considered  by  the  Court.     *False  testimony  by  negative  statement  is  in  favor  of  the  defendant     *Need  not  directly  influence  the  decision  or  the  acquittal  nor  it  needs  to  benefit  the  defendant     *Conviction  or  acquittal  is  not  necessary     Art. if the defendant shall have been sentenced to a correctional penalty or a fine. False testimony favorable to the defendants. “False  testimony”  =  committed  when  being  under  oath  and  required  to  testify  as  to  the  truth  of  a  certain  matter  at  a  hearing  before  a  competent  authority. Any person who shall give false testimony against the defendant in any criminal case shall suffer: 1. uniforms or dress pertaining to an office not held by such person or to a class of persons of which he is not a member. Any person found guilty of false testimony in a civil case shall suffer the penalty of prision correccional in its minimum period and a fine not to exceed 6.  decoration  or  regalia  of  a  foreign  State     RA  No. 182. and 4.  theater  or  movie   *exact  imitation  is  not  necessary.     Art. if the amount in controversy shall exceed 5.       NATURE:  Falsehood. *Punished  because  of  tendency  to  favor  or  prejudice  the  defendant. The penalty of prision mayor.000 pesos.  colorable  resemblance  calculated  to  deceive  a   common  run  of  people       RA  No.000 pesos.  493:  Insignia. shall . False testimony in other cases and perjury in solemn affirmation. shall suffer the penalties of arresto mayor in its maximum period to prision correccional in its minimum period a fine not to exceed 1. if the defendant in said case shall have been sentenced to death.  distribution  and  use  of  PNP  uniforms. who knowingly makes untruthful statements and not being included in the provisions of the next preceding articles.  Important  is  the  effect  it  causes  to  the  perception  of  other  people  . The penalty of arresto mayor. and the penalty of arresto mayor in its maximum period to prision correccional in its minimum period and a fine not to exceed 1.  insignias  and  other  accoutrements   Art. 3. [PERJURY] The penalty of arresto mayor in its maximum period to prision correccional in its minimum period shall be imposed upon any person.  297:  Illegal  manufacture. Any person who shall give false testimony in favor of the defendant in a criminal case.  reprehensible  esp  in  judicial  proceedings  because  it  constitutes  an  imposition  upon  the  court  and  seriously  exposes  it  to  miscarriage  of   justice. In cases provided in subdivisions 3 and 4 of this article the offender shall further suffer a fine not to exceed 1.  when  used  in  a  play.Art. if the defendant shall have been sentenced to reclusion temporal or reclusion perpetua.  sale.000 pesos. The penalty of reclusion temporal.000 pesos.  badge  or  emblem  of  rank  if  the  members  of  Armed  Forces  or  Police     EO  No. False testimony against a defendant. The penalty of arresto mayor shall be imposed upon any person who shall publicly and improperly make use of insignia.000 pesos. The penalty of prision correccional. if the defendant shall have been sentenced to any other afflictive penalty. if the amount in controversy shall not exceed said amount or cannot be estimated. 179. 2. *not  punishable  when  imaginary  group/office  . and the penalty of arresto mayor in any other case. 183. False testimony in civil cases.   shall  deny  the  truth  or  say  something  contrary  to  it.  75  :  Uniform. Illegal use of uniforms or insignia. or shall have been acquitted. if the prosecution is for a felony punishable by an afflictive penalty.     Therefore.

or any other artifice.  It  involves  the  idea  of   calling  on  to  God  to  witness  what  is  averred  as  truth  and  it  is  supposed  to  be  accompanied  with  an  invocation  of  His  vengeance  or  a  renunciation  of  His   favor.  announcing  a  different  date)       REASON:  Execution  sales  should  be  opened  to  free  and  full  competition  in  order  to  secure  maximum  benefit  for  the  debtors. with intent to cause the reduction of the price of the thing auctioned. shall suffer the penalty of prision correccional in its minimum period and a fine ranging from 10 to 50 per centum of the value of the thing auctioned. Any person who shall knowingly offer in evidence a false witness or testimony in any judicial or official proceeding. or make an affidavit. promises.g. in case of a solemn affirmation made in lieu of an oath. shall be punished as guilty of false testimony and shall suffer the respective penalties provided in this section. 184. *consummated  by  mere  solicitation  or  mere  attempt     *person  who  agrees  to  pay  or  give  gives  the  gift  will  be  PRINCIPAL  of  the  crime.  petition  for  receivership.  application  for  marriage  license       Subornation  of  Perjury  =  knowingly  and  willfully  procuring  another  to  swear  falsely  and  the  witness  suborned  does  testify  under  circumstances     Art.  in  the  event  of  falsehood       “AFFIDAVIT”  =  sworn  statement  in  writing. Any person who.  complaint  for  ejectment. Art. Offering false testimony in evidence. shall suffer the respective penalties provided therein. “OATH”  =  any  form  of  attestation  by  which  a  person  signifies  that  he  is  bound  in  conscience  to  perform  an  act  faithfully  and  truthfully. and any person who shall attempt to cause bidders to stay away from an auction by threats. Machinations in public auctions.       . gifts. upon any material matter before a competent person authorized to administer an oath in cases in which the law so requires.testify under oath.g.  declaration  in  writing. Any person who shall solicit any gift or promise as a consideration for refraining from taking part in any public auction.     *includes  other  artifice  =  tricks  (e.  made  upon  oath  before  an  authorized  magistrate  or  officer       *falsity  must  first  be  established     Material  Matter   Relevant   Pertinent   =  main  fact  which  is  the  subject  of  the  inquiry  or   Tends  in  any  reasonable  degree  to  establish  the   Concerns  collateral  matters  which  make  more   any  circumstance  which  tends  to  prove  that  fact   probability  or  improbability  of  a  fact  in  issue   or  less  probable  the  proposition  at  issue     =  any  fact  or  circumstance  which  tends  to   corroborate  or  strengthen  the  testimony   relative  to  the  subject  of  inquiry  or  which   legitimately  affects  the  credit  of  any  witness   who  testifies     *no  perjury  if  not  material  matter     *assertion  must  be  willful  and  deliberate       *Defense:  Good  faith  or  lack  of  malice     *affidavits  required  by  law:  e. 185. shall commit any of the falsehoods mentioned in this and the three preceding articles of this section.

 etc…  or     Penalty  depends:     Penalty  depends:     1. on  the  existence  of  intimidation     2.  297  and  298)     2.       “intent  to  gain”  =  presumed  from  the  unlawful  taking  of  personal  property  (general  rule)     =  an  internal  act  so  it  must  be  proved  by  the  circumstances  surrounding  the  comission  of  the  offense  OR  confession  of  the  accused     *without  intent  to  gain  =  taking  of  a  personal  property  is  GRAVE  COERCION       “violence  or  intimidation”    =  must  be  against  the  offended  party  and  not  the  thing  taken     bag  snatching  is  theft  but  if  there  is  already  pushing  and  intimidation.  Robbery  with  violence  against  or  intimidation  against  persons    moment  the  offender  gains  possession.  even  if  there’s  no  opportunity  to  dispose   2.  302]     EFFECTS  OF…   Violence  against  /  intimidation  of  person     Force  upon  things     Taking  is  always  robbery   Taking  is  robbery  only  when  force  is  used  to  enter  the  building  or  to  break   doors. won  the  offenders  carry  arms   3. on  the  value  of  property   2.TITLE TEN: CRIMES AGAINST PROPERTY Art.  crime  is  Usurpation.g.     =  if  robbery  with  homicide  –  name  of  owner  is  essential  BUT  not  in  robbery  with  intimidation  or  violence  /  force  upon  things       “unlawful  taking”  -­‐-­‐-­‐  taking  must  be  against  the  will  of  the  owner. (uninhabited  building)  on  the  value  of  property  taken       If  there  is  both  violence  and  force  =  Robbery  with  violence  against  or  intimidation  of  persons     ELEMENTS:     1.  pointing  a  gun  or  knife)     =  must  be  present  before  the  taking  of  the  personal  property  is  complete  BUT  not  necessary  that  it  is  present  from  the  very  beginning   =  if  violence  came  AFTER  taking  -­‐-­‐-­‐  2  crimes:  theft  and  slight  physical  injuries       EXCEPTION:     When  robbery  is  complexed  with  (1)  homicide  (2)  rape  (3)  intentional  mutilation  (4)  any  serious  physical  injuries   =  still  ROBBERY  COMPLEXED  WITH  ___  even  if  taking  was  already  complete  when  the  violence  was  inflicted       “using  force  upon  anything”  =  offender  must:  (1)  entered  a  house  or  building  OR  (2)  breaking  wardrobes.  If  real  property.  299  and  302)       “Personal  property”  =  must  be  personal  property.  Robbery  with  force  upon  things    thing  must  be  taken  out  of  the  building  (e.  bodega)  to  be  consummated       “taking”  =  depriving  the  offended  party  the  ownership  of  the  thing  taken  with  the  character  of  permanency. 293.  property  taken  does  not  belong  to  the  offender  BUT  the  person  whom  the   property  is  taken  need  not  be  the  owner.     -­‐ prohibitive  articles  may  be  subject  matter  of  robbery       “Belonging  to  another”  =  co-­‐owner  or  a  partner  cannot  commit  robbery  or  theft. That  there  is  (3)  unlawful  taking  of  that  property     3. That  the  taking  must  be  (4)  with  intent  to  gain     4.       CLASSIFICATIONS:     1. Who are guilty of ROBBERY ROBBERY    taking  of  personal  property  with  intent  to  gain  by  means  of  violence  against. on  the  result  of  the  violence     1.  it  becomes  robbery       “intimidation”  =  when  it  causes  fear  or  fright  of  the  victim  (threat  of  arrest. That  there  be  (1)  personal  property  (2)  belonging   to  another   2.  chests  or  any  other  kind  of  locked  or  sealed   furnitureor  receptacle  inside  an  inhabited  house.  Posession  is  sufficient. Robbery  by  the  use  of  force  upon  things  (ART. Robbery  with  violence  against  or  intimidation  of  persons  (ART.  294.  public  building  or  an  edifice  devoted  to  religious  worship  OR  (3)  by  taking  such  furniture  or  objects  away   to  be  broken  or  forced  open  outside  …  [more  on  ART.  or  intimidation  of  any  person  or  using  force  upon  anything. That  there  be  violence  against  or  intimidation  of   any  person  or  force  upon  anything     (1  &  4  must  concur)     .  wardrobes.     …complete  when:     1.

 an  intimate  connection  between  the  robbery  and  the  killing  even  if  the  killing  is  prior  to. Rape  or  intentional  mutilation  or  arson     3.   hand. Intimidation  only.  arm  or  leg  /any  member  or  incapacity  for  work)   Prision  mayor  (max)  to  reclusion  temporal  (med)   Violence  or  intimidation  employedwas  to  a  degree  clearly  unneccesary  for  the   commission  of  the  crime  OR  offender  inflicted  upon  any  person  not  responsible  for  its   commission  any  of  the  phusical  injuries  (sub.       *ART.  hand.  arson   Reclusion  temporal  (med)  to  reclusion  perpetua     Physical  injuries  (sub.  ceiling  accident  =  robbery  with  homicide     .  offender  is  liable  for  2  crimes  robbery  and  physical  injuries     7. Homicide   2.  even  though  the  homicide  precedes  robbery     • When  there  is  a  direct  relation.  1)   Reclusion  temporal     Physical  injuries  (sub  2)  (loss  of  speech.  crime  is  robbery   2  DISTINCT  OFFENSES     • Original  design  was  NOT  to  commit  robbery  but  robbery  is  committed  AFTER  the  homicide  as  an  afterthought  and  minor  incident  in  the  homicide   (Homicide/murder  AND  theft)       ROBBERY  WITH  HOMICIDE   “homicide”  =  generic  sense  to  include  parricide  and  murder.  does  not  cause  any  serious  physical  injuries.   becomes  ill  or  incapacitated  for  work  for  more  than  90  days  or  for  more  than  30  days                                  =  when  inflicted  upon  another  robber.  Mangulabnan     -­‐  robbery.  imbecility. ROBBERY WITH VIOLENCE AGAINST OR INTIMIDATION OF PERSONS PENALTIES:  When  by  reason  or  on  occasion  of  the  robbery   Reclusion  perpetua  to  death   Homicide.  impotency  or  blindness   4.  power  to  hear  or  smell  or  the  loss  of  an  eye.  all  homicides  and  murders  are  merged  in  the  composite.  immaterial  that  the  offenders  also  wanted  revenge     • …even  if  the  death  is  by  accident     • …even  if  the  person  killed  is  also  another  robber     • if  robbery  not  proved.  intentional  mutilation.  3  and  4)   Prision  correccional  (max)  to  prision  mayor  (med)     Other  cases    simple  robbery     Acts  punished:     1.Art. Physical  injuries  =  loss  of  speech.  foot.  loses  any  other  member  of  body. 294.  foot.  arm  or  leg  /any  member  or  incapacity  for  work     5.  power  to  hear  or  smell  or  the  loss  of  an  eye. Inflicted  upon  any  person  not  responsible  for  the  commission  of  the  robbery  any  physical  injuries  =  deformed.  rape.  concurrent  with  or   subsequent  to  robbery   • If  the  initial  intent  was  robbery.  integrated  whole  that  is  robbery  with   homicide  so  long  as  all  the  killings  were  perpetrated  by  reason  or  on  the  occasion  of  robbery     If  committed  by  a  band?  Still  robbery  with  homicide  +  generic  aggravating  circumstance  of  “by  a  band”       Physical  injuries  also  absorved  if  committed  apart  from  robbery  and  homicide       NO  crime  of  robbery  with  murder:  Treachery  cannot  be  qualifying  because  crime  charged  is  a  SPECIAL  CRIME  of  ROBBERY  WITH  HOMICIDE       =  merely  a  generic  aggravating  circumstance     ROBBERY  WITH  RAPE       -­‐  offender  must  have  the  intent  to  take  personal  property  belonging  to  another  with  intent  to  gain  |  such  intent  must  precede  rape                                             People  v. Violence  or  intimidation  clearly  unneccesary     6.  crime  is  homicide  |  if  homicide  is  not  proved. Physical  injuries  =  insanity.  48  applies  only  when  a  complex  crime  is  not  punished  with  specific  penalty     “on  occasion”  /  “by  reason”  =  must  be  committed  in  the  course  of  OR  because  of  robbery     ROBBERY  WITH  HOMICIDE   • When  the  ORIGINAL  INTENT/DESIGN  comprehends  robbery.  and  homicide  is  perpetrated  by  reason  or  on  occasion  of  the  consummation  of  the   robbery.

 road.  highway. ROBBERY WITH PHYSICAL INJURIES. 295.  power  to  hear  or  smell  or  the  loss  of  an  eye. on  a  street. entering  the  passengers’  compartments  in  a  train.   hand. OR WITH THE USE OF FIREARM ON A STREET.  1       qualifying  circumstances  are  all  treated  as  generic  aggravating  circumstance     . AND BY A BAND. ROAD OR ALLEY. by  a  band   3.  motor  vehicle  or  airship     4.  3  and  4)   Prision  correccional  (max)  to  prision  mayor  (med)     Other  cases    simple  robbery     1.  street  car. IF  THE  FOLLOWING  HAS  BEEN  COMMITTED…                                          Robbery  with:   Reclusion  temporal     Physical  injuries  (sub  2)  (loss  of  speech. in  an  uninhabited  place   2.  arm  or  leg  /any  member  or  incapacity  for  work)   Prision  mayor  (max)  to  reclusion  temporal  (med)   Violence  or  intimidation  employedwas  to  a  degree  clearly  unneccesary  for  the   commission  of  the  crime  OR  offender  inflicted  upon  any  person  not  responsible  for  its   commission  any  of  the  phusical  injuries  (sub.  honor  or  property  of  the  offended  party   -­‐  gain  is  immediate   -­‐  gain  is  not  immediate       Robbery  with  violence     Grave  coercion     -­‐  violence  is  used  by  offender   -­‐  violence  is  used  by  offender     -­‐  there  is  intent  to  gain   -­‐  intent  to  gain  is  not  an  element     *purpose  of  the  accused  is  controlling       Art. COMMITTED IN AN UNINHABITED PLACE.  294     • qualifying  circumstances  must  be  alleged  in  the  information   • cannot  be  offset  by  generic  mitigating     Not  applicable  to:     Robbery  with  homicide   Robbery  with  rape     Robbery  with  physical  injuries  under  sub.-­‐  rape  should  not  be  the  primary  objective     -­‐  …even  if  rape  is  committed  in  another  place       NO  Robbery  with  attempted  Rape  =  cannot  be  a  complex  crime  because  robbery  is  not  a  necessary  means  to  commit  rape  and  vice  versa       Additional  rapes  will  not  increase  penalty  =  all  acts  of  rape  on  one  occasion  being  integrated  in  one  composite  crime       Rape  and  homicide  co-­‐exist  with  robbery  =  Robbery  with  homicide.  or  in  any  manner  taking  the  passengers  thereof  by  surprise  in  the  respective  conveyances.  such  fear  of  injury  to  person  or  property  must  continue  to  operate  on  the  mind  of  the  victim  at  the  time  of  the  delivery  of  the   money       Robbery  thru  intimidation     Threats   -­‐  intimidation  is  actual  and  immediate   -­‐  intimidation  is  conditional  or  future     -­‐  personal   -­‐  may  be  through  intermediary   -­‐  directed  only  to  the  person  of  the  victim     -­‐  may  refer  to  the  person.  foot. attacking  a  moving  train.  rape  considered  as  an  aggravating  circumstance       ROBBERY  WITH  INTIMIDATION       “intimidation”  =  causing  or  creating  a  fear  in  the  mind  of  a  person  in  bringing  in  a  sense  of  mental  distress  in  view  of  a  risk  or  evil  that  may  be  impeding   really  or  in  imagination  .  or  alley  and  the  intimidation  is  made  with  the  use  of  firearms       =  maximum  periods  of  the  proper  penaties  in  Art.  or     5.

 he  has   already  the  intent  to  appropriate)     MALVERSATION     Offenders  are  entrusted  with  funds  or  property   Continuing  offense   Usually  public  funds  or  property     Usually  a  public  officer  accountable  for  funds  or  property   Committed  by  appropriating.  law   does  not  require  demand  precedent  to  the  act  of  embezzlement. 315 – SWINDLING/ESTAFA 1. Obtaining  food. Taking  undue  advantage  of  the  signature  of  the  offended  party  in  blank  and  by  writing  any  document  above  such  signature  to  the   prejudice  of  the  offended  party. Pretending  to  have  bribed  any  Government  employee   d.  the  owner  expects  an   immediate  return  of  the  thing  to  him     (can  also  be  when  at  the  time  the  offender  received  the  thing.  accomodation  with  intent  to  defraud  the  proprietor  or  manager     THROUGH  FRAUDULENT  MEANS     a. Postdating  a  check  when  offender  had  no  funds  or  not  sufficient     e.     Abuse  of  Confidence       CONVERSION  =  to  use  or  dispose  another’s  property  as  if  it  were  one’s  own  .  converting  or  denying  having   received  the  money   .  quality  or  quantity  of  anything  of  value     b.  to  take  something  for  one’s  own  benefit  df     *only  kind  of  estafa  which  requires  FORMAL  DEMAND    because  failure  to  account  upon  demand  is  a  circumstantial  evidence  of  misappropriation  . Using  fictitious  name  or  false  pretention  (falsely  pretending  to  possess  power…)     b.       CONSTRUCTIVE  POSSESSION    relation  between  the  owner  and  the  thing  when  the  owner  is  not  in  actual  physical  possession  where  in  the  owner  is  still  in   control  and  management  and  that  the  thing  is  subject  to  owner’s  disposition   ESTAFA  WITH  ABUSE  OF  CONFIDENCE     Offender  receives  the  thing  –  there  is  a  juridical  possission  but   later  misappropriated   Usually  under  a  contract  /  an  agreement  which  the  accused   could  exercise  a  right  of  possession  or  a  right  to  dispose  of  the   object       THEFT     Offender  takes  the  thing     Upon  the  delivery  of  the  thing  to  the  offender.  presupposes  that  a  thing  is  devoted  to  a  purpose  or  use  different  from  that   agreed  upon       MISAPPROPRIATING  =  to  own.  fineness  or  weight  of  anything  pertaining  to  art  or  business   c.     FALSE  PRETENSES  OR  FRAUDULENT  ACTS  PRIOR  TO  OR  SIMULTANEOUS  WITH  THE  COMMISSION  OF  FRAUD     a. Removing.  concealing  or  destroying  in  whole  or  in  part  court  records  or  other  documents     2. Inducing  another  by  means  of  deceit  to  sign  any  document     b. Altering  the  quality.  refreshment. Altering  the  substance. Fraudulent  practice  to  ensure  success  in  gambling     c. 3. Misappropriating  or  converting  to  the  prejudice  of  another  or  denying  that  a  thing  was  received     c. UNFAITHFULNESS/  ABUSE  OF  CONFIDENCE     a.Art.  taking  or  misappropriating  or  consenting  or   through  abandonment  or  negligence  or  permitting  any  other  person  to   take  funds  or  property   ESTAFA  WITH  ABUSE  OF  CONFIDENCE     Offenders  are  entrusted  with  funds  or  property   Continuing  offense     Funds  or  property  are  always  private     Pruvate  individual  /  public  officer  not  accountable  for  public   funds  or  property   Committed  by  misappropriating.

 revenge  or  other  evil  motive     . 327 – Malicious Mischief MALICIOUS  MISCHIEF    the  act  of  willful  damaging  of  another’s  property  for  the  sake  of  causing  such  damage  due  to  hate.  trick  or  cheat)     Art.False  pretentions:     -­‐ pretending  to  possess  power   -­‐ pretending  to  possess  influence   -­‐ pretending  to  possess  qualifications     -­‐ pretending  to  possess  property  or  money  –  includes  debtor  deceiving  his  creditor     -­‐ pretending  to  possess  credit     -­‐ pretending  to  possess  agency     -­‐ pretending  to  possess  business       False  pretenses  =  deceitful  words  |  Fraudulent  acts  =  deceitful  acts  (characterized  by  or  founded  on  deceit.

RULES:     1.  cannot  be   another  generic  aggravating   3.  Circumstances  absorbed  or  included.  destructive   cyclone.TITLE EIGHT: CRIMES AGAINST PERSONS 246: PARRICIDE   1.  reward  or   promise.  or  with  the  use  of  any   other  means  involving  great  waste  and   ruin.   whether  the  killer  is  the  parent. Act  when  offender  manifestly  clung  to  his   plan   3. 2.  if  not:   homicide  +  generic  aggravating       Evident  premeditation:     1. (1) That  a  person  was  killed   That  the  accused  killed  him     Killing  was  attended  by  any  of  the   following  QUALIFYING  CIRCUMSTANCES:       TREACHERY  [taking  advantage  of  superior   strength. not  necessary  for  killing   3.  grandparent  any   other  relative  of  the  child  or  a  stranger       1.  aid  of  armed  men.       249: HOMICIDE   1. -­‐ -­‐ -­‐ -­‐ -­‐ That  a  person  is  killed.  derailment  or  assault  upon  a   railroad. by  mistake   3.  by  means  of   motor  vehicles.   • • That  a  person  was  killed     That  the  offender  killed  him  without  any   justifying  circumstance   That  the  accused  had  the  intention  to  kill.  or  of  an   earthquake. 3.   explosion.     On  OCCASION  of  any  of  the  CALAMITIES   in  the  preceding  paragraph.  One  circumstance  is  needed  to  qualify  +  others   will  be  generic  aggravating     2.  fire.  stranding  of  a   vessel. That  the  child  was  killed     2. injuries  or  wounds  inflicted  deliberately   2. Sufficient  lapse  of  time  between  the   determination  and  execution  of  killing   Cruelty:     1.     2.  poison. 2. 4. That  the  deceased  child  was  less  than   three  days  (72  hours)  of  age     3.     That  deceased  is  killed  by  the  accused     That  the  deceased  is:     father     mother   child  (legitimate  or  illegitimate)     other  ascendant  or  other  ascendant   (legitimate)     legitimate  spouse     …of  the  accused     248: MURDER   1.   which  is  presumed     That  the  killing  was  not  attended  by  any   of  the  qualifying  circumstances  of   murder. time  when  the  offender  determined  to   kill  the  victim.     MEANS  OF  inundation.  qualifying  circumstances  must  be  alleged. Accused  killed  the  said  child       *  mitigated  when  mother  and  maternal   grandparents  kill  inorder  to  conceal  dishonor     (2) (3)   *relationship  must  be  alleged  in  the  information   *liability  of  a  stranger  –  homicide  or  murder       When  not  punished  by  reclusion  perpetua  to  death:     1. victim  must  be  alive       . through  negligence   2.  epidemic  or  any  other  public   calamity   With  EVIDENT  PREMEDITATION   With  CRUELTY  [deliberately  and   inhumanly  augmenting  the  suffering  of   the  victim  or  outraging  or  scoffing  at  his   person  or  corpse]     The  kiling  is  not  parricide  or  infanticide.  shipwreck.  parricide  or  infanticide     victiim  under  age  12  -­‐-­‐-­‐  reclusion   perpetua     use  of  unlicensed  firearm  is  an   aggravating  circumstance     255: INFANTICIDE     killing  of  any  child  less  than  three  days  of  age. 3. 3. 2.  fall  of  an  airship.  employing   means  to  weaken  defense  or  to  insure  or   afford  impunity]     In  CONSIDERATION  of  a  price.  eruption. under  exceptional  circumstances  (247)           (4) (5) (6)   4.

 1    person  becomes  insane.  impotent  or  blind   PAR. 2. 3.  or   loses  an  eye.  or   drugs  or  beverages  upon  her.  or  drugs  or   beverages  administered. wounding   beating   assaulting   administering  injurious  substance     265.  imbecile. parents.  the  abortion   That  said  physician  or  midwife  takes   advantage  of  his  or  her  scientific   knowledge  or  skill     1. 2.     4.  pursuit  and  the  killing  must  form  part  of  the  continous  act     • must  be  direct  product  of  the  accused’s  rage         256: INTENTIONAL ABORTION 257: UNINTENTIONAL ABORTION 258: ABORTION BY THE WOMAN HERSELF OR BY HER PARENTS   1. incapacitated  for  labor  for  10  days  or  more  but  not  more  than  30   days  OR  needs  medical  attendance     must  not  be  those  described  in  the  preceding  articles     266.   *  The  accused  must  have  known  of  the  pregnancy   There  is  a  pregnant  woman   That  violence  is  used  upon  such  pregnant   woman  without  intending  an  abortion   That  the  violence  is  intentionally  exerted     That  as  a  result  of  the  violence  the  foetus   dies. 2.  either  in  the  womb  or  after  being   expelled  therefrom.   263: SERIOUS PHYSICAL INJURIES 1. Acting  with  the  consent  of  the  woman                                             That  there  is  a  pregnant  woman   That  the  violence  is  exerted. SLIGHT PHYSICAL INJURIES AND MALTREATMENT 1.  a  hand. 3. That  there  be  a  pregnant  woman  who   has  suffered  an  abortion   That  the  abortion  is  intended   That  the  offender.     1.  foot. incapacitated  the  victim  for  labor  from  1  –  9  days   or  required  medical  assistance  during  the  same   period     did  not  prevent  the  offended  party  from  engaging   in  his  habitual  work  OR  did  not  require  medical   attendance   ill  treatment  even  without  injury. 4.  escape. That  there  is  a  pregnant  woman  who  has   suffered  an  abortion   That  the  abortion  is  intended     That  the  abortion  is  caused  by     a.       PAR. 4.   Abortion    willful  killing  of  the  foetus  in  the  uterus   or  the  violent  expulsion  of  the  foetus  from  the   maternal  womb  which  results  in  the  death  of  the   foetus       1.  ascendants  guardians  curators  or  teachers  are  the   victim   .   either  in  the  womb  or  after  having  been   expelled  therefrom   That  the  abortion  is  intended. insulting  or  offending  the  victim     2. 4. 3. The  pregnant  woman  herself   b.  or  any   other  act  of  the  accused. 2.  an  arm  or  a  leg                                    (b)  loses  the  use  of  any  such  member       Qualified  by…   1. 3.  2    (a)  loses  the  use  of  speech  or  the  power  to  hear  or  to  smell. 2. LESS SERIOUS PHYSICAL INJURIES 1. Any  of  her  parents  with  her   consent  for  the  purpose  of   concealing  dishonor     259: ABORTION PRACTICED BY A PHYSICIAN OR MIDWIFE AND DISPENSING OF ABORTIVES   1. Using  any  violence  upon  pregnant   woman   2. Acting  (administering  drugs  or  beverages)   without  the  consent  of  the  woman     3. Another  person  with  her   consent   c. 2.  the  foetus  dies. 2. adding  ignominy   3.  who  must  be  a   physician  or  midwife  causes  or  assists  in   causing.     ART. 3.  or  that  the   accused  otherwise  acts  upon  such   pregnant  woman   That  as  a  result  of  the  use  of  violence. 247: Death or physical injuries inflicted under exceptional circumstances “surprises”  –  to  come  upon  suddenly  and  unexpectedly   • not  applicable  when  the  accused  did  not  see  his  spouse/daugher  under  18  years  of  age  in  the  act  of  sexual  intercourse    enough  that  the   circumstances  show  reasonably  that  the  carnal  act  is  being  committed  or  has  just  been  committed     • discover. 3.

Such  wrong  amounts  to  a  crime   3. That  the  prevention  or  compulsion  be  effected  by  violence.     By  orally  threatening  another.  although  not  productive  of  some  physical  or  material  harm   would. LIGHT COERCIONS 1. 282. That  the  offender  attains  his  purpose       *Circumstance  qualifying:  if  threat  is  made  through  writing  or  thorugh  a  middleman       By  making  such  threat  without  the  offender  attaining  his  purpose.  and     3.  from  doing  something  not   prohibited  by  law         By  compelling  another.  unjustly  annoy  or  vex  an  innocent  person     -­‐ whether  the  offender’s  act  caused  ANNOYANCE. That  such  wrong  amounts  to  a  crime   3.  however.  honor  or  property  or  that  of  his  family  of   any  wrong  amounting  to  a  crime  and  demanding  money  or  imposing  any  other  condition. 2. GRAVE COERCIONS   By  preventing  another.     ART. Offender  makes  a  threat  to  commit  a  wrong   That  the  wrong  does  not  constitute  a  crime     That  there  is  a  demand  for  money  or  that  other  condition  is  imposed  even  though  not  unlawful     That  the  offender  has  attained  his  purpose  or  that  he  has  not  attained  his  purpose     **HERE.  threats  or  intimidation.  that  the  restraint  shall  not  be  made  under  authority  of  law  or  in   the  exercise  of  any  lawful  right.         By  threatening  another  with  the  infliction  upon  his  person.  DISTRESS  OR   DISTURBANCE  TO  THE  MIND  OF  THE  PERSON  IT  IS  DIRECTED     . 3. That  there  is  a  demand  for  money  or  that  any  other  condition  is  imposed.   Threatening  another  person  with  a  weapon  or  by  drawing  such  weapon  in  a  quarrel.  threats  or  intimidation.  be  it  right  or  wrong. 283. GRAVE THREATS   By  threatening  another  with  the  infliction  upon  his  person.       1. That  the  person  that  restrained  the  will  and  liberty  of  another  had  not  the  authority  of  law  or  the   right  to  do  so.  of  any  wrong     2.  even  though  not   unlawful   4. That  the  offender  must  be  a  creditor     That  he  seizes  anything  belonging  to  his  debtor     That  the  seizure  of  the  thing  be  accomplished  by  means  of  violence  or  a  display  of  material  force   producing  intimidation   That  the  purpose  of  the  offender  is  to  apply  the  same  to  the  payment  of  the  debt.  threats  or  intimidation.  honor  or   property  or  upon  that  of  the  latters  family.   whether  it  be  right  or  wrong       1. 3.     4.   UNJUST  VEXATION     -­‐ if  taking  is  by  deceit  and  misrepresentation   -­‐ involves  any  human  conduct  which.  in  the  consequence  of  the  physical  injuries     PAR. 3.  in  the  heat  of  anger. 2.  by  means  of  violence.     2.  honor  or  property  or  that  of  his  family  of   any  wrong  amounting  to  a  crime. LIGHT THREATS 1. 285. OTHER LIGHT THREATS 1. 4.  honor  or   property  or  that  of  his  family.  to  do  something  against  his  will.  the  threat  not  being  subject  to  a  condition.  4    ill  or  incapacitated  for  labor  for  more  than  30  days       4. That  the  offender  threatens  another  person  with  the  infliction  upon  the  latter’s  person.  THE  THREAT  TO  BE  COMMITTED  DOES  NOT  AMOUNT  TO  A  CRIME           ART. That  the  threat  is  not  subject  to  a  condition       ART.   rank  or  persons  in  authority   TITLE NINE: CRIMES AGAINST PERSONAL LIBERTY AND SECURITY     ART.   without  persisting  the  idea  involved  in  his  threat     By  orally  threatening  to  do  another  any  harm  not  constituting  a  felony       ART. 2.  even  though  not   unlawful  and  the  OFFENDER  ATTAINED  HIS  PURPOSE     1. 287. That  the  offender  threatens  another  person  with  the  infliction  upon  the  latter’s  person.  TORMENT.  VEXATION.  or  in  other  words.                                    (c)  becomes  incapacitated  for  the  work  in  which  he  was   theretofore  habitually  engaged.  by  means  of  violence. That  a  person  prevented  another  from  doing  something  not  prohibited  by  law  or  that  he   compelled  him  to  do  something  against  his  will.     2.  unless  in   lawful  self-­‐defense.  IRRITATION.  with  some  harm  not  constituting  a  crime. 286.3    (a)  becomes  deformed                                      (b)  loses  any  other  member  of  his  body                                      (c)  becomes  ill  or  incapacitated  for  the  performance  of  the  work  in   which  he  was  habitually  engaged  for  more  than  90  days  in  consequence  of   PAR.  of  any  wrong.

 teacher.  if  not.  or  descendant   by  her  ascendant.)         Seduction  of  a  sister  by  a  brother.   single  or  widow   That  the  offender  has  sexual  intercourse   with  her. That  the  offender  commits  any  act  of   lasciviousness  or  lewdness   That  the  act  of  lasciviousness  is   committed  against  a  person  of  either  sex   That  it  is  done  under  any  of  the  following   circumstances     a.     That  it  is  commited  by  means  of  deceit   1. 336: ACTS OF LASCIVIOUSNESS ART.  lustful.  or  a  sister  or   descendant  regardless  of  her  reputation   or  age. By  means  of  fraudulent   machinations  or  abuse  of   confidence     d.TITLE ELEVEN: CRIMES AGAINST CHASTITY ART.  confidence.  under  18  years  of  age   but  over  12  years. When  the  victim  is  less  than   12  years  old  or  is  demented       LEWD    obscene.     That  she  must  be  of  good  reputation. 3. That  the  offender  has  sexual  intercourse   with  her   4.  lecherous. That  the  offended  party  is  a  virgin. 2. 337: QUALIFIED SEDUCTION ART.     That  the  offender  accomplishes  the  acts   by  abuse  of  authority. 3.   *deceit  usually  is  in  the  form  of  unfulfilled  promise   of  marriage       *if  virginity  from  qualified  seduction  is  absent  =   simple  seduction     **a  virgin  is  a  person  of  good  reputation  but  a   person  of  good  reputation  is  not  always  a  virgin         3.  regardless  of  age  or  reputation       QUALIFIED  SEDUCTION  OF  A  VIRGIN     1. Over  12  and  under  18  years  old     3.     . 2.  may  be  UNJUST   VEXATION  ONLY.  etc.   2. 338: SIMPLE SEDUCTION ART.   priest.  confidence  or   relationship  on  the  part  of  the  offender       *crime  is  punished  because  of  the  character  of  the   person  committing  the  crime  using  excess  of  power   or  abuse  of  confidence       4.   relationship  or  deceit.  form   of  immorality  which  has  a  relation  to  moral  impurity   or  carried  in  a  wanton  manner       *presence  of  lewd  designs  is  inferred  from  the   nature  of  the  acts  and  the  environmental   circumstances       *must  be  committed  with  the  circumstances  the   same  with  rape       *always  remember  that  this  is  committed  with  the   same  circumstances  as  RAPE. There  is  abuse  of  authority. By  using  force  or  intimidation   b. 2.     That  the  acts  are  committed  upon  a   woman  who  is  a  virgin  or  single  or  widow   of  good  reputation. That  the  offended  party  is  over  12  and   under  18  years  of  age. That  the  offender  commits  acts  of   lasciviousness  or  lewdness. When  the  offended  party  is   deprived  of  reason  or   unconscious   c. 339: ACTS OF LASCIVIOUSNESS WITH THE CONSENT OF THE OFFENDED PARTY   1.  which   is  PRESUMED  if  she  is  unmarried  and  of   good  reputation.       1.         SEDUCTION    means  enticing  a  woman  to  unlawful   sexual  intercourse  by  promise  of  marriage  or  by   other  menas  of  persuasion  without  use  of  force     *contemplates  consensual  sex  for  minors   *when  a  minor  =  presumed  to  be  deceitful         Seduction  of  a  virgin  over  12  yrs  old  and  under   18  yrs  old  by  certain  persons  (persons  in  authority.  indecent.

 CIVIL  STATUS  OR  REPUTATION     Abduction  is  against  her  will   That  the  abduction  is  with  lewd  designs. 2. Rape     2. Forcible  abduction   . 2. 3.  still  forcible  abduction   *Rape  may  absorb  forcible  abduction  if  the  main  purpose  was  to  rape  the  victim         Where  age  and  reputation  of  a  woman  is  IMMATERIAL:     1.ART. 4. Qualified  seduction  of  sister  or  descendant     4.     ART. The  offended  party  must  be  a  VIRGIN     That  she  is  over  12  and  under  18  years  old     That  the  taking  away  of  the  offended  party  must  be  with  her  consent.  even  if  voluntary. 3. 342: FORCIBLE ABDUCTION   1. 343: CONSENTED ABDUCTION   1. Person  abducted  is  ANY  WOMAN. Acts  of  lascivousness  against  the  will  or  without  the  consent  of  the  offended  party   3.  after  solicitation  or  cajolery   from  the  offender   That  the  taking  away  must  be  with  lewd  designs       *under  12.  REGARDLESS  OF  HER  AGE.

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