The Yoga Upanisads - TRS Ayyangar - Engish | Ātman (Hinduism) | Brahman

THE YOGA-UPANISAD-S

TKANSLATED INTO ENGLISH
(ON

THE
S'RI

BASIS OF

THE COMMENTARY OF

UPANISAD-BRAHMA-YOGIN)
BY

T. R.
(Retired

S'RlNIVASA AYYAl^IGAR,

B.A., L.T.

Head

Master, Kalyaffa-sundaram High School, TaAjore)

AND EDITED BY

PANDIT

S.

SUBRAHMANYA

S'ASTRl, F.T.S.

THE ADYAR LIBRARY
1938

Printed by

c subbarayudu, At the Vasanta Press, Apyar, Madras

PREFACE
Volume (The Yoga Upanisad-s) of the English translation of the One Hundred and Eight Upanisad-s, foreshadowed by the late Panciit Mahadeva S'astrl, B.A., Director of The Adyar Library, in his preface to the first Volume (The Yoga Upanisad-s) in August 1920, and planned by Prof. C. Kunhan Raja,
In issuing this
first

M.A., D.Phil. (Oxon.), Honorary Curator of the Oriental Section of the Adyar Library, in his Introduction to the

second Volume of The Das'opanisad-s
first

in July 1936^

my

duty
S.

is

to tender

my

grateful thanks to Brahmas'rl
S'astri

Pandit

Subrahmanya
this

Avl.,

F.T.S.,
to

who
I

undertook

work as a labour

of love

and

whom

am

in

continual obligation

for the

many
; ,

services he

has been rendering to the Adyar Library
T. R. S'rinivasa Ayyangar Avl.,

and

to S'rl

B.A

L.T.,

Retired

Head Master, Kalyana-sundaram High School, Tanjore, who has collaborated with the Pandit with his wonted
zeal
It is

in

editing

and seeing the work through the

press.

hoped to publish at an early date the Translations

of the remaining Upanisad-s.

The

publication of the Upanisad-s with critical

notes originally planned and started

by Dr. Schrader,
is

a former Director of the Adyar Library,

proposed

VI

THE YOGA UPANISADS
up
after the publication of the Translation

to be taken
is

completed.

The
of
S'rl

Translation closely follows the
is

Commentary
the only one

Upanisad-brahma-yogin, who

so
tion

far

known

to

have achieved the unique distinc-

of having written a commentary on all the One Hundred and Eight Upanisad-s and has presented,

an extremely lucid manner, S'ri S'amkaracarya's commentary on the ten major Upanisad-s, which he seems to have closely followed. The advantage of
in

following the interpretation of obscure passages by a
single
writer,

right through

the entire field covered

by the One Hundred and Eight Upanisad-s, cannot be overestimated. While an attempt has been made
to

give

a

verhatim
is

et

hterattm

rendering of the

Up^nisad-s, which

indeed no easy task, portions

not bearing on the words of the Text, but which are
necessary to render the meaning clear, are enclosed
within circular brackets, while the introductory notes
to

the

Upanisad-s
necessary

and
for

other

extraneous

matter,
of

considered
the

the further elucidation

subject-matter,

are

enclosed within rectangular

brackets

The Adyar Library
15th September, 1938

G

Srinivasa Murti

Honorary Director

THE YOGA-UPANISAD-S

CONTENTS
PAGE

Advaya-tarakopanisad
Eligibility for

1-8
1 1

Taraka-yoga
of

The means -and the end The form of Taraka

Yoga

2

How

to be attained

2

Description of internal introspection
Description of external introspection

2 4 4 4
'

Description of intermediate introspection

The two-fold Taraka The achievement of Taraka-yoga The two to be distinguished as
corporeal

5

corporeal

and

in

5
.

The real form of Taraka-yoga Mudra pertaining to S'ambhu Forms of internal introspection The description of Acarya

6
7
7
7

Fruit borne by a study of this Upanisad

8

Amrta-nadopanisad
Expedients such as study

9-16 9 9 10 10
etc.

Worship

of the Pra^iava

Description of Pratyahara

The The The

six-fold
fruits of

Yoga
Praijayama,

10
11

three-fold

Praijayima

Description of Praijayama

U

THE YOGA UPANI§ADS
PAGE
Description of Recaka
.

11 11

Description of Puraka
Description of

.

Kumbhaka

12 12

Description of Dharaija Description of Tarka

12
12

Description of Samadhi

The
of

expedient to be employed for the achievement

Samadhi

.

13 14
of

The constant practice of Yoga The seven doors leading to the attainment Atman The giving up of fear, etc. The fruit of the practice of Yoga The thing to be meditated on through Yoga The manner of meditation The limit of breathing The seats of the Prana, etc
,

the

14 14
14
15 15
15

16

Their different colours

16
16
17-21

The

final fruit

.

Amrta-bindOpanisad
The mind
alone, the cause of

bondage and liberation

.

17
17

Mental control, the expedient for liberation

The attainment the Brahman
Attainment
of

......
of

Brah manhood by the knowledge
non-qualified

of

18

the

pondering over the qualified

Brahman through Brahman
.

18 19

The oneness

of the

Atman
and death
of the Atman Brahman transcendent Brahman by medi
.

Freedom from

birth

19

Realization of the Absolute

20
20

The attainment
tating

of the

on the S'abda- brah man
in all

Oneness of the Atman inhering

bemgs

21

Meditation, the cause of realizing the

Atman

21

CONTENTS
K§URIKOPANISAD

Xi

Yogadhikara Asana and PrSijayama
PratyahSra

The The

practice of
fruit of

Yoga and Samadhi

Tejo-bindupanisad

...... ...... ..... ...... ..... .....
the person eligible therefor
.

PAGE
22-26

22
22 23 25

26
27-87

Expedients to be employed for the attainment of the
undifferentiated

Brahman
.

Looking upon the transcendent
to relative attributes

The

fifteen-fold

Yoga, as aid to the knowledge of the

transcendent

Brahman

Description of the fifteen Anga-s

.... ... .... ...
...
Yoga
. . .

28 28
30

entity itself as subject

30
33

Becoming the Brahman by the

practice of

Mitigation of the obstacles to Samadhi

34
34-

The attainment of pure Brahmanhood, through Samadhi The indivisible oneness in essence of all
Conceiving
all

36
39
41

things as the state of utter consciousness.
.
.

Brahman Realizing the state of the Atman as that of the everexisting, conscious and blissful Brahmanhood Realizing the Atman as not possessed of all the diverse
Fruit borne by knowledge of the

forms

The

.......
• • •
.

.

42

46
47

realization of the non-existence of all things other
.

than the Atman The practice of Brahman "
.

the
.

Atma-mantra
. .

"

I

am
.

the
«

Jivan-mukti

—the

Brahman
Videha-mukti

—taking
is
it

......
attainment
of

48
50

the

state

of the

one's

stand

on the Absolute

Brahman, which
corresponding to

the absolute
. .

Atman, with nothing
.

.

.54

Xll

THE YOGA UPANI^DS
PAGE
Rule
for the concentration on one's

The nature of one's own Atman The falsehood of all Anatman The Absolute Brahtnanhood of the I '-entity The non-existence of antithetical forms in the
.

....
.
.

own Atman

.

60
61

63

'

.

.

68
70

case of
.

the phenomenal world of ignorance and

its

results

The mind

alone, actuated

by

volition
.
.

and the

like, is

the cause of all trouble

.72
.

The state of Existence, Consciousness and Bliss. The Brahraanhood of all The non-relative Atmanhood of the Brahman The non-existence of the phenomenal world outside the Atman
. .
.

74

74
.

.

79

lying

.

.

82
the

Rule for the attainment of the conception, "

I

am

Brahman
Rule
about
S'astra

"

.

.

86
the

traditional
. .

usage

in

accord with

...
.

86

Tri-s'ikhi

brahmanopanisad

.

.88-115

Questions relating to the Atman, the
the like

Everything

is

of S'lva

... ....
.

Brahman and
.

88 88

The coming into being of all the world out Brahman The division of the one mass into the many The variants of ether and other elements
.

.....
.

of the

89
.

89

Their diverse ranges of functioning

The

functions of the subtile elements

... ...
.

.

90
90
91

Division into Adhyatmic and the like

.

.

91

expounded by the functioning of the knower TKe creation, from the Brahman ending with Paficlis

What

karaija

The

creatioif of

and the manimate

...... .....
.

92

92
93

the world consisting of the animate

CONTENTS
The The

xili

four states

northern and southern courses

Gnosis, which brings about immediate release

Yoga, the
Gnosis

means

...... ......
.
. .

PAGE
94
95

95 96 96

to be adopted for the acquisition of

Karma -yoga and J Sana -yoga
acquisition of

.

.

Astariga-yoga, the expedient to be employed for the

Brahman The ten-fold Yama-s and Niyama-s The Asana-s according to the Hatha-yoga method
Rule relating to the control of breath
after

....
the
fire
. .

knowledge of the non-qualified
97 97 98

going
.

through the preliminary purification of the Nadi-s

100 100

The The The The The The

real

form of the region of

position of the navel

.

.

101
101

Jiva

moving
form
of

m

the cluster of Nadi-s

position of the Kupdalini and its function
real

101

the cluster of Nadi-s in the middle

of the

body
of the Nadi-s antecedent to the purification

102
103

vital airs circulating in the Nddi-s

Knowledge

of the Nadi-s

104

The

place for the practice of
to
It
.

Yoga and

the rule relat

mg

Mere Kumbhaka with the Cin mudra Praqayama
Praijayama for purifying the Nadi-s

.....
...

105 105 105

106
107 107 108

The

fruit of

PraqSyama

Destruction of disease through control of breath

Conquest of the mind by the Saii-mukhi-mudra

The course taken by the Prapa The attainment of Yoga through knowledge
course of Pra^a

.....

109

of the

109
110

The withdrawal

of the

Praqa from the seats of Mannan

wv

THE YOGA UPANI^DS
PAGE

The manner of Dhara^a The holding of the five elements
.

.

.

.111
Ill

in the limbs of the

body

The

meditation of Aniruddha and others in the seats

of Prthivi

and others and the

fruit thereof

.

.

112 112
113

Meditation on the

Parmatman and

the fruit thereof

.

Consciousness of Vasu-deva transcending the Turiya
Meditation on the qualified

.

Meditation on the non-difTerentiated

Even

the knowledge of
.

Brahman Brahman the qualified Brahman
.

.

.114
.

.

114

is

pro-

ductive of liberation

.

.

.

.114

is'anopanisad

.

CONTENTS

XV
PAGE

Study of the established truth

.

122
123 123
123

Modesty
Faith

Prayer

....
.

The

nine postures

124

Svastika

124
124

Go-mukha Padma
Virasana

...
.
.

.

.

124
.

.

125 125

Simhasana
Bhadrasana

.

.

125
.

Muktasana

126
126 126

Mayurasana
Sukhasana
.

.

The

fruit of the

mastery of posture

127 127

Dimension

of the

body

The enumeration of the Nadi-s The position and form of the Kugdalt The position of the Nadi-s The flow of the vital air through the Nadi-s The functions of the vital airs The deities presiding over the Nadi-s The transit of the Sun and the Moon in the Nadi-s The course of the Sun of Praqa through the Nadi-s The praiseworthiness of the internal Tirtha-s Seeing S'lva in the Atman Becoming the Brahman by the sight of the Brahman
.

128
128

129
130
131

131

132
.

132
133

.

134
134
135

Purification of the Nadl-s

.

Symptoms

of the successful

accomphshment

of purifi.

cation of the Na^i-s
Purification of one's

136

own Atman
.

'137
137

Description of Praijayama
Description of Puraka and others

.139
.

What

are accomplished from

Praqayama

.

139

XVI

THE YOGA UPANI§ADS
PAGE
Varieties of Praijayama having curative virtues

140

Conquest

of

Vayu by

practice
.

of

the Sag-mukhi.

mudra Symptoms

.

.

141

of the conquest of vital air

.

143

Attainment

of

Gnosis,

through the destruction of
the cultivation of detachment,

diseases and

sm and

as a result of the conquest of vital airs

143

Description of Pratyahara and
Fruit of Pratyahara
.

its
,

diverse forms
.

144
145

.

Pratyahara characterized by the retention of breath
Pratyahara with the sanction of the Vedanta
.

145
146

Dharana Dharana

m

the five elements

146 147

in the

Atman

.

Meditation on the qualified

Meditation on the unqualified

Brahman Brahman

148 148 148

The fruit of meditation The real form of Samadhi The Brahman alone, the residuum Summing up
. .
.

149
149 150

Dhyana-bindOpanisad
The greatness of deep meditation on the Brahman The subtlety and the ali-pervadmg nature of Brahman The form of the Pranava
Rule
for meditation

151-171
151
the

152
153

on the Praqava

154 155
.

Praijava-dhyana with Pranay&ma
Praijava-dhyana by a different method
Meditation on the qualified

155 156

Brahman
its fruit

.

Meditation on the trinity of gods Meditation in the heart and

156 157

The merging of Brahman* The six-fold Yoga

....
Praija

m

the resting place of the

158 158

CONTENtS
The The The

m
AGE
.
. .

four postures
seat of the Yoni
real

.

.

form of the four plexuses Muladhara and
159
160 160

others.

The group of Na^i-s The ten vital airs, Pra^a and others The dependence of the Jiva on the Prana and the Apana The working m unison of the Prana and the Apana during Yoga
.
.

...... ... ...... ......
. . .
. .

,158 .158

.

161

161

Ajapa-hamsa-vidya

.

.

.161
.

By awakening
The awakening
observances

the

Kuijdahni

is

accomplished the
.

breaking open of the doors of liberation
of the Kutjdalini

162

by celibacy and other
163
.

The

three kinds of Bandha-s
. .

163
164

Practice of the Khe-cati-mudra

.

The accomplishment
Khe-cari
.

of

Vajroli,
.

by the practice of
164
of the

Becoming a Jivan-mukta by knowledge
of the

union
165

two kinds

of

Bindu

.

The The

practice of the
direct

Seeing the

Maha-mudra manifestation of the Atman m the heart Paramatman, by the application of the Nada
• • . . .

166 166 169

NADA-BINDOPANISAD

.172-180
.

The The The
The

real

form of the Vairaja-praijava
Vairaja-vidya

172
173

fruit of the

real

form of the Praijava composed of four chief
.

Matra-s
details of

173
twelve
diflferetit

the

M&tra-s

of

the
.

*

Praijava taken individually and collectively
Benefits

174

derived by

votaries
.

on
.

their

dying during
.
.

particular Matr&-s

174

.

.

ivili

THE YOGA UPANI§ADS
PAGE
real

The
of

form of the unquahfied Brahman and the
It

knowing
into

...
.

fruit

175

Inquiry

the existence
of a

or

non-existence of the

previous

Xarma

man

of Gnosis

.175
177 178 179

Application of the mind to the Nada, the means of
attaining the knowledge of the Turlya-turlya

The power of sound to captivate the mind The real form of the Nada of the final resort The attainment of Videha-mukti by the Yogin-s who are perched on the Nada
.
.

180

Pas'upata-brahmopanisad
Seven queries
world
relating
to the

.

lSl-197

Supreme Ruler
.

of the

.

181

Answers

to the

seven queries

182

Definition of the performer and others officiating in
the sacrifice of the creation

182

The The

sacrifice of application of the

mind

to the

Nada

183

exposition of the

Paramatman being
. .

of the state

of the

Hatnsa

.183
Brahma184

Similarity between the YajBa-sutra and the

sutra

.

...
to
.

The Brahmaija
yajSa
.

alone

qualified
.

perform Brahma185
is

Of

the

Hamsa,

that

is
.

the

Praijava,
.

the sacrifice,
.
.

that IS the

Brahman

185

Mental

sacrifice of the
.
.

form of the union with the
.
.

Brahman The application

186

of the

mind

to the

Haipsa and Pratjava
sacrifice
.
.

without differentiation

—the internal
.

1

86

The The

Hamsaf threads Hamsatma-vidya alone, the liberation
ninety-six
superiority
of

.187
.
.

sacrifice

•-....
.

187

the

internal

over the external

188

.

CONTENTS

xix

PAGE

The A^va-medba of the form of J&ana-yajna The radiance of the Taraka-hatnsa The attainment of the Brahman through the concep.

.

189
189

.

tion of its

form per se

The

manifestation of the world in the

Maya
The

....
Brahman
is
.

.

.189
190
191

Rule regarding meditation on the Haipsarka-pranava
rousing into activity of the organs of sense
is

the
.

work of iVvara, the supreme consciousness Whatever is other than the Atman is the outcome

Maya
reality

....
of the

.

191

of
.

The non-occurrence The attainment the Atman
There
is

Truth and other means of attainmg the Para-vidya
resort tq nothing else for the

Atman

To

...... ......
.

192

Maya

in

the

Atman,

m

193

of the

Paramatman by
.

the

knower

of

.

.

.193
.

195

knower

of the

195

the

knower

of the

Brahman
.

there

is
.

nothing what.

ever as prohibited food

.196
.

The seeing by Atman of all

the
.

man
.

of Gnosis of the state of the
.

.

,

197
198-216

Brahma-vidyopanisad

.

.

The

indication of the

contains the esoteric significance of the

vidya

.......
Pranava
to bear

Brahman by

the Pranava,

which
198
199

Brahma-

The

amplification of the four Matra-s of the

Breaking through the Nadi-s and the Sun by

Su^umga
of the

on them

Attainment of Liberation by the syipphoqy of the sound

Pranava

.....
.

....
.

.

bnngmg
200

200

Exposition of the fcal for^n of the Jiva

200
201

Exposition of the cause of bondage and liberation

.

XX

THE YOGA UPANI^ADS
The attainment
Rule
of

the Parames'vara possible only

through Hamsa-vidya
for devotion to the
attainability of

....
. . .

PAGE
202 203

The

the Veda-s and the

Guru of Haipsa-vidya the Paramatman solely through Guru

Discriminating between the
of the

Atman

.....
finite

.

.204
204

and the

infinite

forms

The Yoga, having
qualified for
it

to be kept a profound secret

from
206

the uninitiated, could be bestowed only on those best
. . . .
.

Even

for

one possessed of the mere knowledge of that
is

science there

not the possibility of being smeared

with vice and virtue

The three kinds of preceptors The performance of Sacrifice m
of the

supreme Being, by applying one's

Pranava-hatpsa

..... .....
.
.

207

.

.207
208

the immediate presence
self to

the

The attainment

of

becoming one with the Brahman
209
.

through the knowledge obtained from Haipsa-yoga

Whence
The
of the

could the

Hamsa

be got

?

.

.

209

practice of

Samadhi preceded by the memorizing
. .

Hamsa-mantra

.

.210
.

Exposition of the posture assumed by the

Hamsa
.

210

The mode of practising the Hamsayoga The real form of the Atman to be ruminated upon by
the

.211

Hamsa-yogin

,

.

.

.

.213
217-245
.

Mandala-brahmanopanisad

.

The desire to know the truth of the Atman The announcement regarding the subtle Yoga
.

217

•eight Afiga-8

...
.

of the

The four-fold Yama-s The ninefold Niyama-s

,

....
.

.

.

.

.

.217 .218
218 219

Petailed enunciation of the

sijc

Ai5ga-s,

Asana and others

CONTENTS

XXI

The
of

fruit of the

Yoga
at the

......
.

PAGE
220 220
220

knowledge of the subtle eight Anga-s

Getting rid of the five inherent defects of the body

Looking

Taraka and the

fruit

borne by

it

The attainment
Seemg through

of the Taraka, through seeing
.

by means
221
.

of the three kinds of introspection
internal introspection

221
,

Seeing through external introspection

.

.

222 222

Seeing through intermediate introspection

Yoga of two Amanaska
Rule as

kinds, being divided into

to the application of the

The first Taraka The second Taraka The end of the second Taraka

.... .... .....
Taraka and
.

.

.

223

mind

to

Yoga

224

224
224

is

S'ambhavi-mudra
.

.

224
225

Definition of internal introspection

.

The controversy regarding the ultimate object of internal introspection among the adherents of diverse
faiths
.

.

.

.

.

225

Rule

relating

to

the seeing of the

Atman which

is

closely
internal

interwoven

with

the

ultimate objects of

introspection spoken of by the followers of

diverse faiths

The attainment
planted in

Brahmanhood the Atman
of
all,
.

....
of one

226 226

who

is

firmly

The Jyotir-atman,
basic support of

the radiant Atman,
is

which

is

the

the object of internal intros.

pection

.

227 228

The
Its

fruit of the

knowledge

of the Jyotir-atman

attainment through the Satpbhavi

.

228
.

Rule relating to the full-moon-look

°

228 229

S'ambhavl, "the end of the Purnima look

The accomplishment
indications

......
. .

of the

S'ambhavl-mudra and

its

229

1

XXii

THE YOGA UPA^IgADS
PAGE
Experiencing the inner light which
the Pranava and,
its is

the real
.
.

form of 230
230
230

indications

The attainment of the Pranava through the Satj-mukimudra The knower of the Pranava not bound by obligation to
. . .

perform religious

rite of

any kind

Accomplishment
mani
state
laid

of

non-mindedness through the Un.

231

Procedure

down for worshipping the Amanaska state
of Kaivalya

23

The attainment the Brahman The real form of

by the contemplation of
232

.

knower of the Brahman Difference between Susupti and Samadhi
the

233
233

The knower of the Brahman becoming the Brahman The attainment of liberation through meditation of the Brahman, preceded by the giving up of all volition

234

234 235 235
235

The

five states, Jagrat

and others

.

.

Desire, the basis of proclivity to worldly activities

Desire leading to inactivity

Mode

of crossing the ocean of worldly existence
is

Demonstrating that the mind

and liberation

Becoming a knower

by the practice of Nir-vikalpa-samadhi

The attainment

form of ceaseless Bhss The non mindedness associated with the Saipbhavlmudra Attainment of non mindedness on seeing the indications of the Paramatman Then, the turning away from worldly existence The destruction of the mind through the dissolution
.

.... .... ....... ....
the cause of bondage
of the

.

236 237 238 238

Brahman
of

of a higher order
.

of the state

the

Brahman

of the

239
239

240

of

the

inner
.

senses,
.

by having recourse
.
. .

to

the

Taraka-path

.241

CONTENTS
Unmani Brahman

XXllI

PAGE

By

the attainment of the

state,

the Yogin

himself becoming the

241
its fruit

The knowledge of the five-iold ether and Summary of all the requisite equipments
Rule relating
in

242
243

for

Raja-yoga

to the practice of the
lost in the

mind

finally resting

By

the practice of

of

Paramatman Amanaska is accomplished being reduced to the Brahman
and being

243
the state

The

greatness of the accomplished Yogin in the

aska state

......
.

244

Aman245

Maha-vAkyopanisad
Those
eligible for being

.

246-250

imparted instruction regardmg

the non- vicarious experience of the Bliss of the

Atman
.

246 246

The The
The

real

form and functions of Vidya and Avidya
of

manifestation

the

Paramatman through
. .

the
.

practice of the
real

Hamsa-vidya

247

form of the state known as the knowledge of
.
. .

the truth

.

249
.

Meditation on the radiant Praijava-haipsa

250
250
251-278

The

fruit of the

Vidya

of the radiance of the

Hamsa
.

,

YOGA-KUNDALY-UPANISAD
The

.

three expedients to be resorted to for the conquest

of the \ ital air

Temperance

m

food

The Padma and VajrSsana postures The rousing of the power and the two ways
sing
It

The rousing of the Sarasvati The varieties of Praijayama The Surya-kumbhadta The Ujjayi-kumbhaka The S'itali-kumbhaka
.

..... ..... ...... .... .... ..... .....
. .

251

252
252

of practi-

252
253

254
254 255 255

.

.

.

XXIV

THE YOGA OPANISADS

The Bhastra-kumbhaka.
Rule relating
to

the three kinds of Bandha-s
. .

The Mula-bandha The Uddiyana-bandha The Jalamdhara-bandha
bhaka practice

.

Prescription regarding the

The

obstacles to the practice of

them

..... ......
number
of times of
.
.

.... ....
. .
. . . . .

PAGE
256

256

.257 .257
258 258
259 260

Kum-

Yoga and overcoming

The rousing of the KuQdalim by the practice of Yoga The Kuijdalini, reaching the thousand-spoked lotus by
bursting through the three knots

260

The

dissolution of

Praqa and others and the spreading
.

outwards of dissolved ones

Experiencing everything as Consciousness alone during

Samadhi
Samadhi-yoga

.

The Khe-cari Vidya The extraction of the king
Mantra
.

By

muttering the Mantra, the Khe-can-yoga

fully

accomplished
to

The method
cari
.

be adopted for the practice of the Khe.
.

Difference in seeing due to difference
the lunar fortnight, such as

and Purijima

...... ..... ..... ......
. . . .

.261
262
263
264

,>

.

.

of Mantra-s, the Khe-carl
. . .

266
267

is

success-

.

.

.

.

268

m

the phases of

Ama-vasya, Pratipad

271

Rule regarding the PHrijima vision

By

the practice of the control of the vital breath

attained the Viraj-form

....
will be

.

.

.

272
273

is

Without the practice
festation of one's

of

Yoga, there

no mani. .

The knowledge

of the

own Atman Brahman

Guru's precept

.....
to be derived

274 274

from the

.

CONTENTS
The bearing

XXV
PAGE

of the

Brahman on

the proper functioning

of the sense-organ of speech

275
universe and other

The bearing of the Brahman on the phenomena The Brahman has no counterpart
.

...
.
. .

275

.

276
276

Meditation which
the

is

employed as the means of attaining
.

Brahman

.

Liberation while yet living and liberation after dis-

embodiment

.

.

277
279-300

YOGA-COpS-MANY-UPANISAD
The
six-fold stages of

Yoga
about the body essential for

279

Knowledge

of the truth

the successful accomplishment of

Yoga
.

.

.

279

The Cakra-s, Muladhara and

others

.

.

280 280
281 281

Sight of the great radiance at the seat of the genitals

.

Description of the Svadhisthana and other Cakra-s

.

The The The

great Cakra of Nadi-s

.

places of the Nadi-s
vital

.

.

.282
their

airs
.

that

move
.

in

the

Nadi-s and

functions

282

The

pulsating of the Nadi-s with the Praija or otherIS

wise,

an index of the pulsating of the Jiva or
.
. •

otherwise

283 283

The meditation on the Ajapa Gayattri
Kutjdalinl

.

.

.

Breaking open the doors of liberation through
.

The three Bandha-s The Khe-cari Mudra
powers
.

... .....
.

the
.

284
285

.

.

.

286

Description of a Yogin endowed
. •

with Vajroli

and other
• •

The Mahi-mudra The Praijava-prayer The Brahman, of the form of the import
.

... ...
of the

.

287 288 289
289

Pra^ava

D

XXVI

THE YOGA UPANISADS
PAGE
291

The meaning of the several limbs of the Pra^ava The Brahman radiant at the top of the Turiyomkara The fourth Hamsa, the import of the Prapava The muttering of the Pranava, making the absolute Atman manifest The necessity for the control of vital air even in the
. .

292
293 294

votary of the Pranava

The accomplishment
tion of the

of

Nadi-s

..... .... .....
Praqayama from
the purifica.
. .

.

294

295
295

Description of Pranayama The purification of the Nadi-s The PraJjayama with the preliminary
. .

.

.

296

regulation
.

of
.

Matra-s

.

.

296 298

The

fruit of

each of the subdivisions of Yoga severally

and

their relative

importance

.

.

.

By
The

the practice of the

Sag-mukhi Mudra
is

tinctly manifest

practice

of

diseases

......
Praijayama
the
dispeller
of
is

...
.

is

Nada

dis.

299

all

299
300
301-325

In the practice of Pranayama, the withdrawal of the

organs of sense

necessary
4

.

.

YOGA-TATTVOPAN1SAI5

.

.

The The

desire to

know

the eight-fold

Yoga
attainment
is

.

301
301

truth concerning the
IS

Yoga,

difficult of

What

apparently the state of the Jiva

only the
.

Paramatman The Jiva, divested

302

of

the chciracter of material exist-

ence, attains the state of the

Paramatman
methods of acquisi.
.

303

The

practice simultaneously (of the
.

. tion) of knowledge and Yoga The real form of knowledge Yoga of four kinds, Mantra-yoga and Arambha and other stages of Yoga

304 304
305 305

.

.

others
.

,

.

.

CONTENTS
Description of Mantra-yoga

XXVU
PAGE
305

Description of Laya-yoga

The stages of Ha{ha-yoga The important parts of Yama, Niyama and Asana Overcoming the obstacles to the practice of Yoga The right sort of Matha and Asana, fit for PraQayama The mode of commencement of Praqayama PrSqayama with due antecedent measurement in
.
.

.... .... ....
.

306
306

306 307 307 308 308 309 309

Matra-s
Purification

......
its

.

of the

Nadi-s, the benefit derived during

the interval and

symptoms
diet
t

•.

.

Observance regarding
practice of

and the hke during the
.

Yoga

.

.

The

successful attainment of

Kevala-kumbhaka
.

.

310 310
311

Pras\eda and other Siddhi-s

.

Prana\a japa, the preliminary step
of obstacles to

for the destruction
.

Yoga

.

Ghata

the state of

eflfort
.

.

.

.

312

Description of Pratyahara
.

.

.

The form of Dharaqa The Siddhi-s attainable through Dharana and
. .

.312 .312
the rule
.

relating to their being preserved as secrets

The Paricaya
five

stage

....
.
. .

.

313 314 315

Dharaija-s of the five Brahman-s

in the regions of the

elements

.

Meditation of the qualified kind

.

.

317

Accomplishment

of
.

Samadhi, out of meditation of the
.

unqualified kind

.

.

.317
,318

The
the

renunciation

and

assumption of the body at
successfully accomplished

pleasure by one

who has

Yoga
.

Description of Maha-bandha

.

Description of Mah&-vedha

.

.

.

The

real

form

of the Khe-cari

.

.

.

.319 .319 .319

XXviii

THE YOGA UPANI^ADS
PAGE
real

The

form of the three Bandha-s and
its

their fruits
.

.

320 320
321 321

Description of Viparlta-karatji and

results
.

.

The real form of Vajroli The real form of Amaroli The completion of Raja-yoga
Worship
of the

.

...
. . .

.321
322 322
is

Exposition of the cause of detachment

Pranava

m the

lotus of the heart

The

cessation of the functioning of all organs

the
.

expedient for attaining the

Atman

YOGA-S'lKHOPANISAD

.

...
.

.

324
326-396

Seeking the path to liberation

.

.

326

The path to liberation difficult of access The Brahman not attainable by mere
S'astra-lore

The Jivahood
the like

of the

S'lvatva of the Jiva devoid

...
men
of

.... ....
Brahman
of the defects of lust

.

326
327
327

proficiency in

and

.328
Yoga
.

Absolution from defects through jHana and

329
330

The

real
is

form of Gnosis and
little

its fruits

.

There

difference

between the man of spurious

knowledge and the ignorant

man

.

331
is

To

the

man

of

Gnosis of the spurious variety there

no
332 333 334

accomplishment of liberation without the aid of Yoga
Endless misery of
variety

....
of individuality
is

Gnosis of the spurious
.

The development
root of
all

ruin

For one who has accomplished Yoga, there ensues the power of doing, undoing and otherwise doing, as
,

.....
by
itself at
. .

the

well as liberation while yet living

,

335

Imposture by men of Gnosis of the spurious variety The emancipation of such men attainable only through
association with Siddha-s

....

.

336
337

CONTENTS
The mutual
and cause

XXIX

relationship of

......
JSana and Yoga as
. .

PAGE
337 338

effect

Yoga alone, Knowledge
purified

the highway to liberation
of

the

Atman dawns
.

only in a
.

mind
.

by Yoga

.

The practice of Yoga is the first duty The impartmg of Yoga-s'ikha

....
.

339 339 340

.

By

the practice of Yc^a, there

is

the direct manifesta. .

tion of

Parama-pada, the highest state
form of meditation to the

341

Attainment of Punya-loka by one
to the prescribed

who cannot conform
full

extent

The

recognition of his

Yogin
Sitting at

...
. .

342

own Atman by

the accomplished

.

342 343

the feet of a

breath, for the practice

Guru who has conquered of Yoga
.

bis

Rousing into activity of the Sarasvati
Kun^ali

Piercing through the three Granthi-s by rousing the

.....
. .
. .

Na^

.

343

343

Rule relating to the practice of the four kinds of

Kumbhaka-s

.

344
345

Description of the Surya-bheda-kumbhaka
Description of the Ujjayi-kumbhaka Description of the S'itali-kumbhaka

.

345 346
.

Description of the

Bhastnka-kumbhaka

346 345 347 347
34g

Rule relating to the three Bandha-s

The Miila-bandha The Ud^iyana-bandha The J&laqidhara-bandha
the three knots by

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

Attainment of the NirviWalpa state by breaking through

means
time
the

of the Kun^ali

power

.

348 349 350

The SusumijS forming
final resort for all

the path to liberation
.
.

and the
.

The

acquisition

of

knowledge of the Brahman

through Susumi)&-yoga

....

XXX

THE YOGA UPANI^DS
PAGE

The

successful attainment

m

due course of the form
.

of the Brahman by the practice of Yoga Maha-yoga of the character of the four-fold Yoga

.

351

of

Mantra and the
Mantra-yoga

like
. .

.

.

352

.

352

Hatha-yoga
Laya-yoga
Raja-yoga

.

.

352
353

.

.

.

.353
.

.

The common feature of the various kinds of Yoga and
the attainment of liberation by

means
is

of

Yoga

.

353

The manner
sequent

in

which success

achieved in a sub-

incarnation

by the practitioner who dies

before successful accomplishment of

Yoga

.

354
.

Only by Yogic practice there
over

is

liberation

354

Benefits accruing to the Yogin, such as overlordship
all,

liberation while yet living

and the

like

355
arti-

Rule relating
ficial

to the safeguarding of natural
.

and

psychic powers
of a Yoga-siddha

356
357

The index
his

and a Jivan-mukta

Attainment of Videha-mukti by the Jnanin even when

body remains

.

.

358
358

Description of the Microcosm as a S'lvalaya

.

Description

in

detail

of the six

centres
.

Muladhara
.
.

and others and the four Pitha-s

359
361

He who
The

is

competent to impart the knowledge of Yoga

greatness

Pranava

...
of

the

Mlila-mantra known as the
.

Explanation as to

mantra
Explanation as
.

Nada-hnga

Explanation as

to

The Prapava
the

being of the nature of the Pljha and

Bmdu

...... .... ......
why
it

361

is

of the quality of

a Mula-

362

to

why

it is

of the nature of being the

362
363

why

it is

of the quality of a thread

.

363

CONTENTS
Expedient to be adopted for the attainment of the

XXXI

Praqava-brahman

....
is

PAGE
363
364

The Brahman, being
The knowability

of the form of the gross, the of a three-fold character

subtle and the seed-hke,

of the S'uddha-tattva only through

the practice of the

Atma-mantra

364
365
365

Signs of manifestation of the Para-tattva

The greatness of the investigahon of the Nada The occurrence of the knowledge of the Para>tattva, only through devotion to the Guru and Is^vara The four forms, Para, Pas'yanti, etc., of the Nada
brahman
Enunciation of the form of the Vaikhari

366
366 368

By

the

intuitive

perception of Vaikhari
.

is

attained

remarkable power of speech

368

The real form of the Paramaksara The attainment of the Para-brahman through thedevo tion to and the meditation on the Sabda-brahman
Falsity of the nature of the
J

369

370
371 371

iva

The Brahmanhood
of ruin

of the entire

Seeing things as apart from the Brahman, the cause

....

phenomenal world

372 372
373

Falsity of the

phenomenal world, wherein we function
impossibility of

The extreme
Attribution
of

the phenomenal world

apart from the

Brahman

the body and the like to the

Atman
374

through Ignorance

The body possessed
of Visiju

of the characteristics of a temple

375 375

Detailed description of the six plexuses and the four
Pifha-s
.

.

.

^

.

.

The real form of the Na^i-cakra The body of the Brahman, of the of Bmdu, Agni and Soma

....

376

three-fold character

378

XXXll

THE YOGA UPANI§ADS
PAGE
five
fires

Fancying the

and the

fruit thereof
'

.

378 379 379
of

Rousing the Kuijdalini
Practice of the Khe-cari

.

Mudra and
by

its fruit

Attainment

of

at oneness

the
.

conception

Narayana

in the

Sahasrara

380

Expedients for the attainment of the respective Siddhi-s

by the Yogm having recourse to the methods prescribed. Rule regarding the service of the preceptor
Greatness of the Yoga-s'ikha
psychic powers
. ,

380 382

382
383

Rule regarding the attitude of indifference towards
.

Rule regarding the mode of cultivating the Kutjdahni
S'akti.

383

Real form of the Susumna The Susumna, the main prop of all The awakening of the Para S'akti Meditation on the Paramatman

384
.

384
385

.

<

.

386

Attainment

of

liberation
in the

by the dissolution of the

PrSna and others

Adhara-brahman
of the deities,
is eflTected
.

.

387

By

meditating on the forms

Brahman
388 389 390

and others
into the

m

the plexuses,

the entrance
.

Brahma-randhra

Liberation of one whose inner senses are dissolved in
the

Brahma-randhra

The

....
.

greatness of Susumija-yoga

.

Clarification of the respective positions

assumed by the
390
391

power

of

supreme consciousness and the Jlva
of Harnsa-prayer

The manner
Liberation

by the Jiva, when under
difference

the control of the vital airs

and

bondage

due

position of the KuijdalinJ
Praijava, the support of all

The

Bondagfe and liberation, the results of the mobility and immobility of the mind

.... .... ... ....
to
in

the

392

392
392

.

CONTENTS
By
constantly dwelling on the thought that the mind

JOtxiii

PAGE
does not exist apart
direct

perception

tained

The
the

inseparable connection

mind

Close application to the
dissolution of the

Rule regarding the practice of breath -control along
with the mind

...... ...... .... .....
of

from one's own Atman, the
the

Brahman could be

at-

393

between the Praqa and
394
the

Nada

is

cause of the

mind

395

395
396
397-447

Without practice
of the

in

accordance with the instructions
is

Guru

there

no dawning of knowledge

VarAhopanisad

Various views regarding the number of the Tattva-s

The twenty-four Tattva-s The thirty-six Tatt\a-s The ntnety-six Tattva-s
Liberation only

.... .... ..... ....
.

.

397
398

398
399

through devotion to the Lord that
.

transcends the Tattva-s
P'ruit of the

400 400
402
alone

knowledge of the Tattva-s
of the

The knower

Brahman and

the really blessed soul

....
the

.

Atman

is

The form of the Bliss of the Atman The self-manifest nature of the Atman The incompatibility of the Atman with Maya and
.
.

.

402
403

progeny

Becoming the Brahman that is the Brahman

...... .....
.

.

its

403 403

of the

knower of

the

Atman

For the knower of the Atman, there is no bondage resulting from Karma ^ . Divergence between the wise man and the ignorant man in the matter of the view-points and positions
.
.

.

.

404

wherein they take their stand

.

.

.

404

CXXIV

THE YOGA UPANI§ADS
of

Th^ absence the Atman

....
bondage and

PAGE
.

liberation, forsooth, in

405 406 407 408 408
409

Concentration on the

Brahman and
.

the

Atman
.

for the
.

removal of bondage

.

Announcement regarding Upavasa which forms the means to the attainment of the Brahman Non-vicanous knowledge, the means to Jivan-mukti Rule relatmg to the giving up of the internal anxiety
.

.

about the Brahman

.....
.

Contemplation of the great Lord, the sole expedient to

ward

off all anxiety

.

.

.

The Brahman alone

lying

beyond the range of
.

all
.

creative imagination should be thought of

The Brahman
all states

nondiflferentiated within,

Becoming the Brahman through knowledge
determinate
Reflecting on

......
transcending
of the non. .

409
411

Brahman

,

.411
.

the oneness of the

Brahman, preceded
.

by the dissolution of worldly existence
non-diiferentiated from the innermost

412
413

Experience of the knower relating to the Brahman,

Atman
.

.

Meditating on the Nada, the means of Samadhi
Realization of the peerless

.

416

Rule relating to

silence,

Paramatman the means of the attainment

.

417
418

of
.

the state of remaining as consciousness alone

The

state of Existence,
.

Consciousness and Bliss of the
.

Lord

.

...

.

.

419

Devotion

to the

Lord, the means of liberation
the eyes of

.

.

419 420
421

Equality of

all in

God

.

.

.

The mind alone, the cause of the cycle of birth sand deaths.
Experiencing passion and the like in the non-atman,
the characteristic of a

knower

.

.

.

422
423

Of the seven stages

(of

knowledge), those of Jivan. .

mukti are of a four-fold character

.

CONTENTS
The
The The The
four-fold nature of "
.

XXXV
PAGE

A"
.

and others evolved out
, . ,

of the Praijava

controlling agencies of the gross and other varieties of " A " and others

various stages considered in relation to the limbs

of the

Pranava

..... .....
.

424 424
425

four kinds of Jivan-mukta-s

.

.

425 426 426
427

Pointing out the seven stages of knowledge
Detailed description of the seven stages

.

.

Demonstration of the distinction in the state of the
intellect in the

seven stages

Rule relating to the conception of the Brahman as

Atman

alone

... ...
. .

....

.

.

428

Description of a Jivan-mukta

Rule relating to the resting on the all-comprehensive

Brahman The exposition of the course adopted by birds and ants. The hallowed nature of the eye-glance of a knower of the Brahman
Knowledge
of the

Yoga

Number
Rule

...... ...... ....... ....
body essential
day
of breaths per
. .

429
430
43i

432
433 433
433

for the aspirant after

relating to the sustenance of the constituent ele-

ments for the avoidance of bodily wastage For the sustenance of the elements, should be practised the U^diyana-bandha The three kinds of Yoga known as Laya, Mantra and

Hajha The eight

subdivisions of

Varieties of

Yama

The

eleven postures

Description of the Cakra posture

Pra^^Sylma

...... ......
Yoga
.
.

....
.
.

434 434
435 435
.

and Niyaraa
.

.

.

.

435

.

.

436
436

Measurements of the body and

its

limbs

.

.

435

XXXVi

THE YOGA UPANI§ADS
of Nadi-s

The plexus

.....
.

PAGE
437 438 438
439 440

Rule relating to the practice of seeing the Turlya

The Yoga which forms
The Yoga-s which
Rule relating
to

the expedient to be employed
.

for beguiling the duration of one's life

are employed as

means
.

to acquire
.

bodily robustness and strength

the acquisition of the knowledge of

the aura of the body

.....
...
is

The

expedient of the Catus-patha-bandha,

Sarnputa.

yoga by

m a nut-shell

440

The attainment
step,

of the knowledge of the
.

Brahman
.

step

by the practice of Samputa

.441
442
.

Ascertaining the position of S'lva and S'akti

.

Pranayama along with the meditation of the Brahman The mode of practising the Yoga of piercing (through
the three knots)

....
Arambha and
Vidya and
.

442
443 445 446

The Pranava prayer The four-fold stages

for the

overcoming of obstacles
others

Fruit of the practice of this

ency attained therein

S'andilyopanisad

..... .....
. .

of Yoga,-

of the profici-

447
448-491

Enunciation of the eight stages of Yoga
Exposition of the ten kinds of Yama-s Exposition of the ten kinds of Niyama-s Exposition of the eight kinds of postures
Fruit of the successful acquisition of posture
Investigation into the

.

443

449
.

450
451

.

.

.

.

453 453

The measure

of the

number of Nadi-s Prana m the body
.

.

.

.

Rule relating to

Xhe

place of

fire

others

Description of the middle of the body, in the case of human and other beings

•..-..
.
.

Kumbhaka
in

.

454 454
454 454

the case

of

human

beings and

....

.

CONTENTS
The swirling of the Jiva in the plexus of the navel The form and functioning of the Kuq^hnl The fourteen Nadi-s The Susmuija Nadi The places of the other Nadi-s around the Susum^a The ten vital airs, Praqa and others, their places and
.

XXXVtl

PAGE
455 455 456
456 456

... .....
. .
.

.

functions

.

.

.

.

.

.457
.

Rule relating to the purification of the Nadi-s

.

459

Description of the person eligible for the [>erformance
of

Yoga and the monastery suitable for the practice Yoga The manner of commencing the Pranayama Rule relating to the practice of Pranayama for purifyof
. .

ing the Nadi-s

Symptoms
Nadi-s

noticed at the time of purification of the

..... ..... ......
. .

460

460
461
461

Pratiayama of the character of Pranava

462
462 463
463

The mode of meditating on the letters of the Pranava The mode of practising the Praijava The PrSijayama performed with the sole purpose of
purifying the Susumija

.

NadT

....
day
.

.

The number
Observance

of Praijayama-s to be performed every

464

Difference in the result

m accordance

with the practice
.

464
464
465 465

of diet during the period of practice

Rule relating to the Yogin's remaining intently devoted to the practice
.
.
.

From
The

the pure state of the Nadi-s

is

attainable the
. .

ecstatic state of the

necessity for the performance of the three Ban-

dha-s

Fruit of the intermingling of the
vital airs

The expedient
cranium

....... ......
.

mind

466

P^aQa and the Ajmna

466

to be adopted for the purification of the
.
.

.

*

,

.

.

466

XXXVill

THE YOGA UPANI9ADS
PAGE
467
467

The Ujjayi Priflayama. The Sitkara Pranayama The S'itala Pranayama The two-fold Kumbhaka, accessory and essential The fruit from the practice of Kumbhaka Attainment of the Vaisijavi Mudra Direct vision of the Brahman through the attainment

....
Brahman

467
468 468
468

of the Khe-cari

Attainment of the ecstatic state through the-Khe

Means

of attaining the

duration

Attainment

mmd

..... ...... ......
carl

469 470

.

non-differentiated by

470
471

of aloneness

by the dissolution

of the

Dissolution of the

mmd

through Yoga and

Suspension of the throbbing of the Praija out of the
dissolution of the

mmd

....
.

J nana

.

472 472
473

Suspension of the throbbing of the mind with the suspension of the throbbing of the vital air
.

The

various means employed

for bringing about the
.

suspension of the throbbing of the Pra^a vital air

473
475

Reaching the highest
of the

state,

through the bursting open
of

Susum^a Nadi, by means
into the

Kumbhaka
.

Rule relating to the entrance of the Prana along with
the

mmd

Susumna

475
.

Attainment of the Khe-cari-mudra

.

476 476

Means Means

of attaming the external Khe-cari Siddhi
to

be employed for the conquest of the Praija

vital air

during practice

....
.

477
478 478

Means

to be

employed

for

the non-vicarious attain. .

ment of one's own Atman knmunity from all disease, attainable through a special kind of Dharaga Acquisition of various psychic powers by Saipyama

.....
and the hke
. .

over the

tip of the%iose

.

478

CONTENTS

xxxix

PAGE
Pratyahara of
five kinds

The five kinds of Dharaqa-s Dhyana of two kinds
The, real form of Samadhi

....

482 482
483 483

The real form of the non-qualified Brahman The non-demonstrabihty of the Brahman The Brahman beyond the range of speech and the mind The. Paramatmanhood of all things From the instruction imparted by the Guru is the attainment of the knowledge of the Atman of all The state of being the Atman alone without a counter part, of the Brahman The three forms of the Brahman The indivisible Brahman The divisible Brahman The partly divisible and partly indivisible Brahman
.

484 484
485

485

486 486 487 487

487
488

Definition of absolute Existence as the state of the

Para Brahman
Definition of absolute Existence as the state of the

489 489

Atman
Definition
of

absolute

Existence

as the

state

of

Mahes'vara
Definition of absolute Existence as the state of Datta

489

treya

...

Fruit flowing from the knowledge of the derivation of
these

names

Hamsopanisad
The
the

esoteric nature of the

Brahma-vidya

Determination of the form of a person
tion into the

The form
thereof

of

Hamsa-vidya the Haipsa and the

..... ..... .... ......
.

.

490
490
492-502

.

.

Hamsa-vidya leading unto
eligible for initia-

492
.

493 494

fruit of the

knowledge

THE YOGA UPANIJADS
PAGE
Yoga, the means to attain the knowledge of the Haipsa.

By
IS

conceiving of the Haipsa in the lotus of the heart,

seen the Turyatman
of prayer with the

....
.

494
496
497

The mode
Seeing
qualified

the

Paramatman through meditation on

Hamsa

Experiencing the ten kinds of Nada-s through the A}apa
prayer

..... ......
the
.

Ajapa-hamsa-mantra

499

499 500
500
501

Rule relating to the practice of the tenth sound alone
Fruit flowing from experiencing the respective sounds

.

The manifestation of the state of Atman through the dissolution

the Breihman and the
of the

mind

.

.

LIST OF CORRECTIONS
Page

xlii

THE YOGA UPANI^DS
Page

;

FOREWORD
Sanltana-dharma, comprising the religious tradi> tion and conduct in life of the Indo-Sryans, is based on the four Vedas, ^c, Yajus, SSman and Atharvan, the treasure-mines of knowledge, handed down to posterity from time immemorial by the ancient Ftsis.

The

The Yajur-veda
and
Kfsija-yajus.

is

made up

of two parts, S'ukla-jrajus

To

these Vedas are ascribed several
is

branches (S'Ikhas) and their number
;

Yajur-veda 109 ?g-veda~21 SSma-veda 1000 and Atharva-veda 50. These S^kh3s are said to contam one Upanisad each. The aggregate number of the Upanisads thus comes to 1180, of which only 108
;

as follows:

are extant at the present day.

We

propose, in the

first

instance, to deal with those Upanisads which

have a
in

bearing on Yoga and give a rendering of them English, arranging them in the Alphabetical order
their

of

names. According

to

ancient

orthodox

usage, certain

known before the commencement and
Mantras,
chanting
of

as SSnti -mantras, are recited bothafter completion of th«|

the

Upanisads, such Mantras varying

according as the Upanisad

chant^

belongs to one

:

:

!

IV

or

other

of

the
five

five

different

classes

mentioned

above.
classes

Mantras with the respective of the Vedas to which the Upanisads besuch
given here-under, along with their English

The

long

are

rendering
1.

The

S'anti-mantra

for the

Upanisads of the

Rg-veda

^ 5nf<T:
My
Speech has
other senses).

5nf^: 5nf^:

II

its rest

on
has

my Mind
its

(along with the

My Mind
in

(along with the other senses).

O

Speech Radiant (Brahman)
rest

on

my

!

Manifest

Thyself
!

Mind) of mine

(O Speech and Do Ye have the power of bringing
(Mind).

my

(unto me) the (knowledge of the) Veda, on

(O Mind') Do not what I have learnt (O Brahman !) By this knowledge gathered by me, I meditate on Thee days and nights. I shall ever
speak Rta (the
«

my behalf. carry away (from my memory by) listening (to my preceptor),

truth).

I

shall ever

speak Satya

(in

(Brahman) protect me. May that (Bfahman) protect him that taught Protect me (me) protect him that taught (me). Om Peace Peace Peace
praise of the Truth).

May

that

:

;

!

!

!

!

!

!

!:

!

2.

The S^ti-mantra

for the

Upani$ads of the

S'ukla-yajur-veda

^
within)
full
IS

5rTP?f*. 9rrP?f:

5n^:
is full.

ii

That (which hes beyond)
full.

This (which

lies

one
full
! !

IS

Than the (latter) full one, the (former) greater. Out of the full one, after reahzing

the

one, the full one alone remains.

Om

!

Peace

!

Peace
3.

Peace

'

!

The S^nti-mantra
;

for the

Upanisads of the

Krsna-yajur-veda

JTR^ft^W^

I

*?T

f^fl^

I

V* 5n1^: 5rrf^-

5n15rl:

||

May
both,
sustain

(the

Brahman

of the Upanisads) protect us

(the pupil

and the teacher) together.

May

(It)

(the fiuit of learning) of us

both together.

Let

us

both together acquire the capacity

(for learning).

Effective
other).
4.

may

our study prove.

May we
Peace
'
!

not hate (each

Om
The
'-

!

Peace

!

Peace

'

!

S'anti-mantra for the Upanisads of the

Sania-veda

:

!

!

VI

5n^5r:

II

May
(the

(the

unseen Powers, Viraj,

etc.,)

nourish

my

seeker's)

hmbs,
etc.).

(so

as to conserve them in their
of) speech, vital

proper posture,
airs, eyes,

(May my power
their
etc.).

ears
it

and

all

other organs of sense (be useful),

as far as

lies

in

power,
All
is

(in

S'ravana

Manana

—study,

reflection,

but the

Brahman

expounded by the Upanisads. May I never renounce May (that) Brahman (also) not re(that) Brahman. nounce me. May there be non-renunciation. May
non-renunciation be mine.
of conduct) as are

May

such

Dharmas
'

(lines

propounded
in

me, who

am

absorbed
! !

Upanisads be m that Atman. Om Peace
in the

Peace
5,

!

!

Peace

The

S'anti-mantra

for

the Upanisads of the

Atharva-veda

f^sf^^WTta^^:
%^^v.
'sf^
I

I

5«Rt?T

^^
I

«l^:

|

^^
ii

^

^^
!

^
I

^•.

"^ f^^^:
II

^f^ ^nsn^ ^R k^Pi:
5nf^: 5nf^:

^
O

n^Tfc!^^

^ ^nf^'.

Gods

May we

(the seekers)

hear with (our) ears

the auspicious (sayings of the VedSnta).

May we, the performers of the (Dhyana-) yajfia, (sacrifice of the form meditation), see with our (internal) senses the of

Vll

auspicious (forms of the Powers of their quests).

May
away

we,

who

are possessed of (internal) organs (drawn

from their ordmary functions and) concentrated on the subtle ones, attain an existence (free from disease, etc.,)
of

a duration prescribed by the
Indra,

Deva

(Praja-pati).

May

who

is

heard of by the ancients (m their

sacred books) (contribute towards) our welfare.

May

the omniscient Pusan (contribute towards) our welfare.

May

Tarksya,
our

unhampered
welfare.

in

his

flight

(contribute

towards)

May
!

Brhas-pati
!

contribute
!
!

towards our welfare.

Om

Peace

Peace

Peace

!

!

1

Note The numbering
of

of the sections

m

the translation agrees

with the Adyar Library Edition of

the Text with the commentary

Upanishad Brahmayogin.

ADVAYA-TARAKOPANISAD
[This Upanisad, which
veda, fixes
goal in the
is

the Fifty-third

among

the 108 Upanisads and forms part of the S'uJda-yajurits

Brahman and

the

Brahman

only and seeks to expound the essentials of Raja-yoga.]

Eligibility for Taraka-yoga

Then and
for the his senses

for that reason,

we

presently expound,

sake of the Yati (ascetic),

who

has controlled

S'ama and others, the Advaya-tarakopanisad, (the Upanisad with which to attain the Brahman by crossinj^ ovei Samsara by Taraka-yoga). (1)
is full

and

of the six qualities" of

The Means and the End of Yoga
Always conceiving
(Consciousness)
",

"

I

am

of

the

form of Cit

with his eyes well-shut, or with his
tran<%la-

tion of verses

This Upanisad contains prose and verse mixed. The is printed slightly removed from the margin.

' The SIX self-control as to qualities are 1. S'ama, quietude 3," Upathe mind. self-control in action. 2. Dama, subjugation rati, cessation, tolerance 4. Titikaa, endurance; cheerfulness. 5. Sam&dhana, intentness ; one-pointedness. 6, S'raddha, faith ccmfidence.
,

,

;

2
eyes
slightly

THE YOGA UPANI§ADS
open, seeing through
introspection the

transcendent Brahman, above the middle of the eyebrows, as having the form of the effulgence of Sat, Cit

and Snanda (Being, Consciousness and becomes of that (Taraka) form.

Bliss),

he
(2)

The Form of TXraka
That which enables
(one) to cross the great fear of
birth,
;

undergoing the cycle of prenata l existence,

dotage

and deathjjind is hence styled as Taraka having reaT" ized that the two (entities), Jiva and Is'vara, are but the results of Illusion, and given up all demonstrable things as " not this, not this ", what remains, that, is the non-dual Brahman. (3)

How
For
its

TO BE Attained

attainment resort should be had to the

three kinds of

Laksya

(Introspection).

(4)

Description of Internal Introspection
Jhere exists, in the middle of the body, Susumna, the Nadi of the Brahman, of the form of the Sun and

Moon. That, taking its rise from MuladhSra (Root-support), goes in the direction of (the plexus) Brahma-randhra (the crevice of the Brahman), Midway between the two is the celebrated Kundahnl, with a radiance, such as of myriads
the effulgence of the
(the

plexus)

of lightning-flashes

and a

delicate form, such as of the

advaya-tXrakopani^ad
fine

3
it

thread of the lotus-stalk.

Having seen
all

through

the

Mind

alone,

man

is

released (from
all

bondage),

through the destruction of

sinf^ Should he inces-

santly see, on account of the effulgence of Taraka-yoga,

a radiance in the specific facial region in front of the

becomes a Siddha (accomplished). A sound resembling Phoo is generated m (his) two earforehead, (he)
'
'

holes stoppered with the tips of (his) fore-fingers.
(his)

When

Mmd

is

attuned to that stage, seeing a blue
(his) eyes,

radiant space mid-way between

he attains,
the seeker(5)

through Introsp>ection,

Bliss

oi

an exquisite quality.

Even so does he

in his heart.

Thus should

after-hberation practise Internal Introspection.

Description of External Introspection

Then
(follows)
slightly

the description

of

External

Introspection

Should he see ethenal space

of a blue colour

bordering on the colour of indigo, then appar-

ently

shining like a

wave

of

blood-red colour,

but

really orange, in front of his nose, at a distance of four,

and twelve digit-lengths, such he becomes a Yogin (Adept). There are radiant beams foremost
six, eight,

ten

in
in

the range of vision of a person,

who

casts his eyes

the direction of the ethenal sky.
(he)

By

seeing such

beams

becomes a Yogin.

He

sees radiant

beams,
him-

sparkling like molten gold, either at the end of his side--

glances or on Earth.

Such a

sight gets fixed.

By

who
crest,

sees to a distance of twelve digit-lengths over his
IS

attained Amrtatva (Immortality).

Whereevwr

:

;

4
he

THE YOGA UPANI^DS

may

be,

should the radiance of the ethenal sky
crest,

be seen over his

such he becomes a Yogin.

(6)

Description of Intermediate Introspection
Then,
spection
the
:

the

description

of

Intermediate

Intro-

He

sees,

at daybreak, like the vast disc of

Sun resplendent with variegated and other colours, like a huge conflagration of Fire and like the midethenal regions devoid of these.

He
seeing

stands with a

form identical with
over again,
there

theirs.

By

them over and

Ether devoid of qualities there ensues transcendent Ether resembling palpable darkness brought into relief by the splendour of the
ensues
radiant

Taraka form
the
fire

;

there ensues the great
;

Ether

shining like

of the deluge

there ensues the

Tattvakas'a (Ether of Verity) effulgent with transcen-

and there ensues the Ether of the Sun dazzling with the splendour of a hundred thousand Suns. Thus the five Ethers, external and internal, become visible to the Introspection of a Taraka-yogin. He who sees it, released from fruits, becomes like such Ether. Hence the Introspection of Taraka alone becomes the bestower of the fruit of non-mindedness. (7)
dent lustre excelling
all
;

Two- FOLD TSkaka
Taraka is of two kinds the first half, and the second half, the non-minded (variety). Taraka Here is the S'loka answering to that purpose
•That
:

advaya-tXrakopani§ad

5

Know
of

then that

Yoga

is

two-fold, in the relationship
;

pnonty and posteriority the former should be known as Taraka and the latter, Amanaska (nonminded variety). (8)

The Achievement of TXraka-Yoga
On
the pupils, in the interior of the eyes, there
is

the reflection of the

Moon and

the Sun.

The

seeing,

by the pupils of the eye, of the solar and the lunar
discs,

consists

m

the seeing (by the Yogin) of them,
in

after

concluding that, as
there
exists

the

Macrocosm (Brahpair of the

m3nda),
solar

a

(corresponding)

and lunar
(of

discs

m

the Ether of the middle of the the

head

the

Yogin) in

Microcosm

(PindSnda).

Here also he should contemplate with a mind looking upon the two as essentially one, as without such a
mind, there
is no scope for the play of the senses. Hence, Ta^raka should be construed as possible only

with Introspection.

(9)

Thl Two to

be Distinguished as Corporeal

AND InCORPOREVL
That TSraka
and Amurti-taraka
is

two-fold

:

Murti-taraka (corjxjreal)

(incorporeal).
is
is

That which culmi;

nates with the senses

corporeal

that which tran-

scends the eyebrows

incorporeal.

In

all

cases, in

making out the inner import, the practice along with the Mind is desirable. As with the TSrakas could be

6
found what
form, which
of

THE YOGA UPANIgADS
exists
is

above them, the Sat-Cit-Snanda

the result of Introspection with the help
is

tlw Mind,

the

manifest that the

Brahman Brahman is

alone.

Hence

it

is

of white lustre.

That

Brahman becomes knowable by means of liitrospection with the eye aided by the Mind. So also is the Amurti-taraka (incorporeal). It is only by seeing with the aid of the Mind, that Dahara and the other kindred forms of Ether become knowable. Perception of form
being dependent on the
as well as inwardly,
it

Mind and
is

the eye, externally

only by the conjunction of

the
of

Stman, the Mind and the eyes, that the perception form IS achieved. Hence Introspection in con-

junction with the
of Taraka.

Mind

is

essential for the manifestation
(10)

The Real Form of Takaka-yoga
By
casting the eyes intently on the crevice between

the two eyebrows, what manifests through that, that

radiance standing above

is

the

Taraka-yoga.

After

bnngmg about a thorough union of the Taraka conjoint with the Mind along with it, with cautious effort, he
should
lift

his

eyebrows slightly
of)
is

aloft.

This

is

the

former (variety
is

Taraka-yoga.

incorporeal
is

said to

The latter, which be Amanaska (non-mmded).

There

a great

beam

of radiance above the root of

That is worthy of being meditated upon by Yogms. Thence flows supernatural power, such as Anim3 (attenuation) and the like. (11)
the palate.

advaya-tXrakopanisad

7

MudrS pertaining to S'ambhu
and external Introspections, when both the eyes are devoid of the power of shutting and opening, there occurs what is known as
In the case of both internal the

Mudra
of
is

pertaining to S'arpbhu.

By

the residence

therein

sages

who have assumed
At
is

that Mudr5, the

Earth
of

rendered holy.

their look all the worlds

are sanctified.

Whoever
such

afforded the opportunity

worshipping

great

Yogins,

also

becomes
(12)

liberated.

Forms of Internal Introspection
The lustre radiated by Internal Introspection is of Under the instruction imparted by one's own form.
the
(the

great

preceptor.

Internal

Introspection

assumes

form oQ the radiance emanating from the thouin

sand-petalled lotus, or the lustre of Cit (Consciousness)

hidden

the cavern of

Buddhi

(Intelligence), or the

Turiya-Caitan>a (the fourth Consciousness) abiding m« the §odas1inta.' Seeing those (forms) depends on the.
grace of the good preceptor^
(13)

The Description of Acarva
He
'

is IS

the Scarya,

who

is

well-versed in the Vedas,
is

who

a true devotee of Visiju, \vho

devoid of ^ite,
is

§o^as'anta, wherein the Turlya-Caitanya is said to abide, evidently a spot sixteen dijfit-lengths over the crest.

8

THE YOGA UPANI$ADS
who knows Yoga, who takes
always has
full

his stand
is

on Yoga, who
;

his being in

Yoga and
is

cleanly

who is

of devotion to his preceptor,
;

who

especially

he who knows the Purusa qualities is known as Guru.

possessed of these
(14, 15)
*

The

syllable

'

Gu

'

indicates darkness, the syllable

Ru

'

means

its dispeller.

Because of the quality of

dis-

pelling darkness, the

Guru

is

so termed.
;

(16)

The Guru alone Guru alone is
last resort.

is

the transcendent

the

supreme goal

;

the transcendent

wisdom and

the

Brahman the the Guru alone is Guru alone is the
(17)
;

The Guru
is

alone

is

the ultimate limit

the

Guru alone

the highest wealth.

For the reason that he
is

teaches
all else.

That,

therefore

the

Guru

greater than
(18)

Fruit Borne by a Study of this Upanisad

He who

causes

(this)

to be read even once, his

becomes the release from the cycle of births and deaths At that very moment perishes all sin, committed through
all

previous births.

He
is

attains

all

the desires of his
all

heart.

To him
of

there

the acheivement of

the ends
this

and aims

human

existence.

He who knows

Thus

the Upanisad.

(19)

'

AMFtTA-NSDOPAN I$AD
[This Upanisad, which
veda, demonstrates that the
is

the Twenty-^»Sf

among

the 108 Upanisads and forms part of the Krena-yajur-

pure-mmded attam the end
reflection, etc., while those

and aim of existence, by adopting the expedients of
S'ra\an.i

—study,

Manana

with an impure

mind

attain their enfranchisement from

worldly existence by having recourse to the meditation
of

the

Brahman and
SIX stages).]

the practice of Sa^-aAga-yoga

(Yoga with

Expedients such as Study

The

wise man, having studied the S'astras, medi-

tated again

and again on

their import

and

realized the

transcendent Brahman, should then give them up, as
(he would) a fire-brand.
(1)

Worship of the

Praiiiava

Mounting on the chariot of
Visaju the charioteer,

'

Om

',

then making

ioka,
'

absorbed

in

one seeking a.place in the Brahmathe worship of Rudra, should drive in
the form of verses.

This Upanifftd

is in

U

2

10

THE YOGA UPANI9ADS
is

the chariot as long as he

on the track of the chariot he proceeds on(2, 3)

and halting

at

(the end) of the track,

ward, giving up the chariot.

(Then) abandoning the stages of

syllajjles

and

signs,

devoid of vowels and consonants, he reaches the subtle
stage
(of

the

Brahman) by means

of the letter

'

M

'

devoid of vowel.

(4)

Description of PratyShXra
That
like,
IS

known

as Pratyahara (wherein) one thinks

of the five objects of the senses, such as sound

and the

as also the very unsteady mind, as the reins of his
(5)

Stman.

The Six-fold Yoga
That
Samadhi.
is

known

as Yoga, which has six components,

Pratyahara, Dhyana, Prapayama,

Dharam, Tarka and
(6)

The Fruits of PrSnSySma,

etc.

Even as the impurities of the mountain-ores are burnt away by the blower, so also, the results of misdeeds committed by the oi^ans of sense are consumed by the holding of the breath (vital airs). (7) One should burn misdeeds by PrS^SySmas (drawing the breath) and sm by DhSra^iSs (holding the breath). Having brought about the destruction of sin,
one should think only of Rucira (KumbhaJia).
(8)

am^ta-nXdopani^ad

It

The Three-fold PrXnXyXma
Cessation
Inspiration
of

(Rucira),
air,

Expiration
three

(Recaka)
are

(these)

PrSoIyamas,

the

acts

of

Recaka,

and termed as Puraka and
of
(9)

Kumbhaka
breath).

(Expiration, Inspiration

and Cessation

Description of PranXyama

That

IS

called

Prariayama,

should

one

with

elongated breath, thrice recite the Gayattri with the
Vyahrtis and with the Pranava (prefixed), along with
the S'lras' (thereafter).
(10)

Description of RecakJ?
Sending up (gently) the breath (outward), emptying the space (m the region of the heart) of the Nir-atmaka (air not forming part of one's own body) and keeping to a state of void, such is the description
of Recaka.
(11)

Description of Puraka

Even

as a

man

sucks in water through the stalk

of a lotus, even so should breath be

drawn

m

:

such

is

the description of Puraka.
'

(12)
',

The

S^iras here

denotes

'

Paro-rajase savadom

the crest of the

Gftyattrl.

12

THE YOGA UPANIgADS
Description of Kumbhaka

Neither should one breathe out nor breathe

in,

he should means shake his hmbs keep to the same state such is the description of Kumbhaka. (13) See forms like a blind man. Hear sound like a deaf man. Look upon (thy) body as on a piece of wood. Such IS the description of a Pras^nta (Yogin
nor

by

any

;

:

with his senses tranquillized).

(14)

Description of DhXranS

Regarding

his

mind as

full

of Saipkalpa (desires),

when a wise man merges (it) into his Straan (own Self) and is absorbed m the contemplation of the Supreme Self, that is known as Dharao^. (15)
Description of Tarka

Inference in conformity with the Scripture

is

called

Tarka.

Description of SamXdhi

After having attained

it

(the

one looks upon himself as the is known as Samldhi.

Supreme Self), when same (as that), that state
(16)

amuta-nXdopani^ad

15

The expedient to

be employed for

THE ACHIEVEMENT OF SAMXDHI
Seated on the ground, on a mat
grass,

made
al]

of Darbha-

comfortable and
all evil

free

from

flaws,

havmg

provided (agamst
ing the

influences) mentally, mutter-

Ratha and Mandala (the syllables of Om and the Vyahrtis), rightly assuming the Yoga posture of Padmaka, the Svastika or the Bhadra, facing towards the north, closing the nasal chamber with one finger (of the hand), he should, by drawing in the breath, maintain the Agni (m the triangle of the plexus of
Muladhara) and think only of the sound (Om).
(17-19)
viz.,

Om
(the

Brahman in one syllable. meditation oQ Om, one should not
is

the

This,

discontinue.

With

this

divine

Mantra (Om) one should meditate
(20)

many times for ridding one's own impurities. Then should the wise man who knows (the
of)

efficacy

Mantras meditate as explained previously, first through the gross state, traversing the gross and subtle
the
states,

beginning from the navel upward.
of great intellect, giving

(21)

The man
wise,

up seeing crossup or down, with a firm foot-hold and without
(22)

tremor, should always practise Yoga.

The
Matras
decays

duration of DhSrana

is is

(eight or seven)

MatrSs
(23)

without tremor, while
in point of time.
is

Yoga

reckoned as of twelve

That
;

the

Aksara (Om), wwhich by no means
has
neither
soft

which

consonant,

nor

consonant, nor vowel,

nor palatal, nor guttural, nor

14
labial,

THE YOGA UPAN1§ADS
nor
nasal,

nor

the

semi-vowels,

nor

the
(24)

sibilants.

The constant

practice of Yoga
lie

In which (Yoga) this (Yogin) sees his path to

;

along the same do the

vital airs follow.

Hence should
it

he ever practice
path.

\t

with a view to traverse

as his
(25)

The seven doors leading to the attainment
OF the Atman
(The enhghtened) know the door of the heart
ing to Viraj), the door of
(lead-

Vayu

(leading to Sotra), the

door of the head (leading to Bija) and the door of

Moksa
siitra)

(leading to the non-differentiated
to

Brahman), Bila
(26)

(leading

Turya-viraj),

Susira

(leading to Turya-

and Mandala (leading to Turya-bija).

The

giving up of fear, etc.

too

The Yogin should always avoid fear, anger, sloth, much slumber, too much vigil, too much food and
(27)

fasting.

The Fruit of the Practice of Yoga
Should he gradually and well adopt
daily practice, undoubtedly shall
this rule in

Wisdom dawn (on him),

am^ta-nXdopani^d
of
its

15

own

accord, in the course of three months.
;

In

the course of four months he sees the Devas in the course of five months he sees (the Viraj, etc.) in their order m the sixth month he attains the Kaivalya of his desire. (There is) no doubt about
;

this.

(28, 29)

The Thing to
What
Water
is
,

be Meditated on through Yoga

IS

Earthy

is

of five MStras.
;

What
;

is

of

what is Fiery is of three Matras what is Aerial is of two Matras while Ether is oi one Matr5 what is of no Matra should be meditated upon by the Yogin. (30)
of four

Matras

;

The Manner of Meditation
Having made the conjunction with the mind, one should meditate on the Atman, through his own Atman. PrS^ia IS Thirty and a half digit-lengths in its range (m the ethenal space of the heart), where it is merged
with the PrSpa-s.
the external PrSpa,

This, which
is

is

within the range of
(31, 32)

known

as the Prapa.

The
The
lakh.

limit of Breathing

breaths as reckoned fo^ a day and night are

eighty and a hundred and thirteen thousands

and one
(33)

16

the yoga upani§ads

The Seats of the

PrXna, etc.

The first Prana dwells m the region of the heart Apana again in the anus Samana, in the region of the navel Udana in the throat Vyana always stands
;
; ;

pervading

all

parts of the body.

(34)

Their Different Colours
Then
Prana-vayu
red
;

the
is

colours

of

the

five

Pranas

in

order

:

reputed to be of the colour of a bloodis

gem Apana, which
IS

in

the middle of

it

(the

body),

of

the

colour of the

Indra-kopa insect

Samana, midway between the (former) two, is of a milk-white colour and shining Udana is pale-white and Vyana is bright like flame (of fire). (35-37)
,

The Final
Having broken through
etc.),

Frl'it

the regions (of the heart,

of whichever

Yogin the Pranas reach the head,

such person, wheresoever he

may

die, is

not born again,
(38)

he

IS

not born again

— Thus the Upanisad.

AMRTA-B1NDUPANI$AD
[This Upanisad, which
the
is

the Twentieth

among

108 Upanisads and forms part of the Krsna-yajur-

veda, expatiates on the
as well as liberation of

mind as

the cause of bondage

man and shows how, by
only,

the
is

knowledge
attainable.]

of

the

Brahman

the final

goal

The Mind

alone, the Cause of

Bondage

\ND Liberation

The Mind has indeed been
the pure and
affected

described as two-fold,

the

impure

;

the

impure

(variety),

as

with

desire
is

The
tion

mmd
of

alone

and the pure, as devoid of the cause of the bondage and
;

desire.

libera-

human

beings

when attached

to the objects of
;

desire

(it) is

characterized as leading to bondage

when
(1, 2)

not influenced by the objects of desire, as leading to
hberation.

Mental Control, the Expedient for Liberation
By
u
3

the seeker after liberation, the

Mind should be

constantly freed from

the influence of the objects of

;

;

18
desire,

THE YOGA UPANI^ADS
for the

reason that the hberation of the

Mind

when
is

freed from the infliuence of the objects of desire,

sought.

The moment when

the Mind, freed from the

influence of the objects of desire and entirely inhibitgd
in

the heart, reaches the state of non-existence of
self

its

own

(Atman), that
state.
(it)

moment
its

it

reaches
(it)

its

tran-

scendent

So long only should
meets with
as
well

be inhibited,

as long as
this IS

destruction in the heart

Wisdom

as

Meditation

,

the rest

is

logomachy pure and simple.

(3-5)

The Attainment of Brahmanhood by THE Knowledge of the Brahman
(This) should not at all be pondered over (as

beyond

one's
self)
;

self)

,

nor should

it

be not pondered over (as one's
;

nor pondered over (as qualified)
over
(as
itself)
;

but should be

pondered

from

all

partiality,

when one views it free then indeed will one become the
(6)

Brahman.

Attainment of the Non-Qualified Brahman

THROUGH Pondering over the Qualified Brahman
One should combine
qualified
(,Oxtv)
•,

the

Yoga

(relating to the

Brahman,

at

first)

with the mystic syllable

lYoga relating to) the tran* scendent (non-quahfVed Brahman) beyond the syllable (Om), by the experience (of Yoga) without the syllable
(Asvara which
is

^VvovAd experience the

a form of) existence should not be

am^ta-bindCpani^ad
reckoned as non-existence.

19
is

That alone

the

Brahman

which

is

non-fragile,

non-differentiated

and untinged.

One
his)

surely attains the Brahman, (simultaneously with realizing " I am that Brahman ", On realizing

(Brahman) non-differentiated, infinite, having neither cause, nor example, immeasurably extensive and without beginning, the wise man (Yogin) (simultaThere is no dissolution, nor neously) stands liberated.
which
creation, neither

one bound, nor the novice, neither
its

the seeker after freedom (from ignorance and
comitants), nor the liberated one.

con-

This

is

the ultimate
(7-10)

Truth.

The Oneness of the Atman
The Atman should be
considered as only one,

during the waking, dreaming and sleeping states.
the Turiya state)

To

one who has transcended the three states (and reached
t here is

no

rebirth.

The Bhutatman,
is (after all)

severally found in being after being,

only

one, seen singly
tion of the)

and

in

many

ways, even as the

(reflec-

Moon

in water.

(11, 12)

Freedom from Birth and Death, of the Atman
Even
reality

as the Ether, occv]ip\ed

\yj a.

pot,

(\s

not vn

carried

earned from place to place), when the pot is and the pot may disintegrate, while the Ether
is

thereof does not, so also

the Jiva (Stman) resembling
(it)

the Ether.

Like the pot

assumes various forms

20

THE YOGA UPANIgADS
(is)

and

capable of varying again and again.
(of the

On

the

destruction

pot) one will not

know

(it,

as the
it

destruction of the Ether) but would

comprehend

as

the ever expansive Ether.

(13, 14)

Realization of the Absolute Brahman
One, who
is

surrounded by the illusory world of
all

name

(and form), does not at

reach the very sacred

Atman, as (one surrounded) by darkness (would not).

When
sioned,

once the darkness
the

is

dispelled (and he

is disillu-

wise

man)

sees only the oneness (of the
(15)

Brahman).

The Attainment of the Transcendent Brahman
BY Meditating on

the S'abda-Brahman
'

construed as) the transcendental

The S'abdaksara (the mystic syllable, Om ') is (to be Brahman when that
;

(Om) has decayed, there underlies it Aksara, (what knows no decay) if the knower of the Atman should desire the Peace of the Atman, he should meditate on that Aksara The two Vidyas that ought to be known are the S'abda-Brahman and that Brahman which
;

transcends

(it).

He, who

is

well-versed in the S'abda-

wise

Brahman, attams the transcendent Brahman. The man, having studied the works (bearing on the "knowledge of die Brahman, e.g., the Sadhanacatustaya, etc.), intent on the sound acquisition of the knowledge (of the Brahman), should abandon the books

am?ta-bindOpanisad

21
after

m

their

entirety,

even

as

a

seeker

grain
(16-18)

would, the husk.

Oneness of the Stman Inhering
One-coloured-ness (whiteness
milk, of
;

in

all Beings

is

the quality) of

cows of various colours (the wise man) looks upon the knowledge (of the Brahman) as on milk and on the people with various garbs as on the cows.
;

Vijfiana

(knowledge)

abides

(hidden)
in

in

being after

being, even as butter does

milk.
in

(Hence) should

churning be constantly

made

the

mind by every
(19, 20)

being with the churning-stick of the mind.

Meditation, the Cause of Realising the Atman

By making

a proper use of the eye of knowledge,
sacrificial fire

should (one) extract, as (he would)

(by

churning S'ami wood), the transcendental Brahman,
that

Brahman,
as

non-fragile,
"
I

motionless and tranquil,

considered

(one's
all

own

Self)."
is

That which,
all

though dwelling

in

beings,

the dwelling of

beings, with a view to bless all beings, that Vasu-deva
I

am, that Vasu-deva

I

am

—Thus the Upamsad.

(21,22)

K$URIKOPANISAD
This Upamsad, which is the Thirty-fip^t among the 108 Upanisads and forms part of the Krsna-yajurveda, deals with Yoga as the instrument wherewith the
obstructions to the knowledge of the

Brahman

are cut

asunder.]

YogSdhikSra
I

shall

presently

relate
for

the

Ksurika

(knife)

of

Dharana (absorption),

the

proper attainment of

Yoga, (by cutting asunder one's ignorance, the knot of on attaining which there will be no the heart, etc.)
,

rebirth for one,

who has accomplished Yoga and which
(1)

has been recognized as the true import of the Veda, as
told by

Svayam-bhu.

AsANA (Posture) and PrInIyama (Control of Breath)
Having taken up his abode m a (secluded and) silent spot and there assumed a (suitable) posture,
withdrawing
does'
,

(his

organs of sense), even as a tortoise
inhibiting

its

hmbs,
it

the

Mind

in

his

heart,

(rendering

free

from the

effects of the

breathing
his entire

exercise, sensual desires, etc.),

one should

fill

K$URlKOPANI§AD

23

Atman
Matras

(body),
(in

by degrees, with the Yoga of twelve point of length and time) and the Pranava
Matras) (with
after blocking

(Om) Vayu

(of

four
all),
;

Forty-eight
all

Matras of

in

up

the doors (exits) of

the body

slightly lifting his chest, face, hip
;

and neck,
vital airs

as also his heart

he should hold therein the
nostrils,

passing through the
possessed
of

having thereby become

lengthened Prana and then gradually
(2-5)

breathe out the air rising up.

Pratyahara
leaving brought (his sense-organs) under control,

and made
(in

his A.tman,

the heart),

(Mind and Prana) firm and strong with his thumb (aided by the little finger
he should perform (Dharana of the

and the
toes),

ring-finger),

the two ankles and the two shanks, (by fixing)
(viz.,

the three

respectively
In the

mind and the thereon and withdrawing them
the eyes, the
in the

vital airs

thence).

two knees, similarly
of the)

two thighs and the
of)

(two

made up

anus and the male-organ (Mula-

dhara and Svadhisthana) (the fixing and withdrawal
the three (mentioned above, should be made).
in that

Then

which holds the anus,
fix

etc., vtz.,

the navel region

(Mapi-pura), he should
till

the three (mentioned above)

mastery.

There

is

the

Nadi,

Susumna by name,
red, yellow, black,

surrounded by ten Na^ls, which are
copper-coloured,
fine.

brown and so

»n,

very subtle' and
till

The fixing (of should be made on the

the three above,

mastery)

white (Susum^)

Nadl.

There,

24

THE YOGA UPAN1§ADS
its

even as the spider moves along with
with the Susum^ia.
(to

web, should

one make (the three mentioned above) move along

Thence he should withdraw them

like

be fixed on) the great support of the heart shmmg a blood-red lotus, known as Dahara-pundarlka
in

(Anahata)

Vedanta
(lotus),

Scriptures.
triad)

Having
the

broken
throat

through that
(Vis'uddhi).
i!6gion
'''^the

(the

reaches

(Thence the triad should be fixed on the

in

the middle of the brows, Ajfla
in the head,

and then on

by similar processes). (6-10) He should meditate on that form identical with that of the Marman (vital region), which is in the (big toe of the) foot, transcending the Mind, latent, very
SahasrSra

keen and discerned only with a clear
constantly resorting to (such)
of the

intellect.

By

Yoga with keen Dharana
is

Mind (of Brahman ", he
knot
of

the form

" there

nothing beyond the
his

should

cut

asunder

ignorance,
tor)

the

the

heart, etc).

(The
of
bolt).

Yoga
the

the
is

'cutting
j

asunder
as

of

the

Marman

shanks

known
off

Indr^vajra (Indra's
intensified

By

resorting to

such Yoga,
that

eyes,

(Marman) the Mind and
thighs,

by meditation, he should cut by Dharanas. Projecting (the
the
Prai^as)
in

the

middle

of

the

doing

and the

four-fold Sthula

away with Marman, Prana and others, by resorting to

Yoga, he should, without compunction, cut asunder
(the obstacle to Yoga).

Then should
in

the Yogin purify

the "group of
throat,

Nadl&,

situated

the interior of the

the

one

hundred

transcendent and fixed

and one Nadls and the (Susumra) amidst them. The

K§URlKOPANI?AD
gu|umjgJ§^laAeiitapJJi£j

25

possessed of the properties of Rajas (and Tamas) and
IS

of the

form of the Brahman.
to the right (of

Ida stands to the

left

S usumna)>i Between the two is that superb spot, on knowing which, one becomes the knower of the Veda (the Brahman). There are
and Pingala
Seventy-two thousand (other)
of _the_eyes, the

Nadls

j

the pr ojecting

mind and the
oflf

vital airs

on every one of

them
knife

IS

to

be cut
the

by Dhyana-yoga.
is

Kaivalya
of

in)

Susumna

Only one (the not cut off. With the
having a sharp edge

the

brightness of

fire,

by the practice of Yoga, should the stout-hearted Yogin cut off, even in this birth, one
rendered clean

hundred (out of the hundred and one) Nadis, (with the
firm conviction that there
is

nothing transcending the

Brahman) The moment the Yogin sees (the eyes, the Mind and the Pranas projected on the one remaining
Nadj) as firm as (the fragrance) of the Jati flower,
(he,

becomes

liberated without form

)

In this

manner the

projecting of the eye, the

Mind and

the Prana through

the other Nadls should be considered as possessed of

good
(the

and bad
thorough

qualities.

People who have realized
of

identity
(the

the

Brahman
rebirth.

with the
(11-20)

Susumna) reach

Brahman), nd of

The Practice of the Yoga and the Person
Eligible Therefor
(Mind) conquered by the penance the practice of Yoga), remaining in a silent and U 4
his Citta

With

(of

26

THE YOGA UPANI§ADS

secluded spot, without attachment and without desire,
(he)
will

gradually become an adept in Astaiiga-Yoga
(21)

(and attain Nir-vikalpa-samadhi).

The Fruit of Samadhi
Even
as the

Swan, breaking asunder the
so,

lotus-stalks

(of the Manasa-saras), would, without hesitation, rise

sky-ward, even
knife

with his bonds cut asunder (by the

of Yogic practice), the Yogin will always cross

the (stream) of births

and deaths.
even

Even
so,

of extinction, the lamp, having burnt (itself) out,
',

meet with
burnt his
final rest.

its

dissolution,

J

Karmas in their entirety, The knower of Yoga (adept), having

hour would the Yogin, having will meet with his
as, at the

cut the

thread (of his knowledge) with the knife of the syllable

(Om), sharpened by the practice of the control of breath and whetted on the stone of stern discipline, does not
bind
it

again.

Thus

the Upanisad.

(22-24)

TEJO-BINDUPANISAD
CHAPTER
[This Upanisad, which
is
I

the Thirty-seventh of the

^08 Upanisads and forms part of the Krsna-yajurveda, deals with the reahzation of Videha-muk ti. the
state of existence of the

form of absolute, all-pervading

Bliss

and

Consciousness
material

and

the

illusoriness
is

of

qualified,

existence,

which

not of the

Atman.]
(I

shall presently relate

about the profound) medi-

tation of the Tejo-bindu (Speck of Radiance),

which

is

firmly seated in the heart of the Vis'vatman (the Viraj,

illumining the myriads of transformations of His mind), which embraces (within its vastness, the illusion), that is minute, which has a bearing on S'ambhu (the inmost Bliss), which is sedate, which lies beyond the gross and

subtle_jtates_^ncluding the Turlya),
that,

— meditation
effort,

on

which

is

unattainable even by painful

hard

and difficult to reflect upon (by the Ignorant) and which is emancipated, imperishable and unattainable, for the benefit ®f sages and "wise men (desirous of acquiring the knowledge of the Brahman. (1, 2)
to

propitiate

28

THE YOGA UPANlgADS

Expedients to be Employed for the Attainment
OF the Undifferentiated Brahman
(O seeker
food,
'

Be

thou)

one,

who

is

temperate in

who has
(to

lyiglled anger

(generated by the nonall

attainment of the objects of desire), has given up

attachment
kindled
by)

worldly

ties),

has subjugated (passions
cold, etc.), has

the senses,

has overcome the pairs of

opposites, (such as heat

and

curbed his

egoism, has no worldly desire to gratify, nor any grasping tendency (save for

mere

self-preservation).

Those,

who, by their actions, do not proceed
of

in the direction

the

subtle,

Ignorant,
lies

which lies beyond the reach of the and whose mind is not directed towards what
That, which
as the

within the reach of the ignorant, see three (different)
in

forms

the face (of the waking state).
is

embraces these three stages,
(Parames'vara).
I

known
that

Meditate

on

Hamsa Hamsa (as He
*

am

'),

giving up .aloth

and depending upon no support
Self).
(If

(other than thine
shalt)

own

thou doest

so,

thou

know
is

that transcendent height of mystery (the

Brahman).
ness

That parcel of

the form of pure consciousis

the subtle one.

The same

the supreme seat
(3-5)

of Visnu (the Omnipresent).

Looking upon the Transcendent Entity Itself
AS Subject to relative Attributes

That worthy seat, which has the three faces (Vis'va, Taijasa and Prajfia), the three qualities (Viraj,

'

TEJO-BINDUPANISAD

29

Hiranya-garbha and Antar-yamin), the three humours (Brahman, Visnu and Rudra) and has yet (really) no

form
less

;

which

is

motionless, distinctionless, dimension;

and propless

which

is

subject to no conditions

(such as of time, space,
lies

etc.),

— that worthy

seat,

which

beyond the range of speech and the mmd, (but is which yet) within the range (of the Atman as Turlya) exists of its own accord and is capable of being grasped, which has no organs con(because of its existence) which is unswerving from its position and stituting It yet IS beyond (the witness of) the Jiva, which has which is difficult to reflect various kinds of delight upon, IS emancipated and is imperishable and worthy of being ruminate d upon (as such) which transcends which is permanent, constant and undescription That pertains swerving that IS of the Brahman. That is also of the (inwardly) to the Atman (Viraj)
; ; ; ; , ;
,

form of Visnu, the
conceived
IS

final

goal,

not capable of being

and

is

of

the

essence of Consciousness.

That and (as such) voidless, devoid of other existence and that which is enthroned in stretches beyond the void the heart, which is neither contemplation, nor the onei who contemplates, nor that which is contemplatedA upon, but IS yet contemplated upon (as alone remain-s ing) that, other than which there is not all, but, should' there be such other, it is the void and hence, not anything beyond which is not beyond what is beyond which is unknowable which which is inconceivable is not the truth, nor what is beyond that, they (wise
; ; ;

the transcendent ether, that confirmed existence

;

;

;

30

THE YOGA UPANISADS

men) know.
did

What was
it)

grasped by the sages, the gods

not

;

nor
(In

did they (the gods)
there
is

know what

lies

beyond.
fear,

neither greed, nor delusion, nor

nor pride, nor desire, nor anger, nor sin, nor (the opposites) cold and heat, nor hunger, nor thirst, nor
determination, nor hesitation
;

neither the caste-pride of

the Biahmana, nor the gathering together of the knot of

(bondage, nor

of) liberation

,

neither fear, nor pleasure,

nor pain

;

so also, nor repute, nor disrepute.

What

is

removed completely away from these states, is the Brahman and what lies beyond that, is the Brahman. (6-14)

The Fifteen-fold Yoga,

Knowledge OF THE Transcendent Brahman
as Aid to the
(Self-control),

Yama
Tyaga

(Renunciation),

Niyama Mauna

(Right Observance),
(Quiescence),

Des'a

(Right Place), Kala (Proper Duration), Asana (Correct
Posture),

Mula-bandha (Fundamental Check), Deha-

samya (Equilibrium of the Body), Drk-sthiti (Stability
of Introspection),

Prana-samyama (Control of Breath), Pratyahara (Withholding of Breath), Dharana (Suspension of Breath), Atma-dhyana (Meditation on the Atman) and Samadhi (Concentration on the Brahman), these, in order, are the Angas (Stages of Yoga), (15, 16)
Description of the Fifteen AJ^gas

The
(of

bringing under control of the manifold senses

perception

and

action),

in

and

through

the

T£JO-BINDUPANI§AD

31

knowledge that all is the Brahman, this is said to be Yama and should be practised (by the Yogin) often

and

often.

(17)
is

Niyama
sciousness

the continuous application

(of

m

its
it)

entirety) to intrinsic categories

Conand the

rejection (by

of extrinsic categories.

Exquisite plea-

sure

IS

attained by the wise man, through Niyama. (18)
is

Tyaga

the renouncing of the form of the phenoresult of the introspection of the

menal world, as the

ever-existing essence of consciousness, the Atman, and

should, indeed, be highly adored by the great, as

it is

capable of giving (them) instantaneous liberation (from
bondage).
(19)

Whence
that

speech returns foiled along with the mind,

quiescence,

which
of

is

by

Yogins,

will

always

worthy of being attained be attained by the inetc.).

animate
returns

(organs
(foiled),

sound,

Whence speech
it

by

whom

will
is

be possible to
(of
it),

express

That

'

If

the world

to

be told

even

that (world)
(for

is

devoid of (suitable articulate) sounds
the idea).
all

conveying
as

In either case,
is

there

is

quiescence,

nomenclature

based on the
Quiesof

inherent qualities (of the things to be named).

cence
for

(of

the

kind) in relation to

word

mouth

is

simple

folk

and
is

is

inapplicable to those that
(20-22)
either at the begin-

descant on the Brahman.
In which there

no person

ning, or at the end, or in the middle,

by which

this
is

(phenomenal world)

is

always embraced, that Des'a

known

as secluded.

(23)

32

THE YOGA UPANI?ADS

By

the word Kala

is

pointed out the convention
all

of reckoning, obtaining

among

beings

commencing

from Brahman (downwards), with the twinkling of the eye (as the unit), of what is the peerless immeasurable
expanse of
Bliss.

(24)

The non-dual prop
beings have their origin,

of the universe, wherein all
is

(meant) for

final

attainment.

Wherein the accomplished ones have reached their final attainment (the Brahman), that is known as the
Siddhasana
(25, 26)
is

That which
root of which
is

the root of

all

the worlds, at the
is
;

the restraining of the mind,

Mulathis
is

bandha, which should always be practised

worthy of adoption by Raja-Yogins (27) There should be such perfect equilibrium among
the (gross, subtle
their

dissolution
this.

should know

would enable in the well-poised Brahman one If not, there will, by no means, be
bodies, as
;

and causal)

equilibrium, as rectitude, such as

is

met with among
(28)
(the Yogin)

dried trees,

is

no equilibrium

at

all.

Filling his introspection with

Wisdom,

should look upon the world as

filled

with the Brahman.

That

IS

the highly exalted introspection and not the

seeing through the tip of the nose. the seeing and that which
is

Where

the seer,

seen,

have their cessation,

introspection in the direction of that

(Brahman) alone
(29, 30)

should be
the'nose.

made and
^

not the seeing through the tip of

By

reason of the fact that

all

aspects (of exis-

tence), such as the

mind,

etc.,

have to be looked upon

TEJO-BINDUPANISAD
as only the
function
is

33

Brahman, the suppres sion of all vital known as Prana^vania. A^QiHanrt^ of (contact

phenomenal world is termM Recaka. That £evolvingjji. thp min rl (of -th e attitu de)^ _'i I. am only. the Brahman," is known as the Pu ral|g^_a.ir-|rnritrn1^.
with) the

Then, fhe' "steadiness' of such attitude
'

is

the steady

breath-control of
for the
it

Kumbhaka.

This

is,

however, meant

awakened, while,
result

m

the case of the ignorant,
(31-33;

will

merely

m

causmg nose-ache.

That pleasant experience of the mind, when it finds the Atman (the Brahman) in the objects of desire, should be known as Pratyahara and practised (by the Yogin) often and often. (34) The state of abstraction attained by the mind, when it sees the Brahman whithersoever it might traverse, is known as the Supreme Dharana. (35) By the term Dhyana is known that state, which real devotion to the rests on no support, but the " I am only the Brahman " and which yields attitude,
exquisite pleasure.
(36)

The complete
mind, which
as Samadhi.
is

forbearance,

once again, of

all

functioning by that never-alterable condition of the
of the

form of the Brahman,

is

known
(37)

Becoming the Brahman by the Practice of Yoga
(The seeker) should --praxJasf
""

^aaght™tliiainaEti&:;.

cially

Blissful

_

(fifteen-fold
(in

Yoga), until there 'wHl

Be the manifestation u 5

his

own

Self) of the

inmost

34

THE YOGA UPANI?ADS
of
its

Brahman,

own

accord,

all

at

once,

through
(38)

Introspection.

Then the (accomplished) Siddha, freed from the means employed, becomes the kmg of Yogms. That (radiant) form (of the Brahman) will be beyond the
range of his mind and speech.
(39)

Mitigation of the Obstacles to Samadhi

When
torcibly

Samadhi is being make their appearance.

practised,

obstacles
of appli-

The want

cation, apathy, the longing for enjoyment, inertness,

stupor, perplexity, false dignity (not brooking delay),

sweating (profusely) and absent-mindedness
fold
obstacles,

;

the mani-

such as these, should be avoided by

those conversant with the (Science of the) Brahman.

The
what

state

of existence

is

what
state

results

from the

reis

currence of volition.
results

The

of

non-existence

The

state

from the recurrence of vacant-mindedness. of fulness is what results from the re-

currence of the ideation of the Brahman.
that ideatio n, one should practise fulness.

Through
(40-42)

The Attainment

of Pure Brahman-hood,

THROUGH SamSDHI
Those who (live), having given up this hallowed and supreme functioning (of the Atman), known as the Brahman, live in vain, as (so many) animals in human
form.
(43)

tejo-bindOpani§ad

35

Those that know well that functioning and, having known it, f urther improve upon ItrTHejTarfe indeed good and true men, who have discharged theif duties" 'ar lgBt and are worthy of being adored in the t hree worlds. Those, whose functioliing is even (thereafter) improved upon and again (further) ripened, verily they attain the highly valued Brahman-hood and not others who indulge in mere verbal disquisitions.

Those,
but

well

posted
of

in

the lore a b""^
right

the

Brahman,

bereft

the

kind

of

functioning, though possessed of benevolent passions,

come and go and out oi worldly existence), again and again» Without functioning with knowledge, they cannot stand (in the Brahman), even for half a minute, as Brahman and other (Devas), Sanaka and other (Sages), and S'uka and other (Knowers of the Brahman)
on account of
(into

their ignorance, will surely

stand.

(44-47)

He, who looks upon the cause (the practice of

Yoga) as (bringing about) the unlimited existence, which
the effect,
{vtz.,

effect (of the ideation of
is

no

other

than the

Brahman), merely attains the cause (practice,) without
the ideation of the Brahman).

On

enquiry, in the absence of the effect (as the ideation of
the

Brahman has no cause
That
entity,

at

all),

(the necessity for)
(48)

the cause ceases to exist.

beyond the range of description, will turn out to be pure. .The right knowkdge of functioning rises in the pure-minded only after that
which
lies

(functioning).

(49)

36

THE YOGA OPANISADS
That
entity,

which

is

conceived thiough intense

Yoga, proves to be a certainty.

phenomenal
the wise

to

merge

into

Having caused the the Noumenal (Brahman),

man should conceive of (it) Brahman and should ever stand

m the aspect of the
in

Bliss,

with an

intellect filled with the essence of consciousness. (50, 51)

CHAPTER

II

The

Indivisible Oneness in Essence of
S'lva, "

All

Thereupon, Kumara asked of
(to

Pray, relate

me) about the Indivisible One Essence, of the form
utter

of

Consciousness "
as follows)
Indivisible

That Parama-s'iva

replied

(unto

him

One Essence is that which is seen. The Indivisible One Essence is the world. The Indivisible One Essence is existence. The Indivisible One Essence is the Atman. The Indivisible One Essence The Indivisible One Essence is action^ is Mantra. The Indivisible One Essence is knowledge. The Indivisible One Essence is water. The Indivisible One Essence is the Earth. The Indivisible One Essence is The Indivisible One Essence is Science. the Ether. The* Indivisible Onp Essence is the triple Veda. The Indivisible One Essence is the Brahman, The Indivisible One Essence is the austere vow. The Indivisible

The

TEJ0-BINDUPANI§AD

37
Indivisible

One Essence
Essence One Essence
is

is

the Jlvatman.

The

One
One

that which has no origin.
is

The

Indivisible

Brahman.

The

Indivisible

One Essence is Rudra. The Indivisible One Essence am I The The Indivisible Indivisible One Essence is the Atman. is the preceptor The Indivisible One One Essence Essence is Introspection. The Indivisible One Essence The Indivisible One Essence IS the Mahas (radiance). The Indivisible One Essence is the mind. is the body The Indivisible One Essence is the Citta (the thinking mind). The Indivisible One Essence is comfort. The Indivisible One Essence is learning. The Indivisible One Essence is the imperishable. The Indivisible One Essence is the eternal. The Indivisible One Essence The Indivisible One Essence is IS the transcendent the little. The Indivisible One Essence is what is
Essence
is

Han.

The

Indivisible

preferable.

O

Sad-anana
is

'

Other than the Indivisible
else,

One

Essence, there

nothing

nothing

else.

One Essence, there is nothing. of the Indivisible One Essence, there is nothing at all. Out of the Indivisible One Essence there is little. Out The Indivisible of the Indivisible One Essence am I. One Essence is gross, subtle and vast m form. The Indivisible One Essence is what ought to be known. The Indivisible One Essence art thou The Indivisible One Essence is a mystery. The Indivisible One Essence is the prime one. The In4;ivisible One Essence IS the knower. The Indivisible One Essence is permanence. The Indivisible One Essence is the mother.
of the Indivisible

Out Out

38

THE YOGA UPANISADS
Indivisible

The

One Essence
is

is

the father.

The

Indi-

visible

One Essence
is

the brother.

The

Indivisible

The Indivisible One The Indivisible One Essence is Essence is Viraj, The Indivisible One Essence is the body. The The Indivisible Indivisible One Essence is the head. One Essence is what is within. The Indivisible One Essence is what is without. The Indivisible One Essence is fulness. The Indivisible One Essence is The Indivisible One Essence is the clan. The nectar. The Indivisible Indivisible One Essence is the home. One Essence is what is to be kept secret. The IndiThe Indivisible visible One Essence is the Moon. is the stellar region. The Indivisible One One Essence Essence is the Sun. The Indivisible One Essence is the corn-field. The Indivisible One Essence is patience. The Indivisible One Essence is the tranquil one. The The InIndivisible One Essence is good quality. The Indivisible divisible One Essence is the witness One Essence is the friend. The Indivisible One Essence is the relation. The Indivisible One Essence The Indivisible One Essence is the is the comrade. The Indivisible One Essence is the city. The king. Indivisible One Essence is the kingdom. The Indivisible One Essence is the subject. The Indivisible " Om ". One Essence is the syllable, The Indivisible One Essence is the muttering (Pranava). The Indivisible One Essence is meditation. The Indivisible One Essence is the seat. The Indivisible One Essence is what is worthy of being understood. The Indivisible

One Essence

the husband.

Sutra

tejo-bindCpanisad

39
Indivisible

One Essence
Essence
is

is

what

is

great.

The

One

The Indivisible One Essence is The Indivisible One Essence is what is worthy wealth. being enjoyed. The Indivisible One Essence is the of The Indivisible One Essence is the offering oblation. The Indivisible One Essence is victory. to the Fire. The Indivisible One Essence is Heaven. The Indivisible (1-23) One Essence is the Atman.
Radiance.

Conceiving All Things as the State of

Utter Consciousness
One should
utter

conceive the Indivisible

One Essence
Essence,

as utter consciousness,

only utter consciousness, as
Indivisible

consciousness of the

One
is

as Essence.
is

All utter consciousness devoid of birth,

utter

consciousness.

All

this

(near)

utter con-

That (Yonder) is, indeed, utter consciousBeing the Atman, they know, as utter conness. sciousness and Indivisible One Essence. All the world is utter consciousness. " Thy-hood " and "myhood " is utter consciousness. Ether, the Earth, Water, Air, Fire, Brahman, Han, S'lva, what is little and what is not-little, all (these) are indeed only utter consciousness. Whatever is only utter consciousness,
sciousness.
all

that

is

the Indivisible

One

Essence.

The

past, the

present and the future,

all is verily utter

consciousness.

Matter and time are utter consciowsness.

Knowledge

and the object of knowledge are utter consciousness. The knower is of the form of utter consciousness.

40*

THE YOGA UPANipADS
is

Everything
ness.

utter

consciousness.

Conversation

is

utter consciousness.

What

exists

Whatever is, is utter consciousand what does not exist, are utter
the

consciousness.

From

beginning to the end,

is

always utter consciousness.

end are utter consciousness.

The beginning and The preceptbr and
consciousness.

the
the

and such like, are seeing and the object seen,
pupil
ness,
IS

utter
if

The

they are utter conscious-

are always of consciousness.

The

all-wonderful
is

utter consciousness

The

gross body

only utter

consciousness.

The

subtle body, as well as the causal

body, does not exist apart from utter consciousness.

The corporeal, and thou, are utter consciousness the incorporeal and such-like are of consciousness. Religious merit and sin are utter consciousness. The
I

Jiva

embodied consciousness. Apart from utter consciousness, there is no desire. Apart from utter consciousness, there is no knowing. Apart from utter no Mantra and the like consciousness, there is Apart from utter consciousness, there is no deity Apart from utter consciousness, there are no guardians of the cardinal points (of the compass). Apart from utter consciousness, there is no jurisprudence. Transcendis

There is Apart from utter consciousness, there is no illusion. Apart from utter consciousness, there is no adoration. Apart utter consciousneSB, there is nothing to be froih Apart '€rom utter consciousness, there reflected upon. is no truth. Apart from utter consciousness, there is
ing
utter

consciousness

is

the

Brahman.

indeed nothing apart from utter consciousness.

TEJO-BINDUPANISAD

.

41

Apart from utter conscioussuch-like. no wealth. Apart from utter consciousness, there Apart from utter conness, there is no quiescence. ciousness, there is no non-quiescence. Apart from All is utter consciousness, there is no detachment. only utter consciousness, whatever and to whatever

no treasure or
is

extent

it

may
to
is

be, is utter consciousness.
is

Whatever

is

and Whatever
seen
distant
it

whatever extent,
situated
be,
all

utter consciousness.

at
is

a distance and howsoever
utter consciousness.

may

What-

ever and to whatever extent thel elements and such-

whatever and to whatever extent, things cognized, whatever and to whatever extent, the Vedantas (the
like,

ends

of all knowledge), all is verily utter consciousness.
utter consciousness there is

From

utter consciousness there is utter consciousness, there
is

no going away from no liberation. Apart from
;

nothing cognizable.

All

is

only utter consciousness.
ness there
is

Apart from utter consciousno Brahman, the Indivisible One Essence.

Thou

art the Indivisible

One

Essence, according to the
(24-41)

S'astra, in

me,

in thee, in the all-powerful.

Fruit Borne by Knowledge of the Brahman

He who knows
(with

"I am identical in form the Brahman)," by the dawning of such knowthus
:

ledge even once, there will be liberation.

In the event

of thorough knowledge, one- will, af himself, becoihe a

thoroughly confirmed adept (Knower of the Brahman).

V

6

:

42

THE YOGA UPANI§ADS

CHAPTER

III

Realizing (the State) of the Atman as that
OF the Ever-existing, Conscious and Blissful Brahmanhood
Pray relate (to me) about the reahzation of the Atman." He, the venerable Parames'vara, replied (unto him as follows) I am of the form of the transcendent Brahman. am of the form of absolute I I am exquisite Bliss.
his father thus
:

Kumara asked

"

knowledge.

I

am

the absolute transcendent being.

I

am am

of the

form of the absolute tranquillized being.
I

I

absolutely of consciousness.
I

am

of the

form of

the absolute eternal being.
lasting being.
I

am

the absolute everthe "
I

am

of the

form of absolute goodness.
I ".
I

Having renounced the " 1 ", 1 am the form of what is devoid of all.
of consciousness.
I

am

of

am

of the Ether

am
is

of the form of the absolute

Turya.
I

I

am

what and

absolutely beyond the Turya.
I

am

always of the form of consciousness.
Bliss.
I

am made
am
of the

of consciousness

am

of the form of exter-

nal aspect.

I

am

always pure

m

form.

I

form of absolute knowledge. I am absolute love. I am of the form of changelessness. I am void of desire I am always of the form of aaid without distemper. detachment. I am unalterable and imperishable. I am -always of the form of the One Essence. I am always the embodiment of utter consciousness. I am of the form of unlimitedness. I am of the form of

TEJO-BINDOPANI§AD
boundless Bliss.
I

43

am of the form of existence and transcendent Bliss. I am of the form of consciousness and transcendent Bliss. I am of the form of what lies am beyond the reach of in the core of the core. I of the form of the Bliss of the speech and mind. I am Atman and am always true Bliss. I am of the form of the Atman, that revels in himself. I am the Atman, that IS Sada-s'iva (ever-auspicious). I am of the form of the luminosity of the Atman. I am the essence of
the radiance of the

Atman.

I

have neither the beginI

ning, nor the middle nor the end.

am
I

resembling
the ever
Bliss.

the Ether.
tely

I

am

that imperishable, ever pure, absolu-

conscious and blissful existence.

am

wakeful, pure, one Existence, Consciousness
I

and

I

am am

of the form of the residuum, that ever remains.

always what transcends
transcends
all

all.

1

am

of the form,

that

transcendent Ether.
of Bliss.
1

forms and the embodiment of I am of the form of the totality
I

am

always devoid of speech.

am

of the

form of the prop of all. I am always palpable conI am devoid of body and feeling. I am sciousness.
always devoid of anxiety.
functions.
I

I

am

devoid of mental

am
I

the one essence of the
I

Atman

of

absolute consciousness.
perception.
I

am
I

devoid of

all

objects of

alone
full

am
is

of the form of Introspection.

am am

always

in

form.
"
I

am
the
i,

ever thoroughly

satisfied.
I

Everything

am

Brahman only
I,

".

only consciousness.

Only

only

am

thfe all-

pervading form.

am what

is

Only I am the great Atman. Only I beyond the transcendent. I alone appear

44
like

THE YOGA UPANI?ADS
everything
else.
I

alone

am

the embodied one.
I

I

alone resemble the pupil (seeker).
the three worlds.
I

am

the support of
I

transcend the three durations,
I

am

served by the Vedas,
S'astra.
I

have been demonstrated
the

by the
(mind).

am

firmly planted in

Citta

Nothmg, nor the Earth has been rehnquished by me. Be sure that whatsoever is beyond me is I am the accomplished nothing. I am the Brahman.
one.

am always absolutely pure. I am rid of qualiam the absolute Atman. I am always devoid ties. I I am absolutely the utter Brahman. of outward aspect.
I I

have neither dotage nor death.

I

manifest myself

only of

my own

accord.

Of

my own

accord

I

am

ever

Of my own accord I am firmly planted Of my own accord I am the transcendin the Atman. ent final resort. Of my own accord I feed on myself. Of my own accord I revel m myself. Of my own accord I am self-luminous. Of my own accord I am Mahas (light) myself. I shall revel m my Stman myself. I shall look upon only myself. I have a comfortable seat on my own self. I have my own Self as I shall take my stand of my own the residuum. accord, on my own consciousness. I shall revel in the delightful kingdom of my own self. Taking my seat
the Atman.

on the throne of
but

my
I

self,

I

shall conceive of nothing

my own
of

self.

am

the
alone.

Brahman
I

alone, of the

form
Bliss

consciousness

am
I

the non-dual

Existence, Consciousness and Bliss.
alone.
I

am

palpable
I

am
I

the absolute

Brahman.

always void of

all.

am

the blissful all-Atman.

I

am am

tejo-bindOpanisad
of the form of eternal Bliss.
I

45

am

always the Ether of
of the

the Xtman.

I

alone

am

of the form

Sun
I

of

Consciousness, in the Etherial sky of the heart.
satisfied

am

m

the

Stman, by the Atman.
I

I

have no form
from being

and

am

imperishable.
I

am

liberated

counted as "one".
liberated.
I

am

of the form of one eternally
I

am

subtler than Ether.
I

have neither

beginning nor end.
I

am

of the form of all brightness.
I

am

possessed of delights far and near.
I

am

of the

form of absolute existence.
Liberation.
I

am
I

of the

form of pure
I

am

of the form of true Bliss.

am

palpable Knowledge and Bliss.
absolute

am

of the

form of
is

Wisdom.
There
I

I

am

possessed of the qualities of

Existence, Consciousness

and

Bliss.

All this

utter

Brahman. Brahman.
the eternal

is

no other thing apart from the
alone.

am

that ever-blissful

Brahman and what is known
apart from me.
I

That alone. I am What is known as " thou "
",

as " that

there

is

nothing else

am of the form of the mind and consciousness. I am the transcendent S'lva. I am of the form of extreme emotion. I am the delightful Atman. There is always no scope for my being a
witness
testify
in
to.
I

the

absence
to

of

any

subtle

object to

Owing

(my)

being absolutely utter

Brahman,

am
the

the eternal
(the

am
alone

the

Adi-s'esa

Atman. I and I alone prime residuum). I and I
final
I'

am

S'esa

(the

residuum).

I

am
of

released from
I

name and
emotions,

form.

am

Bliss incarnate.
I

am

of the form of one devoid of the senses.
all
I

am

the form of

am

devoid of bondage and

46
liberation.
I

THE YOGA OPANISADS

am

perpetual Bliss incarnate.
I

I

am

of

the form of the prime consciousness.
divisible

am

the In-

One
I

Essence.
I

I

am

beyond the range of

speech and mind.
pleasure.
I

am

everywhere the enjoyer of

am

everywhere of the form of fulness.
I

am

possessed of the totality of Bliss.
satiety.
I

am

every-

where of the form of
exquisite nectar.

am
is

the essence of

That which

exists

only one, with-

out a second.

I
it).

am
I

the

Brahman
of the

alone.

There
;

is

no

doubt (about
sible
I

am

form of all-void
I

acces-

through
of the

all

scriptural precepts.

am

form of Moksa (Release).
disembodiment.

of the pleasure of

am the liberated. I am of the form I am the absolute
(state).

true
I

Wisdom.

I

am

the Blissful Absolute Existence.

I

am am

of the form of

what transcends the Turiya
in

non-determinate

form.
I

I

am
I

always of the form

of

the ongin-less one.
I I I

have neither passion, nor

impurity. powerful.

Pranava.

am pure. I am wise. am of the form of am devoid of taint.

am

eternal.

I

am

the

import of the
(1-43)

Realizing the Atman as not Possessed of All

THE Diverse Forms
I

I,

nor

am am

of the
I

form of consciousness.
I

He.

am

not
I

form of the functionless.
manifest.
I

am neither of any form. I am of the am impartible. I am unI

am

neither the mind, nor the senses, nor

the intellect,

nor the lingering doubt.
I

Nor am

I

the

triad beginning with the body.

am

neither of the

TEJO-BINDUPANISAD

47

form of wakefulness, nor of a dream. I am not of the form of sleep. I am not of the form of the three kmds
of miseries (caused by the

Bhuta-s).
desire (for
for

Atman, the Deva-s and the' Nor am I subject to the three kmds of, wealth, son and wife). There is no study'
reflection,

me, nor

as

I

am

firmly planted in the|

Atman of consciousness. There is nothing cognate^ with me, nor is there anywhere anything of a different'
class.
is

To me

there

is

nothing in

my own

mind, nor
time and
(43-47)

there the threefold distinction

(of space,

substance) anywhere for me.

The

Realization of the Non-existence of all

Things other than the Atman

The form
intellect
is

of

false.

eternal, perpetual,

mind is false. The form of the Egoism is false. As such, I am and originless. Know that the triad
the

of

The triad of durations is always ^hat the triad of Guna-s is false. I am Know false. Know that all scripture is false. the pure, true Atman. Know that all S'astra is All the Veda is always false.
bodies
IS

false.

false.

I,

the

Atman
that

of consciousness,
is false. is

am
I

true.

Know
always
\

that the triad of Murti-s
false.

All beings are

Know

all

truth
all

false

am

Sada-s'iva,

the

all-pervading of

existing

things.

Know

the'

preceptor and pupil to be

Mantra of the' preceptor to be false. Whatever is seen, know thstt to be false. Do not know me (the Atman) as of that kind.
false, also the

What

is

conceivable,

know

that to be false.

What does

48

THE YOGA UPANI$ADS
is

not swerve from the path of rectitude

always

false.

What
false
;

is

wholesome, know that to be
(the

false.

Do
is

not so

know me
all
IS

Atman).

Know

all

living creatures to be

enjoyments to be

false.

What
;

seen and

what
action

heard,

know those
what
is

to be false

the warp and

the woof, as of falsehood.
is

Know

that right

and wrong
;

and what is obtained, as of falsehood. Know that grief and delight are false all and not all, to be of falsehood. Know that fulness and want are false. Good and bad conduct is of falsehood. Know that gain and loss are false. Victory and defeat is of falsehood. Know all sound to be false, all contact Know all form to be false all taste to be false always.
false
;

lost

;

to

be false always.
every

Know

all

smell to be false
All
is

;

all

cognition to be false always.

always falsehood
is
I

alone
alone.

;

result of

human

existence,

falsehood

All the

Gunas

are only falsehood.

alone

am

the absolute Truth.

(48-59)

The Practice of the Atma-mantra " I AM THE Brahman "
One
Stman.
one's

:

should always see the Mantra of one's

own

One should always practise the Mantra of own Atman This Mantra, vtz., " I am the
:

Brahman," destroys
Mantra,
vtz.,

the sin of what the

is

seen.

This

"

I

am

other Mantra.

This Mantra,

Brahman," destroys every vtz., " I am the Brahman,"
vtz.,

destroys the sin of the body. This Mantra,

"

I

am

the

Brahman," destroys the

sin

of incarnation.

tejo-bindOpani$ad
This Mantra,
viz.,

49

"

I

am

the

Brahman," destroys
vtz.,

the bond of death.

This Mantra,
the

" I

am

the

Brahman,"
of duality.

destroys

misery
vtz.,

of the kpoysrledge

This "Mantra,

"

I

am

the Brahman,"

destroys
vtz., "

This Mantra, I am the Brahman," destroys the misery of cares. This Mantra, vtz., " I am the Brahman," destroys the
the
diflferentiating
intellect.

disease of the intellect.

This Mantra,

viz.,

"

I

am

the

Brahman,'*

Mantra,
diseases.

destroys the bond of the mind. This " 1 am the Brahman," destroys all vtz.,

This Mantra,
all

vtz.,

"

I

am
lust

the Brahman,"
"
I

destroys

grief.

This Mantra,

vtz.,

am

the
like.

Brahman,"

destroys,
vtz.,

m
I

a

trice,

and such
" I

This Mantra,

"

am

the

Brahman," destroys the
vtz.,

recurrence of anger.

This Mantra,

am

the

Brahman," destroys the recurrence of mental processes. " I am the Brahman," destroys vtz., volitions and such like. This Mantra, viz., " I am the Brahman," -destroys crores of blemishes. This Mantra, VIZ., " I am the Brahman," destroys abject dependence on all. This Mantra, vtz., " I am the Brahman," destroys the knowledge of the Atman. This Mantra, " I am the Brahman," bestows the conquest of vtz., Atma-loka. This Mantra, vtz., " I am the Brahman,"
This Mantra,
bestows delight of a kind which cannot be thought
of.

This Mantra,
inertness.

vtz.,

"

I

am
vtz.,

the Brahman," bestows un"
I

This Mantra,

am the Brahman," is the

destroyer of the Asuras of Anatmans. This thunderbolt, " I am the Brahman," will cleave through the "Oiz., mountains called Anatmans, This discus, viz., " I

u

7

;

50

THE YOGA UPANI§ADS
the Brahman," will
I

am

kill

the Asura of Anatmanhood. the Brahman," will surely Manta, viz., " I am the
Bliss
of knowledge.

This Mantra, vtz., "
liberate
all

am

those.

This
the

Brahman,"
seven
crores

bestows
of

The

Mah2-Mantras bestow hundred crores of rebirths. (So), giving up one should practise this Mantra alone.
so),

(on
all

one) a

Mantras,

(On doing
this).

he would forthwith attain release from bondage
is

there

not even an atom of doubt (about

CHAPTER
JiVAN-MUKTI

IV

—THE

ATTAINMENT OF THE StATE

OF THE Brahman

Kumara asked Parames'vara
(to

thus

:

" Pray relate

me) about the condition of a Jivan-mukta and a Videha-mukta." He, the Supreme S'lva, replied as
follows
:

He
in

the

known as a Jivan-mukta, who stands alone Atman (realizing), " I am the Atman of conis
;

sciousness
qualified
;

I I

am the transcendent Atman am beyond the transcendent

;

I

am

non-

(Stman)."

I

known as a Jivan-mukta, who inwardly realizes, "I stand superior to the three Dehas (bodies) I am pure consciousness; I am the Brahman," He is
"is
;

He

,

; ;

tejo-bindOpani§ad

51
there
is

known
is)

as the Jivan-mukta, for
like,

whom

no

bo<!^!

and such
the
realizing),

and there
;

is

the conviction (that there
of exquisite Bliss {on
;

Brahman
"
I

who

is

full

am

of the form of galjjabie Bliss
;

I

am
ego
;

palpable exquisite Bliss "

for

whom
;

there

is

no

who remains planted

in

consciousness alone

whose interior is absolute consciousness who is of the one form of absolute consciousness who is everywhere of the form of fulness has everywhere consciousness alone as the residuum who revels in Bliss who is unmanifest, full and possessed of the Atman of consciousness whose Stman is of the form of pure
;
; ;

;

;

consciousness

;

who

is
;

devoid of

all
is

contact
clear
;

enjoys perpetual Bliss

whose mind
;

who who is
;

devoid of care about everything else
the least existence
;

such a one

is

who is devoid of known as a Jlvan(1-7)

mukta.
"

Not mine
;

is

the

mind
;

;

not mine the intellect

not egoism

nor the senses
the vital
;

not mine the body at any
airs
;

anywhere not mm^ Illusion I am the not mine lust not mine anger transcendent Brahman not mine is whatever of this world not mine is whatever and wherever of the world not mine is blemish not mine is any symbol not mine the eye not mine is the mind not mine the ear not mine the nose not mine the tongue not mine the hand not mine the waking not mine the dream not mine even an atom of the Karapa (causal He who realizes this) body) not mine the Turiya "
time
;

not mine
;

;

;

;

;

;

;

;

;

;

;

;

;

;

;

:

is

the Jivan-mukta.

(7^11)

;

32
"

TAB YOGA UPAKI$ADS
Not mine even a
all
;

little

of all
;

this

;

not mine
duration
;

wheresoever,

that

is

yonder

not

mme
;

is

not mine space
intellect
;

not mine the substance
;

not mine the
the firm
;

not mine the ablution
;

not mine the twilight;

austerities

not mine

Destiny

not
;

mme
;

ground

;

not mine the sacred water
;

not mine service

not mine "Wisdom
;

not

mme the
;

(high) status

not mine

bondage not mine incarnation not mine the precept not mine religious merit not mine not mine the Sun not mine the auspicious not sin not mine action mine the Jiva, known as my own Atman not mine a not mine liberation not little of the three worlds mine dualism not mine the Veda not mine the Rule of Conduct not mine nearness not mine distance not mine the awakening not mine secrecy not mine
;

;

,

;

;

;

;

;

;

;

;

;

;

;

,

the preceptor

;

not mine the pupil
is
;

,

not mine what

is
;

more not mine Brahman not mine Visnu not mine Rudra not mine the Moon not mine not mine the Earth ;. not mine the Water not mine the Ether not mme the Fire the Air not mine high pedigree not mine the high ideal not mine not mine the meditator IS existence not mine the not mine meditation meditated upon not mine Manu (the Mantra) not mine the cold not mine the heart not mine the thirst not mine the hunger not jnine the friend not mine the enemy not mine the infatuation not mine the victory not mine the prior not* mine the posterior not mine what is aloft not mine the cardinal points not mine the little that is to expressed in words not mine even the atom of Jt)e
wanting
;

not mine what
,

;

;

;

;

;

;

;

;

;

;

;

;

;

;

;

;

;

,

;

;

;

;

;

;

;

;

tejo-bindOpani§:ad
;

53

what has to be studied not mine the httle that has not mine even an atom of what to be reflected upon not mine the httle that has has to be meditated upon not mine even an atom of what has yet to be enjoyed not mine the enjoyment not mine to be remembered not mine the the passion not mine the concentration not mine the stupidity not mine the final dissolution not mine the tranquillity not mine the bondage affection not mine the joy, nor the height of joy not not mine the shmness not mine the corpulence mine the length not mine the shortness not mine not mine the wasting things that have the growth been wrongly attributed to me and their denial are not mine blindness not not one and are not many mine dullness not mine an atom of quick understandnot mine the flesh not mine the blood not mine ing the fat not mine the lymph not mine the marrow, nor mine the bone, nor mine the integument, nor the seven primary fluids of the body not mine whiteness not mine the crimson not mine the blue not mine the severalty not mine the heat not mine the avarice not mine the essential or the accessory, anywhere not mine the confusion not mine the firmness not mine the secret not mine the pedigree not mine what ought to be discarded not mine what ought to be grasped not mine the ludicrous not mine the refinement not mine the vow not mine the languor not mine the desiccated not mine sound health not mine the knower not mine the knowledge not mine what ha^ to be known not mine my own Atman not mkiej
;
;

;

;

;

;

;

;

;

;

;

;

;

;

;

;

;

;

;

;

;

,

;

;

;

;

,

,

;

,

;

;

;

;

;

;

;

;

;

;

;

;

;

;

;

;

;

;

;

;

;

;

54

THE YOGA OPANI5ADS
;

what appertains to thee not mine what appertains to me not mine thou not mine also I not mine dotage not mine childhood not mme even an atom of adoles;
; ;
;

cence

;

I

am

am am I
I

the
;

Brahman Brahman is (my)
the

;

I

am

the

Brahman
;

;

that

conviction
I."

Consciousness
is

Consciousness

am

— Who
;

realizes thus

known
"
I

as the Jivan-mukta.

(11-30)
I

ness
is

;

I

am am

only the

Brahman

am

only conscious;

only the transcendent (Brahman)
it)."

there

no doubt (about
accord,

(He who
of his

realizes thus) of his
;

own

he

is

the pure Haipsa (Atman)

he

is

own accord of his own accord he shall see the Stman in the kingdom of his own Atman, he shall live comfortably. He who thus enjoys the Bliss of his own Atman, of his own The unique accord, is known as the Jivan-mukta. warrior, (who stands) foremost of his own accord, one who is the reputed Lord of his own Atman, who will sleep taking the form of his own Atman, of his own accord he is known as the Jivan-mukta. (31-32)
firmly planted in the
; ; ;

Atman

ViDEHA-MUKTI

:

TAKING ONE'S StAND ON THE ABSOIs

LUTE Brahman, which

the Absolute Atman,

WITH NOTHING CORRESPONDING TO IT

One who has become the Brahman who has tranquillized his own Atman who is full of the Bliss who is happy who is crystal-like in of the Brahman form who is profoundly silent he alone is the
; ; ; ;
;

;

Videha-mukta.

(33)

;

tejo-bindOpanisad
"
(I

55

am

one) whose
;

Atman
;

is all

;

who, alike every;

whose Atman is pure whose where, is the Atman " I " has been fully roused who is excepted by the one

(Brahman)

;

whose Atman

is

the one (Brahman)
;

;

one

who sees all m his own Atman who is only his own Atman I am the Atman that has no origin whose] Atman is immortal, who am myself the Atman, who knows no decay whose Atman is seen through introspection whose Atman is lovely I am possessed of the characteristics of the silent Atman the Atman of Bliss the loving Atman the Atman of liberation devoid of bondage I am the Brahman alone I am
;

\

;

;

;

;

;

;

;

;

;

;

consciousness alone
ceived "
;

;

(whatever

of)

this

is

not con-

—he

who

stands (thus) in utter consciousness,
(34-37)
viz.,

alone

is

the Videha-mukta.
that

Having abandoned the conviction, the Brahman, with his own interior
he alone
is

I

(am)

filled

with Bliss,

the Videha-mukta.

He

stands having given

up the conviction that all is and (all) is not, that " I am the Brahman and am not the Brahman ", (himself) being only Existence, Consciousness and Bliss. This
(person) does not touch the

Atman
is

whatever, wherever

and whenever
transcendent

;

remaining only

silent, silently,

m silence,
is

(does not touch) whatever

the truth

,

who

the

Brahman
;

;

who has

surpassed the

Gugas

who

IS

the all-Atman

the prime cause of the worlds.

Difference in time, difference in substance, difference of
place, difference in one's

own

self,

whatever differehce,
",

he has not

;

him) as of "

I ",

there is no " thou ", "

(such difference) whatever, (for
it ",

" this

"

He ",

" what

;

56
is

THE YOGA UPANISADS
yonder "
;

;

is the Stman that is is void Atman of the Universe has no universe is the Atman of the Devas, is the Stman devoid of the Devas is the Atman capable of measurement IS devoid of measurement is the Atman devoid of sluggishness everywhere is the inner Atman of all is the Atman devoid of all volition (who realizes) I am always consciousness alone I am the absolute, transcendent Atman, who is embodied Knowledge is existence alone is Atman in form. There alone Where is the Jiva, the is no fear of the other world.

time

is

the

who is Atman
;

the
that

Stman
;

of

Time,

(yet)

has no

subtle in form
;

is

the

;

;

;

;

;

'*

;

;

;

;

Is^vara,

Speech, the Veda, the S'astra, where
as the Videha-mukta

am am

I ?

"

He

IS

known
"

who

is

devoid of the
,

conviction,

This

is

only consciousness

I

con-

sciousness also."

(38-47)

He, who
ness alone,
fortable

IS

thoroughly accomplished in consciousplays with his

who

own Atman, has a comof a

posture,

has

Atman

boundless form,

is
;

devoid of attenuation, prodigiousness and such like
is

in

the

Turya

of the
is

Turya

state

;

is

exquisitely

blissful,

he alone

the Videha-mukta.
,

He who
;

is

name and form who is exquisite Knowledge land Bliss who is the Atman of happiness who is the Atman of the form of Turlyatita who is devoid of weal and woe who is the Atman of Yoga who is the Atman, who has attained Yoga; who is devoid of bondage and liberation whose Atman is devoid of the Gunas and the absence of the Gunas who is devoid ©f space, time and the like whose Atman is devoid of
devoid of
;

;

;

;

;

;

;

; ;

TEJO-BINDUPANISAD
the thing to be witnessed
is
;

57

something and

(yet)
;

and the witness thereof who nothing whose is not the
;

manifold manifestation
;

nor even the aspect of the
;

Brahman here who is self-luminous in his own form who IS attached, of his own accord, to his own form who is the Bliss that transcends vocal expression who,
;

;

by himself, transcends speech and mind whose exishe alone is the tence transcends the transcendent
; ;

Videha-mukta.

.
IS

(47-53)

He, who

beyond the functioning of the mind
is

who
mind

manifests himself through the functioning of the
;

whose Atman

devoid of

all

functioning

;

is

At the time (of attaining the state) he is devoid of remembrance of the body, (so as to cognize) that he is a Videhin. Should there be slight remembrance, he is endowed with everything. He whose outward Atman is not seen by others
alone the Jivan-mukta.

who
ness
;

IS

palpably
goal

the

exquisite
is

blissful

conscious-

whose outward Atman
IS

not seen by others
;

who

the

of

all

the

Vedantas

who
the

swal-

lows the sweet essence

of the nectar of
i%

Brah-

who is fond of the essence of the nectar of the Brahman who is of himself the essence of the nectar of the Brahman who is immersed in the essence of the nectar of the Brahman whose S'lvarcana is the who is satiated in the essence Bliss of the Brahman who experiences, the of the nectar of the Brahman Bliss of the Brahman whose Bliss in S'lva is the Bliss of the Brahman who shines as the essence of the Bliss
;
;

man man

;

whose ehxir of

life

the nectar of the Brah-

;

;

;

;

;

;

V

8

58
of the

THE YOGA UPANI$ADS
;

Brahman whose radiance is superb, as of the Bhss of the Brahman who enjoys the Bliss of the Brahman uninterruptedly who subsists on the food of the essence of the Bhss of the Brahman who is a member of the family of the Bliss of the Brahman; who is perched on the essence of the Bliss of the Brahman who is palpably the one consciousness of the Bhss of the Brahman who is the flood of the essence of the Bliss of the Brahman who is nourished with the who is associated with people Bliss of the Brahman Bliss of the Brahman who is firmly enjoying the planted in the Atman of the Bliss of the Brahman. He who realizes, " all this is of the form of the Atman; there is nothing else whatever, save the Atman all is the Atman I am the Atman, the transcendent Atman, possessed of the transcendent Atman, the Atman that
, ,

;

,

;

,

,

;

,

;

is

ever in the form of Bliss,"

—he alone
Atman
,

is

the Videha(53-62)

mukta.

One who
satiated

is

full

in

form, the great Atman, the
,

Atman,

the perpetual

the

Atman
all
,

of

the form of what penetrates the interior of
spotless

the

Atman

,

the Atman-less one
,

the
;

Atman which
the tranquil of

has a changeless form

the pure

Atman

form

;

the

Atman
,

of the
,

the non-tranquillized

form of the tranquillized and devoid of the state of manifold

Atman-hood who is rid of the totality of cares (brought on' by the differentiation of) the Jivatman and the Paramatman the Atman of the form of the liberated and the non-liberated who is devoid of the (state of being) liberated and non-hberated who is the Atman
;
;

;

;

TEfO-BINDUPANIJAD
of the form of

59
;

bondage and liberation
;

who

is

devoid of

bondage and liberation and non-dualism who
;

who
is

is

of the

form of dualism

devoid of dualism and non-

dualism

;

who

IS

of the

who

is

devoid of the

form of the all and the not-all all and the not-all who is of the
;
,

form of joy and exquisite joy
of joy
IS

who

is

devoid utterly
volition
;

and such
IS

like

;

who

is

devoid of

all

he

alone the Videha-mukta.

(63-68)
; ;

Atman the flawless Atman the Wisdom the Atman of the Supreme (Purusa) the Atman devoid of Bliss and such like the Atman that is immortal is of the immortal Atman the Atman of the form of the triad of durations who IS devoid of the triad of durations the Atman of \ast the Atman immeasurable expanse the Atman of who is devoid of measure the Atman who measure
the partless
of

He

Atman
;

;

;

;

;

,

,

;

;

,

is

ever manifest
,

,

manifestation

the

who is determined by his perpetual Atman that is characterized by the
,

abandonment
be known by

of every other thing
,

that

is

self-lumi-

nous, bereft of every other thing

the

Atman
like
;

that could
;

learning, ignorance

and such

like

that

is

devoid
that
IS

ol learning,

ignorance and such

the
,

Atman
that
is

devoid of perpetuity and transience
of " here "

devoid

and

"

m

that
of)

place "

,

the

Atman

and such devoid of the six (qualities like that IS devoid of seeking after libeiation and such like the Atman that is devoid of the gross body that the Atman that is deyoid is devoid of the subtle body that is devoid of the of the causal body and such like the Atman that is Turiya and such like (bodies)
tranquillity
,

;

;

,

;

,

;

GO

THE YOGA UPANISADS
Anna
(food)
; ;

devoid of the sheath of
the sheath of Prana

that

is

devoid of
that
is

(vital

air)

the

Atman
;

devoid of the Manas (the mental) sheath
of the Vijfiana-(Wisdom) sheath
;

that

is

devoid
that
is

the
;

Atman
is

devoid of the Ananda- (Bliss) sheath
the five sheaths
that
is
;

that

devoid of
;

the

Atman
;

of indeterminate form
;

devoid of distinctive form

the

Atman

not

affected

by the object seen
;

that

is in

no way affected
always void of

by the sound heard
concentration
;

the

Atman

that

is

that

is

devoid of beginning, middle and
is

end
("

;

the

Atman
IS

that

devoid of the Prajnana-vakya
,

Brahman ") that is devoid of (the the Atman that realization) I am the Brahman " " Thou art That " has no such (realization) as that " This Atman (is the Brahman) " cannot conceive the Atman that is devoid of what is to be expressed by
the
"
;
;
;

Wisdom

"

Om "

,

the word

that is devoid of what " All " the Atman that
,

is
is

to be expressed

by
the

devoid of the triad
,

df conditions

(waking,

dreaming and sleeping)
,

Atman that never decays the Atman of consciousness the Atman that is devoid of what ought to be known by that has for its Atman " the little whatthe Atman the Atman that is devoid of light and ever of this "
; ;

non-light

,

he alone

is

the Videha-mukta.

(68-79)

Rule for the Concentkation on One's Own Atman
Cast thine eyes on the
thine

own Atman.

Atman alone. Instruct Enjoy thine own Atman thyself.

:

tejo-bindCpani?ad
!

61

Take thy stand on thyself, O $ad-anana Thyself satisfied in thine own Atman, direct thy Stman thyself. Please the Atman alone. Become a Videha-mukta. Thus the Upanisad. (80, 81)

CHAPTER V

The Nature of One's Own Atman
The
Sage
between

Mum
the

named Nidagha asked
:

the worshipful

Rbhu,

thus

"

Atman

Pray tell me the distinction and the Anatman." He, the
is

worshipful Sage Rbhu, replied as follows

The
who
IS

furthest limit of all speech
all

the

Brahman
is

;

the furthest limit of

thought

is

the preceptor.

He

the cause of effects

m

general and

who

devoid
;

who is volition of any kind who is made entirely of Nada (a nasal sound represented by a semi-circle) is auspicious who is absolute consciousness, bereft of everything else who is full of all Bliss and IS transcendent who is possessed of the brightness of all luminosity who is full of the Bliss of Nada who is released from all experience who is without contemplation of anything who is beyond the reach of the Nada and the Kala, this is the Atman, the I, the imperishable. (He) who is bereft of the difference and
of causes

and

effects

;

,

;

;

;

;

;

,

;

; ;

62

THE YOGA UPANI§ADS

non difference arising out of the distinction between the Atman and the Anatman who is without the tran;

quilhzed, the nontranquilhzed
IS

and other

states

of the form of the internal radiance of the
IS

who NSda
;

who who

away from the import of the Maha-vakyas " I am is still further away from the realization, who is not implied by the word the Brahman " " That " who is not connoted by the word " Thou " who is not externalized by the import of the Vakya (" That thou art ") who is devoid of decay and
far
; ;

;

;

nondecay
Nada.

;

he

is

alone the internal radiance of
is

the

He,

who

neither

the

Indivisible

One

Essence, nor (the experience),
characteristics

"lam
is
is

Bliss;" whose
the
internal

transcend

all,

alone

radiance of the Nada.
"
"

He, who

devoid of the word

Atman," who

is
is

bereft of the import of (the word)

Atman

",
,

who
is

devoid of Existence, Consciousness
is

and Bliss
'Atman.
is
]

such a one alone

the Sanatana (eternal)

He

incapable of being demonstrated,

who

illicitly

approachable by means of the Veda-vakyas
;

(Scriptural texts)

of

whom
, ,

there

is

nothing by way of

^external manifestation
I

nor of inward being, in point

of (quality or) extent
festation
;

/

the

who has neither sex, nor maniAtman is the Brahman alone there is
;

'no doubt about
Jiva,

it,

for

whom

there

is

no body nor

made up
is

of

the elements or their composites
;

there

noticing worthy of

no name, form or such other thing there is enjoyment nor is the enjoyer of the
;

enjoyment

;

for

whom

there
;

is

neither the state of exist;

ence nor nonexistence

neither decay nor non-decay

tejo-bindOpanisad
neither

63

Guna nor
;

the

absence

of
ts

Guna.

He

is

the Atman, no doubt, for
or expression

whom

(there
,

no) sentiment

study or reflection distinction between and the pupi] and such hke the worlds the preceptor where there is not even an; of the Devas and Asuras
; ;

atom

of upright or wicked conduct
is

,

purity or impurity
;

;'

where there
viction

no proper or improper time
;

no con-

or doubt
of
it
;

absence

no Mantra or the no learning or ignorance no seer,

where there

is

;

seeing or the thing seen
of

,

not even a slight division
to

an atom Brahman)

;

(it

is

impossible

demonstrate the
(1-15)

The Falsehood of all Anatman
There

Anatman Anatman Have the

;

;

known as nor (any function of) the mind known as nor any universe known as Anatman
is

not (any topic of) discourse

conviction (therefore), that th ere

is

no such
is

thing as Anatman,

Have

the conviction that there

no Anatman, by reason of the absence of all volition, by reason of being devoid of any effect and (every;

thing) being the

Biahman

alone absolutely

;

on account

of the absence of the three bodies, the nonexistence
of the three durations, on account of the absence of the

and the absence of the three kinds of miseries (Atmic, Daivic, and Bhautic), and the Vedic the non-existence of the three worlds
characteristics of the three Jivas
;

injunction " All is the

Atman

".

There

is

nothing that
;

could be conceived in the absence of the mind

th^Fe,

"

64
is

THE YOGA UPANIgADS
no dotage
in the
in

the absence of the body

;

there
;

is

no
is

goal to be reached in the absence of the feet

there

no work
in the

absence of the hands
;

;

absence of birth
in

there

is

no death no happiness and
there
is
;

such hke

the

absence of the intellect

there

is

neither upright conduct, nor cleanliness, nor truth, nor
there is no utterance of the sacred mystic symbol, no pupil and preceptor or such like there is no Second in the absence of Unity and there is no Unity in the
fear
;
;

absence of the Second.

(15-21)
is

Should there be truthfulness, there
for an>""Talsehood.

no

possibility

wiiPBe~no "scbpe^ what IS auspicious

Should there be falsehood, there for truthfulness. Should you know
as inauspicious, the auspicious will

be caused to flow out of the inauspicious.

Should you
libe-

know
ration,

fear to be

the absence of fear, from the absence
If

of fear will befall fear

bondage should be
in

where
-*

will

be liberation

the

absence of

If death should be incarnation, there can bondage " be no death with cessation oi incarnation. If " I

should become " thou
will cease to be.

",

then,

if

" thou " art not, "

"
I

If " this "

should only be " that," in
is

the absence of " that," " this " also
is

becomes " there is," then, if " there is ". is, there is no If cause should however be effect, in the absence of the effect, there is no
not "
cause.
If

If " there not " there is not

dualism

is

ever non-dualism, then in the

absence of the dual
seeing
is

state, there is

no non-dual one.
If

If

ever the object seen, in the absence of the
is

object seen, there

no seeing.

the internal should

;

tejo-bindOpani?ad
ever

65

be the external, verily in the absence of the
there
is

internal,

no

external.

If fullness

should ever
state.

become a
nor "
I,"

little,

then follows the non-full
is

For

this reason, this (fullness)

nowhere, neither " thou,"
;

nor " these," nor " this "
of
;

(then) there is no

example

what

exists

ongin-less

there will
I

no example of what is be no mmd for the remembrance
;

there

is

of (the realization), "

am

Have the Brahman
;

conviction
" thou "

" the transcendent Brahman that " this world is the utter "
I

and

" are the utter

Brahman
is

,

1

am

the

absolute

utter

Brahman

;

there

no

Anatman." (22-31) This phenomenal world does not verily exist, was not„cjealed and does not stand anywhere. It is the It (the mind, they say, that is the phenomenal world phenomenal world) does not exist does not at any time there is aQ4)ii£aQinanaI-woi:id.^~ -there-is no miQCJ exist and the like nor egoism nor the Jiva the work of Illusion there is illusion and such like does not exist not fear there is not the worker there is not work
;
, , ,

;

;

;

,

there

is

not

;

neither study nor reflection
is

;

the two-fold

Samadhi and such
nation
IS

there

not
;

,

the measurer and the measure
is

like is not

Ignorance also
;

not

,

indiscrimi-

any time object and the interrelation of the nor the triad of subject and the object and such like) relationships (intimate, conjoint and inherent) there is not the Ganges, nor the Gaya, nor the SetUf nor what is of the elements, nor anything else neither the
not, at

neither the four requisites

(learner,

subject,

,

;

;

earth, nor water, nor

fire,

nor

air,

nor ether, anywhere

U

9

66

THE YOGA UPANISADS
the cardinal
;

neither the gods, nor the guardians of
points, nor the Veda-s, nor the preceptor
off,

neither far

nor near

;

nor between the two, nor the middle, nor
;

situated

anywhere
is

neither non-dual, nor dual
is

;

nor

truth, nor non-truth

this

;

bondage, release and such
not
goal

like

there

not

,

neither existence, nor non-existence,
;

nor happiness and such like
there
is
;

caste there
is

is
;

;

not

;

class (by birth) there

not

nor worldly

custom
is is

(the creed)

that " All

is

the Brahman," there
there
is
is

not

;

even what

is

the

Brahman,
is

not

;

what
of

consciousness,

there
"
I

not
I

;

nor
the

the talk

Brahman," there nor I am the ever pure " anywhere IS not at all there is not whatever is uttered by speech, what is conceived by the mind wherever, what is determined by the Intellect, nor what is known by the Citta (mind). The Yogin, the Yoga and the like, there is all always is not always. not Day and night and ablution, meditation and the like the like there is not Delusion and clear vision, there is not. Be IS not.
consciousness and
; ;

"

"

am

"

;

;

,

thou convinced that there

is

no Anatman.
Loka,
the

(31-42)

The Veda,
cause,

the S'astra, the Purana, the effect, the the

the

Is'vara,

elements,

the

people,

and unity, all this is falsehood, without doubt. Bondage, Liberation, happiness, misery, meditation, the mind, the gods and the demons, the accessory, the chief, the transcendent and all else, is falsehood without, doubt. Whatever is uttered by speech, what is created by volitions, whatever is conceived by the
mind,
all
is

falsehood without doubt.

Whatever

is

TEJO-BINDUPANISAD
determined by the intellect
gated by the S'astra-s
alone
; ;

67
is

whatever
;

thoroughly
is

cognized by the mind anywhere
;

whatever
is

prdpa-

whatever

seen by the eyes

whatever
;

is

heard by the ears and every other

happening
that
is

and the body is falsehood Whatever is declared to the sure conclusion.
the eye, the ear
is

be only " this," turns out to be what
" thou ", "
I ",

" yonder "
"
I

;

" that ", " this ", "

He

",

and

",

turn
is

out

to

be only other entities.
the

So

also,
all

whatever

considered as possible in the world,

the confusion
in

among
diverse
to

volitions,
all

various
to

errors

attributing
all

properties,

that

has
all
,

be kept hidden,
of
faults,

the

enjoyments,

separation
hence,
"
"

(prove
is

be
"

other entities)

conclude there
thine," "
",

no

Anatman.

What
"

is

mine

"

and
",

what

is

(42-50) my " and'
"

" thy ",

on

my

behalf

on thy behalf

by

me

"
j
;

and such

like, all

protector ", creation "
,

" Visnu is the that will prove futile. and the like " Brahman is the cause of the " Rudra (is the cause) of destruction " and
,

,

;

such

like,

be convinced, that
silent

all

this

is

falsehood.

Ablution,

prayer,

penance, offering oblation,

the study of the Veda, the worship of the tutelary deity,

Mantra, the mystic formula, association with people of moral excellence, the manifestation of merit and

dement, the existence of the inner sense, the occurrence
of Ignorance, the myriads
das, be

upon myriads of Brahmanthis is falsehood.

convinced that

all

AU

the

sayings and the utterances of the spiritual guides have

been declarations of somebody or other.

Whatever

;

68

THE YOGA UPANIgADS
is

aspect the world puts on, and whatever

seen in the
all

world
that

;

whatever

is in

the world
is

;

be convinced that

IS

falsehood.
;

What

what is symbol or other what is enumerated by some one or other what is what is given by rejoiced in by some one or other some one or other what is done by some one or other
;
;

by some (mystic) prescribed by one or other
said

;

,

wherever there
vice
;

is

benevolent action

;

wherever there
all

is

whatever you do, verily conclude that

that

is

falsehood.

(50-58)

The Absolute Brahmanhood of the
Thou alone
form of Ether
art

"

I

"-Entity

the

transcendent Atman.

Thou

alone art the highest preceptor

Thou
Thou

alone art of the

Thou

art

always de\oid of Witness.
,

Thou

alone art all-existence

art the

Thou art without duration. duration Thou art always the Brahman, palpable consciousness Thou art, in all places, of the form of thyself Thou art in possession of palpable consciousness. Thou art the truthful Thou art the accomplished. Thou art the eternal. Thou art the liberated. Thou art the liberation Thou art immortal on account of joy. Thou art the Deva Thou art the tranquillized. Thou art the non-aihng. Thou art the Brahman, Thou Thou art the transcendent, of the tranart the full Thou art the even. Thou art the good. scendent. Thou art the everlasting. Thou art demonstrated by
no doubt
the Scriptural Texts, such as " Satyaip (Jfianam, etc.),"

Brahman Thou art the

»

tejo-bindDpanisad

69
art

Thou

art devoid of all limbs.

Thou

always firmly
Indra,

established.

Thou

art

extolled

by Brahman,

Thou art devoid of the delusion Thou art also reflected m all of the manifested world. beings. Thou art free from volition everywhere. Thou Thou art extolled by the import of all the Upanisads
Rudra and other gods.
art

everywhere with the posture of joy and happiness
art art

Thou Thou
like.

devoid of movement and the

like,

anywhere.

everywhere devoid of introspection and the
art

Thou

always meditated upon by Visnu and

the other gods.

Thou art of the form of the aspect of consciousness. Thou art absolute consciousness without Thou art firmly planted in the Atman alone. control. Thou art devoid of all (conditions). Thou art not Thou art Bliss. Thou art qualified (by any Guna). transcendent Thou, bemg one alone, hast no second. Thou art of the form of palpable consciousness and Bliss. Thou art of the form of complete fullness. Thou art existence. Thou art thou. Thou art the knower. Thou art He. Thou knowest. Thou seest. Thou art of the form of Existence, Consciousness and Bliss. Thou art the Lord Vasu-deva. Thou art imThou art fickle mortal. Thou art the Supreme Ruler. and firm. Thou art all and void of all. Thou art
devoid of tranquillity and the cessation of tranquillity.

Thou

art

luminous

with

the radiance of absolute
in

existence.

Thou art eternally of the form of accomplishment. Thou art devoid of all accomplishment. Thou art void of only a little. Thou art void of only an atom. Thou art devoid
Thou
art

existence

general.

;

70

THE YOGA 0PANI?ADS
Thou
art without non-being
is

of the state of being.

the hke.
definition.

Thou

art

devoid of what

and defined and its

Thou art non-aihng. Thou art the core of all Nada. Thou art devoid of parts and the ultimate limit. Thou art devoid of Brahman, Visnu and Ts'a. Thou seest thine own form. Thou hast thine own as the residuum. Thou immersest Thou art thyself in the in the ocean of thy Bliss. kingdom of thine Atman. (Thou art) without thine own Thou art of the form of thy fullness remainmg. state. Thou seest not apart from thyself. Thou dost not move from thine own form. Thou bloomest forth with thine own form. Thou art nothmg other than thine (of that) be conown form. Thou art I alone
(Thou
art) changeless.
;

vinced.

(58-74)

The Non-Existence of Antithetical Forms THE Case of the Phenomenal World of
Ignorance and Its Results
Whatever there
whatever there
the seen
,

in

is

of this world of

phenomena
all is like

is
is

in the

world

;

what

is

of the form of

what

of the

form of the seer;

the horn of the hare (non-existent).
fire, air,

The

earth, water,

ether, the

mind, the

intellect, the ego, radiance,

the world,

the system of worlds, decay, birth, truth,

religious merit, sin, victory

and others

;

passion, desire,

anger,

greed,

meditation,

the thing meditated upon,

the transcendent quality, the preceptor, the pupil, the

precept

and the

like,

the beginning, the end, peace,

tejo-bindCpanisad
auspiciousness,

71

the past,

the present, the future, the

thing defined, definition, non-duahsm, tranquilhty, en-

what is of the form of the enjoyer, what is enjoyed and the hke, the eight-/old Yoga of (Self-) what is of the nature of going and control and others
quiry, joy,
;

coming, the parts

(of

anything)

known

as beginning,

middle and end
of

what is acceptable and what is worthy being abandoned Visnu, S'lva, the senses, the mind,
; ;

the triad
(first

of

states

also

;

the Twenty-four Tattvas

^

principles),
;

the four Sadhanas,^ the cognate, the
;

Bhur and others in their order all the Varnas, As'ramas and Acaras, the mastery of the Mantras and the Tantras what is of the form of knowledge, ignorance and the like, all the Vedas, the non-sentient and the sentient, the division of bondage and liberation, what is of the form of knowledge and what is of the form of wakening and superior wisdom non-wakening talk of Dualism and non-duahsm the final conclusions of all the systems of Vedanta the
extraneous
the worlds,
,

,

,

;

;

determination of the import of
existence of
of the

all

the S'astras

;

the

many

entities of the Jiva, the
like
;

determining

one Jiva and the

whatever one contem-

plates by the mind, whatever

is

wished
;

for,

wherever
is

;

whatever

is

reasoned by the intellect
;

whatever

heard
;

from the preceptor
'

whatever

is

expounded by speech

The Avyakta

(the indistinct),
five

kara (individuality), the

Buddhi (the Intellect), AhatpTan-matras (subtle elements), the five

Maha-bhutas
the mind.

(gross elements), the eleven organs of sense including

2.

* The four Sadhanas (qualifications) are 1. Discrimination, Desirelessness, 3. Good Conduct, and 4. Love.

72

THE YOGA UPANI$ADS
is

whatever

the discourse of the AcSrya

;

whatever
;

may

be perceived from the voice
IS

investigated

and by whatever has been upon separately
the senses
;

whatever

adjudicated upon fairly by great
in

men who
in the

are versed
;

the Vedas

,

whatever there
as,

is

Puranas

in-

cidents

such

S'lva

destroys

the

worlds,

Vispu
;

sustains the three worlds.

Brahman
;

creates the worlds

whatever
all

is

described in the Vedas
all
is

the significance of

the Upani^ads,

like the

horn of a hare (non(75-89)

existent).

The Mind

alone, actuated by Volition and
')

THE Like, The hxed
inner sense.

Is

the Cause of all Trouble
I

idea, that

am

the body,
that
I

is

known

as the
is

The

fixed

idea,

am

the body,

said to be the great wordly illusion. that
I

The

fixed idea,

am

the body,
I

is

said to be
is

its

bondage.
its

The

fixed idea, that

am
that

the body,
1

said to be
is

misery.

The knowledge, The fixed hell.
the
entire

am

the body,
I

alone known as
is

idea, that

am

the body,

said to be
I

universe.

The

fixed idea,

that

am
is

the

body,

is__vvhat

denotes jthe_knot of^jhe heart.
I

The
known
is

knowledge, that
as Ignorance

am

the body,

is

only what
I

only

The knowledge, what does not exist. The
is
I

that

am

the body,
I

thought, that
Illusion.
is

am

the

body, that
ledge,

what

is

termed as

The knowis

that

am

the body, that alone
that
I

called duality.

The

fixed

idea,

am

the body, that alone

the
I

real Jiva

(the individual soul).

The knowledge,

that

tejo-bindOpanisad

73

am

the body,

is

what
I

is

known

as the hmited one.
is

The
is

fixed idea,

that

am

the body,
that
I

what
little

is

patently a

great sm.

The

thought,

am

the body,
of

un-

doubtedly
denotes

heinous greed.
triad
all

Even a

volition

the
is

of

miseries.

Desire,
is

anger and

bondage
various

misery.
at

The world

sin,

assuming
of this
!

forms

various times.

cluster of all volitions,

know,

O

Whatever handsome one

that to
(89-97)

be of the mind.

The mind
alone
tence.
is

alone

is

the whole universe.

The mind

the great foe.

The mind
is

alone

is

worldly exis-

The mind
is

alone

the three worlds

The
is

mmd

alone

the great misery.
(miseries)

The mind

alone
is

dotage

and other
time.

The mind

alone

duration of

The mind alone is impurity. The mind alone is desire The mind alone is the Jiva. The mind alone is Citta (thought). The mind alone is individuality The mind alone is the great bondage. The mind alone is the inner sense The mind alone IS the Earth. The mmd alone is Water. The mind alone is Fire. The mind alone is the vast Atmosphere The mind alone is Ether. The mind
alone
five
is

sound, touch, form, taste and smell.

These
said,

sheaths are the products of the mind.

The waking,
are,
it is

dreaming, sleeping and other conditions
the

products

of

the

mind.

The guardians

of the

cardinal points, the Vasus, the Rudras and the Adityas,

are products

of

the

mmd.
be
the

What

is

seen, the non-

sentient, the cluster of pairs

(of opposites)

and igno-

rance

are

said

to

products of the mind.

U

10

;

74

THE YOGA UPANISADS
is

Whatever

an idea

(of

the mind),

be convinced,
is

that does not exist.

The

universe, there
is

not.

The

preceptor, the pupil

and the hke, there

not.

(98-105)

CHAPTER

VI

The State of Existence, Consciousness
AND Bliss
(Says)

Rbhu Know
: ,

that everything

is

of existence

and consciousness that everything is of existence and consciousness and is diffused what is of existence, what is of consciousness and bhss is non-dual existence, consciousness and bhss is imperishable what is of existence, consciousness and bhss alone is what IS unique existence, consciousness and bhss I am of the form of existence, consciousness and bliss
,

,

,

,

the Ether

is

existence, consciousness

and
;

bliss

;

thou

art existence,

consciousness and bhss
bliss.

I

am

existence,
(1-3)

consciousness and

The Brahmanhood of All
These multitudinous (functions) of the mind, the intellect, individuality and thought, are naught. There " thou ", nor " I ", nor " other ". is no All is absolute

TEJO-BINDUPANISAD

75
text
;

Brahman.
anywhere
feeling,

There
nor

is
;

no

(scriptural)
letter,

nor the
nor
;

word, nor the
;

Veda

nor the

nor non-sentience
end,

middle,
,

nor

beginning,

nor truth, nor fetter nor
illusion,

nor misery, nor happiness
nor the prime source
;

nor

neither

the body, nor the mouth, nor smell, nor the tongue,

nor the palates, nor the teeth and nor inspiration, nor expiration
nor
flesh,
, ;

lips,

nor forehead

,

nor sweat, nor bone,
;

nor blood,
nor
of

nor

urme
belly,

nor distance, nor

nearness

limb,
the

nor

nor
,

crest,

nor the
S'astra,

movement
thing
ing,
to

hands and

feet

nor the

nor the mandate,
be

nor the knower, knowing and the
,

known

nor waking, dreaming and sleep-

nor the TuryatTta (state) are for me, whatever.
IS

All

existence, consciousness
is

and what

is

diffused.

There

no such thing, as arising out of the gods,

evil spirits

and the

(five)

elements

,

nor out of illusion
,

;

nor the Vis'va, nor the Taijasa, nor the Prajfia
the
Viraj,

nor

nor the Sutra, nor the Is'vara
,

;

nor the act

and coming nor what is lost, nor what is purpose nor what is worthy of avoidance, acceptance or condemnation nor what is pure or foul nor corpuof going
;
, ,

lence,

nor thinness

;

nor fatigue
fear,
,

,

nor time, nor place
;

;

nor

talk,

nor

all

;

nor

nor duplicity

nor trees,

nor grasses, nor mountains

nor meditation, nor the
,

attainment of absolute concentration

nor the Brah;

mana, Ksattnya and Vais'ya (classification) nor bird, nor greed, 'nor nor animal, nor (other) organism
;

infatuation,

nor

haughtiness,

nor

grudge, nor

lust,

nor anger and the like

nor women, nor

S'udras, nor

76
cats
;

THE YOGA UPANISADS
nor
;

eatables,

nor

(other)

fare

and the hke,
;

whatever
behef

nor the mature,

nor the immature
;

nor

m

the existence (of the other world)
;

nor trade,

nor opportunity
of

neither worldhness, nor the world, nor
,

occupation, nor dullwittedness
act

neither the eater, the

eating and

the

food

,

nor the measurer, the
;

measuring and the thing to be measured
friend,

nor

foe,

nor

nor son and the hke
;

,

nor mother, nor father,
neither void, nor nonits
;

nor

—" delusion
void
;

sister

nor birth, nor death, nor growth, nor the
I

am

the body "

;

nor the inner sense running nor

course

,

nor the

night,

daytime,
;

nor

nor Visnu, nor S'lva

Brahman, nor the week, fortnight, month
darkness
nor

and
the
(seat)

the

like,

nor

the

year

;

nor

fickleness

;

nor

Brahma-loka, Vaikuntha,
;

Kailasa or any other

nor the celestial abode, nor Devendra (the king
;

of the gods)

nor Agni-loka, nor Agni

,

nor Yama, nor

Yama-loka
worlds
;

;

nor the worlds, nor the guardians of the
nor

nor the three Lokas of Bhur, Bhuvar and Svar,
;

nor the infernal abyss, nor the terrestrial world
ignorance, nor learning
, ,

nor Illusion, nor non-sentient
,

nature nor permanence, nor transience, nor destruction

nor

walking,

nor running

;

nor what

is

worthy of

meditation,

nor

ablution

for

me

;

nor incantation,

nor silent prayer anywhere, nor the substance, nor what is adorable, nor the bathing, nor the worship,
nor the flower, nor the
sandal paste,
glorification,
fruit,

nor the
like,

leaf,

nor the

flower

and the

nor incense, nor

nor salutation, nor the circum-ambulation
,

to the

slightest extent

nor prayer, nor seclusion

;

nor

TEJO-BINDUPANISAD
oblation, nor worship of the
fire,

77

nor fire-offenng, nor

nor unparhamentary language, nor the language of courtesy, nor the Gayat-tri, nor the twilightpious
acts,

worship, nor mental worship

;

nor misdemeanour, nor
nor wicked
;

rapacity, nor wickedness, nor the outcast, nor the low-

born

bastard,

nor

what

is

unbearable,

conversation, nor the hunter, nor dissimulation
partiality,

nor

nor kindness, nor jewels, nor the

vain

display,

thief, nor nor the gallant, nor the impecunious,
;

nor the opulent
treble,

nor single, nor the double, nor the nor the quadruple nor greatness, nor small; ;

ness

;

nor fullness, nor fragment, nor Kas'T
;

nor vow, nor
the
rules

penance
of

nor

pedigree,

nor lineage

;

nor

the

sacrifice,

nor overlordship,

nor penury,

nor

woman, nor damsel, nor old matron, nor virgin, nor widowhood neither origin, nor birth, nor inward fascination, nor the monism of the Great Texts, nor the mystic powers of attenuation and the like. As
;

all

IS

of

Consciousness
Existence,

alone,

the
all
is

multitude

of

sins

does not exist always.
existence.
(exists).
is

As

of the form

of

Consciousness

and
is

Bliss
(3-30)

alone

All

the

Brahman alone
I
;

;

nothing else
I
;

,

that
I.

am
The

I

;

that

am

that alone

eternal

Brahman alone

am am

that alone

am

alone

am

I,

and not one of worldly existence.

Braman alone am I and not for Brahman alone am I and not for me The Brahman alone am I and not the Brahman alone am I, the body am

The Brahman The me the mind. The
I.

the inteflect.
senses.
I

not.

The The

78

THE YOGA UPANl^ADS
alone

Brahman
(of

am

I,

not what

is

withm the range

the

Brahman).
I

Jiva

am

product of

The Brahman alone am I, the not. The Brahman alone am I, not the differentiation. The Brahman alone am I,

non-sentient

am
I

I

not.

I

am

the

Brahman, not

for

me
air.

IS

death.

am

the

Brahman Brahman
is

alone, not the vital of the

I

am

the

Brahman, the transcendent
is

transcendent.
IS

This
;

the

;

the transcendent

the

Brahman
Brahman

the truth

the

Brahman

;

he

is

supreme Lord. Time is the Brahman. Art Happiness is the Brahman Selfis the luminous is That. The one is the Brahman. The Fascination is the Brahman. two-fold IS the Brahman like is the Brahman The fault Tranquillity and the The merit is the Brahman. Selfis the Brahman
verily the
control, tranquillity,

the

supreme,

the

mighty, the

The preceptor is the Brahman. The pupil IS the Brahman The ever auspicious is The anterior is the Brahman. The the Brahman. The pure is the Brahman. posterior is the Brahman The auspicious and the inauspicious is the Brahman. The Jjva alone is always the Brahman. Existence,
world
IS

the

Brahman.

Consciousness and Bliss
the

am

I.

All

is

said to be of

Brahman. The Self is, no doubt, the Brahman. There is nothing from the Self. All is only the Atman, the else apart pure Atman. All is absolute consciousness and nondual The Atman is of the form of what is eternal and pure There is nothing else apart from the Atman, (31-40)
All the world
is of

Brahman

the

tejo-bindupanisad

79

The Non-Relative Stmanhood of the Brahman
This world which manifests
small extent,
small.
is

its

form to an
is

infinitely

infinitely small.
is

The body

infinitely
is in-

The

non-truth
IS

infinitely small

What
is

conceivable
is

infinitely

small.

What

conceivable

likewise

infinitely

small.

all-absolute consciousness.

The Brahman alone is The Brahman alone is the
exquisite Bliss.

three worlds.
"

It

is

Bliss,

There

is

nothing whatever, other than that

Om
by

"

IS

pure consciousness
alone

all

itself.
I

The mystic symbol The Brahman alone is The whole world is I alone. The highest
I

seat

IS

alone have surpassed qualities.

I

alone
dent.

am
I

the transcendent, being

alone

am
I

the transcendent

beyond the transcenBrahman. I alone
I

am

the preceptor of the preceptor
all.

alone

am

the

prop of
ness.

alone

am

the happiness beyond happi-

There is no world other than that of the Atman. There is no happiness beyond that of the Atman. There is no other course than that of the Atman There is nowhere All the world is that of the Atman. There is not even a anything other than the Atman straw other than the Atman. There is not even a
husk other than the Atman.
All the world
is

of the
(40-47)

Atman
All this
is
is

the

Brahman

alone.

not non-existent.

All the

The Brahman alone Vedas are the Brahman
is

alone.

The

Brahman

alone

absolutely

of

it'self.

All religious
(of

vows are the Brahman alone. The essence everything) and happiness are the Brahman alone.

80

THE YOGA UPANI§ADS
of Consciousness
is

The Ether

the

Brahman
is

alone.

What

IS

Existence,
is

Consciousness
alone.

secondless

the

Brahman

and There

Bliss,

the

no other

Brahman. There is no other world than There is no " I ", other than the Brahthe Brahman. man. There is no fruit other than the Brahman. There is not even a straw, other than the Brahman. There is no seat, other than the Brahman. There is no preceptor, other than the Brahman. There is nothing than the
thing of the form
of
is

non-existence,

other than the

Brahman,

There
",

no

" I-hood ", nor "

thou-hood

",

nor " this-hood

anywhere, other than the Brahman.

Know

thyself, as of the

form of the Brahman.

There

is

nothing whatever, apart from thyself.

(47-52)

of

Whatever is seen in the world, whatever is spoken by the people, whatever is enjoyed wherever, all
IS

that,

only non-existent

Difference in
difference
in

the

doer,

difference

m

the

act

done,

qualities,

(difference in) tastes
this
is

and the

like, difference in sex, all
is

non-existent only,

but

always happiness.

Difference of time, difference of space, difference of

subtance, victory and defeat, and whatever difference
there
is,

all that, is

only non-existent absolutely.

The

inner faculties are non-existent.
are non-existent.
non-existent.

The organs
Prana and

of sense

The

vital airs,

others, are

All these together are of the nature of

non-existence.
is

What
five

is

known as

the five-fold sheath

false.

The

deities

(presiding

over creation,

sustenance, destruction, concealment and favour) are
false.

The

six kinds of

change, (being, birth, growth,

TEJO-BINDUPANISAD
ripening, decline
of (six)

81

and

dissolution) are false.

The group
seasons are

enemies

(desire, anger, greed, fascination, pride

and jealousy)
false.

is

non-existent.

The

six
I

The

six kinds of taste are false.

am

the only

Existence, Consciousness and Bliss.

This world has

not

come Atman alone
embodiment

into being.
;

I

am

the transcendent and true

not those other views pertaining to worldI

ly existence.

am

of

Truth and Bliss the palpable Consciousness and Bliss. I
of the

form

of

;

alone (am)

the transcendent Bliss.

I

alone (am) the
All this

transcendent being beyond the transcendent.
is

of the

aspect

of

knowledge.
I

I

am

the non-dual
all-

knowledge and
radiant.
I

Bliss.

am
all

of

the

form of the

am

alone shine

of the form of always "

that does not exist.

"

I

be non-existent

?

how can the being of such form The transcendent Brahman, of the
form of the Bliss of consciousEther of consciousness, the
I

form
ness.

of " thou," has the
I

am

only the Atman, of the aspect of conthat
is

sciousness,

the

absolute consciousness, the trancendent happiness.

am
the

not non-existent.

The

ever immobile

I

am.

I

am

supreme preceptor. I am only Existence, Consciousness and Bliss. This world has not come into

being.
tent.
I

Time is non-existent. The world is non-exisThe illusory, unreal universe is non-existent. alone am the actual Han. I alone am the Sada(the ever auspicous).
I I

s'lva

am

of the nature of pure existence.
I

consciousness.
the

experience
I

pure

am

non-dual Bliss alone.
consciousness.
All

am
is

the one essence of the

palpable

Brahman

alone

U

a

82
always.
the
All
is

THE YOGA UPANIgADS
the

Brahman

alone absolutely.
consciousness

All
is

is

Brahman alone always. All Brahman alone. I am of the form
One.
(I
I

the

of the all-penetratmg
all.

have the characteristic of the Witness of
the

Atman, the transcendent radiance, the highest abode and the supreme goal.

am)

transcendent

I

am

the essence of

all

the systems of Vedanta.

the conclusion arrived at

by

all

the S'astras.

I

am am of
I

the form of the Bliss of Yoga, the great

dawning
I

of the

foremost Bliss.

I

am

the all-knowing radiance, the

embodiment
radiance

of

the

foremost

wisdom.

am

the

of the Turya-turya,
like.
I

though devoid of the

Turya-turya and the
sciousness.
of dotage
of
I

am
the

the undecaying con-

am

the truth, the Vasu-deva, devoid
I

Brahman, the Ether consciousness, the perpetual Brahman, devoid of
and death.
nameless and the formless
Existence,
1

am

impurity, the pure, the cognized, the always-liberated,
the
of

am

of the

form

Consciousness and

Bliss,
is

This world

has not come into being.

no world of truth and untruth, that could be grasped by the imagmation and the like. The Brahman is ever full of Bliss,
always
the

There

Atman by

itself,

endless,

undecaying,
(52-72)

tranquillized, of only

one form and non-ailing.

The Non-Existence of the Phenomenal World lying outside the Atman
me, one

Should there be any other existence apart from it is false, even as a mirage over a desert. Should
exist,
it

is

tantamount to the fear engendered by

tejo-bindOpanisad
the words of a sterile
of

83

woman's

son.

Should the king

by the horn of a hare, that world exists. Should one be quenched (of his thirst) by drinking water from a mirage, let such a world Should one perish by the onset of human horns, exist. such a world exists. Should the city of the Gandharva (castle in the air) be a reality, that world always
elephants be killed

Should the blue of the sky be real, that world Should the silver of the pearl-oyster will truly exist. be a true ornament, that world exists. Should man
exists.

be bitten by a rope-serpent, worldly existence be

let

there

Should the flame of a conflagration be extinguished by an arrow made of gold, (there is) the world.
Should
forest
rice

boiled

with

milk be obtainable in the
that

of

the

Vindhyas,

world

is

borne into

Should food be readily cooked with the fuel of plantain trunks, then will that world be. Should food be at once cooked by damsels in pictures, then
existence.
will

that world be.
(in

Should darkness be dispelled by
pictures),

lamps painted

then

let

that world be.

Should a mortal, dead a month since, return (to life) again, that world will be. Should buttermilk turn into milk anywhere, that world will be eternal. Should the milk drawn from the udder of a cow go back

Should earthy dust be raised in the mid-ocean, then, by all means, let that world be. Should an elephant be bound by the hair of a tortoise, let the world be at
(to
its

original

place)

again, that world

is.

Its

zenith.

Should Mount Meru be moved from

its

position

with the thread of a lotus-stalk, that world

84
will

THE YOGA UPANI^ADS
be.

Should the ocean be

of

Its

billows, let

up with the series Should fire that world always be.
tied
let

blaze

forth

downward,
fire

that

world

always

be.

Should the flaming
that world
cess-pool of
will

persist.

be cold (to the touch), then Should lotuses thrive in a

fire, then, let the world be. Should there mountain of emerald, that world is. Should the be a Meru move and take its stand on a lotus-seed, let

that world be.

Should a young wasp become a borderit

mountain,
a
lion
exist

let

be, like the

Meru

in
let

motion.

Should

be killed by a mosquito,

the world verily

always for thee.

Should the

triple

world occupy
will

the

space of a pin-hole cavern, that world

be.
will

Should the momentary grass-flame burn for ever,
that world exist.
persist

Should the thing seen
waking,
(you

in a

dream
the
of

even
of

after

may
the

grant)
torrent

existence
river,

the

world

Should

a

by some means, remain stagnant, will that world Should fire prove wholesome fare for a hungry be. man, that moment, there will be opportunity for the world. Should the testing of gems be mastered by

men

born blind, that world exists always.
that world will be.

Should the
with a
fabriis.

son of a eunuch take delight

in intercourse

woman,
cated,

Should a chariot be

out of the horns of hares,

then the world

Should a just-born virgin be fit that world will exist. Should a
to

for intercourse, then,
sterile

woman come

world
let

brought on by pregnancy, this Should a crow have the gait of the swan, that world become a fixture. Should a great donkey
of the pleasure
IS,

know

_

TEJO-BlNDOPANIgAD
engage a lion
of its Qwn.
in
fight,

85

then the world has a standing
gait of an Should the full-moon

Should a great donkey attain the
Sun,
then, let

elephant, then, let that world be.

become
manifest

the

the

non-sentient world

Should Rahu be seen apart from the Sun and the Moon, the world is seen. Should fried
itself.

grains give rise to a vigorous growth, let that world be
existent.

the

rich,

Should the penurious enjoy the opulence of then (exists) the world. Should the lion be
(exists) the

vanquished by the valour of dogs, then
world.

Should the heart of the wise men be divined aright by fools, then is a pretext for the world to exist.

Should the ocean be licked outright by a dog, then Should the (there is scope for) the mind to exist.
clear sky fall over (the heads of)

men, also should the
is

sky

fall
is

over the earth, or should the flower of the sky
non-existent) smell fragrant, there
forest

(which

the world

Should a

grow on the clear sky and begin to toss, then, (exists) the world. Should there be no reflected (73-98) image in a mere mirror, then (is) the world
In

the

In

the
all

womb womb of

of the unborn, there

is

not the world.

the
is

Atman, there

is

not the world.

By
is

means, there
Illusion,

not a speck of difference.

There
is

no dualism and non-duahsm.

This difference

the

work of
arise. arise,

should the cognition of the
"
I

Brahman

The
only

conviction,
if

the thought, "

am the Brahman," will am the body," becomes
I

painful.
ing,

In the event of the knot of the heart remain-

the

Brahman

is

the discus for cutting
the

it

asunder.

Should doubt

arise,

Brahman

will

arrive at the

86
final

THE YOGA UPANI^ADS
Should there be the thief in the form the Anatman, the guard for the gem of the Atman the absolute Brahman, which is of eternal Bliss and
decision.
its

of
IS is

even

own

Self.

(99-102)

Rule for the Attainment of the Conception, " I AM THE Brahman "
By
As
these fine illustrations the

Brahman
is

alone
of

is

established.

The Brahman alone
renounce
the
it
I

the

abode

all.

for the world,

altogether.

Having

firmly

resolved

"

am

Brahman," give up egoism.

Everything
of

will

fade away, as the flower
is

m

the hands

a sleeper.
is

There

neither the body nor actions.

Everything
there
is

absolutely the

Brahman. What has been,

not

What
there

is

to be done, there

four-fold stage of life (childhood,

The boyhood, manhood
is

not.

and

old-age),

is

not.

All

knowledge with the

three distmctive significances (exclusive, inclusive,

both exclusive and inclusive)

is

and the absolute Brahman.
conceive in this

Giving up

all

kinds of functioning,

manner
there
is

.

"

I

am
;

the
I

no doubt
,

am

Brahman I am the Brahman, the Brahman of the nature of
,

Consciousness
Bliss."

I

am

only Existence, Consciousness and
(103-107)

So

resolving, renounce (even) that.
in

Rule about Traditional Usage
THE S'Sstra
This great
S'5stra,

Accord with

not be given to

expounded by S'am-kara, should any one, who has no faith in the Veda,

tejo-bindOpani^ad

87
wicked and who

who
is

is

ungrateful,
(It)

whose conduct

is

tainted.

should be given to that high-souled

person, whose

internal

organs have been purified by
year.

devotion to the Guru, after a thorough test for a month,

a half-year, nay, a
all

full

Giving up the study of
,

Upanisads, (keeping himself) aloof should one study
studying

the Tejo-bmd-upanisad eagerly, always with pleasure.

By

it

even once, of

becomes the Brahman alone. becomes the Brahman alone

own accord, one Of his own accord, one Thus the Upanisad.
his

TRI-S'IKHI-BRAHMANOPANISAD
[This

Upanisad, which forms part of the S'uklais

yajur-veda and
sads,

the Forty-fourth of the 108 Upani-

deals entirely with the attainment of the non-

Irelative

Brahman and expounds,
its

as aids thereto, the

Yoga and

eight

Angas

]

THE BRAhMANA

Questions Relating to the Atman, the

Brahman and the Like
The Brahmana
Aditya-loka
(the

with three tufts (once) went to the
"

(the

Solar

Sun) he said
IS

What
the

life '

What

Approaching him O Lord What is the body ? is the Prime Cause What is
'
''

World).

Atman

"
?

(1)

Everything

Is

of

S'iva

He
S'lva.

said

in reply

"
;

Know

that

all

this is only

Lord,

But, the eternal, the pure, the emotionless, the the non-dual Bliss, S'lva, the absolute One,
all

having created

this in his

own

splendour, appears,

'

tri-s'ikhi-brXhmanoI'anisad
like

89

a molten

mass
it

of iron, the

one Being, as though
is it

divided. Should

be asked, "
is
:

What

that causes that

appearance
Illusion

?

" the reply

"

The Brahman,

tinged with
".

and indicated by the term, Existence
into Being of all the

(2)

The Coming

World

OUT of the Brahman
Out of the Brahman (there came into being) the Avyakta (the Indistinct). Out of the Avyakta, the Mahat (the Vast) Out of the Mahat, the Aharn-kara (Self-consciousness). Out of the Aham-kara, the five Tan-matra-s (the subtile Elements). Out of the five Tanmatra-s,
the five Maha-bhuta-s
fthe gross Elements).

Out

of the five gross

Elements,

all

the World.

(3)

The

Division of the

One Mass INTO THE Many
What
is

(If
(in
'

the question arises), "

meant by
"

'

All

all

the world

'

?

")

— (the answer
is

is)

On

account of
".

the division of
(If

what

evolved out of the Elements

the question arises,) "
"

When
is),

the
is

mass

is

one,

how

can there be the division of what

evolved out of the

Elements

?

— (the
such

answer

"

On

account of the

forms of difference, due to the inter-relationship of cause and effect, existing among the Elements, there
are
divisions
as,

those due to the difference
its first
is

between the variant and
significant

principle

;

between the
it
;

word and what

predicated of

in the

:

00

THE VOGA UPANI^ADS
;

spheres to which they belong
their functionings
their sheaths.
;

as also in the range of

and

in

their presiding deities

and
(4)

The Variants of Ether and (other Elements)
Then
Buddhi
the

Ether (as the

first

principle)

:

Antah-

karana (the inner senses),

Manas

(the

mind

that wills),

(the Intellect that ratiocinates), Citta (the

mind

that inquires)

and Aharn-kara

(the Self-conscious
(as

mind)
(vital

(are the variants).

The Air

the

first

principle)

Samana
air rising

(vital air essential to digestion),

Udana

up

at

the throat),
;

Vyana

(vital air diflfused

throughout the body)

Apana
at

wards and having
air

its exit

moving downthe anus) and Prana (vital
(vital air
first

having

its

seat in the region of the heart) (are the

variants).

The

Fire (as the

principle)

:

the ears,

the integument, the eyes, the tongue

and the nose (are
principle)
:

the variants).

Water
first

(as

the

first

sound,

touch, form, taste

and smell

(are the variants).

The
(5)

Earth (as the

principle)

speech, the two hands, the

two

feet, the

anus and the genitals (are the variants).

Their Diverse Ranges of Functioning
Knowledge, Volition, Decision, Application and
Self-assertion

are the

functions

of the inner senses,

which are the variants of Akas'a. Assimilation, Lifting,
Seizing,
Praija

Digesting and Breathing are the functions of and other variants of Air. (Perceptions of)

TRI-S'IKHI-BRAHMANOPANISAD

91
are the

Sound,

Touch,

Form,

Taste

and

Smell

functions of the senses helping perception, which are the

and are dependant on Water. Speech, Seizing, Loco-motion, Evacuation and Pleasure are the functions of the motor organs which are the variants of Within the ranges of functioning of the the Earth. sensory and motor organs are included the ranges of functioning of the vital airs and the Tan-matra-s. In Manas and Buddhi are included Citta and
variants of Fire

Aharn-kara.

(6)

The Functions of the Subtile Elements
Interval,

Tremour, Vision, Pressing
in

into a mass,

and Retention are the very subtle functions
matra-s of the Elements,

of the

Tan-

conjunction with the Jiva. (7)

Division into Adhyatmic and the Like

Thus
body,

there are twelve divisions in relation to the

in relation to

the Elements and in relation to the

presiding^_deities

(under each of the three heads).
Arka,

Here, the Moon, the Four-faced One, Dis' (guardians
of

the

cardinal

points),

Vata,

Varuna, the

As'vm-s, Agni, Indra, Upendra, Praja-pati and

Yama
and
all
(8)

are the vital airs, that have entered the twelve Nadl-s
in

the form of the presiding deities of the Senses

those are the Anga-s (divisions).

He, who

identifies

himself with (the Antah-karana) the knowledge of
these divisions,
is

the

knower

(the Jlva).

92

the yoga upani^ads

What

Is

Expounded by the Functioning
OF THE KnOWER

Then and Food
five

the Panci-karapa of Ether, Air, Fire,
{i.e.,

Water
all

causing each of them to contain

the

Elements).

Jnatrtva (the condition of the knower)

in conjunction with

of

the quality
in

of

Samana, through the ear, possessed sound and dependant on speech,
stands
as

stands

Ether,

Ether.

The Mind,
the

in

conjunction
hands,
in

with

Vyana,
in

through

integument,

possessed of the quality of touch and dependant on
the

stands

the Air,

stands as the

Air

Buddhi,

conjunction with Udana, through the eyes,

possessed of the quality of form and dependant on the
feet,

stands in Agni, stands as

Agni.

Citta, in con-

junction with Apana, through the tongue, possessed of

the quality of taste and

dependant on the

genitals,
in

stands in Water, stands as

Water

Aham-kara,

conjunction with Piana, through the nose, possessed of
the quality of smell and dependant on the anus, stands

on

the

Earth,

stands

as

the

Earth.

He

who
(9)

knows

thus.

THE MANTRA

The

Creation, from the Brahman Ending

WITH PaScNkarana
In the Brahman, which exists apart from every
other thing, there are sixteen parts,
(vtz.,
life,

faith,

TRI-S^IKHI-BRAHMANOPANI?AD
ether,
air,

93

light,

water,

earth,

organs (sensory and

mind, food, vigour, austerity, Mantra-s, Placing Antah-karana action, the worlds and name). (Ether), Vyana (Air), Aksi (Fire), Rasa (Water), and
motor),
the

Payu
these

(the
first

Earth)

in

the order of Ether,

etc.,

dividing

two halves, in the same order, and subdividing each of the second halves into four parts and placing each of these subdivided parts along with each part of the other four Elements, in such a
principles into

manner

what was once the subdivided part of Ether occurs in each of the Earth and other three Elements and so on, the first halves alone are to be
that,

understood as essential ones

;

those

who know, under-

stand the parts of the subdivided halves as subordinate

Thus came into being the part. Similarly, for same reason, the subordinate subdivision came into For that very reason, in their being from the part. order of importance (the essential parts and the
ones.

the

subordinate

subdvided ones) are mterdependant as the
(1-4)

warp and the woof.

The Creation of the World

Consisting of the

Animate and the Inanimate

The world
It

is

evolved out of the five Elements.

includes animate beings.

Thence herbs and food

;

thence Pinda-s (bodies) of four kinds (generated out of

an egg, out of sweat, seeds and the womb) and the primary fluids of the body {vtz., lymph, blood,
flesh,
fat,

bone,

marrow and semen).

Some

say that

94

THE YOGA UPANISADS

by the mingling together of those (fluids, e.g., the sperm and the ovum) Pinda-s are produced from the Elements. In this (medley) of Elements, the Pinda

made

of

Anna

is

situated in
is

the region of the navel.

In the middle of this

the heart, resembling a lotus-

bud with a

stalk, as also (are) the

organs of sense

in

the

interior of the

organism, which are capable of action,

and sentience. The seed of this (the heart) is the mass of darkness in the form of delusion, motionless and ignorant, dependant on (Manas seated m) the throat. This world is mixed up (with such mind spotted with ignorance). The inmost Atman of the form of exclusive Bhss stands m the head, the transcendent seat and shines in the form of the world, endowed with endless power (4-9)
self-assertion

The Four States
The waking
dreaming
sleeping
state
is

state

is

present everywhere
in

present

the waking one.

The The
in
its

and the Turiya
state
,

states are

no-where present
S'lva
all

any other
four-fold
tions.

while the entity of
closely fastened to

with

forms
as,

is

these condi-

Even

in

a big

fruit,

all its

sweet contents

derive their origin from the whole fruit, so also, in the

made of food are other sheaths situated in the interior. Even as the sheath is, so is the Jlva (which abides therein). Even as the Jiva is, so also is S'lva. When subject to change it is Jiva when subject to no changejtiS-S^a. The transformations of the Jiva are
sheath
;

TRI-S^IKHI-BRAHMANOPANISAD
the bases for
the states.
its

95

sheaths and
is

it is

they that originate
in a vessel
it is

Even as foam

produced

con-

taining a hquid, only by churning, so also,

only from
(10-14)

churning the mind that various doubts

arise.

The Northern and Southern Courses
The doer
renouncing
I

(th e Ji va)

is

it

he attains

bound by his Karma. By peace At the advent of the
the direction of the mani-

southern course, turned
fested

m

world of existence, even Sada-s'iva will become

a Jiva, due to the misconceptions flowing from Self-

consciousness

He
on
his

also gets deluded

by contact with
dint of the im-

the indiscrmimate-natured one.

By

pression

(left

mind by
lies
,

his past deeds), reaching

and wanders away from emancipation, as fish between either banks of a river. Then, only when the proper time comes for it, by right discernment resulting from the knowledge of the Atman, turning towards the north, gradually proceeding from stage to stage and concentrating his vital airs on
various

wombs

he

his crest, he stands firm practising

Yoga.

(15-19)

Gnos is, which Brings about
immediate release

From,

(the
is

practice of)

Yoga

is

brought gnosis;

from gnosis

Yoga

further developed.

That Yogin,

who

IS

ever intent on

Yoga and

gnosis alike, does not

perish.

He

should see S'iva, as taking his stand on

%
no other object

THE VOGA UPANISADS
phenomena
(of his

the several changing

experience),

but should not see any such change
in

in S'lva.

Having

view, he should, by the practice

of the several stages constituting Yoga, contemplate on

what

IS

revealed by Yoga.

(19-21)

Yoga, the Means to be Adopted for the

Acquisition of Gnosis
Should Yoga and Jfiana (Concentration and Knowledge) be absent (in one), for him gnosis becomes
impossible.

Hence
vital

should

the
off,

Yogm
(his

restrain

his

mind and

airs

and cut

with the sharp-edged
ignorance, which

knife of the practice of Yoga,

obstructs the

ing the eight

attamment of the Brahman). means of Yama and others

By
is

adopt-

produced
(21-23)

that functioning of the vital air

leading to the crest

(Yoga).

Karma-yoga and JSj5na-yoga
Yoga
is

understood to be of two kinds

Jfiana!

yoga and Karma-yoga.

O

best

among Brahmana-s
is

Now

hear what
is.

Kriya-yoga, which

of a two-fold

character,
(Citta)
to

The confinement

of the tranquil

mind
is

a particular range,

O

best of Dvi-ja-s,

that Samyoga.
to

The

confining of the
(by

mind
the

at all times

observances

alone enjoined

Scriptures),

(with the resolve) that such observances alone ought to

be followed,

is

what

is

said to be Karma-yoga.

That

TRI-S'IKHI-BRAHMANOPANISAD
should be known as Jfiana-yoga, which brings about

97
all
is

accomplishments and
the confinement,
at

is

auspicious,
times,
of

wherein there
the

all

mind

to

the

supreme end

of existence {viz.,

Moksa).

He, whose

mind, notwithstanding the two-fold character of
straight
on,

Yoga
the

described above, remains subject to no change, reaches
the

supreme end

of

existence

of

character of Liberation.

(23-28)

AsTlNGA-YOGA,

THE EXPEDIENT TO BE EMPLOYED

FOR THE Acquisition of the Knowledge of

THE Non-qualified Brahman
Detachment m relation to the body and the organs Attachment of sense, is known by wise men as Yama. Truth continuously is known as towards the ultimate Niyama. The state of passivity to all things is the
best

Posture
is

The

faith

in

the falsehood of
\ital airs

all this

world

the control of the

O

best
is

among
Pratya-

men
hara.

'

The facing inward of The stagnant state

the Citta (mind)

of the Citta, they know, as
*'

the holding of Dharana,

That

I

am
of

absolute conis

sciousness alone," reflection (of that kind)

known as
sense of
(28-32)

Dhyana.

The
is

perfect
as

obliteration

the

Dhyana

known

Samadhi.

The Ten-fold Yama-s and Nivama-s
Non-violence,
truth,

abstinence from

stealing,

celibacy, compassion, rectitude, forbearance, fortitude,

98

THE YOGA UPANISADS
in food,

temperance

and cleanliness are the ten Yama-s.
in

Penance, contentment, belief

the existence (of the
(all-

Supreme

Being), munificence, the adoration of the

pervading) Visnu, the study of the Vedanta (systems of
Philosophy), modesty, determination, silent prayer,
austerity, (these are the Niyama-s).

and

(32, 33)

The Asana-s According to the HathaYOGA Method

O
the

Dvi-ja

'

The Asana-s
of

(Postures), Svastika, etc.,

constituents
:

that (Yoga) are described (hereis

under)

The

Svastika posture

said to be that of the

doubling up of the soles of the feet over the right and
left

shanks (each to each).
left

One should

place the right

ankle over the

flank of the buttock

and similarly
this is the

the left ankle over the right flank of the buttock, so as
to resemble the forepart of the cow's face

Go-mukha

posture.

Should one stand motionless,

after

mounting one leg on to the thigh of the other, this is known as the sin-destroying Virasana posture After having pressed the anus with his ankles folded crosswise and got composure in the posture assumed, what thus know it the IS attained by one is Yogasana When the two soles of the feet are adepts in Yoga placed on the two thighs (each on each), this becomes \the Padmasana, the panacea for all ills and the antidote for all poisons. Having well established the Padmasana

posture,
(his)

(should one hold) the two two hands stretched crosswise,

big toes
it

with

becomes the

TRI-S'IKHI-BRAHMANOPANISAD

,^

Baddha-padmasana
well

(the bound- lotus-posti

established

the

Padmasana,

he,

whc

grounded on the earth (with his body) suspended in mid-air, his two hands inserted in the inter-space bet-

ween the knees and the thighs, assumes the Kukkutasana (cock-posture). Remaining bound up in the Kukkutaposture and firmly pressing the neck with the two shoulders, should one stretch his body in a supine posture, with his face upward like a tortoise, this is the Uttana-kurmaka posture. Grasping the big toes with the hands and drawing them up to the ear, even as a bow IS drawn, is said to be the Dhanur-asana (drawnbow-posture) Pressing the frenum of the prepuce m the reverse order with the ankles, and outstretching the
hands placed on the knees, is the posture of the form of Placing the ankles below the lion (Simha-rupakasana)
the scrotum

and on
is

either side of the

prepuce and remaining attached to
both hands
the

frenum of the the ground with

Bhadrasana

Pressing the two sides of

frenum of the prepuce with the ankles, is the posture known as Muktasana. Resting well on the ground with the palms of the hands, causing the elbows
to support firmly the sides of the navel and keeping the head and the legs erect, like a pea-cock, the Mayurasana (the pea-cock-posture) is assumed. Placing the
right foot at the root of the left thigh, with the

two hands

left

embracing the knees and the left hand grasping the big toe, IS the Matsya-pithaka posture. Pressing
over the secret parts and sitting with the body

the secret parts with the left (foot), placing the right
(foot)

100
erect,
(this)
is

THE YOGA UPANISADS
said to be the Siddhasana.

Stretching

the leg on the ground, touching the big toes with the

fore-arms and placing the face on the knees,
the Pas'cima-tana posture.

is

said to be

That, wherein comfort and

somehow or other, is known as the Sukhasana. He, who is not strong enough (for the other postures), should adopt this. By whom posture is
steadiness are attained

mastered, the three worlds are conquered by him. (34-52)

Rule Relating to the Control of Breath AFTER Going through the preliminary Purification of the NadI-s
Having, at
of the
first,

gained perfect control by means

Yama-s, Niyama-s and postures and effected the purification of the Nadi-s, one should practise control of breath (Pranayama) The height of the human

body
one's

is

Ninety-six digit- lengths,
fingers.

own

The

vital

(when measured) by breath is longer than the

body by twelve
Yoga, he

digit-lengths

By

having recourse

to

who normalizes

or shortens the air in
is

the

body with the fire generated in the body to be the knower of the Brahman.

considered
(53-55)

The Real Form of the Region of Fire
In
the

middle of the body
;

is

the seat of

fire,

lustrous like molten gold

triangular in shape in the

case of (human) bipeds, quadrangular in the case of

quadrupeds, circular

in

the case of birds, hexagonal in

the case of snakes (and such-like crawlmg creatures),

tri-s'ikhi-brIhmanopanisad

101

octagonal in the case of insects and bright hke a lamp!
therein.
(56, S?)'

The

Position of the Navel

In the case of

human
and a

beings, the middle of the

body

IS

nine digit-lengths (from the anus), with a height
lateral

of four digit-lengths

width of four

digit-

lengths,

(wherein)

is

the region of the umbilical knot,
In the case of the lower orders
it

which

is

oval-shaped
birds

of creation,

and quadrupeds,

is

known

as the
is

middle of the

belly.

The middle

of

that (knot)

known

as the navel.

(58, 59)
in

The

JivA

moving
is

the Cluster of Nadi-s
In
,

Therein
Is'vara),

a

twelve-spoked Cakra (plexus).
I,

those (spokes) are \'isnu and other gods.

{viz

the

takmg

my

stand there, cause the plexus to
of

whirl with

my own
the

power

Maya,

O

best of Dvi-ja-s

'

The
E\en

Ji\a v\hirls
as

among the spokes, one after the spider remaming in the middle

other.

of

its

cage of cob-webs, the jT\a moves perched on the

vital air.

Without

(the vital air, the Jiva) does not (exist). (60-62)

The

Position of the Kundalini an^
Its

Function
is

y\bove

it,

(the cluster of Nadi-s),

the place of

the Kundalini, in a line horizontal with and thence

above the navel.
constituents

It
is

is

composed of eight
;

different

and

a spiral of eight coils

ever having

102
its

THE YOGA UPANISADS
place around and by the side of the knot of the

navel, always regulating properly the perflation of the
vital

airs

(Prana and Apana) and the onward passage

of water, food
its

and the
orifice

like,

completely investing, with

orifice,

the

leading to the crevice of the
in the ether of the heart,

Brahman and gleaming
form
vital air

m the
b>'f:he

of a serpent intensely effulgent,

when roused

mingled with

fire at

the time of Yoga.

(62-65)

The Real Form of the Cluster of
IN

Nadi'-s

THE Middle of the Body
above the
(seat of)

Two

digit-lengths

Apana and

two digit-lengths below the genitals is the middle of the body in the case of men, the middle of the heart
in

and the middle of the belly in the case others, surrounded by several Nadl-s. In the middle of the body with the four-times-twentythousand
Nadi-s,
there
is

the case of quadrupeds

the

firmly

established

Susumna-nadl resting in a state of stupor in the middle of the umbilical knot, resembling the fine fibre of the lotus-stalk, straight, proceeding upwards up to the crevice of the Brahman and with a tube as bright as a streak of lightning, a Nadi with Visnu as its presiding deity, leading to Brahma-loka, and (at the same time) the path leading to dissolution. Ida and Pingala stand to its right and left. Takinj; its origin from the knot of the navel, Ida has its terminus at the left nostril. Taking its origin from the same (knot),
Pingala terminates at the right
Na3l-s,
nostril.

Two

other

Gaip-dhari and Hasti-jihva, also are there, at

!

TRI-S'IKHI-BRAHMAINIOPANISAD
the front

103

Susumna, proceeding towards the~IeTt~"and the right eyes. The Pusa and Yas'asvinT Nadl-s, taking their origin only from the same (knot), reach the left and right ears. The Alambusa, going

and

rear of the

downwards, reaches the root of the anus. The S'ubhaFrom the nadi stretches up to-the tip of the genitals. downwards and stretching as far as the knot, proceeding
big toes
is

the Kaus'ikl.

They

(the Nadi-s) that originate
diflferent

from the knot are thus said to be of ten
Originating from
(other)

ways.

same source there are various Nadl-s and Nadika-s, big and small. The big
the

and small Nad7-s are Seventy-two thousand in number. Those branching out of the big ones, each having its own several course, cannot at all be counted, even as
the big

and small Nadi-s spreading out
fig tree)

in the leaf of

the Ab'vattha (sacred

(66-76)

The Vital
The
ten

Airs Circulating
Vital
airs,

in

the Nadi-s

Prana and others which

circulate in the ten Nadl-s are

Prana, Apana, Samana,

Udana, Vyana, Naga, Kurma, Krkara, Deva-datta, and Of these, the five beginning from Pra^ia are important and of these again, the first two. (Of these), to put it otherwise, the Prana alone is the most
Dhanarp-jaya.
important, as
the
it

bears the Jlvatman.

The middle

of

mouth and

the nose, the heart, the navel region,

the big-toes of the feet, these are,

O best of Brahmana-s
circulates,

the abodes of the Prana.

The Apana

0|

Brahmana

!

in the anus, the genitals, the thighs

and the

104
knees.

THE YOGA UPANI§ADS

The Samana has its habitat in the entire body, pervading it all. The Udana is located in all the joints The Vyana is in the two ears, of the legs and hands.
the thighs, the hip and the ankles, the shoulders and the
throat.
five,

The Naga and

other Vital

airs,

the (remaining)

are placed in the skin,
in

bones, etc.

The

water,

food and other liquids

the belly are assimilated.

The Prana
should

that has reached the middle of the belly

them (into the several constituents These and other actions does the Prana of the body). do remaining separately. The Apana air does the evacuation of urine and others. The actions of the Prana and Apana and such like are done by the Vyana. By the Udana air anything remaining in the body is The Samana always does the work of raised upward. The Naga does the nourishing the body and the like. work of belching and the like. The Kurma has as its work the closing of the eyes and the like The Krkara has the work of the twinkling of the eyelids. The Datta attends to the work of sleep. The swelling and the like of the dead body may be cited as the work of Dhanam-jaya (77-87)
separate

Knowledge of the Nadi-s Antecedent to the
Purification of the Nadi-s

Having thus known the differences among the (various) Nadl-s and vital airs, also the position of the vital airs and their various
best of

O

Brahmana-s

!

functions, fortified with the above-mentioned knowledge

!

TRI-fflKHI-BRXHMAljOPANlSAD
should

105

one make an endeavour

at

the purification
(88, 89)

of the Nadi-s.

The Place for the Practice

of Yoga and the
It

Rule Relating to

Having reached a secluded spot which is full of (that would be useful) for the practice of the several stages of Yoga, after giving up all attachments, there, on a wooden seat twic e as broad as it is high and covered with Darbha, Kus'a, skin of the black antelope and the like, assuming at pleasure any of the
things
postures, such as the Svastika, in the prop>er manner,

(one should take his seat).

(89-91)

Mere Kumbhaka with the Cin-mudra
Assuming the posture at hrst, O Brahman keeping his body erect, (his njmd) alert, with his eyes fixed on the tip of the nose, (one row of) teeth not touchmg the (other row oQ teeth, the tongue fixed on to the palate, his mind at ease, showing no distemper, with his head slightly inclined, with his hands bound m
the (characteristic) Yoga-posture
(of

Cin-mudra), (the

Yogin)

should practice Pranayama according to the
(92-94)

prescribed rules.

Prai^Syama
Expiration
Inspiration
(of (of

foul
air),

air

from the body), then

pure

then purifying the air (with

U

14

106
the

THE YOGA UPANISADS
Kumbhaka),
;

similarly

Expiration
of
is

(once

again

Completely)
the

the
four

exhaustion
(processes),

air,

by (repeating)
to

(above)

said

be Prana(94, 95)

yama.

Pranayama for Purifying the Nadi-s

He
hand

should press the nasal chamber with his right

only

and

should
Filling

(then)

gradually expel the

Pxngala breath.

the

air

through the Ida of
the filled-in air (by

sixteen measures, he should hold

Kumbhaka)
Pingala
measures.

of

sixty-four
well
this

measures
the

and expel the
of

breath
In

to

extent

thirty-two

manner

should

the

(breathing)

operation be repeated again and again, in the inverse

and

direct order.

He

should, by the holding of breath,
filled-up
filled

make the body resemble a
filling,
all

pot

;

by (such)
air.

the

Nadl-s are

with the Vital
of

Should
motion,

this

be done, Ihe ten kinds
!

air are set in

O

Brahmana

and the
the

lotus of the heart

blooms
see

and

becomes

full-blown.

There,
flawless

he

shall

the

transcendent

Atman,

Vasu-deva.

He

should gradually practise, up to eighty Kumbhaka-s (at a time), four times, early in the morning, at mid-day^

evemng and at midnight. One, who does so for a day, is nd of all sins. After a period of three years IS over, the man becomes ever intent on Pranayama. Thef^ogin, who has conquered his Vital air and vanquished his senses, becomes an accomplished adept. He will become temperate in food, with a little sleep,
in

the

tri-8'ikhi-brShmanopani§ad
lustrous

107

and

lusty

and

will attain longevity,

having

overcome unnatural death.

(95-104)

The Fruit of PrSnSyama
He,
in

whom

there

is

profuse perspiration generat-

ed during Pran5yama, is of inferior type. He, in whom there is tremour of the body during Pranayama, is of He, whose body rises up, is known the middle type.
as of superior type.
will

In one of the inferior type, there
;

i

be destruction of ailment and sin while, in the case of one of the middle type, there will be «the destruction of sin, ailment and incurable disease and
;

in

the case of one of the superior type, he will

become

one,

passing

small

urine,

evacuating small faecal,

matter, having a light body, subsisting on moderate

having ever-alert sense-organs, commanding a quick intellect, possessed of a clear vision penetrating
food,

the

three

durations,

(the

past,

the present and the

and (venjy) the master of his own self. He who, having given up Recaka and Puraka, performs
future),

Kumbhaka
find) there

alone, during all the three Samdhya-s, (will
is

nothing at

all

beyond

his reach. (104-108)

Destruction of Disease through

Control of Breath
The Yogin should
along with his mind
project and hold his Vital airs

in the knot.,of_thejiayel,

the tip of

the nose and the big-toe of the foot, with great effort/

108

THE YOGA UPANIgADS

during the morning and evening twilights or always.
(Shoulc) he do clutches of
all
is

so),

Yogin would live freed from the By (such) disease and rid of fatigue.
the

.Dharana
J

(as

described above) in the knots of the

navel, diseases of the belly will be cured.

By

Dhara^iS

/

m

the

tip of

the nose, longevity

and

lightness of the

-

For him who, for three months, drinks the air, after drawing it with his tongue, whenever the Muhurta presided over by Brahman arrives, there will be great accomplishment in (the power of) For him who practises (thus) for six months, speech.

body

will

be attained.

there will be the destruction of great maladies.

By

the

holding of the vital air

m

whichever limb that
is

is afflict-

ed with disease, that (limb)

cured of the

affliction,

by Dharana alone of the

vital air.

(109-113)

Conquest of the Mind by the
$AN-MUKHi-MUDRA
Only by holding the mind can the air be held. The means to be adopted for firmly establishing the is (here) narrated. mind, O finest of Brahmana-s By curtailing the antecedent causes from the functioning of the sense-organs and tranquillizing the mind, then drawing upwards the Apana, (the Yogin) should hold it over the belly. Having bound the ears and the
!

other organs with

his hands, according to the circum-

stances of the case, by
his

him who brings his mind under by adopting the prescribed methods, own control
Pra^ia
will,

the

in

virtue

of

the control

over the

TRI-S^IKHI-BRAHMANOPANI§AD

109

mind, become firmly established under his control, by
all

means.

(114-117)

The Course Taken
The Prana
turns.

by the Prana

courses

There
of the

are

through the two nostrils by three Nadl-s (Ida, Pingala and

Susumna). Of
nadi,

these, (the course, through the

Susumnathis

Prana
the

is

possible
of

only) in the case of
living

Yogin-s.

In

case

(other)

beings,

Prana courses always through the
does through the

of the S'ankhinl (nasal) orifice, for as
it

Yamya (right nostril) much duration as
(117-119)

Saumya

(left) nostril.

The Attainment of Yoga through Knowledge
OF the Course of Prana
In this manner, the

man who

controls the vital air

(after causing the mind to function along with the vital
air)

flowing in a well-regulated manner, for a day and

night,

a fortnight, a month, a half year and

so on,

should turn inwards with a well-controlled mind, and

know
and

the variations in duration, revealed by the cessa-

tion of throbbing of his

own

limbs, such as the big-toes
in

others,

as
;

also (the

vibrations

the duration)

of his life-time

knowing
the

(t^e time of) his

own death

through

portents,

best

among

the

knowers of

Yoga should endeavour to attain alone-ness (Kaiyal^^.
In

whom

the throbbing at the toes of the foot
of the

and

the

thumbs

hand

ceases, for

him

there will be

no
loss
in

THE YOGA UPAN19ADS
of
life

in

the course

of over a year.

Similarly

whom

there will be cessation of throbbing in the
ankle,
his
life

wrist

and the

will

last

only for a

period of six months.

In

whom

(there is cessation) of
(in

throbbing in the elbow, his stay
three months.
the armpits

the world)

is

of

In the case of cessation of throbbing at
lateral

and the
life will
is

part of the genitals, the
;

duration of
the Sattva

be a month

one half of

it,

in case

seen.

If (the cessation)
life will

should overtake
;

the region of the belly,
for

be of ten days' duration

one half of the period

will the life be of one,
fire-fly.

who
tip

sees a radiance such as of the

Should the

of the tongue be not seen, life will be of three days'

duration.

At the sight of a flame, death will surely occur in two days. After seeing such portents as the above, which shorten his life, he should apply himself
to

the attainment of final beatitude, resort to silent

and meditation and attain the form of the transcendent Atman by meditating upon it with his
prayer

mind.

(119-129)

The Withdrawal of the PrXna from ihe Seats OF Marman
Should there be the holding
eighteen different seats of
it

(of the vital air) in the

Marman,
is

the withdrawal of
is

from one seat to another,

what
tlie

known

as

Pratyahara.

The

big toes of the feet, the ankles, the
thighs, as also

middle of the shanks, the middle of
their root,

the anus, the heart, the genitals, the middle

TRI-S'lKHI-BRlHMA^IOPANISAD

111

of the body, the navel, the throat, the elbows, the root of the palate, the root of the nose, the regions of the
eyes, the

middle of the eyebrows, the forehead with

its

root and its upper part, the root the two hands, these, O Dvi-ja of Marman).

of the knees, the root of
!

are the reputed (seats
(129-133)

The Manner of DhXranX
The steady
abstraction of the

mind

assisted

by

Yama and
the

other YogaAga-s, in the five elements and in

body
is

made

of

the

five

elements,

is

Dharana,

which

the cause

of the crossing of fhe

ocean of
(133-134)
in

worldly existence.

The Holding of the Five Elements
Limbs of the Body

the

From
gular in

the knee

seat of the Earth.

down to the (sole of the) foot is the The Earth-goddess, yellow, quadran-

and with the bolt of Indra as her emblem, should be ruminated upon, for five Ghatika-s
shape,

(two hours),
with vital

after

having

filled

the (concerned) seat
is

air.

From

the knee up to the hip

said to

be the seat of Water. white

Water
as

of the shape of the crescent,

ruminated upon,
filled

should be Nadika-s (four hours), having From the the (concerned) seat with vital air.
silver

and

with

her emblem,

for ten

middle of the body down to the hip is said to be the There should be ruminated upon, a red seat of f^ire.
flaming
fire,

for^fteen Ghatika-s

(six
it is

hours),
said.

after

holdmg the

vital air

m

Kumbhaka,

so

From

112
the navel

THE YOGA UPANI^ADS
upward
to

the nose

is

the seat of the Air.

The
upon

strong elemental Air, of the colour of

smoke and

the shape of a sacrificial altar, should be ruminated
there, for

twenty Ghatika-s (eight hours), holding

the vital air in Kumbhaka therein. From the nose up to There the cavern of the Brahman is the seat of Ether.
IS

the Ether of the colour

and brightness

of well-pound-

ed collynum

One should hold the vital

air

m Kumbhaka
(135-142)
in

m

the seat of Ether with great effort.

The Meditation of A-niruddha and others
THE Seats of P^thivi and others and the
Fruit thereof

In that part of the body belonging to the Earth,
the

Yogin should endeavour

to meditate

upon A-ni-

ruddha,
crown. should

who is Han with four arms and wearing a The Yogm, with his intellect pointed upwards,
in vital air
;

and always meditate on Narayana, in the part belonging to water on Pradyumna, in the part belonging to Agni on Saipkarsana, in the part belonging to Air, and the Paramatman, Vasu-deva, in There is no doubt that, the part belonging to Ether. for him who applies himself (in that direction), there
fill
;

will

be the attainment thereof

in

no time.

(142-145)

Meditation on the ParamStman and

the Fruit thereof
Having assumed and clasped the hands
the

Yogic posture beforehand,

in the region of the heart, in the

TRI-S'lKHI-BRlHMAyOPANI§AD

113

Hfdayafijali posture, with his eyes fixed on the tip of
tfie

nose, his tongue pressed on the palate, his (one
teeth not touching the other, with his
his

row

of)

body

erect

and

mind well-subjugated, with

his pure intellect,

he should restrain the group of organs of sense and Conceiving of Vasu-deva, the supreme, the action.
transcendent

Stman,
of

the

meditation of him

whose
has
of

form has pervaded the form of one's own
the

self,

power
with

bestowing

the

accomplishment
the

alone-ness

(Kaivalya).

He who
sins

conceives of Vasubreath)
for

deva,

Kumbhaka
(three

(holding

one
seven

Yama

hours),

accumulated through Yogin

previous

births

of

that

meet

with

destruction.

(145-149)

Consciousness of Vasu-deva Transcending

THE TURiVA
(The Yogin) should comprehend the functioning of waking state, commencing from the knot of the
till

the

navel

the heart

is

reached, the functioning of the

dreaming state remaining in the throat, the functioning of sleep in the palate, and the fourth (Turlya) wellfixed in the middle of the brow he should see what is beyond the Turya, the transcendent Brahman, in the crevice of the Brahman, c^ommencing from the func;

tioning of the state

till

the interior of the cavern of the

Brahman
Vispu.

(is

reached).

There

will

this

Stman, the
is

Turiya, be.

At the end of the Turya

said to be

(149-152)
13

U

114

the yoga upani^ads
Meditation on the Qualified Brahman
All

functioning of the

Yogin

perishes,

— of (the
on
the

mind of that meditating Yogin) who is engaged only m

meditation, in the extremely clear Ether, on the Vis^iu,

resplendent with the radiance of myriads of Suns, ever
exalted,

seated

lotus

of

the heart, or should

meditate on the Deva of the form of the Universe,
is

who

all

diverse shapes blended into one,

who has
is

several

faces,

who

has various shoulders,

who

adorned with

various weapons,
fierce

who

is

of various colours, mild, yet

with weapons uplifted, with several eyes scattered

over (his frame), and resplendent with a radiance such
as of myriads of

Suns

(152-156)

Meditation on the Non-differentiated

Brahman
The
hand,
lustre

liberation of that

Yogin
in

is

on the palm
the

of his

(of

him)

who meditates on

the imperishable

of consciousness seated

middle of the

lotus of the heart, of the shape of a cluster of
flowers,

Kadamba

lying

beyond the Turya, beyond the transcen-

dent, the endless, full of Bliss, full of consciousness, the

resplendent, the beatific, resembling a

lamp m a windless
(156-158)

spot and dazzling like an inartificial gem.

Even the Knowledge of the Qualified
(Brahman)
is

Productive of Liberation

To

the Yogin who, on seeing, in the lotus of the

heart, a larger, or else

even a small (portion) whatever,

tri-s^ikhi-brXhmanopanisad
of the

115

form of the Deva, of the form of the Universe,
(on
it),

meditates

He

shines

before
"

his

very eyes.

Fruit, such as attenuation and other (mystic powers),

easily brought about (for him). transcendent Brahman ", " I am
IS

I

alone

am

the
"

the

Brahman

should this attitude be firmly established with reference
to the

Jivatman as also the Paramatman and to both, that should be known as Samadhi, which is devoid of
functioning.
will

all

The Brahman

is

attained

and the

Yogin

no more go back to the state

of worldly

existence.
truths, the

After having well purified the (underlying)

calm of In the absence of anything
the

Yogm, with a mmd devoid of greed, will get his own accord, like fire with exhausted fuel.
to grasp, the Jiva,

which

is

Prana

(life)

of the mind,

endowed with
and

certain

knowledge,

will

get dissolved in the transcendent pure

existence, as a

lump
is

of salt (in water)

will see the

Universe, which
(snares),
in

an aggregate of illusions and magic

as

m

a dream.
in

The Yogin who
state

treats

(it)

as

sleep,

firm

the knowledge of the existence of the
of Nirvaria
is
{t.e.,

Atman, on attaining the
which
IS

the

remaining as the Brahman alone, which
firmly established,

peerless

and

IS no universe beyond no other than the Brahman) (simultaneously) attains Alone-ness. Thus the Upapisad.

one's

on the realization that there own Atman, which again is

THE DARS'ANOPANI$AD
[This Upanisad which forms part of the

S5ma-

veda and

is

the ninetieth of the 108 Upanisads, deals

with the detailed exposition of the eight-fold Yoga,

along with the acquisition of the knowledge of the

supreme Brahman and ends with the description of the non-relative absolute Brahman.]

SECTION
AstSnga-yoga, the

I

Means for the Attainment

OF JiVAN-MUKTI
Dattatreya,

the

great

Yogm,

the

high-souled

progenitor of the welfare (of

all beings),

the four-armed

Maha-visnu (holds sway) over the dominion of Yoga, as (its) crowned (king). His devoted disciple, the great Sage, Samkrti by name, (once) asked his Guru, when
he was alone, as follows, with hands folded
tion
:

in saluta!

and attended with great modesty O Lord Pray relate unto me that Yoga, with the eight AAga-s (stages) and with full explanation, by deriving the knowledge whereof I shall become a Jivan-mukta." (The Guru
"

responded as follows

:)

" Listen,

O

SSipkrti

!

I

shall

!

THE DARS'ANOPANI^AD
relate

117

presently the system of knowledge (known as)
(1-4)

Yoga, with the eight sub-divisions."

The Enunciation of the Eight
Yama and Niyama,

Sub-divisions

so also Asana, also Pranayama,

O Brahman

!

thereafter Pratyahara and Dharana, also
the eighth,

Dhyana and Samadhi,

O

sage

(4, 5)

Yama of ten Kinds
Non-violence,
stealth, Celibacy,

Truthfulness,

Abstmence

from
^(

Compassion, Rectitude, "Forbearance,
:

Firmness, Temperance in food and Cleanliness
are the ten Yama-s.

these
(6)

Non-violence
(O
mouth,
violence
:

sage), that art rich in
in

penance

!

Verily, the non-

indulgence
in

violence

accord

with

by body, mind or word of Vedic injunctions is Non-

not otherwise.
all,

O
is

sage

!

the firm belief that

the

and cannot be grasped, that is said to be the best (form of) Nonviolence by those well -versed m the Vedanta (-system
impartible,
of Philosophy).
(7, 8)

Atman pervades

Truthfulness

O

great sage

!

Whatever

is

seen, heard or smelt,
is

by

the eye and the other organs, what

expressed by that

118
alone
" All
is

THE YOGA UPANIgADS
true,

O Brahman
else "
:

!

that will not be otherwise.
is

that exists (whatever)

the

supreme Brahman
is

and not anything

the firm belief to this effect

said to be the best (form of) Truth, by those

who have
(9, 10)

reached the other shore of the (ocean of the) knowledge
of the Vedanta.

Abstinence from Stealth
abstinence of the mmd from the straw, and even the pearl belonging to others, wise men know that to be Abstmence from stealth. Abstinence from deahng with the Atman as being the An-atman, is said to be Abstinence from stealth,

The

total

gem, gold

O

great sage

!

by those who know the Atman.

(11, 12)

Celibacy

The complete
by means

abstinence from contact with women,

mouth and the mind, as also with one's own wife, save immediately after the menstrual period, that is known as Celibacy. The staunch application of the mind to the state of becoming the Brahman, O sage of severe penance js Celiof the body,

word

of

!

bacy.

(13, 14)

Compassion
That indulgence towards all beings, as towards one's own self, by body, mind and word of mouth,

THE DRAS'ANOPANI^D
that alone
is

119

known

as

Compassion, by knowers of the
(14, 15)

Vedanta.

Rectitude
Uniformity
friend,
all

wife,

(m behaviour) towards (one's) son, enemy as well as one's own self, under

circumstances,

O

sage

!

is

termed Rectitude by
(15, 16)

me.

Forbearance
Abstinence from losmg temper, when provoked by
enemies, by body,

mind and speech,

that,

O

foremost
(16, 17)

among

sages

'

is

Forbearance.

Firmness

The dawning
plete liberation

of

Wisdom

to the effect, that
of)

comis

from the (woes

worldly existence

possibJe only through the Veda (the perfect system of knowledge) and not otherwise, is said to be Firmness by the believers in the Veda. (Also), the unswerving belief to the effect " I (am) the Atman and am nothing
else."

(17, 18)

Temperance
Leaving
off

in

Food
is

a fourth of the food (served), which
to

moderate and pure, eating, so as attainment of) Yoga, is Temperance

conduce to (the
(19)

in food.

120

the yoga upani^ads
Cleanliness

O

great Sage

!

Cleansing (getting rid

of) one's

own

and water, that, they know, is Cleanliness of the exterior while contemplation (on the Supreme Being) is mental Cleanliness. Wise men say that Cleanliness constitutes the knowbodily impurities by
of clay
;

means

ledge (dawning on one,

when he

realizes

:)

"

I

am

pure."

The body
is

is

extremely impure, the embodied (Atman)

extremely pure.

Knowing

the difference between the
?

two, of which (of the two) should purity be prescribed

That

man,
(sage)

who, giving up the purity by internal
fool,

awareness, revels in external purity, that

O

right-

vowed
gold.

!

grasps

a

clod of earth,

leaving off
(20-23)

Rule Relating to the Brahman, THAT IS THE StMAN
For the Yogin who is satiated with the nectar of knowledge and has discharged his duties (aright), there remains nothing whatever to be done. Should there be any such, he is verily no knower of the Truth. For those who have realized the Atman, (the Brahman),
there

remains nothing whatever,
recourse

in

even the three

worlds, yet to be done (by them).
all

Hence,

O

Sage
is

endeavour, having

to non-violence

by and
!

other

means, know by the knowledge that
that

thus

acquired,

the

Atman

is

(no other than) the
(23-25)

imperishable Brahman.

THE DARS'ANOPANI^AD
SECTION
II

121

The Ten Niyama-s
Penance, Contentment, Belief
in the existence of

the supreme Truth, Munificence, Worship of

Is'vara,

Study Prayer and Austere vow
of

the

established

Truth,
these

Modesty,

Faith,

are

Niyama-s.
listen.

I

shall

presently describe

known as the them in order
,

(1, 2)

Penance
Emaciating
penance,
the
as

body

by

Krcchra

(religious

known
like,

Praja-patya)

and Candrayana

(expiatory penance, regulated by the age of the

Moon)
is

and the

in

the

manner prescribed by
"

the V'eda,

What is release from said to be Tapas by the wise. " How ' " " Wherefore does one attain the * " bondage
wheel of births and deaths
?

"

— Enquiries such as these,
the inner significance of
(2-4)

men

of

learning,

that

know

things,

know

as

Tapas

Contentment
The
life

pleasure derived by people

m

their

every-day
that,

by the accidental acquisition

of

any gain,

wise
ledge

men

bent on the acquisition of thorough
as Contentment.
all

know-

know
U
16

What

agreeable thing,

one devoid of

attachment gets out of detachment,

122
till

THE YOGA UPAKI§ADS
the

moment he

realizes the

Brahman,

that, they

know as supreme Contentment.
Belief
in

(4-6)

the Existence of the

Supreme Truth
Faith
Belief m

m

what

is

in

the S'ruti and the Smrti

is

the existence of the

Supreme Truth.

(6)

Munificence

The
means,

giving

away

of wealth

earned by righteous
that
des(7)

in all sincerity, to

a needy Vaidika (follower of
;

the Veda) or whatever else they bestow
cribed as Munificence

is

by me.
Is'vara

Worship of

A
foul

heart free from passions,

speech not rendered
action

by
;

falsehood
that
is

and

the

like,

devoid of
(8)

violence

the worship of Is'vara.

Study of the Established Truth

The
what
IS

real

existence.

the transcendent Bliss,

Knowledge which is endless, the supreme certainty touching
:

exclusively innermost

this

should be under-

stood by wise men, as the Study of the established Truth expounded in the Upanisads. (9)

the

daks' anopani^ad

123

Modesty
Whatever act is mean, according to the precepts of the Veda and in the eyes of the world, the shyness
felt

in

(doing)

such

act,

that

alone

is

said

to

be

Modesty.

(10)

Faith
Confirmed belief in all things enjoined by the Veda IS what is known as Faith. One should be devoid
of all connection with anything (counter to that), even

though instructed by the Guru

in that direction.

(11)

Prayer
Practice of the
laid
IS

down by known as

the

Veda

Mantra according to the method is known as silent prayer. That

Silent prayer by me, vtz., the adoption of

the State laid

down

therefor in the Veda, Kalpa-sutra-s,

Dharma-s^stra-s,

Purana-s and Itihasa-s.

Prayer

is

by word of mouth and the mental one. Prayer by word of mouth is again of two kinds, muttered and uttered aloud. Mental prayer is two-fold, assuming the forms of ruminating ( Manana) and meditat ion (Dhyana). Muttered prayer is a thousand times more efficacious than uttered prayer. Loud prayer would bestow fruits on all, as prescribed (in the Scripture). If the Mantra is heard by the ears
said to be of two kinds, that

124

THE YOGA UPANipADS
it

of the low-born classes,
in

becomes devoid

of efficacy

bearing

fruit.

(12-16)

SECTION

III

The Nine Postures
Go-mukha, Padma, Vira, Siiphasana, Bhadra, Muktasana, Mayurasana and Sukhasana, so named, the nmth, O foremost among sages these are
Svastika,
!

the

nme Asana-s

(Postures)

(1, 2)

Svastika
Placing the

two soles of the

feet well

between the

knees and the thighs (crosswise), keeping the head, the

neck and the body erect (in a straight line), the Yogin should always practise the Svastika (posture) (2, 3)

Go-MUKHA
Placing the
buttock and the
buttock,
IS

right
left

ankle by the side of the

left

ankle by the side of the right

known

as the

Go-mukha

(posture).

(3, 4)

Padma
After placing the two soles of the feet over the two
thighs,

(crosswise),

(the

right

over the

left

and

vtce

THE DARS^ANOPANI^AD
versa),

125
!

O

chief

among

the Biahmana-s

one should
in

hold the tips of the big toes with his two hands
reverse order (the right with the left

the

and
'

vtce versa).
(a

This

will

form the Padmasana,

which

will

remove

all fear

O wise one from any disease.

posture)
(4, 5)

VirSsana

One should
with
to

place the left foot over the right thigh,

his

body

erect

and

his posture even

:

this is said
(6)

be Virasana.

Simhasana
two ankles below the scrotum, by the sides of the frenum of the prepuce, to the right side the left ankle, and to the other side the
should
place
the
right ankle
,

One

placing the two hands over the knees and

spreading out one's
glances on

own
the

hngers,

with his

mind

well

under control, showing
cast
his

his

face distinctly, he should

tip of the nose.

This will

be

the

Sirnhasana

posture

adored

always by the

Yogin-s.'

(6-1—6-3)

Bhadrasana

One

should place the two ankles below the scrotum

and by the sides of the frenum of the prepuce and
The above description of SiiphlUana is not to be found m Mss of the • DaiB'anopani^d and has been extracted from some other Grantha
'

126

THE YOGA UPANI§ADS

hands the sides of the feet, so as to be motionless. This will be Bhadrasana, which will destroy all poison and disease. (7, 8)
firmly bind with his

MUKTASANA
frenum of the
left

Pressing

the

right
left

side

of

the

prepuce with the

ankle and the

side of the

frenum
sana
right
;

with the right ankle, this

placing the

left

ankle over that,

becomes the MuktSankle over the genitals and the this, O sage is the Mukta'

sana.

(8-10)

MayOrasana

O

best of sages

'

One

should place the tip of the

elbows by the sides of the navel, and placing on the ground his two palms, with an one-pointed mind and
with his head and legs lifted upwards, floating in space
like

a stick, this

is

the

Mayurasana, which destroys
(10-12)

all sins.

SukhXsana

In whichever

produced, that
shoAild

is

manner comfort and courage are known as Sukhasana a weak man
:

adopt such (posture).

(12, 13)

!

the dars'anopani^ad

127

The Fruit of Mastery of Posture
By whom
worlds
are

posture

is

mastered, by him the three
After

conquered.

followmg

this

Rule,
(13)

always practise Pranayama.

section iv
Dimension of the Body

The body
height).
fire,

will

be only ninety-six digit-lengths
is

(in

In

the

middle of the body

the seat of

shining like molten gold.
!

In the case of men,
it

O

Saipkrti

should truth be told,
(is

is

triangular in

and anus and two
shaf>e

two digit-lengths below the
situated)

digit-Jengths

above the

genitals.
!

Know
seat
is

the middle of the body of men,
of the knot (of the navel),

O

Samkrti

The

O

foremost

among

sages,

MuJadhara (the digit-lengths from the support) and stretches over an expanse of four
nine
lengths in diameter,
of a hen's

rootdigit-

O

best of sages

!

It is of

the shape

egg and

is

In the middle of

decked with a sheath and the like. it is what is termed the navel by

adepts in Yoga,

O

foremost

among

sages

(1-5)

128

THE YOGA UPANIgADS

The Enumeration of the
The Nadi
navel
it,

NSpi-s

situated
as the

m

the middle of the knot of the

is

known

Susumna.
!

There stand around

O

foremost

Nadl-s.

The
;

chief

among sages Seventy-two Thousand among them are fourteen (in
;

Susumna, Piiigala, likewise Ida and SarasPusa, Varuna and Hasti-jihva Yas'asvini, vatl also Alambusa and also Kuhu Vis'vodara, Payasvinl and and Gam-dhara thus there are the also S'ankhini Of these, three are more imporfourteen chief ones. tant (than the rest) and of the three, one is the most important. That is known as the Brahma-na^t by
number).
, •

;

those well-versed in Vedanta-lore.

O

thou of austere

vow

'

the

vertebral

Susumna is firmly attached to the column, made up of bones and known as
(5-10)

Vina-danda (the neck of the Indian harp), up to the
skull.

The

Positiom and Form of the Kundali

Two digit-lengths below the knot of the navel, O Sage IS the seat of the Kundali. She, the Kundali, is of the form of eight constituents, O best among sages She
! !

stands always regulating, as
(in

is

her allotted function

the
air

economy
(of

of the

human

body) the work of the

vital

the region) and the passage of food

and

drink around and by the sides of the knot of the navel

and encircling with her own mouth, of the aperture of the Brahman.

O

sage

!

the

mouth
(11-13)

THE dars'anopani^ad

129

The
To

Position of the NXpi-s

Susumna stands the Ida and The Sarasvati and to the right stands the Pingala. the Kuhu stand by the sides of the Susumna. The
the left of the

Gaip-dhara

and

the
Ida,

Hasti-jihva stand

at

the rear

and the Pusa and the Yas'asvini stand at the rear and front of the Pingala. Between the Kuhu and the Hasti-jihva stands the Vis'vodara between the Yas'asvini and the Kuhu between the Pusa and the situated the Varuna IS
and front of the
; ;

Sarasvati

is

said

to

be the Yas'asvini
is

;

between the

Garp-dhara and the Sarasvati
khini.

said to be the S'an-

The Alambusa
of the

stands stretching up to the anus
of the knot of the navel.

and reaching the middle
the the front

To

Full-moon-like

Susumna
situated

is

situated

Kuhu.

The

Nadi
as
far
is

that as

is

below and
the
right

above,
nostril,

stretches

the

end

of

while the Ida

situated (stretching) as far as

the end of the left

nostril,

O

foremost of sages

!

The

Yas'asvini stretches as far as the tip of the big-toe of

the
eye,

left

foot.

The Pusa
its

stretches as far as the left

having
is

course

behind

the

Pingala.

The

Payasvini
right ear.

said,

by wise men, to stretch as
its

far as the

So

also the Sarasvati has

course upward,
'

as far as the tip of the tongue,

O

sage

Similarly the

Hasti-jihva stretches as far as the tip of the big-toe of
the
as
right
foot.

The
in

Nacjl

named
right ear.

S'ankhinl stretches

far as the
its

end of the
the

The Gaip-dhara
stated

has

end
17

right

eye,

as

by those

U

130
well-versed
in
is

THE YOGA OPANI^ADS
Vedanta-lore.
situated
in

The N5di known

as

Vis'vodara
the navel.

the middle of the knot of
(13-23)

The Flow of the Viial Air through
THE Nadi-s
Prana, Apana, likewise Vyana,

Samana and

also

Naga and Kurma, Krkara, Deva-datta and these ten vital airs flow through all Dhanam-jaya

Udana

;

:

the

Nadl-s.

Of

these,
;

the

five

beginning

from

Pr5na are the chief ones of the five, that which is named Prana as well as Apana, O thou of the
austere

vow
!

O

sage

worthy of preference and of the two, In the middle of the Prana is preferable
!

is

neck and the nose,
the heart, sages
!

in the

middle of the navel and
of
in

the vital air

is

always present.

known as Prana, O best Apana is present always
the thighs

the middle of the anus, in
the
entire belly, the hip,

and knees, in the navel and the shanks,
best of sages
!

O

thou of austere vow

!

O

Vyana

is

middle of the ears and eyes, at the present junction of the shoulders with the neck, in the two wrists and in the throat, which is the seat of Prarja.
the

m

The
ing
vital

vital

air

called

Udana

should be known as

present in the legs and hands.
all

Samana

stands pervad-

parts

of

the body

without doubt.

The

five

airs

beginning from
like.

Naga stand

in

the skin,
(23-30)

bones and the

;

the dars'anopanigad

131

The Functions of the Vital

Airs

Inspiration, expiration and coughing work of the Prana. Evacuation of faeces and are the urine is the work of the vital air known as Apana.

O

Satpkrti

!

Samana
sages
!

brings everything to proximity,

O

foremost of
is

Udana does
it

the

work

of going up, there
'

no

doubt about
the vital air

Vyana,
as

O

sage

is

said by those well-

versed in Vedanta to cause dispute.

The

function of

known

Naga
!

is

said to be belching

and the

like,

O

great sage

The work

of swelling
'

is

said to be of

Dhanam-jaya, O Sairikrti Shutting the and the like is of Kurma and hunger is of eyelids Bringing on sleep, O chief among the BrahKrkara. (30-34) mana-s is said to be the work of Deva-datta.
!

The
S'lva

Deities Presiding over the Nadi-s
is

the deity of
of
is

Susumna
,

;

Han
is
;

is

the deity

of

I^a

,

Brahman
!

Pingala

Viraj

of SarasvatT,

O

sage

of

Pusa
;

Pusan the deity
the
vital
,

of

Varuna
as

is

Vayu
jihva,

the

deity

of

air

known

Hasti-

Varuna

is

the deity

similarly

O
;

best of sages!
of

of

Yas'asvini

the

Sun
is

is

the
is

lord

Alambusa,

Varuna, the lord of waters
of

said to be (the deity)
;

Kuhu, hunger

the
In

deity

Gam-dhari has the
is

Moon
is

as the deity.

the
;

same manner the Moon
of Payasvini

the deity of S'afikhinl

Praja-pati

of the vital air of the

name

of Vis'vodara, the lord
(35-^9)

Pavaka

is

the deity.

132

THE YOGA UPANI?ADS
in

The Transit of the Sun and the Moon
THE NXpi-s

The Moon moves only in the Ida always, O great sage Similarly the Sun (moves) in the Pifigala, O sage, (39, 40) the best among the knowers of the Veda
! !

The Course of the Sun of Prana through
THE NSpi-s The passage of the vital air from the is what is known as the Northerly
Pingala into the

Ida

course (Uttara;

yana),

O
is

sage

'

passage
sage
!

of the vital air

by those versed m the Vedanta the from the Ida into the Pingala, O
so says the S'ruti.

known

as the Southerly course (the Daksinayana)
:

in the Pifigala

When

the vital air

Prana reaches the junction between the Ida and the PiAgala, O thou, best among the embodied mortals
'

then there

is

said to be
in the

Ama-vasya
body.

(junction of the

Sun
the

and the Moon) the Muladhara
enlightened
!

When

the Prana enters
best

(the

root-support),
is

O

among
first

then there

said to be the

equinox

by the devout performers of penance, O best among the devout performers of penance When the vital air called Pra^a enters the cranium, that is said to be the last equinox by the devout performers of penance, who are intent on investigating the truth. All inspiration
!

and expiration
Ft^Tf3i air

is

the passage (of the

Sun

of Prana

through the Zodiacal signs) of the months.

When

the

reaches through the Ida, the seat of Ku^^^ll,

,

THE DARSTANOPANI^AD
then there
is

133

said to be the lunar eclipse,
!

O

best

among

the knowers of the Truth

When
sages

the PrSga air reaches

the Kui>4all through the Pingala, then there occurs the
solar eclipse,

O

best

among

!

(40-47)

The Praiseworthiness of the Internal
TiRTHA-s (Places of Pilgrimage)
There
forehead
;

is

S'rl-parvata at the crest

;

Kedara

in the

O
the

wise one
;

!

Benares at the junction

of the

brows and the nose
breasts
;

Kuru-ksetra

m

the region of the

Prayaga (the confluence of the Ganges, the Jamna and the Sarasvatl) in the lotus of the heart Cid-ambaram (the Ether of consciousness) in the
middle of the heart
lotuses)
in

Kamalalaya (the abode of the Having abandoned one's the Muladhara.
;

own

(internal) Tirtha-s, should

one resort to the external

Tirtha-s (places of pilgrimage
waters),

known

for their sacred

he goes after pieces of glass abandoning the

precious

gems

m

his hands.
is

The

Tirtha (pilgrim-resort)
is

of abstract meditation

the supreme resort and
actions.

the

proper sanction
wife

for

all
;

With one object a

may

be caressed

with quite a different object a

daughter

The Yogm-s, in virtue of own Atman, do not resort the confirmed faith to Tirtha-s filled with water, nor gods made of wood

may

be caressed.

in their

and the

like

;

O

great sage

!

the internal Tirtha
;

is

the

Tirtha by far superior to external Tirtha the Tirtha of the Stman is the greatest Tirtha every other Tirtha
;

carries

no

significance.

The

internal

Tirtha of Ihe

134
Citta (mind),
if

THE YOGA UPANIgADS
contaminated, cannot be purified by

ablutions eind remains impure, even as the liquor-pot,

washed hundreds of times with water, (is impure). A man becomes pure by bathing at (holy) places like Varanasi, at the solstices and the equinoxes, during eclipses and also at the intervening periods, always. The water flowing from the washed feet of great men intent on the acquisition of the (right) knowledge (of the Brahman) and the attainment of (real) Yoga, O
foremost of the sages
fication of the
'

that

is

the Tirtha for the puri-

(contaminated) mind of the ignorant.
(48-56)

Seeing

S'iva in

the Atman

While there
the fool
looks

is

S'lva firmly established S'lva
in

m the body,
gift,

for

the

sacred stream,

muttering prayers,
always.

sacrifice,

He who
in

serves

wood and stone (images) what is without, giving up me
will

who stand

his

interior,

lick
in

his
his

throwing off the ball

(of

food)

own elbow, hands. The

Yogm-s look
images.

for

S'lva within

themselves and not in
for helping ignorant

Images have been created

people to conceive of (the Supreme Being).

(57-59)

Becoming the Brahman by the Sight of the

Brahman

He

alone sees,

who

sees that the beginningless
real, the

and

the endless Brahman, the

non-dual, the palpable

1

THE DARS'ANOPANI^AD

135

Wisdom and

Bliss in his

own Stman.

O

great sage

!

giving up, of your

own accord, this always-useless cluster of Nl^l-s, the human state, by all means, realize with the aid of your mind, " I am the Atman ". The man of
(

fortitude does not experience grief, seeing directly the

incorporeal, the greatest, the supreme, the Almighty,!

the blissful and the undecaying Entity (the Brahman)*
in
(all)

bodies.

When, by

the strength of one's wis*>

dom, the ignorance which produces the difference (between the Atman, %.e., one's own self, and the Brahman) IS lost altogether, O sage what will the difference between the Atman and the Brahman, which does not really exist, do ? (60-63)
!

1

\

SECTION V
Purification of the Nadi-s
Pray,
relate

to

me

briefly,

O Brahman
by which

'

the

mode
cation

of purification of the Nadl-s,
I

purifi-

may become

a Jivan-mukta, meditating con(1)

stantly.

Listen,

O

Sarpkrti

'

I

shall presently relate briefly

the

mode

of purification of the Nadl-s.

With

action

and conduct properly regulated
rules

m accordance with the

prescribed
volition,

(in

the

Scripture), devoid of desire

endowed with the eight Anga-s (of Yoga), such as Yama and the like, tranquillized, having the
and
truth alone as the final resort, well-confirmed in one's

136

THE YOGA UPANI§ADS
Self, properly instructed

own
the

by knowers

(of the

Brah-

man), resorting to a Matha (resting place) either on

summit

of a mountain, or the banks of a river,

under a Bilva-tree or a forest, m a pleasant and clean place, assuming a posture thereafter, either facing the east or the north, with his neck, head and body kept
erect

mouth should (commence the
and
his

closed,

utterly

motionless,

he

practice of

Yoga and)

see, at

the tip of the nose, the disc of the

Moon

in the

middle
(2-6)

of the Hindu, the Turlyaka, trickling
his eyes.

down

nectar, with

Drawing the Prana vital air through the Ida, augmenting (the vital air) standing in the belly, then meditating upon the fire flaming all round in the middle of the body, he should conceive of (" Raip ") the seed of fire with Hindu and Nada then should the wise man expel the Prana well through the Pingal3. Again, filling up through the Pingala, he should call to memAgain should the man of intellect ory the seed of fire. gradually expel the air through the I(jla alone. For
;

three or four days, or for three or four times every day, practising thus, in seclusion, six times during each of

the three

Sarpdhi-s

(junctions) constantly should he
(7-10)

move

about.

Symptoms of (the Successful Accomplishment
of) Purification of

the NadI-s

On

the following being distinctly seen, he attains
:

the purification of the Nacjil-s

Lightness of the body,

THE DARS'ANOPANISAD
glowing of the
the
successful
in
fire

137

situated in the belly and the clear
;

manifestation of the sound

these

symptoms

indicate

accomplishment
effort,
till

thereof.

He

should

continue

this

he distinctly sees these
(11, 12)

(symptoms).

Purification of One's
Then,
after

Own Atman
he
should
betake

giving

this

up,

himself to the purification of his

own Atman.
is

The
of the
itself

Atman,

that

is

always pure and eternal, that
is

form of happmess, and
the
of

self-luminous, shows

as impure on account of the impact of Ignorance and

same
true

reveals itself in

all

purity with the impact

knowledge.

He who
is

washes away with the

water of true knowledge the
Ignorance, he alone
as the latter revels in

mud

of the impurity of

ever pure and not any other,
(13, 14)

Karma

section

vi

Description of PrSnayama
I

shall

presently describe the
'

method

of Prana-

yama,

O
U

Saipkrti
to

Listen

to

it

reverently.

Prana-

yama is said Kumbhaka.
18

be (made up) of Recaka, Psraka and
(1)

138

THE YOGA UPANipADS

Recaka, Puraka and Kumbhaka are said to be of form of the triad of Varna-s (letters). Of such the The Pranayama is (form) IS said to be the Pranava.

made up

of that (Pranava).
vital air

(2)
filling

Drawing the

through the Ida and

up

(the air) standing in the belly (with it), slowly should one remember the letter " A " there, for the duration

of sixteen Matra-s.

The

filled

up

(air)

should be held

thereafter for the duration of sixty-four Matra-s.

Here

also should he

remember the form
air)

of the letter "

U

"

and mutter the Pranava (mentally).
he should hold (the
as long as
it

Intent on prayer
is

possible (for

him

to

do

so).

Thereafter the wise

man

should expel

the filled-in air with (the remembrance of) the letter " M," through the Pingala, for a duration of thirty-two

Matra-s therein, slowly again.

This

will

be Prana(3-6)

yama
for

Thus should he
filling

practise even thereafter.

Again,

up through the Pingala,
letter

similarly,

a duration of sixteen Matra-s, should he here also
the

remember
in
air,

form of the

" A," with the one-

pointed mind.

The knowing one should hold

the filled-

muttering the Pranava, with

full control (over

himself), meditating on the form of the letter "

U

" for

a duration of sixty-four Matra-s

;

he should then expel

the air through the Ida, remembering the letter "

M ".

The knowing one
Prapayama
daily,

should repeat again in this manner,

filhng-m through the

1^

and

in this
!

manner
for six

practise
(7-10)

O

mighty sage

By
he^ will

daily practising in this

manner

months

become a man

of knowledge;

from a year's

THE DARS'ANOPANISAD
practice,

139
;

he

will

gain knowledge of the
it.

should he daily practise
the
practice
of

Brahman hence He who takes delight in
is

Yoga always and

intent

on the

discharge of his duties, becomes released from bondage

by the control of the breath alone and from knowledge
(gained therefrom).
(10-12)

Description of Puraka and Others

That
filling

is

known

as

Puraka, wherein

there

is

the

up,
,

in

the belly, of the air from outside (the
air,

body)
as

the holding of the
,

as in a filled-up pot,
is

is

Kumbhaka
Recaka

the

expulsion freely of the air

known

(12, 13)

What Are Accomplished

from Pranayama

That which produces profuse prespiration is the lowest type among Pranayama-s "(what produces) tremor is of the middle type and (what produces) buoyancy upward is of the highest type. It should be
,

practised with increasing vigour from one stage to the

upward buoyancy is attained. When the highest type of Pranayama is attained, (the practitioner) becomes an adept and derives happiness. (14, 15) O thou of the austere vow The mind is purified by Pranayama and when the mind becomes pure, the pure
next
higher,
till
!

inward lustre becomes defined before one's own eyes.

The

Prana, in conjunction with the Citta (mind), stands

firmly established in the transcendent

Atman.

Even

140
the

THE YOGA UPANI^ADS

body of this high-souled person, who is intent on the Pranayama, will rise up. From the slight knowledge derived therefrom (comes) release from bondGiving up Recaka and Puraka, one should daily age.
practise

Kumbhaka.
of the

He

will

(thereupon) be

nd

of

all

sins and attain the highest knowledge.
.fleetness
'perish.

He

will attain the

mind, and grey hairs and the

like will

For one, who stands by Pranayama alone as his chief prop, there is nothing which is unattainable. Hence, by all endeavour, one should practise Pranaya(16-20)

ma-s thoroughly.

Varieties of Pranayama Having Curative Virtues

O
the

thou of austere

uses of

vow I shall Pranayama Drawing
'

presently describe
in

the Prana air
the belly, in the

outside and filling up with

(that

in)

morning and evening twilights, in the hour before the dawn (Brahma)f at noon or at all times, and holding it
at the tip of the nose, in the middle navel

big toes of the feet, the
years,
,of
"air)

nd

of

all

diseases

man will live for By one holding it
,

and at the a hundred
at the tip

the nose,

O

thou of austere vow!

will (the

Prana
it

be brought under complete control
diseases

by holding

/in
all

the middle of the navel
;

there will be avoidance of
to the big toes of the feet,

by confining
air

it

O
^
,

Brahman
will
;

'

there will be lightness of the body.

He who

always drinks

Yogin

by inhaling it through the tongue, that attain immunity from disease, nd of fatigue
he who should confine the air at the root of

,

and

thirst

!

THE DARS'ANOPANISAD
the tongue, after inhaling
coolly
it

141
will
all

by means of the tongue,
air

drink the nectar of immortality and enjoy
;

happiness
I^a,

he who, after inhaling the
it

through the

confines

at the middle of the eyebrows, will
all
!

drink pure nectar and will surely be released from
diseases
;

O

thou, the

knower of the truth of the Veda

he who confines (the air inhaled), through the Ida as
well

as
all

the Pingala, in the navel, that
diseases.
If,

man

is

released

from

during the three Samdhya-s

(twilights) for

one

full

month, one should, after inhaling

the air by
little

means

of the tongue,
it

and drinking that nectar
him)
all ail-

by

little,

confine

in the navel, (for

Pitta (bile) will undoubtedly perish.

ments arising from a preponderance of Vata (wind) and Should he confine
air in the pair of eyes, after inhaling
all
it

the

through the

nostrils,

eye-diseases vanish

;

so also, by confine;

ment
after

(of air) in the

two ears
air,

(all

ear-diseases)
it

similarly

inhaling the

should he hold

in the head, all

diseases

of the head vanish

The

truth has been told,
(21-32)

O

Samkrti

Conquest of VKwj (the

Air) bv Practice of

THE SaN-MUKHI-MUDRA (pOSTURE)
Having assumed the Svastika posture and brought the mind well under control, forcing upwards the

Apana

little

by

little,

(all

the while)

muttering the
closing the

Praijava,

(the Yogin)

should hold the ear and other

Karaija-s (senses) with his hands,

O

sage

'

senses of the two ears with his thumbs, the two «ye

!

142

THE YOGA UPANIgADS
and the two
nostrils

With the fore-fingers,

with the

other fingers, and retain (the forced up Apana) in the

head,

till

the manifestation of Bliss
!

;

by

this act also,

O

great sage

Prana
one

(air)

enters the crevice of the
(32-35J
air

Brahman (Brahma-randhra).

O
randhra,
ling at

sinless

!

When
is

enters

the

Brahma-

Nada
first

(sound)

also produced (there), resemb-

the sound of a conch-blast and like the
;

thunder-clasp in the middle

and,

when the
great

air

has
a

reached the middle of the head,
mountain-cataract.
Thereafter,
will

like the roaring of

O

wise one

the Atman, mightily pleased,
front of thee.

actually appear in

knowledge
(by the
fr enu m

of

Then there will be the ripeness of the the Atman from Yoga and the disowning
of worldly existence. of intellect

Yogm) The man
of

(36-38)

should press the stationary

the prepuce with his right
left

and

left

ankles

;

he should press with the right and

ankles the joints

under the knees, having recalled to mind the three-eyed S'lva and also remembered Vinayaka and then again
the goddess of speech (Sarasvati)

Having drawn up
its tip,

air with the stalk of the Penis, through

along

with (the muttering of) the Pranava with the Bindu
(dot), the
it

man
fire

of intellect should,

O Brahman
On

'

confine

m

the middle of the Muladhara.

such confine-

ment, the
to

kindled by the air will be borne aloft

the

Kundall

Again,

air
fire.

through the Susum^iS

effects
in

a junction with the

By one who

practises

this

manner,

will

the vital air be conquered in no
(34-43)

time,

'

the dars'anopanisad
Symptoms of the Conquest of Vital Air
Profuse perspiration
first,

143

then tremor,
of

O

foremost body,
air
is

among
these

sages
are

and buoyancy upward the symptoms, when the
'

the

vital

conquered.

(43, 44)

Attainment of Gnosis, through the Destruction
OF Diseases and Sin and the Clltivation of

Detachment, as a Result of the

Conquest of Vital Airs
For him who practises thus, the disease (known Piles will vanish and anal fistula will disappear,'
all

as)

and

diseases,

O

Samkrti
the

!

sins,

both small and/
sin,

great,

perish.

With

disappearance of

that

most wonderful mirror of Citta (the thinking mind) Further by the enjoywill become perfectly clear.
detachment springs For a man of detachment, knowledge in the heart gained from worldly experience proves to be an aid
like,

ment of the Brahman and the

to the attainment of alone-ness.

riddance
auspicious

from

bondage,

after

Thence will flow the knowing the ever(44-47)

God He, by whom

the elixir of the nectar of knowledge
will, at
all

has been swallowed even once, (and time), run away, giving up

that very place
(48)

action.

Those who are
world
IS

in the

know

of things, say that the

only of the form of knowledge.

But others

144

THE YOGA UPANISADS
it,

With a distorted vision, view
of the

out of ignorance, as
(49)

form of wealth.
the knowledge of the form of
all

By
is

the Atman, there

the annihilation of

ignorance.
!

When
is

ignorance

dies out,

O

extremely wise one

there

the annihi(50)
like,

lation of passions

and the

like.

In the absence of passions and the
!

O

wise

and vice. On one there their disappearance, dependance on the body altogether
is

the extinction of virtue

vanishes.

(51)

SECTION

VII

Description of Praiyahara and Its Diverse

Forms
Thereafter
I

shall

presently describe Pratyahara,

O

great sage

'

The

forcible bringing

back of the senses,

which, in virtue of their very nature, roam about
the objects of sensual pleasure,
is

among
as
2)
(1,

what

is

known

Pratyahara.

Whatever one
sjxiken of

sees, seeing in all that the

Brahman,

with perfect control of the mind,

this

is

Pratyahara,

by the knowers of the Brahman from days of Whatever one does, whether pure or impure, yore. till the moment of his death, all that, he should do unto That is Pratyahara. Or, one should the Brahman. perform his daily ceremonial observances and other

;

THE DARS'ANOPANISAD
rites

145

intended for the accomplishment of his duties^ with the mental attitude that they are for the propitia^
tion

of the

Brahman.
after

That

is

known

as Pratyahara*

the air, he should confine from the root of the teeth thence at the throat should he confine the air from

Otherwise, after
in

drawing
place
;

m

It

place

;

the throat thence at the chest
chest he should confine
it

,

drawing

it

in
;

it

at the navel region

from the drawing

from the navel region he should confine it at the the knowing man should, from the region of Kundall
in
;

the Kundiali, confine
the

it

at the

Muladhara

;

then out of

Apana

(vital air)

he should confine at the two hips
;

thence similarly at the middle of the thighs
the two knees, at the shanks
feet

thence at

and the big toes of the
has

should he confine

it

,

this

been said to be
(2-9)

Pratyahara by knowers of Pratyahara of yore.

Fruit of Pratyahara

O
who has

thou of austere vow

'

All the sins as well as the

disease of worldly existence, of that high-souled person
practice of this kind, perish altogether.
(9,

10)

PratyahIra Characterized by the Retention
OF Breath
Motionless and in the Svastika posture, drawing
in

the breath
fill

through the
in

nostrils, the

knowing Yogin
in -the

should
crest.

in

the air from the
the
pair

sole of the feet to the
likewise,

Then,
U
19

of feet

146

THE YOGA UPANISADS

Muladhara similarly, in the knot of the navel, in the middle of the heart, at the root of the throat, at the palate, between the eyebrows, in the forehead and in (10-12) the head should he retain it.

Pratyahara with the Sanction of the Vedanta
Having mentally abstracted the idea of the Atman the body, with his mind well under control, the
should confine his

m

knowmg Yogin
dual,

Atman

in

the non-

Brahman). This is known as the actual Pratyahara by those well-versed in the Vedanta. To one who practises thus, nothing
indeterminate
(the
IS

Atman

unattainable.

(13, 14)

SECTION

VIII

Dharana
Thereafter
(thou)
I

in

the Five Elements
presently
'

shall

detail (to thee),

O

of austere

vow

the five (kinds of) Dharana.

In the ethereal space in the middle of the body, outside

Ether should be retained.
(the vital air) Prana,

Similarly outside Air in
in the fire of the belly
;

and Fire

Water

in

the variants of water (belonging to the body)
in the

and Earth

earthy portion,

O

great sage

!

(1, 2)

One should pronounce the Mantra known as HaYa-Ra-Va-La in its order. This kind of Dharaija is
sa*d to be supceme

and expiatory of

all sins.

(3)

THE DARS'ANOPANI^AD

147
is

Up
said
to

to

the knees (from
(of

the sole of the foot)
the body)

be the portion
;

belonging to

Prthvl (Earth)
IS

up

to the

end
of

of the anus (thence),
;

said to be the portion

Water

up

to the heart
;

IS

said to be the portion of Fire likewise
is

up
;

to the

middle of the brows

the portion of Air

similarly

up

to the

head

is

said to be,

O

wise one

'

the portion
(4, 5)

of Ether.

One should
V^isnu
in

retain
in

Brahman

in the

similarly

the portion of Water,

Earthy portion, Mahes'ana

the portion of Fire, Ts'vara in
in

the portion of Air,

and Sadas'iva of the Truth
'

the portion of Ether,

O

great knower
(5,

6)

Dharana
Or
rana,
else,
I

in

the Atm\n
of (another kind of)
!

shall tell

you

Dha-

O

foremost

among

sages

The man
of
first

of intellect
all sins,

should always retain, for the purification of
S'lva, the

great Ruler,

who

is

full

awakening and
principle,

Bhss,

in

the Purusa (the highest

the

Paramatman).

Getting rid of the respective causes

that bring about the effects of the form of the

Brahman

and the
of
all,

like,

one's

mind should

retain, the indistinct,

the indefinable, the non-sentient entity, the prime cause
in

the Pranava, which becomes actually 'full in
the senses along with the
(7-9)

the

Atman and withdrawing

mmd

one should unite with the Atman.

I4g

THE YOGA UPANISADS
SECTION IX
Meditation on the Qualified Brahman
Thereafter
I

shall

presently describe (unto thee)
:

Dhyana (meditation) which destroys worldly existence One should, with due respect, O master Yogin medi'

tate

on the

Is'vara, the

Truth, the Existence, the trans-

panacea for all the ills of worldly existence, which has its Retas (semen virile) turned upwards, having monstrous (multiform) eyes
cendent
the

Brahman,

and an all-pervadmg form, the great
conception, "

Is'vara with the
(1, 2)

He am

I."

Meditation on the Unqualified Brahman

Or
and
the

else,

O

(thou)

of

austere

vow

'

one should

meditate upon the Truth, Is'ana, the nondual
Bliss,

Wisdom
;

the exquisitely pure,

the eternal, that has

neither the beginning, nor the middle, nor the end
not-gross,

the
that

non-ethereal,
is

the
taste,

intangible,

the
is

imperceptible,
called
smell,

neither

nor

what

the
is

immeasurable,

the

peerless,

the

Atman,

that

Existence,

Consciousness and Bliss,
I

the endless, as "

The Brahman

am,"

for the attain(3-5)

ment

of Videha-mukti (disembodied Liberation).

The Fruit of Meditation
For
of
-

that

high-souled
there
will

person

who has

practice

this

kind,

be the knowledge of the

!

THE DARS'ANOPANISAD
Vedanta,

14Q
is

produced

gradually

;

there

no

doubt
(6)

about

it.

section x

The Real Form of Samadhi
Thereafter,
I

shall

describe (to
existence.

thee)

Samadhi,
is

which

roots

out worldly

Samadhi

the

generation of consciousness relating to the oneness of
the Jivatman and the
verily

Paramatman.

The Atman
flaws.

is

the eternal, the all-embracing,

the perpetually

identical,

supreme Brahman, devoid of
is

The
is

one Being
Illusion

divided out of delusion, on account of
in its real
is

and not
,

form.

Hence

there
,

only
there

non-dualism
IS

there

no phenomenal world

no cycle of births and deaths Even as (infinite) Ether is said to be the Ether of the pot, the Ether of

Matha (the ascetic's Atman is said to be of
the
Is'vara

resting

place),

even so the

the form of the Jlva and the
"
I

by deluded people.
air,

am

not the body, nor
;

the

vital

nor

the

senses,

nor the mind
I

being

always of the form of the witness,
alone,"
that
IS

am

only S'lva

—such
known

knowledge
as

it

is,

O

foremost of sages
_
(1-5)

Samadhi

in this world.

The BRAHNfAN
"
I

ALONE, THE RESIDUUM

am

such Brahman, not one of worldly existence.
else besides

There

is

no one

me.

Even

as the

foam; the

150

THE YOGA UPANI§ADS
like, that,

waves and the

taking their

rise

from the ocean,
is

get dissolved in the ocean again, so also the world

dissolved in me.
as the

Therefore there
is

is

no separate entity He,
to

mmd
this

;

nor

the illusion of the world."
is

whom

inmost Paramatman

directly manifested,

actually reaches of his

own accord

the

Supreme

state

of Immortality, the state of being the Purusa.

When
of
its

consciousness, which prevades everywhere, shines always
in

the mind, the attainment of the

Brahman,
his

own
all

accord, will be accomplished by the Yogin, noth-

ing intervening.

When
all

one sees

in

own Atman
all

beings and in

beings his

own Atman, then he
one does not see

becomes the Brahman,
the beings,

When
one

remaining as he does

m

Samadhi, such a
the

person,

having

become

with

transcendent

(Brahman), then becomes the Brahman alone.

When

one looks upon his Atman in the light of the transcendent Brahman alone, then all the world is Illusion
alone and there
is

attained final Bliss.

(6-12)

Summing up The
great sage, the

Lord Dattatreya, having said
in the

thus, Sarnkrti

remained at ease

form of

his

own
(13)

Atman and

without any fear at

all.

Thus (ends the Upanisad)

DHYSNA-BINDUPANISAD
[This

Upanisad, which

is

a part of the Krsnaof

yajur-veda

and forms the Thirty-ninth and
it.]

the

108
the

Upanisad-s, deals with the exposition of the Absolute

Brahman
of attaining

the

import

of

the

Pranava,
as the

Ajapa Hatnsa-vidya and the

six-fold

Yoga

means

The Greatness of Deep Meditation on
THE Brahman
Should
ing over
<in

sin

(aqcumulated through thousands of

previous births) assume a mountain-like form, extend-

area of several leagues,

it

can be cloven

through
yoga,

(and shattered to pieces) only by Dhyana(concentration

aided

by

meditation

on

the
it,

Brahman).
js

No

other

means

of breaking through

there at

any time whatever.
Pranava, "

(1)
is)

(The
(with)

Aum*"

the superb see<r-letter,

Bindu (dot) and the Nada (nasal sound mdicated by the Ardha-matra, the semi-circle). What is above that, {viz., the soundless Brahman), stands (enduring for ever). What is endowed with sound* (is
the

152

THE YOGA U PAN ISADS
;

the Pranava, typical of all sound-phenomena)

when
is

the chief ingredient (the differentiating substratum)
lost,

the soundless residuum

Brahman).
to

That

the highest seat (the sound (arising from the heart, " Oipis
is

kara " of the Pranava)

eternal (as borne testimony

by the Scriptural text, " Eternal indeed is the Oipkara ") what transcends that sound, the Yogm who discovers that transcendent One, stands clear of all
;

doubt.

(2, 3)

The Subtlety and the All-pervading Nature
OF the Brahman
Taking the division into One-hundred-thousand
parts as the standard of division, one part (obtained

by such
of that

division) of the

awn

of a grain of wild paddy,

(denotes the subtle Jiva-caitanya).
part
into

By

further division

one-hundred-thousand parts, one

part as obtained (denotes the subtler Is'vara-caitanya).

By

further division (of the Is'vara part), by adopting

one half of the standard of subdivision, {i.e., by dividing such part into fifty thousand parts), one part so
obtained
(denotes
the
still

subtler

Saksi-caitanya).

By

the loss (of the Saksin part)

m

the further attempt
the traceless, un(4)

at subdivision,

what

is

obtained

is

manifested Brahman.

As fragrance amidst
milk, as oil amidst the
quartz, so are
all

the flower, as ghee amidst the

sesamum

seed, as gold amidst

beings in the Stman, as beads

m
is

the

strmg of a rosary.

The knower

of the

Brahman

he

dhyana-bindOpanisad

153
firm

who

takes his stand in the

Brahman, with a

mind
(5,

undeterred by delusion.

6)

Even as by
stand taken
inclusive),
in

the oil in the

sesamum

seeds,

and the
is

fragrance abiding in the flower, (by the Atman)
of the Purusa, (the

the

the body, external and internal, (both

Brahman, the Prime(7)

cause of

all).

The
branches.

tree (of

Ignorance), one
(of

may

know, as having

branches.
alike
in

The shadow The Atman
existence
(of

Illusion) cast

by

it

has no

stands pervading everywhere,
either
kind),

with

parts

and
(8)

without parts

The Form or the Pkaxava
The monosyllable
release from
"

Om," uhich
In
"

is

the

Brahman,

should always be meditated upon by those

who

desire

bondage

A," the

first

part of the

Prana%a, the Earth, Fire, the Rg-\eda, the world Bhur,

and Pita-maha
In
" U,"

(Brahman) have found

their

repose.'

the second part of the

Pranava, the interrepose.

mediate region, Yajur-veda, the Air, the world Bhuvar,
Visnu
"

and Janardana have found

their

In

M," the
their

third part of the Pranava, the celestial region,

the Sun, the Sama-veda, the world Svar
find

and Mahes'vara

repose.
in quality,

"

and of white colour, and M is of black colour and inert quality. He who does not know the Praijava of eight Anga-s (A, U, M,*, ^, Kala, Kalatlta and Tat-psyra),
rhythmic
rhythmic
in quality

"

A U

"

is

of yellow colour mid un-

" is

"

"

U

20

154

THE YOGA UPANISADS

having four feet (Vis'va, Taijasa, Prajfia and Turlya in Otr, Viraj, Sutra, Bija and Turya in Samasti Vyasti
; ;

Anu3natr,

Anujna and Eka-rasa, common to both) states Sthula, three seats (Jagrat, Svapna and Susupti Rajas and Tamas Suksma and Karana bodies Sattva, qualities Knya-s'akti, Iccha-s'akti and Jnana-s'akti and durations) Past, Present and Future powers five deities (Brahman, Visnu, Rudra, Is'vara and Sada;

;

,

;

,

;

s'lva)

;

he cannot be a Brahmana

(9-14)

Rule for Meditation on the Pr\n\va
Pranava
is

the

bov\,
i?

the

Atman (Manas)
If

is

the

aim be taken with due care, as is the case with the arrow (the Atm in vtz., the Manas), will become mer^'ed in the taiget (of When that the Brahman and become one with it) which is far and near is hue seen, all actions recede
the tartlet
All

arrow and the Brahman

the

gods take their origin from the Omkar.i

All

the vowels take their origin from the

Omkara

All the

three worlds, with e\er} thing, animate
therein, take their origin

and inanimate

one burns awaj'
perity

all

sin

from the Omkara The short one bestows, prosThe long

The

imperishable

Pranava with the Ardha-

matra (half a short syllable) bestows release from bondage. The fine end of the Pranava cannot be expressed, as of an unbroken stream of oil or the long (continuous) chiming of a bell He who knows Him is the real knower of the Veda {i.e., becomes a Jlvanmukta).
(14-18)

dhyana-bindOpanisad

155

Pranava-dhySna with Pranayama

One
stationed
the heart,

should
in

meditate on the Is'vara of Omkara, the middle of the pericarp of the lotus of
the appearance resembling that of

who has

the steady flame of a

lamp, who
in

is

of the size of the

thumb, and motionless. Drawing
Ida,
filling

the vifal air through

up that

of the belly therewith,

one should

meditate on the

Omkara

stationed in the middle o( the
lustre

body and surrounded by a halo of
said to be the Piiraka, Visnu
is

said to

Brahman is^ be the Kumbhaka^
(these are) the
J^

and

Kudra

is

said

to

be the Kecaka

deities of Prana\aina.

(19-21)
\

PrANA\ \-DHYANA BV

Dll-FERENT

METHOD

Making the Atman (the Antah-karana) the (nether) Aram (wood used for churning hre) and the Omkara, the upper Aram and practising the churning of meditation, in this manner should one look upon himself as One should apply the (lamp) hidden (under a poO
himself
the
the
to the

best of his strength to the resonance of\
till

sound of Omkara,

his breath

is

restrained

and

';

Ndda
Its

is

dissolved

depending upon the
for

Those ^\ ho see in the Omkara m-going and out-coming (breath,
like,

'

utterance), the one entity characterized as the

Harnsa, devoid of going and the
lustre

radiant ^ith the

of myriads of Suns and stationed in the inmost
all

hearts of
quality

persons,

— they are rendered free from the
(22-24)

of

Kajas (and attain the summiim bonum of

existence).

156

the yoga upanisads
Meditation on the Qualified Brahman

That mind, which is the doer of the act of creating, sustaining and dissolving the three worlds, that mind That is the supreme seat of Visnu. attains dissolution. The lotus of the heart has eight petals and is endowed
with thirty-two filaments
In the middle of
is
it is
;

the

Sun and
is

in the

middle of the Sun
is

the

Moon
is

in

the

middle of the
lustre
;

Moon

Fire

;

in

the middle of the Fire
the seat sur-

in

the middle of the lustre

rounded with various gems. One should meditate with modesty upon the Maha-visnu, who is in the middle of that (seat), the god Vasu-deva, who is devoid of impurity, who wears the S'ri-vatsa (mark) and the Kaustubha (jewel) on his breast, who

ornamented with pearl -necklaces, who is clear as the clearest crystal, and resplendant like myriads of moons, in this manner and
is

so on.

(25-29)

Meditation on the Trinit\ of Gods

One

addicted to the worship of the qualified godof

who is of the who is firmly established in the region of the navel and who has four arms, along with the Puraka of Brahman, who is the Kamalasana (seated on the lotus) in the region of the heart, who
head should conceive
Maha-vi§nu,
colour of the flax Hower,
;

IS

of

the the

faces,

gem, having four Pitamaha, along with the Kumbhaka of
colour
the

of

reddish

;

the. three-eyed

(Rudra),

seated

in

the

fore-head.

DHYANA-BINDUPANI^AD
resembling
the
clearest
crystal,
sins,

157
has
really

who

no

parts

and

who

destroys

along with the
(30-32)

Recaka.

Meditation

in

the Heart and

its

Fruit

There is the lotus (of the heart), with the flower down below and the stalk up above, facing downward
like the plantain flower, replete

with

all

the Veda, aus-

picious,
petals,

enduring for a century, rich with a hundred

and

(graceful

like)

the full-blown lotus flower.

There should he conceive of the regions of the Sun, the Moon and Fire, one over the other. By causing the
lotus shining with the lustre of the Sun, the

Moon and

Fire to burst open upwards (with the Pranava), one

should conceive of the Sun, the

By
and

Moon and Fire therein. taking hold of the seed of the lotus (the letter " A "),
conceiving of the
(changeless)

Atman

(of

that

form), there then

moves Visnu

(signified

by the

letter),

possessed of the three states (waking, dreaming and
sleeping),

the three paths (Dhunia, Arcis and Agati)

Brahman-s (V'ls'va, \'iraj and Otr), the three letters (A, U and M), the three Matra-varieties (Hrasva, Dirgha and Pluta) and the half-Matra He who knows him IS the real knower of the Veda [t.e., becomes the Jivan-mukta). The fine end of the Pranava'cannot
the three

be expressed, as of an unbroken stream of
long (continuous) chiming of a
bell.

oil

or the

He who knows
{t.e.,

Him

is

the real knower of the

Veda

becomes a
(33^7)

Jivan-mukta).

158

THE YOGA UPANipADS
in

The Merging of Prana

the Resting Place

OF THE Brahman

Even
stalk,

water through a lotuseven so the Yogin, standing in the right path of
as a

man

sucks

m

Yoga, should draw

in the vital air.

Having turned the
Ardha-matra (hemisin the air

lotus in the form of a

bud

into an

pherical in shape), he should

draw
in

through

the stalk alone and

eyebrows.

make it rest He should know that

the middle of the

at the

middle of the
is

[eyebrows, in the forehead and at the root of the two
^nostrils

IS

the seat of immortality.

That

the great
(38-40)

resting place of the

Brahman.
Six-fold Yoga

The

Posture, control of breath, withdrawal of breath,
steadiness
of

breath,

meditation

and concentration
(41)

these six are the stages of Yoga.

The Four Postures
There are as many postures as there are classes of living beings. The great Is'vara knows the distinctive diflferences

among

these.

The

four (chief) postures
(42, 43)

are

:

Suidha, Bhadra, Sirpha and Padma.

The Seat of the Yoni
(Mula-) adhara (Root-support) is the first plexns, the Svadhsthana is the second between the
;

The

dhySna-bindOpanisad
two
IS IS
IS

159

the seat of the Yoni (genitals), styled

Kamait

rupa. In the seat of the anus,

known as

(Mula-) adhara,

a lotus which has four petals.
said to be the Yoni,

In the middle of

accomplished
situated
in

known as Kama, adored by the (Yogin-s). The Linga (sex-mark) is
a

the middle of the Yoni, opening inwards
like

and luminous
that
is

gem

in the crest.

He who knows
(43-46)

the right knower of the Yoga.

The Real Form of the Four

Plexus/s,

Ml'ladhara and Others
(The Muladhara) which is of the appearance of molten gold, which throbs like a streak of lightning,

and has four petals, is established at a spot with the Fire above and the root of the genitals below. The
Prana
(\ital air) will
is

be therewith

its

S\adhi^thana
genitals)

dependent on that
to

own sound. The Then the ple.xus
itself.

of the Svadhisthana (with six petals at the loot of the
is

said

be the genital-organ

The
is

plexus of the region of the navel, wherein the body
hlled
IS

with

air,

even as a

gem

is

strung with a thread,

said to be the Mani-pura (with ten petals).
is

[Beyond

that

the

twehe-pctalled An-ahata plexus, in the

region of the heart, thereafter the six-petalled Vi&'ud-

dhi-cakra at the throat, thence the two-petalled Ajna
plexus

m

the middle of the eyebrows, thence the
region,

Lunar

and Solar

and

at the top of

all,

the thousand-

petalled plexus in the Brahma-randhra.]

In the great
the An-ahata),

plexus of the twelve (petals) spokes

(v»s.,

160

THE YOGA UPANI?ADS
sin,

placed by his -religious merit and

the Jiva whirls

round and round, as long as he does not discover the
Truth.
(46-50)

The Group of

Nadi-s

There is a knot resembling the egg of a bird, above the (root of the) genitals and b^low the navel. Thence originate Seventy-two thousand Nadi-s. Of
these thousands of Nadi-s, seventy-two are spoken of
(in the

Scriptures).

Of these
Pingala,

again, ten are said to be
vital

the

chief ones,

adapted to the passage of
Ida,

air

through them
dharl,

Susumna

Hasti-]ihva, Pusa,

Yas'asvinT,

GamAlambusa, Kuhu
the third,
In this

and S'ankhinl thought

to be the tenth of them.

manner should always be known
of the Nadl-s of the Yogm-s.

the plexus

made up

and Susumna, these three Nadi-s, are said to be always carrymg the vital air and havmg the Moon, the Sun and Fire (respectively) as their deities Ida, the Nadi standing to the left, Pingala standing to the right, and Susumna
Ida, Pingala

standing

in

the

middle,
air,

these

three

are

thought of
(50-56)

as the paths of the vital

THE Ten Vital

Airs,

Prana and Others

Prana, Apana, Samana,
so
also,

Udana and Vyana
Deva-datta

;

Naga,

Kurma,

Krkara,

and and

Dhanarp-jaya

(are the ten vital airs).
;

The

five

beginning

from Prana are the reputed ones

the five beginning

dhyana-bindOpanisad
from

161

Naga

are

(other)
in the

vital

airs.

These
Jiva.

exist

m

thousands of Na4l-s

form of the
Jiva

(56-58)

The Dependence of the

on the Prana

AND the Apana

The Jiva, which is dependent on the Prana and the Apana, leaps downwards and upwards and is not seen as moving either towards the right or the left. Even as a ball thrown by the fore-arm moves onwards, even
so the Jiva propelled by the

Prana and the Apana would
(58-60)

not

rest.

The Working

in

Unison of the Prana and the
during Yoga
air)

Apaw
The Prana
Apana
by a
other.
(vital

drags the

Apana and
a

the

drags
string)

He

bird (bound and the string act and react on each who knows thus is the real knower of

the

Prana,

even

as

Yoga.

(60, 61)

A-JAFA-HAMSA-VIDYA

The

vital

air

goes out with the sound of "
of " Sa."

Ha

"

and again enters with the sound
always mutters this Mantra, vtz., "

Hamsa",

"The Jiva " Haipsa ".

in the course Twenty-one thousand six of a day and night does the Jiva (silently) mutter the Mantra always. (This) G^yat-tri known as A;japa U 21

hundred times

162

THE YOGA UPANISADS

bestows liberation always on Yogin-s.
resolve taken
tor doing this, a

By
nd

the very

man

is

of his sins.

The

like of this lore, the like of this prayer, the like of

this virtuous act, there has not

been and there never
(61-65)

shall be.

By ^wakening the Kundalini is Accomplished THE Breaking Open of the Doors of
Liberation
Closing with her face the hole that forms the path-

way, whereby the safe and sound seat of the Brahman has to be reached, the great Goddess sleeps. When
roused
(from
her sleep) by
the

conjunction of

fire,

with the mind and the vital

air,

even as a needle carry-

ing a thread, she goes upwards (carrying her body with
her).

The Yogin

should burst open the door leading

to

liberation

by means of the Kundalini, even as a

person would forcibly burst open a door with' the help
of a master-key
attitude of

Having folded both hands (in the prayer), having assumed more firmly (than

usual) the Padma-posture, pressing fast his chin over

upon that with a full mind, pushing up by turns the filled-in Apana (vital air) antf giving out his Prana vital air, the practitioner
his chest, profoundly meditating

of

Yoga,
"

by

virtue

of his

(Yogic)
"

power,
(in

finally

attains

that

unequalled

awakening
I ", I

the

know-

ledge,

The Brahman am
").

alone

am

the

Brahman

(65-69)

;

dhySna-bindupanisad

163

The Awakening of the

Kundalini" by Celibacy-

AND Other Observances
That
hojes of

Yogin

is

the

hberated

one,

who,

after

assuming the Padma-postare, fills m vjtal air in the the Nadl-s and retains it by Kumbhaka there is no doubt about it. (70) After massaging the hmbs of the body with the perspiration produced by exertion, renouncing what is pungent, sour and saltish, delighting in drinking milk,
living
in

comfort, abstaining from sexual intercourse,

temperate
the

m
will

food,

having Yoga as his

final

resort,

Yogm

become an accomplished adept
;

after the
in the

lapse of a year

no further doubt need there be
is

matter.
the

The Yogm, who has developed
Yoga

the power of

KundalinT above the knot of the navel,

a

fit

receptacle for the accomplishment of

(70-73)

The Three Kinds of Ba\dha-s
By
the diminution of urine and fences
is

attained

the union of the Prana

performing
heels, (the

and the Apana vital airs. By Mula-bandha always, even an old man

becomes young.
the

By
:

pressing the genitals with the

Yogin) should contract the anus, by drawing

Apana upwards
is

This

is

known

as Mula~bandha,
rest,

By what means
that alone
therefor.

a great bird soars up without

the U44>yana ^nd a
-

Bandha
the

is

prescribed

One

should

assume

Pas'cima-tSna

(constricting the belly) posture in the belly

above the

;

164
navel.

THE YOGA UPANI^ADS
This
will
will

be the U^diyana-bandha, the lion
the elephant

and which binds (the disease-generating) phlegm which is the water of Ether having its origin at the (thousandThen petalled lotus of the) head, flowing downwards. the Jalam-dhara-bandha, which destroys the flood of
quell

which

of "Seath,

ailments in the throat,

when

the Jalarp-dhara-bandha,

which
is

is

characterized by the constriction of the throat,
(73-78)

made
Practice of the Khe-cari-mudra
Neither does the nectar flow into the
fire,

nor does

the vital air leap forwards,

cavern of the

when the tongue enters the cranium, moving contrariwise (backward).
is

The
the

eye-glance penetrating between the eyebrows
(posture)

Khe-cari-mudra.

He who
there
is

the Khe-cari-mudra, for

him

has mastered no disease, nor

death, no sleep, nor hunger, nor thirst, nor fainting

he who has the Khe-cari-mudra
with disease, nor defiled
durations.
in

is

neither troubled

by Karma, nor bound by
into Ether, this
is

As, during this (Mudra), the mind moves

Ether, the tongue has
is

moved

which

adored by the adepts,

Mudra known by the name
(79-83)

of Khe-cari

The Accomplishment of

Vajroli, by

the

Practice of Khe-cari
For him (whose tongue enters) the hole (of the cranium), moving upwards beyond the uvula, whose

;

dhyXna-bindOpani^ad

165

semen does not waste away, even when he is in the embrace of a beautiful woman, as long as the semen

remams

firmly held in the body, so long, where

is

the

As long as the Khe-cari-mudra IS firmly adhered to, so long the semen does not flow out. Even if it should flow and reach the region of the genitals, it goes upwards, being forcibly held up by the power of the Yoni-mudra (sanctified by the V^ajroli).
fear of death for

him

?

Becoming

a Jivan-mukta

by

Knowledge of the

Union of the

Two

Kinds of Bindu
varieties

The selfsame Bindu is of two and the reddish. The white they the name of the reddish variety
Rajas
stands
in

the white

call S'ukla
is

(semen)
;

;

Maha-rajas
tree
(in

the

which
in

resembles

the

coral

colour)

the seat of the genitals.

The semen

abides

the seat of the

cakra and the
the

Moon (midway between the AjflaThousand-petalled lotus). The union of
S'lva

two

(the

and the

S'akti)

is

very rarely

attained.

the

The semen is S'lva, the Rajas is the S'akti semen is the Moon and the Rajas is the Sun it is
;

only by the union of the two (the S'lva and the S'akti)
that this exquisite

body
one

is

attained.

When

the Rajas,

induced by the
Ether,

vital

air

moved by
the

the S'akti, towards

becomes

with

Sun, the bo3y will

become divine. The semen is united with the Moon and the Rajas with the Sun. He who knows the harmonious mingling of the two (the Jivatman and the (86-01) Paramatman) is the real knower of Yoga.

166

the yoga upani^ads

The Practice of the MahS-mudra
The
cleansing (with the Pranayama) of the heaps

of impurities (in the Nadi-s), the bringing about of the

union between the Moon and the Sun, the complete drying up of the Rasa-s (Vata, Pitta and Kapha), is

known
chest,
foet,
leg,
it

as the

Maha-mudra.

With

the chin laid on the

pressing the abyss of the genitals with thejgft

holding with the two hands the outstretched right
filling

with breath the pair of bellies and holding
it.

up, one should slowly expel

This indeed
for

is

said

to be the sin-destroying
far,

Maha-mudra

men.

[Thus

the

drawal of the "
fPratyahara.
'is

Pranayama has been dwelt upon. The with1 "-ness from the body and other non-

.Atmic things into the innermost

The

conviction that
is

Atman would be the the innermost Atman
"
1

itself

the Brajiman

Dharana.

am

the Brah-

man," The Brahman alone am I " the firm faith to The dissolution of the triad this effect is the Dhyana.
"

of

ideas relating to contemplation, the contemplator

and

what

is

contemplated upon
six

is

the Nir-vikalpaof six

samadhi.
Anga-s.]

These

would constitute the Yoga

(91-93)

The Direct Manifestation
IN

of the Atman

the Heart
expound the way of
is
it,

Now

then,

I

shall presently

discovering the Atman.
th« eight-petalled lotus,

In the seat of the heart there
"

In the middle of

making a

DHVANA-BINDUPANISAD
Circle,

167

there

is

the form of the Jivatman, in the form

of

radiance of the size of a speck.
all.

Therein
all
I
;

is

estab-

lished

That knows
"
;

all

;

that does

all is

the per;

formance of This
the

I

am
;

the doer
;

;

am
the
it

the enjoyer

the experiencer of pleasure

the experiencer of pain
;

;

one-eyed
;

;

the lame

the deaf
this

lean

the corpulent,"
its

dumb

;

the

in

manner
itself.

exists giving

expression to
in

dependence on
it

(93—1). When,

the Eastern petal,
is

{viz., I)
;

reposes, the Eastern

petal

of a white colour

then, with devotion
its

moving
in

m

front,

there
(right

is

the inclination on
(93

part towards

Dharma
IS

conduct).
it

2).

When,

the

South-eastern petal,

reposes, the South-eastern petal
;

of a blood-red colour to

then there
(93

is

proneness on

its

part

slumber and
petal,
it

sloth.

3).

When,
is

in

the

Southern
colour;

reposes, the Southern petal
is

of a black

then there
(93

leaning on
in the

its

part towards spite

and anger.
it

4).

When,

South-western petal,
is

reposes, the South-western petal
is

of a blue colour

;

then there
action

the tendency on
(93

its

part towards sinful

When, in the Western 5). Western petal is of the colour of petal, crystal then there is the inducement on its part towards play and amusement. (93 6). When, in the
and
violence.
It
;

reposes, the

North-western petal,
IS

it

reposes, the North-western petal
;

of the colour of emerald

then there

is

the inclina-

tion

on
7).

its

(93

part towards going, moving and detachment. When, in the Northern petal, it reposes, the
is

Northern petal
proneness on
its

of a yellow colour

;

then there

is

part towards the enjoyment of pleasurre

168

THE YOGA UPANISADS

and sex- attraction. (93
petal,
It

8).

When,
is

in the

North-eastern
is

reposes, the North-eastern petal
;

of the colour
its

of laptz lazult

then there

the tendency on
like.

part

towards munificence, compassion and the

(93

9).

When,
on
air),
its

there

is

leaning towards the joints (of the petals)
there
is

part, then

the rousing of Vata (vital

Pitta

(bile),

S'lesman

(phlegm)

and the great

maladies. (93
it

10).

When

it

stands at the centre, then

knows

all,

sings,

dances, reads and creates Bliss.
it

(93

11).

When

ocular strain results,

makes the
strain

first

around it for the alleviation of the immerses itself in the middle of the circle.
circle
circle is of the colour of the
IS

and

The first Bandhuka flower. Then
of

the state of sleep.
there
of

In the middle of the state of
state
of

sleep

occurs
the

the

dreaming.
it

In

the
in
re-

middle
fancies,
flecting,

state

dreaming,
itself

indulges

such as occupying
inference

with studying,

and what results flow from their and experiences fatigue on that account. For assuaging such fatigue, it makes a (93 12). second circle and immerses itself in the middle
application,

(of

the the

circle).

The second
in

circle

is

of

the colour the state

of
of

Indra-kopa insect.

Then
slumber

follows
is

slumber

and

the

produced the
It

thought entirely relating to Parames'vara.

actually
follows

assumes the form of ever-wakefulness.
the attainment (of one-ness) with the mes'vara.
itself in

Then
it

form of Para-

(93

13).

Making a

third circle
is

immerses

the middle.

The
corfies

third circle

of the colour

of the ruby.

Then

on the fourth (the Turiya)

;

DHVANA-BINDUPANISAD
State.

169

In the

Tunya

state,

there arises the idea ex(the

clusively relating to the

Paramatman

Brahman)

becomes of the form of eternal consciousness. by little should it take rest, making the mind with the dawning firmly implanted in the Atman of wisdom resulting out of fortitude, it should not Then, effecting the think of any thing else. (93 14). of the Prana and the Apana in its introsunification
then
it

Little

,

pection.

It

invests the entire universe with the form of the

Atman.
It

When

this TurTyatTta state

|comes on, then
,

becomes of the form of Bliss to all it reaches beyond the dualistic state and lasts as long Thereafter is the attainment of as the body endures. oneness with the form of the Paramatman. Thus, in
actually
;

manner, there is liberation. This alone is the expedient to be adoped for seeing the Atman. (93 15)
this

By

the

vital

air

reaching

the

great door

(the

Susumna-randhra) after having recourse to the junction
of the four roads (the Jalam-dhara-bandha), after passing

upwards from the triangle
wherein
it

stood,

is

Muladhara plexus) seen the Acyuta (the Paramatman,
(of the
(in

the never-swerving

Brahman)

other words,

it is

only

by the entry of the inward vision, the vital air, the fire, the mind and the Kundalini into the Susumna-nadi
in the

Muladhara can the Paramatman be seen)

(94)

Seeing the ParamStman, by the Application OF the Nada

The

live

colours of the elements beginning from

Prthivi should be meditated "upon above the seat of

170

THE YOGA UPANISADS
Also the
five vital

the Triangle mentioned previously.
airs,

Prana and

others, their seed, colour

and

seat.

The

letter "

Ya

",

of the colour of a
its

blue cloud, and with

the heart as

seat,

should be known as the seed of
",

Prana

;

the letter "
is

Sun, and

which is of the colour of the Apana with the anus as its seat, should
;

Ra

be known as the seed of fire the letter " La " which is Vyana with the entire body as its seat and of the colour of the Bandhuka flower, should be known as of the form of Earth the letter " Va ", which is Udana and of the colour of the conch, should be known as the
;

seed of the Jlva
of

;

the letter "

Ha
in

"

which

is

of the form

Ether,

Samana
the the
nose,
like,

and of and has
the

the
its

colour of
the

crystal
heart,

which
the
foot

is

seat

navel,

throat,

the

big-toes

of

the

and

is

present in the courses of the Seventy-two
is

thousand Nadl-s, and

well

placed in the twentyfollicles.

eight crores of the capillary

The Samana

is one only. With mind and resolute, the Yogin should perform Pranayama composed of the three operations beginning with Recaka. Having by degrees
;

and

Praiia are one

he, the Jlva

a firm control over the

withdrawn
of

all

functionings into the cavern of the lotus

bound Prana and Apana therein, he should move the vital air upwards with the Praijava, m the direction of the Ajfta and Mani-pura plexuses (alone), contracting the throat and contracting
the heart and the genitals likewise.

Then

will

be seen the auspicious

Susum^a-nadi resembling the fibre of the lotus-stalk, taking its origin from the Mul5dhara (and ending in

dhySna-bindupanisad
the Kaivalya-nadl).

171
(sound) having

There

is

the

Nada

no distinct form, produced out of the (middle of the) Vnja-dan^a (vertebral column) (attached to the Susumna), resembhng the middle resonance out of the sound
of the conch

the

orifice

and the like. When this sound reaches of Ether (in the cavern of the heart) it
of)

(assumes the form

the note of the peacock.
in the

In the

middle of the crevice of the cranium,
the four openings, that illustrious

middle of
shines,

Paramatman

even as the Sun
of the

m

the sky, (and abides) in the crevices

Brahman

as supreme energy, between the two

Kodanda-s (eyebrows).
final rest there, will see

The mind, that has found its its own Atman, the Purusa, the
and

(twenty-one)
in

gems

(born out of the Vraja-danda)

their radiance the

Nada

(sound), the seed (of the
state.

Turyaturya) of the Mahes'vara
thus,

He who knows
such know-

that

Purusa (simultaneously with
the
state

ledge)

attains

of

alone-ness

— Thus

the

Upanisad.

(94-106).

THE NADA-BINDUPANI$AD
[This Upanisad, which
is

the Thirty-eighth

among

the 108 Upanisads and forms part of the Rg-Veda, deals

with the attainment of Videha-mukti, as a result of
the annihilation of the three kinds of

Karma, by those

that are equipped with the expedient of Nada, through
the

exposition

of the

real

nature of the Absolute
the

Brahman,
the

after dealing with
in
its

means

of attaining

Brahman
possessed

qualified

aspect,

by those that

are

Brahman
aspect.]

knowledge of the qualified indicated by the Pranava in its Vairaja
of

the

The Real Form of the Vaikaja-pranava
The
birds,
letter

"

A

"

is

the right wing (of that king of

the VairSj a -pranava).

sidered to be the other
^il, they say.

The letter " U " wing. The letter " M
is its

is

conis its

"

The Ardha-matra

head.

Its legs

and the tike are the Gunas (Sattva, Rajas and Tamas). Its body is said to be the Truth. Dharma (right conduct) IS its right eye, and A-dharma (unrighteous
conduct)
IS

said to be the other (eye).
in
its

In

its

feet is

the.Bhur-loka and

knees the Bhuvar-loka.

In

THE n5da-bind0panisad
Its

173

hip-region

is

the Suvar-loka

and

in its navel region

the Mahar-loka.
heart
loka

The
in

Jano-loka
in
its

is in

the region of

its

and the Tapo-loka
is

throat.
its

The Satyabrows and
(1-4)

estabhshed

the

middle of

forehead.

The Fruit of the
In
this

Vairaja-vidya
is

(V'^airaja-pranava)

indeed revealed the
the
"

(Omkara)
says
"

Mantra

(containing

A

")

with the

thousand limbs, (according to the Vedic Text which

The letter " A " is composed of a thousand limbs "). The Adept in Harnsa-yoga (concentration in the conception, " am that Viraj "), who has mastered
:

I

this

Vairaja-vidya,
of

is

not

at

all

affected

by the
(5,

hundreds

myriads of sins due to

his

Karma.

6)

The Real Form of the Pranava Composed of
Four chief Matra-s
The
first

(the Viraj).

the Air (the

Matra (known as Akara) relates to Agni (the symbol " U ") relates to Sutratman). The next Matra (" M ", the

The second

Bijatman) shines
VIZ.,

like the

disc of the Sun.

The

last,

the Ardha-matra, wise
(the

men know
This
is

it

to

be of the
as the

form of Varuna
established for

Turya).

known

OrpkSra, wherein these (four) Matras have verily been
all

the three durations (the past, the

present and the future).

Know

ye

(all

ignorant

men

!

these Matras) by Dh5rana-s.

(6-8)

;

174

THE YOGA UPANl^ADS
different MXtrSs

The Details of the Twelve
OF THE
PRAIiJAVA

TaKEN INDIVIDUALLY AND

Collectively

The

first

Matra
;

is

(known
is

as) the Ghosinl, the

next

as the Vidyut

the third

the PataAgini, the fourth the

Vayu-vegini

;

the

fifth

is
;

the the

sixth is called the Aindri

Nama-dheya and seventh is known as
;

the the
is

Vaisnavl and the eighth as the S'arpkarl

the ninth
to

named
Dhrti
;

the

Mahati and the tenth

is

said

be the
(9-11)

the eleventh will be the

Nan and

the twelfth

the Brahmi.

Benefits Derived by Votaries on Their Dying
during PARTICULAR MaTRS-S
Should the devotee part with
his life

m

the

first

Matra, he will be born as the king of the Bharata-varsa,

and Emperor. He who dies during the second will become a high-souled Yaksa during the third (will be reborn) as a Vidya-dhara, and during the fourth as a Gandharva, Should one part with his life during the
;

fifth

Matra, born as a Deva he

will

be held

in

esteem

m

During the sixth (is attained) oneness with Indra and during the seventh (there is) the attainment of the seat of Vispu during the eighth that of Rudra, the lord of the Pas'u-s during the ninth the Mahar-loka, and during the tenth
the

Soma-loka (lunar world).

;

the Jano-loka

;

during the eleventh the Tapo-loka and

duwng

the twelfth eternal

Brahmanhood.

(12-16)

THE NADA-BINDCPANI$AD

175

The Real Form of the Unqualified Brahman
AND THE Fruit of knowing It
Then, he who is accomphshed in Yoga should always have recourse to what is superior (to the qualified
Maha-vairaja-pranava),
the

the

pure,

the

all-pervading,

unalloyed,

the

auspicious,
all

the ever-rising,

the

transcendent Brahman, whence
take
their
origin,

the heavenly bodies
senses,

who

is

beyond the
fearless,

who

is

beyond the Gunas, the
tranquillized, in such a

the auspicious, the

manner that the mind may find That person accomplished (in Yoga) entirely composed of it, should give up gradually Ignorance and misconception, (the work of A-vidya) inherent in the human order, and become consciousness alone. Firmly implanted m the Yoga and devoid of
repose therein.
all

attachment,

then

this

Yogin, with his internal

impurities cleansed the lord of
of

and

Kamala (of being the Brahman alone attams

bond sundered, becomes Videha-mukti) and by means
his

the

highest
(17-20)

Bliss.

iNyuiRY into the Existence or Non-existence of

the Previous Karma of

a

Man of Gnosis

O man
of thy

of great intellect

Guru)

having (with the grace understood the Atman, always spend
!

thy time.

Having experienced
it

action already begun,

is

the result of every not proper for thee to get
of the

vexed over

it.

"When the knowledge

Stman has

176

THE YOGA UPANI§ADS
begun does not the knowledge of the
as the result of

just begun, the result of actions already

quit thee.

After the dawning of
is

Truth, there

no such thing

at all

actions begun, on account of the non-existence of the

body and the like (which are unreal), even as there is no dream (for one) after being awakened. As for what IS stated to be the result of action begun during previous incarnations, (be convinced) that becomes
non-existent at any time, on account of the non-exist-

ence of incarnations for
in

men
for

,

(for,)

even as the body, even so this
hypothetical
?
?

a dream (only) hypothetically

exists,

body.

Where

is

birth

something

In the absence of birth,

how can
(is

there be existence

When

one sees Ignorance to be the prime cause of the
the prime cause) in the

phenomenal world, as earth
case of the pot

made

of

it,

in

accordance with
universe
the

all

the

systems
exist,

of Vedanta,
is

when

that ignorance ceases to
'

where

the existence of the

The
not

intelligence

of

a deluded
of)

fool

sees

world,

knowing the (nature
out of delusion,
serpent.

real

existence, even

as one,
the

leaving off the rope, sees
the piece of rope
;

(in it)

When

is

distinguished, the

form of the serpent disappears when the real cause is likewise known, the phenomenal world becomes void. As the body is also (part) of the phenomenal world, where then is the persistence of past actions ? It is
only for the sake of the enlightenment of the ignorant,
that reference
is

made

to the result of past actions.

Hence, when, at the approach of the proper time, past
actions

recede

into

the oblivion,

the

Nada

(sound)

THE n5da-bind0pani§ad
of the union of the
full

177

effulgence, the

Brahman and the Pranava, the blissful, the Atman will shine of his
(21-30)

own

accord,

even as the Sun would, when clouds

disperse,

Application of the Mind to the Nada,

THE Means of Attaining the Knowledge of the
TURiYA-TURiYA
Siddhasana posture, maintaining, the Vafsnavl Mudra (keeping the eyes wide open without twihkling and all the while introspecting), the Yogin should always listen to the sound in the interior This sound, when (constantly) pracof his right ear. tised, will drown every sound from outside. After
the

Assuming

'

overcoming from one side (by means of what
all
It

is

inside)

whatever of the opposite side (what exists outside),
reaches the seat of the Turya (fourth state).
first

In the

practice for the

time,

there will

be heard

many

a great sound of various kinds.
practice
in

By

persisting in the

the

same manner

(further

and

further),

and subtler. At first, (it will be like) what is produced by the ocean, the In the cloud, the kettle-drum and the water-fall. middle («.«,, a little later) (it will be like) the sound produced by the tabor, the big bell and the* military drum and finally like the sound of the tinkling bell, In this the bamboo-flute, the harp and the wasp. manner will various kinds of sounds be heard, growing
the sound will be heard subtler
;

subtler

and
23

subtler.

Even when loud sounds, such

U

178

THE YOGA UPANI^ADS

as of the kettle-drum and the hke, are heard therein, (the Yogm) should take into consideration only the subtle,

and the subtler ones.
his

He
in

should not shift elsewhere
itself

mind,

which

is

diverting

in

the

subtle,

leaving off the loud, or

the loud, leaving off the

subtle, or fully engrossed in (any of them).

In which-

ever sound the mind halts at

first,

there

and there

alone getting confirmed,

it

seeks repose therein.

The

mind,
,
'

lost in

that sound forgetting everything outside,

becomes one with it, like water and milk and forthwith The Yogin merges with the Ether of consciousness. with mental control, by constant practice, becomes indifferent to everything else and is attracted by such sound alone as would transport him beyond his mind. Leaving off all thoughts and devoid of all action, he This mind will should meditate upon sound alone. (then) merge completely in the sound (31-41)

The Power of Sound to Captivate the Mind
and does not sweet scent of (the flower), the mind, captivated by sweet sound for ever, has no relish for any other
like the

Even

as the bee drinks the honey

functioning
it

;

bound by
Its fickle

(the rope of) a little sweet sound,
trice.

gives

up

nature in a

The mind,

the

snake alJiding
pletely

in the hole of

the interior of the body,
of)

caught by (the snake-charmer
forgetting the

sweet sound, comnot run

world, does

anywise,

becoming one-pointed. For the infatuated lord of elephapts of the mmd, roaming about the pleasure garden

THE nSda-bindCpani§ad
of

179

the objects of desire, this
ability to

sharp goad of sweet
bring under control.

sound commands the

Sound plays the part
deer

of the net, which ensnares the
(v»a.,

m

the intenor of the body

the mind).

It

likewise plays the part of the
in the interior of the

dyke

in

stemming

the tide

body

{viz.,

the mind).

(42-46^

The Real Form of the Nada of the
FINAL Resort

The Nada
wherein
is

(the

Pratyag-atman) of the Pranava,
the

Brahman, is self-luminous. The mind finds its repose therein That is the supreme seat of N'lsnu (Videha-mukti). As long as the sound
manifest
{persists,

so long does the conception of Ether persist.

The transcendent Atman devoid of sound is termed the Paramatman. As long as there is the sound, so long docs the mind j^ersist. When the sound ceases, the mind is out of element. (The Pranava) is endowed with sound when its principal letter vanishes, there
;

comes on the quiescent state, the transcendent state (of the Brahman). From constant application to the Nada (sound) of the Pranava, the impression left by Then the mind and the the past will be obliterated. there is vital air will merge m the detached (Atman) no doubt. The myriads of thousands of means to the
;

attainment of (the all-witness) the Nada (the sound), the myriads of hundreds of devices adopted for the
attainment of (the Is'vara) the Bindu, (the speck) of
the Prariava,
all

of

them

find their last resting place in

180
the

THE YOGA UPANI§ADS

Nada of the Pranava, wherein is manifest the Brahman (which is no other than the innermost
(46—51) Yogin-s

Stman).

The Attainment of Videha-Mukti by the WHO ARE PERCHED ON THE NXDA
Released from
there
all

states

and devoid of

all cares,

the Yogin will stand hke a dead man.
is

He

is

liberated

no doubt about it. He does not anymore hear the sound of the conch and the large kettle-drum. He will surely know his embodied state as a piece of wood,
he having transcended the state of his mind.
cognisance
pleasure,
of

He

has
nor

neither

cold nor heat,

nor pain

nor honour nor dishonour and giving up by

means

of concentration, the

mind

of the

Yogin would

not have recourse to the three states (of waking, dreaming and sleeping).

Released from waking and sleepmg
his

has ^profound vision without the things to be seen, whose vital air is motionless without effort, whose mind is
real
state.

he would

reach

own

He who

constant, without anything to rest on, he
1

is

of the form
{t.e.,

of

the

Nada known

as

Brahma-tarantara

the

Turya-turya) (and becomes a Videha-mukta). the Upanisad.

—Thus

THE PSS'UPATA-BRAHMOPANI§AD
[This

Upanisad,
108

which

is

the Seventy-seventh

among

Upanisads and forms part of the Atharva-veda, specially deals with the real forms of Haipsa and Sutratman and has as its ultimate aim the attamment of the non-relative Absolute Brahman.]
the

THE PORVA-KSNDA
Seven Queries Relating to the Supreme

KuLEK OF the World
Then,
Brahman,
the

Svayarp-bhu (who originated
filled

from himself) came to be

with the desire, " Let

me
the

bring forth

progeny."

(Thence came into being)
VaisTavana,
(of the class of

Kames'vara (the Rudra) and Vals'ra^ana.
son of Brahman, the Valakhilya

Rsi-s of the size of the thumb) asks the Svayaip-bhu " What is the Vidya (lore) of the worlds ? What thus
:

is

the deity

?

Who

is

the

Deva (God)

of this

—the

(wakmg) and TurTya (fourth) states ? Under whose control are these ? Of what lengths are the durations of Time ? Under whose orders do the Sun, the Moon, the planetary bodies and the like shine ?
JSgrat

Whose
Sky
?

greatness takes
I

the form of the expanse of the

This

want

to hear.

None
"
!

other knows

(it).

Pray, relate thou,

O

Brahman

(1, 2)

182

the yoga upani^ads
Answers to the Seven Queries

The Svayarp-bhu
worlds
speech).
is

says

"
:

The Vidya
basis
of all

of all the

the

Alphabet,

(the

articulate

(The word) composed of two or three letters, the two-lettered one (viz., " O " made up of " A " and " U "), the three-lettered one, (when " M " is added), the Oipkara of four measures, is the deity which is my
very
All
life.
I

alone

am

the

monarch

of the three worlds.

the Yuga-s

(cycles of

time) also are under

my
The

control,

(as also) all durations, evolved out of

(human)

conception,

such

as

Day,

Night and the

like.

radiance of the Sun, the brightness of the Moon, the
stars,

and the planets, are forms of mine. The expanse of the sky is of the form of my three illusory powers, (doing, knowing and desire), (which characterize my Nothing else is mine. Rudra has the greatness).
illusory characteristic of Inertia

Visnu has the illusory
the illusory

characteristic of

Rhythm and Brahman has

Indra and others are of the and Mobility. As no one (other than Visnu) possesses the characteristic of Rhythm, there is none (like Visnu) who is either quiescent or
characteristic of Mobility.
characteristics of Inertia

shared

in

common

(by

all

devotees).

(3-10)

Definition of the Performer and Others

Officiating

in

the Sacrifice of the Creation
performer of the animal-sacifice,
(from
the

Rudra
in* all

is

the

sacrifices

Agnistoma up

to

the

THE pX^upata-brahmopani^ad
Vaji-medha). Vis^u
is

183

the

God

of the principal offering of
(its

the sacrifice and the

Adhvaryu
Indra
the
is

protector, avoiding

excesses

and

defects).

the Hotr (conductor of
is

the rituals).

(Know)

The Brahman

deity (Pas'u-pati)

the Yajfla-bhuj.

as

silent

witness.
all).

(Know)
(11)

Brahman

as the Mahes'vara (the witness of

The

Sacrifice of Application of the Mind

TO the Nada
(The mental
attitude), "
I

am
(of
is

He,

He am

1,

I

am

He," the constant application sound ol (the word) Haipsa,

the mind)

to the

the mental sacrifice.

The

Jiva (by constant resort to such application of the

mind and the requisite mspiration and expiration of vital an) becomes transformed into it (Hamsa) (12)

The

e.xposition of

the Paramatman beihs of the State of the Hamsa
form of the Paramatman
is

The
(that

real

of the

Hamsa

kills

the delusion foreign to the

Atman, with the

knowledge of the truth of the Atman). The Haipsa moves inward and outward, (related as it is to the Piciija and Apana or pervading all things by moving
into

and out
:

of them,

in

accordance with the Upanistand, pervading
is

sadic text
all,

inside

The Narayana takes his and outside ")• The Haipsa
him

"

of the

form of
(amd

the

Su-pan>a, who, having gone into the interior (of
in the interior

the body), finds ht\le space for

184
has, therefore,

THE YOGA UPANI§ADS
to kill the serpents of the six foes, lust,

anger, greed, delusion, infatuation
as

and hatred, as well
(13)

the objects of desire,

of the form of sound, touch,

form, taste and smell, strongly entrenched there).

Similarity between the YajRa-sOtra and

THE BrAHMA-SUTRA
[The Yajfia-sutra (sacrificial thread) is distinct, being made up of ninety-six units of thread of four The Brahma-sutra is the thread of the digit-lengths.] (The Yajfia-sutra ninety-six Tattvas (first principles).
is

indicated by three threads twisted into one).
is

The

Brahma-sutra
twisted
into

indicated

by the three threads of

consciousness, of the Turya, Turya-turya and A-vikalpa
the

one skein of consciousness.
threads

(The

'Yajfia-sutra contains nine

made

of three coils

of

three threads each).

The Brahma-sutra
Turya-prajfia,

contains
etc.,)

the nine great truths (Turya, Vis'va, Viraj, Otr,

m

the

three coils

(of

BijanujHa and

Eka-rasa) of three each,

made

of the three-fold fires

(Daksina, Garha-patya and Ahavaniya) of the trinity,

(Brahman, Visnu and Mahes'vara), with three KalS-s each, fastened by the knot of consciousness, with the
^non-dual_(Brahman)_as the knot, (even as the
thread lias the knot of the Brahman).
sacrificial

The common
and

feature of the sacrifices (of the two kinds, external
internal)
is

shining, external (with the Yajfia-sutra) in

the case of the external sacrifice, and inteinal (with the

Bmhrna-sutra)

in

the case of the

internal

sacrifice

THE pXs'upata-brahmopani^ad
(Brahma-yajfia).

185

The Haipsa
which
is

is

of

the form of the
(internal)
(14, 15)

Brahma(-sutra)
sacrifice.

the index of the

The BrShmana alone Qualified to Perform
Brahma-yajRa
External sacrifices bear on the
the thread which
invested with the

Brahmana wearing

forms the index of the
thread
of sacrifice).

U pa vita

(one

He, who has
is

the qualifications

indicated in the Vedanga-s, wears
It
is

the sacrificial thread.
for the

only he, that

qualified

Brahma-sUtra

also.

The Brahma-yajfia
is

(taking

one's stand on

the Brahman), which
the Yajfia-sutra,

related to the
of that
(16)

Brahmana wearing
form
(i. e.,

becomes

of the

Brahman).

Of the Hamsa, that
Sacrifice, that

is
is

the Pranava,
the Brahman
are

is

the

The
IS

parts of the

sacrifice

the

Matra-s.

Of

the mental
the

(internal) sacrifice, the

sacrificial

thread

Haipsa.
is

The Pranava
oat
is

is

the

Brahma-^tra
is

which

out and
that

the

Brahma-yajfia as well.

The Haipsa
Brahma-sGtra.
(».«.,

inherent in the

Pranava

the

That
the

alone
of

is

full

of Brahma-yajfia

the

knowledge
is

the

unqualified
to

Brahman).

That alone
liberation*

right

means

be employed for

H7)


186

THE YOGA UPANIgADS

Mental Sacrifice of the Form of the Union WITH THE Brahman
act of bringing about the union of the direct and the transcendent Atman-s (by the reahzation " That thou art ", " I am the Brahman "), is the mental sacrifice.

That

The

act of bringing about the union
sacrifice.

is

the index
(18)

of the

mental

The Application of the Mind to the Hamsa
AND PraNAVA without DIFFERENTIATION

THE Internal Sacrifice

The
betakes

sacrificial

thread

is

the Pra^iava. the

One who
Brahma-

himself to the observance of
the

Brahmana. engage themdwellmg on the Brahman are the gods. (Internal) sacrifices are observances meant for indicatThere is no diflference between the ing the Hamsa. Hamsa and the Pranava There are three ways of approach for soliciting the Haipsa, (S'ravapa, Manana
yajna
is

Those

that

selves

in

land Nididhyasana).
'sent

The

three durations (past,

pre-

and

future) are the three letters (A, U,

M).

The
mind

.maintenance of the three_fires (Vis'va, Viraj and Otf)
IS

the (internal) sacrifice.

The

application of the

Haipsa implied by the Praijava, whose characteristics, appearance and constituent parts and colours
to the

are of the three

fires,

is

the internal sacrifice.

Like

the form of consciousness (made of Vis^va, Vir5j, Otf,
etc.),

the form of the

Tunya

is

made up

of that alone.

THE PSsrUPATA-BRAHMOPANISAD
The Harpsa
IS

187

(the

ParamStman)

is

of the form of the
(internal) sacrifice

radiance of the internal Sun.

The

the expedient for the attainment of the
(in

Brahman.

(Hence) those

quest of

it)

meditate on the

Brahman

manifested (within), only through the Pranava and the

knowledge that there
it

exists only the

Brahman (which
(19-22)

reveals).

The

Ninety-six Hamsa-tmreads

The sage Valakhilya, the son of Brahman again asked Brahman thus Thou knowest (all things) O Lord How many are the Haipsa-threads in number and what is the extent ? " (The Lord replied :) " The number of forms of the beams of the Sun (of consciousness shining) in the heart, is ninety-six. The
'*
:
!

expirations issuing through the nostrils, out of the Citsutra-s
SIX
(of

the

heart),

supported

by the Pranava, are
{i.e.,

digit-lengths

and ten and eighty

ninety-six

kinds corresponding to the ninety-six

first

principles).
(23, 24)

HamsStma-vidyS alone, the Liberation

The ParamStman
tween the
internally,
left

that

is

the Haipsa

moves

be-

arm and

the right hip over tne entire

region of that portion of the body externally as well as

even as the

sacrificial

thread

;

this esoteric

secret of the

Those that

Brahman is not known anywhere else. know (the Haipsa to be none other than

188
the

THE YOGA UPANI^ADS

Paramatman), they reap the fruit of itnmortahty. (Know) that the Haipsa does not manifest itself always.
Liberation
person,
is

not (withm the reach of any) but the
the faculty of meditating on
th^-

who has developed
and

the

Pranava-haipsa

Haqisa

within

as

identical.

(25, 26)

The

Superiority of the Internal over the

External Sacrifice
(Those who look upon) the nine threads selected after close investigation (as the Atman), even they attain
the

Brahman

(of their quest).
(of

The form
is

of the internal

Aditya

(Sun)

consciousness)

not

known

to

men.
to the

Knowing
Sun

that the

Sun

of the

phenomenal world
import

shines, those

men and

the gods, with prayers addressed

(of consciousness) are in quest of the

underlying the Supreme Truth.
fice

Vaja-peya (the sacri-

of

the
IS

knowledge of the unqualified Brahman,
is

which

attained by such knowledge consuming the
the killer of the sacrificial

.essence of everything olse)

animal, (the false knowledge of the
Indra, (Parames'vara) the deity,
,

Atman

as the body).

is

the conductor of the

The Dharma-y5ga leading to liberation is sacrifice. Non-violence. The Parama-haipsa is the conductor,
Pas'u-pati, the
treatises

Paramatman,
with the

is

alone the deity.
constitute

The
the

dealing

Brahman

Brahman.
ledge
of
sacrifice.

Brahmapa-s well equipped with the knowthe Veda and VedSnta take part in the
(27-30)

THE pXs'upata-brahmopani^ad

189

The As'va-medha of the Form of
The
As'va-medha,
is

JSana-yajRa
wherein
the

(the

sacrifice,

phenomenal world

to

be sacrificed, whose perfor-

mance cannot be
day
after

said to take place to-morrow or the
is

— as

the goal to be attained
is

simultaneous

with the knowledge thereof)
sacrifice.

reputed to be the great
the favour of the king

Those

that have

won

of that sacnhce, (the unqualified Atman), take part in

the

Brahma-carya
that

(of the

attainment of the Brahman).

Know
lies

the

path to liberation
to

m

the case of

all

in

the

path

the

Brahma-yajfia prescribed
(51)

above.

The Radiance of the Takaka-hamsa
The son
Harpsa,
with
the of
seer,

Brahman
has

(thereupon)

said,
".

"

manifested himself
also

The The
the

Svayatp-bhu (then) dissapjxiared from view.
Vais'ravana)

(Alony

Rudra

understood (from
"
,

(The the Brahmopanisad-s, the Pranava which
of Svayarp-bhli) thus, viz

mouth

final resort) of
is
I

the Taraka,
".

the radiance of Haipsa, the I'as'u-pati

am

(32)

THE UTTARA-KSNDA
The Attainment of the Brahman through
THE Conception of
The Brahman
by the cluster of
its

Form per

se

of the form of the Haipsa, indicated

letters (vis., the Orpkara), is the IsTvara

190
that prompts

THE YOGA UPANI?ADS

(men to betake to and avoid actions The respectively leadmg to their welfare and misery). to the conviction that the knowledge that arises leading Is'vara is (no other than) the Paramatman is what leads
to one's

becoming the Brahman himself.
to

This
the

is

the

mode
talk of

of procedure for the attainment of the

Brahman
mere
(1, 2)

relating

the

Atman.

Of what

avail

is

it ?

The Manifestation of the World
Brahman
is

in

the

Maya

The light of the knowledge of the Brahman is known as the twilight (at the meeting of the inner and The time of the enlightened outer consciousness). When what is known (Jlvan-mukta-s) is (thus) spent. as the Hamsa attains its own (inner) god, (the selfluminous consciousness, the Brahman) known as the Atman, how can there be any progeny (such as Vis'va,
Viiaj, etc.), arising out of the Atma-tattva (the truth of

the

Atman)

*

The Haipsa

that

is

known
(the

as the internal
in

Pranava-nada (described as of eight Matra-s
Narada-parivrajakopanisad)
is

the

internal

Haipsa)

who

induces knowledge

(in

what

is

internal

and external
is

conglomerated together).
of

Internal consciousness

the

concealed stalk of the (lotus oQ knowledge (not capable

bemg*

sufficiently

well

seen).

The form
I

that

is

distinctly seen

and

is

of the character of S'lva conjoint

with the S'akti comes to be revealed as "
of the character of consciousness ",

am

the Bliss

(by the keen and

subtle intellect of those gifted with a subtle vision)

THE pSs^upata-brahmopani^ad
The N5da,
the

191

the Bindu,

and the Kala,

these three are

outcome

of the acts of the

the three bodies (gross,
tufts

waking world, as also subtle and causal), the three
Taijasa and PrajRa), the

on the crests

(Vis'va,

external forms, five

(the five elements and mentioned and not-menall their variants), (all these tioned above). The Haipsa which once assumed the

m

number

<

form of the internal consciousness concealed in all, beings, manifests itself outwardly as the Brahman, as
|

borne testimony to (by the
knowledge, the endless
is

S'ruti,

" the existence, the
").

the

Brahman

(2-5)

Rule regarding Meditation on the
Hamsarka-pranava

The Haqisarka-pranava-dhyana
as the meditation

should be known

of the state of the

indicated by the

Brahman

alone, as

Brahman being laid down in the

scriptural text (" It is

only the
the

m

the attitude,

'

I

am

Atman that one realizes Brahman '.") (He who resorts
is

to the
in the

meditation of this kind)

said to be

immersed
seeker
this, vis.,

ocean of Gnosis
the

{i.e.,

the Brahman).

The

after liberation

merely, by the realization of
",

"

I

am

Brahman

reaches the other shore of the
ifi,

ocean of Gnosis

(final beatitude).

7)

The Rousing
Sense
is

into Activity of the Orqans of
Is'vara,

the Work of

the Supreme

Consciousness

The
of ail

S'iva,

the Lord of the Pas'u-s,
his

is

the witness

thmgs always, of

own

accord.

Directed by

;

192

THE YOGA UPANI?ADS
in

him

the proper manner, the
its

mind

of all proceeds

towards

functions
;

;

the Prana

(^•ital air)

moves

in its

wonted
the
All

course
sees

the
;

organ
the
of

of

speech
hears
all

functions
(sounds).

eye
the

forms
each

ear

other

organs
in

sense,

directed

by him

alone, proceed,
Its

the direction of discharging

functions, without intermission.
is

This direction of
is

his

not out of his natural inclination, but

due

to

Illusion.

The

Pas'u-pati,

the

Purusa, of his

own

accord, enters the ear placed at his disposal and the S^iva
gives the ear the capacity to heiir.

The Parames'vara

mind reposed in him, gives it the capacity to function as mind in a regulated manner, standing in Its very existence. Yet He alone is other than what is known, as also what is unknown. The Is'vara,
entering the

assuming
of

the

form

of

every
action,
its

other created organ
gives
in

sense

and
(each

motor
of

a

regulated
as

manner
such).

them

capacity to

function

(7-14)

Whatever

is

Other than the A^tman Outcome of MavX

is

the

Therefrom the eye, speech, the mind and the other organs of sense and action do not resort to the Paramatman,* of the self-luminous state. The Brahman is of its own accord beyond the range of all action and
shines inwardly, not subject either to logical reasoning

or other testimony.

He who knows

thus

is

the real
(14-16)

knower.

the pxsfupata-brahmopani§ad

193
in

The Non-occurrence of the MXyJ
Atman,
in

the

Reality
the transcendent radiance,

The innermost Atman
while what

is

is known as Maya (Illusion) is intense While so, how can there be the occurrence of Maya in the inner-most Atman ? Hence, by means of both logical reasoning and other testimony, as well as out of one's own expeiience in the Paramatman, which 18 palpable consciousness and is well established by its self-radiance alone, there is not Maya. This existence and non-existence (of the Maya) therein is only due to the misconception prevailing m the mind of the people and not to anything else. From the of view of truth, it does not at all exist. Only point Truth alone exists. The popular misconception is due to the improper spreadmg of the light (of knowledge). Light alone exists always and hence is non-dual alone. The very mention of the non-dual state is due to the

Darkness.

improjjer spreading of the light (of knowledge).

Light

alone exists always.
attitude to

Hence Silence alone is the proper be assumed (regarding this controversy).
(16-21).

The Attainment of the Pakamatman Knower of the Stman
To whom
accord, he
is

by the

this great

import

is

revealed of

its

own
is

not the Jiva, nor the Brahman, nor

anything U 2S

else.

To him

are there

he not the Var^a^s

194

THE YOGA UPANIgADS

(the different castes), nor the 5s?rama-s (stages of life
».«.,

of

a Bachelor, householder, VSna-prastha and
nor
is

ascetic),

the

Dharma

(right
;

mode

of conduct)

and A-dharma (wrong mode) to him neither prohibition nor prescription. As long as all that characterizes the

Brahman
the
like,

reveals itself of

its

own

accord, so long not

even the semblance of differences, such as misery and

can make

its

appearance.

The knowerof

the

Paramatman, even though he looks upon the world as made up of forms, such as Jiva and the like, does not
see
it,

but sees only the form of consciousness, the

substance of the

Brahman

alone.

Even the

topic of the

Dharma and
slightest

the

Dharmm

(he

who

holds to such

conduct) will be broken asunder, should there be the
difference.

Difference and

Non-difference

and the distinction between the two, there is not for the Brahman. Beyond the self, there is its own self always (for the Brahman). The Brahman alone actually exists, in substance and also in non-substance. So also, what can the wise man, who knows the Brahman, take (out of it) and what renounce ? That which IS of the same type as the mind upon which it depends, which transcends the range of speech and the
mind, that which cannot be seen, nor grasped, which has no lineage and has no form, which is beyond the
range
(Si

the eye and the ear, which outlies

all signi-

ficance,

which has neither hands nor

feet,

which
all,

is

eternal, all-powerful,
IS

which has permeated

which
is

the subtlest of the subtle, and imperishable, such

the

Brahman

alone, the immortal, with the

supreme

THE PlS^UPATA-BRAHWOPANI^AD
Bliss of the

193
it

Brahman

afore

it

and behind

also, the

supreme Bliss of the Brahman to its right and the supreme Bliss of the Brahman to its left. When one
sees
fear,
is

all

of himself, always in his
is

own Xtman without
Liberation
(21-31)

then he

liberated

and not

liberated.

only for one

who

is

bound.

Truth and other Means of Attaining the
Para-vidya

The Para-vidyS has to be attained in this manner, by means of truthfulness, austere penance, and by adopting right ways of conduct, such as Brahmacarya (coursing along the path leading to the Brahman)
and the
laid
like,

and following
the
their

in

the
It
is

wake

of

what

is

down

in

Upanisad.

only those that

have caused
others
in

blemishes to wear away and not
see

who are mvested by Illusion, that can their own bodies, the self-luminous form of

the

Highest Truth.

(32, 33)

There is Resort to nothing else for THE KnOWER of the StMAN
For that Yogin, who has grown to his full stature and for whom there is the full knowledge of this real form (of the Highest Truth), there is nothing lo resort to anywhere. Even as the one full ethereal sky does not go anywhere, so also the exalted knower of the

Supreme Xtman,
whither-so-ever.

the

Brahman, does not

at all

move

(34, 35)

196

THE YOGA UPANIgADS
of THE BrAHMAN THERE
IS

To THE KnOWER

NOTHING WHATEVER AS PROHIBITED FOOD

By

the avoidance of the prohibited food, the heart

becomes pure. On taking pure food, the clearness of the thinking mind is attained of its own accord. The mind becoming clear, knowledge comes m its wake in

The knots (of the navel, the heart, The prohibition regarding etc.), distinctly give way. food applies only to the case of that mortal, who is Not so in devoid of the knowledge of the Brahman. the case of one who knows fully well (the Brahman),
the usual course.
as everything, in his case,
"
I

is

of the form of the

Xtman.

am

the food always.
is

I

am

the eater of the food,"

this

indeed

the knowledge of the

Brahman.

The

knower of the Brahman swallows everything with the knowledge that he is the Brahman. He who always looks upon the Brahman, kingly power and the like as his daily fare and upon death as the drink to wash it

down
type.

with, that enlightened one

is

always of the same
of being

For, by the specific knowledge of the form of the

Brahman, the world becomes indeed worthy

eaten up. The world shines in the character of the Stman, when it becomes worthy of being eaten. The Brahman is eternal in the character of the Atman. Hence everything becomes fit to be eaten. While the

world has an apparent form,
eaten.

The

lustre

of
or"

becomes fit to be one's own Atman, should it
it

resemble anything
surely

be capable of being meas^vTed,

becomes eaten up.

The Atman

eats

up

its

form

THE PXS'UPATA-BRAHMOPANI^AD
of its

197

own
fit

accord.

There
it

is

nothing apart from the

Xtman

to be eaten up.
is

Should there be any of
only the

the form of existence,

Brahman

that

has the characteristic of existence.

(36-43)

The Seeing

by

the Man of Gnosis of the

State of the Stman of All

the

The quality of being Brahman and nothing
There
is

is

existence.

Existence
is

is

else.

There

no existence

apart from that.
in
reality.

is

no such existence as

MayS
itself

MayS

the creature in the

Stman

of the

Yogin-s, ever
in

betaking to meditation on the
the

Atman and shmes
affected
18

form of a witness, when

by the knowledge of the Brahman.
the specific knowledge of the

He who
Brahman,
his

endowed with
it

though seeing
does not see

all

the world of his perception always,

at all, as

m

any way apart from

own

Atman.

— Thus the Upanisad.

(44-46)

:

THE BRAHMA-VIDYOPANI$AD
[This Upanisad, which
is

the fortieth

among the 108

Upanisad-s and
the

is

part of the Kfsna-yajur-veda, deals

with the Pranava-haipsa-vidya and the realization of

Brahman, through

the knowledge of the same.]

The

Indication of the

Brahman

by

the Pranava,

WHICH Contains the Esoteric Significance
OF THE BrAHMA-VIDYS

Then
vidya)
benefit)
is

(after the acquisition, for
initiation

by one, of the requisite

attainments

into the secrets of

Brahma(for

related

the

Brahma-vidyopanisad

his

By

the grace of
the

Brahman and

that Visiju

who

commands
impossible)

marvellous (power of achieving the deeds, the steady (innermost) Fire, (by

reducing to ashes the prodigious cotton-wool-mountain

phenomenal world of Ignorance and its concomitants), the esoteric Truth underlying Brahma-vidyS, they say, is the Brahman. " Om ", the monosyllable,
of the
IS

the

Brahman.

(This

is)

what has been said by the
I

expounders of the Vedanta.

shall presently relate

THE BRAHMA-VIDYOPANI9AD
(what
worlds,
is)

199

its

body,

its

seat

and

its

three durations.
(three)

Therein are said to be the three Gods, the
the three

Veda-s, the three

fires,

the three

M3tiS-s (syllables) and the half MatrS
of that three-lettered S'iva,

(half-syllable),

(1-3)

The Amplification of the Four MatrX-s
OF THE PRANAVA

The body
explained
the

of the "

A

" (of the Praoava) has been of

by

the

expounders

the
(Fire),

Rg-veda,

the

Garha-patya

Vedanta as the Earth
Antariksa
Fire,

and (God) Brahman.
has
(the
also,

The
the

"

U

"

(of

the Pra^java)

been
region

said
of

to

be

Yajur-veda,
the

mid- Ether),

Daksipa

so

and the Lord God Vis^u.

The

"

M"

(of the

Praoava) has been said to be the Sama-veda, and so
the upper Ethereal region and so also the Shavaniya (Fire) and the Supreme God Is'vara. The " A " has
seat in the middle of the forehead, in the middle of the region of the Sun. The " U " resembles the Moon
Its

(in its

brightness)

and

is

well placed in the middle of
in the

it

(the region of the

Moon

middle of the forehead).
is

The

"

M

"

is like

the Fire in appearance,

smokeless

and resembles

lightning.

The
Fire.

three M5tr5-s (syllables)

are similarly to be understood as of the foTm of the

Moon, the Sun and the lamp stands over it, so
Praoava.

Even

as the flame of a

also should the

Ardha-m3ti3
(^9)

(the half-syllable) be understood as standing over the

200

THE YOGA UPANIgADS

Breaking through the NXpI-s and the Sun by
Bringing Su§um^X to Bear on That transcendent (Susumna) flame
as subtle as the fibre of the lotus-stalk.

Them
is

seen to be

scendent Na'4l,

That tranresembling the Sun and burstmg through

the Sun and similarly burstmg asunder the Seventytwo thousand Nadi-s, pervadmg all, stands in the head, as if she is the giver of the boons to all bemgs. (10, 11)

Attainment of Liberation by the Symphony of

THE Sound of the Pranava
Even
(purified

as

the sound of a bell cast of Bell-metal

sixteen times by being tempered in the juice
plant) finally dissolves itself for attaining

of the

Kanaka

peaceful

silence,

similarly

should

the

Orpkkra

(of

sixteen Matra-s)

be turned into account by the

Yogm

aiming at the attainment of the all, for his final reposeWherein the sound (of the Oipkara of sixteen M5tr3-s)
attains
its

final

dissolution, thereafter

is

the

Brahman

sung.

That

(Yogin),

who

dissolves

his

inner sense

(mind) (along with the sound of the Pranava of sixteen
Matra-s), makes for that immortal state of becoming

one with the Brahman, (by giving up the delusion of existence apart from the Atman). (12, 13)

Exposition of the Real Form of the JIva

That which

is

called the Jiva

is

of three kinds

:

the

Vital air, radiance

and so

also the Ether.

That Jlva

"

THE BRAHMA-VIDYOPANI5AD
IS

201

known

as

Pi^a

(vital

air)

which

is

made

of

a

hundredth

"part of the

awn

of a grain of wild paddy.

(They see the Jiva
of
like

in the

inner-most Stman) partakmg
his stand in the region

of the nature of Fire,

takmg
rays,

the the

navel,

the

pure Truth unalloyed, effulgent,
its

Sun, with

the all-pervading tran(14, 15)

scendent existence, (the Brahman).

Exposition of the Cause of Bondage

AND Liberation

The
and
I

Jiva
"

is

always muttering the
the form of "

letters

"

Sa

"

Ha

(in

So'ham

", i.e.,

"
;

with the elision of the sibilants "

S

"

He am " Ha ", and

"

assumes the form of the Pranava). (This form of the Japa) which emanates out of the region of the navel
It

and which (by constantly going outwards and back again inwards) is uncontaminated by connection with worldly concerns, one should know this, for that very reason, as the impartible (Brahman). Even as the ghee (though diflferent) from milk (is identical with it at its source), even so, (the Jiva) becomes one with its prime
source, the

yama-s

Dhyana
the
seat
Vis'va,

Paramatman, through the five-fold PranaPratyahara, Pranayama, (v»»., DharanS, and taking its stand in and SamSdhi)
heart,

of the

with the four-fold aspects (of

Tarjasa, PrSjfla and Turiya) engages itself (in
of

the

investigation

bondage,

liberation

and

their

effects).

When
of

the sphere (of the Susumijff, shining the

at

the top U 26

MnlSdhSra

and

the

triangular

202

THE YOGA UPANI§ADS
in

Svadhisthana plexuses)
(of the subtle

the (physical) body

is

not

pierced through by the Ksira-danda

(milky-white shaft)
then, in this body,
its

power

of the

Susumna)

without

rest,

the great bird (Haijisa) takes

residence

at once, (taking hold of the ignorance of the

Atman,
out-

and

abides,

moving

restlessly
is

therein,

as long as the

knowledge of the Atman
state of cessation

attained).

With the

going of breath (from the body), the Jiva attains the
of diverse aspects

(consequent on

cessation of functioning of his internal organs)

and

is

released from the bondage of worldly existence, (having

attained the final end of

all

existence), on meditating

(Brahman) standing in the Ether of the heart. He is sung as the Harpsa, who knows the Hamsa seated in his heart, with the sound of the An-ahata Ether, the self-luminous consciousness and
upon the
divisionless
.

Bliss.

(16-21)

The Attainment of the

Parames'vara possible

ONLY THROUGH HaMSA-VIDYA
After
giving

with

a

sharp

up Recaka and Puraka, the Yogin intellect, taking his stand on the
attained equilibrium
in

Kumbhaka and having
region
of

the

the navel, should
vital
airs.

bring under control the

Pram and Apana

Eagerly drinking the
head,

savoury nectar stationed
like a
alq;ie,

in

the

m

a state of

mental abstraction and bathing the great god shining

lamp in the middle of the navel, with that nectar he who mutters " Harpsa ", " Haipsa ", for him

THE BRAHMA-VIDYOPANISAD
there
is

203

no dotage, death, nor disease in this world. Every day should he practise thus, for the attainment of mystic powers, such as attenuation. The
delights in constant practice (of this kind)

man who
powers).

attains the state of Is'vara (wielding marvellous Yogic

Many

have, by resorting to various paths^
In a world,
there
is

attained the state of perpetual existence.

where the Harpsa-vidya has ceased to

ejiist,

no means
existence.

to

be adopted for

the state of perpetual
(21-26)

Rule

fojk

Devotion to the Guru

OF Hamsa-vidva
He, who bestows the great
sacred
lore,

known

as the

and superb Hamsa-vidya, one should always betake to service under him, with superior wisdom. Whatever, m this world, whether productive of happiness or misery or otherwise, is the mandate of
the

Guru,

that

the disciple

should

carry out

with

pleasure,

without

any
in

scruple
this

whatsoever.

Having

acquired proficiency

attendance knowledge,
is

on
of

the
his

Hamsa-vidya by constant Guru, and attained the direct
accord,
that the

own

Atman

no other than the non-fickle Brahman, that person (the disciple) should renounce, as he would the dust
his
feet,
all

of

relationship

with the body, his

kith

and kin and the like, along with the Var^ia-s (castes) and Ss'rama-s (stages in life), the Veda-s, the S^stra-s and all other things. A person should ever develope

204

THE YOGA UPANI§ADS

devotion to the Guru, for attaining great excellence.

The Guru
wrjt.

alone

is

Hari incarnate

:

so says the Holy(26-31)

The

Attainability of the ParamItman

SOLELY THROUGH THE VEDA-S AND THE GURU

-

What IS related-^y the Veda, that is the supreme end of existence. There is no doubt about it. Therefrom flow all things. Should there be divergence from the Veda, that will not afford sanction. Anything
without sanction
will

contribute

towards utter ruin.
parts.

That which stands

in the

body has

nd
this

of the

body

is

the indivisible

That which is (one Brahman). While
be located in every
'*

(Brahman)
?

is

attainable only through sound precept,
it

why

then should

(be said to)
(in

direction

Whoever says

whispers),

Harpsa

",

Haipsa is Brahman, Visnu and S'lva. One should obtain from the mouth of the preceptor (the
path leading to the Haipsa) that
is

" Haijisa ", that

directly cognized
in

and faces this body

in

all

directions.

(The Haipsa) stands
even as the

of the

Purusa

(Is'vara),
is

oil is in

the oil-seed and fragrance

m

the flower.

He

stands
(32-35)

pervading the exterior and the

interior.

Discriminating between the Finite and the
Infinite Forms of

the Atman
(in

Even

as

a torch-bearer

quest of treasure)

should, on finding the treasure, give

up the

torch,

one

THE BRAHMA-VIDYOPANISAD
should, on

205

quest of

coming to realize, through knowledge, the all knowledge (the Brahman), give up know-

ledge thereafter.

One should know the

finite as

resemb-

ling a flower, while its fragrance

is infinite.

One should

know
is

that a tree has finite branches, but
finite

infinite.

ence (the
where.

its shadow and the infinite existThe Jiva and the Paramatman) prevail every-

existence

The expedient
is

is

the finite (Jlva), while the
In the finite (Jlva)

end sought
is
is

the infinite (Brahman).

the finite existence, while in the infinite (Brahman) the infinite existence.

The one-measured (A), the and the three-measured (AUM), two-measured (AU),
finite).

on account of their difference (are measure should be known as the
scendent (Brahman, far above the
their five seats

The

half-

infinite,

the tran-

m
is

the heart, etc.)

;

Atman-s with what is above that,
five

transcends what

transcendent.

(There
finite

is

nothing
is

beyond the transcendent)
seat of the heart
his
is

The

Atman

des-

cribed as of five different \yays with five deities.
of

The

Brahman

;

in

the throat takes

abode Visnu
,

;

Rudra stands

in

the middle of the
;

palate

Mahes'vara stands on the forehead
(that never swerves)

one should

find the Sada-s'iva

at the tip of

the nose

;

There
Itself

is

at the end of which is the supreme seat. nothing beyond (the transcendent) as that
all.

transcends

This

is

the conclusion arrived

at

by the

S'astra-s.

That seat one should know as the
is

DehStlta (what transcends the body), wherein
the

seated

innermost Siman, which
tip of the nose.

is

twelve digit-lengths
that, jone

from the

At the end of

206
should

THE YOGA UPANIgADS
know
that (the all-transcendent

Seated

there,

the

almighty

Param5tman). (Brahman) pervades
(36-43)

(everywhere).

The

Yoga, Having to be Kept a Profound

Secret from the uninitiated, could be Bestowed
ONLY ON Those best Qualified for It

With
let
fall

the

mind directed elsewhere, and the eyes
else,

on something

even should

it

be

so, the

Yoga
(fruit

of Yogin-s has an of

uninterrupted course.

This

Yoga)
is

is

worthy of being kept a profound

secret
is IS

and

conducive of doing great good.
this,

There

nothing else beyond

there

is

nothing else which

conducive of as

much

good (as the Yoga).
existence
(the

Having

attained the nectar of pure knowledge, wherewith the

transcendent,

imperishable
the

Brahman)

could
secrets,

be

determmed,

profoundest of profound

worthy of being scrupulously hidden from view
effort,

worthy of being grasped with great

(from the

mouth
it

of the great preceptor),

on

any account,
on

one should not bestow either on an undeserving son,
This science should be

or on an undeserving pupil.

bestowed

a devoted pupil,

who

looks

upon

his

Guru

as'^God-incarnate,

and

is

ever intent on devotion

One should not bestow it on others. Should he do so, the bestower of it reaches hell and shall, at no time* thereafter, succeed in its accomplish,
(to the Guru),

ment.

(44-48)

t^e brahma-vidyopani$ad

207

Even for one Possessed of the mere Knowledge OF THAT Science there is not the Possibility OF Being Smeared with Vice and Virtue

He who
science),

has

acquired
is

the

knowledge

(of

this

whether he

a householder or a celebate,

or a dweller in a forest, or a mendicant, wherever he

may

be,

having knowledge of the transcendent imperish-

able existence always, whether functioning or attached
to the functions of worldly existence, attains happiness,

even when about to enter another body.

That man,
be,

m

whatever of the several states he
of this science,
is

may

by the

mire knowledge
sacrifices

not smeared, either

with the merit earned by the performance of Horse-

and the

like

observances or the sin attached
other sinful acts.
(49-51)

to the slaughter of a

Brahmana and

The Three Kinds of Preceptors
The supreme (Guru)
the
is

known

as the prompter,

awakener, and the
this world.

bestower of liberation.

The

preceptor should be

known

as of the above three kinds
the pupil

m

The prompter would show
of

the path by pointing out that he should resort to the
practice
of
".

meditation

the

form

—"

I

am

the

Brahman
seat

The awakener

will point to the

Supreme

by awakening in the pupil the strong belief indicated by " That thou art. Thou art that ", while the
bestower of hberation
is

the transcendent

Brahman, the

2(^
Is'vara
forjn.

THE YOGA UPANI§ADS

—which

imparts to him the truth, " All

is

of

my

Thou wilt attain me. There is not even a speck beyond me" on knowing which, one attains immortality.
(51-53)

The Performance of

Sacrifice

in

the

Immediate Presence of the Supreme Being, by
APPLYING One's Self to the Pranava-hamsa
Listen,
sacrifice to

O Gautama
be performed

!

to a brief account
in the

of the

immediate presence of
itself,

the

Supreme Being,
In
this

m

the body

by performing

which the performer reaches the eternal and undecay-

body should he see the Bindu (the /«peck) and (the Brahman) which has no parts, of his 7 own accord. The knower of the pathway always sees the two courses (northern and southern, t. e., the junction of the Ida with the Piiigala and vtce versa) and the equinoxes (the entry of the Prana in the crest and the Muladhara) Having previously performed the Recaka, Puraka and Kumbhaka, for one Yama (three
ing state.
hours) everyday,
(the

O

son

'

and having muttered the two
to their full import) he should,

Orpkara and the Haipsa-mantra) (along with the

application oi his
in the

mind

proper order, reverently worship (the Brahman),
with prostration and
thtta

commencmg
mudra (and
Sun,

hting

lost in

assummg the Cmcommunion with it, and
This eclipse of the
sacrifice.

uttering the words "

He am

I.")

O

child

!

is

thought of as the direct

(53-57)

the brahma-vidyopani^ad

209

The Attainment of Becoming one with the Brahman through the Knowledge Obtained
FROM HaMSA-YOGA
It

has been said that from knowledge
(of the

is

attained the

oneness

inner and the outer Atman-s), even as

water

(becomes
results flow

one)

with

water.

By

the travails

m

the persistent practice of the course of Yoga, these

good
(the

(and the Yogin becomes a Jlvan-

mukta).

For the reason that by the practice of Yoga Yogm) becomes divorced from all suffenng and

pain, he should always practice Yogic meditation

and

acquire wisdom and, simultaneously with the dawning
of wisdom,

become merged with the Brahman. He who mutters the Harpsa-mantra, " Haipsa am I, 1 am that Haipsa ", always, attains the knowledge and
therefrom simultaneously assumes the real form of the
Haipsa, the transcendent Brahman.
(57-59)

Whence could the Hamsa be Got ?
The Haipsa,
abode
(in

the unswerving

(Brahman) has

his
all

the heart),

m

the middle of the body of

living beings.

The Haipsa
is

alone

is

the supreme Truth.

The Haipsa alone
alone
is

the true existence.

The Haipsa

the supreme (Vedic) Text.

has the sanction of the Veda-s.
the absolute Rudra.
transcendent.

The Haipsa alone The Haipsa alone is
alone transcends the
is

The Haipsa
alone
all

The Haipsa

the Mahes^vara

that takes his stand amidst

the gods.

The Haipsa

U

27

210
alone
is

THE YOGA UPANI^ADS
the fifty-one eternal verities

commencing from

the PrthivJ (Earth) and ending with S'iva,
the fifty-one letters

He

alone

commencmg from

"

A

"

and ending
(60-63)

with the Kuta (Ksa), that are the constituents of the

Alphabet.

The Practice of SamXdhi Preceded

by

the

Memorising of the Hamsa-mantra
Nowhere do people recognize a Mantra made up
of sounds which have no counterparts in the Alphabet.

One
less

should seek protection at the hands of that peer-

Hamsa

radiance

(Daksina-murti) well

placed

in

the midst of the gods and facing the South and assume

the Jfiana-mudra posture.

He

should ever be engaged

m

concentration, ever memorizing the Harpsa-mantra

reflecting

on that clear crystal-hke form, the divine
middle the body), the transcendent Haipsa of the
is

form that
region
(of

peerless, that has its seat in the

form of the Jfl5na-mudra.

(63-66)

Exposition of the Posture assumed bv

THE Hamsa

The five (vital) UdSna and Vyana, in

airs,

PrS^ia,

Af^na, SamSna,

conjunction with the five inner

senses of motor-action, are enthused by the strength
of Kriya-s-'akti (power of doing deeds)
airs)
;

(the five vital

Naga, Kurma, Kfkara, Deva-datta and Dhanaqti-

jay«, in conjunction with the inner senses of perception,

THE BRAHUA-VIDYOPANI^AD

211

are enthused by the strength of Jf&na-s'akti (the power
of knowledge)

of the
S'akti-s

fire
;

m the form Mnl3dh3ra, midway between the two the Haipsa, by whom is assumed the Khe;

the Haipsa alone stands

in the

can-mudrS posture, at the tip of the nose and the two eyes, having taken the form of the Sun takes his stand
at the plexus of the navel, the tip of the nose

and the
(66-69)

two eyes,

The Mode of
They say
that

Practising the Hamsa-yoga
stands
"

fire

m "A"

(the Muladhara),

m
"

"

U
:

",

the heart,

and

M ",
it

the middle of the eye-

brows

one should kindle
air)
;

with the power of the

Pr5ija (vital

the knot of
in

Brahman
'*

is

situated in

A

",

the
in

knot of Visnu
"

U

"

and the knot of

Rudra
ted

M"
*'

:

these three one should burst asunder
"

with the air (of the knowledge of that Haipsa) genera

by

"A",

"U"

and

M ".

In

"A"

stands

Visnu and Brahman, in M U the end (of the Pranava) is what tranRudra thence, scends all, vtz., the supreme being (the unqualified Brah" stands
in "
:

" stands

man).

When, by

the

Yogm assuming

the Siddhasana

posture, after constricting the throat with the Jalarp*

dhara-mudra, the root of the
the vital
air,

Ku];i(^almi-na^T, (as well as
like) is arrested

introspection

and the

with

the help of the Kuij4alinl-s'akti, this Yogm's tongue, as

moving upwards (into the Gha^i^ikS recess) is pressed very much, (and with an attenuated form enters the cavern of the Brahman).
also the sixteen-limbed Prariava

212

THE YOGA UPANI^ADS
the Tri-kuta (the junction of the three NS^'-s

Then
in

the middle of the brow) leading to the threefold

directions of

GolSkha (the primordial Ether), Nikhara (the Cid-akas'a) and Tn-s'afikha (the Brahman devoid of the three kinds of pleasure and pain generated by desire, nondesire and other desire than for itself) and the adamantine Oipkara (enter) the orifice between the two eyebrows with the duct leading upwards. Through this, forcing the Kundahni and the vital airs, bursting through the region of the Moon, performing the Vajra-kumbhaka-s (of Suryojjayi, S'ltali and others) he should bind the nine orifices with a pure mmd, mounted on vital air, with enthusiasm and at the same time with an equipoised mind.

Brahman there will The Candra-kal5, become manifest Nada (sound). known as S'afikhmi, will shower nectar Then the knower of the Brahman should discover the lamp oi
In the
seat of the

knowledge (the innermost radiance of the Brahman) which lifts up the six centres of energy (opening downwards) (having become one with
it).

One should always

worship God, the

Lord of

all,

inherent
eyes).

m
is

all living
is

beings, after seeing (with his

own

Him who

of

the form of knowledge, the non-ailing, that

manifest

all

all and devoid of and should mutter (the Haipsa-v^kya) ( " I am) the'Hamsa, the Haipsa (alone am I".) The Haipsa, abiding in the body of all living beings, is the knot of the Pr^a and ApSna (vital airs) and is styled the A-jap3. The Hanisa, which always rises and falls 21,600 times a day/ is known as " So'haro " (».«., I am

with a divme form, himself pervading
taint,

THE BKAHMA-VIDYOPANI?AD
the Haipsa). the

213

The

ascetic should always meditake
first

on

Adho-liftga (the VairSja-tattva) in the
;

part

(Mfiladhara-cakra of the Susumi;i3-nadi)
the end (of the SusumiiS-na^T)
in

on the flame
Jyotir-hfiga

of Fire (in the An-3hata, the innermost Atma-linga) at
;

and on the
with
the

the
I

middle
".

of

the

brows,

realization

"

am He

(69-80)

The Real Form of the Atman to

be Rlminated

UPON BY THE HaHSA-YOGIN

The unswerving am
non-conjecturable
invulnerable
less

I

,

the unthinkable
the
originless

am
;

I

,

am I am I
;

;

the

;

the

am
the

I

the

non-embodied

am
I
;

I

the limb-

am
I
;

I

;

fearless
I
,

am
I
-,

I

;

the soundless

am
I
;

I

;

the formless

am

the intangible

am
I
,

the secondless

am am

the tasteless

am am
1

the flavourless

am

the

beginningless and the immortal
1
;

am
I
;

the imperishable

the sexless

;

the dotageless

am

I

;

the
;

am I the unartificial am I the incomprehensible am I inherent in the inmost am the ungraspable am I the non-descript am I the non-demonstratable am I the eyeless am the bodyless am the clanless am the casteI the invisible am I the speechless am I less am I the marvellous am I the indivisible am the quest am the unheard of am I the unseen am the Etherless I the airless am I the immortal am I am I the radianceless am I the non-transgressor am the subtle I the tenetless am I the unborn am I
partless
I
;

am

the lifeless

am
,

the

non-mute

,

I

;

;

;

;

I

;

I

;

;

,

;

;

I

;

;

;

1

;

;

;

;

;

;

;

;

;

;

214

THE YOGA UPANIgADS
I
;

am
fied

the changeless

am

I

;

the motionless

am

I

;

the

inertia-less

am
;

I

;

the rhythmless
;

am

I

;

the unquali-

am
I
;

I

the
I
;

illusionless

of the character of exI
;

perience

am
am
I

the propless

am

the non-functioning

am

the non-dual
I
;

am
I
;

I

;

the not-full

am

I

;

the non-

affected

the immediate

am

I

;

the earless

am

I

the lengthless
ailing

am

the indistinct

am

I

;

the non-

am
; ;

;

the palpable non-dual Bliss

and Wisdom
;

am am

I

the unalterable

smearless

the

am I non-doer am

;

the desireless
I
;

the

am I peerless am
;

the
I
;

I

devoid of the consequences of ignorance

I

am

beyond the range of speech and the mind; I am not mean I have no sorrow doubt have I not nor have
;
; ;

I

(the flame of)

anger

,

I
I

have neither beginning nor

the middle nor the end

;

am

like

Ether

;

I

am
;

of the
I

form of the Atma-caitanya (Self-consciousness)
the palpable Bliss and Consciousness
;

am

I

am

of the

form of the nectar of Bliss

;

I
I

take

my

stand in the

Atman

;

I

am am
;

the interval

,

long for the
the Ether
;

Stman
;

;

I

am

the transcendent
;

Atman from
;

I

Is'vara

I

Is'ana

1

am

the adorable
;

I

am am

the

the
;

I am the exalted I am the all-witness am higher than any other entity I am the absolute I am the farsighted I am the controller of all action I am the lord of the senses I have the cavern (of the Brahman) as my abode I am the saviour I am the eye of eyes I am Consciousness and Bliss I am the Supreme Will am palpable Consciousness I am I merely of Consciousness I am full of radiance I am ancient I am the luminary of luminaries I am the

highest Purusa
I

;

;

;

;

;

;

;

;

;

;

;

;

;

;

;

THE BRAHMA-VIDYOPANI§AD
witness
of
inertia
; ;

215
;

I

am
;

the
;

Turya-turya
I

I
;

beyond darkness
incapable of

I

am
seen

divine
I

am

the

God

I

am am
;

bemg
;

am
;

the revealed
I

Veda
;

I

am am

am the faultless I inactive I am I am smearless I am flawless conceptionless I am immobile I I am the obscure am the changeless am the ever-hallowed I am devoid of qualities am devoid of greed I am devoid of sense-organs am the controller I am devoid of want I am devoid of parts I am the Purusa, the ParamStman am the ancient, the Supreme Being am am the transcendent and the non-transcendent the enlightened am the tranquillizer of the phenomenal world 1 am the excellent nectar 1 am the complete overlord am the time-honoured I am the full Bliss and the one awakening am the innermost one essence am the quite am the well-known I tranquillized 1 am I am the resplendent great Lord
the Pole-star
;

I

am

eternal

;

;

;

;

;

;

I

;

;

I

;

;

I

;

;

;

;

I

;

I

;

I

;

I

,

;

;

I

;

;

I

;

;

I

;

;

that which should be thought of but once

;

as differenti-

ating between the dual
I

and the non-dual
all
I
;

;

the

awakened

am am

;

the protector of

beings
I

I

am

;

the lord in the
;

form of radiance
I

am

the great god, Maha-deva
;

the great knowable, the Mahes'vara
;

I

am

the

liberated

the all-powerful

all-pervadtng

am

I

;

fire

am am

I

;

the adorable and the
the Vasu-deva, with
;

I,

eyes glancing from the entire Universe
in

the superfluous

the Universe

am
I
;

I

;

the clear Visiju, the creator of
I

the Universe
quillizer

am
I
;

the pure

am

the eternal

am am
all

;

the white, the tran;

I

I

am

the S^iva

;

I

dwell in the inmost hearts of

beings as the

Atman

;

; ; ;

216
the ever-existing

THE YOGA UPANI?ADS

am

I

;

once and always take
I

am what manifests itself only my stand in my own greatness
I

am

the self-luminous
;

m

the mterior of all and the

lord of all

bemgs I am the all-pervadmg Svaraj (kmg holding sway over I the Xtman) am the all-witness, the Atman of all
I

am

the presidmg resident over all

;

the dweller

m

the caves of

all

beings

;

I

am

the mani-

festation of all the senses

and

their Guija-s (qualities),
;

and yet devoid of
bestow

all

the senses

I

have

my seat
Atman
;

beyond
;

the three states (waking, dreaming and sleeping)

I

my

favour on

all.

I

am
;

the

of the

form of Existence, Consciousness and Bliss
receptacle of the aflfection of
sciousness,
all
I

I

am

the

and

Bliss
is

Consciousness that
of
existence,

am Existence, Conam the palpable self-luminous am of the form
alone
;

I

;

I

inhering

in

all,
;

as the
I

Atman

with

accomplished existence alone

am

existence alone,
all

which bonds

IS
;

the

basis

of

all

;

I

am

the breaker of
;

I

am
;

the swalJower of everything

I

am

the

all-seeing

I

am

the enjoyer of everything.
is

He, who
(81-1

with philosophic insight knows thus, he
to be the

indeed said
1

Purusa

Thus

the Upanisad.

1)

THE MANDALA-BRAHMAl5lOPANl$AD
[This Upanisad, which
is

the Forty-eighth

among

the 108 Upanisad-s and forms part of the S'ukla-yajurveda, after deahng with the subtle Astanga-yoga, treats
of

the

essentials

of

Raja-yoga, by

explaming

its

constituents

— the

three kinds of Introsf)ection, the five-

fold Ether, the two-fold Taraka, etc.]

BRAHMANA
SECTION
I

I

The Desire to Know the Truth of the Atman
The
great sage YajfSa-valkya, went to Aditya-loka
to the resplendent

Making salutation Sun, he said, " O Lord Aditya Pray about the truth of the Atman."
(the solar world).
!

relate unto

me alJ
(1)

The Announcement Regarding the Subtle
Yoga of the Eight Anga-s
Whereupon
(as

follows)

:

Lord (The means
the

(Surya-)
to

Narayana replied
it,

attain

is)

the Yjoga

U

28

; ;

2l8

THE YOGA UPANI5ADS
Yama, Brahman
J

attended with the eight Aiiga-s, beginning with

and
there

replete with the
is
is

knowledge

(" All is

the

no other existence apart from the Brahman"),
presently described.
(2)

which

The Four-fold Yama-s
These are the Yama-s
:

the conquest of cold

and

heat, as well as the craving for food

and sleep

(result-

ing from the giving up of the misconception, that what
relates to the

body

relates to the

under

all

circumstances,
is

(with

Atman) tranquillity, the dawning of the
;

knowledge, that there

nothing unattainable by the
the
of
:

5tman)
ideal

;

non-swaymg
before
it)
,

(of

mind, from the high
the
(all

set

control

senses and their
these four).
(3)

functioning on objects of desire

The Nine-fold

Niyama-s

Devotion to the Guru (who dispels the darkness
of the pupil's Ignorance with the torch of his superior

knowledge)

;

attachment to the path
(of

(of
;

knowledge)
easily

leading to the truth
the real substance
accessible

the

Brahman)

enjoyment of
js

(of

the Brahman), which

grace of
faction

(m the form of extreme Bhss, through the *the Veda and the preceptor) supreme satis;

enjoyment of the real substance complete detachment (from even such satisfaction) abiding at a silent, secluded and solitary spot, (by
at

such

effectively controlling the

mind

in

a desolate place, by

THE mandala-brXhmanopani^ad
controlling the

219

mind

at a place whether inhabited or

and by controlling the mind at such a place without any effort) mental inactivity (with the firm conviction, that there is no mind apart non-covetousness towards the from the Brahman) detachment (resultmg from fruit of one's actions revulsion from everythmg other than the Stman), these
desolate, with effort,
;
;

;

are the nine Niyama-s.

(4)

Detailed Enunciation of the Six Anga-s,

AsANA AND Others
Wherein one can transport his mind (to the supreme Stman) comfortably, wherein one can abide for
a long time
(without discomfort),
;

that

is

the

right

posture to bo assumed
(inspiration),

what
of
in

is

constituted by Puraka
of

Kumbhaka
(expiration),

(stabilization

breath)

and Recaka
thirty-two

sixteen,

sixty-four

and
is

M5tra-lengths

duration
of the

respectively,

Pra^fiySma.
PratyShara.
inhibiting
it

The withholding

mind from the
is

objects wherein the senses indulge in functioning,

Firmly implanting the Citta (mind) by from the objects of desire encompassing it,

Supreme Consciousness is Dh5ran5. Contemplating on the Supreme Consciousness ^biding in all, (even as the Ether concentrated in the pots and
finally in the

pans, which becomes one with the expanse of Ether,

when the pots and pans are broken)
state of absorption brought on

is

Dhyana.

The
(5«-10)

by one's being lost in

DhySna

is

(Nir-vikalpa-) SamSdhi.

220

THE YOGA UPANl^ADS
of the Subtle

The Fruit of the Knowledge

Eight Anga-s of Yoga
Thus
(have) the subtle divisions (been described). thus, he is the attainer of liberation. (1 1)

He who

knows

section

ii

Getting Rid of the Five inherent Defects
of the Body
There are
sleep.
five defects

inherent in the body
air,

:

Lust,

anger, (breathing out)

the inhaled vital

fear

and

They

are to be rooted out by

means

of cessation

of all volition

(impregnated with desire), cultivation of

forbearance, temperance in food (leading to the proper
control of breath), the obliteration of the dual notion

(which

is

the cause of fear), and being ever devoted to

the finding out of the truth (relating to the supreme

end of

existence,

with a view to root out the sleep of
(1,2)

ignorance) respectively.

Looking at the TSraka and the
Fruit Borne by It
After adopting the subtle course (hereinafter described) for crossing the ocean of worldly existence,

but a cycle of birth, death and reincarnation again and again), with sleep and fear as the crawling

(which

is

snakes abiding therein, violence and the like qualities

THE MA^lDALA-BRXHMAl^lOPANIgAD
as
Its series

.221
eddy, and

of billows, greed (of gold) as

its

submerged fen, and after overcoming and other qualities, should one have a look at rhythm the Taraka (boat ready for his use). Such a handy (Taraka) boat is the Brahman, seen at (the top of the
the wife as the

nose and) the middle of the eye brows
flare of radiance of the

in the

form of a

Supreme

Existence, Conscious(3, 4)

ness and Bliss.

The Attainment of the Taraka, through Seeing bv Means of the Three Kinds
OF Introspection

The expedient
IS

to be

employed

for its

attainment

the seeing, by making use of the three kinds of Intro.

spection

(internal Introspection, external Introspection
(5)

and intermediate Introspection)

Seeing throl'gh Internal Introspection

From
randhra
is

the

Muladhara onward,

till

the

BrahmaSusumnait is

reached, (right through the course of the
is

Vlna-dan^a, the \ertebral column), there
n54l resplendent like the Sun.
Kuqcjalinl, resplendent like

the

In the core of

the

myriads of lightnirig-streaks

and as mind is
Ether
all

fine as the fibre of the lotus-stalk.

(When
it

the

transfixed), there

is

the dispelling of the dark-

ness (of one's
in the

own

ignorance).
(is

From

seeing

(the

Ku^icjahnl)

attained) expiation from

sins.

In the two ear-holes stoppered by the two

222
fore-fingers,

THE YOGA UPANI§ADS
there arises a phoo-like sound.

When
So

the

mind
in

is

concentrated on that, (the practitioner) sees
also

the

middle of his eyes a blue radiance.

(does he) in the heart.

(6, 7)

Seeing Through External Introspection
As
of
four,

regards

external

introspection

:

When

the

practitioner sees at the tip of the nose ethereal space
SIX,

eight,

ten

and twelve

digit-lengths

m

succession,

first

of

a blue colour, then of a dark blue

colour resembling S'yama, then of a
colour,
lastly

wavy blood-red

then of a throbbing bright yellow colour and
of the colour of orange,

such a one becomes a

Yogin.

When

the person looks at ethereal space with

moving
ness.

eyes, there are streaks of radiance to be seen

at the rim of his eyes.

Over

his crest
;

His glance then attams steadihe sees radiance measuring twelve
(8-10)

digit-lengths

then he attains immortality.

Seeing through Intermediate Introspection

As regards intermediate Introspection He sees off and in front of him, Ethereal space) with a (not far halo of yariegated and other colours, the (radiance of the) Sun, the (cool beams of the) Moon, the (dazzling brightness of the) flaming fire, and mid-ethereal space without (such halo). He becomes possessed of such
:

aspects,

assuming such aspects.

By

constant practice,

he

'

(sees

and) becomes the changeless, (unevolved)

THE ma^ala-brXhmanopani^ad
primordial Ether (with no quahty).

223
the

He becomes He becomes
the
of

transcendent

Ether
of)

resembhng
Ether

profound
like

darkness,
the

throbbing with the aspect of a
great

star. •

(expanse

shmmg

diluvian

conflagration.

He

becomes the Ether

Truth, the

briUiant, all-supreme, transcendent and peerless one.

He becomes
eflFulgence

the Ether of the Sun, resplendent like the

of

a

crore

of

Suns.

Thus,

by constant
(five-fold

practice,

he becomes entirely made of that

Ether).

He who knows

thus.

(H-H)

SECTION

III

Yoga of Two Kinds, Being Divided into
Takaka and A-man.aska
That Yoga (which
the
five-fold
is

the result of the practice of
to

Ether aforesaid), know that
its

be of two
first

kinds, on account of

and One should know the first as Taraka and the second. Taraka is of two its second as A-manaska (mindless). kinds Murti-taraka and A-murti-taraka. That which
being classified as the
:

is

within the range of the senses, (dependent on the

body, commencing from the plexus of the Muladhara

up

to the

AjfS plexus, from the anus

to the

middle of

the eye brows)

which

is

is of the MHrti-taraka variety. That beyond the middle of the eye brows (from the

Sjfia plexus to the

Thousand-petal led plexus)

is

of the
<1)

A-mOrti-tlraka variety.

224

the voga upani§ads

Rule

as to

the Application of

THE Mind to Yoga One should
applying the mind
practise
(to

both

of

them, conjointly
Introspection,

each of them).

(and not mere ordinary vision) along with the application of the mind, will be conducive to the Taraka
being revealed.
(2)

The Fikst Takaka
The
manifestation of light
is

in

the cavern l)etween
(3)

the two eye brows, this

the

first

kind of Taraka.

The Second Taraka
The second
of radiance.
is

the mindless variety.
is

In the upper

part of the root of the palate, there

a great effulgence

By

the sight of that

is

the attainment of
like.

mystic powers, such as attenuntion and the

(4)

The End
IS

of the Second TSkaka

S'ambhavi-mudkS
Introspection

and with the eyes opening out, but devoid of the acts of opening and closing of the eyelids, this S'5rpbhavi-mudra is assumed. This Maba-vidya (Great lore) is, of all the Tantra-s, what IS worthy of being kept a profound secret. With
Witji
internal

the knowledge (proficiency) of this

is

attained freedom

THE MA^ipALA-BRXHMAlilOPANIgAD

225

from the state of worldly existence. (By the Yc^in becoming a votary of this), its worship bestows the
fruit of liberation.
(5)

Definition of Internal Introspection
That, which is beyond the range of the internal and externa] senses (of ordinary mortals), capable of being comprehended only by great sages, and which is
of the form of liquid radiance,
is

the ultimate quest of
(6)

mternal Introspection.
SECTION

IV

The Controversy Regarding the Ultimate
Object of Internal Introspection among

Adherents of Diverse Faiths
The
liquid

ultimate object of internal Introspection

is

the

radiance
(at the

m

the

thousand-petal led centre of
:

energy

Brahma-randhra)
object
of

(So say the Yogin-s),
Introspection
is

The

ultimate

internal

the

form of the Purusa, ravishingly beautiful all over his limbs, in the cavern (which is the seat) of the Intellect,
say others (the Vaisqava-s).
internal

The

ultimate object of

Introspection
five

is

the exquisitely tranquil bluethe help-mate of UttiS,

necked S'lva with
head,

faces,

abiding in the middle of the halo of radiance in the

sa^ some others (the S'aiva-s).
is

The

ultimate

object of internal Introspection

the Purusa of the

V

29

226
size

THE YOGA UPANI9ADS
of the

thumb, say yet others (the votaries of
(l)

Dahara-vidya).

Rule Relating to the Seeing of the Stman WHICH IS closely Interwoven with the
Ultimate Objects of Internal Introspection Spoken of by the Followers

of Diverse Faiths
All the diverse varieties

spoken of (above) are only

the Atman.

He who

sees his ultimate object of internal

Introspection

from the point of view of the Xtman,
is

pure and simple, he alone

firmly planted in

the
(2)

Brahman.

The Attainment of Bkahmanhood of one who
is

Firmly Planted
Jiva,

in

the Atman
eternal
verity,

The
creation,
five five

the

twenty-fifth

after

giving up the twenty-four eternal verities of his
(v«a.,

own

the five inner senses of perception, the

inner senses of motor action, the five vital airs, the

gross

Elements,

the

mind

of volition, thought,

reasoning and self-consciousness), after being convinced

by the

rfeahzation, "

I

am

the transcendent Stman, the

becomes a Jivan-mukta (liberated while yet living). Thus by the vision of internal introspection, having become the ultimate
twenty-sixth
eternal
verity,"

object of his

own mternal

Introspection, while riemaining

THE MAI^DALA-BRSHMAIjIOPANI^AD
in

227

the state of being a Jivan-mukta, he becomes the

indivisible region of transcendent

Ether

(the

Brahman,
(3,

simultaneously with such realization).

4)

BRAHMANA
SECTION
I

II

The

Jyotir-atman, the Radiant Atman, which
is

is

THE basic Support of All,

the Object of

Internal Introspection
Yajfla valkya asked the Purusa of the Solar region thus " Lord the object of internal Intro:

Now

O

'

spection has been described in various ways.

That has
it

not

been

known by me.
:

Pray
"

tell

me what

is."

(The Lord) answered thus
five

The prime cause

of the

elements, the

Stman

of the form of a cluster of

radiant streaks of
likewise,
inertia

lightning,

has four seats shining

(the

three

Guna-s,

rhythm, mobility and
the three are in an

and the

Prakrti, wherein
;

equipoised state

or the three states of

wakmg, dreamwherein the

ing and sleeping and the
three are well-poised
;

Turya

(fourth),

or the gross, subtle

and causal

and the Turya sheath, wherein the three are wellpoised). Right in the middle of that (radiant Atnran) there is revealed the (Turya-turya) outshining Troth That is the (eclipsing) the radiance surrounding it.
profound mystery that
is

also indistinct,

(I,

2)

228

the yoga upani^ads

The Fruit of the Knowledge of the
Jyotir-Stman
t

That should be known (as the other shore reached) by one embarked on the boat of knowledge, (after That is the object crossing the ocean of ignorance). of the quest through external and internal IntrospecIn the middle of it the world reposes. That tion. IS what lies beyond the range of Nada, Bmdu and
Kala, the indivisible expanse (the one essence of consciousness).

That

IS

of the form of the qualified

and

the

unquahfied (Atman).

He who knows

that stands
(3, 4)

liberated.

Its

Attainment Through the S'ambhavi
the Yogin

(By
is

who has assumed

the Siddhasana

posture and the $an-mukhl-mudr5), the region of Fire
seen at
first.

Thereafter the Solar region.

In the In

middle thereof the region of the ambrosial
fadiance of the Brahman.

Moon.

the middle thereof, again, the region of the indivisible

splendour like a streak of
state of npn-mindedness).

That shines with a white lightning. That alone is the
(which brings on
the
(5)

characteristic of the S'aipbhavl

Rule Relating to the Full-moon-look
In having a
looks,

view of

it,

there are three kinds of

known as Ama, Pratipad andPurijima: (new-moon,

THE ma^dala-brShmanopanisad
first

229
it)

phase
eyes

and
is

full-moon).

Looking
;

(at

with

closed
IS

the Ama-look

with half-open eyes

the Pratipad and with
these,

fully

open eyes

is

PurnimS.

Of

the practice of Purnima

should be made.

The object of such vision is the top of the nose. Then is seen profound darkness at the root of the palate. By constant practice of it is seen radiance of
the form of an indivisible expansive region.

That alone

becomes the Brahman of Existence, Consciousness and Bliss (6, 7)
Sambhavi, the end of the Purnima Look

When
this

the

mind seeks repose

in

inborn Bliss in
:

manner, then occurs the S'arpbhavi

That alone
(8)

they call the Khe-cari

The Accomplishment of the

(S'ambhavi)

Mudra

and Its Indications

By

practising

it

is

attained firmness of the mind.
Its indications
;

Thence the firmness
are as follows
:

of the Intellect.
is

First

seen what looks like a star

then

what looks

like

a

well-cut sparkling

diamond and a

bright mirror.

Thereafter what looks like fhe disc of
looks like the circular looks like the splendour
is

the full-moon.

radiance of

Thence what gems. Then what
Sun.

of the noon-day
fire,

Then

seen a ring of flaming
(9,,

as the next in order.

10)

2S0

THE YOGA UPANI§ADS
SECTION
II

Experiencing the Inner Light which

is

the

Real Form of the Pranava and

its Indications

When
the

(by one

who

is

concentrating his

mmd on

Pranava and
,

its

import)

are seen (the following

indications) vtz

the brightness of crystal, the colour of

smoke, the Bindu (the true nature of the mind), the

Nada
firefly,

(the true

nature of the Intellect), the Kala (the

true nature of the Mahat), the radiance of the star, the

the lamp, the eye, gold, the nine precious

gems

and the like, then (is experienced) the internal radiance. That alone is the real form of th« Pranava. (1)

The Attainment of the Pranava through
the San-mukhi-mudrX
Having accomplished the union of the Prana and Apana vital airs, and firmly held the Kumbhaka (by the Hatha-yoga method), the yogin should, with the
firm resolve to have external
of the nose,

Introspection at the top

$an-mukhT-mudra with the two forefingers and hear the sound of the Pranava and others, whereupon his mind would find final repose therein (in the Brahman, at the termination of the Nada). (2)
the

make

The Knower of the Pranava not Bound
Obligation to Perform religious Rite
OF any Kind For the Yogin (whose mind
thefe
IS

by

rests in the

Brahman)

no defilement of action of the form of religious

THE ma^dala-brShmanopanisad
rite

231
ritual

of

any kind.

Indeed action of the form of

any kind has to be performed at sunrise and sunset. As, for a knower of the Atman, there is no rising and
of
setting of the

Sun

of Consciousness, there
rituals) of all kinds.

is

absence
(3)

of action (in the

form of

Accomplishment of Non-mindedness through

THE Un-manI State
With
a
state

the dissolution

of the perception of

sound

and the conception
(which
is

of duration,

due

to

having reached

neither

waking, nor dreaming, nor

sleeping and, as such) not afTected by day

and

night,

when the Yogin
state,
in

is

entirely absorbed in the

Un-manl
the union

consquence of the acquisition of perfect knowall

ledge of

things (but the Brahman), there

is

with the Brahman.

knowledge of the

Through the Truth (Un-mani

state of the replete
state), there

comes
is

on the state of (A-manaska) non-mindedness, (which
there

defined by the S'ruti as " that state of the Atman, wherein
is

no pollution brought about by imperfect know(4)

ledge," in other words, the state of the Brahman).

Procedure Laid down for Worshipping

the a-manaska state
Complete absence oi cares
adopted for
to be
its
is

the

method
is

to be

meditation.

The

repudiation the

of all

action (of the form of rituals

and others)
(of

adopted

for

the invocation

method the Brahman).

232

THE YOGA UPANI§ADS
is

Confirmed knowledge (brought about by conviction)
the seat to be offered.

The

state of the replete

knoW'

ledge of the Truth

is

the water to be offered for the

washing of the feet. Perpetual non-mindedness is the holy water to be offered at worship. The functioning
(of the

mind)

in that radiant

immeasurable expanse of
the ablution to be offered.

nectar (of the

Brahman)

is

The
that
rice

ideation of the presence (of the
is

where

the sandal paste to

Brahman) everybe offered. (The Brahman)
is

is

the remaining in the form of knowledge
it.

the

dyed with termeric to be showered on
is

attainment of consciousness

the flower-offering.
is

The The
is

form of the
burnt.

fire

of consciousness of the

the incense to be the

The form

Sun

of Consciousness

lamp-light offering.

into one ocean, from the rays of the full-moon of all the nectar flowing (shining in the region between the thousand-petalled

The accumulation,

lotus

and the middle of the eyebrows)
Motionlessness
is

is

the food-

offering.

the

circumambulation.
Silence
the
is

the

The He am I hymn of praise. Universal
"

" attitude is the salutation.

satisfaction

is

method

to be

adopted for sending

off the deity

invoked for the

worship.
alone).

He who knows

thus (becomes the

Brahman
(5)

SECTION HI

The Attainment of Kaivalya
When

(aloneness) by the

Contemplation of the Brahman
once the knower of the Brahman escapes out
of the Tn-puti (the triad of differences

of the clutches

THE mandala-brShmanopani^ad
relating

233

to the contemplator,

contemplation and the

thing contemplated

upon)

{t.e.,

when
of

the knowledge
non-relative

resultmg

from

contemplation

the

character of the

Brahman

ceases to be conditioned by

the triad), he becomes the radiance of the Kaivalya
full, and devoid of the very and non-existence, resembling the stagnant ocean with its waves at rest, and the steady flame of a lamp in a windless spot. (1)

state, that is

motionless and

conception of existence

The Real Form of the Knower of the Brahman
By
the
(partial)

knowledge

(of

the

Brahman)

acquired during the waking state ending with sleep,

one becomes the knower of the Brahman, (while by
the

complete
all

knowledge
the
states,

of

through
alone).

he

Brahman acquired becomes the Brahman
the
(2)

Difference between Susupti and Samadhi
Even though there is agreement between Susupti (sleep) and Samadhi (concentration), in that there is the dissolution of the mind in both, still there is vast
difference between the two, in that the former seeks

repose in darkness and in

its

not being the means for the
In Samadhi, the dissolution
its

attainment of liberation.
of the

phenomenal world, with

inertia attenuated,

takes place in U 30

the consciousness, which is the Witness

234

THE YOGA UPANI§ADS
IS

and

of the character of the functioning, in the indi-

visible

expanse of the Brahman,

(of the

mind) trans-

formed into concentration, as the phenomenal world is but the creature of the mind. (3, 4)

The Knower of the Brahman Becoming the
Brahman
Then, owing
the
to

the absence of difference, even

though occasionally drawn outward (from oneness with

Supreme Consciousness), still owmg to the perception of the false phenomena by his mind, the knower of the Brahman, seeking his supreme goal, the experiencing of the Bliss of existence, which manifests
in a
flash as
it

itself

were,

becomes that

Bliss (the Brah(5)

man

alone).

The Attainment of Liberation through
Meditation of the Brahman, Preceded
BY

THE Giving up of all Voliton
for him,

For the reason that
all

who has

obliterated

volition,

liberation

is

(on the palm) of his hand, by

giving

up

his

(own

ideas) of existence

and non-existence,
in
"),

and meditating upon the Paramatman (manifested
the

form of the realization,

"

I

am

the

Brahman

one gets liberated.

By

completely renouncing again

and again, in all the states (waking, dreaming, sleeping, Turya and Turyatlta), the pairs of aspects of knowledge and what has to be known, contemplation and

THE MA^pALA-BRXHMANOPANI§AD

235

what has to be contemplated upon, what is the primary aim and what the secondary, what is visible and what non-visible, the reasoning for and the reasoning is against, and the like, he becomes a Jivan-mukta. He

who knows

thus

(is

a Jlvan-mukta.)
SECTION IV

(6, 7)

The

Five States, Jagrat and Others

Waking, Dreaming, Sleeping, Turiya (the fourth) and Turyatlta (what lies beyond the fourth) are the five states (which are the means of liberation). (1)
Desire, the Basis of Proclivity to

Worldly Activities
The
to

Jiva occupied with the waking state, prone

be attached to the

path of worldly

life,

eagerly

desires
hell

m

the following
like,

manner

:

and the

the fruits of

Let there be no sm for me," " Let

"

there be heaven, the fruit of deeds of religious merit
for
is

me." (Thus desiring, the ignorant

man

of the world
(2)

caught

m

the trap of worldly-mindedness).

Desire Leading to Inactivity
While
life,

so, the

same

Jiva,

(disgusted

with such a

turns back from such a course) and takes to the

path of inactivity

m

the direction of (facing) liberation

236

THE YOGA UPAN1?ADS
"
I

with the resolve,
births,

have had enough (number) of
actions.

the traits of
is

(my own)

Sufficient (unto

the day)
births

the bondage resulting from the cycle of
of

and deaths," out of the spint coming upon him.

detachment
(3)

Mode of Crossing (the Ocean Worldly Existence
The

of)

self-same Jiva, seeking shelter under a Guru,

for the purpose of being liberated

from (the bonds) of

worldly existence, giving up lust and other sinful passions,

(which tend to

tie

him

to the world), discharging

the duties prescribed (by the Guru), equipped with the

Sadhana-s (means of attaining Salvation) and reaching the form of the Lord, remaining as absolute
four

existence in the middle of the

lotus of the heart

and

capable of being seen only through internal Introspection, getting

(once again) the remembrance of the Bliss
described
(in

of

the

Brahman

formerly experienced by him
in

m
I

consequence

of realizing, "

Upamsad-s) and the Susupti state, and am one only and have
the

no second.
for

On

account of the recurrence of ignorance
in

consequence of forgetting the mental impression formed during my waking state, I

some time and

am

the Ifaijasa (Atman) at present

;

with the receding

into the

background of those two (Vis'va and Taijasa,

of the waking

one alone
of
.

;

and dreaming states), I am the Prajfla, beyond me who have attained a difference
Jagrat
to

state

(from

Svapna

and thence

to

THE mandala-brShmanopanisad
(Susupti,)

237

owmg
me
;

to the difference of

abode (from Sthula
is

to Suksma and thence to
else beside
I

Karana) there

nothing
{vtz.t

with

my

power of discernment

have no other origin but the Brahman) (dawning on me), I am the pure non-dual Brahman," in this manner

having obliterated the impression of difference, by constantly meditating on the solar region manifesting itself

within the body and by force of such meditation having

assumed the aspect
aspect of
tlje

of the same,

which

is

also

the

transcendent
liberation,
for

to the path of

Brahman and having taken known as perfect Wisdom,
(and
discharges
his

he

becomes

ripe

liberation

duty).

Demonstrating that the Mind

is

the Cause

OF Bondage and Liberation

The mind,
to liberation.

the root of

all

volition

and the

like, is

the

cause of bondage.

The mind,

rid of all that,

conduces

(The Yogin) with such a mind (rid of all desires, etc., becomes a jRanin) by depriving the mind of the impressions of phenomena, born of the eye and
other senses disposed towards the external

world of

phenomena and looking upon the entire Universe as relating to the Atman, giving up his egoism, ever atturt* ing his mind to the attitude, " The Brahman am" I," treating all this about him as " That is Atman," fully
discharges his duty, the

moment

that he realizes so.

(5,6)

238

THE YOGA UPANI§ADS
SECTION V

Becoming a Knower of the Brahman of a

Higher Order by the Practice of Nir-vikalpasamadhi (Concentration of the
Indeterminate Variety)
After becoming the all-full Turiyatita
the Yogin,

Brahman,
the the

who

is

the

Brahman. Knowers of Brahman. He who becomes the fit receptacle praise of all the world, who becomes capable of
ling through
all

Brahman alone, becomes the Brahman glorify him as

for the

travel-

the world, having dropped his
in the

Bmdu
for

(making the dissolution of the mind)
the

Ether of

Supreme Consciousness and by experiencing

ever and ever the state of indivisible Bliss resulting

from the Yoga-nidra (Yogic-sl umber) brought on by the pure non-dualistic sentience inherent in non-mindedness,

known

as

Nir-vikalpa-samadhi,
of a higher order,

becomes

(a

knower of the Brahman
Jlvan-mukta.

known

as) a
(1,

2)

The Attainment

of the State of the Brahman

OF the Form of Ceaseless Bliss

The Yogin-s immersed

in

that ocean

of

Bliss

become that Brahman, which has been characterized
as the waveless expanse of the ocean of Bliss.

Com-

pared with that, Indra and others are blissful only to a

THE MA^ALA-BRlHMA^OPANISAD
limited extent.
(of

239
this

He who

has attained Bliss of

kind

becomes the farama-yogm, (known as the Brahma-vit-tama, the knower of the
the limitless variety)

Brahman

of the highest order).

Thus

the Upanisad.
(3. 4)

BRAHMANA
SECTION
I

III

The Non-mindedness Associated with the S'AMBHAVi MUDRA
The
great sage, Yajfia-valkya, asked the Purusa of

"Venerable Sire' though the description of non-mindedness has been given (by Pray give us the thee), It has been forgotten (by me). Quoth the Mandaladescription of it once more." purusa " Be it so. This non-mindedness is a profound
the Aditya- mandala thus:
:

secret.

By

the knowledge of which, one
his duties,

may

be said

to

have discharged

that

is

ever associated
(1, 2)

with the S'aipbhavi Mudra.

Attainment of Non-mindedness on SeeTing the Indications of the Paramatman
Looking upon the experiences creating knowledge of the Paramatman, as he would on the ParamStman

240

THE YOGA UPANI^ADS
own Xtman
the tran-

himself, thereafter, seeing in his

scendent Bratiman, the Lord of

all,

the immeasurable,

the origmless, the auspicious, the transcendent Ether,

which does not depend on anything, the

peerless, the

common

Brahman, Visnu, Rudra and others and the prime-cause of all, and having thus acquired a
goal of
sure knowledge of the pastime of roaming in the cavern

of the Intellect, of

having got beyond the ken of pairs
as,

correlatives such

existence and non-existence,
the
state wherein
is

having well understood
reaches the

the

mind
the

Un-manl

state (wherein there

no
of

volition)
all

and

thereafter,
(the
is

through

the obliteration

senses,

Yogin) attains the transcendent Brahman,
in

which

motionless like the flame of a lamp
is

a

windless spot, and
the river of the

of the form of the confluence of
of the Bliss of the
(3)

mind with the ocean

Brahman and

the happiness of non-mindedness.

Then, the Turning away from Worldly
Existence

Then,
ness
to

like

a dried

up

tree,

having

lost the

prone-

relative

knowledge,

in

consequence of the

cessation of stupor and sleep, in the absence of inspira-

and expiration, with an ever-motionless frame, having embraced perfect tranquillity, (the Yogin, who has become the Brahman, is lost in the Nir-vikalpasamadhi of a long duration) when his mind hnally rests in the Paramatman. (4)
tion

THE MA^jpALA-BRlHMAiaOPANIgAD

241

The Destruction

of the Mind through the

Dissolution of the Inner Senses, by having

Recourse to the TXraka-path
That alone
milk
in
is

non-mmdedness, wherein, hke the
calf) in

the udder of the cow, after the milk has flowed
it

out of

(after

milking or being sucked by the
all
t^ie

its entirety,

when

groups of senses have been
of the

destroyed,

the destruction

mmd

takes place.
is
:

Thereafter,
"

when the mind reposes with form, but

not annihilated, (the Yogin), ever pure, realizing thus
I

am

the

Brahman

",

and adopting the Taraka-yoga(of the

path
"

m

accord with the precept

Maha-vakya),

That thou art," in the realization, " I am that Thou (the Brahman)," "Thou (the Brahman) am I ", is filled with the indivisible expanse of Bliss and becomes one

who has discharged

his duty.

(6)

SECTION

II

By the Attainment of the Unmani State, the Yogin Himself becoming the Brahman
With
scendent
his

mind immersed
of

in the full (depth) of tran-

Ether,

having attained the
long

Ummani

state
re-

(Nir-vikalpa-samadhi

duration),

having

nounced
fruit

all

the groups of his senses and reaped the
various previous incarnations,

of

Kaivalya ripened by the aggregate of merit
through
his

accumulated
with
all

sufienngs and sins driven

away by

.the

U

31

242
indivisible

THE YOGA UPANISADS

expanse of Bliss, and realizing " I am the Brahman," (the Yogin) becomes one who has discharged
"

his duty.

Thou

art

I,

there

is

no difference (between

us both), due

to the fullness of (me) the

Paramatman,"

so saying and embracing his disciple (Yajna-valkya)

warmly,

(the

Mandala-purusa) led
"
I

(his disciple) into the

perfect knowledge (of the form

am

the

Brahman

").

(1-2)

brahmana

iv

The Knowledge of the Five-fold Ethek and
ITS FKL'IT

Thereupon
purusa thus
as follows

Yajna-valkya

asked

the

Mandalaabout the

"

Pray

relate

unto

me

in detail

true characteristics of the li\e-fold Ether."
;

He

replied

"

There are
is

Akas'a, Parakas'a,
kas'a.

known as Mahakas'a, Suryakas'a and Paramafive

kinds (of Ether)

Aka^a

both externally and internally

full

of

darkness (productive of stupor).

Pamknsfa

is

both

m

the exterior and the interior, like the Fire of the Deluge

(productive of

delusion

eclipsing

the stupor).

That

existence which, both in the exterior and the interior,

resembles Radiance beyond measure (productive of
pleasure eclipsing stupor and delusion)
is

M ahnknsfa.

That, which both inwardly and outwardly resembles the Sun (and is productive of perpetual happiness
eclipsing stupor, etc.),
is

Suryakas'a.

That radiance

THE MAlJDALA-BRXHMAblOPANI^AD

243

which transcends description, which pervades every-

where and
perience)
is

IS

of

the nature of Bliss

par excelUncCy
internal
sees.
(1-4)

(productive of Tri-pad-bhuti, echpsing every other ex-

Paramziknsfa.
(the

Thus,

through

introspection

Yogin)

becomes whatever he

Summary of all the Requisite Equipments for
Raja-voga

The

nine

Cakra-s

(Muladhara of four petals,

Svadhisthana of

Mani-puraka of ten petals, An-ahata of twelve petals, Vis'uddhi of sixteen petals,
six petals,

Ajfia
SIX

of two petals, Talu, Akas'a
six

Adhara-s (tho
the

and Bhru-cakra) the regions wherein they have their
five

supports),

three kinds of Introspection (External,

Internal

and Intermediate), the
to),

kinds of Ethers

(above referred
IS

he who does not know these well,
;

merely a Yogin

m name

(mere book-knowledge with-

out a thorough knowledge of their real nature will not
count)
(5)

BRAHMANA V
Rule Relating to the Practice of the Mind FINALLY Resting in and being Lost in the
ParamXtman
The mind
with functioning leads to bondage
ai»di

the non-functioning

mind

leads to liberation.

Hence

244
anything
mind).
is

THE YOGA UPANI§ADS
within the range of the Citta (the thinking
Citta,

The same

when not dependmg on any-

thing (through purity acquired from the practice of Yoga)

and when it has ripened into the Unmani state of the mind (in Nir-vikalpa-samadhi), becomes fit for dissolution. That dissolution should be well practised in me (the Paramatman in the form of the Mandalapurusa),

who am

full.

I

alone

am

the cause of the
(1-3)

dissolution of the mind,

Of
there

the sound produced in the An-ahata Ether (of
is

the heart), there
is

the reverberation of that sound

;

radiance

penetrating
is

the

interior

of

that

reverberation.

There
:

of that radiance

mind penetrating the interior which mind is the doer of the deed of
the

creating, sustaining

and destroying the three worlds. Wherein that mind meets with dissolution, that is the Supreme state of Visnu (the Brahman). (4, 5)

By the Practice of A-manaska
samSdhi)
is

(Nir-vikalpa-

Accomplished the State of

BEING Reduced to the Brahman

By

the dissolution (of the

mind

in

the

Param-

atman), on account of difference being extinguished, there is the accomplishment of the pure non-dual state.

This alone
will

is

the highest truth, (which

I

was asked by
like

thee to explain).

That knower
evil spirit,

of that (highest truth)

conduct himself through the world
behaving
like

a child, a

mad man and an

a dull-witted

THE ma^ala-brShma^opani$ad
man.
little

245

Thus by
urine

the practice of

A-manaska

(Nir-vikalpa-

samadhi) alone, by such knower, ever contented, passing

and

faeces, taking

temperate food, endowed

with a strong physique, with no stupor and sleep, with

and vital airs in a motionless state, is attained the accomplishment of the knowledge of the form of (6-8) Bliss arising out of the sight of the Brahman.
his eyes

The Greatness of the Accomplished
IN

(Yogin)

the A-manaska State
accomplished (Yogin) mendicant, ever

Thus,

this

intent on the drinking of the nectar of the

Brahman,

resulting out
for a long

of the

practice of Nir-vikalpa-samadhi

becomes a Parama-haipsa, known as Avadhuta. By having a look at him all the world is Even an ignorant man intent on the service sanctified. of that (Avadhuta) becomes liberated. That (Avadhllta) causes one hundred and one generations of his family
time,
to cross
class

ocean of worldly existence). The entire (consisting oQ his mother, father, wife, and
(the

progeny becomes liberated.

— Thus the Upanisad.

(9)

THE MAHA-VAKYOPANI$AD
[This Upanisad, which
the
is

the Ninety-second

among

108

Upanisad-s and forms part of the Atharva-

veda, deals with the impossibihty of the phenomenal world that is apart from the Atman and with the realization of the

Brahman

alone, through such knowledge.]

Those Eligible for being Imparted Instruction Regarding the Non-vicarious Experience of THE Bliss of the Atman
Brahman, " We shall presently expound the highest Upanisad (not easily attainable, even by the most accomphshed Seeker). This is the profoundest secret of profound secrets and

Then

quoth

the

Lord

means) be imparted to the vulgar (uninitiated into Yogic practices) but only to one who is of rhythmic temperament, with propensities turning inward and earnest in receiving instruction
should
(by

no

;

from

his

Guru (and seeking

his grace).

(1,2)

The ReXl Form and Functions of VidyI and
A-VIDVS Then,
manjier),
(after

equipping himself in the prescribed

the

seeker,

withdrawing himself from the

THE MAHS-VSKY0PAN1§AD
VidyS-caksus,
the

247
of

(conception

of

the non-existence

phenomenal

world

apart

from
of

the

Brahman)
also

leading to
the

liberation

from bondage,
(conception

and
the

from

A-vidya-caksus,

existence

of the

phenomenal world apart from the Brahman) bondage (through attachment thereto) leading to and acquinng the Supreme knowledge (that the Brahman is all and has no counterpart), (simultaneously with such knowledge becomes a Videhamukta).

The

root-cause

of

the

conception of the
is

non-existent
the

phenomenal world
(vision
real

as really existing

Tamo-drb^
off the

obscured by darkness, which
the

screens
entire

existence,

Brahman).

The

phenomenal
of of

world,

(which apparently exists

as long as the obscured vision persists
in

and
the

perishes,

course

time,

with

the dawning of the true

knowledge
(mineral)

the

Brahman),

from

Brahman

(obscured by misconception)

down

to the non-sentient

kingdom comprising the endless, indivisible Brahmanda, (prodigious Universe oO the macrocosm,
IS

Darkness.

What
in

is

addicted to the observance of
all

rituals

prescribed

the

Veda-s, having as
desires,
is

its

objective the fulfilment of cherished

the

world.

(3, 4)

The Manifestation of the ParamStman through
THE Practice of the Hamsa-vidya
That Stman
(the

not this Darkness. The VidyS, knowledge, indeed, of the absolute Truth • the
is

2^

Tfl£

tOGA UPANI^OS

Brahman, which alone exists without a counterpart), the Cid-aditya (the Sun of absolute conciousness) that manifests itself both inside and outside the phenomenal
world of crass ignorance, the region of the absolute
radiance of consciousness, that alone should be grasped

(by the Tivra-tara seeker) and not the other, (which
exists

merely

in the

form of qualified knowledge and

same goal, bears fruit after considerable delay.) " That Sun, (the goal of the Gayat-tri), is the Brahman the Haipsa (the Sun)
which, though leading to the

connected

with
of

the

A-japa-gayat-tri,

(that

has per-

meated the
every
act

body through
inspiration

the

Nadi-s and through

and expiration, naturally

and without effort, muttering the A-japa-mantra, " Haip " " Sa^,") that 1 am " That (knowledge of the oneness of the Paramatman) is capable of being acquired, by the Prana and Apana (vital airs) flowing inward and outward from opposite direc:

tions in this manner,

mantra).
ledge
JjSana,

The
the

by muttering the Harpsaseeker, having acquired that (know(i.e.,

of

Atman

through the three stages of

and Samyag-jnana) after persistent application for a long period, when the Atman is intensely meditated upon in its three-fold aspects Vis'va, (of Vir5j and Otr, individually, collectively and by both the methods conjointly), the
VijBana

ParamaMian manifests
annihilation of

himself (as a result of the
non-sentience

false-existence,

and
Bliss.

misery)

as

Existence,

Consciousness

and

(5,6)

The Real Form of the State Known
Knowledge of the Truth
(The
state

as Tias

known

as the knowledge of the Truth)

intensely resplendent with the radiance of myriads

upon

myriads of Suns (taking their rise simultaneously) is like the waveless deep (ocean), incapable of being absorbed on account of its very fulness. This is not Samadhi. Nor is this the successful accomplishment of Yoga. Nor is this the final dissolution of the mind.

That
is

is

the oneness of the (inmost)

Brahman.

What
on the

of the colour (and form) of the Cid-aditya

other side of darkness (the entire phenomenal world),

which the seeker on recognition salutes and at once becomes, after deeply thmking over all forms and names and arriving at the conviction (that they aite false) the significance of which the Lord Brahman explained long long ago (and also) S'akra (the king of the gods), whose fame as a great knower (of the
;

Brahman) has reached the four cardinal points; he who knows the Paramatman as of this nature, that
very

moment

attains immortality (at-one-ness, with the

Paramltman).

There

is

no other path

for the

attftin*-

ment
gods

of the path of liberation.
also,

In this

manner

t^

by means of the Yajfia (knowledge, that there is nothing else besides the Brahman) have uroTshipped the YajHa (Vis^iu, that is the Brahmka). Those Dharma-s (lines of conduct) (of the gods wiMj imve become Jivan-mukta-s on account of such knewledge) stood always foremost. u 52

That

heavean wfaeresi

:2^

THE YOGA UPANI$A0S
Brahman, on
(7-10)

the Deva-s remain Sadhya-s (Jivan-mukta-s) from days
of yore, the illustrious knowers of the

attaining (that heaven), shine forth therefrom.

Meditation on the Radiant Pranava-hawlsa
That transcendent radiance
of Consciousness),
(the
(the Cid-arka, the

Sun

This

am I. The radiance of the Arka Sun), the S'lva, am I. The brilliant white am I. all radiance am I. Om (In this manner the
!

the Jivan-mukta-s alike, meditate on the Atman, as differentiated from the transcendent Stman and the Paramatman which has no counterpart, and IS the import of the Oipkara). (11)
internal

Cods and

The Fruit of the Vidya of the Radiance
OF the Hamsa
This (Vidya), the
5vho Studies
;

S'lras of
it

the Atharva-veda, he

by studying
(he)

early in the morning, he

destroys the sin committed at night
at

sun-down

destroys the sin

by studying it committed during
;

day time.
jand sunset

The sinner studying it both is nd of his sins. He who
is

at

day-break

studies.it at

noon, facing the Sun,
sijis,

released from the five great

as well as the smaller sins.
all

He

gains the merit

flowing from the study of

the Veda-s.

He

attains

<^eness with S'n Maha-vis^u.

Thus

the Upanisad.
(12)

THE YOGA-KUNPALY-UPANI$AD
[This Upanisad, which
veda,
incidentally
is

the Eighty-sixth

among

the 108 Upanisad-s and forms part of the Krs^a-yajurdeals

with an exposition of the

LambikS-yoga-s and concludes with an account of the non-qualified Brahman, the quest of all

Hatha- and

seekers.]

CHAPTER

I

The Three Expedients to

be Resorted to

FOR the Conquest of the Vital Air

The two

causes that operate on the

mmd (and bear

on its activity or inactivity) are the forces of revived memories (previous experiences) and the vital air
(breathed in and breathed out), (without proper regulation

and

control).

When
alike
first

either of the

two ceases to

operate, both of

them

become

inopei;ptive.

Of

the two, a

man

should

of all subjugate, for ever,

the vital

(The means to be employed for attaiJiing this) are temperance in food, assuming the prop^ posture and the rousing of the power as the
air.

third step.

{h Z}

;

252

THE YOGA UPANIgADS

Temperance
Listen earnestly,
these,

in

Food
!

O Gautma

to the description of

which

I

shall presently deal with.

Partaking of
to S'lva

nourishing and sapient food, leaving off a fourth part of
it

is

and that too for affording satisfaction known as Temperance in food.

;

that
(3, 4)

The Padma and VajrSsana Postures
Postures are said to be of two kinds
:

the

PadmS-

sana and the Vajrasana.
his feet over the

When

one places the soles of
sole

two thighs (crosswise, the right sole

over the

left

thigh

and the

left

over the right

thigh), this
all

becomes the Padma posture, which destroys
should place the
left

sm.

One

heel under the knot

of the navel

head and Vajrasana posture.

and the other heel over it, with his neck, body in a line. This is known as the
(4-6)

The Rousing of the Power and the Two Ways of Practising It
The Kundali alone would constitute the power. The knowing man should rouse it well, from its own
seat (in
tl\f

region of the navel) on to the middle of the
(This)
is

eyebrows.

said to be the
it

rousing of the

power.

In the practice of

are two things important

tbe rousing of the Sarasvati (NStJl) and the holding up of the vital
air.
its

Then, by such
rectitude.

practice, the

Kup^ini
(7,

wottid acquire

8)

THE yOGA-KUljpALy-UPANIgAD

253

The Rousing of the
Of
the two,
I

Sarasvati
about

shall presently relate unto thee
it

the rousing of the Sarasvati, even as

was

related unto

ArundhatT by knowers
of
it

(of

Yoga) of yore.

By the

rousing

(the

Sarasvati-nadi), the Kundalinl itself does
;

by

no means move when the vital air courses through the Ida and the Padmasana posture has been firmly
assumed, the

man

of clear

intellect

should elongate

atmosphere of four digit-len^ths to twelve digit-lengths,
surrounding the (Susumna)
vital air)

Nadi with such (elongated
it

and then should hold

fast

with (the aid of)

both of the thumbs and forefingers of his hands (placed
over the ear-holes, the nostrils and the mouth) and,

with his

own
(of

effort,

pass the vital air from the right

into the left (Nadi)

again and again, for a couple of

Muhurta-s
without

one and a half hour's duration each)
fear.

any

Then should

the

man

of clear

draw upwards the Susumria having its abode m the Kun^all. By such act the Kundalinl would reach the mouth of her Susumna (Na^l). Then, this vital air would quit it and of its own accord reach the SusumpS. Then should he make the Tapa (Bandha) in the belly and when the constriction of the throat is effected, by the rousing of the Sarasvati, the vital air of the chest would (be forced to) take an upward course.
intellect slightly

With the rousing
vital air

of the Sarasvati he should expel

t^

through the Solar Na^l (Piiigala) and by tbe con^riction of the throat, the vital air of the cliest

would (be forced

to)

take'

an upward course.

Hei^

:

254

THE YOGA UPANI?ADS

should (the Yogin) always roase the Sarasvati pregnant
with sound and by such rousing alone the Yogin will be
rid of diseases.

Dyspepsia, dropsy, enlargement of the

spleen and other such diseases affecting the middle of

the belly,

all

these perish of a certainty by the rousing
(9-18)

of the Sarasvati.

The Varieties of PrInayama
Then
the
I

shall

presently

relate
is

briefly

about the
(holding

control of the vital air.

Prana
is

air

coursing through

body and

Ayama

is

said to be

Kumbhaka
is

under control).
alone by

The same

said to be of two kinds
practised)

the combined (Pranayama) and that (which
itself.

One should

practise

the combined

Pr5nayama till he attains success in the (practice of Kumbhaka) alone by itself. The Kumbhaka which is practised along with Surya, Ujjayi, S^itali and Bhastrl as the fourth, that is the combined Kumbhaka. (19-21)

The SuryS-kumbhaka
In a hallowed and secluded spot devoid of pebbles

and the

like,

which

is

extent), 4evoid of chillness,

withm the ambit fire and water,

of a

bow

(in

sacred,

seat neither high nor low, which gives comfort

on a and is

easy to take, assuming the Baddha-padmSsana posture,

and with the rousing of the
in the external air

Sarasvati, slowly drawing

through the right

NS^h one should
and then

llU'ia the air as

much

as could be desired

THE YOGA-KUNDALY-UPANI^D
expel
it

255

through the I<^ or drive up the

air slowly for

purifying the skull.

This destroys the four kinds of

disorders arising out of V5ta and also intestinal worms.

This should be practised again and again and
as the SSrya variety.

is

known
(22-26)

The UjjXyI-kumbhaka
With
the

mouth
it

well under control, slowly

drawing

the air through the two Nadi-s

(I^ and

Piiigala) in

such a way that

may occupy

the space from the

making a noise, one should hold the vital air as before and then expel it through the This meritorious and excellent practice removes 145. the heat produced in the head, and phlegm of the neck and further, drives away all diseases and raises the warmth of the body and destroys the dropsy of the Na^l-s and the disorders affecting the humours. This should be performed by one while moving and standing and is known as the Kumbhaka called Ujjayl. (26-29).
throat up to the heart,
;

The

S'iTALi-KUMBHAKA
after
ay:

forming)

The man of clear intellect should, Kumbhaka as before, draw in the
it

(per-

through

the tongue and should slowly expel
nostrils.

through the two

Dyspepsia,
disorders,

the
thirst

like

enlargement of the spleen and consumption, biliousness, fever,
this

and

poisons,

Kumbhaka known

as S^all
(30,

kUls.

9^y

256

THE YOGA OPANl^ADS

The BhastrX-kumbhaka
The man
masana
line,

of clear intellect, after assuming the Pad-

and keeping his neck and belly iij a controlling well the mouth with effort, ipK>nld
posture,

expel the vital air through the nose, in such a
it

\^y

that

occupies with a noise the cranium from the

titroat.

He He

should

fill

in a little air
it

up

to the lotus of the heart.
fill it

should again expel

as before and

in,

again

and again. Even as the pair of bellows of blacksmiths is blown in quick succession, in the same manner should he cause the air in the body to move slowly.
Until fatigue
is

"experienced by the body, he should
Until the belly

expel the air through the solar Nadi

becomes

filled

with the

air, lightly

holding the middle

oi the nose with the two forefingers, but not tightly,

performing
air

Kumbhaka

as before, he should expel the

away the heat produced in the throat, raises the warmth of the body, kindles the Kundali, is endowed with good qualities and
through the Ida.
This, which takes
kills

sin,

is

auspicious

and health-giving, destroys the

phlegm and other obstruction in the interior of the mouth of the Brahma-nadl, breaks through the three
kinds of swelling brought about by the operation of the three Guna-s, should be specially performed. This is

known

atf

the

Kumbhaka

called the Bhastra.

(32-39)

Rule Relating to the Three Kinds of Bandha-s

When Kumbhaka

of the four varieties has

be^i

'pfM mastered, these three Bandha-s should be practised

THE

y06A-KU?»p!AtY.ypANI§AD

257
first is

by the Y<^n-s devoid of impunties.
Msla-l»ndha.
(here under),

The

the

The second

is

named

U^t^iyana.
is

The

third is the JSlaifidhara.

Their description

detailed
(40, 41)

The Mola-bandha
one makes the Apana with the downward course move upwards by force, by constriction (of the
sphincter-muscle of the rectum) as they call
it,

When

this is

known as Mula-bandha.

When

the

Apana coursing

upwards reaches the region of fire, then the flame of fire, caused by the vital air to move up, increases in its height. When the fire and the Apana reach the heated Prana
(vital air), then

by that (Prapa)

in

an overheated condi-

tion

is

a flame generated in the body.
Ku9<3Ulini,

By

that flame

the sleeping

being very

much

heated,

is

roused and like a snake belaboutcd with a stick, be-

comes
hole,

erect with hissing

and by way

of entering its

reaches the interior of the Brahma-na^T-

Hence
(42-46)

should always be practised the Mula-bandha by the
Yogin-s.

The UppiYSyA-BANDHA
After
vital
air,

the

Kumbhaka and

before expelling the

U^^^y^Q^^^ has to be performed, by which Bandha the Pi5pa (vital air), rises up into the Susunn^ Ns4i and for that reason this has been called
the

by Yogin-s by the name U 33

of U<34iyana.

While

in^lMe

258

THE YOGA UPANI?ADS

Vaji^sana posture, one should firmly hold with the two hands the two feet and press the knot near the region of
the ankles against them.

Then he should

resort to the

Pasrcima-tana in the belly, the heart and the neck,

whereby the Prana

(vital air),

would slowly and steadily
This should always be
all

reach the junction of the belly.

f)erformed slowly, after shaking off the belly.

disorders of
(47-50)

The Jalamdhara-bandha
The Bandha, known
This
air, ot

as the Jalaipdhara, should be
(after inhalation).

performed at the end of the Puraka
IS

causing obstruction to the passage oi the vital

the fotm of constricting the throat.

When

cons«

triction of the throat is

the nether part of

it

made by suddenly contracting and with the Pas'cima-tana of the
will

middle,

the

vital

air

enter the

Having assumed the proper posture well, described above and roused the Sarasvatl, he should
control the Prana-air.
(51-53)

Brahma-nS^, in the manner

Prescription Regarding the

Number of Times

of kumbhaka practice
day should be practised the four kinds of Kumbhaka-s, (at the rate of) ten of each several On the second day in the same way, but with kind. the nnmber increased by five. On the third day,
the
first

On

twenty

(of

each kind)

will do.

Thence, Everyday, b^

THE ^OGA-KUlgnpALy-UPANI§AD
increasing the

259

number by

five (progressively) per day,

the

Kumbhaka

should be performed everyday along
(54, 55)

with the three Bandha-s.

The Obstacles to the Practice of Yoga and
Overcoming them
Sleeping during day-time (results from) keeping

awake or excessive sexual mtercourse at night several (evil) concomitants (arise) from constant obstruction to the passing of urme and faeces disorders mcidental to
; ;

irregular

jxKtures

(spring)

out of (the practitioner's)
with
eflTort

anxious
breathing

thought
of
air.

bemg devoted

to the

When

the practitioner with
is

doe

restraint holds his breath, disease

very soon produc:

ed.

has

And when he complams been generated m me
",

m

this

manner

" Disease

because of the practice of
should refrain from such

Yoga

thenceforward he

practice.

Thus

is

said
is

to

be

the

first

obstacle
to
its

The second is what efficacy). The third
fourth
is

known

as doubt

(as

is

the state of confusion.

The

called

indifference.

The

fifth

is

of the

form of
is

sleep.

The

sixth

is

cessation.

The seventh
affairs

said to be delusion.

Concern with worldly
is

is

the eighth.
is

What
;

could not

be adequately des-

cribed

the ninth

while the tenth

by wi^

men said

to be the non-aptitude for the understanding o£ the truth of Yoga, The intelligent practitioner should

avoid the aforesaid ten obstacles by means of dose
investigation.

(56-61)

260

THE YOGA UPAKI^ADS

The Rousing of the

KuijipALiNi by

the

Practice of Yoga

Then should

the practice of regulating the breath
intellect,

be constantly performed by the man of
abiding faith in the truth.
,

with

In the

Susumna the mind

takes

its

repose.

The

vital air

does not leap forwards.

When

the accumulated impurity (clogging the Susumi^iS''

nS[d!) IS

completely withered and the passage of vital
the

air through

Susumna
therein,

is

effected,

by performing

Kevala-kumbhaka

then,

the

Yogm
,

forcibly

causes the Apana air with the downward course to

move

upwards by constriction, as they say this is what is termed the Mula-bandha. The ApSna having taken an

upward course goes along with fire to the seat of the PrSna (vital air). Then the fire, mixing up the PrS^a and Apana, soon reaches the Kundalinl. The sleeping (Kundalini with) the coiled form, being well heated by that fire and roused by the flow of air, stretches its body in the interior of the mouth of the Susumn3.
(62-66)

The

Kundalini, Reaching the Thousand-spoked

Lotus by Bursting through the Three Knots
Then breaking through
the

knot

of

Brahman

generated out of Rajo-gupa, the Ku^^alini will at once flash like a streak of lightning in the mouth of the

Sufumi^.

Then

it

higher up, taking

its

soon reaches the knot of Vispu stand in the heart ; thence it goes

THE yOGA-Kir^pALY-UPAMI^AD
farther higher up,

261

where there is the Rudra-granthi and breaking through the middle of the eyebrows, where the
knot has
its

origin

in

the AjCS-cakra,

it

reaches the

F^ion of the cool-rayed Moon, where the Cakra with the sixteen petals, known as An-ahata, is there the vital
;

air causes the moisture,

produced by the cool-rayed

Moon

to dry

up of

its

own accord

;

then

moved

aloft

by the force of the PiSna (vital air) the Sun dries up the blood and the bile. When the Prana reaches the circle of the Moon, where there is pure phlegm in the form of
a fluid sprinkled, how can this
fluid of a cold character

become hot

?

So

also the white form of the

Moon

is

heated violently at once.
copiously.

The

agitated

(Kundalini)

moves upwards and the more As a result of swallowing this, with the Citta (of the Yogin) kept away from all sensual pleasures, the young practitioner, exclusively absorbed in the Atman and partaking oi the sacrificial offering
shower of nectar flows
called nectar, will take his stand

m

his

own

self.

(67-73)

The Dissolution of Prana and

Ot|jers and

THE Spreading Outwards of Dissolved Ones
The KuQ^linl
sr3ra)

then goes to the seat (of the Sahathe
eight

giving

up

forms

of

the

Prakfti

(Earth, Water, Fire, Air, Ether, the Manas, the Baddhi

and the Ahaiplfira) and after clasping (the eye,- the mind, the Pr3^ and others) m her embrace goes to S^iva and clasping (S'iva as well) dissolves herself (in the SahasrSra). So also the very next momentttlm

2^
the Sfokla

THE YOGA UPAMI^ADS

Rajas, (solar and born of Prakfti, the Jlva-tattva) and
(lunar,

of

the Isfvara), these two dissdire

themselves in S'lva (seated in the Bindu of the Sahasiftra).

The

very next
;

moment

thereafter the breath

the PrSpa and the 'ApSna born same quality as and m the presence of together (of the S^iva in the Sahasrara, t.e., non-differentiated) do UImsalso dissolves itself
wise, having reached

an equipoised condition (no longer

going up or down). Then (with the Pr3^ spread outwards) in the form of attenuated elements or (in the mere

t«membrance
form of

reduced to the form of the faint impressions and speech remaining only
of
it)

the

mmd

m

recollection, (the Yogin) thrives.

All vital airs

then spread themselves outright
gold in a crucible placed

m

(his body),

even as
(74-76)

on

fire.

Experiencing everything as Consciousness

Alone during SamSdhi

By

causing the body

made
in the

of the elements to be

absorbed in a subtle state

form of the supreme
attain

deity (the Paramatman), the body (of the Yogin), giving

up

its

impure corporeal
state

state,

will

the very

subtle

of the
all

pure

Brahman

(supporting the

Prapafica, from

sides around).

That which is released
is

from

the state

of
is
is

nonsentience, which

devoid of

ittipartties,

which

of the character of absolute conof

sctoi^ness, which

the character of the attribute

"I"
of

of

all

beings, (the
is

That alone

Brahman), the subtlest form the Truth (underlying all things).

THE The
rel^ise

YCXJA-KinsnpAtr-UPANl§AD

263

from the notion that the Brahman is qoalifi^, the delusion about the existence or nonexistence of anything apart from the Brahman (which should be annihilated) and experiences such as these that remain, these the Yogin should know as the Brahman and simultaneously with the dawning of such
knowledge of the form of the Atman, is liberation attained by him. When such is not the case, only all kinds of absurd and impossible notions arise, such as the rope-serpent and absurd notions brought about by
delusion, such as the notion which

men and women

have of
pensh.

silver

in

the shell of the pearl-oyster, only to

(The Yogin should realize) the oneness (of the VW\^tman and others up to the Tunya) of the microcosm, with the (Virad-atman and others up to the

Tunya
the

of the)

macrocosm, also of the Lii\ga with the
state, of

SOti^tman, of Sleep with the unmanifested

Xtman manifested

m

one's self with the

Stman
(77-81)

of consciousness.

SamXdhi-yoga

The

auspicious power, Kun^alini by name, which

resembles the hne hbre of the lotus-stalk, having bitten
the knot-like MolldhSra with the top of
it

its

hood, as

if

were the root of the lotus and taken holcf of its tail with its mouth, reaches the Brahma-randhra. The
I»actttioner, after

assuming the Padmasana posturet

i^maising at ease, constricting the anus, sendii^ jgj^ wards (throngh the Susum^S path) the vital air, shooM

264

THE YOGA UPANI§ADS
In virtue

have his mind absorbed in the Kumbhaka.
of the

action

of

the

vital

air,

the

fire,

reaching the

SvadhisthSna bursts into a blaze. The king of serpents,
the Kundahni, roused by the onslaught of the
the rushing of the
of
air, fire

and

then breaking through the knot

Brahman, thereafter breaks through the knot of Visnu. Having broken through the knot of Kudra also,
Then,
S'akti
(of

he breaks through the six lotuses.
sand-petalled lotus the
the
(Kun<Jalini)

m

the thou-

delights in

company

of S'lva.

This state

having pierced

through the phenomenal world of difTerences and reach-

ed the form of the

Brahma-vidya) alone should be

known

as the transcendent state of Videha-mukti
is

and

this alone

the cause of the manifestation of

Supreme
(82-87)

Bhss.— Thus.

CHAPTER

II

The Khe-cari Vidya
Then
of dotage
I

shall presently relate

as the Khe-cari.

He

about the Vidya styled who has duly mastered this is devoid
in this world.

and death
to

He who

is
!

afflicted

with mortality, disease and dotage,

coming intellect more
after

know

of this

Sage should, VidyS and applying his

O

firmly, practise well the Khe-cari (travers-

He who has gained a knowled©£ of the Khe-cari from books, from the exposition oi
ing the ethereal regions).

!

THE YOGA-KUNpALY-UPANl§AD

255

the meaning of the same and from having recourse to
its

practice,

becomes the destroyer of dotage, death and

disease on the face of this Earth.

Him

should one aphis

proach for
all

shelter, looking

upon him as

Guru from
of

points of view.

The Khe-cari-vidya

is difficult

had only with great attainment. difficulty. Its practice and performance do not simultaneously bring success (to the practitioner). Those that are intent on practice alone do not discover the
Its practice can be

(right
tice,

mode oO performance. One attains (right) pracO Brahman at sometime in the course of several
'

births,

but right performance

is

seldom attained even

at

the end of a hundred

births.

The Yogm,

after

making

practice (of the right sort) at the

end of several

births, gets, at

sometime

m

some other

birth, the (right

mode

of)

performance, rendered possible by such pre-

vious practice.

When

the Yogin gets (the secret of)
his

performance from the mouth of
of books
(relating to the

Guru, then alone

does he attain success therein, as described
Vidya).

m

the series

When

he attains

success in performance, both out of theoretical know-

ledge gleaned from books and
practice,

its

application in actual

then he attains the state of S'lva^ liberated

from

all

attachment to worldly

affairs.

Even Guru-s

are powerless to impart instruction without reference to

the S^stra-s (bearing on the subject).
this

Hence,

O

S^stra

is

much more

difficult of access.

Muni So long

as he does not get the

S'5stra, the

mendicant has to
till

wander over the face
however, the S'astra U 34
is

of the

Earth

then.

When,

got, then stands success oi> the

266

THE YOGA UPANI§ADS
of his hand.

palm

Success has nowhere been met with

in the three worlds without the S'astra.

Hence, one
unswerving,

should think 'of

S'lva,

the bestower of successful perS'astra, the

formance, the bestower of the
refuge (under him).

the bestower of the right sort of practice, and then seek

Having got

this S'astra

from me,

one should not reveal it to others. Hence, with all effort should ii be guarded as a secret, by him who knows it. Resorting to that place where the Guru, the
bestower of the divine Yoga
understanding with a
subtle
is,

O Brahman

!

there,

intellect

the Khe-carl

Vidya as taught by him, one should, under his instructions,

giving

commence his practice, in way to sloth. The Yogin
to

right earnest without
will attain successful

accomplishment
sorting

of the Khe-cari out of this lore.

Re-

the

Khe-can Yoga, along with the Khe-cari
with the Khe-cari Bija
(" Hrlip, etc.,")

Mudra,

filled

having become the lord of the Khe-cara-s (the Sun), (after disembodiment), the Yogin will always, dwell in
the worlds floating in the expanse of Ether.
(1-17)

The Extraction of the King of Mantka-s, THE Khe-cari Mantra
(By joining together) the Khe-cara (the letter H," which goes by that name), the Avasatha (the letter " T " representing the power of retention) and Vahni (the letter " R ", signified by fire) and bedecking
"
it

with the Ambu-mandala (the nasal half-syllable " ", known as Bindu, signified by the \yord " Drop of

^

THE YOGA-KU^ALY-UPANI§AD
water
")>

267

what
(is

" Hriqi "

known as the Khe-cari Bija, viz^ obtained). The Yoga, known as Lambika,
is

(hanging in middle space) performed with that, will be
successfully accomplished.

Then should he

extract

the ninth letter from Somarps'a (the Candra-bija " Sa ") counting backwards from it, vtz., the letter " Bha "

;

thence the ninth letter counting forwards, the letter of

Sa " thence the eighth letter counting backwards, vtz., " Ma," as the next letter, O Mum similarly the fifth letter taken in that manner
the form of the

Moon,

vtz., "

;

!

(backwards) from such letter
letter
{vtz.,

{vtz.,

"

Ma

") as the

next

" "

Pa
Sa

"),
*',

then the letter indicated by the

Moon,
;

vtz.,

vara) and (lastly) and the Anusvara).
syllables),

marked with the Anus" the Kuta (made up of " K and sa
(all

these

(Thus gathered together, the seven
(17-20)

Hriip,

Bham, Sam, Mam, Pam, Sam and

Ksaip, (constitute the Khe-cari Mantra).

By Muttering the Mantra, the Khe-cari
(Yoga)
This
bestows
is

is

Successfully Accomplished

attamed only out of the Guru's precept and
the accomplishments attainable through

all

Yoga.

The Yogin,
it

the

Maya

born out of whose body

takes shelter

m his curbed internal organs of sense, would
even in his dream.

not attain

He who

mutters

this,

with the proper amulet, 500,000 times a day for twelve

days continuously, for him there
Yoga.
All obstacles vanish

will result, of its

own

accord, the successful accomplishment of the
;

Khe-can
bestow

his tutelary deities

26S

THE YOGA OPANIgADS
and grey hairs will meet with Having obtained this great
it

their grace; Avnnkles

destruction without doubt.

Vidya, he should then practise
wise,
to

with fervour.
of

Other-

Brahmana it wears away and is the Yogin. When, in the course of the
!

O

no avail

practice in

the path of the Khe-carl, one does not gain this Vidj^,

which

IS filled

with nectar, then in the course of

its

per-

formance he should attain the Vidya and should ever mutter it. Adopting any other course, O Brahmana
!

he

shall not attain

even a

little

success.

When

this

S'astra is attained, then

should he seek shelter in the
will

Vidya.

Then

the

Mum

soon attain the success
(21-27)

arising out of the Vidya.

The Method to

be Adopted for the

Practice of the Khe-cari
Having
the palate,

drawn up the tongue from the root of the knower of the Atman should, for seven
well

days, cleanse
his

Guru.

manner described by Having brought a sharp-edged, well-oiled
all

impurities in the

and clean instrument resembling the
hedge

leaf of the milk-

plant, he should then scrape off the

froenum of

the tongue, to the extent of the breadth of a hair (with

the instrument).

Leaving

off every other kind of work,

he should treat with the application of the yellow myrobalam and rock-salt well-pulverized together.

When
scrape

seven days have elapsed, he should once again
it off,

only to the extent of the breadth of a hair.

In this manner, by degrees he should practise for six

THE YOGA-KU^JpALY-UPANl§AD
months, applying himself to
In
at
it

269

always with due care.
fold of skin (froenum)

the course of six

months the
tongue

the base of the

will

vanish.

The Yogin

should then bandage the tip of the tongue with a piece
of cloth

and then should he draw it up gradually, after knowing the proper season, time and manner of action. In the course of the next six months, O Mum by thus
!

daily

pulling

it

up,

it

will

reach the middle of the eyeear.

brows and obliquely up to the crevice of the

Being moved by stages,
far

it

will

reach downwards as
In
the

as

the root

of

the
it

chin.

course

of

mood, reach up to the fnnge of the hair over the crest, and obliquely up to the root of the tuft and downwards up
the next three years
will,

quite in a playful

to the well

of the throat.
it will

three

years,

In the course of the next undoubtedly reach the Brahmait

randhra and stand surrounding
quely
stretch
It

completely.

Obli-

will

reach the outer surface of the crest, and
to the crevice of the throat

downwards up
will

and

gradually

burst open the Maha-vajra door of the

cranium.

(When)

the Khe-carl Vidya described above,
(syllables),

along with the concerned Bija
cult

becomes

diffi-

of attainment,
of

then

should he observe the six

Anga(-nyasa-s)
syllables (of the

the Vidya, by muttermg the six
their distinct intonations.

Mantra) with

In

the

same manner should he perform the Karaall

ny5sa-s for the purpose of attaing

accomplishments

manner should the practice be made step by step and not all at once. Whosoe^'er practises all at once, his body shall meet with dissolution
and the
like.

In this

270
Hence,

THE YOGA UPAN1§ADS

the Muni-s the practice whereby the tongue could reach should be by stages, the crevice of the Brahman by the external path.
chief
!

O

among

Then pressmg with
Brahman,
in

the tip of the finger the bolt of the

(the

Uvula) unbreakable even by the gods,

(the Yogin)
this

should thrust his tongue alone.

By

doing

manner for three years one opens the door After entering the Brahmaleading to the Brahman.
dvara, one should
well.

commence

the practice of churning
it

Certain adepts practise

even without churning.
successfully attained
is

In the case of the Yogin

who has

the fruits of the Khe-cari Mantra, there

success even

without the churning.

Having performed the mutterof gold, silver

ing of prayer and the churning, very soon he will get

the

fruit.

Having placed a probe made

or steel
nostril,

along with a thread soaked in milk in the
holding the vital airs

m

the heart

and assuming

a posture comfortable to himself and with his eyes
firmly fixed in the direction of the middle of the eye-

brows, he should gradually
perly.

make

the churning

pro-

In the course of six months churning will be
it,

accomplished by the mere thought of
in the case of children, the

even as sleep

mere thought being enough

to bring

It

about.

(Practising) churning always con-

tinuously does no good and should be resorted to once

a month. *rhe Yogin cannot traverse the path with his
tong.ue always.

By

practising in this

manner for twelve

years will success be surely achieved.

The Yogin

will

himself see, in his body (the microcosm), the entire universe (the macrocosm) distinctly (by stages,

and the

THE YOGA-KUlSipALY-UPANlSAD
forms of the
Viraj,
in

271

Sutra,

Blja and TuryStman-s).

Wherein

{i.e.,

the Sahasrara) the upward ascending
{i.e.,

Kuruialinl, with the shining teeth

the tongue of

the Yogin) traverses, that
the macrocosm.

is

the great path resembhng
(28-49)

— Thus.

CHAPTER

III

THE MELANA-MANTRA
{Hrim,

Bham,
in

Sain,

Mam,

Pain, Sam,

K§am)
in
as,

Difference

Seeing due to difference

THE Phases of the Li'nak Fortnight, such
Ama-vasya, Pkatipad and Plknima

Quoth Brahman

:

Pray relate unto me, O S'amkara about what is symbohcally described as Ama-vasya {complete shutting), Pratipad (partial shuttmg) and Paurna-masi (keeping wide open the eyes). When durmg practice there
!

is difficulty felt in

exercising the eye, during such times

the Pratipad (using the eye half-shut)or the Ama-vasya (keeping
it

completely shut) should be resortedget

to.

One

should

confirmed

and

stabilized

m
is

the

Paurpa-masi (using the eye wide open).

That

the

way and none

other.

(1, 2)

272

THE YOGA UPANIgADS

Rule Regarding the PCrnimS
Going
in

Vision

quest of sensual pleasures, due to desire

and passion and getting deluded in the gratification of desire and passion, due to attachment towards sensual
pleasures, these two should the Yogin always entirely

avoid

and seek
he desire

shelter in

the non-unctuous
to his

Stman.
his

Should

what conduces

own

welfare, he

should give up every other thing.

Having projected

mind (endowed with Purnima
S'akti,

vision) into the Kundalini

then again concentrating his mind in the middle
(it

of the S'akti, looking at

through) his mind with his
in

mind,

(t.e.,

by conceiving

the
its

mind

intent

upon

directly perceiving the

form of

prime cause, the

Brahman, by assuming the attitude, " I am the Brahman,") and giving up that also this is the transcendent
;

state (of Kaivalya, aloneness).

The

mmd

alone

is

the

and the cause of the creation and sustenance of the (phenomenal world). The Hindu is generated from the mind. Even as what is of the character of ghee IS milk (so also what is of the character of the Bindu IS the mind). (Though the mind is, of its own making, subject to bondage), the Bindu (the Is'varatattva, which is swayed by the mind) is not subject to any bondage, (as the mind after all partakes of the
Is'vara)

Bindu (the

nature of false existence)

;

nor does
(as

it

(the

Bindu)

resemble

its

cause, the mind,

when the
(in

mmd

is

gone, the Bindu inheres in the non-differentiated Brah-

man, as

Is'vara).

There
is

is

bondage

the form of the

mind), where there

the Kun«^linj S'akti,

midway

THE YOGA-K0^IpALY-0PANl§AD
between the Moon
(of the

273

Brahma-randhra) and the Having known this (that thfe Sun Kupdahni is the cause of the bondage of the mind) and broken through (the three knots of the) Susumna Nadi and projected the vital air, (the eye and the mind) through the middle (of the Susumna Nadl), be should make the vital air rest firmly in the Bamdava-sthana
(of the Muladhara).

(the middle of the eyebrows, etc., with the mental conception, " I am the Is'vara,") and control the breath (by

performing Kevala-kumbhaka)
(the crevice of the vital air).

in

the Prana-randhra,
well

Then having known

the vital the

air,

the reputed Bindu, the absolute existence,
(primordial

Prakrti

matter) and the six Cakra-s

(centres of psychic energy), he should enter the region

of Bliss (the Yogananda).

The Muladhara,
is is

the Sva-

dhisthana, the Marii-pura, which

the third, the Anthe sixth,
is

ahata, the Vis'uddhi and the AjSa, which are the six centres of energy).

The (Mula) Adhara
; ;

said to be the region above the anus

the Svadhisthe Mani-

th5na to be of the region of the genitals
pura of the region of the navel
the heart
;
;

the An-ahata seated

m

the Vis'uddhi at the root of the throat and
(3-11)

the Ajfia-cakra in the frontal region.

By the Practice of the Control of the Vital Breath is Attained the Viraj-form
Having
the vital
well

known the

six Cakra-s,

he should enter

the region of
aii*

Bliss".

He

should enter by drawing in

through that (Susumipa Na4i) alone

^d

U

33

tIA
Jj®ep
it

THE YOGA UPAKI§ADS
trending upwards.
will

By

training the vital air thus

(the

Yogin)

pervade the entire macrocosm (by

taking the form of the Viraj).
the vital
(mind).
air,

He

should thus train

the

Bmdu,

the

Cakra and the Citta
(12, 13)

Without the Practice of Yoga, there
WILL BE NO Manifestation of One's

OWN Stman

By

the one (non-differentiated Nir-vikalpa-yoga)
the equipoised state of Samadhi, (which

Yogm-s attam
fire,

leads to) the immortal (nectar-like Brahman).

Even

as

which inheres

in the (S'ami) log of

wood,

will

not rise

up without churning, so also without the practice of
Yoga, the light
pot),

of

knowledge cannot be
all
is

lit.

The

light

placed inside a pot does not at
but when the pot
itself

shine outside (the

broken, the flame of the light

makes

manifest.

One's own body
pot, even as the

is

said to

occupy the place of the
(place of the) lamp.

Atman, the
(14-16)

The Knowlege

of the Brahman to be

Derived from the Guru's Precept
Simultaneously with the Guru's precepts, when (ignorance) vanishes, the knowledge of the Brahman
will

dawn clearly (on the mind). Having attained the Guru as his helmsman and made a boat of his subtle teachings, by dmt of the impressions left. on their mind?

THE YOCA-KU^JDALY-UPAHISAD
during their tutelage, wise
worldly existence.

275

men

cross the ocean of
(17, 18)

The Bearing of the Brahman on the
Proper Functioning of the Sense-organ
OF Speech
Having sprouted up
An-ahata), budded in the
in

the Par5 (of the MulsC-

dhara), turned into two leaves in the Pas'yanti (of the

Madhyama

(of the Vis'uddhi),

(the function of speech) has blossomed in the Vaikhari
(of

the

neck).

Speech which had
will,

its

origin in the

when the order is reversed, reach the vanishing stage. Of that organ of speech, the supreme lord is the eternal and immutable Paramatman, who rouses the power of speech. That person who always rests in the conviction " I am He ", is in no way affected,"^ even though spoken to in articulate
above-said manner,
sounds, high, low or vulgar.
(18-21)

The Bearing of the Brahman on the Universe and Other Phenomena
The
the
triad consisting of Vis'va, Taijasa

and

Prajfia,

triad

consisting

of

Viraj,

Hiranya-garbha and

macrocosm as well as the microcosm, the worlds Bhur and others in their proper order, meet with their dissolution in the inmost Atman, simultaneously
l^vara, the

With the dissolution of their respective prime causes.

The macrocosm and

the microcosm, the twain perisb

276

THE YOGA VPANI^DS
fire

along with their causes, when burnt with the

of

knowledge.

What

is

dissolved in the

ParamStman
(21-24)

becomes the Para-brahman alone.

The Brahman Has no Counterpart
Thereafter (after the dawnmg of the right knowledge,
that
all

but the

Brahman

is

nought) there
is

remams someand sublime,

what
which
is

of
is

existence,

which

tranquil

indescribable

neither radiance nor darkness outspread, which and indistinct, (which is " the absolute
certainly

Brahman and
Sfruti).

not non-existence," says the
(24, 25)

Meditation which

is

Employed as the' Means

OF Attaining the Brahman
upon the Xtman mherent in the middle (of the Sahasrara in the DvSdas^nta), as on a lamp placed inside a pot, one should meditate upon the Atman of the measure of a

Having

(at

first)

meditated

thumb,
radiance,

manifesting
that takes

itself
its

in

the form of smokeless
in

stand

the interior of the

bqdy as the imperishable (Supreme Stman) that is the eternal and immutable Kuta-stha. The Vijflan5tman in the body (though it is the Paramatman) is deluded by Maya (Illusion) due to the waking, dreaming and
sleeping states, and afterwards, desires to get trans*

formed agam
to ,the

into

its real self

(the

ParamStman), owing

mfluence of meritorious observances durii^

THE

yOGA-KU]|SEpAJLy-t7PAMJ?AD

277

several previous incarnations being brought to bear on " it. am I ? " " has this draw-back, knowp as

Who

How

worldly existence, been brought about
the destination during sleep for me,
ing in the waking

?

" "

Whither
?

is

who am

function"

and dreaming

states of existence

—completely
own

absorbed

in cares of this kind,

out of his

inner light and mainly out of ignorance trans-

formed apparently mto consciousness, tormented by external misery, (the Yogm) becomes burnt up even as
a
ball

of

cotton-wool
is

is

consumed by

fire.

When

knowledge
ing by
VijfSana

lost,

then the inmost

Atman

that has its

seat in the (internal Ether,

known
sides,

as)

Dahara, pervad-

spreading on
in

all

venly burns up the

a
all

moment.
that
is

completely
(the
like

of

Having in order burnt up the mind and of knowledge, it

Paramatman) shines always only in the interior, the lamp (allowed to burn) in a pot, (in the form

of

the

Stman

of

a

Videha-mukta, the disembodied
(25-32)

liberated one).

Liberation while yet Living and Liberation

AFTER Disembodiment
Whichever
thus,
till

saintly

(Yogm) continues
till

to meditate
his death,

he attains his sleep,

he attains
;

should be known as a Jivan-mukta

he

is

blessed

and

Giving up his jivan-muktastate, when his body meets with dissolution in course of time, he enters upon the state of Videha-mukti, (and
has discharged his duty.

remains as the Brahman alone, the

moment wisdom

278

THE YOGA UPANI^DS

dawns on him with the lapse of the mis-conception, that the body and the like are the Xtman and things
pertaining thereto), even as wind attains the state of
motionlessness.

(Then)

there

remains

that alone,

sound is nought (stands dissolved), touch is nought, form is nought, decay is nought, so also taste
wherein
all
is

nought, which

is

eternal,

wherem smell

is

nought,

which has neither beginning nor end, which transcends the most prodigious, which is constant, which is devoid
of

impurities

and which

is

non-ailmg.

Thus the
(33-35)

Upanisad.

THE YOGA-C0pXMAlSY-UPANI§AD
[This Upa^isad, which
the 108 Upanisad-8
after
is

the Forty-sixth

among

and forms part of the SSma-veda,
six-fold expedients to

expounding the

Yoga, deals

with the

Brahman

that has

no counterpart.]

The
I

Six-fold Stages of Yoga
about the Yoga-cu^-mani,

shall presently relate
in the

accomplishment of KaivaJya (alone-ness), which is a profound secret and which is resorted to by the most advanced knowers of Yoga,
which bestows success
with the
Yogin-s.

avowed object
Posture,

of

promoting the welfare of the

complete control of breath, with-

drawal of breath, the holding of breath, meditation and
absorption (through concentration), these six form the
stages of
(posture)

Yoga.

The Siddhasana
is

is

said to be one
(1-3)

and the second

the KamalSsana.

Knowledge of the Truth about the Body,
Essential for the Successful Accomplishment

OF Yoga
Th€^
six

Cakra>s (centres of energy), the six sup-

kmds of visions, the five kinds of Ether, be who does not know these in his own body, how can
port&» the three
tliere

be success

for

him

?

{\

4)

280

the

y<:)ga

upani§ads

The

Cakra-s,

MulIdhSra and Others
will

The (Mula) Adhara
petalled lotus,
the heart

be of four petals
In the navel
is

;

the

'^Svadhisthana of six petals.
is

the ten-

of twelve petals.
of sixteen petals
is
;

What

is

known as
in

the Vis'uddhi,

is

similarly

one oO two In the great path of the Brahma-randhra petals. of the Brahman) is the one whose petals are a (crevice
the

middle of the eye-brows

(the

thousand

m

number.

i^-^)

Sight of the Great Radiance at the Seat
OF the Genitals

The
IS

first

Cakra

is

the (Mula) Adhara

;

the second

the Svadhisthana.

the genitals,

Between the two is the seat of known as Kama-rupa. What is known as
the anus,
is

Kama
lini),

in the seat of

the four-petalled lotus.

In the middle of
called
it

it is

said to be the

Yoni (the Kup*^In the

Kama and

worshipped by adepts.

middle of
right

stands the Great Liiiga, facing backwards.
the gem-like image in the navel
is

He who knows
throbbing
like

the

knower of Yoga.
is

Shining

like

molten gold and
is

a streak of lightning,
in front of fire in it

the Tri-kopa,
genitals.

which

placed

and below the

Should there be seen

(synchronizing) with SamSdhi,

a great Radiance, endless and effulging outwards in the direction of the universe, there will be no more
necessity for the outgoing and

incommg

(of vital air

through the 1^5 and other
great Yoga.

Na<j[i-s), in

the practice of the
(6-11)

THE

YOGA-cOpXllAlIilY-UPAKI^AD

2^1

Description of the SvXdhi§xhJna and

OTHER CaKRA-S

By

the

word

'

Sva

'

is

indicated Praria (vital force)

;

Sv3dhisthSna is the abode of that (vital force). It is only from (the Prana-nS(Ji) that abides in the Svadhi8th3na, that the
knot,

Medhra

(genitals) is so called.

That

which is pierced through by the Susumna here, even as a gem is by a thread, that Cakra in the region of the navel is known as the Mani-puraka. Till
the Jiva discovers in the great Cakra of the Dvadas^ra,

devoid
Truth,
in

of
till

all

religious

merit

and sm, the
thus

highest
(swirling
heart).

then,

he

will

be

deluded
(11-14)

worldly existence,

with

his

seat in the

The Great Cakra of
Above the
genitals

NXpi-s
navel, there

and below the

is

the Kanda-yoni,

(the place of origin of the

Kanda)

resembling the egg of a bird.
seventy-two thousand
portant
NSijll-s.

There take

their origin

Of

the

thousands of

N54J-s, seventy-two are specifically mentioned as im-

and as carrying
:

vital air.

Of
the

these again, ten
the^

are noteworthy

the I^S,
the

the

PirtgalS,

Susum^S
the

as

the

third,

GarpdhSri,

Hasti-)ihva,

AlambusS, the KuhH and This great Cakra of ^he ^adkhinl as the tenth. NS^tl-s should always be known by the Yc^n-s.

Pb^, the

Yas'asvinl, the

;

iiS2

THE YOGA UPAKl^ADS

The Places
The
Ida stands on the
;

of the NXpI-s
left side
;

the PiAgala stands
;

on the right the Susumna stands m the middle place the Gandharl in the left eye the Hasti-jihva in the
,

right eye

;

the Pusa in the right ear
;

;

the Yasasvini in
;

the
in

left

ear

the

Alambusa

in
;

the

mouth

the

Kuhu
in

the region of the genitals
In this

and the S'ankhinl

the

anus.

manner

the Na<Ji-s stand in order, each
(18-21)
in

one occupying an opening.

The Vital

Airs that move

the NSpi-s

AND Their Functions

The

Ida,

Pingala and Susumna are placed
,

m

the

pathway of the Prana (vital air) they always convey the Prana (vital air) and have as their presiding deities

Soma, Surya, and Agni. The vital airs are the Praria, the Apana, the Samana, the Vyana, the Udana, the Naga, the Kurma, the Krkara, the Deva-datta and the Dhanaipjaya. The Prana stands forever in the heart the Apana m the region of the anus the Samana in the
;

region of the navel
throat
;

;

the

Udana

in the
;

middle of the

the

Vyana
vitai

in

the entire

the

principal

airs.

body these five are In belching (the concerned
the

vital air) is called the
(of the eyelids)
;

Naga

;

Kurma
the

is

in the

opening
(the
in

the Krkara should be

known as

vital

air)

that causes sneezing;

Deva-datta

yawning

the Dhanaipjaya pervading the entire frame, ; does not leave it, even when it is dead. These vital
(21>26)

principles circulate through all the NS<ji-s.

THE yOGA-CCpXMA^-UPANI?AD

283

The Pulsating of the

NXpI-s with the
is

PrXna (Vital Air) or otherwise,

an Index

OF the Pulsating of the Jiva or Otherwise
thrown by the forearm, moves onwards, so also the Jiva, thrown conjointly by the Pr5pa and Apana, does not rest. The Jiva is at the

Even as a

ball,

and Apana (vital airs) and runs downwards and upwards and is not seen to prevail m the right and left paths, on account of frequent motion. Even as a thief, bound with a cord, is again caught,
control of the Prai>a

even though he
to a state of

flees

away, even so the

Jiva,

reduced

bondage by the three Guna-s, is dragged by the Pr5na and Ap3na. The Jiva subject to the control of the Prana and Apana, moves down and up. The Apana drags the Prana and the Prana in its turn drags the ApSna. These two are placed up above and down below. He who knows (this) is the knower of
the Yoga.
(27-31)

The Meditation on the
(The
Jiva)

Ajapa GSvATTRr
the letter
'.
'

goes out with
'

Ha

'

and

enters again with the letter

always this Mantra
six

The Jiva mutters " Harpsa, Haipsa ". (formula) as
Sa
this

In the course of a day and night Twenty-one thousand

number, the Jiva mutters always. The GSyattri known as Ajapa, bestows By the mere resolve liberation always on the Yogin-s.

htmdred times, to the tune of

to

mutt»

this,

one stands released from

all sin.

The

284
like of

THE YOGA
this

UPATJJIMDS

Vidya, the like of this Japa, the like of this

knowledge, there has not been, nor shall be.
Gayattri, which has had
sustains one's Prana.
lore.
its

This

origin in

the Kuo4aHni,
is

The PiSna-vidyS
that, is the

the great

He who knows

knower of the Veda.
(31-36)

Breaking Open the Doors of Liberation

through the kundalini
The Kundahni
coils

S'akti

(vital
is

force),
in the

in

the upper

part of the knot (of the navel),
;

form of eight
its

and remains always covering with

face (the

Susumna Nadi), the orifice leading Brahman, through which orifice is
perfectly

to the door of the to be reached the

safe

door leading to the Brahman.
(the

The

great Goddess

Kundahni) sleeps with her face

closing that door.
fire

Waking by

the conjoint action of

and the mind along with the vital air, she, gathering her body, moves upwards like a needle through With the Kui^dahnj, the Yogm should the Susumna. burst open the door leading to Liberation (through attainment of the Brahman), even as the door of the the house is burst open with a key. Encasing the of both hands together (m a line with the heart, palms
in the attitude of prayer), then

assuming more firmly
posture, pressing

(than

hithertofore)

the

Padmasana

the -chin right against the chest as a preliminary to

m^itation, (inducing the j3laipdhara-bandha, by constricting the throat and also with the aid of the Mslabandha, constricting the anus),
filling

up the ApSna

;

THE YOGA-C0pXMANY-UPANI§AD
vital air, (the
(till

285
stage,

Yogin) should force

it

up stage by

becomes one with the Pra^a, vital air) means of Kumbhaka) and in virtue of the power (inherent in the Kundalini), gtvmg up the functioning of Pi^i^a (in the Kundblini), and applying himself to the meditation (of the Brahman, by assuming the attitude, " I am the Brahman, unaffected by contact with the gross, subtle and causal bodies ") and thereby fully awakened to an unequalled extent, (simulat last
it

thereafter (by

taneously with such awakening), the Yogin attains the

Prana (the Paramatman). Then massaging the limbs with the perspiration produced on account of his exertion, the Yogin should take to diet, wherein milk predominates, giving up astringent, acid and salted dishes, and should be a celibate, temperate in food and intent on the achievement of Yoga as his final resort. In the course of a little over a year, he will become an accomplished adept. There is no need for enquiry r^;arding
off
this.

He who

partakes of oily and sweet food, leaving

a fourth of the requisite quantity and eats for the
is

satisfaction of S'iva,
in

known

as one
is

who

is

temperate

food.

\^

The Ku^u^Iini "S'akti

of the form of eight
;

coils above the knot of the navel she is always for enmeshing fools therewith, (if below the knot) and bestowing liberation on Yogin-s, (when she reaches above the navel, through the Susum^a path)^ (36-44)

The Three Bandha-s
The Nabho-mudiS (Khe-can) is the great MudiS. That Yogin who knows the O^ySi^, Jslaipdhara^and

286

THE YOGA UPANI§ADS
is

Mula-bandha

the receptacle of Liberation.

That

is

known

as the Mula-bandha, wherein, having pressed

the gentials with the kick of the heel and firmly con-

draw the ApSna Even an old man always becomes vital air upwards. a young man by means of the Mula-bandha, on account of the union of the Prana and Apana vital airs and the
tracted the same, (the Yogin) should

diminution of urine and faeces.
bird soars high without
effort, that

Whereby
alone
is

the great

the O^ySiia,

the lion of the elephant of death.

Behind the belly

and below the navel, the Bandha is known as the (Pas'cima) Tana, while it is known as the O^ySria in Whereby one the belly, where a Bandha is prescribed. binds the water of ether having its origin in the head and flowing downwards,
for that

reason

(it is

known

as) the Jalaipdhara-bandha,

which destroys the numer-

ous ailments of the throat.

When

the jSlaipdhara-

bandha, which destroys the numerous ailments of the
throat,
fire,

is

effected, neither

does the nectar flow into the
(45-51)

nor does the vital air leap forwards.

The Khe-cari MudrS
That forms the K he-can MudrS, wherein the tongue moves (backwards) in a manner which is the reverse trf the natural one, and the sight has penetrated between the eyebrows He who knows the Khe-can
MudriT,
thirst
is

immune from

disease, death, sleep^ hunger,

and the fainting fit. He is not afflicted mtk disease of any kind, nor is he affected by the observance

THE YOGA-C0pXMAl|iy-UPANI§AD
(or the

283^

non-observance) of

rituals,

nor tormented in any

other manner,

who knows

the

the reason that the (thinking)

Khe-can Mudra. For mind functions in ether,

and the tongue moves in ether, for that reason the Khe-can Mudra is adored by all accomplished Yogm-s. (Yogin-s who have assumed the Khe-cari Mudra) consider all bodies (constituting the fourteen worlds)

from
for

head to foot
are

(as the

body of the Maha-virad-atman),
their

the reason that all bodies wherein the (fourteen) Na4l-s

established

take

origin

from Bindu (the
his

Is'vara).

He, by

whom
the

the orifice above the Uvula has

been
in the

planted

with

Khe-can Mudra,

Bindu
is

(seminal fluid) does not waste away, even though he

most beautiful woman. As long as the semen is conserved withm the body, so long where is the fear of death ? As long as the Khe-can Mudra is assumed, so long the seminal fluid does not
of the

warm embrace

flow out.

(52-58)

Description of a Yogin

Endowed with

Vajroli and other Powers

Even though the seminal
sight of a

fluid

should flash (at the

woman

out of the vesicle) and be at the point

of entering the vaginal cavity,
forcibly with the

it would, when restrained power of the Yoni-mudra (constriction of the genitals), take an upward course. The semen is They call of two kinds the pale white and the red. the pale white variety S'ukla and the red one Maha-rajas.
:

Rajas, which

is

of the colour of a

lump

of venntlj<»i.

288
remadns
in

THE YOGA UPANI$ADS
the solar region (above the middle of the
left),

eyebrows to the

while S'ukla remains in the lunar

region (above the middle of the eyebrows to the right).

two cannot be easily attained (by any one other than Yogm-s. The Bmdu (S'ukla) is Brahman, while the Rajas is the S'akti (creative energy). The Hindu is the Moon and the Rajas is the Sun. It
of the
is is

The mingling

only by the union of the two that the highest state
attained.

When

Rajas, induced by the power of the
air, effects

Kuijdialini,

along with the vital
all

a union with

the Bindu, then by
divine frame.

means (the Yogin)
S'ukla

will

assume the

combined with the Moon and the Rajas combined with the Sun, he who knows the harmonious blending of these two together, is the knower of the Yoga. (59-64)

The

The MahS-mudrS
The purification of Sun and the Moon
the network of Nadi-s causing
to

the

move and
the

the drying
this
is

the malignant

humours of

body

:

up of known as
left

the Maha-mudra.

Resting the chin on the chest, press-

ing the genitals for a fairly long period with the
foot,

holding with both hands the right leg strected out,

filling

both the bellies with breath, holding
it
:

it

there, the

Yogin should gradually expel
ailments of
Practising
practise
it

this destroyer of the

human
well

beings

is

known

as the

MahS-mudrS.
the

it

(first)

with the lunar N54i, one should

again with the solar Na<Ji.

When

num-

ber {of practices) becomes equal, then should he give

THE YOGA-COplMANY-UPANIgAD
up the Mudia. For him there
is

289

no proper or imptoper All insipid food becomes sapient for diet prescribed. Intemperate food, nay, the most virulent poison, him. taken by him is digested as nectar (with no untoward
consequences).
In the case of one

who

practises the

MahS-mudnf, symptoms antecedent
vanish.

to consumption, lep-

rosy, obstruction of the bowels, dyspepsia

and diarrhoea
should be pre(65-70)

This Maha-mudra

is

said to bring about great
It

accomplishments to human beings.
served as a secret with

much

effort

and should not be

indiscriminately bestowed on any person.

The Pranava-Prayer
Assuming the Padmasana posture aright, holding the body and head erect in a line, one should mutter
the imf>erishable Oipkara, in a secluded spot, with his

eyes resting well on the tip of the nose.

(71)

The Brahman, of the form of the
Import of the Pranava

Aum

(is)

the eternal, the pure, the awakened, the
the
flawless,

indeterminate,

the

indescribable

;

that

which has neither origin nor dissolution, the one, the Turiya, that which ever remains one, through the revolutions of the past, the present, and the future, the* al-

ways indivisible, the transcendent Brahman (is implied by the Prapava). From that was born (as it were) the Pais S'akti (of the essence of the character of Pure U 37

290
Radiance).

THE YOGA UPANIgADS
From
the

Atman

(the cause of the

Avyakta-

and the Mahat-Tattva-s) was begotten Ether.
Ether, Air.

From
Waters.
ele-

From

Air, Fire.

From

Fire, the

From

the

Waters, the Earth.

Of

these

five

ments, Sada-s'iva, Is'vara,
are the
five

Rudra, Visnu and

Brahman

lords.

Of

those.

Brahman, Visnu and
creation, sustenance

Brahman is characterized by MobiThus, lity, Visnu by Rhythm and Rudra by Inertia. Biahman bethese three are possessed of Guna-s. came the foremost among the Deva-s. Dhatr in
Rudra in destruction and Indra in enjoyment became the first-born. Of these, from Brahman, the (fourteen) worlds, the gods, the brute-kind and men (their denizens) and inanimate objects (their food and objects of enjoyment) take their origin. Of these, the body of men and the lower orders is a combination of the five elements. That (Jlva dwelling in the body) made up of the gross elements
creation,

Rudra have as and dissolution.

their

functions,

Visnu

in

sustenance,

(evolved from Panci-karana) consisting of the organs of

perception and motor action, including their cognitional
functions,

the five vital airs, Prana and others,

Manas

(the seat of cognition),
lect),

Buddhi
is

(the seat of the intel-

Citta (the seat of thought) and the Ahaipkara (the
said to be the (Vis'va

seat of ^elf-consciousness),

delighting in the waking state), the Sthula-prakfti (of a ^r6ss nature). (The Taijasa) existing in the subtle (body) during the dreaming state, with the organs of perception

and

motor

action,

including their cognitional

functions, the five vital airs, Prana

and

others,

Manas

THE YOGA-COplMA^ilV-UPANlJAD
and Buddhi, that
is

291

known only

as Linga (the inde-

structible subtle original of the gross

elements in a subtle state).
of the three Guipa-s
is

body made up of That which is possessed

the causal one, (wherein the

Prajfla delights during sleep).

Thus

there are three

There are four states of existence known as Jagrat (waking), Svapna (dreaming), Susupti (sleeping) and Tuny a (the fourth). The
kinds of bodies for
all

beings.

Purusa-s

(entities)

that are

the
:

controllers

of these

states are four

and Atman.
Taijasa

number thus Vis'va, Taijasa, Prajfla The Vis'va enjoys the gross (body) the
;

m

detachment; similarly the as for the one beyond that, he Prajila delights in Bliss The Pranava (the Turiya) should All- witness. IS the
enjoys

complete
;

remain (as the All-witncss)

m

all

kinds of Jiva-s, (that

have attained the Vis'va and other forms, enjoying, in their gross and other bodies, the waking and other
states)

always

(in their

mtenor), unconcerned with their

enjoyment, while the Abhirama (the Turiya that shines
all

around) should stand likewise aside

m

all

the three

states (waking,

with his

dreaming and sleeping, of face turned down.

all

the Jiva-s)
(72, 73)

The Meaning of the Several Limbs
of the praijiava
Akara,
Varpa-s,
three
there

Ukara and Makara; and thus the three
three

the

Veda-s,
three

the

three

worlds,
this

the

Guija-s,

the the

letters.

In
'

manner
in

shines

Pranava.

The

A

'

is

,the

'

292

THE YOGA UPANI§ADS
state
in

waking
'

and

in

the

eye of

all

beings.

The
'

U

'

is

the throat in the dreaming state
the heart, in the state of sleep.

and the

'

M

is

in

The
'

A
the

is

the Viiaj, the Vis'va and the Sthula.

The

U

'

is

Hiranya-garbha, the Taijasa and the Suksma.
'

The

M

is
'

the
'

Karana, the A-vyakrta and the PiSjHa.
said to be Rajasic (mobile), red in colour,
sentient.

The
(of

A

IS

Brahman, and

The U
'

'

is

said to be Sittvic

rhythm), white

in colour,

and Vispu.

The

'

M

'

is

Tamasic (of inertia), black in colour and Rudra. From the Prapava is generated Brahman, from the Pranava is generated Han, from the Praijava is generated Rudra, the Prapava verily becomes the Para (the transcendent Atman). In A is dissolved Brahman, in U is dissolved Han, in M is dissolved Rudra, the Pranava alone is manifest. (74-78)
likewise said to be
*
'

*

'

'

'

The Brahman Radiant at the Top of the
TURiVOMKARA

The Pranava
tend downwards.

will

tend upwards in the case of the
it

enlightened, while in the case of the ignorant

will

Thus

will the Pra^iava stand.

He

who knows

that, is the

knower of the Veda.

In the case

it will go upwards in the form of the Anahata, (the Brahman unbroken in the intenor and manifest in the Anahata-ether of the heart). Like an unbroken stream of oil and the long chiming of a bell,

of the enlightened,

the resonance of the Prsupava

is like that.

The topmost
That topmost

part of

It

IS

known

as the

Brahman.

'

THE YOGA-CCpXMAljrV-UPANI^AD
part
is

293

full

of radiance

and

is

indescribable, even with

the

sharpest intellect.
of yore,

Which

the high-souled
that,
is

ones

saw

he

who knows

the knower of
(79-81)

the Veda.

The Fourth Hamsa, the import of the Pranava
In the

waking

s^ate,

between the two eyes
'

is

mani-

Paramatman, unbroken in fest the The Sa (the Khe-cari Bija) is known the interior). as the Khe-cari, (that which moves in the AvyakrtaFlaijisa^ajone, (the
'

ether of the heart of

all

beings, reversing

its

subtle

form turned outwards) and hence has been conclusively
taken to indicate the Tvam-padartha, (the " Thou-substance," the innermost consciousness).

The

"

Ha"

will
will

be the Parames'a (the Paramatman, and hence
indicate conclusively this state, the
ness).
state),

Supreme Consciousits

When
"

the

*

Sa,'

the Jiva (giving up

own

Paramatman with the mentaJ I am He, the Paramatman " and comes attitude, to know of the same), it would surely become the Ha (which signifies the Paramatman and thus the Paramatman alone, in accordance with the S'ruti, " He who knows the Brahman, becomes the Brahman alone ")• The Jiva is subjugated and held under bondmeditates (on the
'

*,

age of the organs of sense
IS

(of his body), while the

Xtman
is
'

not so bound,

(as, in

the case of the former, there

scope for the springing up of the false conceptions of

I

and

'

mine,* with reference to the body, while in the
it is

case of the latter

not so).

The Jiva will be afiected

;

294

THE YOGA UPANlgADS
'

by the sense of
will

mine,' while the absolute

(Xtman)
'

stand affected by the absence of the

mine

'-

sense.

(82-84)

The Muttering of the

Franava, making the

Absolute Atman Manifest
Bhur,

Bhuvar, Svar, these worlds have as their
deities,

prestdmg

Soma,

Surya and Agni.
'

Among
the trans-

whose syllables these stand, that
cendent radiance

Aum

'

is

Wherein (the three S'akti-s) Iccha (desire), Knya (action) and so also Jffana (knowledge) (inhere), whose syllables take their stand
in

— Thus. — that

a

threefold

manner, as pertaining to Brahman,
'

Rudra and Visnu
radiance

Aum

'

is

the transcendent that daily

— Thus.

One should mutter

by
'

word of mouth, should practise that with
should mutter that mentally every day,
IS

his body,
'

the transcendent

radiance

— Thus.
sin,

Aum Whether m a
the Pranava

—that

cleanly or unclean state, he

who mutters

always, he

is

not smeared with

even as the lotus(85-88)

leaf (is not) with water.

The

Necessity for the Control of Vital Air
eve;^ in

the Votary of the Pranava
moves

When
motionless.

the vital air moves, the Bindu also
is)

when (the former

motionless,

(the latter also is)

(For the reason that) the Yogin attains

the «tate of a log of wood, therefore should he control

THE YOGA-C0pXMANY-UPANI§AD
the .vital air.

295
in

As long as the
death.

vital air

remains

the

body, so long the Jlva does not leave
the Qlva) the vital
is

(it).

The

exit of

Hence should

(the Yogin) control

air.

So long as the
is

vital air is held
(it) till

(bound)

in the body,

the Jiva does not leave
(fixed)

then.

As

long as the eye
brows,

on the middle of the eye?

why should

there be fear of death

With the
intent

slightest fear of death, (even)

Brahman would be

on the control of breath. For that reason, the Yogin-s and the Sages should control the vital airs. (89-92)

The Accompli.shment of PrSnayama from the
Purification of the Nadi-s

The Hamsa
left

(the

Prana) travels outwards for a

distance of twenty-six digit-lengths by the right
path, (through the pathways of

and the Ida and Pmgala
the system of
purified, then

N5dT-s).
(for the

(Hence)
which

is

prescribed the control of breath
its

shortening of
is

course).

When
is

Nacll-s,

filled

with impurities
fit

alone will the Yogin become

to control the vital air,
(93, 94)

(by means of Kevala-kumbhaka).

Description of Pranayama

Having assumed the PadmSsana
fill

posture, he should

the vital air through the lunar (Na^l), should hold
as long as he could

and again expel it through the solar (N3^l). Meditating upon the disc of the Moon, resembling the ocean of nectar and as white as cow's
it

2%
milk,

THE YOGA UPANIgADS
during

Pramyarna

the

Yogin

would

derive

comfort.
as the

Meditating on the disc of the Sun, adorable

Radiance of existence, seated in the heart throbbing and flaming, during Pranayama, the Yogin

would derive comfort.

(95-97)

The

Purification of the NXpi-s

Through the I^a should (the Yogin) draw in the vital air as prescribed and again expel it through the
other (Nadi).

Then through
it,

the Pifigala drawing in
then, he should expel
it

the vital air and holding

through the
(Yogin)
full

left

(Nadl).

of the

power of

The system of Nadi-s of the control, who meditates on
Sun and the Moon, as
holding of the vital

the two Bindu-s (discs) of the

prescribed in the rule, gets purified in the course of

a

little

over two months.
it

The

breath as long as
fire,

is

desired, the kindling of the

the

distinct

manifestation

of

the

Nadi-s and

sound health are produced by the purification of the
Na4l-s.
(98, 99)

The Pranayama with the Preliminary Regulation OF MXtrS-s (Measure)

As long
air).-

as the PrSga (vital air) remains in the

body, (the Yogin)

should regulate the

ApSna

(vital

Matra

(the unit of

measurement of the breath)

is

the time occupied by a single breath (inspiration

and expiration in the normal manner) occupying the ether upwards and downwards. The Recaka, the POraka

THE YOGA-CUpXMA]SlY-UPANI?AD

297

and the Kumbhaka are of the character of Prariava. According to this computation, the Pranayama is made up The Sun and the Moon (coursmg of twelve Matra-s.
through their respective Nadi-s) for a period of twelve

day and night, without rest, should always be clearly understood by the Yogm-s, (as only with such clear knowledge could the alternation of the Puraka and the Recaka with the
MStrS-s
in

duration, throughout the

Kumbhaka,
the

as well as the even flow of vital air through

Nadi-s,

be regulated by him).

Then should he

perform the Puraka for a duration of twelve Matra-s.

The Kumbhaka would be
Matr<T-s, the

of the duration of sixteen

well (the

and the Omkara as {of ten Matra-s). That is known as Pranayama. In practice of) the inferior type (the Pranayama) is
Kecaka
of ten Matra-s

twelve

Matra-s
IS

in

duration.

In one of the

middle
In one

type

It

considered to be twice as many.
it

of the superior type
(In this

is

said to be thrice as

manner)

is

the determination of the

many. Pranayama.
is

In

one of the
generated

inferior type there is (profuse) perspira,

tion

in

one of the middle type there
;

tremour experienced

m
air.

Yogin

attains

the

right

one of the superior type the position. Therefore should

one control the

vital

Padmasana
fixed

posture,

The Yogm, assuming the and saluting his Guru and S'iva,
all

should practise Prapayama

alone,

with

his

eyes

Having attained control over the nine orifices, held in bondage the breath movmg along with the KuijdalinT power and the Apana vital
on the
tip of the nose. air

and lead
U38

it

(through the six centres of energy,, the

298

THE YOGA UPANI§ADS

Muladhara and others in order), as long as the Yogin stands intent on the meditation of the Atman, firmly
fixing (the

Turyatman)

in the

(Thousand-petalled lotus
rule, there is

of the) crest,

m

accordance with this

no

need

for the

the fire by him. which feeds on the fuel of sin and is declared as the bridge across the ocean of wordly existence by Yogin-s In this always.

company manner Pranayama becomes

of the great being persevered

(100-108)

The Fruit of Each of the

Subdivisions of Yoga

Severally and Theik Kelative Importance

The Yogin

kills

disease by

means

of posture, sin

by Pranayama, and gives up mental transformations by withdrawing the mind (Pratyahara). By Dharatja
(firmly
fixing

the mind) he attains mental fortitude

Samadhi (absorption) acquires marvellous consciousness and with the renunciation of observances, auspicious and inauspicious, attains liberation. With
and
in

twice SIX Pranayama-s there

is

said to be Pratyahara.

With

twice SIX

Pratyahara-s

is

generated auspicious
to

Dhararia.

Twelve

Dharana-s

are said

constitute
of

Dhyana by
In

those well-versed in
is

Yoga.
is

Made up

twelve Dh^ana-s alone

what

known

as SamSdhi.

Samadhi

there
all

pervading on
discharges
all

and sides. When that is seen (the Yogin his duties and as such) there is no
is

exquisite radiance, endless

further worry relating to the performance of observances
for

him.

(109-113)

THE

YOGA-C0pXMA]5IY-UPANISAD

299
is

By the Practice of the §Afi-MUKHi MudrS

NSda Distinctly Manifest
Having assumed the (Siddhasana) posture with
his genitals
orifices
filling

between the pair of heels, regulating the

of the ears, eyes

and

nostrils with his fingers,

the vital air through his

mouth and holding

it

in

the chest, along with the
eflbrt

ApSna
by

lead thither by frequent

(and with the three kinds of Bandha-s), one
fix

should

the

mind
his

Dharana
intent

in

the

(Turya,
so doing

Turyatlta or Sahasrara of the) crest.
the

By

Yogin with

mind

on that (Supreme

Tattva)

attains equality with

that

Supreme Tattva
a great sound
of
is

(the Turyatlta).

When
(of

the vital air has reached the
the
heart),

(Avyakrta)

ether

produced, as of bells and other musical instruments.

That N5da.

is

known

as

the

accomplishment

the

(114,115)

The Practice of Pranavama

is

the Dispeller

OF ALL Diseases
For him who
will
is

possessed of Praiayama, there
all

be the destruction of

diseases.

For those

devoid of PtSijSySma, there will
ail diseases.

be the generation of

Hiccup, Asthma, hard breathing, diseases

of the head, ears

and eyes and various kinds
lion,

of (other)

diseases are generated out of the ill-regulation of the
vital
air.

tiger get

Even as the tamed by slow

the elephant

and the

stages, even so the vit^ air

300
that
is

THE YOGA UPANISADS
well regulated.

Otherwise

it

kills
air,

the practi-

tioner.

One should
;

leave off the vital
fill it

according
;

to exigencies

should

in,

according to exigencies
;

should hold

it

bound, according to exigencies

and by

so doing will finally achieve success.

(116-119)

In

the Practice of Pranayama, the Withdrawal
OF THE Organs of Sense
is

Necessary
of

When
roaming

the eye

and other

org.ins

sense are

at large in the gratification of sensual pleasures
is

pertaining to each, their withdrawal thence

what

is

known
his

as

Pratyahara.

lustre at the

Even as commencement

the

Sun withdraws
all

of the third quarter

of

the

day,

the

Yogin should withdraw
in

mental

transformations, remaining (detached)
the stages
gross,

the third of
or

(Infancy,

adolescence and youth,
Inertia,

the

subtle

and causal bodies, or
with the
full

Mobility

and Rhythm,
in religious

or celebate, householder

and anchorite

life,

knowledge derived by the
the

denial

of

everything

but

Brahman, the non-

dififerentiated

becomes the

One essence and simultaneously therewith Brahman alone). Thus the Upanisad.
(120, 121)

THE YOGA-TATTVOPANI$AD
[This Upanisad, which
is

the forty-first

among

the

108 Upanisad-s and forms part of the Krsna-yajurveda,
after

settmg forth the four kinds of Mantra-,

Laya-, Hatha- and Raja-yoga, together with the eight
subdivisions,

Yama and

others, deals with the alone.]

supreme

state of resting in the

Brahman

The Desike to Know the Eight-fold Yoga
With
Yogin-s,
I

the
shall

desire

to

conduce to the benefit of

presently relate the Truth bearing on

Yoga, havmg heard and learnt which, one becomes The Great Yogm, the great released from all sins.

Devotee and the great Sage of the name of Visnu, the most exalted Purusa, stands manifest as a beacon-light
in

the path of the Truth.

The Pitamaha

(the creator),

having worshipped that Lord of the world and ap-

proached him with devotion, asked him thus
relate unto

:

" Pray
of eight
(1-3)

me

the Truth concerning the

Yoga

stages."

The Truth Concerning the Yoga, Difficult
OF Attainment
Hrslkes'a,

then
it

said
its

unto him thus
real

:

"

I

shall

presently relate

in

form

;

listen."

All.the

302
Jiva-s

THE YOGA UPANI?ADS
are

ensnared

in

a Mayic snare by worldly

and torments. The way of releasing them IS the cutting off of the Mayic snare (by the acquisition of the knowledge of the Brahman), which destroys incarnation, death, dotage and disease, which is the
pleasures
ferry-boat

leadmg
state,

to liberation,

which cannot, indeed,
is

be reached by

diverse paths, which
(for

Kaivalya, the
is

Supreme

attaining which there

no other

Those that are lured by their proficiency (in the S'astra-s) and by their ignorance Neither by as well, fall into the traps of the S'astra-s. celestial beings can that indesthem, nor even by the cribable state (o{ the Brahman) be adequately desThat form, which becomes manifested by the cribed.
path, as the S'ruti says).

Atman
by the

of its

own
?

accord,

how can

that be manifested
all

S'astra-s

(That, whereby

things,

from the

Sun down

to the pot,

are manifested, wherefrom the

Veda-s and the S'astra-s derive their significance and
purpose, that
S'astra-s, that

Brahman can never be manifested by
of expression

the

being capable of self-manifestation alone

and beyond the range word or their import).

by sentence or
(4-7)

What

is

Apparently the State of the JWa
IS

ONLY the PaRAMXTMAN
which
is

(That

entity)

of impurities, which

which is devoid tranquil, which transcends all,
is

digitless,

which
Jiva
is

is

non-ailing, that invested with the

form of the
merit and

surrounded by the

fruits of religious

THE YOGA-TATTVOPANr§AD
sin.

303

That, which
is

is

of the state of the

Paramatman

and which

eternal,
?

state of the Jiva

come to attain the (The Paramatman) which transcends
did
it

how

beyond all forms and the form of knowledge
of attachment, therein

states of existence,
(in its

which
is

is

of

essence), which
is

devoid

(at

first)

the manifestation

of

what

resembles water.

Therein was manifested
be described as the Mula-

Self-consciousness (that

may

prakrtt of the character of equipoised
ity

Rhythm, Mobil(the five subtle

and

Inertia),

Thence originated
five gross

elements and the
the

elements evolved by the

process of quintuplication, whence) comes into being

mass of fivefold character, bound together by the (seven) humours (integument, blood, flesh, fat, semen, bone and marrow) and conditioned by the (three) Guna-s (Rhythm, Mobility and Inertia). When this is attended with pleasure and pam, assume that as of the state of the Jiva. (By attributing the character of matter to the exquisitely pure Paramatman), the name of Jiva
is

ascribed to the exquisitely pure (non-differentiated

Paramatman,

transcending

all

forms of existence).
(8-11)

The

JivA,

Divested of the Character of

Material Existence, Attains the State
OF the ParamXtman
Lust,
passion,

anger,
birth,

fear,

delusion,

greed,

infatuation,

death,

niggardliness,

sorrow, sloth,

hunger,

thirst,

covetousness, shame, trepidation, misery,

304
depression,
defects
is

THE YOGA UPANl^ADS
joy,

that Jiva
as the

who

is

rid

of

the above
(12, 13)

known

(Paramatman) alone.

The Practice Simultaneously (of the Methods OF Acquisition) of Knowledge and Yoga
Hence I employed for
relate to

you about the expedient

to

be

the destruction of the defects.

How

can

knowledge become, of certainty, the bestower of Liberation, when unaccompanied by Yoga ^ Likewise Yoga
devoid of knowledge
Liberation.
is

incompetent to bring about

Hence should the seeker after Liberation surely resort to the practice of (the methods of acquiring) knowledge and Yoga also (at the same time).
(14, 15)

The Real Form of Knowledge
From Ignorance alone (ansts) worldly existence. From (true) knowledge alone is one liberated therefrom. The knowledge, m the first place, of what constitutes

knowledge alone forms the chief means of

getting at what ought to be known.
of which
IS
fill

known
which

the real form
is

(of the

That by means Brahman),
is

which
has no

IS

alone, which
is

the highest state, which

digits,

devoid of impurities, which

of the actual form of Existence, Consciousness and
Bliss,

which
has

IS

devoid of the knowledge of the mani-

festation

of origin, sustenance

and

dissolution, that

aloBc

been

described

as the non -differentiated

THE YOGA-TATTVOPANl$AD
knowledge (which does not stand
of the
in

305

need of the means
I

Yoga

for attaining

sently relate unto thee
for attaining that

own fruit). the Yoga (which
its
is

shall pre-

is

essential

ledge, x^z.,

aimed at by qualified knowundifferentiated knowledge in the absolute).
which
(16-18)

Yoga of Four

kinds,

Mantra-yoga and Others
is

Yoga, although one,
usage,
(the
(is

according to practice and
:

O

Brahman
of
as)

!

differentiated as of various kinds

chief

known

them are :) Mantra-yoga, Laya- what Hatha- and Raja-yoga. (19)

Arambha and Other Stages of Yoga
Srambha, Ghata, so also what caya and Nispatti thus is Avastha
:

is

known

as Pari-

(stage)

everywhere
(20)

enumerated.

Description of Mantra-voga
I

shall

presently

relate

the description,

in

an
to

abbreviated form, of these,

O

Brahman

!

Listen

them.
shall

He who
(letters

mutters the Mantra-s made^ up
of the

of the

MStrkS-s

Alphabet) for t\velve years,

attain

gradually

knowledge,

along

with

-the

special powers of attenuation

tioner of

an inferior have recourse to Yoga of U 39

and the like. type endowed with a
this variety.

The

practi>

dull wit, will
(21,«22)

306

the yoga upani5ads
Description of Laya-yoga

Laya-yoga is the dissolution of the mind described While walking, standing, sleeping in myriads of ways and eating, (the practitioner) should meditate on the
digit-less Is'vara

That alone
Hatha-yoga.

is

the Laya-yoga.

Hence(23, 24)

forward

listen to

The Stages of Hatha-yoga
Yama, Niyama, Asana, Prana-samyama, Pratyilhara, Dharana, Dhyana of Han in the middle o( the
teyebrows,

and S.imadhi,

(the

equipoised condition)

(Thus)

is

Yoga

said

to

be of eight stages.
Mahli-vedha,

Maha;

mudra,

Maha-bandha,

and

Klic-cari

Jalarndhara,

Uddiyana
and

and

similarly
also

MiiLi-bandha

,

Dirgha-pranava-samdhana,
Vajrol'i,

Siddhanta-s'rav.ma
considered
as

,

Amaroli
,

S.ihajoli,

three

aspects

(these

constitute

the

tucive subdivisions of
(24-27)

Hatha-yoga

The Important Parts

oi~

Yam\,

Nham^ and

Asana
Verily
listen,

O Brahman
Of
the (ten)

'

to the description of

these severally
IS

Yama-s, temperate food

-important and

not the

others.
'

Among
is

the (ten)

Niyama-s,

O four-faced

one

non-violence

important.

(Of the innumerable postures, eighty are considered important, of which again) the Siddha, the Padma,

THE YOGA-TATTVOPANI$AD
the

307
four (are
(28, 29)

Simha

similarly,

and the Bhadra, these

considered important).

Overcoming the Obstacles to the Practice of

Yoga
During the practice of Yoga
one
'

at

first,

O

four-faced

there will be obstacles (such as), laziness, bragging,

bad company, practising necromancy, dabbling with miner.ils, and longing for women and others, which are of the character of a mirage The wise practitioner, knowing all these to be obstacles (in his path), should
avoid them
b\
virtue
of

the

operation

of

religious
(30, 31)

merit (prcwousJy accumulated by him).

The Right Sort or M\tha \nd
ni roR Prana^ama
H.iMn;;;

As^na,

himself
to

assumed
ol

the

Padmasana

posture,

alter

rc-orting

a

mon.isterv (Matha)

with a small

entrance
with

and
Iree

de\oi(l

ipertures, either well cleansed

cowdunt^-water or lime-uashed
Ironi

with due
lice

effort,

rendered

bugs,

mosquitoes and

with

precaution,

specially swept e\ei>

emitting sweet srneil

day with a broom, and perfumed with the smoke of

frankincense, neither too elevated nor too low-lying and

covered with cloth, deerskin or grass, seated there,

assuming the posture
practitioner

of

Padmasana

(should the wise

commence

the practice ot breath-control).
(32,35)

308

the yoga upan1§ads
of Commencement of PrXnXyXma
erect

The Mode

With body
with
the

and palms closed
the right
fill

(in the attitude

of prayer), he should salute his tutelary deity.

Then,

thumb

of

hand

obstructing the

Pingala (Nadi), he should
little,

in the vital air little

by
his

through the Ida (Nadi).

Then should he perform
it lies

Kumbhaka
power.

without intermission, as far as

m

Again should he expel the

vital air

gradually

Again, drawing m by no means with force. he should fill his belly gradually. through the Pingala,

and

Holding

(the

vital
(it)

air)

as far as

it lies

in his

power,

he should expel
filling

through the I4a, gradually.

Then,
without
(36-39)

in

through that (Nadi) wherewith he expelled
air),

(the

vital

he should hold (the

vital air)

detriment.

Pranayama with due Antecedent Measurement
IN

MatrJ-s
by one), should he snap the
nor
is

(The
too slowly,

time taken

fingers after circum-ambulation, neither too quickly

of

the

knee therewith, that

known as

Matra

(unit of

the vital air

measuring time). Filling in gradually through the I^, for a duration of sixteen

Matra-s, one should thereafter hold in the infilled air for^ duration of sixty-four Matrti-s. He should, thereafter, expel
(it)

through the PingalS Na^i, for a duration

Matra-s. Once again filling in (air) through the Pingala, (he should do) as before, with due
of
thirty-two

THE Y0GA-TATTV0PAN1§AD
control.

309
four

He
up

should
to

gradually

practise

times

every day,

eighty

Kumbhaka-s, at daybreak,
(40-43)

noon, sun-down and at midnight.

Purification of the NXdi-s, the Benefit

Derived during the Interval and Its

svmptoms

By
of the

practismg thus for three months, the purification
Na^i-s will result therefrom.
o{

When

the purifi-

cation

the

Nadi-s

is

attained,

then will external
I

symptoms arise in relate them in their
lustre,

the body
entirety
:

of the Yogin.

shall

Lightness of the body,
(increase

the

rousing

of the Jatharagni

of

digestive power)

and shmness of the body, these

will

surely result then.

(44-46)

Observance Regarding Diet and the like
during the Practice of Yoga

The
abstain

practitioner

who

is

best versed in

Yoga should

from
(such

food
as)
salt,

which would prove harmful to
mustard, acid, hot, astringent

Yoga,

and pungent

and the like, proximity to fire, sexual intercourse and travel. He should also desist from early morning baths, fasting and all kinds of bodily exertion. At first, during practice, a diet rich in milk and ghee is appropriate. Cooked wheat, green gram and nee, they know, as conducive to the development of Yoga. (46-49)
(dishes), all vegetables, asafoetida

31c

the yoga upanisads

The Successful Attainment of Kevala
(mere)
Thereafter
he
will

Kumbhaka
acquire power
to

hold

the

breath as long as desired.

long as desired, the

By holding Kevala Kumbhaka
the
is

the breath as
is

successfuly

accomplished.

When
all

Kevala (mere) Kumbhaka
attained, there
of attain-

devoid of the Recaka and the Puraka
is

nothing

in

the three worlds difficult

ment

for that practitioner

(49-51)

Prasveda and Other Siddhi-s
At
first

there wiU be profuse perspiration (caused

by holding the breath in the foot), wherewith should E\en after that, as a result one massage (the bod>)
of the gradual holding of breath, there will arise the

tremour of the bod>

in

the usual course, in the Yogin

who has assumed
of practice

his posture

With
is

further increase
itself

thereafter,
is

a

hollow

of

caused.

When

there

this

state of hollowness,

(the Yogin)

moves by leaps and bounds The ^'ogin sitting in the Padmasana posture, will move on the surface of With further increase the earth in the same posture. of practice thereafter, there will be the giving up of (the movement on the surface of) the earth He will, even while in the Padmasana postuie, leave off the surface of the earth and move In the same manner will skill (to perform) superhuman feats and the like an^ (m him). He will not make a display of his

THE VOGA-TATTVOPANISAD
skill

311

or

show out

his robust

frame bespeaking increased
trivial

vigour.

Then

the Yogin will not suffer, even though

afflicted with

misery of a
will

nature or of various

kinds.

He

then

become one passmg a small
rheum
of

quantity of urme and faeces and sleeping for a short
period.

Kheumatic

affections of the joints,

the eyes, spittle, sweat

these do not arise

and bad smell in the mouth, by any means in him thereafter.
(in

With

further increase of practice thereafter, there arises

prodigious strength

him), wherewith he attains the

Siddhi known as Bhu-cara (wandering over the earth
at large, without restraint)

and becomes

fit

enough

to

conquer
it

all

creatures on the face of the earth, whether

be a tiger or j S'.irabha, or an elephant or a wild
lion
,

bull or a

(all

thcbe)

meet with

their

death when

receiving a blow with the Yogin's hands

The Yogin's
(in

form

will

then become similar to Manmatha's

point

of beauty).

Attracted by his beautiful form,

women
in-

seek intercourse with hiin
there will be wantage of

Should he ha\e intercourse,

semen

for him.

Avoiding

tercourse

with

women,

he should earnestly betake

himself to the practice of Yoga.
retention of

On

account of the

smell in

semen there will be generated an agreeable the body of the Yogin (51-62)

Pranava-japa, the Preliminary step for the

Destruction of Obstacles to Yoga
Then,
sitting in a secluded spot all alone,

he should

mutter the Pranava with his voice raised to the highest

312

THE YOGA UPANI5ADS

pitch (of three Matia-s), for the purpose of destroying

sms

accumulated
all

previously.

The Pra^tava-mantra
all

removes

obstacles

and destroys
is

defects.

By

practice of this

kmd

taken the

first

step to final
(63, 64)

achievement of Yoga.

Ghata
Then comes
eflFort

:

The Stage of Effort

the stage (known as) Ghata, wherein

has to be put forth for the regulation of breath.
IS

wherem the Yogm brings about the union of Prana, Apana, Manas and Buddhi, and of the Jivatman and the Paramatman,
That

known

as the

Ghata

stage,

without
shall

detriment

to

their

mutual relationship.
:

I

relate the

symptoms

thereof

He

should then

take hold of the practice prescribed already, only to a
fourth of
its

extent.

Once, either during the day or

at twilight, should he practise (as above)

and once every day should he perform Kevala-kumbhaka. (65-67)

Description of PratyXhSra
of the organs of perception and from the objects of pleasure is Pratyah3ra of the action

The withdrawal
;

plain variety

but the withdrawal by the Yogin through
of

the

performance

Kumbhaka

is

what

is

called
(68)

Praty5h3ra.

The Form of DhIranX
Whatever
the Yogin sees with his eyes, he should

conceive of all that as the Stman.

Whatever one

THE YOGA-TATTVOPANI§AD
hears with his ears, he should conceive of
the
all

613
that as

Whatever he scents with his nose, he shoald conceive of all that as the Atman. Whatever
Xlman.
he
with his tongue, he should conceive of Whatever he touches with his all that as the Atman. integument, he should conceive of all that as the
taste
feels

Xtman.
(the

manner he should hold m the Xtman innermost Brahman) whatever (results from the
In this
(69-72)

functioning) of his organs of perception.

The Siddhi-s (Psychic Powers) Attainable Through DhXranS and the Rule Relating
TO Their being Preserved as Secrets

The Yogm

(should perform Dharana as indicated

above) for a space of a

Yama

(three hours) every

day

with efTort and without laziness, or

somehow

or other,

when, there would arise marvellous sagacity surely, in
the

Yogm's Citta (mind).

Clairaudience, clairvoyance,

transportation across vast distances

m

a short time,

psychic vocal powers, psychic power of transforming

any form desired, psychic vanishing from sight, and the power of transmuting iron and other baser metals into gold by smearing with the Yogin's urine and faeces, these will be (acquired
one's self into

by

the

Yogin).

By

intermittent
will

practice

(for

a

him time), in power of moving through Yogin with his intellect accompli^ment of Yc^,
sufficient

be

generated
space.

the the

etherial
intent,

By

on the

successful

these

(psyohic

powers)

U

40

314

THE YOGA UPANI^ADS

should be considered as obstacles to the attainment
of the Great Siddhi (of Yoga).

gence
(the

should

not

revel

in

The man them. The

of intelli-

Yogi-nij

king
to

of

Yogin-s)

should not demonstrate his

sagacity

any one whatever.
the
or a fool or a deaf
secret.

He
man,

should acquit
as an
for keeping his

himself with the world in
ignorant

same manner

man

powers as a
their

Disciples intent on carrying out

own

purposes,

make

(all

sorts

of)

requests,

without doubt.
to
his
all

(The Yogin) distracted by attempting comply with them all, will become oblivious to own practice (of Yoga). The ascetic, giving up
concern with worldly things, should be intent on

(achieving his aim of) Yoga.

Without forgetting
night

his

Guru's precept,
day.
In
this

he

should practise that,

and

manner, out of the incessant practice

of Yoga, will the

Ghata stage be
it

attained.

In the

absence of practice,
squabble.
practise

is

not achieved by mere vain
(the Yogin)

Hence should Yoga alone.

with

all

effort

(72-81)

The Paricaya Stage
Then
will the stage of familiarity

be reached by

frequent practice.

The

vital air, intimately associated

with the Agni (of the Svadhisthana) by means of (the
Yogin's)
will
effort,

assuming the power of the Kundalinl,
fire,

then enter, along with the

the

Susumna Na4i

without

any obstruction. Along with the vital air, the Citta (mind of the Yogin) will also enter the Gteat Path (through the Susumtia door). When the

THE YOGA-TATTVOPANI§AD
Citta (mind) of the Yogin enters the

315

Su^umra along
what
is

with

the

vital

air,

(at

this stage is attained

known

as the Panca}^vastha).

(81-85)

DharanS-s of the Five Brahman-s

in

the

Regions of the Five Elements

The Earth, Water,
form
siva)

Fire,

Air and Ether:

these

the five-fold

group

(of elements).

Dharana of

the gods (Brahman, Visnu, Rudra, Is'vara and Sada-

m

the five

is

said to be of a fivefold character.
is
is

From

the foot on to the knee
Prthivl

said to be the region

of Prthivi (the earth).
of an yellow colour,
'

the quadrilateral,

is

Lam.'

and Having forced

of the character of the syllable
in the vital air in the region
'

of Prthivl, along with the syllable

Lam,' meditating

on the four-faced (Brahman) with the four arms and of
the colour of gold, (the Yogin) should hold the vital air
for five

Ghatika-s.

(By doing

so)

he

will attain the

conquest of Prthivi.

From

the Prthivi-yoga there will

be no death for the Yogin.

From
;

the knee on to the

anus

IS

said to be the region of Water.
is

Water
'

is

the
'

crescent and
IS

of a white colour

the syllable
vital air

Vaip

said to be
'

its

seed.
'

Forcing the

along with

the syllable
to

Vaip

through the region of Water, calling
four arms, wearing the

mind the god Narayana, with

crown, of the bright white colour of crystal, the Acyuta
of the silk-robe, (the
for five Ghatika-s.

Yogm) should hold
is

the vital air

rid of all sins. (On doing so) he Thenceforward there is no fear for him from wa.ter

316

THE YOGA UPAN1§ADS
find
is

and he will not on to the heart
is

a watery grave.

From

the anus

said to be the region of Fire.
of a red colour,

Fire
origin

the triangle,

is
'

and takes

its

from the syllable
with the syllable
ing to

Raip
'

'.

Forcing the
'

vital air

radiant

Raip

into the region of Fire, call-

mind god Rudra, with the three eyes, the bestower of boons, shining like the young orb of the Sun, with his body entirely besmeared with ashes, and full
of grace, (the Yogin) should hold the vital air for five

Ghatika-s,

(On doing

so)

he

is

not scorched by

fire.

Even

if

he should enter a

pit full of fire, his

body

will

not be affected.
the eyebrows
is

From

the heart on to the middle of

said to be the region of Air.

Air

is

the $at-kona (figure with six corner-angles formed by

placing two isosceles triangles, one above the other, with
their bases parallel to each other

and

their apexes pointis
'.

ing one upwards and the other downwards),

of a black

colour and manifested in the syllable

'

Yaip

Forcing

the vital air through the aerial region along with the

radiant syllable

'

Yam

',

(the Yogin) should meditate

on the all-knowing
Ghatika-s.
rial

Is'vara,

facing

all

directions,

as

(having his stand) there and hold the vital air for five

(On doing

so)

he

will

space like Air.

For the

move through etheYogm, there will be

neither death nor fear from the aerial element.

From
Ether
is

the middle of the eye brows on to the (other) end of the crest
the circle
fest as
is

said to be the region of Ether.
is

is

and

of the colour of
'

smoke and
'

mani(the

the syllable

Haip

'.

Forcing the vital air into

thQ region of Ether along with the syllable

Haip

',

THE YOGA-TATTVOPANISAD
Yogin) should meditate on the great
the form of the
s'lva

317
S'aipkara of

God

Bmdu,

of the form of Ether, the Sada-

of the colour of clear crystal

crescent on his crest, with five
feature, with ten

and holding the faces, with a pleasmg

arms and (five sets of) three eyes, equipped with all weapons and decked with all jewels, with one half of his body shared by Uma, bestowing boons, and the prime-cause of all causes. By holding
the vital air in Ether, for the Yogin, there will surely

accrue the power of moving through ethenal space.

Wherever he might remain, he derives immense Bliss. Thus should the accomplished Yogin perform the five Dharana-s. Thence will he acquire a strong frame. There is no death for him. The Yogin of mighty
intellect
is

in

no way harmed, even should Brahman
(84-104)

meet with

dissolution.

Meditation of the Qualified Kind
In the
practise

manner prescribed (above) the Yogin should
for

meditation

sixty

Ghatika-s,

restraining

the vital air
his desires.

m

Ether, on the deity which would grant
is

This

known

as meditation of the qualiof)

fied kind (which

has the power

bestowing psychic
like.

powers, such as attenuation and the

(104, 105).

Accomplishment of Samadhi, out of Meditation
OF THE Unqualified Kind
Thereafter

Samadhi

will

be

attained

by

(the

Yogin) who resorts to meditation of the unqualifiedjiind.

:

318

THE YOGA UPANISADS

In the course of twelve days will (he) surely attain

Samadhi. This man of intellect, by restraining the
air,

vital

becomes a Jivan-mukta. Samadhi is the equipoised (105-107) state of the Jlvatman and the Paramatman.

The Renunciation and Assumption of the Body AT Pleasure by one who has Successfully
Accomplished the Yoga
Should there be desire (on the part of the accomplished Yogin) to give up his own body, he will
himself renounce
(it)

(He

will)

seek repose in the
its

Para-Brahman, but does not desire
annihilation.
his part to give

(his

body's)

Again, should there be no inclination on

up

his

own

body, he will

roam about
desire,

the worlds with the psychic powers of attenuation and
the
like

and whenever, out
celestial

of

his

own

he

becomes a
in

being, he will be highly esteemed
will

the celestial world and
or a

turn himself into a
his

man
in

Yaksa (demi-god), out of
states,

a

moment
various

or will attain, out of his

own own
a

choice, choice,

the

such
or

as
else,

of

a lion,

tiger,

an

elephant, or a horse,
choice,
these)
of
will
IS

according to his
Mahes'vara.

own
all

attain

the state

of

(In

difference arising out of the varying nature
practice.

the

The
in

fruit

(Kauvalya,

aloneness,
after

however the same the case of one who does
is
is

not

hanker

the

intermediate psychic powers
attained in the
(107-111)

and nothing but the transient powers
case of others).

the yoga-tattvopani?ad
Description of Maha-bandha

319

left

(The Yogin) should place the hind part of the foot on the genitals and stretching out the right
should hold
it

foot,

firmly with both hands.
infill

Placing
with air
his

the

ohm on

the heart, again he should
it

and holding

with

power, should expel

Kumbhaka, as far as it lies in Having practised first with it.
is

the

left side of the body, he should then practise with the

right side.

Whichever foot

stretched out, he should

mount it on the thigh (of the other leg). This is the Maha-bandha and one should practise it bothways in [Maha-mudra has been described elsethis manner.
where
:

See

(66) of

Yoga-cudamany-upanisad]
(112-115)

Description of Maha-vedha

When
remaining

the
in

Yogin with the one-pointed

intellect,

the

Maha-bandha
air),

posture, has

made

the

Puraka (inhaled vital
vital airs

and obstructed the onflow of firmly by means of the Kantha-mudra (t.e., the
vital air,

Jalamdhara-bandha), the (Praria)
filling

completely

the two vessels (Ida and Piftgala Nadl-s) (flows)
into

quickly

the

Susumna Nadi and
is

throbs there.

This

IS

the Maha-vedha, which

incessantly practised
*

by the Siddha-s (accomplished

ones).

(115-117)

The Real Form of the Khe-cari
Withdrawing the tongue backwards,
should hold
it

(the Yogin)

in

the

interior of the cavity of. the

320

THE YOGA UPANI§ADS
;

cranium

also

with

his

eyes

turned towards the

middle of the eyebrows.

This MudrS becomes the
(117, 118)

Khe-can.

The Real Form of the Three Bandha-s
AND Their Fruits
Constnctmg the throat
It

(the

Yogin) should conceive

as the heart with a firm mtellect.
the
lion

This

is

known as

the Jalatpdhara-bandha,

of the elephant of

death. That Bandha, whereby the Prana (vital air) will leap upwards into the Susumna Nadl and for that reason known as the Uddyana Bandha, this is wellknown to

the Yogm-s.

Pressing with the heels, (the Yogin) should

constrict the genitals firmly, forcing
vital
air.

upwards the Apana

This

is

known

as the Yoni-bandha.

The

Prana and the Apana, are the Nada and the Bindu

and attaining oneness through the Mulabandha, they impart success to the accomplishment of Yoga. There is no doubt about this. (118-122)
respectively

Description of ViparIta-karani and Its Results

The

Kararii

known

as Viparita, which destroys all

mental and bodily ailments, developes the Jatharagni of the daily practitioner. Various kinds of food will have to be procured by the practitioner (of that Karani).

Should the kinds of food fall short, fire will eat up the body in a minute. With his head down and his feet
up,

he should remain for a minute on the

first

day.

THE Y€)GA-TATTVOPANI§AD

321

Thence he should practise by adding slightly to the minute day by day. Wrinkles and grey hairs will not
be
seen
in
it

the course of six fortnights.
for

He who
conquer
(122-126)

practises

one Yaraa per day, he

will

death.

The Real Form of
That Yogin who
the receptacle of
(that), will
all

VajrolI

practises Vajroli, he proves to be

psychic powers.
is

Should he attain
his hand.
is

Yoga-siddhi
Khe-carl
consists

on the palm of
also

He

know what has
in

transpired and what
surely

yet to take
his

place.

will

be

in

reach.

[Vajroli

plunging the glans penis in a
then dropping

leaden cup of cow's milk, drawing up the milk and

dropping
the semen
It

it

and repeatedly practising
S'onita discharged

it

:

in the genital

organ of the female and drawing

up with the

by

her.]

(126, 127)

The Real Form of Amaroli
He who
last flow

drinks urine (leaving

oflf

the

first

and

reserving a fourth of the remainder)

and the and

uses (the remaining fourth) as a nasal douche everyday
this is described as and practises Vajroli everyday AmarolL [What is attained by one accomplished in Amaroli without the drink and the douche is Saha:

'

joli.]

(128)

The Completion of Raja-Yoga
After that
of
{viz.,

the practice of the twenty stages

Hatha-yoga)

will

be attained Raja-yoga and jiot

322

THE YOGA UPANIgADS

surely withoqt that.

When

all

actions are

complete

along with the Raja-yoga, then
in the

will surely

be generated

Yogin detachment out of discrimination.
of Visnu, the

The

great Yogin, the great devotee and the great Sage of
the

name

most exalted Purusa stands
(129-131)

manifest as a beacon-lrght in the path of the Truth.

Exposition of the Cause of Detachment

The same
by
pressing well
(later).

breast

what

is

which was originally sucked, akin to it, one derives pleasure

Out

of which genitals one

was born,

in the

same kind, the same one revels. Who was mother becomes wife in her turn (in another incarnation) and who was wife becomes mother verily Who is father becomes the (in another existence). son again and who is son becomes the father again.
genitals of the

In this manner, revolving in the cycle of births and deaths, even as the pot in the pully of the well, (people)
attain series of births from several genitals

While

matters

stand thus, having

and deaths. heard from the

scriptural texts

and from the mouth of the preceptor

that there

is

nothing other than the

Brahman

(the

Yogin) attains the (superior) worlds.

(131, 134)

Worship of the Pranava

in

the Lotus

OF the Heart

The

worlds are three in

number

(Bhur,

and Svar).

The Veda-s

are three in

Bhuvar number (Ffc,

THE y5ga-tattvopani§ad
Yajus

323

and SSinan). Saipdhya-s occur thrice. The letters are three in number (A, U, M). Fires are three in number (Daksiria, Garhapatya and Ahavaniya), Guina-s are three m number (Rhythm, Mobihty and All these rest on the three letters (as Visfva, Inertia). as Taijasa, Sutra and Viraj and Otr in their Vyasti Anujflatr in their Samasti, as Prajfia, Bija and AnujHe who knows (the fiaika-rasa in Vyasti and Samasti).
;

secretj

of these (three letters)
letter (the

as well as the Ardha-

matrS

Turya-caitanya) and learns (from the
it is

mouth

of his

Guru, that

man), by that (Yogin)
the entire world of
IS
I

m

no other than the Brahthe Turya-state is pervaded
(in

phenomena
is
is

the belief " all this

alone

").

That

the Truth.

That alone

is

the

transcendent existence, which

the substratum.

Even

as fragrance exists in the middle of the flower, even
as ghee exists in the middle of milk, even as oil exists

m

sesamum and gold among

pieces of quartz, (so does
all things).

the Turya-caitanya stand interwoven with

There stands a lotus in the region of the heart with its face turned downwards and its stalk higher up. In the nether portion of it is the Bindu (m the form of In the middle of it stands the mind (symboliEther).
cal of the Linga-s'arira, wherein the inmost conscious-

ness manifests

itself).

With

the letter

'

A

'

(of the

form

of Visfva, Viiaj

the lotus
the letter

and Otr-caitanya manifesting directly) Only with (with its face upward) moves up. U (of the form of Taijasa, Sotra and
'
'

Anujfilti' manifesting itself directly) the lotus

blooms.
as

With

the

letter

'

M

'

(manifesting

itself

directly,

324
Prajfia,

THE YOGA UPANI§ADS

.

Bija and Anujfiaika-rasa) the Yogin attains
(the
Is'vara-tattva,

the

Nada

as well as the sound of

the Prariava) and

the half syllable (of the form of the

double Turya and Avikalpa) stands motionless.

The

Purusa
clearest
sin.

accomplished
(of

in

transcendent state
crystal,

Yoga will then attain that the Brahman) resembling the
is

which

digitless

and destroys

all

(134-140)

The Cessation of the Functioning of all
Organs
is

the Expedient for Attaining the

Atman
The
tortoise

holds within

itself

its

hands, legs
with

and also the head them and remains

(after ceasing all functioning
like

a piece of stone).

with the orifices of the

body

(the

So also, nine ones communiand later his body without
first

cating with the outside world and others of the Nadl-

system withm),
functioning).

filled

with the vital air at

emptied, (the Yogin should remain in

When
orifice

the nine orifices stand restrained
there
will

(from

functioning),

be flow of air upward

through the

of the Susutnna opening inwards

from the Muladhara. (The Yogin should then perform Kevala-kumbhaka) even as the flame of a lamp placed

withm a pot. The cessation of movement of air, they know as Kumbhaka. With the nine orifices restrained
(from functioning), in a secluded spot, free from
disturbance, the Yogin
all

(assuming the Siddhlsana or by practising the Nirvikalpa-yoga and oth^r postures,

THE YOGA-TATTV0PANI§AD
breaking through the Kaivalya Nadi)
(while every
will attain

325
the

conviction (through the knowledge of the Truth) that

other thing has left no trace), by the
is

Atman

alone

(something)

left

and thus

attain

Videha-muktu— Thus

the Upanisad.

(140-142)

THE YOGA-S'IKHOPANI$AD
[This Upanisad, which
is

the sixty-third

among

the

108 Upanisad-s and forms part of the Krsna-yajur-veda, deals with all that relates to Jfiana-yoga along with the

means

to be

employed

for its acquisition.]

CHAPTER

I

Seeking the Path to Liberation
All Jiva-s are ensnared

happiness and misery.

by a Mayic net, through Tell (me) my Lord S'ainkara
!

m

the plenitude of thy grace,

how

salvation

is

attained

by them.
troys
birth,

Pray describe the path which brings forth
death,

all-round success, cuts asunder the

Mayic snare, desdotage and disease and bestows
(1.

happiness.

2)

The Path to Liberation Difficult of Access
So enquired Hiranya-garbha. Quoth he, the Lord Mahes'vara The exalted state of Alone-ness is difficult
:

to be attained even by recourse to various paths,

O

Lotus-born

!

It

is

attained by the established path (of

THE YOGA-^IKHOPANISAD
the knowledge of the non-differentiated

327
alone)

Brahman

and by no other means, (Says the path exists for its attamment ")•

S'ruti, "

No

other
(3, 4)

The Brahman not Attainable

by

Mere

Proficiency in S'astra-lore
(Those) that are enclutched within the snares of
S'astra-lore fall,

bemg deluded by

the

(little)

knowledge

That (Brahman) with a form which manifests itself of its own accord (apart from
(gleaned)

therefrom.

the word-content and

jmport of the

S'astra-s,

which
that be
?

derive their significance therefrom),

how can

made manifest by

the S'astra (mere book-knowledge)

That which is devoid of (any of the sixteen) digits (commencing from Prana and ending with Naman),
is flawless, which is absolute quiescence, which beyond all and which is non-ailmg, that (absolute Brahman) alone, in the form of the Jiva is invested with How can that the fruits of religious merit and sin. eternal state of the Paramatman, which transcends all Tattvas, attain the state of the Jiva ? O Maha-deva, the great Lord (who can do, undo and otherwise do all

which
is

things)

!

pray

tell

(me) out of thy grace.

(4-7)

The

JivA-HOOD of the Brahman

(That which remains all-alone as the Paramatman), transcending all states of existence, in the form of knowlege

and unattached, throbs

of itself apparently, as.if

it

328

THE YOGA UPANI§ADS
(in etherial

were Air

space) and therein arises self-conit

sciousness (on account of which

attains the state of
five-fold

being the

all- witness).

Thus

it

assumes the

character [of the Tri-pad Bhuti (three-quartered existence),

which

later manifests itself as the

Nitya Bhuti

(eternal existence), which, on attaining full individuality,

becomes the Lila Bhuti (playful existence), which, on coming to display diverse misconceptions in relation microcosmic existence, becomes the Moha to the which again assuming existence), Bhuti (deluded material forms, becomes the Jada Bhuti diverse (material existence)]. Know (then the Paramatman) as the mass (of primordial matter) bound by the
(seven) Dhatu-s (humours, integument, blood, flesh, fat,

semen, bone and marrow) and displaying the (three)
qualities (of rhythm,

mobility and inertia), assuming
It is for this

the character of the Jiva.

reason that the

name

of Jiva

is

attributed

to

the exquisitely pure
(7-9)

Paramatman.
S'lVATVA OF

THE

JivA DEVOID

OF THE DEFECTS

OF Lust and the Like
Lust, anger, fear, delusion, avarice, passion, birth, death, niggardliness, sorrow, sloth, hunger, thirst, greed,
shyness, trepidation, misery, depression and joy, (these
are
is

the defects).

That Jjva devoid

of these defects

said to be S'iva, (as these defects are the inherent

cause of the Tri-pad Bhuti being turned into the
Bhnji and the Jiva, when absolved from the

Moha Moha

THE

V<5GA-s'lKH0PANl^Ar)

3^9

Bhuti resumes the state of the Tri-pad Bhuti, which
isofS'iva).

(10,11)

Absolution from Defects through JRana

AND Yoga
Hence 1 employed for
unto thee the expedient to be the purpose of absolution from defects.
relate
(it is)

Some

knowledge that serves this purpose. (But) mere (knowledge by itself does not conduce to success. How can knowledge devoid of Yoga bestow
say that
liberation,

O

Sir
of

!

in

relation to this (Jiva)
fit

?

Nor can

Yoga devoid
liberation.
in

knowledge be deemed

[For, say the scriptural texts

to lead to " See even

this

the existence alone (of the Brahman).

Every
nothing

other

thing

is

non-existent."

" There "

is

whatever
alone

beyond

the

Brahman,"
is

The

Brahman
There
is

(exists).

Non-existence
of

nought."

no dispute relating to the fact that simultaneously with
the

attainment

the

knowledge of the absolute

Brahman
there
is

resulting from the denial of the existence of

the phenomenal world apart from the

Paramatman,

attained the state of alone-ness devoid of the

body.

This

may

be described as the existence of the
as the residuum, as the

three-footed

Brahman alone

conception of the Jlva and others is, as the result of the Ignorance of the Paramatman, limited in. its nature and inures only till the dawning of Gnosis,

which
U

in

most

cases,

is

not attained

till

the last
tjiere

incarnation in this world.
42

Without such Gnosis

330
persists

THE YOGA UPAN1§ADS
only relative knowledge conditioned by attriFurther, such relative knowledge, conditioned

butes.

by

attributes

and depending on the control exercised over
is,

mental functioning,

without recourse to the prescribed

method
as

of practice, incapable of producing the desired

result of the attainment of the

Brahman.

Similarly,

Yoga

of the variety, which merely lands the practi-

tioner at the various stages which apparently lead to

the acquisition of special psychic powers,
of producing the chief fruit of Yoga, vtz.,
it

is

incapable

Kaivalya,

is

neither knowledge nor

Yoga

of the kind referred

to above,

and hence severally incapable
.

of bestowing the

ultimate fruit of Kaivalya]
resort

Therefore the seeker should
of)

to (a

happy blending
firmly.

Gnosis and Yoga and
(12-14)

practise

them

The Real form of Gnosis and
(By the seeker

its

Fruits

after liberation) should at first be
is

known means
IS.

the real form of Gnosis, which alone
to attain

the sole

knowledge of the Brahman.

By him

should also be investigated of what nature ignorance

(The man of Gnosis) by whom is known the real form (of the Brahman), which is alone-ness and which
IS

the exquisite state, (becomes one
duties),

who has discharged
all defects.

his

when he

is

released from

How
(of the

can- the Jiva get liberation through

knowledge
all

spurious

kind),

when
is

it

is

surrounded by
like ?

defects

such as

lust, anger, fear

and the

Even

as the real

form of the Atman

all-comprehensive, so also Gnosis,

THE YOGA-S'IKHOPANIgAD

331

which has the Atman as its objective, (is full). Lust, anger and other defects have no separate existence, (it being difficult to think of the remote possibility of
establishing as to whether these defects are or are not
to

be ascribed to the absolute Brahman, which tranall

scends

attributes.)

(The man

of Gnosis being thus

blessed,)

where

is

the prescribed rule of conduct for

him and how can the question of prohibition arise in his case ? He who knows to discriminate aright, being

nd

of the delusion

arising

from worldly existence,

all means liberated. (By such discrimiknower of the Brahman attains) that real existence, O Lotus-born which is full m form, (and becomes the Brahman), which is divisible and at the

becomes by

nation, the

!

same time

indivisible,

on account of

its fullness.

(14—19)

There

is

little difference between

THE Man of Spurious Knowledge and

the Ignorant Man Due
visible,

to

the influence of the Kali age, the indiflaw-less
all,

the

(Brahman)

which

is

openly

manifest as the

which resembles ether

(in its all-

pervasive character), by virtue of assuming the form of
throbbing, has attained the swirling character of worldly existence.

He, who has (somehow or

other,

withoutthe

requisite training) attained this form, which is devoid of
origin, existence

and dissolution as

well as flashing
his duties),

and

also Gnosis, (has in a

way discharged

flow

332
then does he,

THE YOGA UPANISADS

immerse himself in the ocean of delusion, giving up his lore again and again ? Even as the mainstay of those attached to worldly existence IS m the delusions caused by (worldly) pleasure and pain, even so when the man of Gnosis takes his stand m such (delusions), being encompassed by the impressions left by worldy desires, then there is no
!

O

mighty armed

difference between the two, the

common

feature being
to be

worldly-mindedness.

Should Gnosis be known

of this description, then of

what description would be
(20-24)

Ignorance

?

To THE Man of Gnosis of the Spurious
variety there
is

no accomplishment of

Liberation without the Aid of Yoga

The man who has somehow
efforts,

or other,

by

his

own

achieved Gnosis, should he be devoid of de-

tachment, the
books) of
his

man who Dharma (right

has knowledge (derived from

own

efforts)

conduct), should he not (by have conquered his senses, (such a per-

son) does not attain liberation without the aid of
(for

Yoga
!

purifying the impurities of his mental functions)
his

embodied state, O Brahman Corporeal beings are known to be of two kmds the unripe
while yet ^in
:

ones (with a foul interior, because of the spurious nature
of their Gnosis)

and the ripe ones, (the real men of Gnosis ripened by Yoga). The unripe ones are those that are without (the mellowing influence of) Yoga. The

THE YOGA-S'IKHOPANI$AD
ripe corporeal

333

beings are those (that are mellowed) by

body (of the ripe one, purified) by the file of Yoga, becomes sentient and devoid of sorrow, while the (body, which is) nonsentient and unripe,
Yoga.
entire

The

should be known as of earth and becomes the bestower
of misery.

[Says the

S'ruti, "

Even

as the pot
is

of earth alone, even so the
" Cit " (sentience)].

human body

made made of
is

(24-27)

Endless Misery of

Men

of Gnosis of the

Spurious Variety

Such a

one, even

when engaged

in meditation is

disturbed by the organs of his senses (being incapable
of controlling them, he not having realized that apart

from the Brahman they
trolling

exist not).

Even

after con-

them with
to

all

his might,

he finds himself subis

jected

other impediments.

His body

afflicted

with cold and heat, ease and torment, and such like
(pairs of opposites), as well as (various types of) mental

anguish

;

also from other sources, such as various kinds
fire,
is

of creatures, weapons,
result thereof his
in

water,

and winds.
life,

mind

powerfully agitated.

As a When,
(other

this

manner, there
of

is

danger to

the respiratory
of

process gets ruffled.

Thence the minds

men

Gnosis of the genuine variety) subjected Whatto hundreds of torments, would be agitated. in its mind at the time ever the Jiva would conceive
than
of the cessation of bodily existence, that alone
It

men

become.

This alone

is

would the cause of coming into

334
corporeal being.
is

THE YOGA UPANISADS

Men do
them)

not

know which incarnation
Hence, Gnosis
(of

in store (for

after death.

the spurious variety) and detachment (arising there-

from) contribute merely to the weariness of the Jiva.

(The man of such Gnosis)
meditation,
.the

is

disturbed out of his

moment

that an ant begins to crawl

on

his

body.

enjoyer of

Could such a one become verily an happiness, should he be stung by a scorpion
?

or even terminate his bodily existence
that be
false
?

How

could

Hence those

are fools

who

with an array of
really

arguments around them do not

know

(the

Brahman, as they hug hard the delusion that, apart from the Brahman, there is their own body, meditation, obstacles to be avoided and so on). (27-34)

The Development of

Individuality

is

by Itself

AT THE Root of all Ruin

When
verily
lost.

one's individuality
Is

is

lost,

even his body
say) that

is

there further

need

(to

his

diseases (are likewise lost ?)

To whom would
inflicted

affliction

be caused by water,

fire,

wound

and the

like ?

According as

by weapon individuality (in one) waxes
(false

or wanes,

on account of such

attachment to the

body leading

to the conception,
I

his (mental attitude, "
reaj conceptions) perish, set

I am the body ") Brahman," and other and diseases and other torments

"

am

the

on him.

There

is

no

effect

without a cause.
in the

So also, body without individuality

produced wheresoever how can there be affliction
?

(34-37)

the yoga-s'ikhopanisad

335

For one who has Accomplished Yoga, there ENSUES the Power of Doing, Undoing and Otherwise Doing, as well as Liberation while yet Living
body have been vanquished all (ignorant people) and by the Yogin-s (who look upon themselves as the Brahman) has been vanquished the body.
the

By

Hence how can
the
like

fruits

such as pleasure and pain and
(the

affect

them
the

Yogin-s)

?

By whom
(the

are

conquered (with the sword of knowledge) the sensory
organs,
the
lust,
all.

mmd,

intellect

and

emotions)
is

such as

anger and the

like,

by him alone

conquered
whatever.
verities

Such a one
(five)

is

not tormented by any

The

great elements and the eternal
(by him).
is

are one after another overpowered
of the seven

The body made up

humours

slowly

consumed by the fire of Yoga, The Yogin's body endowed with prodigious strength cannot be seen even by the gods, being released from all changes and bonds, possessed of various powers and transcendent (thus partaking of the character of Is'vara). Even as Ether is, so becomes (the Yogin-s) body, (nay) even clearer than Ether, manifesting itself (m a form) subtler than the subtle, gross but yet not gross and non-sentient but yet sentient. The king of Yogin-s, verily capable of assuming any
self

his choice dependent on (none but) his own and devoid of dotage and death, plays wheresoever (he likes) in a frolicsome mood, in the three worlds. Possessed of incomprehensible power, the Ypgin

form of

336

THE YOGA UPANI§ADS

assumes various forms and withdraws from them again
at pleasure, he having

attamed mastery over

his senses.

In virtue of the strength of his Yoga, this (Yogin) does not die, (a Yogin having no mortal coil to shuffle,
for^,

says the

S'ruti

"

A

sage

is

not born nor does he die.")
of his perfect Gnosis,

He

is

veritably

dead because

(which brings on the conviction that apart from the

Brahman

there

is

no body and the

like).

Whence can
Wherein
is

there be death to one (already)

dead

"^

all

others have
alive.
is

(their)

death, there this

(Yogin)

fully

Wherein

fools are fully alive, there this (Yogin)

There remains nothing yet to be noway affected by his previous done by him. Karma (he, having become) a Jivan-mukta, is always
veritably dead.

He

is in

;

clear (as crystal), being devoid of all flaws.

(38-47)

Imposture by

Men

of Gnosis of the

Spurious Variety
There are other so-called men of Gnosis who, being full of passion, are always conquered by their body. Those masses of flesh with their bodies perversely

how can they stand comparison with Yogin-s (who have no more incarnation to their credit.) The fruit of th^ir religious merit and sin is reached by these socalled men of Gnosis after their demise. This so-called
directed,

man
and

of Gnosis

is

of such nature

and

will

be born again

after enjoying the respective (fruits of his meritorious
sinful actions)

variety,

[The man of Gnosis of the genuine on the other hand, does not incarnate again,

THE YOGA-S'IKHOPANISAD
as,

337

in his case, the fruit of the

preponderance or sub-

sidence of the meritorious or sinful nature of his actions

does not hold good,
"

for,

as the scriptural texts say

The knower of the Brahman becomes the Brahman alone," " He who knows the seedless (Brahman) thus, becomes himself seedless," " He who knows Him (the
Paramatman) thus, becomes immortal herein there is no other path leading to final emancipation," such
;

a one attains Videha-kaivalya, simultaneously with his
Gnosis,]
(48, 49)

The Emancipation of such Men Attainable
ONLV Through Association with Siddha-s
QiVAN-MUKTA-s)

(Such a so-called
tion with a
religious merit earned.

man

of Gnosis) attains associalater on, only

Siddha (Jlvan-mukta)
the

through

Hence he becomes
of

a Yogin,

only

through

grace

the

Siddha
the

and not

otherwise. Thereafter perishes the cycle of births and

deaths
S'lva.

and not otherwise

this

is

utterance of
(50, 51)

The Mutual Relationship of JRSna and
Yoga as Effect and Cause
The
its

so-called Gnosis deprived of Yoga,

O Brahman,
(51, 52)

does not lead to liberation, nor shall Yoga accomplish

purpose without (the aid

of)

such Gnosis.

U

43

338

THE YOGA UPANIgADS

Yoga alone, the Highway to Liberation
Yoga
is

attained by (the so-called) Gnosis only in

the course of several other incarnations, while Gnosis (of the genuine type) is attained in the course of a
single incarnation only, through Yoga.

Hence

there

is

no other royal road bestowing Liberation (through Gnosis of the right type) beside Yoga, (as it generates
pure Gnosis after shearing off the spurious character
of so-called Gnosis).

After long investigation through

Gnosis (be

it

Yoga)
released

one

of the so-called variety, in the absence of assumes the mental attitude, " I am
it

liberated."

Is

possible that such a one could get

that

very moment,
?

merely by
(it

(a

random)

mental attitude
alone
(he)

Only

later on,

may

be) after the

lapse of hundreds of other incarnations, through
is

Yoga
case

liberated.

From Yoga

there will not be
in the

such births and deaths again and again (as
of

men

of so-called Gnosis).

By

the conjunction of

the Prana and the
the union of the

Apana
his
fire

(vital airs), there is attained

Moon and

the Sun.

(The Yogin)
of

should

exhilerate

body made up
(of Yoga).

the seven

humours with the
perish.
like ?

All diseases of his

need be said of cuts and gashes and the Such a one will assume the state of one with a

What

body
is

of the form of transcendent Ether.

Of what use

dilating further (on this)

unto him.
frame.

? Verily there is no death Resembling burnt camphor, himself will

appear in the world, as

if

possessed of a corporeal
(52-58)

THE YOGA-s'IKHOPANI$AD

339
in

Knowledge of the Atman Dawns only Mind Purified by Yoga
The mind
Prana
vital
air.
is

a

in all Jiva-s stands

cord, even so

bound up with the Even as a bird tied by means of a The mind is not capable this mind.
its

of being restrained by investigations of various kinds.

Hence,
conquest
the
control)

the
is

only expedient to be employed for
expedient
!

the Prana alone and nothing else. Barring
(of

established

Yoga),

(viz..

breathis

O Brahman

the

Prana

(vital

air)

not

amenable
ments.

to control either

by arguments,

prattlings, the

S'astra groups, stratagems, mystic formulas, or

medica-

He

who, with a

little

knowledge, has recourse to

the path of Yoga, without knowing the (established)

expedient

(of

breath -control), will suddenly find himself

beset with difficulties.

He, who, without controlling

Yoga of Yogin-s, venly attempts to cross the ocean, embarked on a pot unbaked (in a kiln). He whose vital air vanishes internally, when the practitioner is yet alive, his corporeal frame does not drop and his mind is tormentbreath, desires foolishly to attain the

ed with

afflictions.

(59-64)

The Practice of Yoga
Should
his
his

is

the

Firs*^

Duty

mind, however, be pure, knowledge of

O

own Atman manifests itself (therein). Hence, Brahman Gnosis results from Yoga in a single
!

incarnation.

Therefore should the practitioner always

340
practice that

THE YOGA UPANI§ADS
Yoga alone
at
first.

By

seekers after

liberation, conquest -of the

Prana

(vital air)
is

should be

made

for the sake of liberation.

There

no religious

merit higher than Yoga, no prosperity greater than

Yoga, no subtlety transcending Yoga, (in fact) there is nothing beyond Yoga. What is the union of the

Prana and Apana
white vital
the
in
fluids,

(vital airs), similarly of the

red and

the

conjunction

of

the

Moon, and
this

of the Jivatman

and the

Sun and Paramatman,
the
is

manner,
a

the

conjunction
of

(between
pairs,

two

constituting

pair)

the

several

known
(65-69)

as Yoga.

The Imparting of
Then
which
is
I

Yoga-s'ikha

shall

presently describe the Yoga-s'ikha,

When

by far superior to all (forms of) Gnosis. the Mantra is contemplated upon, then there is
bodily

generated

Assuming the Padma posture or any other posture deemed suitable (by the
tremour.
fixing the eyes

practitioner),

on the

tip
feet,

of the nose,

Jceepmg under control the hands and
the

withdrawing

mind from everywhere, one should contemplate upon the Oipkara instead. The wise man, having made Parames'vara (take his seat) in his heart, should

ever be engaged in meditation.

He

should not look

upon
single

his

body constituted in this manner, having the pillar (the spinal colum supporting the entire
of the

edifice

body), provided with the nine orifices

(the three pairs of eyes, ears

and

nostrils, the

mouth,

THE YOGA-STKHOPANISAD
the

341

urinary passage and the rectum)

three props (of

and with the Piarabdha, Agamin and Arjita Karma-s,

the body persisting as long as these are not spent up)

and presided over by the five deities {Brahman, Visnu, Rudra, Is'vara and Sada-s'iva), (as the Atman or Atmic in any manner whatsoever). He should then (conceive in his heart, to the accompaniment of favourable control of breath)

the form

of the

solar

disc

surrounded by rays and flames and kindle the
the

fire in

middle of it, as (he would) the wick of a lamp. (Therein Parames'vara should be conceived as of the

form of the flame of the lamp).
the flame of the
as fine as

Of what dimension

is

lamp (of the Muladhara-cakra, the awn of a grain of wild paddy), of

vtz.,

that

dimension Parames'vara in the form of the flame of a lamp (should be conceived). (69-74)

By the Practice of Yoga, there
State
(By

is

the Direct

Manifestation of Parama-pada, the Highest

the grace of Parama-s'iva) Yogin-s, (who are

mendicants), by the strength of their practice of Yoga,
pierce through the disc of the
state);
(for,

says the
of the

S'ruti,

Sun (to reach the highest "Those pure ^ouls cross

Para Brahman)." (Others, who are mere Yogin-s have recourse to) -the second method (of breaking through) the door of the Susumija Nadi, which is bright all round and specially
the

doorway

Sun

(to reach the

meant

for the purpose, (by rousing the

Kun4almi).and

342

THE YOGA UPANI?ADS

drinking (the nectar produced by the Sun,
Fire contained in the Sahasrara-cakra
cavity,

Moon and
the cranial
(of
I,"

oO

thereafter

see

that

(highest)

state

the

Paramatman

with the mental attitude, "

He am

and

through Gnosis acquired therefrom, either become the
qualihed or the non-differentiated Brahman).
(75, 76)

Attainment of Punya-loka by One who cannot
conform to the prescribed form of
Meditation to the full Extent
Then, should a person (in the act of meditation), out of lazmess and erroneously, contemplate on that (Brahman, as different from his own self) and thus
meditate three times (every day), that person attains
the meritorious state (such as of Brahman, Indra and the
like).

This

merit

having

been

found

out,

is

briefly described

by me.

(76, 11)

The Recognition of His own Atman
Accomplished Yogin

by the

Then
Atman).
sin
IS

shall

the

accomplished Yogin recognize
jn
all
its

Parames'vara manifest

glory

(as

his

own

(As for the sinner), when his (accumulated)

atqned through thousands of other incarnations
oflfering

(by the grace of Ts'vara, propitiated through the
of -the fruits of daily observances
shall

and the

like),

then

he

great
worJd.

through (the strength oO his Yoga the uprooting of attachment to the ways of the
see,

(78, 79)

the yoga-s'ikhopani$ad
Sitting at the Feet of a

343

Guru who has

Conquered His Breath, for the Practice OF Yoga

Now
of

shall

I

explain the true nature of the practice
seeker)

Yoga.

(The

should

always

serve that

Guru by whom has been
the conquest of breath.

successfully accomplished

The

wise practitioner should
(vital air),

achieve the conquest of the Prana

out of his
(79, 80)

Guru's gracious oral (instructions).

Rousing into Activity of the Sarasvati
(Nad!)

Measuring twelve digit-lengths

in point of length
:

and

four digit-lengths wide, soft

and white

the des-

cription of the piece of cloth wherewith to tie round (the

Sarasvati Nadi)

is

said to be (as above).

[Having

tied

round the top of the Nadi with a piece of cloth of the above description, waking up betimes in the Brahmamuhurta, the Yogin should, without any
fear, rouse the

Nadi

into activity, for the space of a Muhurta.]

(81)

Piercing through the Three Granthi-s (knots)
BY Rousing

the Kundali

(After rousing the Sarasvati Nadi), controlling the

breath firmly

in

such a way as to conduce to the
Kundali),
(the

rousing of the power (of the

Yogin)

should strengthen the

Kun<jlali,

which

is

of the

form

344
of eight coils,

THE YOGA UPANIgADS
make
the constriction of the anus

and

thus rouse the
in

Kundali.

Even though he should be
is

the jaws of death, where
?

the fear of death for

him

This

is

indeed a profound secret communicated

unto thee by me. Assuming the Vajrasana posture every
day, (the Yogin) should practise the upward constriction.

The

fire,

rendered ablaze by the

vital air (rising

by such constriction), will continuously heat the KunThat power capable of deluding the three worlds, dali. being heated alive by the fire, will enter the Candradanda (shaft of the Moon) in the interior of the orifice That (power), along with the of the Susumna Nadi. (introspecting mind), the Prana vital air and the fire, pierces through the knot of Brahman, (which forms
as
it

were the door leading from the Muladhara)
through
the knot
it

;

then

piercing

of

Visnu

(forming the

door of the Anahata) (the door of the Ajna).
vital
air),

stands in the knot of Rudra

again, (the

by means of Yogin should pierce through the knot of
(82-87)

Then after firmly filling (the Kumbhaka-s over and over

Rudra).

Rule Relating to the Practice of the Four
Kinds of Kumbhaka-s

One

should practise (the Kumbhaka-s known as)
S'ltali

Surya-bheda, Ujjayi,

and Bhastra.

(These) to-

gether constitute the four-fold

Kumbhaka.

with the three Bandha-s, (that)
of the

Together causes the attainment
(86-89)

Kevala (Kumbhaka).

THE

Y0GA-9'lKH0PAKl§Af)

345

Description of the SOrya-bheda-kumbhaka
I

shall presently give

a good and concise descrip-

should a secluded spot be reached (by the practitioner) temperate in food and of
tion of
this.

All

alone,

a resolute frame of

mind and

the form of the Prana

and the like and the imperishable truth of the highest import should be meditated upon. (This is verily) the peerless medicine which would eflfectively cure the disBy the practising Yogin ease of worldiy-mindedness. should be drawn in the vital air through the Solar Na^i.
After performing

Kumbhaka
(it)

as prescribed in the rule,

he should expel

through the lunar (Nadi).

This,

which
the

kills

many a

disease of the belly and extirpates

malignant

influence

due to

(intestinal)
is

worms,
as

should often and often be performed and

known

Surya-bheda (breaking through the Solar Nadi). (89-92)

Description of UjjAYi Kumbhaka
Drawing
intelligent
in

the air through the two Nadl-s, the
it

practitioner should direct
it

along the two

sides

of the Kundall, hold
it

in the belly

and thereafter
the malignant

expel

through the I^a.

(This)

kills

influence of

phlegm and the

like in the th^jat, raises

the temperature of the body, removes the rheum out of

the

Na^l-s,
(of

and

rectifies

the defects inherent in the
(This)

humours

the body).

Kumbhaka known

as

Ujjayi should be performed

(by the practitioner) while
(93-95)

moving and standing.
U
44

346

the yoga upani^ads
Description of the S'itau Kumbhaka

through the mouth, (he) should This is performing the expel (it) through the nostrils. (Kumbhaka) and destroys bile, hunger and S'ltall

Drawing

in

air

thirst.

(95,

96)

Description of the Bhastrika Kumbhaka
(The practitioner) should
speed the
fill

intelligently expel with

air

in

the body, out of the two breasts and
till

(it)

in

(likewise),

he

is

overcome with

fatigue,

as with a blacksmith's pair of bellows.

When
fill

fatigue

comes on
the
solar

in

the body, then should he

in

through
throat,

(Nadi)
(it)

and

after

constricting the

should
(This

expel

again

through the lunar (Nadi).
(the excess of) the mind, bile

Kumbhaka) removes
raises the

and phlegm,
the

temperature of the body, rouses

Kundall, removes defects in the mouth, bestows
is

auspiciousness,

wholesome, removes impediments,

phlegm remaining in the interior of the opening of the Brahma-nadl and is capable of bursting through
such as
the three knots as the result of effectively practising

the

Bandha-s.

This

Kumbhaka

is

known as

the

Bhastra and should be specially practised.

(96-100)

Rule Relating to the Three Bandha-s
I

shall

now

relate,

m

the prescribed order, the

three Bandha-s, by performing which, this (practitioner)

THE VOGA-S'IKHOPANI§AD
will attain the

347

conquest of vital

air.

When Kumbhaka

of the four varieties has been successfully accomplished,

Bandha should be performed. That is related by me presently. The first is Mfila-bandha the second is what is known as Uddiyana the third
this

three-fold

;

;

is

Jalaipdhara.

Their description

I

relate (hereunder).

(101-103)

The Mula-bandha
Pressing the anus with the heel, (the practitioner)

should forcibly draw up the
that the air would

vital air

m

such a way

move upwards

stage by stage.

The

Prana and Apana

(vital airs), as also the

Nada

(Intellect)

and the Bindu (mind), becoming one by means of the Mula-bandha, bestow the successful accomplishment of Yoga. Herein there is no doubt. (104, 105)

The UppiYANA-BANDHA
The Uddiyana-bandha should be performed at the of the Kumbhaka and before the Recaka (exof
vital
air).

close

For the reason that by (such Bandha) the Prana (vital air) would spring up m the Susumria, this is said to be what is called Uddiyana by Yogm-s. Uddiyana is always communicated by the Guru m the natural course. (The practitioner) should
pulsion
practise
it

without sloth, (whereupon) even an old

man

would turn young. He should, with effort, make constriction above and below the navel. Should he practise

348
it

THE YOGA UPANI^ADS
months, he
it).

for six

will verily

conquer death

;

there

IS

no doubt (about

(106-109)

The Jalamdhara-bandha
The
air).

Bandha known
is

as

Jalamdhara should be
(in-filling

performed at the close of the Puraka
This
of the

the vital

form of constricting the throat
air.

with a view to obstruct the passage of vital
firmly in the bosom.

After

constricting the throat, he should establish
air)

(the vital

This

is

known
full

as the Jala-

ipdhara-bandha, which causes the

flow of nectar.

Should the constriction of the throat be made with
the immediate contraction of the nether part, by (per-

forming) Pas'cima-tana
air) will

in

the middle, the Prana (vital

reach the Brahma-nadl.

(109-112)

Attainment of the Nirvikalpa State bv
Breaking through the Three Knots by
means of the KUNDALi PoWER
Remaining
in

the Vajrasana posture, the Yogin,

after rousing the Kundali, should thereafter perform the

Bhastn (Kumbhaka) and quickly rouse the Kun^ali.

Even as fhe joints of a bamboo are pierced through by means of a red-hot iron rod, even so there will be
column by means of the vital air (along with the Ku^qlali). Should an ant crawl (over the body) there is an itching sensiation produced there. By constant practice with
the- bursting through the knots of the vertebral

THE YOGA-ffIKHOPANI§AD

349

the vital air (along with the Kuri^all) will be generated

a similar sensation
the

in the

Susum^a. Thereafter, piercing

through the Rudra-granthi, (the Kun^all) then attains
character of S'lva, (the Turiya in the

BrahmaKundali

randhra).

Their

conjunction

{t.e.,

of

the

making the Moon and the and Sun attain their equipoised state. The three Guna-s (rhythm, mobility and inertia) will be transcended on account of the three knots having been pierced
S'lva) takes place after

through.

From

the conjunction of S'lva (the Turiya)
is

and the

S'akti (the Kundali) there

generated the transstate).

cendent state (natural Nirvikalpaka

(112-117)

The Su^umnS forming the Path to Liberation
AND THE Final Resort of all Time Even
its

as an elephant will always drink water with

trunk, so also the

Susumna-nadi

will

grasp the vital

air

through the vertebral column.
(of flesh)

There are twenty-

one bright nodules
column,
all

attached to the vertebral

located along the Susumna, resembling a

number

of

gems strung

together, (of the size of grains

of linseed,

Susumgapath from the Muladhara to the Brahma-randhra, constituting as It were the joints of the Susumga bamboo, and within the actual range of experience of Yogm-s alone.) The Susumna, which is of the form of 'the universe, (depending as it does on the Brahman, the
dispelling the darkness of the

prop
the

of

the
of

entire

universe)

stands established in
as
all

path

Liberation.

Even

duration

is

350

THE YOGA UPANISADS

determined with reference to the position of the Sun

and the Moon, (which bear on the Susumna,
of time from

all

divisions

the minutest twinkling of the eye to the

longest Kalpa-s (Aeons) find their repose therein).

In

the practitioner, the vital air (once) in- filled (through

the Susumna) and held through

Kumbhaka

there, does

not at
in the

all

go out.

(Should

it

go out by some mistake),

same manner should it be restored to its original position in the Susumna, again and again, till it is
confirmed
in
its

position.

This

is

the characteristic
vital

(quality) of the hind-door (of the
air in-filled

Susumna). That
all

through that door and slightly held in
through the hind path
expelled (through the

Kum-

bhaka
body.

will enter

the parts of the

When it is

to the influence of time and destiny),
It

it is

Susumna owing wasted when
;

is

in-fiUed (again)

it

nourishes the body.

(117-122)

The

Acquisition of the

Knowledge of the

Brahman through Susumna-yoga
He, (whose knowledge of the Stman has as
basis
its

the

refutation

of
to

erroneously attributing the
the

quality of the

Atman

mind and

the sum-total

who, by means of his makes his mind along with the body (SusumnaKyoga, dissolve in the very (Brahman) wherefrom it had its
of the results of its functioning),
origfin,

he alone, devoid of (the slightest touch
is

of)

individuality and feeling blissful,

liberated from the

delusion of conceiving himself to be other than the

Atman.

Those

fools,

who do

not

know

the real basis

THE yOGA-S'IKHOPANI^AD
of

351
the aforesaid

the

knowledge of the Atman
fall

(in

manner),

into

the

embodied

state.

Should the

clearly manifest

mind get

dissolved, in that case the

becomes established. If not, for him there is no S'astra, no distinct knowledge of the Atman, nor Guru, nor liberation (as, with his deluded vision, he becomes incapable of being
cessation even
(of the

flow) of vital air

liberated, in the

absence of the dawning of the

real

know-

ledge of the Atman, either from a clear comprehension
of the

Veda

or through the grace of the Guru).
forcibly sucks

Even
accord,

as a jackal

up blood

of

its

own

even so the Brahma-nadi (the Susumna) throws into
the

background the
;

actions

phenomenal world and its re(thence arises the knowledge of the Brahman

and simultaneously with it liberation from the delusion caused by thmgs other than the Brahman). From constant practice of the (Susumna) Yoga (is achieved the aforesaid end). Through practice of such Yoga and out of the daily assumption of posture and (practice of) Bandha, the mmd attams dissolution and the Bindu
does not flow downwards
(123-126)
in

The Successful Attainment

due Course

OF THE FORM OF THE BrAHMAN BY THE

Practice of Yoga
After givmg up the Recaka and the PUraka (expelling and m-filling of the vital
air),

one should take his firm

stand by (holding) the breath.
are produced.

Various kinds of sounds

The

lunar region would stream, out

352
(nectar,

THE YOGA UPANI^ADS

on swallowing which there would arise the awakening, " There is nothing apart from the Brah-

man
all

",

as a result of which), thenceforward will perish
thirst.

ailments such as hunger and
his
is

Yogm) have
alone,

mam

stay in the

Then will (the form of the Brahman
and
Bliss.

which

Existence, Consciousness

This

description of the practice (of

Yoga) has been
(127-129)

verily related unto

you out of

affection.

Mah5-voga of the Character of the Fourfold

Yoga of Mantra and the Like
Mantra-, Laya-, Hatha- and Raj5- yoga at the
end, are the steps in order.
one, but
is

This Maha-yoga

is

only

called by four different names.

(129, 130)

Mantra-voga
Going out with the sound of " Ha " and entering again with the sound of " Sa ", this Mantra, vtz., " Hamsa Haipsa " is muttered by all the Jiva-s (involuntarily).
(In the case of Yogin-s,)

on account of the

precept of the

Guru and during Susumna (-yoga), the Japa (prayer) will become reversed. That which becomes thus VIZ., " So 'ham So 'ham ", is known as
:

the Mantr^-yoga.

(130-132)

Hatha-yoga
Out
of the conjunction of faith

and formula, there

takes place in the hind path (the union of the

Moon

and the Sun).

By. " jBa "

is

meant the Sun and by

THE YOGA-sriKHOPANI§AD
"Sa", the Moori. The union Moon IS known as Hatha.
Laya-yoga
of the Suft

3S3

and the

(132, 133)

By Hatha
from
all

(-yoga)

is

removed the dullness

resulting

ailments (irregularities).

The

conscious princi-

ple in the corporeal

when
is

there

is

body and the transcendent Stman, union between the two, when their union

brought about,
vital
rise.

O Brahman
attains

and the
takes the
Its

air

mind gets dissolved firmness, when Laya-yoga
!

the

Bliss

of

From dissolution one's own Atman,
RXJA-YOGA

is

attained comfort,

the exquisite state.

(134-136)

There abides
genitals of
all

in the great spot in the

middle of the

creatures. Rajas (menstrual fluid) resem-

and Bandhuka flowers in colour, well protected and (representing) the Devi (feminine) principle. By the coniunction of the Kajas with the Retas (of the male organ), (t.e., of S'akti with S'lva) there is what is known as Raja-yoga. From Raja-yoga (the
bling the Japa

Yogin) shines out after attaining the psychic powers of
attenuation and the
like.

(136-138)

The Common Feature of the Various ^Kinds of
Yoga and the Attainment of Liberation BY Means of Yoga
The mingling
together of Prana and

Apana should

be known as (the U 43

common

featuce of) the four-fold

354
Yoga.
(This
of
will

THE YOGA UPANI?ADS
is)

what
is

is

related in brief

O

Brahman

1

The word
attainable

S'lva

not otherwise.

Whatever

is

be attained only by gradual practice

and not otherwise. By practising Yoga even with a body little by little, liberation is attained at long last. The method of the monkey is that alone.
single

(138-140)

The Manner

in

which Success

is

Achieved

in

a

Subsequent Incarnation by the Practitioner

WHO

dies before Successful Accomplishment

OF Yoga
Should the body
(of the practitioner) perish out of

negligence, even before the attainment of (the fruit of)

Yoga, endowed with the impressions
body.

left

by

his experi-

ences during the previous birth, he will attain another

Then due

to the iniluence of religious merit

(accumulated during previous births) and by contact with his Guru, he will achieve success. The fruit will
be quickly produced by having recourse to the hind door (the Susumna path) and from the practice made during the previous birth (the practitioner) will reap
the fruit at once.
(141-143)

Only by yogic Practice there

is

Liberation

This much should verily be known, what is knoum as the Kaka-mata, (the doctrme that Mahes'varaisM complete control over Maya). There is no other pra^tiuoe

THE yOGA-a'IKHOPANI?AD

355

that may be known as Abhy3sa-yoga (practice preliminary to Yoga) beyond the KSka-mata. Only through that, liberation is attained (even by the ignorant man

and the man of spurious knowledge, as there is scope for the attamment of the knowledge of the nondifferentiated

Brahman through

eradicating the imto
it)

purities of their

not otherwise.

minds by having recourse (This is the word of S'iva.)

and

(143, 144)

Benefits Accruing to the Yogin, such as

overlordship over all, liberation while yet
Living and the Like
There is no final resort (to be had) by the Yogin beside the hind (Susum^a) path to liberation, reputed as attainable unartificially, through the method
of

Hatha-yoga,

along
like,

with
(as

the dissolution

of

the

Jlv5tman and the
texts, "

borne out by the Vedic

Having gone
rests

aloft

by means of that (Susumm)

(the Yogin) reaches the state of immortality ", "

The

SusumnS
and
of

the

on the transcendent (Brahman) flawless form of the Brahman " and others).
at the

Diseases perish even
practice), the dullness

commencement
body
the the

(of

the

bom
and

of the

(perishes) next,
PrSCcia,

then becoming equipoised (by conjunction w;th
Agni,
Surya,
S'akti
S'iva)

Moon showers
fire

(nectar)

incessantly.

Thereafter
air,

(in

the

MGlSdhSra), along with the vital
of

grasps the humours

the

body

(contributing to the increase of vital

energy and

virility).

Various kinds of

soun^

arise

356

THE YOGA UPANIgADS

and the body attains the bloom of youth. This person havings overcome frigidity due to showers and the like, (for the S'ruti says, " Having become the atmosphere he becomes a cloud "), will, (with his radiance)
traverse

the etherial

regions
will

(assuming the form of

become the knower of things, (capable of) assuming any form at his all choice, and attaining the fleetness of wind, will roam
the Sun).

This (person)

at

pleasure

through

the three

worlds.

(Should he
(in

desire),

various psychic powers will be generated

him).

When camphor
will
is

is

being consumed (by

fire)

where
will
will

the hardness

be

in

it?
fire

Even
of

so,

when

individuality

destroyed (by the

Yoga) where
?

be scope for

inflexibility in the

body

(The body

become

either soft or etherial in consequence).

The

king of Yogin-s will be able to do anything, relying
entirely

upon
it.

himself,

The

great

Yogm

and assuming endless forms. becomes a Jivan-mukta, there is no
(145-151)

doubt about

Rule Relating to the Safe-guarding of Natural and Artificial Psychic Powers
Psychic powers are of two kinds
artificial

m

this

world

^d

;

unartificial.

Those psychic powers that

by having recourse to means, such as the various ways of employing mercury and medicinal
prevail
herbs,

the practice of mystic spells and the

like,

they

are
the.

known as artificial. Such powers, as arise out of employment of the (above) means, are transient

THE YOGA-S'IKHOPANIgAD
and

357

endowed

with

little

efficacy.

Those (powers)

which, without the employment of such means, are generated of their own accord, in those that are
solely

intent

on

the
their

Stman,

out of

Yoga relating own resources,

to

their

own

are venly ac-

ceptable to Isvara.

(m

this

Those psychic powers which arise manner) are known as devoid of artifice.

(Powers) that are attained of their

own

accord, which

are lasting for ever, highly efficacious, in accord with
one's desire,

and resulting from one's own Yoga, are
in

produced after a long time,
of

those that are devoid

impressions (ol previous

births).

Those powers
his

should be safeguarded (by him
the imperishable state of the

who

takes his stand) in

Paramatman, through

Maha-yoga. (The array of psychic powers) should be kept as profound secrets always, when there is no This lis the usual procedure to need for their use.
be adopted by one
successfully.

who has accomplished

his

Yoga

(151-156)

The Index of

a Yoga-siddha and a Jivan-mukta
of pilgrimage are seen on
for

the

Even as various places way by travellers bound

Benares and Siddhi-s

attainable by various paths are brought abo^t of their

own

any met with 'the considerations Even as gold is determined by the cluster of Siddhi-s. assaying goldsmiths, one should determine an accomplished Yogin by the psychic powers (acquired by Jiim)
accord, so also, in the path of Yoga, devoid of
of gain

or

no gain,

is

358

THE YOGA UPANI^ADS
also a Jivan-mukta likewise

and

(by his knowledge of
is

the Brahman).

Surely the quality which

not of this

world
him.

{i.e.,

extraordinary) will sometimes be seen in

One should

look upon a person devoid of psychic
(157-160)

powers as bound

(to this world).

Attainment of Videha-mukti by the JRXnin
EVEN

When

His Body Remains

The Yogin
is

with the knowledge of the Brahman,
is

whose corporeal frame
alone a Jivan-mukta.
like verily

devoid of dotage and death,
Beasts, birds,

worms and

the

meet with

their death.
!

By

their letting fall

their coil,

O Brahman
fall

is

liberation attained

by them
which

?

The

vital air (of the

Yogin) does not come out.

Whence
is

then the
obstructed

of his

body

*

The

liberation
is

attainable by the
?

fall of

the body,

not that liberation

When

the state of the

the body (of the Yogin) has attained Brahman, when it has reached the not

dissimilar state, even as a piece of salt (dissolved) in

water,

he

is

then said to be a liberated one.

(No

doubt) the limbs of the body and the organs of sense
are
inconsistent (with

the attainment of liberation).

Verily the

Brahman has

attained the state of the body,
(161-165)

even as w^ter has that of a bubble.

Description of the Microcosm as a S'ivSlaya

The body

is

a city with ten gates, provided with

the highways of the ten NS^l-s, perflated by the ten

;

THE yOGA-8'IKHOPANI?AD
kinds of vital
air,

359

surrounded on

all

sides

by the ten

organs of perception and motor action, provided with
the six inner chambers of the centres of energy (Cakra-s)

and a great
Yoga,
viz.,

forest

fit

for the practice of the six kinds of

Mantra, Laya, Hatha, R5ja, Bh5vana and
lighted

Sahaja, with their characteristic methods of practice,

provided with four Pitha-s scattered about

it,

by the four Veda-s, wherein the Maha-lifiga of the mmost consciousness manifests itself through the various functions of the Bmdu and the Nada, {i.e., the mind and the intellect). The body is said to be a temple of S'iva bestowing special powers on all mortals. (165-168)

Description

in

Detail of the Six Centres

MOladhSra and/Others and the Four Pixha-s
The MulSdhSra, which
genitals.
is

triangular

m

shape,

is

situated in the interspace between the anus

and the

That

is

said to be the seat of S'lva in the

form of the Jiva, wherein is established the exquisite power known as the Kuijdalini wherefrom' the vital
;

air

whence arises the fire whence the Bindu takes its origin whence is generated the Nada whence is produced the Harpsa whence is produced
has
its

origin

;

;

;

;

the

(introspecting)

known
desire.

as

This is venly,the Pitha Kama-rupa, which bestows the fruits of
mind.
of

At
(is

the

root

the genitals,

with

the 'six

corners

situated) the plexus
is

known as SvadhisthSna.
situated the ten-petalled
is

In the region of the navel
Mai^i-pura plexus.

In the heart

the great plexus,

360

THE YOGA UPANl^ADS
petals.
1

Anahata with twelve
as Purna-giri,
is

This

is

the Pitha

known

O Brahman
is

In the well of the throat
as Vis'uddhi, the sixteen-

situated

what

known
is

petalled plexus, wherein

established the Pitha
of the

known
in

as Jalaipdhara,

O

Lord
(is

Gods

'

The

superior

plexus

known

as Sjfla

situated) with

two petals

the middle of the eyebrows.
the great Pitha

Over

(this) is

established

begin with,
ing deity.

known as Uddiyana. The earth, to is four-spoked and Brahman is its presidWater is of the aspect of the half-moon

and Visnu is its presiding deity. Fire is the tnangular region and Rudra is its presiding deity. The image of Vayu is six-spoked and Ts'vara is its presiding deity. The region of Ether is circular and its deity is Sadas'iva. The region of the mind in the middle of the eyebrows they know to be of the form of Nada. [" The Jyotir-hnga which is no other than the inmost Brahman, that Brahman am I " is what manifests For says the S'ruti, " The Yati itself in the mind. (mendicant) should always meditate unceasingly on the

Jyotir-linga in the middle of the eyebrows."

He who

knows thus the inmost Atman as the fundamental principle of the microcosm, that sage verily knows the Brahman as the basic prmciple of the macrocosm, owing to'.the oneness of the substratum left inside and outside, by denying the reality of the phenomenal world individually in its microcosmic aspect and
collectively in
its macrocosmic aspect and thus becomes one who has discharged his duties], (168-178)

THE YOGA-S'IKHOPANI^AD

361

CHAPTER n

He Who

Competent to Impart the Knowledge of Yoga
is

Once

again,

do

I

wish,

O

S'amkara

!

to hear about

the great characteristic (of the knowledge) of Yoga, by the knowledge of which alone one would attain equality

with the

Sun

(in

point of radiance). Hear,

O

Brahman,
He,

what should be kept a secret with great

effort.

who
the

renders service for twelve years with no want of attention, to that self-controlled seeker after
dutifully

knowledge of the Brahman, should
instruction

(the

Guru),
(of

who imparts

regarding the real nature

such knowledge), bestow the Vidya, either out of pride of his learning, or coveting wealth, or as a result of
error

'such

of judgment, whatever has been learnt (from Guru) by (the disciple), or heard or carried out by him, (will be lost, being vitiated by the incomof

petence

bestower of the Vidya). He, who understands (the correct import of) the Mula-mantra
the
(the
(a

fundamental formula), as expounded by petent) Guru, (achieves his end successfully)

com(1-4)

The Greatness of the Mula-mantra Known
AS

the Pranava
of S'lva
(is fit

That Mantra, made up
Its

and the

S'akti,

taking

the Nada).
is

Pranava or He, who, (having understood its real nature) capable of expounding or hearing that Mantra, isjrare
rise

from the Muladhara

to be the

U

46

362
indeed.

THE YOGA UPANISADS
This (Mantra)
all),
is

said to be the Pitha (the
of the

basic one), (the

Brahman, the import

ing the basis of

the Nada-hftga, (that

Mantra besymbol which

does not bestow the knowledge of anything but the

Stman, on those resorting
characteristics,
(as
is

to

it)

and what shares

my

there

is

no

diflference

name and what
ledge of
It,

named by
will

it).

By

between the the mere know-

any person
in

wealth of power, such as

become a Jivan-mukta and attenuation and the like,
(5, 6)

be attained therefrom

no time.

Explanation as to Why it is of the Quality OF a MOla-mantra

On
(the
its

account of
its

its

being used to meditate upon
vital force

Brahman),

helping the flow of
of

and
(in

serving the purpose

awakening

my

form

the

O
the

mind of the practitioner), it is called a Mantra, Brahman or because of its being based on me.
!

Being

at the root of all
texts,

Mantra-s
as

(in

accordance with

Vedic

"

Even
is

through the trunk the
all

leaves receive the sap, so also

speech

is

vitalized

by

the Oipkara," "All this
its

Orpkara,") on account of
it is

originating from the Muladhara, as

the symbol
it is

of the

form of the basic entity, (the Brahman),
as.the Mula-mantra.

known

(7-9)

Explanation as to Why it is of the Nature OF being the Nada-linga

On

account of
its

its

subtle and causal nature, on

accQunt of

state of repose

and mobility and

its

THE YOGA-S'IKHOPANI§AD
being

363
Is'vara,
it

symbolical

of

the

transcendent

is

known as the

Liiiga (symbol).

(9, 10)

Explanation as to

Why

it is

of the Quality

OF A Thread (SOtratva)

On
times,
it IS

account of
its

its

presence in

all

beings, at

all

and

indicating the form (of the Brahman),
(10, 11)

called the Sutra.

The Pranava

being of the Nature of the

PiTHA AND THE BlNDU
(As the Pranava
is

of the nature of the Prakrti, as

borne out by the
say,

S'ruti,

"

Knowers

oi the

Brahman
being the

out

of

being

the

Pranava

(arises)

Prakrti,")
Illusion),

(the

Pranava), the Maha-maya, (the great

Maha-laksmi, (the great goddess of wealth),

Maha-devi, (the great goddess), Sarasvati, (the goddess
of learning), the

which

IS

power originating from the Muladhara, mdistinct (in form), by means of which
the Universe (of

(Pranava-prakrti)
is

names and forms)
in the

sustained, exists in the form of the Bindu, (the mind)
its

manifested in
(four) Pitha-s,

subtle form
,

and

form of the

(Kama-rupa, etc

in a gross state). (11, 12)

Expedient to be Adopted for the Attainmfnt
OF the Pra^ava-Brahman

O

Brahman

!

(that Prapava), which

is

pronounced
vital ajrs),

by the functioning of the Prana (and Apana

364

THE YOGA UPANISADS
(to tiny pieces)
is

having thoroughly broken

the Binduindistinct

pltha (of that Pranava, which

distinct

and

m

its

character), in accordance with the precept of the

Guru, by assuming the §an-mukhl Mudra (and having attained the knowledge of the absolute Brahman),

(when the Yogin approaches) the Nada-linga, (which does not, at all times, give any scope for the differentiation of symbols manifested in the Bindu-pitha, commencing from the Jagraj-jagrat up to the Avikalpanujnaika-rasa), there at once flashes (the Turya-turya Brahman, in the form of the non-relative Atman
alone).
(13, 14)

The Brahman, being of the Form of the
Gross, the Subtle and the Seed-like,
IS

of a Three-fold Character
of the

Brahman is of three kinds gross, subtle and transcendent. The gross form, composed of the five great (elements), is known as the Vairaja the subtle, as Hiranya-garbha and that characterized
The body
:

;

,

by the three seeds, (A,U,M,) as Nada.

(14, 15)

The Knowabilitv of the S'uddha-tattva
(Absolute Truth) only Through the
Practice of the Atma-mantra

By
tiOQ

the practice, (through study, reflection, meditaat all times, of the

and application),

Atma-mantra,

THE YOGA-S'IKHOPANI§AD
(the

365

Pranava and the Maha-vakya groups), there manitranscendent Brahman,
Existence,
the
exquisite
truth,
BJiss,

fests Itself the highest truth, the

the

of

the character of

Sentience

and

the

inimeasuraWe,
subtle,

non-

demonstrable, which transcends the range of speech

and thought, the pure, the
the

the aspectless, the

changeless, the detached, the endless, the non-divisible,
(" The and the non-ailing (Brahman). one Brahman should be meditated upon (from the time " of) awakening from sleep till (one gets) sleep says

peerless

the S'ruti.)

Signs of Manifestation of the Para-tattva
Listen to me, (when
festation,
relate) the signs of its

I

mani-

which are the doors (leading to the acquisition)

of psychic powers.

By

the Yogin

who has achieved
and bright

it,

are always seen, in a subtle form, the flame of a lamp, the moon, the
firefly,

lightning, stars

objects.

(Whenever there is the as attenuation and the
time.

desire), wealth of powers, such
like,

originates in him, in no

(18-20)

The Greatness of the

Investigation of the

NXda
There is no Mantra higher than the Nada there there is no IS no god higher than one's own Stman worship higher than investigation, there is no happiness
;
;

higher than satisfaction.

By one who

desires to acquire

366

THE YOGA UPANI^ADS

psychic powers, (the import of the Atma-mantra) should

be kept as a profound secret.

(20, 21)

The Occurrence of the Knowledge of the
Para-tattva, only through Devotion to the

Guru and

Is'vara

My
sed

devotee, having understood this, becomes bles-

and happy.

To him who

has supreme faith

in

Is'vara and, even as in

Is'vara, so

also in his Guru,

these meanings, which are explained (here), will

become
(22)

manifest to that great soul.

CHAPTER

III

The Four

Forms, Para,

Pas'yanti",

etc.,

of the

NJda-Brahman
After realizing the

communion with which (Brahis

man), that Cit (consciousness) has been explained (by
the Yogin-s, to their disciples, by saying that there

nothing beyond the Cit, as testified to by the
**

S'ruti,

One

shoiild concieve thus

:

that, the Cit

is

here, this

is

Cit alone,
IS

made up
I

of Cit alone, the state of being

Cit

Cit,
is

and

all

these worlds are

Cit

"),

that

which

the prime cause (as well as the final resting
all

place) of
its

psychic powers,

(as,

simultaneously with

a,ttainment, the groups of psychic powers vanish),

THE YOGA-S'IKHOPANI§AD
by the
realization of which, (even

167
is

an ignorant man)

hberated from the bondage of birth, (due to the delusion

caused by everythmg other than the Atman, as borne
out by the text of the Smrti, "

When

what

is

apart

from one's own Atman, arising out of one's own ignorance,
gets

dissolved out of one's

knowledge of the

Atman, released from its (false) counterpart, there remains only the Atman), that (Brahman is of a two-fold character), described as the Parama Aksara (the highest imperishable Brahman, when viewed from the point of view of the knower of the Brahman) and as the S'abda Brahman (of the form of the Nada), (the means to be employed for the attainment oi the Parama Aksara),
(when viewed from the point of one ignorant of the

Brahman)
the S'abda

;

(for,

says the S'ruti, "

Brahman, one attains There is (the Para) power (of Cit) mherent m the Muladhara of the mdistmct form, known as Bmdu and having Nada as its support. From that alone arises Nada, even as the sprout out of the subtle seed. That, by means of which the Yogm-s see the universe, they know it as Pas'yantl, (also known as
Anahata).
Para,
it

Immersed deeply in the Para»Brahman "). the same character as

(Says the

S'ruti,
is

" Sprouting out

of the
in

(the

Pas'yantl.

Nada) Budding

turned into two petals
the

the
in

in

Madhyama,
is

it

blooms

the Vaikhari.")
is

In the heart, (wherein

the Anahata)

placed this sound, which resembles that of a thunderIt
is

ing cloud.

gods, situated there.

known as Madhyama, O Lord of the That alone is again known as
conjunction with the PrSria yital

Vaikhari, when, in

368

THE YOGA UPAN ISADS
it

air, that goes by the name of Svara, (when the form of articulate expression).

takes
(1-5)

Enunciation of the Form of the Vaikhari

"

One should utter the syllables commencmg from A and endmg with " Ksa," by moving the palate
"
seats (of speech),

and other

by (making them assume) the

form of the sprouts and branches of trees. From the syllables are (evolved) words and from words is the
formation of sentences.
S'astra-s
in

The
,

Mantra-s, Veda-s and

their entirety

the Purana-s, the KSvya-s

and the diverse languages, as well as the seven notes
of the musical scale, folk-songs

and everything produced
This
all

out of sounds are of the character of sentences.
is

the goddess, Sarasvati, abiding in the hearts of

beings and prompted, by stages, by the wind along with

manner, assumes the form of words of two or three syllables and sentences. (5-9)
fire,

in

this

By the Intuitive Perception of VaikharI Attained Remarkable Power of Speech
That Yogin, who
sees in himself this

is

power

of

Vaikhari, attains by the grace of the Goddess of Learning remarkable power of speech and shall, of his own

become the author of Veda-s, S'astra-s and Purana-s, (as borne out by the S'ruti, " Four are the stages marked out by speech. Those Brahmana-s who know them become sages. Three of them, placed in
accord,

;

THE YOGA-S'IKHOPANI$AD
the hollow, do not
vtz.,

369

show themselves

out.

The

fourth,
(10, 11)

speech,

men speak").

The Real Form of the Paramaksara
Wherein,
the
(of

O

Austere

One

!

the Bindu, the Nada,
all

Moon, the Sun, Fire and Air and

the senses

perception and motor action) attain their dissolu-

tion,

wherein the vital airs get dissolved and the mind
Its

takes
IS

final rest, after attaining

which, no other gain
not

considered as of a higher measure beyond that, taking

his

stand on which (the seeker)
of
his

is

moved even by
(the

a great calamity, wherein the mind, restrained in the
service

Yoga, finds repose, wherein
his

seeker)

seemg

Atman, with
is

Atman,

rejoices in the

Atman,

that which

intense happiness, capable of being grasped

by the intellect, but beyond the range of the senses, this, which hes beyond whatever is perishable and imp>enshable, IS known as the peerless Aksara, (the Paramaksara) All beings are perishable. The Sutratman is known as
the Imperishable.
IS

The transcendent Brahman, which
is

indeterminate and unattached
;

imperishable.

That

has no description, nor aim
peerless
is
is
;

is

non-conjecturable and

has neither this

side,

nor the side beyond

incomprehensible and extremely flawless the prop of all beings has no support is npn-ailing;
indivisible,
;
;

has no sanction

;

is

non-demonstrable, immeasurable and
;

beyond the range of perception is non-gross, atomless and non-dimumtive is lengthless, originless and wasteformless that has less IS soundless, intangible and
;
;

;

neither

eyes,
47

nor

ears,

nor name

;

is

all-knowing,

U

370

THE YOGA UPANI^ADS
;

and standing in the hearts of all is capable of being well comprehended, by (following) the import of the instructions of the Guru and not capable
all-reaching, tranquil
;

of being

comprehended even with difficulty, by those not endowed with a (sound) mind is digit-less, quality-less, tranquil, changeless, and independent (of everything
;

else

;)

is
IS
;

smearless

;

does not stand

in

need of protec(11-21)

tion

;

immoveable, unchangeable and perpetually the
is

same

and

unaffected and constant.

The Attainment of the Para-brahman Through
THE Devotion to and the Meditation on the
S'arda-brahman

That luminary

of luminaries, which

is

established

which is released from existence and non-existence, which is within the range of fancy alone, that supreme truth can be attained by means of
at the edge of darkness,

devotion, coupled with the
in,
IS

mind absorbed within

Here-

Brahman, fancy alone is the cause, even as fancy the cause for men to become embodied again. When
contemplates over a particular subject, his mind
in

O

a

man

would take delight

(pondering over) that subject.
(either in

The mind

of one

who contemplates on me

the qualified or the unqualified aspect) gets dissolved

m me

alone,

m

this

world (and he becomes the qualified

or -the unqualified

Brahman, as the case may
S'ruti,

be, as

borne out by the

whichever aspect he approaches him, (the Paramatman), he becomes only so.")
(22-25)

" In

—Thus.

THE YOGA-S'IKHOPANl^AD

371

CHAPTER

IV

Falsity of the Nature of the JIva

Owing
Even

to the

one form assumed by the Supreme
is

Consciousness, no difference
as in a rope, there

attached (to

it)

wherever.

is

the false conception of a

snake, so also should the (false) nature of the Jiva be

understood.

Just as, in the absence of knowledge about

the real nature of a rope, the rope verily puts on the

aspect of a snake in a

trice,

even

so,

it is

the supreme

consciousness alone, which puts on the actual aspect of
the

phenomenal world,
jjersists.

(so

long as ignorance of
real

its

real

nature

The moment
the

knowledge of the

Atman dawns,
ousness alone).

phenomenal world becomes consci(1» 2)

The Brahman-hood of the Entire Phenomenal World
phenomenal world is no other than the Brahman. Hence, this phenomenal world in its entirety is the Brahman alone and nothing What is pervaded and what pervades, is all false else. as, according to the scripture, all is the Atmant Should the highest truth be understood thus, where is the room for any difference (of opinion) ? For the reason that all bemgs take their origin from the Paramltman, (which is) the Brahman, for that reason, think that all these become the Brahman alone. Deem that the Brahman
of the

The immediate cause

372
alone
is

THE YOGA UPANI§ADS
the mainstay of
all

names, diverse forms and
as the quality of being
article
is

actions, in their entirety.

Even
in

gold permanently inures,
will

an

made

of

it,

so

the

Brahmanhood Brahman.
the

be, of

what

generated out of
(3-7)

Seeing Things as Apart from the Brahman,

THE Cause of Ruin
making even the slightest diflference between the JTVeitman and the Paramatman, even talking with him will bring about fearful consequences. Dualism would result from such ignorance and he sees that (dualism) in other things also. (At the dawning of wisdom), he then sees all as being of the character of the Atman and not an atom of anything else therein. (8, 9)
Whichever
foolish

soul

takes his stand,

Falsity of the Phenomenal World, wherein

We
Even
it

Function
world
has

though
is fit

this

been experienced

(by us) and
is

for carrying out (our) daily functions,

of the form of non-existence, even as a
^

turbed at the next minute.
in a

dream, nor a dream
IS

in

dream disThere is no waking state the waking state. Neither
is

of

them

there in a state of repose, nor

repose in

either of them.

All the three, the products of the three

Guija-s,

(Rhythm, Mobility and

Inertia) are only false.

He

jvho sees this, transcends the Guna-s

and this

(entity),

THE YOGA-S'IKHOPANI§AD
which
IS

373

eternal,

is

of the character of Consciousness.

Even

as the delusion of the pot

m

earth,

and the

(ap-

parent) state of being silver in the pearl-oyster, even so
the state of being the JTva

when

looked at
of " pot "
of

Brahman, vanishes, Even as the from close-quarters.
the

m

name name
in

would bear significance in earth, the ear-ornament in gold, the reputation of silver
even so the significance of the

the

pearl-oyster,

appellation Jiva in the
the

Parmatman.
in

Even as

there

is

blue colour of ethenal space, the water (of
in

the

mirage)

a desert,

manhood
is

a log of wood, even
of Conscious-

so the phenomenal world ness
Fi^ven

in the

Atman

as a vampire reduces itself to vacuity, the
(castle in the air), the presence

city ot the

Gandharva-s

two Moonb in the firmament, even so does the basis Even as it is of the phenomenal world on Truth. water alone, that is \erily suggested by the waves, large
of

and small, even as with the name of the pot, the earth, and with the name of the piece of cloth, the threads

(composmg

it),

even so with the

name

of the world (of
itself.

phenomena), Supreme Consciousness manifests
All is absolutel) the

Brahman

alone.

(10-18)

Thk Extreme Improbability of the Phenomenal World Apart from the Brahman
Even
as there
in
.the
is

as there

is

no son of a

sterile

woman, even
is

no water
is

in

a desert, even as there
the pot

no

tree

ethenal
there

regions, even so the existence of the
not.

world

When

is

grasped, the earth

374
(of

THE VOGA UPANI§ADS
which
it is
;

made) forcibly manifests itself even so, when the phenomenal world is closely scrutinized, the
effulgent

Brahman

alone manifests

itself.

(18-20)

Attribution of the Body and the like

TO the Atman through Ignorance
I,

the Atman,

am

always pure.

It

(the

Atman)
rope

always
has

appears
a

to

be impure.

Even

as

the

always

two-fold aspect to the knowing

man

and the man of ignorance, even as the pot is made of earth, even so the body also is a form of consciousness.

The
only

distinction between the

made

in

vain

Atman and the Anatman by wise men. Even as the rope
to

is
is

determined
even

by the fool

to be of the character of a

snake and a
silver,

pearl-oyster

be of the character of
the

so, the state of

Atman

is

considered

(by him) to be of the character of the body.
earth
(is

Even as

considered) of the character of the pot, a

mirage

to

be of the character of water, logs of

wood

as of the character of a house,

and (anything) made of iron to be of the character of a sword, even so, one sees
virtue of the influence of ignorance, the

m

embodied
(20-24)

state

m the

Stman.

— Thus.

THE yOGA-S'IKHOPANI?AD

375

CHAPTER V

The Body Possessed of the Characteristics
OF A Temple of Visnu

Once
profound

again,
secret,

I

shaJ] relate
is

unto you about Yoga, the

which

of the

form of the Brahman.

Listen (to the discourse),

O

mind

m

the regular order.

Brahman, with an attentive The body is a city with ten
by the ten senses
for the practice of

gateways, provided with the ten highways of the Nadl-s,
perflated by the ten winds, covered
(of

perception and action), with the six inner chambers
fit

of the plexuses, the great forest

the six kinds of Yoga,

(Mantra, Laya, Hatha, Raja,
different

BhSvana and Sahaja, with
the

methods of
it,

practice)

with the four Pitha-s scattered about

provided with

lamps of the four

V'eda-s,

the residence of the

Bindu, the Nada, the great Lifiga, Visnu and Laksmi,
the

body

is

said to be a temple of Visnu, bestowing
(1-4)

special powers on mortals.

Detailed Description of the Six Plexuses
AND THE Four PifHA-s

The
situated
genitals.

Mtiladhara, which

is

triangular h\ shape,

is

m

the interspace between the anus and the
is

That
;

said to be the seat of S'lva in the
is

form
air

of Jiva

wherein

established

the exquisite

power, known as the Kuo(Jalini; wherefrom the vital

has

its

origin

;

whence

arises the fire

;

whenqe the

376

THE YOGA UPANI§ADS
;

Bindu takes its origin whence is generated the NSda whence is produced the Haipsa whence is produced
;

;

the

(introspecting)

mind.

This

is

verily

the

Pitha
of

known
desire.
(is

as

Kama-rupa, which bestows the
the plexus
the

fruits

At the root of the genitals, with the

six corners

situated)

known
is

as Svadhisthana.

In

the

region

of

navel

situated the ten-petalled

Mani-pura plexus.
as Purna-gin,
is

In the
petals.
'

heart

is is

the great plexus the Pitha

An5hata with twelve

This

known

situated,

Brahman what is known
is

O

In the well of the throat
as X'ls'uddhi, the sixteen-

petalled plexus, wherein
as

established the Pitha,
of the

known

Jalamdhara,

O

Lord

gods

'

The
is.

superior

plexus,

known

as Ajfla,

(is

situated) with two petals

m

Over (this) established the great Pitha, known as Uddiyana Earth, to begin with, is four-spoked and Brahman is its presiding deity. Water is of the aspect of the halfmoon and Visnu is its presiding deity. Fire is the triangular region and Rudra is its presiding deity. The form of Vayu is six-spoked and Sarpkarsa is its prethe middle of

the eyebrows.

siding deity.
deity
is

The

region of Ether

is

circular

S'ri

NSiayana.

The

region of the

and its mind in the

middle of the eyebrows, they know, to be of the fotm This, the seat of S'aipbhu, O Brahman, of the N5da.
has already been described unto you.
(5-16)

The Real Form of the
Henceforward
tion
^

NXdi'-cakra

I

shall relate

about the determina-

of the

plexus of the

N5di-s.

Standing

in

the

THE YOGA-s'IKHOPANI§AD
triangle of the
digit-lengths.
half-split

377
of twelve

Mul3dhara
is

is

the

SusumQl

She, having the appearance of a

bamboo

at the root,

known

as the Brahma-na4l-

and the Pmgala, which are situated on either interwoven with the Vilambmi, reach the Vital air of the form of gold interior of the Na4ika. flows through the Ida in the left. Assuming the
side of her,

The

I^

character of the Sun,
the
Piiigala,

(it)

f^ows by the right side through

The

Natjll

known

as the Vilambinl

is

There have originated the Nadl-s, which ramify crosswise, upwards and downwards. Thai IS known as the plexus of the navel and is placed like the egg of a hen. Therefrom proceed the Gaipdhari and the Hasti-jihva to the two eves; the Pusa and the Alambusa reach the two ears therefrom
distinctly placed in the navel.
;

the great Nadi,

named

S'urS, reaches the
is

middle of the

eyebrows

,

that N54l. which
;

the Vis'vodari, eats food
is

of four kinds

that Nadi, which

the Sarasvatl, spreads

to the tip of the

tongue

;

that

Na^I, which

is

called

the

Raka, having drunk water
Hlls

m

a minute, produces
;

sneezing and

the nose

with phlegm

that Ns4l,

which originates from the hollow of the throat, known as the S'ankhini, goes with face downward and bnnging
the

essence of food (chyle), always

fills

(it)

in

the

crest.

There are three

Nk'^l-s going

below ihe navel
;

with faces

downward

;

the

Kuhu
;

NSiJl evacuates faeces

the Varupj lets flow the urine
of the prepuce,

the Na^i of the frenum the cause of the
the

discharge of semen.

known as th^ CitrS, is Thus is known
form of the Bindu.

ME4l-cakra.
(16:27)

Hence
U

listen to the
48

378

the yoga upani?ads

The Body of the Brahman, of the Threefold Character of Bindu, Agni and Soma

The body
is

of the

Brahman

is

of three kinds

:

the

gross, the subtle

the
is
IS

one one

The gross one Bmdu of the character of semen. The subtle The transcendent of the form of the five fires. The of the character of the Moon. said to be
and the transcendent.
is

eternal witness

the eternal Acyuta.

(28-29)

Fancying the Five Fires and the

Fruit Thereof
That Kalagni, which
fire),
is

established in the nether

part of the Patala (nether) regions, that MulSgni (basic

wherefrom the Nada takes

its

origin,

is

in

the

body.

That Badabagni
in

in

the body finds
fire

its

place in

the middle of the bone.
verily has its place
fire

The

of

wood and stone

the middle of the bone.
is

The

taking

its

ongm
seat
vital

from wood and stone

of the earth

and has
has
its

its

m

that part of the alimentary canal
is

from which
seat

warmth

diflfused.
is

The

fire

that

m

mid-ethenal rigions

of the character of the interior of the

that has. its place in the etherial

and Atman. The fire region and is of the
of lightning

form of the Sun, abides in the region of the navel. This Sub showers poison (downwards) and streams nectar in
the upward direction.
of the palate,

The Moon standing at the root showers nectar in the downward direction.
clear crystal, has
its

Th^ Bindu, which resembles

abode

THE YOGA-S'IKHOPANIgAD
in

379

known as the subtle form of the radiant Maha-visnu. That intelligent (Yogm), who conceives of these five fires by means of his intellect, whatever is eaten and drunk by him,
the

middle of the eyebrows.

That

is

partakes of the nature of a sacrificial offering alone.

There

is

no doubt about

it.

(29-35)

Rousing the Kundalini
With dreams conducive to his health and food well-digested and temperate, (the Yogm), having at first purified his body and assuming a comfortable posture, should purify the path of the vital air, by means of m-filling, expulsion and holding (of his breath). Having
with effort constricted the anus, he should worship the

mam

power (by rousing the Kundalini).

(36, 37)

Practice ok the Khe-cari Mudra and Its Fruit

He should i>erforni
in

the

Bandha, known as U^diyana,

the navel
so,

doing
power,

and in the middle of the organ of sex. By he moves flying upwards. In virtue of that
the seat of UcJ^iySna.
little.

(it is)

the throat a

This

is

He should constrict Jalaipdhara Bandha. He
self-possessed, perform

should, with a firm
the

mind and

Bandha (known as) the Khe-cari MudrS. The tongue moving in the reverse direction enters the

crevice of the cranium.

The

eyes turn (inwards) into

the interior of the eyebrows.

This forms the Khe<cari

Mudi?.

When

(by the Yogm) the crevice above the

380
uvula
not
IS

THE YOGA UPANI§ADS
closed up with the Khe-cari, the nectar does
fire,

fall

over the

nor does the vital
thirst,

air leap forwards.
is

Neither hunger, nor
duced.

nor sleep, nor sloth

pro-

He who knows

the Khe-carl Mudra, for him
(38-42)

there will be no death.

Attainment of At-one-ness by the Conception
OF NXrayana
Then,
(vts.,

in

the Sahasrara
space at the front and
rear,

in the ethenal

the Sahasrara
o^i

or the Ajffa) in the DvS-das'anta
^icyuta, the seat of

tfe%\OT\

xVie c\\2LtacteT oi

Uddiyana,

which

IS

nondual, propless and unattached, (the

Yogm)
in

should meditate upon Narayana, having his seat

the

middle of the
the
will

lotus,

reaching the middle of the disc of

Moon, and always streammg forth nectar (Then) break away the knot of the heart, all doubts Aanish,

the (previous)
up,

Karma

(of the

Yogm)

will

become spent
(43-45)

when

(the

Brahman), what

is this
is

shoie as well as
seen.

the other (of the ocean of existence),

Expedients for the Attainment

oi

the

Respective Siddhi-s bv the Yogin hamng Recourse to the Methods Prescribed

relate, O Lord of the gods the Siddhi the easy expedient of attaining it, (to be adopted) and by those who have conquered their senses, attained quiescence, and conquered their breath and their

Now

shall

I

'

mind.

The

resting of the mind,

O Brahman

!

in

the

NSda

is

THE YOGA-S'IKHOPANISAD
the cause of clairaudience.

381

By
is

resting the

mind

m the

Bmdu, one can
rest
in

attain clairvoyance.

Should the mind

the Kalatman, that

the origin of the know-

ledge of the past, present and future.
one's

The

nvetting of

mind on
(one)

to the

body and mind

of another is

what

enables

to

enter other

bodies.

One

should

conceive of nectar
effects

m

the crest, for counteracting the

of hunger,

thirst

form Dharana of his
the

and poison. Should one permind over the earth, access to
Should one perform
water,

nether world
his

is

attained.

Dharana of
the

mind over
fire,

vanquished by water.

he will never be Should one perform DharanI of
fire.

mind over
one

he will never be scorched by
his

Should

rest

mind

on

Air,

there

will

be

traversing the'sk) (rendered possible for hiin).

Should
will
like.

he perform DharanS of his mind over Ether, he
attain the psychic powers of attenuation

and the
he

Fixing his mind on the form
the

ot the V'lraj,

will attain

power

oi

increasing in size at will.

Fixing the

mind on

the lour-taced

Biahman, he
all

will

become the

creator of the world.

By

fancying himself to be of the
carnal pleasures. (Fixing
will

form of Indra, he

will

enjoy

the mind) on the form of Visnu, the great Yogin
sustain the entire universe
;

on the form of Rudra, the
will

great Yogin will destroy even with his radiance. Fixing
the

mind
all

on

Naraya^ia,
the

he

become one with
-will

Narayana.
attain

Fixing
success.

mmd

on V5su-deva, he

In whichever

manner the Yogin,
his senses,
will attain

who has accomplished Yoga and conquered shapes his desires, in the same manner he

382

THE YOGA UPANISADS
In this, the frame
(46-55)

the objects of his desire accordingly.
of

mmd

IS

alone the cause.

Rule Regarding the Service of the
Preceptor

The Guru is Brahman the Guru is Visnu the Guru is always the Lord Acyuta greater than the Guru One there is no one whatsoever m all the three worlds. should worship with extreme devotion (the Guru), who imparts divine wisdom, who is the spiritual guide, who
,
; ;

IS

the

Supreme Lord
of

(himself)

the

fruit

knowledge.

For him there will be Even as the Guru, so is
is

Is'vara.

Even

as the Is'vara, so

the (juru.

He

should

There is no difference between these two. One should not engage in debate, on equality of status with the Guru anywhere. With devotion, one should conceive m his mind of the identical character of the Guru, God and the Atman.
be adored with great devotion.
(56-59)

Greatness of the Yoga-S'ikha

To
profound
little

that

man

of

great

intellect

who knows
is

the

.secret,

the Yoga-s^ikha, there

not even a

unknown

to him, in all the three worlds.

Neither

religious merit, nor sin,

nor cause for discomfort, nor

sorrow, nor defeat, nor the

coming back once again
is

into this region of wordly existence,

there for him,
(60, 61)

on any account.

the yoga-s'ikhopanl§ad

383

Rule Regarding the Attitude of Indifference TOWARDS Psychic Powers
The Yogm should not, with a ficlde mind, aJlow his mind to dwell on the Siddhi (attainment of psychic
power).
Albeit,
this

person, dhce he

comes

to realize

the Truth, becomes liberated alone, no doubt.
the Upanisad.

—Thus
(62)

CHAPTER

VI

RuLU Regarding the Mode of Cultivating
THE KUNDALlNi
" Pray, tell

S'AKTI

me,

O

Parames'vara

'

the

method

of

cultivatmg (the KundalinT S'akti), by the very knowledge
of

which

I

may be
it,

released from worldly existence." "

I

shall

presently speak to thee about the secret formula
the

for cultivating

method

to be adopted therefor

and the fruit following from listening to it, O Hiranyagarbha After attentively listening to it, d© cultivate
!

it

m

the right manner.

— My

salutations to thee, the
(power),

Susumrfi (path), the Kun^alini
flowing from the region of the the

the nectar

Unmani

state of the

Moon (in the SahasrSra), mmd, the great power that is
.(1-3)

of the character of

Supreme Consciousness."

384

the yoga upanisads Real Form of the Susumna

A hundred and
Of
these,

one are the Nadl-s of the heart.

one goes
that,

in the direction of the crest.

Going
others

through

one attains immortahty

The
known

spread out in various directions. There are one hundred

Among these, (one) and one Nadi-s Para. Free from contamination and
the

is

as the

of the

form of

The Brahman, the Susumna lo^ stands to the left and the Pingala to the right. He who Between these two is that exquisite seat knows that is the knower of the Veda One should
reposes in the Para.

hold the vital air passing through the nostrils therein

and causing
part
of

it

to

become one
is

of

lengthened breath

there, he should practise only

by stages.

At the hind end of the

the anus, there

the Vina-danda (vertebral

column) bearing up the body
long bony frame,
it

Up
is

to the

is

said, there

the

Brahma-nadl

At the end

(of

the

vertebral
is

column), between the

I4a and the Pingala, there
of the Sun, the Susumria,

the fine tube of the form
is

which

called the

Brahma(4-9)

nadl by sages.

The Susumna, the Main Prop of All
All

(Nadi-s) reaching

all

parts (of the body)
in

and

spreading

m

all

directions, are placed
its

that (Sus-

umpa).

Along
Fire

course

are

placed
as

the

Sun, the

Moon,
of

and Parames'vara,
the

also

the groups

(five)

Elements,

cardinal

points,

places of

THE YOGA-S'IKHOPANI§AD

385

pilgrimage, oceans, mountains, rocks, islands, rivers, the

Veda-s, S^astra-s, Vidya-s, Kala-s (arts and crafts), the
letters of the

Alphabet, the notes of the musical scale,

Mantra-s (mystic formulas), the Purapa-s, the Guna-s (Rhythm, Mobility and Inertia), all these, in all directions,

their

seed,

the

Bijatman, and the
is

vital

airs,

their witnesses.
in

The Susumna

a veritable universe
established

the interior (of the body)

and everything that could
is

be reached by the various tiny Nadi-s
in

(the

Susumna) which
of
all

is,

so
its

to

say,

the inmost

Atman
its

beings.

It

has

root upwards

and

branches spreading downwards and can reach every-

where through the path of the vital air. There are Seventy-two thousand Nadl-s, which, being full of
holes,

could be reached by the vital air by

all

paths.

What

are of the character of being filled with holes,

cross below

and above, when

all

the holes are obstructed
(10-15)

by the Kundalinl.

The Awakening of the Para
One should
what
s'akti,
IS

S'akti

attain liberation, through

knowledge of

higher up, by

means of
air.

the (Kundalinl) Jlva-

coupled with the vital

After knowing the
it

Susumna

(Nadl), (then) bursting through

and making
it,

the vital air pass right through the middle of

(he)

should restrain

it

m

the nostril, at the Baindava-sthana
In the

(between the middle of the eyebrows).

human

body

there

NSdl-s.

Seventy-two thousand openings of (Among them), the Susumrja is the power of
are

U

49

386

THE YOGA UPANIgADS

S'arpbhu, while the remaining others are of no value. When " Hrim ", which is the exquisite Bliss (of

the Is'vara-tattva)

is

established at

the root of the

palate, (the practitioner should restrain his

mind, breath

and the

like).

By

restraining (the mind, etc.) above

that stage, where are the Turya and the Turya-turya, (aiming at which) he should utter the Para S'akti,

(Pranava

of

sixteen

Matra-lengths) abiding in the

crevice of the

Brahman
(the

Should there be
of
the

(thereafter)

Bhramara-srsti,

occurrence

progeny of
fickle-

revolving mental functions), (for says the S'ruti, " Desire,
volition, doubt,

smcenty, insincerity, firmness,
all

ness,

bashfulness, cognition, fear,

this is the
is

mind

alone,") (in other words, even though there
for

no scope

such functions

in
in

the seedless Brahma-randhra, the Vis'uddhi plexus, climbing

should there be such

down from

the middle of the eyebrows), then (by firmly

holding on to the Ajna plexus) he should boldly give

up being deluded by attachment to the objects of worldly desires, (by flatly denying them, as they are
the cause of his rum).
(16-19)

Meditation on the Paramatman
I

see the

lamp

of the

form of consciousness, which

destroys the intense darkness remaining in the interior
of
-all

men, which

is

capable of being reached and not

reached (by the various functions of the senses), and (yet) devoid of being so reached (and not reached). I
salute

the

Hamsa

of the form

of.

the Paramatman.

;

THE YOGA-S'1KHOPANI§AD
Of
in

387

the sound, Anahata, (not produced by any impact)
IS

what

the echo of that sound
;

;

the radiance that

is

the interior of that echo
;

the

mind

that

is

m the

interior of that radiance

when

that

mmd

meets with
(20-21)

dissolution, that

is

the exquisite state of Vispu,

Attainment of Liberation bv the Dissolution
OF THE
PrAI^IA

AND OTHERS

IN

THE AdHARA-

Bkahman
Some
say that the Adhara
is

(where) the

Susumna
As, from

and the Sarasvati (Nadl-s) (are established).
the Adhara, the Universe takes
dissolves in that alone.
its

origin, so the Universe
all

Hence by

kinds of effort

one should seek shelter at the feet of the Guru, (who

would expound the
mant, the Universe

real nature of the

Adhara).

When
is

the power inherent in
is

the Adhara-(Kundalini)

dor-

overtaken by sleep.
is

When
all

the the

power inherent
reaches what
alone,
of
his

(in

the Kundalini)

roused,

three worlds are aroused.

man is own accord,

He who knows the Adhara, is beyond darkness. By knowing that nd of all sins. When the Guru is pleased
then

through the lustre of the

AdhSra
will
S'ruti,

plexus, radiant like a cluster of lightning, there

be liberation undoubtedly, (as borne out by the
"

Attainable from
")•

him whom alone he (the Sdhlra plexus. By
restrain-

seeker) seeks

He

should cut asunder religious merit

and

sin with the lustre of the

ing the vital air in the AdhSra, he seeks, repose in

some

other ethenal region; by restraining the- vital air in

388
.the

THE YOGA UPANlgADS
;

Sdhara, even the body shakes by restraining the the Adhara, the Yogin dances for all time vital air

m

;

by restraining the vital air in the Adhara, he sees the
universe there alone (by realizing that there
is

nothing

beyond the Atman).

The Sdhara,
alone).

(the

prime cause)
is

of all created things (apart from the

Brahman)

the

Adhara
all

(the

Brahman

In the Adhara, (abide)

deities.

In the Adhara (abide) also all the Veda-s.

Hence

(one) should

have recourse to the Adhara.

In

the hind part of the Adhara, there occurs the conflu-

ence of the three Nadi-s, {Ida, Pmgala and Susumna).

By

bathing and drinking there,
In the Adhara
is

man

is

deprived of

all

his sins.

the Pas'cima LiAga (inmost
its

consciousness), as well as

door (the three knots).

By

bursting through
the

it

(the door) alone,

one

is

liberated
in

from

bondage of worldly-minded-ness.
the

the

hmd

Adhara (in the Susumna) are the Sun and the Moon. Should they be constant, there stands the Lord of the Universe, by meditating on
part of
{the Yogin) attains

whom
man.

communion with

the Brah(22-32)

By Meditating on the Fokms of the Deities, Brahman and Others in the Plexuses,
is'flffected the entrance into the

Brahma-randhra
In the hind pari of -the Adhara, there stands the

form of the deity, symbolically. (In this manner, the vot^iries should meditate on the appropriate deity.

THE YOGA-sTKHOPANIgAD
gracing the plexuses).

389

(Yogin-s) restrain (the vital air)

which (formerly) went out of the Brahma-randhra (the

SusumnS
PiAgala

Na^i), (at

first)

m

the left

and

right (Ida

and

Na^l-s)

and

(thereafter),

forcibly

bursting

through the six plexuses (with the three knots
union of the Sun, the
the

m their

order, then after drinking the nectar flowing out of the

Moon and

Fire) enter, through

Susumna, the Sahasrara, which is resplendent with the Turya and the Turiyatita and seek repose therein. Those who enter the Brahma-randhra (thus) attain the
highest state.
(33-34)

Liberation of one

Whose

Inner Senses are

Dissolved

in

the Brahma-randhra
(the vital
air)

When
santly

the

Haqisa
in

springs

downinces-

wards and upwards
causes the

the Susumna,
vital
air

when one
revolve

Prana

to

m

the

Susumna, when the
gets steady

vital air of the intelligent (Yogin-s)

Susumna, by entrance into the Susumria, the Sun and the Moon will get dissolved. He who knows the state of equipoise at that stage, he is When, in the Susumna, the the real knower of Yoga. current of one's mind is lost, when, m the Susumria, the Yogin takes his stand for even a single minute, when, in the SusumpS, the Yogin has (full) command for half a minute, when, in the Susumpa, the Yogin holds fast, as salt in water, when, in the Susum^, the Yogis
the
IS

m

lost,

.

as milk

m water

;

then, the knot (of the differIs'vara) breaks
;

ence between tne Jiva and

all

doubts

390

THE YOGA UPANI5ADS
in the

vanish and get lost

transcendent Ether and the
(35-40)

(Yogin-s) attain the highest state.

The Greatness of
Bathing
in

Su^umi^iS-Yoga

Ganges and the Ocean and worshipping the Mani-karnika (at Benares), do not deserve even one-sixteenth of (the merit due to) the investiThere is gation of the middle Nadl ( the Susumna).
the

hberation for (one paying) a visit to

S'rl-sraila, for

one

who
and

dies at Benares, for drinking the water of Kedara,
for

having

a

sight

of

the

middle Nadl (the

Thousands of horse-sacnfices and hundreds of Vaja-peya-s do not deserve even a sixteenth of (the merit due to) Yoga attained by meditating on the
Susumria).

Susumria.
is

nd

of

all

Whichever man discourses on the Susumria sins and will attain eternal Bliss. The
is

Susumiria alone

the holiest place of pilgrimage.

Susumria alone

is

the

most

efficacious

prayer.

Susumria alone

is
is

meditation of the highest order.
the worthiest goal.

The The The

Susumria alone

The vanouakinds
to)

of sacrifices, gifts, vows

and austere observances do not

deserve even a sixteenth part of (the merit due
attained by meditating on the Susumna.

Yoga

(41-46)

Clarification of the Respective Positions

Assumed by the Power of Supreme Consciousness and the JIva
In

that great

place,

the

Brahma-randhra, ever

abides the S'lva, the power of

Supreme Consciousness,

THE YOGA-s'IKHOPANIgAD

391

the greatest Goddess, well placed right in the middle.

Similarly in the lotus of Ether,
the forehead (abides) the
the

m

the foremost part of
;

MSya

S'akti

in the

middle of

forehead (abides) the Para

S'akti, of the

form of form of

Nada

(Sound)

;

in

the hind

part of the

forehead

(abides) the S'akti consisting of

Bindu

(of the

the mind).

In the middle of the
in a subtle form.
in

Bmdu

there abides the

Jivatman
(he
(either)

In the middle of the heart

abides)
in

a

gross form
(of

the middle

and does not (move) the eyebrows or the
in

Sahasrara).

[Should

he

move

either

of

them,

becomes perishable or becomes the imperishable Brahman]. (47-50)
he either

The Manner of Ham.sa Prayer by the Jiva, when l'ndkk the control of the vltal airs
The
(vital

Jlva,

under the control of the Prfna and Apana

airs),

leaps

downwards and upwards and
left.

is

not

seen to

move

either to the right or to the

Even

by the forearm goes onwards, even so the Jlva impelled by the Prapa and Apana (vital airs) does not rest. The Apana draws the Prana and the PrSna likewise draws the Apana. With the sound of " Ha " It goes out and with the sound of " Sa " it
as a ball thrown enters again.

The

Jlva ever utters this Mantra, v»«.,

" Harpsa,
"

Haipsa "

— thus.

The

Jlva

knowing

this

becomes the imperishable (Brahman), (by conceiving, I am the imperishable," and simultaneously with the dawning of such knowledge becomes the Brahman). He J who knows this is the real knower of Yoga. (5 -54)

392

the yoga upani?ads
in

Liberation and Bondage due to Difference

THE Position of the Kundalini The
Kurtdalini S'akti, which has
is

its

place above

the knot of the navel,

of the form of Liberation, in

the case of Yogin-s and leads to bondage, in the case of
fools.

He who knows

that (power),

is

the real knower
its

of Yoga. (Should the Kundalini
position, as in the case of

move upwards from
not
rise,

an accomplished Yogin, that
it

leads to liberation.

Should

as in the case
(55)

of a fool, his bondage does not cease).

The
(In

Pranava, the Support of All
(syllables) stand) Bhur,

whose Matra-s
these
the
Fire,
is

and

Suvar,

(three) (three)

worlds

;

the

Bhuvar Moon, the
the

Sun and
radiance

deities, that

tianscendent

(the

Pranava)

Om.

Wherein,

three durations (past, present and future), the three
deities

(Brahman, Visnu and Rudra), the three worlds Bhuvar and Suvar), the three Svara-s (Hrasva, (Bhur, Dirgha and Pluta), the three Veda-s (Re, Yajus and

Saman), take their stand, that transcendent radiance IS (the Pranava) Om. (56, 57)

Bondage and Liberation, the Results of the Mobility and Immobility of the Mind

When

the

minded-ness.

mind moves, (that) is known as worldlyThe motionless state (of the mind) is

THE YOGA-sTKHOPANIgAD
!

393

known as Liberation. Hence, O Brahman one should make the mind steady with supreme wisdom. The mind is the cause of all the ends and aims of life. While It persists, the three worlds (exist). When that IS dissolved, the world vanishes. That should be treated
with great endeavour.
(58, 59)

By Constantly Dwelling on the Thought THAT THE MiND DOES NOT ExiST ApAKT
FROM One's

Own

Atman, the Direct

Perception of the Brahman

COULD BE Attained
I

am
the

the

mmd
in

of the aspect of Ether
all
,

I

am

the

mind which
I

faces

directions.

I

am

the mind,

(Brahman) is The mind (endowed with the not the mind alone. qualities of Mobility and Inertia) is turned into actions The mind is smeared with sinful actions. (of all kinds) Should there be the mind, one can reach ecstasy, when
all

am

Atman

the transcendent

there will be neither religious merit nor sin.

When,

by looking with a
state),

mmd
(full

(which has attained a rhythmic
of Inertia
is

on a mind

realizing that everything

false),

and Mobility) (and the mind becomes
be seen the
of Yoga,

devoid of functioning, thereafter

will verily

Para-Brahman
Looking
U
at the

(rather)

rarely.

The knower

looking at this mind with his mind, becomes released.

mind with the mind, one should always remember the final ecstasy. Looking at the mind jvith
30

394

THE YOGA UPANI?ADS
become
intent 'on

the mind, (the Yogin) should
for

Yoga

ever.

Lookmg
(the
"),

at the

mmd
I

with the mind, the
is

conviction (described as Das'a-pratyaya) Yogin),
"

seen (by the

pon him
in

Brahman dawns conviction (even as, when taught by the Guru " thou
the
I

am

art the tenth ", the conviction "

am am

the tenth " arises
"

the disciple and
",

when taught by the Guru,
I

That

thou art

the conviction " that

" arises).

When

convictions bear on him, then he becomes a Yogis'vara.

That, which
Jyotis, that
fiaika-rasa,

is

the
is

Bindu, the Nada, the Kal^ and
the Otr, the Anujfiatr, the Anujis

which

and what

beyond,

vtz.,

the Avikalpa,

all

that

IS

said to be the Para

Brahman.

(60-66)

The

Inseparable connection between the

Prana and the Mind

One
ligence

laughs,

rejoices,

plays with

affection

and

similarly feels happy, ekes out his livelihood, with intel-

and

care,

is

afraid of danger from

alj

quarters,

quarrels,

reflects,

when

afflicted with grief, gets intoxi-

cated with newly acquired fortune, quails at the vengeful

acts of his foes,

when
the

filled

with

lust,

enjoys

(inter-

course with the other sex), putting on a smile.

One

should keow that

body the mind takes delight in sensual pleasure with the aid of memory. In whichevcF part of the body the vital air abides, therein will
in

the

mmd

surely abide.
to

The mind
vital air

is

said to be the
eyes, to be
fire.

Moon, the Sun,

he the

and the

(They are respectively) the Hindu,

t'he

Nada and

the

THE YOGA-8'IKHOPANISAD
KalS,

395

O

Brahman having
!

as their deities, Visnu, Brah(67-70)
is

man and

Is'vara (respectively).

Close Application to the Nada

the

Cause of the Dissolution of the Mind

By
previous

closely

applymg one's

mmd always to the N3da,
The
vital

impression wears away.

air

and

the Mind,

O

Lotus-born

!

will find their repose,

m (the

Brahman) devoid of all attachment. What is the Nada, that IS the Bindu and that again is the mind, so it has been said. The Nada, the Bindu and the mind, by the The mind alone, as three should oneness be attained. also the Bindu, is the cause of all creation and susBy the mind is the Bindu produced, even as tenance.
milk, which
is

of the character of ghee.

(71-73)

Rule Regarding the Practice of Breathcontrol along with the Mind
Having thoroughly come
uses,

to

know

of the six plex-

the
(in

mind

of one should enter that comfortable

region
It,

the mterior of the Susumna).

Having entered

after

drawing

in the vital

air,

he should similarly

place (the

mind and

vital air)

higher up.

He

should

practise well with the vital air, the

Bmdu,

so also the

plexus and his mind.

Yogin-s reach the nectar, only

simultaneously with the attainment of their Samldhi.
(74, 75)

396

THE YOGA UPANIgADS
in

Without Practice

Accordance with the
is

Instructions of the Guru there

no

Dawning of Knowledge
Even as the fire dwelling in the interior of the S'aml wood will not rise up without churning, so also without the practice of Yoga, the lamp of knowledge Even as a lamp placed inside a pot will not (glow). does not at all shine outside, but when the pot is One's broken, the flame of the lamp manifests itself. to be a pot and the Jiva is ot the (same) body IS said
state (as the

Atman).

When

(the ignorance

encompas-

dawning of knowledge frorrt) the Guru's precept, knowledge of the Brahman manifests itself. Having approached the Guru, who holds the rudder and holding on firmly to his precepts (serving) as a boat, with the power derived from the practice of Yoga and the impressions left by
sing both
is)

broken, simultaneously with (the

association with righteous people,
of the knowledge of the of the Veda-s
existence.

(Yogin-s possessed
the grace

Brahman, through

and the Guru) cross the ocean of worldly
(76-79)

—Thus the Upanisad.

THE VARAHOPANISAD
[This Upanisad, which
the 108 Upanisad-s
is

the Ninety-eighth

among

and forms part of the Krsna-yajurveda, gives an exposition of Jfiana-yoga, after deahng with the Nmety-six eternal verities and closes with a description of the Brahman, which has no counterpart and the Turya-turya, the impiort of the Pranava.]

CHAPTER

I

Various views Regarding the Number
OF THE TaTTVA-S (EtERNAL VERITIES)
Then, the great sage Rbhu performed (severe) for a period of twelve years, measured by the standard of the Deva-s. At its close, the Lord (Visnu)
penance
of the form of the porpoise, manifested himself (before

the sage).

(Having done so, desirous of bestowing the fruit of the penance on the sage), the Lord said thus, " Arise, arise, choose the boon (of thy heart)." (In

response to the words of the Lord) the sage stood up and having made obeisance to Him, replied thus "
:

O

Lord,

I

do

not,

even

in

my

dream, propose to bfg of

;

398

THE YOGA UPANISADS

thee anything whatsoever of the heart's desires of
of
desire.

men
and

All
all

the

Veda-s,

S'astra-s,

Itih5sa-s

Purana-s,

the groups of the faculties of learning,

the gods with
that liberation

Brahman
is

as the foremost,

all

these say

attainable from the knowledge of thy

form.
vidya,

Hence, pray explain (unto me) the Brahmawhich expounds thy form," Thus quoth he. it so " said the Lord of the form of the porpoise
:

"Be
"

some

discoursers (of the

Brahman) need
(eternal

(for

their

exposition)

twenty-four

Tattva-s

verities)

others thirty-six eternal verities, and yet others ninetysix.
I

shall relate

them

m

order.

Pray

listen

with an
(1)

attentive mind."

The Twenty-four Tattva-s
The
senses of perception are five only, the ears,
the eyes and others
five only,
;

the integument,

the senses of

motor action are
others in order
also five only
; ;

speech, hands, feet and

the (vital airs) Prana
so also, sound

and others are and other (perceptions)
self-

mind (of volitions), the intellect, consciousness and the (thinking) mind, these four,
are five
;

the

these

the knowers of the four Tattva-s.

Brahman know

as

the twenty(2-4)

The Thirty-six Tattva-s
Along with these Tattva-s, the five elements, Earth, Water, Fire, Air and Ether (severally) and containing

; ; ;

THE VARXHOPANI5AD
all

399

the five (collectively)

;

the three bodies, the gross,

the subtle

and the
sages

causal, (which) wise

men know
;

;

and

the three states, waking, dreaming
together,

and sleeping

these

know

as the clusters of thirty-six
(5, 6)

Tattva-s.

The
Along
existence,

Ninety-six Tattva-s
the
aforesaid
:

with

Tattva-clusters,

one
:

should add the Tattva-s

the six varieties of existence

coming mto being, growth, ripeness, decay and destruction, these (wise men) know as the six
,

varieties of existence

hunger,

thirst,

sorrow, delusion,
the six Urmi-s
shall presently

dotage and death

,

these are
;

known as
I

(human
relate

infirmities)

the six sheaths

unto thee, membrane, blood,
(to

flesh, fat,
;

marrow
anger,

and bone, know these

be the sheaths)

lust,

and spite, these are the six enemies Vib'va, Taijasa, and Prajfia, the three Jlva-s Rhythm, Mobility and Inertia, the three Guna-s previously commenced, prospective, and accrued, these are known as the triad of Karma-s. Speech, grasping, going, evacuation and pleasure (constituting) the five
greed, delusion, infatuation
; ;

volition, perseverance, misconception, decision

;

delight,

compassion, friendship and
the
cardinal
Fire,

indifference, th«se

four
t|!e

points,

VSyu-s,

the

Sun,

Varima,

As'vin-s,

Moon, the
All-witness
;

Yama, so also,- the fourfaced Brahman, Rudra and Isfvara the
Indra, Upendra, and

these together are said to be the cluster
(7-15)

of Ninety-six Tattva-s.

;

400

the yoga upani^ads

Liberation only through devotion to the

Lord that Transcends the Tattva-s
Those who seek asylum
porpoise,
in

me

of the form of the

who am

subject to no ailments

and stand
to

divergmg

from the aforesaid Tattva-clusters, verily

become Jivan-mukta-s, havmg surrendered ignorance and its concomitants.

me

their

(15, 16)

Fruit of the Knowledge of the Tattva-s
Those
Tattva-s,

who

have

knowledge of the nmety-six
life

m

whichever stage of

they

may
;

delight

whether (such a one has his head) with matted hair, or close-shaven or with a tuft, is venly released there is

no doubt about it. [The ninety-six Tattva-s recognized by the S5mkhya-s are included in the thirty-six Tattva-s recognized by the S'aiva-s, which again are
included
in

the

twenty-four

Tattva-s

exclusively
inclu-

recognized by the Vedantin-s.

These again are

ded in Stman, which MayS again being of the form of nonexistence, which has no correlative, there remains only the Brahman, which has no correlative. This is the essence oi the conclusion arrived at by all the systems
of

the single Tattva of M5ya, apart from the

Vedanta!]— Thus.

(17)

;

the»varXhopani§ad

401

chapter
The
great

ii

great Yogin of the

name

of

^bhu

(asked) the
:

Lord of the form of the porpoise

(thus)

—" O

Lord, pray impart unto
exalted Brahma-vidya."

me

the knowledge of the most

Being asked thus, the Lord, the breaker of the misery of his devotees, said (as " The four-fold means, such as detachment follows) and others arise m the case of men out of practising the line of conduct appropriate to one's own Varna (caste) and Ss^rama (stage in life), from severe penance and propitiating the Guru (they are :) the capacity to distinguish between what is eternal (the Brahman) and what is ephemeral, (every thing other than the Brahman) and detachment towards what is of this world, (such as flower, perfume and women) and what is of the other, (such as enjoyment of celestial happiness and the like). The desire
:
;

for liberation

is

(the result of) the successful attainqualities,

ment

of

the

six

tranquillity

and

others,

(self-control,

continence,

forbearance,

sincerity

and

abstract meditation.)
perly.

One
is

should cultivate them pro;

[Tranquillity
is
is

control of the internal organs

self-control

the the

control of the external organs

continence

renunciation
sincerity

of all

action

:

for-

bearance
scriptural

is

putting up with heat
;

and cold and

other

pairs of opposites
text,

is

implicit faith in* the

as well
is

as the words of the

Guru
(1-4)

abstract

meditation

the

one-pointedness of the

mind.] U31

402

THE YOGA UPANIgADS

The Knower of the Brahman and the Stman
ALONE
IS

the really BlESSED SoUL

Having thus become one, who has conquered his senses, and given up in all things the sense of " mineness," he should cultivate the sense of " I-ness " in me,

the

all-witnessing

supreme
state,

consciousness.

Having
in

attained the

human

which can be attained only
too of the

with great

difficulty,

that

BrShmana

human
that
(of

form, and through the study of the Vedanta,

a mendicant, distinctly symbolical) of the great Lord Visnu, if (the Yogin-mendicant) does not know the form, which is beyond the pale of the

Varna-s and the As'rama-s, (the indistinct symbol of
Visnu), of the character of Existence, Consciousness

and

Bliss,
^

when can such an ignorant one become
(4-7)

liberated

The Form
"
I

of the Bliss of the Atman
(supreme)
else.

alone

am
all

Bliss,

(the

innermost
else,

Brahman) and naught
that
is

Should there be aught
("

not at
is

(the peerless) Bliss.

That great

What me is not dear (to me) that which is intended for me is dear of its own accord. Let me not be nonexistent, for the reason that I am the object of affection." " Let me exist always."— He who sees thus, he am I, the Visiju, O foremost
verily

abundance

Bliss ", says the S'ruti).

is

not intended for

;

of gages!

^7.9)

THE VARlHOPANlgAD

40^

The Self-manifest Nature of the Stman
The
man)
",

statement, "

I

am

not the manifest (Brah-

only postulates the manifest (Brahman).

How

can then the unmanifest touch that
fests of its

Stman

that mani-

come
of

to

own accord ? Those who, out of conviction, know of the self-manifest (Brahman), that does
else,

not depend upon anything

they are verily possessed
firm conviction.
(9-11)

supreme wisdom

:

this is

my

The

Incompatibility of the Atman with

MSyX and

its

Progeny
is full

Apart from the Atman which

by

itself,

the

phenomenal world, the
not exist
;

Jiva, the Is'vara

and others do

(By nature) I am entirely opposed to them. That which is of the form of the intense darkness of ignorance and is of the
nor does the

Maya

exist.

character of

Karma

(action),
all

Dharma

(line of

conduct)

and the

like,

does not at
is self-

deserve to touch me,

who

am

the S^tman that

man ifest.

(11-13)

The Becoming the Brahman of the Knower
OF the Stman that
is

the Brahman

Xtman, the All-witness, which IS devoid of Vaqja (classification) and As'rama (diflferentiation into stages), as of the form of the Brahman, becomes the Brahman of his own accord. Looking

Whoever

sees the

at all these (phenomena), that shine as the lustrous

404
form, which
is

THE YOGA UPANI?ADS
the highest state from the standpoint of

Knowledge (of the kmd), whereby one looks upon the body as the Atman, is an obstacle to the right understandmg of He whose (the nature of) the body, as of the Atman,
the Vedanta, one gets released at once.

knowledge rests on the Atman alone, attains liberation (13-16) even without seeking,

For the Knower of the Atman, there Bondage Resulting from Karma
That which edge, Bliss and
is

is

no

of the character of Truth,

Knowl-

away from darkness. How can one be bound by Karma, when he has seen the Bliss of the Brahman, the witness of
Fullness, (stands furthest)

the threefold existence, characterized by Truth, Knowlthe real significance borne by the application of the words " Thou " and " I ", (e.g., of the scriptural texts, " That thou art ", "I am the

edge, Bliss

and the

like,

Brahman,") (standing) apart from
undefiled.

all faults

(and hence)
(16-18)

Divergence between the Wise Man and the
Ignorant Man
in

the Matter of the

View-points and Positions wherein

They take Their Stand
The eye
ness^

of

knowledge

(of
is

a wise man) sees the
Existence, Conscious-

aJl-pervading (Brahman), that

and

Bliss.

The eye

of ignorance (of an ignorant

THE varXhopani$ad
man) does not
(of the

405

see the resplendant (innermost)

Sun

Brahman), even as a blind man (does not see the lustrous Sun of the phenomenal world). That Brahman, which has Truth and Wisdom as its characteristics, IS Wisdom alone. It is only by knowing the Brahman thus, a mortal becomes immortal. Having known the real form of one's own Atman, that Bliss of the Brahman, the non-dual, that is devoid of qualities, that is Truth and palpable Consciousness, (one) does not scent danger from any quarter whatsoever. The stand taken by knowers of the Brahman
IS

as follows

:

(There
is

exists) the

Brahman

alone act-

ually,

which
full,

absolute Consciousness, all-pervadmg,
is

eternal,

and which
exists.
filled
full

imperishable

Bliss
is,

and
to

nought else
wise man,
is

The phenomenal world
of Bliss.

an

Ignorant man,
it is

with a flood of misery, while, to a

To

a blind
it is

man

the world

dark, while to

men

of clear vision

bright. (18-23)

The Absence of Bondage and
Forsooth,
in

Liberation,

the Stman
me, of the

When

(the seeker) takes his stand on

form of the porpoise, the endless Existence, Consciousness and Bliss, there will be the dual-less existence.

(While
mortals,

so),
?

what

(therefrom)
is

bondage and who will be liberated The form of the Atman, for all embodied
is

always verily Consciousness alone.
like is not at all to

The

group of the body and the

be looked

upon as a

pot.

Realizing this phenomenal world of

406
things, static

THE YOGA UPANI?ADS

and dynamic, which shines as something other than one's own Xtman, as consisting of one's own Stman alone, assume the mental attitude, " I am
that (Atman)
real
".

One

enjoys, oi his

own

accord, the

form of the Atman.

There

is

nothing separately

enjoyable apart from the Atman.

Should there be any

such thmg of the form of existence, the
IS

of the character of Existence.

Brahman alone He who is possessed

of the
sees

knowledge
is

of the

Brahman, even though he

what

reputed to be the entire world, does not
it)

at all see

(m

anything apart from his

always.
kinds),

He

is in

no way bound by

owing to (his) knowledge of knows (the Brahman) devoid of the body and the senses, who is the all-witness, the sole knowledge of the supreme
import, the essence of Bliss, the self-manifest, as of the

own Stman, Karma (of various my form. He who

form of the Atman, all out of self-realization, he should be known as the man of fortitude. I am he. Do thou
likewise

become

that,

O Rbhu

!

seeing that the experience of the
of the form of the
full
is

Hence (the seeker) phenomenal world is
and possessed of
(23-31)

not true always, while the experience of the realization

Atman

is

verily (so),

knowledge,
all

is

neither liberated from bondage, nor

he at

bound.

Concentration on the Brahman and the Stman FOR THE Removal of Bondage
He, who,
witnjess,

for a

who am

MuhQrta, thinks of me, the alldancing on account of concentration

THE varXhopani^ad
on the form of the Atman,
Salutations to
is

407
all

liberated from

bondage.

me
all

alone,

inmost recess of
the

who take my stand in the beings, who am of the character of
and

consciousness, ever liberated,

am

of the form of
I

inner-most
art,

consciousness.

Thou am
I,

verily.

Thou

O

Divine power! the glorious

indeed.

To

thee and to me, the endless, to

me and
also

to thee, of the

character

of

consciousness,

salutations
to

to

me, the
the

transcendent
auspicious.

Lord,

salutations
shall
?
I

thee,

What
I

What

shall

grasp

Whither shall 1 go ? Whit shall I give up ? Even as
do
?

the Universe has been filled by

me
who

with the water of
gives

the Great Deluge, similarly he

up

internal

attachment, external attachment, and attachment to
one's

own

self,

with his

Atman devoid

of all attachment,

me. He, who avoids the company of men, as if it were a snake, who (devoid of lust and possessed of detachment) looks upon a beautiful damsel as carrion, and upon sensual pleasures, which end in misery, as poison, that Parama-haipsa
he

undoubtedly

reaches

(becomes)

m

this

world the Vasu-deva,

(».e.),

I

alone.
is

This
here

is is

the Truth.

This
I

is

the Truth.

What

said

the Truth.
;

(am) the Truth, the transcendent
(32-38)

Brahman

apart from me, nought else exists.

Announcement regarding Upavasa which Forms THE Means TO the Attainment of the Brahman
That abiding near (each other) of the JivStman and the ParamStman, that (alone) should be known as

"

408

THE YOGA UPANIgADS

Upavasa, and not the drying up of the body.
(avails)

What

by the mere fasting of the body and that too
'

in

the case of ignorant folk

Does

the great serpent

(abiding in the crevice below) die by the mere beating
of the ant-hill
?

(39, 40)

Non-vicarious (Direct) Knowledge, the Means

TO JiVAN-MUKTI
"

There

is

the

Brahman

"

—should one know thus,
I

that

IS

only vicarious knowledge. "
is

am

the

Brahman

— should one know thus, that
tion.

known

as direct percep-

At what time the Yogm knows his own Atman alone, commencing from that time, this (Yogin) becomes a Jivan-mukta. The firm conviction, " I (am) the Brahman," (when it arises), is the cause of liberation
to the high-souled ones.

(41-43)

Rule Relating to the Giving up of the Internal Anxiety about the Brahman

Two
liberation

positions there are (leading) to
:

bondage and

what are known as the

*'

mine-less " and the

"

mine
''

" (attitudes).

that)
less

is

mine " attitude, (by bound the created being and (by) the " mine-

What

is

the "

attitude

is

liberated.

Neither outward anxiety nor

inward anxiety should be evinced,
all

O

Rbhu Giving up
!

anxiety, remain always at ease, taking thy stand on

the

^tman.

(43, 44)

-

the varahopani^ad

409

Contemplation of the Great Lord, the Sole
Expedient to ward of all Anxiety

The world
mination
(likewise)
this,
is

in its entirety (is) the

outcome of deterof

alone.

The

manifestation

the

world

dependent on determination.
determination alone.

Give up

which

is

Approaching (me)

the non-determinate one, conceive, in thy heart, the
state that
is

mine.

Thinking of me, singing

my glories,

mutually conversing about me, having become solely

absorbed
time.
thing)
(this

me, O sage of great intellect, spend thy Conceive that there is consciousness (in every
in in

this

life,

that

this

is

consciousness alone,

is)

made
I

of consciousness alone, thou art consci-

ousness,
are

am

consciousness,

and that

all

these worlds

consciousness.

Converting passion into passion(45-48)

lessness,

remain always unattached.

The Brahman alone Lying beyond the Range
of all Creative Imagination should be

Thought of

How

can the lamp of the knowledge of the Atman,

having the Holy Writ as its genesis, be affected by action of any kind, arising from the syntactical relations

known as K5raka-s, commencing from the agent

(Kartr)

and the like, which is the offspring of Ignorance ? Giving up the state of the Anltman, remaining unaffected by the condition of the phenomenal world, with a singleness of purpose, do become absolutely intent on
V
52

410

THE YOGA UPANISADS
Brahman) abiding
in the inner-

the perception of (the

most (core of everything). The Ether of the pot and the Ether pf the monastery are estabhshed in the great (ocean of) Ether. In the same manner, the Jiva and Is'a (Tattva-s) are formed out of the Ether of consciousness in me. That which does not exist before me,
the

Atman, and

similarly vanishes at the end, that has

been sung as

Maya by Brahma-vadm-s

(discoursers

on

the Brahman), out of Maya and its progeny

their true discernment.

When

perish, there is neither overlord-

ship, nor existence (as a Jiva).
I

Purified by

its

riddance,

am

the supreme consciousness alone, propless like

Ether and of the character of sentience and nonsentience, assuming the form of the jTva, Is'vara and the
like.

Creation commencing from reflection and ending
is

with penetration (into the Brahman)
Is'a.

the work of

Worldly
with

existence,
liberation

commencing from waking and
is

ending

the
the

work

of

the

Jiva.

(Practices)

commencing from
Is^vara.

vow

of Trt^ct{ke)ta

and ending with Yoga,
about the

(these) are

based on delusion

(Schools of thought)

commencing

from Lokayata (rank materialism) and ending with the ^ipkhya (system of philosophy), are based on the delusion of the Jiva. Therefore should no thought be
directed «t
Jiva
all

and
let

Is'a

towards the controversies relating to the by seekers after liberation. On the other

hand,

the Truth relating to the

Brahman be

investi-

gated upon by the non-fickle one.

To what

extent

people do not understand the truth about the non-dual

Brahman,

to that extent, all those are only deluded.

1

THE VARXH0PAMI$AD

41
in

Whence
this

is
?

liberation for them,

whence happiness

world

(48-57)

The Brahman Nondifferentiated
Transcending all States
For them
of superiority

within,

(the deluded), should there be the notion

and

inferiority,

what would

result there-

from

?

Will a

man

roused (from sleep) be touched by

(the difference between) a

perienced in a dream

?

kingdom and beggary exThat is known as sleep by wise

men, when one's intellect seeks repose in ignorance. How can there be sleep for me in whom ignorance

and

Its

concomitants are dissolved
is

?

The

full-blown

state of the intellect, this

known as
like.

the waking state.
I

The waking

state

is

not for me, for the reason that

am

devoid of change and the

The

traversing of

the Intellect through the subtle Na^l-s gives rise to a

dream.
to

no dream movement of any kind.

There

is

in

me who am

not given
(58-61)

Becoming the Brahman through Knowledge
OF THE NON-DETERMINAIE BrAHMAN
During
in

sleep,

when

all is at

repose

and enveloped
vtz.,

darkness, (the sleeper) devoid of the power of vision,
is

enjoys what
Bliss.

of the

form of his Stman,

sublime

He who

sees all things as non-differentiated,

on
he

account of their close relation with consciousness,

412
alone
is

THE YOGA UPANI^ADS
the actual

man

of knowledge (of the

Brahman),

he

IS S'lva,

he

is

Han

and also Brahman, (and

knowmg
stages,
(62, 63)

the

supreme consciousness right through becomes the supreme consciousness alone).

all

Reflecting on the One-ness of the Brahman,

Preceded by the Dissolution of worldly
Existence
(Know)
verily
this cycle of

worldly existence

is

what

is

a long-drawn dream,
;

a lengthening

delusion

ensnaring the mind

nay,

(it

may

be characterized as)
air, for

indulging in building castles in the

a long time,

(and what

is

more) a veritable ocean of sorrow. Hence,
of one's rising

from the time

from sleep to the time
the the the

when he goes back to sleep, let him reflect on By the dissolution of one-ness of the Brahman.
(unreal)
result

phenomenal world, which
ignorance,
(there
it),

is,

after

all,

of

remains but) the mind

(deeply engrossed in

assuming only
the

my

form

(t.e.,

which becomes the Brahman alone).
shed the foes (that
of
veil

Having vanquiof the
vtz.,

Brahman

form

Existence,
-foes,

Consciousness and Bliss,
lust,

the six

internal

anger, greed, delusion, infatuation
six

and

spite),

by having recourse to the
{vtz.,

employed,

tranquillity,

self-control

means to be and others)

obtained through the grace of the Guru, one's

Xtman
(64,

becomes
in ryt.

peerless

alone, like the infuriated elephant

65)


THE varShopani$ad
413

Experience of the Knower relating to the

Brahman, Non-differentiated from

the Innermost Atman
Let the body cease to
exist or last as long as the

Moon and
ousness
for
?

the

stars last.

What

difference arises out

of such duration, concerning the

form of my consciWhether the pot gets broken (now) or lasts
little

a long time, that makes
the Ether of the pot.

difference whatever

to

The
it.

lifeless

slough cast off
ant-hill

by a snake remains abandoned over the
the snake does not care for
cares not for the gross
false

and

Even
cause

so (the knower)
bodies.
is

and the subtle
its

When

by the fire of the knowledge of the innermost (Brahman), (knower) becomes bodiless, on account of his this being of the form of "not this" "not this". The" perception (of the illusory phenomenal world) as real, will die out (as a result of the knowledge dawning on
dispelled

knowledge along with

one)

by the study of the
is

S'astra, (that the

Brahman

alone
it).

the real existence

and there is nothing apart from

[Such knowledge, taking the form of Jfiana, Vijfiana

and Tattva-Jfiana, clinches at the truth, that apart from the Brahman, MayS is nought and simultaneously
with such disillusionment, the three kinds of 'Karma

PrSrabdha and Agamin, along with the brood of impressions left by them, perish and the knower thereafter remains as the bodiless Brahman alone.]
Arjita,

[When
into

JflSna (knowledge) gleaned from books ripens

Vijfi«[na

(wisdom) through experience]^ out of

414
(such)

THE YOGA UPANIgADS
direct

world

wisdom perishes whatever relates to the [Then everything other of Maya (Illusion).

than
his

the

Brahman

manifests

itself

as a

reflection,

as a result of which his Saipcita-karma perishes and

Prarabdha-karma begins

to

waste away by enperish,
it

joyment
Vijfiana

and

does
in

not

at

once

having

commenced
firmed

just

the present
further

incarnation.
ripens,

When
(the

(wisdom)
experience

still

through con-

into

Samyak-tattva-jfiana,
the
truth),

thorough
other

perception
the

of

then everything

than

form of
void.
is

Brahman, which had assumed the reflection, completely vanishes and becomes
(Illusion) in

Thereupon, even the Prarabdha-karma, which
a gross form,

none other than Maya

also vanishes.]

With
in

the vanishing of the Prarabdha

(karma) there occurs the vanishing of the reflection
(as
well).

Thus,

(these)

Maya
the

(Illusion)

relating to

ways perishes the [Thus, when the Atman.
three
to

denial

of the delusion relating

existence or
is

non-existence of something resembling what

apart

from the Brahman, becomes thoroughly accomplished,
the functioning of the
is

mind

relating to such denial

tantamount to the state of perfect knowledge of the

Truth.

By

such functioning the knower remains pos-

sessed of the knowledge, that the

alone with no counterpart.]

Brahman is the Xtman When the Atman is yoked

on

to the (state of)

Brahman-hood (purely out of the
S'astra), (the state of) Jlva-

knowledge gleaned from the

hood does not go.
non-dual
state,

When the Truth is understood as the VSsana (impressions left by previous

THE VARAHOPANI^AD

415

Karma) recedes into the background. At the expiry of Srabdha (Karma commenced in this birth) will be
the riddance of the body.
All

Maya

(Illusion) (of the

form of intense attachment to the body) wastes away
in
this

manner.

When

the words, " there

is ",

are

uttered, the entire Universe will

become that essence
the words, " there

of existence, the

Brahman.
uttered,

When

shines

forth,"

are

the entire

Universe

will

become

that manifestation of the absolute
all

(Whatever pleases, For says the S'ruti,
features, viz., " there

that
"

is

the Bliss of the
five

Brahman. Brahman.
essential

These are the

is

", " there shines forth ", "

whatthree

ever pleases," form and nomenclature.
are of the form of the

The

first

Brahman. The two thereafter are the characteristics of the phenomenal world.") All water in a desert is the desert alone and only that. This triad of worlds is all consciousness alone, when investigated upon from the point of view of the Atman. Ignorance alone has association with the phenomenal
world (as
nowhere.
its

root-cause)

;

(so)

the possibility (of the
is

world ever deserving to attain a better condition)
(At a spot), far

away from

(places,

rage) controversies about the Jiva, the Is'a

where and the
is

Guru,
all

(revelling)

in

the state of the Stman, which
I

alone and of the one essence of consciousness,
full,

the completely the full-figured

absolute

Brahman

aione.
its

am When

Moon

of Consciousness has

splend-

our eclipsed by the Rshu of delusion, austerities such
as ablutions, gifts and sacrificial rites are only in vain
till

the end of the eclipse.

(6^74)

416

the yoga upani?ads
Meditating on the Nada, the Means
OF Samadhi

Even as
ness of the

rock-salt,

(when brought) into contact

with water, acquires the

Yoga

:

(this

same quahty, even so, the oneAtman and the mind is attained through one-ness) is said to be what is Samadhi.
is

The
(vtz.,

giving up of addiction to sensual pleasures

very

difficult

indeed

;

the actual perception of the Truth
is

the Brahman)
is

rarely attainable
;

;

the innate

state (of the Yogin)

unattainable

(all

these) without

the grace of the Guru. Itself of its own accord
tion

The
in a

innate state manifests

Yogm, who has

realiza-

of

the

Kundahnl-power roused
acquired

m
the

him,

(due

to

proficiency

by him
of

in

practice of
(or

Yoga, aided

by

his

knowledge of the Atman),
state

who has reached

the

Samyak-tattva-jfiana

and is knowledge and desire), doned completely (the three kinds of) Karma, (Arjita, Prarabdha and Agamin). Unsteadiness is the inherent
possessed of the
quality of quick-silver, as well as of the mind.
quick-silver has been

powers of sentient action, and by whom have been aban-

When

bound (has lost its fluidity) and the mind has been bound (has ceased to be fickle), what thei> cannot be successfully accomplished in this

mundane world ? When calcined with sulphur (quicksilver) drives away disease when dead, it causes (one) to life when bound (turned into a to be restored
;

;

solid) carries with

it

the psychic

power of locomotion

throygh Ethereal space.

In the heart of mercury there

THE VARAHOPANIgAD
IS is

417

Brahman-hood. The lord of the organs of perception
the mind.
lord

The
Hence,

lord of the
vital

mind
final

is

the vital

air.

The

of the

air

is

dissolution

(the

Brahman). Brahman).

seek

asylum

in

that

lord

(the
(the

The

final

dissolution

of

Yogin-s

Brahman) lives (forever) actionless, changeless, bursting away from all volition and devoid of all (kinds Whatever is that dissolution, (the Brahof) gesture. man), which lies beyond the range of expression of speech and minds, is fit to be attained by the Atman. The Yogm, though mtent on paying regard to sensual pleasures (darting through his mmd), furnished with feather after feather, does not give up his sole aim of directly perceiving the Brahman, even as the femaledancer, though absorbed in the symphony of song, musical time, and instrument, does not lose sight of her principal aim of maintaining (the stable equilibrium oO the pot on her head. Giving up all wornes, witha composed mind, the Nada (the Brahman) alone
should be meditated upon, by one,

who

aspires to hold
(75-83)

sway over the Yoga-samrajya (Empire)

— Thus.

CHAPTER

III

Realization of the Peerless Paramatman
At no time can the One entity verily assume For the reason that there is none else diverse forms. whatever besides me, for that very reason I am. the

418

THE YOGA UPAKI?ADS

Whatever is seen or heard of, that cannot be other than the Brahman. That one (entity) which is eternal, hallowed and emancipated, the indivisible Bliss, the non-dual, the endless Truth and
indivisible alone.

knowledge, that Para-brahman do
the form of Bliss.
I I

I

become.

1

am

of

am

the indivisible consciousness.
the most exalted, the

am

the most exalted
of

among

manifestation

palpable

consciousness.

Even

as

clouds do not touch the Ether (whereon they

float),

so also the sorrows of worldly existence do not touch

me.

Know

that

all is Bliss,

as

all

sorrow has been comthat everything
is

pletely obliterated.

Also know

of

the form of existence, as falsehood has altogether been It is the form of consciousness alone, obliterated.

which

is

possessed of reflection.
indivisible.

Hence

this

form of

and purity there is nought, nor the most accomplished Yogin, everything shines out more distinctly, as being filled
exist.

mine is do not

Birth, death, going

and returning,

Filth

understanding.

To

with consciousness.

(1-5)

Rule relating to Silence, the Means of the Attainment of the State of Remaining as
Consciousness Alone

Assume the
*'

attitude of silence with the conviction
state,

:

I

Am

always of that

which

is

palpable Existence

and Consciousness,
devoid of
all

indivisible,

without a counterpart,

visibility,

non-ailing, flawless, the S'iva

without a double."

Assume the

attitude of Silence in

THE VAKIhOPANI^AD
the belief, "
I

419
\vliich
is

am

always that (Brahman),

devoid of birth and death, happiness and misery, which
keeps at a far ofT distance questions
clan
reletting to race,

and pedigree, which is the prime-cause of this world of the eddy of Consciousness." Assume the
I

attitude of Silence with the resolve, "
full,

am

always that
devoid of
like,

non-dual,

indivisible

consciousness,

differentiation as Vis'va, Taijasa, PrajRa

and the

partaking of the character of the peerless, transcendent
intelligence.

(6-8)

The State of Existence, Consciousness
AND Bliss of the Lord
UnafTected by any sort of obstruction whatever,
there
is

the state of remaining in the

same form, during
exists

the three durations (past, present and future).

always the form of
of happiness,

my
is

existence.

What
it

This is assuming
all

the form of Bliss during sleep, transcendmg

kinds

which

eternal, as

has no prior cause,
(9, 10)

this IS the state of Bliss

always of mine.

Devotion to the Lord, the Means of
Liberation

The

very thick darkness of night

is

dispelled at once

by the rays of the Sun. The very palpable darkness (of ignorance), which is the cause of the attachment to worldly existence (is dispelled) by the splendour of the

Sun

of Hari

and not

otherwise.

Man

is

entirely liberated

420
from his own

THE YOGA UPANI§ADS
(internal) darkness,

by (ever) remembering and worshipping my feet. Apart from the remembrance of my feet, there is nothmg whatever, which would bring
about the destruction of death and
(a
birth.

Even

as

poor man) would ardently praise a rich

man

with

the desire of getting largesses (at his hands), should

he do likewise unto me, the creator of the Universe, whichever man would not be liberated from bondage (the delusion brought about by this unreal worldly existence)
?

(11-13)

Equality of All

in

the Eves of God
active of
its

The animate world becomes
accord only

own
it is

m
as,

the presence of the Sun.
all

So

also,

only
life.

in

my

presence that
in

the world pulsates with

Even

the shell of the pearl-oyster, silver
(Illusion),

is

created by

Maya

even

so,

in

me

alone

is

the world, from the Mahat-tattva onwards, created

While others are disposed to differentiate between the body of a Candala (out-cast), (the different orders of creation) from the animal down to the mineral, and the body of the Brahman, I am not (inclined to do) so. Even to one, who, out of delusion,
out of
(Illusion).

Maya

has

lost the correct

conception of the points of the com-

pass, (the right conception of) direction manifests itself

as before.

The

world,

when once destroyed

outright

by the dawning of superior wisdom, does not at alJ
appear
to

me

as before.

The world

is

neither the

body

nor the vital energy of the organs of perception, nor the

THE VARjHOPANIgAD
mind
(of voJitions), nor the intellect,

421

nor self-consciousthe creator, nor
(in

ness, nor the thinking (mind), nor Illusion at all, nor

Ether and the
the enjoyer,
likewise.
I

like.

Neither

(is

it)

nor what causes enjoyment

others)
is

am

the absolute

Brahman

alone, which

Consciousness, Existence and Bliss, the Janardana (the
world-controller).

(14-19)

The Mind Alone, the Cause of the Cycle
OF Births and Deaths

Even
face)

as,

on account of the agitation

(in

the sur-

of the water, the (reflection of the)
is

Sun

is ruffled,

so also

the agitation of the

Atman
verily

(brought about),

only through the admixtuie of Self-consciousness.
travail

The
mind.
Alas
f

of worldly existence

is

due

to the

Hence should one

purify
is

it

with great

effort.

What
the
is

kind of faith
?

this of thee, in the greatness of

mind

the

Where are the treasures of kings ? Where Brahmana (the recipient of such gifts)? Where
worlds either (over which they held sway)?
the
in

are the
[

*

That quality oi
of Its

Atman whereby
the form of
to
all

it

mam/ests

Itself

own accord

things (of the

phenomenal world), without recourse

any intermediate

means, knowers of the system of Vedaiita* speak of that, as the form of consciousness of the Self-manifest
(Brahman).]
return).

Things of the past have gone (never to

Several series of the order of created things

This additional *tanza occurs here in the Grantha

MS

of the Adyar

Library.

422

THE YOGA UPANIgADS

have (likewise) gone. Crores of Brahman-s (creators) have passed away. Kings have disappeared like dust. The misconception relating to the Stman (is due to the delusion of the mind) resulting from the demoniacal tendencies of even the knower (of the Atman), (which
will

only contribute to his ruin).
in

demoniacal tendency

Should there be this the knower also (as in the

ignorant man), then his seeing the truth will bear no [For, says the S'ruti, " There remains not even fruit.

a

little

to be

done by the Yogin, who has discharged

his

duty and has been satiated with the nectar of knowledge. Should there be (the least), he is not the knower
of the truth."]

(20-24)

Experiencing Passion and the Like

in

the Non-

Atman, the Characteristic of a Knower
Passion and other feelings, even as they rise
the knower), are then and there burnt up by the
of
(in
lire
is is

discriminating knowledge.

(As such), whence

their surging

up?

If

the shrewd man, even as he
faults in others, should

infent on picking

up the

be

likewise clever in (discovering) his own,

be liberated from bondage
the Atman, though he
(to
is

?

who will not He, who does not know

acquire)

not liberated, ardently desires the several psychic powers and attains

through wealth, mystic formulas, appropriate action, auspicious time and stratagem. This is not within the range of the knower
best of sages,

(them),

O

of

the

Atman.

For, the knower of the

Stman

is

"

THE VARAHOPANI^D
in

423
satisfied
in

quest

of

the

Xttnan

alone.

Being

his

Stman, through his Stman, he does not run after the Avidya (of psychic powers). Whatever the ways of the world, (such as the quest after psychic powers, etc.) may be, (great men) know them only How can the knower of the as made of Avidya. Stman plunge mto them, havmg given up his
Avidya
?

Wealth, mystic formulas, appropriate action,
time

auspicious

and

stratagem,

though capable of

bestowing psychic powers, are not, any of them, conducive to the attainment of the state of the Para-

matman.
gain
results

How
to

can (the Jivan-mukta), who seeks to
the

access

Atman,
for

in

the quiescence which
all

from the suppression of
the
desire

desires, afford (to

develop)

the acquisition

of

psychic

powers, he having completely extinguished his

mind

?

—Thus.

(24-30)

CHAPTER
(i)

IV

BRAHMA^A
(of

Of the Seven Stages

Knowledge), Those

of JfVAN-MUKTI ARE OF A FOUR-FOLD CHARACTER

Then NidSgha asked of the Lord Rbhu " Pray relate (unto me) the description of Jivan-mukti Saying So be it ", quoth he, " Of the seven stages
:

**

424
(of

THE YOGA UPANI§ADS
knowledge), those of the Jivan-mukta-s are four.
first

The
IS IS
is

stage

is

the virtuous desire.

Investigation

the second.
the third. the fourth.

Functioning with the attenuated mind

The attainment
Detachment
is

of the

Rhythmic

state

the

fifth.

The

(right)
is

conception of the substance (of the Brahman)
sixth.

the

Attainment of the Turiya

is

the seventh."

(1-3)

The Four-fold Nature of

"

A

"

and Others

Evolved out of the Pranava
The
stages that
'

make up

the Pranava are of the

character of

A

',

'

U

',

'

M

',

and the

half-syllable.

The

"

A

"

and others are

of four kinds, being differen-

tiated as the Sthula (gross),

Suksma

(subtle), Blja (the
(4, 5)

seed) and Saksin (the witness).

The Controlling Agencies of the Gross and
Other Varieties of
"

A

"

and Others

Their states are waking, dreaming, sleeping and
the Turiya (the fourth).
gross part of
state
is

"

A

".

The waking The Taijasa of

Vis'va

is in

the

that

(waking)
Prajfla of
"),

in the subtle part (of "
is

A

").

The

that (waking) state

m

the seed part of "

A

The

Turiya of that (waking) state is in the witness part The dreaming Vis'va is in the gross (of '" A ").
part of
IS
*'

U

".

The Taijasa
is

of that (dreaming) state
").

in the subtle part (of "

(dreaming) state

Prajfta of that in the seed part (of " "). The

U

The

U

THE varXhopani§ad Tanya
(.of

425

of that (dreaming) state
").
".

is

in the witness part

"

U

of "

M

the subtle

The sleeping Vis'va The Taijasa of that part (of " M ".) The
state
is

is

in

the gross part

(sleeping) state is in

Prajfia of that (sleep'*

ing) state IS in the seed part (of

M ").

The Turiya
(of

of "

that

(sleeping)

m

the witness part

The Tunya Vis'va half-syllable. The Taijasa
in the
is

M ").

is in

the gross part of the

of that (Turiya) state is

subtle part (of the half -syllable).

The
is

Prajfia

of that (Turiya) state
syllable).

in the seed part (of the half-

The Turiya

of

the Turiya state

in the

witness part (of the half-syllable).

(6-10)

The

various Stages Considered

in

Relation

TO THE Limbs of the Pranava

The

four quarters comprised in

"A "

form the

first,

second and third stages.
constitute the fourth stage. constitute the
fifth

stage.

The The The

four quarters of " four quarters of "
first,

U

'*

M"
the

second and third

quarters

forming the subdivisions of the half-syllable

constitute the sixth stage.

That beyond those

is

seventh stage.

(11)

The Four Kinds of

Jivan-muktats

Roaming among the first three stages, (one) becomes a seeker after liberation. Roaming through the. fourth, he becomes a knower of the Brahman. Roaming
through the
fifth

stage,

he becomes a great knower of

U

54

:

426
die

THE yOGA UPANI?ADS

Brahman. Roaming through the sixth stage he becomes a more exalted knower of the Brahman. Wandering through the seventh stage he becomes the most exalted knower of the Brahman.
(h)

mantra
(of

Pointing
In

Out the Seven Stages
thereto

Knowledge)

relation

occur the followmg verses
is

The
IS

first

stage of knowledge
;

well said to be the
;

virtuous desire

the second

is

investigation

the third
is

functioning with the attenuated

mind
;

;

the fourth

the attainment of the
is

Rhythmic
(is

state
;

thereafter

what

named detachment

the

fifth)

(the right) concepis

tion of the substance (of the

Brahman)
is

the sixth

;

and the attainment of the Turya

the seventh.

(1, 2)

Detailed Description of the Seven Stages
"

Why

do

I

remain only an ignorant one

? I

am

to ' be regarded along with the S'5stra

people."

— Such
is

desire

and the virtuous which has detachment as its

antecedent,

known

as virtuous desire by wisemen.

Pronenesi to

good conduct, preceded by (steady appli-

cation to the study of) the S'astra-s, the

company
is

of

virtuous people, and the practice of detachment
is

what

known ment to

as investigation.

Wherein passionate attachis

objects of sensual pleasure gets attenuated, as

a result of investigation and virtuous desire, that

THE varXhopani^ad
called functioning with the attenuated mind.

427

When

mind takes its stand on the pure Xtman possessed Rhythmic quality, owing to the practice of the three stages (above-mentioned) and the cessation of its
the
of the

indulging in the objects of sensual pleasure, that

is

known as the attainment of the Rhythmic
state,

state.

That
the

wherein

admiration for the
is

Rhythm

(of

Atraan) gets ingrained and there

generated detachsixth stage,

ment, as the
stages,
IS

fruit of the practice of the (aforesaid) four

named detachment.
the perception (of the

The

known
from

as the right conception of the substance (of the Brah<

man),

is

Brahman)
for

resulting

the projection (of the
(direction of) the

mmd),

a long time, in the

transcendent (Brahman), owing to the

cessation of the conception of thmgs, external and internal
(other than the

(experienced) in

Brahman), due to the intense delight one's own Atman, as a result of the

practice of the (aforesaid) five stages.

That should be

known
there
is

as the approach to the Turlya state, wherein
entire devotion to the state of the

to the non-recognition of difference of

the conception

and the actual

state

Atman, due any kind (between of the Atman), a's a

result of the practice, for a long time, of the (aforesaid)
six stages.

Demonstration of the Distinction

in

the

State of the Intellect

in

the Seven Stages

The
known

three stages beginning with virtuous desire are

as

stages with

and without

distinctions,

In

428

THE YOGA UPANI§ADS

what manner one comes to know of this world, through his intellect, (in that manner) the world is seen during
the waking state.
istence)

When

(faith in) the

non-dual (ex-

has been confirmed and the (misconception

about) the dual (existence) extinguished, (seekers) see,
as in a dream, the world which meets with dissolution,

such as of the broken pieces of the autumnal cloud.

(Then) there will remain but the supreme Existence (the Brahman), O Nidagha, be convinced about that.

Having ascended the
dreamless sleep, with

fifth stage,
all

known

as the state of

the special parts suppressed,

(the seeker) stands tn the non-dual state alone.

Although

with his mind turned inwards, he

is

ever

m

contact with

the- external world (through his functioning

mmd),

still

overcome with
sleep.

fatigue,

he appears to be ever prone to
in this

Practising

effectively

stage,

with his

previous

impressions
ancient and
is

obliterated,

the

seventh stage,
is

which

is

known
is

as secret sleep

reached

in due course, wherein there

neither the near approach

to the form of the Supreme Existence (the Brahman), nor the " I-mindedness ", nor the " Not-I-mindedness."

He

stands with attenuated mental functioning alone in

the non-dual existence (the Brahman), as an extremely
fearless

man.

(11-17)

Rule Relating to the Conception of the Brahman as Atman Alone
Even
as an
is

ethe^ial space

empty pot immersed in (the ocean of) empty mside and empty outside, evefl

THE varXhopani$ad
as a pot
is

429

full of

water,
full

full

inside

and

immersed in the ocean of water, outside, do not become (reduced

to the position of) the various conceptions grasped (by

become (reduced to the position of the mind), that grasps. Giving up all conceptions, be composed entirely of what remains. Giving up the seer, seeing and what is seen, along with their impressions (on the mind), seek shelter in the Atman, the first that
the mind), nor
IS

manifest in the seeing.

(18-20)

Description of a Jivan-mukta
He, who, though engrossed in the ways of the world, has his mind (which pervades his body as
ether),

whether dissolved or functioning, (resting
alone),

m

the

Brahman
or cease

even as ether which stands

in its

wonted manner, (whether the pots and pans continue
to
exist),

— he
set,

is

said to be a Jivan-mukta.

He

IS

said to be a Jivan-mukta,
rise,

whose mental radiance

does not
same).

nor
is

in

whose condition

as

it

happiness or misery and was obtained before (ever the

He who

is

wakeful, while remaining aslee'p,

he who knows no waking, he whose mental alertness
IS

devoid of impressions, he
in

is

known

as a Jivan-mukta.

He, who, though acting
fear

accord with passion, hatred,
his mind),
is

and other influences (swaying

has a

conscience as clear as the internal ether,
a

known as

Jivan-mukta.

aflfected

by ego,

He, whose mental attitude is not whose intellect is never smeared
i$

(clouded), whether he is active or passive,

known as

430
a Jivan-mukta.

THE VOGA UPANIgADS
He, from

whom

the world does not

shrink (out of fear) and

who does

not shrink likewise

from the world, who is released from joy, anger and He, who, though fear, is known as a Jivan-mukta.
indulging
in
all

the

snare-like

objects

of sensual

pleasure, yet remains cool, who fully devotes himself to matters relating to the

Paramatman,
taking

is

known

as a

Jivan-mukta.
heart, he
is

When

one,

delight in me, the

all-embracing, gives up,
is

O

sage, all the desires of his

known as a Jivan-mukta. He, whose mind not agitated and who takes his rest when remaining
most hallowed
all

in that

state of absolute consciousness,
is

devoid of

mental functioning,

known
I,

as a Jivanhe,

mukta.

He,

m

whose mind

this

world,

who

is

yonder, and the cluster of false phenomena, does not

throb (find an answering echo),

is

known as a

Jivan(21-30)

mukta.

Rule Relating to the Resting on the All-comprehensive Brahman

Do

thou get confirmed

(in

your conviction) soon,
(of

after entering into the

Brahman

state of existence, which is

abundance) of the permanent, abundant, full

and devoid of all concern, through the path indicated by the Acarya and the S^astra. The Guru is S'iva, the Veda is S'lva, the deity is S'lva, the Lord is S'lva, I

am

S'iva,

all

is

S'iva,

other than S'iva there

is

nought.

Knowing him alone aright, the courageous BrShmacia should acquire wisdom and not merely memorize a

THE VARXHOPANI^AD
large

431

number

of words.

That

will

indeed (prove to)
(31-33)

be

tiring the vocal organ.

The

Exposition of the Course Adopted by

Birds and Ants

He who

adopts the course pursued by the bird

(S'uka) attains liberation, as also he

who adopts

the

course of the ant (Vama-deva).
types, there are
tion.

Apart from these two
courage the course

no (other
pursue

tyi>es of) attainers of libera-

Those

that

with

adopted by S'uka, they become forthwith liberated, even
while remaining in this world.
(the course of)

Those who ever pursue Vama-deva, after dying and being born

over and over again in this world, attain their liberation
gradually, by having recourse to actions attended with

devotion and in accordance with the
schools
of

thought.

Of

S'uka and

Yoga and Saipkhya Vama-deva are
S'uka
is

the two paths created by the gods. the bird, while

said to be

Vama-deva

is

said to be the ant.

The

sinless (seekers) attain

through the path of S'uka, the
the real form of their o\Vn

highest state, having

known

Stman, by having recourse

to

SamSdhi

(ecstatic state)

of the unconscious variety, either through the

Samadhi
from

of the SSrpkhya-yoga type, or the investigation of the
(real

import of the) great scriptural
of "

texts, or directly

the

mouth of the

creator or by adopting the

exclusion, taking the form

Not

this,

method of Not this ".

He, who, owing to
fully
in this
birth,

his not attaining the fruit success-

even with the psychic powers of

432
attenuatiori

THE YOGA. UPAN1§ADS
a.tid

the like at his

command, being conis

fronted with the various obstacles due to the repeated
practice of Hatha-yoga, which
beset with

pam and

anguish resulting from self-control (Yama) and the like

and posture (Asana),

is

born again

in a great

family and

who

takes to the practice of
left

Yoga once

again, due to the

impression
liberation

by his previous practice, also attains
that highest state of Visnu, only through

and

the path of Vama-deva,
births.

resorted

to

during various

Both these paths

alike are auspicious

about the attainment of the Brahman.
capable of bestowing liberation
in

and bring The one is cap-

able of bestowing liberation forthwith, while the other
is

due course. (34-42)

The hallowed Nature of the Eve-glance OF A Knower of the Brahman
What
IS

delusion and what

is

sorrow for him,

who

sees oneness therein, (in the goal to be achieved

by the

two paths, o{ the Sarpkhya and the Yoga schools of
thought,
vtz.,

through exact and direct knowledge and

tHrough ecstatic trance of the Nir-vikalpa type) and

whose

intellect, limited

by
?

his experience, turns in the

direction of the

Truth

All, that fall within the

range
that

of his \usion, are released

from

all

sms.

All,

traverse the ethereal, as well as the terrestrial regions,
falling within the

range of vision of the knower of the

Brahman, are (m virtue of the greatness of his religious merit), that very moment, released from sins, accumulated through crores of previous incarnations.
(43, 44)

THE VARXH0PA^I?AP

433

CHAPTER V
Knowledge of the Body Essential for the Aspirant after Yoga
Then,
relate

Nidagha asked

this

Lord ^bhu,
to

"

Pray

unto

me

the

rule
it

relating

the practice of
i

Yoga."
IS

Saying "

Be

so," quoth he thus

The body
with
five

made up
is

of the five elements
is

and

is filled
is

regions.

What
of

hard

is

earthy.

What
will

of a fluid
fiery

nature

water.
is

Vital

warmth

be the
air.

element.
is

Motion

the characteristic of

Ether

essentially the entire (body).

This should be under(1, 2)

stood by the aspirant after Yoga.

Number of Breaths per Day
The number
is

of times the region of air (of the body)

struck

by

breaths,

borne (through the nostrils)
is

throughout the day and night,
SIX

Twenty-one- thousand
(5)

hundred.

Rule

Relating to the Sustenance of the
OF Bodily Wastage

Constituent Elements for the Avoidance

When

the ez^rth region (of the body) wastes away,

wrinkles begin to appear in men.

Likewise, with the

wasting away of the watery region, hairs gradually
turn
grey.

With the wasting

of the

fiery

eleipent,

434

THE YOGA UPANI§ADS
to

hunger and grace of form begin
wasting
of air,

fade.

With

the

there will

be bodily tremour

daily.

With the wasting of the ethereal substance, there will be cessation of life altogether. In this manner, with the
wasting of the elements (constitutmg the body, the body

Hence, with a view to keeping up life, the sustenance of the elements should be attended to. (4-6)
wears away).

For the Sustenance of the Elements, should BE Practised the UddiySna-bandha
For the reason that the great bird performs soaring
without fatigue, for that very reason, there should be
(the

practice
its

oO

derives

name.

Thence the Bandha This Uddiyana-bandha is verily the
Uddiyana.

Lion of the elephant of death. The release from that depends upon the virility of the body. The Bandha of that description is difficult of accomplishment, (as it
cannot be easily performed at
fire
all

times).

When
is

the

in the

belly

is

disturbed, intense

pam

produced.

It

should not be performed by a hungry man, nor by
is

one who
urine.

given to sudden evacuation of faeces and

(Food)

conducive to health and temperate,
little

should be eaten,

by

little

and several times.

(6-9)

The Three Kinds of Yoga Known
Mantra and Hatha
Of the
three, the soft (Laya), the

as Laya,

middle (Ha^ha)
in order,

and. the mystic (Mantra), one should know

'

THE varXhopani§ad

435

the Mantra, (meditation on the NSda), then the Laya,
(the repose in

the Nsda) and then the Hatha, the Laya).

(the

means

to

attain

Thus

the Yoga-s are

Laya, Mantra and Hatha. Of these the Yoga (known as Hatha, the foremost among them) is
three-fold,

made up

of eight subdivisions.

(10)

The Eight
Yama

Subdivisions of Yoga
then

(self-control),

Niyama

(observances),
(rarefac-

so also Asana (posture), similarly

PranSyama
stability

tion of breath), Pratyahara (withdrawal of breath) thereafter,

similarly

Dharaira

(the

of

breath)

afterwards,

similarly

Dhyana (meditation) and
(absorption).

the

eighth will be

Samadhi

(II, 12)

Varieties of Yama and Niyama
Nonviolence,
passion,
in

truth,

non-stealth,

celibacy,

com-

rectitude,

forbearance,

firmness,

temperance

food,

and

cleanliness,
in

these are the ten Yama-s.

Penance, joy, belief
philosophy,

the existence of God, munifi-

cence, worship of the Lord, study of the systems, of

shame, arriving at the right conclusion,

prayer and a resolute frame of mind, these indeed
are said to be the tenfold

Niyama-s

thus,

O

sage of
(12-14)

great intellect

The Eleven Postures
There are the Cakra and other eleven postures, O best among sages, the Cakra, the Padmasana, the

436

THE YOGA UPANIgADS
;

Kurma, the Mayura and also the Kukkuta
the
best

the VirS;

sana, the Svastika, the Bhadra, the SiiphSsana, likewise

Muktasana and the Go-mukha, are

related

by the

among

the knowers of Yoga.

(15, 16)

Description of the Cakra Posture

One should
and the
erect.

place the

left

thigh over the right heel

right thigh over the left heel with his
is

body
(17)

This

considered to be the Cakra posture.

PrSnayIma
(Puraka) in-filhng, (Kumbhaka) steadying, similarly

(Recaka) expelling, then (Puraka) m-filling again, these
are the (Pranayama-s), the ways of breath-rarefaction

by means of one's own Nadi-s (air-tubes). Nadi IS spoken of (in the sequel).

Hence

the
(18)

Measurements of the Body and
The body
ninety-six
of
all

Its

Limbs

beings

is

of

the character of
In

digit-lengths
it, two and two

(when

measured).

the

middle of
the anus,
said to be

digit-lengths

beyond the region of
is

digit-lengths below the genitals,

tlie

middle (of the body).
is

Nine digit-lengths

above the genitals which
lengths
is

said to be the knot of the Na^i-s,

four digit-lengths

m

height and four digit-

m width,

of the shape of

on

all

sides by fat,

an egg and surrounded marrow, bone and t)lood. (19-21)

THE VARlHOPANIgAD

437

The Plexus of
There alone
condition).
is

NXpi-s

situated the twelve-spoked plexus
is

of Nadl-s, wherewith the body

held

(in its

normal

There abides the Kun^alT, concealing with

SusumrS leading to the Brahman. From the Susumna (branches out one spoke formed by) the Alambusa and the Kuhu Nadi-s
her face the orifice of the

abiding there.
the

In the pair forming another spoke are

Varupi and the Yas'asvini.

In

the right spoke

of the

Susumna

is

the Pingala.

Between the spokes
In the hind

are in order, the Pusa and the Payasvinl.

spoke of the Susumna, there stands the Sarasvati Na4T,

and the S'ankhini and the Gaipdhari stand between the
two.

To

the

left

of the

SusumijS there abides the

Nadi known as the Ida. Thereafter the Hasti-jihva and then the Vis'vodari stand, the Nadi-s (named
above) standing in the spokes of the plexus, only in
the clock-wise order (from right to
left).

These twelve
of vital
airs.

Nadl-s

are
filled

verily

the twelve carriers

When

with vital air these Nadi-s (of different

colours) stand like a piece of cloth.

The

place corres-

ponding to the middle of the
plexus of the navel.

cloth, is

known

as the

The

Jvalanti, the

Nada-rupini,

the Para-randhra and the Susumpa, are

knqwn

as the

NadadhSra (support of the Nada) and
filled

tliese four

are

with rare gems.
is

The middle

of the orifice of

the

Brahman

always closed by the Kun4ali.
vital airs, flow

In this

manner, the ten

through these Na^l-s.
(22-31)

438

the yoga upanisads

Rule Relating to the Practice of Seeing
the turiya
In
well
this

manner the clever
vital air,

practitioner,

having

understood the

course of the

Nadl-s and the

passage of the
in
less

with his neck, head and body

a line and his

his

and with his eyes, on the

mouth closed, remaining motionmind well -controlled, should see with
tip of

the nose, in the middle of his

heart and
in

m

the middle of the Bindu (of the Sahasrara,
the

the Dva-das^nta),

Turlyaka streaming forth
(31-33)

nectar.

The Yoga which Forms the Expedient to
Employed for Beguiling the Duration
OF One's Life
Shutting up the Apana
the anus upwards, driving
(vital air)

be

and constricting

Apana) by means of the Pranava, one should expel (downwards the Prana vital air) by means of the S'ri-blja (S'rlip), Then
(the

up

should he conceive of his
junction of the two
thereafter, have the
airs),

own Atman
as the

(situated at the

S'ri (of liberation)

and

immersion thereof
of
life)

in

the nectar.

This

IS

said to

be the all-important Kala-vaflcana
or Ayuh-stambhana,
duration), by the acquisition
is

(beguiling the

duration

(stopping the flow of

life's

of which power, whatever

thought of by the mind

is

accomplished forthwith by the mind. *By the flaming

THE VARlHOPANI§AD
of
fire

439

and branches veniy spring up. Whatever is uttered in the Jagati metre by him does not bring about evil consequences, nor do his actions produce
in water,

sprouts

untoward

results.

(33-36)

The Yoga-s which are Employed
Strength
Having well (Susumna) path,
fixed

as means

TO AcguiRE Bodily Robustness and

up the Bindu (the mind)
(by constricting)
the

in the

and

Jivana

(Muladhara), causing the air therein to blaze forth and
thereby drying up the

humour (m

the Susumna, by

means
body

of

the

fire

aided by the vital air and stagnating

the Prana vital air and the like therein), the Yogin's

would

become

robust.

He

should

constrict

simultaneously both

the

making the Apana rise mix with the Samana. Then should he conceive of his own Atman (at the junction of the Prana, Apana and Sam5na vital airs) as the S'ri of knowledge and
immersing it in the nectar, should commence Ithe performance of Kumbhaka, as much as his strength would permit, m the middle part of the (Susumi^) Then, out of the complete blending otthe Prapa door.

anus and the genitals and upwards, he should cause it to

Prapa along with the UdSna), with a view to their ascent upward. This superior Yoga indicates in the body the way for the acquisition of special power (for the attainment of

and ApSna, he should conceive

(of the

the Brahma-lolfa).

(37-40)

440

the voga upani$ads

Rule Relating to the Acquisition of the Knowledge of the Aura of the Body
Even
as a bridge constructed across a water-course
to the (free) fiow of water,
is

forms an obstruction

even

so the aura, (the vital power which

in

combination

with the radiance emanating from the internal non-

supreme consciousness), permeating the body should always be well understood by Yogin-s, (as the Yoga of the conjunction of the Vital power with
dififerentiated

the

radiance

of

consciousness

serves

as a

bridge
(41)

obstructing their outward How).

The Expedient of the Catus-fatha-bandha,
Samputa-yoga
in a

is

Nut-shell
all

This Bandha has been prescribed for

the Na<Ji-s.

By
(the

virtue of the influence of this

Bandha, the deity inmost consciousness) becomes clearly manifest.
attain their

This Bandha of the Catus-patha, (wherein the Susumna,
the

I^, the Pingala and the Kuhu Nadi-s
(i.e.,

oneness, this meeting place of the four paths, which

depends on the Muladhara),
causes
obstruction
a<nd^

the Mula-bandha),

to

the

three

paths

(of

the

I^,

Pingala
(vtz.,

of the four paths) through which Siddha-s (accomplished Yogin-s) have reached their

the

Kuhu Susumna

NSfijil-s),

by bursting open one path

goal (of attaining the state of the Brahman).

Causing
(anci

the
vital

Udana
^

vital

air

to

ascend along with the PrSpa

air

speedily,

(by the practice of Yoga),

THE VARXH0PAN1§AD
Bandha causes
This

441

bringing about the Mula-bandha and the Jllaipdhara-

bandha as
in

well), this

obstfuction to
is

all

the N34I-S and goes upwards.

called the

Yoga
fire

a nut-shell, (as during the process, the Prana, along

with the KuQi^linl, the introspecting mind, and

moves upwards through the Susumna path and reaches the SahasrSra-cakra) and is also considered to be the Mula-bandha. Thus by the practice of Yoga, through this (Yoga in a nut-shell) alone, the three Bandha-s are
successfully accomplished.
(42-45)

The Attainment of the Knowledge of the
Bkahman Step
by Step, by

the Practice

OF Samputa
Through day and night without break, Yama by Yama, whensoever, by this practice of Yoga, the vital air becomes equipped with practice. When vital air warmth increases, every day IS thus equipp>ed, vital When vital warmth increases, food and in the body. With the complete assimithe like gets easily digested.
lation

of

food,
is

there

is

produced increase of chyfe.

When

chyle

daily increased, the

body grow

then.

By

the growth of

humours of the the humours alone,

knowledge increases

in the

body.

All sins accumulated

(With the extirpation of sins, there arises the knowledge of the nondifferentiated Brahman of the form " I am the Brahman ". Simultaneously with the dawning of such knowledge, the knower attains liberation). (46-49)
through crores of births also perish.
U
S6

442

THE YOGA UPANI^ADS
<

Ascertaining the Position of S'iva and S'akti

The Muladhara, which
anus and the
genitals, is
is

is

situated

between the

triangular in shape.

That

is

the place wherein

manifest S'lva of the form of the

Bindu, wherein

is

the Para S'akti (the Transcendent

Energy), known as the KundahnT established, wherefrom
the vital air takes
its

rise,

wherefrom

is

kindled
is

fire,

wherefrom
plified

is

generated the Bindu, wherefrom

am-

the

Nada, wherefrom the Haipsa

originates,

wherefrom the mind springs up. The six plexuses, such as the Muladhara and others, are said to be the
seats of

Energy.
is

Above the

throat and ending with
(50-53)

the crest

said to be the seat of S'aqibhu.

Pranavama along with the Meditation
OF the Brahman

The human body
Prana
m'ost
is

is

the abode of the Nadi-s.
air).

Nadi-s are the abode of the Prana (vital
the abode of the Jiva.

The The
turn

The

Jiva

is in its

the abode of the Haqisa, (the non-differentiated mner-

Atman). The Haipsa
is

is

the resting place of Energy.

This world

composed

of the animate

and inanimate

orders of cieation, (the creatures of Maya), while the Atman that is manifest is devoid of variety. (The
seeker)

should practise the control of brtath.
well-established
aloft,

Even

though

in

the

three

Bandha-s, he

should ever hold

with his mind fixed on to the Truth, (the oneness of the innermost Brahman), that is

worthy of being known and

is

the

means whereby the

THE varShopani^ad
ideal

443

could be visualized.

He

should refrain from
the middle of

expelling

and

in-filling

the breath in

Kumbhaka
everything

(stabilizing the breath).

(caused

(The expulsion) of by the ignorance of the Atman)
taking his stand
ideal,

from within one's

self (by the seeker),

on
IS

his

own

self,

when
is

seen

(by him),

Brahman, the highest what is known as Recaka.
the

The

wisdom (resulting from a study) of the S'astra is (what js known as) the Puraka (in-filling), while the act of meditating on the Brahman is what is known as
Should his mmd be prone to practise (Kevala-kumbhaka) of this type, he is Always causing (the breath) liberated without doubt.

Kumbhaka

(stabilization).

to rise
in-fiU

by means of
through

(this

kmd

of)

Kumbhaka, he shou}d
alone.

(this

kind of)

Kumbhaka

He

should stabilize his
of

Kumbha
this kind).

(pot-like body)

by means

Remaining inside that, (one becomes) the highest auspicious Brahman. (Should his mind ever go astray, or should the Pi^na vital air,
(of
its

Kumbhaka

along with

retinue go out in the act of

Kumbhaka),

then should he practise with determination once again,
with the aid of the Jalaipdhara-bandha (constrictibn
of the throat), by repeating the

coursing of the vital airs

upward and downward and holding on to the Puraka
(54-61)

and Kumbhaka

(operations).

The Mode of

Practising the Yoga of Piercing

(through the Three Knots)
(Having assumed the Padmasana posture), over
a level floor
(in his

monastery), (remaining motionless)

444

THE YOGA UPANI5ADS

with his pair of hands and likewise his pair of legs
well-poised,
vital

(the

Yogm
its

should,

by means

of the

Prapa

air

along with

retinue, pierce through the three

knots of Brahman, Visnu and Rudra) and thus, by

means

of the three-knot -piercing Yoga, having attained

the four Pitha-s, occurring amidst the six centres of

Energy, MulSdhSra and others),

in

the face of the

Susumna along with
air,

his accessories, {vtz., the

Prana

vital

Kundahnl, the introspecting mind and fire) should thereafter become completely absorbed in the medi-

tation of (the Turiya-caitanya seated in the Sahasrara plexus known as) the Maha-meru, (in the attitude " I

am
of

that Caitanya
tlie

").

Then owing

to the conjunction

Moon, the Sun and fire (above the middle of the eyebrows), when the Prana (vital air), absorbing
(the

nectar gathered

in)

the two receptacles (of the

Moon
Kundall
throb,

and the Sun
fire

in

the Ajfia-cakra

and of the

in

the

Muladhara), suddenly begins to

then (the Yogin) should

know

that the flashing

of the dissolution of the

PrSna

(vital air)

and

its

retinue
(Vis'va,

on his mind leads
Viraj,

to immortality.

The gods

Otr and others or Brahman and others) then take their abode in the middle of the Meru (of the
character of the supreme Caitanya of the
or the mountain of that

Brahman
and

name

in the latter case)

on account
shake
{i.e.,

of

the shaking of the Meru, themselves

become non- differentiated from the Brahfirst
is

man).
man).

At

accomplished soon
piercing through

(the

Yogin's)

piercing through the Brahma-granthi (knot of Brah-

Thence

after

the

knot of

THE VARAHOPANI§AD
Brahman, he
pierces through the knot of Visnu.

445
After

piercing through the knot of Vispu, he pierces through the knot of Rudra. of

After piercing through the knot

Rudra and
result

blasting through the dunghill of delusion,

as the

of the

influence of meritorious deeds

accumulated through several previous incarnations and the grace of his Guru-deva, and the practice of Yoga
thereafter, for the

Yogin there

is

the accomplishment

of the

Vedhaka-yoga, (and simultaneously with the

dawning of the knowledge that there is nought beyond In the region of the Brahman, he becomes blessed). the Susumna Nadi shining in all its glory between the I(jla and the Pingala, by havmg recourse to Mudra and

Bandha (spoken
upwards the

of above),

(the

Yogm) should push
(61-68)

vital air

(and bring about the piercmg of

the knots, as described above).

The Pranava Prayer for the Overcoming
OF Obstacles

The
sins
;

short

(Pranava of one syllable)

bums away

the

long

(Pranava of

three

syllables) or fhe

prolated (Pranava of four syllables) bestows liberation,

while the
plenty.

Apyayana (Pranava
(aforesaid),

of

two

syllables) bestows

By

pronouncing (the Prariava prayer)

m

the

three

ways

(the Yogin attains the fruits

mentioned against each).
of oil

Like the unbroken stream
of a bell, the

and the long resounding chiming

topmost note of the Pranava cannot be uttered. He who knows that, is the knower of the Veda. The §hort

446

THE YOGA UPANISADS

(Pranava) Mantra reaches as far as the Bindu (the
heart).

the

The long one reaches as far Brahman (in the cranium), while
the Brahman).

as the crevice of
the prolated one

reaches as far as the Dva-das'anta, (lying beyond the
crevice of

(Know
all

that) the

Mantra
fruitful.

bestows grace, and that the Mantra might prove

(Hence)
all

this

Pranava removes

obstacles and destroys
(68-71)

defects

The Four-fold Stages of Yoga, Arambha
AND Others

The stages (of Yoga) are said to be four-fold Arambha, Ghata, Pancaya and Nispatti. Giving up all external functioning brought about by the three Karana-s (mind, speech and body), wherein (the novice) begins to function internally, that is known as AramThat is known by wise men as the Ghata stage, bha.
:

wherein the vital

air,

after filling the body, through the

nether (Susumna path) and piercing through (the three
Granthi-s), firmly takes
its

stand.

That

is

known
to

as

the Paricaya stage, wherein the vital air, which (being

endowed with

vitality)

is

alive

and (owing

the

absence of functioning)

is

dead, stands motionless and

firm in the ether (of the Sahasrata) of the body.
is

That

known
(of

as the stage of Nispatti, wherein (the Yogin),

(after

performing) the functions of creation and dissoluthe

tion

phenomena

of waking,

dreaming and

sleeping), through the (Is'vara)

of

Jivan-mukti

m

Xtman, reaches the state the natural course and performs

THE VARXHOPANI9AD
the
i.e.,

447
state,

(Asarnprajaata)-yoga

(appropriate to such

reaches the state of ecstasy of the unconscious
(71-75)

variety.)

Fruit of the Practice of this Vidyx and of

THE Proficiency Attained Therein

He who studies this
by the
fire

Upanisad, he becomes hallowed

(of the Kundalini).

(contact with, the air (in the
the spirituous

He becomes pure by Sahasrara). By drinking

hquor (nectar flowing from the middle By stealing of the Sahasrara), he is freed from all sin. the gold (of the Hiranya-garbha, enthroned beyond the Brahma-randhra), he is ever sanctified. He becomes a Jivan-mukta. This is further borne out by the Re, " The Suri-s (sages) see always that transcendent state
of Visnu, with their eyes out-stretched in all directions,
like

(the

Sun),

the

eye

of

Heaven.

Situated
it,

far

away from
known

that state, desirous of glorifying
sacrificial fire.

wide
is

awake, they kindle the

That

is

what

as the transcendent state of Visnu."

— Thus the
(76, ^7)

Upanisad.

THE
the

S'AI^piLYOPANI5AD
is

[This Upanisad, which

the Fifty-eighth

among
the

108

Upanisad-s and forms part of the Atharvathe eight
stages of

veda, deals with
principal

Yoga and

and subsidiary accomplishments resulting therefrom and points to the attainment of the state of the Brahman, which has no counterpart, as the final
resort.]

CHAPTER
KHANPA
I

r

Enunciation of the Eight Stages of Yoga
" Pray relate Atharvan thus (uAto me) the eight-fold Yoga, which is the means to be adopted for the attainment of the Xtman." He,

S'andilya

asked

:

the Atharvan, replied thus

Yama

(self-control),

The Niyama
:

eight subdivisions are

:

(observance),

Asana

(posture),

Pranayama

(rarefaction of breath), PratyShara

(withdrawal of breath), Dharana (stabilizing the breath),

Dhyana
Niyama-s.

(meditation)

and

Samadhi
(in

(absorption).

Therein, the

Yama-s are ten

number).

So

also the

Postures are of eight kinds.

Pr3][^yama

THE s'Xndilyopanisad
IS

449
number).

three-fold.

PratyShara-s are

five

(in

So
(1-3)

also the Dharana-s.
is

Dhyana

is

of two kinds.

Samadhi

of only

one form.

Exposition of the Ten Kinds of Yama-s
Therein,
non-violence,
truthfulness,

non-stealth,

celibacy, compassion, rectitude, forbearance, fortitude,

temperance
all

in

food and cleanliness are the ten Yama-s.

Therein, the abstinence from causing pain always, in
thought, word of mouth and deed, is termed non-\io]ence. The uttering of what is the truth, conducive to the welfare of beings, by thought, word and deed, is what is termed truthfulness. The absence of covetousness towards others' wealth,
beings, by
IS

what

sexual intercourse, in

giving up of and at all places, by thought, word and deed, is what is termed celibacy. Kindness to all bemgs, at all places, is what is termed
IS

what

IS

termed

non-stealth.
ail

The

states

compassion.

In

the

matter of relations with other

people, assuming one

and the same
is

attitude, both in
altid

leaning towards what

prescribed (by the Veda)

in thought, word and termed rectitude. Putting up with deed, despicable scolding and appealing adulation, alike, is what IS termed forbearance. Steadiness of mind, under all circumstances, whether at the loss of wealth
is

abhorrence of things prohibited,

what

is

and the bereavement of one's relations and friends or at their acquisition (afresh), is what is termed fortitude. Partaking of nourishing and sapient food, leaving off a
U57

450
fourth,
IS

THE YOGA UPANI§ADS
temperance
in food.

Cleanliness

is

of

two

kinds

:

external and internal.

Of
is

these, (cleanliness)

with the aid of earth and water

external.

Purity of

mind

is

internal.

study of (spiritual)

That should be attaihed through lore pertaining to the Stman. (4-14)
khanda
ii

Exposition of the Ten Kinds of Nivama-s

The
in

ten

Niyama-s are

:

penance, continence, belief

the existence of the other world, munificence, worship

of Is'vara, study of systems of philosophy, a sense of

shame, the proper frame of mind, prayer and obser-

vance of vows

Therein, emaciation of the body, by

observing the Krcchra and Candrayana austerities and
the like, prescribed (by

Holy Writ),

is

what

is

known

Satisfaction at whatever chance brings what is termed continence. Faith in the lines of conduct and misconduct, as laid down by the Veda-s,

as

penance.
is

in,

known as faith in the existence of the other The giving away to persons m need, of wealth, wctrld. gram and the like, amassed by righteous means, in all sincerity, is what is termed munificence. The worship of Visnup Rudra and other deities, as far as resources would permit, with a cheerful disposition, is what is known as the worship of Is'vara. Investigation into
is

what

is

the true import of the Vedanta,

is

what

is

known as

the

study of systems of philosophy.

Disinclination

towards action, considered base accord*mg to the Vedic

THE

S^lNlpILYOPANI^AD
is

451

and the worldly standards of conduct,
as

what

is

known
is

a sense of a shame.

Sincerity,

in following the

course of observances laid
is

down by

the Veda-s,

what

known

as the proper frame of mind.

The

practice

of Mantra-s, not running counter to the injunctions of

the Veda, in accordance with the initiation of the

Guru

keepmg with the prescribed rulS, known as prayer. That is of two kinds
and
in

is
:

what is oral and

what is attended with contemplation through the mind. The oral one is of two kinds what is uttered aloud and what is muttered in
mental.
is
.

The mental one

whispers, these being the distinguishing features.

The

utterance aloud bestows the prescribed
in

fruit.

Muttering

whispers (bestows the
(bestows
the

fruit)
fruit)

a thousand-fold.

Mental
times

(prayer)

ten-thousand

a

thousand.

Constancy

in

the observance of the in-

junctions and prohibitions laid

down

in the

Veda,

is

what

is

known

as observance of vows.

(1-1 1)

KHANp\

111

Exposition of the Eight Kinds of Posture^

The
Svastika,
Siipha,
for

eight

postures

are,

what

are called

the

Go-mukha, the Padma, the Vlra, the the Bhadra, the Mukta, and the Mayura. As
the

the Svastika,

placing

the soles of the two feet
sitting with the

between the knees and the thighs,
erect

body
the

and the posture balanced

;

that they say

is

Svastika.

One should

place his right ankle of the leg

452 on the
left

THE YOGA UPANISADS
side of the back (of the leg)

ankle of the leg on the right

and also the left This is side similarly.
Placing

Go-mukha, resembling the
the soles
thighs,

face of the cow.

of the two

feet,

O

S'andilya, over the

two

one should hold (them) by the toes, with the two hands stretched out crosswise. This will be the Padmasana \Dosture, held in esteem by all (Yogin-s).
Placing one foot over one thigh and the other thigh
over the other foot similarly, sitting thus
is

what

is

known

as Virasana.

Pressing the right side (of the
left heel

frenum of the prepuce) with the
side with

and the other

the right (heel) simjlarly, firmly placing the

two hands on the two knees, with their fingers outstretched, with his mouth wide open and his body wellcontrolled, he should
nose.
fix

his

eyes,

on the

tip

of the

This

will

be the Simhasana, always adored by

Yogin-s.

Pressing the right part of the Yoni (organ of

procreation)

above the genitals with the

left

(heel),

projecting

the introspecting

mind towards

the middle

of the eyebrows,

Siddhasana (The Yogin) should place the two ankles of the leg be*iow the testicles, on either side the frenum of the Then uith both hands holdmg firmly the prepuce. two feet by their sides, and remaining motionless, this will be the Bhadrasana, the panacea for all ills and the
antidote against
all

this (posture) will be the

poisons.

Pressing the right side of
the frenum) with

the -subtle frenum of the prepuce by the ankle of the
leg from the left

and the

left side (of

the right ankle, this will be the Muktasana.

Holding
his hands,

on

to the

ground

well, with the

two pafms of

THE S^NDILYOPANIfAD
(the

453

Yogin) should firmly

fix

the two elbows by the
legs lifted

sides of the navel, with his

head and
is

upwards
spaceall

and
This
sins.

(his
is

trunk) floating like a stick in

empty

the Mayurasana, which

the destroyer of
perish.

All diseases that affect the

body

Poisons

are assimilated (without any

evil eflfect).

By
it.

whichever

posture the body could be held comfortably, the
of feeble strength should

man

have recourse

to

fl-13)

Fruit of the Successful Acquisition of

Posture

By whom
by him are
all

posture has been successfully attained,
the three worlds subjugated.

The person

who

IS

equipped with Yama, Niyama and Asana should

practise the

Pranajama

(rarefaction of breath). Thereby,
(14, 15)

the Nadl-s are purified.

KHANDA
Investigation into the

IV

Number of NadI-s
:

Then

S'aijdilya

asked

what means would the

Atharvan thus Nadi-s remain pure ?
this
'

"

By

How

many
in

are the Na^i-s in
?

number

What

is

thecharacter

of their origin

How many
?

(kinds) of vital airs abide
?

them

?

What

are their (respective) seats

What

are

their (respective) functions

thoroughly understood in the

Which of them should be human body ? Pray relate
(1)

unto

me

all

that."

454

THE YOGA UPANIgADS

The Measure of the PrSna
IN

(Vital Air)

THE Body
:

That Atharvan then rephed
of
the

This body, then,

is

character of

Ninety-six digit-lengths,

(when

measured by the finger-digits of the respective persons). The Prana (vital air) is in excess of the body (outmeasures the body) by twelve digit-lengths. (2)

Rule Relating to Kumbhaka

He who makes
juxtaposition

the vital air remaining

m

the body,
in

either ecjual to or less than the fire (vital

warmth)

with

it,

(in

point of

the coefficient of

expansion) by the practice of Yoga,

becomes an exalted
is

Yogin (among Yogin-s).
as the

[The former variety

known
(3)

Kumbhaka and

the latter the Dirgha (elongated)

Kumbhaka.]

The Place of
In the case of
the middle of the

P^ire in

the Case of Human

Beings and Others

human
is

beings, the place of

fire

m

body
(in

the Tri-kona (triangle), with

the radiance of molten gold. In the case of quadrupeds,
(it

is)

quadrangular

shape).

In

the case of birds,

(it

is)

circular in shape.
fife,

In their middle, there stands
(4)

a flame of

slender and auspicious.

Description of the Middle of the Body,

in

the Case of Humam and Other Beings The middle
beings,
is

of the body, in the case of

human

two digit-lengths above the seat of the anus

THE

S^lSipiLYOPANISAD

455

and two digit-lengths below the genitals. In the case In of quadrupeds, (it is) in the middle of the heart. the case of birds (it is) in the middle of the belly. The middle of the body is of nme digit-lengths and is
egg-like in shape, with an elevation of four digit-lengths
all-round.
(5)

The Swirling of the

Jiva (Vital Energy) in

THE Plexus of the Navel
In the middle of that (middle of the body)
navel.
is

the

There,

(is

situated) a plexus with twelve spokes.
(vital

In the middle of that plexus, the Jlva
swirls,

energy)

induced by the religious merit or sin (of the

person concerned).

Even as

the spider standing in the

middle of
(vital air)

its

cob-web-cage moves, even so this Prana
therein.

moves

In this body the vital energy
(vital air).
(6, 7)

(Jrva) IS

perched on the Prana

The Form and Functioning of the Kundalini
The
seat of the Kundalini
is

across,

below and

The Kundalini power is of an eightfold character and made up of eight coils. This (Kuo4al>nl)> obstructing the usual movement of vital
above the navel.

and the (passage around and along the
air

of)

food,

drink and the

like,

sides of the body,

this (plexus) with its face

and covering and the crevice of the Brah-

man

(with

its

tail),

throbs at the time (of the perform-

ance) of Yoga,* along with the

Ap5na

vital air

and

fire

456

THE

YOGA. UPANl^ADS

and. the ether of the heart becomes a great eflfulgence
of the

form of knowledge.

(8)

The Fourteen

Nadj-s

Bearing on the Kundalini situated
there are fourteen important Nadi-s.

m

the middle,

The
the

fourteen are

as follows

:

the Ida, the

Pifigala,

Susumna, the
S'aiikhini, the

Sarasvati, the Varuni, the Pusa, the Hasti-jihva, the
Yas'asvinl, the Vis'vodara, the

Kuhu, the

Payasvinl, the

Alambusa and the Gaipdharl Nadi-s.

(9)

The Susumna Nadi
There
(is)

the Susumna, which
(the (the

Vis'va-dharini

prop

of

the
to

known as the Universe) and the
is

Moksa-marga

pathway

liberation).

Attached

to the vertebral column,

behind the anus and known

as the Brahma-randhra, tijl the crest is reached, it becomes distinct, subtle and all-pervading (10)

The Places of the Other
Susumna

NadI-s Around the

To the left part of the Susumna, there stands the To the right, the Pifigala. The Moon traverses Ida. The Moon is of the the Id5. The Sun, the Pingala. darkness (Inertia). The Sun is of the form of form of
Mobility.
the

The Sun occupies
the nectar- position.

the poteon-position

and

Moon

The two

alone occupy

THE
all

s^lSipiLYOPANI§AD

457

enjoys all time. At the back Susumna, are the Sarasvati and the and Kuhu. Between the Yas'asvmi and the Kuhu is estaBetween the Pusa and the Sarasblished the Varunl. Between the Gaipdhan and the vati IS the Payasvini. In the middle of the knot Sarasvati is the Yas'asvmi. of the navel is the Alambusa. In front of the Susumna, Below and to the end of the genitals is the Kuhu.
time.

The Susumija

the side of the

above the Kundalinl, the Varunl courses in all directions. The gentle Yas'asvmi courses as far as the big
toes of the feet.

The

Pingala, going upwards, reaches

as

far

as the end of the right nostril.

Behind the

Pingala, the Pusa reaches as far as the right eye.

The

Yas'asvmi reaches up to the right ear.
reaches up to the tip of the tongue.

The The
left

Sarasvati
S'ankhinl

goes

upwards up
ot

to

the

end

of

the

ear.

The

Garpdharl, coursing behind the Ida, reaches up to the

end

the

left eye.

The Alambusa goes upwards and
root of the anus. In these fourteen

downwards from the
yet
others
besides

Nadi-s, there are other Nadi-s occurring.

Others and

them,

it

should be understood, also

exist.

Even as the leaf of the As'\attha (the sacred fig and the like, is traversed by ^ems, even so is the body traversed by Nadi-s. (11)
tree)

The Ten Vital

Airs,

Prana and Others,

Their Places and Functions
The Pi^pa,
and the Vy5na,
the Apana, the Saiuana, the Udana,

also, the

Naga, the Kurma, the Krkara,

458

THE YOGA UPANI§ADS

the Deva-datta and the Dhanaip-jaya, these ten vital
airs

move

in all the Nadi-s.

The Prana moves

in the

mouth, the
toes
of the

nostrils, the throat, the navel, the
feet,

two

big-

and above and below the Kupdali. The Vyana moves in the ears, the eyes, the hip, the ankles and heels, the nose, the neck, and the buttocks. The Apana moves m the anus, the genitals, the thighs,
the knees, the belly, the testicles, the hip, the shanks, the navel and the hole of the rectal
its

place in

all

the joints.

The Udana has The Samana pervades the
fire.

hands and
pervasive.

feet

and

all

parts of the body
vital
air,

and

is all-

The Samana
vital

spreading

the

partaken food converted into
with
the

chyle and

others, along

warmth,

throughout

the

body and

moving through the seventy-two-thousand Nadl pathways, and thus having permeated the body with its along with the vital divisions and sub-divisions, warmth the five vital airs originating from the integument, bone and others having mixed up the water and food in the belly with the humours of the body

the Prana vital air which has reached the middle of the
belly
fire,

will

separate them.

Placing the water over the
like

placing the
its

food and the

over the water,

having of
vital air

own accord reached
belly.

the Apana, the (Prana)
fire in

along with the (Apana) also reaches the

the

middle of the
vital
air,

The

fire

overthrown by the
the middle of the
vital air.

(Plana)

blazes forth in

body slowly on account of the Apana
fire

renders,

with

its

heat, the water in the
vital air very hot.

The abdomen
the

along with the Prana

It digests

THE S'ANDILYOPANI^AD
food

459

mixed with condiments, when placed over the water by means of the water heated by the fire. Thereby, the Prana vital air will separate the fluid of the form of sweat, watery urine, blood, semen, faeces and
the
like.

Distributing the chyle through
the

all

the Nadi-s
air, in

along with
the

Samana

vital

air,

the (Prana)

form of breath, moves

in the

body

The

vital airs

body bring about the expulsion of the faeces, unne and the like, through the nine evacuatory orifices. Expiration, inspiration and coughing are said to be the work of the Prana (vital air). The evacuation of the faeces, urine and the like is the work of the Apana vital air. The acts of giving up, seizing and the like are the work of the Vyana. The carrying aloft and other such acts of the body is the work of the Udana. The work of nourishment of the body is the work of the Samana. Belching and the like is the work of the Naga. Shutting the eye-lids and the like is the work Producing hiccup is the work of the of the Kurma, Yawning is the work of the Deva-datta. Krkara. Producing phlegm and the like is the work of the
of the

Dhanam-jaya

Rule Rklating to the Purification
OF the Nadi-s

Thus having
positions

well

understood

the

(respective)

of the

Nadl-s and

the seats of the vital airs,

and

their functions,

one should perform the purification
(14)

of the NS^l-s.

460

the yoga upanisads
khai^ipa

v

Description of the Person Eligible for the

Performance of Yoga and the Monastery Suitable for the Practice of Yoga.

A

person, possessed of self-control

and austere

in

his observances, in the theory

devoid of

all

attachment, proficient

and practice

of

Yogic

lore,

devoted to
anger, ever

Truth and righteous conduct,

immune from

engaged in the service of the preceptor, dutiful to his father and mother, well-trained by those who are in the know of the lines of righteous conduct prescribed (by
the scripture)
forest

relating
for

to his stage in

life,

reaching a

suitable
in

the performance of
roots

penance and
in

abounding
spot,

friuts,

and water,

a delightful

resonant with the loud chanting of the

Brahmana-s, surrounded by knowers of the
ing in
fruits,

Veda by Brahman

ever engaged in the discharge of their duties, aboundroots,

flowers and water-courses, in a

temple, river-bank, village or city as well, resorting to

an auspicious monastery, neither too elevated nor too low, nor too extensive, provided with a small entrance,

smeared with cowdung and the
all

like

and provided with
the practice the study of
(1)

means

of protection, should
(at

commence
time)
in

of

Yoga, engaged

the

same

the Vedanta (system of philosophy).

The Manner of Commencing the PrSnayama
Worshipping well Vinayaka
obeisance to the deity of his
at
first,

(then)

making

own

choice,

assuming the

THE s'Sndilyopani^ad

461

posture aforesaid, facing either eastwards or northwards,

occupying a

soft seat, in a posture well mastered by knower (of the proper procedure) with his neck him, the and head in a line, and his sight turned in the direction

of the tip of the nose, seeing with his eyes the disc of the

Moon showering
filling

nectar

in

the middle of the

eyebrows,

in

air of

twelve digit-lengths, through

the Ida, he should meditate upon that which stands in
the belly, along with the cluster of flames,
of the

composed

and the "dot" (Bmdu) (t.e., 'Ram') and along with the region of fire and should expel the
vital

"Ra"

air

through the Pingala

Agam

in-fillmg through

the Pingala, holding the vital air by

means

of

Kum(2)

bhaka, he should expel

it

through the Ida.

Rule Relating to the Practice of Pranayama
FOR Purifying the Naot-s
For forty-three days or for three months, four months or seven months or thnce four months, during the three junctions (of the Ida and PiAgala breaths) and the interval also, by the practice of the PranaySma SIX times, one should conduct himself. (By doing so)
is

attained the purification of the Nadi-s.

(3)

Symptoms Noticed at the Time' of
Purification of the Nadi-s
Therefrom, lightness of (the Yogin's) body, beauty of form, increase of vital warmth, and the manifestation of the Nada, are attained. (4)

462

the yoga upanisads
khanpa
vi

Pranayama of the Character of Pranava

The coming
vital
airs

together

of

the

Prana and Apana

varieties,

becomes the Pranayama. It is of three being divided into Recaka, Puraka and Kumare of the character of the (three) letters
'

bhaka.
('

They

A

',

'

U

'

and

M

',

constituting the Pranava).

Hence
(1, 2)

the Pranava alone

becomes the Pranayama.

The Mode of Meditating on the Letters
OF the Pranava

The Yogin, assuming

the

Padmnsana and
'
'

other

A expanded by the emanating from the disc of cluster of Moon-beams the Moon at the tip of his nose, becomes Gayattrl,
postures, with the form of the

with

the

blood-red complexion,

having the

Hamsa
'

(swan) as her vehicle, with a stick in her hand, and

bloomingly young.

With the form

of the letter

U

',

he becomes Savitrl of a white complexion, having Tarksya (the king of birds) as her vehicle, adolescent and with the discus in her hand.
letter

With

the form of the

'M',

iie

becomes Sarasvatl, of a dark comadvanced
is

plexion, with the bull as her vehicle,

in

years

and wielding the

trident.

The one
'

imperishable tranthe prime

cendent radiance (the Brahman), which
cause of the three syllables

A

'

and

others, takes the
(3, 4)

form

£>f

the Pranava.

THE s'lNDILYOPANIgAD

463

The Mode of

Practising the Pra^iava
outside, through the Ida,
'

In-filhng the air from

conceiving the syllable
the in-fiUed air

'

A

with sixteen Matra-s, with

making the Kumbhaka with sixty-four Matra-s, meditating on the Om-kara, (the Yogin should

expel) the in-filled air through the Pingala of thirty-six

Matra-s, along with the meditation of the form of the
syllable
'

M

'.

In this

manner he should again and
(5)

agam

practice in the (aforesaid) order.

KHANPA

VII

The Pranayam\ Performed with the Sole
Purpose of Purifying the Susumna Nadi
Then, with a firm posture, the Yogin, possessed
of self-control, partaking of temperate

and wholesome
re-

food,

for the
in

purpose of drying up the impurities

maining
(Ida),

the

Susumna Nadi, assuming
in

the

Padma-

sana posture,
holding

in-filling
it

the vital air through the
as far as
it

Moon
ift

Kumbhaka,
it

lies

his

power and expelling
again
in-filling

through the Surya (Pingala),
through the

through the Surya (Pingala) and after
it

Kumbhaka
hold
It,

expelling

Moon
:

(Ida), should

after in-filling through the

Nadi through which

he expelled.

Herein occur these verses

(The Yogin)

should at
I(Ja

first draw in the Prana vital air through the and again expel through the other {vtz., the Pin-

gala), in the prescribed

manner

(t.e.,

after

Kumbhaka),

464

THE YOGA UPANIgADS
in

Then sucking

the vital air through the Pingala, he
it,

should, after holding

expel

it

through the

left (Nadl).

according to this

For those self-possessed Yogin-s, who always practise rule, through the solar and lunar
over three months

Nadl-s (alternately), the systems of Nadl-s are purified
in the course of a little
(1)

The Number of Pranayama-s to
Performed every Day
Early
in the

be

morning, at noon,

in the

evening and

at midnight,

(the Yogin) should practise

Kumbhaka-s,

gradually (increasing the number) up to eighty, four-

times every day.

(2)

Difference

in

the Result

in

accordance

WITH THE Practice
In the early stages, there will be (the flow of)

sweat
(of the

In the middle stages, there will be the tremour body).
(the

In the advanced stages of the control

of breath,

up The Padmasana posture should be assumed (by the Yogin in all stages). He should massage his body with the perspiration
body)
will
rise
(in

produced

the course of practice) due to the exertion

(involved).

(Therefrom) strength of limb and

light(3, 4)

ness of his body will result

Observance of Diet during the Period
of Practice
During the period
consisting of milk
of practice, subsisting
is

on food

and ghee,

worthy

of

being adopted

THE

S'>fNpILYOPANI$AD

465

as the most conducive.

Then when
of

the practice gets

confirmed,
essential.

observance

any such

nature

is

not

P)

Rule relating to (the Yogin's) Remaining
INTENTLY DeVOTED TO THE PRACTICE

Even
of

as a hon, an elephant or a tiger,

is

capable
is

being brought under control, (when
in

attention

devoted
vital air,

that direction)

little

by

little,

even so the

when served (with due care). Otherwise, it will kill the practitioner. (The Yogm) should send out the vital air prudently and according as the circura.s.tances demand-, he should in-hll it accordmg to
the circumstances with

due care

;

he should hold
exigencies
;

jt

bound

(in

practising)

Kumbhaka) according to in this manner he would
(of

(by

attain successful

accomplishment

the

purification

of

the

Nadi-s).

(6,7)

From the Pure State of the NXpi-s is Attainable the Ecstatic State of the Mind
Holding the breath as long as desired, the rousing the fire, the manifestation of the Nada, ^nd freedom
:

of

from disease
of the

from the purification of the Nadi-s (the

above consequences) are produced.
Na4i-s
is

When

the pfexus

purified

by PrapaySma-s (rarefaction

of breath) as prescribed in the rules, the vital air enters
freely, after

bursting through the

mouth

of the SusujTuia

466
Na^l.
{of

THE YOGA UPANI^ADS

When
The

the vital air courses through the middle
is

the Susumpa), there

generated the

fixity of the

mind.

state of intense fixity of the mind, that
(8-10)

alone will be the ecstatic state of the mind.

The Necessity for the Performance
OF the Three Bandha-s

The Bandha, known

as the Jalarp-dhara, should be

performed at the end of the in-filling of breath. The Uddiyanaka (Bandha) (should be performed) after

Kumbhaka

(holding the breath) and before expulsion

(of the vital air).

By

constriction (of the anus) below,
of the throat
is

and when constriction
will

made

suddenly,
air)

by Pas'cima-tana in the middle, the Prana (vital
course through the Brahma-nadl.

(II, 12)

Fruit of the Intermingling of the Prana and

THE Apana Vital Airs

By

causing the Apana to

rise

upwards and leading
the Yogin, freed
of age.
(13)

th6 Prana downwards from the throat, from old age, becomes sixteen in point

Thb Expedient to

be Adopted for the

Purification of the Cranium

(The
drawing
in

Yogm),

assuming a comfortable posture,
(till it

the air outside through the right (PiAgalS)
reaches) as far

Na4i and performing Kumbhaka,

THE s'Xndilyopani^ad
as the roots of the hair

467

and the
left

tips of the nails, should

expel

It

through the

(Iqla)

Nadi.

By means

of

this, (are accomplished) the purification of the cranium

and the destruction

of the diverse diseases inherent in

the Nadl-s, through which the vital air flows.

(13-1)

The
Drawing
the heart
far
in

Ujjayi

Pranavama

the air through the nostrils slowly, so

as to cause a noise

and

(so as to

fill

the region) between
it

and the
lies in

throat, holding

in

Kumbhaka,
it

as

as

it

his power,

and expelling
results the

through the

Ida,

(the Yogin) should

practise (this), while walking

and standing.
fire

Therefrom

increase of the

in

the

belly,

which removes phlegm (from the
(13-2)

system)

The SiTKARA Pranayama
Sucking
Sltkara

m

the air through

the mouth, with the
it

(hissing sound),

holding

in

Kumbhaka
it

as

long as possible, (the Yogin) should expel
the
nostrils.

through

Therefrom
will

thirst,

hunger

and sleep
(13-3)

through indolence,

not be produced.

The
Drawing
in
in

S'iTALA

Pranayama

the air through the tongue, holding

Kumbhaka
It

as long as possible, (the. Yogin) should

expel

throug!i the nostrils.

Therefrom, dyspei^ia.

468

THE YOGA UPANISADS

enlargenxent of the spleen, fever, biliousness, hunger

and the hke are destroyed.

(13-4)

The Two-fold Kumbhaka, Accessory and
Essential
That Kumbhaka is of two kinds mixed and pure. The mixed is conjoint with Recaka (expelling) and
:

Puraka
(the

(in-filling).

The pure
practise

is

devoid of those (two

processes). Till the acquisition of the pure

Yogin) should
r

(Kumbhaka) the mixed (Kumbhaka).
in

When
for

the

pure
is

Kumbhaka
the
is

has been accomplished,
the three

him

there

nothing unattainable

worlds.

From

Kevala-kumbhaka,

the

rousing
(13-5)

of the Kundalini

brought about.

The Fruit from the Practice of Kumbhaka
Thence, (the Yogin) becomes
light-bodierd, with a

cheerful countenance, with his eyes free from dirt, with

Nada

manifested, released from the clutches of groups

of diseases, with his

Bindu (semen) under control and
briskly.

with his vital

warmth glowing

(13-6)

Attainment of the VaisnavI Mudra

The

external vision of the Yogin,

when

it

becomes

fixed only

on the one object

in the interior, (with the

mind concentrated on

the Viraj, Sutratman, Blja or the

Tunya

m

the Muladhara, Anahata, Sjfia or SahasrSra)

THE S^NDILYOPANISAD
and
in

469

consequence devoid of shutting or opening the
is

eyelids, this

the reputed VaisnavT Mudra, which

is

well preserved as a secret in all the Tantra-s.

(14)

Direct Vision of the Brahman through the

Attainment of the Khe-carI

When
the
interior

the Yogin, with his vision turned towards

and

his

mental functions and

vital

air

completely at

rest,

stands always seeing and at the

same time

not seeing, either outwards, or

down

below,
is

with the pupil of his eyes entirely motionle'ss, this
verily the Khe-carl

Mudra, which

is

concentrated solely

on the one object to be seen and auspicious and reveals
the
state

pertaining to

Visnu, the

Truth, which

is

devoid of the void and the non-void (states of sleeping

and dreaming).
his

(The Yogm) with

his eyes half-shut,

mmd

firmly set,

and

his vision

projected on the

tip of the nose,

stands bringing about the dissolution

of the

Moon and

the introsp>ecting
145-

Sun (t.e., by making the vital mind and the fire m the range of
the

air,

the

and Pirigala- nadi-s dissolve in the Susurrfha). Then, what remains beyond the experiencing of the stream of exquisite Bliss, know that, O S'anddya, here and now, in the attitude " I am that entity .(the Brahman)," that entity which is withm the range of what
is

the transcendent Truth, which

is

of the form of the

innermost Radiance, devoid of

all diflferences

external

(and internal) and which (as the Supreme Brahman)
forever
blazes*
forth,

throwing into the background

470
every
other

THE YOGA UPANISADS
entity

without differentiation).

("

The

transcendent divine radiance blazes forth,"
S'ruti).

says the
(15, 16)

Attainment of the Ecstatic State through
THE Khe-cari
Causing the pupil
of the

eye to be firmly fixed

in

the direction of the radiance (shining

m

the middle of

the eyebrows), cast thy eyebrows a

little

upwards (and

have a glance

at the

Turiya or the Turlyatlta, shining

m

the Sahasrara, in the belief that the

Atman

alone
to

remains).

This, which alone forms the pathway

the practices aforesaid, will, in a trice, bring about the
state
of

ecstasy

(leading

to

the realization of the

non-differentiated

Brahman).

For that reason, (the
Therewill

Yogin)

should practise the Khe-carT Mudra.
the state of ecstasy, (when the
of all functioning).

from

results

mind

be nd

Therefrom
is

will result

Yogic

slumber, (the attainment of the non-diflferentiated state,

wherefrom again the Yogin

nd

of the doubt relating

to the completion of his mental abstraction).

For the

Yogin, who has attained the state of Yogic slumber,
there

no conception of the time (when he would be roused from his non-difTerentiated state). (17, 17-1)
is

Means of attaining the Brahman
Non-differentiated by Duration

Be

thou happy, S'andilya, after dissolving thy mind

m

the power of the

Kundahni and

therf projecting the

THE S'ANDILYOPANIgAD
power

471

of the Kun^alini (as well as introspection), so as

to reach (the inmost consciousness,

which sways)

all

mental functions, seeing with the (inward-turned) mind (the innermost, non -differentiated from the Brahman,
manifesting the thousand and one states of existence

and non-existence revealed by the functioning oO the mind do thou place thy Atman (the innermost) in the
;

middle of the Ether of Consciousness. Place also the Ether of Consciousness in the middle of the Atman. (By such exchange), having made everything full of the Ether
of Consciousness, he should think of nothing (as ex-

istmg), apart from the

Ether of Consciousness.

(18, 19)

Attainment of Aloneness by the Dissolution
OF the Mind
Concern about external as well as internal things, should not be made. Giving up all concern, be intent
on consciousness alone.

Even

as

camphor

(dissolves)

in fire and a mass of rock-salt m water, even so the dissolvmg mind should seek repose in the Truth (of

Atman, i.e., the Brahman), (turning away from* the phenomenal world and purified by the meditation on Whatever forms the basis the form of the Atman). of belief, all that has to be known. The Jinowing of it is what IS known as the mind. Knowledge and that which has to be known, both perish simultaneously, (the moment one comes to know that there is nothing apart from the Brahman). There is no other second path (leading to the peerless Brahman). Wher^what
the

472

THE YOGA UPANI§ADS
is

has to be known
dissolution.

given up, the
the

mind meets with

its

When

mind has attained

dissolution,

there remains Aloneness.

(20-23)

Dissolution of the Mind through Yoga

AND JRSna
There are two modes
of the
ledge),

for attaining the dissolution

mind

:

Yoga
!

(concentration) and Jfiana (know-

O

Sage

functioning of the
recognitjon
of the
is

Yoga mind

consists

in

obstructing the

(in directions other than the

existence of

the

Brahman, while
is

knowledge
there

the clear perception (that there

nought

besides the Brahman).
is

When

that (the delusion that

something

other

than

the

Brahman)

is

obstructed, the

mind

will certainly

remain tranquillized.
is

When
ment
(as
it

the throbbing of the

mmd

set at rest, attach-

to worldly affairs will get completely dissolved,
IS

but a creature of the mind), even as with the
of

cessation

the

quivering of the solar lustre (with

night-fall), activity (in

every day

life) is

at rest.

(24-26)

Suspension of the throbbing of the PrXna
(Vital Air) out of the Dissolution of

THE Mind
When, owing
S'astra-s,

to (the influence of) the study of the

association

with

virtuous persons,
is

detachr

ment and the practice

of Yoga, there
for

developed (by
in

the yogin, consideration

remaining

a state of

THE S'ANDILYOPANI^AD

473

unconcern regarding the attachment to worldly affairs contracted previously, (there dawns the knowledge that
the

Brahman

alone

is

the real existence and the

phenomenal world and attachment to worldly affairs is As result of meditatmg on the goal of (the false). Yogm's) ambition, with the one-pointed mind, for a long time, and from confirmed practice of '(the realization of) the one real existence, (the Brahman), the throbbing of the Prana (vital air) is suspended. (26-28)

Suspension of the throbbing of the Mind

WITH THE Suspension of the THROBBrNG
OF THE Vital Air

The throbbing

of the

mind

is

suspended from the

confirmed practice of the control of breath, through Puraka (in-filling) and others, not attended with exhaustion,

and also through Dhyana-yoga (concentrated mediair.

tation) in a secluded spot, (simultaneously with the sus-

pension of the throbbing of the Prana vital

(28, 29)

The

various Means Employed for bringing

about the suspension of the throbbing
OF THE Prana Vital Air

When
sleep (as
it

external

and internal consciousness goes to were), due to the realization of the real

nature of the other extremity of the sound, produced by
the pronunciation of the Oipkara, the throbbing of the

PrSpa

is

suspended.

Occupying, with

effort,

the small

bell-shaped uvula at the root of the palate, by

means

U60

474
of the

THE YOGA UPANISADS
tongue,

when

the
is

Prana reaches the crevice

(of

the

Brahman) which
is

above, the throbbing of the
(on account of the adoption

Prana
of the

suspended.

When

tion has

$an-mukhl Mudra), (external and internal) percepbeen dropped and by sheer practice the Prana
(the Sahasrara

reaches

plexus

of)

the

Dva-das'anta,

above the palate, through the
bing of the

orifice

above, the throbthe power of

Prana

is

suspended.

When

perception of Consciousness has been tranquillized in
the pure Ether, extending for twelve digit-lengths over the
tip

of

the

nose,

the

throbbing of the Prana

is

suspended.

When
of

(during the course of directing the

glance of the pupils of the eye to the top of the nose)
in

the middle

the eyebrows,

the

Tarakalokana

(glance

of the pupils of the eye is

suspended and the

end

is

reached

(of the

determination to perform such
concentrated on the innermost
state, the

meditation) and the
sentience,
is

mmd,
"(I

in

an ecstatic

throbbing of the
'

Prana

is

suspended

am)

that

'

Om

alone (having
results

been freed from every other thing,"

— what

from

such attitude and the investigation of the import of the
Ofnkara, the knowledge of the character of whatever

has to be known, the auspicious

(Brahman), that

is

untouched by the slightest change, (simultaneously with such knowledge), the throbbing of the Prana is suspended. When, for a long time, O Mum, the heart

comes
the

to

know
of

of the

Ether

(of consciousness) confined

(exclusively

within
its

its

recess),

(which knowledge rids

mind

previous

impressions)

pressionless

mind meditates on

and the imand' thereby comes

THE S'ANDILYOPANISAD
Within

475

the range of that one entity, worthy of such

meditation (the Brahman), the throbbing of the Prana
IS

suspended.

By

the aforesaid modes, as well as by

others,

devised by diverse mental resolves, enjoined by
either expressly or
is

various preceptors,

by implication,
(29-36)

the throbbing of the Prana

suspended.

Reaching the Highest State, through the
BURSTING Open of the Susumna Nadi, by

Means of Kumbhaka
Forcing open the door of the Kundahni, by constriction (of the anus), (the

Yogin) should burst through the
Kundalinl, sleeping with
its

door of liberation
covering the
to

The
is

face

very door through which (the Yogin has
encoiled with a crooked form like
that

move upwards,

a serpent.

By whomsoever
will

power

is

roused, he

is

venly liberated.
the Yogin-s.
for the

Should that power sleep

in

the portion

above the throat, that

conduce

to the liberation of

Should

it

be below (the throat), that will be

Should he adopt the Susumna course, giving up the two courses of the Ida (and the Pingala), then (would he reach), the highest
bondage of the ignorant.
state of Visnu.

(36/1-4)

Rule relating to the Entrance of*the PrSna along with the Mind into
the Susumna
All practice of the (control of) vital
c^ir,

(the Yogin)

should practise along with the mind.

The

functioning

476
of the

THE YOGA UPANI§ADS
mind elsewhere should not be
resorted to

by the

man
time
he

of intellect.
of)

One should

not worship (allow the
vital air)
;

functionmg
(in

Visnu (the Prana

during day-

the solar Nadj, the Pingala)

so also should

not worship

(allow the functioning)

during night

(in the lunar Nadi, the Ida).

He

should worship Visnu

(m the Susumna Nadi) and should not so worship both night and day. (37, 38)

Attainment of the Khe-carI Mudra
There stands the Nadi (Susumna), which is the cause of generating knowledge (of the Viraj and others, in the Muladhara, Anahata, Vis'uddhi, Ajfia and Sahasrara to
the Yogin) and which
of the Vira]
is

conjoint with the five streams
is

up to the Turiyatita. Therein

the Khe-cari
it,

Mudra, non-determinate in form.
S'andilya, (out of
in

Do

thou attain

O

my

grace).

The

vital air

remaining

and Pingala) Nadi-s, flows through the middle (Susumna Nadi). There will stand,
the left and right (Ida
in that spot, the Khe-carl

Mudra

without doubt.

The

void between the Ida and the Pingala will also grasp
the vital
is air.

Where

stands the Khe-carl Mudra, there

established the Truth.

Sun, in the plexus of
is

Between the Moon and the Ether which has no support, what

known as

the Khe-carl

Mudra

is

established.

(39-42)

Means of Attaining the External
Khe-cari Siddhi

Making the tongue very
to
tjie

thin

by cutting (the frenum

extent of the thickness of a hair, with the blade

THE s'Sndilyopanijad

477

of a knife resembling the leaf of the milk-hedge plant,

every Sunday for six months), moving
sive

it

during succes-

Muhurta-s dedicated to Brahman, (between the fourth and the second Ghatika-s before Sun-rise) and

making

it

water (profusely, by the application, early

in

the morning,

of pulverized rock-salt and myrobalan,

Terminalia chebula or Citrine), fixing the pair of eyes

on the middle of the eyebrows, when the tongue, with its motion reversed, enters the crevice of the cranium,
then
IS

brought about the Khe-can Mudra.

Then

the-

tongue, as well as the mind,

moves

in

Ethereal space.
is

By means

of that, the

man

with the tongud upward

rendered immortal.

(42-1)

Means to be Employed for the Conquest
OF THE Prana Vital Air during

Practice
Pressing the genitals with the
the right leg and holding
vital air
it

left heel,

stretching

by both hands,

in-fillmg the

through the

nostrils,

having brought abodt the

Kantha-bandha (constriction of the
should hold the vital air
(in

Yogm) Kumbhaka) from above.
throat), (the

By
will

doing

so,

all

troubles vanish.

Thereafter, poison

be easily assimilated as nectar.

Consumption,

dyspepsia, constipation, affections of the skin and other

ailments perish.

This
vital

is

the

conquering the

air

means to be employed for and for the destruction of all
(42-2)

forms of dea&i.

478

the yoga upani§ads

Means to be Employed for the Non-vicarious Attainment of One's own Atman
Placing the
left

heel on the seat of the genitals,

well placing the right foot over the left thigh, in-filling

the

vital

air

and

fixing

the chin

on

to

the
air)

chest,

constricting the genitals, holding (the vital

as far

as possible in the middle of the mind, he should

assume

the attitude,
•attained

"

I

am

the

Brahman."

the

non-vicarious

Thereby will be accomplishment (of the
(42-3)

Brahman).

Immunity from all Disease, attainable

through
Drawing
in-filling
It It

a Special
the

Kind of Dharana

in

in the belly

Prana vital air from outside, and with effort, one should hold
feet, either in

alone with the mind, in the middle of the navel, in

the tip of the nose and the big toes of the the twilights or always.

By

doing

so,

the Yogin will be

freed from all disease and be rid of his fatigue. (43, 44)

Acquisition of various Psychic Powers by

Samyama over the Tip of the Nose
AND THE Like
At
the tip of the nose
is

the conquest of vital air
is

attained.

In the middle of the navel

the destruction

of all diseases (attained).

By

the holding of breath in

the big-toes of the feet, agility of the body results.