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**The Greek text of J.L. Heiberg (1883–1885)
**

from Euclidis Elementa, edidit et Latine interpretatus est I.L. Heiberg, in aedibus

B.G. Teubneri, 1883–1885

edited, and provided with a modern English translation, by

Richard Fitzpatrick

**First edition - 2007
**

Revised and corrected - 2008

ISBN 978-0-6151-7984-1

Contents

Introduction

4

Book 1

5

Book 2

49

Book 3

69

Book 4

109

Book 5

129

Book 6

155

Book 7

193

Book 8

227

Book 9

253

Book 10

281

Book 11

423

Book 12

471

Book 13

505

Greek-English Lexicon

539

Introduction

Euclid’s Elements is by far the most famous mathematical work of classical antiquity, and also has the distinction

of being the world’s oldest continuously used mathematical textbook. Little is known about the author, beyond

the fact that he lived in Alexandria around 300 BCE. The main subjects of the work are geometry, proportion, and

number theory.

Most of the theorems appearing in the Elements were not discovered by Euclid himself, but were the work of

earlier Greek mathematicians such as Pythagoras (and his school), Hippocrates of Chios, Theaetetus of Athens, and

Eudoxus of Cnidos. However, Euclid is generally credited with arranging these theorems in a logical manner, so as to

demonstrate (admittedly, not always with the rigour demanded by modern mathematics) that they necessarily follow

from five simple axioms. Euclid is also credited with devising a number of particularly ingenious proofs of previously

discovered theorems: e.g., Theorem 48 in Book 1.

The geometrical constructions employed in the Elements are restricted to those which can be achieved using a

straight-rule and a compass. Furthermore, empirical proofs by means of measurement are strictly forbidden: i.e.,

any comparison of two magnitudes is restricted to saying that the magnitudes are either equal, or that one is greater

than the other.

The Elements consists of thirteen books. Book 1 outlines the fundamental propositions of plane geometry, including the three cases in which triangles are congruent, various theorems involving parallel lines, the theorem regarding

the sum of the angles in a triangle, and the Pythagorean theorem. Book 2 is commonly said to deal with “geometric

algebra”, since most of the theorems contained within it have simple algebraic interpretations. Book 3 investigates

circles and their properties, and includes theorems on tangents and inscribed angles. Book 4 is concerned with regular polygons inscribed in, and circumscribed around, circles. Book 5 develops the arithmetic theory of proportion.

Book 6 applies the theory of proportion to plane geometry, and contains theorems on similar figures. Book 7 deals

with elementary number theory: e.g., prime numbers, greatest common denominators, etc. Book 8 is concerned with

geometric series. Book 9 contains various applications of results in the previous two books, and includes theorems

on the infinitude of prime numbers, as well as the sum of a geometric series. Book 10 attempts to classify incommensurable (i.e., irrational) magnitudes using the so-called “method of exhaustion”, an ancient precursor to integration.

Book 11 deals with the fundamental propositions of three-dimensional geometry. Book 12 calculates the relative

volumes of cones, pyramids, cylinders, and spheres using the method of exhaustion. Finally, Book 13 investigates the

five so-called Platonic solids.

This edition of Euclid’s Elements presents the definitive Greek text—i.e., that edited by J.L. Heiberg (1883–

1885)—accompanied by a modern English translation, as well as a Greek-English lexicon. Neither the spurious

books 14 and 15, nor the extensive scholia which have been added to the Elements over the centuries, are included.

The aim of the translation is to make the mathematical argument as clear and unambiguous as possible, whilst still

adhering closely to the meaning of the original Greek. Text within square parenthesis (in both Greek and English)

indicates material identified by Heiberg as being later interpolations to the original text (some particularly obvious or

unhelpful interpolations have been omitted altogether). Text within round parenthesis (in English) indicates material

which is implied, but not actually present, in the Greek text.

My thanks to Mariusz Wodzicki (Berkeley) for typesetting advice, and to Sam Watson & Jonathan Fenno (U.

Mississippi), and Gregory Wong (UCSD) for pointing out a number of errors in Book 1.

4

ELEMENTS BOOK 1

Fundamentals of Plane Geometry Involving

Straight-Lines

5

STOIQEIWN aþ.

ELEMENTS BOOK 1

VOroi.

Definitions

**αʹ. Σημεῖόν ἐστιν, οὗ μέρος οὐθέν.
**

βʹ. Γραμμὴ δὲ μῆκος ἀπλατές.

γʹ. Γραμμῆς δὲ πέρατα σημεῖα.

δʹ. Εὐθεῖα γραμμή ἐστιν, ἥτις ἐξ ἴσου τοῖς ἐφ᾿ ἑαυτῆς

σημείοις κεῖται.

εʹ. ᾿Επιφάνεια δέ ἐστιν, ὃ μῆκος καὶ πλάτος μόνον ἔχει.

ϛʹ. ᾿Επιφανείας δὲ πέρατα γραμμαί.

ζʹ. ᾿Επίπεδος ἐπιφάνειά ἐστιν, ἥτις ἐξ ἴσου ταῖς ἐφ᾿

ἑαυτῆς εὐθείαις κεῖται.

ηʹ. ᾿Επίπεδος δὲ γωνία ἐστὶν ἡ ἐν ἐπιπέδῳ δύο γραμμῶν

ἁπτομένων ἀλλήλων καὶ μὴ ἐπ᾿ εὐθείας κειμένων πρὸς

ἀλλήλας τῶν γραμμῶν κλίσις.

θʹ. ῞Οταν δὲ αἱ περιέχουσαι τὴν γωνίαν γραμμαὶ εὐθεῖαι

ὦσιν, εὐθύγραμμος καλεῖται ἡ γωνία.

ιʹ. ῞Οταν δὲ εὐθεῖα ἐπ᾿ εὐθεῖαν σταθεῖσα τὰς ἐφεξῆς

γωνίας ἴσας ἀλλήλαις ποιῇ, ὀρθὴ ἑκατέρα τῶν ἴσων γωνιῶν

ἐστι, καὶ ἡ ἐφεστηκυῖα εὐθεῖα κάθετος καλεῖται, ἐφ᾿ ἣν

ἐφέστηκεν.

ιαʹ. ᾿Αμβλεῖα γωνία ἐστὶν ἡ μείζων ὀρθῆς.

ιβʹ. ᾿Οξεῖα δὲ ἡ ἐλάσσων ὀρθῆς.

ιγʹ. ῞Ορος ἐστίν, ὅ τινός ἐστι πέρας.

ιδʹ. Σχῆμά ἐστι τὸ ὑπό τινος ἤ τινων ὅρων περιεχόμενον.

ιεʹ. Κύκλος ἐστὶ σχῆμα ἐπίπεδον ὑπὸ μιᾶς γραμμῆς

περιεχόμενον [ἣ καλεῖται περιφέρεια], πρὸς ἣν ἀφ᾿ ἑνὸς

σημείου τῶν ἐντὸς τοῦ σχήματος κειμένων πᾶσαι αἱ

προσπίπτουσαι εὐθεῖαι [πρὸς τὴν τοῦ κύκλου περιφέρειαν]

ἴσαι ἀλλήλαις εἰσίν.

ιϛʹ. Κέντρον δὲ τοῦ κύκλου τὸ σημεῖον καλεῖται.

ιζʹ. Διάμετρος δὲ τοῦ κύκλου ἐστὶν εὐθεῖά τις διὰ τοῦ

κέντρου ἠγμένη καὶ περατουμένη ἐφ᾿ ἑκάτερα τὰ μέρη

ὑπὸ τῆς τοῦ κύκλου περιφερείας, ἥτις καὶ δίχα τέμνει τὸν

κύκλον.

ιηʹ. ῾Ημικύκλιον δέ ἐστι τὸ περιεχόμενον σχῆμα ὑπό τε

τῆς διαμέτρου καὶ τῆς ἀπολαμβανομένης ὑπ᾿ αὐτῆς περιφερείας. κέντρον δὲ τοῦ ἡμικυκλίου τὸ αὐτό, ὃ καὶ τοῦ

κύκλου ἐστίν.

ιθʹ. Σχήματα εὐθύγραμμά ἐστι τὰ ὑπὸ εὐθειῶν περιεχόμενα, τρίπλευρα μὲν τὰ ὑπὸ τριῶν, τετράπλευρα δὲ τὰ

ὑπὸ τεσσάρων, πολύπλευρα δὲ τὰ ὑπὸ πλειόνων ἢ τεσσάρων

εὐθειῶν περιεχόμενα.

κʹ. Τῶν δὲ τριπλεύρων σχημάτων ἰσόπλευρον μὲν

τρίγωνόν ἐστι τὸ τὰς τρεῖς ἴσας ἔχον πλευράς, ἰσοσκελὲς

δὲ τὸ τὰς δύο μόνας ἴσας ἔχον πλευράς, σκαληνὸν δὲ τὸ

τὰς τρεῖς ἀνίσους ἔχον πλευράς.

καʹ ῎Ετι δὲ τῶν τριπλεύρων σχημάτων ὀρθογώνιον μὲν

τρίγωνόν ἐστι τὸ ἔχον ὀρθὴν γωνίαν, ἀμβλυγώνιον δὲ τὸ

ἔχον ἀμβλεῖαν γωνίαν, ὀξυγώνιον δὲ τὸ τὰς τρεῖς ὀξείας

ἔχον γωνίας.

**1. A point is that of which there is no part.
**

2. And a line is a length without breadth.

3. And the extremities of a line are points.

4. A straight-line is (any) one which lies evenly with

points on itself.

5. And a surface is that which has length and breadth

only.

6. And the extremities of a surface are lines.

7. A plane surface is (any) one which lies evenly with

the straight-lines on itself.

8. And a plane angle is the inclination of the lines to

one another, when two lines in a plane meet one another,

and are not lying in a straight-line.

9. And when the lines containing the angle are

straight then the angle is called rectilinear.

10. And when a straight-line stood upon (another)

straight-line makes adjacent angles (which are) equal to

one another, each of the equal angles is a right-angle, and

the former straight-line is called a perpendicular to that

upon which it stands.

11. An obtuse angle is one greater than a right-angle.

12. And an acute angle (is) one less than a right-angle.

13. A boundary is that which is the extremity of something.

14. A figure is that which is contained by some boundary or boundaries.

15. A circle is a plane figure contained by a single line

[which is called a circumference], (such that) all of the

straight-lines radiating towards [the circumference] from

one point amongst those lying inside the figure are equal

to one another.

16. And the point is called the center of the circle.

17. And a diameter of the circle is any straight-line,

being drawn through the center, and terminated in each

direction by the circumference of the circle. (And) any

such (straight-line) also cuts the circle in half.†

18. And a semi-circle is the figure contained by the

diameter and the circumference cuts off by it. And the

center of the semi-circle is the same (point) as (the center

of) the circle.

19. Rectilinear figures are those (figures) contained

by straight-lines: trilateral figures being those contained

by three straight-lines, quadrilateral by four, and multilateral by more than four.

20. And of the trilateral figures: an equilateral triangle is that having three equal sides, an isosceles (triangle)

that having only two equal sides, and a scalene (triangle)

that having three unequal sides.

6

STOIQEIWN aþ.

ELEMENTS BOOK 1

**κβʹ. Τὼν δὲ τετραπλεύρων σχημάτων τετράγωνον μέν
**

ἐστιν, ὃ ἰσόπλευρόν τέ ἐστι καὶ ὀρθογώνιον, ἑτερόμηκες

δέ, ὃ ὀρθογώνιον μέν, οὐκ ἰσόπλευρον δέ, ῥόμβος δέ, ὃ

ἰσόπλευρον μέν, οὐκ ὀρθογώνιον δέ, ῥομβοειδὲς δὲ τὸ τὰς

ἀπεναντίον πλευράς τε καὶ γωνίας ἴσας ἀλλήλαις ἔχον, ὃ

οὔτε ἰσόπλευρόν ἐστιν οὔτε ὀρθογώνιον· τὰ δὲ παρὰ ταῦτα

τετράπλευρα τραπέζια καλείσθω.

κγʹ. Παράλληλοί εἰσιν εὐθεῖαι, αἵτινες ἐν τῷ αὐτῷ

ἐπιπέδῳ οὖσαι καὶ ἐκβαλλόμεναι εἰς ἄπειρον ἐφ᾿ ἑκάτερα

τὰ μέρη ἐπὶ μηδέτερα συμπίπτουσιν ἀλλήλαις.

†

**21. And further of the trilateral figures: a right-angled
**

triangle is that having a right-angle, an obtuse-angled

(triangle) that having an obtuse angle, and an acuteangled (triangle) that having three acute angles.

22. And of the quadrilateral figures: a square is that

which is right-angled and equilateral, a rectangle that

which is right-angled but not equilateral, a rhombus that

which is equilateral but not right-angled, and a rhomboid

that having opposite sides and angles equal to one another which is neither right-angled nor equilateral. And

let quadrilateral figures besides these be called trapezia.

23. Parallel lines are straight-lines which, being in the

same plane, and being produced to infinity in each direction, meet with one another in neither (of these directions).

This should really be counted as a postulate, rather than as part of a definition.

AÊt mata.

Postulates

**αʹ. ᾿Ηιτήσθω ἀπὸ παντὸς σημείου ἐπὶ πᾶν σημεῖον
**

εὐθεῖαν γραμμὴν ἀγαγεῖν.

βʹ. Καὶ πεπερασμένην εὐθεῖαν κατὰ τὸ συνεχὲς ἐπ᾿

εὐθείας ἐκβαλεῖν.

γʹ. Καὶ παντὶ κέντρῳ καὶ διαστήματι κύκλον γράφεσθαι.

δʹ. Καὶ πάσας τὰς ὀρθὰς γωνίας ἴσας ἀλλήλαις εἶναι.

εʹ. Καὶ ἐὰν εἰς δύο εὐθείας εὐθεῖα ἐμπίπτουσα τὰς ἐντὸς

καὶ ἐπὶ τὰ αὐτὰ μέρη γωνίας δύο ὀρθῶν ἐλάσσονας ποιῇ,

ἐκβαλλομένας τὰς δύο εὐθείας ἐπ᾿ ἄπειρον συμπίπτειν, ἐφ᾿

ἃ μέρη εἰσὶν αἱ τῶν δύο ὀρθῶν ἐλάσσονες.

**1. Let it have been postulated† to draw a straight-line
**

from any point to any point.

2. And to produce a finite straight-line continuously

in a straight-line.

3. And to draw a circle with any center and radius.

4. And that all right-angles are equal to one another.

5. And that if a straight-line falling across two (other)

straight-lines makes internal angles on the same side

(of itself whose sum is) less than two right-angles, then

the two (other) straight-lines, being produced to infinity,

meet on that side (of the original straight-line) that the

(sum of the internal angles) is less than two right-angles

(and do not meet on the other side).‡

†

The Greek present perfect tense indicates a past action with present significance. Hence, the 3rd-person present perfect imperative >Hit sjw

could be translated as “let it be postulated”, in the sense “let it stand as postulated”, but not “let the postulate be now brought forward”. The

literal translation “let it have been postulated” sounds awkward in English, but more accurately captures the meaning of the Greek.

‡ This postulate effectively specifies that we are dealing with the geometry of flat, rather than curved, space.

KoinaÈ ênnoiai.

Common Notions

**αʹ. Τὰ τῷ αὐτῷ ἴσα καὶ ἀλλήλοις ἐστὶν ἴσα.
**

1. Things equal to the same thing are also equal to

βʹ. Καὶ ἐὰν ἴσοις ἴσα προστεθῇ, τὰ ὅλα ἐστὶν ἴσα.

one another.

γʹ. Καὶ ἐὰν ἀπὸ ἴσων ἴσα ἀφαιρεθῇ, τὰ καταλειπόμενά

2. And if equal things are added to equal things then

ἐστιν ἴσα.

the wholes are equal.

δʹ. Καὶ τὰ ἐφαρμόζοντα ἐπ᾿ ἀλλήλα ἴσα ἀλλήλοις ἐστίν.

3. And if equal things are subtracted from equal things

εʹ. Καὶ τὸ ὅλον τοῦ μέρους μεῖζόν [ἐστιν].

then the remainders are equal.†

4. And things coinciding with one another are equal

to one another.

5. And the whole [is] greater than the part.

†

As an obvious extension of C.N.s 2 & 3—if equal things are added or subtracted from the two sides of an inequality then the inequality remains

7

STOIQEIWN aþ.

ELEMENTS BOOK 1

an inequality of the same type.

aþ.

Proposition 1

**᾿Επὶ τῆς δοθείσης εὐθείας πεπερασμένης τρίγωνον
**

ἰσόπλευρον συστήσασθαι.

**To construct an equilateral triangle on a given finite
**

straight-line.

Γ

∆

Α

C

Β

Ε

D

**῎Εστω ἡ δοθεῖσα εὐθεῖα πεπερασμένη ἡ ΑΒ.
**

Δεῖ δὴ ἐπὶ τῆς ΑΒ εὐθείας τρίγωνον ἰσόπλευρον

συστήσασθαι.

Κέντρῳ μὲν τῷ Α διαστήματι δὲ τῷ ΑΒ κύκλος

γεγράφθω ὁ ΒΓΔ, καὶ πάλιν κέντρῳ μὲν τῷ Β διαστήματι δὲ

τῷ ΒΑ κύκλος γεγράφθω ὁ ΑΓΕ, καὶ ἀπὸ τοῦ Γ σημείου,

καθ᾿ ὃ τέμνουσιν ἀλλήλους οἱ κύκλοι, ἐπί τὰ Α, Β σημεῖα

ἐπεζεύχθωσαν εὐθεῖαι αἱ ΓΑ, ΓΒ.

Καὶ ἐπεὶ τὸ Α σημεῖον κέντρον ἐστὶ τοῦ ΓΔΒ κύκλου,

ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ΑΓ τῇ ΑΒ· πάλιν, ἐπεὶ τὸ Β σημεῖον κέντρον

ἐστὶ τοῦ ΓΑΕ κύκλου, ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ΒΓ τῇ ΒΑ. ἐδείχθη δὲ

καὶ ἡ ΓΑ τῇ ΑΒ ἴση· ἑκατέρα ἄρα τῶν ΓΑ, ΓΒ τῇ ΑΒ ἐστιν

ἴση. τὰ δὲ τῷ αὐτῷ ἴσα καὶ ἀλλήλοις ἐστὶν ἴσα· καὶ ἡ ΓΑ ἄρα

τῇ ΓΒ ἐστιν ἴση· αἱ τρεῖς ἄρα αἱ ΓΑ, ΑΒ, ΒΓ ἴσαι ἀλλήλαις

εἰσίν.

᾿Ισόπλευρον ἄρα ἐστὶ τὸ ΑΒΓ τρίγωνον. καὶ συνέσταται

ἐπὶ τῆς δοθείσης εὐθείας πεπερασμένης τῆς ΑΒ. ὅπερ ἔδει

ποιῆσαι.

A

B

E

**Let AB be the given finite straight-line.
**

So it is required to construct an equilateral triangle on

the straight-line AB.

Let the circle BCD with center A and radius AB have

been drawn [Post. 3], and again let the circle ACE with

center B and radius BA have been drawn [Post. 3]. And

let the straight-lines CA and CB have been joined from

the point C, where the circles cut one another,† to the

points A and B (respectively) [Post. 1].

And since the point A is the center of the circle CDB,

AC is equal to AB [Def. 1.15]. Again, since the point

B is the center of the circle CAE, BC is equal to BA

[Def. 1.15]. But CA was also shown (to be) equal to AB.

Thus, CA and CB are each equal to AB. But things equal

to the same thing are also equal to one another [C.N. 1].

Thus, CA is also equal to CB. Thus, the three (straightlines) CA, AB, and BC are equal to one another.

Thus, the triangle ABC is equilateral, and has been

constructed on the given finite straight-line AB. (Which

is) the very thing it was required to do.

†

The assumption that the circles do indeed cut one another should be counted as an additional postulate. There is also an implicit assumption

that two straight-lines cannot share a common segment.

bþ.

Proposition 2†

**Πρὸς τῷ δοθέντι σημείῳ τῇ δοθείσῃ εὐθείᾳ ἴσην εὐθεῖαν
**

θέσθαι.

῎Εστω τὸ μὲν δοθὲν σημεῖον τὸ Α, ἡ δὲ δοθεῖσα εὐθεῖα

ἡ ΒΓ· δεῖ δὴ πρὸς τῷ Α σημείῳ τῇ δοθείσῃ εὐθείᾳ τῇ ΒΓ

ἴσην εὐθεῖαν θέσθαι.

᾿Επεζεύχθω γὰρ ἀπὸ τοῦ Α σημείου ἐπί τὸ Β σημεῖον

εὐθεῖα ἡ ΑΒ, καὶ συνεστάτω ἐπ᾿ αὐτῆς τρίγωνον ἰσόπλευρον

τὸ ΔΑΒ, καὶ ἐκβεβλήσθωσαν ἐπ᾿ εὐθείας ταῖς ΔΑ, ΔΒ

**To place a straight-line equal to a given straight-line
**

at a given point (as an extremity).

Let A be the given point, and BC the given straightline. So it is required to place a straight-line at point A

equal to the given straight-line BC.

For let the straight-line AB have been joined from

point A to point B [Post. 1], and let the equilateral triangle DAB have been been constructed upon it [Prop. 1.1].

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ELEMENTS BOOK 1

εὐθεῖαι αἱ ΑΕ, ΒΖ, καὶ κέντρῳ μὲν τῷ Β διαστήματι δὲ τῷ And let the straight-lines AE and BF have been proΒΓ κύκλος γεγράφθω ὁ ΓΗΘ, καὶ πάλιν κέντρῳ τῷ Δ καὶ duced in a straight-line with DA and DB (respectively)

διαστήματι τῷ ΔΗ κύκλος γεγράφθω ὁ ΗΚΛ.

[Post. 2]. And let the circle CGH with center B and radius BC have been drawn [Post. 3], and again let the circle GKL with center D and radius DG have been drawn

[Post. 3].

Γ

C

Θ

H

Κ

K

∆

D

Β

B

Α

A

Η

G

Ζ

F

Λ

L

Ε

E

**᾿Επεὶ οὖν τὸ Β σημεῖον κέντρον ἐστὶ τοῦ ΓΗΘ, ἴση ἐστὶν
**

ἡ ΒΓ τῇ ΒΗ. πάλιν, ἐπεὶ τὸ Δ σημεῖον κέντρον ἐστὶ τοῦ

ΗΚΛ κύκλου, ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ΔΛ τῇ ΔΗ, ὧν ἡ ΔΑ τῇ ΔΒ ἴση

ἐστίν. λοιπὴ ἄρα ἡ ΑΛ λοιπῇ τῇ ΒΗ ἐστιν ἴση. ἐδείχθη δὲ

καὶ ἡ ΒΓ τῇ ΒΗ ἴση· ἑκατέρα ἄρα τῶν ΑΛ, ΒΓ τῇ ΒΗ ἐστιν

ἴση. τὰ δὲ τῷ αὐτῷ ἴσα καὶ ἀλλήλοις ἐστὶν ἴσα· καὶ ἡ ΑΛ

ἄρα τῇ ΒΓ ἐστιν ἴση.

Πρὸς ἄρα τῷ δοθέντι σημείῳ τῷ Α τῇ δοθείσῃ εὐθείᾳ

τῇ ΒΓ ἴση εὐθεῖα κεῖται ἡ ΑΛ· ὅπερ ἔδει ποιῆσαι.

**Therefore, since the point B is the center of (the circle) CGH, BC is equal to BG [Def. 1.15]. Again, since
**

the point D is the center of the circle GKL, DL is equal

to DG [Def. 1.15]. And within these, DA is equal to DB.

Thus, the remainder AL is equal to the remainder BG

[C.N. 3]. But BC was also shown (to be) equal to BG.

Thus, AL and BC are each equal to BG. But things equal

to the same thing are also equal to one another [C.N. 1].

Thus, AL is also equal to BC.

Thus, the straight-line AL, equal to the given straightline BC, has been placed at the given point A. (Which

is) the very thing it was required to do.

†

This proposition admits of a number of different cases, depending on the relative positions of the point A and the line BC. In such situations,

Euclid invariably only considers one particular case—usually, the most difficult—and leaves the remaining cases as exercises for the reader.

gþ.

Proposition 3

**Δύο δοθεισῶν εὐθειῶν ἀνίσων ἀπὸ τῆς μείζονος τῇ
**

ἐλάσσονι ἴσην εὐθεῖαν ἀφελεῖν.

῎Εστωσαν αἱ δοθεῖσαι δύο εὐθεῖαι ἄνισοι αἱ ΑΒ, Γ, ὧν

μείζων ἔστω ἡ ΑΒ· δεῖ δὴ ἀπὸ τῆς μείζονος τῆς ΑΒ τῇ

ἐλάσσονι τῇ Γ ἴσην εὐθεῖαν ἀφελεῖν.

Κείσθω πρὸς τῷ Α σημείῳ τῇ Γ εὐθείᾳ ἴση ἡ ΑΔ· καὶ

κέντρῳ μὲν τῷ Α διαστήματι δὲ τῷ ΑΔ κύκλος γεγράφθω

ὁ ΔΕΖ.

Καὶ ἐπεὶ τὸ Α σημεῖον κέντρον ἐστὶ τοῦ ΔΕΖ κύκλου,

**For two given unequal straight-lines, to cut off from
**

the greater a straight-line equal to the lesser.

Let AB and C be the two given unequal straight-lines,

of which let the greater be AB. So it is required to cut off

a straight-line equal to the lesser C from the greater AB.

Let the line AD, equal to the straight-line C, have

been placed at point A [Prop. 1.2]. And let the circle

DEF have been drawn with center A and radius AD

[Post. 3].

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ELEMENTS BOOK 1

**ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ΑΕ τῇ ΑΔ· ἀλλὰ καὶ ἡ Γ τῇ ΑΔ ἐστιν ἴση.
**

And since point A is the center of circle DEF , AE

ἑκατέρα ἄρα τῶν ΑΕ, Γ τῇ ΑΔ ἐστιν ἴση· ὥστε καὶ ἡ ΑΕ is equal to AD [Def. 1.15]. But, C is also equal to AD.

τῇ Γ ἐστιν ἴση.

Thus, AE and C are each equal to AD. So AE is also

equal to C [C.N. 1].

Γ

C

∆

D

Ε

E

Β

Α

B

A

F

Ζ

**Δύο ἄρα δοθεισῶν εὐθειῶν ἀνίσων τῶν ΑΒ, Γ ἀπὸ τῆς
**

Thus, for two given unequal straight-lines, AB and C,

μείζονος τῆς ΑΒ τῇ ἐλάσσονι τῇ Γ ἴση ἀφῄρηται ἡ ΑΕ· ὅπερ the (straight-line) AE, equal to the lesser C, has been cut

ἔδει ποιῆσαι.

off from the greater AB. (Which is) the very thing it was

required to do.

dþ.

Proposition 4

**᾿Εὰν δύο τρίγωνα τὰς δύο πλευρὰς [ταῖς] δυσὶ πλευραῖς
**

ἴσας ἔχῃ ἑκατέραν ἑκατέρᾳ καὶ τὴν γωνίαν τῇ γωνίᾳ ἴσην

ἔχῃ τὴν ὑπὸ τῶν ἴσων εὐθειῶν περιεχομένην, καὶ τὴν

βάσιν τῂ βάσει ἴσην ἕξει, καὶ τὸ τρίγωνον τῷ τριγώνῳ ἴσον

ἔσται, καὶ αἱ λοιπαὶ γωνίαι ταῖς λοιπαῖς γωνίαις ἴσαι ἔσονται

ἑκατέρα ἑκατέρᾳ, ὑφ᾿ ἃς αἱ ἴσαι πλευραὶ ὑποτείνουσιν.

If two triangles have two sides equal to two sides, respectively, and have the angle(s) enclosed by the equal

straight-lines equal, then they will also have the base

equal to the base, and the triangle will be equal to the triangle, and the remaining angles subtended by the equal

sides will be equal to the corresponding remaining angles.

Α

Β

∆

Γ

Ε

D

A

Ζ

B

**῎Εστω δύο τρίγωνα τὰ ΑΒΓ, ΔΕΖ τὰς δύο πλευρὰς
**

τὰς ΑΒ, ΑΓ ταῖς δυσὶ πλευραῖς ταῖς ΔΕ, ΔΖ ἴσας ἔχοντα

ἑκατέραν ἑκατέρᾳ τὴν μὲν ΑΒ τῇ ΔΕ τὴν δὲ ΑΓ τῇ ΔΖ

καὶ γωνίαν τὴν ὑπὸ ΒΑΓ γωνίᾳ τῇ ὑπὸ ΕΔΖ ἴσην. λέγω,

ὅτι καὶ βάσις ἡ ΒΓ βάσει τῇ ΕΖ ἴση ἐστίν, καὶ τὸ ΑΒΓ

τρίγωνον τῷ ΔΕΖ τριγώνῳ ἴσον ἔσται, καὶ αἱ λοιπαὶ γωνίαι

ταῖς λοιπαῖς γωνίαις ἴσαι ἔσονται ἑκατέρα ἑκατέρᾳ, ὑφ᾿ ἃς

αἱ ἴσαι πλευραὶ ὑποτείνουσιν, ἡ μὲν ὑπὸ ΑΒΓ τῇ ὑπὸ ΔΕΖ,

ἡ δὲ ὑπὸ ΑΓΒ τῇ ὑπὸ ΔΖΕ.

᾿Εφαρμοζομένου γὰρ τοῦ ΑΒΓ τριγώνου ἐπὶ τὸ ΔΕΖ

τρίγωνον καὶ τιθεμένου τοῦ μὲν Α σημείου ἐπὶ τὸ Δ σημεῖον

C

E

F

**Let ABC and DEF be two triangles having the two
**

sides AB and AC equal to the two sides DE and DF , respectively. (That is) AB to DE, and AC to DF . And (let)

the angle BAC (be) equal to the angle EDF . I say that

the base BC is also equal to the base EF , and triangle

ABC will be equal to triangle DEF , and the remaining

angles subtended by the equal sides will be equal to the

corresponding remaining angles. (That is) ABC to DEF ,

and ACB to DF E.

For if triangle ABC is applied to triangle DEF ,† the

point A being placed on the point D, and the straight-line

10

4]. ὑφ᾿ ἃς αἱ ἴσαι πλευραὶ ὑποτείνουσιν· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. and have the angle(s) enclosed by the equal straight-line equal. then the point B will also coincide with E. 2].‡ Thus. point B certainly also coincided with point E. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. Proposition 5 Τῶν ἰσοσκελῶν τριγώνων αἱ τρὸς τῇ βάσει γωνίαι ἴσαι For isosceles triangles.N. equal 11 . καὶ αἱ λοιπαὶ γωνίαι ταῖς λοιπαῖς γωνίαις ἴσαι ἔσονται ἑκατέρα ἑκατέρᾳ. and (angle) CBD to BCE. So (because of) AB coinciding with DE. AB on DE. the base BC will coincide with EF . the straight-line AC will also coincide with DF . then two straight-lines will encompass an area. 4]. and if the equal sides are produced then ὑπὸ τὴν βάσιν γωνίαι ἴσαι ἀλλήλαις ἔσονται.N.STOIQEIWN aþ. 4]. if two triangles have two sides equal to two sides. on account of AB being equal to DE. I say that the angle ABC is equal to ACB. ἐφαρμόσει ἄρα ἡ ΒΓ βάσις ἐπὶ τὴν ΕΖ καὶ ἴση αὐτῇ ἔσται· ὥστε καὶ ὅλον τὸ ΑΒΓ τρίγωνον ἐπὶ ὅλον τὸ ΔΕΖ τρίγωνον ἐφαρμόσει καὶ ἴσον αὐτῷ ἔσται. For let the point F have been taken at random on BD. ἐφαρμόσει καὶ τὸ Β σημεῖον ἐπὶ τὸ Ε διὰ τὸ ἴσην εἶναι τὴν ΑΒ τῇ ΔΕ· ἐφαρμοσάσης δὴ τῆς ΑΒ ἐπὶ τὴν ΔΕ ἐφαρμόσει καὶ ἡ ΑΓ εὐθεῖα ἐπὶ τὴν ΔΖ διὰ τὸ ἴσην εἶναι τὴν ὑπὸ ΒΑΓ γωνίαν τῇ ὑπὸ ΕΔΖ· ὥστε καὶ τὸ Γ σημεῖον ἐπὶ τὸ Ζ σημεῖον ἐφαρμόσει διὰ τὸ ἴσην πάλιν εἶναι τὴν ΑΓ τῇ ΔΖ. καὶ προσεκβεβλήσθωσαν ἐπ᾿ εὐθείας ταῖς ΑΒ. καὶ τὸ τρίγωνον τῷ τριγώνῳ ἴσον ἔσται. 1 implicitly assumes that the straight-line joining two given points is unique. The very thing is impossible [Post. and the base BC does not coincide with EF . again on account of AC being equal to DF . εἰ γὰρ τοῦ μὲν Β ἐπὶ τὸ Ε ἐφαρμόσαντος τοῦ δὲ Γ ἐπὶ τὸ Ζ ἡ ΒΓ βάσις ἐπὶ τὴν ΕΖ οὐκ ἐφαρμόσει. So the whole triangle ABC will coincide with the whole triangle DEF . ELEMENTS BOOK 1 τῆς δὲ ΑΒ εὐθείας ἐπὶ τὴν ΔΕ. (That is) ABC to DEF . Thus. and will be equal to it [C. And the remaining angles will coincide with the remaining angles. Α A Β Ζ ∆ Γ B Η F Ε ῎Εστω τρίγωνον ἰσοσκελὲς τὸ ΑΒΓ ἴσην ἔχον τὴν ΑΒ πλευρὰν τῇ ΑΓ πλευρᾷ. the angles under the base will be equal to one another. ᾿Εὰν ἄρα δύο τρίγωνα τὰς δύο πλευρὰς [ταῖς] δύο πλευραῖς ἴσας ἔχῃ ἑκατέραν ἑκατέρᾳ καὶ τὴν γωνίαν τῇ γωνίᾳ ἴσην ἔχῃ τὴν ὑπὸ τῶν ἴσων εὐθειῶν περιεχομένην. ΑΓ εὐθεῖαι αἱ ΒΔ. ἀλλὰ μὴν καὶ τὸ Β ἐπὶ τὸ Ε ἐφηρμόκει· ὥστε βάσις ἡ ΒΓ ἐπὶ βάσιν τὴν ΕΖ ἐφαρμόσει. ὅτι ἡ μὲν ὑπὸ ΑΒΓ γωνία τῇ ὑπὸ ΑΓΒ ἴση ἐστίν. But. καὶ ἀφῃρήσθω ἀπὸ τῆς μείζονος τῆς ΑΕ τῇ ἐλάσσονι τῇ ΑΖ C G E D Let ABC be an isosceles triangle having the side AB equal to the side AC. 1].N. ‡ Since Post. † The application of one figure to another should be counted as an additional postulate. eþ. καὶ τὴν βάσιν τῂ βάσει ἴσην ἕξει. καὶ προσεκβληθεισῶν τῶν ἴσων εὐθειῶν αἱ to one another. and the remaining angles subtended by the equal sides will be equal to the corresponding remaining angles. and let the straight-lines BD and CE have been produced in a straight-line with AB and AC (respectively) [Post. For if B coincides with E. and will be equal to them [C. and the triangle will be equal to the triangle. and ACB to DF E [C. Εἰλήφθω γὰρ ἐπὶ τῆς ΒΔ τυχὸν σημεῖον τὸ Ζ. so that the base BC will coincide with the base EF . respectively. and will be equal to it [C. and let AG have been cut off from the greater AE. ἡ δὲ ὑπὸ ΓΒΔ τῇ ὑπὸ ΒΓΕ. ἡ μὲν ὑπὸ ΑΒΓ τῇ ὑπὸ ΔΕΖ ἡ δὲ ὑπὸ ΑΓΒ τῇ ὑπὸ ΔΖΕ. the angles at the base are equal ἀλλήλαις εἰσίν. καὶ αἱ λοιπαὶ γωνίαι ἐπὶ τὰς λοιπὰς γωνίας ἐφαρμόσουσι καὶ ἴσαι αὐταῖς ἔσονται. δύο εὐθεῖαι χωρίον περιέξουσιν· ὅπερ ἐστὶν ἀδύνατον. 4]. So the point C will also coincide with the point F . on account of the angle BAC being equal to EDF .N. then they will also have the base equal to the base. and C with F . ΓΕ· λέγω.

AB. 1]. And since the whole of AF is equal to the whole of AG. Thus. respectively. F AG. the angles at the base are equal to one another. Τῶν ἄρα ἰσοσκελῶν τριγώνων αἱ τρὸς τῇ βάσει γωνίαι ἴσαι ἀλλήλαις εἰσίν. Proposition 6 ᾿Εὰν τριγώνου αἱ δύο γωνίαι ἴσαι ἀλλήλαις ὦσιν.4]. ὑφ᾿ ἃς αἱ ἴσαι πλευραὶ ὑποτείνουσιν· ἴση ἄρα ἐστὶν ἡ μὲν ὑπὸ ΖΒΓ τῇ ὑπὸ ΗΓΒ ἡ δὲ ὑπὸ ΒΓΖ τῇ ὑπὸ ΓΒΗ. And they are at the base of triangle ABC. (That is) ACF to ABG. ἐδείχθη δὲ καὶ ἡ ὑπὸ ΖΒΓ τῇ ὑπὸ ΗΓΒ ἴση· καί εἰσιν ὑπὸ τὴν βάσιν.N. the remainder BF is thus equal to the remainder CG [C. ἡ δὲ ὑπὸ ΑΖΓ τῇ ὑπὸ ΑΗΒ. ἡ μὲν ὑπὸ ΑΓΖ τῇ ὑπὸ ΑΒΗ. λοιπὴ ἄρα ἡ ΒΖ λοιπῇ τῇ ΓΗ ἐστιν ἴση. Thus. Thus.4]. the base F C is equal to the base GB. þ. But F C was also shown (to be) equal to GB. So the two (straightlines) BF . ὑφ᾿ ἃς αἱ ἴσαι πλευραὶ ὑποτείνουσιν. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. 1. Also. ΖΓ δυσὶ ταῖς ΓΗ. They also encompass a common angle. and the remaining angles subtendend by the equal sides will be equal to the corresponding remaining angles [Prop. AC are equal to the two (straight-lines) GA. within which AB is equal to AC. F C are equal to the two (straight-lines) CG. GB.N. καὶ If a triangle has two angles equal to one another then αἱ ὑπὸ τὰς ἴσας γωνίας ὑποτείνουσαι πλευραὶ ἴσαι ἀλλήλαις the sides subtending the equal angles will also be equal ἔσονται. I say that side AB is also equal to side ΑΓ ἐστιν ἴση. 1. λοιπὴ ἄρα ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΒΓ λοιπῇ τῇ ὑπὸ ΑΓΒ ἐστιν ἴση· καί εἰσι πρὸς τῇ βάσει τοῦ ΑΒΓ τριγώνου. καὶ ἐπεζεύχθωσαν αἱ ΖΓ. Α A ∆ Β D Γ B C ῎Εστω τρίγωνον τὸ ΑΒΓ ἴσην ἔχον τὴν ὑπὸ ΑΒΓ γωνίαν Let ABC be a triangle having the angle ABC equal τῇ ὑπὸ ΑΓΒ γωνίᾳ· λέγω. ΗΒ εὐθεῖαι. Thus. ὧν ἡ ὑπὸ ΓΒΗ τῇ ὑπὸ ΒΓΖ ἴση. to one another. and the base BC is common to them.STOIQEIWN aþ. καὶ αἱ λοιπαὶ γωνίαι ταῖς λοιπαῖς γωνίαις ἴσαι ἔσονται ἑκατέρα ἑκατέρᾳ. ΑΒ ἴσαι εἰσὶν ἑκατέρα ἑκατέρᾳ· καὶ γωνίαν κοινὴν περιέχουσι τὴν ὑπὸ ΖΑΗ· βάσις ἄρα ἡ ΖΓ βάσει τῇ ΗΒ ἴση ἐστίν. the triangle BF C will be equal to the triangle CGB. δύο δὴ αἱ ΖΑ. ᾿Επεὶ οὖν ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ μὲν ΑΖ τῇ ΑΗ ἡ δὲ ΑΒ τῇ ΑΓ. ΑΓ δυσὶ ταῖς ΗΑ. ἐπεὶ οὖν ὅλη ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΒΗ γωνία ὅλῃ τῇ ὑπὸ ΑΓΖ γωνίᾳ ἐδείχθη ἴση. since AF is equal to AG. and BCF to CBG. the two (straight-lines) F A. for isosceles triangles. And they are under the base. 3]. the remainder ABC is thus equal to the remainder ACB [C. F BC is equal to GCB. within which CBG is equal to BCF . and the triangle AF C will be equal to the triangle AGB. ὅτι καὶ πλευρὰ ἡ ΑΒ πλευρᾷ τῇ to the angle ACB. And F BC was also shown (to be) equal to GCB. and AF C to AGB. 12 . καὶ ἐπεὶ ὅλη ἡ ΑΖ ὅλῃ τῇ ΑΗ ἐστιν ἴση. ὧν ἡ ΑΒ τῇ ΑΓ ἐστιν ἴση. AC. καὶ αἱ λοιπαὶ γωνίαι ταῖς λοιπαῖς γωνίαις ἴσαι ἔσονται ἑκατέρα ἑκατέρᾳ. In fact. and the remaining angles subtended by the equal sides will be equal to the corresponding remaining angles [Prop. ἐδείχθη δὲ καὶ ἡ ΖΓ τῇ ΗΒ ἴση· δύο δὴ αἱ ΒΖ. and the angle BF C (is) equal to the angle CGB.3]. and if the equal sides are produced then the angles under the base will be equal to one another. ΗΒ ἴσαι εἰσὶν ἑκατέρα ἑκατέρᾳ· καὶ γωνία ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΖΓ γωνίᾳ τῃ ὑπὸ ΓΗΒ ἴση. and AB to AC. Therefore. 3]. respectively. καὶ προσεκβληθεισῶν τῶν ἴσων εὐθειῶν αἱ ὑπὸ τὴν βάσιν γωνίαι ἴσαι ἀλλήλαις ἔσονται· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. since the whole angle ABG was shown (to be) equal to the whole angle ACF . 1. ELEMENTS BOOK 1 ἴση ἡ ΑΗ. to the lesser AF [Prop. καὶ τὸ ΑΖΓ τρίγωνον τῷ ΑΗΒ τριγώνῳ ἴσον ἔσται. let the straight-lines F C and GB have been joined [Post. καὶ βάσις αὐτῶν κοινὴ ἡ ΒΓ· καὶ τὸ ΒΖΓ ἄρα τρίγωνον τῷ ΓΗΒ τριγώνῳ ἴσον ἔσται.

N. respectively. καὶ ἀφῃρήσθω ἀπὸ τῆς μείζονος τῆς ΑΒ τῇ ἐλάττονι τῇ ΑΓ ἴση ἡ ΔΒ. CDB is much greater than DCB [C. the base DC is equal to the base AB. And let DB. respectively. τὴν δὲ ΓΒ τῇ ΔΒ τὸ αὐτὸ πέρας ἔχουσαν αὐτῇ τὸ Β. And let DC have been joined [Post.5]. since DB is equal to AC. ἐπὶ τῆς αὐτῆς εὐθείας τῆς ΑΒ δύο ταῖς αὐταῖς εὐθείαις ταῖς ΑΓ. καὶ ἐπεζεύχθω ἡ ΓΔ. Let AB be greater. τὸ ἔλασσον τῷ μείζονι· ὅπερ ἄτοπον· οὐκ ἄρα ἄνισός ἐστιν ἡ ΑΒ τῇ ΑΓ· ἴση ἄρα. and the angle DBC is equal to the angle ACB. and having the same ends (on AB). Here. having the same end B as it. if a triangle has two angles equal to one another then the sides subtending the equal angles will also be equal to one another. CB. CB. Again. Γ C ∆ Α D Β A Εἰ γὰρ δυνατόν. two other straight-lines δύο εὐθεῖαι ἴσαι ἑκατέρα ἑκατέρᾳ οὐ συσταθήσονται πρὸς equal. And let CD have been joined [Post. So CA is equal to DA. ὥστε ἴσην εἶναι τὴν μὲν ΓΑ τῇ ΔΑ τὸ αὐτὸ πέρας ἔχουσαν αὐτῇ τὸ Α. 1. καὶ τὸ ΔΒΓ τρίγωνον τῷ ΑΓΒ τριγώνῳ ἴσον ἔσται. having the same end A as it. Therefore. † For if AB is unequal to AC then one of them is greater. ἡ ἑτέρα αὐτῶν μείζων ἐστίν. καὶ γωνία ἡ ὑπὸ ΔΒΓ γωνίᾳ τῇ ὑπὸ ΑΓΒ ἐστιν ἴση· βάσις ἄρα ἡ ΔΓ βάσει τῇ ΑΒ ἴση ἐστίν. use is made of the previously unmentioned common notion that if two quantities are not unequal then they must be equal. 1]. the angle ACD is also equal to angle ADC [Prop. point on the same side (of the straight-line). BC are equal to the two sides AC. 1. 1. since CB is equal to DB. Later on. πάλιν ἐπεὶ ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ΓΒ τῇ ΔΒ. ΒΓ δύο ταῖς ΑΓ. the lesser to the greater. 5]. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. but having the same ends as the given straight-lines. on the same side (of AB). 1]. the angle CDB is also equal to angle DCB [Prop. ᾿Επεὶ οὖν ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ΔΒ τῇ ΑΓ κοινὴ δὲ ἡ ΒΓ. ἐδείχθη δὲ αὐτῆς καὶ πολλῷ μείζων· ὅπερ ἐστὶν ἀδύνατον. ELEMENTS BOOK 1 Εἰ γὰρ ἄνισός ἐστιν ἡ ΑΒ τῇ ΑΓ. and CB is equal to DB.4]. ἔστω μείζων ἡ ΑΒ. καὶ ἐπεζεύχθω ἡ ΔΓ. Proposition 7 ᾿Επὶ τῆς αὐτῆς εὐθείας δύο ταῖς αὐταῖς εὐθείαις ἄλλαι On the same straight-line.STOIQEIWN aþ. Thus.† Thus. Thus. zþ. καὶ αἱ ὑπὸ τὰς ἴσας γωνίας ὑποτείνουσαι πλευραὶ ἴσαι ἀλλήλαις ἔσονται· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. 1. meeting at different points. ἴση ἐστὶ καὶ γωνία ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΓΔ τῇ ὑπὸ ΑΔΓ· μείζων ἄρα ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΔΓ τῆς ὑπὸ ΔΓΒ· πολλῷ ἄρα ἡ ὑπὸ ΓΔΒ μείζων ἐστί τῆς ὑπὸ ΔΓΒ. since AC is equal to AD. 5]. use is made of the closely related common notion that if two quantities are not greater than or less than one another. DB. have been constructed on the same straight-line AB. (it is) equal. have been cut off from the greater AB [Prop.5]. and the triangle DBC will be equal to the triangle ACB [Prop. ᾿Εὰν ἄρα τριγώνου αἱ δὑο γωνίαι ἴσαι ἀλλήλαις ὦσιν. The very notion (is) absurd [C. ADC (is) greater than DCB [C. ΓΒ ἴσαι εἰσὶν ἑκατέρα ἑκατέρᾳ. ᾿Επεὶ οὖν ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ΑΓ τῇ ΑΔ. Therefore. Thus. the two sides DB. respectively. δύο δὴ αἱ ΔΒ. ΓΒ ἄλλαι δύο εὐθεῖαι αἱ ΑΔ. if possible.3]. Thus. 5]. ἴση ἐστὶ καὶ γωνία ἡ ὑπὸ ΓΔΒ γωνίᾳ τῇ ὑπὸ ΔΓΒ. equal to the lesser AC. Thus. C and D. then they must be equal to one another. respectively. AB is not unequal to AC. and BC (is) common.N. ΔΒ ἴσαι ἑκατέρα ἑκατέρᾳ συνεστάτωσαν πρὸς ἄλλῳ καὶ ἄλλῳ σημείῳ τῷ τε Γ καὶ Δ ἐπὶ τὰ αὐτὰ μέρη τὰ αὐτὰ πέρατα ἔχουσαι. equal to two other straight-lines AD. But it was shown that the former (angle) is also much greater 13 .N. Οὐκ ἄρα ἐπὶ τῆς αὐτῆς εὐθείας δύο ταῖς αὐταῖς εὐθείαις B For. let the two straight-lines AC. to two (given) straight-lines (which ἄλλῳ καὶ ἄλλῳ σημείῳ ἐπὶ τὰ αὐτὰ μέρη τὰ αὐτὰ πέρατα meet) cannot be constructed (meeting) at a different ἔχουσαι ταῖς ἐξ ἀρχῆς εὐθείαις.

So the angle BAC will also coincide with angle EDF . the point B being placed on point E. Let them also have the base BC equal to the base EF . 14 . and AC to DF . I say that the angle BAC is also equal to the angle EDF . 1. εἰ γὰρ βάσις μὲν ἡ ΒΓ ἐπὶ βάσιν τὴν ΕΖ ἐφαρμόσει. For if triangle ABC is applied to triangle DEF . ΔΖ οὐκ ἐφαρμόσουσιν ἀλλὰ παραλλάξουσιν ὡς αἱ ΕΗ. τὴν μὲν ΑΒ τῇ ΔΕ τὴν δὲ ΑΓ τῇ ΔΖ· ἐχέτω δὲ καὶ βάσιν τὴν ΒΓ βάσει τῇ ΕΖ ἴσην· λέγω. they will coincide. reἴσας ἔχῃ ἑκατέραν ἑκατέρᾳ. But (such straight-lines) cannot be constructed [Prop. on account of BC being equal to EF . and (meeting) at a different point on the same side (of the straight-line). Thus. then ἴσην. οὐ συνίστανται δέ· οὐκ ἄρα ἐφαρμοζομένης τῆς ΒΓ βάσεως ἐπὶ τὴν ΕΖ βάσιν οὐκ ἐφαρμόσουσι καὶ αἱ ΒΑ. and also have the base equal to the base. ELEMENTS BOOK 1 ἄλλαι δύο εὐθεῖαι ἴσαι ἑκατέρα ἑκατέρᾳ συσταθήσονται πρὸς (than the latter). ἔχῃ δὲ καὶ τὴν βάσιν τῇ βάσει spectively. respectively. equal straight-lines. to two (given) straight-lines (which meet) cannot be constructed (meeting) at a different point on the same side (of the straight-line).7].STOIQEIWN aþ. two other straightlines equal. ΔΖ ἴσας ἔχοντα ἑκατέραν ἑκατέρᾳ. but the sides AB and AC do not coincide with ED and DF (respectively). ΓΑ ἐπὶ τὰς ΕΔ. G E Let ABC and DEF be two triangles having the two sides AB and AC equal to the two sides DE and DF . to two (given) straight-lines. the sides BA and AC cannot not coincide with ED and DF (respectively). For if base BC coincides with base EF . lines equal. ΔΕΖ τὰς δύο πλευρὰς τὰς ΑΒ. ΑΓ πλευραὶ ἐπὶ τὰς ΕΔ. The very thing is impossible. καὶ τὴν γωνίαν τῇ γωνίᾳ ἴσην ἕξει τὴν ὑπὸ τῶν ἴσων εὐθειῶν περιεχομένην· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. the base BC being applied to the base EF . on the same straight-line. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. ΔΖ. respectively.N. Thus. respectively. So (because of) BC coinciding with EF . (the sides) BA and CA will also coincide with ED and DF (respectively). αἱ δὲ ΒΑ. 4]. Thus. ΔΖ. then we will have constructed upon the same straight-line. but having the same ends. ᾿Εφαρμοζομένου γὰρ τοῦ ΑΒΓ τριγώνου ἐπὶ τὸ ΔΕΖ τρίγωνον καὶ τιθεμένου τοῦ μὲν Β σημείου ἐπὶ τὸ Ε σημεῖον τῆς δὲ ΒΓ εὐθείας ἐπὶ τὴν ΕΖ ἐφαρμόσει καὶ τὸ Γ σημεῖον ἐπὶ τὸ Ζ διὰ τὸ ἴσην εἶναι τὴν ΒΓ τῇ ΕΖ· ἐφαρμοσάσης δὴ τῆς ΒΓ ἐπὶ τὴν ΕΖ ἐφαρμόσουσι καὶ αἱ ΒΑ. ΑΓ ταῖς δύο πλευραῖς ταῖς ΔΕ. two other straightἔχουσαι ταῖς ἐξ ἀρχῆς εὐθείαις· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. if two triangles have two sides equal to two side. but miss like EG and GF (in the above figure). ἄλλῳ καὶ ἄλλῳ σημείῳ ἐπὶ τὰ αὐτὰ μέρη τὰ αὐτὰ πέρατα Thus. ἐφαρμόσουσιν ἄρα· ὥστε καὶ γωνία ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΑΓ ἐπὶ γωνίαν τὴν ὑπὸ ΕΔΖ ἐφαρμόσει καὶ ἴση αὐτῇ ἔσται. and will be equal to it [C. respectively. then point C will also coincide with F . ∆ Α Ζ Γ Β D A Η F C Ε B ῎Εστω δύο τρίγωνα τὰ ΑΒΓ. συσταθήσονται ἐπὶ τῆς αὐτῆς εὐθείας δύο ταῖς αὐταῖς εὐθείαις ἄλλαι δύο εὐθεῖαι ἴσαι ἑκατέρα ἑκατέρᾳ πρὸς ἄλλῳ καὶ ἄλλῳ σημείῳ ἐπὶ τὰ αὐτὰ μέρη τὰ αὐτὰ πέρατα ἔχουσαι. ΗΖ. καὶ τὴν γωνίαν τῇ γωνίᾳ ἴσην ἕξει τὴν ὑπὸ τῶν ἴσων they will also have equal the angles encompassed by the εὐθειῶν περιεχομένην. hþ. (That is) AB to DE. and have the base equal to the base. Proposition 8 ᾿Εὰν δύο τρίγωνα τὰς δύο πλευρὰς [ταῖς] δύο πλευραῖς If two triangles have two sides equal to two sides. ᾿Εὰν ἄρα δύο τρίγωνα τὰς δύο πλευρὰς [ταῖς] δύο πλευραῖς ἴσας ἔχῃ ἑκατέραν ἑκατέρᾳ καὶ τὴν βάσιν τῇ βάσει ἴσην ἔχῃ. but having the same ends as the given straight-lines. and the straight-line BC on EF . ΑΓ πλευραὶ ἐπὶ τὰς ΕΔ. ὅτι καὶ γωνία ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΑΓ γωνίᾳ τῇ ὑπὸ ΕΔΖ ἐστιν ἴση.

1]. 1. Α ∆ Β A Ε Ζ D Γ B E F C ῎Εστω ἡ δοθεῖσα γωνία εὐθύγραμμος ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΑΓ. And the base DF is equal to the base EF . and let DE have been joined. δύο δὴ αἱ ΑΓ. Proposition 9 Τὴν δοθεῖσαν γωνίαν εὐθύγραμμον δίχα τεμεῖν. δύο δὴ αἱ ΔΑ. ΓΔ δύο ταῖς ΒΓ. and AF is common. Συνεστάτω ἐπ᾿ αὐτῆς τρίγωνον ἰσόπλευρον τὸ ΑΒΓ. ᾿Επεὶ γὰρ ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ΑΓ τῇ ΓΒ. ELEMENTS BOOK 1 then they will also have equal the angles encompassed by the equal straight-lines. (Which is) the very thing it was required to do. κοινὴ δὲ ἡ ΓΔ. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. ὅτι ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΑΓ γωνία δίχα τέτμηται ὑπὸ τῆς ΑΖ εὐθείας. ῎Εστω ἡ δοθεῖσα εὐθεῖα πεπερασμένη ἡ ΑΒ· δεῖ δὴ τὴν ΑΒ εὐθεῖαν πεπερασμένην δίχα τεμεῖν. Thus. AF are equal to the two (straight-lines) EA. the given rectilinear angle BAC has been cut in half by the straight-line AF . ᾿Επεὶ γὰρ ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ΑΔ τῇ ΑΕ. Let BAC be the given rectilinear angle.9]. Proposition 10 Τὴν δοθεῖσαν εὐθεῖαν πεπερασμένην δίχα τεμεῖν. and let the angle ACB have been cut in half by the straight-line CD [Prop. have been cut off from AC [Prop. For since AC is equal to CB. and let AE. 15 . To cut a given rectilinear angle in half. I say that the straight-line AB has been cut in half at point D. equal to AD. καὶ ἐπεζεύχθω ἡ ΔΕ. AF .8]. And let the equilateral triangle DEF have been constructed upon DE [Prop. jþ.3]. the two (straight-lines) DA. iþ. 1. ΑΖ ἴσαι εἰσὶν ἑκατέρα ἑκατέρᾳ. καὶ βάσις ἡ ΔΖ βάσει τῇ ΕΖ ἴση ἐστίν· γωνία ἄρα ἡ ὑπὸ ΔΑΖ γωνίᾳ τῇ ὑπὸ ΕΑΖ ἴση ἐστίν. So it is required to cut it in half. angle DAF is equal to angle EAF [Prop. ΑΖ δυσὶ ταῖς ΕΑ. and CD (is) common. Thus.STOIQEIWN aþ. ΓΔ ἴσαι εἰσὶν ἑκατέρα ἑκατέρᾳ· καὶ γωνία ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΓΔ γωνίᾳ τῇ ὑπὸ ΒΓΔ ἴση ἐστίν· βάσις ἄρα To cut a given finite straight-line in half. respectively. 1. κοινὴ δὲ ἡ ΑΖ. Let AB be the given finite straight-line. δεῖ δὴ αὐτὴν δίχα τεμεῖν. καὶ τετμήσθω ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΓΒ γωνία δίχα τῇ ΓΔ εὐθείᾳ· λέγω. Let the point D have been taken at random on AB. καὶ ἀφῃρήσθω ἀπὸ τῆς ΑΓ τῇ ΑΔ ἴση ἡ ΑΕ. 1. ῾Η ἄρα δοθεῖσα γωνία εὐθύγραμμος ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΑΓ δίχα τέτμηται ὑπὸ τῆς ΑΖ εὐθείας· ὅπερ ἔδει ποιῆσαι.1]. ὅτι ἡ ΑΒ εὐθεῖα δίχα τέτμηται κατὰ τὸ Δ σημεῖον. So it is required to cut the finite straight-line AB in half. Εἰλήφθω ἐπὶ τῆς ΑΒ τυχὸν σημεῖον τὸ Δ. 1. καὶ ἐπεζεύχθω ἡ ΑΖ· λέγω. and let AF have been joined. Let the equilateral triangle ABC have been constructed upon (AB) [Prop. I say that the angle BAC has been cut in half by the straight-line AF . καὶ συνεστάτω ἐπὶ τῆς ΔΕ τρίγωνον ἰσόπλευρον τὸ ΔΕΖ. For since AD is equal to AE.

STOIQEIWN aþ.

ELEMENTS BOOK 1

ἡ ΑΔ βάσει τῇ ΒΔ ἴση ἐστίν.

**the two (straight-lines) AC, CD are equal to the two
**

(straight-lines) BC, CD, respectively. And the angle

ACD is equal to the angle BCD. Thus, the base AD

is equal to the base BD [Prop. 1.4].

Γ

Α

C

Β

∆

A

B

D

**῾Η ἄρα δοθεῖσα εὐθεῖα πεπερασμένη ἡ ΑΒ δίχα τέτμηται
**

Thus, the given finite straight-line AB has been cut

κατὰ τὸ Δ· ὅπερ ἔδει ποιῆσαι.

in half at (point) D. (Which is) the very thing it was

required to do.

iaþ.

Proposition 11

**Τῇ δοθείσῃ εὐθείᾳ ἀπὸ τοῦ πρὸς αὐτῇ δοθέντος σημείου
**

To draw a straight-line at right-angles to a given

πρὸς ὀρθὰς γωνίας εὐθεῖαν γραμμὴν ἀγαγεῖν.

straight-line from a given point on it.

Ζ

F

Α

Β

∆

Γ

B

A

Ε

D

**῎Εστω ἡ μὲν δοθεῖσα εὐθεῖα ἡ ΑΒ τὸ δὲ δοθὲν σημεῖον
**

ἐπ᾿ αὐτῆς τὸ Γ· δεῖ δὴ ἀπὸ τοῦ Γ σημείου τῇ ΑΒ εὐθείᾳ

πρὸς ὀρθὰς γωνίας εὐθεῖαν γραμμὴν ἀγαγεῖν.

Εἰλήφθω ἐπὶ τῆς ΑΓ τυχὸν σημεῖον τὸ Δ, καὶ κείσθω

τῇ ΓΔ ἴση ἡ ΓΕ, καὶ συνεστάτω ἐπὶ τῆς ΔΕ τρίγωνον

ἰσόπλευρον τὸ ΖΔΕ, καὶ ἐπεζεύχθω ἡ ΖΓ· λέγω, ὅτι τῇ

δοθείσῃ εὐθείᾳ τῇ ΑΒ ἀπὸ τοῦ πρὸς αὐτῇ δοθέντος σημείου

τοῦ Γ πρὸς ὀρθὰς γωνίας εὐθεῖα γραμμὴ ἦκται ἡ ΖΓ.

᾿Επεὶ γὰρ ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ΔΓ τῇ ΓΕ, κοινὴ δὲ ἡ ΓΖ, δύο

δὴ αἱ ΔΓ, ΓΖ δυσὶ ταῖς ΕΓ, ΓΖ ἴσαι εἰσὶν ἑκατέρα ἑκατέρᾳ·

καὶ βάσις ἡ ΔΖ βάσει τῇ ΖΕ ἴση ἐστίν· γωνία ἄρα ἡ ὑπὸ

ΔΓΖ γωνίᾳ τῇ ὑπὸ ΕΓΖ ἴση ἐστίν· καί εἰσιν ἐφεξῆς. ὅταν

δὲ εὐθεῖα ἐπ᾿ εὐθεῖαν σταθεῖσα τὰς ἐφεξῆς γωνίας ἴσας

ἀλλήλαις ποιῇ, ὀρθὴ ἑκατέρα τῶν ἴσων γωνιῶν ἐστιν· ὀρθὴ

ἄρα ἐστὶν ἑκατέρα τῶν ὑπὸ ΔΓΖ, ΖΓΕ.

C

E

**Let AB be the given straight-line, and C the given
**

point on it. So it is required to draw a straight-line from

the point C at right-angles to the straight-line AB.

Let the point D be have been taken at random on AC,

and let CE be made equal to CD [Prop. 1.3], and let the

equilateral triangle F DE have been constructed on DE

[Prop. 1.1], and let F C have been joined. I say that the

straight-line F C has been drawn at right-angles to the

given straight-line AB from the given point C on it.

For since DC is equal to CE, and CF is common,

the two (straight-lines) DC, CF are equal to the two

(straight-lines), EC, CF , respectively. And the base DF

is equal to the base F E. Thus, the angle DCF is equal

to the angle ECF [Prop. 1.8], and they are adjacent.

But when a straight-line stood on a(nother) straight-line

16

STOIQEIWN aþ.

ELEMENTS BOOK 1

Τῇ ἄρα δοθείσῃ εὐθείᾳ τῇ ΑΒ ἀπὸ τοῦ πρὸς αὐτῇ makes the adjacent angles equal to one another, each of

δοθέντος σημείου τοῦ Γ πρὸς ὀρθὰς γωνίας εὐθεῖα γραμμὴ the equal angles is a right-angle [Def. 1.10]. Thus, each

ἦκται ἡ ΓΖ· ὅπερ ἔδει ποιῆσαι.

of the (angles) DCF and F CE is a right-angle.

Thus, the straight-line CF has been drawn at rightangles to the given straight-line AB from the given point

C on it. (Which is) the very thing it was required to do.

ibþ.

Proposition 12

**᾿Επὶ τὴν δοθεῖσαν εὐθεῖαν ἄπειρον ἀπὸ τοῦ δοθέντος
**

To draw a straight-line perpendicular to a given infiσημείου, ὃ μή ἐστιν ἐπ᾿ αὐτῆς, κάθετον εὐθεῖαν γραμμὴν nite straight-line from a given point which is not on it.

ἀγαγεῖν.

Ζ

F

Γ

C

Α

Β

Η

Θ

A

Ε

B

G

∆

H

E

D

**῎Εστω ἡ μὲν δοθεῖσα εὐθεῖα ἄπειρος ἡ ΑΒ τὸ δὲ δοθὲν
**

σημεῖον, ὃ μή ἐστιν ἐπ᾿ αὐτῆς, τὸ Γ· δεῖ δὴ ἐπὶ τὴν δοθεῖσαν

εὐθεῖαν ἄπειρον τὴν ΑΒ ἀπὸ τοῦ δοθέντος σημείου τοῦ Γ,

ὃ μή ἐστιν ἐπ᾿ αὐτῆς, κάθετον εὐθεῖαν γραμμὴν ἀγαγεῖν.

Εἰλήφθω γὰρ ἐπὶ τὰ ἕτερα μέρη τῆς ΑΒ εὐθείας τυχὸν

σημεῖον τὸ Δ, καὶ κέντρῳ μὲν τῷ Γ διαστήματι δὲ τῷ ΓΔ

κύκλος γεγράφθω ὁ ΕΖΗ, καὶ τετμήσθω ἡ ΕΗ εὐθεῖα δίχα

κατὰ τὸ Θ, καὶ ἐπεζεύχθωσαν αἱ ΓΗ, ΓΘ, ΓΕ εὐθεῖαι·

λέγω, ὅτι ἐπὶ τὴν δοθεῖσαν εὐθεῖαν ἄπειρον τὴν ΑΒ ἀπὸ

τοῦ δοθέντος σημείου τοῦ Γ, ὃ μή ἐστιν ἐπ᾿ αὐτῆς, κάθετος

ἦκται ἡ ΓΘ.

᾿Επεὶ γὰρ ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ΗΘ τῇ ΘΕ, κοινὴ δὲ ἡ ΘΓ, δύο

δὴ αἱ ΗΘ, ΘΓ δύο ταῖς ΕΘ, ΘΓ ἴσαι εἱσὶν ἑκατέρα ἑκατέρᾳ·

καὶ βάσις ἡ ΓΗ βάσει τῇ ΓΕ ἐστιν ἴση· γωνία ἄρα ἡ ὑπὸ

ΓΘΗ γωνίᾳ τῇ ὑπὸ ΕΘΓ ἐστιν ἴση. καί εἰσιν ἐφεξῆς. ὅταν

δὲ εὐθεῖα ἐπ᾿ εὐθεῖαν σταθεῖσα τὰς ἐφεξῆς γωνίας ἴσας

ἀλλήλαις ποιῇ, ὀρθὴ ἑκατέρα τῶν ἴσων γωνιῶν ἐστιν, καὶ

ἡ ἐφεστηκυῖα εὐθεῖα κάθετος καλεῖται ἐφ᾿ ἣν ἐφέστηκεν.

᾿Επὶ τὴν δοθεῖσαν ἄρα εὐθεῖαν ἄπειρον τὴν ΑΒ ἀπὸ τοῦ

δοθέντος σημείου τοῦ Γ, ὃ μή ἐστιν ἐπ᾿ αὐτῆς, κάθετος

ἦκται ἡ ΓΘ· ὅπερ ἔδει ποιῆσαι.

**Let AB be the given infinite straight-line and C the
**

given point, which is not on (AB). So it is required to

draw a straight-line perpendicular to the given infinite

straight-line AB from the given point C, which is not on

(AB).

For let point D have been taken at random on the

other side (to C) of the straight-line AB, and let the

circle EF G have been drawn with center C and radius

CD [Post. 3], and let the straight-line EG have been cut

in half at (point) H [Prop. 1.10], and let the straightlines CG, CH, and CE have been joined. I say that the

(straight-line) CH has been drawn perpendicular to the

given infinite straight-line AB from the given point C,

which is not on (AB).

For since GH is equal to HE, and HC (is) common,

the two (straight-lines) GH, HC are equal to the two

(straight-lines) EH, HC, respectively, and the base CG

is equal to the base CE. Thus, the angle CHG is equal

to the angle EHC [Prop. 1.8], and they are adjacent.

But when a straight-line stood on a(nother) straight-line

makes the adjacent angles equal to one another, each of

the equal angles is a right-angle, and the former straightline is called a perpendicular to that upon which it stands

[Def. 1.10].

Thus, the (straight-line) CH has been drawn perpendicular to the given infinite straight-line AB from the

17

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ELEMENTS BOOK 1

given point C, which is not on (AB). (Which is) the very

thing it was required to do.

igþ.

Proposition 13

**᾿Εὰν εὐθεῖα ἐπ᾿ εὐθεῖαν σταθεῖσα γωνίας ποιῇ, ἤτοι δύο
**

ὀρθὰς ἢ δυσὶν ὀρθαῖς ἴσας ποιήσει.

**If a straight-line stood on a(nother) straight-line
**

makes angles, it will certainly either make two rightangles, or (angles whose sum is) equal to two rightangles.

Ε

∆

Β

E

Α

Γ

D

**Εὐθεῖα γάρ τις ἡ ΑΒ ἐπ᾿ εὐθεῖαν τὴν ΓΔ σταθεῖσα
**

γωνίας ποιείτω τὰς ὑπὸ ΓΒΑ, ΑΒΔ· λὲγω, ὅτι αἱ ὑπὸ ΓΒΑ,

ΑΒΔ γωνίαι ἤτοι δύο ὀρθαί εἰσιν ἢ δυσὶν ὀρθαῖς ἴσαι.

Εἰ μὲν οὖν ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ὑπὸ ΓΒΑ τῇ ὑπὸ ΑΒΔ, δύο ὀρθαί

εἰσιν. εἰ δὲ οὔ, ἤχθω ἀπὸ τοῦ Β σημείου τῇ ΓΔ [εὐθείᾳ] πρὸς

ὀρθὰς ἡ ΒΕ· αἱ ἄρα ὑπὸ ΓΒΕ, ΕΒΔ δύο ὀρθαί εἰσιν· καὶ

ἐπεὶ ἡ ὑπὸ ΓΒΕ δυσὶ ταῖς ὑπὸ ΓΒΑ, ΑΒΕ ἴση ἐστίν, κοινὴ

προσκείσθω ἡ ὑπὸ ΕΒΔ· αἱ ἄρα ὑπὸ ΓΒΕ, ΕΒΔ τρισὶ ταῖς

ὑπὸ ΓΒΑ, ΑΒΕ, ΕΒΔ ἴσαι εἰσίν. πάλιν, ἐπεὶ ἡ ὑπὸ ΔΒΑ

δυσὶ ταῖς ὑπὸ ΔΒΕ, ΕΒΑ ἴση ἐστίν, κοινὴ προσκείσθω ἡ

ὑπὸ ΑΒΓ· αἱ ἄρα ὑπὸ ΔΒΑ, ΑΒΓ τρισὶ ταῖς ὑπὸ ΔΒΕ, ΕΒΑ,

ΑΒΓ ἴσαι εἰσίν. ἐδείχθησαν δὲ καὶ αἱ ὑπὸ ΓΒΕ, ΕΒΔ τρισὶ

ταῖς αὐταῖς ἴσαι· τὰ δὲ τῷ αὐτῷ ἴσα καὶ ἀλλήλοις ἐστὶν ἴσα·

καὶ αἱ ὑπὸ ΓΒΕ, ΕΒΔ ἄρα ταῖς ὑπὸ ΔΒΑ, ΑΒΓ ἴσαι εἰσίν·

ἀλλὰ αἱ ὑπὸ ΓΒΕ, ΕΒΔ δύο ὀρθαί εἰσιν· καὶ αἱ ὑπὸ ΔΒΑ,

ΑΒΓ ἄρα δυσὶν ὀρθαῖς ἴσαι εἰσίν.

᾿Εὰν ἄρα εὐθεῖα ἐπ᾿ εὐθεῖαν σταθεῖσα γωνίας ποιῇ, ἤτοι

δύο ὀρθὰς ἢ δυσὶν ὀρθαῖς ἴσας ποιήσει· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι.

B

A

C

For let some straight-line AB stood on the straightline CD make the angles CBA and ABD. I say that

the angles CBA and ABD are certainly either two rightangles, or (have a sum) equal to two right-angles.

In fact, if CBA is equal to ABD then they are two

right-angles [Def. 1.10]. But, if not, let BE have been

drawn from the point B at right-angles to [the straightline] CD [Prop. 1.11]. Thus, CBE and EBD are two

right-angles. And since CBE is equal to the two (angles) CBA and ABE, let EBD have been added to both.

Thus, the (sum of the angles) CBE and EBD is equal to

the (sum of the) three (angles) CBA, ABE, and EBD

[C.N. 2]. Again, since DBA is equal to the two (angles) DBE and EBA, let ABC have been added to both.

Thus, the (sum of the angles) DBA and ABC is equal to

the (sum of the) three (angles) DBE, EBA, and ABC

[C.N. 2]. But (the sum of) CBE and EBD was also

shown (to be) equal to the (sum of the) same three (angles). And things equal to the same thing are also equal

to one another [C.N. 1]. Therefore, (the sum of) CBE

and EBD is also equal to (the sum of) DBA and ABC.

But, (the sum of) CBE and EBD is two right-angles.

Thus, (the sum of) ABD and ABC is also equal to two

right-angles.

Thus, if a straight-line stood on a(nother) straightline makes angles, it will certainly either make two rightangles, or (angles whose sum is) equal to two rightangles. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show.

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ELEMENTS BOOK 1

idþ.

Proposition 14

**᾿Εὰν πρός τινι εὐθείᾳ καὶ τῷ πρὸς αὐτῇ σημείῳ δύο
**

If two straight-lines, not lying on the same side, make

εὐθεῖαι μὴ ἐπὶ τὰ αὐτὰ μέρη κείμεναι τὰς ἐφεξῆς γωνίας adjacent angles (whose sum is) equal to two right-angles

δυσὶν ὀρθαῖς ἴσας ποιῶσιν, ἐπ᾿ εὐθείας ἔσονται ἀλλήλαις αἱ with some straight-line, at a point on it, then the two

εὐθεῖαι.

straight-lines will be straight-on (with respect) to one another.

Α

Γ

Ε

Β

A

∆

C

E

B

D

**Πρὸς γάρ τινι εὐθείᾳ τῇ ΑΒ καὶ τῷ πρὸς αὐτῇ σημείῳ
**

τῷ Β δύο εὐθεῖαι αἱ ΒΓ, ΒΔ μὴ ἐπὶ τὰ αὐτὰ μέρη κείμεναι

τὰς ἐφεξῆς γωνίας τὰς ὑπὸ ΑΒΓ, ΑΒΔ δύο ὀρθαῖς ἴσας

ποιείτωσαν· λέγω, ὅτι ἐπ᾿ εὐθείας ἐστὶ τῇ ΓΒ ἡ ΒΔ.

Εἰ γὰρ μή ἐστι τῇ ΒΓ ἐπ᾿ εὐθείας ἡ ΒΔ, ἔστω τῇ ΓΒ

ἐπ᾿ εὐθείας ἡ ΒΕ.

᾿Επεὶ οὖν εὐθεῖα ἡ ΑΒ ἐπ᾿ εὐθεῖαν τὴν ΓΒΕ ἐφέστηκεν,

αἱ ἄρα ὑπὸ ΑΒΓ, ΑΒΕ γωνίαι δύο ὀρθαῖς ἴσαι εἰσίν· εἰσὶ δὲ

καὶ αἱ ὑπὸ ΑΒΓ, ΑΒΔ δύο ὀρθαῖς ἴσαι· αἱ ἄρα ὑπὸ ΓΒΑ,

ΑΒΕ ταῖς ὑπὸ ΓΒΑ, ΑΒΔ ἴσαι εἰσίν. κοινὴ ἀφῃρήσθω ἡ

ὑπὸ ΓΒΑ· λοιπὴ ἄρα ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΒΕ λοιπῇ τῇ ὑπὸ ΑΒΔ ἐστιν

ἴση, ἡ ἐλάσσων τῇ μείζονι· ὅπερ ἐστὶν ἀδύνατον. οὐκ ἄρα

ἐπ᾿ εὐθείας ἐστὶν ἡ ΒΕ τῇ ΓΒ. ὁμοίως δὴ δείξομεν, ὅτι οὐδὲ

ἄλλη τις πλὴν τῆς ΒΔ· ἐπ᾿ εὐθείας ἄρα ἐστὶν ἡ ΓΒ τῇ ΒΔ.

᾿Εὰν ἄρα πρός τινι εὐθείᾳ καὶ τῷ πρὸς αὐτῇ σημείῳ

δύο εὐθεῖαι μὴ ἐπὶ αὐτὰ μέρη κείμεναι τὰς ἐφεξῆς γωνίας

δυσὶν ὀρθαῖς ἴσας ποιῶσιν, ἐπ᾿ εὐθείας ἔσονται ἀλλήλαις αἱ

εὐθεῖαι· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι.

**For let two straight-lines BC and BD, not lying on the
**

same side, make adjacent angles ABC and ABD (whose

sum is) equal to two right-angles with some straight-line

AB, at the point B on it. I say that BD is straight-on with

respect to CB.

For if BD is not straight-on to BC then let BE be

straight-on to CB.

Therefore, since the straight-line AB stands on the

straight-line CBE, the (sum of the) angles ABC and

ABE is thus equal to two right-angles [Prop. 1.13]. But

(the sum of) ABC and ABD is also equal to two rightangles. Thus, (the sum of angles) CBA and ABE is equal

to (the sum of angles) CBA and ABD [C.N. 1]. Let (angle) CBA have been subtracted from both. Thus, the remainder ABE is equal to the remainder ABD [C.N. 3],

the lesser to the greater. The very thing is impossible.

Thus, BE is not straight-on with respect to CB. Similarly, we can show that neither (is) any other (straightline) than BD. Thus, CB is straight-on with respect to

BD.

Thus, if two straight-lines, not lying on the same side,

make adjacent angles (whose sum is) equal to two rightangles with some straight-line, at a point on it, then the

two straight-lines will be straight-on (with respect) to

one another. (Which is) the very thing it was required

to show.

ieþ.

Proposition 15

**᾿Εὰν δύο εὐθεῖαι τέμνωσιν ἀλλήλας, τὰς κατὰ κορυφὴν
**

If two straight-lines cut one another then they make

γωνίας ἴσας ἀλλήλαις ποιοῦσιν.

the vertically opposite angles equal to one another.

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ELEMENTS BOOK 1

**Δύο γὰρ εὐθεῖαι αἱ ΑΒ, ΓΔ τεμνέτωσαν ἀλλήλας κατὰ
**

For let the two straight-lines AB and CD cut one anτὸ Ε σημεῖον· λέγω, ὅτι ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ μὲν ὑπὸ ΑΕΓ γωνία τῇ other at the point E. I say that angle AEC is equal to

ὑπὸ ΔΕΒ, ἡ δὲ ὑπὸ ΓΕΒ τῇ ὑπὸ ΑΕΔ.

(angle) DEB, and (angle) CEB to (angle) AED.

Α

A

Ε

∆

E

Γ

D

C

Β

B

**᾿Επεὶ γὰρ εὐθεῖα ἡ ΑΕ ἐπ᾿ εὐθεῖαν τὴν ΓΔ ἐφέστηκε
**

γωνίας ποιοῦσα τὰς ὑπὸ ΓΕΑ, ΑΕΔ, αἱ ἄρα ὑπὸ ΓΕΑ, ΑΕΔ

γωνίαι δυσὶν ὀρθαῖς ἴσαι εἰσίν. πάλιν, ἐπεὶ εὐθεῖα ἡ ΔΕ ἐπ᾿

εὐθεῖαν τὴν ΑΒ ἐφέστηκε γωνίας ποιοῦσα τὰς ὑπὸ ΑΕΔ,

ΔΕΒ, αἱ ἄρα ὑπὸ ΑΕΔ, ΔΕΒ γωνίαι δυσὶν ὀρθαῖς ἴσαι εἰσίν.

ἐδείχθησαν δὲ καὶ αἱ ὑπὸ ΓΕΑ, ΑΕΔ δυσὶν ὀρθαῖς ἴσαι· αἱ

ἄρα ὑπὸ ΓΕΑ, ΑΕΔ ταῖς ὑπὸ ΑΕΔ, ΔΕΒ ἴσαι εἰσίν. κοινὴ

ἀφῃρήσθω ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΕΔ· λοιπὴ ἄρα ἡ ὑπὸ ΓΕΑ λοιπῇ τῇ ὑπὸ

ΒΕΔ ἴση ἐστίν· ὁμοίως δὴ δειχθήσεται, ὅτι καὶ αἱ ὑπὸ ΓΕΒ,

ΔΕΑ ἴσαι εἰσίν.

᾿Εὰν ἄρα δύο εὐθεῖαι τέμνωσιν ἀλλήλας, τὰς κατὰ κορυφὴν γωνίας ἴσας ἀλλήλαις ποιοῦσιν· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι.

For since the straight-line AE stands on the straightline CD, making the angles CEA and AED, the (sum

of the) angles CEA and AED is thus equal to two rightangles [Prop. 1.13]. Again, since the straight-line DE

stands on the straight-line AB, making the angles AED

and DEB, the (sum of the) angles AED and DEB is

thus equal to two right-angles [Prop. 1.13]. But (the sum

of) CEA and AED was also shown (to be) equal to two

right-angles. Thus, (the sum of) CEA and AED is equal

to (the sum of) AED and DEB [C.N. 1]. Let AED have

been subtracted from both. Thus, the remainder CEA is

equal to the remainder BED [C.N. 3]. Similarly, it can

be shown that CEB and DEA are also equal.

Thus, if two straight-lines cut one another then they

make the vertically opposite angles equal to one another.

(Which is) the very thing it was required to show.

iþ.

Proposition 16

**Παντὸς τριγώνου μιᾶς τῶν πλευρῶν προσεκβληθείσης
**

ἡ ἐκτὸς γωνία ἑκατέρας τῶν ἐντὸς καὶ ἀπεναντίον γωνιῶν

μείζων ἐστίν.

῎Εστω τρίγωνον τὸ ΑΒΓ, καὶ προσεκβεβλήσθω αὐτοῦ

μία πλευρὰ ἡ ΒΓ ἐπὶ τὸ Δ· λὲγω, ὅτι ἡ ἐκτὸς γωνία ἡ ὑπὸ

ΑΓΔ μείζων ἐστὶν ἑκατέρας τῶν ἐντὸς καὶ ἀπεναντίον τῶν

ὑπὸ ΓΒΑ, ΒΑΓ γωνιῶν.

Τετμήσθω ἡ ΑΓ δίχα κατὰ τὸ Ε, καὶ ἐπιζευχθεῖσα ἡ ΒΕ

ἐκβεβλήσθω ἐπ᾿ εὐθείας ἐπὶ τὸ Ζ, καὶ κείσθω τῇ ΒΕ ἴση ἡ

ΕΖ, καὶ ἐπεζεύχθω ἡ ΖΓ, καὶ διήχθω ἡ ΑΓ ἐπὶ τὸ Η.

᾿Επεὶ οὖν ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ μὲν ΑΕ τῇ ΕΓ, ἡ δὲ ΒΕ τῇ ΕΖ, δύο

δὴ αἱ ΑΕ, ΕΒ δυσὶ ταῖς ΓΕ, ΕΖ ἴσαι εἰσὶν ἑκατέρα ἑκατέρᾳ·

καὶ γωνία ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΕΒ γωνίᾳ τῇ ὑπὸ ΖΕΓ ἴση ἐστίν· κατὰ

κορυφὴν γάρ· βάσις ἄρα ἡ ΑΒ βάσει τῇ ΖΓ ἴση ἐστίν, καὶ τὸ

ΑΒΕ τρίγωνον τῷ ΖΕΓ τριγώνῳ ἐστὶν ἴσον, καὶ αἱ λοιπαὶ

**For any triangle, when one of the sides is produced,
**

the external angle is greater than each of the internal and

opposite angles.

Let ABC be a triangle, and let one of its sides BC

have been produced to D. I say that the external angle

ACD is greater than each of the internal and opposite

angles, CBA and BAC.

Let the (straight-line) AC have been cut in half at

(point) E [Prop. 1.10]. And BE being joined, let it have

been produced in a straight-line to (point) F .† And let

EF be made equal to BE [Prop. 1.3], and let F C have

been joined, and let AC have been drawn through to

(point) G.

Therefore, since AE is equal to EC, and BE to EF ,

the two (straight-lines) AE, EB are equal to the two

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ELEMENTS BOOK 1

**γωνίαι ταῖς λοιπαῖς γωνίαις ἴσαι εἰσὶν ἑκατέρα ἑκατέρᾳ, ὑφ᾿
**

ἃς αἱ ἴσαι πλευραὶ ὑποτείνουσιν· ἴση ἄρα ἐστὶν ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΑΕ

τῇ ὑπὸ ΕΓΖ. μείζων δέ ἐστιν ἡ ὑπὸ ΕΓΔ τῆς ὑπὸ ΕΓΖ·

μείζων ἄρα ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΓΔ τῆς ὑπὸ ΒΑΕ. ῾Ομοίως δὴ τῆς ΒΓ

τετμημένης δίχα δειχθήσεται καὶ ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΓΗ, τουτέστιν ἡ

ὑπὸ ΑΓΔ, μείζων καὶ τῆς ὑπὸ ΑΒΓ.

Α

**(straight-lines) CE, EF , respectively. Also, angle AEB
**

is equal to angle F EC, for (they are) vertically opposite

[Prop. 1.15]. Thus, the base AB is equal to the base F C,

and the triangle ABE is equal to the triangle F EC, and

the remaining angles subtended by the equal sides are

equal to the corresponding remaining angles [Prop. 1.4].

Thus, BAE is equal to ECF . But ECD is greater than

ECF . Thus, ACD is greater than BAE. Similarly, by

having cut BC in half, it can be shown (that) BCG—that

is to say, ACD—(is) also greater than ABC.

Ζ

A

Ε

Β

F

E

∆

Γ

B

D

C

Η

G

Παντὸς ἄρα τριγώνου μιᾶς τῶν πλευρῶν προσεκThus, for any triangle, when one of the sides is proβληθείσης ἡ ἐκτὸς γωνία ἑκατέρας τῶν ἐντὸς καὶ ἀπε- duced, the external angle is greater than each of the inναντίον γωνιῶν μείζων ἐστίν· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι.

ternal and opposite angles. (Which is) the very thing it

was required to show.

†

The implicit assumption that the point F lies in the interior of the angle ABC should be counted as an additional postulate.

izþ.

Proposition 17

**Παντὸvς τριγώνου αἱ δύο γωνίαι δύο ὀρθῶν ἐλάσσονές
**

For any triangle, (the sum of) two angles taken toεἰσι πάντῇ μεταλαμβανόμεναι.

gether in any (possible way) is less than two right-angles.

Α

A

Β

Γ

∆

B

C

D

**῎Εστω τρίγωνον τὸ ΑΒΓ· λέγω, ὅτι τοῦ ΑΒΓ τριγώνου
**

Let ABC be a triangle. I say that (the sum of) two

αἱ δύο γωνίαι δύο ὀρθῶν ἐλάττονές εἰσι πάντῃ μεταλαμ- angles of triangle ABC taken together in any (possible

βανόμεναι.

way) is less than two right-angles.

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ELEMENTS BOOK 1

**᾿Εκβεβλήσθω γὰρ ἡ ΒΓ ἐπὶ τὸ Δ.
**

Καὶ ἐπεὶ τριγώνου τοῦ ΑΒΓ ἐκτός ἐστι γωνία ἡ ὑπὸ

ΑΓΔ, μείζων ἐστὶ τῆς ἐντὸς καὶ ἀπεναντίον τῆς ὑπὸ ΑΒΓ.

κοινὴ προσκείσθω ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΓΒ· αἱ ἄρα ὑπὸ ΑΓΔ, ΑΓΒ τῶν

ὑπὸ ΑΒΓ, ΒΓΑ μείζονές εἰσιν. ἀλλ᾿ αἱ ὑπὸ ΑΓΔ, ΑΓΒ

δύο ὀρθαῖς ἴσαι εἰσίν· αἱ ἄρα ὑπὸ ΑΒΓ, ΒΓΑ δύο ὀρθῶν

ἐλάσσονές εἰσιν. ὁμοίως δὴ δείξομεν, ὅτι καὶ αἱ ὑπὸ ΒΑΓ,

ΑΓΒ δύο ὀρθῶν ἐλάσσονές εἰσι καὶ ἔτι αἱ ὑπὸ ΓΑΒ, ΑΒΓ.

Παντὸvς ἄρα τριγώνου αἱ δύο γωνίαι δύο ὀρθῶν ἐλάσςονές εἰσι πάντῇ μεταλαμβανόμεναι· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι.

**For let BC have been produced to D.
**

And since the angle ACD is external to triangle ABC,

it is greater than the internal and opposite angle ABC

[Prop. 1.16]. Let ACB have been added to both. Thus,

the (sum of the angles) ACD and ACB is greater than

the (sum of the angles) ABC and BCA. But, (the sum of)

ACD and ACB is equal to two right-angles [Prop. 1.13].

Thus, (the sum of) ABC and BCA is less than two rightangles. Similarly, we can show that (the sum of) BAC

and ACB is also less than two right-angles, and further

(that the sum of) CAB and ABC (is less than two rightangles).

Thus, for any triangle, (the sum of) two angles taken

together in any (possible way) is less than two rightangles. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show.

ihþ.

Proposition 18

**Παντὸς τριγώνου ἡ μείζων πλευρὰ τὴν μείζονα γωνίαν
**

In any triangle, the greater side subtends the greater

ὑποτείνει.

angle.

Α

A

∆

D

Γ

Β

B

C

**῎Εστω γὰρ τρίγωνον τὸ ΑΒΓ μείζονα ἔχον τὴν ΑΓ
**

πλευρὰν τῆς ΑΒ· λέγω, ὅτι καὶ γωνία ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΒΓ μείζων

ἐστὶ τῆς ὑπὸ ΒΓΑ·

᾿Επεὶ γὰρ μείζων ἐστὶν ἡ ΑΓ τῆς ΑΒ, κείσθω τῇ ΑΒ ἴση

ἡ ΑΔ, καὶ ἐπεζεύχθω ἡ ΒΔ.

Καὶ ἐπεὶ τριγώνου τοῦ ΒΓΔ ἐκτός ἐστι γωνία ἡ ὑπὸ

ΑΔΒ, μείζων ἐστὶ τῆς ἐντὸς καὶ ἀπεναντίον τῆς ὑπὸ ΔΓΒ·

ἴση δὲ ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΔΒ τῇ ὑπὸ ΑΒΔ, ἐπεὶ καὶ πλευρὰ ἡ ΑΒ τῇ

ΑΔ ἐστιν ἴση· μείζων ἄρα καὶ ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΒΔ τῆς ὑπὸ ΑΓΒ·

πολλῷ ἄρα ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΒΓ μείζων ἐστὶ τῆς ὑπὸ ΑΓΒ.

Παντὸς ἄρα τριγώνου ἡ μείζων πλευρὰ τὴν μείζονα

γωνίαν ὑποτείνει· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι.

**For let ABC be a triangle having side AC greater than
**

AB. I say that angle ABC is also greater than BCA.

For since AC is greater than AB, let AD be made

equal to AB [Prop. 1.3], and let BD have been joined.

And since angle ADB is external to triangle BCD, it

is greater than the internal and opposite (angle) DCB

[Prop. 1.16]. But ADB (is) equal to ABD, since side

AB is also equal to side AD [Prop. 1.5]. Thus, ABD is

also greater than ACB. Thus, ABC is much greater than

ACB.

Thus, in any triangle, the greater side subtends the

greater angle. (Which is) the very thing it was required

to show.

ijþ.

Proposition 19

**Παντὸς τριγώνου ὑπὸ τὴν μείζονα γωνίαν ἡ μείζων
**

In any triangle, the greater angle is subtended by the

πλευρὰ ὑποτείνει.

greater side.

῎Εστω τρίγωνον τὸ ΑΒΓ μείζονα ἔχον τὴν ὑπὸ ΑΒΓ

Let ABC be a triangle having the angle ABC greater

γωνίαν τῆς ὑπὸ ΒΓΑ· λέγω, ὅτι καὶ πλευρὰ ἡ ΑΓ πλευρᾶς than BCA. I say that side AC is also greater than side

τῆς ΑΒ μείζων ἐστίν.

AB.

22

STOIQEIWN aþ.

ELEMENTS BOOK 1

**Εἰ γὰρ μή, ἤτοι ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ΑΓ τῇ ΑΒ ἢ ἐλάσσων· ἴση
**

μὲν οὖν οὐκ ἔστιν ἡ ΑΓ τῇ ΑΒ· ἴση γὰρ ἂν ἦν καὶ γωνία ἡ

ὑπὸ ΑΒΓ τῇ ὑπὸ ΑΓΒ· οὐκ ἔστι δέ· οὐκ ἄρα ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ΑΓ

τῇ ΑΒ. οὐδὲ μὴν ἐλάσσων ἐστὶν ἡ ΑΓ τῆς ΑΒ· ἐλάσσων

γὰρ ἂν ἦν καὶ γωνία ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΒΓ τῆς ὑπὸ ΑΓΒ· οὐκ ἔστι

δέ· οὐκ ἄρα ἐλάσσων ἐστὶν ἡ ΑΓ τῆς ΑΒ. ἐδείχθη δέ, ὅτι

οὐδὲ ἴση ἐστίν. μείζων ἄρα ἐστὶν ἡ ΑΓ τῆς ΑΒ.

**For if not, AC is certainly either equal to, or less than,
**

AB. In fact, AC is not equal to AB. For then angle ABC

would also have been equal to ACB [Prop. 1.5]. But it

is not. Thus, AC is not equal to AB. Neither, indeed, is

AC less than AB. For then angle ABC would also have

been less than ACB [Prop. 1.18]. But it is not. Thus, AC

is not less than AB. But it was shown that (AC) is not

equal (to AB) either. Thus, AC is greater than AB.

Α

A

Β

B

Γ

C

**Παντὸς ἄρα τριγώνου ὑπὸ τὴν μείζονα γωνίαν ἡ μείζων
**

Thus, in any triangle, the greater angle is subtended

πλευρὰ ὑποτείνει· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι.

by the greater side. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show.

kþ.

Proposition 20

**Παντὸς τριγώνου αἱ δύο πλευραὶ τῆς λοιπῆς μείζονές
**

εἰσι πάντῃ μεταλαμβανόμεναι.

In any triangle, (the sum of) two sides taken together in any (possible way) is greater than the remaining

(side).

∆

D

Α

Β

A

Γ

B

C

**῎Εστω γὰρ τρίγωνον τὸ ΑΒΓ· λέγω, ὅτι τοῦ ΑΒΓ
**

For let ABC be a triangle. I say that in triangle ABC

τριγώνου αἱ δύο πλευραὶ τῆς λοιπῆς μείζονές εἰσι πάντῃ (the sum of) two sides taken together in any (possible

μεταλαμβανόμεναι, αἱ μὲν ΒΑ, ΑΓ τῆς ΒΓ, αἱ δὲ ΑΒ, ΒΓ way) is greater than the remaining (side). (So), (the sum

τῆς ΑΓ, αἱ δὲ ΒΓ, ΓΑ τῆς ΑΒ.

of) BA and AC (is greater) than BC, (the sum of) AB

23

STOIQEIWN aþ.

ELEMENTS BOOK 1

**Διήχθω γὰρ ἡ ΒΑ ἐπὶ τὸ Δ σημεῖον, καὶ κείσθω τῇ ΓΑ
**

ἴση ἡ ΑΔ, καὶ ἐπεζεύχθω ἡ ΔΓ.

᾿Επεὶ οὖν ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ΔΑ τῇ ΑΓ, ἴση ἐστὶ καὶ γωνία

ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΔΓ τῇ ὑπὸ ΑΓΔ· μείζων ἄρα ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΓΔ τῆς ὑπὸ

ΑΔΓ· καὶ ἐπεὶ τρίγωνόν ἐστι τὸ ΔΓΒ μείζονα ἔχον τὴν ὑπὸ

ΒΓΔ γωνίαν τῆς ὑπὸ ΒΔΓ, ὑπὸ δὲ τὴν μείζονα γωνίαν ἡ

μείζων πλευρὰ ὑποτείνει, ἡ ΔΒ ἄρα τῆς ΒΓ ἐστι μείζων. ἴση

δὲ ἡ ΔΑ τῇ ΑΓ· μείζονες ἄρα αἱ ΒΑ, ΑΓ τῆς ΒΓ· ὁμοίως

δὴ δείξομεν, ὅτι καὶ αἱ μὲν ΑΒ, ΒΓ τῆς ΓΑ μείζονές εἰσιν,

αἱ δὲ ΒΓ, ΓΑ τῆς ΑΒ.

Παντὸς ἄρα τριγώνου αἱ δύο πλευραὶ τῆς λοιπῆς

μείζονές εἰσι πάντῃ μεταλαμβανόμεναι· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι.

**and BC than AC, and (the sum of) BC and CA than
**

AB.

For let BA have been drawn through to point D, and

let AD be made equal to CA [Prop. 1.3], and let DC

have been joined.

Therefore, since DA is equal to AC, the angle ADC

is also equal to ACD [Prop. 1.5]. Thus, BCD is greater

than ADC. And since DCB is a triangle having the angle

BCD greater than BDC, and the greater angle subtends

the greater side [Prop. 1.19], DB is thus greater than

BC. But DA is equal to AC. Thus, (the sum of) BA and

AC is greater than BC. Similarly, we can show that (the

sum of) AB and BC is also greater than CA, and (the

sum of) BC and CA than AB.

Thus, in any triangle, (the sum of) two sides taken together in any (possible way) is greater than the remaining

(side). (Which is) the very thing it was required to show.

kaþ.

Proposition 21

**᾿Εὰν τριγώνου ἐπὶ μιᾶς τῶν πλευρῶν ἀπὸ τῶν περάτων
**

If two internal straight-lines are constructed on one

δύο εὐθεῖαι ἐντὸς συσταθῶσιν, αἱ συσταθεῖσαι τῶν λοιπῶν of the sides of a triangle, from its ends, the constructed

τοῦ τριγώνου δύο πλευρῶν ἐλάττονες μὲν ἔσονται, μείζονα (straight-lines) will be less than the two remaining sides

δὲ γωνίαν περιέξουσιν.

of the triangle, but will encompass a greater angle.

Α

A

Ε

E

∆

Β

D

Γ

B

**Τριγώνου γὰρ τοῦ ΑΒΓ ἐπὶ μιᾶς τῶν πλευρῶν τῆς ΒΓ
**

ἀπὸ τῶν περάτων τῶν Β, Γ δύο εὐθεῖαι ἐντὸς συνεστάτωσαν

αἱ ΒΔ, ΔΓ· λέγω, ὅτι αἱ ΒΔ, ΔΓ τῶν λοιπῶν τοῦ τριγώνου

δύο πλευρῶν τῶν ΒΑ, ΑΓ ἐλάσσονες μέν εἰσιν, μείζονα δὲ

γωνίαν περιέχουσι τὴν ὑπὸ ΒΔΓ τῆς ὑπὸ ΒΑΓ.

Διήχθω γὰρ ἡ ΒΔ ἐπὶ τὸ Ε. καὶ ἐπεὶ παντὸς τριγώνου

αἱ δύο πλευραὶ τῆς λοιπῆς μείζονές εἰσιν, τοῦ ΑΒΕ ἄρα

τριγώνου αἱ δύο πλευραὶ αἱ ΑΒ, ΑΕ τῆς ΒΕ μείζονές

εἰσιν· κοινὴ προσκείσθω ἡ ΕΓ· αἱ ἄρα ΒΑ, ΑΓ τῶν ΒΕ,

ΕΓ μείζονές εἰσιν. πάλιν, ἐπεὶ τοῦ ΓΕΔ τριγώνου αἱ δύο

πλευραὶ αἱ ΓΕ, ΕΔ τῆς ΓΔ μείζονές εἰσιν, κοινὴ προσκείσθω

ἡ ΔΒ· αἱ ΓΕ, ΕΒ ἄρα τῶν ΓΔ, ΔΒ μείζονές εἰσιν. ἀλλὰ

τῶν ΒΕ, ΕΓ μείζονες ἐδείχθησαν αἱ ΒΑ, ΑΓ· πολλῷ ἄρα αἱ

ΒΑ, ΑΓ τῶν ΒΔ, ΔΓ μείζονές εἰσιν.

Πάλιν, ἐπεὶ παντὸς τριγώνου ἡ ἐκτὸς γωνία τῆς ἐντὸς

καὶ ἀπεναντίον μείζων ἐστίν, τοῦ ΓΔΕ ἄρα τριγώνου ἡ

ἐκτὸς γωνία ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΔΓ μείζων ἐστὶ τῆς ὑπὸ ΓΕΔ. διὰ

ταὐτὰ τοίνυν καὶ τοῦ ΑΒΕ τριγώνου ἡ ἐκτὸς γωνία ἡ ὑπὸ

C

**For let the two internal straight-lines BD and DC
**

have been constructed on one of the sides BC of the triangle ABC, from its ends B and C (respectively). I say

that BD and DC are less than the (sum of the) two remaining sides of the triangle BA and AC, but encompass

an angle BDC greater than BAC.

For let BD have been drawn through to E. And since

in any triangle (the sum of any) two sides is greater than

the remaining (side) [Prop. 1.20], in triangle ABE the

(sum of the) two sides AB and AE is thus greater than

BE. Let EC have been added to both. Thus, (the sum

of) BA and AC is greater than (the sum of) BE and EC.

Again, since in triangle CED the (sum of the) two sides

CE and ED is greater than CD, let DB have been added

to both. Thus, (the sum of) CE and EB is greater than

(the sum of) CD and DB. But, (the sum of) BA and

AC was shown (to be) greater than (the sum of) BE and

EC. Thus, (the sum of) BA and AC is much greater than

24

STOIQEIWN aþ.

ELEMENTS BOOK 1

**ΓΕΒ μείζων ἐστὶ τῆς ὑπὸ ΒΑΓ. ἀλλὰ τῆς ὑπὸ ΓΕΒ μείζων
**

ἐδείχθη ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΔΓ· πολλῷ ἄρα ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΔΓ μείζων ἐστὶ

τῆς ὑπὸ ΒΑΓ.

᾿Εὰν ἄρα τριγώνου ἐπὶ μιᾶς τῶν πλευρῶν ἀπὸ τῶν

περάτων δύο εὐθεῖαι ἐντὸς συσταθῶσιν, αἱ συσταθεῖσαι τῶν

λοιπῶν τοῦ τριγώνου δύο πλευρῶν ἐλάττονες μέν εἰσιν,

μείζονα δὲ γωνίαν περιέχουσιν· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι.

**(the sum of) BD and DC.
**

Again, since in any triangle the external angle is

greater than the internal and opposite (angles) [Prop.

1.16], in triangle CDE the external angle BDC is thus

greater than CED. Accordingly, for the same (reason),

the external angle CEB of the triangle ABE is also

greater than BAC. But, BDC was shown (to be) greater

than CEB. Thus, BDC is much greater than BAC.

Thus, if two internal straight-lines are constructed on

one of the sides of a triangle, from its ends, the constructed (straight-lines) are less than the two remaining sides of the triangle, but encompass a greater angle.

(Which is) the very thing it was required to show.

kbþ.

Proposition 22

**᾿Εκ τριῶν εὐθειῶν, αἵ εἰσιν ἴσαι τρισὶ ταῖς δοθείσαις
**

[εὐθείαις], τρίγωνον συστήσασθαι· δεῖ δὲ τὰς δύο τῆς λοιπῆς

μείζονας εἶναι πάντῃ μεταλαμβανομένας [διὰ τὸ καὶ παντὸς

τριγώνου τὰς δύο πλευρὰς τῆς λοιπῆς μείζονας εἶναι πάντῃ

μεταλαμβανομένας].

**To construct a triangle from three straight-lines which
**

are equal to three given [straight-lines]. It is necessary

for (the sum of) two (of the straight-lines) taken together

in any (possible way) to be greater than the remaining

(one), [on account of the (fact that) in any triangle (the

sum of) two sides taken together in any (possible way) is

greater than the remaining (one) [Prop. 1.20] ].

Α

Β

Γ

A

B

C

Κ

∆

Ζ

Η

K

Θ

Ε

D

Λ

F

G

H

E

L

**῎Εστωσαν αἱ δοθεῖσαι τρεῖς εὐθεῖαι αἱ Α, Β, Γ, ὧν αἱ
**

δύο τῆς λοιπῆς μείζονες ἔστωσαν πάντῃ μεταλαμβανόμεναι,

αἱ μὲν Α, Β τῆς Γ, αἱ δὲ Α, Γ τῆς Β, καὶ ἔτι αἱ Β, Γ τῆς Α·

δεῖ δὴ ἐκ τῶν ἴσων ταῖς Α, Β, Γ τρίγωνον συστήσασθαι.

᾿Εκκείσθω τις εὐθεῖα ἡ ΔΕ πεπερασμένη μὲν κατὰ τὸ

Δ ἄπειρος δὲ κατὰ τὸ Ε, καὶ κείσθω τῇ μὲν Α ἴση ἡ ΔΖ,

τῇ δὲ Β ἴση ἡ ΖΗ, τῇ δὲ Γ ἴση ἡ ΗΘ· καὶ κέντρῳ μὲν τῷ

Ζ, διαστήματι δὲ τῷ ΖΔ κύκλος γεγράφθω ὁ ΔΚΛ· πάλιν

κέντρῳ μὲν τῷ Η, διαστήματι δὲ τῷ ΗΘ κύκλος γεγράφθω

ὁ ΚΛΘ, καὶ ἐπεζεύχθωσαν αἱ ΚΖ, ΚΗ· λέγω, ὅτι ἐκ τριῶν

εὐθειῶν τῶν ἴσων ταῖς Α, Β, Γ τρίγωνον συνέσταται τὸ

ΚΖΗ.

᾿Επεὶ γὰρ τὸ Ζ σημεῖον κέντρον ἐστὶ τοῦ ΔΚΛ κύκλου,

ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ΖΔ τῇ ΖΚ· ἀλλὰ ἡ ΖΔ τῇ Α ἐστιν ἴση. καὶ ἡ

**Let A, B, and C be the three given straight-lines, of
**

which let (the sum of) two taken together in any (possible

way) be greater than the remaining (one). (Thus), (the

sum of) A and B (is greater) than C, (the sum of) A and

C than B, and also (the sum of) B and C than A. So

it is required to construct a triangle from (straight-lines)

equal to A, B, and C.

Let some straight-line DE be set out, terminated at D,

and infinite in the direction of E. And let DF made equal

to A, and F G equal to B, and GH equal to C [Prop. 1.3].

And let the circle DKL have been drawn with center F

and radius F D. Again, let the circle KLH have been

drawn with center G and radius GH. And let KF and

KG have been joined. I say that the triangle KF G has

25

the rectilinear angle F AG.STOIQEIWN aþ. ΗΚ τρισὶ ταῖς Α. B. F D is equal to A. καὶ ἐπεζεύχθω ἡ ΔΕ· καὶ ἐκ τριῶν εὐθειῶν. the three straight-lines KF . A the (given) point on it. ὥστε ἴσην εἶναι τὴν μὲν ΓΔ τῇ ΑΖ. Εἰλήφθω ἐφ᾿ ἑκατέρας τῶν ΓΔ. GH is equal to GK. Γ ἴσαι εἰσίν. ᾿Επεὶ οὖν δύο αἱ ΔΓ. B. And let the triangle AF G have been constructed from three straight-lines which are equal to CD. and DCE the given rectilinear angle. 1. B. and C (respectively). ἐπεὶ τὸ Η σημεῖον κέντρον ἐστὶ τοῦ ΛΚΘ κύκλου. ΗΚ. Proposition 23 Πρὸς τῇ δοθείσῃ εὐθείᾳ καὶ τῷ πρὸς αὐτῇ σημείῳ To construct a rectilinear angle equal to a given rectiτῇ δοθείσῃ γωνίᾳ εὐθυγράμμῳ ἴσην γωνίαν εὐθύγραμμον linear angle at a (given) point on a given straight-line. and the base DE is equal to the base F G. τὴν δὲ ΓΕ τῇ ΑΗ. καὶ βάσις ἡ ΔΕ βάσει τῇ ΖΗ ἴση. since point G is the center of the circle LKH. So it is required to construct a rectilinear angle equal to the given rectilinear angle DCE at the (given) point A on the given straight-line AB. γωνία ἄρα ἡ ὑπὸ ΔΓΕ γωνίᾳ τῇ ὑπὸ ΖΑΗ ἐστιν ἴση.22]. and let DE have been joined. Thus. since the two (straight-lines) DC. Β. ELEMENTS BOOK 1 ΚΖ ἄρα τῇ Α ἐστιν ἴση. ΓΕ τυχόντα σημεῖα τὰ Δ. ΖΗ. been constructed from three straight-lines equal to A.8]. Ε. ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ΗΘ τῇ ΗΚ· ἀλλὰ ἡ ΗΘ τῇ Γ ἐστιν ἴση· καὶ ἡ ΚΗ ἄρα τῇ Γ ἐστιν ἴση. F G. and C (respectively). CE to AG. Let the points D and E have been taken at random on each of the (straight-lines) CD and CE (respectively). CE are equal to the two (straight-lines) F A. αἵ εἰσιν ἴσαι τρισὶ ταῖς δοθείσαις εὐθείαις ταῖς Α. τὸ δὲ πρὸς αὐτῇ σημεῖον τὸ Α. 1. But. Γ. Thus. ΑΗ ἴσαι εἰσὶν ἑκατέρα ἑκατέρᾳ. συστήσασθαι. ΔΕ. F D is equal to F K. DE. Again. Πρὸς ἄρα τῇ δοθείσῃ εὐθείᾳ τῇ ΑΒ καὶ τῷ πρὸς αὐτῇ σημείῳ τῷ Α τῇ δοθείσῃ γωνίᾳ εὐθυγράμμῳ τῇ ὑπὸ ΔΓΕ ἴση γωνία εὐθύγραμμος συνέσταται ἡ ὑπὸ ΖΑΗ· ὅπερ ἔδει ποιῆσαι. ΓΕ δύο ταῖς ΖΑ. Thus. πάλιν. and further DE to F G [Prop. F G. (Which 26 . καὶ ἔτι τὴν ΔΕ τῇ ΖΗ. and C. and CE. Β. has been constructed at the (given) point A on the given straight-line AB. And F G is also equal to B. ᾿Εκ τριῶν ἄρα εὐθειῶν τῶν ΚΖ. the triangle KF G has been constructed from the three straight-lines KF . such that CD is equal to AF . Thus. ∆ D Γ C Ε E Ζ Α F Η Β A ῎Εστω ἡ μὲν δοθεῖσα εὐθεῖα ἡ ΑΒ. respectively. For since point F is the center of the circle DKL. ΓΕ. τρίγωνον συνέσταται τὸ ΚΖΗ· ὅπερ ἔδει ποιῆσαι. But. KF is also equal to A. which are equal to the three given straight-lines A. ἡ δὲ δοθεῖσα γωνία εὐθύγραμμος ἡ ὑπὸ ΔΓΕ· δεῖ δὴ πρὸς τῇ δοθείσῃ εὐθείᾳ τῇ ΑΒ καὶ τῷ πρὸς αὐτῇ σημείῳ τῷ Α τῇ δοθείσῃ γωνίᾳ εὐθυγράμμῳ τῇ ὑπὸ ΔΓΕ ἴσην γωνίαν εὐθύγραμμον συστήσασθαι. ἐστὶ δὲ καὶ ἡ ΖΗ τῇ Β ἴση· αἱ τρεῖς ἄρα εὐθεῖαι αἱ ΚΖ. and GK. G B Let AB be the given straight-line. kgþ. Thus. and GK are equal to A. τρίγωνον συνεστάτω τὸ ΑΖΗ. αἵ εἰσιν ἴσαι τρισὶ ταῖς ΓΔ. Therefore. equal to the given rectilinear angle DCE. GH is equal to C. AG. (Which is) the very thing it was required to do. ΖΗ. the angle DCE is thus equal to the angle F AG [Prop. KG is also equal to C.

side EG (is) thus also greater than EF .19]. ΔΗ ἴσαι εἰσὶν ἑκατέρα ἑκατέρᾳ· καὶ γωνία ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΑΓ γωνίᾳ τῇ ὑπὸ ΕΔΗ ἴση· βάσις ἄρα ἡ ΒΓ βάσει τῇ ΕΗ ἐστιν ἴση. BC (is) also greater than EF . Thus. let (angle) EDG. ᾿Εὰν ἄρα δύο τρίγωνα τὰς δύο πλευρὰς δυσὶ πλευραῖς ἴσας ἔχῃ ἑκατέραν ἑκατέρᾳ.STOIQEIWN aþ. ᾿Επεὶ γὰρ μείζων ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΑΓ γωνία τῆς ὑπὸ ΕΔΖ γωνίας. ΔΕΖ τὰς δύο πλευρὰς τὰς ΑΒ. 1. have been constructed at the point D on the straight-line DE [Prop. ἡ δὲ πρὸς τῷ Α γωνία τῆς πρὸς τῷ Δ γωνίας μείζων ἔστω· λέγω. respectively. 1. respectively. καὶ κείσθω ὁποτέρᾳ τῶν ΑΓ. the two (straight-lines) BA. ἴση ἐστὶ καὶ ἡ ὑπὸ ΔΗΖ γωνία τῇ ὑπὸ ΔΖΗ· μείζων ἄρα ἡ ὑπὸ ΔΖΗ τῆς ὑπὸ ΕΗΖ· πολλῷ ἄρα μείζων ἐστὶν ἡ ὑπὸ ΕΖΗ τῆς ὑπὸ ΕΗΖ. Also the angle BAC is equal to the angle EDG. but (one) has the angle encompassed by the μείζονα ἔχῃ τὴν ὑπὸ τῶν ἴσων εὐθειῶν περιεχομένην. And let DG be made equal to either of AC or DF [Prop. Thus. Thus. 1. AC are equal to the two (straight-lines) ED. the base BC is equal to the base EG [Prop. ἐπεὶ ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ΔΖ τῇ ΔΗ. G F Let ABC and DEF be two triangles having the two sides AB and AC equal to the two sides DE and DF . and the greater angle is subtended by the greater side [Prop. since AB is equal to DE and AC to DG. ΖΗ. since DF is equal to DG. ᾿Επεὶ οὖν ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ μὲν ΑΒ τῇ ΔΕ. ΔΖ ἴση ἡ ΔΗ. but (one) has the angle encompassed by the equal straight-lines greater than the (corresponding) angle (in the other). And since triangle EF G has angle EF G greater than EGF . then (the former triangle) will also have a base greater than the base (of the latter). 1. Again. Proposition 24 ᾿Εὰν δύο τρίγωνα τὰς δύο πλευρὰς [ταῖς] δύο πλευραῖς If two triangles have two sides equal to two sides. For since angle BAC is greater than angle EDF . Thus. reἴσας ἔχῃ ἑκατέραν ἑκατέρᾳ. ΑΓ δυσὶ ταῖς ΕΔ. if two triangles have two sides equal to two sides. and let EG and F G have been joined. DF G (is) greater than EGF . AB (equal) to DE.5]. DG. equal to angle BAC. gle (in the other). Let them also have the angle at A greater than the angle at D. συνεστάτω πρὸς τῇ ΔΕ εὐθείᾳ καὶ τῷ πρὸς αὐτῇ σημείῳ τῷ Δ τῇ ὑπὸ ΒΑΓ γωνίᾳ ἴση ἡ ὑπὸ ΕΔΗ. ΔΖ ἴσας ἔχοντα ἑκατέραν ἑκατέρᾳ. respectively.23]. ἴση δὲ ἡ ΕΗ τῇ ΒΓ· μείζων ἄρα καὶ ἡ ΒΓ τῆς ΕΖ. EF G is much greater than EGF . Α ∆ A D Ε E Β Γ B Η Ζ C ῎Εστω δύο τρίγωνα τὰ ΑΒΓ. πάλιν. kdþ. μείζων ἄρα καὶ πλευρὰ ἡ ΕΗ τῆς ΕΖ. and AC to DF . ἡ δὲ ΑΓ τῇ ΔΗ.3]. τὴν δὲ γωνίαν τῆς γωνίας spectively. angle DGF is also equal to angle DF G [Prop. δύο δὴ αἱ ΒΑ. Therefore. καὶ τὴν βάσιν τῆς βάσεως μείζονα ἕξει· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. ELEMENTS BOOK 1 is) the very thing it was required to do. τὴν μὲν ΑΒ τῇ ΔΕ τὴν δὲ ΑΓ τῇ ΔΖ. 1. καὶ equal straight-lines greater than the (corresponding) anτὴν βάσιν τῆς βάσεως μείζονα ἕξει. ΑΓ ταῖς δύο πλευραῖς ταῖς ΔΕ. ὅτι καὶ βάσις ἡ ΒΓ βάσεως τῆς ΕΖ μείζων ἐστίν. καὶ ἐπεζεύχθωσαν αἱ ΕΗ. καὶ ἐπεὶ τρίγωνόν ἐστι τὸ ΕΖΗ μείζονα ἔχον τὴν ὑπὸ ΕΖΗ γωνίαν τῆς ὑπὸ ΕΗΖ. Thus. then (the former triangle) will also have a base greater than the base (of the latter). (That is).4]. 27 . ὑπὸ δὲ τὴν μείζονα γωνίαν ἡ μείζων πλευρὰ ὑποτείνει. τὴν δὲ γωνίαν τῆς γωνίας μείζονα ἔχῃ τὴν ὑπὸ τῶν ἴσων εὐθειῶν περιεχομένην. But EG (is) equal to BC. I say that the base BC is also greater than the base EF .

Neither. But it is not. then (the former triangle) will also have the angle encompassed by the equal straight-lines greater than the (corresponding) angle (in the latter). kþ. or less than. angle BAC is not less than EDF . ΔΖ ἴσας ἔχοντα ἑκατέραν ἑκατέρᾳ. Thus. Proposition 25 ᾿Εὰν δύο τρίγωνα τὰς δύο πλευρὰς δυσὶ πλευραῖς ἴσας If two triangles have two sides equal to two sides. Proposition 26 ᾿Εὰν δύο τρίγωνα τὰς δύο γωνίας δυσὶ γωνίαις ἴσας ἔχῃ ἑκατέραν ἑκατέρᾳ καὶ μίαν πλευρὰν μιᾷ πλευρᾷ ἴσην ἤτοι τὴν πρὸς ταῖς ἴσαις γωνίαις ἢ τὴν ὑποτείνουσαν ὑπὸ μίαν τῶν ἴσων γωνιῶν. καὶ τὴν γωνίαν τῆς γωνίας μείζονα ἕξει τὴν ὑπὸ τῶν ἴσων εὐθειῶν περιεχομένην· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. and AC to DF . For then the base BC would also have been equal to the base EF [Prop. τὴν δὲ ΑΓ τῇ ΔΖ· βάσις δὲ ἡ ΒΓ βάσεως τῆς ΕΖ μείζων ἔστω· λέγω. then (the former triangle) will also have ἴσων εὐθειῶν περιεχομένην. ᾿Εὰν ἄρα δύο τρίγωνα τὰς δύο πλευρὰς δυσὶ πλευραῖς ἴσας ἔχῃ ἑκατέραν ἑκάτερᾳ. Α A Γ C ∆ D Β B Ε Ζ E F ῎Εστω δύο τρίγωνα τὰ ΑΒΓ. τὴν μὲν ΑΒ τῇ ΔΕ. ῎Εστω δύο τρίγωνα τὰ ΑΒΓ. I say that angle BAC is also greater than EDF . keþ. For then the base BC would also have been less than the base EF [Prop. is BAC less than EDF . In fact. And let the base BC be greater than the base EF . Let ABC and DEF be two triangles having the two sides AB and AC equal to the two sides DE and DF . 28 . ΔΕΖ τὰς δύο πλευρὰς τὰς ΑΒ. and one side equal to one side—in fact. indeed. and the remaining angle (equal) to the remaining angle. ΑΓ ταῖς δύο πλευραῖς ταῖς ΔΕ. or that subtending one of the equal angles—then (the triangles) will also have the remaining sides equal to the [corresponding] remaining sides. Thus. Εἰ γὰρ μή. either that by the equal angles. Thus. τὴν δὲ βάσιν τῆς βάσεως μείζονα respectively. if two triangles have two sides equal to two sides. (BAC) is certainly either equal to. ELEMENTS BOOK 1 (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. Thus. ἔχῃ ἑκατέραν ἑκατέρᾳ. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. respectively. For if not. the angle encompassed by the equal straight-lines greater than the (corresponding) angle (in the latter). 1. 1. BAC is not equal to EDF . AB (equal) to DE. ὅτι οὐδὲ ἴση· μείζων ἄρα ἐστὶν ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΑΓ τῆς ὑπὸ ΕΔΖ. οὐκ ἄρα ἴση ἐστὶ γωνία ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΑΓ τῇ ὑπὸ ΕΔΖ· οὐδὲ μὴν ἐλάσσων ἐστὶν ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΑΓ τῆς ὑπὸ ΕΔΖ· ἐλάσσων γὰρ ἂν ἦν καὶ βάσις ἡ ΒΓ βάσεως τῆς ΕΖ· οὐκ ἔστι δέ· οὐκ ἄρα ἐλάσσων ἐστὶν ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΑΓ γωνία τῆς ὑπὸ ΕΔΖ. respectively. but (one) has a base greater than the base (of the other). καὶ τὴν γωνίαν τῆς γωνίας μείζονα ἕξει τὴν ὑπὸ τῶν (of the other).4]. ἤτοι ἴση ἐστὶν αὐτῇ ἢ ἐλάσσων· ἴση μὲν οὖν οὐκ ἔστιν ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΑΓ τῇ ὑπὸ ΕΔΖ· ἴση γὰρ ἂν ἦν καὶ βάσις ἡ ΒΓ βάσει τῇ ΕΖ· οὐκ ἔστι δέ. ΔΕΖ τὰς δύο γωνίας τὰς If two triangles have two angles equal to two angles. ὅτι καὶ γωνία ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΑΓ γωνίας τῆς ὑπὸ ΕΔΖ μείζων ἐστίν. τὴν δὲ βασίν τῆς βάσεως μείζονα ἔχῃ. but (one) has a base greater than the base ἔχῃ.24]. But it was shown that (BAC is) not equal (to EDF ) either. BAC is greater than EDF . καὶ τὰς λοιπὰς πλευρὰς ταῖς λοιπαῖς πλευραῖς ἴσας ἕξει [ἑκατέραν ἑκατέρᾳ] καὶ τὴν λοιπὴν γωνίαν τῇ λοιπῇ γωνίᾳ. angle BAC is not equal to EDF .STOIQEIWN aþ. ἐδείχθη δέ. respectively (That is). But it is not. (EDF ).

and let GC have been joined. Thus. ΒΓΑ δυσὶ ταῖς ὑπὸ ΔΕΖ. Thus. Thus. GCB (is equal) to DF E. ἔστι δὲ καὶ ἡ ΒΓ τῇ ΕΖ ἴση· δύο δὴ αἱ ΑΒ. τὴν μὲν ΑΒ τῇ ΔΕ τὴν δὲ ΑΓ τῇ ΔΖ. οὐκ ἄρα ἄνισός ἐστιν ἡ ΑΒ τῇ ΔΕ. let BC be greater. Thus. 1. δύο δὴ αἱ ΑΒ. καὶ αἱ λοιπαὶ γωνίαι ταῖς λοιπαῖς γωνίαις ἴσαι ἔσονται. and the remaining angles subtended by the equal sides will be equal to the (corresponding) remaining angles [Prop. the base AC is equal to the base DF . If possible. ἔστω μείζων ἡ ΑΒ. and BCA to EF D. and AC to DF . εἰ δυνατόν. Thus. (That is) ABC (equal) to DEF . and AB to DE. Therefore. (That is) BC (equal) to EF . ἡ ΒΓ. ΕΖ ἴσαι εἰσὶν ἑκατέρα ἑκατέρᾳ· καὶ γωνία ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΒΓ γωνίᾳ τῇ ὑπὸ ΔΕΖ ἐστιν ἴση· βάσις ἄρα ἡ ΑΓ βάσει τῇ ΔΖ ἴση ἐστίν. ἡ δὲ ΒΓ τῇ ΕΖ. (let) AB (be equal) to DE. ὅτι καὶ τὰς λοιπὰς πλευρὰς ταῖς λοιπαῖς πλευραῖς ἴσας ἕξει ἑκατέραν ἑκατέρᾳ. ᾿Επεὶ οὖν ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ μὲν ΒΗ τῇ ΔΕ. μία αὐτῶν μείζων ἐστίν. DF E was assumed (to be) equal to BCA. BH are equal to the two 29 . 1. καὶ ἐπεζεύχθω ἡ ΗΓ. And angle GBC is equal to angle DEF . But. respectively. And BC is also equal to EF . ὅτι καὶ αἱ λοιπαὶ πλευραὶ ταῖς λοιπαῖς πλευραῖς ἴσαι ἔσονται. First of all. I say that the remaining sides will be equal to the remaining sides. μία αὐτῶν μείζων ἐστίν. and let BG be made equal to DE [Prop. καὶ τὸ ΗΒΓ τρίγωνον τῷ ΔΕΖ τριγώνῳ ἴσον ἐστίν. And let BH be made equal to EF [Prop. the lesser to the greater. (That is) AC (equal) to DF . the base GC is equal to the base DF . I say that they will have the remaining sides equal to the corresponding remaining sides. ΒΓ δυσὶ ταῖς ΔΕ. Furthermore. And angle ABC is equal to angle DEF . καὶ αἱ λοιπαὶ γωνίαι ταῖς λοιπαῖς γωνίαις ἴσαι ἔσονται. EF . the two (straight-lines) AB. So the two (straight-lines) AB. ὑφ᾿ ἃς αἱ ἴσας πλευραὶ ὑποτείνουσιν· ἴση ἄρα ἐστὶν ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΘΑ γωνία τῇ ὑπὸ ΕΖΔ. EF . ΒΓ δυσὶ ταῖς ΔΕ.3]. And let them also have one side equal to one side. ∆ D A Α Η Β Ε G Ζ E Θ Γ B Εἰ γὰρ ἄνισός ἐστιν ἡ ΑΒ τῇ ΔΕ. τὴν ὑπὸ ΒΑΓ τῇ ὑπὸ ΕΔΖ. (it is) equal. BC are equal to the two (straightlines) DE. and the remaining angle BAC is equal to the remaining angle EDF [Prop. ΕΖΔ ἴσας ἔχοντα ἑκατέραν ἑκατέρᾳ. and triangle GBC is equal to triangle DEF . ἡ δὲ ΒΓ τῇ ΕΖ καὶ ἔτι ἡ λοιπὴ γωνία ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΑΓ τῇ λοιπῇ γωνίᾳ τῇ ὑπὸ ΕΔΖ ἴση ἐστίν. 1. (That is) BAC (equal) to EDF . ᾿Αλλὰ δὴ πάλιν ἔστωσαν αἱ ὑπὸ τὰς ἴσας γωνίας πλευραὶ ὑποτείνουσαι ἴσαι. respectively. ἡ μὲν ΑΓ τῇ ΔΖ. BC † are equal to the two (straight-lines) DE. Let AB be greater. καὶ λοιπὴ γωνία ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΑΓ τῇ λοιπῇ γωνίᾳ τῇ ὑπὸ ΕΔΖ ἴση ἐστίν. 1. BCG is also equal to BCA. (That is) AB (equal) to DE. ΕΖ ἴσαι εἰσὶν ἑκατέρα ἑκαρέρᾳ· καὶ γωνίας ἴσας περιέχουσιν· βάσις ἄρα ἡ ΑΘ βάσει τῇ ΔΖ ἴση ἐστίν. And (they will have) the remaining angle (equal) to the remaining angle. let the sides subtending the equal angles be equal: for instance. respectively. The very thing (is) impossible. καὶ ἐπὲι ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ μὲν ΒΘ τῇ ΕΖ ἡ δὲ ΑΒ τῇ ΔΕ.4]. ΕΖ ἴσαι εἰσὶν ἑκατέρα ἑκατέρᾳ· καὶ γωνία ἡ ὑπὸ ΗΒΓ γωνίᾳ τῇ ὑπὸ ΔΕΖ ἴση ἐστίν· βάσις ἄρα ἡ ΗΓ βάσει τῇ ΔΖ ἴση ἐστίν. and BC to EF . and BC to EF . καὶ τὸ ΑΒΘ τρίγωνον τῷ ΔΕΖ τριγώνῳ ἴσον ἐστίν. ὑφ᾿ ἃς αἱ ἴσαι πλευραὶ ὑποτείνουσιν· ἴση ἄρα ἡ ὑπὸ ΗΓΒ γωνία τῇ ὑπὸ ΔΖΕ. ἴση ἄρα. ἀλλὰ ἡ ὑπὸ H F C For if AB is unequal to DE then one of them is greater. And since BH is equal to EF . again. πρότερον τὴν πρὸς ταῖς ἴσαις γωνίαις τὴν ΒΓ τῇ ΕΖ· λέγω. Again. AB is not unequal to DE. and let AH have been joined. ὡς ἡ ΑΒ τῇ ΔΕ· λέγω πάλιν. the two (straight-lines) GB. ELEMENTS BOOK 1 ὑπὸ ΑΒΓ. καὶ τὴν λοιπὴν γωνίαν τῇ λοιπῇ γωνίᾳ. ἡ ἐλάσσων τῇ μείζονι· ὅπερ ἀδύνατον.3]. ἀλλὰ ἡ ὑπὸ ΔΖΕ τῇ ὑπὸ ΒΓΑ ὑπόκειται ἴση· καὶ ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΓΗ ἄρα τῇ ὑπὸ ΒΓΑ ἴση ἐστίν. Εἰ γὰρ ἄνισός ἐστιν ἡ ΒΓ τῇ ΕΖ. But. Thus.4]. the remaining angle BAC is equal to the remaining angle EDF . Let ABC and DEF be two triangles having the two angles ABC and BCA equal to the two (angles) DEF and EF D.STOIQEIWN aþ. καὶ κείσθω τῇ ΕΖ ἴση ἡ ΒΘ. καὶ ἐπεζεύχθω ἡ ΑΘ. δύο δὴ αἱ ΒΗ. ἔστω μείζων. ΒΘ δυσὶ ταῖς ΔΕ. since BG is equal to DE. τὴν δὲ ὑπὸ ΒΓΑ τῇ ὑπὸ ΕΖΔ· ἐχέτω δὲ καὶ μίαν πλευρὰν μιᾷ πλευρᾷ ἴσην. For if BC is unequal to EF then one of them is greater. the (side) by the equal angles. καὶ κείσθω τῇ ΔΕ ἴση ἡ ΒΗ. τὴν μὲν ὑπὸ ΑΒΓ τῇ ὑπὸ ΔΕΖ.

the (two) straight-lines will be parallel to one another. ΔΓ ἐκβαλλόμεναι συμπεσοῦνται ἐπὶ τὰ Β. Δ μέρη ἢ ἐπὶ τὰ Α. Let them have been produced. ΓΔ συμπεσοῦνται ἤτοι ἐπὶ τὰ Β. the external angle BHA is equal to the internal and opposite angle BCA. δύο δὴ αἱ ΑΒ. in triangle AHC. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. And they encompass equal angles. make the alternate angles AEF and EF D equal to one another. respectively. οὐκ ἄρα ἄνισός ἐστιν ἡ ΒΓ τῇ ΕΖ· ἴση ἄρα.STOIQEIWN aþ. Thus. ᾿Εὰν ἄρα δύο τρίγωνα τὰς δύο γωνίας δυσὶ γωνίαις ἴσας ἔχῃ ἑκατέραν ἑκατέρᾳ καὶ μίαν πλευρὰν μιᾷ πλευρᾷ ἴσην ἤτοι τὴν πρὸς ταῖς ἴσαις γωνίαις. ὁμοίως F D For let the straight-line EF . I say that AB and CD are parallel. ἐκβεβλήσθωσαν καὶ συμπιπτέτωσαν ἐπὶ τὰ Β. and one side equal to one side—in fact. for the triangle 30 . respectively. ELEMENTS BOOK 1 ΕΖΔ τῇ ὑπὸ ΒΓΑ ἐστιν ἴση· τριγώνου δὴ τοῦ ΑΘΓ ἡ ἐκτὸς γωνία ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΘΑ ἴση ἐστὶ τῇ ἐντὸς καὶ ἀπεναντίον τῇ ὑπὸ ΒΓΑ· ὅπερ ἀδύνατον. (it is) equal. Δ μέρη κατὰ τὸ Η. Thus. which is obviously a mistake.23]. The very thing (is) impossible [Prop. ΕΖ ἴσαι εἰσὶν ἑκατέρα ἑκατέρᾳ· καὶ γωνίας ἴσας περιέχουσι· βάσις ἄρα ἡ ΑΓ βάσει τῇ ΔΖ ἴση ἐστίν. BC”. respectively. For if not. EF . But. ὅτι παράλληλός ἐστιν ἡ ΑΒ τῇ ΓΔ. angle BHA is equal to EF D. being produced. ΓΔ εὐθεῖα ἐμπίπτουσα ἡ ΕΖ τὰς ἐναλλὰξ γωνίας τὰς ὑπὸ ΑΕΖ. Δ μέρη. 1. Thus. EF . Γ.4]. and the remaining angle (equal) to the remaining angle. the base AC is equal to the base DF . Εἰ γὰρ μή. AB and CD will certainly meet together: either in the direction of B and D. 1. Thus. τριγώνου δὴ τοῦ ΗΕΖ ἡ ἐκτὸς γωνία ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΕΖ ἴση ἐστὶ τῇ ἐντὸς καὶ ἀπεναντίον τῇ ὑπὸ ΕΖΗ· ὅπερ ἐστὶν ἀδύνατον· οὐκ ἄρα αἱ ΑΒ. if two triangles have two angles equal to two angles. either that by the equal angles.16]. falling across the two straight-lines AB and CD. EF D is equal to BCA. or that subtending one of the equal angles—then (the triangles) will also have the remaining sides equal to the (corresponding) remaining sides.4]. So the two (straight-lines) AB. ΒΓ δύο ταῖς ΔΕ. Thus. Thus. καὶ τὸ ΑΒΓ τρίγωνον τῷ ΔΕΖ τριγώνῳ ἴσον καὶ λοιπὴ γωνία ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΑΓ τῇ λοιπῂ γωνίᾳ τῇ ὑπὸ ΕΔΖ ἴση. or (in the direction) of A and C [Def. 1. ἐστὶ δὲ καὶ ἡ ΑΒ τῇ ΔΕ ἴση. ἢ τὴν ὑποτείνουσαν ὑπὸ μίαν τῶν ἴσων γωνιῶν. and let them meet together in the direction of B and D at (point) G. So. καὶ τὰς λοιπὰς πλευρὰς ταῖς λοιπαῖς πλευραῖς ἴσας ἕξει καὶ τὴν λοιπὴν γωνίαν τῇ λοιπῇ γωνίᾳ· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. the base AH is equal to the base DF . and the triangle ABH is equal to the triangle DEF . and the remaining angle BAC (is) equal to the remaining angle EDF [Prop. † (straight-lines) DE. ἐκβαλλόμεναι αἱ ΑΒ. 1. and triangle ABC (is) equal to triangle DEF . BC is not unequal to EF . The Greek text has “BG. And AB is also equal to DE. παράλληλοι ἔσονται ἀλλήλαις αἱ makes the alternate angles equal to one another then εὐθεῖαι. BC are equal to the two (straightlines) DE. and the remaining angles subtended by the equal sides will be equal to the (corresponding) remaining angles [Prop. ΕΖΔ ἴσας ἀλλήλαις ποιείτω· λέγω. Proposition 27 ᾿Εὰν εἰς δύο εὐθείας εὐθεῖα ἐμπίπτουσα τὰς ἐναλλὰξ If a straight-line falling across two straight-lines γωνίας ἴσας ἀλλήλαις ποιῇ. Α Ε Β A E B Η Γ Ζ G ∆ C Εἰς γὰρ δύο εὐθείας τὰς ΑΒ. And the angles they encompass (are also equal). So. kzþ.

And they are alternate (angles). Ε Α Γ E Η Θ Β A ∆ C Ζ G B H D F Εἰς γὰρ δύο εὐθείας τὰς ΑΒ. Γ· αἱ δὲ ἐπὶ μηδέτερα τὰ μέρη συμπίπτουσαι παράλληλοί εἰσιν· παράλληλος ἄρα ἐστὶν ἡ ΑΒ τῇ ΓΔ. And they are alternate (angles). falling across the two straight-lines AB and CD. ᾿Επεὶ γὰρ ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ὑπὸ ΕΗΒ τῇ ὑπὸ ΗΘΔ. 31 . the remainder AGH is equal to the remainder GHD.16]. being produced. equal to two right-angles. ΒΗΘ ταῖς ὑπὸ ΒΗΘ.27]. ΗΘΔ δύο ὀρθαῖς ἴσαι εἰσίν. ΓΔ εὐθεῖα ἐμπίπτουσα ἡ ΕΖ τὴν ἐκτὸς γωνίαν τὴν ὑπὸ ΕΗΒ τῇ ἐντὸς καὶ ἀπεναντίον γωνίᾳ τῇ ὑπὸ ΗΘΔ ἴσην ποιείτω ἢ τὰς ἐντὸς καὶ ἐπὶ τὰ αὐτὰ μέρη τὰς ὑπὸ ΒΗΘ. ELEMENTS BOOK 1 δὴ δειχθήσεται. ᾿Εὰν ἄρα εἰς δύο εὐθείας εὐθεῖα ἐμπίπτουσα τὴν ἐκτὸς γωνίαν τῇ ἐντὸς καὶ ἀπεναντίον καὶ ἐπὶ τὰ αὐτὰ μέρη ἴσην For let EF . AB and CD are parallel. καὶ ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΗΘ ἄρα τῇ ὑπὸ ΗΘΔ ἐστιν ἴση· καί εἰσιν ἐναλλάξ· παράλληλος ἄρα ἐστὶν ἡ ΑΒ τῇ ΓΔ. (the sum of) AGH and BGH is thus equal to (the sum of) BGH and GHD. BGH and GHD. and (the sum of) AGH and BGH is also equal to two right-angles [Prop. but EGB is equal to AGH [Prop. The very thing is impossible [Prop. ἀλλὰ ἡ ὑπὸ ΕΗΒ τῇ ὑπὸ ΑΗΘ ἐστιν ἴση. ΗΘΔ ἴσαι εἰσίν· κοινὴ ἀφῃρήσθω ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΗΘ· λοιπὴ ἄρα ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΗΘ λοιπῇ τῇ ὑπὸ ΗΘΔ ἐστιν ἴση· καί εἰσιν ἐναλλάξ· παράλληλος ἄρα ἐστὶν ἡ ΑΒ τῇ ΓΔ. if a straight-line falling across two straight-lines makes the alternate angles equal to one another then the (two) straight-lines will be parallel (to one another). 1. Thus. 1. Thus. it can be shown that neither (will they meet together) in (the direction of) A and C. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. Proposition 28 ᾿Εὰν εἰς δύο εὐθείας εὐθεῖα ἐμπίπτουσα τὴν ἐκτὸς If a straight-line falling across two straight-lines γωνίαν τῇ ἐντὸς καὶ ἀπεναντίον καὶ ἐπὶ τὰ αὐτὰ μέρη ἴσην makes the external angle equal to the internal and oppoποιῇ ἢ τὰς ἐντὸς καὶ ἐπὶ τὰ αὐτὰ μέρη δυσὶν ὀρθαῖς ἴσας. khþ. AB is parallel to CD [Prop.27]. Πάλιν. ΗΘΔ δυσὶν ὀρθαῖς ἴσας· λέγω. εἰσὶ δὲ καὶ αἱ ὑπὸ ΑΗΘ. Thus. AB and CD will not meet together in the direction of B and D. internal (angles) on the same side equal to two rightangles.23]. ᾿Εὰν ἄρα εἰς δύο εὐθείας εὐθεῖα ἐμπίπτουσα τὰς ἐναλλὰξ γωνίας ἴσας ἀλλήλαις ποιῇ. But (straight-lines) meeting in neither direction are parallel [Def. or the (sum of the) internal (angles) on the same side. ΒΗΘ δυσὶν ὀρθαῖς ἴσαι. 1. AB is parallel to CD [Prop. make the external angle EGB equal to the internal and opposite angle GHD. παράλληλοι ἔσονται αἱ εὐθεῖαι· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. ὅτι παράλληλός ἐστιν ἡ ΑΒ τῇ ΓΔ. ὅτι οὐδὲ ἐπὶ τὰ Α. AGH is thus also equal to GHD. Thus. 1.15]. Similarly. For since (in the first case) EGB is equal to GHD. or (makes) the (sum of the) παράλληλοι ἔσονται ἀλλήλαις αἱ εὐθεῖαι. then the (two) straight-lines will be parallel to one another. I say that AB is parallel to CD. Again. the sum of) BGH and GHD is equal to two right-angles. 1.13].STOIQEIWN aþ. the external angle AEF is equal to the interior and opposite (angle) EF G. ἐπεὶ αἱ ὑπὸ ΒΗΘ. since (in the second case. GEF . Thus. site angle on the same side. 1. Thus. Let BGH have been subtracted from both. αἱ ἄρα ὑπὸ ΑΗΘ.

μέρη δυσὶν ὀρθαῖς ἴσας. ΗΘΔ ἄρα δύο ὀρθαῖς ἴσαι εἰσίν. For if AGH is unequal to GHD then one of them is greater. Εἰ γὰρ ἄνισός ἐστιν ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΗΘ τῇ ὑπὸ ΗΘΔ. ῾Η ἄρα εἰς τὰς παραλλήλους εὐθείας εὐθεῖα ἐμπίπτουσα τάς τε ἐναλλὰξ γωνίας ἴσας ἀλλήλαις ποιεῖ καὶ τὴν ἐκτὸς τῇ ἐντὸς καὶ ἀπεναντίον ἴσην καὶ τὰς ἐντὸς καὶ ἐπὶ τὰ αὐτὰ For let the straight-line EF fall across the parallel straight-lines AB and CD. ἀλλὰ ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΗΘ τῇ ὑπὸ ΕΗΒ ἐστιν ἴση· καὶ ἡ ὑπὸ ΕΗΒ ἄρα τῇ ὑπὸ ΗΘΔ ἐστιν ἴση· κοινὴ προσκείσθω ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΗΘ· αἱ ἄρα ὑπὸ ΕΗΒ. Thus. I say that it makes the alternate angles. 1. ΗΘΔ ἴσας ποιεῖ καὶ τὴν ἐκτὸς γωνίαν τὴν ὑπὸ ΕΗΒ τῇ ἐντὸς καὶ ἀπεναντίον τῇ ὑπὸ ΗΘΔ ἴσην καὶ τὰς ἐντὸς καὶ ἐπὶ τὰ αὐτὰ μέρη τὰς ὑπὸ ΒΗΘ. 5]. Let BGH be added to both. 1. will meet together. (it is) equal. Thus. (the sum of) BGH and GHD is [also] less than two right-angles. or (makes) the (sum of the) internal (angles) on the same side equal to two rightangles. And EGB is thus also equal to GHD. Thus. the exἐντὸς καὶ ἀπεναντίον ἴσην καὶ τὰς ἐντὸς καὶ ἐπὶ τὰ αὐτὰ ternal (angle) equal to the internal and opposite (angle). Thus.15]. Let AGH be greater. then the (two) straight-lines will be parallel (to one another). the external angle EGB equal to the internal and opposite (angle) GHD. AGH is not unequal to GHD. (the sum of) EGB and BGH is equal to (the sum of) BGH and GHD. ΗΘΔ δυσὶν ὀρθαῖς ἴσας. ἀλλὰ αἱ ὑπὸ ΕΗΒ. But they do not meet. Proposition 29 ῾Η εἰς τὰς παραλλήλους εὐθείας εὐθεῖα ἐμπίπτουσα τάς A straight-line falling across parallel straight-lines τε ἐναλλὰξ γωνίας ἴσας ἀλλήλαις ποιεῖ καὶ τὴν ἐκτὸς τῇ makes the alternate angles equal to one another. ΒΗΘ δυσὶν ὀρθαῖς ἴσαι εἰσίν. μία αὐτῶν μείζων ἐστίν. on account of them (initially) being assumed parallel (to one another) [Def. AGH and GHD.13]. ΓΔ εὐθεῖα ἐμπιπτέτω ἡ ΕΖ· λέγω. (the sum of) AGH and BGH is equal to two right-angles [Prop 1. ΓΔ ἐκβαλλόμεναι εἰς ἄπειρον συμπεσοῦνται· οὐ συμπίπτουσι δὲ διὰ τὸ παραλλήλους αὐτὰς ὑποκεῖσθαι· οὐκ ἄρα ἄνισός ἐστιν ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΗΘ τῇ ὑπὸ ΗΘΔ· ἴση ἄρα. AB and CD. BGH and GHD. Ε Α Γ E Η Θ Β A ∆ C Ζ G B H D F Εἰς γὰρ παραλλήλους εὐθείας τὰς ΑΒ. ΗΘΔ ἴσαι εἰσίν. kjþ. ΗΘΔ δύο ὀρθῶν ἐλάσσονές εἰσιν. ΗΘΔ μείζονές εἰσιν. ΒΗΘ τῶν ὑπὸ ΒΗΘ. and the (sum of the) internal (angles) on the same side. (the sum of) EGB and BGH is equal to two right- 32 . But (straight-lines) being produced to infinity from (internal angles whose sum is) less than two right-angles meet together [Post. makes the external angle equal to the internal and opposite angle on the same side. Thus. ELEMENTS BOOK 1 ποιῇ ἢ τὰς ἐντὸς καὶ ἐπὶ τὰ αὐτὰ μέρη δυσὶν ὀρθαῖς ἴσας. αἱ δὲ ἀπ᾿ ἐλασσόνων ἢ δύο ὀρθῶν ἐκβαλλόμεναι εἰς ἄπειρον συμπίπτουσιν· αἱ ἄρα ΑΒ. But. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. ΒΗΘ ταῖς ὑπὸ ΒΗΘ. equal. and the (sum of the) internal (angles) on the same side equal to two right-angles. ὅτι τὰς ἐναλλὰξ γωνίας τὰς ὑπὸ ΑΗΘ. But. But. being produced to infinity.STOIQEIWN aþ. [καὶ] αἱ ἄρα ὑπὸ ΒΗΘ. if a straight-line falling across two straight-lines παράλληλοι ἔσονται αἱ εὐθεῖαι· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. Let BGH have been added to both. ἀλλὰ αἱ ὑπὸ ΑΗΘ. AGH is equal to EGB [Prop. Thus. equal to two right-angles.23]. ἔστω μείζων ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΗΘ· κοινὴ προσκείσθω ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΗΘ· αἱ ἄρα ὑπὸ ΑΗΘ. ΒΗΘ δύο ὀρθαῖς ἴσαι εἰσίν· καὶ αἱ ὑπὸ ΒΗΘ. (the sum of) AGH and BGH is greater than (the sum of) BGH and GHD. Thus.

1. ΓΔ τῇ ΕΖ παράλληλος· λέγω. through a given point. πάλιν. CD. And they are alternate (angles). AGK is also equal to GKD. Καὶ ἐπεὶ εἰς παραλλήλους εὐθείας τὰς ΑΒ. and BC the given straightline. (the sum of) BGH and GHD is also equal to two right-angles.27]. παράλληλος ἄρα ἐστὶν ἡ ΑΒ τῇ ΓΔ. and EF ).13].STOIQEIWN aþ. Let the point D have been taken a random on BC. 1. Thus. καὶ ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΗΚ ἄρα τῇ ὑπὸ ΗΚΔ ἐστιν ἴση· καί εἰσιν ἐναλλάξ. So it is required to draw a straight-line parallel to the straight-line BC. Let A be the given point. καὶ ἐπεζεύχθω ἡ ΑΔ· καὶ συνεστάτω πρὸς τῇ ΔΑ εὐθείᾳ καὶ τῷ πρὸς αὐτῇ σημείῳ τῷ Α τῇ ὑπὸ ΑΔΓ γωνίᾳ ἴση ἡ ὑπὸ ΔΑΕ· καὶ To draw a straight-line parallel to a given straight-line. And since the straight-line GK has fallen across the parallel straight-lines AB and EF . (angle) GHF is equal to GKD [Prop. And let (angle) DAE. (angle) AGK (is) thus equal to GHF [Prop. angles [Prop. and let AD have been joined. 1. lþ. ELEMENTS BOOK 1 μέρη δυσὶν ὀρθαῖς ἴσας· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. and the (sum of the) internal (angles) on the same side equal to two right-angles. Thus. through the point A.29]. the external (angle) equal to the internal and opposite (angle). I say that AB is also parallel to CD. Proposition 31 Διὰ τοῦ δοθέντος σημείου τῇ δοθείσῃ εὐθείᾳ παράλληλον εὐθεῖαν γραμμὴν ἀγαγεῖν. ἴση ἄρα ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΗΚ τῇ ὑπὸ ΗΘΖ. 1. since the straight-line GK has fallen across the parallel straight-lines EF and CD. laþ. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. a straight-line falling across parallel straightlines makes the alternate angles equal to one another. ΕΖ εὐθεῖα ἐμπέπτωκεν ἡ ΗΚ. Thus. AB is parallel to CD [Prop. For let the straight-line GK fall across (AB. Again. have been constructed on the straight-line 33 . [Αἱ ἄρα τῇ αὐτῇ εὐθείᾳ παράλληλοι καὶ ἀλλήλαις εἰσὶ παράλληλοι·] ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. equal to angle ADC. also parallel to one another. ὅτι καὶ ἡ ΑΒ τῇ ΓΔ ἐστι παράλληλος. Proposition 30 Αἱ τῇ αὐτῇ εὐθείᾳ παράλληλοι καὶ ἀλλήλαις εἰσὶ παράλλη(Straight-lines) parallel to the same straight-line are λοι. Εἰλήφθω ἐπὶ τῆς ΒΓ τυχὸν σημεῖον τὸ Δ. ἐδείχθη δὲ καὶ ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΗΚ τῇ ὑπὸ ΗΘΖ ἴση. Thus. ΓΔ εὐθεῖα ἐμπέπτωκεν ἡ ΗΚ. ῎Εστω τὸ μὲν δοθὲν σημεῖον τὸ Α. ἐπεὶ εἰς παραλλήλους εὐθείας τὰς ΕΖ. (straight-lines) parallel to the same straightline are also parallel to one another. ᾿Εμπιπτέτω γὰρ εἰς αὐτὰς εὐθεῖα ἡ ΗΚ. [Thus.] (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. But AGK was also shown (to be) equal to GHF . Let each of the (straight-lines) AB and CD be parallel to EF . ἡ δὲ δοθεῖσα εὐθεῖα ἡ ΒΓ· δεῖ δὴ διὰ τοῦ Α σημείου τῇ ΒΓ εὐθείᾳ παράλληλον εὐθεῖαν γραμμὴν ἀγαγεῖν. ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ὑπὸ ΗΘΖ τῇ ὑπὸ ΗΚΔ. Η Α Θ Ε Γ Κ Β A Ζ E ∆ C G H K B F D ῎Εστω ἑκατέρα τῶν ΑΒ.29].

ΑΓΕ ἴσαι ἀλλήλαις εἰσίν. and the (sum of the) three internal angles of the triangle—ABC. I say that the external angle ACD is equal to the (sum of the) two internal and opposite angles CAB and ABC. ἐπεὶ παράλληλός ἐστιν ἡ ΑΒ τῇ ΓΕ. (Which is) the very thing it was required to do. ΕΖ εὐθεῖα ἐμπίπτουσα ἡ ΑΔ τὰς ἐναλλὰξ γωνίας τὰς ὑπὸ ΕΑΔ. 1. ΑΒΓ. and CAB— is equal to two right-angles. lbþ. has made the alternate angles EAD and ADC equal to one another. ῎Ηχθω γὰρ διὰ τοῦ Γ σημείου τῇ ΑΒ εὐθείᾳ παράλληλος ἡ ΓΕ. the whole an- 34 . internal and opposite (angles). καὶ προσεκβεβλήσθω αὐτοῦ μία πλευρὰ ἡ ΒΓ ἐπὶ τὸ Δ· λέγω. the alternate angles BAC and ACE are equal to one another [Prop. Again. ΑΒΓ. αἱ ἐναλλὰξ γωνίαι αἱ ὑπὸ ΒΑΓ.23]. πάλιν. and the (sum of the) three internal angles of the triangle is equal to two right-angles. EAF is thus parallel to BC [Prop. BCA. through the given point A. since AB is parallel to CE. and AC has fallen across them. and let one of its sides BC have been produced to D. 1. καὶ εἰς αὐτὰς ἐμπέπτωκεν ἡ ΑΓ.29]. the straight-line EAF has been drawn parallel to the given straight-line BC. ΑΔΓ ἴσας ἀλλήλαις πεποίηκεν. And let the straightline AF have been produced in a straight-line with EA. καὶ (then) the external angle is equal to the (sum of the) two αἱ ἐντὸς τοῦ τριγώνου τρεῖς γωνίαι δυσὶν ὀρθαῖς ἴσαι εἰσίν. 1. ΒΓΑ. (if) one of the sides (is) produced ἡ ἐκτὸς γωνία δυσὶ ταῖς ἐντὸς καὶ ἀπεναντίον ἴση ἐστίν. 1. And since the straight-line AD. the external angle ECD is equal to the internal and opposite (angle) ABC [Prop. ΓΑΒ δυσὶν ὀρθαῖς ἴσαι εἰσίν. Α Ε Β ∆ Ζ E Γ B A F C D Καὶ ἐπεὶ εἰς δύο εὐθείας τὰς ΒΓ.31].29]. ἐδείχθη δὲ καὶ ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΓΕ τῇ ὑπὸ ΒΑΓ ἴση· ὅλη ἄρα ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΓΔ γωνία ἴση ἐστὶ δυσὶ ταῖς ἐντὸς καὶ ἀπεναντίον ταῖς ὑπὸ ΒΑΓ. DA at the point A on it [Prop. ἡ ἐκτὸς γωνία ἡ ὑπὸ ΕΓΔ ἴση ἐστὶ τῇ ἐντὸς καὶ ἀπεναντίον τῇ ὑπὸ ΑΒΓ. 1. Proposition 32 Παντὸς τριγώνου μιᾶς τῶν πλευρῶν προσεκβληθείσης In any triangle. Καὶ ἐπεὶ παράλληλός ἐστιν ἡ ΑΒ τῇ ΓΕ. ELEMENTS BOOK 1 ἐκβεβλήσθω ἐπ᾿ εὐθείας τῇ ΕΑ εὐθεῖα ἡ ΑΖ. But ACE was also shown (to be) equal to BAC. καὶ εἰς αὐτὰς ἐμπέπτωκεν εὐθεῖα ἡ ΒΔ. παράλληλος ἄρα ἐστὶν ἡ ΕΑΖ τῇ ΒΓ.27]. Thus. (in) falling across the two straight-lines BC and EF . Α Β Ε Γ A ∆ B ῎Εστω τρίγωνον τὸ ΑΒΓ. And since AB is parallel to CE. ὅτι ἡ ἐκτὸς γωνία ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΓΔ ἴση ἐστὶ δυσὶ ταῖς ἐντὸς καὶ ἀπεναντίον ταῖς ὑπὸ ΓΑΒ. καὶ αἱ ἐντὸς τοῦ τριγώνου τρεῖς γωνίαι αἱ ὑπὸ ΑΒΓ. For let CE have been drawn through point C parallel to the straight-line AB [Prop.STOIQEIWN aþ. Διὰ τοῦ δοθέντος ἄρα σημείου τοῦ Α τῇ δοθείσῃ εὐθείᾳ τῇ ΒΓ παράλληλος εὐθεῖα γραμμὴ ἦκται ἡ ΕΑΖ· ὅπερ ἔδει ποιῆσαι. Thus. and the straight-line BD has fallen across them. E C D Let ABC be a triangle.

straight-lines joining equal and parallel (straight- 35 . angle ACB is equal to CBD. Παντὸς ἄρα τριγώνου μιᾶς τῶν πλευρῶν προσεκβληθείσης ἡ ἐκτὸς γωνία δυσὶ ταῖς ἐντὸς καὶ ἀπεναντίον ἴση ἐστίν. Thus. But. I say that AC and BD are also equal and parallel. lgþ. And since AB is equal to CD. AC is thus parallel to BD [Prop.4]. καὶ αἱ ἐντὸς τοῦ τριγώνου τρεῖς γωνίαι δυσὶν ὀρθαῖς ἴσαι εἰσίν· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. ΒΔ· λέγω. καὶ ἐπεὶ εἰς δύο εὐθείας τὰς ΑΓ.STOIQEIWN aþ. and BC has fallen across them. ΑΓΒ τρισὶ ταῖς ὑπὸ ΑΒΓ. and CAB. Also.29]. the two (straight-lines) AB. ὑφ᾿ ἃς αἱ ἴσαι πλευραὶ ὑποτείνουσιν· ἴση ἄρα ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΓΒ γωνία τῇ ὑπὸ ΓΒΔ. ΓΑΒ ἴσαι εἰσίν. and the remaining angles will be equal to the corresponding remaining angles subtended by the equal sides [Prop. and CAB is also equal to two right-angles. καὶ ἐπιζευγνύτωσαν αὐτὰς ἐπὶ τὰ αὐτὰ μέρη εὐθεῖαι αἱ ΑΓ. ΒΔ εὐθεῖα ἐμπίπτουσα ἡ ΒΓ τὰς ἐναλλὰξ γωνίας ἴσας ἀλλήλαις πεποίηκεν. ΓΑΒ ἄρα δυσὶν ὀρθαῖς ἴσαι εἰσίν. ΒΔ ἴσαι τε καὶ παράλληλοί εἰσιν. καὶ ἐπεὶ ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ΑΒ τῇ ΓΔ κοινὴ δὲ ἡ ΒΓ. CBA. Proposition 33 Αἱ τὰς ἴσας τε καὶ παραλλήλους ἐπὶ τὰ αὐτὰ μέρη ἐπιStraight-lines joining equal and parallel (straightζευγνύουσαι εὐθεῖαι καὶ αὐταὶ ἴσαι τε καὶ παράλληλοί εἰσιν. A C Let AB and CD be equal and parallel (straight-lines). Thus. (the sum of) ACD and ACB is equal to the (sum of the) three (angles) ABC. BC are equal to the two (straight-lines) DC. Let BC have been joined. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. καὶ εἰς αὐτὰς ἐμπέπτωκεν ἡ ΒΓ. Thus. ὅτι καὶ αἱ ΑΓ. and the (sum of the) three internal angles of the triangle is equal to two right-angles. Αἱ ἄρα τὰς ἴσας τε καὶ παραλλήλους ἐπὶ τὰ αὐτὰ μέρη ἐπιζευγνύουσαι εὐθεῖαι καὶ αὐταὶ ἴσαι τε καὶ παράλληλοί εἰσιν· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. (if) one of the sides (is) produced (then) the external angle is equal to the (sum of the) two internal and opposite (angles). (the sum of) ACD and ACB is equal to two right-angles [Prop. αἱ ἐναλλὰξ γωνίαι αἱ ὑπὸ ΑΒΓ.† And the angle ABC is equal to the angle BCD. ΓΔ.27]. lines) on the same sides are themselves also equal and parallel. and let the straight-lines AC and BD join them on the same sides. Thus. ΒΓΑ. ΑΓΒ δυσὶν ὀρθαῖς ἴσαι εἰσίν· καὶ αἱ ὑπὸ ΑΓΒ. καὶ ἐπεὶ παράλληλός ἐστιν ἡ ΑΒ τῇ ΓΔ. Thus. in any triangle. since the straight-line BC. καὶ αἱ λοιπαὶ γωνίαι ταῖς λοιπαῖς γωνίαις ἴσαι ἔσονται ἑκατέρα ἑκατέρᾳ. And since AB is parallel to CD. παράλληλος ἄρα ἐστὶν ἡ ΑΓ τῇ ΒΔ. 1. Thus.13]. and triangle ABC is equal to triangle DCB ‡ . ἐδείχθη δὲ αὐτῇ καὶ ἴση. ELEMENTS BOOK 1 Κοινὴ προσκείσθω ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΓΒ· αἱ ἄρα ὑπὸ ΑΓΔ. ΓΔ ἴσαι εἰσίν· καὶ γωνία ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΒΓ γωνίᾳ τῇ ὑπὸ ΒΓΔ ἴση· βάσις ἄρα ἡ ΑΓ βάσει τῇ ΒΔ ἐστιν ἴση. 1. δύο δὴ αἱ ΑΒ. ᾿Επεζεύχθω ἡ ΒΓ. ΓΒΑ. BCA. gle ACD is equal to the (sum of the) two internal and opposite (angles) BAC and ABC. Let ACB have been added to both. the base AC is equal to the base BD. (in) falling across the two straight-lines AC and BD. ΒΓΔ ἴσαι ἀλλήλαις εἰσίν. CB. ΒΓ δύο ταῖς ΒΓ. has made the alternate angles (ACB and CBD) equal to one another. the alternate angles ABC and BCD are equal to one another [Prop. καὶ τὸ ΑΒΓ τρίγωνον τῷ ΒΓΔ τριγώνῳ ἴσον ἐστίν. and BC is common. 1. And (AC) was also shown (to be) equal to (BD). Β ∆ Α B Γ D ῎Εστωσαν ἴσαι τε καὶ παράλληλοι αἱ ΑΒ. ἀλλ᾿ αἱ ὑπὸ ΑΓΔ. (the sum of) ACB. 1.

καὶ τὸ ΑΒΓ [ἄρα] τρίγωνον τῷ ΒΓΔ τριγώνῳ ἴσον ἐστίν. and the straight-line BC has fallen across them. they will also have the remaining sides equal to the corresponding remaining (sides). αἱ ἐναλλὰξ γωνίαι αἱ ὑπὸ ΑΓΒ. respectively. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. the whole (angle) ABD is thus equal to the whole (angle) ACD. καὶ ἡ ΒΓ διάμετρος αὐτὸ δίχα τέμνει. ἡ δὲ ὑπὸ ΓΒΔ τῇ ὑπὸ ΑΓΒ. which is obviously a mistake. 1. καὶ ἡ διάμετρος αὐτὰ δίχα are equal to one another. ΒΓ ἴσαι εἰσὶν ἑκατέρα ἑκατέρᾳ· καὶ γωνία ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΒΓ γωνίᾳ τῇ ὑπὸ ΒΓΔ ἴση. (namely) BC. καὶ ἐπεὶ ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ μὲν ὑπὸ ΑΒΓ γωνία τῇ ὑπὸ ΒΓΔ. which is obviously a mistake. πάλιν ἐπεὶ παράλληλός ἐστιν ἡ ΑΓ τῇ ΒΔ. † The Greek text has “BC. ῾Η ἄρα ΒΓ διάμετρος δίχα τέμνει τὸ ΑΒΓΔ παραλληλόγραμμον· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι.29]. ΒΓ δυσὶ ταῖς ΓΔ. καὶ ἔτι ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΑΓ γωνία τῇ ὑπὸ ΓΔΒ. ΓΒΔ ἴσαι ἀλλήλαις εἰσίν. the opposite sides and angles are equal to one another. Α Γ Β A ∆ C ῎Εστω παραλληλόγραμμον χωρίον τὸ ΑΓΔΒ. ΒΓΔ ἴσαι ἀλλήλαις εἰσίν. ἐπεὶ γὰρ ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ΑΒ τῇ ΓΔ. So ABC and BCD are two triangles having the two angles ABC and BCA equal to the two (angles) BCD and CBD. since AC is parallel to BD. Thus. the alternate angles ACB and CBD are equal to one another [Prop. ΓΒΔ ἴσας ἔχοντα ἑκατέραν ἑκατέρᾳ καὶ μίαν πλευρὰν μιᾷ πλευρᾷ ἴσην τὴν πρὸς ταῖς ἴσαις γωνίαις κοινὴν αὐτῶν τὴν ΒΓ· καὶ τὰς λοιπὰς ἄρα πλευρὰς ταῖς λοιπαῖς ἴσας ἕξει ἑκατέραν ἑκατέρᾳ καὶ τὴν λοιπὴν γωνίαν τῇ λοιπῇ γωνίᾳ· ἴση ἄρα ἡ μὲν ΑΒ πλευρὰ τῇ ΓΔ. For since AB is equal to CD. Thus. ldþ. Τῶν ἄρα παραλληλογράμμων χωρίων αἱ ἀπεναντίον πλευραί τε καὶ γωνίαι ἴσαι ἀλλήλαις εἰσίν. κοινὴ δὲ ἡ ΒΓ. angle BAC is equal to CDB. respectively. CD”. And angle ABC is equal to angle BCD. and BC has fallen across them. CB † . καὶ εἰς αὐτὰς ἐμπέπτωκεν εὐθεῖα ἡ ΒΓ. δύο δὴ αἱ ΑΒ. ὅτι τοῦ ΑΓΔΒ παραλληλογράμμου αἱ ἀπεναντίον πλευραί τε καὶ γωνίαι ἴσαι ἀλλήλαις εἰσίν. ᾿Επεὶ γὰρ παράλληλός ἐστιν ἡ ΑΒ τῇ ΓΔ. 1. καὶ βάσις ἄρα ἡ ΑΓ τῇ ΔΒ ἴση. Proposition 34 Τῶν παραλληλογράμμων χωρίων αἱ ἀπεναντίον πλευραί In parallelogrammic figures the opposite sides and angles τε καὶ γωνίαι ἴσαι ἀλλήλαις εἰσίν. αἱ ἐναλλὰξ γωνίαι αἱ ὑπὸ ΑΒΓ. B D Let ACDB be a parallelogrammic figure. And since angle ABC is equal to BCD.STOIQEIWN aþ. 36 . and BC its diagonal. the base AC (is) also equal to DB. And BAC was also shown (to be) equal to CDB. δύο δὴ τρίγωνά ἐστι τὰ ΑΒΓ. And. ELEMENTS BOOK 1 lines) on the same sides are themselves also equal and parallel. BC are equal to the two (straightlines) DC. τέμνει. and one side equal to one side—the (one) by the equal angles and common to them. For since AB is parallel to CD. διάμετρος δὲ αὐτοῦ ἡ ΒΓ· λέγω. I say that for parallelogram ACDB. Λέγω δή. ‡ The Greek text has “DCB”. and a diagonal cuts them in half. Thus. ΒΓΑ δυσὶ ταῖς ὑπὸ ΒΓΔ. the alternate angles ABC and BCD are equal to one another [Prop. 1. I also say that a diagonal cuts them in half. ἐδείχθη δὲ καὶ ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΑΓ τῇ ὑπὸ ΓΔΒ ἴση. side AB is equal to CD. ὅτι καὶ ἡ διάμετρος αὐτὰ δίχα τέμνει. in parallelogrammic figures the opposite sides and angles are equal to one another.26].29]. ἡ δὲ ΑΓ τῇ ΒΔ. and the remaining angle (equal) to the remaining angle [Prop. the two (straight-lines) AB. ὅλη ἄρα ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΒΔ ὅλῃ τῇ ὑπὸ ΑΓΔ ἐστιν ἴση. Thus. and CBD to ACB. Furthermore. and AC to BD. and BC (is) common. and the diagonal BC cuts it in half. Again. καὶ εἰς αὐτὰς ἐμπέπτωκεν ἡ ΒΓ. ΒΓΔ τὰς δύο γωνίας τὰς ὑπὸ ΑΒΓ.

parallelograms which are on the same base and between the same parallels are equal to one another. the whole parallelogram ABCD is equal to the whole parallelogram EBCF . ᾿Επεὶ γὰρ παραλληλόγραμμόν ἐστι τὸ ΑΒΓΔ. BC”. Let DGE have been taken away from both. AB are equal to the two (straight-lines) F D. ῎Εστω παραλληλόγραμμα τὰ ΑΒΓΔ. ὅτι ἴσον ἐστὶ τὸ ΑΒΓΔ τῷ ΕΒΓΖ παραλληλογράμμῳ. Thus. Proposition 36 Τὰ παραλληλόγραμμα τὰ ἐπὶ ἴσων βάσεων ὄντα καὶ ἐν Parallelograms which are on equal bases and between ταῖς αὐταῖς παραλλήλοις ἴσα ἀλλήλοις ἐστίν. which is obviously a mistake. which is obviously a mistake. Thus. ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ΑΔ τῇ ΒΓ. διὰ τὰ αὐτὰ δὴ καὶ ἡ ΕΖ τῇ ΒΓ ἐστιν ἴση· ὥστε καὶ ἡ ΑΔ τῇ ΕΖ ἐστιν ἴση· καὶ κοινὴ ἡ ΔΕ· ὅλη ἄρα ἡ ΑΕ ὅλῃ τῇ ΔΖ ἐστιν ἴση. “equal” means “equal in area”.34]. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. ELEMENTS BOOK 1 and triangle ABC is equal to triangle BCD [Prop. καὶ τὸ ΕΑΒ τρίγωνον τῷ ΔΖΓ τριγώνῳ ἴσον ἔσται· κοινὸν ἀφῃρήσθω τὸ ΔΗΕ· λοιπὸν ἄρα τὸ ΑΒΗΔ τραπέζιον λοιπῷ τῷ ΕΗΓΖ τραπεζίῳ ἐστὶν ἴσον· κοινὸν προσκείσθω τὸ ΗΒΓ τρίγωνον· ὅλον ἄρα τὸ ΑΒΓΔ παραλληλόγραμμον ὅλῳ τῷ ΕΒΓΖ παραλληλογράμμῳ ἴσον ἐστίν. Proposition 35 Τὰ παραλληλόγραμμα τὰ ἐπὶ τῆς αὐτῆς βάσεως ὄντα καὶ Parallelograms which are on the same base and beἐν ταῖς αὐταῖς παραλλήλοις ἴσα ἀλλήλοις ἐστίν. ΒΓ· λέγω. Τὰ ἄρα παραλληλόγραμμα τὰ ἐπὶ τῆς αὐτῆς βάσεως ὄντα καὶ ἐν ταῖς αὐταῖς παραλλήλοις ἴσα ἀλλήλοις ἐστίν· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. And angle F DC is equal to angle EAB. Thus. 1. So AD is also equal to EF . DC. ΕΖΗΘ ἐπὶ ἴσων Let ABCD and EF GH be parallelograms which are βάσεων ὄντα τῶν ΒΓ. the external to the internal [Prop. the remaining trapezium ABGD is equal to the remaining trapezium EGCF . AD is equal to BC [Prop. rather than “congruent”. Thus. tween the same parallels are equal† to one another. 1. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. Thus.29]. † The Greek text has “CD. the base EB is equal to the base F C. So. EF is also equal to BC. for the first time. For since ABCD is a parallelogram. Let triangle GBC have been added to both.STOIQEIWN aþ. So the two (straight-lines) EA. I say that ABCD is equal to parallelogram EBCF . ΔΓ ἴσαι εἰσὶν ἑκατέρα ἑκατέρᾳ· καὶ γωνία ἡ ὑπὸ ΖΔΓ γωνίᾳ τῇ ὑπὸ ΕΑΒ ἐστιν ἴση ἡ ἐκτὸς τῇ ἐντός· βάσις ἄρα ἡ ΕΒ βάσει τῇ ΖΓ ἴση ἐστίν. ὅτι ἴσον ἐστὶ τὸ ΑΒΓΔ παραλ. ‡ The Greek text has “ABCD”. Thus. ΒΗ· λέγω. Here. 1. the same parallels are equal to one another. I say that the parallelogram 37 . leþ. Α Ε ∆ Ζ A D Η Β F G Γ B ῎Εστω παραλληλόγραμμα τὰ ΑΒΓΔ. ΖΗ καὶ ἐν ταῖς αὐταῖς παραλλήλοις on the equal bases BC and F G. lþ. respectively. and triangle EAB will be equal to triangle DF C [Prop. ΑΒ δύο ταῖς ΖΔ. the diagonal BC cuts the parallelogram ACDB ‡ in half.4]. and between the same parallels AF and BC. ΕΒΓΖ ἐπὶ τῆς αὐτῆς βάσεως τῆς ΒΓ καὶ ἐν ταῖς αὐταῖς παραλλήλοις ταῖς ΑΖ. And DE is common. 1.4]. And AB is also equal to DC. ἔστι δὲ καὶ ἡ ΑΒ τῇ ΔΓ ἴση· δύο δὴ αἱ ΕΑ.same parallels AH and BG. and (are) between the ταῖς ΑΘ. † E C Let ABCD and EBCF be parallelograms on the same base BC. the whole (straight-line) AE is equal to the whole (straight-line) DF . for the same (reasons).

So. and are equal.34].34]. EBCA and DBCF are both parallelograms. 1. 1. ἀλλὰ ἡ ΖΗ τῇ ΕΘ ἐστιν ἴση. ∆ Ε Θ Γ Ζ A Η B D E H C F G ᾿Επεζεύχθωσαν γὰρ αἱ ΒΕ. 1. καὶ διὰ μὲν τοῦ Β τῇ ΓΑ παράλληλος ἤχθω ἡ ΒΕ. EF GH is also equal to the same (parallelogram) EBCH [Prop.34]. Τὰ ἄρα παραλληλόγραμμα τὰ ἐπὶ ἴσων βάσεων ὄντα καὶ ἐν ταῖς αὐταῖς παραλλήλοις ἴσα ἀλλήλοις ἐστίν· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι.35]. So that the parallelogram ABCD is also equal to EF GH. and EB and HC join them. 1. Proposition 37 Τὰ τρίγωνα τὰ ἐπὶ τῆς αὐτῆς βάσεως ὄντα καὶ ἐν ταῖς Triangles which are on the same base and between αὐταῖς παραλλήλοις ἴσα ἀλλήλοις ἐστίν. Ζ. Thus. and let the (straight-line) CF have been drawn through C parallel to BD [Prop. and let the (straight-line) BE have been drawn through B parallel to CA [Prop. Thus. παραλληλόγραμμον ἄρα ἐστὶ τὸ ΕΒΓΘ. For let BE and CH have been joined. ᾿Εκβεβλήσθω ἡ ΑΔ ἐφ᾿ ἑκάτερα τὰ μέρη ἐπὶ τὰ Ε. ΑΘ. καὶ ἡ ΒΓ ἄρα τῇ ΕΘ ἐστιν ἴση. For it has the same base. καὶ ἐπεὶ ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ΒΓ τῇ ΖΗ. 1. BC and AH. the same parallels are equal to one another. ΘΓ· αἱ δὲ τὰς ἴσας τε καὶ παραλλήλους ἐπὶ τὰ αὐτὰ μέρη ἐπιζευγνύουσαι ἴσαι τε καὶ παράλληλοί εἰσι [καὶ αἱ ΕΒ. καί ἐστιν ἴσον τῷ ΑΒΓΔ· βάσιν τε γὰρ αὐτῷ τὴν αὐτὴν ἔχει τὴν ΒΓ. καὶ ἐπιζευγνύουσιν αὐτὰς αἱ ΕΒ.31]. I say that triangle ABC is equal to triangle DBC. as (ABCD). 1. and between the same parallels AD and BC. lzþ. ΕΖ· καί ἐστι τοῦ μὲν ΕΒΓΑ παραλληλογράμμου ἥμισυ τὸ ΑΒΓ τρίγωνον· ἡ γὰρ ΑΒ διάμετρος αὐτὸ δίχα τέμνει· τοῦ δὲ ΔΒΓΖ παραλληλογράμμου ἥμισυ τὸ ΔΒΓ τρίγωνον· ἡ γὰρ ΔΓ διάμετρος αὐτὸ δίχα τέμνει.35]. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. and between the same parallels BC and EF [Prop. BC. ΔΒΓ ἐπὶ τῆς αὐτῆς βάσεως τῆς ΒΓ καὶ ἐν ταῖς αὐταῖς παραλλήλοις ταῖς ΑΔ. ΒΓ· λέγω.31]. καὶ ἐν ταῖς αὐταῖς παραλλήλοις ἐστὶν αὐτῷ ταῖς ΒΓ. parallelograms which are on equal bases and between the same parallels are equal to one another. And since BC is equal to F G. BC is thus equal to EH. For they are on the same base BC. And the triangle ABC is half of the parallelogram EBCA. ὅτι ἴσον ἐστὶ τὸ ΑΒΓ τρίγωνον τῷ ΔΒΓ τριγώνῳ. ΘΓ ἄρα ἴσαι τέ εἰσι καὶ παράλληλοι]. ELEMENTS BOOK 1 ληλόγραμμον τῷ ΕΖΗΘ. as (ABCD) [Prop. EBCH is a parallelogram [Prop. παραλληλόγραμμον ἄρα ἐστὶν ἑκάτερον τῶν ΕΒΓΑ. For the diagonal AB cuts the latter in 38 . Α Β ABCD is equal to EF GH. εἰσὶ δὲ καὶ παράλληλοι. EB and HC are also equal and parallel]. for the same (reasons). [τὰ δὲ D C Let ABC and DBC be triangles on the same base BC. Α Ε Β ∆ Ζ A E Γ F B ῎Εστω τρίγωνα τὰ ΑΒΓ. But (straight-lines) joining equal and parallel (straight-lines) on the same sides are (themselves) equal and parallel [Prop.33] [thus. 1. δὶα τὰ αὐτὰ δὴ καὶ τὸ ΕΖΗΘ τῷ αὐτῷ τῷ ΕΒΓΘ ἐστιν ἴσον· ὥστε καὶ τὸ ΑΒΓΔ παραλληλόγραμμον τῷ ΕΖΗΘ ἐστιν ἴσον. but F G is equal to EH [Prop. and is between the same parallels. ΔΒΓΖ· καί εἰσιν ἴσα· ἐπί τε γὰρ τῆς αὐτῆς βάσεώς εἰσι τῆς ΒΓ καὶ ἐν ταῖς αὐταῖς παραλλήλοις ταῖς ΒΓ. Let AD have been produced in both directions to E and F . Thus.STOIQEIWN aþ. and is equal to ABCD. δὶα δὲ τοῦ Γ τῇ ΒΔ παράλληλος ἤχθω ἡ ΓΖ. And they are also parallel. 1. ΓΘ.

ΔΒΓ ἐπὶ τῆς αὐτῆς βάσεως Let ABC and DBC be equal triangles which are on ὄντα καὶ ἐπὶ τὰ αὐτὰ μέρη τῆς ΒΓ· λέγω. ΕΖ καὶ ἐν ταῖς αὐταῖς παραλλήλοις ταῖς ΒΖ. ἡ γὰρ ΑΒ διάμετρος αὐτὸ δίχα τέμνει· τοῦ δὲ ΔΕΖΘ παραλληλογράμμου ἥμισυ τὸ ΖΕΔ τρίγωνον· ἡ γὰρ ΔΖ δίαμετρος αὐτὸ δίχα τέμνει [τὰ δὲ τῶν ἴσων ἡμίση ἴσα ἀλλήλοις ἐστίν]. and on the same side (of it). † half [Prop.31]. lhþ. For they are on the equal bases BC and EF . Proposition 38 Τὰ τρίγωνα τὰ ἐπὶ ἴσων βάσεων ὄντα καὶ ἐν ταῖς αὐταῖς Triangles which are on equal bases and between the παραλλήλοις ἴσα ἀλλήλοις ἐστίν. Thus. δὶα δὲ τοῦ Ζ τῇ ΔΕ παράλληλος ἤχθω ἡ ΖΘ. triangle ABC is equal to triangle DEF . Let ABC and DEF be triangles on the equal bases BC and EF . ἴσον ἄρα ἐστὶ τὸ ΑΒΓ τρίγωνον τῷ ΔΒΓ τριγώνῳ. ΗΘ· καί ἐστι τοῦ μὲν ΗΒΓΑ παραλληλογράμμου ἥμισυ τὸ ΑΒΓ τρίγωνον. Τὰ ἄρα τρίγωνα τὰ ἐπὶ ἴσων βάσεων ὄντα καὶ ἐν ταῖς αὐταῖς παραλλήλοις ἴσα ἀλλήλοις ἐστίν· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. triangles which are on the same base and between the same parallels are equal to one another. [And the halves of equal things are equal to one another. ELEMENTS BOOK 1 τῶν ἴσων ἡμίση ἴσα ἀλλήλοις ἐστίν]. For the diagonal DC cuts the latter in half [Prop. and between the same parallels BF and GH [Prop. This is an additional common notion. 1. ΕΖ καὶ ἐν ταῖς αὐταῖς παραλλήλοις ταῖς ΒΖ. triangles which are on equal bases and between the same parallels are equal to one another. And GBCA is equal to DEF H. 1. same parallels are equal to one another.34]. For the diagonal AB cuts the latter in half [Prop. I say that triangle ABC is equal to triangle DEF . And the triangle DBC (is) half of the parallelogram DBCF . ῎Εστω ἴσα τρίγωνα τὰ ΑΒΓ. and on τὰ αὐτὰ μέρη καὶ ἐν ταῖς αὐταῖς παραλλήλοις ἐστίν. GBCA and DEF H are each parallelograms. 1. 1. Τὰ ἄρα τρίγωνα τὰ ἐπὶ τῆς αὐτῆς βάσεως ὄντα καὶ ἐν ταῖς αὐταῖς παραλλήλοις ἴσα ἀλλήλοις ἐστίν· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. Proposition 39 Τὰ ἴσα τρίγωνα τὰ ἐπὶ τῆς αὐτῆς βάσεως ὄντα καὶ ἐπὶ Equal triangles which are on the same base. Η Β Α ∆ Γ Θ Ε G Ζ B A D C H E F ῎Εστω τρίγωνα τὰ ΑΒΓ. [And the halves of equal things are equal to one another.31]. ΔΕΖΘ· καὶ ἴσον τὸ ΗΒΓΑ τῷ ΔΕΖΘ· ἐπί τε γὰρ ἴσων βάσεών εἰσι τῶν ΒΓ. For let AD have been produced in both directions to G and H. 1. and let the (straight-line) BG have been drawn through B parallel to CA [Prop. and let the (straight-line) F H have been drawn through F parallel to DE [Prop. ἴσον ἄρα ἐστὶ τὸ ΑΒΓ τρίγωνον τῷ ΔΕΖ τριγώνῳ.36].34]. For the diagonal DF cuts the latter in half. 1.] Thus. παραλληλόγραμμον ἄρα ἐστὶν ἑκάτερον τῶν ΗΒΓΑ. And triangle ABC is half of the parallelogram GBCA. ΔΕΖ ἐπὶ ἴσων βάσεων τῶν ΒΓ. are also between the same parallels.34]. and between the same parallels BF and AD. ὅτι καὶ ἐν ταῖς the same base BC. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. ᾿Εκβεβλήσθω γὰρ ἡ ΑΔ ἐφ᾿ ἑκάτερα τὰ μέρη ἐπὶ τὰ Η. the same side. ΑΔ· λέγω. Thus. Θ. καὶ διὰ μὲν τοῦ Β τῇ ΓΑ παράλληλος ἤχθω ἡ ΒΗ. And triangle F ED (is) half of parallelogram DEF H.]† Thus. ljþ.STOIQEIWN aþ. Thus. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. triangle ABC is equal to triangle DBC. ὅτι ἴσον ἐστὶ τὸ ΑΒΓ τρίγωνον τῷ ΔΕΖ τριγώνῳ. I say that 39 .

AD is parallel to BC. triangle ABC is equal 40 . λέγω. ELEMENTS BOOK 1 αὐταῖς παραλλήλοις ἐστίν. Thus. they are also between the same parallels. For if not. BE and AF [Prop. 1. Proposition 40† Τὰ ἴσα τρίγωνα τὰ ἐπὶ ἴσων βάσεων ὄντα καὶ ἐπὶ τὰ αὐτὰ Equal triangles which are on equal bases. Εἰ γὰρ μή. Τὰ ἄρα ἴσα τρίγωνα τὰ ἐπὶ τῆς αὐτῆς βάσεως ὄντα καὶ ἐπὶ τὰ αὐτὰ μέρη καὶ ἐν ταῖς αὐταῖς παραλλήλοις ἐστίν· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. ἀλλὰ τὸ ΑΒΓ τῷ ΔΒΓ ἐστιν ἴσον· καὶ τὸ ΔΒΓ ἄρα τῷ ΕΒΓ ἴσον ἐστὶ τὸ μεῖζον τῷ ἐλάσσονι· ὅπερ ἐστὶν ἀδύνατον· οὐκ ἄρα παράλληλός ἐστιν ἡ ΑΕ τῇ ΒΓ.31]. and let EC have been joined. let AF have been drawn through A parallel to BE [Prop. But. Thus. and on the μέρη καὶ ἐν ταῖς αὐταῖς παραλλήλοις ἐστίν. let AE have been drawn through point A parallel to the straight-line BC [Prop. ἤχθω διὰ τοῦ Α τῇ ΒΕ παράλληλος ἡ ΑΖ. and between the same parallels [Prop. I say that AD is parallel to BE. ὅτι παράλληλός ἐστιν ἡ ΑΔ τῇ ΒΓ. I say that they are also between the same parallels. ΓΕ καὶ ἐπὶ τὰ αὐτὰ μέρη. ὅτι οὐδ᾿ ἄλλη τις πλὴν τῆς ΑΔ· ἡ ΑΔ ἄρα τῇ ΒΓ ἐστι παράλληλος. same side. ἤχθω διὰ τοῦ Α σημείου τῇ ΒΓ εὐθείᾳ παράλληλος ἡ ΑΕ. AE is not parallel to BC. For. BC and CE. 1.38]. Thus. and let F E have been joined. καὶ ἐπεζεύχθω ἡ ΖΕ. ἴσον ἄρα ἐστὶ τὸ ΑΒΓ τρίγωνον τῷ ΖΓΕ τριγώνῳ· ἐπί τε γὰρ ἴσων βάσεών εἰσι τῶν ΒΓ. ΓΔΕ ἐπὶ ἴσων βάσεων τῶν ΒΓ. and between the same parallels.31]. ὅτι παράλληλός ἐστιν ἡ ΑΔ τῇ ΒΕ. καὶ ἐπεζεύχθω ἡ ΕΓ. ὅτι καὶ ἐν ταῖς αὐταῖς παραλλήλοις ἐστίν. ΓΕ καὶ ἐν ταῖς αὐταῖς παραλλήλοις ταῖς ΒΕ. DBC is also equal to EBC. For they are on equal bases. Similarly.STOIQEIWN aþ. are also between the same parallels. ὁμοίως δὴ δείξομεν. Thus. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. For it is on the same base as it. if not. BC. triangle ABC is equal to triangle EBC. The very thing is impossible. equal triangles which are on the same base. For let AD have been joined. Εἰ γὰρ μή. Α A ∆ D Ζ Β Γ F Ε B ῎Εστω ἴσα τρίγωνα τὰ ΑΒΓ. ἴσον ἄρα ἐστὶ τὸ ΑΒΓ τρίγωνον τῷ ΕΒΓ τριγώνῳ· ἐπί τε γὰρ τῆς αὐτῆς βάσεώς ἐστιν αὐτῷ τῆς ΒΓ καὶ ἐν ταῖς αὐταῖς παραλλήλοις. ΑΖ. are also between the same parallels. But ABC is equal to DBC. we can show that neither (is) any other (straight-line) than AD. For let AD have been joined. and on the same side. 1. the greater to the lesser. triangle ABC is equal to triangle F CE. and on the same side (of BE). ∆ Α D A Ε E Β Γ B C ᾿Επεζεύχθω γὰρ ἡ ΑΔ· λέγω. I say that AD and BC are parallel. Thus. Thus. ἀλλὰ τὸ ΑΒΓ τρίγωνον ἴσον ἐστὶ τῷ ΔΓΕ [τρίγωνῳ]· καὶ τὸ ΔΓΕ ἄρα [τρίγωνον] ἴσον ἐστὶ τῷ ΖΓΕ τριγώνῳ τὸ μεῖζον τῷ C E Let ABC and CDE be equal triangles on the equal bases BC and CE (respectively). 1. mþ. ᾿Επεζεύχθω γὰρ ἡ ΑΔ· λέγω.37].

Α Β ∆ Ε A Γ B D E C Παραλληλόγραμμον γὰρ τὸ ΑΒΓΔ τριγώνῳ τῷ ΕΒΓ βάσιν τε ἐχέτω τὴν αὐτὴν τὴν ΒΓ καὶ ἐν ταῖς αὐταῖς παραλλήλοις ἔστω ταῖς ΒΓ. and is between the same parallels. AF is not parallel to BE. and D the given rectiγωνία εὐθύγραμμος ἡ Δ· δεῖ δὴ τῷ ΑΒΓ τριγώνῳ ἴσον πα. Thus. maþ. Similarly. ELEMENTS BOOK 1 ἐλάσσονι· ὅπερ ἐστὶν ἀδύνατον· οὐκ ἄρα παράλληλος ἡ ΑΖ τῇ ΒΕ. For let parallelogram ABCD have the same base BC as triangle EBC. So parallelogram ABCD is also double (the area) of triangle EBC. I say that parallelogram ABCD is double (the area) of triangle BEC. Proposition 41 ᾿Εὰν παραλληλόγραμμον τριγώνῳ βάσιν τε ἔχῃ τὴν If a parallelogram has the same base as a triangle. For the diagonal AC cuts the former in half [Prop. and between the same parallels. 1. are also between the same parallels. double (the area) of the triangle. equal triangles which are on equal bases. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show.34]. So it is required to construct a parallelogram ραλληλόγραμμον συστήσασθαι ἐν τῇ Δ γωνίᾳ εὐθυγράμμῳ. † to [triangle] DCE. [triangle] DCE is also equal to triangle F CE. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. ὅτι διπλάσιόν ἐστι τὸ ΑΒΓΔ παραλληλόγραμμον τοῦ ΒΕΓ τριγώνου. διπλάσιόν ἐστί is between the same parallels. ὁμοίως δὴ δείξομεν.STOIQEIWN aþ. Thus. if a parallelogram has the same base as a triangle. ἀλλὰ τὸ ΑΒΓΔ παραλληλόγραμμον διπλάσιόν ἐστι τοῦ ΑΒΓ τριγώνου· ἡ γὰρ ΑΓ διάμετρος αὐτὸ δίχα τέμνει· ὥστε τὸ ΑΒΓΔ παραλληλόγραμμον καὶ τοῦ ΕΒΓ τριγώνου ἐστὶ διπλάσιον. ᾿Εὰν ἄρα παραλληλόγραμμον τριγώνῳ βάσιν τε ἔχῃ τὴν αὐτὴν καὶ ἐν ταῖς αὐταῖς παραλλήλοις ᾖ. we can show that neither (is) any other (straight-line) than AD. and on the same side. For it is on the same base.37]. ἴσον δή ἐστι τὸ ΑΒΓ τρίγωνον τῷ ΕΒΓ τριγώνῳ· ἐπί τε γὰρ τῆς αὐτῆς βάσεώς ἐστιν αὐτῷ τῆς ΒΓ καὶ ἐν ταῖς αὐταῖς παραλλήλοις ταῖς ΒΓ. BC. ΑΕ· λέγω. as (EBC). parallelogram ABCD is double (the area) of triangle ABC. Thus. then the parallelogram is τὸ παραλληλόγραμμον τοῦ τριγώνου. and αὐτὴν καὶ ἐν ταῖς αὐταῖς παραλλήλοις ᾖ. διπλάσιόν ἐστί τὸ παραλληλόγραμμον τοῦ τριγώνου· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. BC and AE [Prop. BC and AE.linear angle. ΑΕ. Thus. 41 . But. ᾿Επεζεύχθω γὰρ ἡ ΑΓ. Proposition 42 Τῷ δοθέντι τριγώνῳ ἴσον παραλληλόγραμμον συστήTo construct a parallelogram equal to a given triangle σασθαι ἐν τῇ δοθείσῃ γωνίᾳ εὐθυγράμμῳ. AD is parallel to BE. mbþ. in a given rectilinear angle. 1. Τὰ ἄρα ἴσα τρίγωνα τὰ ἐπὶ ἴσων βάσεων ὄντα καὶ ἐπὶ τὰ αὐτὰ μέρη καὶ ἐν ταῖς αὐταῖς παραλλήλοις ἐστίν· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. the greater to the lesser. This whole proposition is regarded by Heiberg as a relatively early interpolation to the original text. ἡ δὲ δοθεῖσα Let ABC be the given triangle. The very thing is impossible. then the parallelogram is double (the area) of the triangle. equal to triangle ABC in the rectilinear angle D. and let it be between the same parallels. So triangle ABC is equal to triangle EBC. ὅτι οὐδ᾿ ἄλλη τις πλὴν τῆς ΑΔ· ἡ ΑΔ ἄρα τῇ ΒΕ ἐστι παράλληλος. Thus. ῎Εστω τὸ μὲν δοθὲν τρίγωνον τὸ ΑΒΓ. For let AC have been joined.

ΖΗ. And let (angle) CEF . καὶ ἔχει τὴν ὑπὸ ΓΕΖ γωνίαν ἴσην τῇ δοθείσῃ τῇ Δ. τὰ δὲ λεγόμενα παραπληρώματα τὰ ΒΚ. διὰ δὲ τοῦ Γ τῇ ΕΖ παράλληλος ἤχθω ἡ ΓΗ· παραλληλόγραμμον ἄρα ἐστὶ τὸ ΖΕΓΗ. καὶ ἐπεὶ ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ΒΕ τῇ ΕΓ. and AC its diagonal. Thus. and AK is its diagonal. πάλιν.23]. 1.34]. καὶ διὰ μὲν τοῦ Α τῇ ΕΓ παράλληλος ἤχθω ἡ ΑΗ. ἥτις ἐστὶν ἴση τῇ Δ· ὅπερ ἔδει ποιῆσαι. ῎Εστω παραλληλόγραμμον τὸ ΑΒΓΔ. ΕΓ καὶ ἐν ταῖς αὐταῖς παραλλήλοις ταῖς ΒΓ. ἔστι δὲ καὶ τὸ ΖΕΓΗ παραλληλόγραμμον διπλάσιον τοῦ ΑΕΓ τριγώνου· βάσιν τε γὰρ αὐτῷ τὴν αὐτὴν ἔχει καὶ ἐν ταῖς αὐταῖς ἐστιν αὐτῷ παραλλήλοις· ἴσον ἄρα ἐστὶ τὸ ΖΕΓΗ παραλληλόγραμμον τῷ ΑΒΓ τριγώνῳ. which is equal to D. triangle AEK plus KGC is equal to triangle AHK plus KF C. ΚΔ· λέγω. For they are on the equal bases. 1. F ECG is a parallelogram.38]. ἐπεὶ οὖν τὸ μὲν ΑΕΚ τρίγωνον τῷ ΑΘΚ τριγώνῳ ἐστὶν ἴσον. and KF C to KGC.STOIQEIWN aþ. Τῷ ἄρα δοθέντι τριγώνῳ τῷ ΑΒΓ ἴσον παραλληλόγραμμον συνέσταται τὸ ΖΕΓΗ ἐν γωνίᾳ τῇ ὑπὸ ΓΕΖ. ἴσον ἐστὶ τὸ ΑΕΚ τρίγωνον τῷ ΑΘΚ τριγώνῳ. διάμετρος δὲ αὐτοῦ ἡ ΑΓ. and AC its diagonal. Proposition 43 Παντὸς παραλληλογράμμου τῶν περὶ τὴν διάμετρον παραλληλογράμμων τὰ παραπληρώματα ἴσα ἀλλήλοις ἐστίν. 1. ἐπεὶ παραλληλόγραμμόν ἐστι τὸ ΕΘ. περὶ δὲ τὴν ΑΓ παραλληλόγραμμα μὲν ἔστω τὰ ΕΘ. ὅτι ἴσον ἐστὶ τὸ ΒΚ παραπλήρωμα τῷ ΚΔ παραπληρώματι. (F ECG) also has the angle CEF equal to the given (angle) D. mgþ. ΑΗ· διπλάσιον ἄρα ἐστὶ τὸ ΑΒΓ τρίγωνον τοῦ ΑΕΓ τριγώνου. ἴσον ἐστὶ καὶ τὸ ΑΒΕ τρίγωνον τῷ ΑΕΓ τριγώνῳ· ἐπί τε γὰρ ἴσων βάσεών εἰσι τῶν ΒΕ. I say that the complement BK is equal to the complement KD. triangle ABE is also equal to triangle AEC. 1. triangle ABC is equal to triangle ACD [Prop. Thus. 1. since triangle AEK is equal to triangle AHK. 1. and let AE have been joined. 1. for the same (reasons). equal to the given triangle ABC. triangle AEK is equal to triangle AHK [Prop. BC and AG [Prop. equal to angle D. triangle KF C is also equal to (triangle) KGC. triangle ABC is double (the area) of triangle AEC. Let BC have been cut in half at E [Prop. τὸ ΑΕΚ τρίγωνον μετὰ τοῦ ΚΗΓ ἴσον ἐστὶ τῷ ΑΘΚ τριγώνῳ μετὰ τοῦ ΚΖΓ· ἔστι δὲ καὶ ὅλον τὸ ΑΒΓ τρίγωνον ὅλῳ τῷ ΑΔΓ ἴσον· λοιπὸν ἄρα τὸ ΒΚ παραπλήρωμα λοιπῷ τῷ ΚΔ παρα- For any parallelogram.31]. Let ABCD be a parallelogram. So. And parallelogram F ECG is also double (the area) of triangle AEC. For since ABCD is a parallelogram. Thus. and let CG have been drawn through C parallel to EF [Prop. καὶ συνεστάτω πρὸς τῇ ΕΓ εὐθείᾳ καὶ τῷ πρὸς αὐτῇ σημείῳ τῷ Ε τῇ Δ γωνίᾳ ἴση ἡ ὑπὸ ΓΕΖ. have been constructed at the point E on the straight-line EC [Prop. since EH is a parallelogram. (Which is) the very thing it was required to do. διὰ τὰ αὐτὰ δὴ καὶ τὸ ΚΖΓ τρίγωνον τῷ ΚΗΓ ἐστιν ἴσον. and is between the same parallels as (AEC) [Prop. BE and EC.31]. and between the same parallels.10]. the remaining complement BK is equal to 42 . Thus. And since BE is equal to EC. ELEMENTS BOOK 1 ∆ D Α Β Ζ Ε Η A Γ B G F E C Τετμήσθω ἡ ΒΓ δίχα κατὰ τὸ Ε. And let AG have been drawn through A parallel to EC [Prop. ἴσον ἐστὶ τὸ ΑΒΓ τρίγωνον τῷ ΑΓΔ τριγώνῳ. ᾿Επεὶ γὰρ παραλληλόγραμμόν ἐστι τὸ ΑΒΓΔ. διάμετρος δὲ αὐτοῦ ἡ ΑΓ. parallelogram F ECG is equal to triangle ABC. Thus. Again. Therefore.34]. and BK and KD the so-called complements (about AC). the complements of the parallelograms about the diagonal are equal to one another. 1. And the whole triangle ABC is also equal to the whole (triangle) ADC. has been constructed in the angle CEF . parallelogram F ECG. διάμετρος δὲ αὐτοῦ ἐστιν ἡ ΑΚ. τὸ δὲ ΚΖΓ τῷ ΚΗΓ.41]. And let EH and F G be the parallelograms about AC. For it has the same base as (AEC). καὶ ἐπεζεύχθω ἡ ΑΕ.

the compleδιάμετρον παραλληλογράμμων τὰ παραπληρώματα ἴσα ἀλλή. and D the given rectilinear angle.† And let F G have been drawn through to H. μῳ. equal to the triangle C. ELEMENTS BOOK 1 πληρώματί ἐστιν ἴσον. καὶ ἐπεὶ εἰς παραλλήλους τὰς ΑΘ. Proposition 44 Παρὰ τὴν δοθεῖσαν εὐθεῖαν τῷ δοθέντι τριγώνῳ ἴσον παTo apply a parallelogram equal to a given triangle to ραλληλόγραμμον παραβαλεῖν ἐν τῇ δοθείσῃ γωνίᾳ εὐθυγράμ.a given straight-line in a given rectilinear angle. ΗΖΕ δύο ὀρθῶν ἐλάσσονές εἰσιν· αἱ δὲ ἀπὸ ἐλασσόνων ἢ δύο ὀρθῶν εἰς ἄπειρον ἐκβαλλόμεναι συμπίπτουσιν· αἱ ΘΒ. καὶ διὰ τοῦ Α ὁποτέρᾳ τῶν ΒΗ.ments of the parallelograms about the diagonal are equal λοις ἐστίν· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. Ζ B D K E Γ Η H F G C Παντὸς ἄρα παραλληλογράμμου χωρίου τῶν περὶ τὴν Thus. Συνεστάτω τῷ Γ τριγώνῳ ἴσον παραλληλόγραμμον τὸ ΒΕΖΗ ἐν γωνίᾳ τῇ ὑπὸ ΕΒΗ.STOIQEIWN aþ. Α Θ A ∆ Κ Ε Β the remaining complement KD. And since the straight-line HF falls across the parallels AH and EF . to one another. have been constructed in the angle EBG. ἡ δὲ δοθεῖσα γωνία εὐθύγραμμος ἡ Δ· δεῖ δὴ παρὰ τὴν δοθεῖσαν εὐθεῖαν τὴν ΑΒ τῷ δοθέντι τριγώνῳ τῷ Γ ἴσον παραλληλόγραμμον παραβαλεῖν ἐν ἴσῃ τῇ Δ γωνίᾳ. ΘΖΕ γωνίαι δυσὶν ὀρθαῖς εἰσιν ἴσαι. ἥ ἐστιν ἴση τῇ Δ· καὶ κείσθω ὥστε ἐπ᾿ εὐθείας εἶναι τὴν ΒΕ τῇ ΑΒ. καὶ διήχθω ἡ ΖΗ ἐπὶ τὸ Θ.31]. αἱ ἄρα ὑπὸ ΑΘΖ.42]. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. ∆ D Γ Ζ Κ Ε Η Θ C Μ Β Α F E G Λ H ῎Εστω ἡ μὲν δοθεῖσα εὐθεῖα ἡ ΑΒ. for any parallelogramic figure. ΕΖ παράλληλος ἤχθω ἡ ΑΘ. αἱ ἄρα ὑπὸ ΒΘΗ. and let AH have been drawn through A parallel to either of BG or EF [Prop. the (sum of the) angles AHF and HF E is thus equal to two right-angles 43 . which is equal to D [Prop. καὶ ἐπεζεύχθω ἡ ΘΒ. τὸ δὲ δοθὲν τρίγωνον τὸ Γ. 1. 1. Let the parallelogram BEF G. ΕΖ εὐθεῖα ἐνέπεσεν ἡ ΘΖ. So it is required to apply a parallelogram equal to the given triangle C to the given straight-line AB in an angle equal to (angle) D. mdþ. C the given triangle. ΖΕ K M B A L Let AB be the given straight-line. And let it have been placed so that BE is straight-on to AB. and let HB have been joined.

ἀλλὰ καὶ ἡ ΘΗ τῇ ΜΛ.† and E the given rectilinear angle. at the point H on it. αἱ ἐναλλὰξ γωνίαι αἱ ὑπὸ ΜΘΗ. πρὸς δή τινι εὐθεῖᾳ τῇ ΗΘ καὶ τῷ πρὸς αὐτῇ σημείῳ τῷ Θ δύο εὐθεῖαι αἱ ΚΘ. 1. κοινὴ προσκείσθω ἡ ὑπὸ ΚΘΗ· αἱ ἄρα ὑπὸ ΖΚΘ. ᾿Επεζεύχθω ἡ ΔΒ. not lying on the same side. 1. make adjacent angles with some straight-line GH. And (straight-lines) produced to infinity from (internal angles whose sum is) less than two right-angles meet together [Post. Thus. But.15]. ἀλλ᾿ αἱ ὑπὸ ΜΘΗ. and 1. Thus. (the sum of) BHG and GF E is less than two right-angles. ΚΘΗ ταῖς ὑπὸ ΚΘΗ. ἥ ἐστιν ἴση τῇ Ε· καὶ παραβεβλήσθω παρὰ τὴν ΗΘ εὐθεῖαν τῷ ΔΒΓ τριγώνῳ ἴσον παραλληλόγραμμον τὸ ΗΜ ἐν τῇ ὑπὸ ΗΘΜ γωνίᾳ. 1. ΘΜ μὴ ἐπὶ τὰ αὐτὰ μέρη κείμεναι τὰς ἐφεξῆς γωνίας δύο ὀρθαῖς ἴσας ποιοῦσιν· ἐπ᾿ εὐθείας ἄρα ἐστὶν ἡ ΚΘ τῇ ΘΜ· καὶ ἐπεὶ εἰς παραλλήλους τὰς ΚΜ. καὶ ἐπεὶ ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ὑπὸ ΗΒΕ γωνία τῇ ὑπὸ ΑΒΜ. since angle GBE is equal to ABM [Prop. 1. Thus. Thus. equal to the given triangle C. ΚΘΗ δυσὶν ὀρθαῖς ἴσαι εἰσίν· καὶ αἱ ὑπὸ ΚΘΗ. And AG and M E (are) parallelograms. ΗΘΜ ἐστιν ἴση. have been constructed in the angle HKF . ἀλλὰ τὸ ΒΖ τῷ Γ τριγώνῳ ἐστὶν ἴσον· καὶ τὸ ΛΒ ἄρα τῷ Γ ἐστιν ἴσον.STOIQEIWN aþ. ABM is thus also equal to angle D. ΗΘΜ ἴσαι εἰσίν. being produced. ἀλλὰ ἡ ὑπὸ ΗΒΕ τῇ Δ ἐστιν ἴση.31]. which is equal to E [Prop. (the sum of) KHG and GHM is also equal to two right-angles. καὶ ἐπεὶ ἡ ΖΚ τῇ ΘΗ ἴση τε καὶ παράλληλός ἐστιν. 1. Thus. HB and F E will meet together. KH is straight-on to HM [Prop.23. Let them have been produced. the alternate angles M HG and HGF are equal to one another [Prop. ἀλλ᾿ αἱ ὑπὸ ΖΚΘ.43]. And let KL have been drawn through point K parallel to either of EA or F H [Prop. ῎Εστω τὸ μὲν δοθὲν εὐθύγραμμον τὸ ΑΒΓΔ. ἐκβεβλήσθωσαν καὶ συμπιπτέτωσαν κατὰ τὸ Κ. (whose sum is) equal to two right-angles. And let the parallelogram GM . equal to the triangle DBC. ΖΗ εὐθεῖα ἐνέπεσεν ἡ ΘΗ. LB is equal to BF [Prop. καὶ ἐπεὶ ἡ Ε γωνία ἑκατέρᾳ τῶν ὑπὸ ΘΚΖ. Παρὰ τὴν δοθεῖσαν ἄρα εὐθεῖαν τὴν ΑΒ τῷ δοθέντι τριγώνῳ τῷ Γ ἴσον παραλληλόγραμμον παραβέβληται τὸ ΛΒ ἐν γωνίᾳ τῇ ὑπὸ ΑΒΜ. καὶ διὰ τοῦ Κ σημείου ὁποτέρᾳ τῶν ΕΑ. which is equal to E [Prop. τὰ δὲ λεγόμενα παραπληρώματα τὰ ΛΒ. Thus.29]. HLKF is a parallelogram. (the sum of) M HG and HGL is equal to (the sum of) 44 . meþ. equal to the triangle ABD. ΒΖ· ἴσον ἄρα ἐστὶ τὸ ΛΒ τῷ ΒΖ. have been applied to the straight-line GH in the angle GHM . has been applied to the given straight-line AB in the angle ABM . but GBE is equal to D. And since angle E is equal to each of (angles) HKF and GHM . Thus. καὶ ἡ ὑπὸ ΘΚΖ ἄρα τῇ ὑπὸ ΗΘΜ ἐστιν ἴση. BF is equal to triangle C. καὶ ἡ ΚΖ ἄρα τῇ ΜΛ ἴση τε καὶ παράλληλός ἐστιν· καὶ To construct a parallelogram equal to a given rectilinear figure in a given rectilinear angle. Let KHG have been added to both. καὶ ἐκβεβλήσθωσαν αἱ ΘΑ. (the sum of) F KH and KHG is equal to two right-angles [Prop. ΘΗΛ ταῖς ὑπὸ ΘΗΖ. ἡ δὲ δοθεῖσα γωνία εὐθύγραμμος ἡ Ε· δεῖ δὴ τῷ ΑΒΓΔ εὐθυγράμμῳ ἴσον παραλληλόγραμμον συστήσασθαι ἐν τῇ δοθείσῃ γωνίᾳ τῇ Ε. ἥ ἐστιν ἴση τῇ Ε. περὶ δὲ τὴν ΘΚ παραλληλόγραμμα μὲν τὰ ΑΗ. ΘΗΛ δύο ὀρθαῖς ἴσαι εἰσίν· καὶ αἱ ὑπὸ ΘΗΖ. Thus. Thus. ΘΗΛ ἴσαι εἰσιν.42]. παραλληλόγραμμον ἄρα ἐστὶ τὸ ΘΛΚΖ. ΘΗΛ ἄρα δύο ὀρθαῖς ἴσαι εἰσίν· ἐπ᾿ εὐθείας ἄρα ἐστὶν ἡ ΖΗ τῇ ΗΛ.3. This can be achieved using Props. (the sum of) F KH and KHG is equal to (the sum of) KHG and GHM .31. ΗΘΜ ἄρα δύο ὀρθαῖς ἴσαι εἰσίν. and let the parallelogram F H. LB is also equal to C. καὶ ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΒΜ ἄρα τῇ Δ γωνίᾳ ἐστὶν ἴση. Also. † [Prop. and LB and BF the so-called complements. And let HA and GB have been produced to points L and M (respectively). And since the straightline HG falls across the parallels KM and F G. and HK its diagonal. the parallelogram LB. (angle) HKF is thus also equal to GHM . Thus. Proposition 45 Τῷ δοθέντι εὐθυγράμμῳ ἴσον παραλληλόγραμμον συστήσασθαι ἐν τῇ δοθείσῃ γωνίᾳ εὐθυγράμμῳ. Let DB have been joined. But. Let ABCD be the given rectilinear figure. 1.29]. So it is required to construct a parallelogram equal to the rectilinear figure ABCD in the given angle E. which is equal to D. and let them meet together at K. ΖΘ παράλληλος ἤχθω ἡ ΚΛ. ΜΕ. So two straight-lines. about HK. 1. ELEMENTS BOOK 1 ἄρα ἐκβαλλόμεναι συμπεσοῦνται. KH and HM . Μ σημεῖα. 1. διάμετρος δὲ αὐτοῦ ἡ ΘΚ.44]. 1. 1. ἥ ἐστιν ἴση τῇ Δ· ὅπερ ἔδει ποιῆσαι. 5]. 1. Let HGL have been added to both. κοινὴ προσκείσθω ἡ ὑπὸ ΘΗΛ· αἱ ἄρα ὑπὸ ΜΘΗ.29].14]. καὶ συνεστάτω τῷ ΑΒΔ τριγώνῳ ἴσον παραλληλόγραμμον τὸ ΖΘ ἐν τῇ ὑπὸ ΘΚΖ γωνίᾳ. ΗΒ ἐπὶ τὰ Λ. ΘΗΖ ἴσαι ἀλλήλαις εἰσίν. (Which is) the very thing it was required to do.

STOIQEIWN aþ. equal to the given ληλόγραμμον συνέσταται τὸ ΚΖΛΜ ἐν γωνίᾳ τῇ ὑπὸ ΖΚΜ. Thus. 1. KM and F L are equal and parallel as well [Prop. 1. gle F KM . 1. So it is required to describe a square on the straight-line AB. διὰ δὲ τοῦ Β σημείου τῇ ΑΔ παράλληλος ἤχθω ἡ ΒΕ. (Which is) the very thing it was required to do. HGF and HGL. 1.3]. ELEMENTS BOOK 1 ἐπιζευγνύουσιν αὐτὰς εὐθεῖαι αἱ ΚΜ. But. 1.11]. For since the straight-line 45 . and EB are equal to one another. the parallelogram ADEB is equilateral. and let BE have been drawn through point B parallel to AD [Prop. αἱ ἄρα ὑπὸ ΒΑΔ.14]. KF is thus also equal and parallel to M L [Prop. ΖΛ· καὶ αἱ ΚΜ. Therefore. ΕΒ ἴσαι ἀλλήλαις εἰσίν· ἰσόπλευρον ἄρα ἐστὶ τὸ ΑΔΕΒ παραλληλόγραμμον.30]. F G is straight-on to GL [Prop. παραλληλόγραμμον ἄρα ἐστὶ τὸ ΑΔΕΒ· ἴση ἄρα ἐστὶν ἡ μὲν ΑΒ τῇ ΔΕ. 1. So I say that (it is) also right-angled.31]. λέγω δή. 1. And let DE have been drawn through point D parallel to AB [Prop. ὅτι καὶ ὀρθογώνιον. Thus. 1. ῎Εστω ἡ δοθεῖσα εὐθεῖα ἡ ΑΒ· δεῖ δὴ ἀπὸ τῆς ΑΒ εὐθείας τετράγωνον ἀναγράψαι. ADEB is a parallelogram. ἡ δὲ ΑΔ τῇ ΒΕ. but also HG to M L [Prop. ἀλλὰ ἡ ΑΒ τῇ ΑΔ ἐστιν ἴση· αἱ τέσσαρες ἄρα αἱ ΒΑ. rectilinear figure ABCD. ΑΔ. ὀρθὴ δὲ ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΑΔ· ὀρθὴ ἄρα καὶ To describe a square on a given straight-line. ῎Ηχθω τῇ ΑΒ εὐθείᾳ ἀπὸ τοῦ πρὸς αὐτῇ σημείου τοῦ Α πρὸς ὀρθὰς ἡ ΑΓ. has been constructed in the anἥ ἐστιν ἴση τῇ δοθείσῃ τῇ Ε· ὅπερ ἔδει ποιῆσαι. the whole rectilinear figure ABCD is thus equal to the whole parallelogram KF LM . Thus. καὶ κείσθω τῇ ΑΒ ἴση ἡ ΑΔ· καὶ διὰ μὲν τοῦ Δ σημείου τῇ ΑΒ παράλληλος ἤχθω ἡ ΔΕ. However. DE. καὶ ἐπεὶ ἴσον ἐστὶ τὸ μὲν ΑΒΔ τρίγωνον τῷ ΖΘ παραλληλογράμμῳ.34]. mþ. But. the four (sides) BA. and DBC to GM . Thus. ἐπεὶ γὰρ εἰς παραλλήλους τὰς ΑΒ. Thus.29]. KF LM is a parallelogram. ὅλον ἄρα τὸ ΑΒΓΔ εὐθύγραμμον ὅλῳ τῷ ΚΖΛΜ παραλληλογράμμῳ ἐστὶν ἴσον. 1. which is equal to the given (angle) E. 1.34]. ∆ D Γ C Α A Ε Β Ζ Κ Η Θ E B Λ F Μ G K H L M Τῷ ἄρα δοθέντι εὐθυγράμμῳ τῷ ΑΒΓΔ ἴσον παραλThus. ΖΛ ἄρα ἴσαι τε καὶ παράλληλοί εἰσιν· παραλληλόγραμμον ἄρα ἐστὶ τὸ ΚΖΛΜ. Thus. the extension to many-sided figures is trivial. Proposition 46 ᾿Απὸ τῆς δοθείσης εὐθείας τετράγωνον ἀναγράψαι.31]. ΔΕ. (the sum of) HGF and HGL is also equal to two right-angles. AB is equal to AD. And since triangle ABD is equal to parallelogram F H. 1.33]. AD. Let AB be the given straight-line. And the straight-lines KM and F L join them. And since F K is equal and parallel to HG [Prop. and let AD have been made equal to AB [Prop. (the sum of) M HG and HGL is equal to two right-angles [Prop. and AD to BE [Prop.34]. ΔΕ εὐθεῖα ἐνέπεσεν ἡ ΑΔ. the parallelogram KF LM . † The proof is only given for a four-sided figure. Let AC have been drawn at right-angles to the straight-line AB from the point A on it [Prop. τὸ δὲ ΔΒΓ τῷ ΗΜ. AB is equal to DE. ΑΔΕ γωνίαι δύο ὀρθαῖς ἴσαι εἰσίν. Thus.

the (sum of the) angles BAD and ADE is equal to two right-angles [Prop. ὅτι τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς ΒΓ τετράγωνον ἴσον ἐστὶ τοῖς ἀπὸ τῶν ΒΑ. 1. Thus. BA are equal to the 46 . (whose sum is) equal to two right-angles.STOIQEIWN aþ. ΖΓ. ΑΓ τετραγώνοις. So. ΒΕΔ γωνιῶν· ὀρθογώνιον ἄρα ἐστὶ τὸ ΑΔΕΒ. καὶ τὸ ΑΒΔ In right-angled triangles. τῶν δὲ παραλληλογράμμων χωρίων αἱ ἀπεναντίον πλευραί τε καὶ γωνίαι ἴσαι ἀλλήλαις εἰσίν· ὀρθὴ ἄρα καὶ ἑκατέρα τῶν ἀπεναντίον τῶν ὑπὸ ΑΒΕ. and F B to BA. ΘΓ. I say that the square on BC is equal to the (sum of the) squares on BA and AC. the two (straight-lines) DB. καὶ ἐπεὶ ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ὑπὸ ΔΒΓ γωνία τῇ ὑπὸ ΖΒΑ· ὀρθὴ γὰρ ἑκατέρα· κοινὴ προσκείσθω ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΒΓ· ὅλη ἄρα ἡ ὑπὸ ΔΒΑ ὅλῃ τῇ ὑπὸ ΖΒΓ ἐστιν ἴση. the opposite sides and angles are equal to one another [Prop. Thus. And since angle DBC is equal to F BA. Let ABC be a right-angled triangle having the angle BACa right-angle. 1. And it is deἀναγεγραμμένον· ὅπερ ἔδει ποιῆσαι. mzþ. ΒΑ δύο ταῖς ΖΒ. 1. καὶ ἐπεὶ ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ μὲν ΔΒ τῇ ΒΓ.34]. ELEMENTS BOOK 1 ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΔΕ. BA is also straight-on to AH. (Which is) the very thing it was required to do. ᾿Αναγεγράφθω γὰρ ἀπὸ μὲν τῆς ΒΓ τετράγωνον τὸ ΒΔΕΓ. ΓΕ παράλληλος ἤχθω ἡ ΑΛ· καὶ ἐπεζεύχθωσαν αἱ ΑΔ. ADEB is rightangled. each of the opposite angles ABE and BED (are) also right-angles. ἀπὸ δὲ τῶν ΒΑ. make the adjacent angles with some straight-line BA. Thus. ΒΓ ἴσαι εἰσὶν ἑκατέρα ἑκατέρᾳ· καὶ γωνία ἡ ὑπὸ ΔΒΑ γωνίᾳ τῇ ὑπὸ ΖΒΓ ἴση· βάσις ἄρα ἡ ΑΔ βάσει τῇ ΖΓ [ἐστιν] ἴση. And since DB is equal to BC. ADE (is) also a right-angle.31].22]. scribed on the straight-line AB.29]. let ABC have been added to both. ΑΓ τὰ ΗΒ. not lying on the same side. ῎Εστω τρίγωνον ὀρθογώνιον τὸ ΑΒΓ ὀρθὴν ἔχον τὴν ὑπὸ ΒΑΓ γωνίαν· λέγω. ΑΗ μὴ ἐπὶ τὰ αὐτὰ μέρη κείμεναι τὰς ἐφεξῆς γωνίας δυσὶν ὀρθαῖς ἴσας ποιοῦσιν· ἐπ᾿ εὐθείας ἄρα ἐστὶν ἡ ΓΑ τῇ ΑΗ. ἡ δὲ ΖΒ τῇ ΒΑ. And since angles BAC and BAG are each right-angles. And let AD and F C have been joined. And it was also shown (to be) equilateral. For let the square BDEC have been described on BC. at the point A on it. Proposition 47 ᾿Εν τοῖς ὀρθογωνίοις τριγώνοις τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς τὴν ὀρθὴν γωνίαν ὑποτεινούσης πλευρᾶς τετράγωνον ἴσον ἐστὶ τοῖς ἀπὸ τῶν τὴν ὀρθὴν γωνίαν περιεχουσῶν πλευρῶν τετραγώνοις. δύο δὴ αἱ ΔΒ. CA is straight-on to AG [Prop. Γ C ∆ Ε Α D Β A E B Τετράγωνον ἄρα ἐστίν· καί ἐστιν ἀπὸ τῆς ΑΒ εὐθείας Thus. Thus. And for parallelogrammic figures. πρὸς δή τινι εὐθείᾳ τῇ ΒΑ καὶ τῷ πρὸς αὐτῇ σημείῳ τῷ Α δύο εὐθεῖαι αἱ ΑΓ. for (they are) both right-angles. then two straight-lines AC and AG. (ADEB) is a square [Def. And let AL have been drawn through point A parallel to either of BD or CE [Prop. 1. 1. Thus. and (the squares) GB and HC on AB and AC (respectively) [Prop. καὶ διὰ τοῦ Α ὁποτέρᾳ τῶν ΒΔ. AD falls across the parallels AB and DE. 1. for the same (reasons). the whole (angle) DBA is equal to the whole (angle) F BC.14]. ἐδείχθη δὲ καὶ ἰσόπλευρον. διὰ τὰ αὐτὰ δὴ καὶ ἡ ΒΑ τῇ ΑΘ ἐστιν ἐπ᾿ εὐθείας. But BAD (is a) right-angle.46]. the square on the side subtending the right-angle is equal to the (sum of the) squares on the sides containing the right-angle. καὶ ἐπεὶ ὀρθή ἐστιν ἑκατέρα τῶν ὑπὸ ΒΑΓ. ΒΑΗ γωνιῶν.

1. the whole square BDEC is equal to the (sum of the) two squares GB and HC. τραγώνοις· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. And parallelogram BL [is] double (the area) of triangle ABD.4]. And angle DBA (is) equal to angle F BC. Thus. AE and BK being joined. and the triangle ABD is equal to the triangle F BC [Prop. † The Greek text has “F B. ΒΚ δειχθήσεται καὶ τὸ ΓΛ παραλληλόγραμμον ἴσον τῷ ΘΓ τετραγώνῳ· ὅλον ἄρα τὸ ΒΔΕΓ τετράγωνον δυσὶ τοῖς ΗΒ. F B and GC [Prop. ΑΓ πλευρῶν τετραγώνοις. two (straight-lines) CB. τὸ ἄρα ἀπὸ τῆς ΒΓ πλευρᾶς τετράγωνον ἴσον ἐστὶ τοῖς ἀπὸ τῶν ΒΑ. BC”. ELEMENTS BOOK 1 τρίγωνον τῷ ΖΒΓ τριγώνῳ ἐστὶν ἴσον· καί [ἐστι] τοῦ μὲν ΑΒΔ τριγώνου διπλάσιον τὸ ΒΛ παραλληλόγραμμον· βάσιν τε γὰρ τὴν αὐτὴν ἔχουσι τὴν ΒΔ καὶ ἐν ταῖς αὐταῖς εἰσι παραλλήλοις ταῖς ΒΔ. F B.STOIQEIWN aþ.41].the) squares on the sides surrounding the right-[angle]. ‡ This is an additional common notion. which is obviously a mistake. ΗΓ. τὰ δὲ ΗΒ. καί ἐστι τὸ μὲν ΒΔΕΓ τετράγωνον ἀπὸ τῆς ΒΓ ἀναγραφέν. the square on the ὀρθὴν γωνίαν ὑποτεινούσης πλευρᾶς τετράγωνον ἴσον ἐστὶ side subtending the right-angle is equal to the (sum of τοῖς ἀπὸ τῶν τὴν ὀρθὴν [γωνίαν] περιεχουσῶν πλευρῶν τε. the base AD [is] equal to the base F C. ΑΛ· τοῦ δὲ ΖΒΓ τριγώνου διπλάσιον τὸ ΗΒ τετράγωνον· βάσιν τε γὰρ πάλιν τὴν αὐτὴν ἔχουσι τὴν ΖΒ καὶ ἐν ταῖς αὐταῖς εἰσι παραλλήλοις ταῖς ΖΒ. And square GB is double (the area) of triangle F BC. BD and AL [Prop. BD.† respectively. Θ H Κ K Η G A Α Ζ F Β Γ B C D L E ∆ Λ Ε ᾿Εν ἄρα τοῖς ὀρθογωνίοις τριγώνοις τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς τὴν Thus. and are between the same parallels. BF . And the square BDEC is described on BC. and are between the same parallels. For they have the same base. similarly. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show.]‡ Thus. For again they have the same base. Thus. 1. ΘΓ ἀπὸ τῶν ΒΑ. ΘΓ τετραγώνοις ἴσον ἐστίν.41]. [And the doubles of equal things are equal to one another. the parallelogram BL is also equal to the square GB. 47 . Thus. ὁμοίως δὴ ἐπιζευγνυμένων τῶν ΑΕ. the square on the side BC is equal to the (sum of the) squares on the sides BA and AC. in right-angled triangles. ΑΓ. 1. So. [τὰ δὲ τῶν ἴσων διπλάσια ἴσα ἀλλήλοις ἐστίν·] ἴσον ἄρα ἐστὶ καὶ τὸ ΒΛ παραλληλόγραμμον τῷ ΗΒ τετραγώνῳ. the parallelogram CL can be shown (to be) equal to the square HC. and the (squares) GB and HC on BA and AC (respectively).

ἡ περιεχομένη γωνία ὑπὸ τῶν λοιπῶν τοῦ the triangle then the angle contained by the two remainτριγώνου δύο πλευρῶν ὀρθή ἐστιν. Here. For let AD have been drawn from point A at rightangles to the straight-line AC [Prop.3].8].† Let the square on AC have been added to both. ΑΓ πλευρῶν τετραγώνοις· λέγω. ὀρθὴ δὲ ἡ ὑπὸ ΔΑΓ· ὀρθὴ ἄρα καὶ ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΑΓ. the (square) on BC is equal to (sum of the squares) on BA and AC. use is made of the additional common notion that the squares of equal things are themselves equal.11]. 1. the two (straight-lines) DA. And the base DC is equal to the base BC. BAC is also a right-angle. 1. ἀλλὰ τοῖς μὲν ἀπὸ τῶν ΔΑ. Γ ∆ Α C Β D Τριγώνου γὰρ τοῦ ΑΒΓ τὸ ἀπὸ μιᾶς τῆς ΒΓ πλευρᾶς τετράγωνον ἴσον ἔστω τοῖς ἀπὸ τῶν ΒΑ. καὶ ἐπεζεύχθω ἡ ΔΓ. But. AC. 48 . Thus. Later on. ΑΓ ἴσον ἐστὶ τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς ΒΓ· ὑπόκειται γάρ· τὸ ἄρα ἀπὸ τῆς ΔΓ τετράγωνον ἴσον ἐστὶ τῷ ἀπὸ τῆς ΒΓ τετραγώνῳ· ὥστε καὶ πλευρὰ ἡ ΔΓ τῇ ΒΓ ἐστιν ἴση· καὶ ἐπεὶ ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ΔΑ τῇ ΑΒ. Proposition 48 ᾿Εὰν τριγώνου τὸ ἀπὸ μιᾶς τῶν πλευρῶν τετράγωνον If the square on one of the sides of a triangle is equal ἴσον ᾖ τοῖς ἀπὸ τῶν λοιπῶν τοῦ τριγώνου δύο πλευρῶν to the (sum of the) squares on the two remaining sides of τετραγώνοις. But.STOIQEIWN aþ. Thus. and let AD have been made equal to BA [Prop. 1. the inverse notion is used. AC are equal to the two (straight-lines) BA. ὅτι ὀρθή ἐστιν ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΑΓ γωνία. For (that) was assumed. and let DC have been joined. ΑΓ ἴσον ἐστὶ τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς ΔΓ· ὀρθὴ γάρ ἐστιν ἡ ὑπὸ ΔΑΓ γωνία· τοῖς δὲ ἀπὸ τῶν ΒΑ. the (square) on DC is equal to the (sum of the squares) on DA and AC. BC. Thus. Thus. δύο δὴ αἱ ΔΑ. Thus. Since DA is equal to AB. and AC (is) common. ἡ περιεχομένη γωνία ὑπὸ τῶν λοιπῶν τοῦ τριγώνου δύο πλευρῶν ὀρθή ἐστιν· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. ῎Ηχθω γὰρ ἀπὸ τοῦ Α σημείου τῇ ΑΓ εὐθείᾳ πρὸς ὀρθὰς ἡ ΑΔ καὶ κείσθω τῇ ΒΑ ἴση ἡ ΑΔ. † A B For let the square on one of the sides. So side DC is also equal to (side) BC. And since DA is equal to AB. I say that angle BAC is a right-angle. ΑΓ τετραγώνοις. if the square on one of the sides of a triangle is equal to the (sum of the) squares on the remaining two sides of the triangle then the angle contained by the remaining two sides of the triangle is a right-angle. the (sum of the) squares on DA and AC is equal to the (sum of the) squares on BA and AC.47]. ΑΓ ἴσαι εἰσίν· καὶ βάσις ἡ ΔΓ βάσει τῇ ΒΓ ἴση· γωνία ἄρα ἡ ὑπὸ ΔΑΓ γωνίᾳ τῇ ὑπὸ ΒΑΓ [ἐστιν] ἴση. ELEMENTS BOOK 1 mhþ. the square on DA is thus also equal to the square on AB. But DAC is a right-angle. of triangle ABC be equal to the (sum of the) squares on the sides BA and AC. ΑΓ τετράγωνα ἴσα ἐστὶ τοῖς ἀπὸ τῶν ΒΑ. the square on DC is equal to the square on BC. angle DAC [is] equal to angle BAC [Prop. For angle DAC is a right-angle [Prop. ΑΓ δύο ταῖς ΒΑ. κοινὴ δὲ ἡ ΑΓ. ἐπεὶ ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ΔΑ τῇ ΑΒ. ᾿Εὰν ἀρὰ τριγώνου τὸ ἀπὸ μιᾶς τῶν πλευρῶν τετράγωνον ἴσον ᾖ τοῖς ἀπὸ τῶν λοιπῶν τοῦ τριγώνου δύο πλευρῶν τετραγώνοις. κοινὸν προσκείσθω τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς ΑΓ τετράγωνον· τὰ ἄρα ἀπὸ τῶν ΔΑ. ἴσον ἐστὶ καὶ τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς ΔΑ τετράγωνον τῷ ἀπὸ τῆς ΑΒ τετραγώνῳ. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. 1. ing sides of the triangle is a right-angle.

ELEMENTS BOOK 2 Fundamentals of Geometric Algebra 49 .

parallel to BC [Prop.31].11]. Any rectangular parallelogram is said to be contained by the two straight-lines containing the rightangle. finally. καὶ ἔτι ὁμοίως τὸ ΕΘ τὸ ὑπὸ τῶν Α. τμηθῇ δὲ ἡ ἑτέρα αὐτῶν εἰς ὁσαδηποτοῦν τμήματα. 1. κατὰ τὰ Δ. I say that the rectangle contained by A and BC is equal to the rectangle(s) contained by A and BD. EH (is) also the (rectangle contained) by A and EC. ᾿Εὰν ἄρα ὦσι δύο εὐθεῖαι. ῎Ηχθω γὰρ ἀπὸ τοῦ Β τῇ ΒΓ πρὸς ὀρθὰς ἡ ΒΖ. and let BG be made equal to A [Prop. at points D and E. ΕΛ. (taken) with its two complements. and BG (is) equal to A. and let GH have been drawn through (point) G. by A and EC. ΕΓ. ΒΓ. ΒΓ περιεχομένον ὀρθογώνιον ἴσον ἐστὶ τῷ τε ὑπὸ τῶν Α. 1. τμηθῇ δὲ ἡ ἑτέρα αὐτῶν εἰς ὁσαIf there are two straight-lines. τὸ περιεχόμενον ὀρθογώνιον ὑπὸ τῶν into any number of pieces whatsoever. ΒΓ ἴσον ἐστὶ τῷ τε ὑπὸ Α. and let DK. ΒΔ. parallel to BG [Prop. 1. by A and DE. ΔΛ. ELEMENTS BOOK 2 VOroi. and CH have been drawn through (points) D. καὶ κείσθω τῇ Α ἴση ἡ ΒΗ. aþ. For it is contained by GB and BC. So the (rectangle) BH is equal to the (rectangles) BK. E. and. ΒΓ· περιέχεται μὲν γὰρ ὑπὸ τῶν ΗΒ. Πᾶν παραλληλόγραμμον ὀρθογώνιον περιέχεσθαι λέγεται ὑπὸ δύο τῶν τὴν ὀρθὴν γωνίαν περιεχουσῶν εὐθειῶν. ΒΔ· περιέχεται μὲν γὰρ ὑπὸ τῶν ΗΒ. ῎Ισον δή ἐστι τὸ ΒΘ τοῖς ΒΚ. EL. For let BF have been drawn from point B. And BH is the (rectangle contained) by A and BC. Α A Β ∆ Ε Γ Η Ζ Κ Λ Θ B G D E C K L H F ῎Εστωσαν δύο εὐθεῖαι αἱ Α. Proposition 1† ᾿Εὰν ὦσι δύο εὐθεῖαι. And BK (is) the (rectangle contained) by A and BD. be called a gnomon. τὸ δὲ ΔΛ τὸ ὑπὸ τῶν Α. Similarly. Ε σημεῖα· λέγω.34]. and C (respectively). Γ τῇ ΒΗ παράλληλοι ἤχθωσαν αἱ ΔΚ. ἴση δὲ ἡ ΒΗ τῇ Α· τὸ δὲ ΒΚ τὸ ὑπὸ τῶν Α. ΒΔ καὶ τῷ ὑπὸ Α. τουτέστιν ἡ ΒΗ. And DL (is) the (rectangle contained) by A and DE. DL. ΔΕ καὶ ἔτι τῷ ὑπὸ τῶν Α. and one of them is cut δηποτοῦν τμήματα. and let BC be cut. and EH. διὰ δὲ τῶν Δ. at random. ΒΓ. Thus. of the) rectangles contained by the uncut (straight-line). ἴση δὲ ἡ ΒΗ τῇ Α. ΔΕ· ἴση γὰρ ἡ ΔΚ. ΓΘ. ΒΔ περιεχομένῳ ὀρθογωνίῳ καὶ τῷ ὑπὸ τῶν Α. and BG (is) equal to A. For it is contained by GB and BD. the (rectangle contained) by A and BC is equal to the (rectangles contained) by A 50 . Definitions αʹ. and every one of the pieces (of the cut straight-line). καί ἐστι τὸ μὲν ΒΘ τὸ ὑπὸ τῶν Α. For DK. ὡς ἔτυχεν.STOIQEIWN bþ. Παντὸς δὲ παραλληλογράμμου χωρίου τῶν περὶ τὴν διάμετρον αὐτοῦ παραλληλογράμμων ἓν ὁποιονοῦν σὺν τοῖς δυσὶ παραπληρώμασι γνώμων καλείσθω. 1. καὶ διὰ μὲν τοῦ Η τῇ ΒΓ παράλληλος ἤχθω ἡ ΗΘ. βʹ. let any one whatsoever of the parallelograms about its diagonal. καὶ τετμήσθω ἡ ΒΓ. τῇ Α. ΕΘ. 1.3]. 2. ὅτι τὸ ὑπὸ τῶν Α. Ε. that is to say BG [Prop. (is) equal to A. ΔΕ καὶ ἔτι τῷ ὑπὸ Α. then the rectangle δύο εὐθειῶν ἴσον ἐστὶ τοῖς ὑπό τε τῆς ἀτμήτου καὶ ἑκάστου contained by the two straight-lines is equal to the (sum τῶν τμημάτων περιεχομένοις ὀρθογωνίοις. ΕΓ· τὸ ἄρα ὑπὸ τῶν Α. ΕΓ. at rightangles to BC [Prop.31]. τὸ περιεχόμενον ὀρθογώνιον ὑπὸ τῶν δύο εὐθειῶν ἴσον ἐστὶ τοῖς ὑπό τε τῆς ἀτμήτου καὶ ἑκάστου τῶν τμημάτων περιεχομένοις ὀρθογωνίοις· ὅπερ Let A and BC be the two straight-lines. 1. And in any parallelogrammic figure.

᾿Αναγεγράφθω γὰρ ἀπὸ τῆς ΑΒ τετράγωνον τὸ ΑΔΕΒ. 1. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. This proposition is a geometric version of the algebraic identity: a (b + c + d + · · · ) = a b + a c + a d + · · · . plus the rectangle contained by BA and AC. is equal to the square on AB. at random. is equal to the square on the whole. ΑΓ. ΓΕ. And AE is the square on AB. ἐστὶ τῷ ἀπὸ τῆς ὅλης τετραγώνῳ. ΑΓ περιεχομένου ὀρθογωνίου ἴσον ἐστὶ τῷ ἀπὸ τῆς ΑΒ τετραγώνῳ. For let the square ADEB have been described on AB [Prop. So the (square) AE is equal to the (rectangles) AF and CE. ΒΓ· ἴση γὰρ ἡ ΒΕ τῇ ΑΒ. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. And AF (is) the rectangle contained by the (straight-lines) BA and AC. ὅτι τὸ ὑπὸ τῶν ΑΒ. ΒΓ ἴσον ἐστὶ τῷ ἀπὸ τῆς ΑΒ τετραγώνῳ.31]. the (rectangle contained) by BA and AC. by A and EC. then the rectangle contained by the two straight-lines is equal to the (sum of the) rectangles contained by the uncut (straight-line). 1. if a straight-line is cut at random then the (sum of the) rectangle(s) contained by the whole (straightline). plus the (rectangle contained) by AB and BC. Thus. ῎Ισον δή ἐστὶ τὸ ΑΕ τοῖς ΑΖ. and each of the pieces (of the straight-line). τὸ δὲ ΑΖ τὸ ὑπὸ τῶν ΒΑ. τὸ ὑπὸ τῆς ὅλης If a straight-line is cut at random then the (sum of καὶ ἑκατέρου τῶν τμημάτων περιεχόμενον ὀρθογώνιον ἴσον the) rectangle(s) contained by the whole (straight-line). τὸ ἄρα ὑπὸ τῶν ΒΑ. For it is contained by DA and AC. ΑΓ μετὰ τοῦ ὑπὸ τῶν ΑΒ. is equal to the square on AB. at point C. I say that the rectangle contained by AB and BC. bþ. ELEMENTS BOOK 2 ἔδει δεῖξαι. ἴση δὲ ἡ ΑΔ τῇ ΑΒ· τὸ δὲ ΓΕ τὸ ὑπὸ τῶν ΑΒ. 51 . Thus. For BE (is) equal to AB.STOIQEIWN bþ. A C B D F E For let the straight-line AB have been cut. τὸ ὑπὸ τῆς ὅλης καὶ ἑκατέρου τῶν τμημάτων περιεχόμενον ὀρθογώνιον ἴσον ἐστὶ τῷ ἀπὸ τῆς ὅλης τετραγώνῳ· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. ὡς ἔτυχεν. ΑΓ περιεχόμενον ὀρθογώνιον· περιέχεται μὲν γὰρ ὑπὸ τῶν ΔΑ. ᾿Εὰν ἄρα εὐθεῖα γραμμὴ τμηθῇ. Α Γ Β ∆ Ζ Ε Εὐθεῖα γὰρ ἡ ΑΒ τετμήσθω. καί ἐστι τὸ μὲν ΑΕ τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς ΑΒ τετράγωνον. parallel to either of AD or BE [Prop. ΒΓ περιεχόμενον ὀρθογώνιον μετὰ τοῦ ὑπὸ ΒΑ. Proposition 2† ᾿Εὰν εὐθεῖα γραμμὴ τμηθῇ. by A and DE. and each of the pieces (of the straight-line). is equal to the square on the whole. and one of them is cut into any number of pieces whatsoever. ΒΕ παράλληλος ἡ ΓΖ. κατὰ τὸ Γ σημεῖον· λέγω. καὶ ἤχθω διὰ τοῦ Γ ὁποτέρᾳ τῶν ΑΔ. ὡς ἔτυχεν.46]. Thus. and let CF have been drawn through C. † and BD. if there are two straight-lines. and every one of the pieces (of the cut straight-line). and AD (is) equal to AB. ὡς ἔτυχεν. And CE (is) the (rectangle contained) by AB and BC. finally. and.

ὡς ἔτυχεν. τὸ ὑπὸ τῆς ὅλης καὶ ἑνὸς τῶν τμημάτων περιεχόμενον ὀρθογώνιον ἴσον ἐστὶ τῷ τε ὑπὸ τῶν τμημάτων περιεχομένῳ ὀρθογωνίῳ καὶ τῷ ἀπὸ τοῦ προειρημένου τμήματος τετραγώνῳ· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. καὶ διήχθω ἡ ΕΔ ἐπὶ τὸ Ζ. ᾿Αναγεγράφθω γὰρ ἀπὸ τῆς ΓΒ τετράγωνον τὸ ΓΔΕΒ. ΒΕ. And AD (is) the (rectangle contained) by AC and CB. dþ. ΒΓ περιεχόμενον ὀρθογώνιον· περιέχεται μὲν γὰρ ὑπὸ τῶν ΑΒ. is equal to the rectangle conἀπὸ τοῦ προειρημένου τμήματος τετραγώνῳ. τὸ ὑπὸ τῆς ὅλης If a straight-line is cut at random then the rectangle καὶ ἑνὸς τῶν τμημάτων περιεχόμενον ὀρθογώνιον ἴσον ἐστὶ contained by the whole (straight-line). and one of the τῷ τε ὑπὸ τῶν τμημάτων περιεχομένῳ ὀρθογωνίῳ καὶ τῷ pieces (of the straight-line). 1. ΒΕ παράλληλος ἤχθω ἡ ΑΖ. So the (rectangle) AE is equal to the (rectangle) AD and the (square) CE. This proposition is a geometric version of the algebraic identity: (a + b) a = a b + a2 . ΓΒ περιεχομένῳ ὀρθογωνίῳ μετὰ τοῦ ἀπὸ τῆς ΒΓ τετραγώνου. if a straight-line is cut at random then the rectangle contained by the whole (straight-line). ΓΒ· ἴση γὰρ ἡ ΔΓ τῇ ΓΒ· τὸ δὲ ΔΒ τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς ΓΒ τετράγωνον· τὸ ἄρα ὑπὸ τῶν ΑΒ. is equal to the rectangle contained by (both of) the pieces. tained by (both of) the pieces. ΓΕ· καί ἐστι τὸ μὲν ΑΕ τὸ ὑπὸ τῶν ΑΒ. And DB (is) the square on CB. ἴσον δή ἐστι τὸ ΑΕ τοῖς ΑΔ. and BE (is) equal to BC. For let the square CDEB have been described on CB [Prop. For DC (is) equal to CB. at (point) C. I say that the rectangle contained by AB and BC is equal to the rectangle contained by AC and CB. ὡς ἔτυχεν. plus the square on BC. ἴση δὲ ἡ ΒΕ τῇ ΒΓ· τὸ δὲ ΑΔ τὸ ὑπὸ τῶν ΑΓ. and twice the 52 . ὅτι τὸ ὑπὸ τῶν ΑΒ.on the whole (straight-line) is equal to the (sum of the) τραγώνοις καὶ τῷ δὶς ὑπὸ τῶν τμημάτων περιεχομένῳ ὀρθο. and let ED have been drawn through to F . and the square on the aforementioned piece. And AE is the rectangle contained by AB and BC.31]. τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς If a straight-line is cut at random then the square ὅλης τετράγωνον ἴσον ἐστὶ τοῖς τε ἀπὸ τῶν τμημάτων τε.STOIQEIWN bþ.squares on the pieces (of the straight-line). plus the square on BC. 1. Proposition 3† ᾿Εὰν εὐθεῖα γραμμὴ τμηθῇ. ΒΓ περιεχόμενον ὀρθογώνιον ἴσον ἐστὶ τῷ ὑπὸ τῶν ΑΓ. gþ. ΓΒ περιεχομένῳ ὀρθογωνίῳ μετὰ τοῦ ἀπὸ τῆς ΒΓ τετραγώνου. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. ὡς ἔτυχεν. at random. † A C B F D E For let the straight-line AB have been cut. For it is contained by AB and BE. and the square on the aforementioned piece. καὶ διὰ τοῦ Α ὁποτέρᾳ τῶν ΓΔ. † ELEMENTS BOOK 2 This proposition is a geometric version of the algebraic identity: a b + a c = a2 if a = b + c. parallel to either of CD or BE [Prop.46]. ΒΓ περιεχόμενον ὀρθογώνιον ἴσον ἐστὶ τῷ τε ὑπὸ τῶν ΑΓ. the rectangle contained by AB and BC is equal to the rectangle contained by AC and CB. Thus. Α Γ Β Ζ ∆ Ε Εὐθεῖα γὰρ ἡ ΑΒ τετμήσθω. Proposition 4† ᾿Εὰν εὐθεῖα γραμμὴ τμηθῇ. and one of the pieces (of the straight-line). ὡς ἔτυχεν. Thus. and let AF have been drawn through A. ᾿Εὰν ἄρα εὐθεῖα γραμμὴ τμηθῇ. κατὰ τὸ Γ· λέγω.

6]. For let the square ADEB have been described on AB [Prop. ΓΒ εἰσιν.31]. ὅτι τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς ΑΒ τετράγωνον ἴσον ἐστὶ τοῖς τε ἀπὸ τῶν ΑΓ. διὰ τὰ αὐτὰ δὴ καὶ τὸ ΘΖ τετράγωνόν ἐστιν· καί ἐστιν ἀπὸ τῆς ΘΗ.5]. 1. the angles KBC and GCB are thus equal to two right-angles [Prop. ΗΚΒ ὀρθαί εἰσιν. that is to say [on] AC [Prop. CGKB is right-angled. ΓΒ περιεχομένῳ ὀρθογωνίῳ. ἀλλὰ τὰ ΘΖ. at random. 1. 1. AG.31]. καὶ ἐπεζεύχθω ἡ ΒΔ. the external angle CGB is equal to the internal and opposite (angle) ADB [Prop. ΓΒ· τὰ ἄρα τέσσαρα τὰ ΘΖ. Thus. ἐπεὶ καὶ πλευρὰ ἡ ΒΑ τῇ ΑΔ ἐστιν ἴση· καὶ ἡ ὑπὸ ΓΗΒ ἄρα γωνιά τῇ ὑπὸ ΗΒΓ ἐστιν ἴση· ὥστε καὶ πλευρὰ ἡ ΒΓ πλευρᾷ τῇ ΓΗ ἐστιν ἴση· ἀλλ᾿ ἡ μὲν ΓΒ τῇ ΗΚ ἐστιν ἴση. Thus. And since CF is parallel to AD. λέγω δή. ΓΚ τετράγωνα ἀπὸ τῶν ΑΓ.29]. and BD has fallen across them. and let HK have been drawn through G. καὶ διὰ μὲν τοῦ Γ ὁποτέρᾳ τῶν ΑΔ. ΗΕ ὅλον ἐστὶ τὸ ΑΔΕΒ. ΚΓ τετράγωνα ἀπὸ τῶν ΑΓ. So I say that (it is) also right-angled. And it was also shown (to be) equilateral. ἡ ἐκτὸς γωνία ἡ ὑπὸ ΓΗΒ ἴση ἐστὶ τῇ ἐντὸς καὶ ἀπεναντίον τῇ ὑπὸ ΑΔΒ. Thus. But. ἔστι δὲ καὶ τὰ ΘΖ. rectangle contained by the pieces. So the opposite (angles) CGK and GKB are also right-angles [Prop. and let BD have been joined. καὶ ἐπεὶ παράλληλός ἐστιν ἡ ΓΖ τῇ ΑΔ. ΑΗ. at (point) C. And HF and CK are the squares on AC and CB (respectively). διὰ δὲ τοῦ Η ὁποτέρᾳ τῶν ΑΒ. ὅτι καὶ ὀρθογώνιον. Thus. For GC (is) equal to CB. For since CG is parallel to BK [and the straight-line CB has fallen across them]. ἐπεὶ γὰρ παράλληλός ἐστιν ἡ ΓΗ τῇ ΒΚ [καὶ εἰς αὐτὰς ἐμπέπτωκεν εὐθεῖα ἡ ΓΒ]. ἀλλ᾿ ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΔΒ τῇ ὑπὸ ΑΒΔ ἐστιν ἴση. ΓΚ. ΓΒ περιεχομένῳ ὀρθογωνίῳ.29]. ΗΕ ἴσα ἐστὶ τοῖς τε ἀπὸ τῶν ΑΓ. λέγω. ᾿Εὰν ἄρα εὐθεῖα γραμμὴ τμηθῇ. ΓΒ. 1.34]. Thus. But. the squares HF and KC are on AC and CB (respectively). ᾿Αναγεγράφθω γὰρ ἀπὸ τῆς ΑΒ τετράγωνον τὸ ΑΔΕΒ. HF is also a square. Α Θ ∆ Γ Η Ζ Β A Κ H Ε D Εὐθεῖα γὰρ γραμμὴ ἡ ΑΒ τετμήσθω. τουτέστιν [ἀπὸ] τῆς ΑΓ· τὰ ἄρα ΘΖ. ΑΗ. 1. ΗΕ ἴσα ἐστὶ τῷ δὶς ὑπὸ τῶν ΑΓ. 1. ELEMENTS BOOK 2 γωνίῳ. So the side BC is equal to the side CG [Prop. the four (figures) HF . ΓΒ τετραγώνοις καὶ τῷ δὶς ὑπὸ τῶν ΑΓ. and GE are equal to the (sum of the) squares on 53 .46]. I say that the square on AB is equal to the (sum of the) squares on AC and CB. Thus. καί ἐστι τὸ ΑΗ τὸ ὑπὸ τῶν ΑΓ. CB is equal to GK. CK. τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς C G F B K E For let the straight-line AB have been cut. ADB is equal to ABD. ἡ δὲ ΓΗ τῇ ΚΒ· καὶ ἡ ΗΚ ἄρα τῇ ΚΒ ἐστιν ἴση· ἰσόπλευρον ἄρα ἐστὶ τὸ ΓΗΚΒ. ΓΒ περιεχομένῳ ὀρθογωνίῳ. And it is on HG. ὅ ἐστιν ἀπὸ τῆς ΑΒ τετράγωνον· τὸ ἄρα ἀπὸ τῆς ΑΒ τετράγωνον ἴσον ἐστὶ τοῖς τε ἀπὸ τῶν ΑΓ. and CG to KB [Prop. 1. the (rectangles) AG and GE are equal to twice the (rectangle contained) by AC and CB.34]. ΓΒ τετραγώνοις καὶ τῷ δὶς ὑπὸ τῶν ΑΓ. 1. angle CGB is also equal to GBC.43]. ΓΒ· ἴση γὰρ ἡ ΗΓ τῇ ΓΒ· καὶ τὸ ΗΕ ἄρα ἴσον ἐστὶ τῷ ὑπὸ ΑΓ. καὶ εἰς αὐτὰς ἐμπέπτωκεν ἡ ΒΔ. CGKB is equilateral. And AG is the (rectangle contained) by AC and CB. ὡς ἔτυχεν. 1. parallel to either of AB or DE [Prop. Thus. since the side BA is also equal to AD [Prop. ΗΓΒ γωνίαι δύο ὀρθαῖς εἰσιν ἴσαι. for the same (reasons). Thus.STOIQEIWN bþ. BCG (is) also a rightangle. Thus. καὶ ἐπεὶ ἴσον ἐστὶ τὸ ΑΗ τῷ ΗΕ. κατὰ τὸ Γ. ΓΒ· τὰ ἄρα ΑΗ. and twice the rectangle contained by AC and CB. parallel to either of AD or EB [Prop. it is a square. 1. 1. And it is on CB. ὡς ἔτυχεν. αἱ ἄρα ὑπὸ ΚΒΓ.34]. So. ΓΚ. And the (rectangle) AG is equal to the (rectangle) GE [Prop. GE is also equal to the (rectangle contained) by AC and CB. ὀρθὴ δὲ ἡ ὑπὸ ΚΒΓ· ὀρθὴ ἄρα καὶ ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΓΗ· ὥστε καὶ αἱ ἀπεναντίον αἱ ὑπὸ ΓΗΚ. Thus. ΔΕ παράλληλος ἤχθω ἡ ΘΚ. ΕΒ παράλληλος ἤχθω ἡ ΓΖ. GK is also equal to KB. But KBC (is) a right-angle. ΓΒ τετραγώνοις καὶ τῷ δὶς ὑπὸ τῶν ΑΓ. ὀρθογώνιον ἄρα ἐστὶ τὸ ΓΗΚΒ· ἐδείχθη δὲ καὶ ἰσόπλευρον· τετράγωνον ἄρα ἐστίν· καί ἐστιν ἀπὸ τῆς ΓΒ. and let CF have been drawn through C.

1. εἰς δὲ ἄνισα κατὰ τὸ Δ· λέγω. AG. ΒΖ παράλληλος ἤχθω ἡ ΔΗ. since AC is also equal to CB [Prop. ΒΜ παράλληλος ἤχθω ἡ ΑΚ. is equal to the square on CB. Α Γ ∆ Β A C D O Ν Θ Κ Μ Λ Ξ Ε Η B H Μ K Ζ Εὐθεῖα γάρ τις ἡ ΑΒ τετμήσθω εἰς μὲν ἴσα κατὰ τὸ Γ. ὅτι τὸ ὑπὸ τῶν ΑΔ.36]. ὅ ἐστιν ἴσον τῷ ἀπὸ τῆς ΓΔ· ὁ ἄρα ΜΝΞ γνώμων καὶ τὸ ΛΗ ἴσα ἐστὶ τῷ ὑπὸ τῶν ΑΔ. ἀλλὰ τὸ ΑΘ τὸ ὑπὸ τῶν ΑΔ. and let DG have been drawn through D. For let the square CEF B have been described on CB [Prop. (rectangle) AL is also equal to (rectangle) DF . I say that the rectangle contained by AD and DB. and let BE have been joined. (equivalent to) the whole of ADEB. and again let AK have been drawn through A. κοινὸν προσκείσθω τὸ ΓΘ· ὅλον ἄρα τὸ ΑΘ τῷ ΜΝΞ† γνώμονι ἴσον ἐστίν. And since the complement CH is equal to the complement HF [Prop.and CB. AH 54 . Proposition 5‡ ᾿Εὰν εὐθεῖα γραμμὴ τμηθῇ εἰς ἴσα καὶ ἄνισα. parallel to either of AB or EF [Prop. καὶ ἐπεὶ ἴσον ἐστὶ τὸ ΓΘ παραπλήρωμα τῷ ΘΖ παραπληρώματι. Thus. and twice the rectangle contained by AC and CB. is equal to the square on half (of the straight-line).AC and BC. διὰ δὲ τοῦ Θ ὁποτέρᾳ τῶν ΑΒ. But. 1. καὶ ἐπεζεύχθω ἡ ΒΕ. which is the square on AB.31]. if a straight-line is cut at random then the square on the whole (straight-line) is equal to the (sum of the) squares on the pieces (of the straight-line). between the (equal and unequal) pieces. eþ. But. Let (rectangle) CH have been added to both. ᾿Αναγεγράφθω γὰρ ἀπὸ τῆς ΓΒ τετράγωνον τὸ ΓΕΖΒ.43]. Thus. and GE are γωνίῳ· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. ἐπεὶ καὶ ἡ ΑΓ τῇ ΓΒ ἐστιν ἴση· καὶ τὸ ΑΛ ἄρα τῷ ΔΖ ἴσον ἐστίν. But. the whole (rectangle) CM is equal to the whole (rectangle) DF . 1. 1. ΔΒ περιεχομένῳ ὀρθογωνίῳ καὶ τῷ ἀπὸ τῆς N L P E G M F For let any straight-line AB have been cut—equally at C. ἀλλὰ τὸ ΓΜ τῷ ΑΛ ἴσον ἐστίν. 1. † This proposition is a geometric version of the algebraic identity: (a + b)2 = a2 + b2 + 2 a b. let the (square) DM have been added to both. and again let KM have been drawn through H. and unequally at D. plus the square on the (difference) ἀπὸ τῆς ἡμισείας τετραγώνῳ. τὸ ὑπὸ τῶν If a straight-line is cut into equal and unequal (pieces) ἀνίσων τῆς ὅλης τμημάτων περιεχόμενον ὀρθογώνιον μετὰ then the rectangle contained by the unequal pieces of the τοῦ ἀπὸ τῆς μεταξὺ τῶν τομῶν τετραγώνου ἴσον ἐστὶ τῷ whole (straight-line). parallel to either of CL or BM [Prop. plus the square on CD. κοινὸν προσκείσθω τὸ ΛΗ. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show.31]. καὶ πάλιν διὰ τοῦ Α ὁποτέρᾳ τῶν ΓΛ. CK. (rectangle) CM is equal to (rectangle) AL. 1. ΔΒ. κοινὸν προσκείσθω τὸ ΔΜ· ὅλον ἄρα τὸ ΓΜ ὅλῳ τῷ ΔΖ ἴσον ἐστίν. ΔΒ ἐστιν· ἴση γὰρ ἡ ΔΘ τῇ ΔΒ· καὶ ὁ ΜΝΞ ἄρα γνώμων ἴσος ἐστὶ τῷ ὑπὸ ΑΔ.31]. ΔΒ περιεχόμενον ὀρθογώνιον μετὰ τοῦ ἀπὸ τῆς ΓΔ τετραγώνου ἴσον ἐστὶ τῷ ἀπὸ τῆς ΓΒ τετραγώνῳ. ELEMENTS BOOK 2 ὅλης τετράγωνον ἴσον ἐστὶ τοῖς τε ἀπὸ τῶν τμημάτων τε.STOIQEIWN bþ. the square on AB is equal to the (sum of the) squares on AC and CB. Thus. Thus. the (figures) HF . Thus.46]. and twice the rectangle contained by AC τραγώνοις καὶ τῷ δὶς ὑπὸ τῶν τμημάτων περιεχομένῳ ὀρθο. καὶ διὰ μὲν τοῦ Δ ὁποτέρᾳ τῶν ΓΕ. and twice the rectangle contained by the pieces. parallel to either of CE or BF [Prop. ΕΖ παράλληλος πάλιν ἤχθω ἡ ΚΜ. the whole (rectangle) AH is equal to the gnomon N OP .

and any straight-line added to it straight-on. and let BG have been drawn through point B. ΔΒ περιεχόμενον ὀρθογώνιον μετὰ τοῦ ἀπὸ τῆς ΓΒ τετραγώνου ἴσον ἐστὶ τῷ ἀπὸ τῆς ΓΔ τετραγώνῳ. then the rectangle contained by the whole (straight-line) with the (straight-line) having being added. ELEMENTS BOOK 2 ΓΔ τετραγώνῳ.46]. and the (straight-line) having being added. προσκείσθω δέ τις αὐτῇ εὐθεῖα ἐπ᾿ εὐθείας ἡ ΒΔ· λέγω. 1. καὶ ἔτι διὰ τοῦ Α ὁποτέρᾳ τῶν ΓΛ. But. and let DE have been joined. if a straight-line is cut into equal and unequal (pieces) then the rectangle contained by the unequal pieces of the whole (straight-line). is equal to the square on CB. For let the square CEF D have been described on CD [Prop. † Note the (presumably mistaken) double use of the label M in the Greek text. þ. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. Α Γ Β ∆ A C B Θ Κ Λ Ν H Μ K N L Η M P Ο Ε D O Ξ Ζ E Εὐθεῖα γάρ τις ἡ ΑΒ τετμήσθω δίχα κατὰ τὸ Γ σημεῖον. Thus. ΔΒ περιεχόμενον ὀρθογώνιον μετὰ τοῦ ἀπὸ τῆς ΓΔ τετραγώνου ἴσον ἐστὶ τῷ ἀπὸ τῆς ΓΒ τετραγώνῳ. ‡ This proposition is a geometric version of the algebraic identity: a b + [(a + b)/2 − b]2 = [(a + b)/2]2 . have been added to both. ᾿Αναγεγράφθω γὰρ ἀπὸ τῆς ΓΔ τετράγωνον τὸ ΓΕΖΔ. ᾿Επεὶ οὖν ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ΑΓ τῇ ΓΒ. ᾿Εὰν ἄρα εὐθεῖα γραμμὴ τμηθῇ εἰς ἴσα καὶ ἄνισα. and let KM have been drawn through point H. and the square on CD. ΕΖ παράλληλος ἤχθω ἡ ΚΜ. plus the square on CD. plus the square on half (of the original straight-line). parallel to either of EC or DF [Prop.STOIQEIWN bþ. If a straight-line is cut in half. ἴσον ἐστὶ καὶ τὸ ΑΛ G F For let any straight-line AB have been cut in half at point C. is equal to the square on CD. ἀλλὰ ὁ ΜΝΞ γνώμων καὶ τὸ ΛΗ ὅλον ἐστὶ τὸ ΓΕΖΒ τετράγωνον. I say that the rectangle contained by AD and DB. διὰ δὲ τοῦ Θ σημείου ὁποτέρᾳ τῶν ΑΒ. τὸ ὑπὸ τῆς ὅλης σὺν τῇ προσκειμένῃ καὶ τῆς προσκειμένης περιεχόμενον ὀρθόγώνιον μετὰ τοῦ ἀπὸ τῆς ἡμισείας τετραγώνου ἴσον ἐστὶ τῷ ἀπὸ τῆς συγκειμένης ἔκ τε τῆς ἡμισείας καὶ τῆς προσκειμένης τετραγώνῳ. plus the square on CB. For DH (is) equal to DB. Thus. 1. which is equal to the (square) on CD. ΔΜ παράλληλος ἤχθω ἡ ΑΚ. Proposition 6† ᾿Εὰν εὐθεῖα γραμμὴ τμηθῇ δίχα. καὶ ἐπεζεύχθω ἡ ΔΕ. 1. ΔΖ παράλληλος ἤχθω ἡ ΒΗ. parallel to either of AB or EF [Prop. Let LG. τὸ ὑπὸ τῶν ἀνίσων τῆς ὅλης τμημάτων περιεχόμενον ὀρθογώνιον μετὰ τοῦ ἀπὸ τῆς μεταξὺ τῶν τομῶν τετραγώνου ἴσον ἐστὶ τῷ ἀπὸ τῆς ἡμισείας τετραγώνῳ. plus the square on the (difference) between the (equal and unequal) pieces. is equal to the square on half (of the straight-line).31]. the gnomon N OP is also equal to the (rectangle contained) by AD and DB.31]. the gnomon N OP and the (square) LG is (equivalent to) the whole square CEF B. προστεθῇ δέ τις αὐτῇ εὐθεῖα ἐπ᾿ εὐθείας. καὶ διὰ μὲν τοῦ Β σημείου ὁποτέρᾳ τῶν ΕΓ. and let any straight-line BD have been added to it straight-on. and finally let AK have been drawn 55 . which is on CB. is the (rectangle contained) by AD and DB. ὅ ἐστιν ἀπὸ τῆς ΓΒ· τὸ ἄρα ὑπὸ τῶν ΑΔ. the rectangle contained by AD and DB. ὅτι τὸ ὑπὸ τῶν ΑΔ. is equal to the square on the sum of half (of the original straight-line) and the (straight-line) having been added. ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. Thus. Thus. the gnomon N OP and the (square) LG are equal to the rectangle contained by AD and DB.

31]. the rectangle contained by AD and DB. καὶ τὸ ΑΛ ἄρα τῷ ΘΖ ἐστιν ἴσον. † through A. and the (straight-line) having being added. τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς ὅλης καὶ τὸ ἀφ᾿ ἑνὸς τῶν τμημάτων τὰ συναμφότερα τετράγωνα ἴσα ἐστὶ τῷ τε δὶς ὑπὸ τῆς ὅλης καὶ τοῦ εἰρημένου τμήματος περιεχομένῳ ὀρθογωνίῳ καὶ τῷ ἀπὸ τοῦ λοιποῦ τμήματος τετραγώνῳ. But. But. κοινὸν προσκείσθω τὸ ΛΗ. parallel to either of CL or DM [Prop. ΔΒ περιεχόμενον ὀρθογώνιον μετὰ τοῦ ἀπὸ τῆς ΓΒ τετραγώνου ἴσον ἐστὶ τῷ ΝΞΟ γνώμονι καὶ τῷ ΛΗ. ὅ ἐστιν ἀπὸ τῆς ΓΔ· τὸ ἄρα ὑπὸ τῶν ΑΔ. But the gnomon N OP and the (square) LG is (equivalent to) the whole square CEF D. Therefore. κοινὸν προσκείσθω τὸ ΓΜ· ὅλον ἄρα τὸ ΑΜ τῷ ΝΞΟ γνώμονί ἐστιν ἴσον. is equal to the square on the sum of half (of the original straight-line) and the (straight-line) having been added. then the rectangle contained by the whole (straight-line) with the (straight-line) having being added.43]. is equal to twice the rectangle contained by the whole. and any straightline added to it straight-on. (rectangle) AL is also equal to (rectangle) HF . If a straight-line is cut at random then the sum of the squares on the whole (straight-line). ὅ ἐστιν ἴσον τῷ ἀπὸ τῆς ΒΓ τετραγώνῳ· τὸ ἄρα ὑπὸ τῶν ΑΔ. Let (rectangle) CM have been added to both. ΔΒ· ἴση γάρ ἐστιν ἡ ΔΜ τῇ ΔΒ· καὶ ὁ ΝΞΟ ἄρα γνώμων ἴσος ἐστὶ τῷ ὑπὸ τῶν ΑΔ. Let LG. plus the square on half (of the original straightline). is equal to the gnomon N OP and the (square) LG. Α Γ Β A C Λ Θ Η Κ L Ζ H Μ ∆ Ν B K G F M Ε D N E Εὐθεῖα γάρ τις ἡ ΑΒ τετμήσθω. the whole (rectangle) AM is equal to the gnomon N OP . 1. Thus. σημεῖον· λέγω. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. ELEMENTS BOOK 2 τῷ ΓΘ. Thus. 1. ΔΒ [περιεχομένῳ ὀρθογωνίῳ]. ὡς ἔτυχεν. 1. κατὰ τὸ Γ For let any straight-line AB have been cut. ΒΓ τετράγωνα ἴσα ἐστὶ at point C. and one of the pieces (of the straight-line). at random. I say that the (sum of the) squares on AB and τῷ τε δὶς ὑπὸ τῶν ΑΒ. This proposition is a geometric version of the algebraic identity: (2 a + b) b + a2 = (a + b)2 . ἀλλὰ τὸ ΑΜ ἐστι τὸ ὑπὸ τῶν ΑΔ. ὅτι τὰ ἀπὸ τῶν ΑΒ. ἀλλὰ ὁ ΝΞΟ γνώμων καὶ τὸ ΛΗ ὅλον ἐστὶ τὸ ΓΕΖΔ τετράγωνον. if a straight-line is cut in half. since AC is equal to CB. Thus.36]. ᾿Εὰν ἄρα εὐθεῖα γραμμὴ τμηθῇ δίχα. προστεθῇ δέ τις αὐτῇ εὐθεῖα ἐπ᾿ εὐθείας. Thus. which is on CD. plus the square on CB. ΒΓ περιεχομένῳ ὀρθογωνίῳ καὶ τῷ BC is equal to twice the rectangle contained by AB and 56 . (rectangle) AL is also equal to (rectangle) CH [Prop. plus the square on CB. gnomon N OP is also equal to the [rectangle contained] by AD and DB. the rectangle contained by AD and DB. zþ. ΔΒ περιεχόμενον ὀρθογώνιον μετὰ τοῦ ἀπὸ τῆς ΓΒ τετραγώνου ἴσον ἐστὶ τῷ ἀπὸ τῆς ΓΔ τετραγώνῳ.STOIQEIWN bþ. Thus. τὸ ὑπὸ τῆς ὅλης σὺν τῇ προσκειμένῃ καὶ τῆς προσκειμένης περιεχόμενον ὀρθόγώνιον μετὰ τοῦ ἀπὸ τῆς ἡμισείας τετραγώνου ἴσον ἐστὶ τῷ ἀπὸ τῆς συγκειμένης ἔκ τε τῆς ἡμισείας καὶ τῆς προσκειμένης τετραγώνῳ· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. is equal to the square on CD. ὡς ἔτυχεν. (rectangle) CH is equal to (rectangle) HF [Prop. have been added to both. AM is the (rectangle contained) by AD and DB. For DM is equal to DB. and the said piece. Thus. ἀλλὰ τὸ ΓΘ τῷ ΘΖ ἴσον ἐστίν. and the square on the remaining piece. Proposition 7† ᾿Εὰν εὐθεῖα γραμμὴ τμηθῇ. which is equal to the square on BC.

(Which is) the very thing it was required to show. ἔστι δὲ τοῦ ΑΖ διπλάσιον καὶ τὸ δὶς ὑπὸ τῶν ΑΒ. if a straight-line is cut at random then the sum of the squares on the whole (straight-line). ᾿Εὰν ἄρα εὐθεῖα γραμμὴ τμηθῇ. ὡς ἔτυχεν. Let DG. and let the square AEF D have been described on AD [Prop. Thus. let the (square) CF have been added to both. which is the square on AC. 57 . For BF (is) equal to BC. Therefore. 1. which are the squares on AB and BC (respectively). (rectangle) AF plus (rectangle) CE is double (rectangle) AF .46]. But. κατὰ τὸ Γ σημεῖον· λέγω. ΒΓ. ᾿Επεὶ οὖν ἴσον ἐστὶ τὸ ΑΗ τῷ ΗΕ. and the square CF . (rectangle) AF plus (rectangle) CE is the gnomon KLM . ὅ ἐστιν ἀπὸ τῆς ΑΓ τετράγωνον· ὁ ἄρα ΚΛΜ γνώμων καὶ τὰ ΒΗ. ἀλλὰ ὁ ΚΛΜ γνώμων καὶ τὰ ΒΗ. † BC. the gnomon KLM . τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς ὅλης καὶ τὸ ἀφ᾿ ἑνὸς τῶν τμημάτων τὰ συναμφότερα τετράγωνα ἴσα ἐστὶ τῷ τε δὶς ὑπὸ τῆς ὅλης καὶ τοῦ εἰρημένου τμήματος περιεχομένῳ ὀρθογωνίῳ καὶ τῷ ἀπὸ τοῦ λοιποῦ τμήματος τετραγώνῳ· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. 1. and the squares BG and GD. and the square on the remaining piece. κοινὸν προσκείσθω τὸ ΓΖ· ὅλον ἄρα τὸ ΑΖ ὅλῳ τῷ ΓΕ ἴσον ἐστίν· τὰ ἄρα ΑΖ. τὸ τετράκις ὑπὸ τῆς ὅλης καὶ ἑνὸς τῶν τμημάτων περιεχόμενον ὀρθογώνιον μετὰ τοῦ ἀπὸ τοῦ λοιποῦ τμήματος τετραγώνου ἴσον ἐστὶ τῷ ἀπό τε τῆς ὅλης καὶ τοῦ εἰρημένου τμήματος ὡς ἀπὸ μιᾶς ἀναγραφέντι τετραγώνῳ. ΒΓ· ἴση γὰρ ἡ ΒΖ τῇ ΒΓ· ὁ ἄρα ΚΛΜ γνώμων καὶ τὸ ΓΖ τετράγωνον ἴσον ἐστὶ τῷ δὶς ὑπὸ τῶν ΑΒ.STOIQEIWN bþ. This proposition is a geometric version of the algebraic identity: (a + b)2 + a2 = 2 (a + b) a + b2 . are equal to twice the (rectangle contained) by AB and BC. ΒΓ ὡς ἀπὸ μιᾶς ἀναγραφέντι τετραγώνῳ. as on one (complete straightline).3]. ΗΔ τετράγωνα ἴσα ἐστὶ τῷ τε δὶς ὑπὸ τῶν ΑΒ. 1. ᾿Αναγεγράφθω γὰρ ἀπὸ τῆς ΑΒ τετράγωνον τὸ ΑΔΕΒ· καὶ καταγεγράφθω τὸ σχῆμα. is equal to twice the rectangle contained by the whole. is equal to the square described on AB and BC. the (sum of the) squares on AB and BC is equal to twice the rectangle contained by AB and BC. since (rectangle) AG is equal to (rectangle) GE [Prop. ὅτι τὸ τετράκις ὑπὸ τῶν ΑΒ. and the square on AC. ὡς ἔτυχεν. For let BD have been produced in a straight-line [with the straight-line AB]. ΗΔ τετράγωνα ὅλον ἐστὶ τὸ ΑΔΕΒ καὶ τὸ ΓΖ. For let the square ADEB have been described on AB [Prop. For let any straight-line AB have been cut. and the square CF . ᾿Εκβεβλήσθω γὰρ ἐπ᾿ εὐθείας [τῇ ΑΒ εὐθεῖα] ἡ ΒΔ. and the said piece. 1. hþ. ὡς ἔτυχεν. But double the (rectangle) AF is also twice the (rectangle contained) by AB and BC. the whole (rectangle) AF is equal to the whole (rectangle) CE. ΒΓ τετράγωνα ἴσα ἐστὶ τῷ [τε] δὶς ὑπὸ τῶν ΑΒ. the gnomon KLM . If a straight-line is cut at random then four times the rectangle contained by the whole (straight-line). is equal to the square described on the whole and the former piece. Thus. the gnomon KLM and the squares BG and GD is (equivalent to) the whole of ADEB and CF . ΒΓ περιεχομένῳ ὀρθογωνίῳ μετὰ τοῦ ἀπὸ τῆς ΑΓ τετραγώνου. ΓΕ ὁ ΚΛΜ ἐστι γνώμων καὶ τὸ ΓΖ τετράγωνον· ὁ ΚΛΜ ἄρα γνώμων καὶ τὸ ΓΖ διπλάσιά ἐστι τοῦ ΑΖ. at random. as on one (complete straight-line). and let BD be made equal to CB [Prop. ΒΓ τετράγωνα· τὰ ἄρα ἀπὸ τῶν ΑΒ. is double the (rectangle) AF . at point C. plus the square on AC.43]. I say that four times the rectangle contained by AB and BC. Thus. καὶ κείσθω τῇ ΓΒ ἴση ἡ ΒΔ. Thus. ELEMENTS BOOK 2 ἀπὸ τῆς ΓΑ τετραγώνῳ. Thus. ΒΓ περιεχομένῳ ὀρθογωνίῳ καὶ τῷ ἀπὸ τῆς ΑΓ τετραγώνῳ. καὶ καταγεγράφθω διπλοῦν τὸ σχῆμα. and the square CF . are equal to twice the rectangle contained by AB and BC. κοινὸν προσκείσθω τὸ ΔΗ. and the square on AC. and one of the pieces (of the straight-line). Thus. ΓΕ διπλάσιά ἐστι τοῦ ΑΖ. ΒΓ περιεχόμενον ὀρθογώνιον μετὰ τοῦ ἀπὸ τῆς ΑΓ τετραγώνου ἴσον ἐστὶ τῷ ἀπὸ τῆς ΑΒ. and the square on CA. and let the (rest of) the figure have been drawn. and let the (rest of the) figure have been drawn double. Proposition 8† ᾿Εὰν εὐθεῖα γραμμὴ τμηθῇ. have been added to both. the gnomon KLM . Thus. καὶ ἀναγεγράφθω ἀπὸ τῆς ΑΔ τετράγωνον τὸ ΑΕΖΔ. plus the square on the remaining piece. ἅ ἐστιν ἀπὸ τῶν ΑΒ. But.46]. Εὐθεῖα γάρ τις ἡ ΑΒ τετμήσθω. and one of the pieces (of the straight-line). ἀλλὰ τὰ ΑΖ.

Thus. GR. Thus. ᾿Εὰν ἄρα εὐθεῖα γραμμὴ τμηθῇ. ὅ ἐστιν ἴσον τῷ ἀπὸ τῆς ΑΓ τετραγώνῳ· τὸ ἄρα τετράκις ὑπὸ τῶν ΑΒ. καὶ ἐπεὶ ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ μὲν ΓΗ τῇ ΗΠ. (square) KD is also equal to (square) GR. plus the square on AC. CK. ΒΔ τετραπλάσιόν ἐστι τοῦ ΑΚ. ἡ δὲ ΠΡ τῇ ΡΟ. τὰ τέσσαρα ἄρα τετραπλάσιά ἐστι τοῦ ΓΚ. ὅ ἐστιν ἀπὸ τῆς ΑΔ· τὸ ἄρα τετράκις ὑπὸ τῶν ΑΒ.36]. 1. which comprise the gnomon ST U .36]. which is equal to the square on AC. QL.43]. ΒΔ ἐστιν· ἴση γὰρ ἡ ΒΚ τῇ ΒΔ· τὸ ἄρα τετράκις ὑπὸ τῶν ΑΒ. four times the (rectangle contained) by AB and BD is equal to the gnomon ST U . four times the (rectangle contained) by AB and BD is quadruple (rectangle) AK. GQ—CG is thus also equal to GQ. and QR to RP . ἃ περιέχει τὸν ΣΤΥ γνώμονα. have been added to both. four times the rectangle contained by AB and BD. the four (taken together) are quadruple (rectangle) AG. ἴσον ἐστὶ καὶ τὸ μὲν ΑΗ τῷ ΜΠ. τετραπλάσιά ἐστι τοῦ ΑΚ. ΒΓ περιεχόμενον ὀρθογώνιον μετὰ τοῦ ἀπὸ ΑΓ τετραγώνου ἴσον ἐστὶ τῷ ἀπὸ τῆς ΑΔ. And since CG is equal to GQ. 1. ΗΡ. καὶ ἐπεὶ τὸ ΑΚ τὸ ὑπὸ τῶν ΑΒ. and (square) GR to (square) RN [Prop. But. but BD (is) equal to BK—that is to say. the eight (figures taken together). ἡ δὲ ΗΚ τῇ ΚΝ. ΒΔ περιεχόμενον ὀρθογώνιον μετὰ τοῦ ἀπὸ ΑΓ τετραγώνου ἴσον ἐστὶ τῷ ΣΤΥ γνώμονι καὶ τῷ ΞΘ. ἡ δὲ ΒΔ τῇ ΚΝ. (rectangle) AG is also equal to (rectangle) RF . and RN (taken together are) quadruple (square) CK. 1. τὸ τετράκις ὑπὸ τῆς ὅλης καὶ ἑνὸς τῶν τμημάτων περιεχόμενον ὀρθογώνιον μετὰ τοῦ ἀπὸ τοῦ λοιποῦ τμήματος τετραγώνου ἴσου H L F Therefore. M Q. but CB is equal to GK [Prop. since CB is equal to BD. KD. διὰ τὰ αὐτὰ δὴ καὶ ἡ ΠΡ τῇ ΡΟ ἐστιν ἴση. since CB is equal to BD. ΡΖ ἴσα ἀλλήλοις ἐστίν· τὰ τέσσαρα ἄρα τοῦ ΑΗ ἐστι τετραπλάσια. And since BC is equal to BD. τουτέστι τῇ ΗΠ. καὶ ἐπεὶ ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ΒΓ τῂ ΒΔ. But. ἀλλὰ ὁ ΣΤΥ γνώμων καὶ τὸ ΞΘ ὅλον ἐστὶ τὸ ΑΕΖΔ τετράγωνον. (square) CK is thus also equal to (square) KD. ΒΔ ἴσον ἐστὶ τῷ ΣΤΥ γνώμονι.34]. ἴσον ἄρα ἐστὶ καὶ τὸ μὲν ΓΚ τῷ ΚΔ. the four (squares) DK. GK is thus also equal to KN . ΒΔ μετὰ τοῦ ἀπὸ ΑΓ ἴσον ἐστὶ τῷ ἀπὸ ΑΔ τετραγώνῳ· ἴση δὲ ἡ ΒΔ τῇ ΒΓ. ἐδείχθη δὲ καὶ τὰ τέσσαρα τὰ ΓΚ. Thus. 1. (rectangle) M Q is equal to (rectangle) QL.STOIQEIWN bþ. ΜΠ. for BK (is) equal to BD. καὶ ἡ ΓΗ ἄρα τῇ ΗΠ ἴση ἐστίν. τὸ ἄρα τετράκις ὑπὸ τῶν ΑΒ. κοινὸν προσκείσθω τὸ ΞΘ.34]. GR. 58 . ἀλλὰ τὸ ΜΠ τῷ ΠΛ ἐστιν ἴσον· παραπληρώματα γὰρ τοῦ ΜΛ παραλληλογράμμου· καὶ τὸ ΑΗ ἄρα τῷ ΡΖ ἴσον ἐστίν· τὰ τέσσαρα ἄρα τὰ ΑΗ. Thus. for the same (reasons). 1. (square) CK is equal to (square) RN . For (they are) complements in the parallelogram CP [Prop. ΠΛ. Thus. τουτέστι τῷ ἀπὸ τῆς ΑΒ καὶ ΒΓ ὡς ἀπὸ μιᾶς ἀναγραφέντι τετραγώνῳ. Again. and RN are equal to one another. (rectangle) AG is also equal to (rectangle) M Q. καὶ ἡ ΗΚ ἄρα τῇ ΚΝ ἐστιν ἴση. But the gnomon ST U was also shown (to be equal to) quadruple (rectangle) AK. ἀλλὰ ἡ μὲν ΒΔ τῇ ΒΚ. ἀλλὰ τὸ ΓΚ τῷ ΡΝ ἐστιν ἴσον· παραπληρώματα γὰρ τοῦ ΓΟ παραλληλογράμμου· καὶ τὸ ΚΔ ἄρα τῷ ΗΡ ἴσον ἐστίν· τὰ τέσσαρα ἄρα τὰ ΔΚ. Thus. But. τουτέστι τῇ ΓΗ ἴση. Thus. and (rectangle) QL to (rectangle) RF [Prop. the four (taken together) are quadruple (square) CK. Thus. For (they are) complements in the parallelogram M L [Prop. ΡΝ τοῦ ΓΚ τετραπλάσια· τὰ ἄρα ὀκτώ. ΡΝ ἴσα ἀλλήλοις ἐστίν. ΚΔ. 1. Let OH. ἐδείχθη δὲ τοῦ ΑΚ τετραπλάσιος καὶ ὁ ΣΤΥ γνώμων· τὸ ἄρα τετράκις ὑπὸ τῶν ΑΒ. Thus. ΗΡ. πάλιν ἐπεὶ ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ΓΒ τῇ ΒΔ. and the (square) OH.43]. ἡ δὲ ΓΒ τῇ ΗΚ. And it was also shown that the four (squares) CK. CG—and CB is equal to GK—that is to say. And since AK is the (rectangle contained) by AB and BD. and RF are equal to one another. ὡς ἔτυχεν. and GK to KN . QR is equal to RP . is equal to the gnomon ST U . are quadruple (rectangle) AK. ELEMENTS BOOK 2 Α Γ Β ∆ A C B Τ Η Μ Ξ Κ Π Σ Ρ T Ν M Ο O Υ Ε Θ D G K S Q R N P U Λ Ζ E ᾿Επεὶ οὖν ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ΓΒ τῇ ΒΔ. τὸ δὲ ΗΡ τῷ ΡΝ. and BD to KN [Prop. the four (rectangles) AG. ἀλλὰ ἡ μὲν ΓΒ τῇ ΗΚ ἐστιν ἴση. So. ἐστιν ἴση. τὸ δὲ ΠΛ τῷ ΡΖ. ΓΚ.

1. four times the (rectangle contained) by AB and BD.31]. the angle EAC is also equal to the (angle) AEC [Prop. parallel to EC [Prop. if a straight-line is cut at random then four times the rectangle contained by the whole (straight-line). And let DF have been drawn through (point) D. ἴση ἐστὶ καὶ ἡ ὑπὸ ΕΑΓ γωνία τῇ ὑπὸ ΑΕΓ. EAC and AEC. and unequally at D. καὶ κείσθω ἴση ἑκατέρᾳ τῶν ΑΓ. I say that the (sum of the) squares on AD and DB is double the (sum of the squares) on AC and CD. Ε Η Α Γ E Ζ ∆ G Β A Εὐθεῖα γάρ τις ἡ ΑΒ τετμήσθω εἰς μὲν ἴσα κατὰ τὸ Γ. ΕΒ. λοιπαὶ ἄρα αἱ ὑπὸ ΕΑΓ. four times the rectangle contained by AB and BC. and let it be made equal to each of AC and CB [Prop. which is on AD. ΑΕΓ μιᾷ ὀρθῇ ἴσαι εἰσίν· καί εἰσιν ἴσαι· ἡμίσεια ἄρα ὀρθῆς ἐστιν ἑκατέρα τῶν ὑπὸ ΓΕΑ. And since the (angle) at C is a right-angle. ΓΔ τετραγώνων.STOIQEIWN bþ. (parallel) to AB [Prop. And since AC is equal to CE. 1. is thus equal to one right- 59 . ὀρθὴ δὲ ἡ ὑπὸ ΕΗΖ· ἴση γάρ ἐστι τῇ ἐντὸς καὶ ἀπεναντίον τῇ ὑπὸ ΕΓΒ· λοιπὴ ἄρα ἡ ὑπὸ ΕΖΗ ἡμίσειά ἐστιν C F D B For let any straight-line AB have been cut—equally at C. καὶ ἐπεζεύχθωσαν αἱ ΕΑ. the (sum of the) remaining angles (of triangle AEC). 1. is equal to the (square) on AD. and one of the pieces (of the straight-line).3].5]. δὶα τὰ αὐτὰ δὴ καὶ ἑκατέρα τῶν ὑπὸ ΓΕΒ. Thus. ΓΒ. ῎Ηχθω γὰρ ἀπὸ τοῦ Γ τῇ ΑΒ πρὸς ὀρθὰς ἡ ΓΕ. plus the square on the remaining piece. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. καὶ ἐπεὶ ἡ ὑπὸ ΗΕΖ ἡμίσειά ἐστιν ὀρθῆς. ΕΒΓ ἡμίσειά ἐστιν ὀρθῆς· ὅλη ἄρα ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΕΒ ὀρθή ἐστιν. 1. For let CE have been drawn from (point) C. and let EA and EB have been joined. And BD (is) equal to BC. jþ. plus the (square) on AC. as on one (complete straight-line). καὶ διὰ μὲν τοῦ Δ τῇ ΕΓ παράλληλος ἤχθω ἡ ΔΖ. † the gnomon ST U and the (square) OH is (equivalent to) the whole square AEF D. is equal to the square on AD. ὅτι τὰ ἀπὸ τῶν ΑΔ. on half (the straight-line) and (the square) on the (difference) between the (equal and unequal) pieces. καὶ ἐπεὶ ὀρθή ἐστιν ἡ πρὸς τῷ Γ. that is to say the square described on AB and BC. at rightangles to AB [Prop. And let AF have been joined.31].11]. as on one (complete straight-line). ΔΒ τετράγωνα διπλάσιά ἐστι τῶν ἀπὸ τῶν ΑΓ. plus the square on AC. Thus. ELEMENTS BOOK 2 ἐστὶ τῷ ἀπό τε τῆς ὅλης καὶ τοῦ εἰρημένου τμήματος ὡς ἀπὸ μιᾶς ἀναγραφέντι τετραγώνῳ· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. 1. τὰ ἀπὸ If a straight-line is cut into equal and unequal (pieces) τῶν ἀνίσων τῆς ὅλης τμημάτων τετράγωνα διπλάσιά ἐστι then the (sum of the) squares on the unequal pieces of the τοῦ τε ἀπὸ τῆς ἡμισείας καὶ τοῦ ἀπὸ τῆς μεταξὺ τῶν τομῶν whole (straight-line) is double the (sum of the) square τετραγώνου. Thus. καὶ ἐπεζεύχθω ἡ ΑΖ. διὰ δὲ τοῦ Ζ τῇ ΑΒ ἡ ΖΗ. εἱς δὲ ἄνισα κατὰ τὸ Δ· λέγω. This proposition is a geometric version of the algebraic identity: 4 (a + b) a + b2 = [(a + b) + a]2 . ΓΑΕ. and (let) F G (have been drawn) through (point) F . is equal to the square described on the whole and the former piece. Proposition 9† ᾿Εὰν εὐθεῖα γραμμὴ τμηθῇ εἰς ἴσα καὶ ἄνισα. καὶ ἐπεὶ ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ΑΓ τῇ ΓΕ.

and (angle) F DB (is) a right-angle—for again it is equal to the internal and opposite (angle) ECB [Prop. And DF (is) equal to DB. ΓΔ τετραγώνων. ΕΖ ἴσον ἐστὶ τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς ΑΖ τετράγωνον· ὀρθὴ γάρ ἐστιν ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΕΖ γωνία· τὸ ἄρα ἀπὸ τῆς ΑΖ τετράγωνον διπλάσιόν ἐστι τῶν ἀπὸ τῶν ΑΓ. ΗΖ τετράγωνα διπλάσιά ἐστι τοῦ ἀπὸ τῆς ΗΖ τετραγώνου. Thus. 1. the (sum of the) squares on AE and EF is double the (sum of the) squares on AC and CD. So the side EG is also equal to the (side) GF [Prop. ΓΔ τετραγώνων. Again. And since GEF is half a right-angle. ΔΒ τετράγωνα διπλάσιά ἐστι τῶν ἀπὸ τῶν ΑΓ.STOIQEIWN bþ. the (sum of the) squares on AD and DB is double the (sum of the) squares on AC and CD. the whole (angle) AEB is a right-angle. For the angle AEF is a right-angle [Prop. Thus. ᾿Εὰν ἄρα εὐθεῖα γραμμὴ τμηθῇ εἰς ἴσα καὶ ἄνισα. Thus.29]—the remaining (angle) BF D is half a right-angle [Prop. 1. Thus. 1.47].6]. ἴση δὲ ἡ ΔΖ τῇ ΔΒ· τὰ ἄρα ἀπὸ τῶν ΑΔ. τοῖς δὲ ἀπὸ τῶν ΑΓ. (angles) CEA and CAE are each half a right-angle. Thus. For angle ACE (is) a right-angle [Prop. For the angle at D is a right-angle [Prop. 1. And the square on EF is equal to the (sum of the) squares on EG and GF [Prop.32]. Thus. ΓΔ. ΓΕ ἴσον ἐστὶ τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς ΕΑ τετράγωνον· ὀρθὴ γὰρ ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΓΕ γωνία· τὸ ἄρα ἀπὸ τῆς ΕΑ διπλάσιόν ἐστι τοῦ ἀπὸ τῆς ΑΓ. Thus. since the angle at B is half a right-angle. 1. 1. And GF (is) equal to CD [Prop. ELEMENTS BOOK 2 ὀρθῆς· ἴση ἄρα [ἐστὶν] ἡ ὑπὸ ΗΕΖ γωνία τῇ ὑπὸ ΕΖΗ· ὥστε καὶ πλευρὰ ἡ ΕΗ τῇ ΗΖ ἐστιν ἴση.47]. the (sum of the squares) on EG and GF is double the square on GF .6]. the square on EF is double the (square) on GF . 1. ΔΖ· ὀρθὴ γὰρ ἡ πρὸς τῷ Δ γωνία· τὰ ἄρα ἀπὸ τῶν ΑΔ.47]. πάλιν. καὶ ἐπεὶ ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ΑΓ τῇ ΓΕ.47]. τὰ ἀπὸ τῶν ἀνίσων τῆς ὅλης τμημάτων τετράγωνα διπλάσιά ἐστι τοῦ τε ἀπὸ τῆς ἡμισείας καὶ τοῦ ἀπὸ τῆς μεταξὺ τῶν τομῶν τετραγώνου· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. the (square) on EF is double the (square) on CD. (angles) CEB and EBC are also each half a right-angle. So. τοῖς δὲ ἀπὸ τῶν ΑΕ. ἐπεὶ ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ΕΗ τῇ ΗΖ. And the (square) on EA is also double the (square) on AC. the angle at B (is) equal to DF B. Thus. ΓΕ τετράγωνα διπλάσιά ἐστι τοῦ ἀπὸ ΑΓ. τῷ δὲ ἀπὸ τῆς ΑΖ ἴσα τὰ ἀπὸ τῶν ΑΔ. Thus. the (sum of the squares) on AD and DF is double the (sum of the) squares on AC and CD. τοῖς δὲ ἀπὸ τῶν ΕΗ. Thus. ΗΖ τετραγώνοις ἴσον ἐστὶ τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς ΕΖ τετράγωνον· τὸ ἄρα ἀπὸ τῆς ΕΖ τετράγωνον διπλάσιόν ἐστι τοῦ ἀπὸ τῆς ΗΖ. And since AC is equal to CE. if a straight-line is cut into equal and unequal (pieces) then the (sum of the) squares on the unequal pieces of the whole (straight-line) is double the (sum of the) square on half (the straight-line) and (the square) on the (difference) between the (equal and unequal) pieces.32]. Thus. This proposition is a geometric version of the algebraic identity: a2 + b2 = 2[([a + b]/2)2 + ([a + b]/2 − b)2 ]. since EG is equal to GF .32]. the square on AF is double the (sum of the squares) on AC and CD. And the square on EA is equal to the (sum of the) squares on AC and CE.29]—the remaining (angle) EF G is thus half a right-angle [Prop. 60 . And they are equal. ΓΔ τετράγώνων. So the side F D is also equal to the side DB [Prop. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. angle GEF [is] equal to EF G. 1. the (square) on EA is double the (square) on AC.34]. Thus. and EGF (is) a right-angle—for it is equal to the internal and opposite (angle) ECB [Prop. And the square on AF is equal to the (sum of the squares) on AE and EF . ἴσον καὶ τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς ΕΗ τῷ ἀπὸ τῆς ΗΖ· τὰ ἄρα ἀπὸ τῶν ΕΗ. † angle [Prop. Thus. Again. for the same (reasons). the (square) on EG (is) also equal to the (square) on GF . ἴση δὲ ἡ ΗΖ τῇ ΓΔ· τὸ ἄρα ἀπὸ τῆς ΕΖ διπλάσιόν ἐστι τοῦ ἀπὸ τῆς ΓΔ. 1. ἔστι δὲ καὶ τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς ΕΑ διπλάσιον τοῦ ἀπὸ τῆς ΑΓ· τὰ ἄρα ἀπὸ τῶν ΑΕ. Thus. 1. 1. ἴσον ἐστὶ καὶ τὸ ἀπὸ ΑΓ τῷ ἀπὸ ΓΕ· τὰ ἄρα ἀπὸ τῶν ΑΓ. the (square) on AC (is) also equal to the (square) on CE. ὀρθὴ δὲ ἡ ὑπὸ ΖΔΒ· ἴση γὰρ πάλιν ἐστὶ τῇ ἐντὸς καὶ ἀπεναντίον τῇ ὑπὸ ΕΓΒ· λοιπὴ ἄρα ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΖΔ ἡμίσειά ἐστιν ὀρθῆς· ἴση ἄρα ἡ πρὸς τῷ Β γωνία τῇ ὑπὸ ΔΖΒ· ὥστε καὶ πλευρὰ ἡ ΖΔ πλευρᾷ τῇ ΔΒ ἐστιν ἴση. And the (sum of the squares) on AD and DF (is) equal to the (square) on AF . 1. ΕΖ τετράγωνα διπλάσιά ἐστι τῶν ἀπὸ τῶν ΑΓ. ΔΖ διπλάσιά ἐστι τῶν ἀπὸ τῶν ΑΓ. the (sum of the) squares on AC and CE is double the (square) on AC. πάλιν ἐπεὶ ἡ πρὸς τῷ Β γωνία ἡμίσειά ἐστιν ὀρθῆς.

31].3]. καὶ ἐπεὶ ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ΑΓ τῇ ΓΕ. Thus. 1. αἱ ὑπὸ ΓΕΖ. ἴσον ἐστὶ [καὶ] τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς ΕΓ τετράγωνον τῷ ἀπὸ τῆς ΓΑ For let any straight-line AB have been cut in half at (point) C. ἐπεὶ ἡ ὑπὸ ΕΗΖ ἡμίσειά ἐστιν ὀρθῆς. ἔστι δὲ καὶ ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΔΗ ὀρθή· ἴση γάρ ἐστι τῇ ὑπὸ ΔΓΕ· ἐναλλὰξ γάρ· λοιπὴ ἅρα ἡ ὑπὸ ΔΗΒ ἡμίσειά ἐστιν ὀρθῆς· ἡ ἄρα ὑπὸ ΔΗΒ τῇ ὑπὸ ΔΒΗ ἐστιν ἴση· ὥστε καὶ πλευρὰ ἡ ΒΔ πλευρᾷ τῇ ΗΔ ἐστιν ἴση. ΑΕΓ. And BDG is also a right-angle. and let AG have been joined. 1. 1. and let any straight-line BD have been added to it straight-on. Ε Α Γ Ζ Β E ∆ A Η C F B D G Εὐθεῖα γάρ τις ἡ ΑΒ τετμήσθω δίχα κατὰ τὸ Γ. ΕΒΓ ἡμίσειά ἐστιν ὀρθῆς· ὀρθὴ ἄρα ἐστὶν ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΕΒ. διὰ τὰ αὐτὰ δὴ καὶ ἑκατέρα τῶν ὑπὸ ΓΕΒ. the (internal angles) CEF and EF D are thus equal to two right-angles [Prop. and let F D have been drawn through D. ΖΔ εὐθεῖά τις ἐνέπεσεν ἡ ΕΖ. as on one (complete straight-line). at rightangles to AB [Prop. parallel to CE [Prop. προσκείσθω δέ τις αὐτῇ εὐθεῖα ἐπ᾿ εὐθείας ἡ ΒΔ· λέγω. Δ μέρη συμπεσοῦνται. And since some straight-line EF falls across the parallel straight-lines EC and F D. 1. Thus. ΖΔ ἐκβαλλόμεναι ἐπὶ τὰ Β. DBG (is) thus also half a rightangle [Prop. καὶ ἐπεζεύχθω ἡ ΑΗ. ΓΔ τετραγώνων. ἡμίσεια ἄρα ὀρθῆς καὶ ἡ ὑπὸ ΔΒΗ. If a straight-line is cut in half. EAC and AEC [are] each half a right-angle [Prop. ΓΒ. καὶ ἐπεὶ εἰς παραλλήλους εὐθείας τὰς ΕΓ.STOIQEIWN bþ. for the same (reasons).31]. For (they are) alternate (angles) 61 . καὶ ἐπεὶ ἡμίσεια ὀρθῆς ἐστιν ἡ ὑπὸ ΕΒΓ. and any straight-line added to it straight-on. καὶ ἐπεὶ [ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ΕΓ τῇ ΓΑ]. ἐκβεβλήσθωσαν καὶ συμπιπτέτωσαν κατὰ τὸ Η. τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς ὅλης σὺν τῇ προσκειμένῃ καὶ τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς προσκειμένης τὰ συναμφότερα τετράγωνα διπλάσιά ἐστι τοῦ τε ἀπὸ τῆς ἡμισείας καὶ τοῦ ἀπὸ τῆς συγκειμένης ἔκ τε τῆς ἡμισείας καὶ τῆς προσκειμένης ὡς ἀπὸ μιᾶς ἀναγραφέντος τετραγώνου. πάλιν. For let CE have been drawn from point C. And the (angle) at C (is) a right-angle. ἴση ἐστὶ καὶ γωνία ἡ ὑπὸ ΕΑΓ τῇ ὑπὸ ΑΕΓ· καὶ ὀρθὴ ἡ πρὸς τῷ Γ· ἡμίσεια ἄρα ὀρθῆς [ἐστιν] ἑκατέρα τῶν ὑπὸ ΕΑΓ. is double the (sum of the square) on half (the straight-line). ΕΖΔ ἄρα δυσὶν ὀρθαῖς ἴσαι εἰσίν· αἱ ἄρα ὑπὸ ΖΕΒ. Thus. 1. Thus. angle EAC is also equal to (angle) AEC [Prop. So. ΕΖΔ δύο ὀρθῶν ἐλάσσονές εἰσιν· αἱ δὲ ἀπ᾿ ἐλασσόνων ἢ δύο ὀρθῶν ἐκβαλλόμεναι συμπίπτουσιν· αἱ ἄρα ΕΒ. 1. Proposition 10† ᾿Εὰν εὐθεῖα γραμμὴ τμηθῇ δίχα. ῎Ηχθω γὰρ ἀπὸ τοῦ Γ σημείου τῇ ΑΒ πρὸς ὀρθὰς ἡ ΓΕ. For it is equal to DCE. and the (square) on the (straight-line) having been added. And since EBC is half a right-angle. and let EA and EB have been joined.32]. parallel to AD [Prop. ΕΒ· καὶ διὰ μὲν τοῦ Ε τῇ ΑΔ παράλληλος ἤχθω ἡ ΕΖ.29].15]. 1. and let them meet together at G. καὶ κείσθω ἴση ἑκατέρᾳ τῶν ΑΓ. Let them have been produced. ELEMENTS BOOK 2 iþ.5]. the (straight-lines) EB and F D will meet. And let EF have been drawn through E. προστεθῇ δέ τις αὐτῇ εὐθεῖα ἐπ᾿ εὐθείας. F EB and EF D are less than two right-angles. ὅτι τὰ ἀπὸ τῶν ΑΔ. (angle) AEB is a right-angle. ΔΒ τετράγωνα διπλάσιά ἐστι τῶν ἀπὸ τῶν ΑΓ. and the square described on the sum of half (the straight-line) and (straight-line) having been added. then the sum of the square on the whole (straight-line) with the (straight-line) having been added. being produced in the direction of B and D. And since AC is equal to CE.11]. and let it be made equal to each of AC and CB [Prop. And (straight-lines) produced from (internal angles whose sum is) less than two right-angles meet together [Post. διὰ δὲ τοῦ Δ τῇ ΓΕ παράλληλος ἤχθω ἡ ΖΔ. CEB and EBC are also each half a right-angle. καὶ ἐπεζεύχθωσαν αἱ ΕΑ. I say that the (sum of the) squares on AD and DB is double the (sum of the) squares on AC and CD. 1. ὀρθὴ δὲ ἡ πρὸς τῷ Ζ· ἴση γάρ ἐστι τῇ ἀπεναντίον τῇ πρὸς τῷ Γ· λοιπὴ ἄρα ἡ ὑπὸ ΖΕΗ ἡμίσειά ἐστιν ὀρθῆς· ἴση ἄρα ἡ ὑπὸ ΕΗΖ γωνία τῇ ὑπὸ ΖΕΗ· ὥστε καὶ πλευρὰ ἡ ΗΖ πλευρᾷ τῇ ΕΖ ἐστιν ἴση. 5].

ELEMENTS BOOK 2 τετραγώνῳ· τὰ ἄρα ἀπὸ τῶν ΕΓ. ΔΗ· τὰ ἄρα ἀπὸ τῶν ΑΔ. ΖΕ ἴσον ἐστὶ τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς ΕΗ· τὸ ἄρα ἀπὸ τῆς ΕΗ διπλάσιόν ἐστι τοῦ ἀπὸ τῆς ΕΖ. and any straightline added to it straight-on. τοῖς δὲ ἀπὸ τῶν ΕΓ. ΓΔ. since F G is equal to EF . Thus. 1.47]. 1. προστεθῇ δέ τις αὐτῇ εὐθεῖα ἐπ᾿ εὐθείας.34]. Thus. τοῖς δὲ ἀπὸ τῶν ΗΖ.34]. the remaining (angle) DGB is half a right-angle. τῷ δὲ ἀπὸ τῆς ΑΗ ἴσα ἐστὶ τὰ ἀπὸ τῶν ΑΔ. ᾿Εὰν ἄρα εὐθεῖα γραμμὴ τμηθῇ δίχα. Thus. ἴσον ἐστὶ καὶ τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς ΖΗ τῷ ἀπὸ τῆς ΖΕ· τὰ ἄρα ἀπὸ τῶν ΗΖ. So the side GF is also equal to the side EF [Prop. the (square) on F G is also equal to the (square) on F E. ΓΔ [τετραγώνων].6]. the remaining (angle) F EG is thus half a right-angle. ΓΑ τετράγωνα διπλάσιά ἐστι τοῦ ἀπὸ τῆς ΓΑ τετραγώνου. Thus. Thus. if a straight-line is cut in half.47]. And EF (is) equal to CD [Prop. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. † [Prop. ΕΗ τετραγώνοις ἴσον ἐστὶ τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς ΑΗ τετράγωνον· τὸ ἄρα ἀπὸ τῆς ΑΗ διπλάσιόν ἐστι τῶν ἀπὸ τῶν ΑΓ. ΓΑ ἴσον ἐστὶ τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς ΕΑ· τὸ ἄρα ἀπὸ τῆς ΕΑ τετράγωνον διπλάσιόν ἐστι τοῦ ἀπὸ τῆς ΑΓ τετραγώνου. as on one (complete straight-line). This proposition is a geometric version of the algebraic identity: (2 a + b)2 + b2 = 2 [a2 + (a + b)2 ]. Proposition 11† Τὴν δοθεῖσαν εὐθεῖαν τεμεῖν ὥστε τὸ ὑπὸ τῆς ὅλης καὶ To cut a given straight-line such that the rectangle τοῦ ἑτέρου τῶν τμημάτων περιεχόμενον ὀρθογώνιον ἴσον contained by the whole (straight-line). Thus. And since [EC is equal to CA] the square on EC is [also] equal to the square on CA. Again. τοῖς δὲ ἀπὸ τῶν ΑΕ. 1. is equal to the square on the remaining piece. Thus. the square on EA is double the square on AC. the (square) on AG is double the (sum of the squares) on AC and CD. and one of the εἶναι τῷ ἀπὸ τοῦ λοιποῦ τμήματος τετραγώνῳ. iaþ. 1. and the square described on the sum of half (the straight-line) and (straight-line) having been added.29]. ἴση δὲ ἡ ΕΖ τῇ ΓΔ· τὸ ἄρα ἀπὸ τῆς ΕΗ τετράγωνον διπλάσιόν ἐστι τοῦ ἀπὸ τῆς ΓΔ. the (sum of the) [squares] on AD and DB is double the (sum of the) squares on AC and CD. ἐδείχθη δὲ καὶ τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς ΕΑ διπλάσιον τοῦ ἀπὸ τῆς ΑΓ· τὰ ἄρα ἀπὸ τῶν ΑΕ. ΓΔ τετραγώνων. then the sum of the square on the whole (straight-line) with the (straight-line) having been added. ΕΗ τετράγωνα διπλάσιά ἐστι τῶν ἀπὸ τῶν ΑΓ. 1. 1. the (sum of the) squares on EC and CA is double the square on CA. Thus. Thus.STOIQEIWN bþ. ΓΔ τετραγώνων. ΔΒ [τετράγωνα] διπλάσιά ἐστι τῶν ἀπὸ τῶν ΑΓ. πάλιν. But it was also shown that the (square) on EA (is) double the (square) on AC. 1. 1. 62 . Again. for it is equal to the opposite (angle) at C [Prop. And DG (is) equal to DB. the (sum of the) squares on AE and EG is double the (sum of the) squares on AC and CD. is double the (sum of the square) on half (the straight-line).47]. the square on EG is double the (square) on CD.6]. DGB is equal to DBG.47]. ΔΗ [τετράγωνα] διπλάσιά ἐστι τῶν ἀπὸ τῶν ΑΓ. the (square) on EG is double the (square) on EF . the (sum of the) [squares] on AD and DG is double the (sum of the) [squares] on AC and CD. the (sum of the squares) on GF and F E is double the (square) on EF . ἐπεὶ ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ΖΗ τῇ ΕΖ. And the (square) on EA is equal to the (sum of the squares) on EC and CA [Prop. So side BD is also equal to side GD [Prop. ΖΕ διπλάσιά ἐστι τοῦ ἀπὸ τῆς ΕΖ. Thus. ἴση δὲ ἡ ΔΗ τῇ ΔΒ· τὰ ἄρα ἀπὸ τῶν ΑΔ. and the (square) on the (straight-line) having been added. pieces (of the straight-line). τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς ὅλης σὺν τῇ προσκειμένῃ καὶ τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς προσκειμένης τὰ συναμφότερα τετράγωνα διπλάσιά ἐστι τοῦ τε ἀπὸ τῆς ἡμισείας καὶ τοῦ ἀπὸ τῆς συγκειμένης ἔκ τε τῆς ἡμισείας καὶ τῆς προσκειμένης ὡς ἀπὸ μιᾶς ἀναγραφέντος τετραγώνου· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. and the (angle) at F (is) a right-angle. Thus. Thus. 1. And the square on AG is equal to the (sum of the) squares on AE and EG [Prop. Thus. And the (sum of the squares) on AD and DG is equal to the (square) on AG [Prop. And the (square) on EG is equal to the (sum of the squares) on GF and F E [Prop. angle EGF (is) equal to F EG. since EGF is half a right-angle.

῾Η ἄρα δοθεῖσα εὐθεῖα ἡ ΑΒ τέτμηται κατὰ τὸ Θ ὥστε τὸ ὑπὸ τῶν ΑΒ. the rectangle contained by AB 63 . and let GH have been drawn through to (point) K. καὶ ἀναγεγράφθω ἀπὸ τῆς ΑΖ τετράγωνον τὸ ΖΘ. I say that AB has been cut at H such as to make the rectangle contained by AB and BH equal to the square on AH. And let the square F H have been described on AF [Prop. Thus. ΒΘ περιεχόμενον ὀρθογώνιον ἴσον ἐστὶ τῷ ἀπὸ ΘΑ τετραγώνῳ. Thus. plus the (square) on AE. ΖΑ μετὰ τοῦ ἀπὸ τῆς ΑΕ ἴσον ἐστὶ τῷ ἀπὸ ΕΒ. is equal to the (sum of the squares) on BA and AE. is thus equal to the square on EF [Prop. ΒΘ περιεχόμενον ὀρθογώνιον ἴσον ποιεῖν τῷ ἀπὸ τῆς ΘΑ τετραγώνῳ· ὅπερ ἔδει ποιῆσαι. 1. καὶ ἐπεζεύχθω ἡ ΒΕ. ΖΑ περιεχόμενον ὀρθογώνιον μετὰ τοῦ ἀπὸ τῆς ΑΕ τετραγώνου ἴσον ἐστὶ τῷ ἀπὸ τῆς ΕΖ τετραγώνῳ. and let AC have been cut in half at point E [Prop. Let (rectangle) AK have been subtracted from both. 1. K D Let AB be the given straight-line. ΖΑ μετὰ τοῦ ἀπὸ τῆς ΑΕ ἴσον ἐστὶ τοῖς ἀπὸ τῶν ΒΑ. And EF (is) equal to EB. ΒΘ· ἴση γὰρ ἡ ΑΒ τῇ ΒΔ· τὸ δὲ ΖΘ τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς ΑΘ· τὸ ἄρα ὑπὸ τῶν ΑΒ. τὸ ἄρα ὑπὸ τῶν ΓΖ. Thus. plus the (square) on AE. Thus. 1. πρόσκειται δὲ αὐτῇ ἡ ΖΑ. ΑΕ. the (rectangle contained) by CF and F A.46]. ᾿Αναγεγράφθω γὰρ ἀπὸ τῆς ΑΒ τετράγωνον τὸ ΑΒΔΓ. And let CA have been drawn through to (point) F . And F K is the (rectangle contained) by CF and F A. For let the square ABDC have been described on AB [Prop. Thus. κοινὸν ἀρῃρήσθω τὸ ΑΚ· λοιπὸν ἄρα τὸ ΖΘ τῷ ΘΔ ἴσον ἐστίν. ΖΑ τὸ ΖΚ· ἴση γὰρ ἡ ΑΖ τῇ ΖΗ· τὸ δὲ ἀπὸ τῆς ΑΒ τὸ ΑΔ· τὸ ἄρα ΖΚ ἴσον ἐστὶ τῷ ΑΔ. the remaining (square) F H is equal to the (rectangle) HD. Thus. For AF (is) equal to F G. the remaining rectangle contained by CF and F A is equal to the square on AB. ὥστε τὸ ὑπὸ τῶν ΑΒ. For the angle at A (is) a right-angle [Prop. καὶ διήχθω ἡ ΗΘ ἐπὶ τὸ Κ· λέγω.6]. κοινὸν ἀφῃρήσθω τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς ΑΕ· λοιπὸν ἄρα τὸ ὑπὸ τῶν ΓΖ. the rectangle contained by CF and F A. And HD is the (rectangle contained) by AB and BH.STOIQEIWN bþ. 2. ᾿Επεὶ γὰρ εὐθεῖα ἡ ΑΓ τέτμηται δίχα κατὰ τὸ Ε. and let EF be made equal to BE [Prop. Ζ Α ELEMENTS BOOK 2 Η Θ F Β A H B E Ε Γ G Κ ∆ C ῎Εστω ἡ δοθεῖσα εὐθεῖα ἡ ΑΒ· δεῖ δὴ τὴν ΑΒ τεμεῖν ὥστε τὸ ὑπὸ τῆς ὅλης καὶ τοῦ ἑτέρου τῶν τμημάτων περιεχόμενον ὀρθογώνιον ἴσον εἶναι τῷ ἀπὸ τοῦ λοιποῦ τμήματος τετραγώνῳ.10]. For AB (is) equal to BD. is equal to the square on the remaining piece. καί ἐστι τὸ μὲν ΘΔ τὸ ὑπὸ τῶν ΑΒ.46]. But. and F A has been added to it. the (rectangle) F K is equal to the (square) AD. and let BE have been joined. ὅτι ἡ ΑΒ τέτμηται κατὰ τὸ Θ. ΑΕ· ὀρθὴ γὰρ ἡ πρὸς τῷ Α γωνία· τὸ ἄρα ὑπὸ τῶν ΓΖ. And F H (is) the (square) on AH. So it is required to cut AB such that the rectangle contained by the whole (straight-line). the (sum of the squares) on BA and AE is equal to the (square) on EB. plus the square on AE.47]. Let the square on AE have been subtracted from both.3]. καὶ τετμήσθω ἡ ΑΓ δίχα κατὰ τὸ Ε σημεῖον. the (rectangle contained) by CF and F A. ἀλλὰ τῷ ἀπὸ ΕΒ ἴσα ἐστὶ τὰ ἀπὸ τῶν ΒΑ. ΖΑ περιεχόμενον ὀρθογώνιον ἴσον ἐστὶ τῷ ἀπὸ τῆς ΑΒ τετραγώνῳ. καί ἐστι τὸ μὲν ὑπὸ τῶν ΓΖ. ἴση δὲ ἡ ΕΖ τῇ ΕΒ· τὸ ἄρα ὑπὸ τῶν ΓΖ. For since the straight-line AC has been cut in half at E. καὶ διήχθω ἡ ΓΑ ἐπὶ τὸ Ζ. and one of the pieces (of the straightline). 1. καὶ κείσθω τῇ ΒΕ ἴση ἡ ΕΖ. is equal to the (square) on EB. And AD (is) the (square) on AB. 1. ΒΘ περιεχόμενον ὀρθογώνιον ἴσον ποιεῖν τῷ ἀπὸ τῆς ΑΘ τετραγώνῳ.

ΑΔ περιεχομένῳ ὀρθογωνίῳ· ὥστε τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς ΓΒ τετράγωνον τῶν ἀπὸ τῶν ΓΑ. having the angle BAC obtuse.STOIQEIWN bþ. ΑΒ τετραγώνων μεῖζόν ἐστι τῷ δὶς ὑπὸ τῶν ΓΑ. ἐφ᾿ ἣν ἡ κάθετος πίπτει. ᾿Επεὶ γὰρ εὐθεῖα ἡ ΓΔ τέτμηται. ELEMENTS BOOK 2 and BH is equal to the square on HA. ᾿Εν ἄρα τοῖς ἀμβλυγωνίοις τριγώνοις τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς τὴν ἀμβλεῖαν γωνίαν ὑποτεινούσης πλευρᾶς τετράγωνον μεῖζόν ἐστι τῶν ἀπὸ τῶν τὴν ἀμβλεῖαν γωνίαν περιεχουσῶν A C Let ABC be an obtuse-angled triangle.47]. 1. (Which is) the very thing it was required to do. In obtuse-angled triangles. ΑΔ. λέγω. But. Thus. ΑΔ τετραγώνοις καὶ τῷ δὶς ὑπὸ τῶν ΓΑ. by twice the rectangle contained by CA and AD. ΑΔ περιεχομένῳ ὀρθογωνίῳ. ὅτι τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς ΒΓ τετράγωνον μεῖζόν ἐστι τῶν ἀπὸ τῶν ΒΑ. ibþ. κατὰ τὸ Α σημεῖον. τὸ ἄρα ἀπὸ τῆς ΔΓ ἴσον ἐστὶ τοῖς ἀπὸ τῶν ΓΑ. ΔΒ ἴσον ἐστὶ τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς ΓΒ· ὀρθὴ γὰρ ἡ προς τῷ Δ γωνία· τοῖς δὲ ἀπὸ τῶν ΑΔ. ΔΒ τετραγώνοις καὶ τῷ δὶς ὑπὸ τῶν ΓΑ.47]. † This manner of cutting a straight-line—so that the ratio of the whole to the larger piece is equal to the ratio of the larger to the smaller piece—is sometimes called the “Golden Section”. the (square) on DC is thus equal to the (sum of the) squares on CA and AD. 1. the square on the side subtending the obtuse angle is greater than the (sum of the) squares on the sides containing the obtuse angle by twice the (rectangle) contained by one of the sides around the obtuse angle.4]. at point A.12]. Let the (square) on DB have been added to both. Proposition 12† ᾿Εν τοῖς ἀμβλυγωνίοις τριγώνοις τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς τὴν ἀμβλεῖαν γωνίαν ὑποτεινούσης πλευρᾶς τετράγωνον μεῖζόν ἐστι τῶν ἀπὸ τῶν τὴν ἀμβλεῖαν γωνίαν περιεχουσῶν πλευρῶν τετραγώνων τῷ περιεχομένῳ δὶς ὑπὸ τε μιᾶς τῶν περὶ τὴν ἀμβλεῖαν γωνίαν. AD. and twice the [rectangle contained] by CA and AD. the (sum of the squares) on CD and DB is equal to the (sum of the) squares on CA. Thus. ΑΔ [περιεχομένῳ ὀρθογωνίῳ]. and DB. and twice the rectangle contained by CA and AD. perpendicular to CA produced [Prop. καὶ τῆς ἀπολαμβανομένης ἐκτὸς ὑπὸ τῆς καθέτου πρὸς τῇ ἀμβλείᾳ γωνίᾳ. 1. and twice the rectangle contained by CA and AD [Prop. the square on CB is equal to the (sum of the) squares on CA and AB. And let BD be drawn from point B. ΑΒ τετραγώνοις καὶ τῷ δὶς ὑπὸ τῶν ΓΑ. καὶ ἤχθω ἀπὸ τοῦ Β σημείου ἐπὶ τὴν ΓΑ ἐκβληθεῖσαν κάθετος ἡ ΒΔ. So the square on CB is greater than the (sum of the) squares on 64 . the given straight-line AB has been cut at (point) H such as to make the rectangle contained by AB and BH equal to the square on HA. and the (straight-line) cut off outside (the triangle) by the perpendicular (straight-line) towards the obtuse angle. ΑΓ τετραγώνων τῷ δὶς ὑπὸ τῶν ΓΑ. the (square) on CB is equal to the (sum of the squares) on CD and DB. For since the straight-line CD has been cut. For the angle at D (is) a right-angle [Prop. to which a perpendicular (straight-line) falls. ΑΔ περιεχομένῳ ὀρθογωνίῳ. ἀλλὰ τοῖς μὲν ἀπὸ τῶν ΓΔ. And the (square) on AB (is) equal to the (sum of the squares) on AD and DB [Prop. I say that the square on BC is greater than the (sum of the) squares on BA and AC. ΔΒ ἴσον τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς ΑΒ· τὸ ἄρα ἀπὸ τῆς ΓΒ τετράγωνον ἴσον ἐστὶ τοῖς τε ἀπὸ τῶν ΓΑ. 2. ὡς ἔτυχεν. at random. ΔΒ ἴσα ἐστὶ τοῖς τε ἀπὸ τῶν ΓΑ. Β ∆ B Α Γ D ῎Εστω ἀμβλυγώνιον τρίγωνον τὸ ΑΒΓ ἀμβλεῖαν ἔχον τὴν ὑπὸ ΒΑΓ. κοινὸν προσκείσθω τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς ΔΒ· τὰ ἄρα ἀπὸ τῶν ΓΔ. ΑΔ περιεχομένῳ ὀρθογωνίῳ. Thus.

the (square) on AB (is) equal to the (sum of the squares) on BD and DA. καὶ τῆς ἀπολαμβανομένης ἐντὸς ὑπὸ τῆς καθέτου πρὸς τῇ ὀξείᾳ γωνίᾳ. at (point) D. And let AD have been drawn from point A. ἀλλὰ τοῖς μὲν ἀπὸ τῶν ΒΔ. at random. ΔΓ τετραγώνιος. ἀπολαμβανομένης ἐκτὸς ὑπὸ τῆς καθέτου πρὸς τῇ ἀμβλείᾳ Thus. ὅτι τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς ΑΓ τετράγωνον ἔλαττόν ἐστι τῶν ἀπὸ τῶν ΓΒ. ELEMENTS BOOK 2 πλευρῶν τετραγώνων τῷ περιχομένῳ δὶς ὑπό τε μιᾶς τῶν CA and AB by twice the rectangle contained by CA and περὶ τὴν ἀμβλεῖαν γωνίαν. ΒΔ τετράγωνα ἴσα ἐστὶ τῷ τε δὶς ὑπὸ τῶν ΓΒ. ἐφ᾿ ἣν ἡ κάθετος πίπτει. But. τὰ ἄρα ἀπὸ τῶν ΓΒ. ᾿Επεὶ γὰρ εὐθεῖα ἡ ΓΒ τέτμηται.12]. 1. by twice the rectangle contained by CB and BD. κοινὸν προσκείσθω τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς ΔΑ τετράγωνον· τὰ ἄρα ἀπὸ τῶν ΓΒ. Thus. Proposition 13† ᾿Εν τοῖς ὀξυγωνίοις τριγώνοις τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς τὴν ὀξεῖαν γωνίαν ὑποτεινούσης πλευρᾶς τετράγωνον ἔλαττόν ἐστι τῶν ἀπὸ τῶν τὴν ὀξεῖαν γωνίαν περιεχουσῶν πλευρῶν τετραγώνων τῷ περιεχομένῳ δὶς ὑπό τε μιᾶς τῶν περὶ τὴν ὀξεῖαν γωνίαν. ΒΔ· ὥστε μόνον τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς ΑΓ ἔλαττόν ἐστι D C Let ABC be an acute-angled triangle. and the (sum of the) squares on AD and DC. ΒΔ περιεχομένῳ ὀρθογωνίῳ καὶ τῷ ἀπὸ τῆς ΔΓ τετραγώνῳ. 1. I say that the square on AC is less than the (sum of the) squares on CB and BA. † This proposition is equivalent to the well-known cosine formula: BC 2 = AB 2 + AC 2 − 2 AB AC cos BAC.7]. ἐφ᾿ ἣν ἡ κάθετος πίπτει. ΒΔ περιεχομένῳ ὀρθογωνίῳ. perpendicular to BC [Prop. the square on the γωνίᾳ· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. ΒΑ ἴσα ἐστὶ τῷ τε ἀπὸ τῆς ΑΓ καὶ τῷ δὶς ὑπὸ τῶν ΓΒ. igþ. BD. since cos BAC = −AD/AB. ΔΑ ἴσον τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς ΑΒ· ὀρθὴ γὰρ ἡ πρὸς τῷ Δ γωνίᾳ· τοῖς δὲ ἀπὸ τῶν ΑΔ. 65 . ὡς ἔτυχεν. and DA is equal to twice the rectangle contained by CB and BD. to which a perpendicular (straight-line) falls. and the square on DC [Prop. For the angle at (point) D is a right-angle [Prop. the (sum of the) squares on CB and BD is thus equal to twice the rectangle contained by CB and BD. Α Β ∆ A Γ B ῎Εστω ὀξυγώνιον τρίγωνον τὸ ΑΒΓ ὀξεῖαν ἔχον τὴν πρὸς τῷ Β γωνίαν. to which a perpendicular (straight-line) falls. and the (straight-line) cut off inside (the triangle) by the perpendicular (straight-line) towards the acute angle. 2. ΔΑ τετράγωνα ἴσα ἐστὶ τῷ τε δὶς ὑπὸ τῶν ΓΒ. the square on the side subtending the acute angle is less than the (sum of the) squares on the sides containing the acute angle by twice the (rectangle) contained by one of the sides around the acute angle. and the (straight-line) cut off outside (the triangle) by the perpendicular (straight-line) towards the obtuse angle. For since the straight-line CB has been cut. side subtending the obtuse angle is greater than the (sum of the) squares on the sides containing the obtuse angle by twice the (rectangle) contained by one of the sides around the obtuse angle. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. καὶ τῆς AD.47]. καὶ ἤχθω ἀπὸ τοῦ Α σημείου ἐπὶ τὴν ΒΓ κάθετος ἡ ΑΔ· λέγω. having the angle at (point) B acute. ΒΔ περιεχομένῳ ὀρθογωνίῳ καὶ τοῖς ἀπὸ τῶν ΑΔ. the (sum of the) squares on CB. ΔΓ ἴσον τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς ΑΓ· τὰ ἄρα ἀπὸ τῶν ΓΒ. Let the square on DA have been added to both. ΒΑ τετραγώνων τῷ δὶς ὑπὸ τῶν ΓΒ. κατὰ τὸ Δ.STOIQEIWN bþ. ΒΔ. In acute-angled triangles. in obtuse-angled triangles.

εἰς δὲ ἄνισα κατὰ τὸ Ε.47].STOIQEIWN bþ. ure. if BE is equal to ED then that (which) was prescribed has taken place. διαστήματι δὲ ἑνὶ τῶν ΗΒ. and radius one of the (straight-lines) GB or GF . καὶ ἐκβεβλήσθω ἐπὶ τὸ Ζ. with center G. καὶ ἐπεζεύχθω ἡ ΗΘ. μία τῶν ΒΕ. 1. Therefore. And let DE have been produced to H. and let it have been produced to F . ᾿Επεὶ οὖν εὐθεῖα ἡ ΒΖ τέτμηται εἰς μὲν ἴσα κατὰ τὸ Η. ΒΑ τετραγώνων τῷ δὶς ὑπὸ τῶν ΓΒ. τῷ δὲ ἀπὸ τῆς ΗΘ ἴσα ἐστὶ τὰ ἀπὸ τῶν ΘΕ. and the (straight-line) cut off inside (the triangle) by the perpendicular (straight-line) towards the acute angle.3]. equal to the rectilinear figure A. Θ H Α A Β Γ Ε Η Ζ B ∆ C ῎Εστω τὸ δοθὲν εὐθύγραμμον τὸ Α· δεῖ δὴ τῷ Α εὐθυγράμμῳ ἴσον τετράγωνον συστήσασθαι. Proposition 14 Τῷ δοθέντι εὐθυγράμμῳ ἴσον τετράγωνον συστήσαςTo construct a square equal to a given rectilinear figθαι. the square on the side subtending the acute angle is less than the (sum of the) squares on the sides containing the acute angle by twice the (rectangle) contained by one of the sides around the acute angle. 1. ΕΖ περιεχόμενον ὀρθογώνιον μετὰ τοῦ ἀπὸ τῆς ΕΗ τετραγώνου ἴσον ἐστὶ τῷ ἀπὸ τῆς ΗΖ τετραγώνῳ. ἔστω μείζων ἡ ΒΕ. let the semi-circle BHF have been drawn. since the straight-line BF has been cut— equally at G. Συνεστάτω γὰρ τῷ Α ἐυθυγράμμῳ ἴσον παραλληλόγραμμον ὀρθογώνιον τὸ ΒΔ· εἰ μὲν οὖν ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ΒΕ τῇ ΕΔ. ἴση δὲ ἡ ΗΖ τῇ ΗΘ· τὸ ἄρα ὑπὸ τῶν ΒΕ. Therefore. and let EF be made equal to ED [Prop. καὶ τετμήσθω ἡ ΒΖ δίχα κατὰ τὸ Η. and let GH have been joined. τὸ ἄρα ὑπὸ τῶν ΒΕ. 1. And let BF have been cut in half at (point) G [Prop. γεγονὸς ἂν εἴη τὸ ἐπιταχθέν. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. And. So the (square) on AC alone is less than the (sum of the) squares on CB and BA by twice the rectangle contained by CB and BD. then one of the (straight-lines) BE or ED is greater (than the other). καὶ κείσθω τῇ ΕΔ ἴση ἡ ΕΖ. So it is required to construct a square equal to the rectilinear figure A. have been constructed [Prop.10]. καὶ ἐκβεβλήσθω ἡ ΔΕ ἐπὶ τὸ Θ. ΕΔ μείζων ἐστίν. Let BE be greater. the (sum of the squares) on CB and BA is equal to the (square) on AC. and twice the (rectangle contained) by CB and BD. idþ. Thus. ΗΖ ἡμικύκλιον γεγράφθω τὸ ΒΘΖ. equal to the rectilinear figure A. ᾿Εν ἄρα τοῖς ὀξυγωνίοις τριγώνοις τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς τὴν ὀξεῖαν γωνίαν ὑποτεινούσης πλευρᾶς τετράγωνον ἔλαττόν ἐστι τῶν ἀπὸ τῶν τὴν ὀξεῖαν γωνίαν περιεχουσῶν πλευρῶν τετραγώνων τῷ περιεχομένῳ δὶς ὑπό τε μιᾶς τῶν περὶ τὴν ὀξεῖαν γωνίαν. in acute-angled triangles. καὶ τῆς ἀπολαμβανομένης ἐντὸς ὑπὸ τῆς καθέτου πρὸς τῇ ὀξείᾳ γωνίᾳ· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. ΕΗ E G F D Let A be the given rectilinear figure.45]. And if not. For let the right-angled parallelogram BD. Thus. 1. ἐφ᾿ ἣν ἡ κάθετος πίπτει. has been constructed. to which a perpendicular (straight-line) falls. ELEMENTS BOOK 2 τῶν ἀπὸ τῶν ΓΒ. since cos ABC = BD/AB. This proposition is equivalent to the well-known cosine formula: AC 2 = AB 2 + BC 2 − 2 AB BC cos ABC. ΒΔ περιεχομένῳ ὀρθογωνίῳ. † And the (square) on AC (is) equal to the (sum of the squares) on AD and DC [Prop. For the square BD. συνέσταται γὰρ τῷ Α εὐθυγράμμῳ ἴσον τετράγωνον τὸ ΒΔ· εἰ δὲ οὔ. ΕΖ μετὰ τοῦ ἀπὸ τῆς ΗΕ ἴσον ἐστὶ τῷ ἀπὸ τῆς ΗΘ. and unequally at E—the rectangle con- 66 . καὶ κέντρῳ τῷ Η.

Thus. 2. tained by BE and EF . 67 . And BD (is) equal to the rectilinear figure A. is equal to the (sum of the squares) on HE and EG. Let the square on GE have been taken from both. ΕΗ. Thus. the parallelogram BD is equal to the square on HE. is equal to the (square) on GH. Thus. ELEMENTS BOOK 2 τετράγωνα· τὸ ἄρα ὑπὸ τῶν ΒΕ. ἴσον δὲ τὸ ΒΔ τῷ Α εὐθυγράμμῳ. ΕΖ τὸ ΒΔ ἐστιν· ἴση γὰρ ἡ ΕΖ τῇ ΕΔ· τὸ ἄρα ΒΔ παραλληλόγραμμον ἴσον ἐστὶ τῷ ἀπὸ τῆς ΘΕ τετραγώνῳ. a square—(namely). that (which) can be described on EH—has been constructed. (Which is) the very thing it was required to do. the rectilinear figure A is also equal to the square (which) can be described on EH. And GF (is) equal to GH. And the (sum of the) squares on HE and EG is equal to the (square) on GH [Prop.47]. equal to the given rectilinear figure A. Thus. plus the (square) on GE. καὶ τὸ Α ἄρα εὐθύγραμμον ἴσον ἐστὶ τῷ ἀπὸ τῆς ΕΘ ἀναγραφησομένῳ τετραγώνῳ. Τῷ ἄρα δοθέντι εὐθυγράμμῳ τῷ Α ἴσον τετράγωνον συνέσταται τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς ΕΘ ἀναγραφησόμενον· ὅπερ ἔδει ποιῆσαι. Thus. BD is the (rectangle contained) by BE and EF . ΕΖ περιεχόμενον ὄρθογώνιον ἴσον ἐστὶ τῷ ἀπὸ τῆς ΕΘ τετραγώνῳ. the remaining rectangle contained by BE and EF is equal to the square on EH. is thus equal to the square on GF [Prop.5]. 1.STOIQEIWN bþ. ΕΖ μετὰ τοῦ ἀπὸ ΗΕ ἴσα ἐστὶ τοῖς ἀπὸ τῶν ΘΕ. ἀλλὰ τὸ ὑπὸ τῶν ΒΕ. κοινὸν ἀφῃρήσθω τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς ΗΕ τετράγωνον· λοιπὸν ἄρα τὸ ὑπὸ τῶν ΒΕ. the (rectangle contained) by BE and EF . For EF (is) equal to ED. But. Thus. plus the square on EG. plus the (square) on GE. the (rectangle contained) by BE and EF .

68 .

ELEMENTS BOOK 3 Fundamentals of Plane Geometry Involving Circles 69 .

5. and GB have been joined. the two 70 . and the circumference cut off by them. ἀλλ᾿ εἰ δυνατόν. And (that straight-line) is said to be further (from the center) on which the greater perpendicular falls (from the center). when the angle is constructed at the center of a circle. do not cut one another. And when the straight-lines containing an angle cut off some circumference. if possible. ὅταν πρὸς τῷ κέντρῷ τοῦ κύκλου συσταθῇ γωνία. at right-angles to AB [Prop. ῞Οταν δὲ αἱ περιέχουσαι τὴν γωνίαν εὐθεῖαι ἀπολαμβάνωσί τινα περιφέρειαν. Circles said to touch one another are any (circles) which. Κύκλοι ἐφάπτεσθαι ἀλλήλων λέγονται οἵτινες ἁπτόμενοι ἀλλήλων οὐ τέμνουσιν ἀλλήλους. and let GA. 1. καὶ τετμήσθω ἡ ΓΕ δίχα κατὰ τὸ Ζ· λέγω. 3. ᾿Εν κύκλῳ ἴσον ἀπέχειν ἀπὸ τοῦ κέντρου εὐθεῖαι λέγονται. And let (CD) have been drawn through to E. 8. A segment of a circle is the figure contained by a straight-line and a circumference of a circle. ἐπ᾿ ἐκείνης λέγεται βεβηκέναι ἡ γωνία. καὶ τετμήσθω δίχα κατὰ τὸ Δ σημεῖον. ἡ περιεχομένη γωνία ὑπὸ τῶν ἐπιζευχθεισῶν εὐθειῶν. ῎Ισοι κύκλοι εἰσίν. ΗΔ. To find the center of a given circle. straight-lines are said to be equally far from the center when the perpendiculars drawn to them from the center are equal. Equal circles are (circles) whose diameters are equal. And let DC have been drawn from D. 2. 7. ιʹ. or in which the angles are equal to one another. ΗΒ. aþ. And the angle in a segment is the angle contained by the joined straight-lines. Similar segments of circles are those accepting equal angles. θʹ. Μεῖζον δὲ ἀπέχειν λέγεται. whose radii are equal). ηʹ. ἤ ἐν οἷς αἱ γωνίαι ἴσαι ἀλλήλαις εἰσίν. ὅτι τὸ Ζ κέντρον ἐστὶ τοῦ ΑΒΓ [κύκλου]. 6.. ὅταν ἐπὶ τῆς περιφερείας τοῦ τμήματος ληφθῇ τι σημεῖον καὶ ἀπ᾿ αὐτοῦ ἐπὶ τὰ πέρατα τῆς εὐθείας.e. Let some straight-line AB have been drawn through (ABC). ΔΒ ἴσαι εἰσὶν ἑκατέρα ἑκατέρᾳ· καὶ βάσις ἡ ΗΑ βάσει τῇ ΗΒ ἐστιν ἴση· ἐκ κέντρου γάρ· γωνία ἄρα ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΔΗ γωνίᾳ τῇ ὑπὸ ΗΔΒ ἴση ἐστίν. καὶ ἐπεὶ ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ΑΔ τῇ ΔΒ. ἔστω τὸ Η. 1. 4. ἐφ᾿ ἣν ἡ μείζων κάθετος πίπτει. ἐπιζευχθῶσιν εὐθεῖαι.9].STOIQEIWN gþ. ELEMENTS BOOK 3 VOroi. κοινὴ δὲ ἡ ΔΗ. βʹ. For (if) not then. 11.9]. In a circle. Let ABC be the given circle. or whose (distances) from the centers (to the circumferences) are equal (i. ὡς ἔτυχεν. And the angle of a segment is that contained by a straight-line and a circumference of a circle. εʹ. Διήχθω τις εἰς αὐτόν. εὐθεῖα ἡ ΑΒ. ῞Ομοία τμήματα κύκλων ἐστὶ τὰ δεχόμενα γωνίας ἴσας. And let CE have been cut in half at F [Prop. 10. ζʹ. And since AD is equal to DB. καὶ ἐπεζεύχθωσαν αἱ ΗΑ. ἥ ἐστι βάσις τοῦ τμήματος. ϛʹ. and straight-lines are joined from it to the ends of the straight-line which is the base of the segment. Definitions αʹ. GD.11]. ῎Εστω ὁ δοθεὶς κύκλος ὁ ΑΒΓ· δεῖ δὴ τοῦ ΑΒΓ κύκλου τὸ κέντρον εὑρεῖν. ᾿Εν τμήματι δὲ γωνία ἐστίν. meeting one another. δύο δὴ αἱ ΑΔ. ἥτις ἁπτομένη τοῦ κύκλου καὶ ἐκβαλλομένη οὐ τέμνει τὸν κύκλον. Τμῆμα κύκλου ἐστὶ τὸ περιεχόμενον σχῆμα ὑπό τε εὐθείας καὶ κύκλου περιφερείας. ὧν αἱ διάμετροι ἴσαι εἰσίν. τὸ περιεχόμενον σχῆμα ὑπό τε τῶν τὴν γωνίαν περιεχουσῶν εὐθειῶν καὶ τῆς ἀπολαμβανομένης ὑπ᾿ αὐτῶν περιφερείας. Proposition 1 Τοῦ δοθέντος κύκλου τὸ κέντρον εὑρεῖν. And a sector of a circle is the figure contained by the straight-lines surrounding an angle. at random. 1. A straight-line said to touch a circle is any (straightline) which. when any point is taken on the circumference of a segment. and let (AB) have been cut in half at point D [Prop. Τομεὺς δὲ κύκλου ἐστίν. ὅταν αἱ ἀπὸ τοῦ κέντρου ἐπ᾿ αὐτὰς κάθετοι ἀγόμεναι ἴσαι ὦσιν. ΔΗ δύο ταῖς ΗΔ. does not cut the circle. δʹ. let G (be the center of the circle). the angle is said to stand upon that (circumference). καὶ ἀπὸ τοῦ Δ τῇ ΑΒ πρὸς ὀρθὰς ἤχθω ἡ ΔΓ καὶ διήχθω ἐπὶ τὸ Ε. and DG (is) common. γʹ. Τμήματος δὲ γωνία ἐστὶν ἡ περιεχομένη ὑπό τε εὐθείας καὶ κύκλου περιφερείας. 1. 9. ιαʹ. Εὐθεῖα κύκλου ἐφάπτεσθαι λέγεται. I say that (point) F is the center of the [circle] ABC. meeting the circle and being produced. So it is required to find the center of circle ABC. Μὴ γάρ. ἢ ὧν αἱ ἐκ τῶν κέντρων ἴσαι εἰσίν.

ΔΒ. and let DF E have been drawn through. (it is) manifest that if any straight-line εὐθεῖάν τινα δίχα καὶ πρὸς ὀρθὰς τέμνῃ. ἡ ἐπὶ τὰ σημεῖα ἐπιζευγνυμένη εὐθεῖα ἐντὸς πεσεῖται τοῦ κύκλου. ἡ μείζων τῇ ἐλάττονι· ὅπερ ἐστὶν ἀδύνατον. — ὅπερ ἔδει ποιῆσαι. καὶ διήχθω ἡ ΔΖΕ. Thus. like AEB (in the figure). (point) G is not the center of the circle ABC. angle ADG is equal to angle GDB [Prop. the greater to the lesser. Pìrisma. ὅτι ἐὰν ἐν κύκλῳ εὐθεῖά τις So. So. ὀρθὴ ἑκατέρα τῶν ἴσων γωνιῶν ἐστιν· ὀρθὴ ἄρα ἐστὶν ἡ ὑπὸ ΗΔΒ. GDB is a right-angle. ὅτι οὐδ᾿ ἄλλο τι πλὴν τοῦ Ζ. For (they are both) radii. Let ABC be a circle. bþ. ὅτι ἡ ἀπὸ τοῦ Α ἐπὶ τὸ Β ἐπιζευγνυμένη εὐθεῖα ἐντὸς πεσεῖται τοῦ κύκλου. And when a straight-line stood upon (another) straight-line make adjacent angles (which are) equal to one another. if possible. ἐπὶ τῆς τεμνούσης in a circle cuts any (other) straight-line in half. Γ C Ζ Α Η ∆ F Β A Ε G D B E Τὸ Ζ ἄρα σημεῖον κέντρον ἐστὶ τοῦ ΑΒΓ [κύκλου]. which is obviously a mistake. Μὴ γάρ. Corollary ᾿Εκ δὴ τούτου φανερόν. Therefore. point F is the center of the [circle] ABC. πιπτέτω ἐκτὸς ὡς ἡ ΑΕΒ. Proposition 2 ᾿Εὰν κύκλου ἐπὶ τῆς περιφερείας ληφθῇ δύο τυχόντα σημεῖα. And let DA and DB have been joined. And let the center of the circle ABC have been found [Prop. then the center of the circle is on the former (straight-line). καὶ εἰλήφθω τὸ κέντρον τοῦ ΑΒΓ κύκλου. DG. Thus. right-angles. 1. The very thing is impossible.10]. I say that the straight-line joining A to B will fall inside the circle. ἀλλ᾿ εἰ δυνατόν. καὶ ἔστω τὸ Δ. ᾿Επεὶ οὖν ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ΔΑ τῇ ΔΒ. ἴση ἄρα καὶ γωνία ἡ ὑπὸ ΔΑΕ τῇ ὑπὸ ΔΒΕ· καὶ ἐπεὶ τριγώνου τοῦ ΔΑΕ μία If two points are taken at random on the circumference of a circle then the straight-line joining the points will fall inside the circle. ἐστὶ δὲ καὶ ἡ ὑπὸ ΖΔΒ ὀρθή· ἴση ἄρα ἡ ὑπὸ ΖΔΒ τῇ ὑπὸ ΗΔΒ. Thus. and let it be (at point) D. and let two points A and B have been taken at random on its circumference.1]. οὐκ ἄρα τὸ Η κέντρον ἐστὶ τοῦ ΑΒΓ κύκλου. Thus. ELEMENTS BOOK 3 ὅταν δὲ εὐθεῖα ἐπ᾿ εὐθεῖαν σταθεῖσα τὰς ἐφεξῆς γωνίας ἴσας ἀλλήλαις ποιῇ. And the base GA is equal to the base GB. καὶ ἐπεζεύχθωσαν αἱ ΔΑ. similarly. and at ἐστὶ τὸ κέντρον τοῦ κύκλου. F DB (is) equal to GDB. the angle DAE 71 . (straight-lines) AD. — (Which is) the very thing it was required to do. since DA is equal to DB.STOIQEIWN gþ. DB”. each of the equal angles is a right-angle [Def. 1. Thus.8]. Β· λέγω. let it fall outside (the circle). from this. ὁμοίως δὴ δείξομεν. † The Greek text has “GD. we can show that neither is any other (point) except F . καὶ ἐπὶ τῆς περιφερείας αὐτοῦ εἰλήφθω δύο τυχόντα σημεῖα τὰ Α. DG are equal to the two (straightlines) BD. 3. ῎Εστω κύκλος ὁ ΑΒΓ. For (if) not then.† respectively. And F DB is also a right-angle.

Γ C ∆ D Α A Ζ Ε F E Β B ᾿Εὰν ἄρα κύκλου ἐπὶ τῆς περιφερείας ληφθῇ δύο τυχόντα Thus. CD. καὶ δίχα αὐτὴν τέμνει. So. And since AF is equal to F B. And when a straight-line stood upon (another) straightline makes adjacent angles (which are) equal to one another. ὅταν δὲ εὐθεῖα ἐπ᾿ εὐθεῖαν σταθεῖσα τὰς ἐφεξῆς γωνίας ἴσας ἀλλήλαις ποιῇ. 1. Thus. And DAE (is) equal to DBE [Prop. (is) thus also equal to DBE [Prop. the lesser than the greater. two (sides of triangle AF E) [are] equal to two (sides of triangle BF E). if two points are taken at random on the cirσημεῖα. μείζων ἄρα ἡ ὑπὸ ΔΕΒ γωνία τῆς ὑπὸ ΔΑΕ. ἴση δὲ ἡ ΔΒ τῇ ΔΖ. δύο δυσὶν ἴσαι [εἰσίν]· καὶ βάσις ἡ ΕΑ βάσει τῇ ΕΒ ἴση· γωνία ἄρα ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΖΕ γωνίᾳ τῇ ὑπὸ ΒΖΕ ἴση ἐστίν. DF (is) greater than DE. ὅτι καὶ πρὸς ὀρθὰς αὐτὴν τέμνει. μείζων ἄρα ἡ ΔΖ τῆς ΔΕ ἡ ἐλάττων τῆς μείζονος· ὅπερ ἐστὶν ἀδύνατον. Let ABC be a circle. we can show that neither (will it fall) on the circumference itself. and let it be (at point) E. AB. ELEMENTS BOOK 3 πλευρὰ προσεκβέβληται ἡ ΑΕΒ. ῎Εστω κύκλος ὁ ΑΒΓ. And (conversely) if it cuts it at right-angles then it also cuts it in half. Proposition 3 ᾿Εὰν ἐν κύκλῳ εὐθεῖά τις διὰ τοῦ κέντρου εὐθεῖάν τινα μὴ διὰ τοῦ κέντρου δίχα τέμνῃ. ΒΖΕ ὀρθή ἐστιν. ἡ ΓΔ ἄρα διὰ τοῦ κέντρου οὖσα τὴν ΑΒ μὴ διὰ τοῦ κέντρου οὖσαν δίχα τέμνουσα καὶ πρὸς ὀρθὰς τέμνει. ἴση δὲ ἡ ὑπὸ ΔΑΕ τῇ ὑπὸ ΔΒΕ· μείζων ἄρα ἡ ὑπὸ ΔΕΒ τῆς ὑπὸ ΔΒΕ. Εἰλήφθω γὰρ τὸ κέντρον τοῦ ΑΒΓ κύκλου. and let EA and EB have been joined. and F E (is) common.16]. DB (is) greater than DE. καὶ ἐπεζεύχθωσαν αἱ ΕΑ. ΕΒ.10].1]. has been produced. cut in half some straight-line not through the center. Thus. καὶ ἔστω τὸ Ε. ὁμοίως δὴ δείξομεν. καὶ πρὸς ὀρθὰς αὐτὴν τέμνει· καὶ ἐὰν πρὸς ὀρθὰς αὐτὴν τέμνῃ. For let the center of the circle ABC have been found [Prop. AEB. each of the equal angles is a right-angle [Def. (it will fall) inside (the circle). 1. 1. ἡ ἐπὶ τὰ σημεῖα ἐπιζευγνυμένη εὐθεῖα ἐντὸς πεσεῖται cumference of a circle then the straight-line joining the τοῦ κύκλου· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. angle DEB (is) thus greater than DAE [Prop. In a circle. ὀρθὴ ἑκατέρα τῶν ἴσων γωνιῶν ἐστιν· ἑκατέρα ἄρα τῶν ὑπὸ ΑΖΕ. at the point F .8]. gþ. the straight-line joining A to B will not fall outside the circle. Thus. Thus. κοινὴ δὲ ἡ ΖΕ. ὑπὸ δὲ τὴν μείζονα γωνίαν ἡ μείζων πλευρὰ ὑποτείνει· μείζων ἄρα ἡ ΔΒ τῆς ΔΕ. similarly. Καὶ ἐπεὶ ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ΑΖ τῇ ΖΒ. Thus. The very thing is impossible.5]. And since in triangle DAE the one side. the 72 . καὶ ἐν αὐτῷ εὐθεῖά τις διὰ τοῦ κέντρου ἡ ΓΔ εὐθεῖάν τινα μὴ διὰ τοῦ κέντρου τὴν ΑΒ δίχα τεμνέτω κατὰ τὸ Ζ σημεῖον· λέγω.STOIQEIWN gþ. ὅτι οὐδὲ ἐπ᾿ αὐτῆς τῆς περιφερείας· ἐντὸς ἄρα. Thus. Thus. points will fall inside the circle. if any straight-line through the center cuts in half any straight-line not through the center then it also cuts it at right-angles. angle AF E is equal to angle BF E [Prop. and.5]. And the greater angle is subtended by the greater side [Prop. 1.19]. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. within it. let some straightline through the center. οὐκ ἄρα ἡ ἀπὸ τοῦ Α ἐπὶ τὸ Β ἐπιζευγνυμένη εὐθεῖα ἐκτὸς πεσεῖται τοῦ κύκλου. 1. AF E and BF E are each right-angles. DEB (is) greater than DBE. And DB (is) equal to DF . And the base EA (is) equal to the base EB. 1. Thus. 3. I say that (CD) also cuts (AB) at right-angles.

which are not through the center. AF (is) equal to F B. and one side equal to one side—(namely). if possible.1]. it also cuts it at right-angles [Prop. ΕΖΒ τὰς δύο γωνίας δυσὶ γωνίαις ἴσας ἔχοντα καὶ μίαν πλευρὰν μιᾷ πλευρᾷ ἴσην κοινὴν αὐτῶν τὴν ΕΖ ὑποτείνουσαν ὑπὸ μίαν τῶν ἴσων γωνιῶν· καὶ τὰς λοιπὰς ἄρα πλευρὰς ταῖς λοιπαῖς πλευραῖς ἴσας ἕξει· ἴση ἄρα ἡ ΑΖ τῇ ΖΒ. For. And the right-angle AF E is also equal to the right-angle BF E. 1. ὅτι ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ΑΖ τῇ ΖΒ. ἐπεὶ εὐθεῖά τις ἡ ΖΕ εὐθεῖάν τινα τὴν ΒΔ δίχα τέμνει. Thus. That is to say. and BE to ED. which is through the center and cuts in half the (straight-line) AB. I say that it also cuts (AB) in half. τουτέστιν. ὅτι οὐ τέμνουσιν ἀλλήλας δίχα. ἐπεὶ ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ΕΑ τῇ ΕΒ. ἴση ἐστὶ καὶ γωνία ἡ ὑπὸ ΕΑΖ τῇ ὑπὸ ΕΒΖ. let them cut one another in half. since some straight-line F E 73 . καὶ ἐν αὐτῷ δύο εὐθεῖαι αἱ ΑΓ. καὶ πρὸς ὀρθὰς αὐτὴν τέμνει· ὀρθὴ ἄρα ἐστὶν ἡ ὑπὸ ΖΕΑ· πάλιν. ὅτι καὶ δίχα αὐτὴν τέμνει. ῎Εστω κύκλος ὁ ΑΒΓΔ. ᾿Εὰν ἄρα ἐν κύκλῳ εὐθεῖά τις διὰ τοῦ κέντρου εὐθεῖάν τινα μὴ διὰ τοῦ κέντρου δίχα τέμνῃ. And let the center of the circle ABCD have been found [Prop. And (conversely) if it cuts it at right-angles then it also cuts it in half. F EA is a right-angle. their common (side) EF . Τῶν γὰρ αὐτῶν κατασκευασθέντων. Therefore. and let F E have been joined. καὶ ἔστω τὸ Ζ. For. 3. and let it be (at point) F . 1. cut one another at (point) E. καὶ πρὸς ὀρθὰς αὐτὴν τέμνει· ὀρθὴ ἄρα ἡ ὑπὸ ΖΕΒ. such that AE is equal to EC. Γ C Ε Α Ζ E Β A F B ∆ D ᾿Αλλὰ δὴ ἡ ΓΔ τὴν ΑΒ πρὸς ὀρθὰς τεμνέτω· λέγω. καὶ ἐπεζεύχθω ἡ ΖΕ. subtending one of the equal angles. ἐστὶ δὲ καὶ ὀρθὴ ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΖΕ ὀρθῇ τῇ ὑπὸ ΒΖΕ ἴση· δύο ἄρα τρίγωνά ἐστι ΕΑΖ. cut one another then they do not cut one another in half. καὶ δίχα αὐτὴν τέμνει· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι.26].STOIQEIWN gþ. οὐ τέμνουσιν ἀλλήλας δίχα. let two straightlines. AC and BD. ELEMENTS BOOK 3 (straight-line) CD. if any straight-line through the center cuts in half any straight-line not through the center then it also cuts it at right-angles. also cuts (AB) at right-angles. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. τὴν δὲ ΒΕ τῇ ΕΔ· καὶ εἰλήφθω τὸ κέντρον τοῦ ΑΒΓΔ κύκλου. if two straight-lines. And so let CD cut AB at right-angles. Proposition 4 ᾿Εὰν ἐν κύκλῳ δύο εὐθεῖαι τέμνωσιν ἀλλήλας μὴ δὶα τοῦ κέντρου οὖσαι. καὶ πρὸς ὀρθὰς αὐτὴν τέμνει· καὶ ἐὰν πρὸς ὀρθὰς αὐτὴν τέμνῃ. which is not through the center. since EA is equal to EB. 3. angle EAF is also equal to EBF [Prop. cuts in half some straight-line not through the center. AC. Thus. Again. which are not through the center. Thus. and within it. ΒΔ τεμνέτωσαν ἀλλήλας κατὰ τὸ Ε μὴ διὰ τοῦ κέντρου οὖσαι· λέγω. since some straight-line through the center. Let ABCD be a circle. that AF is equal to F B. dþ. τεμνέτωσαν ἀλλήλας δίχα ὥστε ἴσην εἶναι τὴν μὲν ΑΕ τῇ ΕΓ. Εἰ γὰρ δυνατόν.3]. I say that they do not cut one another in half. EAF and EF B are two triangles having two angles equal to two angles. in a circle. ᾿Επεὶ οὖν εὐθεῖά τις διὰ τοῦ κέντρου ἡ ΖΕ εὐθεῖάν τινα μὴ διὰ τοῦ κέντρου τὴν ΑΓ δίχα τέμνει. with the same construction.5]. Thus. Thus. F E. they will also have the remaining sides equal to the (corresponding) remaining sides [Prop. ἐδείχθη δὲ καὶ ἡ ὑπὸ ΖΕΑ ὀρθή· ἴση ἄρα ἡ ὑπὸ ΖΕΑ τῇ ὑπὸ ΖΕΒ ἡ ἐλάττων τῇ In a circle.

ὡς ἔτυχεν. λέγω. ἐπεὶ τὸ Ε σημεῖον κέντρον ἐστὶ τοῦ ΓΔΗ κύκλου. I say that they will not have the same center. ΓΔΗ τεμνέτωσαν ἀλλήλους κατὰ τὰ Β. Α A Γ ∆ D Ε Β C E B Ζ Η F G Δύο γὰρ κύκλοι οἱ ΑΒΓ. which are not τοῦ κέντρου οὖσαι. The very thing is impossible. Thus.STOIQEIWN gþ. EC is equal to EG. But F EA was also shown (to be) a right-angle. point E is not 74 . οὐκ ἔστιν For let the two circles ABC and CDG cut one another at points B and C. οὐκ ἔσται αὐτῶν If two circles cut one another then they will not have τὸ αὐτὸ κέντρον. eþ. ELEMENTS BOOK 3 μείζονι· ὅπερ ἐστὶν ἀδύνατον. in a circle. ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ΕΓ τῇ ΕΗ· ἐδείχθη δὲ ἡ ΕΓ καὶ τῇ ΕΖ ἴση· καὶ ἡ ΕΖ ἄρα τῇ ΕΗ ἐστιν ἴση ἡ ἐλάσσων τῇ μείζονι· ὅπερ ἐστὶν ἀδύνατον.3]. 3. ἔστω τὸ Ε. EC is equal to EF . Γ σημεῖα. F EA (is) equal to F EB. Εἰ γὰρ δυνατόν. and let EF G have been drawn through (the two circles). Thus. Again. ἵση ἐστὶν ἡ ΕΓ τῇ ΕΖ. καὶ ἐπεζεύχθω ἡ ΕΓ. at random. οὐκ ἄρα αἱ ΑΓ. EF is also equal to EG. the lesser to the greater. F EB (is) a right-angle. Thus. οὐκ ἄρα τὸ Ε σημεῖον κέντρον ἐστὶ τῶν ΑΒΓ. cut one another then they do not cut δεῖξαι. ΓΔΗ κύκλων. ΒΔ τέμνουσιν cuts in half some straight-line BD. ὅτι οὐκ ἔσται αὐτῶν τὸ αὐτὸ κέντρον. The very thing is impossible. AC and BD do not cut one another in half. But EC was also shown (to be) equal to EF . ∆ Ζ Α D F A E Ε Γ Β C B ᾿Εὰν ἄρα ἐν κύκλῳ δύο εὐθεῖαι τέμνωσιν ἀλλήλας μὴ δὶα Thus. the lesser to the greater. καὶ διήχθω ἡ ΕΖΗ. Thus. if two straight-lines. ᾿Εὰν ἄρα δύο κύκλοι τέμνωσιν ἀλλήλους. οὐ τέμνουσιν ἀλλήλας δίχα· ὅπερ ἔδει through the center. For. angles [Prop. let E be (the common center). Thus. Proposition 5 ᾿Εὰν δύο κύκλοι τέμνωσιν ἀλλήλους. πάλιν. it also cuts it at rightἀλλήλας δίχα. if possible. since point E is the center of the circle CDG. one another in half. the same center. And since point E is the center of the circle ABC. and let EC have been joined. καὶ ἐπεὶ τὸ Ε σημεῖον κέντρον ἐστὶ τοῦ ΑΒΓ κύκλου. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show.

And for the others. ᾿Εὰν ἄρα δύο κύκλοι ἐφάπτωνται ἀλλήλων. I say that they will not have the same center. ᾿Επεὶ οὖν τὸ Ζ σημεῖον κέντρον ἐστὶ τοῦ ΑΒΓ κύκλου. F C is equal to F E. if two circles cut one another then they will not have the same center. οὐκ ἔσται αὐτῶν τὸ αὐτὸ κέντρον· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι.STOIQEIWN gþ. Again. ELEMENTS BOOK 3 αὐτῶν τὸ αὐτὸ κέντρον· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. F E is also equal to F B. οὐκ ἔσται αὐτῶν If two circles touch one another then they will not τὸ αὐτὸ κέντρον. ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ΖΓ τῇ ΖΒ. πάλιν. (one) on each 75 . since point F is the center of the circle CDE. since point F is the center of the circle ABC. καὶ ἐπεζεύχθω ἡ ΖΓ. And only two equal (straight-lines) will radiate from the point towards the (circumference of the) circle. ἐδείχθη δὲ ἡ ΖΓ τῇ ΖΒ ἴση· καὶ ἡ ΖΕ ἄρα τῇ ΖΒ ἐστιν ἴση. ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ΖΓ τῇ ΖΕ. ἔστω τὸ Ζ. þ. ἐπεὶ τὸ Ζ σημεῖον κέντρον ἐστὶ τοῦ ΓΔΕ κύκλου. zþ. ἡ ΖΕΒ. have the same center. is taken on the diameter of a circle. Εἰ γὰρ δυνατόν. and let F EB have been drawn through (the two circles). For let the two circles ABC and CDE touch one another at point C. But F C was shown (to be) equal to F B. the lesser to the greater. Proposition 7 ᾿Εὰν κύκλου ἐπὶ τῆς διαμέτρου ληφθῇ τι σημεῖον. καὶ διήχθω. ὅτι οὐκ ἔσται αὐτῶν τὸ αὐτὸ κέντρον. ὃ μή ἐστι κέντρον τοῦ κύκλου. ΓΔΕ κύκλων. Thus. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. let F be (the common center). οὐκ ἄρα τὸ Ζ σημεῖον κέντρον ἐστὶ τῶν ΑΒΓ. Thus. Γ C Ζ F Ε E Β ∆ B D Α A Δύο γὰρ κύκλοι οἱ ΑΒΓ. For. which is not the center of the circle. Proposition 6 ᾿Εὰν δύο κύκλοι ἐφάπτωνται ἀλλήλων. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. and the least the remainder (of the same diameter). if possible. then the greatest (straight-line) will be that on which the center (lies). ἐλαχίστη δὲ ἡ λοιπή. τῶν δὲ ἄλλων ἀεὶ ἡ ἔγγιον τῆς δὶα τοῦ κέντρου τῆς ἀπώτερον μείζων ἐστίν. a (straightline) nearer† to the (straight-line) through the center is always greater than a (straight-line) further away. ΓΔΕ ἐφαπτέσθωσαν ἀλλήλων κατὰ τὸ Γ σημεῖον· λέγω. point F is not the (common) center of the circles ABC and CDE. F C is equal to F B. ἐφ᾿ ἧς τὸ κέντρον. Thus. the (common) center of the circles ABC and CDG. and some straightlines radiate from the point towards the (circumference of the) circle. Thus. at random. if two circles touch one another then they will not have the same center. and let F C have been joined. The very thing is impossible. δύο δὲ μόνον ἴσαι ἀπὸ τοῦ σημείου προσπεσοῦνται πρὸς τὸν κύκλον ἐφ᾿ ἑκάτερα τῆς ἐλαχίστης. ἡ ἐλάττων τῇ μείζονι· ὅπερ ἐστὶν ἀδύνατον. ὡς ἔτυχεν. μεγίστη μὲν ἔσται. ἀπὸ δὲ τοῦ σημείου πρὸς τὸν κύκλον προσπίπτωσιν εὐθεῖαί τινες. If some point. Therefore.

ΕΖ ἴσαι εἰσὶ τῇ ΑΖ]· μείζων ἄρα ἡ ΑΖ τῆς ΒΖ. καὶ ἐπεὶ παντὸς τριγώνου αἱ δύο πλευραὶ τῆς λοιπῆς μείζονές εἰσιν. ἐπεὶ αἱ ΗΖ. 1. and let some point F . κοινὴ δὲ ἡ ΖΕ. GF and F E are thus greater than ED. 1. μείζων δὲ ἡ μὲν ΖΒ τῆς ΖΓ. Again. δύο δὴ αἱ ΗΕ. Therefore. and F C than F G. ἐλαχίστη δὲ ἡ ΖΔ. 1. For let the (angle) F EH. (one) on each (side) of the least (straight-line) F D. since GF and F E are greater than EG [Prop. ΕΖ δυσὶ ταῖς ΘΕ. ἐπεὶ οὖν ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ΗΕ τῇ ΕΘ. κοινὴ δὲ ἡ ΕΖ. ΖΗ· λέγω.20]. For let BE. εἰ γὰρ δυνατόν. and EG (is) equal to ED. and of the others. ὃ μή ἐστι κέντρον τοῦ κύκλου. ἐπεὶ ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ΒΕ τῇ ΓΕ. κέντρον δὲ τοῦ κύκλου ἔστω τὸ Ε. Let EF have been taken from both. ἀλλὰ καὶ γωνία ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΕΖ γωνίας τῆς ὑπὸ ΓΕΖ μείζων· βάσις ἄρα ἡ ΒΖ βάσεως τῆς ΓΖ μείζων ἐστίν. Thus. I also say that from point F only two equal (straightlines) will radiate towards (the circumference of) circle ABCD. the two (straight-lines) BE. ὅτι τῇ ΖΗ ἄλλη ἴση οὐ προσπεσεῖται πρὸς τὸν κύκλον ἀπὸ τοῦ Ζ σημείου. καὶ ἀπὸ τοῦ Ζ πρὸς τὸν ΑΒΓΔ κύκλον προσπιπτέτωσαν εὐθεῖαί τινες αἱ ΖΒ. ΖΕ τῆς ΕΔ μείζονές εἰσιν. angle BEF (is) also greater than angle CEF . ἴση δὲ ἡ ΑΕ τῇ ΒΕ [αἱ ἄρα ΒΕ. ὅτι μεγίστη μέν ἐστιν ἡ ΖΑ. ΕΖ ἴσαι εἰσίν· καὶ γωνία ἡ ὑπὸ ΗΕΖ γωνίᾳ τῇ ὑπὸ ΘΕΖ ἴση· βάσις ἄρα ἡ ΖΗ βάσει τῇ ΖΘ ἴση ἐστίν. and EF (is) common. F D the least. ὅτι καὶ ἀπὸ τοῦ Ζ σημείου δύο μόνον ἴσαι προσπεσοῦνται πρὸς τὸν ΑΒΓΔ κύκλον ἐφ᾿ ἑκάτερα τῆς ΖΔ ἐλαχίστης. Thus. have been taken on AD. τῶν δὲ ἄλλων ἡ μὲν ΖΒ τῆς ΖΓ μείζων. F D the least. ἐλαχίστη δὲ ἡ ΖΔ. ἡ δὲ ΖΓ τῆς ΖΗ. Thus. EF are equal to the two (straightlines) CE. for the same (reasons). ἀλλὰ ἡ ΖΘ τῇ ΖΗ [ἴση ἐστίν]. καὶ ἐπεζεύχθω ἡ ΖΘ. And since for every triangle (any) two sides are greater than the remaining (side) [Prop. EB and EF is thus greater than BF . ΕΖ δυσὶ ταῖς ΓΕ. CE. πάλιν. συνεστάτω γὰρ πρὸς τῇ ΕΖ εὐθείᾳ καὶ τῷ πρὸς αὐτῇ σημείῳ τῷ Ε τῇ ὑπὸ ΗΕΖ γωνίᾳ ἴση ἡ ὑπὸ ΖΕΘ. which is not the center of the circle. ΗΕ. προσπιπτέτω ἡ ΖΚ. and F E (is) common. F C. F B.24]. αἱ ἄρα ΕΒ. equal to angle GEF . And let some straight-lines. 76 . AF (is) greater than BF . καὶ ἡ ΖΚ ἄρα τῇ ΖΘ ἐστιν ἴση. since BE is equal to CE. 1. the remainder GF is greater than the remainder F D. So. ΖΓ. Again.‡ Thus. οὐκ ἄρα ἀπὸ τοῦ Ζ σημείου ἑτέρα τις Let ABCD be a circle. the base BF is greater than the base CF [Prop. at the point E on it [Prop. have been constructed on the straight-line EF . λέγω δή. ΓΕ. Γ C Η Β Α G B Ζ Ε Κ ∆ A F D E H Θ K ῎Εστω κύκλος ὁ ΑΒΓΔ. and let AD be its diameter. I say that F A is the greatest (straight-line). καὶ ἐπὶ τῆς ΑΔ εἰλήφθω τι σημεῖον τὸ Ζ. and F G. καὶ ἐπεὶ ἡ ΖΚ τῇ ΖΗ ἴση ἐστίν. Thus. Πάλιν. ἡ ἔγγιον τῆς διὰ τοῦ κέντρου τῇ ἀπώτερον ἴση· ὅπερ ἀδύνατον.STOIQEIWN gþ. Let E be the center of the circle. radiate from F towards (the circumference of) circle ABCD. since GE is equal to EH. and let F H have been joined. διάμετρος δὲ αὐτοῦ ἔστω ἡ ΑΔ. and F B (is) greater than F C. ᾿Επεζεύχθωσαν γὰρ αἱ ΒΕ. Λέγω. the base BF is greater than the base CF . and F C than F G. δύο δὴ αἱ ΒΕ.20]. F B (is) greater than F C. αἱ ἄρα ΗΖ. κοινὴ ἀφῃρήσθω ἡ ΕΖ· λοιπὴ ἄρα ἡ ΗΖ λοιπῆς τῆς ΖΔ μείζων ἐστίν. and GE have been joined. ἴση δὲ ἡ ΕΗ τῇ ΕΔ. ἡ δὲ ΖΓ τῆς ΖΗ. ΕΖ τῆς ΒΖ μείζονές εἰσιν. ELEMENTS BOOK 3 (side) of the least (straight-line). διὰ τὰ αὐτὰ δὴ καὶ ἡ ΓΖ τῆς ΖΗ μείζων ἐστίν. BE and EF is equal to AF ]. And AE (is) equal to BE [thus. EF (respectively). ΖΕ τῆς ΕΗ μείζονές εἰσιν. μεγίστη μὲν ἄρα ἡ ΖΑ. CF is also greater than F G. ΕΖ ἴσαι εἰσίν. But.23]. F A (is) the greatest (straight-line).

ὃ μή ἐστι κέντρον τοῦ κύκλου. the two (straight-lines) GE. the remainder (being) random. (one) on each (side) of the least (straight-line). I say that for the straight-lines radiating towards the concave (part of 77 . have been drawn through (the circle). let F K (so) radiate. in an angular sense. Thus. then for the straight-lines radiating towards the concave (part of the) circumference. except by reference to the figure.STOIQEIWN gþ. ELEMENTS BOOK 3 προσπεσεῖται πρὸς τὸν κύκλον ἴση τῇ ΗΖ· μία ἄρα μόνη. ἐλαχίστη δὲ ἡ λοιπή. F K is thus also equal to F H. And only two equal (straight-lines) will radiate from the same point towards the (circumference of the) circle. Thus. DF . ἀπὸ δὲ τοῦ σημείου πρὸς τὸν κύκλον διαχθῶσιν εὐθεῖαί τινες.4]. And since F K is equal to F G. μείζων δὲ ἡ μὲν ΔΕ τῆς ΔΖ ἡ δὲ ΔΖ τῆς ΔΓ. a (straight-line) nearer to the least (straight-line) is always less than one further away. and let some point D have been taken outside ABC. EF are equal to the two (straight-lines) HE. δύο δὲ μόνον ἴσαι ἀπὸ τοῦ αὐτοῦ σημείου προσπεσοῦνται πρὸς τὸν κύκλον ἐφ᾿ ἑκάτερα τῆς ἐλαχίστης· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. Let ABC be a circle. ἡ δὲ ΔΛ If some point is taken outside a circle. For the straight-lines radiating towards the convex (part of the) circumference. τῶν δὲ πρὸς τὴν ΘΛΚΗ κυρτὴν περιφέρειαν προσπιπτουσῶν εὐθειῶν ἐλαχίστη μέν ἐστιν ἡ ΔΗ ἡ μεταξὺ τοῦ σημείου καὶ τῆς διαμέτρου τῆς ΑΗ. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. Proposition 8 ᾿Εὰν κύκλου ληφθῇ τι σημεῖον ἐκτός. δύο δὲ μόνον ἴσαι ἀπὸ τοῦ σημείου προσπεσοῦνται πρὸς τὸν κύκλον ἐφ᾿ ἑκάτερα τῆς ἐλαχίστης. And only two equal (straightlines) will radiate from the point towards the (circumference of the) circle. So I say that another (straightline) equal to F G will not radiate towards (the circumference of) the circle from point F . And for the others. if some point. and from it let some straight-lines. DE. is taken on the diameter of a circle. ΔΖ. the least is that between the point and the diameter. and let DA be through the center. Thus. ἔστω δὲ ἡ ΔΑ διὰ τοῦ κέντρου. καὶ ἀπ᾿ αὐτοῦ διήχθωσαν εὐθεῖαί τινες αἱ ΔΑ. and some straight-lines are drawn from the point to the (circumference of the) circle. if possible. τῶν δὲ πρὸς τὴν κυρτὴν περιφέρειαν προσπιπτουσῶν εὐθειῶν ἐλαχίστη μέν ἐστιν ἡ μεταξὺ τοῦ τε σημείου καὶ τῆς διαμέτρου. The very thing (is) impossible. then the greatest (straight-line) will be that on which the center (lies). ᾿Εὰν ἄρα κύκλου ἐπὶ τῆς διαμέτρου ληφθῇ τι σημεῖον. † Presumably. αἱ δὲ λοιπαί. another (straight-line) equal to GF will not radiate from the point F towards (the circumference of) the circle. the greatest is that (passing) through the center. ὅτι τῶν μὲν πρὸς τὴν ΑΕΖΓ κοίλην περιφέρειαν προσπιπτουσῶν εὐθειῶν μεγίστη μέν ἐστιν ἡ διὰ τοῦ κέντρου ἡ ΔΑ. (there is) only one (such straight-line). the base F G is equal to the base F H [Prop. ΔΕ. ΔΓ. For the others. ‡ This is not proved. hþ. ἀεὶ δὲ ἡ ἔγγιον τῆς ΔΗ ἐλαχίστης ἐλάττων ἐστὶ τῆς ἀπώτερον. which is not the center of the circle. but F H [is equal] to F G. For. 1. Thus. τῶν δὲ ἄλλων ἀεὶ ἡ ἔγγιον τῆς διὰ τοῦ κέντρου τῆς ἀπώτερον μείζων ἐστίν. μεγίστη μὲν ἔσται. ἀπὸ δὲ τοῦ σημείου πρὸς τὸν κύκλον προσπίπτωσιν εὐθεῖαί τινες. For the others. EF (respectively). λέγω. and the least the remainder (of the same diameter). (one) on each (side) of the least (straight-line). ὡς ἔτυχεν. and some straight-lines radiate from the point towards the (circumference of the) circle. τῶν δὲ ἄλλων ἀεὶ ἡ ἔγγιον τῆς δὶα τοῦ κέντρου τῆς ἀπώτερον μείζων ἐστίν. a (straight-line) nearer to the (straight-line) through the center is always greater than a (straight-line) further away. ῎Εστω κύκλος ὁ ΑΒΓ. a (straight-line) nearer† to the (straight-line) through the center is always greater than one further away. one of which (passes) through the center. ἐφ᾿ ἧς τὸ κέντρον. καὶ τοῦ ΑΒΓ εἰλήφθω τι σημεῖον ἐκτὸς τὸ Δ. And angle GEF (is) equal to angle HEF . τῶν μὲν πρὸς τὴν κοίλην περιφέρειαν προσπιπτουσῶν εὐθειῶν μεγίστη μέν ἐστιν ἡ διὰ τοῦ κέντρου. the nearer to the (straight-line) through the center equal to the further away. ἡ μὲν ΔΚ τῆς ΔΛ. τῶν δὲ ἄλλων ἀεὶ ἡ ἔγγιον τῆς ἐλαχίστης τῆς ἀπώτερόν ἐστιν ἐλάττων. ὧν μία μὲν διὰ τοῦ κέντρου. and DC. DA.

AD (is) the greatest (straight-line). And since M K and KD is greater than M D [Prop. M C. Thus. EM and M D is greater than ED [Prop. Καὶ ἐπεὶ ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ΑΜ τῇ ΕΜ. So. ΜΔ ἄρα ταῖς ΖΜ. (namely) DG. the two internal straight-lines M K and KD were constructed on one of the sides.1]. For the straight-lines radiating towards the convex (part of the) circumference. βάσις ἄρα ἡ ΕΔ βάσεως τῆς ΖΔ μείζων ἐστίν· ὁμοίως δὴ δείξομεν. the remainder KD is thus greater than the remainder GD. ὅτι καὶ ἡ ΔΛ τῆς ΔΘ ἐλάττων ἐστίν· ἐλαχίστη μὲν ἄρα ἡ ΔΗ. (so that) DK (is less) than DL. And angle EM D is greater than angle F M D. the (straight-lines) EM . and (that) DE (is) greater than DF . ΜΔ δύο ταῖς ΒΜ. and DK (is) less than DL. AD is also greater than ED. αἱ ΕΜ. Thus. ΜΔ. the remainder DK is less than the remainder DL. And since AM is equal to EM . ΚΔ τῆς ΜΔ μείζονές εἰσιν. and DL than DH. M L. So GD is less than KD. M D. the greatest is the one (passing) through the center. ΜΖ. HLKG. we can show that F D is also greater than CD. and DE (is) greater than DF . ΜΘ. Thus. ΚΔ. κοινὴ προσκείσθω ἡ ΜΔ· ἡ ἄρα ΑΔ ἴση ἐστὶ ταῖς ΕΜ. similarly. ἴση δὲ ἡ ΜΗ τῇ ΜΚ. and a (straight-line) nearer to the least (straight-line) DG is always less than one farther away.1]. And M K (is) equal to M L. And since in triangle M LD. And let M E. 1. ΜΓ. we can show that DL is also less than DH. ∆ D Θ Λ Κ Η Β Γ H L K G B C N Ν Ζ F Μ M E Ε Α A Εἰλήφθω γὰρ τὸ κέντρον τοῦ ΑΒΓ κύκλου καὶ ἔστω τὸ Μ· καὶ ἐπεζεύχθωσαν αἱ ΜΕ. DG (is) the least (straight-line). ἐλάττων δὲ ἡ μὲν ΔΚ τῆς ΔΛ ἡ δὲ ΔΛ τῆς ΔΘ. αἱ ἄρα ΜΚ. Thus. 1. M D are thus equal to F M . similarly. ΜΔ For let the center of the circle have been found [Prop. the base ED is greater than the base F D [Prop. Λέγω. μείζων δὲ ἡ μὲν ΔΕ τῆς ΔΖ. ὁμοίως δὴ δείξομεν. ΛΔ ἐλάττονές εἰσιν· ἴση δὲ ἡ ΜΚ τῇ ΜΛ· λοιπὴ ἄρα ἡ ΔΚ λοιπῆς τῆς ΔΛ ἐλάττων ἐστίν. (namely) AD. Καὶ ἐπεὶ αἱ ΜΚ. 3. 3.STOIQEIWN gþ. let M D have been added to both. κοινὴ δὲ ἡ ΜΔ. and M D (is) common. and M G (is) equal to M K. κοινὴ δὲ ἡ ΜΔ. the) circumference. M D. AEF C.20].24]. and DF than DC. Again. 1. ἀλλ᾿ αἱ ΕΜ. and let it be (at point) M [Prop.21].‡ Thus. ΜΚ. ἡ δὲ ΔΖ τῆς ΔΓ. πάλιν. ΜΔ τῆς ΕΔ μείζονές εἰσιν· καὶ ἡ ΑΔ ἄρα τῆς ΕΔ μείζων ἐστίν. and M H have been joined. ELEMENTS BOOK 3 τῆς ΔΘ. then M K and KD are thus less than M L and LD [Prop. δύο δὴ αἱ ΚΜ. ὅτι καὶ δύο μόνον ἴσαι ἀπὸ τοῦ Δ σημείου προσπεσοῦνται πρὸς τὸν κύκλον ἐφ᾿ ἑκάτερα τῆς ΔΗ ἐλαχίστης· συνεστάτω πρὸς τῇ ΜΔ εὐθείᾳ καὶ τῷ πρὸς αὐτῇ σημείῳ τῷ Μ τῇ ὑπὸ ΚΜΔ γωνίᾳ ἴση γωνία ἡ ὑπὸ ΔΜΒ. M F . καὶ ἐπεζεύχθω ἡ ΔΒ. I also say that only two equal (straight-lines) will radi- 78 . AD is equal to EM and M D. But. and DF than DC. ἐπεὶ ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ΜΕ τῇ ΜΖ. ΚΔ τῶν ΜΛ. καὶ ἐπεὶ ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ΜΚ τῇ ΜΒ. ὅτι καὶ ἡ ΖΔ τῆς ΓΔ μείζων ἐστίν· μεγίστη μὲν ἄρα ἡ ΔΑ. since M E is equal to M F . So. and DL than than DH. the least is the one between the point and the diameter AG. 1.20]. Thus. ΜΔ ἴσαι εἰσίν· καὶ γωνία ἡ ὑπὸ ΕΜΔ γωνίας τῆς ὑπὸ ΖΜΔ μείζων ἐστίν. λοιπὴ ἄρα ἡ ΚΔ λοιπῆς τῆς ΗΔ μείζων ἐστίν· ὥστε ἡ ΗΔ τῆς ΚΔ ἐλάττων ἐστίν· καὶ ἐπεὶ τριγώνου τοῦ ΜΛΔ ἐπὶ μιᾶς τῶν πλευρῶν τῆς ΜΔ δύο εὐθεῖαι ἐντὸς συνεστάθησαν αἱ ΜΚ. ΜΛ. M K.

τῶν δὲ ἄλλων ἀεὶ ἡ ἔγγιον τῆς διὰ τοῦ κέντρου τῆς ἀπώτερον μείζων ἐστίν. ἀπο δὲ τοῦ σημείου πρὸς τὸν κύκλον προσπίπτωσι πλείους ἢ δύο ἴσαι εὐθεῖαι. ῎Εστω κύκλος ὁ ΑΒΓ. The very thing was shown (to be) impossible. then DB is thus also equal to DN . the least is that between the point and the diameter. if some point is taken outside a circle. For the others. the base DK is equal to the base DB [Prop. since DK is equal to DN . DG. [So] I say that another (straightline) equal to DK will not radiate towards the (circumference of the) circle from point D. And since M K is equal to M B. Let ABC be a circle. † ate from point D towards (the circumference of) the circle. λέγω [δή]. If some point is taken inside a circle. τῶν δὲ πρὸς τὴν κυρτὴν περιφέρειαν προσπιπτουσῶν εὐθειῶν ἐλαχίστη μέν ἐστιν ἡ μεταξὺ τοῦ τε σημείου καὶ τῆς διαμέτρου. ὅτι τῇ ΔΚ εὐθείᾳ ἄλλη ἴση οὐ προσπεσεῖται πρὸς τὸν κύκλον ἀπὸ τοῦ Δ σημείου. and D a point inside it. ἀπὸ δὲ τοῦ σημείου πρὸς τὸν κύκλον διαχθῶσιν εὐθεῖαί τινες. in an angular sense. jþ.23]. ὡς ἔτυχεν. Therefore. the greatest is that (passing) through the center. τῶν δὲ ἄλλων ἀεὶ ἡ ἔγγιον τῆς ἐλαχίστης τῆς ἀπώτερόν ἐστιν ἐλάττων. the remainder (being) random. ΔΒ. (so that) a (straightline) nearer to the least (straight-line) DG [is] equal to one further away. ΔΓ· λέγω. (one) on each (side) on the least (straight-line).STOIQEIWN gþ. then for the straightlines radiating towards the concave (part of the) circumference. one of which (passes) through the center. ‡ This is not proved. καὶ ἡ ΔΒ ἄρα τῇ ΔΝ ἐστιν ἴση. and let more than two equal straight-lines. Proposition 9 ᾿Εὰν κύκλου ληφθῇ τι σημεῖον ἐντός. ἀλλ᾿ ἡ ΔΚ τῇ ΔΒ ἐστιν ἴση. and more than two equal straight-lines radiate from the point towards the (circumference of the) circle. τὸ ληφθὲν σημεῖον κέντρον ἐστὶ τοῦ κύκλου. ELEMENTS BOOK 3 ἴσαι εἰσὶν ἑκατέρα ἑκατέρᾳ· καὶ γωνία ἡ ὑπὸ ΚΜΔ γωνίᾳ τῇ ὑπὸ ΒΜΔ ἴση· βάσις ἄρα ἡ ΔΚ βάσει τῇ ΔΒ ἴση ἐστίν. and let DB have been joined. Thus. καὶ ἀπὸ τοῦ Δ πρὸς τὸν ΑΒΓ κύκλον προσπιπτέτωσαν πλείους ἢ δύο ἴσαι εὐθεῖαι αἱ ΔΑ. And only two equal (straightlines) will radiate from the point towards the (circumference of the) circle. M D. a (straight-line) nearer to the (straightline) through the center is always greater than one further away. (one) on each side of the least (straightline) DG. DB. radiate from D towards (the circumference of) circle ABC. Presumably. (one) on each (side) of the least (straight-line). Thus. let (such a straight-line) radiate. For the straight-lines radiating towards the convex (part of the) circumference.4]. ἐπεὶ οὖν ἡ ΔΚ τῇ ΔΝ ἐστιν ἴση. if possible. ἡ ἔγγιον τῆς ΔΗ ἐλαχίστης τῇ ἀπώτερον [ἐστιν] ἴση· ὅπερ ἀδύνατον ἐδείχθη. 1. εἰ γὰρ δυνατόν. δύο δὲ μόνον ἴσαι ἀπὸ τοῦ σημείου προσπεσοῦνται πρὸς τὸν κύκλον ἐφ᾿ ἑκάτερα τῆς ἐλαχίστης· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. Thus. except by reference to the figure. not more than two equal (straight-lines) will radiate towards (the circumference of) circle ABC from point D. and let it be DN . and M D (is) common. ἐντὸς δὲ αὐτοῦ σημεῖον τὸ Δ. For the others. a (straight-line) nearer to the least (straight-line) is always less than one further away. and DC. τῶν μὲν πρὸς τὴν κοίλην περιφέρειαν προσπιπτουσῶν εὐθειῶν μεγίστη μέν ἐστιν ἡ διὰ τοῦ κέντου. at the point M on it [Prop. ὅτι τὸ Δ σημεῖον κέντρον ἐστὶ τοῦ ΑΒΓ κύκλου. M D are equal to the two (straightlines) BM . (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. respectively. προσπιπτέτω καὶ ἔστω ἡ ΔΝ. DA. have been constructed on the straight-line M D. then the point taken is the center of the circle. And angle KM D (is) equal to angle BM D. 1. For. ᾿Εὰν ἄρα κύκλου ληφθῇ τι σημεῖον ἐκτός. 79 . and some straight-lines are drawn from the point to the (circumference of the) circle. the two (straight-lines) KM . but DK is equal to DB. ὧν μία μὲν διὰ τοῦ κέντρου αἱ δὲ λοιπαί. equal to angle KM D. Let the angle DM B. οὐκ ἄρα πλείους ἢ δύο ἴσαι πρὸς τὸν ΑΒΓ κύκλον ἀπὸ τοῦ Δ σημείου ἐφ᾿ ἑκάτερα τῆς ΔΗ ἐλαχίστης προσπεσοῦνται.

for the same (reasons). Η.]. διὰ τὰ αὐτὰ δὴ καὶ ἐπὶ τῆς ΘΛ ἐστι τὸ κέντρον τοῦ ΑΒΓ κύκλου. point D is the center of circle ABC. κύκλος ὁ ΑΒΓ κύκλον τὸν ΔΕΖ τεμνέτω κατὰ πλείονα σημεῖα ἢ δύο τὰ Β. B. and L. and (then) have been cut in half at points E and F (respectively) [Prop. Thus. So. let them (then) have been drawn through to points A and E (respectively). and H. ΒΗ πρὸς ὀρθὰς ἀχθεῖσαι αἱ ΚΓ. 80 . ΕΔ ἴσαι εἰσίν· καὶ βάσις ἡ ΔΑ βάσει τῇ ΔΒ ἴση· γωνία ἄρα ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΕΔ γωνίᾳ τῇ ὑπὸ ΒΕΔ ἴση ἐστίν· ὀρθὴ ἄρα ἑκατέρα τῶν ὑπὸ ΑΕΔ. the center of the circle is thus on GK. καὶ ἐπιζευχθεῖσαι αἱ ΒΘ. And ED and F D being joined. For let AB and BC have been joined. Ζ. GK cuts AB in half. Proposition 10 Κύκλος κύκλον οὐ τέμνει κατὰ πλείονα σημεῖα ἢ δύο. ἐπὶ τῆς ΗΚ ἄρα ἐστὶ τὸ κέντρον τοῦ κύκλου. the center of circle ABC is also on HL. Λ ταῖς ΒΘ. Therefore. δύο δὴ αἱ ΑΕ. Ζ σημεῖα. iþ. 1. ΘΛ εὐθεῖαι ἢ τὸ Δ σημεῖον· τὸ Δ ἄρα σημεῖον κέντρον ἐστὶ τοῦ ΑΒΓ κύκλου. 1. ΖΔ διήχθωσαν ἐπὶ τὰ Η. angle AED is equal to angle BED [Prop. καὶ ἐπεί. And since. ἐπὶ τῆς τεμνούσης ἐστὶ τὸ κέντρον τοῦ κύκλου.STOIQEIWN gþ. ED (respectively). Λ Β Κ Ζ Ε L B Γ Η F E ∆ K C G D A Α Θ H ᾿Επεζεύχθωσαν γὰρ αἱ ΑΒ. Thus. and more than two equal straight-lines radiate from the point towards the (circumference of the) circle. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show.11]. if some point is taken inside a circle. the two (straight-lines) AE. ΕΔ δύο ταῖς ΒΕ. K. since AE is equal to EB. Thus. καὶ ἐπιζευχθεῖσαι αἱ ΕΔ. Εἰ γὰρ δυνατόν. 1. Θ. τὸ ληφθὲν σημεῖον κέντρον ἐστὶ τοῦ κύκλου· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι.1 corr. ΛΜ διήχθωσαν ἐπὶ τὰ Α. καὶ οὐδὲν ἕτερον κοινὸν ἔχουσιν αἱ ΗΚ. angles AED and BED (are) each right-angles [Def.10]. Λ σημεῖα. ΒΕΔ γωνιῶν· ἡ ΗΚ ἄρα τὴν ΑΒ τέμνει δίχα καὶ πρὸς ὀρθάς. ELEMENTS BOOK 3 I say that point D is the center of circle ABC. ἀπὸ δὲ τοῦ σημείου πρὸς τὸν κύκλον προσπίπτωσι πλείους ἢ δύο ἴσαι εὐθεῖαι. H. Κ. Ε σημεῖα. ED are equal to the two (straight-lines) BE. ἐὰν ἐν κύκλῳ εὐθεῖά τις εὐθεῖάν τινα δίχα τε καὶ πρὸς ὀρθὰς τέμνῃ. F . let them have been drawn through to points G. Θ. 1. And BH and BG being joined. And KC and LM being drawn at right-angles to BH and BG from K and L (respectively) [Prop.8]. And the straight-lines GK and HL have no common (point) other than point D. and at right-angles. let the circle ABC cut the circle DEF at more than two points. and ED (is) common. ᾿Επεὶ οὖν ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ΑΕ τῇ ΕΒ. ΒΓ καὶ τετμήσθωσαν δίχα κατὰ τὰ Ε. κοινὴ δὲ ἡ ΕΔ. then the point taken is the center of the circle. 3. and at right-angles. ᾿Εὰν ἄρα κύκλου ληφθῇ τι σημεῖον ἐντός. Thus. Λ σημεῖα· καὶ ἀπὸ τῶν Κ. if possible. Thus. A circle does not cut a(nother) circle at more than two points. then the center of the circle is on the former (straight-line) [Prop.10]. let them (then) have been cut in half at points K and L (respectively). And the base DA (is) equal to the base DB. G. ΒΗ δίχα τεμνέσθωσαν κατὰ τὰ Κ. if some straight-line in a circle cuts some (other) straight-line in half. For.

ἐδείχθη δὲ καὶ ἐπὶ τῆς ΑΓ. Again. point P is the center of circle ABC. Proposition 11 ᾿Εὰν δύο κύκλοι ἐφάπτωνται ἀλλήλων ἐντός. and their centers are found. 3. πιπτέτω ὡς ἡ ΖΗΘ. similarly. since in the same circle ABC some straight-line N O cuts some (other straight-line) BG in half. Δύο γὰρ κύκλοι οἱ ΑΒΓ. Μὴ γάρ. and at right-angles. For (if) not then. being produced.5]. will fall on A. GD is also greater than GH. τοῦ δὲ ΑΔΕ τὸ Η· λέγω. πάλιν. that is to say F H [Prop. the remainder AG is greater than the remainder GH. And AG (is) equal to GD. 3. And the straight-lines AC and N O meet at no other (point) than P . ABC and DEF . ELEMENTS BOOK 3 Α A ∆ Θ H Κ Λ Ν Μ B D Β K Ξ Ε L N Ο O E P M G Η Ζ F Γ C ᾿Επεὶ οὖν ἐν κύκλῳ τῷ ΑΒΓ εὐθεῖά τις ἡ ΑΓ εὐθεῖάν τινα τὴν ΒΘ δίχα καὶ πρὸς ὀρθὰς τέμνει. 1. two circles cutting one another. 3. ᾿Επεὶ οὖν αἱ ΑΗ. and (the center) G of (circle) ADE [Prop. Thus. τουτέστι τῆς ΖΘ. we can show that P is also the center of circle DEF .1]. Thus. will fall upon the point of union of the circles. Thus. κοινὴ ἀφῃρήσθω ἡ ΖΗ· λοιπὴ ἄρα ἡ ΑΗ λοιπῆς τῆς ΗΘ μείζων ἐστίν. the straight-line joining F to G will not fall outside (one circle but inside the other). The very thing is impossible. ΑΗ. καὶ ληφθῇ αὐτῶν τὰ κέντρα. ἴση δὲ ἡ ΑΗ τῇ ΗΔ· καὶ ἡ ΗΔ ἄρα τῆς ΗΘ μείζων ἐστὶν ἡ ἐλάττων τῆς μείζονος· ὅπερ ἐστὶν ἀδύνατον· οὐκ ἄρα ἡ ἀπὸ τοῦ Ζ ἐπὶ τὸ Η ἐπιζευγνυμένη εὐθεὶα ἐκτὸς πεσεῖται· κατὰ τὸ Α ἄρα ἐπὶ τῆς συναφῆς πεσεῖται.20]. ΝΞ εὐθεῖαι ἢ κατὰ τὸ Ο· τὸ Ο ἄρα σημεῖον κέντρον ἐστὶ τοῦ ΑΒΓ κύκλου. Therefore. if possible. the center of circle ABC is thus on AC [Prop. ἐπὶ τῆς ΝΞ ἄρα ἐστὶ τὸ κέντρον τοῦ ΑΒΓ κύκλου. And it was also shown (to be) on AC.1 corr. since in circle ABC some straight-line AC cuts some (other) straight-line BH in half. let it fall like F GH (in the figure).1]. The very thing is impossible [Prop. ὅτι καὶ τοῦ ΔΕΖ κύκλου κέντρον ἐστὶ τὸ Ο· δύο ἄρα κύκλων τεμνόντων ἀλλήλους τῶν ΑΒΓ. For let two circles. 3. I say that the straight-line joining G to F . ἐπεὶ ἐν κύκλῳ τῷ αὐτῷ τῷ ΑΒΓ εὐθεῖά τις ἡ ΝΞ εὐθεῖάν τινα τὴν ΒΗ δίχα καὶ πρὸς ὀρθὰς τέμνει. ΑΔΕ ἐφαπτέσθωσαν ἀλλήλων ἐντὸς κατὰ τὸ Α σημεῖον. καὶ εἰλήφθω τοῦ μὲν ΑΒΓ κύκλου κέντρον τὸ Ζ. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. touch one another internally at point A. the center of circle ABC is thus on N O [Prop. ΔΕΖ τὸ αὐτό ἐστι κέντρον τὸ Ο· ὅπερ ἐστὶν ἀδύνατον. ἐπὶ τῆς ΑΓ ἄρα ἐστὶ τὸ κέντρον τοῦ ΑΒΓ κύκλου. καὶ ἐπεζεύχθωσαν αἱ ΑΖ. and let AF and AG have been joined. Therefore.]. 3. it will fall upon the point of union (of the circles) 81 . So.]. ABC and ADE.1 corr. have the same center P . ὅτι ἡ ἀπὸ τοῦ Η ἐπὶ τὸ Ζ ἐπιζευγνυμένη εὐθεῖα ἐκβαλλομένη ἐπὶ τὸ Α πεσεῖται. μείζονές εἰσιν. Thus. ΗΖ τῆς ΖΑ. ὁμοίως δὴ δείξομεν. If two circles touch one another internally. ἡ ἐπὶ τὰ κέντρα αὐτῶν ἐπιζευγνυμένη εὐθεῖα καὶ ἐκβαλλομένη ἐπὶ τὴν συναφὴν πεσεῖται τῶν κύκλων. Thus. being produced. let F G have been taken from both.STOIQEIWN gþ. since AG and GF is greater than F A. Οὐκ ἄρα κύκλος κύκλον τέμνει κατὰ πλείονα σημεῖα ἢ δύο· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. Thus. iaþ. a circle does not cut a(nother) circle at more than two points. ἀλλ᾿ εἰ δυνατόν. and at right-angles. and let the center F of circle ABC have been found [Prop. καὶ κατ᾿ οὐδὲν συμβάλλουσιν αἱ ΑΓ. then the straight-line joining their centers. Thus. the lesser than the greater.

ἡ ἐπὶ τὰ κέντρα αὐτῶν ἐπιζευ. 3. ᾿Επεὶ οὖν τὸ Ζ σημεῖον κέντρον ἐστὶ τοῦ ΑΒΓ κύκλου. and let the center F of ABC have been found [Prop. of union of the circles. ΑΗ.1]. ibþ. then the straight-line joining γνυμένη εὐθεῖα [καὶ ἐκβαλλομένη] ἐπὶ τὴν συναφὴν πεσεῖται their centers. [being produced]. τοῦ δὲ ΑΔΕ τὸ Η· λέγω. ἐπεὶ τὸ Η σημεῖον κέντρον ἐστὶ τοῦ ΑΔΕ κύκλου. ἐδείχθη For let two circles. since point G is the center of circle ADE. Therefore. ἡ ἐπὶ τὰ κέντρα αὐτῶν ἐπιζευγνυμένη διὰ τῆς ἐπαφῆς ἐλεύσεται. καὶ ἐπεζεύχθωσαν αἱ ΑΖ. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. ELEMENTS BOOK 3 at point A. ΑΔΕ ἐφαπτέσθωσαν ἀλλήλων ἐκτὸς κατὰ τὸ Α σημεῖον. touch one another externally at point A. will fall upon the point τῶν κύκλων· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. if possible.1]. ὅτι ἡ ἀπὸ τοῦ Ζ ἐπὶ τὸ Η ἐπιζευγνυμένη εὐθεῖα διὰ τῆς κατὰ τὸ Α ἐπαφῆς ἐλεύσεται. ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ΗΑ τῇ ΗΔ. 3. I say that the straight-line joining F to G will go through the point of union at A. and (the center) G of ADE [Prop. ἐρχέσθω ὡς ἡ ΖΓΔΗ. ἀλλ᾿ εἰ δυνατόν. πάλιν. And F A was also shown 82 . GA is equal to GD. Again. For (if) not then. since point F is the center of circle ABC. ABC and ADE. καὶ εἰλήφθω τοῦ μὲν ΑΒΓ κέντρον τὸ Ζ.their centers are found]. If two circles touch one another externally then the (straight-line) joining their centers will go through the point of union. Θ H ∆ Α D A G Η Β Ζ B F E Ε Γ C ᾿Εὰν ἄρα δύο κύκλοι ἐφάπτωνται ἀλλήλων ἐντός. ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ΖΑ τῇ ΖΓ. F A is equal to F C. if two circles touch one another internally. Proposition 12 ᾿Εὰν δύο κύκλοι ἐφάπτωνται ἀλλήλων ἐκτός. [and ληφθῇ αὐτῶν τὰ κέντρα]. [καὶ Thus.STOIQEIWN gþ. Μὴ γάρ. and let AF and AG have been joined. let it go like F CDG (in the figure). Β B Ζ F Α Γ A C ∆ D Η G Ε E Δύο γὰρ κύκλοι οἱ ΑΒΓ.

if two circles touch one another externally then the [straight-line] joining their centers will go through the point of union. ἐπεὶ τὸ Θ σημεῖον κέντρον ἐστὶ τοῦ ΕΒΖΔ κύκλου. A and C. ᾿Εὰν ἄρα δύο κύκλοι ἐφάπτωνται ἀλλήλων ἐκτός. But it was also shown (to be) much greater than it. κύκλος ὁ ΑΓΚ κύκλου τοῦ ΑΒΓΔ ἐφαπτέσθω ἐκτὸς κατὰ πλείονα σημεῖα ἢ ἓν τὰ Α. Γ. Again. K Κ Α A Γ C Ε Η E Θ Β G ∆ H B Ζ D F Εἰ γὰρ δυνατόν. Proposition 13 Κύκλος κύκλου οὐκ ἐφάπτεται κατὰ πλείονα σημεῖα ἢ καθ᾿ ἕν. A and C. ΑΓΚ εἴληπται ἐπὶ τῆς περιφερείας ἑκατέρου δύο τυχόντα σημεῖα τὰ Α. whether they touch internally or externally. ΑΗ ταῖς ΖΓ. BH is equal to HD. since point H is the center of circle EBF D. Γ. (it is) also less [Prop. igþ. οὐκ ἄρα ἡ ἀπὸ τοῦ Ζ ἐπὶ τὸ Η ἐπιζευγνυμένη εὐθεῖα διὰ τῆς κατὰ τὸ Α ἐπαφῆς οὐκ ἐλεύσεται· δι᾿ αὐτῆς ἄρα. The very thing 83 . the straight-line joining the points will fall inside each (circle) [Prop. And let the center G of circle ABDC have been found [Prop. Thus. For. let circle ACK touch circle ABDC externally at more than one point. Thus. καὶ ἐπεζεύχθω ἡ ΑΓ. if possible. Thus. A circle does not touch a(nother) circle at more than one point. Β. (it will go) through it. BG (is) greater than HD. 3.11]. The very thing (is) impossible. the (straight-line) joining G and H will fall on B and D [Prop.2]. ῾Η ἄρα ἀπὸ τοῦ Η ἐπὶ τὸ Θ ἐπιζευγνυμένη ἐπὶ τὰ Β. The very thing is impossible. And let AC have been joined. καὶ ἐπεὶ τὸ Η σημεῖον κέντρον ἐστὶ τοῦ ΑΒΓΔ κύκλου. Δ πεσεῖται. But.1]. Let it fall like BGHD (in the figure). κύκλος ὁ ΑΒΓΔ κύκλου τοῦ ΕΒΖΔ ἐφαπτέσθω πρότερον ἐντὸς κατὰ πλείονα σημεῖα ἢ ἓν τὰ Δ. Thus. and (the center) H of EBF D [Prop. ἐδείχθη δέ. ὅτι οὐδὲ ἐντός. And since point G is the center of circle ABDC. ΑΗ μείζων ἐστίν· ἀλλὰ καὶ ἐλάττων· ὅπερ ἐστὶν ἀδύνατον. Καὶ εἰλήφθω τοῦ μὲν ΑΒΓΔ κύκλου κέντρον τὸ Η. ΗΔ ἴσαι εἰσίν· ὥστε ὅλη ἡ ΖΗ τῶν ΖΑ. πιπτέτω ὡς ἡ ΒΗΘΔ. ἡ ἐπὶ τὰ κέντρα αὐτῶν ἐπιζευγνυμένη [εὐθεῖα] διὰ τῆς ἐπαφῆς ἐλεύσεται· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. ELEMENTS BOOK 3 δὲ καὶ ἡ ΖΑ τῇ ΖΓ ἴση· αἱ ἄρα ΖΑ. Thus. and outside ACK [Def. have been taken at random on the circumference of each of the circles ABDC and ACK. Εἰ γὰρ δυνατόν. ὅτι οὐδὲ ἐκτός.20]. Therefore. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. 1. BH (is) much greater than HD. So. let circle ABDC † touch circle EBF D— first of all. For. since two points.3]. Thus. a circle does not touch a(nother) circle internally at more than one point.1]. ἐάν τε ἐντὸς ἐάν τε ἐκτὸς ἐφάπτηται. 3. BG is equal to GD. ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ΒΗ τῇ ΗΔ· μείζων ἄρα ἡ ΒΗ τῆς ΘΔ· πολλῷ ἄρα μείζων ἡ ΒΘ τῆς ΘΔ. the (straight-lines) F A and AG are equal to the (straight-lines) F C and GD. 3. ἡ ἐπὶ τὰ σημεῖα ἐπιζευγνυμένη εὐθεῖα ἐντὸς ἑκατέρου πεσεῖται· ἀλλὰ τοῦ μὲν ΑΒΓΔ ἐντὸς ἔπεσεν. it fell inside ABDC. ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ΒΘ τῇ ΘΔ· ἐδείχθη δὲ αὐτῆς καὶ πολλῷ μείζων· ὅπερ ἀδύνατον· οὐκ ἄρα κύκλος κύκλου ἐφάπτεται ἐντὸς κατὰ πλείονα σημεῖα ἢ ἕν. So the whole of F G is greater than F A and AG. πάλιν. Thus. if possible. Λέγω δή. τοῦ δὲ ΑΓΚ ἐκτός· ὅπερ ἄτοπον· οὐκ ἄρα κύκλος κύκλου ἐφάπτεται ἐκτὸς κατὰ πλείονα σημεῖα ἢ ἕν. (to be) equal to F C. But. τοῦ δὲ ΕΒΖΔ τὸ Θ. 3. the straight-line joining F to G cannot not go through the point of union at A. I say that neither (does it touch) externally (at more than one point). internally—at more than one point. ῎Επεὶ οὖν κύκλων τῶν ΑΒΓΔ. Thus.STOIQEIWN gþ. D and B. 3.

ἴσον καὶ τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς ΑΕ τῷ ἀπὸ τῆς ΕΓ. ΓΔ κάθετοι ἤχθωσαν αἱ ΕΖ.1]. For AF is equal to CG. Thus. AB (is) double AF . not through the center. And the (sum of the squares) on EG and GC (is) equal to the (square) on EC. the (sum of the squares) on AF and F E is equal to the (sum of the squares) on CG and GE. † The Greek text has “ABCD”. καὶ ἐν αὐτῷ ἴσαι εὐθεῖαι ἔστωσαν αἱ ΑΒ. Thus. ὅτι αἱ ΑΒ. ΗΓ· ὀρθὴ γὰρ ἡ πρὸς τῷ Η γωνία· τὰ ἄρα ἀπὸ τῶν ΑΖ. at right-angles. it also cuts it in half [Prop. καὶ ἐπεζεύχθωσαν αἱ ΑΕ. But. perpendicular to AB and CD (respectively) [Prop. λέγω. ΓΔ ἴσον ἀπέχουσιν ἀπὸ τοῦ κέντρου. a circle does not touch a(nother) circle ἢ [καθ᾿] ἕν. καὶ αἱ ἴσον ἀπέχουσαι ἀπὸ τοῦ κέντρου ἴσαι center. ὧν τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς ΑΖ ἴσον ἐστὶ τῷ ἀπὸ τῆς ΓΗ· ἴση γάρ ἐστιν ἡ ΑΖ τῇ ΓΗ· λοιπὸν ἄρα τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς ΖΕ τῷ ἀπὸ τῆς ΕΗ ἴσον ἐστίν· ἴση ἄρα ἡ ΕΖ τῇ ΕΗ. For the angle at G (is) a right-angle [Prop. Thus. τουτέστιν ἴση ἔστω ἡ ΕΖ τῇ ΕΗ. ΕΖ· ὀρθὴ γὰρ ἡ πρὸς τῷ Ζ γωνία· τῷ δὲ ἀπὸ τῆς ΕΓ ἴσα τὰ ἀπὸ τῶν ΕΗ. I say that AB and CD are equally far from the center. ὅτι ἴση ἐστὶ καὶ ἡ ΑΒ τῇ ΓΔ. center are equal to one another. ΖΕ ἴσα ἐστὶ τοῖς ἀπὸ τῶν ΓΗ. ἴση ἄρα ἡ ΑΖ τῇ ΖΒ· διπλῆ ἄρα ἡ ΑΒ τῆς ΑΖ. and let it be (at) E. neither (does it) internally. And AB is equal to CD. for the same (reasons). equal straight-lines are equally far from the κέντρου. Thus. ὅταν αἱ ἀπὸ τοῦ κέντρου ἐπ᾿ αὐτὰς κάθετοι ἀγόμεναι ἴσαι ὦσιν· αἱ ἄρα ΑΒ. Thus.3]. καὶ ἐπεὶ ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ΑΕ τῇ ΕΓ. AF (is) also equal to CG. and let AB and CD be equal straight-lines within it. ἐάν τε ἐντὸς ἐάν τε ἐκτὸς ἐφάπτηται· ὅπερ ἔδει externally at more than one point. Thus. ΓΔ ἴσον ἀπέχουσιν ἀπὸ τοῦ κέντρου. AB.STOIQEIWN gþ.47]. ΗΕ. the (square) on AE (is) also equal to the (square) on EC. ΕΗ. of which the (square) on AF is equal to the (square) on CG.47]. καὶ ἀπὸ τοῦ Ε ἐπὶ τὰς ΑΒ. ∆ D B Β Η Ε G E Ζ F Γ C Α A ῎Εστω κύκλος ὁ ΑΒΓΔ. So. ΓΔ εὐθεῖαι ἴσον ἀπεχέτωσαν ἀπὸ τοῦ κέντρου. since some straight-line. AF (is) equal to F B. ᾿Επεὶ οὖν εὐθεῖά τις δὶα τοῦ κέντρου ἡ ΕΖ εὐθεῖάν τινα μὴ διὰ τοῦ κέντρου τὴν ΑΒ πρὸς ὀρθὰς τέμνει. EF . καὶ δίχα αὐτὴν τέμνει. 3. through the center (of the circle). the (sum of the squares) on AF and EF (is) equal to the (square) on AE.12]. ᾿Αλλὰ δὴ αἱ ΑΒ. διὰ τὰ αὐτὰ δὴ καὶ ἡ ΓΔ τῆς ΓΗ ἐστι διπλῆ· καί ἐστιν ἴση ἡ ΑΒ τῇ ΓΔ· ἴση ἄρα καὶ ἡ ΑΖ τῇ ΓΗ. Proposition 14 ᾿Εν κύκλῳ αἱ ἴσαι εὐθεῖαι ἴσον ἀπέχουσιν ἀπὸ τοῦ In a circle. CD is also double CG. which is obviously a mistake. a circle does not touch a(nother) circle at more than one point. idþ. 3. For let the center of circle ABDC have been found [Prop. ἐν δὲ κύκλῳ ἴσον ἀπέχειν ἀπὸ τοῦ κέντρου εὐθεῖαι λέγονται. ELEMENTS BOOK 3 Κύκλος ἄρα κύκλου οὐκ ἐφάπτεται κατὰ πλείονα σημεῖα (is) absurd. 1. Therefore. Let ABDC † be a circle. And let EF and EG have been drawn from (point) E. and (straight-lines) which are equally far from the ἀλλήλαις εἰσίν. ΓΔ· λέγω. Εἰλήφθω γὰρ τὸ κέντον τοῦ ΑΒΓΔ κύκλου καὶ ἔστω τὸ Ε. 84 . whether they touch internally or externally. And let AE and EC have been joined. And it was shown that δεῖξαι. 1. 1. ΕΓ. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. cuts some (other) straight-line. For the angle at F (is) a rightangle [Prop. ἀλλὰ τῷ μὲν ἀπὸ τῆς ΑΕ ἴσα τὰ ἀπὸ τῶν ΑΖ. And since AE is equal to EC.

For. and BC (is) greater than F G. The Greek text has “ABCD”. equal straight-lines are equally far from the center. ἡ δὲ ΕΔ τῇ ΕΝ. ΖΑ ἴσα ἐστὶ τοῖς ἀπὸ τῶν ΕΗ. and CD (double) CG. BC is also equal to M N [Prop. But. ΕΝ τῆς ΜΝ μείζονές εἰσιν [καὶ ἡ ΑΔ τῆς ΜΝ μείζων ἐστίν]. So. and CD double CG. ᾿Εν κύκλῳ ἄρα αἱ ἴσαι εὐθεῖαι ἴσον ἀπέχουσιν ἀπὸ τοῦ κέντρου. Thus. ieþ. That is to say. καὶ ἐπεὶ δύο αἱ ΜΕ. ΕΚ. Let ABCD be a circle. ἴση ἐστὶ καὶ ἡ ΒΓ τῇ ΜΝ. and F G further away.† and F G further away. ΕΝ ἴση ἐστίν. ἴσον ἐστὶ τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς ΑΕ τῷ ἀπὸ τῆς ΓΕ· ἀλλὰ τῷ μὲν ἀπὸ τῆς ΑΕ ἴσα ἐστὶ τὰ ἀπὸ τῶν ΕΖ.47]. ΖΑ. F E. and ED to EN . EN . the remaining (square) on AF is equal to the (remaining square) on CG. Καὶ ἐπεὶ ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ΕΘ τῇ ΕΛ. show that AB is double AF . which is obviously a mistake. And AB is double AF . similarly. And straight-lines in a circle are said to be equally far from the center when perpendicular (straight-lines) which are drawn to them from the center are equal [Def. μείζων δὲ ἡ ΒΓ τῆς ΖΗ. βάσις ἄρα In a circle. ΕΗ. And since EH is equal to EL. of which the (square) on EF is equal to the (square) on EG. Thus. and (straight-lines) which are equally far from the center are equal to one another. EK (is) thus greater than EH [Def. And since AE is equal to CE. τῶν δὲ ἄλλων ἀεὶ ἡ ἔγγιον τοῦ κέντρου τῆς ἀπώτερον μείζων ἐστίν. Proposition 15 ᾿Εν κύκλῳ μεγίστη μὲν ἡ διάμετρος. For let EH and EK have been drawn from the center E. ἀπώτερον δὲ ἡ ΖΗ. καὶ ἔγγιον μὲν τῆς ΑΔ διαμέτρου ἔστω ἡ ΒΓ. ῎Ηχθωσαν γὰρ ἀπὸ τοῦ Ε κέντρου ἐπὶ τὰς ΒΓ. ὅτι μεγίστη μέν ἐστιν ἡ ΑΔ. ΕΝ δύο ταῖς ΖΕ. M E and EN is greater than M N [Prop. the (sum of the squares) on EF and F A is equal to the (square) on AE [Prop. let it have been drawn through to N . EF (is) equal to EG. Thus. ΕΝ.5]. and let AD be its diameter. ὅτι διπλῆ ἐστιν ἡ μὲν ΑΒ τῆς ΑΖ. the (square) on AE is equal to the (square) on CE. † Thus. the remaining (square) on F E is equal to the (remaining square) on EG. ἐπεὶ ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ μὲν ΑΕ τῇ ΕΜ. 3. καὶ αἱ ἴσον ἀπέχουσαι ἀπὸ τοῦ κέντρου ἴσαι ἀλλήλαις εἰσίν· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. ἡ ἄρα ΑΔ ταῖς ΜΕ. τὰ ἄρα ἀπὸ τῶν ΕΖ.3]. Again. ELEMENTS BOOK 3 Τῶν γὰρ αὐτῶν κατασκευασθέντων ὁμοίως δείξομεν. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show.11]. we can. Let EL be made equal to EH [Prop. τῆς δὲ ΓΗ διπλῆ ἡ ΓΔ· ἴση ἄρα ἡ ΑΒ τῇ ΓΔ. and EG have been joined. ΗΓ. 1. μείζων ἄρα ἡ ΕΚ τῆς ΕΘ. καὶ ἐπεζεύχθωσαν αἱ ΜΕ. Thus. Thus. And since BC is nearer to the center.4]. And the (sum of the squares) on EG and GC (is) equal to the (square) on CE [Prop. Thus. ΖΕ. since AE is equal to EM . and E (its) center. and for the others. καὶ διὰ τοῦ Λ τῇ ΕΚ πρὸς ὀρθὰς ἀχθεῖσα ἡ ΛΜ διήχθω ἐπὶ τὸ Ν. And LM being drawn through L. ἀπώτερον δὲ ἡ ΖΗ· λέγω. let the straight-lines AB and CD be equally far from the center. Thus. let EF be equal to EG. κείσθω τῇ ΕΘ ἴση ἡ ΕΛ. διάμετρος δὲ αὐτοῦ ἔστω ἡ ΑΔ. ΖΗ κάθετοι αἱ ΕΘ. a (straight-line) nearer to the center is always greater than one further away. τῷ δὲ ἀπὸ τῆς ΓΕ ἴσα τὰ ἀπὸ τῶν ΕΗ. AD is thus equal to M E and EN . ἡ δὲ ΓΔ τῆς ΓΗ· καὶ ἐπεὶ ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ΑΕ τῇ ΓΕ. καὶ γωνία ἡ ὑπὸ ΜΕΝ γωνίας τῆς ὑπὸ ΖΕΗ μείζων [ἐστίν]. 1. the (sum of the squares) on EF and F A is equal to the (sum of the squares) on EG and GC.20] [also AD is 85 . κέντρον δὲ τὸ Ε. 1. at right-angles to BC and F G (respectively) [Prop. in a circle. 3. And let M E. καὶ ἐπεὶ ἔγγιον μὲν τοῦ κέντρου ἐστὶν ἡ ΒΓ. a diameter (is) the greatest (straight-line). ἴση δὲ ἡ ΜΝ τῇ ΒΓ· ἡ ΑΔ ἄρα τῆς ΒΓ μείζων ἐστίν.STOIQEIWN gþ. For EF (is) equal to EG. ΗΓ· ὧν τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς ΕΖ τῷ ἀπὸ τῆς ΕΗ ἐστιν ἴσον· ἴση γὰρ ἡ ΕΖ τῇ ΕΗ· λοιπὸν ἄρα τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς ΑΖ ἴσον ἐστὶ τῷ ἀπὸ τῆς ΓΗ· ἴση ἄρα ἡ ΑΖ τῇ ΓΗ· καί ἐστι τῆς μὲν ΑΖ διπλῆ ἡ ΑΒ. And let BC be nearer to the diameter AD. πάλιν. AB and CD are equally far from the center. ῎Εστω κύκλος ὁ ΑΒΓΔ. 1. AB (is) equal to CD. 3. But. 1. I say that AB is also equal to CD.12]. 1. at right-angles to EK [Prop. with the same construction. AF (is) equal to CG.14]. ΕΗ ἴσαι εἰσίν.47]. I say that AD is the greatest (straight-line). ἀλλ᾿ αἱ μὲν ΜΕ.

from its end. and let DC have been joined. AD and F G are not necessarily parallel. And DAC (is) a right-angle. 1. the two angles DAC and ACD are equal to two rightangles. will fall outside the circle. ὅτι ἡ ἀπὸ τοῦ Α τῇ ΑΒ πρὸς ὀρθὰς ἀπ᾿ ἄκρας ἀγομένη ἐκτὸς πεσεῖται τοῦ κύκλου.24]. ὀρθὴ δὲ ἡ ὑπὸ ΔΑΓ· ὀρθὴ ἄρα καὶ ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΓΔ· τριγώνου δὴ τοῦ ΑΓΔ αἱ δύο γωνίαι αἱ ὑπὸ ΔΑΓ. and angle M EN [is] greater than angle F EG. EN are equal to the two (straight-lines) F E. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. a (straight-line) nearer to the ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. if possible. So. in triangle ACD. rather than ”to the diameter AD”.11]. angle DAC is also equal to angle ACD [Prop. καὶ ἡ μὲν τοῦ ἡμικυκλίου γωνία ἁπάσης γωνίας ὀξείας εὐθυγράμμου μείζων ἐστίν. M N was shown (to be) equal to BC [(so) BC is also greater than F G]. This is not proved. 1. πιπτέτω ἐντὸς ὡς ἡ ΓΑ. Since DA is equal to DC. A (straight-line) drawn at right-angles to the diameter of a circle. like CA (in the figure). in a circle. at right-angles 86 . μείζων δὲ ἡ ΒΓ τῆς ΖΗ. M E. ἀλλὰ ἡ ΜΝ τῇ ΒΓ greater than M N ]. For (if) not then. ὁμοίως δὴ δεῖξομεν. Ν † ‡ ∆ Γ N Euclid should have said “to the center”. ἡ δὲ λοιπὴ ἐλάττων. since BC. 1. the (straight-line) drawn from point A. καὶ εἰς τὸν μεταξὺ τόπον τῆς τε εὐθείας καὶ τῆς περιφερείας ἑτέρα εὐθεῖα οὐ παρεμπεσεῖται. center is always greater than one further away. ὅτι οὐδ᾿ ἐπὶ τῆς περιφερείας· ἐκτὸς ἄρα. ACD (is) also a right-angle. καὶ ἐπεζεύχθω ἡ ΔΓ. Proposition 16 ῾Η τῇ διαμέτρῳ τοῦ κύκλου πρὸς ὀρθὰς ἀπ᾿ ἄκρας ἀγομένη ἐκτὸς πεσεῖται τοῦ κύκλου. But. Μὴ γάρ. AD ἐδείχθη ἴση [καὶ ἡ ΒΓ τῆς ΖΗ μείζων ἐστίν]. And since the two (straight-lines) ἄρα ἡ ΑΔ διάμετρος. τῶν δὲ Thus.‡ the base M N is thus greater than the base F G [Prop. and M N (is) equal to BC. EG (respectively). iþ. Thus. ῎Εστω κύκλος ὁ ΑΒΓ περὶ κέντρον τὸ Δ καὶ διάμετρον τὴν ΑΒ· λέγω. οὐκ ἄρα ἡ ἀπὸ τοῦ Α σημείου τῇ ΒΑ πρὸς ὀρθὰς ἀγομένη ἐντὸς πεσεῖται τοῦ κύκλου. and for the others. ΑΓΔ δύο ὀρθαῖς ἴσαι εἰσίν· ὅπερ ἐστὶν ἀδύνατον.5].STOIQEIWN gþ. from its end. Thus. ᾿Επεὶ ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ΔΑ τῇ ΔΓ. ELEMENTS BOOK 3 ἡ ΜΝ βάσεως τῆς ΖΗ μείζων ἐστίν. ἀλλ᾿ εἰ δυνατόν. And the angle of the semi-circle is greater than any acute rectilinear angle whatsoever. Let ABC be a circle around the center D and the diameter AB. Α A Μ M B Β Ζ Κ F Λ Ε K L E H Θ G Η C D ᾿Εν κύκλῳ ἄρα μεγίστη μὲν έστιν ἡ διάμετρος. and BC (is) greater than F G. Thus. I say that the (straight-line) drawn from A. let it fall inside.17]. except by reference to the figure. Thus. ἴση ἐστὶ καὶ γωνία ἡ ὑπὸ ΔΑΓ γωνίᾳ τῇ ὑπὸ ΑΓΔ. And another straight-line cannot be inserted into the space between the (aforementioned) straight-line and the circumference. μεγίστη μὲν is greater than BC. and the remaining (angle is) less (than any acute rectilinear angle). The very thing is impossible [Prop. at right-angles to AB [Prop 1. will fall outside the circle. the diameter AD (is) the greatest (straight-line). a diameter (is) the greatest (straightἄλλων ἀεὶ ἡ ἔγγιον τοῦ κέντρου τῆς ἀπώτερον μείζων ἐστίν· line).

Εἰ γὰρ δυνατόν. But (such a straight-line) cannot be inserted.19]. Thus. And I also say that the semi-circular angle contained by the straight-line BA and the circumference CHA is greater than any acute rectilinear angle whatsoever. καὶ ἐπεὶ ὀρθή ἐστιν ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΗΔ. And DA (is) equal to DH.12]. and let DG have been drawn from point D. οὐκ ἄρα εἰς τὸν μεταξὺ τόπον τῆς τε εὐθείας καὶ τῆς περιφερείας ἑτέρα εὐθεῖα παρεμπεσεῖται. AD (is) thus greater than DG [Prop. The very thing is impossible. οὐδὲ μὴν ἐλάττων τῆς περιεχομένης ὑπό τε τῆς ΓΘΑ περιφερείας καὶ τῆς ΑΕ εὐθείας. Εἰ γὰρ ἐστί τις γωνία εὐθύγραμμος μείζων μὲν τῆς περιεχομένης ὑπό τε τῆς ΒΑ εὐθείας καὶ τῆς ΓΘΑ περιφερείας. perpendicular to F A [Prop. ἐλάττων δὲ ὀρθῆς ἡ ὑπὸ ΔΑΗ. Λέγω.STOIQEIWN gþ. let it be inserted like F A (in the figure). ἐλάττονα δὲ τῆς περιεχομένης ὑπό τε τῆς ΓΘΑ περιφερείας καὶ τῆς ΑΕ εὐθείας. ἡ δὲ λοιπὴ ἡ περιεχομένη ὑπό τε τῆς ΓΘΑ περιφερείας καὶ τῆς ΑΕ εὐθείας ἁπάσης γωνίας ὀξείας εὐθυγράμμου ἐλάττων ἐστίν. ἡ ἐλάττων τῆς μείζονος· ὅπερ ἐστὶν ἀδύνατον. Thus. παρεμπιπτέτω ὡς ἡ ΖΑ. Thus. ὅτι εἰς τὸν μεταξὺ τόπον τῆς τε ΑΕ εὐθείας καὶ τῆς ΓΘΑ περιφερείας ἑτέρα εὐθεῖα οὐ παρεμπεσεῖται. will not fall inside the circle. 87 . εἰς τὸν μεταξὺ τόπον τῆς τε ΓΘΑ περιφερείας καὶ τῆς ΑΕ εὐθείας εὐθεῖα παρεμπεσεῖται. ἐλάττων δὲ τῆς περιεχομένης ὑπό τε τῆς ΓΘΑ περιφερείας καὶ τὴς ΑΕ εὐθείας. then a straight-line can be inserted into the space between the circumference CHA and the straight-line AE—anything which will make (an angle) contained by straight-lines greater than the angle contained by the straight-line BA and the circumference CHA. I say that another straight-line cannot be inserted into the space between the straight-line AE and the circumference CHA. καὶ ἤχθω ἀπὸ τοῦ Δ σημείου ἐπὶ τῆν ΖΑ κάθετος ἡ ΔΗ. and DAG (is) less than a right-angle. an acute (angle) contained by straight-lines cannot be greater than the angle contained by the straight-line BA and the circumference CHA. or less than the (angle) contained by the circumference CHA and the straight-line AE. another straight-line cannot be inserted into the space between the straight-line (AE) and the circumference. 1. μείζων ἄρα ἡ ΑΔ τῆς ΔΗ. similarly. ἥτις ποιήσει μείζονα μὲν τῆς περιεχομένης ὑπὸ τε τῆς ΒΑ εὐθείας καὶ τῆς ΓΘΑ περιφερείας ὑπὸ εὐθειῶν περιεχομένην. (it will fall) outside (the circle). Thus. we can show that neither (will it fall) on the circumference. 1. And since AGD is a rightangle. G A Let it fall like AE (in the figure). ἴση δὲ ἡ ΔΑ τῇ ΔΘ· μείζων ἄρα ἡ ΔΘ τῆς ΔΗ. ELEMENTS BOOK 3 to BA. Β B Γ C ∆ D H Θ Ζ Ε F Η E Α Πιπτέτω ὡς ἡ ΑΕ· λέγω δή. neither (can it be) less than the (angle) contained by the circumference CHA and the straight-line AE. and the remaining (angle) contained by the circumference CHA and the straight-line AE is less than any acute rectilinear angle whatsoever. ὅτι καὶ ἡ μὲν τοῦ ἡμικυκλίου γωνία ἡ περιεχομένη ὑπό τε τῆς ΒΑ εὐθείας καὶ τῆς ΓΘΑ περιφερείας ἁπάσης γωνίας ὀξείας εὐθυγράμμου μείζων ἐστίν. or less than the (angle) contained by the circumference CHA and the straightline AE. if possible. For if any rectilinear angle is greater than the (angle) contained by the straight-line BA and the circumference CHA. οὐ παρεμπίπτει δέ· οὐκ ἄρα τῆς περιεχομένης γωνίας ὑπό τε τῆς ΒΑ εὐθείας καὶ τῆς ΓΘΑ περιφερείας ἔσται μείζων ὀξεῖα ὑπὸ εὐθειῶν περιεχομένη. DH (is) greater than DG. So. the lesser than the greater. So. For.

EB are equal to the two (straightlines) F E. καὶ ἐπεζεύχθωσαν αἱ ΕΖ. and triangle DEF is equal to triangle EBA. καὶ αἱ λοιπαὶ γωνίαι ταῖς λοιπαῖς γωνίαις· ἴση ἄρα ἡ ὑπὸ ΕΔΖ τῇ ὑπὸ ΕΒΑ. ELEMENTS BOOK 3 Pìrisma. ED (respectively). ΑΖΗ κύκλων. 3. ὀρθὴ δὲ ἡ ὑπὸ ΕΔΖ· ὀρθὴ ἄρα καὶ ἡ ὑπὸ ΕΒΑ. And they contain a common angle at E. So it is required to draw a straight-line touching circle BCD from point A. So. Thus.1]. EA is thus equal to EF . A Α Ζ F ∆ Β D B Γ Η C G Ε E ῎Εστω τὸ μὲν δοθὲν σημεῖον τὸ Α.2] ]. Thus.]. (it is) manifest that a (straight-line) drawn at right-angles to the diameter of a circle. Let A be the given point. given point. 1. Corollary ᾿Εκ δὴ τούτου φανερόν.11]. and let AE have been joined. inasmuch as it was also shown that a (straight-line) meeting (the circle) at two (points) falls inside it [Prop. ᾿Απὸ τοῦ ἄρα δοθέντος σημείου τοῦ Α τοῦ δοθέντος κύκλου τοῦ ΒΓΔ ἐφαπτομένη εὐθεῖα γραμμὴ ἦκται ἡ ΑΒ· ὅπερ ἔδει ποιῆσαι. For let the center E of the circle have been found [Prop. ἴση ἄρα ἐστὶν ἡ μὲν ΕΑ τῇ ΕΖ. 3. And let EF and AB have been joined. ΕΒ δύο ταῖς ΖΕ. For since E is the center of circles BCD and AF G. So the two (straight-lines) AE. AB touches circle BCD. ἐπειδήπερ καὶ ἡ κατὰ δύο αὐτῷ συμβάλλουσα ἐντὸς αὐτοῦ πίπτουσα ἐδείχθη]· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. at right-angles to EA [Prop. ἡ δὲ ΕΔ τῇ ΕΒ· δύο δὴ αἱ ΑΕ. I say that the (straight-line) AB has been drawn from point A touching circle BCD. Proposition 17 ᾿Απὸ τοῦ δοθέντος σημείου τοῦ δοθέντος κύκλου ἐφαTo draw a straight-line touching a given circle from a πτομένην εὐθεῖαν γραμμὴν ἀγαγεῖν. ὁ δὲ δοθεὶς κύκλος ὁ ΒΓΔ· δεῖ δὴ ἀπὸ τοῦ Α σημείου τοῦ ΒΓΔ κύκλου ἐφαπτομένην εὐθεῖαν γραμμὴν ἀγαγεῖν. from its extremity. and BCD the given circle. καὶ τὸ ΔΕΖ τρίγωνον τῷ ΕΒΑ τριγώνῳ ἴσον ἐστίν. and ED to EB. Thus. And EB is a radius. Thus. And let (the circle) AF G have been drawn with center E and radius EA. καί ἐστιν ἡ ΕΒ ἐκ τοῦ κέντρου· ἡ δὲ τῇ διαμέτρῳ τοῦ κύκλου πρὸς ὀρθὰς ἀπ᾿ ἄκρας ἀγομένη ἐφάπτεται τοῦ κύκλου· ἡ ΑΒ ἄρα ἐφάπτεται τοῦ ΒΓΔ κύκλου. 3. καὶ κέντρῳ μὲν τῷ Ε διαστήματι δὲ τῷ ΕΑ κύκλος γεγράφθω ὁ ΑΖΗ. the base DF is equal to the base AB. ὅτι ἡ τῇ διαμέτρῳ τοῦ κύκλου πρὸς ὀρθὰς ἀπ᾿ ἄκρας ἀγομένη ἐφάπτεται τοῦ κύκλου [καὶ ὅτι εὐθεῖα κύκλου καθ᾿ ἓν μόνον ἐφάπτεται σημεῖον. the straight-line AB has been drawn touching 88 . ΑΒ· λέγω. καὶ ἀπὸ τοῦ Δ τῇ ΕΑ πρὸς ὀρθὰς ἤχθω ἡ ΔΖ. And EDF (is) a right-angle.16 corr.STOIQEIWN gþ. καὶ ἐπεζεύχθω ἡ ΑΕ. Εἰλήφθω γὰρ τὸ κέντρον τοῦ κύκλου τὸ Ε. (angle) EDF (is) equal to EBA. from this. And let DF have been drawn from from (point) D. 1. ᾿Επεὶ γὰρ τὸ Ε κέντρον ἐστὶ τῶν ΒΓΔ. from its extremity. EBA (is) also a right-angle. and the remaining angles (are equal) to the (corresponding) remaining angles [Prop. touches the circle [and that the straight-line touches the circle at a single point. ΕΔ ἴσαι εἰσίν· καὶ γωνίαν κοινὴν περιέχουσι τὴν πρὸς τῷ Ε· βάσις ἄρα ἡ ΔΖ βάσει τῇ ΑΒ ἴση ἐστίν. izþ. Thus. And a (straight-line) drawn at right-angles to the diameter of a circle. touches the circle [Prop. ὅτι ἀπὸ τοῦ Α σημείου τοῦ ΒΓΔ κύκλου ἐφαπτομένη ἦκται ἡ ΑΒ.4]. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show.

I say that F C is perpendicular to DE. cle) to the point of contact. Εἰ γὰρ μή. 1. καὶ ἀπὸ τοῦ Ζ ἐπὶ τὸ Γ ἐπεζεύχθω ἡ ΖΓ· λέγω. ἀπὸ δὲ τοῦ κέντρου If some straight-line touches a circle. Thus.1]. ijþ. ἡ ἐπιζευχθεῖσα κάθετος (other) straight-line is joined from the center (of the cirἔσται ἐπὶ τὴν ἐφαπτομένην. since angle F GC is a right-angle. F C is perpendicular to DE. ELEMENTS BOOK 3 the given circle BCD from the given point A. and a straightline is drawn from the point of contact. and some ἐπὶ τὴν ἁφὴν ἐπιζευχθῇ τις εὐθεῖα. Proposition 18 ᾿Εὰν κύκλου ἐφάπτηταί τις εὐθεῖα.STOIQEIWN gþ.19]. (Which is) the very thing it was required to do. perpendicular to DE [Prop. ἡ ἐπιζευχθεῖσα κάθετος ἔσται ἐπὶ τὴν ἐφαπτομένην· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. ἀπὸ δὲ τοῦ κέντρου ἐπὶ τὴν ἁφὴν ἐπιζευχθῇ τις εὐθεῖα. then the (straight-line) so joined will be perpendicular to the tangent. The very thing is impossible. ὁμοίως δὴ δεῖξομεν. we can show that neither (is) any other (straight-line) except F C. ὅτι οὐδ᾿ ἄλλη τις πλὴν τῆς ΖΓ· ἡ ΖΓ ἄρα κάθετός ἐστιν ἐπὶ τὴν ΔΕ. ὀξεῖα ἄρα ἐστὶν ἡ ὑπὸ ΖΓΗ· ὑπὸ δὲ τὴν μείζονα γωνίαν ἡ μείζων πλευρὰ ὑποτείνει· μείζων ἄρα ἡ ΖΓ τῆς ΖΗ· ἴση δὲ ἡ ΖΓ τῇ ΖΒ· μείζων ἄρα καὶ ἡ ΖΒ τῆς ΖΗ ἡ ἐλάττων τῆς μείζονος· ὅπερ ἐστὶν ἀδύνατον. Thus. For let some straight-line DE touch the circle ABC at point C. 1. and let F C have been joined from F to C. For if not. If some straight-line touches a circle. And let CA have been drawn from C. (angle) F CG is thus acute [Prop. F G is not perpendicular to DE. F B (is) also greater than F G. Κύκλου γὰρ τοῦ ΑΒΓ ἐφαπτέσθω τις εὐθεῖα ἡ ΔΕ κατὰ τὸ Γ σημεῖον. at right- 89 . let F G have been drawn from F . ἤχθω ἀπὸ τοῦ Ζ ἐπὶ τὴν ΔΕ κάθετος ἡ ΖΗ. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. And F C (is) equal to F B. Proposition 19 ᾿Εὰν κύκλου ἐφάπτηταί τις εὐθεῖα. ihþ. And the greater angle is subtended by the greater side [Prop. at right-[angles] to the tangent. So. then the center (of the circle) will be on the (straight-line) so drawn. and some (other) straight-line is joined from the center (of the circle) to the point of contact. καὶ εἰλήφθω τὸ κέντρον τοῦ ΑΒΓ κύκλου τὸ Ζ. Thus. Therefore. οὐκ ἄρα ἡ ΖΗ κάθετός ἐστιν ἐπὶ τὴν ΔΕ. similarly. 3. A Α ∆ Β Ζ D B F Η Γ G C Ε E Κύκλου γὰρ τοῦ ΑΒΓ ἐφαπτέσθω τις εὐθεῖα ἡ ΔΕ κατὰ τὸ Γ σημεῖον. ἐπὶ τῆς ἀχθείσης ἔσται τὸ κέντρον τοῦ κύκλου. ᾿Επεὶ οὖν ἡ ὑπὸ ΖΗΓ γωνία ὀρθή ἐστιν. ὅτι ἐπὶ τῆς ΑΓ ἐστι τὸ κέντρον τοῦ κύκλου. ᾿Εὰν ἄρα κύκλου ἐφάπτηταί τις εὐθεῖα. 1. Thus. ὅτι ἡ ΖΓ κάθετός ἐστιν ἐπὶ τὴν ΔΕ. For let some straight-line DE touch the circle ABC at point C. Thus. καὶ ἀπὸ τοῦ Γ τῇ ΔΕ πρὸς ὀρθὰς ἤχθω ἡ ΓΑ· λέγω. F C (is) greater than F G. if some straight-line touches a circle.12]. then the (straight-line) so joined will be perpendicular to the tangent.17]. the lesser than the greater. ἀπὸ δὲ τῆς ἁφῆς τῇ ἐφαπτομένῃ πρὸς ὀρθὰς [γωνίας] εὐθεῖα γραμμὴ ἀχθῇ. and let the center F of circle ABC have been found [Prop.

Thus. Thus. the whole (angle) BEC is double the whole (angle) BAC. διὰ τὰ αὐτὰ δὴ καὶ ἡ ὑπὸ ΖΕΓ τῆς ὑπὸ ΕΑΓ ἐστι διπλῆ. Thus. For (if) not.11]. F CE is equal to ACE. ᾿Επιζευχθεῖσα γὰρ ἡ ΑΕ διήχθω ἐπὶ τὸ Ζ. καὶ πρὸς μὲν τῷ κέντρῳ αὐτοῦ γωνία ἔστω ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΕΓ. the angle at the center is double that at the circumference. ἀπὸ δὲ τῆς ἁφῆς τῇ ἐφαπτομένῃ πρὸς ὀρθὰς εὐθεῖα γραμμὴ ἀχθῇ. F C is thus perpendicular to DE [Prop. καὶ ἐπεζεύχθω ἡ ΓΖ. And let them have the same circumference base BC.STOIQEIWN gþ. Α B Ζ Β ∆ A Γ Ε D F C E Μὴ γάρ. since EA is equal to EB. and let CF have been joined. let AE have been drawn through to F. and a straightline is drawn from the point of contact. ᾿Επεὶ οὖν ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ΕΑ τῇ ΕΒ. kþ. at right-angles to the tangent. ἐπὶ τῆς ἀχθείσης ἔσται τὸ κέντρον τοῦ κύκλου· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. 90 . BEF is also double EAB. I say that angle BEC is double (angle) BAC. ὅτι διπλασίων ἐστὶν ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΕΓ γωνία τῆς ὑπὸ ΒΑΓ. F EC is also double EAC. angle EAB (is) also equal to EBA [Prop. ῎Εστω κύκλος ὁ ΑΒΓ. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. So. The very thing is impossible. and BAC (one) at (its) circumference. In a circle. 3. ΕΒΑ· καὶ ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΕΖ ἄρα τῆς ὑπὸ ΕΑΒ ἐστι διπλῆ. for the same (reasons). if some straight-line touches a circle. 1. So. the lesser to the greater. similarly. ᾿Εὰν ἄρα κύκλου ἐφάπτηταί τις εὐθεῖα. οὐκ ἄρα τὸ Ζ κέντρον ἐστὶ τοῦ ΑΒΓ κύκλου. ἀλλ᾿ εἰ δυνατόν. ἴση δὲ ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΕΖ ταῖς ὑπὸ ΕΑΒ. I say that the center of the circle is on AC.18]. And ACE is also a right-angle. Proposition 20 ᾿Εν κύκλῳ ἡ πρὸς τῷ κέντρῳ γωνία διπλασίων ἐστὶ τῆς πρὸς τῇ περιφερείᾳ. when the angles have the same circumference base. 1. F CE is a right-angle. ἐστὶ δὲ καὶ ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΓΕ ὀρθή· ἴση ἄρα ἐστὶν ἡ ὑπὸ ΖΓΕ τῇ ὑπὸ ΑΓΕ ἡ ἐλάττων τῇ μείζονι· ὅπερ ἐστὶν ἀδύνατον. Thus. Let ABC be a circle. [Therefore]. ᾿Επεὶ [οὖν] κύκλου τοῦ ΑΒΓ ἐφάπτεταί τις εὐθεῖα ἡ ΔΕ. ELEMENTS BOOK 3 angles to DE [Prop. ἀπὸ δὲ τοῦ κέντρου ἐπὶ τὴν ἁφὴν ἐπέζευκται ἡ ΖΓ. if possible. then the center (of the circle) will be on the (straight-line) so drawn. For being joined. let F be (the center of the circle). ἡ ΖΓ ἄρα κάθετός ἐστιν ἐπὶ τὴν ΔΕ· ὀρθὴ ἄρα ἐστὶν ἡ ὑπὸ ΖΓΕ. we can show that neither is any (point) other (than one) on AC. ὁμοίως δὴ δείξομεν. F is not the center of circle ABC. Thus.5]. Therefore. ἴση καὶ γωνία ἡ ὑπὸ ΕΑΒ τῇ ὑπὸ ΕΒΑ· αἱ ἄρα ὑπὸ ΕΑΒ. 1. And BEF (is) equal to EAB and EBA [Prop. ὅλη ἄρα ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΕΓ ὅλης τῆς ὑπὸ ΒΑΓ ἐστι διπλῆ. ἔστω τὸ Ζ. Thus. ὅταν τὴν αὐτὴν περιφέρειαν βάσιν ἔχωσιν αἱ γωνίαι. ἐχέτωσαν δὲ τὴν αὐτὴν περιφέρειαν βάσιν τὴν ΒΓ· λέγω. angle EAB and EBA is double (angle) EAB. and let BEC be an angle at its center. ὅτι οὐδ᾿ ἄλλο τι πλὴν ἐπὶ τῆς ΑΓ. and F C has been joined from the center to the point of contact. πρὸς δὲ τῇ περιφερείᾳ ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΑΓ.32]. since some straight-line DE touches the circle ABC. Thus. ΕΒΑ γωνίαι τῆς ὑπὸ ΕΑΒ διπλασίους εἰσίν.

ELEMENTS BOOK 3 Α A ∆ Ε D E Γ Η C Ζ G F Β B Κεκλάσθω δὴ πάλιν. ἡ δὲ ὑπὸ ΒΑΔ πρὸς τῇ περιφερείᾳ. So. BDC. and let it be (at point) F . For let the center of circle ABCD have been found [Prop. Proposition 21 ᾿Εν κύκλῳ αἱ ἐν τῷ αὐτῷ τμήματι γωνίαι ἴσαι ἀλλήλαις In a circle. and let BAD and BED be angles in the same segment BAED. of which GEB is double EDB. And DE being joined. ΒΕΔ γωνίαι ἴσαι ἀλλήλαις εἰσίν. Thus. the remaining (angle) BEC is double the (remaining angle) BDC. 91 . And let BF and F D have been joined. καὶ ἐπεζεύχθωσαν αἱ ΒΖ. and let there be another angle. καὶ ἔστω τὸ Ζ. one another. καὶ ἔστω ἑτέρα γωνία ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΔΓ. ὁμοίως δὴ δείξομεν.1]. καὶ ἐπιζευχθεῖσα ἡ ΔΕ ἐκβεβλήσθω ἐπὶ τὸ Η. ὅτι αἱ ὑπὸ ΒΑΔ. ΖΔ. καὶ ἐν τῷ αὐτῷ τμήματι τῷ ΒΑΕΔ γωνίαι ἔστωσαν αἱ ὑπὸ ΒΑΔ. ὧν ἡ ὑπὸ ΗΕΒ διπλῆ ἐστι τῆς ὑπὸ ΕΔΒ· λοιπὴ ἄρα ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΕΓ διπλῆ ἐστι τῆς ὑπὸ ΒΔΓ. we can show that angle GEC is double EDC. And since angle BF D is at the center. ᾿Εν κύκλῳ ἄρα ἡ πρὸς τῷ κέντρῳ γωνία διπλασίων ἐστὶ τῆς πρὸς τῇ περιφερείᾳ. and BAD at the circumference. Καὶ ἐπεὶ ἡ μὲν ὑπὸ ΒΖΔ γωνία πρὸς τῷ κέντρῳ ἐστίν. A Α Ε Ζ Β E F ∆ B Γ D C ῎Εστω κύκλος ὁ ΑΒΓΔ. διὰ τὰ αὐτὰ δὴ ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΖΔ καὶ τῆς ὑπὸ Let ABCD be a circle. let it have been produced to G. Thus. the angle at the center is double that at the circumference. 3. ἡ ἄρα ὑπὸ ΒΖΔ γωνία διπλασίων ἐστὶ τῆς ὑπὸ ΒΑΔ. and they have the same circumference base BCD. 3. Εἰλήφθω γὰρ τοῦ ΑΒΓΔ κύκλου τὸ κέντρον. similarly.STOIQEIWN gþ. angles in the same segment are equal to εἰσίν. ὅτι διπλῆ ἐστιν ἡ ὑπὸ ΗΕΓ γωνία τῆς ὑπὸ ΕΔΓ.20]. when [the angles] have the same circumference base. So let another (straight-line) have been inflected. kaþ. ΒΕΔ· λέγω. angle BF D is thus double BAD [Prop. ὅταν τὴν αὐτὴν περιφέρειαν βάσιν ἔχωσιν [αἱ γωνίαι]· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. καὶ ἔχουσι τὴν αὐτὴν περιφέρειαν βάσιν τὴν ΒΓΔ. I say that angles BAD and BED are equal to one another. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. in a circle.

have been constructed μέρη τὰ ΑΓΒ. ὅτι καὶ αἱ ὑπὸ ΒΑΔ. Thus. and BCA of triangle ABC are thus equal to two right-angles. But. So. ΒΔ. ᾿Επεὶ οὖν παντὸς τριγώνου αἱ τρεῖς γωνίαι δυσὶν ὀρθαῖς ἴσαι εἰσίν. Let AC and BD have been joined. ὅτι αἱ ἀπεναντίον γωνίαι δυσὶν ὀρθαῖς ἴσαι εἰσίν. For quadrilaterals within circles. and ACB are equal to two right-angles. Similarly. For they are in the same segment BADC [Prop. the (sum of the) opposite angles is equal to two right-angles. Proposition 23 ᾿Επὶ τῆς αὐτῆς εὐθείας δύο τμήματα κύκλων ὅμοια καὶ Two similar and unequal segments of circles cannot be ἄνισα οὐ συσταθήσεται ἐπὶ τὰ αὐτὰ μέρη. Thus. ΒΑΓ.STOIQEIWN gþ. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. καὶ ἐπεζεύχθωσαν on the same side of the same straight-line AB. I say that the (sum of the) opposite angles is equal to two right-angles. BAC. ELEMENTS BOOK 3 ΒΕΔ ἐστι διπλσίων· ἴση ἄρα ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΑΔ τῇ ὑπὸ ΒΕΔ. ΑΓΒ ταῖς ὑπὸ ΑΒΓ. Let ABCD be a circle. in a circle. ἀλλήλαις εἰσίν· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. ΑΔΓ ἴσαι εἰσίν. ΒΑΓ. ΑΓΒ δυσὶν ὀρθαῖς ἴσαι εἰσίν. and ACB are equal to ABC and ADC. ΑΔΓ ἄρα δυσὶν ὀρθαῖς ἴσαι εἰσίν. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. And ACB (is equal) to ADB. ἀλλ᾿ αἱ ὑπὸ ΑΒΓ. For they are in the same segment ADCB [Prop. Thus. ᾿Επεζεύχθωσαν αἱ ΑΓ. ΒΓΑ δυσὶν ὀρθαῖς ἴσαι εἰσίν. καὶ αἱ ὑπὸ ΑΒΓ. the three angles CAB. And let 92 . ABC. ΔΓΒ γωνίαι δυσὶν ὀρθαῖς ἴσαι εἰσίν. for quadrilaterals within circles. ὁμοίως δὴ δείξομεν. 3. BAC. since the three angles of any triangle are equal to two right-angles [Prop. angles in the same segment are equal to one another. we can show that angles BAD and DCB are also equal to two right-angles. constructed on the same side of the same straight-line. Β B Α A Γ C ∆ D ῎Εστω κύκλος ὁ ΑΒΓΔ. the (sum of the) opposite angles is equal to two right-angles. τοῦ ΑΒΓ ἄρα τριγώνου αἱ τρεῖς γωνίαι αἱ ὑπὸ ΓΑΒ. let the two similar and unequal segτμήματα κύκλων ὅμοια καὶ ἄνισα συνεστάτω ἐπὶ τὰ αὐτὰ ments of circles. Proposition 22 Τῶν ἐν τοῖς κύκλοις τετραπλεύρων αἱ ἀπεναντίον γωνίαι δυσὶν ὀρθαῖς ἴσαι εἰσίν. for the same (reasons). if possible. Therefore. ἐπὶ τῆς αὐτῆς εὐθείας τῆς ΑΒ δύο For. καὶ ἐν αὐτῷ τετράπλευρον ἔστω τὸ ΑΒΓΔ· λέγω. BF D is also double BED. ABC.32]. Thus. kbþ. Let ABC have been added to both. Εἰ γὰρ δυνατόν. ABC and ADC are also equal to two right-angles. ΑΓΒ ἴση ἐστίν.21]. BAD (is) equal to BED. ΑΔΒ. ἴση δὲ ἡ μὲν ὑπὸ ΓΑΒ τῇ ὑπὸ ΒΔΓ· ἐν γὰρ τῷ αὐτῷ τμήματί εἰσι τῷ ΒΑΔΓ· ἡ δὲ ὑπὸ ΑΓΒ τῇ ὑπὸ ΑΔΒ· ἐν γὰρ τῷ αὐτῷ τμήματί εἰσι τῷ ΑΔΓΒ· ὅλη ἄρα ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΔΓ ταῖς ὑπὸ ΒΑΓ. κοινὴ προσκείσθω ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΒΓ· αἱ ἄρα ὑπὸ ΑΒΓ. and let ABCD be a quadrilateral within it.21]. ᾿Εν κύκλῳ ἄρα αἱ ἐν τῷ αὐτῷ τμήματι γωνίαι ἴσαι Thus. καὶ διήχθω ἡ ΑΓΔ. ACB and ADB. ΑΒΓ. 1. Τῶν ἄρα ἐν τοῖς κύκλοις τετραπλεύρων αἱ ἀπεναντίον γωνίαι δυσὶν ὀρθαῖς ἴσαι εἰσίν· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. And CAB (is) equal to BDC. ABC. Thus. kgþ. 3. the whole of ADC is equal to BAC and ACB.

and similar segments of circles are those accepting equal angles [Def. ὡς τὸ ΓΗΔ. two similar and unequal segments of circles cannot be constructed on the same side of the same straight-line. and let CB and DB have been joined. and the straight-line AB on CD. and the segment AEB does not coincide with CF D. then it will surely either fall inside it. For if the segment AEB is applied to the segment CF D. Οὐκ ἄρα ἐπὶ τῆς αὐτῆς εὐθείας δύο τμήματα κύκλων ὅμοια καὶ ἄνισα συσταθήσεται ἐπὶ τὰ αὐτὰ μέρη· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. ὅτι ἴσον ἐστὶ τὸ ΑΕΒ τμῆμα τῷ ΓΖΔ τμήματι. ACD have been drawn through (the segments). ∆ Γ Α D C Β A B ᾿Επεὶ οὖν ὅμοιόν ἐστι τὸ ΑΓΒ τμῆμα τῷ ΑΔΒ τμήματι. 1. ἐφαρμόσει καὶ τὸ Β σημεῖον ἐπὶ τὸ Δ σημεῖον διὰ τὸ ἴσην εἶναι τὴν ΑΒ τῇ ΓΔ· τῆς δὲ ΑΒ ἐπὶ τὴν ΓΔ ἐφαρμοσάσης ἐφαρμόσει καὶ τὸ ΑΕΒ τμῆμα ἐπὶ τὸ ΓΖΔ.11]. τὸ δὲ ΑΕΒ τμῆμα ἐπὶ τὸ ΓΖΔ μὴ ἐφαρμόσει.† or it will miss like CGD (in the figure). 3. ELEMENTS BOOK 3 αἱ ΓΒ. The very 93 .16]. on account of AB being equal to CD. ὅμοια δὲ τμήματα κύκλων ἐστὶ τὰ δεχόμενα γωνίας ἴσας. and point A is placed on (point) C. And if AB coincides with CD then the segment AEB will also coincide with CF D. ΓΔ ὅμοια τμήματα κύκλων τὰ ΑΕΒ. the external to the internal. Ε E Α Β Ζ Γ A B Η G F ∆ C ῎Εστωσαν γὰρ ἐπὶ ἴσων εὐθειῶν τῶν ΑΒ. Thus. Proposition 24 Τὰ ἐπὶ ἴσων εὐθειῶν ὅμοια τμήματα κύλων ἴσα ἀλλήλοις Similar segments of circles on equal straight-lines are ἐστίν. ἴση ἄρα ἐστὶν ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΓΒ γωνία τῇ ὑπὸ ΑΔΒ ἡ ἐκτὸς τῇ ἐντός· ὅπερ ἐστὶν ἀδύνατον. angle ACB is thus equal to ADB. καὶ κύκλος κύκλον τέμνει κατὰ πλείονα σημεῖα ἢ δύο· ὅπερ ἐστίν ἀδύνατον. ΔΒ. ᾿Εφαρμοζομένου γὰρ τοῦ ΑΕΒ τμήματος ἐπὶ τὸ ΓΖΔ καὶ τιθεμένου τοῦ μὲν Α σημείου ἐπὶ τὸ Γ τῆς δὲ ΑΒ εὐθείας ἐπὶ τὴν ΓΔ. ἤτοι ἐντὸς αὐτοῦ πεσεῖται ἢ ἐκτὸς ἢ παραλλάξει. equal to one another. since segment ACB is similar to segment ADB.STOIQEIWN gþ. οὐκ ἄρα ἐφαρμοζομένης τῆς ΑΒ εὐθείας ἐπὶ τὴν ΓΔ οὐκ ἐφαρμόσει καὶ D For let AEB and CF D be similar segments of circles on the equal straight-lines AB and CD (respectively). For if the straight-line AB coincides with CD. outside (it). Therefore. then point B will also coincide with point D. and a circle (will) cut (another) circle at more than two points. εἰ γὰρ ἡ ΑΒ εὐθεῖα ἐπὶ τὴν ΓΔ ἐφαρμόσει. kdþ. ΓΖΔ· λέγω. I say that segment AEB is equal to segment CF D. The very thing is impossible [Prop.

if the straight-line AB is applied to CD. καὶ ἴσον αὐτῷ ἔσται. Thus. τῆς ΑΔ ἴσης γενομένης ἑκατέρᾳ τῶν ΒΔ. and let EC have been joined. the segment AEB cannot not also coincide with CF D.STOIQEIWN gþ. ΔΕ δύο ταῖς ΓΔ.N. DE. ΔΒ. 1. κοινὴ δὲ ἡ ΔΕ. And (it is) clear that the segment ABC is less than a semi-circle. Proposition 25 Κύκλου τμήματος δοθέντος προσαναγράψαι τὸν κύκλον. and DE (is) common. Therefore. ΔΓ ἴσαι ἀλλήλαις ἔσονται. Thus. a circle has been completed from the given segment of a circle. καὶ ἐπεζεύχθω ἡ ΕΓ. at right-angles to AC [Prop. Thus. since angle ABE is equal to BAE. Α Β ∆ Γ Α Ε Β ∆ Γ A Α Β Ε B ∆ D A E B D A B D E Γ C ῎Εστω τὸ δοθὲν τμῆμα κύκλου τὸ ΑΒΓ· δεῖ δὴ τοῦ ΑΒΓ τμήματος προσαναγράψαι τὸν κύκλον. For a given segment of a circle. And let AB have been joined. the very one of which it is a segment. AE was shown (to be) equal to BE. and will be equal to it [C. keþ. καὶ ἔσται τὸ Δ κέντρον τοῦ προσαναπεπληρωμένου κύκλου. the two (straight-lines) AD. similar segments of circles on equal straightlines are equal to one another. ΕΓ κύκλος γραφόμενος ἥξει καὶ διὰ τῶν λοιπῶν σημείων καὶ ἔσται προσαναγεγραμμένος. Thus. Thus. angle ABD is surely either greater than. let it be greater. DE are equal to the two (straight-lines) CD. the straight-line EB is thus also equal to EA [Prop. 94 . οὖπέρ ἐστι τμῆμα. or less than (angle) BAD. Τετμήσθω γὰρ ἡ ΑΓ δίχα κατὰ τὸ Δ. ΔΕ ἴσαι εἰσὶν ἑκατέρα ἑκατέρᾳ· καὶ γωνία ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΔΕ γωνίᾳ τῇ ὑπὸ ΓΔΕ ἐστιν ἴση· ὀρθὴ γὰρ ἑκατέρα· βάσις ἄρα ἡ ΑΕ βάσει τῇ ΓΕ ἐστιν ἴση. ἐπεὶ οὖν ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΒΕ γωνία τῇ ὑπὸ ΒΑΕ. equal to. BE is also equal to CE. καὶ συστησώμεθα πρὸς τῇ ΒΑ εὐθείᾳ καὶ τῷ πρὸς αὐτῇ σημείῳ C C Let ABC be the given segment of a circle. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show.10].9]. ὡς τὸ ΑΒΓ τμῆμα ἔλαττόν ἐστιν ἡμικυκλίου διὰ τὸ τὸ Ε κέντρον ἐκτὸς αὐτοῦ τυγχάνειν. and the (associated circle) will have been completed [Prop. the very one of which it is a segment. δύο δὴ αἱ ΑΔ. 1.10]. And let DB have been drawn through to E. 1. καὶ συνεστάτω πρὸς τῇ ΒΑ εὐθείᾳ καὶ τῷ πρὸς αὐτῇ σημείῳ τῷ Α τῇ ὑπὸ ΑΒΔ γωνίᾳ ἴση ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΑΕ. 1. And since AD is equal to DC. and the previous one. ΕΒ. For each (is) a right-angle. καὶ δῆλον. οὗπέρ ἐστι τμῆμα. ἴση ἄρα ἐστὶ καὶ ἡ ΕΒ εὐθεῖα τῇ ΕΑ. Thus. it will also go through the remaining points (of the segment). or EC.23]. καὶ διήχθω ἡ ΔΒ ἐπὶ τὸ Ε. Τὰ ἄρα ἐπὶ ἴσων εὐθειῶν ὅμοια τμήματα κύκλων ἴσα ἀλλήλοις ἐστίν· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. it will coincide. have been constructed on the straight-line BA.4]. ῾Ομοίως [δὲ] κἂν ᾖ ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΒΔ γωνία ἴση τῇ ὑπὸ ΒΑΔ. the base AE is equal to the base CE [Prop. respectively. Thus. if a circle is drawn with center E.6]. καὶ ἐπεζεύχθω ἡ ΑΒ· ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΒΔ γωνία ἄρα τῆς ὑπὸ ΒΑΔ ἤτοι μείζων ἐστὶν ἢ ἴση ἢ ἐλάττων. And angle ADE is equal to angle CDE. EB. 3. ἀλλὰ ἡ ΑΕ τῇ ΒΕ ἐδείχθη ἴση· καὶ ἡ ΒΕ ἄρα τῇ ΓΕ ἐστιν ἴση· αἱ τρεῖς ἄρα αἱ ΑΕ. equal to angle ABD. ELEMENTS BOOK 3 τὸ ΑΕΒ τμῆμα ἐπὶ τὸ ΓΖΔ· ἐφαρμόσει ἄρα. Thus. ᾿Εὰν δὲ ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΒΔ ἐλάττων ᾖ τῆς ὑπὸ ΒΑΔ. ΕΒ. First of all. the three (straight-lines) AE. But. So it is required to complete the circle for segment ABC. are precluded by Prop. and radius one of AE. at the point A on it [Prop. 1. ῎Εστω πρότερον μείζων. ΔΓ αἱ τρεῖς αἱ ΔΑ. Thus.11]. For let AC have been cut in half at (point) D [Prop.23. because the center E happens to lie outside it. 4]. Both this possibility. † thing is impossible [Prop. to complete the circle. and EC are equal to one another. καὶ δηλαδὴ ἔσται τὸ ΑΒΓ ἡμικύκλιον. and let DB have been drawn from point D. 3. EB. And let (angle) BAE. κύκλου ἄρα τμήματος δοθέντος προσαναγέγραπται ὁ κύκλος. καὶ ἐπεὶ ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ΑΔ τῇ ΔΓ. ΕΓ ἴσαι ἀλλήλαις εἰσίν· ὁ ἄρα κέντρῷ τῷ Ε διαστήματι δὲ ἑνὶ τῶν ΑΕ. καὶ ἤχθω ἀπὸ τοῦ Δ σημείου τῇ ΑΓ πρὸς ὀρθὰς ἡ ΔΒ. 3.

Α A ∆ Γ Β Κ D Θ Η Ε G C B Ζ Λ K ῎Εστωσαν ἴσοι κύκλοι οἱ ΑΒΓ. ᾿Επεζεύχθωσαν γὰρ αἱ ΒΓ. And since the angle at A is equal to the (angle) at D. (since) AD becomes equal to each of BD [Prop. Thus.4]. even if angle ABD is equal to BAD. the base BC is equal to the base EF [Prop. And point D will be the center of the completed circle. H F E L Let ABC and DEF be equal circles. ΘΖ ἴσαι· καὶ γωνία ἡ πρὸς τῷ Η γωνίᾳ τῇ πρὸς τῷ Θ ἴση· βάσις ἄρα ἡ ΒΓ βάσει τῇ ΕΖ ἐστιν ἴση. And the whole circle ABC is also equal to the whole circle DEF . ΔΕΖ κύκλοι. segment BAC is equal to (segment) EDF . a circle has been completed from the given segment of a circle. I say that circumference BKC is equal to circumference ELF . DB. GC (are) equal to the two (straight-lines) EH. 1. ELEMENTS BOOK 3 τῷ Α τῇ ὑπὸ ΑΒΔ γωνίᾳ ἴσην. Καὶ ἐπεὶ ἴσοι εἰσὶν οἱ ΑΒΓ. and we construct (angle BAE). equal angles stand upon equal circumferences. ΕΘΖ. Thus. ὅτι ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ΒΚΓ περιφέρεια τῇ ΕΛΖ περιφερείᾳ. Thus. ΕΔΖ· λέγω. And the angle at G (is) equal to the angle at H. ΕΖ]· τὰ δὲ ἐπὶ ἴσων εὐθειῶν ὅμοια τμήματα κύκλων ἴσα ἀλλήλοις ἐστίν· ἴσον ἄρα τὸ ΒΑΓ τμῆμα τῷ ΕΔΖ. ΕΖ. ᾿Εν ἄρα τοῖς ἴσοις κύκλοις αἱ ἴσαι γωνίαι ἐπὶ ἴσων περιφερειῶν βεβήκασιν. whether they are standing at the center 95 . Proposition 26 ᾿Εν τοῖς ἴσοις κύκλοις αἱ ἴσαι γωνίαι ἐπὶ ἴσων περιφεIn equal circles. then the center will fall on DB. πρὸς δὲ ταῖς περιφερείαις αἱ ὑπὸ ΒΑΓ. ἐντὸς τοῦ ΑΒΓ τμήματος πεσεῖται τὸ κέντρον ἐπὶ τῆς ΔΒ. And they are on equal straight-lines [BC and EF ]. And since circles ABC and DEF are equal. And ABC will manifestly be a semi-circle. in equal circles. and DC will be equal to one another.6] and DC. equal to angle ABD. 3. And segment ABC will manifestly be greater than a semi-circle. their radii are equal. ἔστι δὲ καὶ ὅλος ὁ ΑΒΓ κύκλος ὅλῳ τῷ ΔΕΖ κύκλῳ ἴσος· λοιπὴ ἄρα ἡ ΒΚΓ περιφέρεια τῇ ΕΛΖ περιφερείᾳ ἐστὶν ἴση. καὶ ἔσται δηλαδὴ τὸ ΑΒΓ τμῆμα μεῖζον ἡμικυκλίου. So the two (straight-lines) BG.STOIQEIWN gþ. ΔΕΖ καὶ ἐν αὐτοῖς ἴσαι γωνίαι ἔστωσαν πρὸς μὲν τοῖς κέντροις αἱ ὑπὸ ΒΗΓ. ἐάν τε πρὸς τοῖς κέντροις ἐάν τε πρὸς cumferences whether they are standing at the center or ταῖς περιφερείαις ὦσι βεβηκυῖαι. Thus. the three (straight-lines) DA. 1. 1.23].11]. [And]. Κύκλου ἄρα τμήματος δοθέντος προσαναγέγραπται ὁ κύκλος· ὅπερ ἔδει ποιῆσαι.24]. the remaining circumference BKC is equal to the (remaining) circumference ELF . kþ. And similar segments of circles on equal straight-lines are equal to one another [Prop. Thus. and within them let BGC and EHF be equal angles at the center. at the circumference. at the point A on it [Prop. on the straight-line BA. similarly. and BAC and EDF (equal angles) at the circumference. the segment BAC is thus similar to the segment EDF [Def. ἴσαι εἰσὶν αἱ ἐκ τῶν κέντρων· δύο δὴ αἱ ΒΗ. equal angles stand upon equal cirρειῶν βεβήκασιν. καὶ ἐπεὶ ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ πρὸς τῷ Α γωνία τῇ πρὸς τῷ Δ. HF (respectively). For let BC and EF have been joined. (Which is) the very thing it was required to do. ἐάν τε πρὸς τοῖς κέντροις ἐάν τε πρὸς ταῖς περιφερείας ὦσι βεβηκυῖαι· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. ὅμοιον ἄρα ἐστὶ τὸ ΒΑΓ τμῆμα τῷ ΕΔΖ τμήματι· καί εἰσιν ἐπὶ ἴσων εὐθειῶν [τῶν ΒΓ. inside the segment ABC. And if ABD is less than BAD. ΗΓ δύο ταῖς ΕΘ. 3.

οὐκ ἄρα ἄνισός ἐστιν ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΗΓ γωνία τῇ ὑπὸ ΕΘΖ· ἴση ἄρα. The very thing is impossible.STOIQEIWN gþ. Thus. equal to angle EHF . ΑΖΕ περιφερείας μείζονας ἀφαιροῦσαι τὰς δὲ ΑΗΒ. Thus. ἡ δὲ ὑπὸ ΒΑΓ τῇ ὑπὸ ΕΔΖ ἐστιν ἴση. kzþ. (it is) equal. ἀλλὰ ἡ ΕΖ τῇ ΒΓ ἐστιν ἴση· καὶ ἡ ΒΚ ἄρα τῇ ΒΓ ἐστιν ἴση ἡ ἐλάττων τῇ μείζονι· ὅπερ ἐστὶν ἀδύνατον. τῆς δὲ ὑπὸ ΕΘΖ ἡμίσεια ἡ πρὸς τῷ Δ· ἴση ἄρα καὶ ἡ πρὸς τῷ Α γωνία τῇ πρὸς τῷ Δ. 3. whether they are πρὸς ταῖς περιφερείαις ὦσι βεβηκυῖαι. ΕΘΖ. the lesser to the greater. For let the angles BGC and EHF at the centers G and H.26]. ΔΕ τὰς μὲν ΑΓΒ. Let BGC be greater. and the (angles) BAC and EDF at the circumferences. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. angle BGC is not unequal to EHF . the greater (circumference being equal) to the greater. Θ κέντροις γωνίαι βεβηκέτωσαν αἱ ὑπὸ ΒΗΓ.20]. the angle at A (is) also equal to the (angle) at D. 1. πρὸς δὲ ταῖς περιφερείαις αἱ ὑπὸ ΒΑΓ. ῎Εστωσαν ἴσοι κύκλοι οἱ ΑΒΓ. at the point G on it [Prop. καὶ συνεστάτω πρὸς τῇ ΒΗ εὐθείᾳ καὶ τῷ πρὸς αὐτῇ σημείῳ τῷ Η τῇ ὑπὸ ΕΘΖ γωνίᾳ ἴση ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΗΚ· αἱ δὲ ἴσαι γωνίαι ἐπὶ ἴσων περιφερειῶν βεβήκασιν.23]. and let AB and DE be equal straight-lines in these circles. and the lesser (circumferences) AGB and DHE (respectively). ὅτι ἡ μὲν ΑΓΒ μείζων περιφέρεια ἴση ἐστὶ τῇ ΔΖΕ μείζονι περιφερείᾳ ἡ δὲ ΑΗΒ ἐλάττων περιφέρεια τῇ ΔΘΕ. But equal angles (in equal circles) stand upon equal circumferences. BK is also equal to BC. 3. and let the (angle) BGK. And the (angle) at A is half BGC. and BAC is equal to EDF . ὅταν πρὸς τοῖς κέντροις ὦσιν· ἴση ἄρα ἡ ΒΚ περιφέρεια τῇ ΕΖ περιφερείᾳ. μία αὐτῶν μείζων ἐστίν. I say that the greater circumference ACB is equal to the greater circumference DF E. ὅτι ἡ μὲν ὑπὸ ΒΗΓ γωνία τῇ ὑπὸ ΕΘΖ ἐστιν ἴση. ΔΕΖ ἐπὶ ἴσων περιφερειῶν τῶν ΒΓ. καί ἐστι τῆς μὲν ὑπὸ ΒΗΓ ἡμίσεια ἡ πρὸς τῷ Α. ELEMENTS BOOK 3 or at the circumference. ᾿Εν ἄρα τοῖς ἴσοις κύκλοις αἱ ἐπὶ ἴσων περιφερειῶν βεβηκυῖαι γωνίαι ἴσαι ἀλλήλαις εἰσίν. Εἰ γὰρ ἄνισός ἐστιν ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΗΓ τῇ ὑπὸ ΕΘΖ. Thus. ἐάν τε πρὸς τοῖς κέντροις ἐάν τε ferences are equal to one another. Let ABC and DEF be equal circles. (Which is) the very thing which it was required to show. in equal circles. equal straight-lines cut off equal circumferences. I say that angle BGC is equal to (angle) EHF . and the lesser circumfer- 96 . cutting off the greater circumferences ACB and DF E. angles standing upon equal circumγωνίαι ἴσαι ἀλλήλαις εἰσίν. and the (angle) at D half EHF [Prop. one of them is greater. Α A ∆ Θ Η Β Ε Γ D H G Ζ B Κ C E F K ᾿Εν γὰρ ἴσοις κύκλοις τοῖς ΑΒΓ. stand upon the equal circumferences BC and EF . καὶ ἐν τοῖς κύκλοις ἴσαι εὐθεῖαι ἔστωσαν αἱ ΑΒ. ΔΘΕ ἐλάττονας· λέγω. EF is equal to BC. Thus. ἐάν τε πρὸς τοῖς κέντροις ἐάν τε πρὸς ταῖς περιφερείαις ὦσι βεβηκυῖαι· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. and the lesser to the lesser. standing at the center or at the circumference. when they are at the centers [Prop. circumference BK (is) equal to circumference EF . ἔστω μείζων ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΗΓ. khþ. whether they are standing at the center or at the circumference. ΕΔΖ· λέγω. For if BGC is unequal to EHF . In equal circles. have been constructed on the straight-line BG. ΔΕΖ. Proposition 27 ᾿Εν τοῖς ἴσοις κύκλοις αἱ ἐπὶ ἴσων περιφερειῶν βεβηκυῖαι In equal circles. But. in the equal circles ABC and DEF (respectively). Thus. angles standing upon equal circumferences are equal to one another. Proposition 28 ᾿Εν τοῖς ἴσοις κύκλοις αἱ ἴσαι εὐθεῖαι ἴσας περιφερείας ἀφαιροῦσι τὴν μὲν μείζονα τῇ μείζονι τὴν δὲ ἐλάττονα τῇ ἐλάττονι. ΕΖ πρὸς μὲν τοῖς Η. Thus.

ΔΛ. ΔΕΖ. when they are at the centers [Prop. and within them let the equal circumferences BGC and EHF have been cut off. And equal angles stand upon equal circumferences. And since (ABC and DEF ) are equal circles. ΚΒ. For let the centers of the circles. ἐστὶ δὲ καὶ ὅλος ὁ ΑΒΓ κύκλος ὅλῳ τῷ ΔΕΖ κύκλῳ ἴσος· καὶ λοιπὴ ἄρα ἡ ΑΓΒ περιφέρεια λοιπῇ τῇ ΔΖΕ περιφερείᾳ ἴση ἐστίν. Λ. 3. Εἰλήφθω γὰρ τὰ κέντρα τῶν κύκλων. ΕΖ εὐθεῖαι· λέγω. cumferences. ὅτι ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ΒΓ τῇ ΕΖ. equal straight-lines cut off equal circumferences. 3. DL. ELEMENTS BOOK 3 ence AGB to (the lesser) DHE. K and L. I say that BC is equal to EF . Καὶ ἐπεὶ ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ΒΗΓ περιφέρεια τῇ ΕΘΖ περιφερείᾳ. ἴσαι εἰσὶ καὶ αἱ ἐκ τῶν κέντρων· δύο δὴ αἱ ΑΚ. ΚΒ δυσὶ ταῖς ΔΛ. καὶ ἐπεζεύχθωσαν αἱ ΒΚ. ΕΛ.26]. ΕΘΖ.1].1]. and LE have been joined. ΚΓ. equal straight-lines subtend equal cirὑποτείνουσιν. ΛΕ. the greater (circumference being equal) to the greater. Α ∆ A D Κ Λ K L Β Γ Η Ε Ζ B Θ C G ῎Εστωσαν ἴσοι κύκλοι οἱ ΑΒΓ. Thus. and the lesser to the lesser. angle AKB is equal to angle DLE [Prop. αἱ δὲ ἴσαι γωνίαι ἐπὶ ἴσων περιφερειῶν βεβήκασιν. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. καὶ ἔστω τὰ Κ. ᾿Εν ἄρα τοῖς ἴσοις κύκλοις αἱ ἴσαι εὐθεῖαι ἴσας περιφερείας ἀφαιροῦσι τὴν μὲν μείζονα τῇ μείζονι τὴν δὲ ἐλάττονα τῇ ἐλάττονι· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. 97 . and let them be (at) K and L. ΛΖ. And the whole circle ABC is also equal to the whole circle DEF . Thus. καὶ ἐπεζεύχθωσαν αἱ ΒΓ.8]. Thus. And let BK. in equal circles. 3. Thus. Καὶ ἐπεὶ ἴσοι κύκλοι εἰσίν. E F H Let ABC and DEF be equal circles. kjþ. καὶ ἐν αὐτοῖς ἴσαι περιφέρειαι ἀπειλήφθωσαν αἱ ΒΗΓ. For let the centers of the circles have been found [Prop. Proposition 29 ᾿Εν τοῖς ἴσοις κύκλοις τὰς ἴσας περιφερείας ἴσαι εὐθεῖαι In equal circles. and let AK. the remaining circumference ACB is also equal to the remaining circumference DF E. 3. their radii are also equal [Def. And the base AB (is) equal to the base DE. And let the straight-lines BC and EF have been joined. LE (respectively).STOIQEIWN gþ. ΛΕ ἴσαι εἰσίν· καὶ βάσις ἡ ΑΒ βάσει τῇ ΔΕ ἴση· γωνία ἄρα ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΚΒ γωνίᾳ τῇ ὑπὸ ΔΛΕ ἴση ἐστίν. ὅταν πρὸς τοῖς κέντροις ὦσιν· ἴση ἄρα ἡ ΑΗΒ περιφέρεια τῇ ΔΘΕ. KB are equal to the two (straight-lines) DL. circumference AGB (is) equal to DHE. 1. So the two (straightlines) AK. καὶ ἐπεζεύχθωσαν αἱ ΑΚ. KB.1]. have been found [Prop. Λ. Γ Ζ C F Κ Λ K L Β Α ∆ Η Ε B A Θ D G E H Εἰλήφθω γὰρ τὰ κέντρα τῶν κύκλων τὰ Κ.

1].4]. Proposition 31 ᾿Εν κύκλῳ ἡ μὲν ἐν τῷ ἡμικυκλίῳ γωνία ὀρθή ἐστιν. So it is required to cut circumference ADB in half. And let CD have been drawn from point C. KC are equal to the two (straight-lines) EL. EL. And since AC is equal to CB. ΔΕΖ κύκλοι. ἡ δὲ ἐν τῷ ἐλάττονι τμήματι μείζων ὀρθῆς· καὶ ἔπι ἡ μὲν τοῦ μείζονος τμήματος γωνία μείζων ἐστὶν ὀρθῆς. καὶ ἐπεζεύχθωσαν αἱ ΑΔ. in equal circles. 3. LF (respectively). Thus.11]. And since the circumference BGC is equal to the circumference EHF . Thus. ἴσαι εἰσὶ καὶ αἱ ἐκ τῶν κέντρων· δύο δὴ αἱ ΒΚ. 1. the base AD is equal to the base DB [Prop. ἡ δὲ τοῦ ἐλάττονος τμήματος γωνία ἐλάττων ὀρθῆς. equal straight-lines subtend equal circumferences. ΓΔ ἴσαι εἰσίν· καὶ γωνία ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΓΔ γωνίᾳ τῇ ὑπὸ ΒΓΔ ἴση· ὀρθὴ γὰρ ἑκατέρα· βάσις ἄρα ἡ ΑΔ βάσει τῇ ΔΒ ἴση ἐστίν. For (they are) each rightangles. the base BC is equal to the base EF [Prop. To cut a given circumference in half. And angle ACD (is) equal to angle BCD. 1. and let it have been cut in half at (point) C [Prop. (Which is) the very thing it was required to do. CD (respectively). ∆ Α Γ D Β A C B ῎Εστω ἡ δοθεῖσα περιφέρεια ἡ ΑΔΒ· δεῖ δὴ τὴν ΑΔΒ περιφέρειαν δίχα τεμεῖν. αἱ δὲ ἴσαι εὐθεῖαι ἴσας περιφερείας ἀφαιροῦσι τὴν μὲν μείζονα τῇ μείζονι τὴν δὲ ἐλάττονα τῇ ἐλάττονι· κάι ἐστιν ἑκατέρα τῶν ΑΔ. and the an- 98 .STOIQEIWN gþ. And equal straight-lines cut off equal circumferences. the given circumference has been cut in half at point D. ΔΒ περιφερειῶν ἐλάττων ἡμικυκλίου· ἴση ἄρα ἡ ΑΔ περιφέρεια τῇ ΔΒ περιφερείᾳ. and LF have been joined. ΓΔ δυσὶ ταῖς ΒΓ. So the two (straight-lines) BK. ΔΒ. καὶ τετμήσθω δίχα κατὰ τὸ Γ. Thus. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. circumference AD (is) equal to circumference DB. laþ. and that in a greater segment (is) less than a right-angle. And let AD. the angle in a semi-circle is a right-angle.10]. their radii are also equal [Def. And since the circles ABC and DEF are equal. Let AB have been joined. In a circle. ΛΖ ἴσαι εἰσίν· καὶ γωνίας ἴσας περιέχουσιν· βάσις ἄρα ἡ ΒΓ βάσει τῇ ΕΖ ἴση ἐστίν· ᾿Εν ἄρα τοῖς ἴσοις κύκλοις τὰς ἴσας περιφερείας ἴσαι εὐθεῖαι ὑποτείνουσιν· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. ἡ δὲ ἐν τῷ μείζονι τμήματι ἐλάττων ὀρθῆς. ᾿Επεζεύχθω ἡ ΑΒ. ῾Η ἄρα δοθεῖσα περιφέρεια δίχα τέτμηται κατὰ τὸ Δ σημεῖον· ὅπερ ἔδει ποιῆσαι. δύο δὴ αἱ ΑΓ. And the circumferences AD and DB are each less than a semicircle. And. 1. Thus. Let ADB be the given circumference. and the lesser to the lesser [Prop. And they contain equal angles. KC.27]. CD are equal to the two (straight-lines) BC. 1. the angle BKC is also equal to (angle) ELF [Prop. and CD (is) common. the angle of a segment greater (than a semi-circle) is greater than a right-angle. the greater (circumference being equal) to the greater. Καὶ ἐπεὶ ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ΑΓ τῇ ΓΒ. καὶ ἐπεὶ ἴσοι εἰσὶν οἱ ΑΒΓ. further.28]. ELEMENTS BOOK 3 ἴση ἐστὶ καὶ γωνία ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΚΓ τῇ ὑπὸ ΕΛΖ. lþ. and DB have been joined. 3. at right-angles to AB [Prop. the two (straight-lines) AC. καὶ ἀπὸ τοῦ Γ σημείου τῇ ΑΒ εὐθείᾳ πρὸς ὀρθὰς ἤχθω ἡ ΓΔ. ΚΓ δυσὶ ταῖς ΕΛ. Thus. κοινὴ δὲ ἡ ΓΔ. and that in a lesser segment (is) greater than a rightangle.4]. Proposition 30 Τὴν δοθεῖσαν περιφέρειαν δίχα τεμεῖν. 1.

angle ABC is thus less than a rightangle. (which is) less than a semicircle. Thus. I say that the angle BAC in the semi-circle BAC is a right-angle.5]. ACE is also equal to CAE [Prop. Again. (which is) greater than a semi-circle. πάλιν. angle ABE is also equal to BAE [Prop. is also equal to the two angles ABC and ACB [Prop. And since the two angles ABC and BAC of triangle ABC are less than two right-angles [Prop. 1.5]. I also say that the angle of the greater segment. And the angle of the lesser segment. ΑΖ εὐθειῶν ὀρθή ἐστιν. And since ABCD is a quadrilateral within a circle. ΑΓ. ἐπεὶ ἡ ὑπὸ τῶν ΑΓ. and DC have been joined. ἴση ἐστὶ καὶ γωνία ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΒΕ τῇ ὑπὸ ΒΑΕ. Καὶ ἐπεὶ τοῦ ΑΒΓ τρίγωνου δύο γωνίαι αἱ ὑπὸ ΑΒΓ. (which is) external to triangle ABC. ἐλάττων ἄρα ὀρθῆς ἐστιν ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΒΓ γωνία· καί ἐστιν ἐν τῷ ΑΒΓ μείζονι τοῦ ἡμικυκλίου τμήματι. and BAC is a right-angle. [Def. AD. ἐστὶ δὲ καὶ ἡ ὑπὸ ΖΑΓ ἐκτὸς τοῦ ΑΒΓ τριγώνου δυσὶ ταῖς ὑπὸ ΑΒΓ. Thus. Thus. Καὶ ἐπεὶ ἐν κύκλῳ τετράπλευρόν ἐστι τὸ ΑΒΓΔ. καὶ ἐπεζεύχθωσαν αἱ ΒΑ. καί ἐστιν ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΒΓ ἐλάττων ὀρθῆς· λοιπὴ ἄρα ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΔΓ γωνία μείζων ὀρθῆς ἐστιν· καί ἐστιν ἐν τῷ ΑΔΓ ἐλάττονι τοῦ ἡμικυκλίου τμήματι. And F AC. ᾿Επεζεύχθω ἡ ΑΕ. ἡ δὲ ἐν τῷ ΑΒΓ μείζονι τοῦ ἡμικυκλίου τμήματι γωνία ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΒΓ ἐλάττων ἐστὶν ὀρθῆς. and let BA have been drawn through to F . is less than a rightangle. is greater than a right-angle. the whole (angle) BAC is equal to the two (angles) ABC and ACB. and E its center. ἐπεὶ ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ΓΕ τῇ ΕΑ. ὅτι καὶ ἡ μὲν τοῦ μείζονος τμήματος γωνία ἡ περιεχομένη ὑπό [τε] τῆς ΑΒΓ περιφερείας καὶ τῆς ΑΓ εὐθείας μείζων ἐστὶν ὀρθῆς. ΑΓ εὐθειῶν ὀρθή ἐστιν. and the angle ADC in the segment ADC. καὶ διήχθω ἡ ΒΑ ἐπὶ τὸ Ζ. ΑΔΓ γωνίαι δυσὶν ὀρθαῖς ἴσας εἰσίν]. 1. And let BA. is greater than a right-angle. since CE is equal to EA. and the angle ABC in the segment ABC. ἡ ἄρα ὑπὸ τῆς ΑΒΓ περιφερείας καὶ τῆς ΑΓ εὐθείας περιεχομένη μείζων ἐστὶν ὀρθῆς. And it is in segment ADC. angle BAC (is) also equal to F AC. Let AE have been joined. And it is in segment ABC. Thus. ΑΓΒ ἴση ἐστίν. ἴση ἐστὶ καὶ ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΓΕ τῇ ὑπὸ ΓΑΕ· ὅλη ἄρα ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΑΓ δυσὶ ταῖς ὑπὸ ΑΒΓ. (which is) greater than a semi-circle. 1. ΑΔ. ΒΑΓ δύο ὀρθῶν ἐλάττονές εἰσιν. Καὶ ἐπεὶ ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ΒΕ τῇ ΕΑ. and for quadrilaterals within circles the (sum of the) opposite angles is equal to two right-angles [Prop.32]. (namely) that contained 99 . τῶν δὲ ἐν τοῖς κύκλοις τετραπλεύρων αἱ ἀπεναντίον γωνίαι δυσὶν ὀρθαῖς ἴσαι εἰσίν [αἱ ἄρα ὑπὸ ΑΒΓ. κέντρον δὲ τὸ Ε.22] [angles ABC and ADC are thus equal to two rightangles]. The remaining angle ADC is thus greater than a right-angle. (which is) less than a semi-circle. διάμετρος δὲ αὐτοῦ ἔστω ἡ ΒΓ. (namely) that contained by the circumference ABC and the straight-line AC. Λέγω.17]. ELEMENTS BOOK 3 gle of a segment less (than a semi-circle) is less than a right-angle. ΑΓΒ γωνίαις ἴση· ἴση ἄρα καὶ ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΑΓ γωνία τῇ ὑπὸ ΖΑΓ· ὀρθὴ ἄρα ἑκατέρα· ἡ ἄρα ἐν τῷ ΒΑΓ ἡμικυκλίῳ γωνία ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΑΓ ὀρθή ἐστιν. the angle BAC in the semi-circle BAC is a right-angle. ὀρθὴ δὲ ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΑΓ. (they are) each right-angles. ὅτι ἡ μὲν ἐν τῷ ΒΑΓ ἡμικυκλίῳ γωνία ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΑΓ ὀρθή ἐστιν.10]. 1. AC. Ζ F D ∆ C Γ A Α Ε E B Β ῎Εστω κύκλος ὁ ΑΒΓΔ. and (angle) ABC is less than a right-angle. καί ἐστιν αὐτόθεν φανερόν. ἡ δὲ τοῦ ἐλάττονος τμήματος γωνία ἡ περιεχομένη ὑπό [τε] τῆς ΑΔ[Γ] περιφερείας καὶ τῆς ΑΓ εὐθείας ἐλάττων ἐστὶν ὀρθῆς. ἡ δὲ ἐν τῷ ΑΔΓ ἐλάττονι τοῦ ἡμικυκλίου τμήματι γωνία ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΔΓ μείζων ἐστὶν ὀρθῆς.STOIQEIWN gþ. 3. ἐπεὶ γὰρ ἡ ὑπὸ τῶν ΒΑ. ΔΓ· λέγω. 1. And since BE is equal to EA. ἡ ἄρα ὑπὸ τῆς ΓΑ εὐθείας καὶ τῆς ΑΔ[Γ] περι- Let ABCD be a circle. πάλιν. and let BC be its diameter.

DC. ELEMENTS BOOK 3 φερείας περιεχομένη ἐλάττων ἐστὶν ὀρθῆς. at right-angles to EF [Prop. the (angle) contained by the circumference ABC and the straight-line AC is thus greater than a right-angle. καὶ ἐπεζεύχθωσαν αἱ ΑΔ. Proposition 32 ᾿Εὰν κύκλου ἐφάπτηταί τις εὐθεῖα. is less than a right-angle. and that in a greater segment (is) less than a right-angle. καὶ ἀπὸ τοῦ Β σημείου διήχθω τις εὐθεῖα εἰς τὸν ΑΒΓΔ κύκλον τέμνουσα αὐτὸν ἡ ΒΔ. and let some (other) straight-line BD have been drawn from point B into the circle ABCD. Thus. ἡ δὲ τοῦ ἐλάττονος τμήματος [γωνία] ἐλάττων ὀρθῆς· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. Again. that angle F BD is equal to the angle constructed in segment BAD.STOIQEIWN gþ. For since the (angle contained by) the two straight-lines BA and AC is a right-angle. I say that the angles BD makes with the tangent EF will be equal to the angles in the alternate segments of the circle. and the [angle] of a segment less (than a semicircle) is less than a right-angle. the angle in a semi-circle is a rightangle. ὅτι ἃς ποιεῖ γωνίας ἡ ΒΔ μετὰ τῆς ΕΖ ἐφαπτομένης. ἡ δὲ ἐν τῷ ἐλάττονι [τμήματι] μείζων ὀρθῆς· καὶ ἔπι ἡ μὲν τοῦ μείζονος τμήματος [γωνία] μείζων [ἐστὶν] ὀρθῆς. 1. cutting it (in two). That is to say. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. ῎Ηχθω γὰρ ἀπὸ τοῦ Β τῇ ΕΖ πρὸς ὀρθὰς ἡ ΒΑ. since the (angle contained by) the straight-lines AC and AF is a right-angle. the (angle) contained by the circumference AD[C] and the straight-line CA is thus less than a right-angle. And let the point C have been taken at random on the circumference BD. And. and that in a lesser [segment] (is) greater than a right-angle. by the circumference AD[C] and the straight-line AC. ἴσαι ἔσονται ταῖς ἐν τοῖς contact into the circle. A A D D C E C F E F B B Κύκλου γὰρ τοῦ ΑΒΓΔ ἐφαπτέσθω τις εὐθεῖα ἡ ΕΖ κατὰ τὸ Β σημεῖον. Καὶ ἐπεὶ κύκλου τοῦ ΑΒΓΔ ἐφάπτεταί τις εὐθεῖα ἡ ΕΖ For let some straight-line EF touch the circle ABCD at the point B. and some τὸν κύκλον διαχθῇ τις εὐθεῖα τέμνουσα τὸν κύκλον. And this is immediately apparent. in a circle. 100 . further. And let AD. those angles the (straight-line) makes with the tangent will be equal to the angles in the alternate segments of the circle. cutting the circle (in two).11]. ᾿Εν κύκλῳ ἄρα ἡ μὲν ἐν τῷ ἡμικυκλίῳ γωνία ὀρθή ἐστιν. For let BA have been drawn from B. and angle EBD is equal to the angle constructed in segment DCB. λέγω. the [angle] of a segment greater (than a semi-circle) [is] greater than a rightangle. καὶ εἰλήφθω ἐπὶ τῆς ΒΔ περιφερείας τυχὸν σημεῖον τὸ Γ. ἀπὸ δὲ τῆς ἁφῆς εἰς If some straight-line touches a circle. ἡ δὲ ἐν τῷ μείζονι τμήματι ἐλάττων ὀρθῆς. τουτέστιν. then ἐναλλὰξ τοῦ κύκλου τμήμασι γωνίαις. ΓΒ. ὅτι ἡ μὲν ὑπὸ ΖΒΔ γωνία ἴση ἐστὶ τῇ ἐν τῷ ΒΑΔ τμήματι συνισταμένῃ γωνίᾳ. from the point of ποιεῖ γωνίας πρὸς τῇ ἐφαπτομένῃ. ἴσας ἔσονται ταῖς ἐν τοῖς ἐναλλὰξ τμήμασι τοῦ κύκλου γωνίαις. lbþ. ΔΓ. ἡ δὲ ὑπὸ ΕΒΔ γωνία ἴση ἐστὶ τῇ ἐν τῷ ΔΓΒ τμήματι συνισταμένῃ γωνίᾳ. ἃς (other) straight-line is drawn across.

at right-angles to DA [Prop. of which BAD was shown (to be) equal to DBF . ἤχθω τῇ ΔΑ πρὸς ὀρθὰς ἡ ΑΕ. accepting an angle equal to C. ELEMENTS BOOK 3 κατὰ τὸ Β. Proposition 33 ᾿Επὶ τῆς δοθείσης εὐθείας γράψαι τμῆμα κύκλου δεχόμεTo draw a segment of a circle. And. ἀπὸ δὲ τῆς ἁφῆς εἰς τὸν κύκλον διαχθῇ τις εὐθεῖα τέμνουσα τὸν κύκλον. ΑΒΔ μιᾷ ὀρθῇ ἴσαι εἰσίν. So the [angle] C is surely either acute. ΑΒΔ. ἐπὶ τῆς ΒΑ ἄρα τὸ κέντρον ἐστὶ τοῦ ΑΒΓΔ κύκλου. or obtuse. ἡ ΒΑ ἄρα διάμετός ἐστι τοῦ ΑΒΓΔ κύκλου· ἡ ἄρα ὑπὸ ΑΔΒ γωνία ἐν ἡμικυκλίῳ οὖσα ὀρθή ἐστιν. BA is a diameter of circle ABCD. And DBF and DBE is also equal to two right-angles [Prop. at right-angles to the tangent. εἰσὶ δὲ καὶ αἱ ὑπὸ ΔΒΖ. ABF is equal to BAD and ABD. 1. on the given straight-line AB. and BA has been drawn from the point of contact. First of all. Thus. then those angles the (straight-line) makes with the tangent will be equal to the angles in the alternate segments of the circle. Thus. and some (other) straight-line is drawn across. 1. κοινὴ ἀφῃρήσθω ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΒΔ· λοιπὴ ἄρα ἡ ὑπὸ ΔΒΖ γωνία ἴση ἐστὶ τῇ ἐν τῷ ἐναλλὰξ τμήματι τοῦ κύκλου γωνίᾳ τῇ ὑπὸ ΒΑΔ. Let AE have been drawn. ΔΒΕ δυσὶν ὀρθαῖς ἴσαι· αἱ ἄρα ὑπὸ ΔΒΖ.11]. at the point A (on it) [Prop. ΒΓΔ ἴσαι εἰσίν. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. 101 D . Thus. Thus. angle ADB. 3. and CB have been joined.31]. ὧν ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΑΔ τῇ ὑπὸ ΔΒΖ ἐδείχθη ἴση· λοιπὴ ἄρα ἡ ὑπὸ ΔΒΕ τῇ ἐν τῷ ἐναλλὰξ τοῦ κύκλου τμήματι τῷ ΔΓΒ τῇ ὑπὸ ΔΓΒ γωνίᾳ ἐστὶν ἴση.32]. Let ABD have been subtracted from both. the remaining (angle) DBE is equal to the angle DCB in the alternate segment DCB of the circle. And since ABCD is a quadrilateral in a circle. ᾿Εὰν ἄρα κύκλου ἐφάπτηταί τις εὐθεῖα. καὶ ἀπὸ τῆς ἁφῆς ἦκται τῇ ἐφαπτομένῃ πρὸς ὀρθὰς ἡ ΒΑ. DBF and DBE is equal to BAD and BCD. and C the given rectilinear angle. is a right-angle [Prop.13]. on a given straight-line. So it is required to draw a segment of a circle. let it be acute. 1. καὶ τετμήσθω ἡ ΑΒ δίχα κατὰ τὸ Ζ. let (angle) BAD. ΔΒΕ ταῖς ὑπὸ ΒΑΔ. ἃς ποιεῖ γωνίας πρὸς τῇ ἐφαπτομένῃ. And ABF is also a right-angle. καὶ ἤχθω ἀπὸ τοῦ Ζ σημείου τῇ ΑΒ B E Let AB be the given straight-line. ἴσαι ἔσονται ταῖς ἐν τοῖς ἐναλλὰξ τοῦ κύκλου τμήμασι γωνίαις· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. ἡ δὲ δοθεῖσα γωνία εὐθύγραμμος ἡ πρὸς τῷ Γ· δεῖ δὴ ἐπὶ τῆς δοθείσης εὐθείας τῆς ΑΒ γράψαι τμῆμα κύκλου δεχόμενον γωνίαν ἴσην τῇ πρὸς τῷ Γ. Γ Α ∆ Α ∆ C A Γ Γ Α D ∆ C C A D A H Θ F Ζ Ζ Η Ε F G Η Ζ E G F B Β B Β Ε Β E Ε ῎Εστω ἡ δοθεῖσα εὐθεῖα ἡ ΑΒ. accepting an angle νον γωνίαν ἴσην τῇ δοθείσῃ γωνίᾳ εὐθυγράμμῳ. as in the first diagram (from the left). Thus. Thus. Thus. equal to angle C. Thus. 3. ῾Η δὴ πρὸς τῷ Γ [γωνία] ἤτοι ὀξεῖά ἐστιν ἢ ὀρθὴ ἢ ἀμβλεῖα· ἔστω πρότερον ὀξεῖα. λοιπαὶ ἄρα αἱ ὑπὸ ΒΑΔ.19]. ἐστὶ δὲ καὶ ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΒΖ ὀρθή· ἡ ἄρα ὑπὸ ΑΒΖ ἴση ἐστὶ ταῖς ὑπὸ ΒΑΔ. a right-angle. 1. the remaining angles (of triangle ADB) BAD and ABD are equal to one right-angle [Prop. if some straight-line touches a circle. καὶ ὡς ἐπὶ τῆς πρώτης καταγραφῆς συνεστάτω πρὸς τῇ ΑΒ εὐθείᾳ καὶ τῷ Α σημείῳ τῇ πρὸς τῷ Γ γωνίᾳ ἴση ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΑΔ· ὀξεῖα ἄρα ἐστὶ καὶ ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΑΔ. being in a semi-circle. BAD is also acute. the center of circle ABCD is thus on BA [Prop. And since some straight-line EF touches the circle ABCD at point B. the remaining angle DBF is equal to the angle BAD in the alternate segment of the circle. καὶ ἐπεὶ ἐν κύκλῳ τετράπλευρόν ἐστι τὸ ΑΒΓΔ. αἱ ἀπεναντίον αὐτοῦ γωνίαι δυσὶν ὀρθαῖς ἴσαι εἰσίν.23].STOIQEIWN gþ. lgþ. equal to a given rectilinear angle. (the sum of) its opposite angles is equal to two right-angles [Prop. cutting the circle (in two). 3.22]. Thus. have been constructed on the straight-line AB. from the point of contact into the circle.

Therefore. ΖΗ δύο ταῖς ΒΖ. 1. as in the third diagram (from the left). since some straight-line AD touches the circle ABE. 1. ἀλλ᾿ ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΑΔ γωνία τῇ πρὸς τῷ Γ ἴση ἐστίν.4]. is also a right-angle [Prop. ἐπεὶ οὖν ἀπ᾿ ἄκρας τῆς ΑΕ διαμέτρου ἀπὸ τοῦ Α τῇ ΑΕ πρὸς ὀρθάς ἐστιν ἡ ΑΔ. 3. ᾿Επὶ τῆς ἄρα δοθείσης εὐθείας τῆς ΑΒ γέγραπται τμῆμα κύκλου τὸ ΑΘΒ δεχόμενον γωνίαν ἴσην τῇ πρὸς τῷ Γ· ὅπερ ἔδει ποιῆσαι. ὁ ἄρα κέντρῳ μὲν τῷ Η διαστήματι δὲ τῷ ΗΑ κύκλος γραφόμενος ἥξει καὶ διὰ τοῦ Β. And let (angle) BAD.]. καὶ τῇ ΑΔ πρὸς ὀρθὰς ἤχθω ἡ ΑΕ. And let EB have been joined. And let GB have been joined. and F G (is) common. ἡ ΑΔ ἄρα ἐφάπτεται τοῦ ΑΕΒ κύκλου. DAB is equal to C. Καὶ ἐπεὶ πάλιν ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ΑΖ τῇ ΖΒ. F G (respectively). καὶ ἀπὸ τῆς κατὰ τὸ Α ἐπαφῆς διῆκται ἡ ΑΒ· ἡ ἄρα ὑπὸ ΒΑΔ γωνία ἴση ἐστὶ τῇ ἐν τῷ ἐναλλὰξ τοῦ κύκλου τμήματι τῷ ΑΘΒ συνισταμένῃ γωνίᾳ.23]. Thus.11]. and radius either F A or F B. καὶ τετμήσθω ἡ ΑΒ δίχα κατὰ τὸ Ζ. at right-angles to AB [Prop. as in the second diagram (from the left). ὡς ἔχει ἐπὶ τῆς τρίτης καταγραφῆς.10]. equal to the rightangle C [Prop. ELEMENTS BOOK 3 πρὸς ὀρθὰς ἡ ΖΗ. For (the latter angle). 1. καὶ ἐπεζεύχθω ἡ ΗΒ. 3. Thus.31]. 1. has again been drawn on AB. the straight-line AD touches the circle ABE.10]. accepting an angle equal to the right-[angle] C. And let AE have been drawn.STOIQEIWN gþ. Γέγραπται ἄρα πάλιν ἐπὶ τῆς ΑΒ τμῆμα κύκλου τὸ ΑΕΒ δεχόμενον γωνίαν ἴσην τῇ πρὸς τῷ Γ. (namely. the two (straight-lines) AF . angle C is also equal to AEB. 3. καὶ ἀπὸ τῆς κατὰ τὸ Α ἁφῆς εἰς τὸν ΑΒΕ κύκλον διῆκταί τις εὐθεῖα ἡ ΑΒ. and radius GA. ΖΗ ἴσαι εἰσίν· καὶ γωνία ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΖΗ γωνίᾳ τῇ ὑπὸ ΒΖΗ ἴση· βάσις ἄρα ἡ ΑΗ βάσει τῇ ΒΗ ἴση ἐστίν· ὁ ἄρα κέντρῳ μὲν τῷ Η διαστήματι δὲ τῷ ΗΑ κύκλος γραφόμενος ἥξει καὶ διὰ τοῦ Β. διαστήματι δὲ ὁποτέρῳ τῶν ΖΑ. at right-angles to AD [Prop. And angle AF G (is) equal to [angle] BF G. κοινὴ δὲ ἡ ΖΗ. BAD is also equal to C. Let the (angle) BAD [again] have been constructed. Thus. the (angle) in (segment) AEB is also equal to C. F G are equal to the two (straight-lines) BF . Καὶ ἐπεὶ ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ΑΖ τῇ ΖΒ. And so let C be a right-angle. ἀλλὰ καὶ ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΑΔ τῇ πρὸς τῷ Γ ἴση ἐστίν. accepting an angle equal to C. the circle drawn with center G. ΖΗ ἴσαι εἰσίν· καὶ γωνία ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΖΗ [γωνίᾳ] τῇ ὑπὸ ΒΖΗ ἴση· βάσις ἄρα ἡ ΑΗ βάσει τῇ ΒΗ ἴση ἐστίν. καὶ τετμήσθω πάλιν ἡ ΑΒ δίχα κατὰ τὸ Ζ. ἡ ἄρα ὑπὸ ΔΑΒ γωνία ἴση ἐστὶ τῇ ἐν τῷ ἐναλλὰξ τοῦ κύκλου τμήματι γωνίᾳ τῇ ὑπὸ ΑΕΒ. And since AF is equal to F B. Let it have been drawn. ἡ ΑΔ ἄρα ἐφάπτεται τοῦ ΑΒΕ κύκλου· ἐπεὶ οὖν κύκλου τοῦ ΑΒΕ ἐφάπτεταί τις εὐθεῖα ἡ ΑΔ. ᾿Αλλὰ δὴ ἡ πρὸς τῷ Γ ἀμβλεῖα ἔστω· καὶ συνεστάτω αὐτῇ ἴση πρὸς τῇ ΑΒ εὐθείᾳ καὶ τῷ Α σημείῳ ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΑΔ. ὡς ἔχει ἐπὶ τῆς δευτέρας καταγραφῆς. Thus. will also go through B (as well as A). being in a semi-circle. καὶ ἡ ἐν τῷ ΑΕΒ ἄρα ἴση ἐστὶ τῇ πρὸς τῷ Γ. καὶ τῇ ΑΒ πρὸς ὀρθὰς ἤχθω ἡ ΖΗ.16 corr.32].10]. and let it be (denoted) ABE. 1. γεγράφθω καὶ ἔστω ὁ ΑΒΕ. a segment AEB of a circle. the base AG is 102 .11]. at the point A (on it) [Prop. at right-angles to AE. the two (straight-lines) AF . ΖΒ. And let it again be necessary to draw a segment of a circle on AB. δύο δὴ αἱ ΑΖ. κύκλος γεγράφθω ὁ ΑΕΒ. on account of the angle at A being a right-angle [Prop. Thus. καὶ ἐπεζεύχθω ἡ ΗΒ. a segment AEB of a circle. Thus. But. And angle AF G (is) equal to angle BF G. and some (other) straight-line AB has been drawn across from the point of contact A into circle ABE. F G are equal to the two (straight-lines) BF . And angle BAD is equal to the angle in segment AEB. 1. at right-angles to AB [Prop. ᾿Αλλὰ δὴ ὀρθὴ ἔστω ἡ πρὸς τῷ Γ· καὶ δέον πάλιν ἔστω ἐπὶ τῆς ΑΒ γράψαι τμῆμα κύκλου δεχόμενον γωνίαν ἴσην τῇ πρὸς τῷ Γ ὀρθῇ [γωνίᾳ]. Thus. 3. 1. 1. And let AB have again been cut in half at F [Prop. And let F G have been drawn from point F . have been constructed on the straight-line AB. equal to (C). and F G (is) common. And so let (angle) C be obtuse. And let AB have been cut in half at F [Prop. But. δύο δὴ αἱ ΑΖ. καὶ ἐπεὶ τῇ ΑΕ διαμέτρῳ ἀπ᾿ ἄκρας πρὸς ὀρθάς ἐστιν ἡ ΑΔ. καὶ ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΑΔ γωνία τῇ ἐν τῷ ΑΕΒ τμήματι· ὀρθὴ γὰρ καὶ αὐτὴ ἐν ἡμικυκλίῳ οὖσα. And let the circle AEB have been drawn with center F .]. And again. συνεστάτω [πάλιν] τῇ πρὸς τῷ Γ ὀρθῇ γωνίᾳ ἴση ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΑΔ. And let GB have been joined. 1. since AD is at the extremity of diameter AE. ἐρχέσθω ὡς ὁ ΑΕΒ. Therefore. καὶ κοινὴ ἡ ΖΗ. the base AG is equal to the base BG [Prop.23]. the (straight-line) AD thus touches the circle ABE [Prop. angle DAB is thus equal to the angle AEB in the alternate segment of the circle [Prop. Thus. accepting the angle AEB (which is) equal to the given (angle) C. ἀλλ᾿ ἡ ὑπὸ ΔΑΒ τῇ πρὸς τῷ Γ ἐστιν ἴση· καὶ ἡ πρὸς τῷ Γ ἄρα γωνία ἴση ἐστὶ τῇ ὑπὸ ΑΕΒ. καὶ ἡ ἐν τῷ ΑΘΒ ἄρα τμήματι γωνία ἴση ἐστὶ τῇ πρὸς τῷ Γ. καὶ ἐπεζεύχθω ἡ ΕΒ. And let AB have been cut in half at F [Prop.10]. ᾿Επὶ τῆς δοθείσης ἄρα εὐθείας τῆς ΑΒ τμῆμα κύκλου γέγραπται τὸ ΑΕΒ δεχόμενον γωνίαν τὴν ὑπὸ ΑΕΒ ἴσην τῇ δοθείσῃ τῇ πρὸς τῷ Γ. ΖΗ δύο ταῖς ΒΖ. has been drawn on the given straight-line AB.16 corr. And let F G have been drawn. point) A. ᾿Εφάπτεται ἄρα ἡ ΑΔ εὐθεῖα τοῦ ΑΒΕ κύκλου διὰ τὸ ὀρθὴν εἶναι τὴν πρὸς τῷ Α γωνίαν. καὶ κέντρῳ τῷ Ζ. F G (respectively). since AF is equal to F B.

Γ Ζ F Β B C ∆ Ε D Α E ῎Εστω ὁ δοθεὶς κύκλος ὁ ΑΒΓ. καὶ συνεστάτω πρὸς τῇ ΖΒ εὐθείᾳ καὶ τῷ πρὸς αὐτῇ σημείῳ τῷ Β τῇ πρὸς τῷ Δ γωνίᾳ ἴση ἡ ὑπὸ ΖΒΓ. has been drawn on the given straight-line AB. by finding the center of ABC [Prop. So it is required to cut off a segment. and radius GA. accepting an angle equal to a γωνίαν ἴσην τῇ δοθείσῃ γωνίᾳ εὐθυγράμμῳ. Presumably. the angle in segment AHB is also equal to C. will also go through B (as well as A). ἡ δὲ δοθεῖσα γωνία εὐθύγραμμος ἡ πρὸς τῷ Δ· δεῖ δὴ ἀπὸ τοῦ ΑΒΓ κύκλου τμῆμα ἀφελεῖν δεχόμενον γωνίαν ἴσην τῇ δοθείσῃ γωνίᾳ εὐθυγράμμῳ τῇ πρὸς τῷ Δ. a segment AHB of a circle. Let it go like AEB (in the third diagram from the left). Therefore. † A Let ABC be the given circle. from a given circle.16 corr. Thus. 1. ἡ ὑπὸ ΖΒΓ ἄρα γωνία ἴση ἐστὶ τῇ ἐν τῷ ΒΑΓ ἐναλλὰξ τμήματι συνισταμένῃ γωνίᾳ. given rectilinear angle. and BC has been drawn across (the circle) from the point of contact B. (Which is) the very thing it was required to do. being drawn. since some straight-line EF touches the circle ABC. But. and D the given rectilinear angle. ἀλλ᾿ ἡ ὑπὸ ΖΒΓ τῇ πρὸς τῷ Δ ἐστιν ἴση· καὶ ἡ ἐν τῷ ΒΑΓ ἄρα τμήματι ἴση ἐστὶ τῇ πρὸς τῷ Δ [γωνίᾳ]. Thus. from the given circle ABC. the (angle) in the segment BAC is also equal to [angle] D. and then drawing EF through 103 . And AB has been drawn across (the circle) from the point of contact A. But. accepting an angle equal to the given rectilinear angle D. have been constructed on the straight-line F B. ELEMENTS BOOK 3 equal to the base BG [Prop. at the point B on it [Prop. And since AD is at right-angles to the diameter AE. ᾿Απὸ τοῦ δοθέντος ἄρα κύκλου τοῦ ΑΒΓ τμῆμα ἀφῄρηται τὸ ΒΑΓ δεχόμενον γωνίαν ἴσην τῇ δοθείσῃ γωνίᾳ εὐθυγράμμῳ τῇ πρὸς τῷ Δ· ὅπερ ἔδει ποιῆσαι. a circle of center G. 3. ῎Ηχθω τοῦ ΑΒΓ ἐφαπτομένη ἡ ΕΖ κατὰ τὸ Β σημεῖον. accepting an angle equal to the given rectilinear angle D. (Which is) the very thing it was required to do. 3. Thus.]. angle BAD is equal to C. Thus. accepting an angle equal to C.23]. angle F BC is thus equal to the angle constructed in the alternate segment BAC [Prop.4]. Let EF have been drawn touching ABC at point B. καὶ ἀπὸ τῆς κατὰ τὸ Β ἐπαφῆς διῆκται ἡ ΒΓ. ldþ.STOIQEIWN gþ. equal to angle D. at its extremity. Proposition 34 ᾿Απὸ τοῦ δοθέντος κύκλου τμῆμα ἀφελεῖν δεχόμενον To cut off a segment.1]. has been cut off from the given circle ABC. drawing a straight-line between the center and point B. 1. Thus. ᾿Επεὶ οὖν κύκλου τοῦ ΑΒΓ ἐφάπτεταί τις εὐθεῖα ἡ ΕΖ. 1. angle BAD is equal to the angle constructed in the alternate segment AHB of the circle [Prop. F BC is equal to D. Thus.32].32]. 3. AD thus touches circle AEB [Prop. the segment BAC.† And let (angle) F BC.

for the same (reasons). if AC and BD are through the center (as in the first diagram from the left). ἴση δὲ ἡ ΖΓ τῇ ΖΒ· τὸ ἄρα ὑπὸ τῶν ΑΕ. Thus.12]. ΗΖ. Εἰ μὲν οὖν αἱ ΑΓ. ΕΓ μετὰ τοῦ ἀπὸ τῆς ΖΕ ἴσον ἐστὶ τῷ ἀπὸ τῆς ΖΓ.5]. 3. Μὴ ἔστωσαν δὴ αἱ ΑΓ. ᾿Εὰν ἄρα ἐν κύκλῳ εὐθεῖαι δύο τέμνωσιν ἀλλήλας. So let AC and DB not be though the center (as in the second diagram from the left). ΖΕ. And let F G and F H have been drawn from F . cuts at right-angles some (other) straight-line. ΕΒ μετὰ τοῦ ἀπὸ τῆς ΖΕ ἰσον ἐστὶ τῷ ἀπὸ τῆς ΖΒ. and EB being equal. ΔΕ. ΕΓ περιεχόμενον ὀρθογώνιον μετὰ τοῦ ἀπὸ τῆς ΕΗ τετραγώνου ἴσον ἐστὶ τῷ ἀπὸ τῆς ΗΓ· [κοινὸν] προσκείσθω τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς ΗΖ· τὸ ἄρα ὑπὸ τῶν ΑΕ. ΕΓ μετὰ τοῦ ἀπὸ τῆς ΖΕ ἴσον ἐστὶ τῷ ὑπὸ τῶν ΔΕ. ΕΓ μετὰ τοῦ ἀπὸ τῆς ΖΕ ἴσον τῷ ἀπὸ τῆς ΖΒ· τὸ ἄρα ὑπὸ τῶν ΑΕ.11]. I say that the rectangle contained by AE and EC is equal to the rectangle contained by DE and EB. ἀλλὰ τοῖς μὲν ἀπὸ τῶν ΕΗ. in the circle ABCD. ΕΒ μετὰ τοῦ ἀπὸ τῆς ΖΕ. τὸ ὑπὸ τῶν τῆς μιᾶς τμημάτων περιεχόμενον ὀρθογώνιον ἴσον B C For let the two straight-lines AC and BD. AC. the rectangle contained by AE and EC is also equal to the rectangle contained by DE and EB. In fact. not through the center. ΕΒ καὶ τὸ ὑπὸ τῶν ΑΕ.STOIQEIWN gþ. the (rectangle contained) by AE and EC plus the (square) on F E is equal to the (square) on F B. the rectangle contained by the pieces of the other. So. καὶ ἐπεζεύχθωσαν αἱ ΖΒ. Therefore. εἰς δὲ ἄνισα κατὰ τὸ Ε. καὶ εἰλήφθω τὸ κέντρον τοῦ ΑΒΓΔ. ὅτι τὸ ὑπὸ τῶν ΑΕ. so that E is the center of circle ABCD. ΕΒ περιεχομένῳ ὀρθογωνίῳ. 1. ὅτι ἴσων οὐσῶν τῶν ΑΕ. DE. and the (square) on F C is equal to the (sum of the squares) on CG and GF [Prop. and let it be (at) F . 3. ΕΓ περιεχόμενον ὀρθογώνιον ἴσον ἐστὶ τῷ ὑπὸ τῶν ΔΕ. EC. ΕΓ περιεχόμενον ὀρθογώνιον ἴσον ἐστὶ τῷ ὑπὸ τῶν ΔΕ. ΕΓ μετὰ τοῦ ἀπὸ τῆς ΕΖ ἴσον ἐστὶ τῷ ἀπὸ τῆς ΖΒ. 1. at right-angles to the aforementioned straight-line [Prop.1]. ΕΓ περιεχόμενον ὀρθογώνιον ἴσον ἐστὶ τῷ ὑπὸ τῶν ΔΕ. cut one another at point E. ΕΒ περιεχομένῳ ὀρθογωνίῳ. 1. ΒΔ τεμνέτωσαν ἀλλήλας κατὰ τὸ Ε σημεῖον· λέγω. And F C (is) equal to F B. perpendicular to the straight-lines AC and DB (respectively) [Prop. the (rectangle contained) by AE and EC plus the (sum of the squares) on GE and GF is equal to the (sum of the squares) on CG and GF .3]. But. ΔΒ διὰ τοῦ κέντρου. τὸ ὑπὸ If two straight-lines in a circle cut one another then τῶν τῆς μιᾶς τμημάτων περιεχόμενον ὀρθογώνιον ἴσον ἐστὶ the rectangle contained by the pieces of one is equal to τῷ ὑπὸ τῶν τῆς ἑτέρας τμημάτων περιεχομένῳ ὀρθογωνίῳ. since the straightline AC is cut equally at G. Thus. ΕΓ μετὰ τῶν ἀπὸ τῶν ΗΕ. καὶ δίχα αὐτὴν τέμνει· ἴση ἄρα ἡ ΑΗ τῇ ΗΓ. ΗΖ ἴσον ἐστὶ τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς ΖΕ. GF . the rectangle contained by AE and EC plus the square on EG is thus equal to the (square) on GC [Prop. F C. ΒΔ διὰ τοῦ κέντρου εἰσὶν ὥστε τὸ Ε κέντρον εἶναι τοῦ ΑΒΓΔ κύκλου. then (it is) clear that. τὸ ἄρα ὑπὸ τῶν ΑΕ.47]. ἐδείχθη δὲ καὶ τὸ ὑπὸ τῶν ΑΕ. ἐπεὶ οὖν εὐθεῖα ἡ ΑΓ τέτμηται εἰς μὲν ἴσα κατὰ τὸ Η. and let the center of ABCD have been found [Prop. τοὶς δὲ ἀπὸ τῶν ΓΗ. Thus. ΗΖ ἴσον ἐστὶ τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς ΖΓ· τὸ ἄρα ὑπὸ τῶν ΑΕ. the (rectangle contained) by AE and EC plus the (square) on F E is equal to the (square) on F C. κοινὸν ἀφῇρήσθω τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς ΖΕ· λοιπὸν ἄρα τὸ ὑπὸ τῶν ΑΕ. Let the (square) on GF have been added [to both]. and F E have been joined. 2. ΖΘ. And since some straight-line. καὶ ἀπὸ τοῦ Ζ ἐπὶ τὰς ΑΓ. ΗΖ ἴσον ἐστὶ τοῖς ἀπὸ τῶν ΓΗ. φανερόν. through the center. ΔΒ εὐθείας κάθετοι ἤχθωσαν αἱ ΖΗ. the (square) on F E is equal to the (sum of the squares) on EG and GF [Prop. ΕΒ περιεχομένῳ ὀρθογωνίῳ. And let F B. διὰ τὰ αὐτὰ δὴ καὶ τὸ ὑπὸ τῶν ΔΕ. Thus. AG (is) equal to GC. Καὶ ἐπεὶ εὐθεῖά τις διὰ τοῦ κέντρου ἡ ΗΖ εὐθεῖάν τινα μὴ διὰ τοῦ κέντρου τὴν ΑΓ πρὸς ὀρθὰς τέμνει. 1. ΖΓ. and unequally at E.47]. then it also cuts it in half [Prop. leþ. AE. ΕΓ. καὶ ἔστω τὸ Ζ. Proposition 35 ᾿Εὰν ἐν κύκλῳ δύο εὐθεῖαι τέμνωσιν ἀλλήλας. Α A D ∆ Α Β Ε A Ζ ∆ B E Θ Η F D E Ε Γ Β H G C Γ ᾿Εν γὰρ κύκλῳ τῷ ΑΒΓΔ δύο εὐθεῖαι αἱ ΑΓ. the (rectangle contained) by DE and EB plus the (square) on F E is equal 104 . ELEMENTS BOOK 3 point B.

If some point is taken outside a circle. Thus. radiate from D towards circle ABC. πρόσκειται δὲ αὐτῇ ἡ ΓΔ. ΒΔ. and two straight-lines radiate from it towards the circle. and let F be the center of circle ABC. ῾Η ἄρα [Δ]ΓΑ ἤτοι διὰ τοῦ κέντρου ἐστὶν ἢ οὔ. καὶ ἔστω τὸ Ζ κέντρον τοῦ ΑΒΓ κύκλου. and (one) of them cuts the circle. And F C (is) equal to F B. [D]CA is surely either through the center. 3. and let BD touch (it). ΒΔ· τὸ ἄρα ὑπὸ τῶν ΑΔ. Let the (square) on F E have been taken from both. will be equal to the square on the tangent (line). the (rectangle contained) by AE and EC plus the (square) on F E is equal to the (rectangle contained) by DE and EB plus the (square) on F E.47].STOIQEIWN gþ. καὶ ἐπεζεύχθω ἡ ΖΒ· ὀρθὴ ἄρα ἐστὶν ἡ ὑπὸ ΖΒΔ. καὶ ἐπεὶ εὐθεῖα ἡ ΑΓ δίχα τέτμηται κατὰ τὸ Ζ. the remaining rectangle contained by AE and EC is equal to the rectangle contained by DE and EB. Thus. and let two straight-lines.6]. And the (rectangle contained) by AE and EC plus the (square) on F E was also shown (to be) equal to the (square) on F B. καὶ ἀπ᾿ αὐτοῦ πρὸς τὸν κύκλον προσπίπτωσι δύο εὐθεῖαι. Α Β A Ε Ζ ∆ E F Α Γ Γ B A C Ζ C Β ∆ D F B D Κύκλου γὰρ τοῦ ΑΒΓ εἰλήφθω τι σημεῖον ἐκτὸς τὸ Δ. Proposition 36 ᾿Εὰν κύκλου ληφθῇ τι σημεῖον ἐκτός. ἔστω πρότερον διὰ τοῦ κέντρου. Thus. the (rectangle contained) by AD and DC plus the (square) on F C is equal to the (square) on F D [Prop. ΔΒ· καὶ ἡ μὲν ΔΓΑ τεμνέτω τὸν ΑΒΓ κύκλον. lþ. 1. and let F B have been joined. Thus. τὸ ἄρα ὑπὸ τῶν ΑΔ. to the (square) on F B. or not. ΔΓ μετὰ τοῦ ἀπὸ τῆς ΖΒ ἴσον ἐστὶ τῷ ἀπὸ τὴς ΖΔ. and the (other) touches (it). if two straight-lines in a circle cut one another then the rectangle contained by the pieces of one is equal to the rectangle contained by the pieces of the other. ἡ δὲ ΒΔ ἐφαπτέσθω· λέγω. Thus. ἡ δὲ ἐφάπτηται. ὅτι τὸ ὑπὸ τῶν ΑΔ. then the (rectangle contained) by the whole (straight-line) cutting (the circle). ΔΓ μετὰ τοῦ ἀπὸ τῆς ΖΓ ἴσον ἐστὶ τῷ ἀπὸ τῆς ΖΔ. Let it first of all be through the center. ἴση δὲ ἡ ΖΓ τῇ ΖΒ· τὸ ἄρα ὑπὸ τῶν ΑΔ. 2. ἔσται τὸ ὑπὸ ὅλης τῆς τεμνούσης καὶ τῆς ἐκτὸς ἀπολαμβανομένης μεταξὺ τοῦ τε σημείου καὶ τῆς κυρτῆς περιφερείας ἴσον τῷ ἀπὸ τῆς ἐφαπτομένης τετραγώνῳ. let CD have been added to it. And the (square) on F D is equal to the (sum of the squares) on F B and BD [Prop. καὶ ἀπὸ τοῦ Δ πρὸς τὸν ΑΒΓ κύκλον προσπιπτέτωσαν δύο εὐθεῖαι αἱ ΔΓ[Α].18]. καὶ ἡ μὲν αὐτῶν τέμνῃ τὸν κύκλον. I say that the rectangle contained by AD and DC is equal to the square on DB. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. ΔΓ περιεχόμενον ὀρθογώνιον ἴσον ἐστὶ τῷ ἀπὸ τῆς ΔΒ τετραγώνῳ. ΔΓ μετὰ τοῦ ἀπὸ τῆς ΖΒ ἴσον ἐστὶ τοῖς ἀπὸ τῶν ΖΒ. (angle) F BD is a right-angle [Prop. DC[A] and DB. And let DCA cut circle ABC. the (rectangle contained) by AD 105 . Thus. κοινὸν ἀφῃρήσθω τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς ΖΒ· λοιπὸν ἄρα τὸ ὑπὸ τῶν ΑΔ. and the (part of it) cut off outside (the circle). And since straight-line AC is cut in half at F . Thus. ELEMENTS BOOK 3 ἐστὶ τῷ ὑπὸ τῶν τῆς ἑτέρας τμημάτων περιεχομένῳ ὀρθογωνίῳ· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. τῷ δὲ ἀπὸ τῆς ΖΔ ἴσα ἐστὶ τὰ ἀπὸ τῶν ΖΒ. ΔΓ ἴσον ἐστὶ τῷ ἀπὸ τῆς ΔΒ For let some point D have been taken outside circle ABC. the (rectangle contained) by AD and DC plus the (square) on F B is equal to the (square) on F D. between the point and the convex circumference.

the (rectangle contained) by AD and DC plus the (square) on EB is equal to the (sum of the squares) on EB and BD. then the (rectangle contained) by the whole (straight-line) cutting (the circle). ΕΓ. Proposition 37 ᾿Εὰν κύκλου ληφθῇ τι σημεῖον ἐκτός. Thus. And let EB. cuts some (other) straight-line. καὶ ἀπὸ τοῦ Ε ἐπὶ τὴν ΑΓ κάθετος ἤχθω ἡ ΕΖ. ἡ δὲ προσπίπτῃ. through the center. ἡ μὲν αὐτῶν τέμνῃ τὸν κύκλον. And EC (is) equal to EB. ΔΓ ἴσον ἐστὶ τῷ ἀπὸ τῆς ΔΒ. For [angle] EF C [is] a right-angle [Prop. καὶ straight-lines radiate from the point towards the circle. and two straight-lines radiate from it towards the circle. 3. AC.47].18]. and (the other) touches (it). the (rectangle contained) by AD and DC plus the (square) on F C is equal to the (square) on F D [Prop. lzþ. ΖΕ ἴσον ἐστὶ τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς ΕΔ· τὸ ἄρα ὑπὸ τῶν ΑΔ.6]. καὶ δίχα αὐτὴν τέμνει· ἡ ΑΖ ἄρα τῇ ΖΓ ἐστιν ἴση. and two σημείου πρὸς τὸν κύκλον προσπίπτωσι δύο εὐθεῖαι. the (rectangle contained) by AD and DC plus the (square) on EB is equal to the (square) on ED. ΖΕ ἴσον ἐστὶ τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς ΕΓ· ὀρθὴ γὰρ [ἐστιν] ἡ ὑπὸ ΕΖΓ [γωνία]· τοῖς δὲ ἀπὸ τῶν ΔΖ. Thus. ΖΕ ἴσον ἐστὶ τοῖς ἀπὸ τῶν ΖΔ. Thus. Thus.3]. (Angle) EBD (is) thus a right-angle [Prop. And the (sum of the squares) on EB and BD is equal to the (square) on ED. 1. and (one) of them cuts the circle. EF . and let the center E have been found. τοῖς δὲ ἀπὸ τῶν ΓΖ. the (rectangle contained) by AD and DC plus the (square) on EC is equal to the (square) on ED. and the (rectangle contained) by the whole (straight- 106 . ΔΓ μετὰ τῶν ἀπὸ τῶν ΓΖ. ΔΓ μετὰ τοῦ ἀπὸ τῆς ΖΓ ἴσον ἐστὶ τῷ ἀπὸ τῆς ΖΔ. ΔΓ μετὰ τοῦ ἀπὸ τῆς ΕΒ ἴσον ἐστὶ τοῖς ἀπὸ τῶν ΕΒ. And since some straight-line. Thus. ᾿Εὰν ἄρα κύκλου ληφθῇ τι σημεῖον ἐκτός. ΔΓ μετὰ τοῦ ἀπὸ τῆς ΕΒ ἴσον ἐστὶ τῷ ἄπὸ τῆς ΕΔ. at right-angles. and the (other) meets ὑπὸ [τῆς] ὅλης τῆς τεμνούσης καὶ τῆς ἐκτὸς ἀπολαμβα. Thus. the remaining (rectangle contained) by AD and DC is equal to the (square) on BD. let CD have been added to it. For EBD (is) a right-angle [Prop. it also cuts it in half [Prop. τῷ δὲ ἀπὸ τῆς ΕΔ ἴσα ἐστὶ τὰ ἀπὸ τῶν ΕΒ. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. between the point and the convex circumference. not through the center. καὶ εἰλήφθω τὸ κέντρον τὸ Ε. καὶ ἐπεζεύχθωσαν αἱ ΕΒ. πρόσκειται δὲ αὐτῇ ἡ ΓΔ. ἀπὸ δὲ τοῦ If some point is taken outside a circle.(it). Thus. ΕΔ· ὀρθὴ ἄρα ἐστὶν ἡ ὑπὸ ΕΒΔ. And since the straight-line AC is cut in half at point F . Thus. Let the (square) on F E have been added to both. καὶ ἀπ᾿ αὐτοῦ πρὸς τὸν κύκλον προσπίπτωσι δύο εὐθεῖαι. ᾿Αλλὰ δὴ ἡ ΔΓΑ μὴ ἔστω διὰ τοῦ κέντρου τοῦ ΑΒΓ κύκλου. and ED have been joined. Thus. will be equal to the square on the tangent (line). ΖΕ. 1. the (rectangle contained) by AD and DC plus the (sum of the squares) on CF and F E is equal to the (sum of the squares) on F D and F E. ΔΓ μετὰ τοῦ ἀπὸ τῆς ΕΓ ἴσον ἐστὶ τῷ ἀπὸ τῆς ΕΔ. And the (square) on ED is equal to the (sum of the squares) on DF and F E [Prop. κοινὸν προσκείσθω τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς ΖΕ· τὸ ἄρα ὑπὸ τῶν ΑΔ. κοινὸν ἀφῃρήσθω τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς ΕΒ· λοιπὸν ἄρα τὸ ὑπὸ τῶν ΑΔ.STOIQEIWN gþ. ΒΔ· ὀρθὴ γὰρ ἡ ὑπὸ ΕΒΔ γωνία· τὸ ἄρα ὑπὸ τῶν ΑΔ. Let the (square) on EB have been subtracted from both. if some point is taken outside a circle. But the (square) on EC is equal to the (sum of the squares) on CF and F E. AF is equal to F C. the remaining (rectangle contained) by AD and DC is equal to the (square) on the tangent DB. and let EF have been drawn from E.47]. καὶ ἐπεὶ εὐθεῖά τις διὰ τοῦ κέντρου ἡ ΕΖ εὐθεῖάν τινα μὴ διὰ τοῦ κέντρου τὴν ΑΓ πρὸς ὀρθὰς τέμνει. καὶ ἡ μὲν αὐτῶν τέμνῃ τὸν κύκλον. EC. 2. ᾖ δὲ τὸ and one of them cuts the circle. τὸ ἄρα ὑπὸ τῶν ΑΔ. and DC plus the (square) on F B is equal to the (sum of the squares) on F B and BD.47]. And so let DCA not be through the center of circle ABC. ἔσται τὸ ὑπὸ ὅλης τῆς τεμνούσης καὶ τῆς ἐκτὸς ἀπολαμβανομένης μεταξὺ τοῦ τε σημείου καὶ τῆς κυρτῆς περιφερείας ἴσον τῷ ἀπὸ τῆς ἐφαπτομένης τετραγώνῳ· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. καὶ ἐπεὶ εὐθεῖα ἡ ΑΓ τέτμηται δίχα κατὰ τὸ Ζ σημεῖον. Let the (square) on F B have been subtracted from both. ELEMENTS BOOK 3 ἐφαπτομένης. perpendicular to AC [Prop. ἴση δὲ ἡ ΕΓ τῂ ΕΒ· τὸ ἄρα ὑπὸ τῶν ΑΔ.12]. 1. 1. ἡ δὲ ἐφάπτηται. and the (part of it) cut off outside (the circle). ΒΔ. 3.

ΕΖ δύο ταῖς ΔΒ. I say that DB touches circle ABC. ΔΓ ἴσον τῷ ἀπὸ τῆς ΔΒ· τὸ ἄρα ἀπὸ τῆς ΔΕ ἴσον ἐστὶ τῷ ἀπὸ τῆς ΔΒ· ἴση ἄρα ἡ ΔΕ τῇ ΔΒ. is equal to the (square) on the (straight-line) meeting (the circle).17]. And a (straight-line) drawn at right-angles to a diameter of a circle. 3. 3. the (rectangle contained) by AD and DC is thus equal to the (square) on DE [Prop. Thus. (Which is) the very thing it 107 . ἐστὶ δὲ καὶ ἡ ΖΕ τῇ ΖΒ ἴση· δύο δὴ αἱ ΔΕ. DCA and DB. between the point and the convex cirτοῦ κύκλου. is common. and F D have been joined. and the (part of it) cut off outἴσον τῷ ἀπὸ τῆς προσπιπτούσης. καὶ ἀπὸ τοῦ Δ πρὸς τὸν ΑΒΓ κύκλον προσπιπτέτωσαν δύο εὐθεῖαι αἱ ΔΓΑ. ΖΔ. ELEMENTS BOOK 3 νομένης μεταξὺ τοῦ τε σημείου καὶ τῆς κυρτῆς περιφερείας line) cutting (the circle). Thus. and the (other) meets (it). ᾿Εὰν ἄρα κύκλου ληφθῇ τι σημεῖον ἐκτός. even if the center happens to be on AC. καὶ ἡ μὲν ΔΓΑ τεμνέτω τὸν κύκλον. 3. if some point is taken outside a circle. ἀπὸ δὲ τοῦ σημείου πρὸς τὸν κύκλον προσπίπτωσι δύο εὐθεῖαι. ἡ προσπίπτουσα ἐφάψεται side (the circle). 3. κἂν τὸ κέντρον ἐπὶ τῆς ΑΓ τυγχάνῃ. DBF (is) also a right-angle.16 corr. ἔστω δὲ τὸ ὑπὸ τῶν ΑΔ. ΖΒ. καὶ ἐπεζεύχθωσαν αἱ ΖΕ. EF are equal to the two (straight-lines) DB. and two straight-lines radiate from the point towards the circle. cumference.36]. ῎Ηχθω γὰρ τοῦ ΑΒΓ ἐφαπτομένη ἡ ΔΕ. and let two straight-lines. ὀρθὴ δὲ ἡ ὑπὸ ΔΕΖ· ὀρθὴ ἄρα καὶ ἡ ὑπὸ ΔΒΖ. τὸ ἄρα ὑπὸ τῶν ΑΔ. then the (straight-line) meeting (the circle) will touch the circle. A For let some point D have been taken outside circle ABC. (the same thing) can be shown. ΔΓ ἴσον τῷ ἀπὸ τῆς ΔΒ. And let the (rectangle contained) by AD and DC be equal to the (square) on DB. 1. And F E is also equal to F B.]. καὶ ἡ μὲν αὐτῶν τέμνῃ τὸν κύκλον. and the (rectangle contained) by the whole (straightline) cutting (the circle). and one of them cuts the circle. Thus. καὶ ἐπεὶ ἡ ΔΕ ἐφάπτεται τοῦ ΑΒΓ κύκλου. Thus. And their base. ἡ δὲ προσπίπτῃ. Thus. F B.8]. is equal to the (square) on the (straight-line) meeting (the circle). at its extremity. Thus. ὁμοίως δὴ δειχθήσεται. ∆ D E Ε Γ C Ζ Β F B Α Κύκλου γὰρ τοῦ ΑΒΓ εἰλήφθω τι σημεῖον ἐκτὸς τὸ Δ. ΒΖ ἴσαι εἰσίν· καὶ βάσις αὐτῶν κοινὴ ἡ ΖΔ· γωνία ἄρα ἡ ὑπὸ ΔΕΖ γωνίᾳ τῇ ὑπὸ ΔΒΖ ἐστιν ἴση. For let DE have been drawn touching ABC [Prop. And F B produced is a diameter. (Angle) F ED is thus a right-angle [Prop. καί ἐστιν ἡ ΖΒ ἐκβαλλομένη διάμετρος· ἡ δὲ τῇ διαμέτρῳ τοῦ κύκλου πρὸς ὀρθὰς ἀπ᾿ ἄκρας ἀγομένη ἐφάπτεται τοῦ κύκλου· ἡ ΔΒ ἄρα ἐφάπτεται τοῦ ΑΒΓ κύκλου. And the (rectangle contained) by AD and DC was also equal to the (square) on DB. angle DEF is equal to angle DBF [Prop. and let DCA cut the circle. ΔΒ. and let the center of the circle ABC have been found. And since DE touches circle ABC. τέμνει δὲ ἡ ΔΓΑ.18]. And let F E. then the (straight-line) meeting (the circle) will touch the circle. καὶ ἔστω τὸ Ζ. DE (is) equal to DB. ἡ ἄρα ὑπὸ ΖΕΔ ὀρθή ἐστιν. the (square) on DE is equal to the (square) on DB. F D. and let it be (at) F . καὶ εἰλήφθω τὸ κέντρον τοῦ ΑΒΓ κύκλου. radiate from D towards circle ABC. DB touches circle ABC. ὅτι ἡ ΔΒ ἐφάπτεται τοῦ ΑΒΓ κύκλου. and the (part of it) cut off outside (the circle). and DCA cuts (it). touches the circle [Prop. ΔΓ ἴσον ἐστὶ τῷ ἀπὸ τῆς ΔΕ. Similarly. BF (respectively). and let DB meet (the circle). And DEF (is) a right-angle. λέγω. So the two (straight-lines) DE. ᾖ δὲ τὸ ὑπὸ ὅλης τῆς τεμνούσης καὶ τῆς ἐκτὸς ἀπολαμβανομένης μεταξὺ τοῦ τε σημείου καὶ τῆς κυρτῆς περιφερείας ἴσον τῷ ἀπὸ τῆς προσπιπτούσης. ἡ προσπίπτουσα ἐφάψεται τοῦ κύκλου· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. ἦν δὲ καὶ τὸ ὑπὸ τῶν ΑΔ.STOIQEIWN gþ. between the point and the convex circumference. ἡ δὲ ΔΒ προσπιπτέτω.

STOIQEIWN gþ. ELEMENTS BOOK 3 was required to show. 108 .

ELEMENTS BOOK 4 Construction of Rectilinear Figures In and Around Circles 109 .

ἅπτηται. ὅταν ἑκάστη πλευρὰ τοῦ περιγραφομένου ἑκάστης γωνίας τοῦ. ὅταν ἑκάστη τῶν τοῦ ἐγγραφομένου σχήματος γωνιῶν ἑκάστης πλευρᾶς τοῦ. 1. To insert a straight-line equal to a given straight-line into a circle. similarly. γεγονὸς ἂν εἴη τὸ ἐπιταχθέν· ἐνήρμοσται Let a diameter BC of circle ABC have been drawn. γʹ. aþ. Σχῆμα εὐθύγραμμον εἰς σχῆμα εὐθύγραμμον ἐγγράφεσθαι λέγεται. ὅταν ἡ τοῦ κύκλου περιφέρεια ἑκάστης πλευρᾶς τοῦ. Σχῆμα δὲ ὁμοίως περὶ σχῆμα περιγράφεσθαι λέγεται. ὅταν τὰ πέρατα αὐτῆς ἐπὶ τῆς περιφερείας ᾖ τοῦ κύκλου. ἐστὶν ἡ ΒΓ τῇ Δ. 7. A rectilinear figure is said to be inscribed in a circle when each angle of the inscribed (figure) touches the circumference of the circle.† 110 . Κύκλος δὲ περὶ σχῆμα περιγράφεσθαι λέγεται.STOIQEIWN dþ. Proposition 1 Εἰς τὸν δοθέντα κύκλον τῇ δοθείσῃ εὐθείᾳ μὴ μείζονι οὔσῃ τῆς τοῦ κύκλου διαμέτρου ἴσην εὐθεῖαν ἐναρμόσαι. δʹ. ELEMENTS BOOK 4 VOroi. And. ∆ D Α Β Ε A Γ B E C F Ζ ῎Εστω ὁ δοθεὶς κύκλος ὁ ΑΒΓ. ἅπτηται. (the latter straight-line) not being greater than the diameter of the circle. And a circle is said to be circumscribed about a rectilinear (figure) when the circumference of the circle touches each angle of the (figure) about which it is circumscribed. Definitions αʹ. And a rectilinear figure is said to be circumscribed about a circle when each side of the circumscribed (figure) touches the circumference of the circle. A rectilinear figure is said to be inscribed in a(nother) rectilinear figure when the respective angles of the inscribed figure touch the respective sides of the (figure) in which it is inscribed. ζʹ. 4. into the circle ABC. similarly. So it is required to insert a straight-line. ἡ δὲ δοθεῖσα εὐθεῖα μὴ Let ABC be the given circle. περὶ ὃ περιγράφεται. a circle is said to be inscribed in a (rectilinear) figure when the circumference of the circle touches each side of the (figure) in which it is inscribed. Κύκλος δὲ εἰς σχῆμα ὁμοίως ἐγγράφεσθαι λέγεται. a (rectilinear) figure is said to be circumscribed about a(nother rectilinear) figure when the respective sides of the circumscribed (figure) touch the respective angles of the (figure) about which it is circumscribed. εἰς ὃ ἐγγράφεται. ἅπτηται. δεῖ δὴ εἰς τὸν ΑΒΓ line (which is) not greater than the diameter of the cirκύκλον τῇ Δ εὐθείᾳ ἴσην εὐθεῖαν ἐναρμόσαι. ϛʹ. And. 6. ὅταν ἑκάστη πλευρὰ τοῦ περιγραφομένου ἐφάπτηται τῆς τοῦ κύκλου περιφερείας. equal to the ῎Ηχθω τοῦ ΑΒΓ κύκλου διάμετρος ἡ ΒΓ. cle. A straight-line is said to be inserted into a circle when its extemities are on the circumference of the circle. ἅπτηται. εἰς ὃ ἐγγράφεται. Σχῆμα δὲ εὐθύγραμμον περὶ κύκλον περιγράφεσθαι λέγεται. 2. Εὐθεῖα εἰς κύκλον ἐναρμόζεσθαι λέγεται. περὶ ὃ περιγράφεται. 5. and D the given straightμείζων τῆς τοῦ κύκλου διαμέτρου ἡ Δ. ὅταν ἡ τοῦ κύκλου περιφέρεια ἑκάστης γωνίας τοῦ. εʹ. ὅταν ἑκάστη γωνία τοῦ ἐγγραφομένου ἅπτηται τῆς τοῦ κύκλου περιφερείας. βʹ. εἰ μὲν οὖν ἴση straight-line D. 3. Σχῆμα εὐθύγραμμον εἰς κύκλον ἐγγράφεσθαι λέγεται.

ἡ ἄρα ὑπὸ ΘΑΓ ἴση ἐστὶ τῇ ἐν τῷ ἐναλλὰξ τοῦ κύκλου τμήματι γωνίᾳ τῇ ὑπὸ ΑΒΓ. and the straight-line AC has been drawn across (the circle) from the point of contact A. Thus. and DEF the given triangle.1]. καὶ ἐπεζεύχθω ἡ ΓΑ. equal to the given straight-line D. 3. And if BC is greater than D then let CE be made equal to D [Prop. Therefore. and (angle) GAB. CA is equal to CE. D is also equal to CA. And let BC have been joined. and then drawing a line through it. bþ. καὶ συνεστάτω πρὸς τῇ ΑΘ εὐθείᾳ καὶ τῷ πρὸς αὐτῇ σημείῳ τῷ Α τῇ ὑπὸ ΔΕΖ γωνίᾳ ἴση ἡ ὑπὸ ΘΑΓ. Presumably. τὸ δὲ δοθὲν τριγωνον τὸ ΔΕΖ· δεῖ δὴ εἰς τὸν ΑΒΓ κύκλον τῷ ΔΕΖ τριγώνῳ ἰσογώνιον τρίγωνον ἐγγράψαι. triangle ABC is equiangular with triangle DEF . ACB is also equal to DF E. equiangular with a given trianτρίγωνον ἐγγράψαι. (Which is) the very thing it was required to do. 3. Therefore. angle ABC is also equal to DEF . Let ABC be the given circle. καὶ ἐγγέγραπται εἰς τὸν ΑΒΓ κύκλον]. ἀλλ᾿ ἡ ὑπὸ ΘΑΓ τῇ ὑπὸ ΔΕΖ ἐστιν ἴση· καὶ ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΒΓ ἄρα γωνία τῇ ὑπὸ ΔΕΖ ἐστιν ἴση. (angle) HAC is thus equal to the angle ABC in the alternate segment of the circle [Prop. Εἰς τὸν δοθέντα ἄρα κύκλον τῷ δοθέντι τριγώνῳ ἰσογώνιον τρίγωνον ἐγγέγραπται· ὅπερ ἔδει ποιῆσαι.† And let (angle) HAC. Thus.32]. CA. on the straightline AG at the point A on it [Prop. for the same (reasons). κείσθω τῇ Δ ἴση ἡ ΓΕ.3]. in circle ABC. πρὸς δὲ τῇ ΑΗ εὐθείᾳ καὶ τῷ πρὸς αὐτῇ σημείῳ τῷ Α τῇ ὑπὸ ΔΖΕ [γωνίᾳ] ἴση ἡ ὑπὸ ΗΑΒ. since some straight-line AH touches the circle ABC. So. CE is equal to D. in a given circle. 1. But. 1. equal to [angle] DF E. But. ᾿Επεὶ οὖν κύκλου τοῦ ΑΒΓ ἐφάπτεταί τις εὐθεῖα ἡ ΑΘ. καὶ ἐπεζεύχθω ἡ ΒΓ. Proposition 2 Εἰς τὸν δοθέντα κύκλον τῷ δοθέντι τριγώνῳ ἰσογώνιον To inscribe a triangle. equiangular with triangle DEF . διὰ τὰ αὐτὰ δὴ καὶ ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΓΒ τῇ ὑπὸ ΔΖΕ ἐστιν ἴση· καὶ λοιπὴ ἄρα ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΑΓ λοιπῇ τῇ ὑπὸ ΕΔΖ ἐστιν ἴση [ἰσογώνιον ἄρα ἐστὶ τὸ ΑΒΓ τρίγωνον τῷ ΔΕΖ τριγώνῳ. ᾿Επεὶ οὖν το Γ σημεῖον κέντρον ἐστὶ τοῦ ΕΑΖ κύκλου. Εἰς ἄρα τὸν δοθέντα κύκλον τὸν ΑΒΓ τῇ δοθείσῃ εὐθείᾳ τῇ Δ ἴση ἐνήρμοσται ἡ ΓΑ· ὅπερ ἔδει ποιῆσαι. [Thus. the remaining (angle) BAC is equal to the remaining (angle) EDF [Prop. † Therefore.23]. And let CA have been joined. 1. For the (straight-line) BC. εἰ δὲ μείζων ἐστὶν ἡ ΒΓ τῆς Δ. Thus. HAC is equal to DEF .32]. ἀλλὰ τῇ Δ ἡ ΓΕ ἐστιν ἴση· καὶ ἡ Δ ἄρα τῇ ΓΑ ἐστιν ἴση. gle. Β B Ε E Ζ F Γ C Η G ∆ Α D A Θ H ῎Εστω ὁ δοθεὶς κύκλος ὁ ΑΒΓ. ELEMENTS BOOK 4 γὰρ εἰς τὸν ΑΒΓ κύκλον τῇ Δ εὐθείᾳ ἴση ἡ ΒΓ. and has been inscribed in circle 111 . by finding the center of the circle [Prop. ῎Ηχθω τοῦ ΑΒΓ κύκλου ἐφαπτομένη ἡ ΗΘ κατὰ τὸ Α. has been inserted into the circle ABC. and let the circle EAF have been drawn with center C and radius CE. have been constructed on the straight-line AH at the point A on it. So it is required to inscribe a triangle. equal to angle DEF . Let GH have been drawn touching circle ABC at A. since the point C is the center of circle EAF . if BC is equal to D then that (which) was prescribed has taken place. has been inserted into the given circle ABC. Thus. καὶ κέντρῳ τῷ Γ διαστήματι δὲ τῷ ΓΕ κύκλος γεγράφθω ὁ ΕΑΖ. equal to the straight-line D. ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ΓΑ τῇ ΓΕ.STOIQEIWN dþ. καὶ ἀπὸ τῆς κατὰ τὸ Α ἐπαφῆς εἰς τὸν κύκλον διῆκται εὐθεῖα ἡ ΑΓ.

and (angle) BKC. 1. and KC are joined from the center K to points A. B. 1. 3.† And since LM . KB. equiangular with a given τρίγωνον περιγράψαι. ΝΓΛ. touching the circle ABC. And DEG and DEF is also equal to two right-angles [Prop. Γ σημεῖα. and angles KAM and KBM are (both) right-angles. Thus. Γ σημείων ἤχθωσαν ἐφαπτόμεναι τοῦ ΑΒΓ κύκλου αἱ ΛΑΜ. the angles at points A. 1. And let (angle) BKA. ὡς ἔτυχεν. Μ Θ ∆ Ζ Α M H A Β Ε Κ D F B E K Η Λ Γ Ν L ῎Εστω ὁ δοθεὶς κύκλος ὁ ΑΒΓ. τὸ δὲ δοθὲν τρίγωνον τὸ ΔΕΖ· δεῖ δὴ περὶ τὸν ΑΒΓ κύκλον τῷ ΔΕΖ τριγώνῳ ἰσογώνιον τρίγωνον περιγράψαι.23]. equal to DF H [Prop. λοιπαὶ ἄρα αἱ ὑπὸ ΑΚΒ. Β. equiangular with triangle DEF . Thus. And let the straight-line KB have been drawn. B. ELEMENTS BOOK 4 ABC]. and DEF the given triangle. it can be shown that LN B is also equal to DF E. καὶ διὰ τῶν Α.18]. and C (respectively). τῇ δὲ ὑπὸ ΔΖΘ ἴση ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΚΓ. Β. And let the (straight-lines) LAM . has been inscribed in the given circle. καὶ διήχθω. of which AKB is equal to DEG. Β. ΑΜΒ δυσὶν ὀρθαῖς ἴσαι εἰσίν. ΚΒΜ γωνίαι. ΜΒΝ. καὶ εἰλήφθω τοῦ ΑΒΓ κύκλου κέντρον τὸ Κ. ΜΝ. ΔΕΖ δυσὶν ὀρθαῖς ἴσαι· αἱ ἄρα ὑπὸ ΑΚΒ. Γ σημεῖα ἐπεζευγμέναι εἰσὶν αἱ ΚΑ. AKB and AM B is equal to DEG and DEF . M N . about a given circle. εὐθεῖα ἡ ΚΒ. ἰσογώνιον ἄρα ἐστὶ τὸ ΛΜΝ τρίγωνον τῷ ΔΕΖ τριγώνῳ· καὶ περιγέγραπται περὶ τὸν ΑΒΓ κύκλον. equal to angle DEG. the (sum of the) remaining (angles). the remainder AM B is equal to the remainder DEF . ὁμοίως δὴ δειχθήσεται. ΔΕΖ ἴσαι εἰσίν. Θ σημεῖα. Let EF have been produced in each direction to points G and H. ᾿Εκβεβλήσθω ἡ ΕΖ ἐφ᾿ ἑκάτερα τὰ μέρη κατὰ τὰ Η.32]. ὧν ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΚΒ τῇ ὑπὸ ΔΕΗ ἐστιν ἴση· λοιπὴ ἄρα ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΜΒ λοιπῇ τῇ ὑπὸ ΔΕΖ ἐστιν ἴση. and N L touch circle ABC at points A. 3.34. ΑΜΒ ταῖς ὑπὸ ΔΕΗ. And since the (sum of the) four angles of quadrilateral AM BK is equal to four rightangles. triangle. across (ABC). about circle ABC.13]. similarly. And let the center K of circle ABC have been found [Prop. B. and C are thus right-angles [Prop. Proposition 3 Περὶ τὸν δοθέντα κύκλον τῷ δοθέντι τριγώνῳ ἰσογώνιον To circumscribe a triangle. ἐπειδήπερ καὶ εἰς δύο τρίγωνα διαιρεῖται τὸ ΑΜΒΚ. καὶ συνεστάτω πρὸς τῇ ΚΒ εὐθείᾳ καὶ τῷ πρὸς αὐτῇ σημείῳ τῷ Κ τῇ μὲν ὑπὸ ΔΕΗ γωνίᾳ ἴση ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΚΑ. καί εἰσιν ὀρθαὶ αἱ ὑπὸ ΚΑΜ. (Which is) the very thing it was required to do. a triangle. ΚΒ. Καὶ ἐπεὶ ἐφάπτονται τοῦ ΑΒΓ κύκλου αἱ ΛΜ. ἀπὸ δὲ τοῦ Κ κέντρου ἐπὶ τὰ Α.1]. inasmuch as AM BK (can) also (be) divided into two triangles [Prop. M BN . and C (respectively). and C (respectively). Περὶ τὸν δοθέντα ἄρα κύκλον τῷ δοθέντι τριγώνῳ ἰσογώνιον τρίγωνον περιγέγραπται· ὅπερ ἔδει ποιῆσαι. gþ. C N G Let ABC be the given circle. So it is required to circumscribe a triangle. equiangular with the given triangle. 3. So. and KA. is thus equal to two right-angles. Thus. Β.STOIQEIWN dþ. and N CL have been drawn through the points A. AKB and AM B. ΝΛ κατὰ τὰ Α. at random. Γ σημείοις γωνίαι. B. have been constructed on the straight-line KB at the point K on it. ὅτι καὶ ἡ ὑπὸ ΛΝΒ τῇ ὑπὸ ΔΖΕ ἐστιν ἴση· καὶ λοιπὴ ἄρα ἡ ὑπὸ ΜΛΝ [λοιπῇ] τῇ ὑπὸ ΕΔΖ ἐστιν ἴση. Thus. εἰσὶ δὲ καὶ αἱ ὑπὸ ΔΕΗ. ὀρθαὶ ἄρα εἰσὶν αἱ πρὸς τοῖς Α. καὶ ἐπεὶ τοῦ ΑΜΒΚ τετραπλεύρου αἱ τέσσαρες γωνίαι τέτρασιν ὀρθαῖς ἴσαι εἰσίν. † See the footnote to Prop. the remaining (angle) M LN is also equal to the 112 . ΚΓ.

1. and DG are equal to one another. Ζ. the circle drawn with center D. (Which is) the very thing it was required to do. ΓΑ εὐθειῶν διὰ τὸ ὀρθὰς εἶναι τὰς πρὸς τοῖς Ε. Thus. Thus. Ζ. and will touch the straight-lines AB. And it has been drawn around circle ABC.9]. Thus. EBD and F BD are thus two triangles having two angles equal to two angles. BD. ἐστὶ δὲ καὶ ὀρθὴ ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΕΔ ὀρθῇ τῇ ὑπὸ ΒΖΔ ἴση. BC. εἰ γὰρ τεμεῖ αὐτάς. 3. Proposition 4 Εἰς τὸ δοθὲν τρίγωνον κύκλον ἐγγράψαι. and one side equal to one side—the (one) subtending one of the equal angles (which is) common to the (triangles)—(namely). 113 . For if it cuts (one of) them then it will be a (straight-line) drawn at right-angles to a diameter of the circle. F .26]. So it is required to inscribe a circle in triangle ABC. a triangle. on account of the angles at E. Η γραφόμενος κύκλος τεμεῖ τὰς ΑΒ. and G being right-angles. ΒΓ. ΖΒΔ τὰς δύο γωνίας ταῖς δυσὶ γωνίαις ἴσας ἔχοντα καὶ μίαν πλευρὰν μιᾷ πλευρᾷ ἴσην τὴν ὑποτείνουσαν ὑπὸ μίαν τῶν ἴσων γωνιῶν κοινὴν αὐτῶν τὴν ΒΔ· καὶ τὰς λοιπὰς ἄρα πλευρὰς ταῖς λοιπαῖς πλευραῖς ἴσας ἕξουσιν· ἴση ἄρα ἡ ΔΕ τῇ ΔΖ. To inscribe a circle in a given triangle. αἱ τρεῖς ἄρα εὐθεῖαι αἱ ΔΕ. 1. Τετμήσθωσαν αἱ ὑπὸ ΑΒΓ. ΒΓ. ἔσται ἡ τῇ διαμέτρῳ τοῦ κύκλου πρὸς ὀρθὰς ἀπ᾿ ἄκρας ἀγομένη ἐντὸς πίπτουσα τοῦ κύκλου· ὅπερ ἄτοπον ἐδείχθη· οὐκ ἄρα ὁ κέντρῳ τῷ Δ διαστήματι δὲ ἑνὶ τῶν Ε. and radius one of E. Η σημείοις γωνίας. † See the footnote to Prop. and let DE. and the rightangle BED is also equal to the right-angle BF D. ELEMENTS BOOK 4 [remaining] (angle) EDF [Prop.12]. from its extremity. for the same (reasons). Thus. ΔΖ. F . 1. dþ. 3. DF . ΒΓ. F C Let ABC be the given triangle. the circle drawn with center D. Η κύκλος γραφόμενος ἥξει καὶ διὰ τῶν λοιπῶν σημείων καὶ ἐφάψεται τῶν ΑΒ. And since angle ABD is equal to CBD. the three straight-lines DE. equiangular with the given triangle. καὶ ἤχθωσαν ἀπὸ τοῦ Δ ἐπὶ τὰς ΑΒ.STOIQEIWN dþ. and DG have been drawn from point D. καὶ ἔσται ὁ κύκλος ἐγγεγραμμένος εἰς τὸ ΑΒΓ τρίγωνον. perpendicular to the straight-lines AB. has been circumscribed about the given circle. they will also have the remaining sides equal to the (corresponding) remaining sides [Prop. Ζ. ΔΗ ἴσαι ἀλλήλαις εἰσίν· ὁ ἄρα κέντρῷ τῷ Δ καὶ διαστήματι ἑνὶ τῶν Ε. DE (is) equal to DF .32]. and let them meet one another at point D. DF . Thus. δύο δὴ τρίγωνά ἐστι τὰ ΕΒΔ. Thus. and CA. Εἰς ἄρα τὸ δοθὲν τρίγωνον τὸ ΑΒΓ κύκλος ἐγγέγραπται ὁ ΕΖΗ· ὅπερ ἔδει ποιῆσαι. Let the angles ABC and ACB have been cut in half by the straight-lines BD and CD (respectively) [Prop. Thus. 1. BC. ΓΑ εὐθείας κάθετοι αἱ ΔΕ. DG is also equal to DF . The very thing was shown (to be) absurd [Prop. διὰ τὰ αὐτὰ δὴ καὶ ἡ ΔΗ τῇ ΔΖ ἐστιν ἴση. ΑΓΒ γωνίαι δίχα ταῖς ΒΔ. F . Καὶ ἐπεὶ ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΒΔ γωνία τῇ ὑπὸ ΓΒΔ. and CA (respectively) [Prop. ἐγγεγράφθω ὡς ὁ ΖΗΕ. or G. ΓΑ εὐθείας· ἐφάψεται ἄρα αὐτῶν.34. Α Ε A E Η ∆ Β Ζ G D Γ B ῎Εστω τὸ δοθὲν τρίγωνον τὸ ΑΒΓ· δεῖ δὴ εἰς τὸ ΑΒΓ τρίγωνον κύκλον ἐγγράψαι. So.† will also go through the remaining points.16]. triangle LM N is equiangular with triangle DEF . falling inside the circle. ΓΔ εὐθείαις. ΔΗ. and radius one of E. καὶ συμβαλλέτωσαν ἀλλήλαις κατὰ τὸ Δ σημεῖον. ΔΖ.

Thus. Α Γ B F B Γ ῎Εστω τὸ δοθὲν τρίγωνον τὸ ΑΒΓ· δεῖ δὲ περὶ τὸ δοθὲν τρίγωνον τὸ ΑΒΓ κύκλον περιγράψαι. And so. like F GE (in the figure). the circle drawn with center F . or C. Let them. let DF and EF meet on the straight-line BC at (point) F . And let DF and EF have been drawn from points D and E. we can show that CF is also equal to AF . ΖΒ. καὶ ἐπεζεύχθω ἡ ΑΖ. like ABC (in the first diagram from the left). ὅτι καὶ ἡ ΓΖ τῇ ΑΖ ἐστιν ἴση· ὥστε καὶ ἡ ΒΖ τῇ ΖΓ ἐστιν ἴση· ὁ ἄρα [πάλιν] κέντρῳ τῷ Ζ διαστήματι δὲ ἑνὶ τῶν ΖΑ. Περὶ τὸ δοθὲν ἄρα τρίγωνον κύκλος περιγέγραπται· ὅπερ ἔδει ποιῆσαι. ὅτι καὶ ἡ ΓΖ τῇ ΑΖ ἐστιν ἴση· ὥστε καὶ ἡ ΖΒ τῇ ΖΓ ἐστιν ἴση· αἱ τρεῖς ἄρα αἱ ΖΑ. And the circle will have been circumscribed about triangle ABC. and DF is common and at right-angles. So that BF is also equal to F C. ΖΓ ἴσαι ἀλλήλαις εἰσίν. κοινὴ δὲ καὶ πρὸς ὀρθὰς ἡ ΔΖ. (Which is) the very thing it was required to do. κοινὴ δὲ καὶ πρὸς ὀρθὰς ἡ ΔΖ. like in the third diagram (from the left). And. B. and F A have been joined. And let AF . ὅτι τὸ Ζ σημεῖον κέντρον ἐστὶ τοῦ περὶ τὸ ΑΒΓ τρίγωνον περιγραφομένου κύκλου. καί ἐπεζεύχθωσαν αἱ ΑΖ. καὶ ἔσται περιγεγραμμένος περὶ τὸ ΑΒΓ τρίγωνον. So that F B is also equal to F C. 1. Thus. ᾿Αλλὰ δὴ αἱ ΔΖ. like in the second diagram (from the left). βάσις ἄρα ἡ ΑΖ βάσει τῇ ΖΒ ἐστιν ἴση. ΕΖ συμπιπτέτωσαν ἐπὶ τῆς ΒΓ εὐθείας κατὰ τὸ Ζ. Συμπιπτέτωσαν πρότερον ἐντὸς κατὰ τὸ Ζ. we can show that CF is also equal to AF . 1. Thus.STOIQEIWN dþ. ὁμοίως δὴ δείξομεν. Ε σημεῖα. eþ. Let it have been (so) inscribed. Α Α A Ζ Γ Ζ B D Ε Ε D Β A A D Ε Ζ Β ∆ Β ∆ ∆ To circumscribe a circle about a given triangle. and in the following propositions. and CA. So (DF and EF ) will surely either meet inside triangle ABC. let DF and EF meet outside triangle ABC. So. F C. it is understood that the radius is actually one of DE. since AD is equal to DB. again. BC. Thus. καὶ ἀπὸ τῶν Δ. ΖΒ. And so. and CF have been joined. καὶ ἐπεζεύχθωσαν αἱ ΖΒ. So. the base AF is thus equal to the base F B [Prop. it will touch them and will be the circle inscribed in triangle ABC. ΕΖ συμπιπτέτωσαν ἐκτὸς τοῦ ΑΒΓ τριγώνου κατὰ τὸ Ζ πάλιν. Β. Proposition 5 Περὶ τὸ δοθὲν τρίγωνον κύκλον περιγράψαι. ΖΑ. similarly. 1. And since AD is equal to DB. 114 . or DG. So it is required to circumscribe a circle about the given triangle ABC. ΖΓ. and F C are equal to one another. ΑΓ εὐθεῖαι δίχα κατὰ τὰ Δ.4]. ΑΓ πρὸς ὀρθὰς ἤχθωσαν αἱ ΔΖ. will also go through the remaining points. BF . first of all.11]. the three (straight-lines) F A. ΓΖ. and radius one of A. ὡς ἔχει ἐπὶ τῆς τρίτης καταγραφῆς. ὁμοίως δὴ δείξομεν. And let AF have been joined. καὶ ἔσται περιγεγραμμένος ὁ κύκλος περὶ τὸ ΑΒΓ τρίγωνον. DF . on the straight-line BC. similarly. similarly. again at (point) F . Let it have been (so) circumscribed. ὁμοίως δὴ δείξομεν. the circle EF G has been inscribed in the given triangle ABC. ΕΖ· συμπεσοῦνται δὴ ἤτοι ἐντὸς τοῦ ΑΒΓ τριγώνου ἢ ἐπὶ τῆς ΒΓ εὐθείας ἢ ἐκτὸς τῆς ΒΓ. the base AF is thus equal to the base BF [Prop.4]. 1. does not cut the straight-lines AB. καὶ ἐπεὶ ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ΑΔ τῇ ΔΒ.10]. we can show that point F is the center of the circle circumscribed about triangle ABC. Γ κύκλος γραφόμενος ἥξει καὶ διὰ τῶν λοιπῶν σημείων. βάσις ἄρα ἡ ΑΖ βάσει τῇ ΒΖ ἐστιν ἴση. and DF is common and at right-angles. ΖΓ κύκλος γραφόμενος ἥξει καὶ διὰ τῶν λοιπῶν σημείων. Τετμήσθωσαν αἱ ΑΒ. meet inside (triangle ABC) at (point) F . ὁ ἄρα κέντρῳ τῷ Ζ διαστήματι δὲ ἑνὶ τῶν Α. καὶ ἐπεὶ πάλιν ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ΑΔ τῇ ΔΒ. So. ELEMENTS BOOK 4 or G. E E E F C F C C Let ABC be the given triangle. F B. † Here. Thus. or beyond BC. περιγεγράφθω ὡς ὁ ΑΒΓ. Let the straight-lines AB and AC have been cut in half at points D and E (respectively) [Prop. ὡς ἔχει ἐπὶ τῆς δευτέρας καταγραφῆς. ᾿Αλλὰ δὴ αἱ ΔΖ. and let F B. Ε σημείων ταῖς ΑΒ. ΒΖ. at right-angles to AB and AC (respectively) [Prop.

Thus. drawing a line through it. the square ABCD has been inscribed in the given circle. Thus. and F C. καὶ ἐγγέγραπται εἰς τὸν ΑΒΓΔ κύκλον. And it will have been circumscribed about triangle ABC. for the same (reasons). CD. each of BC and CD is equal to each of AB and AD. have been drawn at right-angles to one another. ΔΑ.1]. BC. and DA have been joined. 3. And it was also shown (to be) equilateral. And it has been inscribed in circle ABCD. ELEMENTS BOOK 4 [again] the circle drawn with center F . Thus. (Which is) the very thing it was required to do. διὰ τὰ αὐτὰ δὴ καὶ ἑκατέρα τῶν ΒΓ. Proposition 6 Εἰς τὸν δοθέντα κύκλον τετράγωνον ἐγγράψαι.22]. Thus. Α Β Ε A ∆ B E D Γ C ῎Εστω ἡ δοθεὶς κύκλος ὁ ΑΒΓΔ· δεῖ δὴ εἰς τὸν ΑΒΓΔ κύκλον τετράγωνον ἐγγράψαι. F B. the base AB is thus equal to the base AD [Prop. 115 . διὰ τὰ αὐτὰ δὴ καὶ ἑκάστη τῶν ὑπὸ ΑΒΓ. ΒΓΔ. καὶ ἐπεζεύχθωσαν αἱ ΑΒ. Proposition 7 Περὶ τὸν δοθέντα κύκλον τετράγωνον περιγράψαι. þ. ΒΓ. ἐπεὶ γὰρ ἡ ΒΔ εὐθεῖα διάμετρός ἐστι τοῦ ΑΒΓΔ κύκλου.11]. Thus. To inscribe a square in a given circle. (Which is) the very thing it was required to do. † Presumably. So. So I say that (it is) also right-angled. ῎Ηχθωσαν τοῦ ΑΒΓΔ κύκλου δύο διάμετροι πρὸς ὀρθὰς ἀλλήλαις αἱ ΑΓ. To circumscribe a square about a given circle. Καὶ ἐπεὶ ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ΒΕ τῇ ΕΔ· κέντρον γὰρ τὸ Ε· κοινὴ δὲ καὶ πρὸς ὀρθὰς ἡ ΕΑ. 1. by finding the center of the circle [Prop. Thus. 1. for E (is) the center (of the circle). (angles) ABC. Εἰς ἄρα τὸν δοθέντα κύκλον τετράγωνον ἐγγέγραπται τὸ ΑΒΓΔ· ὅπερ ἔδει ποιῆσαι. for the same (reasons). Let ABCD be the given circle. and EA is common and at right-angles. So it is required to inscribe a square in circle ABCD. the quadrilateral ABCD is equilateral. a circle has been circumscribed about the given triangle. For since the straight-line BD is a diameter of circle ABCD. ἐδείχθη δὲ καὶ ἰσόπλευρον· τετράγωνον ἄρα ἐστίν. and radius one of F A. and CDA are also each right-angles.STOIQEIWN dþ. the quadrilateral ABCD is right-angled. at right-angles to the first [Prop. ΒΔ. zþ. And since BE is equal to ED. ὅτι καὶ ὀρθογώνιον. will also go through the remaining points. ΑΔ ἴση ἐστίν· ἰσόπλευρον ἄρα ἐστὶ τὸ ΑΒΓΔ τετράπλευρον. ΓΔ.† And let AB. ἡμικύκλιον ἄρα ἐστὶ τὸ ΒΑΔ· ὀρθὴ ἄρα ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΑΔ γωνία.4]. 3. λέγω δή. angle BAD (is) a rightangle [Prop. Let two diameters of circle ABCD. βάσις ἄρα ἡ ΑΒ βάσει τῇ ΑΔ ἴση ἐστίν. 1. BCD. AC and BD. So. it is a square [Def.31]. ΓΔΑ ὀρθή ἐστιν· ὀρθογώνιον ἄρα ἐστὶ τὸ ΑΒΓΔ τετράπλευρον. ΓΔ ἑκατέρᾳ τῶν ΑΒ. and then drawing a second line through it. BAD is thus a semi-circle.

ὁμοίως δὴ δείξομεν. αἱ ἄρα πρὸς τῷ Α γωνίαι ὀρθαί εἰσιν. Γ. ἐδείχθη δὲ καὶ ἰσόπλευρον· τετράγωνον ἄρα ἐστίν. ἀλλὰ καὶ ἡ μὲν ΑΓ ἑκατέρᾳ τῶν ΗΘ. Γ. GC. Thus. ὥστε καὶ ἡ ΗΘ τῇ ΖΚ ἐστι παράλληλος. ἐστὶ δὲ ὀρθὴ καὶ ἡ ὑπὸ ΕΒΗ. ELEMENTS BOOK 4 ῎Εστω ὁ δοθεὶς κύκλος ὁ ΑΒΓΔ· δεῖ δὴ περὶ τὸν ΑΒΓΔ Let ABCD be the given circle. Thus. a square has been circumscribed about the given circle. So that GH is also parallel to F K [Prop. 1. we can show that the angles at H. And it has been circumscribed about circle ABCD. K. ΒΚ· ἴση ἄρα ἐστὶν ἡ μὲν ΗΖ τῇ ΘΚ. Περὶ τὸν δοθέντα ἄρα κύκλον τετράγωνον περιγέγραπται· ὅπερ ἔδει ποιῆσαι. AGB is thus also a right-angle [Prop. and D (respectively).† And let F G. for the same (reasons). touching circle ABCD. and KF have been drawn through points A. ΖΚ ἑκατέρᾳ τῶν ΗΖ. 1. ὅτι καὶ αἱ πρὸς τοῖς Θ. καὶ διὰ τῶν Α. ΘΚ ἐστιν ἴση [καὶ ἑκατέρα ἄρα τῶν ΗΘ. and EBG is also a right-angle. ὁμοίως δὴ δείξομεν. So I say that (it is) also right-angled. For since GBEA is a parallelogram.30]. (Which is) the very thing it was required to do. the angles at points B. 1. and BD is equal to each of GF and HK [Prop. ΗΓ. See the footnote to Prop. So. we can show that GF and HK are each parallel to BED. ὀρθὴ ἄρα καὶ ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΗΒ. ΘΚ ἐστιν ἴση]. Η Β Θ Α Ε Γ Ζ G ∆ B Κ H ῎Ηχθωσαν τοῦ ΑΒΓΔ κύκλου δύο διάμετροι πρὸς ὀρθὰς ἀλλήλαις αἱ ΑΓ. and D are also right-angles. and EA has been joined from the center E to the point of contact A. AC is also parallel to F K. καὶ ἐπεὶ ὀρθή ἐστιν ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΕΒ γωνία. So. Β. So.29]. διὰ τὰ αὐτὰ δὴ καὶ αἱ πρὸς τοῖς Β. Δ σημείων ἤχθωσαν ἐφαπτόμεναι τοῦ ΑΒΓΔ κύκλου αἱ ΖΗ. ΒΔ. 1. ΗΘ. it is a square [Def. AK. have been drawn at right-angles to one another. παραλληλόγραμμα ἄρα ἐστὶ τὰ ΗΚ. 116 . † ‡ A E C F D K Let two diameters of circle ABCD. Ζ γωνίαι ὀρθαί εἰσιν. and AEB is a right-angle. Thus. 3. ΘΚ. λέγω δή.‡ Therefore.22]. See the footnote to the previous proposition. ἡ δὲ ΒΔ ἑκατέρᾳ τῶν ΗΖ. So. ᾿Επεὶ οὖν ἐφάπτεται ἡ ΖΗ τοῦ ΑΒΓΔ κύκλου. but AC (is) also (equal) to each of GH and F K.STOIQEIWN dþ. AC and BD. and GH to F K [Prop. GH is thus parallel to AC [Prop. καὶ ἐπεὶ ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ΑΓ τῇ ΒΔ. and F are also right-angles. Κ. HK. ἰσόπλευρον ἄρα ἐστὶ τὸ ΖΗΘΚ τετράπλευρον. similarly. ἡ δὲ ΗΘ τῇ ΖΚ.34]. for the same (reasons). Thus. C. διὰ τὰ αὐτὰ δὴ καὶ ἡ ΑΓ τῇ ΖΚ ἐστι παράλληλος. Thus.34] [and each of GH and F K is thus equal to each of GF and HK]. ΖΚ.34]. And since AC is equal to BD. F GHK is right-angled. 1. and BK are (all) parallelograms. ὀρθογώνιον ἄρα ἐστὶ τὸ ΖΗΘΚ. circumscribe a square about circle ABCD. παράλληλος ἄρα ἐστὶν ἡ ΗΘ τῇ ΑΓ. Δ σημείοις γωνίαι ὀρθαί εἰσιν. ὅτι καὶ ὀρθογώνιον. GK. 3. since F G touches circle ABCD. F B. ΑΚ. B. GF is equal to HK. καί ἐστιν ὀρθὴ ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΕΒ. the quadrilateral F GHK is thus equilateral. ΘΚ τῇ ΒΕΔ ἐστι παράλληλος. So it is required to κύκλον τετράγωνον περιγράψαι. the angles at A are thus right-angles [Prop. ὅτι καὶ ἑκατέρα τῶν ΗΖ. ΚΖ.18].34. GH. 1. And it was also shown (to be) equilateral. ἀπὸ δὲ τοῦ Ε κέντρου ἐπὶ τὴν κατὰ τὸ Α ἐπαφὴν ἐπέζευκται ἡ ΕΑ. καὶ περιγέγραπται περὶ τὸν ΑΒΓΔ κύκλον. similarly. ἐπεὶ γὰρ παραλληλόγραμμόν ἐστι τὸ ΗΒΕΑ. ΖΒ. And since angle AEB is a rightangle. C.

To inscribe a circle in a given square. H. and their opposite sides [are] manifestly equal [Prop. ΗΕ ἐστιν ἴση· αἱ τέσσαρες ἄρα αἱ ΗΕ.16]. ὅτι καὶ ἑκατέρα τῶν ΗΘ. H. H. And let EH have been drawn through E. So it is required to inscribe a circle in square ABCD. Ζ. and will have been inscribed in the square ABCD. καὶ αἱ ἀπεναντίον αὐτῶν πλευραὶ δηλονότι ἴσαι [εἰσίν]. the four (straightlines) GE. ΓΔ. ΒΓ. AG. GH. The very thing was shown (to be) absurd [Prop. parallel to either of AB or CD. or DA. ΗΚ ἴσαι ἀλλήλαις [εἰσίν]. AH.10]. 3. similarly. Proposition 9 Περὶ τὸ δοθὲν τετράγωνον κύκλον περιγράψαι. ΗΘ. ΑΘ. ΔΑ.STOIQEIWN dþ. ELEMENTS BOOK 4 hþ. ΒΓ. or K. and AE is half of AD. ΚΒ. will fall inside the circle. ΗΚ ἑκατέρᾳ τῶν ΖΗ. parallel to either of AD or BC [Prop. BC. Proposition 8 Εἰς τὸ δοθὲν τετράγωνον κύκλον ἐγγράψαι. ΗΔ. 1. F . ΗΖ. and radius one of E. ἐφάψεται ἄρα αὐτῶν καὶ ἔσται ἐγγεγραμμένος εἰς τὸ ΑΒΓΔ τετράγωνον. ΔΑ εὐθειῶν διὰ τὸ ὀρθὰς εἶναι τὰς πρὸς τοῖς Ε. Εἰς ἄρα τὸ δοθὲν τετράγωνον κύκλος ἐγγέγραπται· ὅπερ ἔδει ποιῆσαι. ΓΔ παράλληλος ἤχθω ὁ ΕΘ. GF . GC. ΘΔ. BC. Thus. Ζ. ΒΗ. τῆς δὲ ΑΒ ἡμίσεια ἡ ΑΖ. διὰ δὲ τοῦ Ζ ὁποτέρᾳ τῶν ΑΔ. ΑΒ δίχα κατὰ τὰ Ε. Κ γωνίας· εἰ γὰρ τεμεῖ ὁ κύκλος τὰς ΑΒ. then a (straight-line) drawn at right-angles to a diameter of the circle. and AF half of AB. F G (is) also equal to GE. Thus. Ζ. 117 . and GD are each parallelograms. 1. BC. and DA. or K. from its extremity. Let the given square be ABCD. ὁ ἄρα κέντρῳ μὲν τῷ Η διαστήματι δὲ ἑνὶ τῶν Ε. KB. Κ κύκλος γραφόμενος ἥξει καὶ διὰ τῶν λοιπῶν σημείων· καὶ ἐφάψεται τῶν ΑΒ. ἡ τῇ διαμέτρῳ τοῦ κύκλου πρὸς ὀρθὰς ἀπ᾿ ἄκρας ἀγομένη ἐντὸς πεσεῖται τοῦ κύκλου· ὅπερ ἄτοπον ἐδείχθη. 1. οὐκ ἄρα ὁ κέντρῳ τῷ Η διαστήματι δὲ ἑνὶ τῶν Ε. BG. Α Ζ Β Ε Η Θ ∆ A Κ F Γ B E G H D K C Τετμήσθω ἑκατέρα τῶν ΑΔ. a circle has been inscribed in the given square. it will touch them. we can also show that each of GH and GK is equal to each of F G and GE. Thus. will also go through the remaining points. and radius one of E. AK. καί ἐστι τῆς μὲν ΑΔ ἡμίσεια ἡ ΑΕ. ΗΓ. To circumscribe a circle about a given square. the circle drawn with center G. F . ΔΑ εὐθείας. CD. Θ. or DA. jþ. Θ. ΓΔ. Thus.34]. ΓΔ. Κ κύκλος γραφόμενος τεμεῖ τὰς ΑΒ. Let ABCD be the given square. the circle drawn with center G. F . ΒΓ. So it is required to circumscribe a circle about square ABCD. Ζ σημεῖα. ῎Εστω τὸ δοθὲν τετράγωνον τὸ ΑΒΓΔ· δεῖ δὴ περὶ τὸ ΑΒΓΔ τετράγωνον κύκλον περιγράψαι. ἴση ἄρα καὶ ἡ ΑΕ τῇ ΑΖ· ὥστε καὶ αἱ ἀπεναντίον· ἴση ἄρα καὶ ἡ ΖΗ τῇ ΗΕ. does not cut the straight-lines AB. ΒΓ παράλληλος ἤχθω ἡ ΖΚ· παραλληλόγραμμον ἄρα ἐστὶν ἕκαστον τῶν ΑΚ. And it will touch the straight-lines AB. CD. So. ῎Εστω τὸ δοθὲν τετράγωνον τὸ ΑΒΓΔ. and GK [are] equal to one another. And since AD is equal to AB. Let AD and AB each have been cut in half at points E and F (respectively) [Prop.31]. Thus. HD. and K being right-angles. CD. So that the opposite (sides are) also (equal). (Which is) the very thing it was required to do. For if the circle cuts AB. καὶ διὰ μὲν τοῦ Ε ὁποτέρᾳ τῶν ΑΒ. ὁμοίως δὴ δείξομεν. καὶ ἐπεὶ ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ΑΔ τῇ ΑΒ. on account of the angles at E. and let F K have been drawn through F . δεῖ δὴ εἰς τὸ ΑΒΓΔ τετράγωνον κύκλον ἐγγράψαι. AE (is) thus also equal to AF . ΑΗ. Θ. Thus. Thus.

6]. ΓΔΑ δίχα τέτμηται ὑπὸ τῶν ΑΓ. And let the circle ACD have been circumscribed about triangle ACD [Prop. EC. ΔΓ. ΕΔ ἴση ἐστίν. Let some straight-line AB be taken. περιγεγράφθω ὡς ὁ ΑΒΓΔ. αἱ τέσσαρες ἄρα αἱ ΕΑ. ΑΓ δυσὶ ταῖς ΒΑ. καὶ ἡ ὑπὸ ΕΑΒ ἄρα τῇ ὑπὸ ΕΒΑ ἐστιν ἴση· ὥστε καὶ πλευρὰ ἡ ΕΑ τῇ ΕΒ ἐστιν ἴση. τῆς δὲ ὑπὸ ΑΒΓ ἡμίσεια ἡ ὑπὸ ΕΒΑ. Thus. similarly. ΕΓ. καὶ ἐπεὶ ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ὑπὸ ΔΑΒ γωνία τῇ ὑπὸ ΑΒΓ.11]. ΕΔ ἴσαι ἀλλήλαις εἰσίν. ὅτι καὶ ἑκάστη τῶν ὑπὸ ΑΒΓ. καὶ ἐνηρμόσθω εἰς τὸν ΒΔΕ κύκλον τῇ ΑΓ εὐθείᾳ μὴ μείζονι οὔσῃ τῆς τοῦ ΒΔΕ κύκλου διαμέτρου ἴση εὐθεῖα ἡ ΒΔ· καὶ ἐπεζεύχθωσαν αἱ ΑΔ. And let the circle BDE have been drawn with center A. So. Β. ΒΓ περιεχόμενον ὀρθογώνιον ἴσον εἶναι τῷ ἀπὸ τῆς ΓΑ τετραγώνῳ· καὶ κέντρῳ τῷ Α καὶ διαστήματι τῷ ΑΒ κύκλος γεγράφθω ὁ ΒΔΕ. we can show that ABC. and ED are equal to one another.5].STOIQEIWN dþ. ΑΓ ἴσαι εἰσίν· καὶ βάσις ἡ ΔΓ βάσει τῇ ΒΓ ἴση· γωνία ἄρα ἡ ὑπὸ ΔΑΓ γωνίᾳ τῇ ὑπὸ ΒΑΓ ἴση ἐστίν· ἡ ἄρα ὑπὸ ΔΑΒ γωνία δίχα τέτμηται ὑπὸ τῆς ΑΓ. AC are thus equal to the two (straight-lines) BA. So that side EA is also equal to EB [Prop. equal to the straight-line AC. And let the straight-line BD. a circle has been circumscribed about the given square. and will have been circumscribed about the square ABCD. have been inserted into circle BDE [Prop. And since angle DAB is equal to ABC. we can show that each of the [straight-lines] EA and EB are also equal to each of EC and ED. καί ἐστι τῆς μὲν ὑπὸ ΔΑΒ ἡμίσεια ἡ ὑπὸ ΕΑΒ. like ABCD (in the figure). ΔΒ εὐθειῶν. κοινὴ δὲ ἡ ΑΓ. 2. καὶ τετμήσθω κατὰ τὸ Γ σημεῖον. Thus. let them cut one another at κατὰ τὸ Ε. and CDA have each been cut in half by the straight-lines AC and DB. E. ᾿Εκκείσθω τις εὐθεῖα ἡ ΑΒ. EB. and let it have been cut at point C so that the rectangle contained by AB and BC is equal to the square on CA [Prop. ΒΓΔ. ὁ ἄρα κέντρῳ τῷ Ε καὶ διαστήματι ἑνὶ τῶν Α. iþ. Proposition 10 ᾿Ισοσκελὲς τρίγωνον συστήσασθαι ἔχον ἑκατέραν τῶν πρὸς τῇ βάσει γωνιῶν διπλασίονα τῆς λοιπῆς. Γ. Thus. ELEMENTS BOOK 4 ᾿Επιζευχθεῖσαι γὰρ αἱ ΑΓ. the circle drawn with center E. ΒΔ τεμνέτωσαν ἀλλήλας AC and BD being joined. 1. ὥστε τὸ ὑπὸ τῶν ΑΒ.1]. ΕΒ [εὐθειῶν] ἑκατέρᾳ τῶν ΕΓ. 118 . καὶ περιγεγράφθω περὶ τὸ ΑΓΔ τρίγωνον κύκλος ὁ ΑΓΔ. Περὶ τὸ δοθὲν ἄρα τετράγωνον κύκλος περιγέγραπται· ὅπερ ἔδει ποιῆσαι. ΕΒ. And since DA is equal to AB. Thus. AC. B. will also go through the remaining points. C. angle DAC is equal to angle BAC [Prop. ὅτι καὶ ἑκατέρα τῶν ΕΑ. the four (straight-lines) EA. or D. being not greater than the diameter of circle BDE. BCD. the two (straight-lines) DA. And the base DC (is) equal to the base BC. To construct an isosceles triangle having each of the angles at the base double the remaining (angle). and radius AB. Thus. Α Β Ε A ∆ B E D Γ C Καὶ ἐπεὶ ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ΔΑ τῇ ΑΒ. and radius one of A. ὁμοίως δὴ δείξομεν. and EAB is half of DAB. (Which is) the very thing it was required to do. δύο δὴ αἱ ΔΑ. Δ κύκλος γραφόμενος ἥξει καὶ διὰ τῶν λοιπῶν σημείων καὶ ἔσται περιγεγραμμένος περὶ τὸ ΑΒΓΔ τετράγωνον. 4. and EBA half of ABC. similarly. 4. and AC (is) common. Let it have been (so) circumscribed. And let AD and DC have been joined. So.8]. 1. the angle DAB has been cut in half by AC. ὁμοίως δὴ δείξομεν. EAB is thus also equal to EBA.

Therefore. καὶ ἐπεὶ ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ὑπὸ ΔΒΓ γωνία τῇ ὑπὸ ΒΓΔ. CDA and DAC is double DAC. DBA. ἀλλὰ ταῖς ὑπὸ ΓΔΑ.5]. ΔΑΓ τῆς ὑπὸ ΔΑΓ εἰσι διπλασίους. ΒΓ ἴσον τῷ ἀπὸ τῆς ΒΔ. ἀλλὰ ἡ ΒΔ τῇ ΓΑ ὑπόκειται ἴση· καὶ ἡ ΓΑ ἄρα τῇ ΓΔ ἐστιν ἴση· ὥστε καὶ γωνία ἡ ὑπὸ ΓΔΑ γωνίᾳ τῇ ὑπὸ ΔΑΓ ἐστιν ἴση· αἱ ἄρα ὑπὸ ΓΔΑ. κοινὴ προσκείσθω ἡ ὑπὸ ΓΔΑ· ὅλη ἄρα ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΔΑ ἴση ἐστὶ δυσὶ ταῖς ὑπὸ ΓΔΑ. ἴση ἐστὶ καὶ πλευρὰ ἡ ΒΔ πλευρᾷ τῇ ΔΓ.32]. ΒΓ ἴσον ἐστὶ τῷ ἀπὸ τῆς ΑΓ. αἱ τρεῖς ἄρα αἱ ὑπὸ ΒΔΑ. And since angle DBC is equal to BCD. the (rectangle contained) by AB and BC is thus equal to the (square) on BD. iaþ. καί ἐστι τὸ ὑπὸ τῶν ΑΒ. since BDC is equal to DAC. τὸ ἄρα ὑπὸ τῶν ΑΒ. ΔΒΑ. and (the other) meets (the circle). But. And since some point B has been taken outside of circle ACD. 3. ἐπεὶ οὖν ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΔΓ τῇ ὑπὸ ΔΑΓ. and BCD are equal to one another. ἴση δὲ ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΓΔ ἑκατέρᾳ τῶν ὑπὸ ΒΔΑ. ΒΓ ἴσον ἐστὶ τῷ ἀπὸ τῆς ΒΔ. Thus. ΔΒΑ τῆς ὑπὸ ΔΑΒ ἐστι διπλῆ. the angle BDC is thus equal to the angle DAC in the alternate segment of the circle [Prop. since the side AD is also equal to AB [Prop. CA is also equal to CD. Thus. BCD is also double CAD. ἴση δὲ ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΓΔ ταῖς ὑπὸ ΓΔΑ. the external (angle) BCD is equal to CDA and DAC [Prop. 3. Thus. side BD is also equal to side DC [Prop. So that DBA is also equal to BCD. ΔΑΓ· καὶ ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΓΔ ἄρα τῆς ὑπὸ ΓΑΔ ἐστι διπλῆ. Proposition 11 Εἰς τὸν δοθέντα κύκλον πεντάγωνον ἰσόπλευρόν τε καὶ 119 To inscribe an equilateral and equiangular pentagon . the isosceles triangle ABD has been constructed having each of the angles at the base BD double the remaining (angle). But. And since the (rectangle contained) by AB and BC is equal to the (square) on AC. ἀλλὰ ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΔΑ τῇ ὑπὸ ΓΒΔ ἐστιν ἴση. and two straightlines BA and BD have radiated from B towards the circle ACD. and DC has been drawn across (the circle) from the point of contact D. (Which is) the very thing it was required to do. BD was assumed (to be) equal to CA. BD thus touches circle ACD [Prop. So that angle CDA is also equal to angle DAC [Prop. let CDA have been added to both. Thus. ΒΔ. ἡ ἄρα ὑπὸ ΒΔΓ γωνιά ἴση ἐστὶ τῇ ἐν τῷ ἐναλλὰξ τοῦ κύκλου τμήματι γωνίᾳ τῇ ὑπὸ ΔΑΓ. and AC (is) equal to BD. ἡ δὲ προσπίπτει.32]. Thus. ΔΑΓ ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ἐκτὸς ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΓΔ· καὶ ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΔΑ ἄρα ἴση ἐστὶ τῇ ὑπὸ ΒΓΔ. 1.6]. But BCD (is) equal to CDA and DAC. But. 1. ἴση δὲ ἡ ΑΓ τῇ ΒΔ. the three (angles) BDA. ἐπεὶ καὶ πλευρὰ ἡ ΑΔ τῇ ΑΒ ἐστιν ἴση· ὥστε καὶ ἡ ὑπὸ ΔΒΑ τῇ ὑπὸ ΒΓΔ ἐστιν ἴση. ᾿Ισοσκελὲς ἄρα τρίγωνον συνέσταται τὸ ΑΒΔ ἔχον ἑκατέραν τῶν πρὸς τῇ ΔΒ βάσει γωνιῶν διπλασίονα τῆς λοιπῆς· ὅπερ ἔδει ποιῆσαι. ἀπὸ δὲ τῆς κατὰ τὸ Δ ἐπαφῆς διῆκται ἡ ΔΓ. καὶ ἡ μὲν αὐτῶν τέμνει. Thus. And BCD (is) equal to to each of BDA and DBA. and (one) of them cuts (the circle). καὶ ἀπὸ τοῦ Β πρὸς τὸν ΑΓΔ κύκλον προσπεπτώκασι δύο εὐθεῖαι αἱ ΒΑ.37]. ΔΑΓ. Thus. ἐπεὶ οὖν ἐφάπτεται μὲν ἡ ΒΔ. ΔΒΑ· καὶ ἑκατέρα ἄρα τῶν ὑπὸ ΒΔΑ. since BD touches (the circle). BDA is also equal to BCD. Therefore. BDA and DBA are each double DAB. 1. the whole of BDA is equal to the two (angles) CDA and DAC.STOIQEIWN dþ. ΒΓΑ ἴσαι ἀλλήλαις εἰσίν. 1. BDA is equal to CBD. and the (rectangle contained) by AB and BC is equal to the (square) on BD. ἡ ΒΔ ἄρα ἐφάπτεται τοῦ ΑΓΔ κύκλου. καὶ ἐπεὶ κύκλου τοῦ ΑΓΔ εἴληπταί τι σημεῖον ἐκτὸς τὸ Β.5]. Thus. ELEMENTS BOOK 4 Β B Γ C ∆ D Α A Ε E Καὶ ἐπεὶ τὸ ὑπὸ τῶν ΑΒ.

λέγω δή. ACD and CDA are each double CAD.26]. an equilateral and equiangular pentagon has been inscribed in the given circle. such that CAD is equal to the angle at F . ΕΓΔ. ΔΒ εὐθειῶν. ΓΔ. Therefore. 120 . and BDA are thus equal to one another. ΕΑ. ΑΕΔ ἐστιν ἴση· ἰσογώνιον ἄρα ἐστὶ τὸ ΑΒΓΔΕ πεντάγωνον. 3. in a given circle. Θ ἴσην ἑκατέρᾳ τῶν ὑπὸ ΑΓΔ. and CDE is also equal to each of BAE and AED.2]. ECD. the five circumferences AB. ὑπὸ δὲ τὰς ἴσας περιφερείας ἴσαι εὐθεῖαι ὑποτείνουσιν· αἱ πέντε ἄρα εὐθεῖαι αἱ ΑΒ. ΓΔΑ τῆς ὑπὸ ΓΑΔ ἐστι διπλῆ. have been inscribed in circle ABCDE. καὶ τετμημέναι εἰσὶ δίχα ὑπὸ τῶν ΓΕ. Proposition 12 Περὶ τὸν δοθέντα κύκλον πεντάγωνον ἰσόπλευρόν τε καὶ ἰσογώνιον περιγράψαι. and angle BAE upon circumference EDCB. ὅτι καὶ ἰσογώνιον. since angles ACD and CDA are each double CAD. And the angle AED stands upon circumference ABCD. (Which is) the very thing it was required to do. ΔΕ. Thus. ΓΔΑ γωνιῶν διπλασίων ἐστὶ τῆς ὑπὸ ΓΑΔ. ἐπεὶ γὰρ ἡ ΑΒ περιφέρεια τῇ ΔΕ περιφερείᾳ ἐστὶν ἴση.29]. each of the angles ABC. ἑκατέραν δὲ τῶν πρὸς τοῖς Η. pentagon ABCDE is equiangular. Θ γωνιῶν τῆς πρὸς τῷ Ζ. Εἰς ἄρα τὸν δοθέντα κύκλον πεντάγωνον ἰσόπλευρόν τε καὶ ἰσογώνιον ἐγγέγραπται· ὅπερ ἔδει ποιῆσαι. Thus. the whole circumference ABCD is equal to the whole circumference EDCB. 1. For since the circumference AB is equal to the circumference DE. let BCD have been added to both. ΓΔ. ΓΔΑ· καὶ ἑκατέρα ἄρα τῶν ὑπὸ ΑΓΔ. ΔΕ. ΕΑ ἴσαι ἀλλήλαις εἰσίν· ἰσόπλευρον ἄρα ἐστὶ τὸ ΑΒΓΔΕ πεντάγωνον. ᾿Εκκείσθω τρίγωνον ἰσοσκελὲς τὸ ΖΗΘ διπλασίονα ἔχον ἑκατέραν τῶν πρὸς τοῖς Η. καὶ ἐπεζεύχθωσαν αἱ ΑΒ. κοινὴ προσκείσθω ἡ ΒΓΔ· ὅλη ἄρα ἡ ΑΒΓΔ περιφέρια ὅλῃ τῇ ΕΔΓΒ περιφερείᾳ ἐστὶν ἴση. διὰ τὰ αὐτὰ δὴ καὶ ἑκάστη τῶν ὑπὸ ΑΒΓ. ΒΓΔ. To circumscribe an equilateral and equiangular pentagon about a given circle. ΑΓΕ. So it is required to inscribed an equilateral and equiangular pentagon in circle ABCDE. ΒΓ. So I say that (it is) also equiangular. ΓΔΒ. And equal angles stand upon equal circumferences [Prop. Thus. καὶ ἐγγεγράφθω εἰς τὸν ΑΒΓΔΕ κύκλον τῷ ΖΗΘ τριγώνῳ ἰσογώνιον τρίγωνον τὸ ΑΓΔ. Thus. τετμήσθω δὴ ἑκατέρα τῶν ὑπὸ ΑΓΔ. Α A Ζ F Ε Β Γ ∆ E B Η Θ C D G H ῎Εστω ὁ δοθεὶς κύκλος ὁ ΑΒΓΔΕ· δεῖ δὴ εἰς τὸν ΑΒΓΔΕ κύκλον πεντάγωνον ἰσόπλευρόν τε καὶ ἰσογώνιον ἐγγράψαι. equiangular to F GH. the five angles DAC. Let the the isosceles triangle F GH be set up having each of the angles at G and H double the (angle) at F [Prop. and EA are equal to one another [Prop. respectively [Prop.10]. CD. And let AB. ΒΓ. the pentagon ABCDE is equilateral. BC. And it was also shown (to be) equilateral. ᾿Επεὶ οὖν ἑκατέρα τῶν ὑπὸ ΑΓΔ. Let ABCDE be the given circle. respectively [Prop. 4. Thus. ὥστε τῇ μὲν πρὸς τῷ Ζ γωνίᾳ ἴσην εἶναι τὴν ὑπὸ ΓΑΔ. 4. ΓΔΑ δίχα ὑπὸ ἑκατέρας τῶν ΓΕ. DE and EA have been joined. CDB. So. ΓΔΕ γωνιῶν ἑκατέρᾳ τῶν ὑπὸ ΒΑΕ. ΒΓ. and are cut in half by the straight-lines CE and DB. BC. and the (angles) at G and H (are) equal to ACD and CDA. ELEMENTS BOOK 4 ἰσογώνιον ἐγγράψαι. ἐδείχθη δὲ καὶ ἰσόπλευρον. And let triangle ACD. αἱ δὲ ἴσαι γωνίαι ἐπὶ ἴσων περιφερειῶν βεβήκασιν· αἱ πέντε ἄρα περιφέρειαι αἱ ΑΒ. καὶ βέβηκεν ἐπὶ μὲν τῆς ΑΒΓΔ περιφερείας γωνία ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΕΔ.STOIQEIWN dþ. ΒΔΑ ἴσαι ἀλλήλαις εἰσίν. angle BAE is also equal to AED [Prop. ibþ. ACE. αἱ πέντε ἄρα γωνίαι αἱ ὑπὸ ΔΑΓ. So let ACD and CDA have been cut in half by the straight-lines CE and DB. Thus. ΕΑ ἴσαι ἀλλήλαις εἰσίν.9]. DE. ἐπὶ δὲ τῆς ΕΔΓΒ περιφερείας γωνία ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΑΕ· καὶ ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΑΕ ἄρα γωνία τῇ ὑπὸ ΑΕΔ ἐστιν ἴση. ΔΕ. BCD. for the same (reasons).27]. ΔΒ εὐθειῶν. 3. 3. Thus.

ΖΛΓ τὰς δύο γωνίας ταῖς δυσὶ γωνίαις ἴσας ἔχοντα καὶ μίαν πλευρὰν μιᾷ πλευρᾷ ἴσην κοινὴν αὐτῶν τὴν ΖΓ· καὶ τὰς λοιπὰς ἄρα πλευρὰς ταῖς λοιπαῖς πλευραῖς ἴσας ἕξει καὶ τὴν λοιπὴν γωνίαν τῇ λοιπῇ γωνίᾳ· ἴση ἄρα ἡ μὲν ΚΓ εὐθεῖα τῇ ΓΛ. BC.† And let the center F of the circle ABCDE have been found [Prop. ΒΚ ἐστιν ἴσα. Δ. διὰ τὰ αὐτα δὴ δειχθήσεται καὶ ἡ ΘΚ τῆς ΒΚ διπλῆ. angle BF K is equal to [angle] KF C [Prop. ἴση ἄρα ἡ ΒΚ τῇ ΓΚ. D. ὧν τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς ΖΓ τῷ ἀπὸ τῆς ΖΒ ἐστιν ἴσον· λοιπὸν ἄρα τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς ΓΚ τῷ ἀπὸ τῆς ΒΚ ἐστιν ἴσον. Thus. the angles at B and D are also right-angles. CD. Γ. ΒΚ ἴσον ἐστὶ τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς ΖΚ· ὥστε τὰ ἀπὸ τῶν ΖΓ.STOIQEIWN dþ. And since angle F CK is a rightangle. F L. and E have been conceived as the angular points of a pentagon having been inscribed (in circle ABCDE) [Prop. C. and F K (is) common. So. Ε. such that the circumferences AB. ΖΔ. Thus. F C. BF C (is) double KF C. ἡ δὲ ὑπὸ ΒΚΓ τῆς ὑπὸ ΖΚΓ. ΓΚ τοῖς ἀπὸ τῶν ΖΒ. Thus. And since F B is equal to F C. Δ σημείοις γωνίαι ὀρθαί εἰσιν. So it is required to circumscribe an equilateral and equiangular pentagon about circle ABCDE. Let A. καὶ ἐπεὶ ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ΚΓ τῇ ΓΛ. F C is thus perpendicular to KL [Prop. KL. 3. the (square) on F K is also equal to the (sum of the squares) on F B and BK. touching the circle. KF C is also equal to LF C.18]. F K are equal to the two (straight-lines) CF . καί ἐστιν ἡ ΒΚ τῇ ΚΓ ἴση· καὶ ἡ ΘΚ ἄρα τῇ ΚΛ ἐστιν ἴση. καὶ κοινὴ ἡ ΖΚ. And let F B. and DF C (is double) LF C. D. And BKF (is equal) to F KC [Prop. and DLC (is also double) F LC. καὶ ἐπεὶ ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ΖΒ τῇ ΖΓ. and E (respectively). δύο δὴ τρίγωνά ἐστι τὰ ΖΚΓ. and F D have been joined. Δ. ἡ δὲ ὑπὸ ΖΚΓ γωνία τῇ ὑπὸ ΖΛΓ. 1. the two (straightlines) BF . And let GH. Β. καὶ ἐπεὶ ὀρθή ἐστιν ἡ ὑπὸ ΖΓΚ γωνία. for the same (reasons). And angle F CK is also equal to F CL. And since circumference BC is equal to CD. ἡ δὲ ὑπὸ ΔΛΓ τῆς ὑπὸ ΖΛΓ. and M G have been drawn through (points) A. and F C has been joined from the center F to the point of contact C. 1. So. ΕΑ περιφερείας· καὶ διὰ τῶν Α. Thus. of which the (square) on F C is equal to the (square) on F B.1]. ΖΚ ἴσαι εἰσίν· καὶ βάσις ἡ ΒΚ βάσει τῇ ΓΚ [ἐστιν] ἴση· γωνία ἄρα ἡ μὲν ὑπὸ ΒΖΚ [γωνίᾳ] τῇ ὑπὸ ΚΖΓ ἐστιν ἴση· ἡ δὲ ὑπὸ ΒΚΖ τῇ ὑπὸ ΖΚΓ· διπλῆ ἄρα ἡ μὲν ὑπὸ ΒΖΓ τῆς ὑπὸ ΚΖΓ. So that the (sum of the squares) on F C and CK is equal to the (sum of the squares) on F B and BK. διπλῆ ἄρα ἡ ΚΛ τῆς ΚΓ. καί ἐστιν ἡ μὲν ὑπὸ ΒΖΓ τῆς ὑπὸ ΚΖΓ διπλῆ. DE. B. So. Thus. Β. ἡ ΖΓ ἄρα κάθετός ἐστιν ἐπὶ τὴν ΚΛ· ὀρθὴ ἄρα ἐστὶν ἑκατέρα τῶν πρὸς τῷ Γ γωνιῶν. Καὶ ἐπεὶ ἡ μὲν ΚΛ εὐθεῖα ἐφάπτεται τοῦ ΑΒΓΔΕ κατὰ τὸ Γ. F K. Ε ἤχθωσαν τοῦ κύκλου ἐφαπτόμεναι αἱ ΗΘ. 3. ELEMENTS BOOK 4 Η Α G Ε A Μ Θ H M Ζ F Β ∆ Κ Γ E B Λ D K ῎Εστω ὁ δοθεὶς κύκλος ὁ ΑΒΓΔΕ· δεῖ δὲ περὶ τὸν ΑΒΓΔΕ κύκλον πεντάγωνον ἰσόπλευρόν τε καὶ ἰσογώνιον περιγράψαι. C. 3. ὁμοίως δὴ δειχθήσεται C L Let ABCDE be the given circle. διὰ τὰ αὐτὰ δὴ καὶ ἡ μὲν ὑπὸ ΓΖΔ τῆς ὑπὸ ΓΖΛ ἐστι διπλῆ. ΖΚ δυσὶ ταῖς ΓΖ. for the same (reasons). ΖΛ. the remaining (square) on CK is equal to the remaining (square) on BK. B. ΓΚ. ἴση ἐστὶ καὶ γωνία ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΖΓ τῇ ὑπὸ ΓΖΔ. and BKC (is double) F KC. ΓΔ. δύο δὴ αἱ ΒΖ. and EA are equal. And since the straight-line KL touches (circle) ABCDE at C. διὰ τὰ αὐτὰ δὴ καὶ αἱ πρὸς τοῖς Β. ΘΚ. for the same (reasons). ΜΗ. καὶ ἐπεὶ ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ΒΓ περιφέρεια τῇ ΓΔ. each of the angles at C is a rightangle.47]. And the base BK [is] equal to the base CK. BK (is) equal to CK.27]. ΛΜ. HK. F K. the (square) on F K is thus equal to the (sum of the squares) on F C and CK [Prop. καὶ εἰλήφθω τοῦ ΑΒΓΔΕ κύκλου κέντρον τὸ Ζ. ΒΓ. angle BF C is also equal to CF D [Prop.11]. 1. ΖΚ. ΚΛ.8]. καὶ ἐπεζεύχθωσαν αἱ ΖΒ. 3. ἀπὸ δὲ τοῦ Ζ κέντρου ἐπὶ τὴν κατὰ τὸ Γ ἐπαφὴν ἐπέζευκται ἡ ΖΓ. Γ. ὥστε ἴσας εἶναι τὰς ΑΒ. ΔΕ. CF D is also double CF L. Thus. And BF C is double KF C. Νενοήσθω τοῦ ἐγγεγραμμένου πενταγώνου τῶν γωνιῶν σημεῖα τὰ Α. LM . F KC and F LC are two triangles hav- 121 . ΖΓ.8]. διὰ τὰ αὐτὰ δὴ καὶ τοῖς ἀπὸ τῶν ΖΒ. ἡ δὲ ὑπὸ ΔΖΓ τῆς ὑπὸ ΛΖΓ· ἴση ἄρα καὶ ἡ ὑπὸ ΚΖΓ τῇ ὑπὸ ΛΖΓ· ἐστὶ δὲ καὶ ἡ ὑπὸ ΖΓΚ γωνία τῇ ὑπὸ ΖΓΛ ἴση. τὸ ἄρα ἀπὸ τῆς ΖΚ ἴσον ἐστὶ τοῖς ἀπὸ τῶν ΖΓ. So.

34. (Which is) the very thing it was required to do. Thus. and the remaining angle to the remaining angle [Prop. ἐπεὶ γὰρ ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ὑπὸ ΖΚΓ γωνία τῇ ὑπὸ ΖΛΓ. καὶ ἐπεὶ ἴση ἐστὶν K D Let ABCDE be the given equilateral and equiangular pentagon. And since KC is equal to CL. [Περὶ τὸν δοθέντα ἄρα κύκλον πεντάγωνον ἰσόπλευρόν τε καὶ ἰσογώνιον περιγέγραπται]· ὅπερ ἔδει ποιῆσαι. ΖΕ εὐθεῖαι. ΔΖ εὐθεῖαι. and KLM double F LC. and M L can also be shown (to be) equal to each of HK and KL. For let angles BCD and CDE have each been cut in half by each of the straight-lines CF and DF (respectively) [Prop. and the angle F KC to F LC. the straight-line KC (is) equal to CL. ἐπεζεύχθωσαν αἱ ΖΒ. Thus. LM G. 1. And BK is equal to KC. 1. καὶ περιγέγραπται περὶ τὸν ΑΒΓΔΕ κύκλον. they will also have the remaining sides equal to the (corresponding) remaining sides. So. κύκλον ἐγγράψαι. Thus. And it was also shown (to be) equilateral. and GM L can also be shown (to be) equal to each of HKL and KLM . GM . pentagon GHKLM is equilateral. similarly. HK is also equal to KL. similarly.9].26]. Α A Η Μ M G Β Ε B E Ζ F Λ Θ Γ Κ H ∆ L C ῎Εστω τὸ δοθὲν πεντάγωνον ἰσόπλευρόν τε καὶ ἰσογώνιον τὸ ΑΒΓΔΕ· δεῖ δὴ εἰς τὸ ΑΒΓΔΕ πεντάγωνον κύκλον ἐγγράψαι. ὅτι καὶ ἰσογώνιον. ΘΚΛ. Τετμήσθω γὰρ ἑκατέρα τῶν ὑπὸ ΒΓΔ. See the footnote to Prop. τῆς δὲ ὑπὸ ΖΛΓ διπλῆ ἡ ὑπὸ ΚΛΜ. And from the point F . ΛΜΗ. igþ. let the 122 . and M GH are equal to one another. and HKL was shown (to be) double F KC. ἐδείχθη δὲ καὶ ἰσόπλευρον. ΚΛ ἴση· ἰσόπλευρον ἄρα ἐστὶ τὸ ΗΘΚΛΜ πεντάγωνον. HKL is thus also equal to KLM . it can be shown that HK (is) also double BK. Thus. ΖΑ. For since angle F KC is equal to F LC. So. ΗΜΛ ἑκατέρᾳ τῶν ὑπὸ ΘΚΛ. ΗΜ. and one side equal to one side. each of HG. λέγω δή. So it is required to inscribe a circle in pentagon ABCDE. ΓΔΕ γωνιῶν δίχα ὑπὸ ἑκατέρας τῶν ΓΖ. ΚΛΜ ἴση· αἱ πέντε ἄρα γωνίαι αἱ ὑπὸ ΗΘΚ. ΜΛ ἑκατέρᾳ τῶν ΘΚ. Proposition 13 Εἰς τὸ δοθὲν πεντάγωνον. καθ᾿ ὃ συμβάλλουσιν ἀλλήλαις αἱ ΓΖ. καὶ ἡ ὑπὸ ΘΚΛ ἄρα τῇ ὑπὸ ΚΛΜ ἐστιν ἴση. ἰσογώνιον ἄρα ἐστὶ τὸ ΗΘΚΛΜ πεντάγωνον.STOIQEIWN dþ. ΔΖ εὐθειῶν· καὶ ἀπὸ τοῦ Ζ σημείου. which is equiἰσογώνιον. ELEMENTS BOOK 4 καὶ ἑκάστη τῶν ΘΗ. ΜΗΘ ἴσαι ἀλλήλαις εἰσίν. [Thus. ΘΗΜ. ΚΛΜ. So I say that (it is) also equiangular. an equilateral and equiangular pentagon has been circumscribed about the given circle]. KLM . each of KHG. 3. Thus. ὅ ἐστιν ἰσόπλευρόν τε καὶ To inscribe a circle in a given pentagon. HGM . lateral and equiangular. and has been circumscribed about circle ABCDE. the pentagon GHKLM is equiangular. HKL. the five angles GHK. (namely) their common (side) F C. So. † ing two angles equal to two angles. καὶ ἐδείχθη τῆς μὲν ὑπὸ ΖΚΓ διπλῆ ἡ ὑπὸ ΘΚΛ. Thus. at which the straight-lines CF and DF meet one another. for the same (reasons). ὁμοίως δὴ δειχθήσεται καὶ ἑκάστη τῶν ὑπὸ ΚΘΗ. KL (is) thus double KC.

Thus. from its extremity. ΓΖ δυσὶ ταῖς ΔΓ. So. and triangle BCF is equal to triangle DCF . DE. angle ABC has been cut in half by the straight-line BF . Thus. κοινὴ δὲ ἡ ΓΖ. ΖΛ. Let it have been drawn. it follows that a (straight-line) drawn at rightangles to the diameter of the circle. idþ. L. the circle drawn with center F . F K. F L. and one side equal to one side. 1. ΓΔ. Εἰς ἄρα τὸ δοθὲν πεντάγωνον. or M . Θ. ἀλλὰ τεμεῖ αὐτάς. K. and F M have been drawn from point F . and F E have been joined. ΖΚ ἴση ἐστίν· αἱ πέντε ἄρα εὐθεῖαι αἱ ΖΗ. Θ. respectively. ΒΓ. and M being right-angles. ΖΗ ἑκατέρᾳ τῶν ΖΘ. and F M are equal to one another. So. 1. and F G are each equal to each of F H and F K. ΖΘ. H. συμβήσεται τὴν τῇ διαμέτρῳ τοῦ κύκλου πρὸς ὀρθὰς ἀπ᾿ ἄκρας ἀγομένην ἐντὸς πίπτειν τοῦ κύκλου· ὅπερ ἄτοπον ἐδείχθη. κύκλον περιγράψαι. And since CDE is double CDF . CD. BC. ῎Εστω τὸ δοθὲν πεντάγωνον. (Which is) the very thing it was required to do. Θ. ΔΕ. Λ. similarly. and radius one of G. perpendicular to the straight-lines AB. and the remaining angles will be equal to the (corresponding) remaining angles which the equal sides subtend [Prop.12]. F A. the five straight-lines F G. ἐστὶ δὲ καὶ ὀρθὴ ἡ ὑπὸ ΖΘΓ [ὀρθῇ] τῇ ὑπὸ ΖΚΓ ἴση. καὶ ἐπεὶ διπλῆ ἐστιν ἡ ὑπὸ ΓΔΕ τῆς ὑπὸ ΓΔΖ. and the right-angle F HC is also equal to the [right-angle] F KC. ἡ δὲ ὑπὸ ΓΔΖ τῇ ὑπὸ ΓΒΖ. F M . on account of the angles at points G. And since BC is equal to CD. Thus. CD. καὶ ἡ ὑπὸ ΓΒΑ ἄρα τῆς ὑπὸ ΓΒΖ ἐστι διπλῆ· ἴση ἄρα ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΒΖ γωνία τῇ ὑπὸ ΖΒΓ· ἡ ἄρα ὑπὸ ΑΒΓ γωνία δίχα τέτμηται ὑπὸ τῆς ΒΖ εὐθείας. ΔΕ. ὅ ἐστιν ἰσόπλευρόν τε καὶ Let ABCDE be the given pentagon which is equilat- 123 . the base BF is equal to the base DF .4]. F HC and F KC are two triangles having two angles equal to two angles. ὁ ἄρα κέντρῳ τῷ Ζ διαστήματι δὲ ἑνὶ τῶν Η. Thus. ΕΑ εὐθειῶν διὰ τὸ ὀρθὰς εἶναι τὰς πρὸς τοῖς Η. ὑφ᾿ ἃς αἱ ἴσαι πλευραὶ ὑποτείνουσιν· ἴση ἄρα ἡ ὑπὸ ΓΒΖ γωνία τῇ ὑπὸ ΓΔΖ. ὅτι καὶ ἑκάστη τῶν ΖΛ. For if it does not touch them. καὶ αἱ λοιπαὶ γωνίαι ταῖς λοιπαῖς γωνίαις ἴσαι ἔσονται. Μ κύκλος γραφόμενος ἥξει καὶ διὰ τῶν λοιπῶν σημείων καὶ ἐφάψεται τῶν ΑΒ. δύο δὴ αἱ ΒΓ. ΖΜ. Κ. οὐκ ἄρα ὁ κέντρῳ τῷ Ζ διαστήματι δὲ ἑνὶ τῶν Η. falls inside the circle. and will touch the straight-lines AB. And angle BCF [is] equal to angle DCF . CD. and CDE (is) equal to ABC. angle CBF (is) equal to CDF . Thus. ΓΖ ἴσαι εἰσίν· καὶ γωνία ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΓΖ γωνίᾳ τῇ ὑπὸ ΔΓΖ [ἐστιν] ἴση· βάσις ἄρα ἡ ΒΖ βάσει τῇ ΔΖ ἐστιν ἴση. ΖΘ. καὶ ἐπεὶ ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ὑπὸ ΘΓΖ γωνία τῇ ὑπὸ ΚΓΖ. F K. DE. ΖΚΓ τὰς δύο γωνίας δυσὶ γωνίαις ἴσας ἔχοντα καὶ μίαν πλευρὰν μιᾷ πλευρᾷ ἴσην κοινὴν αὐτῶν τὴν ΖΓ ὑποτείνουσαν ὑπὸ μίαν τῶν ἴσων γωνιῶν· καὶ τὰς λοιπὰς ἄρα πλευρὰς ταῖς λοιπαῖς πλευραῖς ἴσας ἕξει· ἴση ἄρα ἡ ΖΘ κάθετος τῂ ΖΚ καθέτῳ. Thus. ΖΛ. CBA is thus also double CBF . (namely) their common (side) F C. δύο δὴ τρίγωνά ἐστι τὰ ΖΘΓ. ΕΑ εὐθείας κάθετοι αἱ ΖΗ. The very thing was shown (to be) absurd [Prop. ΖΚ. ἤχθωσαν δὴ ἀπὸ τοῦ Ζ σημείου ἐπὶ τὰς ΑΒ. Κ. straight-lines F B. Thus. BC. or EA. ΕΑ εὐθείας· ἐφάψεται ἄρα αὐτῶν. and CF (is) common.26]. and EA (respectively) [Prop. ὁμοίως δὴ δειχθήσεται. the circle drawn with center F . ELEMENTS BOOK 4 ἡ ΒΓ τῇ ΓΔ. F H. CF are equal to the two (straightlines) DC. angle ABF is equal to F BC. and EA. they will also have the remaining sides equal to the (corresponding) remaining sides [Prop.STOIQEIWN dþ. ὅ ἐστιν ἰσόπλευρόν τε καὶ ἰσογώνιον. K. H. ΑΕΔ δίχα τέτμηται ὑπὸ ἑκατέρας τῶν ΖΑ. the perpendicular F H (is) equal to the perpendicular F K. γεγράφθω ὡς ὁ ΗΘΚΛΜ. ὅτι καὶ ἑκατέρα τῶν ὑπὸ ΒΑΕ. Λ. ὁμοίως δὴ δειχθήσεται. and CDF to CBF . So let F G. DE.16]. and radius one of G. H. BC. ΖΕ εὐθειῶν. Μ σημείοις γωνίας. Thus. And since angle HCF is equal to KCF . κύκλος ἐγγέγραπται· ὅπερ ἔδει ποιῆσαι. ΔΕ. εἰ γὰρ οὐκ ἐφάψεται αὐτῶν. F H. like GHKLM (in the figure). will also go through the remaining points. L. ΓΔ. ΖΜ. it can be shown that F L. subtending one of the equal angles. does not cut the straight-lines AB. L. K. ἴση δὲ ἡ μὲν ὑπὸ ΓΔΕ τῇ ὑπὸ ΑΒΓ. CF . ΖΚ. Λ. is equilateral and equiangular. καὶ τὸ ΒΓΖ τρίγωνον τῷ ΔΓΖ τριγώνῳ ἐστιν ἴσον. a circle has been inscribed in the given pentagon which is equilateral and equiangular. Κ. Μ σημείων γραφόμενος κύκλος τεμεῖ τὰς ΑΒ. ΖΜ ἴσαι ἀλλήλαις εἰσίν. ὅ ἐστιν ἰσόπλευρόν τε καὶ To circumscribe a circle about a given pentagon which ἰσογώνιον. but cuts them. ΒΓ. Proposition 14 Περὶ τὸ δοθὲν πεντάγωνον. it will touch them. ΓΔ. similarly. Thus. ΒΓ. 3. F L. the two (straight-lines) BC. Thus. Thus. or M . 1. it can be shown that BAE and AED have been cut in half by the straight-lines F A and F E.

with center D. ΖΔ ἐστιν ἴση· αἱ πέντε ἄρα εὐθεῖαι αἱ ΖΑ. the five straight-lines F A. ΒΑΕ. F D. καὶ εἰλήφθω τὸ κέντρον τοῦ κύκλου τὸ Η.STOIQEIWN dþ. καὶ ἡ ὑπὸ ΖΓΔ ἄρα τῇ ὑπὸ ΖΔΓ ἐστιν ἴση· ὥστε καὶ πλευρὰ ἡ ΖΓ πλευρᾷ τῇ ΖΔ ἐστιν ἴση. ὁμοίως δὴ δειχθήσεται. καθ᾿ ὃ συμβάλλουσιν αἱ εὐθεῖαι. ΓΔΕ γωνιῶν δίχα ὑπὸ ἑκατέρας τῶν ΓΖ. ὅ ἐστιν ἰσόπλευρόν τε καὶ ἰσογώνιον. will also go through the remaining points. Thus. and F E are equal to one another. F A. ΕΖ. ΖΔ. ΑΕΔ γωνιῶν δίχα τέτμηται ὑπὸ ἑκάστης τῶν ΖΒ. A. ΖΕ ἴσαι ἀλλήλαις εἰσίν. and AED have also been cut in half by the straight-lines F B. ΖΕ ἑκατέρᾳ τῶν ΖΓ. and CDF half of CDE. F B. a circle has been circumscribed about the given pentagon. Α. 1. ΖΑ· λέγω. And EG and CG being joined. to the points B. Α A Β Ε B E Ζ Γ F ∆ C D Τετμήσθω δὴ ἑκατέρα τῶν ὑπὸ ΒΓΔ. ἐπὶ τὰ Β. καί ἐστι τῆς μὲν ὑπὸ ΒΓΔ ἡμίσεια ἡ ὑπὸ ΖΓΔ. to the (proposition) before this (one).† and let the center G of the circle have been found [Prop. So it is required to circumscribe a κύκλον περιγράψαι. ὅτι καὶ ἑκάστη τῶν ὑπὸ ΓΒΑ. καὶ ἐπεὶ ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΓΔ γωνία τῇ ὑπὸ ΓΔΕ. and F E have been joined from point F . καὶ ἀπὸ τοῦ Ζ σημείου. ῎Ηχθω τοῦ ΑΒΓΔΕΖ κύκλου διάμετρος ἡ ΑΔ. (Which is) the very thing it was required to do. ΖΒ. ὁμοίως δὴ τῷ πρὸ τούτου δειχθήσεται. and let it be ABCDE.9]. ΔΖ. ΖΒ. Ζ σημεῖα. Let the diameter AD of circle ABCDEF have been drawn. Proposition 15 Εἰς τὸν δοθέντα κύκλον ἑξάγωνον ἰσόπλευρόν τε καὶ ἰσογώνιον ἐγγράψαι. respectively [Prop. similarly. and E (respectively). and F CD is half of BCD. καὶ κέντρῳ μὲν τῷ Δ διαστήματι δὲ τῷ ΔΗ κύκλος γεγράφθω ὁ ΕΗΓΘ. or F E. ΖΓ. ΒΓ. respectively. Περὶ ἄρα τὸ δοθὲν πεντάγωνον. So that side F C is also equal to side F D [Prop. F C. at which the straight-lines meet. F B. ELEMENTS BOOK 4 ἰσογώνιον. So. F A. Thus. And let the straight-lines F B. So let angles BCD and CDE have been cut in half by the (straight-lines) CF and DF . and will have been circumscribed. ΖΑ. τὸ ΑΒΓΔΕ· δεῖ δὴ περὶ τὸ ΑΒΓΔΕ πεντάγωνον eral and equiangular. τῆς δὲ ὑπὸ ΓΔΕ ἡμίσεια ἡ ὑπὸ ΓΔΖ. Let it have been (so) circumscribed. 3. ΖΑ. So. ΖΕ εὐθειῶν. ΖΕ. So it is required to inscribe an equilateral and equiangular hexagon in circle ABCDEF . similarly. F D. And since angle BCD is equal to CDE. 1. Let ABCDEF be the given circle. and radius one of F A. F A. ῎Εστω ὁ δοθεὶς κύκλος ὁ ΑΒΓΔΕΖ· δεῖ δὴ εἰς τὸν ΑΒΓΔΕΖ κύκλον ἑξάγωνον ἰσόπλευρόν τε καὶ ἰσογώνιον ἐγγράψαι. F C. it can be shown that F B. ieþ. and radius DG. περιγεγράφθω καὶ ἔστω ὁ ΑΒΓΔΕ. ΔΕ. And let the circle EGCH have been drawn.6]. Thus. F CD is thus also equal to F DC. ΖΔ. ὅτι καὶ ἑκάστη τῶν ΖΒ. καὶ ἐπιζευχθεῖσαι αἱ ΕΗ. the circle drawn with center F . it can be shown that angles CBA. and F E are also each equal to each of F C and F D. κύκλος περιγέγραπται· ὅπερ ἔδει ποιῆσαι. circle about the pentagon ABCDE. ὀ ἄρα κέντρῳ τῷ Ζ καὶ διαστήματι ἑνὶ τῶν ΖΑ.1]. ΖΕ κύκλος γραφόμενος ἥξει καὶ διὰ τῶν λοιπῶν σημείων καὶ ἔσται περιγεγραμμένος. ὅτι To inscribe an equilateral and equiangular hexagon in a given circle. which is equilateral and equiangular. ΖΓ. Ε σημεῖα ἐπεζεύχθωσαν εὐθεῖαι αἱ ΖΒ. ΓΔ. καὶ ἐπεζεύχθωσαν αἱ ΑΒ. let them have been drawn across (the cir- 124 . ΖΑ. BAE. ΓΗ διήχθωσαν ἐπὶ τὰ Β. and F E.

ὁμοίως δὴ δειχθήσεται. BC. ΑΗΖ. ὅτι καὶ ἰσογώνιον. DGC. Thus. ΔΕ. Thus. DGC. ΔΗΓ. And since the straight-line CG. ΓΔ. CD. 1. ΗΔΕ. ὁμοίως δὴ δειχθήσεται καὶ ἡ ὑπὸ ΔΗΓ τρίτον δύο ὀρθῶν. So. Again. But. And angle F ED stands on circumference F ABCD. ΖΗΕ ἴσαι εἰσὶν [ταῖς ὑπὸ ΕΗΔ. And the three angles of the triangle are equal to two right-angles [Prop. since point D is the center of circle GCH. ΓΗΒ. EF . And hence the (angles) opposite to them BGA. καὶ ἐπεὶ ἡ ΓΗ εὐθεῖα ἐπὶ τὴν ΕΒ σταθεῖσα τὰς ἐφεξῆς γωνίας τὰς ὑπὸ ΕΗΓ. the six angles EGD. Thus. and F GE are equal to one another. Thus. Thus. 1. πάλιν. similarly. the six circumferences AB. DE. ΑΗΖ. ἐπὶ δὲ τῆς ΕΔΓΒΑ περιφερείας ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΖΕ γωνία· ἴση ἄρα ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΖΕ γωνία τῇ ὑπὸ ΔΕΖ. ΔΗΓ. DE. CGB. AGF . ΓΗΒ γωνίαι ἴσαι ἀλλήλαις εἰσίν· ὥστε καὶ αἱ κατὰ κορυφὴν αὐταῖς αἱ ὑπὸ ΒΗΑ. angle EGD is one third of two rightangles. and F A) are equal to one another. EF . ΖΗΕ ἴσαι ἀλλήλαις εἰσίν. angles EGD. triangle EGD is equilateral. GE is also equal to ED. CD. ΖΑ ἴσαι ἀλλήλαις εἰσίν. ἐπεὶ γὰρ ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ΖΑ περιφέρεια τῇ ΕΔ περιφερείᾳ. ELEMENTS BOOK 4 τὸ ΑΒΓΔΕΖ ἑξάγωνον ἰσόπλευρόν τέ ἐστι καὶ ἰσογώνιον. 3. EF . BGA. ΓΗΒ δυσὶν ὀρθαῖς ἴσας ποιεῖ. ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ΔΕ τῇ ΔΗ.15]. Thus. ΔΕΗ ἴσαι ἀλλήλαις εἰσίν. ΓΗΒ]. Thus. Θ cle) to points B and F (respectively). BC. ἀλλ᾿ ἡ ΗΕ τῇ ΗΔ ἐδείχθη ἴση· καὶ ἡ ΗΕ ἄρα τῇ ΕΔ ἴση ἐστίν· ἰσόπλευρον ἄρα ἐστὶ τὸ ΕΗΔ τρίγωνον· καὶ αἱ τρεῖς ἄρα αὐτοῦ γωνίαι αἱ ὑπὸ ΕΗΔ. and angle AF E on circumference EDCBA. CD. ἐπεὶ τὸ Δ σημεῖον κέντρον ἐστὶ τοῦ ΗΓΘ κύκλου. Thus.13]. GE is equal to GD. ΒΓ. BC. ὅτι καὶ αἱ λοιπαὶ γωνίαι τοῦ ΑΒΓΔΕΖ ἑξαγώνου κατὰ μίαν ἴσαι εἰσὶν ἑκατέρᾳ τῶν ὑπὸ ΑΖΕ. its three angles EGD. ΕΖ. DE. 1. Thus. GE was shown (to be) equal to GD. standing on EB. καὶ λοιπὴ ἄρα ἡ ὑπὸ ΓΗΒ τρίτον ἐστὶ δύο ὀρθῶν· αἱ ἄρα ὑπὸ ΕΗΔ. the whole of F ABCD is equal to the whole of EDCBA. DE is equal to DG. and F A are equal to one another. H ∆ D Ε Γ Η Β E C G Ζ B Α ᾿Επεὶ γὰρ τὸ Η σημεῖον κέντρον ἐστὶ τοῦ ΑΒΓΔΕΖ κύκλου. And equal angles stand on equal circumferences [Prop. angle AF E is equal 125 .STOIQEIWN dþ. and CGB (respectively)] [Prop. and F A have been joined. and F GE are also equal [to EGD. ΒΗΑ. 1. ΖΕΔ γωνιῶν· ἰσογώνιον ἄρα ἐστὶ τὸ ΑΒΓΔΕΖ ἑξάγωνον. the remaining angle CGB is thus also one third of two right-angles. inasmuch as the angles at the base of isosceles triangles are equal to one another [Prop. ΔΗΓ. DGC. and CGB are equal to one another. 3. hexagon ABCDEF is equilateral. Εἰς ἄρα τὸν δοθέντα κύκλον ἑξάγωνον ἰσόπλευρόν τε F A For since point G is the center of circle ABCDEF . αἱ δὲ ἴσαι γωνίαι ἐπὶ ἴσων περιφερειῶν βεβήκασιν· αἱ ἓξ ἄρα περιφέρειαι αἱ ΑΒ. Thus.29]. makes adjacent angles EGC and CGB equal to two right-angles [Prop. I say that (it is) also equiangular. And let AB. let circumference ABCD have been added to both.26]. GDE. κοινὴ προσκείσθω ἡ ΑΒΓΔ περιφέρεια· ὅλη ἄρα ἡ ΖΑΒΓΔ ὅλῃ τῇ ΕΔΓΒΑ ἐστιν ἴση· καὶ βέβηκεν ἐπὶ μὲν τῆς ΖΑΒΓΔ περιφερείας ἡ ὑπὸ ΖΕΔ γωνία.5]. the six straight-lines (AB. ὑπὸ δὲ τὰς ἴσας περιφερείας αἱ ἴσαι εὐθεῖαι ὑποτείνουσιν· αἱ ἓξ ἄρα εὐθεῖαι ἴσαι ἀλλήλαις εἰσίν· ἰσόπλευρον ἄρα ἐστὶ το ΑΒΓΔΕΖ ἑξάγωνον. DGC can also be shown (to be) one third of two right-angles. αἱ ἓξ ἄρα γωνίαι αἱ ὑπὸ ΕΗΔ. ἐπειδήπερ τῶν ἰσοσκελῶν τριγώνων αἱ πρὸς τῇ βάσει γωνίαι ἴσαι ἀλλήλαις εἰσίν· καί εἰσιν αἱ τρεῖς τοῦ τριγώνου γωνίαι δυσὶν ὀρθαῖς ἴσαι· ἡ ἄρα ὑπὸ ΕΗΔ γωνία τρίτον ἐστὶ δύο ὀρθῶν. and DEG are also equal to one another. And equal circumferences are subtended by equal straight-lines [Prop.32]. λέγω δή. So. I say that the hexagon ABCDEF is equilateral and equiangular. Thus. ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ΗΕ τῇ ΗΔ. For since circumference F A is equal to circumference ED. AGF . ἐδείχθη δὲ καὶ ἰσόπλευρον· καὶ ἐγγέγραπται εἰς τὸν ΑΒΓΔΕΖ κύκλον.

Pìrisma. from this. ἡ δὲ ΑΒ περιφέρεια πέμτον οὖσα τοῦ κύκλου ἔσται τριῶν· λοιπὴ ἄρα D Let ABCD be the given circle. hexagon ABCDEF is equiangular. an equilateral and equiangular hexagon has been inscribed in the given circle. analogously to the aforementioned pentagon.STOIQEIWN dþ. and (the side) AB of an (inscribed) equilateral pentagon [Prop. (Which is) the very thing it was required to do. So. 4. will be (made up) of five 126 . So it is required to inscribe an equilateral and equiangular fifteen-sided figure in circle ABCD. the circumference ABC. καὶ ἔτι διὰ τῶν ὁμοίων τοῖς ἐπὶ τοῦ πενταγώνου εἰρημένοις εἰς τὸ δοθὲν ἑξάγωνον κύκλον ἐγγράψομέν τε καὶ περιγράψομεν· ὅπερ ἔδει ποιῆσαι. Α A Β B Ε E Γ ∆ C ῎Εστω ὁ δοθεὶς κύκλος ὁ ΑΒΓΔ· δεῖ δὴ εἰς τὸν ΑΒΓΔ κύκλον πεντεκαιδεκάγωνον ἰσόπλευρόν τε καὶ ἰσογώνιον ἐγγράψαι. it can also be shown that the remaining angles of hexagon ABCDEF are individually equal to each of the angles AF E and F ED. if we draw tangents to the circle through the (sixfold) divisions of the (circumference of the) circle. ὅτι ἡ τοῦ ἑξαγώνου πλευρὰ ἴση ἐστὶ τῇ ἐκ τοῦ κέντρου τοῦ κύκλου. ῾Ομοίως δὲ τοῖς ἐπὶ τοῦ πενταγώνου ἐὰν διὰ τῶν κατὰ τὸν κύκλον διαιρέσεων ἐφαπτομένας τοῦ κύκλου ἀγάγωμεν. further. 3. Corollary ᾿Εκ δὴ τούτου φανερόν. ᾿Εγγεγράφθω εἰς τὸν ΑΒΓΔ κύκλον τριγώνου μὲν ἰσοπλεύρου τοῦ εἰς αὐτὸν ἐγγραφομένου πλευρὰ ἡ ΑΓ. πενταγώνου δὲ ἰσοπλεύρου ἡ ΑΒ· οἵων ἄρα ἐστὶν ὁ ΑΒΓΔ κύκλος ἴσων τμήματων δεκαπέντε.2]. 4. Proposition 16 Εἰς τὸν δοθέντα κύκλον πεντεκαιδεκάγωνον ἰσόπλευρόν To inscribe an equilateral and equiangular fifteenτε καὶ ἰσογώνιον ἐγγράψαι. being a third of the circle. to DEF [Prop. iþ. † See the footnote to Prop. (Which is) the very thing it was required to do. Similarly. have been inscribed in circle ABCD. an equilateral and equiangular hexagon can be circumscribed about the circle. And. 4. we can inscribe and circumscribe a circle in (and about) a given hexagon. Thus. And it was also shown (to be) equilateral. Thus. Thus.11].6. just as the circle ABCD is (made up) of fifteen equal pieces. περιγραφήσεται περὶ τὸν κύκλον ἑξάγωνον ἰσόπλευρόν τε καὶ ἰσογώνιον ἀκολούθως τοῖς ἐπὶ τοῦ πενταγώνου εἰρημένοις. ELEMENTS BOOK 4 καὶ ἰσογώνιον ἐγγέγραπται· ὅπερ ἔδει ποιῆσαι. And it has been inscribed in circle ABCDE. And similarly to a pentagon. sided figure in a given circle.27]. by (means) similar to the aforementioned pentagon. Let the side AC of an equilateral triangle inscribed in (the circle) [Prop. τοιούτων ἡ μὲν ΑΒΓ περιφέρεια τρίτον οὖσα τοῦ κύκλου ἔσται πέντε. (it is) manifest that a side of the hexagon is equal to the radius of the circle.

Thus. we continuously insert straight-lines equal to them into circle ABCD[E] [Prop. and the circumference AB. the remainder BC (will be made up) of two equal (pieces). such (pieces). ἔσται εἰς αὐτὸν ἐγγεγραμμένον πεντεκαιδεκάγωνον ἰσόπλευρόν τε καὶ ἰσογώνιον· ὅπερ ἔδει ποιῆσαι.30]. 4. ᾿Εὰν ἄρα ἐπιζεύξαντες τὰς ΒΕ. we can also inscribe and circumscribe a circle in (and about) a given fifteen-sided figure. (Which is) the very thing it was required to do. 127 . And. ΕΓ ἴσας αὐταῖς κατὰ τὸ συνεχὲς εὐθείας ἐναρμόσωμεν εἰς τὸν ΑΒΓΔ[Ε] κύκλον. ἔτι δὲ διὰ τῶν ὁμοίων τοῖς ἐπὶ τοῦ πενταγώνου δείξεων καὶ εἰς τὸ δοθὲν πεντεκαιδεκάγωνον κύκλον ἐγγράψομέν τε καὶ περιγράψομεν· ὅπερ ἔδει ποιῆσαι. τετμήσθω ἡ ΒΓ δίχα κατὰ τὸ Ε· ἑκατέρα ἄρα τῶν ΒΕ. Thus. περιγραφήσεται περὶ τὸν κύκλον πεντεκαιδεκάγωνον ἰσόπλευρόν τε καὶ ἰσογώνιον. being a fifth of the circle. then an equilateral and equiangular fifteensided figure will have been inserted into (the circle). will be (made up) of three. ELEMENTS BOOK 4 ἡ ΒΓ τῶν ἴσων δύο. if we draw tangents to the circle through the (fifteenfold) divisions of the (circumference of the) circle. 3.STOIQEIWN dþ. And similarly to the pentagon. ΕΓ περιφερειῶν πεντεκαιδέκατόν ἐστι τοῦ ΑΒΓΔ κύκλου. joining BE and EC.1]. (Which is) the very thing it was required to do. through similar proofs to the pentagon. further. Let (circumference) BC have been cut in half at E [Prop. ῾Ομοίως δὲ τοῖς ἐπὶ τοῦ πενταγώνου ἐὰν διὰ τῶν κατὰ τὸν κύκλον διαιρέσεων ἐφαπτομένας τοῦ κύκλου ἀγάγωμεν. we can circumscribe an equilateral and equiangular fifteen-sided figure about the circle. Thus. each of the circumferences BE and EC is one fifteenth of the circle ABCDE. if.

128 .

denote positive integers. l.. β. n. The novel feature of this theory is its ability to deal with irrational magnitudes. whereas m.ELEMENTS BOOK 5 Proportion† † The theory of proportion set out in this book is generally attributed to Eudoxus of Cnidus. Throughout the footnotes in this book. γ. which had hitherto been a major stumbling block for Greek mathematicians.. etc. denote general (possibly irrational) magnitudes. α. 129 . etc.

whatever the (continuous) proportion might be. ῞Οταν δὲ τρία μεγέθη ἀνάλογον ᾖ. and the multiple of the third (magnitude) does not exceed the multiple of the fourth. when it measures the greater. ἤπερ τὸ τρίτον πρὸς τὸ τέταρτον.$ 9. ὡς ἂν ἡ ἀναλογία ὑπάρχῃ. ὅταν ᾖ ὡς ἐν τοῖς πρώτοις μεγέθεσι τὸ πρῶτον πρὸς τὸ ἔσχατον. ιζʹ. ᾿Αναστροφὴ λόγου ἐστὶ λῆψις τοῦ ἡγουμένου πρὸς τὴν ὑπεροχήν.§ 5. A composition of a ratio is a taking of the (ratio of the) leading plus the following (magnitudes). ᾿Αναλογία δὲ ἐν τρισὶν ὅροις ἐλαχίστη ἐστίν. similarly. respectively. Magnitudes are said to be in the same ratio. the lesser of the greater. in successive order. Μέρος ἐστὶ μέγεθος μεγέθους τὸ ἔλασσον τοῦ μείζονος. Διαίρεσις λόγου ἐστὶ λῆψις τῆς ὑπεροχῆς. τὸ πρῶτον πρὸς τὸ τρίτον διπλασίονα λόγον ἔχειν λέγεται ἤπερ πρὸς τὸ δεύτερον. τότε τὸ πρῶτον πρὸς τὸ δεύτερον μείζονα λόγον ἔχειν λέγεται. ELEMENTS BOOK 5 VOroi. and the third to the fourth. as one. 5). 8.‡ 4. Λόγος ἐστὶ δύο μεγεθῶν ὁμογενῶν ἡ κατὰ πηλικότητά ποια σχέσις. ῞Οταν δὲ τῶν ἰσάκις πολλαπλασίων τὸ μὲν τοῦ πρώτου πολλαπλάσιον ὑπερέχῃ τοῦ τοῦ δευτέρου πολλαπλασίου. Definitions αʹ.§§ And so on. ιϛʹ. the first is said to have to the third the squaredk ratio of that (it has) to the second. Πολλαπλάσιον δὲ τὸ μεῖζον τοῦ ἐλάττονος. And let magnitudes having the same ratio be called proportional.† 2. ιʹ. And the greater (magnitude is) a multiple of the lesser when it is measured by the lesser. Λόγον ἔχειν πρὸς ἄλληλα μεγέθη λέγεται. δʹ.†† 10. ᾿Εναλλὰξ λόγος ἐστὶ λῆψις τοῦ ἡγουμένου πρὸς τὸ ἡγούμενον καὶ τοῦ ἑπομένου πρὸς τὸ ἑπόμενον. are both equal to. when equal multiples of the first and the third either both exceed. These magnitudes are said to be corresponding (magnitudes): the leading to the leading (of two ratios). 11. ιδʹ. the first is said to have to the fourth the cubed‡‡ ratio of that (it has) to the second. (Those) magnitudes are said to have a ratio with respect to one another which. ζʹ. ὅταν καταμετρῆται ὑπὸ τοῦ ἐλάττονος. ὅταν τὰ τοῦ πρώτου καί τρίτου ἰσάκις πολλαπλάσια τῶν τοῦ δευτέρου καὶ τετάρτου ἰσάκις πολλαπλασίων καθ᾿ ὁποιονοῦν πολλαπλασιασμὸν ἑκάτερον ἑκατέρου ἢ ἅμα ὑπερέχῃ ἢ ἅμα ἴσα ᾖ ἢ ἅμα ἐλλείπῇ ληφθέντα κατάλληλα. 3. equal multiples of the second and the fourth. ὅταν καταμετρῇ τὸ μεῖζον. ιγʹ. ϛʹ. And when for equal multiples (as in Def.∗ 7. the multiple of the first (magnitude) exceeds the multiple of the second. θʹ. Σύνθεσις λόγου ἐστὶ λῆψις τοῦ ἡγουμένου μετὰ τοῦ ἑπομένου ὡς ἑνὸς πρὸς αὐτὸ τὸ ἑπόμενον. ἃ δύναται πολλαπλασιαζόμενα ἀλλήλων ὑπερέχειν. γʹ. or are both less than. βʹ. ιβʹ. ῾Ομόλογα μεγέθη λέγεται τὰ μὲν ἡγούμενα τοῖς ἡγουμένοις τὰ δὲ ἑπόμενα τοῖς ἑπομένοις. 12. are capable of exceeding one another. ᾗ ὑπερέχει τὸ ἡγούμενον τοῦ ἑπομένου. A ratio is a certain type of condition with respect to size of two magnitudes of the same kind. ιαʹ. An inverse ratio is a taking of the (ratio of the) following (magnitude) as the leading and the leading (magnitude) as the following. being multiplied. the first to the second. εʹ.STOIQEIWN eþ. and (setting it equal to) the (ratio of the) following (magnitude) to the following. τὸ δὲ τοῦ τρίτου πολλαπλάσιον μὴ ὑπερέχῃ τοῦ τοῦ τετάρτου πολλαπλασίου. πρὸς αὐτὸ τὸ ἑπόμενον. and the following to the following. καὶ ἀεὶ ἑξῆς ὁμοίως. And when four magnitudes are (continuously) proportional.$$ 130 . ῞Οταν δὲ τέσσαρα μεγέθη ἀνάλογον ᾖ. An alternate ratio is a taking of the (ratio of the) leading (magnitude) to the leading (of two equal ratios). οὕτως ἐν τοῖς δευτέροις μεγέθεσι τὸ πρῶτον πρὸς τὸ ἔσχατον· ἢ ἄλλως· λῆψις τῶν ἄκρων 1. ᾿Εν τῷ αὐτῷ λόγῳ μεγέθη λέγεται εἶναι πρῶτον πρὸς δεύτερον καὶ τρίτον πρὸς τέταρτον.∗∗ 14. ᾿Ανάπαλιν λόγος ἐστὶ λῆψις τοῦ ἑπομένου ὡς ἡγουμένου πρὸς τὸ ἡγούμενον ὡς ἑπόμενον. ιεʹ. being taken in corresponding order.¶¶ 13. And a proportion in three terms is the smallest (possible). A magnitude is a part of a(nother) magnitude. And when three magnitudes are proportional. τὸ πρῶτον πρὸς τὸ τέταρτον τριπλασίονα λόγον ἔχειν λέγεται ἤπερ πρὸς τὸ δεύτερον. according to any kind of multiplication whatever. ηʹ. ᾗ ὑπερέχει τὸ ἡγούμενον τοῦ ἑπομένου. to the following (magnitude) by itself. Δι᾿ ἴσου λόγος ἐστὶ πλειόνων ὄντων μεγεθῶν καὶ ἄλλων αὐτοῖς ἴσων τὸ πλῆθος σύνδυο λαμβανομένων καὶ ἐν τῷ αὐτῷ λόγῳ. Τὰ δὲ τὸν αὐτὸν ἔχοντα λόγον μεγέθη ἀνάλογον καλείσθω. then the first (magnitude) is said to have a greater ratio to the second than the third (magnitude has) to the fourth.¶ 6.

∗ Thus if α and β have the same ratio as γ and δ then they are proportional. (it is) a taking of the (ratio of the) outer (magnitudes) by the removal of the inner (magnitudes). ¶ In other words. if α : β :: β : γ :: γ : δ then α : δ :: α 3 : β 3 .STOIQEIWN eþ. ζ the second set. and is valid even if α. for some m and n. then the ratio via equality (or ex aequali) corresponds to α : γ :: δ : ζ. of equal number (to them). A conversion of a ratio is a taking of the (ratio of the) leading (magnitude) to the excess by which the leading (magnitude) exceeds the following. if α.††† 17. and δ. and δ. are irrational. and α : β :: δ : ǫ as well as β : γ :: ζ : δ.§§§ † In other words. if α : β :: β : γ then α : γ :: α 2 : β 2 .. if α. and α : β : γ :: δ : ǫ : ζ.kk 16. so the first (is) to the last in the second (set of) magnitudes. ὡς δὲ ἐν τοῖς πρώτοις μεγέθεσιν ἑπόμενον πρὸς ἄλλο τι. the ratio of two magnitudes. α : β :: γ : δ. A separation of a ratio is a taking of the (ratio of the) excess by which the leading (magnitude) exceeds the following to the following (magnitude) by itself. οὕτως ἐν τοῖς δευτέροις ἄλλο τι πρὸς ἡγούμενον. (which are) also in the same ratio taken two by two. β.. then as many 131 . ιηʹ. “double”. and γ—is written: α : β :: β : γ. ‡‡ Literally. and other (magnitudes) of equal number to them. γ are the first set of magnitudes. †† In other words. $$ In other words. This definition is the kernel of Eudoxus’ theory of proportion. is denoted α : β. ¶¶ In other words. § In other words. a perturbed proportion occurs when as the leading is to the following in the first (set of) magnitudes. α and β. §§§ In other words. so some other (is) to the leading in the second (set of) magnitudes. if α : β then the composed ratio corresponds to α + β : β. ǫ. and m α < n β whenever m γ < n δ. ǫ. and as the following (is) to some other (i. of some (other) ἐστιν ἓν τῶν μεγεθῶν ἑνός. if α : β then the separated ratio corresponds to α − β : β. the remaining magnitude) in the first (set of) magnitudes. β. Τεταραγμένη δὲ ἀναλογία ἐστίν. α has a ratio with respect to β if m α > β and n β > α. ὁσαπλάσιόν (which are) equal multiples. k Literally. In other words. so the leading (is) to the following in the second (set of) magnitudes. γ are the first set of magnitudes. οὕτως ἐν τοῖς δευτέροις μεγέθεσιν ἡγούμενον πρὸς ἑπόμενον. ὅταν τριῶν ὄντων μεγεθῶν καὶ ἄλλων αὐτοῖς ἴσων τὸ πλῆθος γίνηται ὡς μὲν ἐν τοῖς πρώτοις μεγέθεσιν ἡγούμενον πρὸς ἐπόμενον. ††† ‡‡‡ In other words. ‡ In modern notation. then the proportion is said to be perturbed. for all m and n. α is said to be a part of β if β = m α. if α : β :: γ : δ then the alternate ratio corresponds to α : γ :: β : δ. α : β :: γ : δ if and only if m α > n β whenever m γ > n δ. a proportion in three terms—α. ELEMENTS BOOK 5 καθ᾿ ὑπεξαίρεσιν τῶν μέσων. if α : β then the inverse ratio corresponds to β : α. and m α = n β whenever m γ = n δ. There being several magnitudes. aþ. if α : β then the converted ratio corresponds to α : α − β. There being three magnitudes. $ In modern notation. Proposition 1† ᾿Εὰν ᾖ ὁποσαοῦν μεγέθη ὁποσωνοῦν μεγεθῶν ἴσων τὸ If there are any number of magnitudes whatsoever πλῆθος ἕκαστον ἑκάστου ἰσάκις πολλαπλάσιον. etc. 15. a ratio via equality (or ex aequali) occurs when as the first is to the last in the first (set of) magnitudes. β.e. ∗∗ In other words. “triple”. respectively. ζ the second set. β. In modern notation. Or alternately.‡‡‡ 18. and other (magnitudes) of equal number to them. τοσαυταπλάσια ἔσται καὶ τὰ magnitudes. §§ In other words. kk In other words.

so many (are there) also in AB. (which are) equal multiples. HD. For let a first (magnitude) AB and a third DE be equal multiples of a second C and a fourth F (respectively). ἴσον ἄρα τὸ ΑΗ τῷ Ε. τοσαυταπλάσια ἔσται καὶ τὰ ΑΒ. of equal number (to them). bþ. Ζ. the number of (divisions) AG. for the same (reasons). καὶ συντεθὲν πρῶτον καὶ πέμπτον δευτέρου ἰσάκις ἔσται πολλαπλάσιον καὶ τρίτον καὶ ἕκτον τετάρτου. ΗΒ τῷ πλήθει τῶν ΓΘ. ΓΔ ἴσα τοῖς Ε. τοσαυταπλάσια ἔσται καὶ τὰ πάντα τῶν πάντων· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. CD equal to E. F . Πρῶτον γὰρ τὸ ΑΒ δευτέρου τοῦ Γ ἰσάκις ἔστω πολλαπλάσιον καὶ τρίτον τὸ ΔΕ τετάρτου τοῦ Ζ. respectively. (being added together). ὅτι καὶ συντεθὲν πρῶτον καὶ πέμπτον τὸ ΑΗ δευτέρου τοῦ Γ ἰσάκις ἔσται πολλαπλάσιον καὶ τρίτον καὶ ἕκτον τὸ ΔΘ τετάρτου τοῦ Ζ. so many times will all (of the first magnitudes) also (be divisible) by all (of the second). Thus. ὅτι ὁσαπλάσιόν ἐστι τὸ ΑΒ τοῦ Ε. so many times will all (of the first magnitudes) also (be divisible) by all (of the second). and the third and the sixth. ΘΔ· ἔσται δὴ ἴσον τὸ πλῆθος τῶν ΑΗ. τοσαυταπλάσια ἔσται καὶ τὰ ΑΒ. τοσαῦτα καὶ ἐν τῷ ΓΔ ἴσα τῷ Ζ. ᾿Επεὶ γὰρ ἰσάκις ἐστὶ πολλαπλάσιον τὸ ΑΒ τοῦ Ε καὶ τὸ ΓΔ τοῦ Ζ. being added together. if there are any number of magnitudes whatsoever (which are) equal multiples. AB. ΓΘ τοῖς Ε. Let AB have been divided into magnitudes AG. F . and a fifth (magnitude) and a sixth (are) also equal multiples of the second and fourth (respectively). Thus. διῃρήσθω τὸ μὲν ΑΒ εἰς τὰ τῷ Ε μεγέθη ἴσα τὰ ΑΗ. (being added together. F . ELEMENTS BOOK 5 πάντα τῶν πάντων. HD. If a first (magnitude) and a third are equal multiples of a second and a fourth (respectively). F . as many times as AB is (divisible) by E. GB is equal to E. ὅσα ἄρα ἐστὶν ἐν τῷ ΑΒ μεγέθη ἴσα τῷ Ε. and CD into (magnitudes) CH. ΓΔ τῶν Ε. And let a fifth (magnitude) BG and a sixth EH also be (other) equal multiples of the second C and the fourth F (respectively). ΗΒ. and GB.STOIQEIWN eþ. so many times will AB. τὸ δὲ ΓΘ τῷ Ζ. F . ΘΔ. Ζ· ὅσα ἄρα ἐστὶν ἐν τῷ ΑΒ ἴσα τῷ Ε. F . CD also be (divisible) by E. I say that the first (magnitude) and the fifth. CD also be (divisible) by E. GB will be equal to the number of (divisions) CH. τὸ δὲ ΓΔ εἰς τὰ τῷ Ζ ἴσα τὰ ΓΘ. (to give) AG. So. Ζ. then the first (magnitude) and the fifth. ὁσαπλάσιόν ἐστιν ἓν τῶν μεγεθῶν ἑνός. In modern notation. will also be equal multiples of the second (magnitude) and the fourth (respectively). and AG. διὰ τὰ αὐτὰ δὴ ἴσον ἐστὶ τὸ ΗΒ τῷ Ε. of equal number (to them). καὶ τὰ ΑΗ. equal to F . being added together. ᾿Εὰν ἄρα ᾖ ὁποσαοῦν μεγέθη ὁποσωνοῦν μεγεθῶν ἴσων τὸ πλῆθος ἕκαστον ἑκάστου ἰσάκις πολλαπλάσιον. καὶ τὰ ΗΒ. AG (is) thus equal to E. Ζ. ΓΔ ὁποσωνοῦν μεγεθῶν τῶν Ε. Α Ε Η times as one of the (first) magnitudes is (divisible) by one (of the second). καὶ ἐπεὶ ἴσον ἐστὶ τὸ μὲν ΑΗ τῷ Ε. so many (are there) also in CD equal to F . of some (other) magnitudes. F . GB. then as many times as one of the (first) magnitudes is (divisible) by one (of the second). ΘΔ τοῖς Ε. ἔστω δὲ καὶ πέμπτον τὸ ΒΗ δευτέρου τοῦ Γ ἰσάκις πολλαπλάσιον καὶ ἕκτον τὸ ΕΘ τετάρτου τοῦ Ζ· λέγω. Β Γ Θ A ∆ E Ζ ῎Εστω ὁποσαοῦν μεγέθη τὰ ΑΒ. CD. Thus. as many (magnitudes) as (there) are in AB equal to E. of some (other) magnitudes. HD to E. and the third (magnitude) and the sixth. this proposition reads m α + m β + · · · = m (α + β + · · · ). I say that as many times as AB is (divisible) by E. CH to E. thus as many magnitudes as (there) are in AB equal to E. CD are equal multiples of E. τοσαῦτα καὶ ἐν τοῖς ΑΒ. 132 . ᾖ δὲ καὶ πέμπτον δευτέρου ἰσάκις πολλαπλάσιον καὶ ἕκτον τετάρτου. And since AG is equal to E. Ζ· ὁσαπλάσιον ἄρα ἐστὶ τὸ ΑΒ τοῦ Ε. and CH to F . ΓΔ τῶν Ε. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. Proposition 2† ᾿Εὰν πρῶτον δευτέρου ἰσάκις ᾖ πολλαπλάσιον καὶ τρίτον τετάρτου. † G B C H D F Let there be any number of magnitudes whatsoever. So. so many times will AB. equal to E. E. For since AB. respectively. Ζ ἴσων τὸ πλῆθος ἕκαστον ἑκάστου ἰσάκις πολλαπλάσιον· λέγω.

† B For since AB and DE are equal multiples of C and F (respectively). διῃρήσθω τὸ μὲν ΕΖ εἰς τὰ τῷ Α μεγέθη ἴσα τὰ ΕΚ. Πρῶτον γὰρ τὸ Α δευτέρου τοῦ Β ἰσάκις ἔστω πολλαπλάσιον καὶ τρίτον τὸ Γ τετάρτου τοῦ Δ. τοσαῦτα καὶ ἐν τῷ ΕΘ ἴσα τῷ Ζ· ὅσα ἄρα ἐστὶν ἐν ὅλῳ τῷ ΑΗ ἴσα τῷ Γ. And so. being added together. so many (are there) also in GH 133 . Thus. τοσαῦτα καὶ ἐν τῷ ΔΕ ἴσα τῷ Ζ. ληφθῇ δὲ ἰσάκις πολλαπλάσια τοῦ τε πρώτου καὶ τρίτου. καὶ δι᾿ ἴσου τῶν ληφθέντων ἑκάτερον ἑκατέρου ἰσάκις ἔσται πολλαπλάσιον τὸ μὲν τοῦ δευτέρου τὸ δὲ τοῦ τετάρτου. and equal multiples are taken of the first and the third. so many (are there) also in the whole of DH equal to F . For since EF and GH are equal multiples of A and C (respectively). καὶ συντεθὲν ἄρα πρῶτον καὶ πέμπτον τὸ ΑΗ δευτέρου τοῦ Γ ἰσάκις ἔσται πολλαπλάσιον καὶ τρίτον καὶ ἕκτον τὸ ΔΘ τετάρτου τοῦ Ζ. Thus. and let the equal multiples EF and GH have been taken of A and C (respectively). For let a first (magnitude) A and a third C be equal multiples of a second B and a fourth D (respectively). if a first (magnitude) and a third are equal multiples of a second and a fourth (respectively). so many times will DH also be divisible by F . the first (magnitude) and the fifth. then. ὅτι ἰσάκις ἐστὶ πολλαπλάσιον τὸ ΕΖ τοῦ Β καὶ τὸ ΗΘ τοῦ Δ. ᾿Επεὶ γὰρ ἰσάκις ἐστὶ πολλαπλάσιον τὸ ΕΖ τοῦ Α καὶ τὸ ΗΘ τοῦ Γ. ELEMENTS BOOK 5 to give) DH. καὶ εἰλήφθω τῶν Α. ὅσα ἄρα ἐστὶν ἐν τῷ ΑΒ ἴσα τῷ Γ. ὅσα ἄρα ἐστὶν ἐν τῷ ΕΖ ἴσα τῷ Α. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. (being added together). this propostion reads m α + n α = (m + n) α. and the third (magnitude) and the sixth. If a first (magnitude) and a third are equal multiples of a second and a fourth (respectively). ΗΘ· λέγω. Thus. thus as many (magnitudes) as (there) are in AB equal to C. Proposition 3† ᾿Εὰν πρῶτον δευτέρου ἰσάκις ᾖ πολλαπλάσιον καὶ τρίτον τετάρτου. (to give) AG. so many (are there) also in EH equal to F . will also be equal multiples of the second (magnitude) C and the fourth F (respectively). and a fifth (magnitude) and a sixth (are) also equal multiples of the second and fourth (respectively). τοσαῦτα καὶ ἐν τῷ ΗΘ ἴσα τῷ Γ. and the third and sixth. τοσαῦτα καὶ ἐν ὅλῳ τῷ ΔΘ ἴσα τῷ Ζ· ὁσαπλάσιον ἄρα ἐστὶ τὸ ΑΗ τοῦ Γ. I say that EF and GH are equal multiples of B and D (respectively). διὰ τὰ αὐτὰ δὴ καὶ ὅσα ἐστὶν ἐν τῷ ΒΗ ἴσα τῷ Γ. καὶ συντεθὲν πρῶτον καὶ πέμπτον δευτέρου ἰσάκις ἔσται πολλαπλάσιον καὶ τρίτον καὶ ἕκτον τετάρτου· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. In modern notation. being added together. (being added together. ΚΖ. as many (magnitudes) as (there) are in the whole of AG equal to C. via equality. Γ ἰσάκις πολλαπλάσια τὰ ΕΖ. as many (magnitudes) as (there) are in BG equal to C. as many times as AG is (divisible) by C. thus as many (magnitudes) as (there) are in EF equal to A. ᾿Εὰν ἄρα πρῶτον δευτέρου ἰσάκις ᾖ πολλαπλάσιον καὶ τρίτον τετάρτου. then the first (magnitude) and the fifth. to give) DH. Α Β A Η G C Γ ∆ Ε D Θ E H F Ζ ᾿Επεὶ γὰρ ἰσάκις ἐστὶ πολλαπλάσιον τὸ ΑΒ τοῦ Γ καὶ τὸ ΔΕ τοῦ Ζ. Thus. the (magnitudes) taken will also be equal multiples of the second (magnitude) and the fourth.STOIQEIWN eþ. gþ. τὸ δὲ ΗΘ εἰς τὰ τῷ Γ ἴσα τὰ ΗΛ. ᾖ δὲ καὶ πέμπτον δευτέρου ἰσάκις πολλαπλάσιον καὶ ἕκτον τετάρτου. will also be equal multiples of the second (magnitude) and the fourth (respectively). τοσαυταπλάσιον ἔσται καὶ τὸ ΔΘ τοῦ Ζ. respectively. for the same (reasons). will also be equal multiples of the second (magnitude) C and the fourth F (respectively). so many (are there) also in DE equal to F .

Γ ἰσάκις πολλαπλάσια τὰ Ε. οὕτως τὸ Ζ πρὸς τὸ Θ. LH. KF will be equal to the number of (magnitudes) GL. if a first (magnitude) and a third are equal multiples of a second and a fourth (respectively). ληφθῇ δὲ τοῦ πρώτου καὶ τρίτου ἰσάκις πολλαπλάσια. and the fifth (magnitude) KF and the sixth LH are also equal multiples of the second B and the fourth D (respectively). Α Β Ε Γ ∆ Η Κ Λ A B E Ζ C D G Θ ᾿Εὰν ἄρα πρῶτον δευτέρου ἰσάκις ᾖ πολλαπλάσιον καὶ τρίτον τετάρτου. EK and GL are thus equal multiples of B and D (respectively). And since A and C are equal multiples of B and D (respectively). ἃ ἔτυχεν. καὶ δι᾿ ἴσου τῶν ληφθέντων ἑκάτερον ἑκατέρου ἰσάκις ἔσται πολλαπλάσιον τὸ μὲν τοῦ δευτέρου τὸ δὲ τοῦ τετάρτου· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. then. So. Therefore. If a first (magnitude) has the same ratio to a second that a third (has) to a fourth then equal multiples of the first (magnitude) and the third will also have the same ratio to equal multiples of the second and the fourth. LH equal to C. In modern notation. καὶ εἰλήφθω τῶν μὲν Α. KF and LH are equal multiples of B and D (respectively). being added together. τὸ δὲ ΗΛ τῷ Γ. and EK (is) equal to A. to give) GH. διὰ τὰ αὐτὰ δὴ ἰσάκις ἐστὶ πολλαπλάσιον τὸ ΚΖ τοῦ Β καὶ τὸ ΛΘ τοῦ Δ. and GL to C. and the third (magnitude) and sixth. τῶν δὲ Β. (to give) EF . καὶ τὰ ἰσάκις πολλαπλάσια τοῦ τε πρώτου καὶ τρίτου πρὸς τὰ ἰσάκις πολλαπλάσια τοῦ δευτέρου καὶ τετάρτου καθ᾿ ὁποιονοῦν πολλαπλασιασμὸν τὸν αὐτὸν ἕξει λόγον ληφθέντα κατάλληλα. Θ· λέγω. καὶ ἐπεὶ ἰσάκις ἐστὶ πολλαπλάσιον τὸ Α τοῦ Β καὶ τὸ Γ τοῦ Δ. ELEMENTS BOOK 5 ΛΘ· ἔσται δὴ ἴσον τὸ πλῆθος τῶν ΕΚ. Proposition 4† ᾿Εὰν πρῶτον πρὸς δεύτερον τὸν αὐτὸν ἔχῃ λόγον καὶ τρίτον πρὸς τέταρτον. the (magnitudes) taken will also be equal multiples of the second (magnitude) and the fourth. For let a first (magnitude) A have the same ratio to a second B that a third C (has) to a fourth D. ἔστι δὲ καὶ πέμπτον τὸ ΚΖ δευτέρου τοῦ Β ἰσάκις πολλαπλάσιον καὶ ἕκτον τὸ ΛΘ τετάρτου τοῦ Δ. the number of (magnitudes) EK. since the first (magnitude) EK and the third GL are equal multiples of the second B and the fourth D (respectively). And let equal multiples E and F have been taken of A and C (respectively). being taken in corresponding order. then the first (magnitude) and fifth. and equal multiples are taken of the first and the third. via equality. respectively. and GH into (magnitudes) GL. καὶ συντεθὲν ἄρα πρῶτον καὶ πέμπτον τὸ ΕΖ δευτέρου τοῦ Β ἰσάκις ἐστὶ πολλαπλάσιον καὶ τρίτον καὶ ἕκτον τὸ ΗΘ τετάρτου τοῦ Δ. ἰσάκις ἄρα ἐστὶ πολλαπλάσιον τὸ ΕΚ τοῦ Β καὶ τὸ ΗΛ τοῦ Δ. KF equal to A. Let EF have been divided into magnitudes EK. according to any kind of multiplication whatsoever. (being added together. 5. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show.2]. So. for the same (reasons). K L F H Thus. this proposition reads m(n α) = (m n) α. ΚΖ τῷ πλήθει τῶν ΗΛ. ἐπεὶ οὖν πρῶτον τὸ ΕΚ δευτέρου τοῦ Β ἴσάκις ἐστὶ πολλαπλάσιον καὶ τρίτον τὸ ΗΛ τετάρτου τοῦ Δ. Πρῶτον γὰρ τὸ Α πρὸς δεύτερον τὸ Β τὸν αὐτὸν ἐχέτω λόγον καὶ τρίτον τὸ Γ πρὸς τέταρτον τὸ Δ. and other random equal multiples G and 134 . ἰσάκις πολλαπλάσια τὰ Η. ΛΘ. ἴσον δὲ τὸ μὲν ΕΚ τῷ Α. Δ ἄλλα. dþ.STOIQEIWN eþ. ὅτι ἐστὶν ὡς τὸ Ε πρὸς τὸ Η. are thus also equal multiples of the second (magnitude) B and the fourth D (respectively) [Prop. Ζ. † equal to C.

† For let equal multiples K and L have been taken of E and F (respectively). K and L are thus equal multiples of A and C (respectively) [Prop. Θ ἄλλα. 5. οὕτως τὸ Ζ πρὸς τὸ Θ. and other random equal multiples M and N of G and H (respectively). τῶν δὲ Β. and the equal multiples K and L have been taken of E and F (respectively). and the equal multiples K and L have been taken of A and C (respectively). διὰ τὰ αὐτὰ δὴ ἰσάκις ἐστὶ πολλαπλάσιον τὸ Μ τοῦ Β καὶ τὸ Ν τοῦ Δ. so F (is) to H [Def. In modern notation. and if (K is) less (than M then L is also) less (than N ) [Def. ἰσάκις πολλαπλάσια· ἔστιν ἄρα ὡς τὸ Ε πρὸς τὸ Η. καὶ τὰ ἰσάκις πολλαπλάσια τοῦ τε πρώτου καὶ τρίτου πρὸς τὰ ἰσάκις πολλαπλάσια τοῦ δευτέρου καὶ τετάρτου τὸν αὐτὸν ἕξει λόγον καθ᾿ ὁποιονοῦν πολλαπλασιασμὸν ληφθέντα κατάλληλα· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. ἰσάκις πολλαπλάσια τὰ Μ. Thus. Λ. And K and L are equal multiples of E and F (respectively). and M and N other random equal multiples of G and H (respectively). τὸ δὲ Ζ τοῦ Γ. Ζ ἴσάκις πολλαπλάσια τὰ Κ. οὕτως τὸ Γ πρὸς τὸ Δ. τὰ δὲ Μ. 5. Λ. ἰσάκις πολλαπλάσια τὰ Μ. εἰ ἄρα ὑπερέχει τὸ Κ τοῦ Μ. so F (is) to H. ὑπερέχει καὶ τὸ Λ τοῦ Ν. Δ ἄλλα. M and N are equal multiples of B and D (respectively). Thus. ἃ ἔτυχεν. [Καὶ] ἐπεὶ ἰσάκις ἐστὶ πολλαπλάσιον τὸ μὲν Ε τοῦ Α. [And] since E and F are equal multiples of A and C (respectively). καὶ εἴληπται τῶν μὲν Α. 5. for the same (reasons). Γ ἰσάκις πολλαπλάσια τὰ Κ. καὶ εἰ ἴσον. if a first (magnitude) has the same ratio to a second that a third (has) to a fourth then equal multiples of the first (magnitude) and the third will also have the same ratio to equal multiples of the second and the fourth.STOIQEIWN eþ. ἴσον. ἔλαττον. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. ἃ ἔτυχεν. Λ τῶν Ε.5]. as E (is) to G. 135 . καὶ ἐπεί ἐστιν ὡς τὸ Α πρὸς τὸ Β. καὶ εἴληπται τῶν Ε. and the other random equal multiples M and N of B and D (respectively). Α Β Ε Η Κ Μ Γ ∆ Ζ Θ Λ Ν A B E G K M C D F H L N Εἰλήφθω γὰρ τῶν μὲν Ε. and if (K is) equal (to M then L is also) equal (to N ). καὶ εἰ ἔλαττον.3]. ᾿Εὰν ἄρα πρῶτον πρὸς δεύτερον τὸν αὐτὸν ἔχῃ λόγον καὶ τρίτον πρὸς τέταρτον. Θ ἄλλα. Ν. being taken in corresponding order. ἴσάκις ἄρα ἐστὶ πολλαπλάσιον τὸ Κ τοῦ Α καὶ τὸ Λ τοῦ Γ. Ζ ἰσάκις πολλαπλάσια. ἃ ἔτυχεν. And since as A is to B. Λ. so C (is) to D. for all m and n. then if K exceeds M then L also exceeds N . τῶν δὲ Η. Ν. this proposition reads that if α : β :: γ : δ then m α : n β :: m γ : n δ. ELEMENTS BOOK 5 H of B and D (respectively). according to any kind of multiplication whatsoever. Ν τῶν Η.5]. I say that as E (is) to G. Ζ ἰσάκις πολλαπλάσια τὰ Κ. καί ἐστι τὰ μὲν Κ. So.

so many times let EB also have been made (divisible) by CG. And since AE and EB are equal multiples of CF and GC (respectively). 5. And AE and AB are assumed (to be) equal multiples of CF and CD (respectively). EB and AB are equal multiples of F D and CD (respectively). AE and AB are thus equal multiples of CF and GF (respectively) [Prop. Α Η Γ Ε Β A Ζ ∆ G C Μέγεθος γὰρ τὸ ΑΒ μεγέθους τοῦ ΓΔ ἰσάκις ἔστω πολλαπλάσιον. Thus. respectively). καὶ τὸ λοιπὸν τοῦ λοιποῦ ἰσάκις that a (part) taken away (is) of a (part) taken away (reἔσται πολλαπλάσιον. ἰσάκις ἄρα ἐστὶ πολλαπλάσιον τὸ ΑΒ ἑκατέρου τῶν ΗΖ. Thus. ΓΔ δύο μεγεθῶν τῶν Ε. For as many times as AE is (divisible) by CF . or (are) equal multiples 136 . In modern notation. Let CF have been subtracted from both. the remainder EB will also be the same multiple of the remainder F D as that which the whole AB (is) of the whole CD (respectively). AE and EB are thus equal multiples of CF and F D (respectively). ὁσαπλάσιόν ἐστιν ὅλον τὸ ΑΒ ὅλου τοῦ ΓΔ. I say that the remainder EB will also be the same multiple of the remainder F D as that which the whole AB (is) of the whole CD (respectively). καὶ ἀφαιρεθέντα τινὰ τῶν αὐτῶν ἰσάκις ᾖ πολλαπλάσια. ὁσαπλάσιόν ἐστιν ὅλον τὸ ΑΒ ὅλου τοῦ ΓΔ. ΓΔ· ἴσον ἄρα τὸ ΗΖ τῷ ΓΔ. τοσαυταπλάσιον γεγονέτω καὶ τὸ ΕΒ τοῦ ΓΗ. this proposition reads m α − m β = m (α − β). Thus. GF (is) equal to CD.STOIQEIWN eþ. καὶ τὸ λοιπὸν τοῦ λοιποῦ ἰσάκις ἔσται πολλαπλάσιον. and GC (is) equal to DF . καὶ ἐπεὶ ἰσάκις ἐστὶ πολλαπλάσιον τὸ ΑΕ τοῦ ΓΖ καὶ τὸ ΕΒ τοῦ ΗΓ. Proposition 6† ᾿Εὰν δύο μεγέθη δύο μεγεθῶν ἰσάκις ᾖ πολλαπλάσια. And since AE and EB are equal multiples of CF and GC (respectively). ἰσάκις δὲ ὑπόκειται πολλαπλάσιον τὸ ΑΕ τοῦ ΓΖ καὶ τὸ ΑΒ τοῦ ΓΔ· ἰσάκις ἄρα ἐστὶ πολλαπλάσιον τὸ ΕΒ τοῦ ΖΔ καὶ τὸ ΑΒ τοῦ ΓΔ. ὅπερ If a magnitude is the same multiple of a magnitude ἀφαιρεθὲν ἀφαιρεθέντος. the remainder GC is equal to the remainder F D. ELEMENTS BOOK 5 eþ. ὁσαπλάσιόν ἐστι τὸ ὅλον τοῦ ὅλου. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. spectively) then the remainder will also be the same multiple of the remainder as that which the whole (is) of the whole (respectively). then the remainders are also either equal to the latter (magnitudes). And AE and AB are assumed (to be) equal multiples of CF and CD (respectively). if a magnitude is the same multiple of a magnitude that a (part) taken away (is) of a (part) taken away (respectively) then the remainder will also be the same multiple of the remainder as that which the whole (is) of the whole (respectively). Thus. þ. καὶ λοιπὸν ἄρα τὸ ΕΒ λοιποῦ τοῦ ΖΔ ἰσάκις ἔσται πολλαπλάσιον. ῾Οσαπλάσιον γάρ ἐστι τὸ ΑΕ τοῦ ΓΖ. and some (parts) taken away (from the former magnitudes) are equal multiples of the latter (magnitudes. Thus. ἰσάκις ἄρα ἐστὶ πολλαπλάσιον τὸ ΑΕ τοῦ ΓΖ καὶ τὸ ΕΒ τοῦ ΖΔ. Proposition 5† ᾿Εὰν μέγεθος μεγέθους ἰσάκις ᾖ πολλαπλάσιον. Δύο γὰρ μεγέθη τὰ ΑΒ. ἰσάκις ἄρα ἐστὶ πολλαπλάσιον τὸ ΑΕ τοῦ ΓΖ καὶ τὸ ΑΒ τοῦ ΗΖ. ὁσαπλάσιόν ἐστι καὶ τὸ ὅλον τοῦ ὅλου· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. Thus. Ζ If two magnitudes are equal multiples of two (other) magnitudes. κοινὸν ἀφῃρήσθω τὸ ΓΖ· λοιπὸν ἄρα τὸ ΗΓ λοιπῷ τῷ ΖΔ ἴσον ἐστίν. κεῖται δὲ ἰσάκις πολλαπλάσιον τὸ ΑΕ τοῦ ΓΖ καὶ τὸ ΑΒ τοῦ ΓΔ. ἴσον δὲ τὸ ΗΓ τῷ ΔΖ. ὅπερ ἀφαιρεθὲν ἀφαιρεθέντος. Καὶ ἐπεὶ ἰσάκις ἐστὶ πολλαπλάσιον τὸ ΑΕ τοῦ ΓΖ καὶ τὸ ΕΒ τοῦ ΗΓ. AB is an equal multiple of each of GF and CD. ᾿Εὰν ἄρα μέγεθος μεγέθους ἰσάκις ᾖ πολλαπλάσιον. † E B F D For let the magnitude AB be the same multiple of the magnitude CD that the (part) taken away AE (is) of the (part) taken away CF (respectively).1]. καὶ τὰ λοιπὰ τοῖς αὐτοῖς ἤτοι ἴσα ἐστὶν ἢ ἰσάκις αὐτῶν πολλαπλάσια. ὅπερ ἀφαιρεθὲν τὸ ΑΕ ἀφαιρεθέντος τοῦ ΓΖ· λέγω. ὅτι καὶ λοιπὸν τὸ ΕΒ λοιποῦ τοῦ ΖΔ ἰσάκις ἔσται πολλαπλάσιον.

ΓΘ τῶν of them (respectively). HD is also equal to F . Thus. and C some other τὸν αὐτὸν ἔχει λόγον. equal to E. Ζ ἰσάκις ἔστω πολλαπλάσια· λέγω. Α Η Ε Κ Γ Β A E K Θ ∆ Ζ C B H D F ῎Εστω γὰρ πρότερον τὸ ΗΒ τῷ Ε ἴσον· λέγω.2]. ἀλλὰ τὸ Ζ τῷ ΚΓ ἐστιν ἴσον· καὶ τὸ ΘΔ ἄρα τῷ Ζ ἴσον ἐστίν. I say that the remainders GB and HD are also either equal to E and F (respectively). similarly. καὶ τὸ ΘΔ ἴσον ἔσται τῷ Ζ. καὶ ἀφαιρεθέντα τὰ ΑΗ. τοσαυταπλάσιον ἔσται καὶ τὸ ΘΔ τοῦ Ζ. AB and KH are thus equal multiples of E and F (respectively) [Prop. or (are) equal multiples of them. Β. ὅτι ἑκάτερον τῶν Α. Β πρὸς τὸ Γ Let A and B be equal magnitudes. ἰσάκις ἄρα ἐστὶ πολλαπλάσιον τὸ ΑΒ τοῦ Ε καὶ τὸ ΚΘ τοῦ Ζ. † G For let GB be. then the remainders are also either equal to the latter (magnitudes). κᾂν πολλαπλάσιον ᾖ τὸ ΗΒ τοῦ Ε. καὶ τὰ λοιπὰ τοῖς αὐτοῖς ἤτοι ἴσα ἐστὶν ἢ ἰσάκις αὐτῶν πολλαπλάσια· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. For let CK be made equal to F . κοινὸν ἀφῃρήσθω τὸ ΓΘ· λοιπὸν ἄρα τὸ ΚΓ λοιπῷ τῷ ΘΔ ἴσον ἐστίν. if two magnitudes are equal multiples of two (other) magnitudes. and KC to F . the remainder KC is equal to the remainder HD. and some (parts) taken away (from the former magnitudes) are equal multiples of the latter (magnitudes. And let πολλαπλάσια. respectively). KH is equal to CD. ELEMENTS BOOK 5 ἰσάκις ἔστω πολλαπλάσια. Thus. ἴσον δὲ τὸ μὲν ΗΒ τῷ Ε. ὅτι καὶ For let two magnitudes AB and CD be equal multiλοιπὰ τὰ ΗΒ. or (are) equal multiples of them (respectively). In modern notation. τὸ δὲ ΚΓ τῷ Ζ.STOIQEIWN eþ. Β. ἄλλο δέ τι. 5. ἐπεὶ ἰσάκις ἐστὶ πολλαπλάσιον τὸ ΑΗ τοῦ Ε καὶ τὸ ΓΘ τοῦ Ζ. KH and CD are equal multiples of F and F (respectively). Since AG and CH are equal multiples of E and F (respectively). μέγεθος τὸ Γ· λέγω. if GB is equal to E then HD will also be equal to F . zþ. ὥστε εἰ τὸ ΗΒ τῷ Ε ἴσον ἐστίν. But. Hence. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. I say that HD is also equal to F . random magnitude. Thus. καὶ ἀφαιρεθέντα τινὰ τῶν αὐτῶν ἰσάκις ᾖ πολλαπλάσια. ὅτι. first of all. KH and CD are each equal multiples of F . καὶ τὸ Γ πρὸς ἑκάτερον τῶν Α. ΘΔ τοῖς Ε. and the latter (magnitude has the same ra῎Εστω ἴσα μεγέθη τὰ Α. ἐπεὶ οὖν ἑκάτερον τῶν ΚΘ. Thus. ὅτι καὶ τὸ ΘΔ τῷ Ζ ἴσον ἐστίν. And AB and CD are assumed (to be) equal multiples of E and F (respectively). Thus. So. tio) to the equal (magnitudes). ἴσον ἄρα ἐστὶ τὸ ΚΘ τῷ ΓΔ. this proposition reads m α − n α = (m − n) α. Κείσθω γὰρ τῷ Ζ ἴσον τὸ ΓΚ. ΓΔ τοῦ Ζ ἰσάκις ἐστὶ πολλαπλάσιον. I say that A and B each have the 137 . αὐτῶν τῶν Ε. ὃ ἔτυχεν. the (parts) taken away (from the former) AG and CH be equal multiples of E and F (respectively). F is equal to KC. (magnitude). ῾Ομοίως δὴ δείξομεν. and GB (is) equal to E. we can show that even if GB is a multiple of E then HD will also be the same multiple of F . ᾿Εὰν ἄρα δύο μεγέθη δύο μεγεθῶν ἰσάκις ᾖ πολλαπλάσια. Proposition 7 Τὰ ἴσα πρὸς τὸ αὐτὸ τὸν αὐτὸν ἔχει λόγον καὶ τὸ αὐτὸ Equal (magnitudes) have the same ratio to the same πρὸς τὰ ἴσα. Therefore. Let CH have be taken away from both. ἰσάκις δὲ ὑπόκειται πολλαπλάσιον τὸ ΑΒ τοῦ Ε καὶ τὸ ΓΔ τοῦ Ζ· ἴσάκις ἄρα ἐστὶ πολλαπλάσιον τὸ ΚΘ τοῦ Ζ καὶ τὸ ΓΔ τοῦ Ζ. Ζ ἤτοι ἴσα ἐστὶν ἢ ἰσάκις αὐτῶν ples of two magnitudes E and F (respectively).

And the latter (magnitude) has a greater ratio to the lesser (magnitude) than to the greater.STOIQEIWN eþ. and F another random multiple of C. πολλαπλάσιον τὸ Ζ. as A (is) to C. Ε τῶν Α. οὕτως τὸ Γ πρὸς τὸ Β. Ε. τὸ Ζ. ἄλλο δέ. so C (is) to B [Def. τὰ δὲ Δ. ὃ ἔτυχεν. Thus. Β ἰσάκις πολλαπλάσια τὰ Δ. ὅτι ἴσον ἐστὶ τὸ Δ τῷ Ε· ἄλλο δέ τι τὸ Ζ· εἰ ἄρα ὑπερέχει τὸ Ζ τοῦ Δ. and if (D is) equal (to F then E is also) equal (to F ). the greater (magnitude) has a greater ratio than the lesser to the same (magnitude). ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. ἔλαττον. ὑπερέχει καὶ τὸ Ε τοῦ Ζ. and the latter (magnitude has the same ratio) to the equal (magnitudes). and the other random multiple F of C. similarly. this corollary reads that if α : β :: γ : δ then β : α :: δ : γ. καί ἐστι τὸ μὲν Ζ τοῦ Γ πολλαπλάσιον. and if (D is) less (than F then E is also) less (than F ). Thus. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. Thus. ὃ ἔτυχεν. Corollary‡ ᾿Εκ δὴ τούτου φανερόν. ῎Εστω ἄνισα μεγέθη τὰ ΑΒ. at random. καὶ ἔστω μεῖζον τὸ ΑΒ. For unequal magnitudes. and (that) C (has the same ratio) to each of A and B.5]. and (that) D has a greater ratio to C than (it has) to AB.5]. by the same construction. 5. οὕτως τὸ Β πρὸς τὸ Γ. since D and E are equal multiples of A and B (respectively). καὶ εἰ ἔλαττον. ὅτι τὸ ΑΒ πρὸς τὸ Δ μείζονα λόγον ἔχει ἤπερ τὸ Γ πρὸς τὸ Δ. ἄλλο δέ. Thus. ὅτι ἐὰν μεγέθη τινὰ ἀνάλογον So (it is) clear. hþ. ἃ ἔτυχεν. equal (magnitudes) have the same ratio to the same (magnitude). [So] I say that C † also has the same ratio to each of A and B. ἴσον ἄρα καὶ τὸ Δ τῷ Ε. ‡ In modern notation. καὶ εἰ ἴσον. which is obviously a mistake. that D is equal to E. and let AB be the greater (of the two). καὶ τὸ Δ πρὸς τὸ Γ μείζονα λόγον ἔχει ἤπερ πρὸς τὸ ΑΒ. And F (is) different. For let the equal multiples D and E have been taken of A and B (respectively). καί ἐστι τὰ μὲν Δ. καὶ ἀνάπαλιν ἀνάλογον ἔσται. Λέγω [δή]. ELEMENTS BOOK 5 same ratio to C. ἴσον. and if (F is) less (than D then it is also) less (than E). And F (has) some other (value). we can show. proportional then they will also be proportional inversely. Τῶν γὰρ αὐτῶν κατασκευασθέντων ὁμοίως δείξομεν. Proposition 8 Τῶν ἀνίσων μεγεθῶν τὸ μεῖζον πρὸς τὸ αὐτὸ μείζονα λόγον ἔχει ἤπερ τὸ ἔλαττον. and A (is) equal to B. Γ. so B (is) to C [Def. τοῦ δὲ Γ ἄλλο. ὅ ἔτυχεν. Pìrisma. I say that AB has a greater ratio to D than C (has) to D. Β ἰσάκις πολλαπλάσια. Εἰ ἄρα ὑπερέχει τὸ Δ τοῦ Ζ. For. Thus. καὶ εἰ ἴσον. Τὰ ἴσα ἄρα πρὸς τὸ αὐτὸ τὸν αὐτὸν ἔχει λόγον καὶ τὸ αὐτὸ πρὸς τὰ ἴσα. ᾿Επεὶ οὖν ἰσάκις ἐστὶ πολλαπλάσιον τὸ Δ τοῦ Α καὶ τὸ Ε τοῦ Β. τὸ δὲ Ζ τοῦ Γ ἄλλο. And F is a multiple of C. that if some magnitudes are ᾖ. καὶ τὸ αὐτὸ πρὸς τὸ ἔλαττον μείζονα λόγον ἔχει ἤπερ πρὸς τὸ μεῖζον. ὅτι καὶ τὸ Γ πρὸς ἑκάτερον τῶν Α. as C (is) to A. Therefore. and D another random magnitude. ἰσάκις πολλαπλάσια· ἔστιν ἄρα ὡς τὸ Γ πρὸς τὸ Α. ὑπερέχει καὶ τοῦ Ε. from this. καὶ εἰ ἔλαττον. ἔλαττον. Β ἄλλα. πολλαπλάσιον· ἔστιν ἄρα ὡς τὸ Α πρὸς τὸ Γ. † The Greek text has “E”. Α Β Γ ∆ Ε Ζ A B C D E F Εἰλήφθω γὰρ τῶν μὲν Α. 5. and D and E other random equal multiples of A and B. τὸ Δ· λέγω. ὃ ἔτυχεν. ἴσον δὲ τὸ Α τῷ Β. Β τὸν αὐτὸν ἔχει λόγον. Ε τῶν Α. Let AB and C be unequal magnitudes. 138 . ἴσον. D (is) thus also equal to E. if D exceeds F then E also exceeds F . And D and E are equal multiples of A and B (respectively). and if (F is) equal (to D then it is also) equal (to E). if F exceeds D then it also exceeds E.

ὅτι καὶ τὸ Δ πρὸς τὸ Γ μείζονα λόγον ἔχει ἤπερ τὸ Δ πρὸς τὸ ΑΒ. since K is less than N first. M and D (added) together is equal to N . D and M (added) together is equal to N . C. AB has a greater ratio to D than C (has) to D [Def. let BE be made equal to C. C. and let AE have been multiplied. so many times let GH also have become (divisible) by EB. since GH and K are equal multiples of EB and C. καὶ ἐπεὶ ἰσάκις ἐστὶ πολλαπλάσιον τὸ ΖΗ τοῦ ΑΕ καὶ τὸ ΗΘ τοῦ ΕΒ. ἃ ἔτυχεν. And since F G and GH are equal multiples of AE and EB (respectively). the lesser of AE and EB.4]. ᾿Επεὶ οὖν τὸ Κ τοῦ Ν πρώτως ἐστὶν ἔλαττον. Μ μεῖζόν ἐστιν. μεῖζον δὲ τὸ ΖΗ τοῦ Δ· ὅλον ἄρα τὸ ΖΘ συναμφοτέρων τῶν Δ. 5. ἰσάκις πολλαπλάσια· τὸ Δ ἄρα πρὸς τὸ Γ μείζονα λόγον ἔχει ἤπερ τὸ Δ πρὸς τὸ ΑΒ. εἰλήφθω. πάλιν.1]. and EB (is) equal to C. (each increasing) in order by one. τὸ δὴ ἔλαττον τὸ ΕΒ πολλαπλασιαζόμενον ἔσται ποτὲ τοῦ Δ μεῖζον. Thus. and F H. First of all. ἴσον δὲ τὸ ΕΒ τῷ Γ. And K is not less than M . ΕΒ πολλαπλασιαζόμενον ἔσται ποτὲ τοῦ Δ μεῖζον. ἐπειδήπερ τὸ Μ τοῦ Δ τριπλάσιόν ἐστιν. and N another random multiple of D. and let F G be a multiple of it which (is) greater than D. K is thus not less than M . καὶ ὁσαπλάσιόν ἐστι τὸ ΖΗ τοῦ ΑΕ. Δ τοῦ Δ ἐστι τετραπλάσια. καί ἐστι τὸ μὲν Ν τοῦ Δ πολλαπλάσιον. So. K are equal multiples of AB. Κ τῶν ΑΒ. Γ ἰσάκις πολλαπλάσια. ἰσάκις δέ ἐστι πολλαπλάσιον τὸ ΖΗ τοῦ ΑΕ καὶ τὸ Κ τοῦ Γ· ἰσάκις ἄρα ἐστὶ πολλαπλάσιον τὸ ΖΘ τοῦ ΑΒ καὶ τὸ Κ τοῦ Γ. And F G and K are equal multiples of AE and C (respectively). until the (multiple) taken becomes the first multiple of D (which is) greater than K.7]. we can show that N exceeds K. Μ τῷ Ν ἐστιν ἴσα. Let it have been taken. C (respectively). And N is a multiple of D. 5. will sometimes be greater than D [Def. And F G (is) greater than D. πρώτως δὲ μεῖζον τοῦ Κ. Thus. τριπλάσιον δὲ τὸ Μ. and several more. ὅτι τὸ μὲν Ν τοῦ Κ ὑπερέχει. Thus. And F H. ἀλλὰ συναμφότερα τὰ Δ. For. GH (is) thus also equal to K. and M and D (added) together is four times D. ᾿Αλλὰ δὴ τὸ ΑΕ τοῦ ΕΒ μεῖζον ἔστω. καὶ ἔστω αὐτοῦ πολλαπλάσιον τὸ ΖΗ μεῖζον ὂν τοῦ Δ. So. D has a greater 139 . similarly. But. K are equal multiples of AB. ἴσον ἄρα καὶ τὸ ΗΘ τῷ Κ. Δ τῷ Ν ἴσα ἐστίν. F H is greater than M and D. And let the double multiple L of D have been taken. τὸ δὲ Κ τοῦ Μ οὔκ ἐστιν ἔλαττον· οὐδ᾿ ἄρα τὸ ΗΘ τοῦ Μ ἔλαττόν ἐστιν. Therefore. καὶ πεπολλαπλασιάσθω τὸ ΑΕ. Thus. πρώτως δὲ μεῖζον τοῦ Κ. τὸ Κ ἄρα τοῦ Μ οὔκ ἐστιν ἔλαττον. K other random equal multiples of AB. inasmuch as M is three times D. τοσαυταπλάσιον γεγονέτω καὶ τὸ μὲν ΗΘ τοῦ ΕΒ τὸ δὲ Κ τοῦ Γ· καὶ εἰλήφθω τοῦ Δ διπλάσιον μὲν τὸ Λ. Τῶν γὰρ αὐτῶν κατασκευασθέντων ὁμοίως δείξομεν. Thus.STOIQEIWN eþ. ὃ ἔτυχεν. and the triple multiple M . τὰ δὲ ΖΘ. πε- E B G H F G H K D L M N For since AB is greater than C. A E G K D L M N Z ELEMENTS BOOK 5 B H A J G K D L M N E B A E B A C C Z H J F K D L M N ᾿Επεὶ γὰρ μεῖζόν ἐστι τὸ ΑΒ τοῦ Γ. Thus. ἐπεὶ ἰσάκις ἐστὶ πολλαπλάσιον τὸ ΗΘ τοῦ ΕΒ καὶ τὸ Κ τοῦ Γ. and N is also four times D. F G and F H are thus equal multiples of AE and AB (respectively) [Prop. ἰσάκις ἄρα ἐστὶ πολλαπλάσιον τὸ ΖΗ τοῦ ΑΕ καὶ τὸ ΖΘ τοῦ ΑΒ. Γ ἰσάκις ἐστὶ πολλαπλάσια. ἕως ἂν τὸ λαμβανόμενον πολλαπλάσιον μὲν γένηται τοῦ Δ. and N does not exceed F H. and let it also be the quadruple multiple N of D—the first (multiple) greater than K. the whole of F H is greater than D and M (added) together. Λέγω δή. Thus. τὰ ΖΘ. 5. καὶ ἑξῆς ἑνὶ πλεῖον. and K by C. Γ ἄλλα. Thus. And K does not exceed N . F H. GH not less than M either. being multiplied. F H exceeds N . ἔστω πρότερον τὸ ΑΕ ἔλαττον τοῦ ΕΒ. κείσθω τῷ Γ ἴσον τὸ ΒΕ· τὸ δὴ ἔλασσον τῶν ΑΕ. καὶ ἔστω τὸ Ν τετραπλάσιον μὲν τοῦ Δ. I say that D also has a greater ratio to C than D (has) to AB. by the same construction. But. ἀλλὰ τὸ ΖΘ τῶν Μ. let AE be less than EB. Δ μεῖζόν ἐστιν· τὸ ΖΘ ἄρα τοῦ Ν ὑπερέχει· τὸ δὲ Κ τοῦ Ν οὐχ ὑπερέχει. And as many times as F G is (divisible) by AE. τὸ δὲ Ν τοῦ Δ ἄλλο. Κ ἄρα τῶν ΑΒ. Again. F H and K are equal multiples of AB and C (respectively). Κ τῶν ΑΒ. καί ἐστι τὰ μὲν ΖΘ. πολλαπλάσιον· τὸ ΑΒ ἄρα πρὸς τὸ Δ μείζονα λόγον ἔχει ἤπερ τὸ Γ πρὸς τὸ Δ. τὸ δὲ Ν τοῦ ΖΘ οὐχ ὑπερέχει. συναμφότερα δὲ τὰ Μ. ἔστι δὲ καὶ τὸ Ν τοῦ Δ τετραπλάσιον· συναμφότερα ἄρα τὰ Μ.

But they do. And GH (is) greater than D. And the latter (magnitude) has a greater ratio to the lesser (magnitude) than to the greater. And. for unequal magnitudes. the lesser. τοσαυταπλάσιον γεγονέτω καὶ τὸ μὲν ΖΗ τοῦ ΑΕ. And so let AE be greater than EB. μεῖζον δὲ τοῦ Δ· καὶ ὁσαπλάσιόν ἐστι τὸ ΗΘ τοῦ ΕΒ. Εἰ γὰρ μή. ᾿Εχέτω δὴ πάλιν τὸ Γ πρὸς ἑκάτερον τῶν Α. Κ τῶν ΑΒ. 5. For let A and B each have the same ratio to C. which (is) greater than GH—that is to say. Β πρὸς τὸ Γ τὸν αὐτὸν λόγον· λέγω. Let it have been multiplied. we can show that F H and K are equal multiples of AB and C (respectively). Α Β A Γ B C ᾿Εχέτω γὰρ ἑκάτερον τῶν Α. inasmuch as F G. K—also does not exceed N . But it does. ὑπερέχει. Εἰ γὰρ μή. that (magnitude which) has the greater ratio is 140 . καὶ ὡσαύτως κατακολουθοῦντες τοῖς ἐπάνω περαίνομεν τὴν ἀπόδειξιν. 5. ἐκεῖνα ἴσα ἐστίν· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. Thus. So. ἐπειδήπερ καὶ τὸ ΖΗ μεῖζον ὂν τοῦ ΗΘ. τὸ δὲ Κ τοῦ Ν οὐχ ὑπερέχει. F G is again not less than M . (which is) the first (multiple) greater than F G. Β τὸν αὐτὸν λόγον· λέγω. and let GH be a multiple of EB (which is) greater than D. Γ ἰσάκις ἐστὶ πολλαπλάσια· καὶ εἰλήφθω ὁμοίως τὸ Ν πολλαπλάσιον μὲν τοῦ Δ. again. Thus. πρώτως δὲ μεῖζον τοῦ ΖΗ· ὥστε πάλιν τὸ ΖΗ τοῦ Μ οὔκ ἐστιν ἔλασσον. we (can) complete the proof in the same manner. Β τὸν αὐτὸν εἶχε λόγον· ἔχει δέ· ἴσον ἄρα ἐστὶ τὸ Α τῷ Β. ratio to C than D (has) to AB [Def. And as many times as GH is (divisible) by EB. so many times let F G also have become (divisible) by AE. τὸ δὲ Κ τοῦ Γ. and K by C. For if not. Thus. A is equal to B. have been taken. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show.8]. Proposition 10 Τῶν πρὸς τὸ αὐτὸ λόγον ἐχόντων τὸ μείζονα λόγον For (magnitudes) having a ratio to the same (magἔχον ἐκεῖνο μεῖζόν ἐστιν· πρὸς ὃ δὲ τὸ αὐτὸ μείζονα λόγον nitude). Τὰ ἄρα πρὸς τὸ αὐτὸ τὸν αὐτὸν ἔχοντα λόγον ἴσα ἀλλήλοις ἐστίν· καὶ πρὸς ἃ τὸ αὐτὸ τὸν αὐτὸν ἔχει λόγον. And those (magnitudes) to which the same (magnitude) has the same ratio are equal. will sometimes be greater than D. τοῦ Ν οὐχ ὑπερέχει. οὐκ ἂν τὸ Γ πρὸς ἑκάτερον τῶν Α. 5. that is to say N . Proposition 9 Τὰ πρὸς τὸ αὐτὸ τὸν αὐτὸν ἔχοντα λὸγον ἴσα ἀλλήλοις (Magnitudes) having the same ratio to the same ἐστίν· καὶ πρὸς ἃ τὸ αὐτὸ τὸν αὐτὸν ἕχει λόγον. nitudes) to which the same (magnitude) has the same ratio are equal. the greater (magnitude) has a greater ratio than the lesser to the same (magnitude). being multiplied.8]. ἐκεῖνα ἴσα (magnitude) are equal to one another. ὅτι ἴσον ἐστὶ τὸ Α τῷ Β. οὐκ ἂν ἑκάτερον τῶν Α. Thus. EB. (magnitudes) having the same ratio to the same (magnitude) are equal to one another. let the multiple N of D. ὅτι τὰ ΖΘ. τουτέστι τοῦ Ν. For if not. So.5]. following the above (arguments). μεῖζον δὲ τὸ ΗΘ τοῦ Δ· ὅλον ἄρα τὸ ΖΘ τῶν Δ. similarly (to the above). And. And those (magἐστίν. jþ. τουτέστι τοῦ Κ. I say that A is equal to B. I say that A is equal to B. the whole of F H exceeds D and M . A is equal to B. ὁμοίως δὴ δείξομεν. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. ELEMENTS BOOK 5 πολλαπλασιάσθω. Μ. Τῶν ἄρα ἀνίσων μεγεθῶν τὸ μεῖζον πρὸς τὸ αὐτὸ μείζονα λόγον ἔχει ἤπερ τὸ ἔλαττον· καὶ τὸ αὐτὸ πρὸς τὸ ἔλαττον μείζονα λόγον ἔχει ἤπερ πρὸς τὸ μεῖζον· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. let C have the same ratio to each of A and B. A and B would not each have the same ratio to C [Prop. C would not have the same ratio to each of A and B [Prop. Thus. iþ. καὶ ἔστω τὸ ΗΘ πολλαπλάσιον μὲν τοῦ ΕΒ. ὅτι ἴσον ἐστὶ τὸ Α τῷ Β. Β πρὸς τὸ Γ τὸν αὐτὸν εἶχε λόγον· ἔχει δέ· ἴσον ἄρα ἐστὶ τὸ Α τῷ Β. And K does not exceed N .STOIQEIWN eþ. So. So. similarly (to the above).

Μ. Ζ ἄλλα. Εἰ γὰρ μή. is B greater than A. For (then) C would have a lesser ratio to B than (it has) to A [Prop. so C (is) to D. Thus. B is not equal to A. For if not. iaþ.8]. and as C (is) to D. for (magnitudes) having a ratio to the same (magnitude).8]. Γ. But it does not. ἤτοι ἴσον ἐστὶ τὸ Α τῷ Β ἢ ἔλασσον. Θ. B is less than A. A is surely either equal to or less than B. ἐκεῖνο ἔλαττόν ἐστιν· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. And since as A is to B. A is greater than B. and the equal multiples G and H have been taken of A and C (respectively). οὐδὲ μὴν μεῖζόν ἐστι τὸ Β τοῦ Α· τὸ Γ γὰρ ἂν πρὸς τὸ Β ἐλάσσονα λόγον εἶχεν ἤπερ πρὸς τὸ Α.7]. In fact. C. ἐδείχθη δέ. indeed. Thus. For let A have a greater ratio to C than B (has) to C. οὕτως τὸ Γ πρὸς τὸ Δ. Εἰ γὰρ μή. For if not. But they do not. οὐδὲ μὴν ἔλασσόν ἐστι τὸ Α τοῦ Β· τὸ Α γὰρ ἂν πρὸς τὸ Γ ἐλάσσονα λόγον εἶχεν ἤπερ τὸ Β πρὸς τὸ Γ. In fact. ἃ ἔτυχεν. τῶν δὲ Β. ἃ ἔτυχεν. ὅτι μεῖζόν ἐστι τὸ Α τοῦ Β. Γ Α Ε ∆ Ζ Β Θ Κ Η Λ Μ Ν ῎Εστωσαν γὰρ ὡς μὲν τὸ Α πρὸς τὸ Β. I say that as A is to B. οὐκ ἔχει δέ· οὐκ ἄρα ἔλασσόν ἐστι τὸ Α τοῦ Β. (the) greater. ἐπεί ἐστιν A B G L C D H M E F K N For let it be that as A (is) to B. K have been taken of A. And that (magnitude) to which the latter (magnitude) has a greater ratio is (the) lesser. But it does not. οὕτως τὸ Ε πρὸς τὸ Ζ. οὐκ ἔχει δέ· οὐκ ἄρα μεῖζόν ἐστι τὸ Β τοῦ Α. ἐκεῖνο ἔλαττόν ἐστιν. οὐκ ἔχει δέ· οὐκ ἄρα ἴσον ἐστὶ τὸ Α τῷ Β. (Ratios which are) the same with the same ratio are also the same with one another. and the other random equal multiples L and M of B and D (respectively). For (then) A would have a lesser ratio to C than B (has) to C [Prop. Κ. Proposition 11† Οἱ τῷ αὐτῷ λόγῳ οἱ αὐτοὶ καὶ ἀλλήλοις εἰσὶν οἱ αὐτοί. 5.7]. So. again. καὶ εἰ ἴσον ἐστίν. Εἰλήφθω γὰρ τῶν Α. For (then) A and B would each have the same ratio to C [Prop. A is not equal to B. Καὶ ἐπεί ἐστιν ὡς τὸ Α πρὸς τὸ Β. ἰσάκις πολλαπλάσια τὰ Λ. ὅτι ἔλασσόν ἐστι τὸ Β τοῦ Α. ἴσον μὲν οὖν οὔκ ἐστὶ τὸ Α τῷ Β· ἑκάτερον γὰρ ἂν τῶν Α. ἴσον. Neither. indeed. Β τὸν αὐτὸν εἶχε λόγον. Α Β A Γ B C ᾿Εχέτω γὰρ τὸ Α πρὸς τὸ Γ μείζονα λόγον ἤπερ τὸ Β πρὸς τὸ Γ· λέγω. that (magnitude which) has the greater ratio is (the) greater. οὕτως τὸ Ε πρὸς τὸ Ζ· λέγω. H. A is not equal to B. is A less than B. And that (magnitude) to which the latter (magnitude) has a greater ratio is (the) lesser. E (respectively). so C (is) to D. ἐλλείπει. πάλιν. Β πρὸς τὸ Γ τὸν αὐτὸν εἶχε λόγον. Ν. so E (is) to F . ἐδείχθη δὲ οὐδὲ ἴσον· μεῖζον ἄρα ἐστὶ τὸ Α τοῦ Β. D. Δ. I say that A is greater than B. οὐκ ἔχει δέ· οὐκ ἄρα ἴσον ἐστὶ τὸ Α τῷ Β. let C have a greater ratio to B than C (has) to A. Γ ἰσάκις πολλαπλάσια τὰ Η. and the other random equal multiples L. A is not less than B. Δ ἄλλα. And it was shown that (it is) not equal (to A) either. For let the equal multiples G. ὅτι ἐστὶν ὡς τὸ Α πρὸς τὸ Β. Thus. Neither. καὶ εἴληπται τῶν μὲν Α. F (respectively). 5. Thus. I say that B is less than A. τῶν δὲ Β. Τῶν ἄρα πρὸς τὸ αὐτὸ λόγον ἐχόντων τὸ μείζονα λόγον ἔχον μεῖζόν ἐστιν· καὶ πρὸς ὃ τὸ αὐτὸ μείζονα λόγον ἔχει. M . N of B. οὕτως τὸ Γ πρὸς τὸ Δ. Thus. Θ. ἰσάκις πολλαπλάσια τὰ Λ. And it was shown not (to be) equal either. so E (is) to F . For (then) C would have the same ratio to each of A and B [Prop. But it does not. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. and if (G is) equal (to L then H is also) 141 . (it is) surely either equal or greater. Thus. B is not greater than A. 5. καὶ εἰ ἐλλείπει. εἰ ἄρα ὑπερέχει τὸ Η τοῦ Λ. ὑπερέχει καὶ τὸ Θ τοῦ Μ. ἤτοι ἴσον ἐστὶν ἢ μεῖζον. thus if G exceeds L then H also exceeds M .STOIQEIWN eþ. Μ. ἴσον μὲν οὖν οὔκ ἐστι τὸ Β τῷ Α· τὸ Γ γὰρ ἂν πρὸς ἑκάτερον τῶν Α. ELEMENTS BOOK 5 ἔχει. A is not equal to B. ᾿Εχέτω δὴ πάλιν τὸ Γ πρὸς τὸ Β μείζονα λόγον ἤπερ τὸ Γ πρὸς τὸ Α· λέγω. ὡς δὲ τὸ Γ πρὸς τὸ Δ. Thus. Ε ἰσάκις πολλαπλάσια τὰ Η. ὅτι οὐδὲ ἴσον· ἔλαττον ἄρα ἐστὶ τὸ Β τοῦ Α. 5.

C. Θ. so will all of the leading (magnitudes) be to all of the following. and the other random equal multiples M and N of D and F (respectively). ἰσάκις πολλαπλάσια τὰ Μ. Thus. Κ. D. and if (H was) less (than M then G was also) less (than L). C. F (respectively). τὰ δὲ Λ. thus if H exceeds M then K also exceeds N . οὕτως τὸ Γ πρὸς τὸ Δ. ἔλαττον. Β. Ζ. καὶ εἴληπται τῶν μὲν Α. ὑπερέχει καὶ τὸ Θ τοῦ Μ. καὶ εἰ ἴσον. Ν τῶν Β. N of B. ἴσον. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. (which are) proportional. ἃ ἔτυχεν. τῶν δὲ Δ. D. Ν. τῶν δὲ Β. ἰσάκις πολλαπλάσια· ἔστιν ἄρα ὡς τὸ Α πρὸς τὸ Β. C. 5. K have been taken of A. Ν. so C (is) to D. F . ὅτι ἐστὶν ὡς τὸ Α πρὸς τὸ Β. N of B. 142 . ἴσον. Ε ἰσάκις πολλαπλάσια τὰ Η. εἰ ἄρα ὑπερέχει τὸ Η τοῦ Λ. And. Κ τῶν δὲ Β. ἔλαττον. ἰσάκις πολλαπλάσια τὰ Λ. and the equal multiples G. Οἱ ἄρα τῷ αὐτῷ λόγῳ οἱ αὐτοὶ καὶ ἀλλήλοις εἰσὶν οἱ αὐτοί· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. and E to F . Ζ. ὑπερεῖχε καὶ τὸ Η τοῦ Λ. Μ. ibþ. Ν. And G and K are equal multiples of A and E (respectively). καὶ τὸ Ε πρὸς τὸ Ζ. Εἰλήφθω γὰρ τῶν μὲν Α. Ε πρὸς τὰ Β. Ζ ἄλλα. so E (is) to F . εἰ ἄρα ὑπερέχει τὸ Θ τοῦ Μ. Thus. Proposition 12† ᾿Εὰν ᾖ ὁποσαοῦν μεγέθη ἀνάλογον. (ratios which are) the same with the same ratio are also the same with one another. K have been taken of A. this proposition reads that if α : β :: γ : δ and γ : δ :: ǫ : ζ then α : β :: ǫ : ζ. 5. καὶ εἰ ἔλλατον. Ζ ἄλλα. And since as A is to B. ἴσον. B. D. καὶ τὸ Κ τοῦ Ν.5]. Δ. D. Κ. (so that) as A (is) to B. ἰσάκις πολλαπλάσια τὰ Λ.5]. and the other random equal multiples L. F (respectively). καὶ εἰ ἔλαττον. οὕτως τὸ Ε πρὸς τὸ Ζ. Α Β Η Θ Κ Γ ∆ Ε Ζ A B Λ Μ Ν G H K ῎Εστωσαν ὁποσαοῦν μεγέθη ἀνάλογον τὰ Α. ὡς τὸ Α πρὸς τὸ Β. οὕτως ἅπαντα τὰ ἡγούμενα πρὸς ἅπαντα τὰ ἑπόμενα. ὑπερέχει καὶ τὸ Κ τοῦ Ν. so E (is) to F [Def. Ε ἰσάκις πολλαπλάσια τὰ Θ. A. if G exceeds L then K also exceeds N . and if (G is) equal (to L then K is also) equal (to N ). οὕτως τὸ Γ πρὸς τὸ Δ. καὶ εἰ ἔλαττον. H. M . and if (H is) equal (to M then K is also) equal (to N ). οὕτως τὰ Α. In modern notation. and the other random equal multiples L. ὥστε καὶ εἰ ὑπερέχει τὸ Η τοῦ Λ. C D E F L M N Let there be any number of magnitudes whatsoever. and E to F . Γ. thus if G exceeds L then H also exceeds M . Ε ἰσάκις πολλαπλάσια. † equal (to M ). H. Δ. Μ. καὶ εἰ ἴσον. καὶ εἰ ἔλαττον. Ζ ἄλλα.5]. But (we saw that) if H was exceeding M then G was also exceeding L. and the equal multiples H and K have been taken of C and E (respectively). Κ τῶν Α. E (respectively).STOIQEIWN eþ. Δ. Καὶ ἐπεί ἐστιν ὡς τὸ Α πρὸς τὸ Β. Γ. καὶ τὸ Ε πρὸς το Ζ· λέγω. Γ. and if (H was) equal (to M then G was also) equal (to L). ELEMENTS BOOK 5 ὡς τὸ Γ πρὸς τὸ Δ. For let the equal multiples G. E (are) to B. as A is to B. and K (exceeds) N . I say that as A is to B. so A. Again. Δ. Ζ ἄλλα. Γ. καὶ εἰ ἴσον. ἔσται ὡς ἓν τῶν ἡγουμένων πρὸς ἓν τῶν ἑπομένων. ἃ ἔτυχεν. καὶ εἴληπται τῶν Γ. ἃ ἔτυχεν. If there are any number of magnitudes whatsoever (which are) proportional then as one of the leading (magnitudes is) to one of the following. and if (H is) less (than M then K is also) less (than N ) [Def. E. ὑπερέχει καὶ τὸ Κ τοῦ Ν. and if (G is) less (than L then K is also) less (than N ). F . ἔλαττον. ἃ ἔτυχεν. and K to N ). Ε ἰσάκις πολλαπλάσια τὰ Η. C. ἴσον. and L and N other random equal multiples of B and F (respectively). and if (G is) equal (to L then H is also) equal (to M . hence. καί ἐστι τὰ μὲν Η. καὶ εἰ ἴσον. οὕτως τὸ Ε πρὸς τὸ Ζ. 5. M . E (respectively). and if (G is) less (than L then H is also) less (than M ) [Def. Ε. Θ. ἔλαττον· ὥστε καὶ εἰ ὑπερέχει τὸ Η τοῦ Λ. since as C is to D. ἀλλὰ εἰ ὑπερεῖχε τὸ Θ τοῦ Μ. so C (is) to D.

καὶ εἰ ἴσον. and let the third (magnitude) C have a greater ratio to the fourth D than a fifth E (has) to a sixth F . ἴσα. Proposition 13† ᾿Εὰν πρῶτον πρὸς δεύτερον τὸν αὐτὸν ἒχῃ λόγον καὶ If a first (magnitude) has the same ratio to a second τρίτον πρὸς τέταρτον. τοσαυταπλάσια ἔσται καὶ τὰ πάντα τῶν πάντων. if there are any number of magnitudes whatsoever (which are) proportional then as one of the leading (magnitudes is) to one of the following. διὰ τὰ αὐτὰ δὴ καὶ τὸ Λ καὶ τὰ Λ. such that G exceeds K. Μ. but H does not exceed L. Ε πρὸς τὰ Β.STOIQEIWN eþ. Θ. ἰσάκις πολλαπλάσια τὰ Κ.1]. M . then the first (magnitude) will also have a greater ratio to the second than the fifth (has) to the sixth. if G exceeds L then G. F (respectively). of some (other) magnitudes. Δ. K also exceed L. So. † and if (G is) less (than L then H is also) less (than M . Γ. for the same (reasons). H. igþ. τρίτον δὲ πρὸς τέταρτον μείζονα that a third (has) to a fourth. ἐπειδήπερ ἐὰν ᾖ ὁποσαοῦν μεγέθη ὁποσωνοῦν μεγεθῶν ἴσων τὸ πλῆθος ἕκαστον ἑκάστου ἰσάκις πολλαπλάσιον. K are also) less (than L.7]. M . καὶ ἔστω τῶν μὲν Γ.5]. I say that the first (magnitude) A will also have a greater ratio to the second B than the fifth E (has) to the sixth F . Ζ. καὶ πρῶτον πρὸς δεύτερον has a greater ratio to the fourth than a fifth (has) to a μείζονα λόγον ἕξει ἢ πέμπτον πρὸς ἕκτον. And let G and H be equal multiples of C and E (respectively). ἔσται ὡς ἓν τῶν ἡγουμένων πρὸς ἓν τῶν ἑπομένων. τῶν δὲ Δ. and other random equal multiples of D and F . ἃ ἔτυχεν. of equal number (to them). ὁσαπλάσιόν ἐστιν ἓν τῶν μεγεθῶν ἑνός. Θ. K are also) equal (to L. In modern notation. Μ. Θ. inasmuch as if there are any number of magnitudes whatsoever (which are) equal multiples. λέγω. And as many times as K (is divisible) 143 . 5. so many times will all (of the first magnitudes) also (be divisible) by all (of the second) [Prop. Λ. εἰλήφθω. K are equal multiples of A and A. Γ. Ε ἰσάκις πολλαπλάσια. τῶν δὲ Δ. καὶ τὸ μὲν τοῦ Γ πολλαπλάσιον τοῦ τοῦ Δ πολλαπλασίου ὑπερέχει. C. Ζ ἄλλα. E (respectively). ἰσάκις πολλαπλάσια. καὶ εἰ ἔλαττον. Α Β Μ Ν Γ ∆ Η Κ Ε Ζ Θ Λ A B M N Πρῶτον γὰρ τὸ Α πρὸς δεύτερον τὸ Β τὸν αὐτὸν ἐχέτω λόγον καὶ τρίτον τὸ Γ πρὸς τέταρτον τὸ Δ. And as many times as G is (divisible) by C. 5. sixth. and if (G is) equal (to L then G. H. Thus. then as many times as one of the (first) magnitudes is (divisible) by one (of the second). (for which) the multiple of C exceeds the (multiple) of D. ELEMENTS BOOK 5 ὑπερέχει καὶ τὰ Η. τρίτον δὲ τὸ Γ πρὸς τέταρτον τὸ Δ μείζονα λόγον ἐχέτω ἢ πέμπτον τὸ Ε πρὸς ἕκτον τὸ Ζ. ἔλαττονα. N ) and if (G is) less (than L then G. Ε ἰσάκις πολλαπλάσια. H. N . οὕτως ἅπαντα τὰ ἡγούμενα πρὸς ἅπαντα τὰ ἑπόμενα· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. F (respectively). so many times let M be (divisible) by A. N are also equal multiples of B and B. τοσαυταπλάσιον ἔστω καὶ τὸ Μ τοῦ Α. hence. ὁσαπλάσιον δὲ τὸ Κ τοῦ Δ. Κ τοῦ Α καὶ τῶν Α. so will all of the leading (magnitudes) be to all of the following. 5. L and L. let them have been taken. N ). (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. τὸ δὲ Θ τοῦ Λ μὴ ὑπερέχειν· καὶ ὁσαπλάσιον μέν ἐστι τὸ Η τοῦ Γ. and the multiple of E does not exceed the multiple of F [Def. this proposition reads that if α : α′ :: β : β ′ :: γ : γ ′ etc. Ζ ἄλλα. ᾿Εὰν ἄρα ᾖ ὁποσαοῦν μεγέθη ἀνάλογον. Κ τῶν Λ. οὕτως τὰ Α. D. C. M . Ζ ἰσάκις ἐστὶ πολλαπλάσια· ἔστιν ἄρα ὡς τὸ Α πρὸς τὸ Β. M . ὅτι καὶ πρῶτον τὸ Α πρὸς δεύτερον τὸ Β μείζονα λόγον ἕξει ἤπερ πέμπτον τὸ Ε πρὸς ἕκτον τὸ Ζ. E (are) to B. Ε ἰσάκις πολλαπλάσια τὰ Η. Ν. Thus. καί ἐστι τὸ μὲν Η καὶ τὰ Η. ἃ ἔτυχεν. and K and L other random equal multiples of D and F (respectively). τὸ δὲ τοῦ Ε πολλαπλάσιον τοῦ τοῦ Ζ πολλαπλασίου οὐχ ὑπερέχει. respectively. Ν τοῦ Β καὶ τῶν Β. and the third (magnitude) λόγον ἔχῃ ἢ πέμπτον πρὸς ἕκτον. as A is to B. and K than N ) [Def. For since there are some equal multiples of C and E. ᾿Επεὶ γὰρ ἔστι τινὰ τῶν μὲν Γ. then α : α′ :: (α + β + γ + · · · ) : (α′ + β ′ + γ ′ + · · · ). τοσαυταπλάσιον ἔστω καὶ τὸ Ν τοῦ Β. H. Δ. so A. C D G K E F H L For let a first (magnitude) A have the same ratio to a second B that a third C (has) to a fourth D. And G and G. D. And. ὥστε τὸ μὲν Η τοῦ Κ ὑπερέχειν.

Κ. then the first (magnitude) will also have a greater ratio to the second than the fifth (has) to the sixth. εἰ ἄρα ὑπερέχει τὸ Μ τοῦ Ν. And as A (is) to B. Proposition 14† ᾿Εὰν πρῶτον πρὸς δεύτερον τὸν αὐτὸν ἔχῃ λόγον καὶ If a first (magnitude) has the same ratio to a second τρίτον πρὸς τέταρτον. then the second will also be κἂν ἔλαττον.7]. κἂν ἴσον. M also exceeds N . if a first (magnitude) has the same ratio to a second that a third (has) to a fourth. ἰσάκις πολλαπλάσια τὰ Ν. ὅτι καὶ τὸ Β τοῦ Δ μεῖζόν ἐστιν. Thus. ἔλλατον. idþ. ὑπερέχει καὶ τὸ Η τοῦ Κ. Thus. Η. μεῖζον δὲ ἔστω τὸ Α τοῦ Γ· λέγω. ὡς δὲ τὸ Α πρὸς τὸ Β. And if (the first magnitude is) less (than the third then the second will also be) less (than the fourth). ᾿Εὰν ἄρα πρῶτον πρὸς δεύτερον τὸν αὐτὸν ἔχῃ λόγον καὶ τρίτον πρὸς τέταρτον. ἴσον. is greater than the third. καὶ εἴληπται τῶν μὲν Α. ὑπερέχει δὲ τὸ Η τοῦ Κ· ὑπερέχει ἄρα καὶ τὸ Μ τοῦ Ν. 5. οὕτως τὸ Γ πρὸς τὸ Δ. Ζ ἄλλα. ἐκεῖνο ἔλασσόν ἐστιν· ἔλασσον ἄρα τὸ Δ τοῦ Β· ὥστε μεῖζόν ἐστι τὸ Β τοῦ Δ. ὃ ἔτυχεν. ἔλαττον· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. κἂν ἔλαττον. And G exceeds K. D (is) less than B. A thus has a greater ratio to B than C (has) to B [Prop. Thus. ἴσον. then the second will also be greater than the fourth. this proposition reads that if α : β :: γ : δ and γ : δ > ǫ : ζ then α : β > ǫ : ζ. we can show that even if A is equal to C then B will also be equal to D. κἂν ἴσον. Α Β Γ ∆ A B Πρῶτον γὰρ τὸ Α πρὸς δεύτερον τὸ Β αὐτὸν ἐχέτω λόγον καὶ τρίτον τὸ Γ πρὸς τέταρτον τὸ Δ. ELEMENTS BOOK 5 Καὶ ἐπεί ἐστιν ὡς τὸ Α πρὸς τὸ Β. In modern notation. so C (is) to D. and B (is) another random [magnitude]. and if (M is) equal (to N then G is also) equal (to K). C also has a greater ratio to D than C (has) to B.STOIQEIWN eþ. Ε ἰσάκις πολλαπλάσια. Θ τῶν Α. τῶν δὲ Β. Hence. τὰ δὲ Ν. ᾿Επεὶ γὰρ τὸ Α τοῦ Γ μεῖζόν ἐστιν. For since A is greater than C.8]. καὶ τὸ δεύτερον τοῦ τετάρτου μεῖζον ἔσται. 5. τὸ δὲ Θ τοῦ Λ οὐχ ὑπερέχει· καί ἐστι τὰ μὲν Μ. ἔλαττον. Δ ἄλλα. and the equal multiples M and G have been taken of A and C (respectively). † by D. ἃ ἔτυχεν. and even if A is less than C then B will also be less than D. 5. and a third (magnitude) has a greater ratio to a fourth than a fifth (has) to a sixth. that a third (has) to a fourth. ἴσον ἔσται καὶ τὸ Β τῷ Δ. I say that B is also greater than D. Γ ἰσάκις πολλαπλάσια τὰ Μ. so C (is) to D. And M and H are equal multiples of A and E (respectively). ἔλασσον ἔσται καὶ τὸ Β τοῦ Δ. if a first (magnitude) has the same ratio to a second that a third (has) to a fourth. [μέγεθος] τὸ Β. τὸ δὲ πρῶτον τοῦ τρίτου μεῖζον ᾖ. ἰσάκις πολλαπλάσια· τὸ ἄρα Α πρὸς τὸ Β μείζονα λόγον ἔχει ἤπερ τὸ Ε πρὸς τὸ Ζ. And if (the first magnitude is) 144 . And if (the first magnitude is) equal (to the third then the second will also be) equal (to the fourth). ῾Ομοίως δὴ δεῖξομεν. and if (M is) less (than N then G is also) less (than K) [Def. Λ τῶν Β. And since as A is to B. ἄλλο δέ. A has a greater ratio to B than E (has) to F [Def. τρίτον δὲ πρὸς τέταρτον μείζονα λόγον ἔχῃ ἢ πέμπτον πρὸς ἕκτον. and the first (magnitude) is greater than the third. and N and L other random equal multiples of B and F (respectively). (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. τὸ Α ἄρα πρὸς τὸ Β μείζονα λόγον ἔχει ἤπερ τὸ Γ πρὸς τὸ Β. greater than the fourth.10].5]. ᾿Εὰν ἄρα πρῶτον πρὸς δεύτερον τὸν αὐτὸν ἒχῃ λόγον καὶ τρίτον πρὸς τέταρτον. Thus. Thus. B is greater than D. ἴσον. καὶ πρῶτον πρὸς δεύτερον μείζονα λόγον ἕξει ἢ πέμπτον πρὸς ἕκτον· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. τὸ δὲ πρῶτον τοῦ τρίτου μεῖζον ᾖ. καὶ εἰ ἔλαττον. so many times let N be (divisible) by B. ὅτι κἂν ἴσον ᾖ τὸ Α τῷ Γ. and the other random equal multiples N and K of B and D (respectively). 5. ἃ ἔτυχεν. and the first (magnitude) καὶ τὸ δεύτερον τοῦ τετάρτου μεῖζον ἔσται. Thus. And H does not exceeds L. οὕτως τὸ Γ πρὸς τὸ Δ· καὶ τὸ Γ ἄρα πρὸς τὸ Δ μείζονα λόγον ἔχει ἤπερ τὸ Γ πρὸς τὸ Β. κἄν ἔλασσον ᾖ τὸ Α τοῦ Γ. πρὸς ὃ δὲ τὸ αὐτὸ μείζονα λόγον ἔχει. καὶ εἰ ἴσον. And that (magnitude) to which the same (magnitude) has a greater ratio is the lesser [Prop. So. similarly. And let A be greater than C. C D For let a first (magnitude) A have the same ratio to a second B that a third C (has) to a fourth D. thus if M exceeds N then G exceeds K.

῎Εστω τέσσαρα μεγέθη ἀνάλογον τὰ Α. ΘΒ τῷ πλήθει τῶν ΔΚ. ΗΘ. Let A. ἃ ἔτυχεν. the number of (magnitudes) AG. equal to F . ἰσάκις πολλαπλάσια τὰ Η. Εἰλήφθω γὰρ τῶν μὲν Α. thus as many magnitudes as there are in AB equal to C. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. And if (the first magnitude is) less (than the third then the second will also be) less (than the fourth). B. οὕτως τὸ ΑΒ πρὸς τὸ ΔΕ. Thus. and DK.12]. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. ΛΕ. καὶ ἐναλλὰξ ἀνάλογον ἔσται. 5. οὕτως τὸ Γ πρὸς τὸ Δ· λέγω. ἔστιν ἄρα ὡς τὸ ΑΗ πρὸς τὸ ΔΚ. Thus. And AG is equal to C. And since AG. ΚΛ. and HB to LE [Prop. as AG is to DK. And. ΚΛ. ᾿Επεὶ γὰρ ἰσάκις ἐστὶ πολλαπλάσιον τὸ ΑΒ τοῦ Γ καὶ τὸ ΔΕ τοῦ Ζ. ἔστι δὲ καὶ τὰ ΔΚ. Θ. (such that) as A (is) to B. iþ. τὸ δὲ ΔΕ εἰς τὰ τῷ Ζ ἴσα τὰ ΔΚ. and the other random equal multiples G and H of C and D (respectively). Ζ. GH. LE. I say that they will also be [proportional] alternately. GH. (so that) as A (is) to C. GH. ΗΘ. οὕτως τὸ Β πρὸς τὸ Δ. KL. διῃρήσθω τὸ μὲν ΑΒ εἰς τὰ τῷ Γ ἴσα τὰ ΑΗ. If four magnitudes are proportional then they will also be proportional alternately. ΛΕ ἴσα ἀλλήλοις. as C is to F . ΛΕ· ἔσται δὴ ἴσον τὸ πλῆθος τῶν ΑΗ. so AB (is) to DE. HB are equal to one another. For since AB and DE are equal multiples of C and F (respectively). KL. so all of the leading (magnitudes will be) to all of the following [Prop. so B (is) to D. taken in corresponding order. Proposition 16† ᾿Εὰν τέσσαρα μεγέθη ἀνάλογον ᾖ. Γ. LE. Δ. ὅτι ἐστὶν ὡς τὸ Γ πρὸς τὸ Ζ. οὕτως ἅπαντα τὰ ἡγουμένα πρὸς ἅπαντα τὰ ἑπόμενα· ἔστιν ἄρα ὡς τὸ ΑΗ πρὸς τὸ ΔΚ. ἔσται ἄρα καὶ ὡς ἓν τῶν ἡγουμένων πρὸς ἓν τῶν ἑπομένων. καὶ τὸ ΘΒ πρὸς τὸ ΛΕ.STOIQEIWN eþ. KL. in corresponding order. ὡς τὸ Α πρὸς τὸ Β. ΚΛ. τὸ δὲ ΔΚ τῷ Ζ· ἔστιν ἄρα ὡς τὸ Γ πρὸς τὸ Ζ οὕτως τὸ ΑΒ πρὸς τὸ ΔΕ. HB will equal the number of (magnitudes) DK. Α ∆ Η Θ Κ Λ Β Ε A H B C D Ζ K L E F ῎Εστω γὰρ ἰσάκις πολλαπλάσιον τὸ ΑΒ τοῦ Γ καὶ το ΔΕ τοῦ Ζ· λέγω. ΘΒ. οὕτως τὸ ΑΒ πρὸς τὸ ΔΕ. and DE into (magnitudes) DK. this proposition reads that α : β :: m α : m β. For let the equal multiples E and F have been taken of A and B (respectively). Β ἰσάκις πολλαπλάσια τὰ Ε. thus (for proportional magnitudes). So.7]. οὕτως τὸ ΗΘ πρὸς τὸ ΚΛ. Β. this proposition reads that if α : β :: γ : δ then α T γ as β T δ. parts have the same ratio as similar multiples. equal to C. as one of the leading (magnitudes) will be to one of the following. LE are also equal to one another. HB. ΗΘ. Proposition 15† Τὰ μέρη τοῖς ὡσαύτως πολλαπλασίοις τὸν αὐτὸν ἔχει Parts have the same ratio as similar multiples. † G Γ For let AB and DE be equal multiples of C and F (respectively). ΘΒ ἀλλήλοις. τοσαῦτα καὶ ἐν τῷ ΔΕ ἴσα τῷ Ζ. † In modern notation. ὅτι καὶ ἐναλλὰξ [ἀνάλογον] ἔσται. ELEMENTS BOOK 5 equal (to the third then the second will also be) equal (to the fourth). so AB (is) to DE. καὶ ἐπεὶ ἴσα ἐστὶ τὰ ΑΗ. so GH (is) to KL. thus as AG is to DK. ὅσα ἄρα ἐστὶν ἐν τῷ ΑΒ μεγέθη ἴσα τῷ Γ. Thus. C and D be four proportional magnitudes. so AB (is) to DE. Let AB have been divided into (magnitudes) AG. ieþ. taken λόγον ληφθέντα κατάλληλα. and DK to F . so C (is) to D. 5. ἴσον δὲ τὸ μὲν ΑΗ τῷ Γ. Τὰ ἄρα μέρη τοῖς ὡσαύτως πολλαπλασίοις τὸν αὐτὸν ἔχει λόγον ληφθέντα κατάλληλα· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. τῶν δὲ Γ. 145 . ὡς τὸ Α πρὸς τὸ Γ. I say that as C is to F . Δ ἄλλα. In modern notation. so many (are there) also in DE equal to F .

Proposition 17† ᾿Εὰν συγκείμενα μεγέθη ἀνάλογον ᾖ. τῶν δὲ ΕΒ. ΘΚ. as C (is) to D. thus. so B (is) to D [Def. εἰ ἄρα ὑπερέχει τὸ Ε τοῦ Η. καὶ διαιρεθέντα If composed magnitudes are proportional then they ἀνάλογον ἔσται. † C D G H And since E and F are equal multiples of A and B (respectively). ὡς δὲ τὸ Α πρὸς τὸ Β. so E (is) to F . ἃ ἔτυχεν. τὸ δὲ πρῶτον τοῦ τρίτου μεῖζον ᾖ. LM .15]. 5. Thus. Thus. Thus. 146 . ΒΕ. so G (is) to H [Prop. And if four magnitudes are proportional. thus as C is to D. and if (the first is) equal (to the third then the second will also be) equal (to the fourth). οὕτως τὸ Γ πρὸς τὸ Δ· καὶ ὡς ἄρα τὸ Γ πρὸς τὸ Δ. κἂν ἴσον. so CD (is) to DF . In modern notation. τὰ δὲ μέρη τοῖς ὡσαύτως πολλαπλασίοις τὸν αὐτὸν ἔχει λόγον. But as A (is) to B. and G and H other random equal multiples of C and D (respectively). CF . ΓΖ. ἔστιν ἄρα ὡς τὸ Α πρὸς τὸ Β. Β ἰσάκις πολλαπλάσια. ΛΜ. ᾿Εὰν ἄρα τέσσαρα μεγέθη ἀνάλογον ᾖ. since G and H are equal multiples of C and D (respectively). 5. ἴσον. will also be proportional (when) separarted. and if (E is) equal (to G then F is also) equal (to H).STOIQEIWN eþ. so E (is) to F [Prop. ELEMENTS BOOK 5 Α Β Ε Ζ Γ ∆ Η Θ A B E F Καὶ ἐπεὶ ἰσάκις ἐστὶ πολλαπλάσιον τὸ Ε τοῦ Α καὶ τὸ Ζ τοῦ Β. 5. if E exceeds G then F also exceeds H. ἰσάκις πολλαπλάσια· ἔστιν ἄρα ὡς τὸ Α πρὸς τὸ Γ. EB. καί ἐστι τὰ μὲν Ε. καὶ ἐναλλὰξ ἀνάλογον ἔσται· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. ἰσάκις ἄρα ἐστὶ πολλαπλάσιον τὸ ΗΘ τοῦ M B C H K N F D O P Let AB. CD. ΓΔ. ὡς δὲ τὸ Γ πρὸς τὸ Δ. 5. (so that) as AE (is) to EB. οὕτως τὸ Η πρὸς τὸ Θ. and the first is greater than the third then the second will also be greater than the fourth. ἴσον. Εἰλήφθω γὰρ τῶν μὲν ΑΕ. ἔστιν ἄρα ὡς τὸ Γ πρὸς τὸ Δ. ἐπεὶ τὰ Η. and if (E is) less (than G then F is also) less (than H). ἔλαττον. καὶ εἰ ἴσον. and F D (respectively). ἔλαττον. ΖΔ ἰσάκις πολλαπλάσια τὰ ΗΘ. ΝΠ. καὶ τὸ δεύτερον τοῦ τετάρτου μεῖζον ἔσται. ὅτι καὶ διαιρεθέντα ἀνάλογον ἔσται. ὡς τὸ ΑΒ πρὸς τὸ ΒΕ. HK. ΔΖ. And E and F are equal multiples of A and B (respectively). [οὕτως] τὸ Ε πρὸς τὸ Ζ· καὶ ὡς ἄρα τὸ Ε πρὸς τὸ Ζ. ΖΔ ἄλλα. For let the equal multiples GH. and if (the first is) less (than the third then the second will also be) less (than the fourth) [Prop. and M N have been taken of AE. οὕτως τὸ Β πρὸς τὸ Δ. ἃ ἔτυχεν.15]. πάλιν. as E (is) to F . [so] E (is) to F . οὕτως τὸ ΓΖ πρὸς τὸ ΔΖ. Ζ τῶν Α. so C (is) to D. ΜΝ.5].11]. ἐὰν δὲ τέσσαρα μεγέθη ἀνάλογον ᾖ. as A is to C. ἰσάκις πολλαπλάσια τὰ ΚΞ. ΕΒ. thus. 5. this proposition reads that if α : β :: γ : δ then α : γ :: β : δ. Δ ἰσάκις ἐστὶ πολλαπλάσια. and parts have the same ratio as similar multiples [Prop. izþ. Θ τῶν Γ. Θ τῶν Γ. And. so CF (is) to DF . οὕτως τὸ Ε πρὸς τὸ Ζ. καὶ εἰ ἔλαττον. if four magnitudes are proportional then they will also be proportional alternately. Καὶ ἐπεὶ ἰσάκις ἐστὶ πολλαπλάσιον τὸ ΗΘ τοῦ ΑΕ καὶ τὸ ΘΚ τοῦ ΕΒ. Δ ἄλλα. οὕτως τὸ Ε πρὸς τὸ Ζ. I say that they will also be proportional (when) separated. Again.14]. (so that) as AB (is) to BE. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. But as C (is) to D. κἄν ἔλαττον. οὕτως τὸ Η πρὸς τὸ Θ. Α Ε Η Λ Μ Β Γ Θ Κ Ν Ζ ∆ A Ξ E G Π L ῎Εστω συγκείμενα μεγέθη ἀνάλογον τὰ ΑΒ. τὰ δὲ Η. οὕτως τὸ ΓΔ πρὸς τὸ ΔΖ· λέγω. thus as A is to B. ὡς τὸ ΑΕ πρὸς τὸ ΕΒ. And. so G (is) to H [Prop. and the other random equal multiples KO and N P of EB and F D (respectively).11]. and DF be composed magnitudes (which are) proportional. 5. ὑπερέχει καὶ τὸ Ζ τοῦ Θ. BE.

and if (GK is) equal (to HO then LN is also) equal (to M P ). ἃ ἔτυχεν. and KO and N P are also equal multiples of EB and F D (respectively). ΝΠ τῶν ΕΒ. † And since GH and HK are equal multiples of AE and EB (respectively). καὶ συντεθέντα If separated magnitudes are proportional then they ἀνάλογον ἔσται. ἴσον. Hence. CD. τὰ δὲ ΚΞ. And GH. ὅτι κἂν ἴσον ᾖ τὸ ΗΘ τῷ ΚΞ. ἴσον ἔσται καὶ τὸ ΛΜ τῷ ΝΠ. ΖΔ ἄλλα. And since as AB (is) to BE. LN are equal multiples of AB. οὕτως τὸ ΓΔ πρὸς τὸ ΔΖ. (which are) proportional. ΛΝ ἄρα τῶν ΑΒ. ᾿Εὰν ἄρα συγκείμενα μεγέθη ἀνάλογον ᾖ. ΓΔ ἰσάκις πολλαπλάσια τὰ ΗΚ. ὑπερεχέτω δὴ τὸ ΗΚ τοῦ ΘΞ. CD. HK being taken away from both. we can show that even if GH is equal to KO then LM will also be equal to N P . But GH and LM are equal multiples of AE and CF (respectively). ELEMENTS BOOK 5 ΑΕ καὶ τὸ ΗΚ τοῦ ΑΒ. LN also exceeds M P .1]. ὑπερέχει καὶ τὸ ΛΜ τοῦ ΝΠ. since LM and M N are equal multiples of CF and F D (respectively). ΖΔ ἰσάκις πολλαπλάσια τὰ ΘΞ. this proposition reads that if α + β : β :: γ + δ : δ then α : β :: γ : δ. ΕΒ. Thus. ἰσάκις πολλαπλάσια· ἔστιν ἄρα ὡς τὸ ΑΕ πρὸς τὸ ΕΒ. καὶ κοινοῦ ἀφαιρεθέντος τοῦ ΘΚ ὑπερέχει ἄρα καὶ τὸ ΗΘ τοῦ ΚΞ. F D. ἔλαττον. Α Γ Ε Β Ζ Η A ∆ C E B F G D ῎Εστω διῃρημένα μεγέθη ἀνάλογον τὰ ΑΕ. EB. and the equal multiples HO. 5. LM and LN are thus equal multiples of CF and CD (respectively) [Prop. Again. So let GK exceed HO. But (we saw that) if GK was exceeding HO then LN was also exceeding M P . Let AE. I say that they will also be proportional 147 . καὶ εἰ ἔλαττον.2]. ἐπεὶ ἰσάκις ἐστὶ πολλαπλασίον τὸ ΘΚ τοῦ ΕΒ καὶ τὸ ΜΝ τοῦ ΖΔ. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. καὶ κοινοῦ ἀφαιρεθέντος τοῦ ΜΝ ὑπερέχει καὶ τὸ ΛΜ τοῦ ΝΠ· ὥστε εἰ ὑπερέχει τὸ ΗΘ τοῦ ΚΞ. added together. LN have been taken of AB. GH and GK are thus equal multiples of AE and AB (respectively) [Prop. ἰσάκις δὲ ἦν πολλαπλάσιον τὸ ΛΜ τοῦ ΓΖ καὶ τὸ ΗΚ τοῦ ΑΒ· ἰσάκις ἄρα ἐστὶ πολλαπλάσιον τὸ ΗΚ τοῦ ΑΒ καὶ τὸ ΛΝ τοῦ ΓΔ. οὕτως τὸ ΓΖ πρὸς τὸ ΖΔ. CF .STOIQEIWN eþ. καὶ ἐπεί ἐστιν ὡς τὸ ΑΒ πρὸς τὸ ΒΕ. if GH exceeds KO then LM also exceeds N P . ΓΖ.1]. Thus. ἀλλα εἰ ὑπερεῖχε τὸ ΗΚ τοῦ ΘΞ ὑπερεῖχε καὶ τὸ ΛΝ τοῦ ΜΠ· ὑπερέχει ἄρα καὶ τὸ ΛΝ τοῦ ΜΠ. οὕτως τὸ ΓΖ πρὸς τὸ ΖΔ· λέγω. So. κἂν ἔλαττον. and thus. and F D be separated magnitudes ὡς τὸ ΑΕ πρὸς τὸ ΕΒ. will also be proportional (when) composed. GK and LN are equal multiples of AB and CD (respectively). In modern notation. πάλιν. ἐπεὶ ἰσάκις ἐστὶ πολλαπλάσιον τὸ ΛΜ τοῦ ΓΖ καὶ τὸ ΜΝ τοῦ ΖΔ. Thus. ΜΠ. ἰσάκις ἄρα ἐστὶ πολλαπλάσιον τὸ ΛΜ τοῦ ΓΖ καὶ τὸ ΛΝ τοῦ ΓΔ. HO and M P are also equal multiples of EB and F D (respectively) [Prop. as AE is to EB. ὑπερέχει καὶ τὸ ΛΝ τοῦ ΜΠ.5]. ΖΔ. ἔστι δὲ καὶ τὸ ΚΞ τοῦ ΕΒ ἰσάκις πολλαπλάσιον καὶ τὸ ΝΠ τοῦ ΖΔ. 5. ΓΔ ἰσάκις ἐστὶ πολλαπλάσια. 5. N P other random equal multiples of EB. if composed magnitudes are proportional then they will also be proportional (when) separarted. καὶ εἰ ἴσον. καί ἐστι τὰ μὲν ΗΘ. so CF (is) to F D [Def. 5. LM are equal multiples of AE. ihþ. ΓΖ ἰσάκις πολλαπλάσια. and. Again. ὁμοίως δὴ δεῖξομεν. GK.5]. and if (GK is) less (than HO then LN is also) less (than M P ) [Def. εἰ ἄρα ὑπερέχει τὸ ΗΚ τοῦ ΘΞ. thus if GK exceeds HO then LN also exceeds M P . καὶ διαιρεθέντα ἀνάλογον ἔσται· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. καὶ εἴληπται τῶν μὲν ΑΒ. GK and LM are equal multiples of AB and CF (respectively). CF . πάλιν. τὰ ΗΚ. Thus. ΛΝ. And LM and GK were equal multiples of CF and AB (respectively). LM also exceeds N P . so CD (is) to DF . καὶ συντεθὲν τὸ ΘΞ τοῦ ΕΒ ἰσάκις ἐστὶ πολλαπλάσιον καὶ τὸ ΜΠ τοῦ ΖΔ. since HK and M N are equal multiples of EB and F D (respectively). τῶν δὲ ΕΒ. Proposition 18† ᾿Εὰν διῃρημένα μεγέθη ἀνάλογον ᾖ. 5. similarly. M N being taken away from both. Thus. and KO. F D. ἔλαττον. ἰσάκις δέ ἐστι πολλαπλάσιον τὸ ΗΘ τοῦ ΑΕ καὶ τὸ ΛΜ τοῦ ΓΖ· ἰσάκις ἄρα ἐστὶ πολλαπλάσιον τὸ ΗΚ τοῦ ΑΒ καὶ τὸ ΛΜ τοῦ ΓΖ. (so that) as AE (is) to EB. M P of EB. GH exceeds KO. Thus. and even if (GH is) less (than KO then LM will also be) less (than N P ). then. ὡς τὸ ΑΒ πρὸς τὸ ΒΕ. so ὅτι καὶ συντεθέντα ἀνάλογον ἔσται. CF (is) to F D. and the equal multiples GK. ΛΜ τῶν ΑΕ.

as the remainder EB (is) to the remainder F D. (that) as BA (is) to AE. καὶ διαιρεθέντα ἀνάλογον ἔσται. οὕτως τὸ ΓΗ πρὸς τὸ ΗΔ. then it will surely be (the case that) as AB (is) to BE. μεῖζον δὲ τὸ πρῶτον τὸ ΓΗ τοῦ τρίτου τοῦ ΓΖ· μεῖζον ἄρα καὶ τὸ δεύτερον τὸ ΗΔ τοῦ τετάρτου τοῦ ΖΔ. ἔσται ὡς τὸ ΑΒ πρὸς τὸ ΒΕ. so AE (is) to CF . the remainder will also be as the whole (is) to the whole. καὶ τὸ λοιπὸν πρὸς τὸ λοιπὸν ἔσται ὡς ὅλον πρὸς away is to the (part) taken away then the remainder to ὅλον. (so that) as AB (is) to BE. For since as AB is to CD. καὶ ἐπεί ἐστιν ὡς τὸ ΑΒ πρὸς τὸ ΒΕ. thus. (so that) as AB is to BE. ὑπόκειται δὲ καὶ ὡς τὸ ΑΕ πρὸς τὸ ΕΒ. (when) composed.14]. be to (some magnitude) less (than DF ). or (some magnitude) greater (than DF ). so CG (is) to GD. alternately. καὶ λοιπὸν ἄρα τὸ ΕΒ πρὸς λοιπὸν τὸ ΖΔ ἔσται ὡς ὅλον τὸ ΑΒ πρὸς ὅλον τὸ ΓΔ. οὕτως τὸ ΔΖ πρὸς τὸ ΓΖ· καὶ ἐναλλάξ. so EA (is) to F C [Prop. so CF (is) to F D. The very thing is impossible. καὶ ἐναλλὰξ ὡς τὸ ΒΑ πρὸς τὸ ΑΕ. οὕτως τὸ ΓΔ ἤτοι πρὸς ἔλασσόν τι τοῦ ΔΖ ἢ πρὸς μεῖζον. so DC (is) to CF [Prop. as BE (is) to DF . But (it is) also less. οὕτως τὸ ΓΖ πρὸς τὸ ΖΔ. (so that) as BE (is) to EA. And the first (magnitude) CG (is) greater than the third CF . 148 . καὶ συντεθέντα ἀνάλογον ἔσται· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. ‡ Here. (it is) also (the case that) as CG (is) to GD. alternately. without proof. ῎Εστω πρότερον πρὸς ἔλασσον τὸ ΔΗ. ἀλλὰ καὶ ἔλαττον· ὅπερ ἐστὶν ἀδύνατον· οὐκ ἄρα ἐστὶν ὡς τὸ ΑΒ πρὸς τὸ ΒΕ.17]. so CF (is) to F D [Prop. Α Γ Ε Β Ζ A ∆ C ῎Εστω γὰρ ὡς ὅλον τὸ ΑΒ πρὸς ὅλον τὸ ΓΔ. ELEMENTS BOOK 5 οὕτως τὸ ΓΔ πρὸς τὸ ΖΔ. as AE is to EB.11]. ὅτι οὐδὲ πρὸς μεῖζον· πρὸς αὐτὸ ἄρα. οὕτως ἀφαιρεθὲν πρὸς E B F D For let the whole AB be to the whole CD as the (part) taken away AE (is) to the (part) taken away CF . 5. For if (it is) not (the case that) as AB is to BE. 5. οὕτως τὸ ΓΖ πρὸς τὸ ΖΔ. ᾿Επεὶ γάρ ἐστιν ὡς τὸ ΑΒ πρὸς τὸ ΓΔ. Thus. so CD (is) to F D. And. ᾿Εὰν ἄρα ᾖ ὡς ὅλον πρὸς ὅλον. 5. καὶ ἐπεὶ συγκείμενα μεγέθη ἀνάλογόν ἐστιν. And since composed magnitudes are proportional. I say that the remainder EB to the remainder F D will also be as the whole AB (is) to the whole CD. † In modern notation. Thus. Proposition 19† ᾿Εὰν ᾖ ὡς ὅλον πρὸς ὅλον. the second (magnitude) GD (is) also greater than the fourth F D [Prop. so CD (is) to F D. Thus. (it is the case) to the same (as F D).‡ Let it. ὁμοίως δὴ δείξομεν. so CD (is) to less than F D. that a fourth magnitude proportional to three given magnitudes can always be found. And it was assumed that as AE (is) to CF . so the whole AB (is) to the whole CD. Similarly. οὕτως τὸ ΔΓ πρὸς τὸ ΓΖ. ὅτι καὶ λοιπὸν τὸ ΕΒ πρὸς λοιπὸν τὸ ΖΔ ἔσται ὡς ὅλον τὸ ΑΒ πρὸς ὅλον τὸ ΓΔ. οὕτως τὸ ΑΕ πρὸς τὸ ΓΖ. 5. this proposition reads that if α : β :: γ : δ then α + β : β :: γ + δ : δ. And since composed magnitudes are proportional then they will also be proportional (when) separated. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. (namely) DG. we can show that neither (is it the case) to greater (than F D). οὕτως τὸ ΕΑ πρὸς τὸ ΖΓ. οὕτως τὸ ΓΔ πρὸς τὸ ΔΖ. first of all. (it is) also (the case).17]. so CD (is) to DG. so the whole AB will be to the whole CD. οὕτως τὸ ΓΔ πρὸς τὸ ΔΗ. Thus. οὕτως ἀφαιρεθὲν πρὸς ἀφαιIf as the whole is to the whole so the (part) taken ρεθέν.STOIQEIWN eþ. συγκείμενα μεγέθη ἀνάλογόν ἐστιν· ὥστε καὶ διαιρεθέντα ἀνάλογον ἔσται.16]. καὶ ὡς ἄρα τὸ ΓΗ πρὸς τὸ ΗΔ. ijþ. Εἰ γὰρ μή ἐστὶν ὡς τὸ ΑΒ πρὸς τὸ ΒΕ. so CD is either to some (magnitude) less than DF . they will thus also be proportional (when) separated [Prop. 5. 5. οὕτως τὸ ΓΔ πρὸς ἔλασσον τοῦ ΖΔ. Thus.16]. Also. ὡς δὲ τὸ ΑΕ πρὸς τὸ ΓΖ. Euclid assumes. if separated magnitudes are proportional then they will also be proportional (when) composed. ὡς τὸ ΒΕ πρὸς τὸ ΕΑ. ἔστιν ἄρα ὡς τὸ ΑΕ πρὸς τὸ ΕΒ. so DF (is) to CF [Prop. οὕτως ἀφαιρεθὲν τὸ ΑΕ πρὸς ἀφειρεθὲν τὸ ΓΖ· λέγω. But it was also assumed that as AE (is) to EB. οὕτως ὑπόκειται ὅλον τὸ ΑΒ πρὸς ὅλον τὸ ΓΔ. (it is) not (the case that) as AB is to BE. Thus. ᾿Εὰν ἄρα διῃρημένα μεγέθη ἀνάλογον ᾖ. ὡς τὸ ΒΕ πρὸς τὸ ΔΖ.

And for (mag- 149 . so EB (is) to F D. B. But as A (is) to B.] [And since it was shown (that) as AB (is) to CD. μεῖζον ἄρα τὸ Δ τοῦ Ζ. καὶ ἀναστρέψαντι ἀνάλογον ἔσται· ὅπερ ἔδει tudes are proportional then they will also be proportional δεῖξαι. (it is) also (the case). ἴσον. And. δι᾿ ἴσου δὲ τὸ number to them. τῶν δὲ πρὸς τὸ αὐτὸ λόγον ἐχόντων τὸ μείζονα λόγον ἔχον μεῖζόν ἐστιν. ELEMENTS BOOK 5 ἀφαιρεθέν. Α Β Γ ∆ Ε Ζ A B C ῎Εστω τρία μεγέθη τὰ Α. if as the whole is to the whole so the (part) taken away is to the (part) taken away then the remainder to the remainder will also be as the whole (is) to the whole. ὡς δὲ τὸ Β πρὸς τὸ Γ.8]. 5. κἂν D E F Let A. Corollary‡ ᾿Εκ δὴ τούτου φανερόν. Thus. that if composed magniἀνάλογον ᾖ. ἔλαττον. (so that) as A (is) to B. And let A be greater than C. Β. κἂν ἴσον. so CD (is) to F D.]. τὸ δὲ μεῖζον πρὸς τὸ αὐτὸ μείζονα λόγον ἔχει ἤπερ τὸ ἔλαττον. καὶ ἄλλα αὐτοῖς ἴσα τὸ πλῆθος τὰ Δ. and (if). ᾿Επεὶ γὰρ μεῖζόν ἐστι τὸ Α τοῦ Γ. For since A is greater than C. this proposition reads that if α : β :: γ : δ then α : β :: α − γ : β − δ. In modern notation. καὶ τὸ τέταρτον τοῦ ἕκτου by two. And if (the first is) less (than the third then the fourth will also be) less (than the sixth). οὕτως τὸ Ε πρὸς τὸ Ζ. I say that D will also be greater than F . κἂν ἔλαττον. 5. And if (the first is) equal (to the third then the fourth will also be) equal (to the sixth). οὕτως τὸ ΕΒ πρὸς τὸ ΖΔ. (being) in the same ratio taken two by two. καὶ ἐναλλὰξ ὡς τὸ ΑΒ πρὸς τὸ ΒΕ οὕτως τὸ ΓΔ πρὸς τὸ ΖΔ. ὅτι κἂν ἴσον ᾖ τὸ Α τῷ Γ. alternately. Thus. E. [so] D (is) to E. (being) also in the same ratio taken two πρῶτον τοῦ τρίτου μεῖζον ᾖ. D also has a greater ratio to E than F (has) to E [Prop. via equality. σύνδυο λαμβανόμενα ἐν τῷ αὐτῷ λόγῳ. ὡς μὲν τὸ Α πρὸς τὸ Β. And it was shown (that) as BA (is) to AE. ὡς δὲ τὸ Γ πρὸς τὸ Β. so F (is) to E [Prop. κἂν ἴσον. And (the latter) is converted (from the former). Ε. κἂν ἔλαττον. Ζ. δι᾿ ἴσου δὲ μεῖζον ἔστω τὸ Α τοῦ Γ· λέγω. and as B (is) to C. † ‡ In modern notation. so E (is) to F . and C be three magnitudes. Thus.STOIQEIWN eþ. (when) converted. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. [(Which is) the very thing it was required to show. and the greater (magnitude) has a greater ratio than the lesser to the same (magnitude) [Prop.13]. ὅτι καὶ τὸ Δ τοῦ Ζ μεῖζον ἔσται. Γ. A thus has a greater ratio to B than C (has) to B. from this. ἀνάπαλιν οὕτως τὸ Ζ πρὸς τὸ Ε· καὶ τὸ Δ ἄρα πρὸς τὸ Ε μείζονα λόγον ἔχει ἤπερ τὸ Ζ πρὸς τὸ Ε. If there are three magnitudes. οὕτως τὸ ΔΓ πρὸς τὸ ΓΖ· καί ἐστιν ἀναστρέψαντι]. composed magnitudes are proportional. And if (A is) equal (to C then D will also be) equal (to F ).] Pìrisma. and others of equal σύνδυο λαμβανόμενα καὶ ἐν τῷ αὐτῷ λόγω. kþ. via equality. ἴσον. ἀλλ᾿ ὡς μὲν τὸ Α πρὸς τὸ Β [οὕτως] τὸ Δ πρὸς τὸ Ε. οὕτως τὸ Δ πρὸς τὸ Ε. and B some other (magnitude). τὸ Α ἄρα πρὸς τὸ Β μείζονα λόγον ἔχει ἤπερ τὸ Γ πρὸς τὸ Β. so DC (is) to CF . F other (magnitudes) of equal number to them. [Καὶ ἐπεὶ ἐδείχθη ὡς τὸ ΑΒ πρὸς τὸ ΓΔ. 5. And if (A is) less (than C then D will also be) less (than F ). συγκείμενα ἄρα μεγέθη ἀνάλογόν ἐστιν· ἐδείχθη δὲ ὡς τὸ ΒΑ πρὸς τὸ ΑΕ. ὁμοίως δὴ δείξομεν. so D (is) to E. ἔλαττον. as C (is) to B. καὶ τὸ λοιπὸν πρὸς τὸ λοιπὸν ἔσται ὡς ὅλον πρὸς ὅλον [ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι]. the first is greater than the μεῖζον ἔσται. ὅτι ἐὰν συγκείμενα μεγέθη So (it is) clear. inversely. this corollary reads that if α : β :: γ : δ then α : α − β :: γ : γ − δ. and D. Proposition 20† ᾿Εὰν ᾖ τρία μεγέθη καὶ ἄλλα αὐτοῖς ἴσα τὸ πλῆθος. third then the fourth will also be greater than the sixth.7 corr. (that) as AB (is) to BE. ἄλλο δέ τι τὸ Β. ἴσον ἔσται καὶ τὸ Δ τῷ Ζ.

and even if (A is) less (than C then D will also be) less (than F ). if there are three magnitudes. ὡς δὲ τὸ Β πρὸς τὸ Γ. ἴσον. ἔλαττον· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. κἂν ἴσον. and others of equal number to them. Thus. so E (is) to F . And that (magnitude) to which the same (magnitude) has a greater ratio is (the) lesser (magnitude) [Prop. σύνδυο λαμβανόμενα καὶ ἐν τῷ αὐτῷ λόγῳ. ἔστω δὲ τεταραγμένη αὐτῶν ἡ ἀναλογία. κἂν ἔλαττον. via equality. ᾿Επεὶ γὰρ μεῖζόν ἐστι τὸ Α τοῦ Γ. Similarly. F other (magnitudes) of equal number to them. Thus. ᾖ δὲ τεταραγμένη αὐτῶν ἡ ἀναλογία. καὶ τὸ τέταρτον τοῦ ἕκτου μεῖζον ἔσται. D (is) greater than F . δι᾿ ἴσου δὲ τὸ πρῶτον τοῦ τρίτου μεῖζον ᾖ. σύνδυο λαμβανόμενα καὶ ἐν τῷ αὐτῷ λόγῳ. and (if) their proportion (is) perturbed. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. κἂν ἴσον. ἄλλο δέ τι τὸ Β. inversely. And (if the first is) less (than the third then the fourth will also be) less (than the sixth). E. A thus has a greater ratio to B than C (has) to B [Prop. E also has a greater ratio to F than E (has) to D [Prop. then the fourth will also be greater than the sixth. so E (is) to D [Prop. and B some other (magnitude). ἔλαττον. via equality. δι᾿ ἴσου δὲ τὸ πρῶτον τοῦ τρίτου μεῖζον ᾖ. ἒλαττον.10]. Α Β Γ ∆ Ε Ζ A B C ῎Εστω τρία μεγέθη τὰ Α. Proposition 21† ᾿Εὰν ᾖ τρία μεγέθη καὶ ἄλλα αὐτοῖς ἴσα τὸ πλῆθος σύνδυο λαμβανόμενα καὶ ἐν τῷ αὐτῷ λόγῳ. πρὸς ὃ δὲ τὸ αὐτὸ μείζονα λόγον ἔχει. 5. so D (is) to E. And let their proportion be perturbed. that having the greater ratio is greater [Prop. † nitudes) having a ratio to the same (magnitude). κἂν ἴσον. B. ἔλαττον. If there are three magnitudes. ἴσον. Β. καὶ τὸ Ε ἄρα πρὸς τὸ Ζ μείζονα λόγον ἔχει ἤπερ τὸ Ε πρὸς τὸ Δ. D is greater than F . οὕτως τὸ Δ πρὸς τὸ Ε. δι᾿ ἴσου δὲ τὸ πρῶτον τοῦ τρίτου μεῖζον ᾖ. Thus. F is less than D. And if (A is) less (than C then D will also be) less (than F ). And if (the first is) equal (to the third then the fourth will also be) equal (to the sixth). 5. κἂν ἔλαττον. the first is greater than the third then the fourth will also be greater than the sixth. And if (A is) equal (to C then D will also be) equal (to F ). ὅτι καὶ τὸ Δ τοῦ Ζ μεῖζον ἔσται. ἀλλ᾿ ὡς μὲν τὸ Α πρὸς τὸ Β. and (if). For since A is greater than C. (being) in the same ratio taken two by two. ἴσον ἔσται καὶ τὸ Δ τῷ Ζ. ᾿Εὰν ἄρα ᾖ τρία μεγέθη καὶ ἄλλα αὐτοῖς ἴσα τὸ πλῆθος. (being) also in the same ratio taken two by two. σύνδυο λαμβανόμενα καὶ ἐν τῷ αὐτῷ λόγω.8]. this proposition reads that if α : β :: δ : ǫ and β : γ :: ǫ : ζ then α T γ as δ T ζ. the first is greater than the third. I say that D will also be greater than F . (so that) as A (is) to B.10].STOIQEIWN eþ. ἔλαττον. δι᾿ ἴσου δὲ τὸ Α τοῦ Γ μεῖζον ἔστω· λέγω. 5.]. οὕτως τὸ Ε πρὸς τὸ Ζ. as C (is) to B. and even if (A is) less (than C then D will also be) less (than F ). (being) also in the same ratio taken two by two. ὡς δὲ τὸ Γ πρὸς τὸ Β. Similarly. via equality. ὅτι κἂν ἴσον ᾖ τὸ Α τῷ Γ. In modern notation. ἀνάπαλιν οὕτως τὸ Ε πρὸς τὸ Δ. Ζ. κἂν ἴσον. ᾖ δὲ τεταραγμένη αὐτῶν ἡ ἀναλογία. and D. ὁμοίως δὴ δείξομεν. And let A be greater than C. κἂν ἔλαττον. ἐκεῖνο ἔλασσόν ἐστιν· ἔλασσον ἄρα ἐστὶ τὸ Ζ τοῦ Δ· μεῖζον ἄρα ἐστὶ τὸ Δ τοῦ Ζ.7 corr. But as A (is) to B. Γ καὶ ἄλλα αὐτοῖς ἴσα τὸ πλῆθος τὰ Δ. ἴσον. And if (the first is) less (than the third then the fourth will also be) less (than the sixth). κἂν ἒλαττον. καὶ τὸ τέταρτον τοῦ ἕκτου μεῖζον ἔσται. τὸ Α ἄρα πρὸς τὸ Β μείζονα λόγον ἔχει ἤπερ τὸ Γ πρὸς τὸ Β. ὡς μὲν τὸ Α πρὸς τὸ Β. ᾿Εὰν ἄρα ᾖ τρία μεγέθη καὶ ἄλλα αὐτοῖς ἴσα τὸ πλῆθος. we can show that even if A is equal to C then D will also be equal to F . 150 . ELEMENTS BOOK 5 ἔλαττον. καὶ τὸ τέταρτον τοῦ ἕκτου μεῖζον ἔσται. D E F Let A. kaþ. And if (the first is) equal (to the third then the fourth will also be) equal (to the sixth). and others of equal number to them. and C be three magnitudes. and (if). Ε. 5. Thus.13]. and as B (is) to C. 5. οὕτως τὸ Ε πρὸς τὸ Ζ. so E (is) to F . And. we can show that even if A is equal to C then D will also be equal to F . Thus.

Λ. Proposition 22† ᾿Εὰν ᾖ ὁποσαοῦν μεγέθη καὶ ἄλλα αὐτοῖς ἴσα τὸ πλῆθος. ἃ ἔτυχεν. Θ τῶν Α. καί ἐστι τὰ μὲν Η.4]. And if (the first is) less (than the third then the fourth will also be) less (than the sixth). Ε ἄλλα. † Thus. so H (is) to L [Prop. ἔλαττον· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. and H. and M are three magnitudes. In modern notation. and others of equal number to them. ὡς δὲ τὸ Β πρὸς τὸ Γ. καὶ δι᾿ ἴσου ἐν τῷ αὐτῷ λόγῳ ἔσται· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. And G and H are equal multiples of A and D (respectively). Καὶ ἐπεί ἐστιν ὡς τὸ Α πρὸς τὸ Β. τῷ αὐτῷ λόγῳ ἔσται. Κ. thus. then they will also be in the same ratio via equality. L. 5. Δ ἰσάκις πολλαπλάσια τὰ Η. via equality. ἐπεὶ οὖν τρία μεγέθη ἐστὶ τὰ Η. καὶ εἰ ἔλαττον. D. so. (being) also in the same ratio taken two by two.5]. as K (is) to M . ἔστιν ἄρα ὡς τὸ Α πρὸς τὸ Γ. τῶν δὲ Β. Ν. Thus. the first is greater than the third then the fourth will also be greater than the sixth. 5. ἰσάκις πολλαπλάσια τὰ Κ. ὑπερέχει καὶ τὸ Θ τοῦ Ν. ἃ ἔτυχεν. οὕτως τὸ Δ πρὸς τὸ Ε. Β.) For let the equal multiples G and H have been taken of A and D (respectively). ἰσάκις πολλαπλάσια τὰ Κ. B. and (if) their proportion (is) perturbed. τῶν δὲ Β.20]. ἰσάκις πολλαπλάσια. (which are) also in the same ratio taken two by 151 . ᾿Εὰν ἄρα ᾖ ὁποσαοῦν μεγέθη καὶ ἄλλα αὐτοῖς ἴσα τὸ πλῆθος. καὶ ἄλλα αὐτοῖς ἴσα τὸ πλῆθος τὰ Θ. of equal number to them. and the yet other random equal multiples M and N of C and F (respectively). via equality. δι᾿ ἴσου ἄρα. and if (G is) less (than M then H is also) less (than N ) [Prop. I say that they will also be in the same ratio via equality. ἰσάκις πολλαπλάσια τὰ Μ. οὕτως τὸ Λ πρὸς τὸ Ν. as A is to C. ὡς μὲν τὸ Α πρὸς τὸ Β. εἰ ὑπερέχει τὸ Η τοῦ Μ. so D (is) to E. σύνδυο λαμβανόμενα καὶ ἐν τῷ αὐτῷ λόγῳ. and as B (is) to C. and the equal multiples G and H have been taken of A and D (respectively). οὕτως τὸ Θ πρὸς τὸ Λ. so L (is) to N . (so that) as A (is) to B. οὕτως τὸ Δ πρὸς τὸ Ζ. Α ∆ Η Θ Β Ε Κ Λ Γ Ζ Μ Ν A D G H ῎Εστω ὁποσαοῦν μεγέθη τὰ Α. so E (is) to F . thus as G is to K. Γ καὶ ἄλλα αὐτοῖς ἴσα τὸ πλῆθος τὰ Δ. τὰ δὲ Μ. καὶ ἔτι τῶν Γ. Λ. ἃ ἔτυχεν. Ν. Θ. B E K L C F M N Let there be any number of magnitudes whatsoever. οὕτως τὸ Ε πρὸς τὸ Ζ· λέγω. ὅτι καὶ δι᾿ ἴσου ἐν τῷ αὐτῳ λόγῳ ἔσται. (which are) also in the same ratio taken two by two. E. and (some) other (magnitudes). ἔστιν ἄρα ὡς τὸ Η πρὸς τὸ Κ. Ζ. οὕτως τὸ Δ πρὸς τὸ Ε. σύνδυο λαμβανόμενα καὶ ἐν τῷ αὐτῷ λόγῳ. Θ. and the other random equal multiples K and L of B and E (respectively). (That is. and M and N other random equal multiples of C and F (respectively). and if (G is) equal (to M then H is also) equal (to N ). as A is to C. If there are any number of magnitudes whatsoever. κἂν ἔλαττον. Therefore. Ζ ἄλλα. F . Εἰλήφθω γὰρ τῶν μὲν Α. so D (is) to E. ELEMENTS BOOK 5 ἴσον. for the same (reasons). Ε ἄλλα. and (if).STOIQEIWN eþ. καὶ δι᾿ ἴσου ἐν and (some) other (magnitudes) of equal number to them. and (some) other (magnitudes) of equal number to them. Ε. if G exceeds M then H also exceeds N . if there are any number of magnitudes whatsoever. kbþ. δὶα τὰ αὐτὰ δὴ καὶ ὡς τὸ Κ πρὸς τὸ Μ. Δ ἰσάκις πολλαπλάσια. ἴσον. (which are) in the same ratio taken two by two. Ζ ἄλλα. And since as A is to B. C. Μ. A. K. 5. so D (is) to F [Def. σύνδυο λαμβανόμενα ἐν τῷ αὐτῷ λόγῳ. this proposition reads that if α : β :: ǫ : ζ and β : γ :: δ : ǫ then α T γ as δ T ζ. and the other random equal multiples K and L of B and E (respectively). Thus. Ν τῶν Γ. καὶ εἰ ἴσον. (which are) also in the same ratio taken two by two. since G. And. καὶ εἴληπται τῶν μὲν Α. ἃ ἔτυχεν. ἔλαττον. Δ ἰσάκις πολλαπλάσια τὰ Η. And if (the first is) equal (to the third then the fourth will also be) equal (to the sixth). (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. so D is to F . σύνδυο λαμβανόμενα ἐν τῷ αὐτῷ λόγῳ. Λ. and N other (magnitudes) of equal number to them. if there are three magnitudes.

5. and N other (magnitudes) of equal number to them. 5. ὡς δὲ τὸ Β πρὸς τὸ Γ. (being) in the same ratio taken two by two. And since G and H are equal multiples of A and B (respectively). and the other random equal multiples L. then they will also be in the same ratio via equality. οὕτως τὸ Γ πρὸς τὸ Ε· καὶ ὡς ἄρα τὸ Θ πρὸς τὸ Κ. καὶ εἰ ἔλαττον. I say that as A is to C. for the same (reasons). and (if) their proportion is perturbed. ἔστιν ἄρα ὡς τὸ Α πρὸς τὸ Β. so E (is) to F . 5. οὕτως τὸ Λ πρὸς τὸ Μ. thus. τὰ δὲ μέρη τοὶς ὡσαύτως πολλαπλασίοις τὸν αὐτὸν ἔχει λόγον. Θ τῶν Α. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. thus as C is to E. Ν σύνδυο λαμβανόμενα ἐν τῷ αὐτῷ λόγῳ. this proposition reads that if α : β :: ǫ : ζ and β : γ :: ζ : η and γ : δ :: η : θ then α : δ :: ǫ : θ. ἔστιν ἄρα ὡς τὸ Γ πρὸς τὸ Ε. καὶ ἐναλλὰξ ὡς τὸ Θ πρὸς τὸ Λ. καί ἐστι τὰ μὲν Η. thus as B is to D. and C be three magnitudes. if G exceeds L then K also exceeds N . ἔστιν ἄρα ὡς τὸ Α πρὸς τὸ Γ. as E (is) to F . 5. as G (is) to H. thus. And as A is to B. so H (is) to K. πάλιν. thus. οὕτως τὸ Δ πρὸς τὸ Ζ. † In modern notation. Κ τῶν Α. And. as B (is) to D. so G (is) to H. Β. (so that) as A (is) to B. two.15]. and parts have the same ratio as similar multiples [Prop. and parts have the same ratio as similar multiples [Prop. C B A Γ Β Α Ζ Ε ∆ Λ Θ Η Μ Κ Ν ῎Εστω τρία μεγέθη τὰ Α. καὶ εἰ ἴσον. Καὶ ἐπεὶ ἰσάκις ἐστὶ πολλαπλάσια τὰ Η. kgþ. τὰ δὲ μέρη τοῖς ἰσάκις πολλαπλασίοις τὸν αὐτὸν ἔχει λόγον. Ε ἰσάκις ἐστι πολλαπλάσια. as H (is) to L. thus. alternately. and N of C. εἰ ὑπερέχει τὸ Η τοῦ Λ. Therefore. as H (is) to K. 5. and K. and F (respectively). οὕτως τὸ Δ πρὸς τὸ Ε· λέγω. also. οὕτως τὸ Μ πρὸς τὸ Ν. B.11]. Θ. 5. then they will also be in the same ratio via equality. so K (is) to M [Prop. τὸ Κ πρὸς τὸ Μ.21]. Proposition 23† ᾿Εὰν ᾖ τρία μεγέθη καὶ ἄλλα αὐτοῖς ἴσα τὸ πλῆθος If there are three magnitudes. καὶ δι᾿ ἴσου ἐν τῷ αὐτῷ λόγῳ ἔσται. Β.15]. and D (respectively). οὕτως τὸ Θ πρὸς τὸ Κ· καὶ ὡς ἄρα τὸ Θ πρὸς τὸ Κ. so D (is) to F . τὰ δὲ Λ. and if (G is) equal (to L then K is also) equal (to N ). ὅτι ἐστὶν ὡς τὸ Α πρὸς τὸ Γ. οὕτως τὸ Μ πρὸς τὸ Ν· καί ἐστιν ὡς τὸ Α πρὸς τὸ Β. so H (is) to K. so D (is) to E. Θ. Μ τῶν Γ. οὕτως τὸ Γ πρὸς τὸ Ε. as H (is) to K. alternately. so L (is) to M [Prop. Κ. διὰ τὰ αὐτὰ δὴ καὶ ὡς τὸ Ε πρὸς τὸ Ζ. Let the equal multiples G. so. Κ τῶν Β. M . οὕτως τὸ Δ πρὸς τὸ Ζ.15]. ὑπερέχει καὶ τὸ Κ τοῦ Ν. since L and M are equal multiples of C and E (respectively). Ε. ἀλλ᾿ ὡς τὸ Γ πρὸς τὸ Ε. 5. and if (G is) less (than L then K is also) less (than N ) [Prop.16]. καὶ ἄλλα αὐτοις ἴσα τὸ πλῆθος τὰ Κ. καὶ ἐπεὶ τὰ Θ. Δ ἰσάκις πολλαπλάσια τὰ Η. so M (is) to N . since G. ἰσάκις πολλαπλάσια τὰ Λ. thus as A (is) to B. And. Λ. ἔστω δὲ τεταραγμένη αὐτῶν ἡ ἀναλογία. ἐπεὶ οὖν τρία μεγέθη ἐστὶ τὰ Η. M . ELEMENTS BOOK 5 two. And let their proportion be perturbed. οὕτως τὸ Ε πρὸς τὸ Ζ. οὕτως τὸ Γ πρὸς τὸ Ε. E. ἐπεὶ τὰ Λ. B. καὶ ἐπεί ἐστιν ὡς τὸ Β πρὸς τὸ Γ. οὕτως τὸ Η πρὸς τὸ Θ. And since as B is to C. ᾿Εὰν ἄρα ᾖ τρία μεγέθη καὶ ἄλλα αὐτοῖς ἴσα τὸ πλῆθος σύνδυο λαμβανόμενα ἐν τῷ αὐτῷ λόγῳ. and as B (is) to C. οὕτως τὸ Ε πρὸς τὸ Ζ· καὶ ὡς ἄρα τὸ Η πρὸς τὸ Θ. καί ἐστιν αὐτῶν τεταραγμένη ἡ ἀναλογία. ἔλαττον.11]. Ζ ἄλλα. ἔστιν ἄρα ὡς τὸ Β πρὸς τὸ Δ.11]. τῶν δὲ Γ. and others of equal σύνδυο λαμβανόμενα ἐν τῷ αὐτῷ λόγῳ. so M (is) to N [Prop. Ν. and L and N of C and 152 . And G and K are equal multiples of A and D (respectively). And it was also shown (that) as G (is) to H. Again. and K have been taken of A. Β. Ε. and D. ἐδείχθη δὲ καὶ ὡς τὸ Η πρὸς τὸ Θ. καὶ ἐναλλὰξ ὡς τὸ Β πρὸς τὸ Δ. ἀλλ᾿ ὡς τὸ Β πρὸς τὸ Δ. Ν τῶν Γ. ἴσον. Μ. δι᾿ ἴσου ἄρα. Εἰλήφθω τῶν μὲν Α. οὕτως τὸ Θ πρὸς τὸ Κ. 5. Μ. so C (is) to E [Prop. so M (is) to N . Ζ. Ζ. as B (is) to D. But. οὕτως τὸ Μ πρὸς τὸ Ν. ᾖ δὲ τεταραγμένη D G K E H M F L N Let A. so C (is) to E. But. H. And. And since H and K are equal multiples of B and D (respectively). οὕτως τὸ Δ πρὸς τὸ Ε. (being) in the same ratio taken two by two. and their proportion is perturbed. ἃ ἔτυχεν. Also. Δ ἰσάκις ἐστὶ πολλαπλάσια. Δ ἰσάκις πολλαπλάσια. οὕτως τὸ Λ πρὸς τὸ Μ. And.STOIQEIWN eþ. ὡς μὲν τὸ Α πρὸς τὸ Β. so L (is) to M [Prop. H. ᾖ δὲ τεταραγμένη number to them. so C (is) to E [Prop.16]. and L are three magnitudes. so D (is) to E. 5. (being) in the same ratio taken two by αὐτῶν ἡ ἀναλογία. Γ καὶ ἄλλα αὐτοῖς ἴσα τὸ πλῆθος σύνδυο λαμβανόμενα ἐν τῷ αὐτῷ λόγῳ τὰ Δ. E and F other (magnitudes) of equal number to them. so E (is) to F . as C (is) to E. via equality.

οὕτως τὸ Ζ πρὸς τὸ ΕΘ. and a fifth (magnitude) also has to the second the same ratio that a sixth (has) to the fourth. And since separated magnitudes are proportional then they will also be proportional (when) composed [Prop. Proposition 24† ᾿Εὰν πρῶτον πρὸς δεύτερον τὸν αὐτὸν ἔχῃ λόγον καὶ τρίτον πρὸς τέταρτον. καὶ συντεθὲν πρῶτον καὶ πέμπτον πρὸς δεύτερον τὸν αὐτὸν ἕξει λόγον καὶ τρίτον καὶ ἕκτον πρὸς τέταρτον. since as AB is to C. via equality. 5. οὕτως τὸ ΕΘ πρὸς τὸ Ζ· δι᾿ ἴσου ἄρα ἐστὶν ὡς τὸ ΑΗ πρὸς τὸ Γ. ᾿Εὰν ἄρα πρῶτον πρὸς δεύτερον τὸν αὐτὸν ἔχῃ λόγον καὶ τρίτον πρὸς τέταρτον. so EH (is) to F . and others of equal number to them. AG. [Def. Thus. will also have the same ratio to the second that the third (magnitude) and the sixth (added 153 . ὡς δὲ τὸ Γ πρὸς τὸ ΒΗ. then they will also be in the same ratio via equality. and a fifth (magnitude) also has to the second the same ratio that a sixth (has) to the fourth. so DH (is) to HE. inversely.7 corr. And let a fifth (magnitude) BG also have the same ratio to the second C that a sixth EH (has) to the fourth F . as C (is) to BG. 5. kdþ. καὶ συντεθὲν πρῶτον καὶ πέμπτον πρὸς δεύτερον τὸν αὐτὸν ἕξει λόγον καὶ τρίτον καὶ ἕκτον πρὸς τέταρτον· ὅπερ ἔδει δεὶξαι. thus. καὶ ἐπεὶ διῃρημένα μεγέθη ἀνάλογόν ἐστιν. H For let a first (magnitude) AB have the same ratio to a second C that a third DE (has) to a fourth F . If a first (magnitude) has to a second the same ratio that third (has) to a fourth. οὕτως τὸ ΔΘ πρὸς τὸ ΘΕ. Therefore. added together. this proposition reads that if α : β :: ǫ : ζ and β : γ :: δ : ǫ then α : γ :: δ : ζ. added together. so EH (is) to F . so F (is) to EH [Prop. οὕτως τὸ Ζ πρὸς τὸ ΕΘ. ἔχῃ δὲ καὶ πέμπτον πρὸς δεύτερον τὸν αὐτὸν λόγον καὶ ἕκτον πρὸς τέταρτον. ἔχῃ δὲ καὶ πέμπτον πρὸς δεύτερον τὸν αὐτὸν λόγον καὶ ἕκτον πρὸς τέταρτον. ELEMENTS BOOK 5 αὐτῶν ἡ ἀναλογία.22]. as AG is to GB.]. ἔστι δὲ καὶ ὡς τὸ ΒΗ πρὸς τὸ Γ. 5. 5. have) to the fourth. will also have the same ratio to the second C that the third (magnitude) and the sixth. I say that the first (magnitude) and the fifth. then the first (magnitude) and the fifth. For since as BG is to C. οὕτως τὸ ΔΕ πρὸς τὸ Ζ. καὶ τρίτον καὶ ἕκτον τὸ ΔΘ πρὸς τέταρτον τὸ Ζ. Β Α Γ ∆ Ζ Ε B Η A C G E Θ D F Πρῶτον γὰρ τὸ ΑΒ πρὸς δεύρερον τὸ Γ τὸν αὐτὸν ἐχέτω λόγον καὶ τρίτον τὸ ΔΕ πρὸς τέταρτον τὸ Ζ. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. ἀνάπαλιν ἄρα ὡς τὸ Γ πρὸς τὸ ΒΗ. Thus. (being) in the same ratio taken two by two. as A (is) to C. will also have the same ratio to the second that the third (magnitude) and sixth (added together. so DE (is) to EH [Prop. and as C (is) to BG. καὶ συντεθέντα ἀνάλογον ἔσται· ἔστιν ἄρα ὡς τὸ ΑΗ πρὸς τὸ ΗΒ. Thus. if there are three magnitudes. so DH (is) to F [Prop. added together. δι᾿ ἴσου ἄρα ἐστὶν ὡς τὸ ΑΒ πρὸς τὸ ΒΗ. οὕτως τὸ ΔΕ πρὸς τὸ ΕΘ. οὕτως τὸ ΕΘ πρὸς τὸ Ζ. † In modern notation. (has) to the fourth F . ὅτι καὶ συντεθὲν πρῶτον καὶ πέμπτον τὸ ΑΗ πρὸς δεύτερον τὸ Γ τὸν αὐτὸν ἕξει λόγον. so DE (is) to F . ἐπεὶ οὖν ἐστιν ὡς τὸ ΑΒ πρὸς τὸ Γ. ᾿Επεὶ γάρ ἐστιν ὡς τὸ ΒΗ πρὸς τὸ Γ. via equality. as AG is to C. Thus. if a first (magnitude) has to a second the same ratio that a third (has) to a fourth. DH. and (if) their proportion is perturbed. οὕτως τὸ ΔΘ πρὸς τὸ Ζ. then the first (magnitude) and the fifth. thus.STOIQEIWN eþ. as BG is to C. καὶ δι᾿ ἴσου ἐν τῷ αὐτῷ λόγῳ ἔσται· ὅπερ F (respectively). so F (is) to EH. And.18]. also. (added together). as AB is to BG. so D (is) to F ἔδει δεῖξαι.22]. Thus. 5.5]. ἐχέτω δὲ καὶ πέμπτον τὸ ΒΗ πρὸς δεύτερον τὸ Γ τὸν αὐτὸν λόγον καὶ ἕκτον τὸ ΕΘ πρὸς τέταρτον τὸ Ζ· λέγω.

τῷ δὲ Ζ ἴσον τὸ ΓΘ. Thus. thus as AB is to CD. Ζ ἴσα ἐστὶ τοῖς ΓΘ. τὸ δὲ ΓΘ τῷ Ζ. ΘΔ ἀνίσων ὄντων καὶ μείζονος τοῦ ΗΒ τῷ μὲν ΗΒ προστεθῇ τὰ ΑΗ. [In fact. ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. Ε. And since AG is equal to E. And [since] if [equal (magnitudes) are added to unequal (magnitudes) then the wholes are unequal. (such that) as AB (is) to CD. and α is the greatest and δ the least. then α + δ > β + γ. And since the whole AB is to the whole CD as the (part) taken away AG (is) to the (part) taken away CH. ἐλάχιστον δὲ τὸ Ζ· λέγω. ἔστω δὲ μέγιστον μὲν αὐτῶν τὸ ΑΒ. † B D Let AB. thus if] AG and F are added to GB. and CH and E to HD—GB and HD being unequal. Α Ε Γ Ζ Η Θ G Β A E H ∆ C F ῎Εστω τέσσαρα μεγέθη ἀνάλογον τὰ ΑΒ. Ζ. GB (is) also greater than HD. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. ὅτι τὰ ΑΒ. And let AB be the greatest of them. ᾿Επεὶ [οὖν] ἐστιν ὡς τὸ ΑΒ πρὸς τὸ ΓΔ. Ζ μείζονα τῶν ΓΔ. E. † In modern notation. οὕτως ἀφαιρεθὲν τὸ ΑΗ πρὸς ἀφαιρεθὲν τὸ ΓΘ. and CH equal to F . so E (is) to F . and CH to F . Thus. οὕτως τὸ Ε πρὸς τὸ Ζ. συνάγεται τὰ ΑΒ. οὕτως τὸ Ε πρὸς τὸ Ζ. and F be four proportional magnitudes. ἐὰν ἄρα] τῶν ΗΒ. καὶ λοιπὸν ἄρα τὸ ΗΒ πρὸς λοιπὸν τὸ ΘΔ ἔσται ὡς ὅλον τὸ ΑΒ πρὸς ὅλον τὸ ΓΔ. καὶ ἐπεὶ ἴσον ἐστὶ τὸ μὲν ΑΗ τῷ Ε. this proposition reads that if α : β :: γ : δ. the) largest and the smallest [of them] is greater than the (sum of the) remaining two (magnitudes). οὕτως τὸ ΑΗ πρὸς τὸ ΓΘ. Ε. For let AG be made equal to E. καὶ [ἐπεὶ] ἐὰν [ἀνίσοις ἴσα προστεθῇ. Ε μείζονά ἐστιν. so AG (is) to CH. In modern notation. ἔστιν ἄρα ὡς τὸ ΑΒ πρὸς τὸ ΓΔ. ΓΔ. and E (is) equal to AG. and F the least. I say that AB and F is greater than CD and E. and F to CH. τὸ δὲ Ζ τῷ ΓΘ.] since as AB is to CD. καὶ ἐπεί ἐστιν ὡς ὅλον τὸ ΑΒ πρὸς ὅλον τὸ ΓΔ. Ε. τὸ μέγιστον αὐτῶν καὶ τὸ ἐλάχιστον δύο τῶν λοιπῶν μείζονά ἐστιν. thus the remainder GB will also be to the remainder HD as the whole AB (is) to the whole CD [Prop. μεῖζον δὲ τὸ ΑΒ τοῦ ΓΔ· μεῖζον ἄρα καὶ τὸ ΗΒ τοῦ ΘΔ.19]. have) to the fourth. 154 . CD. so E (is) to F . (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. ELEMENTS BOOK 5 together.STOIQEIWN eþ. Κείσθω γὰρ τῷ μὲν Ε ἴσον τὸ ΑΗ. Ε. Ζ τῶν ΓΔ. if four magnitudes are proportional then the (sum of the) largest and the smallest of them is greater than the (sum of the) remaining two (magnitudes). this proposition reads that if α : β :: γ : δ and ǫ : β :: ζ : δ then α + ǫ : β :: γ + ζ : δ. and GB greater—it is inferred that AB and F (is) greater than CD and E. τῷ δὲ ΘΔ προστεθῇ τὰ ΓΘ. ἴσον δὲ τὸ μὲν Ε τῷ ΑΗ. Proposition 25† ᾿Εὰν τέσσαρα μεγέθη ἀνάλογον ᾖ. thus AG and F is equal to CH and E. And AB (is) greater than CD. τὰ ἄρα ΑΗ. ᾿Εὰν ἄρα τέσσαρα μεγέθη ἀνάλογον ᾖ. keþ. 5. Ζ. ὡς τὸ ΑΒ πρὸς τὸ ΓΔ. τὰ ὅλα ἄνισά ἐστιν. τὸ μέγιστον [αὐτῶν] If four magnitudes are proportional then the (sum of καὶ τὸ ἐλάχιστον δύο τῶν λοιπῶν μείζονά ἐστιν.

ELEMENTS BOOK 6 Similar Figures 155 .

aþ. triangles AHG. ΚΛ. καὶ κείσθωσαν τῇ μὲν ΒΓ βάσει ἴσαι [ὁσαιδηποτοῦν] αἱ ΒΗ. BG. τεσσάρων δὴ ὄντων μεγεθῶν δύο μὲν βάσεων τῶν ΒΓ. of the same height AC. βʹ. ΓΖ ὑπὸ τὸ αὐτὸ ὕψος τὸ ΑΓ· λέγω. ΑΗΒ. καὶ τὸ ΕΓ παραλληλόγραμμον πρὸς τὸ ΓΖ παραλληλόγραμμον. ΓΔ. AGB. Καὶ ἐπεὶ ἴσαι εἰσὶν αἱ ΓΒ.‡ And if (HC is) less (than CL then AHC is also) less (than ACL). And if base HC is equal to base CL then triangle AHC is also equal to triangle ACL [Prop. as many times as base LC is (divisible) by base CD. τοσαυταπλάσιόν ἐστι καὶ τὸ ΑΘΓ τρίγωνον τοῦ ΑΒΓ τριγώνου. καὶ εἰ ὑπερέχει ἡ ΘΓ βάσις τῆς ΓΛ βάσεως. δύο δὲ τριγώνων τῶν ΑΒΓ. ἴσα ἐστὶ καὶ τὰ ΑΘΗ. ᾿Εκβεβλήσθω γὰρ ἡ ΒΔ ἐφ᾿ ἑκάτερα τὰ μέρη ἐπὶ τὰ Θ. οὕτως τὸ μεῖζον πρὸς τὸ ἔλαττὸν. so triangle ABC (is) to triangle ACD. τῆς δὲ ΓΔ βάσεως καὶ τοῦ ΑΔΓ τριγώνου ἄλλα.STOIQEIWN þ. so many times is triangle AHC also (divisible) by triangle ABC. and any number (of straight-lines) DK and KL equal to base CD. ῞Υψος ἐστὶ πάντος σχήματος ἡ ἀπὸ τῆς κορυφῆς ἐπὶ τὴν βάσιν κάθετος ἀγομένη.38]. ELEMENTS BOOK 6 VOroi. A straight-line is said to have been cut in extreme and mean ratio when as the whole is to the greater segment so the greater (segment is) to the lesser. So. 1. And if base HC exceeds base CL then triangle AHC also exceeds triangle ACL. two bases. 1. Definitions αʹ. their being four magnitudes. Proposition 1† Τὰ τρίγωνα καὶ τὰ παραλληλόγραμμα τὰ ὑπὸ τὸ αὐτὸ Triangles and parallelograms which are of the same ὕψος ὄντα πρὸς ἄλληλά ἐστιν ὡς αἱ βάσεις. τῇ δὲ ΓΔ βάσει ἴσαι ὁσαιδηποτοῦν αἱ ΔΚ. ἴσον ἐστὶ καὶ τὸ ΑΘΓ τρίγωνον τῳ ΑΓΛ τριγώνῳ. 2. and EC and CF parallelograms. ὅταν ᾖ ὡς ἡ ὅλη πρὸς τὸ μεῖζον τμῆμα. ΑΓΔ εἴληπται ἰσάκις πολλαπλάσια τῆς μὲν ΒΓ βάσεως καὶ τοῦ ΑΒΓ τριγώνου ἥ τε ΘΓ βάσις καὶ τὸ ΑΘΓ τρίγωνον. ὅτι ἐστὶν ὡς ἡ ΒΓ βάσις πρὸς τὴν ΓΔ βάσις. οὕτως τὸ ΑΒΓ τρίγωνον πρὸς τὸ ΑΓΔ τρίγωνον. Thus. ὅσα τάς τε γωνίας ἴσας ἔχει κατὰ μίαν καὶ τὰς περὶ τὰς ἴσας γωνίας πλευρὰς ἀνάλογον. AH. 1. and AL have been joined. ΗΘ ἀλλήλαις. ὁσαπλασίων ἄρα ἐστὶν ἡ ΘΓ βάσις τῆς ΒΓ βάσεως. ἔλασσον. and let [any number] (of straight-lines) BG and GH be made equal to base BC. and parallelogram EC to parallelogram CF . for the same (reasons). ΑΒΓ τρίγωνα ἀλλήλοις. For let the (straight-line) BD have been produced in each direction to points H and L. Similar rectilinear figures are those (which) have (their) angles separately equal and the (corresponding) sides about the equal angles proportional. ὑπερέχει καὶ τὸ ΑΘΓ τρίγωνον τοῦ ΑΓΛ τριγώνου. παραλληλόγραμμα δὲ τὰ ΕΓ. γʹ. ΑΚ. ῞Ομοια σχήματα εὐθύγραμμά ἐστιν. And since CB. I say that as base BC is to base CD. ΑΛ. AK. so many times is triangle ALC also (divisible) by triangle ACD. So. ΑΘ. And let AG. and two trian- 156 . ΒΗ. The height of any figure is the (straight-line) drawn from the vertex perpendicular to the base. ῎Ακρον καὶ μέσον λόγον εὐθεῖα τετμῆσθαι λέγεται. BC and CD. as many times as base HC is (divisible by) base BC. ΑΓΔ. ΗΘ. and GH are equal to one another. καὶ ἐπεζεύχθωσαν αἱ ΑΗ. G E A F B C D K L Let ABC and ACD be triangles.38]. τοσαυταπλάσιόν ἐστι καὶ τὸ ΑΛΓ τρίγωνον τοῦ ΑΓΔ τριγώνου· καὶ εἰ ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ΘΓ βάσις τῇ ΓΛ βάσει. 3. and ABC are also equal to one another [Prop. διὰ τὰ αὐτὰ δὴ ὁσαπλασίων ἐστὶν ἡ ΛΓ βάσις τῆς ΓΔ βάσεως. Θ Η Ε Α Ζ Β Γ ∆ Κ Λ H ῎Εστω τρίγωνα μὲν τὰ ΑΒΓ. height are to one another as their bases. καὶ εἰ ἐλάσσων. Λ σημεῖα.

Proposition 2 ᾿Εὰν τριγώνου παρὰ μίαν τῶν πλευρῶν ἀχθῇ τις εὐθεῖα. ὅτι. this proposition holds even when the triangles. οὕτως τὸ ΑΒΓ τρίγωνον πρὸς τὸ ΑΓΔ τρίγωνον. so parallelogram EC (is) to parallelogram F C. Thus. ἀνάλογον τεμεῖ τὰς τοῦ τριγώνου πλευράς· καὶ ἐὰν αἱ τοῦ τριγώνου πλευραὶ ἀνάλογον τμηθῶσιν.34]. 5. ἐπεὶ οὖν ἐδείχθη. and as triangle ABC (is) to triangle ACD. CE (is) to EA. καὶ ὡς ἄρα ἡ ΒΓ βάσις πρὸς τὴν ΓΔ βάσιν. οὕτως τὸ ΕΓ παραλληλόγραμμον πρὸς τὸ ΖΓ παραλληλόγραμμον. καί εἰ ἴση. do not share a common side. and parts have the same ratio as similar multiples [Prop. ἴσον. ἡ ἐπὶ τὰς τομὰς ἐπιζευγνυμένη εὐθεῖα παρὰ τὴν λοιπὴν ἔσται τοῦ τριγώνου πλευράν. 5. or parallelograms. also. triangles and parallelograms which are of the same height are to one another as their bases. base HC and triangle AHC—and other random equal multiples of base CD and triangle ADC—(namely). and/or are not right-angled.STOIQEIWN þ. If some straight-line is drawn parallel to one of the sides of a triangle then it will cut the (other) sides of the triangle proportionally. thus. I say that as BD is to DA. and parallelogram F C is double triangle ACD [Prop. ἔστιν ἄρα ὡς τὸ ΑΒΓ τρίγωνον πρὸς τὸ ΑΓΔ τρίγωνον. 1. τοῦ δὲ ΑΓΔ τριγώνου διπλάσιόν ἐστι τὸ ΖΓ παραλληλόγραμμον. so parallelogram EC (is) to parallelogram F C [Prop. ὡς δὲ τὸ ΑΒΓ τρίγωνον πρὸς τὸ ΑΓΔ τρίγωνον. ‡ This is a straight-forward generalization of Prop. as base BC (is) to base CD. gles.11]. Thus. And it has been shown that if base HC exceeds base CL then triangle AHC also exceeds triangle ALC. thus as triangle ABC is to triangle ACD.38. 5. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. οὕτως τὸ ΕΓ παραλληλόγραμμον πρὸς τὸ ΓΖ παραλληλόγραμμον. so parallelogram EC (is) to parallelogram CF . ὑπερέχει καὶ τὸ ΑΘΓ τρίγωνον τοῦ ΑΛΓ τριγώνου. In fact. ἔλασσον· ἔστιν ἄρα ὡς ἡ ΒΓ βάσις πρὸς τὴν ΓΔ βάσιν. οὕτως τὸ ΑΒΓ τρίγωνον πρὸς τὸ ΑΓΔ τρίγωνον. sides BC of triangle ABC. Α A ∆ Ε Β D Γ E B C Τριγώνου γὰρ τοῦ ΑΒΓ παράλληλος μιᾷ τῶν πλευρῶν For let DE have been drawn parallel to one of the τῇ ΒΓ ἤχθω ἡ ΔΕ· λέγω. εἰ ὑπερέχει ἡ ΘΓ βάσις τῆς ΓΛ βάσεως. Τὰ ἄρα τρίγωνα καὶ τὰ παραλληλόγραμμα τὰ ὑπὸ τὸ αὐτὸ ὕψος ὄντα πρὸς ἄλληλά ἐστιν ὡς αἱ βάσεις· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. ὡς μὲν ἡ ΒΓ βάσις πρὸς τὴν ΓΔ. so triangle ABC (is) to triangle ACD [Def. ἰσάκις πολλαπλάσια ἥ τε ΛΓ βάσις καὶ τὸ ΑΛΓ τρίγωνον· καὶ δέδεικται. and if (HC is) equal (to CL then AHC is also) equal (to ALC).5]. since it was shown that as base BC (is) to CD. so triangle ABC (is) to triangle ACD. And since parallelogram EC is double triangle ABC. And if (two of) the sides of a triangle are cut proportionally then the straight-line joining the cutting (points) will be parallel to the remaining side of the triangle. ὅτι ἐστὶν ὡς ἡ ΒΔ πρὸς τὴν ΔΑ. τὰ δὲ μέρη τοῖς ὡσαύτως πολλαπλασίοις τὸν αὐτὸν ἔχει λόγον. so οὕτως ἡ ΓΕ πρὸς τὴν ΕΑ. bþ.15]. base LC and triangle ALC. ABC and ACD. Καὶ ἐπεὶ τοῦ μὲν ΑΒΓ τριγώνου διπλάσιόν ἐστι τὸ ΕΓ παραλληλόγραμμον. and if (HC is) less (than CL then AHC is also) less (than ALC). ELEMENTS BOOK 6 ἃ ἔτυχεν. as base BC is to base CD. 157 . † As is easily demonstrated. καὶ εἰ ἔλασσων. equal multiples have been taken of base BC and triangle ABC—(namely). 1. οὕτως τὸ ΕΓ παραλληλόγραμμον πρὸς τὸ ΖΓ παραλληλόγραμμον.

And. καὶ ὡς ἄρα τὸ ΒΔΕ τρίγωνον πρὸς τὸ ΑΔΕ τρίγωνον. thus. ΓΔΕ τριγώνων πρὸς τὸ ΑΔΕ τὸν αὐτὸν ἔχει λόγον.1]. παράλληλος ἄρα ἐστὶν ἡ ΔΕ τῇ ΒΓ. And if (two of) the sides of a triangle are cut proportionally. 1.39]. And let the angle BAC have been cut in half by the straight-line AD. And equal triangles. For. ῎Ισον ἄρα ἐστὶ τὸ ΒΔΕ τρίγωνον τῷ ΓΔΕ τριγώνῳ· ἐπὶ γὰρ τῆς αὐτῆς βάσεώς ἐστι τῆς ΔΕ καὶ ἐν ταῖς αὐταῖς παραλλήλοις ταῖς ΔΕ. so (is) BD to DA. then the straight-line joining the cutting (points) will be parallel to the remaining side of the triangle. And if the segments of the base have the same ratio as the remaining sides of the triangle. BA being drawn through. ὅτι ἐστὶν ὡς ἡ ΒΔ πρὸς τὴν ΓΔ. also. thus. triangle BDE is equal to triangle CDE. 5. since as BD is to DA. 6. by the same construction. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. ἡ δὲ τέμνουσα τὴν γωνίαν εὐθεῖα τέμνῃ καὶ τὴν βάσιν.1]. 6. οὕτως τὸ ΓΔΕ τρίγωνον πρὸς τὸ ΑΔΕ τρίγωνον. And ADE is some other triangle. οὕτως ἡ ΓΕ πρὸς τὴν ΕΑ.9].11]. Thus. οὕτως τὸ ΓΔΕ τρίγωνον πρὸς τὸ ΑΔΕ τρίγωνον. which are also on the same base. and the straightline cutting the angle also cuts the base. if some straight-line is drawn parallel to one of the sides of a triangle. for the same (reasons). And so. having the same height—(namely). And equal (magnitudes) have the same ratio to the same (magnitude) [Prop. ῎Ηχθω γὰρ διὰ τοῦ Γ τῇ ΔΑ παράλληλος ἡ ΓΕ. ἑκάτερον ἄρα τῶν ΒΔΕ. ΑΓ ἀνάλογον τετμήσθωσαν. ἀνάλογον τεμεῖ τὰς τοῦ τριγώνου πλευράς· καὶ ἐὰν αἱ τοῦ τριγώνου πλευραὶ ἀνάλογον τμηθῶσιν. triangles BDE and CDE each have the same ratio to ADE. so triangle BDE (is) to triangle ADE. so CE (is) to EA [Prop. καὶ ἐπεζεύχθω ἡ ΔΕ· λέγω. ἐπεί ἐστιν ὡς ἡ ΒΔ πρὸς τὴν ΔΑ. And they are on the same base DE. And let DE have been joined. οὕτως ἡ ΓΕ πρὸς τὴν ΕΑ. ᾿Εὰν ἄρα τριγώνου παρὰ μίαν τῶν πλευρῶν ἀχθῇ τις εὐθεῖα.STOIQEIWN þ. let it meet 158 . καὶ διαχθεῖσα ἡ ΒΑ συμπιπτέτω αὐτῇ κατὰ τὸ Ε. Τῶν γὰρ αὐτῶν κατασκευασθέντων. ΒΓ· ἄλλο δέ τι τὸ ΑΔΕ τρίγωνον. so CE (is) to EA. For let CE have been drawn through (point) C parallel to DA. and as CE (is) to EA.38]. so triangle CDE (is) to triangle ADE [Prop. DE is parallel to BC. ῎Εστω τρίγωνον τὸ ΑΒΓ. οὕτως ἡ ΒΑ πρὸς τὴν ΑΓ. gþ. but as BD (is) to DA. Thus. οὕτως ἡ ΓΕ πρὸς τὴν ΕΑ· καὶ ὡς ἄρα ἡ ΒΔ πρὸς τὴν ΔΑ. so CE (is) to EA. then the straight-line joining the vertex to the cutting (point) will cut the angle of the triangle in half. 5. the (straight-line) drawn from E perpendicular to AB— they are to one another as their bases [Prop. ὅτι παράλληλός ἐστιν ἡ ΔΕ τῇ ΒΓ. as triangle BDE is to [triangle] ADE. διὰ τὰ αὐτὰ δὴ ὡς τὸ ΓΔΕ τρίγωνον πρὸς τὸ ΑΔΕ. so triangle CDE (is) to triangle ADE. triangle BDE is equal to triangle CDE [Prop. For let BE and CD have been joined. And. as triangle BDE (is) to triangle ADE. ὡς δὲ ἡ ΓΕ πρὸς τὴν ΕΑ. ὡς ἡ ΒΔ πρὸς τὴν ΔΑ. οὕτως ἡ ΒΔ πρὸς τὴν ΔΑ· ὑπὸ γὰρ τὸ αὐτὸ ὕψος ὄντα τὴν ἀπὸ τοῦ Ε ἐπὶ τὴν ΑΒ κάθετον ἀγομένην πρὸς ἄλληλά εἰσιν ὡς αἱ βάσεις. If an angle of a triangle is cut in half. as BD (is) to DA. αλλ᾿ ὡς μὲν τὸ ΒΔΕ τρίγωνον πρὸς τὸ ΑΔΕ. Thus. τὰ δὲ ἴσα τρίγωνα καὶ ἐπὶ τῆς αὐτῆς βάσεως ὄντα καὶ ἐν ταῖς αὐταῖς παραλλήλοις ἐστίν. ἡ ἐπὶ τὰς τομὰς ἐπιζευγνυμένη εὐθεῖα παρὰ τὴν λοιπὴν ἔσται τοῦ τριγώνου πλευράν· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. Let ABC be a triangle. Thus.7]. so triangle CDE (is) to triangle ADE [Prop. οὕτως τὸ ΓΔΕ τρίγωνον πρὸς τὸ ΑΔΕ τρίγωνον. so CE (is) to EA. then the segments of the base will have the same ratio as the remaining sides of the triangle. 5. Thus. as triangle BDE (is) to triangle ADE. Proposition 3 ᾿Εὰν τριγώνου ἡ γωνία δίχα τμηθῇ. as triangle CDE (is) to ADE. οὕτως ἡ ΓΕ πρὸς τὴν ΕΑ.11]. ᾿Αλλὰ δὴ αἱ τοῦ ΑΒΓ τριγώνου πλευραὶ αἱ ΑΒ. καὶ τετμήσθω ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΑΓ γωνία δίχα ὑπὸ τῆς ΑΔ εὐθείας· λέγω. 5. τὰ τῆς βάσεως τμήματα τὸν αὐτὸν ἕξει λόγον ταῖς λοιπαῖς τοῦ τριγώνου πλευραῖς· καὶ ἐὰν τὰ τῆς βάσεως τμήματα τὸν αὐτὸν ἔχῃ λόγον ταῖς λοιπαῖς τοῦ τριγώνου πλευραῖς. For. Thus. let the sides AB and AC of triangle ABC have been cut proportionally (such that) as BD (is) to DA. So. are also between the same parallels [Prop. For they are on the same base DE and between the same parallels DE and BC [Prop. I say that DE is parallel to BC. τὰ δὲ ἴσα πρὸς τὸ αὐτὸ τὸν αὐτὸν ἔχει λόγον· ἔστιν ἄρα ὡς τὸ ΒΔΕ τρίγωνον πρὸς τὸ ΑΔΕ [τρίγωνον]. ELEMENTS BOOK 6 ᾿Επεζεύχθωσαν γὰρ αἱ ΒΕ. ΓΔ. then it will cut the (other) sides of the triangle proportionally. I say that as BD is to CD. ἴσον ἄρα ἐστὶ τὸ ΒΔΕ τρίγωνον τῷ ΓΔΕ τριγώνῳ· καί εἰσιν ἐπὶ τῆς αὐτῆς βάσεως τῆς ΔΕ. ἡ ἀπὸ τῆς κορυφῆς ἐπὶ τὴν τομὴν ἐπιζευγνυμένη εὐθεῖα δίχα τεμεῖ τὴν τοῦ τριγώνου γωνίαν. so BA (is) to AC. ἀλλ᾿ ὡς μὲν ἡ ΒΔ πρὸς τὴν ΔΑ. But. οὕτως τὸ ΒΔΕ τρίγωνον πρὸς τὸ ΑΔΕ τρίγωνον. 1.

Thus. ἡ ἄρα ὑπὸ ΒΑΓ γωνία δίχα τέτμηται ὑπὸ τῆς ΑΔ εὐθείας. 159 . 1. Thus. let BD be to DC. Thus. (angle) BAD is also equal to ACE. since the straight-line BAE falls across the parallel (straight-lines) AD and EC. 1. οὕτως ἡ ΒΑ πρὸς τὴν ΑΕ. ἡ ἐκτὸς γωνία ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΑΔ ἴση ἐστὶ τῇ ἐντὸς τῇ ὑπὸ ΑΕΓ. ἡ δὲ τέμνουσα τὴν γωνίαν εὐθεῖα τέμνῃ καὶ τὴν βάσιν.29]. since as BD is to DC. καὶ ἐπεζεύχθω ἡ ΑΔ· λέγω. For. But. angle ACE is also equal to AEC. ELEMENTS BOOK 6 (CE) at (point) E. ἐπεί ἐστιν ὡς ἡ ΒΔ πρὸς τὴν ΔΓ. But. as BD is to DC. ἀνάλογον ἄρα ἐστὶν ὡς ἡ ΒΔ πρὸς τὴν ΔΓ. so BA (is) to AC. Thus. ᾿Εὰν ἄρα τριγώνου ἡ γωνία δίχα τμηθῇ. 6. 5. ἀλλ᾿ ἡ μὲν ὑπὸ ΑΕΓ τῇ ἐκτὸς τῇ ὑπὸ ΒΑΔ [ἐστιν] ἴση. † D C And since the straight-line AC falls across the parallel (straight-lines) AD and EC. And so. side AE is equal to side AC [Prop. as BA (is) to AC. ὅτι δίχα τέτμηται ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΑΓ γωνία ὑπὸ τῆς ΑΔ εὐθείας. angle ACE is thus equal to CAD [Prop. I say that angle BAC has been cut in half by the straight-line AD. ἐπεὶ εἰς παραλλήλους τὰς ΑΔ. so BA (is) to AC. so BA is to AE. Thus. then also as BD (is) to DC. hence.11]. so BA (is) to AE [Prop. ἐδείχθη δὲ καὶ ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΓΕ τῇ ὑπὸ ΒΑΔ ἴση· καὶ ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΓΕ ἄρα γωνία τῇ ὑπὸ ΑΕΓ ἐστιν ἴση· ὥστε καὶ πλευρὰ ἡ ΑΕ πλευρᾷ τῇ ΑΓ ἐστιν ἴση. οὕτως ἡ ΒΑ πρὸς τὴν ΑΓ. οὕτως ἡ ΒΑ πρὸς τὴν ΑΕ. οὕτως ἡ ΒΑ πρὸς τὴν ΑΓ. angle BAC has been cut in half by the straight-line AD. For AD has been drawn parallel to one (of the sides) EC of triangle BCE [Prop. by the same construction. 5. Again. then the segments of the base will have the same ratio as the remaining sides of the triangle. τὰ τῆς βάσεως τμήματα τὸν αὐτὸν ἕξει λόγον ταῖς λοιπαῖς τοῦ τριγώνου πλευραῖς· καὶ ἐὰν τὰ τῆς βάσεως τμήματα τὸν αὐτὸν ἔχῃ λόγον ταῖς λοιπαῖς τοῦ τριγώνου πλευραῖς. and ACE is equal to the alternate (angle) CAD [Prop. ἡ δὲ ὑπὸ ΑΓΕ τῇ ἐναλλὰξ τῇ ὑπὸ ΓΑΔ ἐστιν ἴση· καὶ ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΑΔ ἄρα τῇ ὑπὸ ΓΑΔ ἐστιν ἴση. 1. proportionally. ἡ ἀπὸ τῆς κορυφῆς ἐπὶ τὴν τομὴν ἐπιζευγνυμένη εὐθεῖα δίχα τέμνει τὴν τοῦ τριγώνου γωνίαν· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. Τῶν γὰρ αὐτῶν κατασκευασθέντων. as BD (is) to DC. And AE (is) equal to AC. AC (is) equal to AE [Prop. ἴση ἄρα ἡ ΑΓ τῇ ΑΕ· ὥστε καὶ γωνία ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΕΓ τῇ ὑπὸ ΑΓΕ ἐστιν ἴση.6]. then the straight-line joining the vertex to the cutting (point) will cut the angle of the triangle in half.9]. πάλιν. 6. And. ᾿Αλλὰ δὴ ἔστω ὡς ἡ ΒΔ πρὸς τὴν ΔΓ. The fact that the two straight-lines meet follows because the sum of ACE and CAE is less than two right-angles. καὶ ἐπεὶ τριγώνου τοῦ ΒΓΕ παρὰ μίαν τῶν πλευρῶν τὴν ΕΓ ἦκται ἡ ΑΔ. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. ἀλλ᾿ ἡ ὑπὸ ΓΑΔ τῇ ὑπὸ ΒΑΔ ὑπόκειται ἴση· καὶ ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΑΔ ἄρα τῇ ὑπὸ ΑΓΕ ἐστιν ἴση. (angle) BAD is also equal to CAD.29]. 1. as BA (is) to AC. the external angle BAD is equal to the internal (angle) AEC [Prop. ΕΓ εὐθεῖα ἐνέπεσεν ἡ ΑΓ.2]. οὕτως ἐστὶν ἡ ΒΑ πρὸς τὴν ΑΕ· τριγώνου γὰρ τοῦ ΒΓΕ παρὰ μίαν τὴν ΕΓ ἦκται ἡ ΑΔ· καὶ ὡς ἄρα ἡ ΒΑ πρὸς τὴν ΑΓ.STOIQEIWN þ. And let AD have been joined.2]. AEC [is] equal to the external (angle) BAD. οὕτως ἡ ΒΑ πρὸς τὴν ΑΓ. (angle) CAD is assumed (to be) equal to BAD. and the straight-line cutting the angle also cuts the base. hence.5]. thus. And (angle) ACE was also shown (to be) equal to BAD. And if the segments of the base have the same ratio as the remaining sides of the triangle. 1. so BA (is) to AE [Prop. And.† Ε E Α Β ∆ A Γ B Καὶ ἐπεὶ εἰς παραλλήλους τὰς ΑΔ. also. Thus.29]. if an angle of a triangle is cut in half. ἡ ἄρα ὑπὸ ΑΓΕ γωνία ἴση ἐστὶ τῇ ὑπὸ ΓΑΔ. Thus. And since AD has been drawn parallel to one of the sides EC of triangle BCE. angle AEC is equal to ACE [Prop. Thus. as can easily be demonstrated. ἀλλὰ καὶ ὡς ἡ ΒΔ πρὸς τὴν ΔΓ. ΕΓ εὐθεῖα ἐνέπεσεν ἡ ΒΑΕ. ἴση δὲ ἡ ΑΕ τῇ ΑΓ· ὡς ἄρα ἡ ΒΔ πρὸς τὴν ΔΓ.

τὴν δὲ ὑπὸ ΒΑΓ τῇ ὑπὸ ΓΔΕ καὶ ἔτι τὴν ὑπὸ ΑΓΒ τῇ ὑπὸ ΓΕΔ· λέγω. as BC is to CE. alternately. αἱ ἄρα ὑπὸ ΑΒΓ. dþ. οὕτως ἡ ΑΓ πρὸς τὴν ΔΕ. and let them meet at (point) F . Let BC be placed straight-on to CE. thus ABC and DEC are less than two right-angles. οὕτως ἡ ΖΔ πρὸς τὴν ΔΕ. παράλληλός ἐστιν ἡ ΑΓ τῇ ΖΕ. Again. since CD is parallel to BF . οὕτως ἡ ΔΓ πρὸς τὴν ΓΕ.N. 6. via equality. 1. ΔΓΕ ἴσην ἔχοντα τὴν μὲν ὑπὸ ΑΒΓ γωνίαν τῇ ὑπὸ ΔΓΕ. I say that in triangles ABC and DCE the sides about the equal angles are proportional. And since angle DCE is equal to ABC. further. Proposition 4 Τῶν ἰσογωνίων τριγώνων ἀνάλογόν εἰσιν αἱ πλευραὶ αἱ In equiangular triangles the sides about the equal anπερὶ τὰς ἴσας γωνίας καὶ ὁμόλογοι αἱ ὑπὸ τὰς ἴσας γωνίας gles are proportional. Καὶ ἐπεὶ ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ὑπὸ ΔΓΕ γωνία τῇ ὑπὸ ΑΒΓ. Let them have been produced. since (angle) ACB is equal to DEC. καὶ ἐναλλὰξ ὡς ἡ ΑΒ πρὸς τὴν ΒΓ. Κείσθω γὰρ ἐπ᾿ εὐθείας ἡ ΒΓ τῇ ΓΕ. having angle ABC equal to DCE.28]. καὶ ἐπεὶ τριγώνου τοῦ ΖΒΕ παρὰ μίαν τὴν ΖΕ ἦκται ἡ ΑΓ. ἐπεὶ οὖν ἐδείχθη ὡς μὲν ἡ ΑΒ πρὸς τὴν ΒΓ. ἴση δὲ ἡ ΑΖ τῇ ΓΔ· ὡς ἄρα ἡ ΒΑ πρὸς τὴν ΓΔ. 5. 1. 5. (angle) ACB to CED. Thus. Therefore. ΔΕΓ δύο ὀρθῶν ἐλάττονές εἰσιν· αἱ ΒΑ. and AC to F D [Prop. ὅτι τῶν ΑΒΓ. thus. οὕτως ἡ ΓΔ πρὸς τὴν ΔΕ.2]. and those (sides) subtending equal ὑποτείνουσαι.STOIQEIWN þ. as BA (is) to CD.16]. Again. so AC (is) to DE. AC is parallel to F E [Prop. οὕτως ἡ ΔΓ πρὸς τὴν ΓΕ. 5. πάλιν. and. ὡς δὲ ἡ ΒΓ πρὸς τὴν ΓΑ. BA and ED. ἴση δὲ ἡ ΖΔ τῇ ΑΓ· ὡς ἄρα ἡ ΒΓ πρὸς τὴν ΓΕ. since it was shown that as AB (is) to BC. as BA (is) to AC. so CD (is) to DE [Prop. alternately. so DC (is) to CE. thus as BA is to AF . 1. as BC (is) to CA. ἔστιν ἄρα ὡς ἡ ΒΓ πρὸς τὴν ΓΕ.22]. ἐκβεβλήσθωσαν καὶ συμπιπτέτωσαν κατὰ τὸ Ζ.34]. and. and those (sides) subtending equal angles correspond. thus as BC (is) to CE. F ACD is a parallelogram. 6. being produced. Thus. so CE (is) to ED. παράλληλός ἐστιν ἡ ΒΖ τῇ ΓΔ. Thus.28]. and as BC (is) to CA. Τῶν ἄρα ἰσογωνίων τριγώνων ἀνάλογόν εἰσιν αἱ πλευραὶ αἱ περὶ τὰς ἴσας γωνίας καὶ ὁμόλογοι αἱ ὑπὸ τὰς ἴσας γωνίας ὑποτείνουσαι· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. so BC (is) to CE [Prop. οὕτως ἡ ΒΓ πρὸς τὴν ΓΕ. and (angle) BAC to CDE. Thus. angles correspond. And AF (is) equal to CD. and ACB (is) equal to DEC.2]. C E Let ABC and DCE be equiangular triangles. πάλιν. And F D (is) equal to AC. Ζ F Α A ∆ Β Γ D Ε B ῎Εστω ἰσογώνια τρίγωνα τὰ ΑΒΓ. so DC (is) to CE [Prop. Thus. 5]. so F D (is) to DE [Prop. Thus. καὶ ἐπεὶ αἱ ὑπὸ ΑΒΓ. F A is equal to DC.17]. 6. παραλληλόγραμμον ἄρα ἐστὶ τὸ ΖΑΓΔ· ἴση ἄρα ἡ μὲν ΖΑ τῇ ΔΓ.2]. οὕτως ἡ ΒΓ πρὸς τὴν ΓΕ. καὶ ἐναλλὰξ ὡς ἡ ΒΓ πρὸς τὴν ΓΑ. ELEMENTS BOOK 6 See Post. ἡ δὲ ΑΓ τῇ ΖΔ. οὕτως ἡ ΓΕ πρὸς τὴν ΕΔ. and those (sides) subtend- 160 . And since AC has been drawn parallel to one (of the sides) F E of triangle F BE. δι᾿ ἴσου ἄρα ὡς ἡ ΒΑ πρὸς τὴν ΑΓ. ΕΔ ἄρα ἐκβαλλόμεναι συμπεσοῦνται. οὕτως ἡ ΓΕ πρὸς τὴν ΕΔ. will meet [C. ΑΓΒ γωνίαι δύο ὀρθῶν ἐλάττονές εἰσιν. ἐπεὶ ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΓΒ τῇ ὑπὸ ΔΕΓ. in equiangular triangles the sides about the equal angles are proportional. so BC (is) to CE. and. ἐπεὶ παράλληλός ἐστιν ἡ ΓΔ τῇ ΒΖ. ΔΓΕ τριγώνων ἀνάλογόν εἰσιν αἱ πλευραὶ αἱ περὶ τὰς ἴσας γωνίας καὶ ὁμόλογοι αἱ ὑπὸ τὰς ἴσας γωνίας ὑποτείνουσαι. ἐστιν ἄρα ὡς ἡ ΒΑ πρὸς τὴν ΑΖ. as AB (is) to BC. BF is parallel to CD [Prop. so CE (is) to ED [Prop. ἴση δὲ ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΓΒ τῇ ὑπὸ ΔΕΓ. And since angles ABC and ACB are less than two right-angles [Prop 1.

angle DEF is equal to angle GEF [Prop. [so] GE (is) to EF . EF (respectively). οὕτως ἡ ΗΕ πρὸς τὴν ΕΖ. Therefore. Thus. ELEMENTS BOOK 6 ing equal angles correspond. καὶ ἐπεὶ ἡ μὲν ὑπὸ ΖΕΔ τῇ ὑπὸ ΗΕΖ ἐστιν ἴση. ὑφ᾿ ἃς αἱ ὁμόλογοι πλευραὶ ὑποτείνουσιν. τὴν μὲν ὑπὸ ΑΒΓ τῇ ὑπὸ ΔΕΖ. and as BC (is) to CA. and (those) sides subtending equal angles correspond [Prop. and the remaining angles (are) equal to the remaining angles which the equal sides subtend [Prop. Ζ τῇ μὲν ὑπὸ ΑΒΓ γωνίᾳ ἴση ἡ ὑπὸ ΖΕΗ. ὑφ᾿ ἃς αἱ gles will be equiangular.4]. Συνεστάτω γὰρ πρὸς τῇ ΕΖ εὐθείᾳ καὶ τοῖς πρὸς αὐτῇ σημείοις τοῖς Ε. καὶ τὸ ΔΕΖ τρίγωνον τῷ ΗΕΖ τριγώνῳ ἴσον. (That is). 1. ἴση ἄρα ἐστὶ καὶ ἡ μὲν ὑπὸ ΔΖΕ γωνία τῇ ὑπὸ ΗΖΕ. (angle) ABC (equal) to DEF . οὕτως τὴν ΕΔ πρὸς τὴν ΔΖ. ΔΕΖ τὰς πλευρὰς ἀνάλογον ἔχοντα. and. καὶ ἡ ὑπὸ Let ABC and DEF be two triangles having proportional sides. ἰσογώνια If two triangles have proportional sides then the trianἔσται τὰ τρίγωνα καὶ ἴσας ἕξει τὰς γωνίας.32]. equal to angle ABC. have been constructed on the straight-line EF at the points E and F on it (respectively) [Prop. and will have the angles which ὁμόλογοι πλευραὶ ὑποτείνουσιν. οὕτως τὴν ΕΖ πρὸς τὴν ΖΔ. the sides about the equal angles are proportional. τῶν ἄρα ΑΒΓ. eþ.11]. BCA to EF D. Thus.9]. and (that the triangles) will have the angles which corresponding sides subtend equal.STOIQEIWN þ. δύο δὴ αἱ ΔΕ. DE and GE each have the same ratio to EF . corresponding sides subtend equal. 6. as AB is to BC. since DE is equal to EG. λέγω. (is) DE to EF . ΗΕ πρὸς τὴν ΕΖ τὸν αὐτὸν ἔχει λόγον· ἴση ἄρα ἐστὶν ἡ ΔΕ τῇ ΗΕ. And base DF [is] equal to base F G. Thus. διὰ τὰ αὐτὰ δὴ καὶ ἡ ΔΖ τῇ ΗΖ ἐστιν ἴση. so ED (is) to DF . the two (sides) DE. [οὕτως] ἡ ΗΕ πρὸς τὴν ΕΖ. ἀλλ᾿ ἡ ὑπὸ ΗΕΖ τῇ ὑπὸ ΑΒΓ. ΕΖ ἴσαι εἰσίν· καὶ βάσις ἡ ΔΖ βάσει τῇ ΖΗ [ἐστιν] ἴση· γωνία ἄρα ἡ ὑπὸ ΔΕΖ γωνίᾳ τῇ ὑπὸ ΗΕΖ ἐστιν ἴση. and 161 . τῇ δὲ ὑπὸ ΑΓΒ ἴση ἡ ὑπὸ ΕΖΗ· λοιπὴ ἄρα ἡ πρὸς τῷ Α λοιπῇ τῇ πρὸς τῷ Η ἐστιν ἴση. τὴν δὲ ὑπὸ ΒΓΑ τῇ ὑπὸ ΕΖΔ καὶ ἔτι τὴν ὑπὸ ΒΑΓ τῇ ὑπὸ ΕΔΖ. the remaining (angle) at A is equal to the remaining (angle) at G [Prop. (so that) as AB (is) to BC. 1. as BA (is) to AC. as AB (is) to BC. ἐπεὶ οὖν ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ΔΕ τῇ ΕΗ. Thus. ὡς μὲν τὴν ΑΒ πρὸς τὴν ΒΓ. Thus. ῎Ισογώνιον ἄρα ἐστὶ τὸ ΑΒΓ τρίγωνον τῷ ΕΗΖ [τριγώνῳ]. ΕΗΖ τριγώνων ἀνάλογόν εἰσιν αἱ πλευραὶ αἱ περὶ τὰς ἴσας γωνίας καὶ ὁμόλογοι αἱ ὑπὸ τὰς ἴσας γωνίας ὑποτείνουσαι· ἔστιν ἄρα ὡς ἡ ΑΒ πρὸς τὴν ΒΓ. ἀλλ᾿ ὡς ἡ ΑΒ πρὸς τὴν ΒΓ. But. ὅτι ἰσογώνιόν ἐστι τὸ ΑΒΓ τρίγωνον τῷ ΔΕΖ τριγώνῳ καὶ ἴσας ἕξουσι τὰς γωνίας. angle DF E is also equal to GF E. ὡς δὲ τὴν ΒΓ πρὸς τὴν ΓΑ. So. οὕτως τὴν ΔΕ πρὸς τὴν ΕΖ. so.8]. I say that triangle ABC is equiangular to triangle DEF . so GE (is) to EF [Prop.4]. κοινὴ δὲ ἡ ΕΖ. Thus. καὶ ἔτι ὡς τὴν ΒΑ πρὸς τὴν ΑΓ. triangle ABC is equiangular to [triangle] EGF . equal to ACB. BAC to EDF . as DE (is) to EF . (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. 5. ΕΖ δυσὶ ταῖς ΗΕ. for the same (reasons). and (angle) EF G. For let (angle) F EG. and EF (is) common. and triangle DEF (is) equal to triangle GEF . DE is equal to GE [Prop. Thus. DF is also equal to GF .23]. Thus. EF are equal to the two (sides) GE. ∆ Α Ε Β Γ D A Ζ E Η C F G B ῎Εστω δύο τρίγωνα τὰ ΑΒΓ. ὑφ᾿ ἃς αἱ ἴσαι πλευραὶ ὑποτείνουσιν. Thus. so EF (is) to F D. for triangles ABC and EGF . ἡ δὲ ὑπὸ ΕΔΖ τῇ ὑπὸ ΕΗΖ. it was assumed. and. 5. further. ἑκατέρα ἄρα τῶν ΔΕ. οὕτως ὑπόκειται ἡ ΔΕ πρὸς τὴν ΕΖ· ὡς ἄρα ἡ ΔΕ πρὸς τὴν ΕΖ. 1. Proposition 5 ᾿Εὰν δύο τρίγωνα τὰς πλευρὰς ἀνάλογον ἔχῃ. so DE (is) to EF . further. καὶ αἱ λοιπαὶ γωνίαι ταῖς λοιπαῖς γωνίαις ἴσαι. 1.

ὡς τὴν ΒΑ πρὸς τὴν ΑΓ. (so that) as BA (is) to AC. so ED (is) to DF . Thus. And angle EDF [is] equal to angle GDF . and will have the angles which corresponding sides subtend equal. καὶ τὸ ΔΕΖ τρίγωνον τῷ ΗΔΖ τριγώνῳ ἴσον ἐστίν.4]. for the same (reasons). if two triangles have proportional sides then the triangles will be equiangular. οὕτως ἡ ΕΔ πρὸς τὴν ΔΖ· καὶ ὡς ἄρα ἡ ΕΔ πρὸς τὴν ΔΖ. ὑπόκειται δὲ καὶ ὡς ἡ ΒΑ πρὸς τὴν ΑΓ. and the sides about the equal angles proportional. equal to ACB. καὶ ἔτι ἡ πρὸς τῷ Α τῇ πρὸς τῷ Δ· ἰσογώνιον ἄρα ἐστὶ τὸ ΑΒΓ τρίγωνον τῷ ΔΕΖ τριγώνῳ. proportionally. as ED (is) to DF . τὴν δὲ ὑπὸ ΑΓΒ τῇ ὑπὸ ΔΖΕ. and will have angle ABC equal to DEF . triangle ABC is equiangular to triangle DEF . ἀνάλογον ἄρα ἐστὶν ὡς ἡ ΒΑ πρὸς τὴν ΑΓ. have been constructed on the straight-line AF at the points D and F on it (respectively) [Prop. Thus. Ζ ὁποτέρᾳ μὲν τῶν ὑπὸ ΒΑΓ. þ. ᾿Εὰν ἄρα δύο τρίγωνα τὰς πλευρὰς ἀνάλογον ἔχῃ. And DF (is) common. ὐφ᾿ ἃς ἴσας πλευραὶ ὑποτείνουσιν. Thus. ΔΕΖ μίαν γωνίαν τὴν ὑπὸ ΒΑΓ μιᾷ γωνίᾳ τῇ ὑπὸ ΕΔΖ ἴσην ἔχοντα. so ED (is) to DF .32]. δὲ τὰς ἴσας γωνίας τὰς πλευρὰς ἀνάλογον. and the remaining angles 162 . the remaining angle at B is equal to the remaining angle at G [Prop. Thus. Thus. διὰ τὰ αὐτὰ δὴ καὶ ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΓΒ τῇ ὑπὸ ΔΖΕ ἐστιν ἴση. καὶ αἱ λοιπαὶ γωνίαι ταῖς λοιπαῖς γωνίαις ἴσας ἔσονται. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show.11]. ἰσογώνια ἔσται and the sides about the equal angles proportional. as BA (is) to AC. then τὰ τρίγωνα καὶ ἴσας ἕξει τὰς γωνίας. triangle ABC is equiangular to triangle DGF . the (angle) at A to the (angle) at D. τῇ δὲ ὑπὸ ΑΓΒ ἴση ἡ ὑπὸ ΔΖΗ· λοιπὴ ἄρα ἡ πρὸς τῷ Β γωνία λοιπῇ τῇ πρὸς τῷ Η ἴση ἐστίν. so GD (is) to DF [Prop. ὑφ᾿ ἃς αἱ ὁμόλογοι the triangles will be equiangular. Thus. and will have the angles πλευραὶ ὑποτείνουσιν. περὶ δὲ τὰς ἴσας γωνίας τὰς πλευρὰς ἀνάλογον. Thus. ΔΖ ἴσας εἰσίν· καὶ γωνία ἡ ὑπὸ ΕΔΖ γωνίᾳ τῇ ὑπὸ ΗΔΖ [ἐστιν] ἴση· βάσις ἄρα ἡ ΕΖ βάσει τῇ ΗΖ ἐστιν ἴση. 1. 5. οὕτως τὴν ΕΔ πρὸς τὴν ΔΖ· λέγω. περὶ If two triangles have one angle equal to one angle. and (angle) DF G. and (angle) ACB to DF E. and (angle) GEF to ABC. ᾿Ισογώνιον ἄρα ἐστὶ τὸ ΑΒΓ τρίγωνον τῷ ΔΗΖ τριγώνῳ. ∆ Α D A Η Ε Β G Ζ E Γ B ῎Εστω δύο τρίγωνα τὰ ΑΒΓ. So. ἴση ἄρα ἐστὶν ἡ μὲν ὑπὸ ΔΖΗ τῇ ὑπο ΔΖΕ. Συνεστάτω γὰρ πρὸς τῇ ΔΖ εὐθείᾳ καὶ τοῖς πρὸς αὐτῇ σημείοις τοῖς Δ. Proposition 6 ᾿Εὰν δύο τρίγωνα μίαν γωνίαν μιᾷ γωνίᾳ ἴσην ἔχῃ. And. So. οὕτως ἡ ΗΔ πρὸς τὴν ΔΖ. For let (angle) F DG. And since (angle) F ED is equal to GEF . EDF (respectively). ED (is) equal to DG [Prop. ΕΔΖ ἴση ἡ ὑπὸ ΖΔΗ. equal to one angle.23]. (angle) ACB is also equal to DF E. I say that triangle ABC is equiangular to triangle DEF . ἰσογώνια ἔσται τὰ τρίγωνα καὶ ἴσας ἕξει τὰς γωνίας. angle ABC is thus also equal to DEF . οὕτως ἡ ΗΔ πρὸς τὴν ΔΖ. thus. the two (sides) ED. ΔΖ δυσὶ ταῖς ΗΔ. BAC. 6.9]. ὅτι ἰσογώνιόν ἐστι τὸ ΑΒΓ τρίγωνον τῷ ΔΕΖ τριγώνῳ καὶ ἴσην ἕξει τὴν ὑπὸ ΑΒΓ γωνίαν τῇ ὑπὸ ΔΕΖ. so GD (is) to DF [Prop. DF (respectively). ὑφ᾿ ἃς αἱ ὁμόλογοι πλευραὶ ὑποτείνουσιν· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. 1. DF are equal to the two (sides) GD. and. ἡ δὲ ὑπὸ ΔΗΖ F C Let ABC and DEF be two triangles having one angle. which corresponding sides subtend equal. ἴση ἄρα ἡ ΕΔ τῇ ΔΗ· καὶ κοινὴ ἡ ΔΖ· δύο δὴ αἱ ΕΔ. 5.STOIQEIWN þ. further. ELEMENTS BOOK 6 ΑΒΓ ἄρα γωνία τῇ ὑπὸ ΔΕΖ ἐστιν ἴση. And it was also assumed that as BA is) to AC. base EF is equal to base GF . and triangle DEF is equal to triangle GDF . equal to each of BAC and EDF . (angle) EDF to EGF .

καὶ λοιπὴ δηλονότι ἡ πρὸς τῷ Γ λοιπῇ τῇ πρὸς τῷ Ζ ἴση. equal to one angle. ὑπόκειται δὲ καὶ ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΑΓ τῇ ὑπὸ ΕΔΖ ἴση· καὶ λοιπὴ ἄρα ἡ πρὸς τῷ Β λοιπῇ τῇ πρὸς τῷ Ε ἴση ἐστίν· ἰσογώνιον ἄρα ἐστὶ τὸ ΑΒΓ τρίγωνον τῷ ΔΕΖ τριγώνῳ. and will have the angles which corresponding sides subtend equal. ὅτι ἰσογώνιόν ἐστι τὸ ΑΒΓ τρίγωνον τῷ ΔΕΖ τριγώνῳ. then the triangles will be equiangular. ABC and DEF (respectively). Proposition 7 ᾿Εὰν δύο τρίγωνα μίαν γωνίαν μιᾷ γωνίᾳ ἴσην ἔχῃ. and the sides about other angles proportional. zþ. and (angle) DGF to DEF . then the triangles will be equiangular. περὶ δὲ ἄλλας γωνίας τὰς πλευρὰς ἀνάλογον. For if angle ABC is not equal to (angle) DEF then one of them is greater. ἰσογώνια ἔσται τὰ τρίγωνα καὶ ἴσας ἕξει τὰς γωνίας. the remaining (angle) at B is equal to the remaining (angle) at E [Prop. Let ABC be greater. EDF (respectively). περὶ δὲ ἄλλας γωνίας τὰς ὑπὸ ΑΒΓ. καὶ συνεστάτω πρὸς τῇ ΑΒ εὐθείᾳ καὶ τῷ πρὸς αὐτῇ σημείῳ τῷ Β τῇ ὑπὸ ΔΕΖ γωνίᾳ ἴση ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΒΗ. and the sides about the equal angles proportional. equal to (angle) DEF . ΔΕΖ τὰς πλευρὰς ἀνάλογον. οὕτως τὴν ΔΕ πρὸς τὴν ΕΖ. τῶν δὲ λοιπῶν τῶν πρὸς τοῖς Γ. If two triangles have one angle equal to one angle. And let (angle) ABG. first of all. ἀλλ᾿ ἡ ὑπὸ ΔΖΗ τῇ ὑπὸ ΑΓΒ ἐστιν ἴση· καὶ ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΓΒ ἄρα τῇ ὑπὸ ΔΖΕ ἐστιν ἴση. (angle) ACB is also equal to DF E. Ζ πρότερον ἑκατέραν ἅμα ἐλάσσονα ὀρθῆς· λέγω. Καὶ ἐπεὶ ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ μὲν Α γωνία τῇ Δ. ἡ δὲ ὑπὸ ΑΒΗ τῇ ὑπὸ ΔΕΖ. BAC. proportional. ΔΕΖ μίαν γωνίαν μιᾷ γωνίᾳ ἴσην ἔχοντα τὴν ὑπὸ ΒΑΓ τῇ ὑπὸ ΕΔΖ. and the sides about (some) other angles. Thus. (angle) DF G is equal to ACB. or both not less than. ὡς τὴν ΑΒ πρὸς τὴν ΒΓ. and (that) angle ABC will be equal to DEF .STOIQEIWN þ. 1. triangle ABC is equiangular to triangle DEF . will be equal to the remaining angles which the equal sides subtend [Prop. Thus. And (angle) BAC was also assumed (to be) equal to EDF . λοιπὴ ἄρα ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΗΒ λοιπῇ τῇ ὑπὸ ΔΖΕ ἐστιν ἴση. (so that) as AB (is) to BC. the remaining (angle) AGB is thus equal 163 . so DE (is) to EF . καὶ ἴση ἔσται ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΒΓ γωνία τῇ ὑπὸ ΔΕΖ. But. περὶ ἃς ἀνάλογόν εἰσιν αἱ πλευραί. and (angle) ABG to DEF . τῶν δὲ λοιπῶν ἑκατέραν ἅμα ἤτοι ἐλάσσονα ἢ μὴ ἐλάσσονα ὀρθῆς. Thus. have been constructed on the straight-line AB at the point B on it [Prop. Thus. ELEMENTS BOOK 6 τῇ ὑπὸ ΔΕΖ. And since angle A is equal to (angle) D. 1. ἰσογώνιον ἄρα ἐστὶ τὸ ΑΒΗ τρίγωνον τῷ ΔΕΖ Let ABC and DEF be two triangles having one angle. μία αὐτῶν μείζων ἐστίν.4]. and the remaining angles either both less than. and the remaining (angles) at C and F . ἰσογώνια ἔσται τὰ τρίγωνα καὶ ἴσας ἕξει τὰς γωνίας. ἔστω μείζων ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΒΓ. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. (angle) DF G is equal to DF E. right-angles. both less than right-angles.23]. Εἰ γὰρ ἄνισός ἐστιν ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΒΓ γωνία τῇ ὑπὸ ΔΕΖ. ὑφ᾿ ἃς αἱ ὁμόλογοι πλευραὶ ὑποτείνουσιν· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. 1. περὶ δὲ τὰς ἴσας γωνίας τὰς πλευρὰς ἀνάλογον.32]. ᾿Εὰν ἄρα δύο τρίγωνα μίαν γωνίαν μιᾷ γωνίᾳ ἴσην ἔχῃ. and (that) the remaining (angle) at C (will be) manifestly equal to the remaining (angle) at F . Thus. I say that triangle ABC is equiangular to triangle DEF . Α A ∆ Β D B Ε Η E Ζ G F Γ C ῎Εστω δύο τρίγωνα τὰ ΑΒΓ. and will have the angles about which the sides are proportional equal. if two triangles have one angle equal to one angle.

AGB. as AB is to BG. angle ABC is not unequal to DEF . οὕτως ἡ ΔΕ πρὸς τὴν ΕΖ. ἐλάττων δὲ ὀρθῆς ὑπόκειται ἡ πρὸς τῷ Γ· ἐλάττων ἄρα ἐστὶν ὀρθῆς καὶ ὑπὸ ΒΗΓ· ὥστε ἡ ἐφεξῆς αὐτῇ γωνία ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΗΒ μείζων ἐστὶν ὀρθῆς. BGC (is) not less than a right-angle either. triangle ABC is equiangular to triangle DEF . ὡς δὲ ἡ ΔΕ πρὸς τὴν ΕΖ.13]. καὶ ἤχθω ἀπὸ τοῦ Α ἐπὶ τὴν ΒΓ κάθετος ἡ ΑΔ· λέγω. οὐκ ἄρα ἄνισός ἐστιν ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΒΓ γωνία τῇ ὑπὸ ΔΕΖ· ἴση ἄρα. we can similarly show that BC is equal to BG.11]. (angle) BGC is also less than a right-angle. The very thing is absurd. triangle ABC is equiangular to triangle DEF . and the remaining angles both less than. angle ABC is not unequal to (angle) DEF . Thus.32]. Thus. or both not less than. So. The very thing is impossible [Prop. τῶν δὲ λοιπῶν ἑκατέραν ἅμα ἐλάττονα ἢ μὴ ἐλάττονα ὀρθῆς. the adjacent angle to it. Thus. And the angle at C was assumed (to be) less than a right-angle. the angle at C is equal to (angle) BGC. And the (angle) at C (is) not less than a right-angle. Thus. Let ABC be a right-angled triangle having the angle BAC a right-angle.9]. ΒΗ τὸν αὐτὸν ἔχει λόγον· ἴση ἄρα ἡ ΒΓ τῇ ΒΗ. ῎Εστω τρίγωνον ὀρθογώνιον τὸ ΑΒΓ ὀρθὴν ἔχον τὴν ὑπὸ ΒΑΓ γωνίαν. And the (angle) at A is also equal to the (angle) at D. again. ἰσογώνιον ἄρα ἐστὶ τὸ ΑΒΓ τρίγωνον τῷ ΔΕΖ τριγώνῳ. For. And.5]. περὶ δὲ ἄλλας γωνίας τὰς πλευρὰς ἀνάλογον. (it is) equal. 1. the (angle) at F is also greater than a right-angle. if two triangles have one angle equal to one angle. 5. Thus. But it was assumed (to be) less than a rightangle. ΑΔΓ If. περὶ ἃς ἀνάλογόν εἰσιν αἱ πλευραί· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. then the triangles will be equiangular. τὰ πρὸς τῇ καθέτῳ τρίγωνα ὅμοιά ἐστι τῷ τε ὅλῳ καὶ ἀλλήλοις. Τῶν γὰρ αὐτῶν κατασκευασθέντων ὁμοίως δείξομεν. to the remaining (angle) DF E [Prop. Thus. Thus.32]. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. a (straight-line) is drawn from the right-angle perpendicular to the base then the triangles around the perpendicular are similar to the whole (triangle). καὶ ἐδείχθη ἴση οὖσα τῇ πρὸς τῷ Ζ· καὶ ἡ πρὸς τῷ Ζ ἄρα μείζων ἐστὶν ὀρθῆς. ἔστιν ἄρα ὡς ἡ ΑΒ πρὸς τὴν ΒΗ. Thus. 1. And (AGB) was shown to be equal to the (angle) at F . also. 1. so DE (is) to EF [Prop. Thus. with the same construction. ὅτι καὶ οὕτως ἐστὶν ἰσογώνιον τὸ ΑΒΓ τρίγωνον τῷ ΔΕΖ τριγώνῳ. ὅτι ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ΒΓ τῇ ΒΗ· ὥστε καὶ γωνία ἡ πρὸς τῷ Γ τῇ ὑπὸ ΒΗΓ ἴση ἐστίν. Thus. ὥστε καὶ γωνία ἡ πρὸς τῷ Γ γωνίᾳ τῇ ὑπὸ ΒΗΓ ἐστιν ἴση. I say. again. the remaining (angle) at C is equal to the remaining (angle) at F [Prop. Hence. τριγώνου δὴ τοῦ ΒΗΓ αἱ δύο γωνίαι δύο ὀρθῶν οὔκ εἰσιν ἐλάττονες· ὅπερ ἐστὶν ἀδύνατον. hþ. triangle ABG is equiangular to triangle DEF . ἰσογώνια ἔσται τὰ τρίγωνα καὶ ἴσας ἕξει τὰς γωνίας. ᾿Εὰν ἄρα δύο τρίγωνα μίαν γωνίαν μιᾷ γωνίᾳ ἴσην ἔχῃ. And the (angle) at A is also equal to the (angle) at D. 1. Proposition 8 ᾿Εὰν ἐν ὀρθογωνίῳ τριγώνῳ ἀπό τῆς ὀρθῆς γωνίας ἐπὶ τὴν βάσιν κάθετος ἀχθῇ. ELEMENTS BOOK 6 τριγώνῳ. that triangle ABC is equiangular to triangle DEF in this case also. Ζ μὴ ἐλάσσων ὀρθῆς· λέγω πάλιν. and the sides about other angles proportional. And as DE (is) to EF . is greater than a right-angle [Prop.17]. Thus. ἰσογώνιον ἄρα ἐστὶ τὸ ΑΒΓ τρίγωνον τῷ ΔΕΖ τριγώνῳ. AB has the same ratio to each of BC and BG [Prop. Thus. and let AD have been drawn from 164 .STOIQEIWN þ. But. 6. Hence. ᾿Αλλὰ δὴ πάλιν ὑποκείσθω ἑκατέρα τῶν πρὸς τοῖς Γ. again. and will have the angles about which the sides (are) proportional equal.32]. Thus. [so] it was assumed (is) AB to BC. 5. Thus. And thus the remaining (angle) at C is equal to the remaining (angle) at F [Prop. 1. [οὕτως] ὑπόκειται ἡ ΑΒ πρὸς τὴν ΒΓ· ἡ ΑΒ ἄρα πρὸς ἑκατέραν τῶν ΒΓ. and to one another. let each of the (angles) at C and F be assumed (to be) not less than a right-angle. in a right-angled triangle. the angle at C is equal to angle BGC [Prop. BC (is) equal to BG [Prop. in triangle BGC the (sum of) two angles is not less than two right-angles. ἔστι δὲ καὶ ἡ πρὸς τῷ Α τῇ πρὸς τῷ Δ ἴση· λοιπὴ ἄρα ἡ πρὸς τῷ Γ λοιπῇ τῇ πρὸς τῷ Ζ ἴση ἐστίν. 1. ὅτι ὅμοιόν ἐστιν ἑκάτερον τῶν ΑΒΔ. hence. (it is) equal.4]. οὐκ ἄρα πάλιν ἄνισός ἐστιν ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΒΓ γωνία τῇ ὑπὸ ΔΕΖ· ἴση ἄρα. ὑπόκειται δὲ ἐλάσσων ὀρθῆς· ὅπερ ἐστὶν ἄτοπον. right-angles. οὐκ ἐλάττων δὲ ὀρθῆς ἡ πρὸς τῷ Γ· οὐκ ἐλάττων ἄρα ὀρθῆς οὐδὲ ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΗΓ. ἔστι δὲ καὶ ἡ πρὸς τῷ Α ἴση τῇ πρὸς τῷ Δ· καὶ λοιπὴ ἄρα ἡ πρὸς τῷ Γ λοιπῇ τῇ πρὸς τῷ Ζ ἴση ἐστίν. Thus.

similarly. ΑΔΓ [τριγώνων] ὅμοιόν ἐστιν ὅλῳ τῷ ΑΒΓ.4]. is to DA. I say that triangles ABD and ADC are each similar to the whole (triangle) ABC and. the remaining (angle) ACB is thus equal to the remaining (angle) BAD [Prop. ᾿Επεὶ γὰρ ὀρθὴ ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΔΑ ὀρθῇ τῇ ὑπὸ ΑΔΓ ἐστιν ἴση. triangle ABD is equiangular to triangle ADC. 1. to DC. Thus. 1. (which is) equal to the (angle) at B. (so is) AC to AD. in a right-angled triangle. as BC. ELEMENTS BOOK 6 τριγώνων ὅλῳ τῷ ΑΒΓ καὶ ἔτι ἀλλήλοις.1]. τὰ πρὸς τῇ καθέτῳ τρίγωνα ὅμοιά ἐστι τῷ τε ὅλῳ καὶ ἀλλήλοις [ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι]. καὶ λοιπὴ ἄρα ἡ πρὸς τῷ Β λοιπῇ τῇ ὑπὸ ΔΑΓ ἐστιν ἴση· ἰσογώνιον ἄρα ἐστὶ τὸ ΑΒΔ τρίγωνον τῷ ΑΔΓ τριγώνῳ. Thus. ὅτι καὶ ἀλλήλοις ἐστὶν ὅμοια τὰ ΑΒΔ. triangle ABC is equiangular to triangle ABD. thus the remaining (angle) at B is also equal to the remaining (angle) DAC [Prop. subtending the right-angle in triangle ABC. ΑΔΓ τρίγωνα. So I say that triangles ABD and ADC are also similar to one another. Α Β ∆ A Γ B ᾿Επεὶ γὰρ ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΑΓ τῇ ὑπὸ ΑΔΒ· ὀρθὴ γὰρ ἑκατέρα· καὶ κοινὴ τῶν δύο τριγώνων τοῦ τε ΑΒΓ καὶ τοῦ ΑΒΔ ἡ πρὸς τῷ Β. 6. so (is) the same AD. Thus. οὕτως αὐτὴ ἡ ΑΒ ὑποτείνουσα τὴν πρὸς τῷ Γ γωνίαν τοῦ ΑΒΓ τριγώνου πρὸς τὴν ΒΔ ὑποτείνουσαν τὴν ἴσην τὴν ὑπὸ ΒΑΔ τοῦ ΑΒΔ τριγώνου. if. further. triangle ABD is similar to triangle ADC [Def. Thus. further.32]. Thus. Thus. D C For since (angle) BAC is equal to ADB—for each (are) right-angles—and the (angle) at B (is) common to the two triangles ABC and ABD. 6. τὸ ΑΒΓ ἄρα τρίγωνον τῷ ΑΒΔ τριγώνῳ ἰσογώνιόν τέ ἐστι καὶ τὰς περὶ τὰς ἴσας γωνίας πλευρὰς ἀνάλογον ἔχει. a (straight-line) is drawn from the right-angle perpendicular to the base 165 . subtending (angle) DAC in triangle ADC. (both) subtending the angle at B common to the two triangles [Prop. subtending the (angle) at C in triangle ADC. οὕτως αὐτὴ ἡ ΑΔ τοῦ ΑΒΔ τριγώνου ὑποτείνουσα τὴν πρὸς τῷ Β γωνίαν πρὸς τὴν ΔΓ ὑποτείνουσαν τὴν ὑπὸ ΔΑΓ τοῦ ΑΔΓ τριγώνου ἴσην τῇ πρὸς τῷ Β. (so is) BA to AC. subtending the right-angle in triangle ABD.12]. triangle ABC [is] similar to triangle ABD [Def. triangle ABC is equiangular to triangle ABD. ἔστιν ἄρα ὡς ἡ ΒΔ τοῦ ΑΒΔ τριγώνου ὑποτείνουσα τὴν ὑπὸ ΒΑΔ πρὸς τὴν ΔΑ τοῦ ΑΔΓ τριγώνου ὑποτείνουσαν τὴν πρὸς τῷ Γ ἴσην τῇ ὑπὸ ΒΑΔ.1]. and. Thus. and. So. ᾿Εὰν ἄρα ἐν ὀρθογωνίῳ τριγώνῳ ἀπὸ τῆς ὀρθῆς γωνίας ἐπὶ τὴν βάσιν κάθετος ἀχθῇ. ὅτι καὶ τῷ ΑΔΓ τριγώνῳ ὅμοιόν ἐστι τὸ ΑΒΓ τρίγωνον· ἑκάτερον ἄρα τῶν ΑΒΔ. 1.32]. and. (each) subtending right-angles [Prop. [triangles] ABD and ADC are each similar to the whole (triangle) ABC. to one another. (is) to BD.STOIQEIWN þ. and has the sides about the equal angles proportional. For since the right-angle BDA is equal to the rightangle ADC. perpendicular to BC [Prop. indeed. is to BA. 6. as BD. A. Thus. ἀλλὰ μὴν καὶ ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΑΔ τῇ πρὸς τῷ Γ ἐδείχθη ἴση. further. ὁμοίως δὴ δείξομεν. (which is) equal to (angle) BAD. subtending the angle at C in triangle ABC. 6. so the same AB. ἔστιν ἄρα ὡς ἡ ΒΓ ὑποτείνουσα τὴν ὀρθὴν τοῦ ΑΒΓ τριγώνου πρὸς τὴν ΒΑ ὑποτείνουσαν τὴν ὀρθὴν τοῦ ΑΒΔ τριγώνου. subtending the angle at B in triangle ABD. we can show that triangle ABC is also similar to triangle ADC.4]. καὶ ἔτι ἡ ΑΓ πρὸς τὴν ΑΔ ὑποτείνουσαν τὴν πρὸς τῷ Β γωνίαν κοινὴν τῶν δύο τριγώνων. Λέγω δή. (angle) BAD was also shown (to be) equal to the (angle) at C. subtending the equal (angle) BAD in triangle ABD. ὅμοιον ἄμα [ἐστὶ] τὸ ΑΒΓ τρίγωνον τῷ ΑΒΔ τριγώνῳ. λοιπὴ ἄρα ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΓΒ λοιπῇ τῇ ὑπο ΒΑΔ ἐστιν ἴση· ἰσογώνιον ἄρα ἐστὶ τὸ ΑΒΓ τρίγωνον τῷ ΑΒΔ τριγώνῳ. subtending (angle) BAD in triangle ABD. Thus. καὶ ἔτι ἡ ΒΑ πρὸς τὴν ΑΓ ὑποτείνουσαι τὰς ὀρθάς· ὅμοιον ἄρα ἐστὶ τὸ ΑΒΔ τρίγωνον τῷ ΑΔΓ τριγώνῳ.

is in mean proportion to the pieces of the base. cut (straight-line). then. Thus. † In other words. διπλῆ δὲ ἡ ΓΔ τῆς ΔΑ· διπλῆ ἄρα καὶ ἡ ΒΖ τῆς ΖΑ· τριπλῆ ἄρα ἡ ΒΑ τῆς ΑΖ. of triangle ABC. And let BC have been joined. jþ. καὶ ἐπεζεύχθω ἡ ΒΓ. BA (is) triple AF .31]. ΕΓ.STOIQEIWN þ. Therefore. the perpendicular is the geometric mean of the pieces. Thus. Proposition 9 Τῆς δοθείσης εὐθείας τὸ προσταχθὲν μέρος ἀφελεῖν. ELEMENTS BOOK 6 then the triangles around the perpendicular are similar to the whole (triangle). BF (is) also double F A. And let a random point D have been taken on AC. καὶ κείσθωσαν τῇ ΑΔ ἴσαι αἱ ΔΕ. ἡ angle. And let DF have been drawn through D parallel to it [Prop. ἀνάλογον ἄρα ἐστὶν ὡς ἡ ΓΔ πρὸς τὴν ΔΑ. 1. Thus. So let a third (part) have been prescribed. as CD is to DA.3]. [And] let some straight-line AC have been drawn from (point) A. BC. has been cut off from the given straight-line. καὶ διὰ τοῦ Δ παράλληλος αὐτῇ ἤχθω ἡ ΔΖ. Proposition 10 Τὴν δοθεῖσαν εὐθεῖαν ἄτμητον τῇ δοθείσῃ τετμημένῃ To cut a given uncut straight-line similarly to a given ὁμοίως τεμεῖν. ᾿Επιτετάχθω δὴ τὸ τρίτον.† (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. proportionally.] Pìrisma. Γ C Ε E ∆ Α D Ζ Β A F B ῎Εστω ἡ δοθεῖσα εὐθεῖα ἡ ΑΒ· δεῖ δὴ τῆς ΑΒ τὸ προσταχθὲν μέρος ἀφελεῖν. in a right-angled triἀπὸ τῆς ὀρθῆς γωνάις ἐπὶ τὴν βάσις κάθετος ἀχθῇ.2]. AB. from this. since F D has been drawn parallel to one of the sides. the prescribed third part. To cut off a prescribed part from a given straight-line. that if. Corollary ᾿Εκ δὴ τούτου φανερόν. [(Which is) the very thing it was required to show. ᾿Επεὶ οὖν τριγώνου τοῦ ΑΒΓ παρὰ μίαν τῶν πλευρῶν τὴν ΒΓ ἦκται ἡ ΖΔ. οὕτως ἡ ΒΖ πρὸς τὴν ΖΑ. And CD (is) double DA. so BF (is) to F A [Prop. (Which is) the very thing it was required to do. [καὶ] διήθχω τις ἀπὸ τοῦ Α εὐθεῖα ἡ ΑΓ γωνίαν περιέχουσα μετὰ τῆς ΑΒ τυχοῦσαν· καὶ εἰλήφθω τυχὸν σημεῖον ἐπὶ τῆς ΑΓ τὸ Δ. Τῆς ἄρα δοθείσης εὐθείας τῆς ΑΒ τὸ ἐπιταχθὲν τρίτον μέρος ἀφῄρηται τὸ ΑΖ· ὅπερ ἔδει ποιῆσαι. ὅτι ἐὰν ἐν ὀρθογωνίῳ τριγώνῳ So (it is) clear. And let DE and EC be made equal to AD [Prop. and to one another. 6. a (straight-line) is drawn from the right-angle perἀχθεῖσα τῶν τῆς βάσεως τμημάτων μέση ἀνάλογόν ἐστιν· pendicular to the base then the (straight-line so) drawn ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. Let AB be the given straight-line. 1. iþ. AF . 166 . So it is required to cut off a prescribed part from AB. encompassing a random angle with AB.

Ε σημεῖα.31]. and as ED (is) to DA. ἡ δὲ τετμημένη ἡ ΑΓ κατὰ τὰ Δ. οὕτως ἡ ΑΓ πρὸς τὴν ΓΕ. ΑΓ τρίτην ἀνάλογον προσευρεῖν. And let CB have been joined. ἀνάλογον ἄρα ἐστὶν ὡς ἡ ΕΔ πρὸς τὴν ΔΑ. καὶ κείσθω τῇ ΑΓ ἴση ἡ ΒΔ. ἡ δὲ ΘΔ τῇ ΗΖ. And KH (is) equal to BG. And let DF and EG have been drawn through (points) D and E (respectively). as CE is to ED. Thus. so BG (is) to GF . 1. Ε σημεῖα. and HD to GF . 6. Thus. διὰ δὲ τοῦ Δ τῇ ΑΒ παράλληλος ἤχθω ἡ ΔΘΚ. ἐδείχθη δὲ καὶ ὡς ἡ ΓΕ πρὸς τὴν ΕΔ. and let (AC) be laid down so as to encompass a random angle (with AB). ᾿Επεὶ οὖν τριγώνου τοῦ ΑΔΕ παρὰ μίαν τῶν πλευρῶν τὴν ΔΕ ἦκται ἡ ΒΓ. has been cut similarly to the given cut straight-line. DH (is) equal to F G. parallel to AB [Prop. ἔστιν ἄρα ὡς ἡ ΓΕ πρὸς τὴν ΕΔ. ἡ δὲ ΘΚ τῇ ΗΒ. ἴση δὲ ἡ ΒΔ τῇ ΑΓ. And since the straight-line HE has been drawn parallel to one of the sides.34]. καὶ κείσθωσαν ὥστε γωνίαν τυχοῦσαν περιέχειν. ΘΒ· ἴση ἄρα ἡ μὲν ΔΘ τῇ ΖΗ. and HK to GB [Prop. thus. so GF (is) to F A. so KH (is) to HD [Prop. AB. 6. καὶ διὰ τῶν Δ. proportionally. and let DHK have been drawn through (point) D. as ED is to DA. since BC has been drawn parallel to one of the sides DE of triangle ADE. καὶ ἐπεζεύχθω ἡ ΓΒ.2]. ἔστιν ἄρα ὡς ἡ ΑΒ πρὸς τὴν ΑΓ. καὶ διὰ τοῦ Δ παράλληλος αὐτῇ ἤχθω ἡ ΔΕ. parallel to BC. οὕτως ἡ ΗΖ πρὸς τὴν ΖΑ. οὕτως ἡ ΒΗ πρὸς τὴν ΗΖ. proportionally. καὶ ἐπεὶ τριγώνου τοῦ ΔΚΓ παρὰ μίαν τῶν πλευρῶν τὴν ΚΓ εὐθεῖα ἦκται ἡ ΘΕ. so AC (is) to CE [Prop. Thus. And BD (is) equal 167 . (Which is) the very thing it was required to do. so GF (is) to F A [Prop. iaþ. proportionally.2]. ἀνάλογόν ἐστιν ὡς ἡ ΑΒ πρὸς τὴν ΒΔ. and let them be laid down encompassing a random angle. ἐπεὶ τριγώνου τοῦ ΑΗΕ παρὰ μίαν τῶν πλευρῶν τὴν ΗΕ ἦκται ἡ ΖΔ. Παραλληλόγραμμον ἄρα ἐστὶν ἑκάτερον τῶν ΖΘ. so BG (is) to GF . To find a third (straight-line) proportional to two given straight-lines. And it was also shown that as CE (is) to ED.3]. and AC a (straight-line) cut at points D and E. thus. of triangle AGE. as CE is to ED. ΑΓ καὶ κείσθωσαν γωνίαν περιέχουσαι τυχοῦσαν. as AB is to BD. Therefore. For let (BA and AC) have been produced to points D and E (respectively). δεῖ δὴ τῶν ΒΑ. οὕτως ἡ ΒΗ πρὸς τὴν ΗΖ. Thus.2]. ῾Η ἄρα δοθεῖσα εὐθεῖα ἄτμητος ἡ ΑΒ τῇ δοθείσῃ εὐθείᾳ τετμημένῃ τῇ ΑΓ ὁμοίως τέτμηται· ὅπερ ἔδει ποιῆσαι· Let AB be the given uncut straight-line. οὕτως ἡ ΑΓ πρὸς τὴν ΓΕ. 6. Proposition 11 Δύο δοθεισῶν εὐθειῶν τρίτην ἀνάλογον προσευρεῖν. πάλιν. And let BC have been joined. and let BD be made equal to AC [Prop. ELEMENTS BOOK 6 Γ C Ε Θ ∆ Α Ζ E Η H D Κ Β A F G K B ῎Εστω ἡ μὲν δοθεῖσα εὐθεῖα ἅτμητος ἡ ΑΒ. of triangle DKC. So it is required to find a third (straight-line) proportional to BA and AC.STOIQEIWN þ. οὕτως ἡ ΚΘ πρὸς τὴν ΘΔ. καὶ ἐπεζεύχθω ἡ ΒΓ. ἀνάλογον ἄρα ἐστὶν ὡς ἡ ΓΕ πρὸς τὴν ΕΔ. 1. ΕΗ. οὕτως ἡ ΗΖ πρὸς τὴν ΖΑ. so BG (is) to GF . οὕτως ἡ ΒΗ πρὸς τὴν ΗΖ· ἔστιν ἄρα ὡς μὲν ἡ ΓΕ πρὸς τὴν ΕΔ. AC. And let DE have been drawn through (point) D parallel to it [Prop. ἴση δὲ ἡ μὲν ΚΘ τῇ ΒΗ. KC. Let BA and AC be the [two] given [straight-lines]. GE. 1. Ε τῇ ΒΓ παράλληλοι ἤχθωσαν αἱ ΔΖ. the given uncut straight-line. ὡς δὲ ἡ ΕΔ πρὸς τὴν ΔΑ. F H and HB are each parallelograms. 1.31]. Again. ῎Εστωσαν αἱ δοθεῖσαι [δύο εὐθεῖαι] αἱ ΒΑ. as CE is to ED. since F D has been drawn parallel to one of the sides. Thus. ἐκβεβλήσθωσαν γὰρ ἐπὶ τὰ Δ.

Β. ᾿Εκκείσθωσαν δύο εὐθεῖαι αἱ ΔΕ. Γ τετάρτη ἀνάλογον προσεύρηται ἡ ΘΖ· ὅπερ ἔδει ποιῆσαι. let EF have been drawn through (point) E parallel to it [Prop. CE. ᾿Επεὶ οὖν τριγώνου τοῦ ΔΕΖ παρὰ μίαν τὴν ΕΖ ἦκται ἡ ΗΘ. (which is) proportional to the two given straight-lines. καὶ ἔτι τῇ Γ ἴση ἡ ΔΘ· καὶ ἐπιζευχθείσης τῆς ΗΘ παράλληλος αὐτῇ ἤχθω διὰ τοῦ Ε ἡ ΕΖ. 6. So it is required to find a fourth (straight-line) proportional to A. further. so DH (is) to HF [Prop. as AB is to AC. ΑΓ τρίτη ἀνάλογον Thus. AB and AC. Β. τῇ δὲ Β ἴση ἡ ΗΕ. ἡ δὲ ΔΘ τῇ Γ· ἔστιν ἄρα ὡς ἡ Α πρὸς τὴν Β. And let DG be made equal to A. ἴση δὲ ἡ μὲν ΔΗ τῇ Α. DH to C [Prop.31].2]. and GE to B. and GE to B. ibþ. Α A Β B Γ C D ∆ Ε E Δύο ἄρα δοθεισῶν εὐθειῶν τῶν ΑΒ. given straight-lines. H F Let A. ἡ δὲ ΗΕ τῇ Β. Proposition 12 Τριῶν δοθεισῶν εὐθειῶν τετάρτην ἀνάλογον προTo find a fourth (straight-line) proportional to three σευρεῖν. Therefore. B. (Which is) the very thing it was required to do. B.STOIQEIWN þ. Β. ΔΖ γωνίαν περιέχουςαι [τυχοῦσαν] τὴν ὑπὸ ΕΔΖ· καὶ κείσθω τῇ μὲν Α ἴση ἡ ΔΗ. And GH being joined. Let the two straight-lines DE and DF be set out encompassing the [random] angle EDF . And DG (is) equal to A. Thus. ELEMENTS BOOK 6 to AC. Γ τετράτην ἀνάλογον προσευρεῖν. οὕτως ἡ ΔΘ πρὸς τὴν ΘΖ. 1. and. and C be the three given straight-lines. a third (straight-line). has been found αὐταῖς προσεύρηται ἡ ΓΕ· ὅπερ ἔδει ποιῆσαι. so C (is) 168 . 1. Α Β Γ A B C Ε G Η ∆ Θ E Ζ D ῎Εστωσαν αἱ δοθεῖσαι τρεῖς εὐθεῖαι αἱ Α. Thus. οὕτως ἡ Γ πρὸς τὴν ΘΖ. Γ· δεῖ δὴ τῶν Α. so AC (is) to CE. and C. ἔστιν ἄρα ὡς ἡ ΔΗ πρὸς τὴν ΗΕ. as A is to B. since GH has been drawn parallel to one of the sides EF of triangle DEF . and DH to C. Τριῶν ἄρα δοθεισῶν εὐθειῶν τῶν Α.3]. thus as DG is to GE.

STOIQEIWN þ. (Which is) the very thing it was required to do. τουτέστιν. AB and BC [Prop. καὶ ἐπεὶ ἐν ὀρθογωνίῳ τριγώνῳ τῷ ΑΔΓ ἀπὸ τῆς ὀρθῆς γωνίας ἐπὶ τὴν βάσιν κάθετος ἦκται ἡ ΔΒ.14]. ὅτι ἐστὶν ὡς ἡ ΔΒ πρὸς τὴν ΒΕ. † B C Let AB and BC be the two given straight-lines. And since ADC is an angle in a semi-circle. ΒΓ· δεῖ δὴ τῶν ΑΒ. at right-angles to AC [Prop.11]. igþ. ὅτι τῶν ΑΒ. 3.8 corr. has been found (which is) proportional to the three given straight-lines. the (straight-line) DB has been drawn from the right-angle perpendicular to the base. ΒΗ. ἡ ΔΒ ἄρα τῶν τῆς βάσεως τμημάτων τῶν ΑΒ. In other words. 1. 1. DB has been found (which is) in mean proportion to the two given straight-lines. καὶ γεγράφθω ἐπὶ τῆς ΑΓ ἡμικύκλιον τὸ ΑΔΓ. ὀρθή ἐστιν. Let AB and BC be equal and equiangular parallelograms having the angles at B equal. in the right-angled triangle ADC. Thus. And let AD and DC have been joined. In equal and equiangular parallelograms the sides about the equal angles are reciprocally proportional. (Which is) the very thing it was required to do. 6. And those equiangular parallelograms in which the sides about the equal angles are reciprocally proportional are equal. a fourth (straight-line).]. καὶ κείσθωσαν ἐπ᾿ εὐθείας αἱ ΔΒ. ΒΓ ἴσας ἔχοντα τὰς πρὸς τῷ Β γωνίας. ΒΓ μέσην ἀνάλογον προσευρεῖν.10]. idþ. ΔΓ. I say that the sides of AB and 169 . B. And let DB and BE be laid down straight-on (with respect to one another). A. Proposition 13 Δύο δοθεισῶν εὐθειῶν μέσην ἀνάλογον προσευρεῖν. ELEMENTS BOOK 6 to HF . ἴσα ἐστὶν ἐκεῖνα. Let (AB and BC) be laid down straight-on (with respect to one another). F B and BG are also straight-on (with respect to one another) [Prop. καὶ ἐπεζεύχθωσαν αἱ ΑΔ. λέγω.† ∆ Α Β D Γ A ῎Εστωσαν αἱ δοθεῖσαι δύο εὐθεῖαι αἱ ΑΒ. ΒΓ ἀντιπεπόνθασιν αἱ πλευραὶ αἱ περὶ τὰς ἴσας γωνίας. ΒΓ μέση ἀνάλογόν ἐστιν. AB and BC. ῎Εστω ἴσα τε καὶ ἰσογώνια παραλληλόγραμμα τὰ ΑΒ. Thus. HF . and let the semi-circle ADC have been drawn on AC [Prop. καὶ ἤχθω ἀπὸ τοῦ Β σημείου τῇ ΑΓ εὐθείᾳ πρὸς ὀρθὰς ἡ ΒΑ. Δύο ἄρα δοθεισῶν εὐθειῶν τῶν ΑΒ. 1. To find the (straight-line) in mean proportion to two given straight-lines. Κείσθωσαν ἐπ᾿ εὐθείας. And since. So it is required to find the (straight-line) in mean proportion to AB and BC. Thus. ΒΓ μέση ἀνάλογον προσεύρηται ἡ ΔΒ· ὅπερ ἔδει ποιῆσαι. οὕτως ἡ ΗΒ πρὸς τὴν ΒΖ. and C. And let BD have been drawn from (point) B. ΒΕ· ἐπ᾿ εὐθείας ἄρα εἰσὶ καὶ αἱ ΖΒ.31]. it is a right-angle [Prop. ᾿Επεὶ ἐν ἡμικυκλίῳ γωνία ἐστὶν ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΔΓ. Proposition 14 Τῶν ἴσων τε καὶ ἴσογωνίων παραλληλογράμμων ἀντιπεπόνθασιν αἱ πλευραὶ αἱ περὶ τὰς ἴσας γωνίας· καὶ ὧν ἰσογωνίων παραλληλογράμμων ἀντιπεπόνθασιν αἱ πλευραὶ αἱ περὶ τὰς ἴσας γωνίας. to find the geometric mean of two given straight-lines. DB is thus the mean proportional to the pieces of the base.

as GB (is) to BF . Therefore. Let ABC and ADE be equal triangles having one angle equal to one (angle).1]. For since as DB is to BE. also. Thus. ῎Εστω ἴσα τρίγωνα τὰ ΑΒΓ. οὕτως ἡ ΗΒ πρὸς τὴν ΒΖ. ᾿Επεὶ γάρ ἐστιν ὡς ἡ ΔΒ πρὸς τὴν ΒΕ. as (parallelogram) AB (is) to F E. ἀλλ᾿ ὡς μὲν τὸ ΑΒ πρὸς τὸ ΖΕ. 5.11]. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show.9]. And those triangles having one angle equal to one angle for which the sides about the equal angles (are) reciprocally proportional are equal. ὅτι τῶν ΑΒΓ. so DB (is) to BE. ΑΔΕ μίαν μιᾷ ἴσην ἔχοντα γωνίαν τὴν ὑπὸ ΒΑΓ τῇ ὑπὸ ΔΑΕ· λέγω. οὕτως ἡ ΗΒ πρὸς τὴν ΒΖ· καὶ ὡς ἄρα ἡ ΔΒ πρὸς τὴν ΒΕ. Ε Ζ Α Β Γ E Η F ∆ A B C G D Συμπεπληρώσθω γὰρ τὸ ΖΕ παραλληλόγραμμον. 5. ὡς δὲ τὸ ΒΓ πρὸς τὸ ΖΕ. and F E (is) some other (parallelogram). οὕτως τὸ ΒΓ πρὸς τὸ ΖΕ. so GB (is) to BF [Prop. I say that parallelogram AB is equal to parallelogram BC. in triangles ABC and ADE. 6. Thus. 6. ieþ. Τῶν ἄρα ἴσων τε καὶ ἰσογωνίων παραλληλογράμμων ἀντιπεπόνθασιν αἱ πλευραὶ αἱ περὶ τὰς ἴσας γωνίας· καὶ ὧν ἰσογωνίων παραλληλογράμμων ἀντιπεπόνθασιν αἱ πλευραὶ αἱ περὶ τὰς ἴσας γωνίας. οὕτως ἡ ΔΒ πρὸς τὴν ΒΕ. but as DB (is) to BE. thus. ᾿Αλλὰ δὴ ἔστω ὡς ἡ ΔΒ πρὸς τὴν ΒΕ. ὅτι ἴσον ἐστὶ τὸ ΑΒ παραλληλόγραμμον τῷ ΒΓ παραλληλογράμμῳ. ΑΔΕ τριγώνων ἀντιπεπόνθασιν αἱ πλευραὶ αἱ περὶ τὰς ἴσας γωνίας. so (parallelogram) BC (is) to F E [Prop.7]. also. so GB (is) to BF . For let the parallelogram F E have been completed. But. τῶν ἄρα ΑΒ. parallelogram AB is equal to parallelogram BC [Prop. so GB (is) to BF . ἔστιν ἄρα ὡς τὸ ΑΒ πρὸς τὸ ΖΕ. οὕτως In equal triangles also having one angle equal to one (angle) the sides about the equal angles are reciprocally proportional.1]. since parallelogram AB is equal to parallelogram BC. ἐπεὶ οὖν ἴσον ἐστὶ τὸ ΑΒ παραλληλόγραμμον τῷ ΒΓ παραλληλογράμμῳ. so parallelogram BC (is) to parallelogram F E [Prop. so (parallelogram) BC (is) to F E [Prop. ἴσα ἐστὶν ἐκεῖνα· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. ὡς δὲ ἡ ΗΒ πρὸς τὴν ΒΖ. as DB (is) to BE. οὕτως τὸ ΒΓ παραλληλόγραμμον πρὸς τὸ ΖΕ παραλληλόγραμμον. And so. that is to say. ΒΓ παραλληλογράμμων ἀντιπεπόνθασιν αἱ πλευραὶ αἱ περὶ τὰς ἴσας γωνίας. as (parallelogram) AB (is) to F E. thus as (parallelogram) AB is to F E. 5. οὕτως ἡ ΗΒ πρὸς τὴν ΒΖ. τουτέστιν. Thus. Proposition 15 Τῶν ἴσων καὶ μίαν μιᾷ ἴσην ἐχόντων γωνίαν τριγώνων ἀντιπεπόνθασιν αἱ πλευραὶ αἱ περὶ τὰς ἴσας γωνίας· καὶ ὧν μίαν μιᾷ ἴσην ἐχόντων γωνίαν τριγώνων ἀντιπεπόνθασιν αἱ πλευραὶ αἱ περὶ τὰς ἴσας γωνίας. Thus. And those equiangular parallelograms in which the sides about the equal angles are reciprocally proportional are equal. (namely) BAC (equal) to DAE. ὅτι ἐστὶν ὡς ἡ ΓΑ πρὸς τὴν ΑΔ. I say that. οὕτως τὸ ΑΒ παραλληλόγραμμον πρὸς τὸ ΖΕ παραλληλόγραμμον. and as GB (is) to BF . οὕτως τὸ ΒΓ πρὸς τὸ ΖΕ· ἴσον ἄρα ἐστὶ τὸ ΑΒ παραλληλόγραμμον τῷ ΒΓ παραλληλογράμμῳ. ELEMENTS BOOK 6 BC about the equal angles are reciprocally proportional. καὶ ὡς ἄρα τὸ ΑΒ πρὸς τὸ ΖΕ.STOIQEIWN þ. so GB (is) to BF . that as DB is to BE. in parallelograms AB and BC the sides about the equal angles are reciprocally proportional. the sides about the 170 . in equal and equiangular parallelograms the sides about the equal angles are reciprocally proportional. so parallelogram AB (is) to parallelogram F E. οὕτως ἡ ΗΒ πρὸς τὴν ΒΖ· λέγω. let DB be to BE. ἀλλ᾿ ὡς μὲν ἡ ΔΒ πρὸς τὴν ΒΕ. ἴσα ἐστὶν ἐκεῖνα. ἄλλο δέ τι τὸ ΖΕ. and as (parallelogram) BC (is) to F E.

Τῶν ἄρα ἴσων καὶ μίαν μιᾷ ἴσην ἐχόντων γωνίαν τριγώνων ἀντιπεπόνθασιν αἱ πλευραὶ αἱ περὶ τὰς ἴσας γωνίας· καὶ ὧς μίαν μιᾷ ἴσην ἐχόντων γωνίαν τριγώνων ἀντιπεπόνθασιν αἱ πλευραὶ αἱ περὶ τὰς ἴσας γωνίας. 5. And thus. ΑΔΕ τριγώνων. ὅτι ἴσον ἐστὶ τὸ ΑΒΓ τρίγωνον τῷ ΑΔΕ τριγώνῳ. οὕτως ἡ ΕΑ πρὸς τὴν ΑΒ. But. ΕΑΔ πρὸς τὸ ΒΑΔ τὸν αὐτὸν ἔχει λόγον.14]. EA is also straight-on (with respect) to AB [Prop. ᾿Αλλὰ δὴ ἀντιπεπονθέτωσαν αἱ πλευραὶ τῶν ΑΒΓ. and (thus) let CA be to AD. BD again being joined.1]. I say that triangle ABC is equal to triangle ADE. so triangle EAD (is) to triangle BAD [Prop. οὕτως ἡ ΕΑ πρὸς τὴν ΑΒ. ᾿Επεὶ οὖν ἴσον ἐστὶ τὸ ΑΒΓ τρίγωνον τῷ ΑΔΕ τριγώνῳ. καὶ ἔστω ὡς ἡ ΓΑ πρὸς τὴν ΑΔ. (triangles) ABC and EAD each have the same ratio to BAD. Β Γ B Α ∆ C A Ε D E Κείσθω γὰρ ὥστε ἐπ᾿ εὐθείας εἶναι τὴν ΓΑ τῇ ΑΔ· ἐπ᾿ εὐθείας ἄρα ἐστὶ καὶ ἡ ΕΑ τῇ ΑΒ. ELEMENTS BOOK 6 ἡ ΕΑ πρὸς τὴν ΑΒ. so triangle EAD (is) to triangle BAD [Prop. iþ. that as CA is to AD. ὡς δὲ τὸ ΕΑΔ πρὸς τὸ ΒΑΔ. in equal triangles also having one angle equal to one (angle) the sides about the equal angles (are) reciprocally proportional. οὕτως ἡ ΕΑ πρὸς τὴν ΑΒ. ἀλλ᾿ ὡς μὲν τὸ ΓΑΒ πρὸς τὸ ΒΑΔ. Therefore. ὡς δὲ ἡ ΕΑ πρὸς τὴν ΑΒ. Thus. thus as triangle ABC (is) to triangle BAD.1].STOIQEIWN þ. so EA (is) to AB. ἑκάτερον ἄρα τῶν ΑΒΓ. ἔστιν ἄρα ὡς τὸ ΓΑΒ τρίγωνον πρὸς τὸ ΒΑΔ τρίγωνον. ΑΔΕ ἄρα τριγώνων ἀντιπεπόνθασιν αἱ πλευραὶ αἱ περὶ τὰς ἴσας γωνίας. and BAD (is) some other (triangle). οὕτως ἡ ΕΑ πρὸς τὴν ΑΒ· λέγω. ἐκεῖνα ἴσα ἐστὶν· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. And those triangles having one angle equal to one angle for which the sides about the equal angles (are) reciprocally proportional are equal. that is to say. since as CA is to AD. as CA (is) to AD. τὸ ὑπὸ τῶν If four straight-lines are proportional then the rectἄκρων περιεχόμενον ὀρθογώνιον ἴσον ἐστὶ τῷ ὑπὸ τῶν angle contained by the (two) outermost is equal to the μέσων περιεχομένῳ ὀρθογωνίῳ· κἂν τὸ ὑπὸ τῶν ἄκρων rectangle contained by the middle (two). τῶν ΑΒΓ. 1. in triangles ABC and ADE the sides about the equal angles (are) reciprocally proportional. οὕτως ἡ ΓΑ πρὸς τὴν ΑΔ. Thus. and as (triangle) EAD (is) to BAD. ἐπεί ἐστιν ὡς ἡ ΓΑ πρὸς τὴν ΑΔ. καὶ ὡς ἄρα ἡ ΓΑ πρὸς τὴν ΑΔ. ἀλλ᾿ ὡς μὲν ἡ ΓΑ πρὸς τὴν ΑΔ. equal angles are reciprocally proportional. And let BD have been joined. since triangle ABC is equal to triangle ADE.9]. thus as triangle CAB is to triangle BAD. Proposition 16 ᾿Εὰν τέσσαρες εὐθεῖαι ἀνάλογον ὦσιν. For. but as CA (is) to AD. so EA (is) to AB [Prop.7]. καὶ ἐπεζεύχθω ἡ ΒΔ. οὕτως τὸ ΕΑΔ τρίγωνον πρὸς τὸ ΒΑΔ τρίγωνον. οὕτως τὸ ΑΒΓ τρίγωνον πρὸς τὸ ΒΑΔ τρίγωνον. ᾿Επιζευχθείσης γὰρ πάλιν τῆς ΒΔ. let the sides of triangles ABC and ADE be reciprocally proportional. 6. as EA (is) to AB. so EA (is) to AB. as (triangle) CAB (is) to BAD. οὕτως τὸ ΕΑΔ τρίγωνον πρὸς τὸ ΒΑΔ τρίγωνον. And if the rect171 . Thus. and as EA (is) to AB. ὡς ἄρα τὸ ΑΒΓ τρίγωνον πρὸς τὸ ΒΑΔ τρίγωνον. so triangle EAD (is) to triangle BAD. ἄλλο δέ τι τὸ ΒΑΔ. [triangle] ABC is equal to triangle EAD [Prop. ἴσων ἄρα ἐστὶ τὸ ΑΒΓ [τρίγωνον] τῷ ΕΑΔ τριγώνῳ. Thus. so CA (is) to AD. 5. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. For let CA be laid down so as to be straight-on (with respect) to AD. Thus. 6. so triangle ABC (is) to triangle BAD. οὕτως τὸ ΕΑΔ τρίγωνον πρὸς τὸ ΒΑΔ τρίγωνον. so EA (is) to AB. And so.

Ε. 6. And DH (is) the (rectangle contained) by CD and E. For AG is equal to F . Thus. καὶ συμπεπληρώσθω τὰ ΒΗ. (so that) as AB (is) to CD. Ε τὸ ΔΘ· ἴση γὰρ ἡ ΓΘ τῇ Ε· τὸ ἄρα ΒΗ ἴσον ἐστὶ τῷ ΔΘ.angle contained by the (two) outermost is equal to the χομένῳ ὀρθογωνίῳ. in the parallelograms BG and DH the sides about the equal angles are reciprocally proportional. if four straight-lines are proportional then the rectangle contained by the (two) outermost is equal to the rectangle contained by the middle (two). καί ἐστι τὸ μὲν ΒΗ τὸ ὑπὸ τῶν ΑΒ. Thus. τῶν ΒΗ. ἴσα ἐστὶν ἐκεῖνα· ἴσον ἄρα ἐστὶ τὸ ΒΗ παραλληλόγραμμον τῷ ΔΘ παραλληλογράμμῳ. let the rectangle contained by AB and F be equal to the rectangle contained by CD and E. ἔστιν ἄρα ὡς ἡ ΑΒ πρὸς τὴν ΓΔ. Thus. οὕτως ἡ ΓΘ πρὸς τὴν ΑΗ. ἡ δὲ Ζ τῇ ΑΗ. ΔΘ ἄρα παραλληλογράμμων ἀντιπεπόνθασιν αἱ πλευραὶ αἱ περὶ τὰς ἴσας γωνίας. ΓΔ εὐθείαις πρὸς ὀρθὰς αἱ ΑΗ. E. ἡ δὲ ΑΗ τῇ Ζ· ἔστιν ἄρα ὡς ἡ ΑΒ πρὸς τὴν ΓΔ. ἐπεὶ τὸ ὑπὸ τῶν ΑΒ. and F be four proportional straightlines. Ε. And in equal and equiangular parallelograms the sides about the equal angles are reciprocally proportional [Prop. Thus. ῎Ηχθωσαν [γὰρ] ἀπὸ τῶν Α.14]. For CH (is) equal to E. And if the rectangle contained by the (two) outermost is equal to 172 . thus as AB is to CD. οὕτως ἡ Ε πρὸς τὴν Ζ. ὡς ἡ ΑΒ πρὸς τὴν ΓΔ. rectangle contained by the middle (two) then the four straight-lines will be proportional. so E (is) to F . as AB is to CD. with the same construction. Καὶ ἐπεί ἐστιν ὡς ἡ ΑΒ πρὸς τὴν ΓΔ. ὧν δὲ ἰσογωνίων παραλληλογράμμων ἀντιπεπόνθασιν αἱ πλευραί αἱ περὶ τὰς ἴσας γωνάις. since the (rectangle contained) by AB and F is equal to the (rectangle contained) by CD and E. And DH (is) the (rectangle contained) by CD and E.3]. and AG to F . And BG is the (rectangle contained) by AB and F . And since as AB is to CD. ᾿Εὰν ἄρα τέσσαρες εὐθεῖαι ἀνάλογον ὦσιν. Ε περιεχομένῳ ὀρθογωνίῳ. καὶ κείσθω τῇ μὲν Ζ ἴση ἡ ΑΗ. ὅτι τὸ ὑπὸ τῶν ΑΒ. ᾿Αλλὰ δὴ τὸ ὑπὸ τῶν ΑΒ. For AG (is) equal to F . Ζ περιεχόμενον ὀρθογώνιον ἴσον ἐστὶ τῷ ὑπὸ τῶν ΓΔ. so CH (is) to AG. ὡς ἡ ΑΒ πρὸς τὴν ΓΔ. I say that the rectangle contained by AB and F is equal to the rectangle contained by CD and E. Τῶν γὰρ αὐτῶν κατασκευασθέντων. B C D F Let AB. τῶν δὲ ἴσων καὶ ἰσογωνίων παραλληλογράμμων ἀντιπεπόνθασιν αἱ πλευραὶ αἱ περὶ τὰς ἴσας γωνίας. And let AG be made equal to F . οὕτως ἡ Ε πρὸς τὴν Ζ. And let the parallelograms BG and DH have been completed. I say that the four straight-lines will be proportional. ΓΘ. οὕτως ἡ Ε πρὸς τὴν Ζ. Ε περιεχομένῳ ὀρθογωνίῳ. Thus. ΓΔ. For. [For] let AG and CH have been drawn from points A and C at right-angles to the straight-lines AB and CD (respectively) [Prop. CD. τὸ ὑπὸ τῶν ἄκρων περιεχόμενον ὀρθογώνιον ἴσον ἐστὶ τῷ ὑπὸ τῶν μέσων περιεχομένῳ ὀρθογωνίῳ· κἂν τὸ ὑπὸ τῶν ἄκρων περιεχόμενον ὀρθογώνιον ἴσον ᾖ τῷ ὑπὸ τῶν μέσων περιεχομένῳ ὀρθογωνίῳ. so E (is) to F . καί ἐστιν ἰσογώνια. And so. Ζ ἴσον ἐστὶ τῷ ὑπὸ τῶν ΓΔ. And BG is the (rectangle contained) by AB and F . Ζ περιεχόμενον ὀρθογώνιον ἴσον ἔστω τῷ ὑπὸ τῶν ΓΔ. And those equiangular parallelograms in which the sides about the equal angles are reciprocally proportional are equal [Prop. And CH (is) equal to E. And they are equiangular. Ζ· ἴση γὰρ ἡ ΑΗ τῇ Ζ· τὸ δὲ ΔΘ τὸ ὑπὸ τῶν ΓΔ. so E (is) to F . οὕτως ἡ ΓΘ πρὸς τὴν ΑΗ. Ζ. ELEMENTS BOOK 6 περιεχόμενον ὀρθογώνιον ἴσον ᾖ τῷ ὑπὸ τῶν μέσων περιε. ἔστιν ἄρα ὡς ἡ ΑΒ πρὸς τὴν ΓΔ. οὕτως ἡ Ε πρὸς τὴν Ζ· λέγω.11]. ἴση δὲ ἡ μὲν Ε τῇ ΓΘ. τῇ δὲ Ε ἴση ἡ ΓΘ. parallelogram BG is equal to parallelogram DH. and F to AG. as AB is to CD. For E (is) equal to CH. ὅτι αἱ τέσσαρες εὐθεῖαι ἀνάλογον ἔσονται. so E (is) to F . ἴση δὲ ἡ μὲν ΓΘ τῇ Ε. 1. Ζ τὸ ΒΗ· ἴση γάρ ἐστιν ἡ ΑΗ τῇ Ζ· τὸ δὲ ὑπὸ τῶν ΓΔ. Ε· ἴση γὰρ ἡ Ε τῇ ΓΘ· τὸ ἄρα ὑπὸ τῶν ΑΒ.14]. 6. so CH (is) to AG. λέγω. (such that) as AB (is) to CD. BG is thus equal to DH. 1.STOIQEIWN þ. Θ H Η Α Ε G Β Γ ∆ A Ζ E ῎Εστωσαν τέσσαρες εὐθεῖαι ἀνάλογον αἱ ΑΒ. Ε περιεχομένῳ ὀρθογώνιῳ. Ζ περιεχόμενον ὀρθογώνιον ἴσον ἐστὶ τῷ ὑπὸ τῶν ΓΔ. αἱ τέσσαρες εὐθεῖαι ἀνάλογον ἔσονται· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. καί ἐστι τὸ μὲν ὑπὸ τῶν ΑΒ. ΔΘ παραλληλόγραμμα. Γ σημείων ταῖς ΑΒ. and CH to E [Prop. the rectangle contained by AB and F is equal to the rectangle contained by CD and E. Thus. and E (is) equal CH. αἱ τέσσαρες εὐθεῖαι ἀνάλογον ἔσονται.

τὸ ὑπὸ τῶν ἄκρων περιεχόμενον ὀρθογώνιον ἴσον ἐστὶ τῷ ἀπὸ τῆς μέσης τετραγώνῳ· κἂν τὸ ὑπὸ τῶν ἄκρων περιεχόμενον ὀρθογώνιον ἴσον ᾖ τῷ ἀπὸ τῆς μέσης τετραγώνῳ. Δ τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς Β ἐστιν· ἴση γὰρ ἡ Β τῇ Δ· τὸ ἄρα ὑπὸ τῶν Α. (so) D (is) to C. the (rectangle contained) by A and C is equal to the (rectangle contained) by B and D. For B (is) equal to D. οὕτως ἡ Β πρὸς τὴν Γ. τὸ ὑπὸ τῶν ἄκρων περιεχόμενον ὀρθογώνιον ἴσον ἐστὶ τῷ ἀπὸ τῆς μέσης τετραγώνῳ· κἂν τὸ ὑπὸ τῶν ἄκρων περιεχόμενον ὀρθογώνιον ἴσον ᾖ τῷ ἀπὸ τῆς μέσης τετραγώνῳ. Thus. οὕτως ἡ Β πρὸς τὴν Γ. ἡ Δ πρὸς τὴν Γ. the (square) on B is the (rectangle contained) by B and D. Thus. D Let A. (such that) as A (is) to B. οὕτως ἡ Β πρὸς τὴν Γ· λέγω. ἀλλὰ τὸ ὑπὸ τῶν Β. And since as A is to B. Thus. Δ. Β. αἱ τέσσαρες εὐθεῖαι ἀνάλογόν εἰσιν. But. Γ. so D (is) to C. οὕτως ἡ Δ πρὸς τὴν Γ. Γ περιεχόμενον ὀρθογώνιον ἴσον ἐστὶ τῷ ἀπὸ τῆς Β τετραγώνῳ. Let D be made equal to B [Prop. τὸ ὑπὸ τῶν ἄκρων περιεχόμενον [ὀρθογώνιον] ἴσον ἐστὶ τῷ ὑπὸ τῶν μέσων περιεχομένῳ ὀρθογωνίῳ. αἱ τρεῖς εὐθεῖαι ἀνάλογον ἔσονται. Γ περιεχόμενον ὀρθογώνιον ἴσον ἐστὶ τῷ ἀπὸ τῆς Β τετραγώνῳ. Thus. And if the (rectangle contained) by the (two) outermost is equal to the (rectangle contained) by the middle (two) then the four straight-lines are proportional [Prop. Δ. ἴση δὲ ἡ Β τῇ Δ· ὡς ἄρα ἡ Α πρὸς τὴν Β. Κείσθω τῇ Β ἴση ἡ Δ. 1.16]. Proposition 17 ᾿Εὰν τρεῖς εὐθεῖαι ἀνάλογον ὦσιν. as A (is) to B. οὕτως ἡ Β πρὸς τὴν Γ. But. Γ ἴσον ἐστὶ τῷ ὑπὸ τῶν Β. and B (is) equal to D. thus as A is to B.STOIQEIWN þ. And if four straight-lines are proportional then the [rectangle] contained by the (two) outermost is equal to the rectangle contained by the middle (two) [Prop. B and C be three proportional straight-lines. And so. ἔστιν ἄρα ὡς ἡ Α πρὸς τὴν Β. αἱ τρεῖς εὐθεῖαι ἀνάλογον ἔσονται· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. ᾿Εὰν ἄρα τρεῖς εὐθεῖαι ἀνάλογον ὦσιν. Γ ἴσον ἔστω τῷ ἀπὸ τῆς Β· λέγω. And B (is) equal to D. ὅτι τὸ ὑπὸ τῶν Α. with the same construction. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. Thus. so B (is) to C. And if the rectangle contained by the (two) outermost is equal to the square on the middle (one) then the three straight-lines will be proportional. ELEMENTS BOOK 6 the rectangle contained by the middle (two) then the four straight-lines will be proportional. (Which is) the very thing it was required to 173 . ὅτι ἐστὶν ὡς ἡ Α πρὸς τὴν Β. If three straight-lines are proportional then the rectangle contained by the (two) outermost is equal to the square on the middle (one). ἐὰν δὲ τὸ ὑπὸ τῶν ἄκρων ἴσον ᾖ τῷ ὑπὸ τῶν μέσων. For B (is) equal to D. Τῶν γὰρ αὐτῶν κατασκευασθέντων. 6. ἀλλὰ τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς Β τὸ ὑπὸ τῶν Β. ἐπεὶ τὸ ὑπὸ τῶν Α. so B (is) to C. the rectangle contained by A and C is equal to the square on B. so B (is) to C.3]. I say that as A is to B. The (rectangle contained) by A and C is thus equal to the (rectangle contained) by B and D. I say that the rectangle contained by A and C is equal to the square on B. τὸ ἄρα ὑπὸ τῶν Α. ᾿Αλλὰ δὴ τὸ ὑπὸ τῶν Α. since the (rectangle contained) by A and C is equal to the (square) on B. ὡς ἡ Α πρὸς τὴν Β. ἔστιν ἄρα ὡς ἡ Α πρὸς τὴν Β. so B (is) to C. Δ ἐστιν· ἴση γὰρ ἡ Β τῇ Δ· τὸ ἄρα ὑπὸ τῶν Α. Γ ἴσον ἐστὶ τῷ ὑπὸ τῶν Β. Καὶ ἐπεί ἐστιν ὡς ἡ Α πρὸς τὴν Β. And if the rectangle contained by the (two) outermost is equal to the square on the middle (one) then the three straight-lines will be proportional. the (rectangle contained) by B and D is the (square) on B. ἐὰν δὲ τέσσαρες εὐθεῖαι ἀνάλογον ὦσιν. as A is to B. if three straight-lines are proportional then the rectangle contained by the (two) outermost is equal to the square on the middle (one). let the (rectangle contained) by A and C be equal to the (square) on B. ἴση δὲ ἡ Β τῇ Δ. Γ ἴσον ἐστὶ τῷ ἀπὸ τῆς Β. For. Α Β Γ A B C ∆ ῎Εστωσαν τρεῖς εὐθεῖαι ἀνάλογον αἱ Α. izþ. 6.16].

διὰ τὰ αὐτὰ δὴ καὶ ἡ ὑπὸ ΓΔΕ τῇ ὑπὸ ΑΒΘ ἐστιν ἴση. Again. τὸ δὲ δοθὲν εὐθύγραμμον τὸ ΓΕ· δεῖ δὴ ἀπὸ τῆς ΑΒ εὐθείας τῷ ΓΕ εὐθυγράμμῳ ὅμοιόν τε καὶ ὁμοίως κείμενον εὐθύγραμμον ἀναγράψαι. to the rectilinear figure CE on the straight-line AB. triangle F CD is equiangular to triangle GAB. Thus. Thus. καὶ συνεστάτω πρὸς τῇ ΑΒ εὐθείᾳ καὶ τοῖς πρὸς αὐτῇ σημείοις τοῖς Α. λοιπὴ ἄρα ἡ πρὸς τῷ Ε λοιπῇ τῇ πρὸς τῷ Θ ἐστιν ἴση· ἰσογώνιον ἄρα ἐστὶ τὸ ΖΔΕ τρίγωνον τῷ ΗΘΒ τριγώνῳ· ἀνάλογον ἄρα ἐστὶν ὡς ἡ ΖΔ πρὸς τὴν ΗΒ. ELEMENTS BOOK 6 show. to the given rectilinear figure CE has been constructed on the given straight-line AB. the remaining (angle) CF D is equal to AGB [Prop. to a given rectilinear figure on a given straight-line. And it was also shown (that) as F D (is) to GB. τῇ δὲ ὑπὸ ΖΔΕ ἴση ἡ ὑπὸ ΗΒΘ. ᾿Απὸ τῆς δοθείσης ἄρα εὐθείας τῆς ΑΒ τῷ δοθέντι εὐθυγράμμῳ τῷ ΓΕ ὅμοιόν τε καὶ ὁμοίως κείμενον εὐθύγραμμον ἀναγέγραπται τὸ ΑΘ· ὅπερ ἔδει ποιῆσαι. and. equal to angle DF E. also. D A B Let AB be the given straight-line. as F D is to GB. as F C (is) to AG. the rectilinear figure AH is similar to the rectilinear figure CE [Def. λοιπὴ ἄρα ἡ ὑπὸ ΓΖΔ τῇ ὑπὸ ΑΗΒ ἐστιν ἴση· ἰσογώνιον ἄρα ἐστὶ τὸ ΖΓΔ τρίγωνον τῷ ΗΑΒ τριγώνῳ. triangle F DE is equiangular to triangle GHB.32].32]. Β τῇ μὲν πρὸς τῷ Γ γωνίᾳ ἴση ἡ ὑπὸ ΗΑΒ. 1. proportionally.23]. and ED to HB [Prop. οὕτως ἡ ΖΓ πρὸς τὴν ΗΑ καὶ ἡ ΓΔ πρὸς τὴν ΑΒ· καὶ ὡς ἄρα ἡ ΖΓ πρὸς τὴν ΑΗ. and GBH equal to (angle) F DE. οὕτως ἡ ΖΓ πρὸς τὴν ΗΑ. ihþ. and F E to GH. and similarly laid down. and simiὅμοιόν τε καὶ ὁμοίως κείμενον εὐθύγραμμον ἀναγράψαι. 1. καὶ ἐπεὶ ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ μὲν ὑπὸ ΓΖΔ γωνία τῇ ὑπὸ ΑΗΒ. So. Η τῇ μὲν ὑπὸ ΔΖΕ γωνίᾳ ἴση ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΗΘ. Proposition 18 ᾿Απὸ τῆς δοθείσης εὐθείας τῷ δοθέντι εὐθυγράμμῳ To describe a rectilinear figure similar. have been constructed on the straight-line AB at the points A and B on it (respectively) [Prop. and similarly laid down. ἀνάλογον ἄρα ἐστὶν ὡς ἡ ΖΔ πρὸς τὴν ΗΒ. 1. καὶ ἡ ΓΔ πρὸς τὴν ΑΒ.1]. ὅλη ἄρα ἡ ὑπὸ ΓΖΕ ὅλῃ τῇ ὑπὸ ΑΗΘ ἐστιν ἴση. Thus.4]. And (the two figures) have the sides about their equal angles proportional. so CD (is) to AB.STOIQEIWN þ. proportionally. so F C (is) to GA. let BGH. 6. 6. ᾿Επεζεύχθω ἡ ΔΖ. Thus.4]. (angle) CDE is also equal to ABH. ἔστι δὲ καὶ ἡ μὲν πρὸς τῷ Γ τῇ πρὸς τῷ Α ἴση. πάλιν συνεστάτω πρὸς τῇ ΒΗ εὐθείᾳ καὶ τοῖς πρὸς αὐτῇ σημείοις τοῖς Β. larly laid down.23]. Let DF have been joined. and CD to AB. 6. So it is required to describe a rectilinear figure similar. οὕτως ἡ ΖΕ πρὸς τὴν ΗΘ καὶ ἡ ΕΔ πρὸς τὴν ΘΒ. ἡ δὲ πρὸς τῷ Ε τῇ πρὸς τῷ Θ. have been constructed on the straight-line BG at the points G and B on it (respectively) [Prop. 1. so F E (is) to GH. Thus. as F D is to GB. ἡ δὲ ὑπὸ ΔΖΕ τῇ ὑπὸ ΒΗΘ. and CE the given rectilinear figure. Thus. so F C (is) to GA. τῇ δὲ ὑπὸ ΓΔΖ ἴση ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΒΗ. similar. Ε E Ζ F Θ H Η Γ ∆ Α G Β C ῎Εστω ἡ μὲν δοθεῖσα εὐθεῖα ἡ ΑΒ. and CD to AB [Prop. equal to (angle) CDF . (figure) AH is equiangular to CE. And the (angle) at C is also equal to the (angle) at A. and let GAB. ἰσογώνιον ἄρα ἐστὶ τὸ ΑΘ τῷ ΓΕ· καὶ τὰς περὶ τὰς ἴσας γωνίας αὐτῶν πλευρὰς ἀνάλογον ἔχει· ὅμοιον ἄρα ἐστὶ τὸ ΑΘ εὐθύγραμμον τῷ ΓΕ εὐθυγράμμῳ. And since angle CF D is equal to AGB. Thus. the remaining (angle) at E is equal to the remaining (angle) at H [Prop. for the same (reasons). and the (angle) at E to the (angle) at H. thus the whole (angle) CF E is equal to the whole (angle) AGH. ED to HB. Thus. further. the rectilinear figure AH. οὕτως ἥ τε ΓΔ πρὸς τὴν ΑΒ καὶ ἡ ΖΕ πρὸς τὴν ΗΘ καὶ ἔτι ἡ ΕΑ πρὸς τὴν ΘΒ. ἐδείχθη δὲ καὶ ὡς ἡ ΖΔ πρὸς τὴν ΗΒ. equal to the angle at C. and DF E to BGH. and ABG. Thus. Thus. (Which is) the 174 .

οὕτως τὸ ἀπὸ proportional. Α A ∆ Β Η Γ Ε D Ζ B G C E F ῎Εστω ὅμοια τρίγωνα τὰ ΑΒΓ. so EF is to BG. BC thus has a squared ratio to BG with respect to (that) CB (has) to EF . ΔΕΖ ἴσην ἔχοντα τὴν πρὸς τῷ Β γωνίαν τῇ πρὸς τῷ Ε. And triangle ABG (is) equal to triangle DEF . thus. Proposition 19 Τὰ ὅμοια τρίγωνα πρὸς ἄλληλα ἐν διπλασίονι λόγῳ ἐστὶ τῶν ὁμολόγων πλευρῶν.15]. as BC (is) to EF . similar triangles are to one another in the squared ratio of (their) corresponding sides. so DE (is) to EF . ἐναλλὰξ ἄρα ἐστὶν ὡς ἡ ΑΒ πρὸς τὴν ΔΕ. and if three straight-lines are proportional then the first has a squared ratio to the third with respect to the second [Def. triangle ABC also has a squared ratio to (triangle) ABG with respect to (that side) BC (has) to EF . ὅτι. ἐὰν δὲ τρεῖς εὐθεῖαι ἀνάλογον ὦσιν. ὡς δὲ τὴν ΑΒ πρὸς τὴν ΒΓ. ἡ ΒΓ ἄρα πρὸς τὴν ΒΗ διπλασίονα λόγον ἔχει ἤπερ ἡ ΓΒ πρὸς τὴν ΕΖ. for triangles ABG and DEF . ὅτι τὸ ΑΒΓ τρίγωνον πρὸς τὸ ΔΕΖ τρίγωνον διπλασίονα λόγον ἔχει ἤπερ ἡ ΒΓ πρὸς τὴν ΕΖ. καὶ ὡς ἄρα ἡ ΑΒ πρὸς ΔΕ. And as CB (is) to BG. ELEMENTS BOOK 6 very thing it was required to do. For let a third (straight-line). ἴσον δὲ τὸ ΑΒΗ τρίγωνον τῷ ΔΕΖ τριγώνῳ. And those triangles having one (angle) equal to one (angle) for which the sides about the equal angles are reciprocally proportional are equal [Prop. so EF (is) to BG. then as the first is to the third. triangle ABG is equal to triangle DEF . that if three straight-lines are ὦσιν. ἔστιν ὡς ἡ πρώτη πρὸς τὴν τρίτην. [(Which is) the very thing it was required to show]. ΔΕΖ ἄρα τριγώνων ἀντιπεπόνθασιν αἱ πλευραὶ αἱ περὶ τὰς ἴσας γωνάις.STOIQEIWN þ. οὕτως τὴν ΔΕ πρὸς τὴν ΕΖ. alternately. Thus. Thus. such that BC corresponds to EF . so EF (is) to BG. Corollary ᾿Εκ δὴ τούτου φανερόν. ijþ. οὕτως ἡ ΔΕ πρὸς τὴν ΕΖ. [ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. Thus. so the figure 175 .9]. ᾿Επεὶ οὖν ἐστιν ὡς ἡ ΑΒ πρὸς τὴν ΒΓ.11]. And let AG have been joined. οὕτως τὴν ΕΖ πρὸς τὴν ΒΗ· καὶ ἐπεζεύχθω ἡ ΑΗ. οὕτως ἡ ΕΖ πρὸς ΒΗ· τῶν ΑΒΗ. as AB (is) to DE. from this. so triangle ABC (is) to triangle ABG [Prop. ὡς δὲ ἡ ΓΒ πρὸς τὴν ΒΗ. ΕΖ τρίτη ἀνάλογον ἡ ΒΗ. ἡ πρώτη πρὸς τὴν τρίτην διπλασίονα λόγον ἔχει ἤπερ πρὸς τὴν δευτέραν. ὧν δὲ μίαν μιᾷ ἴσην ἐχόντων γωνίαν τριγώνων ἀντιπεπόνθασιν αἱ πλευραὶ αἱ περὶ τὰς ἴσας γωνάις.] Let ABC and DEF be similar triangles having the angle at B equal to the (angle) at E. Τὰ ἄρα ὅμοια τρίγωνα πρὸς ἄλληλα ἐν διπλασίονι λόγῳ ἐστὶ τῶν ὁμολόγων πλευρῶν. And since as BC (is) to EF . οὕτως τὸ ΑΒΓ τρίγωνον πρὸς τὸ ΑΒΗ τρίγωνον· καὶ τὸ ΑΒΓ ἄρα τρίγωνον πρὸς τὸ ΑΒΗ διπλασίονα λόγον ἔχει ἤπερ ἡ ΒΓ πρὸς τὴν ΕΖ. οὕτως ἡ ΕΖ πρὸς τὴν ΒΗ. 6. καὶ ἐπεί ἐστιν ὡς ἡ ΒΓ πρὸς τὴν ΕΖ. 5. 6. I say that triangle ABC has a squared ratio to triangle DEF with respect to (that side) BC (has) to EF . Εἰλήφθω γὰρ τῶν ΒΓ. But. 5. καὶ τὸ ΑΒΓ ἄρα τρίγωνον πρὸς τὸ ΔΕΖ τρίγωνον διπλασίονα λόγον ἔχει ἤπερ ἡ ΒΓ πρὸς τὴν ΕΖ. And. so that as BC (is) to EF . have been taken (which is) proportional to BC and EF . Thus. so EF (is) to BG [Prop. as AB is to DE. thus. so BC (is) to EF [Prop.16]. as DE (is) to EF . Thus. ἴσον ἄρα ἐστὶ τὸ ΑΒΗ τρίγωνον τῷ ΔΕΖ τριγώνῳ. ἐὰν τρεῖς εὐθεῖαι ἀνάλογον So it is clear. ἀλλ᾿ ὡς ἡ ΒΓ πρὸς ΕΖ. ὥστε εἶναι ὡς τὴν ΒΓ πρὸς τὴν ΕΖ. οὕτως ἐστιν ἡ ΕΖ πρὸς ΒΗ. Similar triangles are to one another in the squared† ratio of (their) corresponding sides. ἴσα ἐστὶν ἐκεῖνα. BG. οὕτως ἡ ΒΓ πρὸς τὴν ΕΖ. and AB to BC. since as AB is to BC. 6. Therefore. Pìrisma.1]. the sides about the equal angles are reciprocally proportional. triangle ABC also has a squared ratio to triangle DEF with respect to (that side) BC (has) to EF . ὥστε ὁμόλογον εἶναι τὴν ΒΓ τῇ ΕΖ· λέγω.

ἔστι δὲ καὶ ὅλη ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΒΓ ὅλῃ τῇ ὑπὸ ΖΗΘ ἴση διὰ τὴν ὁμοιότητα τῶν πολυγώνων· λοιπὴ ἄρα ἡ ὑπὸ ΕΒΓ γωνία τῇ ὑπὸ ΛΗΘ ἐστιν ἴση. so GF (is) to F L [Def.6]. διὰ τὰ αὐτὰ δὴ καὶ τὸ ΕΓΔ τρίγωνον ὅμοιόν ἐστι τῷ ΛΘΚ τριγώνῳ. triangle EBC is equiangular to triangle LGH [Prop. ΖΗΘΚΛ εἴς τε ὅμοια τρίγωνα διῄρηται καὶ εἰς ἴσα K D Let ABCDE and F GHKL be similar polygons. ΛΘ. Hence. οὕτως ἡ ΛΗ πρὸς ΗΘ. Thus. Thus. as EB is to BC. on account of the similarity of the polygons. angle ABE is equal to (angle) F GL. on account of the similarity of triangles ABE and F GL. so F G (is) to GH. καὶ τὸ ΑΒΓΔΕ πολύγωνον πρὸς τὸ ΖΗΘΚΛ πολύγωνον διπλασίονα λόγον ἔχει ἤπερ ἡ ΑΒ πρὸς τὴν ΖΗ. ἐπεὶ οὖν δύο τρίγωνά ἐστι τὰ ΑΒΕ. And the whole (angle) ABC is equal to the whole (angle) F GH. ΕΓ. 6. as EB is to BA. via equality. Hence. ὁμόλογος δὲ ἔστω ἡ ΑΒ τῇ ΖΗ· λέγω. squared ratio with respect to (that) a corresponding side (has) to a corresponding side. EC. on account of the similarity of the polygons. kþ. (they are) also similar [Prop. are proportional. 6. but also. and similarly ὁμοίως ἀναγραφόμενον. (figure) on the second. and one polygon has to the (other) polygon a πλευρὰ πρὸς τὴν ὁμόλογον πλευράν. and the sides about the equal angles. † Literally. καὶ ἐπεὶ διὰ τὴν ὁμοιότητα τῶν ΑΒΕ. as AB is to BC. EBC and LGH. ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΑΕ γωνία τῇ ὑπὸ ΗΖΛ. καί ἐστιν ὡς ἡ ΒΑ πρὸς ΑΕ. καὶ τὸ πολύγωνον of similar triangles corresponding (in proportion) to the πρὸς τὸ πολύγωνον διπλασίονα λόγον ἔχει ἤπερ ἡ ὁμόλογος wholes. GL.4.22]. 6. triangle ABE is thus equiangular to triangle F GL [Prop. ἰσογώνιον ἄρα ἐστὶ τὸ ΑΒΕ τρίγωνον τῷ ΖΗΛ τριγώνῳ· ὥστε καὶ ὅμοιον· ἴση ἄρα ἐστὶν ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΒΕ γωνία τῇ ὑπὸ ΖΗΛ. δι᾿ ἴσου ἄρα ἐστὶν ὡς ἡ ΕΒ πρὸς ΒΓ.STOIQEIWN þ. καὶ περὶ τὰς ἴσας γωνάις τὰς ὑπὸ ΕΒΓ. οὕτως ἡ ΛΗ πρὸς ΗΖ. and as BA is to AE. I say that polygons ABCDE and F GHKL can be divided into equal numbers of similar triangles corresponding (in proportion) to the wholes. οὕτως ἡ ΗΖ πρὸς ΖΛ. Proposition 20 Τὰ ὅμοια πολύγωνα εἴς τε ὅμοια τρίγωνα διαιρεῖται καὶ Similar polygons can be divided into equal numbers εἰς ἴσα τὸ πλῆθος καὶ ὁμόλογα τοῖς ὅλοις. ΖΗΘΚΛ πολύγωνα εἴς τε ὅμοια τρίγωνα διαιρεῖται καὶ εἰς ἴσα τὸ πλῆθος καὶ ὁμόλογα τοῖς ὅλοις. triangle ECD is also similar 176 . so LG (is) to GF . ᾿Επεζεύχθωσαν αἱ ΒΕ. and let AB correspond to F G.1].1]. ΗΛ. described. And since. Thus. 6. ὅτι τὰ ΑΒΓΔΕ. 5. ΛΗΘ αἱ πλευραὶ ἀνάλογόν εἰσιν· ἰσογώνιον ἄρα ἐστὶ τὸ ΕΒΓ τρίγωνον τῷ ΛΗΘ τριγώνῳ· ὥστε καὶ ὅμοιόν ἐστι τὸ ΕΒΓ τρίγωνον τῷ ΛΗΘ τριγώνω. Therefore. Let BE. “double”. Def. Def. the remaining angle EBC is equal to LGH. 6.6]. and (that) polygon ABCDE has a squared ratio to polygon F GHKL with respect to that AB (has) to F G. thus. And since polygon ABCDE is similar to polygon F GHKL. ΖΗΛ τριγώνων ἐστὶν ὡς ἡ ΕΒ πρὸς ΒΑ. 6. περὶ δὲ τὰς ἴσας γωνίας τὰς πλευρὰς ἀνάλογον. since ABE and F GL are two triangles having one angle equal to one angle and the sides about the equal angles proportional. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. ELEMENTS BOOK 6 τῆς πρώτης εἶδος πρὸς τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς δευτέρας τὸ ὅμοιον καὶ (described) on the first (is) to the similar. ΖΗΛ μίαν γωνίαν μιᾷ γωνίᾳ ἴσην ἔχοντα. 6.4. for the same (reasons). ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. οὕτως ἡ ΖΗ πρὸς ΗΘ. Καὶ ἐπεὶ ὅμοιόν ἐστι τὸ ΑΒΓΔΕ πολύγωνον τῷ ΖΗΘΚΛ πολυγώνῳ. triangle EBC is also similar to triangle LGH [Prop. angle BAE is equal to angle GF L. and LH have been joined. Α A Ζ Β F Ε Η Μ Θ Γ E Λ B Ν G M Κ L N H ∆ C ῎Εστω ὅμοια πολύγωνα τὰ ΑΒΓΔΕ. ἀλλὰ μὴν καὶ διὰ τὴν ὁμοιότητα τῶν πολυγώνων ἐστὶν ὡς ἡ ΑΒ πρὸς ΒΓ. So. so LG (is) to GH [Prop.1]. τὰ ἄρα ὅμοια πολύγωνα τὰ ΑΒΓΔΕ. ΖΗΘΚΛ.

ΖΘ. so (triangle) EBC (is) to LGH. ΕΓΔ. so triangle ECD (is) to triangle LHK. so triangle ABE (is) to triangle EBC. the similar polygons ABCDE and F GHKL have been divided into equal numbers of similar triangles. proportionally. οὕτως τὸ ΑΒΓΔΕ πολύγωνον πρὸς τὸ ΖΗΘΚΛ πολύγωνον. ὡς δὲ ἡ ΒΜ πρὸς ΜΓ. also. so F N (is) to N H [Prop. similarly. so triangle BEC (is) to triangle GLH [Prop. as F N (is) to N H. so (the sum of) all the leading (magnitudes is) to (the sum of) all the following [Prop. καί ἐστιν ὡς ἡ ΑΒ πρὸς ΒΓ. So. Τὰ ἄρα ὅμοια πολύγωνα εἴς τε ὅμοια τρίγωνα διαιρεῖται καὶ εἰς ἴσα τὸ πλῆθος καὶ ὁμόλογα τοῖς ὅλοις. Hence. ἀλλὰ τὸ ΑΒΕ τρίγωνον πρὸς τὸ ΖΗΛ τρίγωνον διπλασίονα λόγον ἔχει ἤπερ ἡ ΑΒ ὁμόλογος πλευρὰ πρὸς τὴν ΖΗ ὁμόλογον πλευράν· τὰ γὰρ ὅμοια τρίγωνα ἐν διπλασίονι λόγῳ ἐστὶ τῶν ὁμολόγων πλευρῶν. ὅτι καὶ ὁμόλογα τοῖς ὅλοις. I also say that (the triangles) correspond (in proportion) to the wholes. and. 5. οὕτως τὸ ΑΒΕ πρὸς τὸ ΓΒΕ. οὕτως ἡ ΖΗ πρὸς ΗΘ. and. as AM (is) to M C. ΛΗΘ. so GN (is) to N H [Prop.12]. οὕτως ἡ ΖΝ πρὸς ΝΘ· καὶ ὡς ἄρα τὸ ΑΒΕ τρίγωνον πρὸς τὸ ΒΕΓ τρίγωνον. ΛΘΚ.STOIQEIWN þ. οὕτως τὸ ΕΒΓ πρὸς τὸ ΛΗΘ. καί ἐστιν ὡς ἡ ΑΜ πρὸς ΜΓ. καὶ λοιπὴ ἄρα ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΜΒ λοιπῇ τῇ ὑπὸ ΖΝΗ ἴση ἐστίν· ἰσογώνιον ἄρα ἐστὶ τὸ ΑΒΜ τρίγωνον τῷ ΖΗΝ τριγώνῳ. καὶ ἐπεὶ ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΑΜ γωνία τῇ ὑπὸ ΗΖΝ. ἰσογώνιόν ἐστι τὸ ΑΒΓ τρίγωνον τῷ ΖΗΘ τριγώνῳ· ἴση ἄρα ἐστὶν ἡ μὲν ὑπὸ ΒΑΓ γωνία τῇ ὑπὸ ΗΖΘ. also. ἀνάλογον ἄρα ἐστίν. (triangle) ECD to LHK. so (triangle) ABE (is) to CBE. οὕτως τὸ ΖΗΛ τρίγωνον πρὸς τὸ ΗΛΘ τρίγωνον. Thus. 6. as (triangle) AM B (is) to BM C. and also as one of the leading (magnitudes is) to one of the following. That is to say.1]. So. and LHK (respectively). καὶ ὅτι τὸ ΑΒΓΔΕ πολύγωνον πρὸς τὸ ΖΗΘΚΛ πολύγωνον διπλασίονα λόγον ἔχει ἤπερ ἡ ὁμόλογος πλευρὰ πρὸς τὴν ὁμόλογον πλευράν. alternately. on account of the similarity of the polygons. Λέγω. But. 6.4]. But. the remaining (angle) AM B is thus also equal to the remaining (angle) F N G [Prop. so F N (is) to N H. so F N (is) to N G. we can show that triangle BM C is also equiangular to triangle GN H. as triangle ABE (is) to triangle BEC. further. οὕτως τὸ ΑΒΜ [τρίγωνον] πρὸς τὸ ΜΒΓ. and their (associated) following (magnitudes are) F GL. 5. that as triangle BEC (is) to triangle LGH. for the same (reasons). And since angle ABC is equal to F GH. so polygon ABCDE (is) to polygon F GHKL. as triangle ABE (is) to triangle F GL. καὶ τὸ to triangle LHK. ἡ δὲ ὑπὸ ΒΓΑ τῇ ὑπὸ ΗΘΖ. And as one of the leading (magnitudes) is to one of the following (magnitudes). as AM (is) to M C. διὰ τὰ αὐτὰ δὴ καὶ ὡς ἡ ΖΝ πρὸς ΝΘ. (side) AB to F G. Thus. 5. ELEMENTS BOOK 6 τὸ πλῆθος. so triangle F GL (is) to triangle GLH. And since angle BAM is equal to GF N . ὅτι καὶ ὡς τὸ ΒΕΓ τρίγωνον πρὸς τὸ ΛΗΘ τρίγωνον. ὅτι καὶ τὸ ΒΜΓ τρίγωνον ἰσογώνιόν ἐστι τῷ ΗΝΘ τριγώνῳ. καὶ τὸ ΑΒΓΔΕ ἄρα πολύγωνον πρὸς τὸ ΖΗΘΚΛ πολύγωνον διπλασίονα λόγον ἔχει ἤπερ ἡ ΑΒ ὁμόλογος πλευρὰ πρὸς τὴν ΖΗ ὁμόλογον πλευράν. triangle ABE has a squared ratio 177 . ΗΚ. καὶ ἐπεὶ διὰ τὴν ὁμοιότητα τῶν πολυγώνων ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΒΓ γωνία τῇ ὑπὸ ΖΗΘ. and (angle) BCA to GHF . so [triangle] ABM is to M BC.12]. so triangle F GL (is) to triangle GLH. καὶ ἐπεί ἐστιν ὡς τὸ ΑΒΕ τρίγωνον πρὸς τὸ ΖΗΛ τρίγωνον. via equality. so (the sum of) all the leading (magnitudes) is to (the sum of) all the following (magnitudes) [Prop. οὕτως ἡ ΖΝ πρὸς ΝΗ. τουτέστιν ὥστε ἀνάλογον εἶναι τὰ τρίγωνα. καὶ ὡς ἄρα ἓν τῶν ἡγουμένων πρὸς ἓν τῶν ἑπομένων. οὕτως τὸ ΑΒΕ τρίγωνον πρὸς τὸ ΕΒΓ τρίγωνον. οὕτως τὸ ΖΗΛ τρίγωνον πρὸς τὸ ΗΛΘ τρίγωνον. καὶ ὡς ἄρα ἓν τῶν ἡγουμένων πρὸς ἓν τῶν ἑπόμενων. οὕτως ἅπαντα τὰ ἡγούμενα πρὸς ἅπαντα τὰ ἑπόμενα· ἔστιν ἄρα ὡς τὸ ΑΒΕ τρίγωνον πρὸς τὸ ΖΗΛ τρίγωνον. οὕτως ἡ ΖΝ πρὸς ΝΘ. ὡς μὲν ἡ ΑΜ πρὸς ΜΒ. Thus. And as AM is to M C. also. and as AB is to BC. καὶ ἐναλλὰξ ὡς τὸ ΑΒΕ τρίγωνον πρὸς τὸ ΖΗΛ τρίγωνον. ἔστι δὲ καὶ ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΒΜ τῇ ὑπὸ ΖΗΝ ἴση. and AM E to EM C. οὕτως τὸ ΕΓΔ τρίγωνον πρὸς τὸ ΛΘΚ τρίγωνον. ἀλλ᾿ ὡς ἡ ΑΜ πρὸς ΜΓ. by joining BD and GK. triangle ABM is equiangular to triangle F GN . καὶ τὸ ΑΜΕ πρὸς τὸ ΕΜΓ· πρὸς ἄλληλα γάρ εἰσιν ὡς αἱ βάσεις. Thus. LGH. 1. For they are to one another as their bases [Prop. 5. triangle ABC is equiangular to triangle F GH [Prop. as AM (is) to M C. we can also show. But. Thus. Thus. ὁμοίως δὴ δεῖξομεν. as triangle AM B (is) to BM C. αλλ᾿ ὡς τὸ ΑΜΒ πρὸς τὸ ΒΜΓ. so F G (is) to GH. οὕτως ἡ ΑΜ πρὸς ΜΓ· καὶ ὡς ἄρα ἡ ΑΜ πρὸς ΜΓ.22]. thus as triangle ABE is to triangle F GL. καὶ ἔτι τὸ ΕΓΔ πρὸς τὸ ΛΘΚ. EBC. similarly. And since as triangle ABE is to triangle F GL. and ECD are the leading (magnitudes). as AM is to M B. ὁμοίως δὴ δείξομεν ἐπιζευχθεισῶν τῶν ΒΔ.16].32]. Thus. the triangles are proportional: ABE. ᾿Επεζεύχθωσαν γὰρ αἱ ΑΓ.6]. and (angle) ABM is also equal to F GN (see earlier). ἑπόμενα δὲ αὐτῶν τὰ ΖΗΛ. ΕΒΓ. (I) also (say) that polygon ABCDE has a squared ratio to polygon F GHKL with respect to (that) a corresponding side (has) to a corresponding side—that is to say. καὶ ἡγούμενα μὲν εἶναι τὰ ΑΒΕ. so AM (is) to M C. and as BM (is) to M C. οὕτως ἅπαντα τὰ ἡγούμενα πρὸς ἅπαντα τὰ ἑπόμενα· ὡς ἄρα τὸ ΑΜΒ τρίγωνον πρὸς τὸ ΒΜΓ. 6. τουτέστιν ἡ ΑΒ πρὸς τὴν ΖΗ. And so. For let AC and F H have been joined. angle BAC is equal to GF H. ὡς ἡ ΑΜ πρὸς ΜΓ. οὕτως ἡ ΗΝ πρὸς ΝΘ· ὥστε καὶ δι᾿ ἴσου. οὕτως τὸ ΒΕΓ τρίγωνον πρὸς τὸ ΗΛΘ τρίγωνον.

Again. Hence. and one polygon has to the (other) polygon a squared ratio with respect to (that) a corresponding side (has) to a corresponding side. polygon ABCDE also has a squared ratio to polygon F GHKL with respect to (that) the corresponding side AB (has) to the corresponding side F G. 6. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. ἑκάτερον ἄρα τῶν Α. Pìrisma. Proposition 21 Τὰ τῷ αὐτῷ εὐθυγράμμῳ ὅμοια καὶ ἀλλήλοις ἐστὶν (Rectilinear figures) similar to the same rectilinear figὅμοια. [(Which is) the very thing it was required to show]. Α A Β Γ B C ῎Εστω γὰρ ἑκάτερον τῶν Α. ὅτι ἐν διπλασίονι λόγῳ εἰσὶ τῶν ὁμολόγων πλευρῶν. Thus.STOIQEIWN þ. ᾿Επεὶ γὰρ ὅμοιόν ἐστι τὸ Α τῷ Γ. in the same manner. ἐδείχθη δὲ καὶ ἐπὶ τῶν τριγώνων· ὥστε καὶ καθόλου τὰ ὅμοια εὐθύγραμμα σχήματα πρὸς ἄλληλα ἐν διπλασίονι λόγῳ εἰσὶ τῶν ὁμολόγων πλευρῶν. similar polygons can be divided into equal numbers of similar triangles corresponding (in proportion) to the wholes. ἐπεὶ ὅμοιόν ἐστι τὸ Β τῷ Γ. ὅτι καὶ τὸ Α τῷ Β ἐστιν ὅμοιον. 6. ἰσογώνιόν τέ ἐστιν αὐτῷ καὶ τὰς περὶ τὰς ἴσας γωνίας πλευρὰς ἀνάλογον ἔχει. (B) is equiangular to (C). Β εὐθυγράμμων τῷ Γ ὅμοιον· λέγω. Thus. and has the sides about the equal angles proportional [Def. A and B are each equiangular to C. 6. and has the sides about the equal angles proportional [Def. in general.14]. And. ELEMENTS BOOK 6 πολύγωνον πρὸς τὸ πολύγωνον διπλασίονα λόγον ἔχει ἤπερ to triangle F GL with respect to (that) the corresponding ἡ ὁμόλογος πλευρὰ πρὸς τὴν ὁμόλογον πλευράν [ὅπερ ἔδει side AB (has) to the corresponding side F G. For since A is similar to C. ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. ἰσογώνιόν τέ ἐστιν αὐτῷ καὶ τὰς περὶ τὰς ἴσας γωνίας πλευρὰς ἀνάλογον ἔχει. it can also be shown for [similar] quadrilaterals that they are in the squared ratio of (their) corresponding sides.1]. triangles are in the squared ratio of corresponding sides [Prop. and have the sides about the equal angles 178 . similar rectilinear figures are also to one another in the squared ratio of (their) corresponding sides. kaþ. For. πάλιν. (A) is equiangular to (C). And it was also shown for triangles. Corollary ῾Ωσαύτως δὲ καὶ ἐπὶ τῶν [ὁμοίων] τετραπλεύρων δειχθήσεται. Β τῷ Γ ἰσογώνιόν τέ ἐστι καὶ τὰς περὶ τὰς ἴσας γωνίας πλευρὰς ἀνάλογον ἔχει [ὥστε καὶ τὸ Α τῷ Β ἰσογώνιόν τέ ἐστι καὶ τὰς περὶ τὰς ἴσας γωνίας Let each of the rectilinear figures A and B be similar to (the rectilinear figure) C. I say that A is also similar to B. ure are also similar to one another. Thus.1]. similar δεῖξαι]. since B is similar to C.

And let the similar.11]. οὕτως ἡ ΕΖ πρὸς τὴν ΗΘ. καὶ αὐτὰι αἱ εὐθεῖαι ἀνάλογον ἔσονται. δι᾿ ἴσου ἄρα ἐστὶν ὡς ἡ ΑΒ πρὸς τὴν Ξ. ΝΘ· λέγω. so EF (is) to GH. εἰ γὰρ μή ἐστιν. so EF (is) not to GH. If four straight-lines are proportional then similar. 5. 6. For let a third (straight-line) O have been taken (which is) proportional to AB and CD. CD. καὶ ἀναγεγράφθωσαν ἀπὸ μὲν τῶν ΑΒ. τῶν δὲ ΕΖ. I say that as KAB is to LCD. ΕΖ. and a third (straight-line) P proportional to EF and GH [Prop. ὅτι ἐστὶν ὡς τὸ ΚΑΒ πρὸς τὸ ΛΓΔ. and similarly laid out. ἀλλ᾿ ὡς μὲν ἡ ΑΒ πρὸς τὴν Ξ. For if as AB is to CD. οὕτως [καὶ] τὸ ΚΑΒ πρὸς τὸ ΛΓΔ. οὕτως ἡ ΕΖ πρὸς τὴν Ο.]. thus.STOIQEIWN þ. A is similar to B [Def. (such that) as AB (is) to CD. and similarly laid out. so M F (is) to N H. οὕτως ἡ ΕΖ πρὸς τὴν ΗΘ. thus. ᾿Αλλὰ δὴ ἔστω ὡς τὸ ΚΑΒ πρὸς τὸ ΛΓΔ. so EF (is) to GH. And. kbþ. rectilinear figures (drawn) on them will also be proportional. ΓΔ τρίτη ἀνάλογον ἡ Ξ. so M F (is) to N H [Prop. the sides about the equal angles proportional]. ὡς ἡ ΑΒ πρὸς τὴν ΓΔ. so M F (is) to N H. οὕτως ἡ ΕΖ πρὸς τὴν ΗΘ. And since as AB is to CD. and similarly described. so EF (is) to GH. I say also that as AB is to CD. καὶ ἀναγεγράφθω ἀπὸ τῆς D R Let AB. οὕτως ἡ ΕΖ πρὸς τὴν ΠΡ. A is also equiangular to B. Εἰλήφθω γὰρ τῶν μὲν ΑΒ. and as EF (is) to P . οὕτως τὸ ΜΖ πρὸς τὸ ΝΘ· λέγω. let AB be to CD. οὕτως τὸ ΜΖ πρὸς τὸ ΝΘ· καὶ ὡς ἄρα τὸ ΚΑΒ πρὸς τὸ ΛΓΔ. so GH (is) to P . οὕτως τὸ ΜΖ πρὸς τὸ ΝΘ. ἀπὸ δὲ τῶν ΕΖ. And if similar. ΓΔ. as AB (is) to O. EF . via equality. ΗΘ. ΛΓΔ. καὶ τὰ ἀπ᾿ αὐτῶν εὐθύγραμμα ὅμοιά τε καὶ ὁμοίως ἀναγεγραμμένα ἀνάλογον ἔσται· κἂν τὰ ἀπ᾿ αὐτῶν εὐθύγραμμα ὅμοιά τε καὶ ὁμοίως ἀναγεγραμμένα ἀνάλογον ᾖ. οὕτως τὸ ΜΖ πρὸς τὸ ΝΘ. as EF 179 . (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. ΗΘ ὅμοιά τε καὶ ὁμοίως κείμενα εὐθύγραμμα τὰ ΜΖ. rectilinear figures M F and N H on EF and GH (respectively). But.1]. and the similar. so EF (is) to P [Prop. Κ K Λ Α Β Μ Ε Ξ Ζ L Γ Ν Η A ∆ B M Θ E Σ O Ο Π C N G F H S P Q Ρ ῎Εστωσαν τέσσαρες εὐθεῖαι ἀνάλογον αἱ ΑΒ.19 corr. as M F (is) to N H.22]. Proposition 22 ᾿Εὰν τέσσαρες εὐθεῖαι ἀνάλογον ὦσιν. οὕτως ἡ ΗΘ πρὸς τὴν Ο. Thus. and similarly described. ELEMENTS BOOK 6 πλευρὰς ἀνάλογον ἔχει]. so [also] KAB (is) to LCD. ἔστω ὡς ἡ ΑΒ πρὸς τὴν ΓΔ. as AB is to O. as KAB (is) to LCD. and as CD (is) to O. rectilinear figures (drawn) on them are proportional then the straight-lines themselves will also be proportional. rectilinear figures KAB and LCD have been described on AB and CD (respectively). And so let KAB be to LCD. and has ἔδει δεῖξαι. ὡς ἡ ΑΒ πρὸς τὴν ΓΔ. ΗΘ τρίτη ἀνάλογον ἡ Ο. ὡς δὲ ἡ ΓΔ πρὸς τὴν Ξ. καὶ ἐπεί ἐστιν ὡς μὲν ἡ ΑΒ πρὸς τὴν ΓΔ. 6. ὅτι ἐστὶ καὶ ὡς ἡ ΑΒ πρὸς τὴν ΓΔ. ΓΔ ὅμοιά τε καὶ ὁμοίως κείμενα εὐθύγραμμα τὰ ΚΑΒ. 5. and GH be four proportional straight-lines. ὡς δὲ ἡ ΕΖ πρὸς τὴν Ο. ὅμοιον ἄρα ἐστὶ τὸ Α τῷ Β· ὅπερ proportional [hence. οὕτως ἡ ΕΖ πρὸς τὴν ΗΘ.

also. Euclid assumes. ΠΡ ὅμοιά τε καὶ ὁμοίως κείμενα τὰ ΜΖ. οὕτως ἡ Λ πρὸς τὴν Μ. 6. καὶ αὐτὰι αἱ εὐθεῖαι ἀνάλογον ἔσονται· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. ΝΘ ὅμοιόν τε καὶ ὁμοίως κείμενον εὐθύγραμμον τὸ ΣΡ. But. ὅτι τὸ ΑΓ παραλληλόγραμμον πρὸς τὸ ΓΖ παραλληλόγραμμον λόγον ἔχει τὸν συγκείμενον ἐκ τῶν πλευρῶν. since as DC (is) to CE.11].STOIQEIWN þ. the ratios of K to L and of L to M are the same as the ratios of the sides. if four straight-lines are proportional. And if similar. Thus. καὶ ἐπεί ἐστιν ὡς ἡ ΑΒ πρὸς τὴν ΓΔ. ΓΖ ἴσην ἔχοντα τὴν ὑπὸ ΒΓΔ γωνίαν τῇ ὑπὸ ΕΓΗ· λέγω. to either of M F or N H. τὸ ΜΖ ἄρα πρὸς ἑκάτερον τῶν ΝΘ. and the similar. Thus. 6. as M F (is) to SR. so L (is) to M [Prop. ἔστιν ἄρα ὡς τὸ ΚΑΒ πρὸς τὸ ΛΓΔ. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. οὕτως τὸ ΜΖ πρὸς τὸ ΝΘ· καὶ ὡς ἄρα τὸ ΜΖ πρὸς τὸ ΣΡ. rectilinear figures (drawn) on them are proportional then the straight-lines themselves will also be proportional. and similarly laid out. καὶ ἀναγέγραπται ἀπὸ μὲν τῶν ΑΒ. Κείσθω γὰρ ὥστε ἐπ᾿ εὐθείας εἶναι τὴν ΒΓ τῇ ΓΗ· ἐπ᾿ εὐθείας ἄρα ἐστὶ καὶ ἡ ΔΓ τῇ ΓΕ. Οἱ ἄρα λόγοι τῆς τε Κ πρὸς τὴν Λ καὶ τῆς Λ πρὸς τὴν Μ οἱ αὐτοί εἰσι τοῖς λόγοις τῶν πλευρῶν. ᾿Επεὶ οὖν ἐστιν ὡς ἡ ΑΒ πρὸς τὴν ΓΔ. BC to CG and DC to CE (respectively). Hence. πάλιν. kgþ. GH (is) equal to QR. οὕτως τὸ ΜΖ πρὸς τὸ ΝΘ. as EF (is) to QR. and similarly described. ἔστιν ἄρα ὡς ἡ ΑΒ πρὸς τὴν ΓΔ. similar. And it is also similar. (rectilinear figures) KAB and LCD have been described on AB and CD (respectively). 5.1]. so M F (is) to N H. so M F (is) to N H [Prop. then similar. οὕτως ἡ Κ πρὸς τὴν Λ. ἐπεί ἐστιν ὡς ἡ ΔΓ πρὸς τὴν ΓΕ. And let the rectilinear figure SR.14]. N H is equal to SR [Prop. (namely). so K (is) to L. ΓΔ ὅμοιά τε καὶ ὁμοίως κείμενα τὰ ΚΑΒ. οὕτως ἡ ΕΖ πρὸς τὴν ΠΡ. but as BC (is) to CG. ῎Εστω ἰσογώνια παραλληλόγραμμα τὰ ΑΓ. ὡς δὲ ἡ ΔΓ πρὸς τὴν ΓΕ. Here. ΣΡ. οὕτως τὸ ΑΓ παραλληλόγραμμον πρὸς τὸ ΓΘ. ΛΓΔ. καὶ γεγονέτω ὡς μὲν ἡ ΒΓ πρὸς τὴν ΓΗ. also. and similarly laid out. Again. And let it be contrived that as BC (is) to CG. so EF (is) to GH. ΣΡ τὸν αὐτὸν ἔχει λόγον· ἴσον ἄρα ἐστὶ τὸ ΝΘ τῷ ΣΡ. and the similar. οὕτως τὸ ΓΘ παραλληλόγραμμον πρὸς τὸ ΓΖ. 6.12]. so K (is) to L. 6. M F has the same ratio to each of N H and SR. I say that parallelogram AC has to parallelogram CF the ratio compounded out of (the ratios of) their sides. (rectilinear figures) M F and SR on EF and QR (resespectively). DC is also straight-on to CE [Prop. For let BC be laid down so as to be straight-on to CG. Equiangular parallelograms have to one another the ratio compounded† out of (the ratios of) their sides. τῆς τε ΒΓ πρὸς τὴν ΓΗ καὶ τῆς ΔΓ πρὸς τὴν ΓΕ.9]. so M F (is) to SR (see above). Thus. so parallelogram AC (is) to CH [Prop. καὶ ἐπεί ἐστιν ὡς ἡ ΒΓ πρὸς τὴν ΓΗ. and as DC (is) to CE. And let some straight-line K have been laid down. and similarly described. so EF (is) to QR. so (parallelogram) AC (is) to CH. οὕτως τὸ ΑΓ πρὸς τὸ ΓΘ. And since as BC is to CG. thus. thus as AB is to CD. ἀλλ᾿ ὡς ἡ ΔΓ πρὸς τὴν ΓΕ. rectilinear figures (drawn) on them will also be proportional. οὕτως ἡ Κ πρὸς τὴν Λ.18. that if two similar figures are equal then any pair of corresponding sides is also equal. as K (is) to L. οὕτως ἡ ΕΖ πρὸς τὴν ΗΘ. and similarly laid out. ἴση δὲ ἡ ΠΡ τῇ ΗΘ. so parallelogram 180 . Thus. without proof. since as AB is to CD. Thus. ELEMENTS BOOK 6 ΠΡ ὁποτέρῳ τῶν ΜΖ. ἀλλ᾿ ὡς ἡ ΒΓ πρὸς τὴν ΓΗ. Proposition 23 Τὰ ἰσογώνια παραλληλόγραμμα πρὸς ἄλληλα λόγον ἔχει τὸν συγκείμενον ἐκ τῶν πλευρῶν. ᾿Εὰν ἄρα τέσσαρες εὐθεῖαι ἀνάλογον ὦσιν. καὶ ἐκκείσθω τις εὐθεῖα ἡ Κ. and QR (is) equal to GH. thus as KAB is to LCD.12]. and similarly laid down. 1.21]. Thus. ἔστι δὲ αὐτῷ καὶ ὅμοιον καὶ ὁμοίως κείμενον· ἴση ἄρα ἡ ΗΘ τῇ ΠΡ. to it. Therefore. And it was also assumed that as KAB (is) to LCD. ἀπὸ δὲ τῶν ΕΖ. οὕτως ἡ ΕΖ πρὸς τὴν ΠΡ. have been described on QR [Props. 5. καὶ συμπεπληρώσθω τὸ ΔΗ παραλληλόγραμμον. ὑπόκειται δὲ καὶ ὡς τὸ ΚΑΒ πρὸς τὸ ΛΓΔ. K also has to M the ratio compounded out of (the ratios of) the sides (of the parallelograms). Thus. And let the parallelogram DG have been completed. καὶ τὰ ἀπ᾿ αὐτῶν εὐθύγραμμα ὅμοιά τε καὶ ὁμοίως ἀναγεγραμμένα ἀνάλογον ἔσται· κἂν τὰ ἀπ᾿ αὐτῶν εὐθύγραμμα ὅμοιά τε καὶ ὁμοίως ἀναγεγραμμένα ἀνάλογον ᾖ. οὕτως τὸ ΜΖ πρὸς τὸ ΣΡ. ἀλλ᾿ ὁ τῆς Κ πρὸς Μ λόγος σύγκειται ἔκ τε τοῦ τῆς Κ πρὸς Λ λόγου καὶ τοῦ τῆς Λ πρὸς Μ· ὥστε καὶ ἡ Κ πρὸς τὴν Μ λόγον ἔχει τὸν συγκείμενον ἐκ τῶν πλευρῶν. the ratio of K to M is compounded out of the ratio of K to L and (the ratio) of L to M . Let AC and CF be equiangular parallelograms having angle BCD equal to ECG. 6. † (is) to QR [Prop.† And since AB is to CD. καὶ ὡς ἄρα ἡ Κ πρὸς τὴν Λ.

6. οὕτως ἡ ΔΑ πρὸς ΑΗ.STOIQEIWN þ. proportionally. as K is to M . (parallelogram) AC also has to (parallelogram) CF the ratio compounded out of (the ratio of) their sides. Therefore. οὕτως ἡ ΔΗ πρὸς τὴν ΗΑ. ΕΗ παραλληλογράμμων ἀνάλογόν εἰσιν αἱ πλευραὶ αἱ περὶ τὴν κοινὴν γωνίαν τὴν ὑπὸ ΒΑΔ. so EA (is) to AG [Prop. οὕτως τὸ ΓΘ παραλληλόγραμμον πρὸς τὸ ΓΖ παραλληλόγραμμον. if two ratios are “compounded” then they are multiplied together. ὡς μὲν ἡ Κ πρὸς τὴν Λ. Again. οὕτως ἡ ΓΖ πρὸς τὴν ΖΑ. ΘΚ· λέγω. equiangular parallelograms have to one another ἔχει τὸν συγκείμενον ἐκ τῶν πλευρῶν· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. so CF (is) to F A [Prop. 1. thus. διάμετρος δὲ αὐτοῦ ἡ ΑΓ. but as DC (is) to CE. ἡ δὲ Κ πρὸς τὴν Μ λόγον ἔχει τὸν συγκείμενον ἐκ τῶν πλευρῶν· καὶ τὸ ΑΓ ἄρα πρὸς τὸ ΓΖ λόγον ἔχει τὸν συγκείμενον ἐκ τῶν πλευρῶν. as BA (is) to AE. thus. ῎Εστω παραλληλόγραμμον τὸ ΑΒΓΔ. And. so DG (is) to GA. τῶν ἄρα ΑΒΓΔ. so parallelogram CH (is) to parallelogram CF . as L (is) to M .29]. ἐπεὶ τριγώνου τοῦ ΑΓΔ παρὰ μίαν τὴν ΓΔ ἦκται ἡ ΖΗ. ΘΚ παραλληλογράμμων ὅμοιόν ἐστι ὅλῳ τῷ ΑΒΓΔ καὶ ἀλλήλοις. since it was shown that as K (is) to L. οὕτως τὸ ΑΓ πρὸς τὸ ΓΖ παραλληλόγραμμον. and to one another. compounding. via equality. And since GF is parallel to DC. οὕτως ἡ ΕΑ πρὸς τὴν ΑΗ.2]. as BA (is) to AD. Thus. in parallelograms ABCD and EG the sides about the common angle BAD are proportional. and to one another. περὶ δὲ τὴν ΑΓ παραλληλόγραμμα ἔστω τὰ ΕΗ. ἀνάλογόν ἐστιν ὡς ἡ ΒΕ πρὸς τὴν ΕΑ. as CF is to F A.16]. ὡς δὲ ἡ Λ πρὸς τὴν Μ. as CF (is) to F A. And K has to M the ratio compounded out of (the ratios of) the sides (of the parallelograms).22]. οὕτως τὸ ΑΓ παραλληλόγραμμον πρὸς τὸ ΓΘ παραλληλόγραμμον. so it was also shown (is) BE to EA. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. And thus as BE (is) to EA. οὕτως ἐδείχθη καὶ ἡ ΒΕ πρὸς τὴν ΕΑ· καὶ ὡς ἄρα ἡ ΒΕ πρὸς τὴν ΕΑ. proportionally. so (parallelogram) AC (is) to parallelogram CF [Prop. 5. and as L (is) to M . ἀλλ᾿ ὡς ἡ ΓΖ πρὸς τὴν ΖΑ. ἀνάλογόν ἐστιν ὡς ἡ ΓΖ πρὸς τὴν ΖΑ. οὕτως τὸ ΓΘ παραλληλόγραμμον πρὸς τὸ ΓΖ παραλληλόγραμμον. πάλιν. angle AF G is equal to DCA [Prop. A B Κ Λ Μ D H C G K L M Ε Ζ E F Τὰ ἄρα ἰσογώνια παραλληλόγραμμα πρὸς ἄλληλα λόγον Thus. 5. And let EG and HK be parallelograms about AC. καὶ ἐναλλὰξ ὡς ἡ ΒΑ πρὸς τὴν ΑΔ. since F G has been drawn parallel to one (of the sides) CD of triangle ACD. thus. so DA (is) to AG [Prop. so parallelogram AC (is) to parallelogram CH. Α Β ∆ Θ Γ Η CH (is) to CF [Prop. 6. Proposition 24 Παντὸς παραλληλογράμμου τὰ περὶ τὴν διάμετρον παραλληλόγραμμα ὅμοιά ἐστι τῷ τε ὅλῳ καὶ ἀλλήλοις. For since EF has been drawn parallel to one of the sides BC of triangle ABC. ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ μὲν ὑπὸ ΑΖΗ γωνία τῇ ὑπὸ ΔΓΑ· καὶ κοινὴ τῶν δύο In any parallelogram the parallelograms about the diagonal are similar to the whole. alternately. and AC its diagonal. ἐπεὶ οὖν ἐδείχθη. I say that the parallelograms EG and HK are each similar to the whole (parallelogram) ABCD.1]. And. Let ABCD be a parallelogram. 5. 6. so parallelogram CH (is) to parallelogram CF . καὶ συνθέντι ἄρα ὡς ἡ ΒΑ πρὸς ΑΕ. καὶ ὡς ἄρα ἡ Λ πρὸς τὴν Μ. But. also. as BE is to EA. so L (is) to M . δι᾿ ἴσου ἄρα ἐστὶν ὡς ἡ Κ πρὸς τὴν Μ. ὅτι ἑκάτερον τῶν ΕΗ.18]. οὕτως ἡ ΔΗ πρὸς τὴν ΗΑ.2]. kdþ. ᾿Επεὶ γὰρ τριγώνου τοῦ ΑΒΓ παρὰ μίαν τῶν πλευρῶν τὴν ΒΓ ἦκται ἡ ΕΖ. so DG (is) to GA [Prop. the ratio compounded out of (the ratio of) their sides. Thus. † In modern terminology. ELEMENTS BOOK 6 οὕτως ἡ Λ πρὸς τὴν Μ. καὶ ἐπεὶ παράλληλός ἐστιν ἡ ΗΖ τῇ ΔΓ. 181 .

parallelograms EG and HK are each similar to [parallelogram] ABCD. so GF (is) to F E [Prop.4]. and as DC (is) to CA. via equality. so AF (is) to F E.1]. in any parallelogram the parallelograms about παραλληλόγραμμα ὅμοιά ἐστι τῷ τε ὅλῳ καὶ ἀλλήλοις· ὅπερ the diagonal are similar to the whole. parallelogram ABCD is similar to parallelogram EG [Def. ELEMENTS BOOK 6 τριγώνων τῶν ΑΔΓ. ὡς δὲ ἡ ΑΓ πρὸς τὴν ΓΒ. οὕτως ἡ ΑΖ πρὸς τὴν ΖΕ. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. for the same (reasons). and equal to a different given rectilinear figure. and. in parallelograms ABCD and EG the sides about the equal angles are proportional. And since it was shown that as DC is to CA. οὕτως ἡ ΗΖ πρὸς τὴν ΖΑ.STOIQEIWN þ. Thus. So.22]. Thus. Thus. triangle ADC is equiangular to triangle AGF [Prop. οὕτως ἡ ΑΖ πρὸς τὴν ΖΕ. 182 . 6. Thus. To construct a single (rectilinear figure) similar to a given rectilinear figure. Thus. as AD (is) to DC. so GF (is) to F A. 5. τῶν ἄρα ΑΒΓΔ. so AF (is) to F E. as CB (is) to BA. οὕτως ἡ ΑΗ πρὸς τὴν ΗΖ. and as AC (is) to CB. thus.21]. parallelogram EG is also similar to parallelogram HK. Ε Α Β Ζ Η ∆ And angle DAC (is) common to the two triangles ADC and AGF . and the whole parallelogram ABCD is equiangular to parallelogram EG. Thus. διὰ τὰ αὐτὰ δὴ καὶ τὸ ΑΓΒ τρίγωνον ἰσογώνιόν ἐστι τῷ ΑΖΕ τριγώνῳ. ὡς δὲ ἡ ΑΓ πρὸς τὴν ΓΒ. καὶ ἔτι ὡς ἡ ΓΒ πρὸς τὴν ΒΑ. ἀνάλογον ἄρα ἐστὶν ὡς ἡ ΑΔ πρὸς τὴν ΔΓ. And (rectilinear figures) similar to the same rectilinear figure are also similar to one another [Prop. 6. as DC is to CB. proportionally. keþ. οὕτως ἡ ΗΖ πρὸς τὴν ΖΕ. so F E (is) to EA [Prop. and as AC (is) to CB. so GF (is) to F A. So. ἔδει δεῖξαι. parallelogram ABCD is also similar to parallelogram KH. triangle ACB is equiangular to triangle AF E. καὶ ὅλον τὸ ΑΒΓΔ παραλληλόγραμμον τῷ ΕΗ παραλληλογράμμῳ ἰσογώνιόν ἐστιν. ΑΗΖ ἡ ὑπὸ ΔΑΓ γωνία· ἰσογώνιον ἄρα ἐστὶ τὸ ΑΔΓ τρίγωνον τῷ ΑΗΖ τριγώνῳ. and to one another. τὰ δὲ τῷ αὐτῷ εὐθυγράμμῳ ὅμοια καὶ ἀλλήλοις ἐστὶν ὅμοια· καὶ τὸ ΕΗ ἄρα παραλληλόγραμμον τῷ ΘΚ παραλληλογράμμῳ ὅμοιόν ἐστιν. οὕτως ἡ ΗΖ πρὸς τὴν ΖΑ. οὕτως ἡ ΖΕ πρὸς τὴν ΕΑ. 6. διὰ τὰ αὐτὰ δὴ τὸ ΑΒΓΔ παραλληλόγραμμον καὶ τῷ ΚΘ παραλληλογράμμῳ ὅμοιόν ἐστιν· ἑκάτερον ἄρα τῶν ΕΗ. further. Proposition 25 Τῷ δοθέντι εὐθυγράμμῳ ὅμοιον καὶ ἄλλῳ τῷ δοθέντι ἴσον τὸ αὐτὸ συστήσασθαι.32]. for the same (reasons). 1. καὶ ἐπεὶ ἐδείχθη ὡς μὲν ἡ ΔΓ πρὸς τὴν ΓΑ. ὡς δὲ ἡ ΔΓ πρὸς τὴν ΓΑ. ΘΚ παραλληλογράμμων τῷ ΑΒΓΔ [παραλληλογράμμῳ] ὅμοιόν ἐστιν. ΕΗ παραλληλογράμμων ἀνάλογόν εἰσιν αἱ πλευραὶ αἱ περὶ τὰς ἴσας γωνίας· ὅμοιον ἄρα ἐστὶ τὸ ΑΒΓΔ παραλληλογράμμον τῷ ΕΗ παραλληλογράμμῳ. A Γ B F G Θ Κ E D H K C Παντὸς ἄρα παραλληλογράμμου τὰ περὶ τὴν διάμετρον Thus. so AG (is) to GF . δι᾿ ἴσου ἄρα ἐστὶν ὡς ἡ ΔΓ πρὸς τὴν ΓΒ.

καὶ ὡς ἄρα τὸ ΑΒΓ τρίγωνον πρὸς τὸ ΚΗΘ τρίγωνον. But. And let the mean proportion GH have been taken of BC and CF [Prop. and if three straight-lines are proportional then as the first is to the third. in the angle F CE. ᾿Απὸ γὰρ παραλληλογράμμου τοῦ ΑΒΓΔ παραλληλόγραμμον ἀφῃρήσθω τὸ ΑΖ ὅμοιον τῷ ΑΒΓΔ καὶ ὁμοίως κείμενον κοινὴν γωνίαν ἔχον αὐτῷ τὴν ὑπὸ ΔΑΒ· λέγω. 1. For let the parallelogram BE. Παραβεβλήσθω γὰρ παρὰ μὲν τὴν ΒΓ τῷ ΑΒΓ τριγώνῳ ἴσον παραλληλόγραμμον τὸ ΒΕ. Καὶ ἐπεί ἐστιν ὡς ἡ ΒΓ πρὸς τὴν ΗΘ. so GH (is) to CF . And triangle ABC (is) equal to parallelogram BE. from parallelogram ABCD. thus as BC is to CF . (have been applied) to (the straight-line) CE. Thus. and LE to EM [Prop. also. as BC (is) to CF . L E M Let ABC be the given rectilinear figure to which it is required to construct a similar (rectilinear figure). 1. τὸ ΑΒΓ. ἐπ᾿ εὐθείας ἄρα ἐστὶν ἡ μὲν ΒΓ τῇ ΓΖ. alternately. and similarly laid out. and similarly described. then (the subtracted parallelogram) is about the same diagonal as the whole. as triangle ABC (is) to triangle KGH.18]. parallelogram EF is equal to D. οὕτως τὸ ΑΒΓ τρίγωνον πρὸς τὸ ΚΗΘ τρίγωνον. 5. ἴσον δὲ τὸ ΑΒΓ τρίγωνον τῷ ΒΕ παραλληλογράμμῳ· ἴσον ἄρα καὶ τὸ ΚΗΘ τρίγωνον τῷ ΕΖ παραλληλογράμμῳ. If from a parallelogram a(nother) parallelogram is subtracted (which is) similar. ἔστιν ἄρα ὡς ἡ ΒΓ πρὸς τὴν ΓΖ. have been applied to (the straight-line) BC [Prop. let (parallelogram) 183 .14]. kþ. And KGH is also similar to ABC. ᾧ δεῖ ὅμοιον συστήσασθαι. οὕτως τὸ ΒΕ παραλληλόγραμμον πρὸς τὸ ΕΖ παραλληλόγραμμον· ἐναλλὰξ ἄρα ὡς τὸ ΑΒΓ τρίγωνον πρὸς τὸ ΒΕ παραλληλόγραμμον. and the parallelogram CM . And. Proposition 26 ᾿Εὰν ἀπὸ παραλληλογράμμου παραλληλόγραμμον ἀφαιρεθῇ ὅμοιόν τε τῷ ὅλῳ καὶ ὁμοίως κείμενον κοινὴν γωνίαν ἔχον αὐτῷ. 6. ἔστιν ὡς ἡ πρώτη πρὸς τὴν τρίτην. equal to triangle ABC. and equal to D. οὕτως ἡ ΗΘ πρὸς τὴν ΓΖ. τῷ δὲ Δ ἴσον τὸ αὐτὸ συστήσασθαι. οὕτως τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς πρώτης εἶδος πρὸς τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς δευτέρας τὸ ὅμοιον καὶ ὁμοίως ἀναγραφόμενον. ΓΖ μέση ἀνάλογον ἡ ΗΘ. 6.16]. Τῷ ἄρα δοθέντι εὐθυγράμμῳ τῷ ΑΒΓ ὅμοιον καὶ ἄλλῳ τῷ δοθέντι τῷ Δ ἴσον τὸ αὐτὸ συνέσταται τὸ ΚΗΘ· ὅπερ ἔδει ποιῆσαι. ἔστι δὲ τὸ ΚΗΘ καὶ τῷ ΑΒΓ ὅμοιον. ᾧ δὲ δεῖ ἴσον. to ABC have been described on GH [Prop. so parallelogram BE (is) to parallelogram EF . a single (rectilinear figure) KGH has been constructed (which is) similar to the given rectilinear figure ABC. ἥ ἐστιν ἴση τῇ ὑπὸ ΓΒΛ. 6. Thus. so the figure (described) on the first (is) to the similar. And since as BC is to GH. παρὰ δὲ τὴν ΓΕ τῷ Δ ἴσον παραλληλόγραμμον τὸ ΓΜ ἐν γωνίᾳ τῇ ὑπὸ ΖΓΕ. and similarly laid out. having a common angle with it. thus. But. 6. so triangle KGH (is) to parallelogram EF [Prop. Thus. οὕτως τὸ ΒΕ παραλληλόγραμμον πρὸς τὸ ΕΖ παραλληλόγραμμον. οὕτως τὸ ΚΗΘ τρίγωνον πρὸς τὸ ΕΖ παραλληλόγραμμον. For. ELEMENTS BOOK 6 Κ K Α A ∆ Β D Γ Ζ Η B Θ C F G H Λ Ε Μ ῎Εστω τὸ μὲν δοθὲν εὐθύγραμμον. as triangle ABC (is) to parallelogram BE. BC is straight-on to CF . triangle KGH (is) also equal to parallelogram EF . ἡ δὲ ΛΕ τῇ ΕΜ. περὶ τὴν αὐτὴν διάμετρόν ἐστι τῷ ὅλῳ. Thus. (figure) on the second [Prop. 1.44]. ἀλλὰ τὸ ΕΖ παραλληλόγραμμον τῷ Δ ἐστιν ἴσον· καὶ τὸ ΚΗΘ ἄρα τῷ Δ ἐστιν ἴσον. so parallelogram BE (is) to parallelogram EF [Prop.]. so triangle ABC (is) to triangle KGH.STOIQEIWN þ. τὸ Δ· δεῖ δὴ τῷ μὲν ΑΒΓ ὅμοιον. and equal to a different given (rectilinear figure) D. KGH is also equal to D.13].19 corr. And let KGH. and D the (rectilinear figure) to which (the constructed figure) is required (to be) equal. καὶ ἀναγεγράφθω ἀπὸ τῆς ΗΘ τῷ ΑΒΓ ὅμοιόν τε καὶ ὁμοίως κείμενον τὸ ΚΗΘ. καὶ εἰλήφθω τῶν ΒΓ. similar.45]. So it is required to construct a single (rectilinear figure) similar to ABC. equal to D.1]. (Which is) the very thing it was required to do. ἐὰν δὲ τρεῖς εὐθεῖαι ἀνάλογον ὦσιν. which is equal to CBL [Prop. ἀλλὰ καὶ ὡς ἡ ΒΓ πρὸς τὴν ΓΖ. to the whole. Thus.

Thus. οὕτως ἡ ΗΑ πρὸς τὴν ΑΚ.9]. οὕτως ἡ ΗΑ πρὸς τὴν ΑΕ· καὶ ὡς ἄρα ἡ ΗΑ πρὸς τὴν ΑΚ. then (the subtracted parallelogram) is about the same diagonal as the whole. and similarly laid out. and similarly laid out. 6. ἔστιν ἄρα ὡς ἡ ΔΑ πρὸς τὴν ΑΒ. Therefore. thus as DA is to AB. as DA (is) to AB. ABCD is not not about the same diagonal as AF . Α Η ∆ A Ζ Ε Κ AF have been subtracted (which is) similar. having a common angle with it. καὶ παραβεβλήσθω παρὰ τὴν ΑΒ εὐθεῖαν τὸ ΑΔ παραλληλόγραμμον ἐλλεῖπον εἴδει παραλληλογράμμῳ τῷ ΔΒ ἀναγραφέντι ἀπὸ τῆς ἡμισείας τῆς ΑΒ. let AHC be [ABCD’s] diagonal. so GA (is) to AK [Prop. ΕΗ καὶ ὡς ἡ ΔΑ πρὸς τὴν ΑΒ. parallelogram ABCD is about the same diagonal as parallelogram AF . ELEMENTS BOOK 6 ὅτι περὶ τὴν αὐτὴν διάμετρόν ἐστι τὸ ΑΒΓΔ τῷ ΑΖ. καὶ ἤχθω διὰ τοῦ Θ ὁπορέρᾳ τῶν ΑΔ. Proposition 27 Πάντων τῶν παρὰ τὴν αὐτὴν εὐθεῖαν παραβαλλομένων παραλληλογράμμων καὶ ἐλλειπόντων εἴδεσι παραλληλογράμμοις ὁμοίοις τε καὶ ὁμοίως κειμένοις τῷ ἀπὸ τῆς ἡμισείας ἀναγραφομένῳ μέγιστόν ἐστι τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς ἡμισείας παραβαλλόμενον [παραλληλόγραμμον] ὅμοιον ὂν τῷ ἐλλείμμαντι. I say that of all the parallelograms applied to AB. GA has the same ratio to each of AK and AE. καὶ ἐκβληθεῖσα ἡ ΗΖ διήχθω ἐπὶ τὸ Θ. if possible. And let HK have been drawn through (point) H. 1. to the (parallelogram) described on half (the straight-line). And. ΒΓ παράλληλος ἡ ΘΚ. τουτέστι τῆς ΓΒ· λέγω.STOIQEIWN þ. kzþ. οὕτως ἡ ΗΑ πρὸς τὴν ΑΕ. 1. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. AE is equal to AK [Prop. then. on account of the similarity of ABCD and EG. as GA (is) to AK. parallel to either of AD or BC [Prop. ἡ ΗΑ ἄρα πρὸς ἑκατέραν τῶν ΑΚ. CB. also. For (if) not. let it have been drawn through to (point) H. if from a parallelogram a(nother) parallelogram is subtracted (which is) similar. ῎Εστω εὐθεῖα ἡ ΑΒ καὶ τετμήσθω δίχα κατὰ τὸ Γ. falling short by the parallelogrammic figure DB (which is) applied to half of AB—that is to say. Thus. the greatest is the [parallelogram] applied to half (the straight-line) which (is) similar to (that parallelogram) by which it falls short. Thus. so GA (is) to AE. Thus. to the whole. ἔστω [αὐτῶν] διάμετρος ἡ ΑΘΓ. the lesser to the greater. Thus. K Γ D F E Θ Β G H C B Μὴ γάρ. περὶ τὴν αὐτὴν διάμετρόν ἐστι τῷ ὅλῳ· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. And producing GF . Thus. οὐκ ἄρα οὔκ ἐστι περὶ τὴν αὐτὴν διάμετρον τὸ ΑΒΓΔ τῷ ΑΖ· περὶ τὴν αὐτὴν ἄρα ἐστὶ διάμετρον τὸ ΑΒΓΔ παραλληλόγραμμον τῷ ΑΖ παραλληλογράμμῳ. ὅτι πάντων τῶν παρὰ τὴν ΑΒ παραβαλλομένων παραλληλογράμμων καὶ ἐλλειπόντων εἴδεσι [παραλληλογράμμοις] ὁμοίοις τε καὶ ὁμοίως κειμένοις τῷ ΔΒ μέγιστόν ἐστι τὸ Of all the parallelograms applied to the same straightline.10]. ΑΕ τὸν αὐτὸν ἔχει λόγον.24].31]. and falling short by parallelogrammic figures similar. and let it have been cut in half at (point) C [Prop. since ABCD is about the same diagonal as KG. to ABCD. and similarly laid out. and falling short by 184 . ᾿Εὰν ἄρα ἀπὸ παραλληλογράμμου παραλληλόγραμμον ἀφαιρεθῇ ὅμοιόν τε τῷ ὅλῳ καὶ ὁμοίως κείμενον κοινὴν γωνίαν ἔχον αὐτῷ. ἀλλ᾿ εἰ δυνατόν. 5. so GA (is) to AE. Let AB be a straight-line. The very thing is impossible. also. I say that ABCD is about the same diagonal as AF . ᾿Επεὶ οὖν περὶ τὴν αὐτὴν διάμετρόν ἐστι τὸ ΑΒΓΔ τῷ ΚΗ. having the common angle DAB with it. ἴση ἄρα ἐστὶν ἡ ΑΕ τῇ ΑΚ ἡ ἐλάττων τῇ μείζονι· ὅπερ ἐστὶν ἀδύνατον. And let the parallelogram AD have been applied to the straight-line AB. ἔστι δὲ καὶ διὰ τὴν ὁμοιότητα τῶν ΑΒΓΔ.

to the (parallelogram) described on half (the straight-line).43]. to DB. parallelogram DB—that is to say. ὅλον ἄρα τὸ ΓΘ ὅλῳ τῷ ΚΕ ἐστιν ἴσον. παραβεβλήσθω γὰρ παρὰ τὴν ΑΒ εὐθεῖαν τὸ ΑΖ παραλληλόγραμμον ἐλλεῖπον εἴδει παραλληλογράμμῳ τῷ ΖΒ ὁμοίῳ τε καὶ ὁμοίως κειμένῳ τῷ ΔΒ· λέγω. περὶ τὴν αὐτήν εἰσι διάμετρον. Hence. καὶ τὸ ΗΓ ἄρα τῷ ΕΚ ἐστιν ἴσον.1]. 6. AD—is greater than parallelogram AF . ἤχθω αὐτῶν διάμετρος ἡ ΔΒ. (parallelogram) CH is equal to CG. they are about the same diagonal [Prop. the greatest is the [parallelogram] applied to half (the straight-line). 1. Let (parallelogram) CF have been added to both. Ε D E N Ν Ζ Μ Η Λ Α Γ Κ Θ F M G Β L A C K H B ᾿Επεὶ γὰρ ὅμοιόν ἐστι τὸ ΔΒ παραλληλόγραμμον τῷ ΖΒ παραλληλογράμμῳ. and C the given rectilinear figure to which the (parallelogram) applied to 185 . (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. and similarly laid out. equal to a given rectilinear figure. for all parallelograms applied to the same straight-line. the whole (parallelogram) CH is thus equal to the whole (parallelogram) KE. τὸ δὲ δοθὲν εὐθύγραμμον. and similarly laid out. to a given straight-line. But. Thus. Πάντων ἄρα τῶν παρὰ τὴν αὐτὴν εὐθεῖαν παραβαλλομένων παραλληλογράμμων καὶ ἐλλειπόντων εἴδεσι παραλληλογράμμοις ὁμοίοις τε καὶ ὁμοίως κειμένοις τῷ ἀπὸ τῆς ἡμισείας ἀναγραφομένῳ μέγιστόν ἐστι τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς ἡμισείας παραβληθέν· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. καὶ καταγεγράφθω τὸ σχῆμα. ἀλλὰ τὸ ΓΘ τῷ ΓΗ ἐστιν ἴσον. the greatest is AD. (the applied parallelogram) falling short by a parallelogrammic figure similar to a given (parallelogram). Therefore. falling short by the parallelogrammic figure F B (which is) similar. ELEMENTS BOOK 6 ΑΔ. Let AB be the given straight-line. (parallelogram) GC is also equal to EK. and similarly laid out. For since parallelogram DB is similar to parallelogram F B. I say that AD is greater than AF . ῎Εστω ἡ μὲν δοθεῖσα εὐθεῖα ἡ ΑΒ. Thus. Proposition 28† Παρὰ τὴν δοθεῖσαν εὐθεῖαν τῷ δοθέντι εὐθυγράμμῳ ἴσον παραλληλόγραμμον παραβαλεῖν ἐλλεῖπον εἴδει παραλληλογράμμῳ ὁμοίῳ τῷ δοθέντι· δεῖ δὲ τὸ διδόμενον εὐθύγραμμον [ᾧ δεῖ ἴσον παραβαλεῖν] μὴ μεῖζον εἶναι τοῦ ἀπὸ τῆς ἡμισείας ἀναγραφομένου ὁμοίου τῷ ἐλλείμματι [τοῦ τε ἀπὸ τῆς ἡμισείας καὶ ᾧ δεῖ ὅμοιον ἐλλείπειν]. For let the parallelogram AF have been applied to the straight-line AB. ᾧ δὲ δεῖ ὅμοιον ἐλλείπειν. 6. ᾿Επεὶ οὖν ἴσον ἐστὶ τὸ ΓΖ τῷ ΖΕ. τὸ Δ· δεῖ δὴ To apply a parallelogram. and falling short by a parallelogrammic figure similar. and let the (rest of the) figure have been described. ᾧ δεῖ ἴσον παρὰ τὴν ΑΒ παραβαλεῖν. since AC (is) also (equal) to CB [Prop. τὸ Γ μὴ μεῖζον [ὂν] τοῦ ἀπὸ τῆς ἡμισείας τῆς ΑΒ ἀναγραφομένου ὁμοίου τῷ ἐλλείμματι. khþ.STOIQEIWN þ. κοινὸν δὲ τὸ ΖΒ. since (complement) CF is equal to (complement) F E [Prop. to DB. the whole (parallelogram) AF is equal to the gnomon LM N . and (parallelogram) F B is common. ∆ [parallelogrammic] figures similar. Thus. It is necessary for the given rectilinear figure [to which it is required to apply an equal (parallelogram)] not to be greater than the (parallelogram) described on half (of the straight-line) and similar to the deficit. ἐπεὶ καὶ ἡ ΑΓ τῇ ΓΒ. κοινὸν προσκείσθω τὸ ΓΖ· ὅλον ἄρα τὸ ΑΖ τῷ ΛΜΝ γνώμονί ἐστιν ἴσον· ὥστε τὸ ΔΒ παραλληλόγραμμον. τοῦ ΑΖ παραλληλογράμμου μεῖζόν ἐστιν. Let their (common) diagonal DB have been drawn. ὅτι μεῖζόν ἐστι τὸ ΑΔ τοῦ ΑΖ. τουτέστι τὸ ΑΔ.26].

Let GQB be their (common) diagonal. ταύτῃ τῇ ὑπεροχῇ ἴσον. 6. Therefore. γεγονὸς ἂν εἴη τὸ ἐπιταχθέν· παραβέβληται γὰρ παρὰ τὴν δοθεῖσαν εὐθεῖαν τὴν ΑΒ τῷ δοθέντι εὐθυγράμμῳ τῷ Γ ἴσον παραλληλόγραμμον τὸ ΑΗ ἐλλεῖπον εἴδει παραλληλογράμμῳ τῷ ΗΒ ὁμοίῳ ὄντι τῷ Δ. to the deficit. falling short by a parallelogrammic figure which is similar to D.43]. 1.26]. and let the (remainder of the) figure have been described. καὶ ἐπεὶ ἴσον ἐστὶ τὸ ΟΡ τῷ ΞΣ. and GP to LM [Prop. and equal to the excess by which GB is greater than C [Prop. Therefore. And let the parallelogram OGP Q have been completed. Thus. καὶ τὸ ΗΠ ἄρα τῷ ΗΒ ὅμοιόν ἐστιν· περὶ τὴν αὐτὴν ἄρα διάμετρόν ἐστι τὸ ΗΠ τῷ ΗΒ. κοινὸν προσκείσθω τὸ ΠΒ· ὅλον ἄρα τὸ ΟΒ ὅλῳ τῷ ΞΒ ἴσον ἐστίν. 6. ἔστω οὖν ὁμόλογος ἡ μὲν ΚΛ τῂ ΗΕ. μεῖζόν ἔστω τὸ ΘΕ τοῦ Γ. ELEMENTS BOOK 6 παρὰ τὴν δοθεῖσαν εὐθεῖαν τὴν ΑΒ τῷ δοθέντι εὐθυγράμμῳ AB is required (to be) equal.21]. καὶ ἐπεὶ ἴσον ἐστὶ τὸ ΗΒ τοῖς Γ. For a parallelogram AG. KM is similar to GB]. ἡ δὲ ΗΖ τῆς ΛΜ. ἀλλὰ τὸ ΞΒ τῷ ΤΕ ἐστιν ἴσον. Thus. have been described on EB [Prop. GB [is] similar to D. [GQ] is equal and similar to KM [but. equal to the given rectilinear figure C. λοιπὸς ἄρα ὁ ΥΧΦ γνόμων λοιπῷ τῷ Γ ἴσος ἐστίν. εἰ δὲ οὔ. GQ and GB are about the same diagonal [Prop. Let GO be made equal to KL. GE is also greater than KL. let (parallelogram) KLM N have been constructed (so as to be) both similar. to the straight-line AB.the (parallelogram) described on half of AB and similar ραλληλογράμμῳ ὁμοίῳ ὄντι τῷ Δ. 6. τῇ δὲ ΛΜ ἴση ἡ ΗΟ. 1. let (parallelogram) QB have been added to both. and D the (parallelogram) to which the deficit is required (to be) similar.3]. J H O Z H G P F G X T A F E L U P C Q M L R S B O T D V M U Q W R D K N A Τετμήσθω ἡ ΑΒ δίχα κατὰ τὸ Ε σημεῖον. Εἰ μὲν οὖν ἴσον ἐστὶ τὸ ΑΗ τῷ Γ. 6. the remaining gnomon U W V is thus equal to the remainder C. [being] not greater than τῷ Γ ἴσον παραλληλόγραμμον παραβαλεῖν ἐλλεῖπον εἴδει πα. Παρὰ τὴν δοθεῖσαν ἄρα εὐθεῖαν τὴν ΑΒ τῷ δοθέντι εὐθυγράμμῳ τῷ Γ ἴσον παραλληλόγραμμον παραβέβληται τὸ ΣΤ ἐλλεῖπον εἴδει παραλληλογράμμῳ τῷ ΠΒ ὁμοίῳ ὄντι E S B K N Let AB have been cut in half at point E [Prop. 1. ἀλλὰ τὸ Δ τῷ ΗΒ [ἐστιν] ὅμοιον· καὶ τὸ ΚΜ ἄρα τῷ ΗΒ ἐστιν ὅμοιον. But. καὶ καταγεγράφθω τὸ σχῆμα. Therefore. ΚΜ. Thus. since BG is equal to C and KM .STOIQEIWN þ. to (parallelogram) D. ᾧ δὴ μεῖζόν ἐστι τὸ ΗΒ τοῦ Γ. and let (parallelogram) EBF G. GB (is) also greater than C. if AG is equal to C then the thing prescribed has happened.1]. 6. GQ is also similar to GB [Prop. καὶ συμπεπληρώσθω τὸ ΞΗΟΠ παραλληλόγραμμον· ἴσον ἄρα καὶ ὅμοιον ἐστι [τὸ ΗΠ] τῷ ΚΜ [ἀλλὰ τὸ ΚΜ τῷ ΗΒ ὅμοιόν ἐστιν]. ᾿Επεὶ οὖν ἴσον ἐστὶ τὸ ΒΗ τοῖς Γ. ἴσον δὲ τὸ ΘΕ τῷ ΗΒ· μεῖζον ἄρα καὶ τὸ ΗΒ τοῦ Γ.21]. to D. equal to the given rectilinear figure C. And since (parallelogram) GB is equal to (figure) C and (parallelogram) KM . ἐπεὶ καὶ πλευρὰ ἡ ΑΕ πλευρᾷ τῇ ΕΒ ἐστιν ἴση· καὶ τὸ ΤΕ ἄρα τῷ ΟΒ ἐστιν ἴσον. ὧν τὸ ΗΠ τῷ ΚΜ ἐστιν ἴσον.10]. 6. and similarly laid out. καὶ συμπεπληρώσθω τὸ ΑΗ παραλληλόγραμμον. and LM to GF . ΚΜ. And if not. and similarly laid out. has been applied to the given straight-line AB. κείσθω τῇ μὲν ΚΛ ἴση ἡ ΗΞ. Thus. and GF than LM . Thus. And let parallelogram AG have been completed. So it is required to apply a parallelogram. ἡ δὲ ΛΜ τῇ ΗΖ. ἀλλ᾿ ὁ ΦΧΥ γνώμων τῷ Γ ἐδείχθη ἴσος· καὶ τὸ ΤΣ ἄρα τῷ Γ ἐστιν ἴσον.25]. And since (the complement) P R is equal to (the complement) OS [Prop. falling short by a parallelogrammic figure GB which is similar to D. of which GQ is equal to KM . And HE (is) equal to GB [Prop.18]. καὶ ἀναγεγράφθω ἀπὸ τῆς ΕΒ τῷ Δ ὅμοιον καὶ ὁμοίως κείμενον τὸ ΕΒΖΗ. GB is thus greater than KM . μεῖζον ἄρα ἐστὶ τὸ ΗΒ τοῦ ΚΜ· μείζων ἄρα ἐστὶ καὶ ἡ μὲν ΗΕ τῆς ΚΛ. So. Thus. let KL correspond to GE. (which is) similar. ἔστω αὐτῶν διάμετρος ἡ ΗΠΒ. κοινὸν προσκείσθω τὸ ΞΣ· ὅλον ἄρα τὸ ΤΣ ὅλῳ τῷ ΦΧΥ γνώμονί ἐστιν ἴσον. KM is also similar to GB [Prop. the whole (parallelogram) P B is equal to the whole (par- 186 . Thus. τῷ δὲ Δ ὅμοιον καὶ ὁμοίως κείμενον τὸ αὐτὸ συνεστάτω τὸ ΚΛΜΝ. let HE be greater than C.

μείζων ἄρα ἐστὶ καὶ ἡ μὲν ΚΘ τῆς ΖΛ. (which is) similar. Only the smaller root of the equation is found. And since (parallelogram) GH is greater than (parallelogram) F B. καὶ συναμφοτέροις μὲν τοῖς ΒΖ. to D. equal to the given rectilinear figure C. to the given straight-line AB. kjþ. the parallelogram ST . the whole (parallelogram) T S is equal to the gnomon V W U . (parallelogram) T S is also equal to (figure) C. And let KH correspond to F L. Thus. Let AB have been cut in half at (point) E [Prop. and C the given rectilinear figure to which the (parallelogram) applied to AB is required (to be) equal. ἀλλὰ τὸ ΗΘ τῷ ΕΛ ἐστιν ὅμοιον· P N Q O G Let AB be the given straight-line. Let (parallelogram) OS have been added to both. But. to a given straight-line. and β is the ratio of the areas of figures C and D. since side ποιῆσαι. Z G K L M J F D A L M K H C D E N F Y B O Q P X A E V X B W H ῎Εστω ἡ μὲν δοθεῖσα εὐθεῖα ἡ ΑΒ. τῷ δὲ Δ ὅμοιον καὶ ὁμοίως κείμενον τὸ αὐτὸ συνεστάτω τὸ ΗΘ. which is similar to D [inasmuch as QB is similar to GQ [Prop. καὶ ἀναγεγράθω ἀπὸ τὴς ΕΒ τῷ Δ ὅμοιον καὶ ὁμοίως κείμενον παραλληλόγραμμον τὸ ΒΖ. ᾧ δὲ δεῖ ὅμοιον ὑπερβάλλειν. OB is equal to T E. gram) overshooting by a parallelogrammic figure similar to a given (parallelogram). has been applied to the given straightline AB. x is the ratio of a side of the deficit to the corresponding side of figure D.10]. ELEMENTS BOOK 6 τῷ Δ [ἐπειδήπερ τὸ ΠΒ τῷ ΗΠ ὅμοιόν ἐστιν]· ὅπερ ἔδει allelogram) OB. τὸ Γ.1]. Thus. 6. ΖΕ. gnomon V W U was shown (to be) equal to C. Here. equal to the given rectilinear figure C. But. † This proposition is a geometric solution of the quadratic equation x2 −α x+β = 0. α is the ratio of the length of AB to the length of that side of figure D which corresponds to the side of the deficit running along AB. (Which is) the very thing it was required to do. ὁμόλογος δὲ ἔστω ἡ μὲν ΚΘ τῇ ΖΛ. ἡ δὲ ΚΗ τῇ ΖΕ. ἡ δὲ ΚΗ τῇ ΖΕ. τῇ δὲ ΚΗ ἴση ἡ ΖΕΝ.STOIQEIWN þ. and let the parallelogram BF . καὶ συμπεπληρώσθω τὸ ΜΝ· τὸ ΜΝ ἄρα τῷ ΗΘ ἴσον τέ ἐστι καὶ ὅμοιον. equal to a given rectilinἴσον παραλληλόγραμμον παραβαλεῖν ὑπερβάλλον εἴδει πα.18].25]. καὶ ἐπεὶ μεῖζόν ἐστι τὸ ΗΘ τοῦ ΖΒ. to D. falling short by the parallelogrammic figure QB. Therefore. ᾧ δεῖ ἴσον παρὰ τὴν ΑΒ παραβαλεῖν. 6. Τετμήσθω ἡ ΑΒ δίχα κατὰ τὸ Ε. have been described on EB [Prop. The constraint corresponds to the condition β < α2 /4 for the equation to have real roots. Γ ἴσον. 187 . (the applied paralleloραλληλογράμμῳ ὁμοίῳ τῷ δοθέντι.24] ]. and similarly laid out. The larger root can be found by a similar method. ἐκβεβλήσθωσαν αἱ ΖΛ. AE is equal to side EB [Prop. and D the (parallelogram) to which the excess is required (to be) similar. 6. τὸ δὲ δοθὲν εὐθύγραμμον. overshooting by a parallelogrammic figure similar to D. T E is also equal to P B. 1. τὸ Δ· δεῖ δὴ παρὰ τὴν ΑΒ εὐθεῖαν τῷ Γ εὐθυγράμμῳ ἴσον παραλληλόγραμμον παραβαλεῖν ὑπερβάλλον εἴδει παραλληλογράμμῳ ὁμοίῳ τῷ Δ. And let (parallelogram) GH have been constructed (so as to be) both similar. and equal to the sum of BF and C [Prop. and KG to F E. καὶ τῇ μὲν ΚΘ ἴση ἔστω ἡ ΖΛΜ. and similarly laid out. 6. Thus. So it is required to apply a parallelogram.ear figure. Proposition 29† Παρὰ τὴν δοθεῖσαν εὐθεῖαν τῷ δοθέντι εὐθυγράμμῳ To apply a parallelogram.

the remaining gnomon XW V is equal to (figure) C. But. ratio. and β is the ratio of the areas of figures C and D. quired to cut the straight-line AB in extreme and mean 188 . overshooting by the parallelogrammic figure QP which is similar to D. and KG than F E. So it is reΑΒ εὐθεῖαν ἄκρον καὶ μέσον λόγον τεμεῖν. (parallelogram) LP [Prop. lþ. Παρὰ τὴν δοθεῖσαν ἄρα εὐθεῖαν τὴν ΑΒ τῷ δοθέντι εὐθυγράμμῳ τῷ Γ ἴσον παραλληλόγραμμον παραβέβληται τὸ ΑΞ ὑπερβάλλον εἴδει παραλληλογράμμῳ τῷ ΠΟ ὁμοίῳ ὄντι τῷ Δ.43]. καὶ ἐπεὶ ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ΑΕ τῇ ΕΒ. 6. ᾿Επεὶ ἴσον ἐστὶ τὸ ΗΘ τοῖς ΕΛ. M N is equal and similar to GH. and let the (remainder of the) figure have been described. Let their (common) diagonal F O have been drawn. ἴσον ἐστὶ καὶ τὸ ΑΝ τῷ ΝΒ. 6. τουτέστι τῷ ΛΟ. κοινὸν προσκείσθω τὸ ΕΞ· ὅλον ἄρα τὸ ΑΞ ἴσον ἐστὶ τῷ ΦΧΨ γνώμονι. 6. καὶ τὸ ΜΝ ἄρα τοῖς ΕΛ.21]. and let F LM be (made) equal to KH. (parallelogram) AN is also equal to (parallelogram) N B [Prop. Thus. Proposition 30† Τὴν δοθεῖσαν εὐθεῖαν πεπερασμένην ἄκρον καὶ μέσον To cut a given finite straight-line in extreme and mean λόγον τεμεῖν. And since (parallelogram) GH is equal to (parallelogram) EL and (figure) C. ἐπεὶ καὶ τῷ ΕΛ ἐστιν ὅμοιον τὸ ΟΠ· ὅπερ ἔδει ποιῆσαι.STOIQEIWN þ. and F EN to KG [Prop. equal to the given rectilinear figure C. that is to say. 1. EL is thus about the same diagonal as M N [Prop. Let F L and F E have been produced. has been applied to the given straightline AB. GH is similar to EL. Let (parallelogram) EO have been added to both. Here. the parallelogram AO. x is the ratio of a side of the excess to the corresponding side of figure D. κοινὸν ἀφῃρήσθω τὸ ΕΛ· λοιπὸς ἄρα ὁ ΨΧΦ γνώμων τῷ Γ ἐστιν ἴσος. Thus. the gnomon V W X is equal to (figure) C. Thus. This proposition is a geometric solution of the quadratic equation x2 +α x−β = 0. 6. Γ ἴσον ἐστίν. Only the positive root of the equation is found.3].26]. ἤχθω αὐτῶν διάμετρος ἡ ΖΞ. but GH is equal to (parallelogram) M N . And let (parallelogram) M N have been completed. since P Q is also similar to EL [Prop.24]. α is the ratio of the length of AB to the length of that side of figure D which corresponds to the side of the excess running along AB. Thus. (Which is) the very thing it was required to do. Γ. ἀλλὰ ὁ ΦΧΨ γνώμων τῷ Γ ἴσος ἐστίν· καὶ τὸ ΑΞ ἄρα τῷ Γ ἴσον ἐστίν. Γ Α Ζ Ε Θ C Β A ∆ F E H B D ῎Εστω ἡ δοθεῖσα εὐθεῖα πεπερασμένη ἡ ΑΒ· δεῖ δὴ τὴν Let AB be the given finite straight-line. Thus. ἀλλὰ τὸ ΗΘ τῷ ΜΝ ἴσον ἐστίν. And since AE is equal to EB. 1. M N is also similar to EL [Prop. ELEMENTS BOOK 6 καὶ τὸ ΜΝ ἄρα τῷ ΕΛ ὅμοιόν ἐστιν· περὶ τὴν αὐτὴν ἄρα διάμετρόν ἐστι τὸ ΕΛ τῷ ΜΝ. Let EL have been subtracted from both. M N is thus also equal to EL and C.1]. καὶ καταγεγράφθω τὸ σχῆμα. Thus. But. the whole (parallelogram) AO is equal to the gnomon V W X. (parallelogram) AO is also equal to (figure) C. † KH is thus also greater than F L.

and to one another [Prop. οὕτως ἡ ΑΕ πρὸς τὴν ΕΒ. Let the square BC have been described on AB [Prop. overshooting by the figure AD (which is) similar to BC [Prop. 6. καὶ παραβεβλήσθω παρὰ τὴν ΑΓ τῷ ΒΓ ἴσον παραλληλόγραμμον τὸ ΓΔ ὑπερβάλλον εἴδει τῷ ΑΔ ὁμοίῳ τῷ ΒΓ.11. Thus. καὶ ἐπεὶ τρεῖς εὐθεῖαι ἀνάλογόν εἰσιν. the sides of BF and AD about the equal angles are reciprocally proportional [Prop. and let the parallelogram CD. have been applied to AC. Therefore. κοινὸν ἀφῃρήσθω τὸ ΓΕ· λοιπὸν ἄρα τὸ ΒΖ λοιπῷ τῷ ΑΔ ἐστιν ἴσον. ῎Ηχθω κάθετος ἡ ΑΔ. the remaining (rectangle) BF is equal to the remaining (square) AD. 1. ἡ δὲ ΕΔ τῇ ΑΕ. ἔστιν ὡς ἡ πρώτη πρὸς τὴν τρίτην. This method of cutting a straight-line is sometimes called the “Golden Section”—see Prop.14]. And since BC is equal to CD. and similarly described. AE (is) also greater than EB [Prop. ἔστι δὲ αὐτῷ καὶ ἰσογώνιον· τῶν ΒΖ.STOIQEIWN þ. let (rectangle) CE have been subtracted from both. ΑΓ εἴδεσι τοῖς ὁμοίοις τε καὶ ὁμοίως ἀναγραφομένοις. surrounding the right-angle. in the right-angled triangle ABC.12]. Thus. as BA is to AE. μείζων δὲ ἡ ΑΒ τῆς ΑΕ· μείζων ἄρα καὶ ἡ ΑΕ τῆς ΕΒ. Proposition 31 ᾿Εν τοῖς ὀρθογωνίοις τριγώνοις τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς τὴν ὀρθὴν In right-angled triangles. Thus.14]. Thus. 5. the straight-line AB has been cut in extreme and mean ratio at E. ΑΔ ἄρα ἀντιπεπόνθασιν αἱ πλευραὶ αἱ περὶ τὰς ἴσας γωνίας· ἔστιν ἄρα ὡς ἡ ΖΕ πρὸς τὴν ΕΔ. figures on BA and AC. laþ. AD is also a square. (Which is) the very thing it was required to do. 6. καὶ ἐπεὶ ὅμοιόν ἐστι τὸ ΑΒΓ τῷ ΑΒΔ. ΑΔΓ πρὸς τῇ καθέτῳ τρίγωνα ὅμοιά ἐστι τῷ τε ὅλῳ τῷ ΑΒΓ καὶ ἀλλήλοις.8]. and AE is its greater piece. And it is also equiangular to it. the (straight-line) AD has been drawn from the rightangle at A perpendicular to the base BC. ὅτι τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς ΒΓ εἶδος ἴσον ἐστὶ τοῖς ἀπὸ τῶν ΒΑ. since. Let the perpendicular AD have been drawn [Prop. 6. And AB (is) greater than AE. Thus. I say that the figure (drawn) on BC is equal to the (sum of the) similar. Α Β ∆ A B Γ ῎Εστω τρίγωνον ὀρθογώνιον τὸ ΑΒΓ ὀρθὴν ἔχον τὴν ὑπὸ ΒΑΓ γωνίαν· λέγω. οὕτως ἡ ΑΕ πρὸς τὴν ΕΒ. figures on the sides τε καὶ ὁμοίως ἀναγραφομένοις. ἔστιν ἄρα ὡς ἡ ΒΑ πρὸς τὴν ΑΕ. 1. And F E (is) equal to AB. so AE (is) to EB. and ED to AE. Τετράγωνον δέ ἐστι τὸ ΒΓ· τετράγωνον ἄρα ἐστι καὶ τὸ ΑΔ. the triangles ABD and ADC about the perpendicular are similar to the whole (triangle) ABC. ἔστιν ἄρα ὡς ἡ ΓΒ πρὸς τὴν ΒΑ.46]. 2. οὕτως τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς πρώτης εἶδος πρὸς D C Let ABC be a right-angled triangle having the angle BAC a right-angle. † ratio. equal to BC. οὕτως ἡ ΑΒ πρὸς τὴν ΒΔ. τὰ ΑΒΔ. the figure (drawn) on the γωνίαν ὑποτεινούσης πλευρᾶς εἶδος ἴσον ἐστὶ τοῖς ἀπὸ τῶν side subtending the right-angle is equal to the (sum of τὴν ὀρθὴν γωνίαν περιεχουσῶν πλευρῶν εἴδεσι τοῖς ὁμοίοις the) similar. Thus. so AE (is) to EB. ἴση δὲ ἡ μὲν ΖΕ τῇ ΑΒ. thus 189 . And BC is a square. καὶ τὸ μεῖζον αὐτῆς τμῆμά ἐστι τὸ ΑΕ· ὅπερ ἔδει ποιῆσαι. ῾Η ἄρα ΑΒ εὐθεῖα ἄκρον καὶ μέσον λόγον τέτμηται κατὰ τὸ Ε. ᾿Επεὶ οὖν ἐν ὀρθογωνίῳ τριγώνῳ τῷ ΑΒΓ ἀπὸ τῆς πρὸς τῷ Α ὀρθῆς γωνίας ἐπὶ τὴν ΒΓ βάσιν κάθετος ἦκται ἡ ΑΔ. And since ABC is similar to ABD. as F E is to ED.29]. Thus. καὶ ἐπεὶ ἴσον ἐστὶ τὸ ΒΓ τῷ ΓΔ. and similarly described. ELEMENTS BOOK 6 ᾿Αναγεγράφθω ἀπὸ τῆς ΑΒ τετράγωνον τὸ ΒΓ.

1. so AB (is) to BD [Def. ΑΓ ταῖς δυσὶ πλευραῖς ταῖς ΔΓ. διὰ τὰ αὐτὰ δὴ καὶ ἡ ὑπὸ ΓΔΕ τῇ ὑπὸ ΑΓΔ ἴση ἐστίν. ΔΓ· ἴσον ἄρα καὶ τὸ ἄπὸ τῆς ΒΓ εἶδος τοῖς ἀπὸ τῶν ΒΑ. ELEMENTS BOOK 6 τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς δευτέρας τὸ ὅμοιον καὶ ὁμοίως ἀναγραφόμενον. BAC is equal to CDE. περὶ C E Let ABC and DCE be two triangles having the two sides BA and AC proportional to the two sides DC and DE—so that as AB (is) to AC. So. hence. οὕτως τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς ΒΓ εἶδος πρὸς τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς ΓΑ.]. and the straight-line AC has fallen across them. CDE is also equal to ACD. as the first is to the third. and similarly described. And BC is equal to BD and DC.29]. 6. the alternate angles BAC and ACD are equal to one another [Prop. I say that (side) BC is straight-on to CE. οὕτως τὴν ΔΓ πρὸς τὴν ΔΕ. Proposition 32 ᾿Εὰν δύο τρίγωνα συντεθῇ κατὰ μίαν γωνίαν τὰς δύο If two triangles. Thus. (figures) on BA and AC [Prop.1]. 5. And so. ὥστε καὶ ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΑΓ τῇ ὑπὸ ΓΔΕ ἐστιν ἴση. οὕτως τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς ΓΒ εἶδος πρὸς τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς ΒΑ τὸ ὅμοιον καὶ ὁμοίως ἀναγραφόμενον. lbþ. ΑΓ εἴδεσι τοῖς ὁμοίοις τε καὶ ὁμοίως ἀναγραφομένοις. so DC (is) to DE—and (having side) AB parallel to DC. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. so the figure (drawn) on CB (is) to the similar. ΔΓ. Thus. figures on BA and AC [Prop. 6. and similarly described.STOIQEIWN þ.24]. as BC (is) to CD. διὰ τὰ αὐτὰ δὴ καὶ ὡς ἡ ΒΓ πρὸς τὴν ΓΔ. ὥστε καὶ ὡς ἡ ΒΓ πρὸς τὰς ΒΔ. And since ABC and DCE are two triangles having the one angle at A equal to the one 190 . καὶ ἐπεὶ δύο τρίγωνά ἐστι τὰ ΑΒΓ. as CB (is) to BD.19 corr. ΑΓ τὰ ὅμοια καὶ ὁμοίως ἀναγραφόμενα. then the remaining τῶν τριγώνων πλευραὶ ἐπ᾿ εὐθείας ἔσονται. And since three straight-lines are proportional. αἱ ἐναλλὰξ γωνίαι αἱ ὑπὸ ΒΑΓ. (figure) on the second [Prop. so the figure (drawn) on the first is to the similar. ὡς ἄρα ἡ ΓΒ πρὸς τὴν ΒΔ.9]. ᾿Εν ἄρα τοῖς ὀρθογωνίοις τριγώνοις τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς τὴν ὀρθὴν γωνίαν ὑποτεινούσης πλευρᾶς εἶδος ἴσον ἐστὶ τοῖς ἀπὸ τῶν τὴν ὀρθὴν γωνίαν περιεχουσῶν πλευρῶν εἴδεσι τοῖς ὁμοίοις τε καὶ ὁμοίως ἀναγραφομένοις· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. παράλληλον δὲ τὴν μὲν ΑΒ τῇ ΔΓ. ∆ D Α Β Γ A Ε B ῎Εστω δύο τρίγωνα τὰ ΑΒΓ. the figure (drawn) on the side subtending the right-angle is equal to the (sum of the) similar. ὅτι ἐπ᾿ εὐθείας ἐστὶν ἡ ΒΓ τῇ ΓΕ. (figure) on BA. τὴν δὲ ΑΓ τῇ ΔΕ· λέγω. having two sides proportional to two πλευρὰς ταῖς δυσὶ πλευραῖς ἀνάλογον ἔχοντα ὥστε τὰς sides. figures on the sides surrounding the right-angle. ᾿Επεὶ γὰρ παράλληλός ἐστιν ἡ ΑΒ τῇ ΔΓ. ΔΕ ἀνάλογον ἔχοντα. ΔΓΕ τὰς δύο πλευρὰς τὰς ΒΑ. as BC (is) to BD and DC. for the same (reasons). Thus. in right-angled triangles. 5. sides of the triangles will be straight-on (with respect to one another). for the same (reasons). And. αἱ λοιπαὶ corresponding sides are also parallel. and similarly described. also. and AC to DE. so the figure (drawn) on BC (is) to the (sum of the) similar. οὕτως τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς ΒΓ εἶδος πρὸς τὰ ἀπὸ τῶν ΒΑ. Hence. and similarly described. and similarly described. καὶ εἰς αὐτὰς ἐμπέπτωκεν εὐθεῖα ἡ ΑΓ. the figure (drawn) on BC (is) also equal to the (sum of the) similar. are placed together at a single angle such that the ὁμολόγους αὐτῶν πλευρὰς καὶ παραλλήλους εἶναι. ΔΓΕ μίαν γωνίαν τὴν πρὸς τῷ Α μιᾷ γωνίᾳ τῇ πρὸς τῷ Δ ἴσην ἔχοντα. ὡς μὲν τὴν ΑΒ πρὸς τὴν ΑΓ. so the figure (drawn) on BC (is) to the (figure) on CA. ΑΓΔ ἴσαι ἀλλήλαις εἰσίν. as CB is to BA. ἴση δὲ ἡ ΒΓ ταῖς ΒΔ. For since AB is parallel to DC.

CGK. and HN have been joined. and the sides about the equal angles proportional. ELEMENTS BOOK 6 δὲ τὰς ἴσας γωνίας τὰς πλευρὰς ἀνάλογον. angles have the same ratio as the (raλόγον ταῖς περιφερείαις. and ACB are equal to two right-angles [Prop. CK and KL. ἴσαι εἰσὶ καὶ αἱ ὑπὸ ΒΗΓ. Proposition 33 ᾿Εν τοῖς ἴσοις κύκλοις αἱ γωνίαι τὸν αὐτὸν ἔχουσι In equal circles. ΓΕ μὴ ἐπὶ τὰ αὐτὰ μέρη κείμεναι τὰς ἐφεξῆς γωνάις τὰς ὑπὸ ΑΓΕ. Thus. And (angle) ACD was also shown (to be) equal to BAC. and let BGC and EHF be angles at their centers. ΑΓΒ. ἰσογώνιον ἄρα ἐστὶ τὸ ΑΒΓ τρίγωνον τῷ ΔΓΕ τριγώνῳ· ἴση ἄρα ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΒΓ γωνία τῇ ὑπὸ ΔΓΕ. ΕΘΖ. ἐάν τε πρὸς tio of the) circumferences on which they stand. and KL are equal to one another. BC is straight-on to CE [Prop.14].STOIQEIWN þ. ΑΒΓ. GL. Θ γωνίαι ἔστωσαν αἱ ὑπὸ ΒΗΓ. ΚΗΛ γωνίαι ἀλλήλαις· ὁσαπλασίων ἄρα ἐστὶν ἡ ΒΛ περιφέρεια τῆς ΒΓ. then the remaining sides of the triangles will be straight-on (with respect to one another). τῇ δὲ ΕΖ περιφερείᾳ ἴσαι ὁσαιδηποτοῦν αἱ ΖΜ. angle ABC is equal to DCE. Thus. ΑΓΒ ἄρα δυσὶν ὀρθαῖς ἴσαι εἰσίν. and KGL are also equal to one another [Prop.27]. angle at D. whether τοῖς κέντροις ἐάν τε πρὸς ταῖς περιφερείαις ὦσι βεβηκυῖαι. ΓΚ. and BAC and EDF (angles) at their circumferences. ὅτι ἐστὶν ὡς ἡ ΒΓ περιφέρεια πρὸς τὴν ΕΖ περιφέρειαν. ἐφ᾿ ὧν βεβήκασιν. 3. ΜΝ. ΗΛ. Thus. ἐδείχθη δὲ καὶ ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΓΔ τῇ ὑπὸ ΒΑΓ ἴση· ὅλη ἄρα ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΓΕ δυσὶ ταῖς ὑπὸ ΑΒΓ. ΚΛ. Thus. ACB.6]. G and H (respectively). Thus. αἱ λοιπαὶ τῶν τριγώνων πλευραὶ ἐπ᾿ εὐθείας ἔσονται· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. ACE and ACB are equal to BAC. But. ACE and ACB are also equal to two right-angles. πρὸς δὲ ταῖς περιφερείαις αἱ ὑπὸ ΒΑΓ. ΑΓΒ ταῖς ὑπὸ ΒΑΓ. And let GK. ᾿Εὰν ἄρα δύο τρίγωνα συντεθῇ κατὰ μίαν γωνίαν τὰς δύο πλευρὰς ταῖς δυσὶ πλευραῖς ἀνάλογον ἔχοντα ὥστε τὰς ὁμολόγους αὐτῶν πλευρὰς καὶ παραλλήλους εἶναι. τοσαυταπλασίων ἐστὶ καὶ ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΗΛ γωνία τῆς ὑπὸ ΒΗΓ. HM . so many 191 . I say that as circumference BC is to circumference EF . ΓΗΚ. lgþ. ΚΛ περιφέρειαι ἀλλήλαις. since circumferences BC. as many times as circumference BL is (divisible) by BC. ἀλλ᾿ αἱ ὑπὸ ΒΑΓ. make adjacent angles ACE and ACB (whose sum is) equal to two right-angles with some straight-line AC. For let any number whatsoever of consecutive (circumferences). ΕΔΖ· λέγω. and (angle) BAC to EDF . angles BGC. διὰ τὰ E F N M Let ABC and DEF be equal circles. the whole (angle) ACE is equal to the two (angles) ABC and BAC. Κείσθωσαν γὰρ τῇ μὲν ΒΓ περιφερείᾳ ἴσαι κατὰ τὸ ἑξῆς ὁσαιδηποτοῦν αἱ ΓΚ. Thus. so angle BGC (is) to EHF . the two straight-lines BC and CE. 6. D A H B J L G D A K G B H E L Z M N C K ῎Εστωσαν ἴσοι κύκλοι οἱ ΑΒΓ. ὡς τὴν ΒΑ πρὸς τὴν ΑΓ. BAC. to circumference EF . ΔΕΖ. πρὸς δή τινι εὐθείᾳ τῇ ΑΓ καὶ τῷ πρὸς αὐτῇ σημείῳ τῷ Γ δύο εὐθεῖαι αἱ ΒΓ. οὕτως τὴν ΓΔ πρὸς τὴν ΔΕ. ΑΓΒ δυσὶν ὀρθαῖς ἴσαι εἰσίν· καὶ αἱ ὑπὸ ΑΓΕ. are placed together at a single angle such that the corresponding sides are also parallel. and CBA. not lying on the same side. ΒΑΓ ἴση ἐστίν. καὶ πρὸς μὲν τοῖς κέντροις αὐτῶν τοῖς Η. Thus. (so that) as BA (is) to AC. οὕτως ἥ τε ὑπὸ ΒΗΓ γωνία πρὸς τὴν ὑπὸ ΕΘΖ καὶ ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΑΓ πρὸς τὴν ὑπὸ ΕΔΖ. ΘΜ. καὶ ἐπεζεύχθωσαν αἱ ΗΚ. ΓΒΑ ἴσαι εἰσίν. 1. Therefore. ΘΝ. Let ACB have been added to both. at the point C on it. ΑΓΒ δυσὶν ὀρθαῖς ἴσας ποιοῦσιν· ἐπ᾿ εὐθείας ἄρα ἐστὶν ἡ ΒΓ τῇ ΓΕ. ᾿Επεὶ οὖν ἴσαι εἰσὶν αἱ ΒΓ. be made equal to circumference BC. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. if two triangles.32]. having two sides proportional to two sides. 1. κοινὴ προσκείσθω ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΓΒ· αἱ ἄρα ὑπὸ ΑΓΕ. they are standing at the centers (of the circles) or at the circumferences. Thus. ABC. CK. so CD (is) to DE. F M and M N . and any number whatsoever. triangle ABC is thus equiangular to triangle DCE [Prop.

3. καὶ εἰ ἴση. And it has been shown that if circumference BL exceeds circumference EN then angle BGL also exceeds angle EHN . οὕτως ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΑΓ πρὸς τὴν ὑπὸ ΕΔΖ. And equal multiples have been taken of circumference BC and angle BGC. angles have the same ratio as the (ratio of the) circumferences on which they stand. καὶ εἰ ἐλάσσων. δύο μὲν περιφερειῶν τῶν ΒΓ. τῆς δὲ ΕΖ περιφερείας καὶ τῆς ὑπὸ ΕΘΖ γωνίας ἥ τε ΕΝ περιφέρια καὶ ἡ ὑπὸ ΕΘΝ γωνία. ἴση. so angle BGC (is) to EHF [Def. ᾿Εν ἄρα τοῖς ἴσοις κύκλοις αἱ γωνίαι τὸν αὐτὸν ἔχουσι λόγον ταῖς περιφερείαις. καὶ εἰ μείζων ἐστὶν ἡ ΒΛ περιφέρεια τῆς ΕΝ περιφερείας.20]. δύο δὲ γωνιῶν τῶν ὑπὸ ΒΗΓ. ἐλάσσων. as circumference BC (is) to EF .15]. so (angle) BAC (is) to EDF [Prop. if circumference BL is equal to circumference EN then angle BGL is also equal to EHN [Prop. ἐλάσσων. διπλασία γὰρ ἑκατέρα ἑκατέρας. εἴληπται τῆς μὲν ΒΓ περιφερείας καὶ τῆς ὑπὸ ΒΗΓ γωνίας ἰσάκις πολλαπλασίων ἥ τε ΒΛ περιφέρεια καὶ ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΗΛ γωνία. μείζων ἐστὶ καὶ ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΗΛ γωνία τῆς ὑπὸ ΕΘΝ. τεσσάρων δὴ ὄντων μεγεθῶν. This is a straight-forward generalization of Prop.STOIQEIWN þ. ELEMENTS BOOK 6 αὐτὰ δὴ καὶ ὁσαπλασίων ἐστὶν ἡ ΝΕ περιφέρεια τῆς ΕΖ. and if (BL is) less (than EN then BGL is also) less (than EHN ). ΕΖ. so angle BGC (is) to EHF . (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. οὕτως ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΗΓ γωνία πρὸς τὴν ὑπὸ ΕΘΖ. So there are four magnitudes. Thus. ἴση ἐστὶ καὶ γωνία ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΗΛ τῇ ὑπὸ ΕΘΝ. 3. But as angle BGC (is) to EHF . and two angles BGC and EHF . ὑπερέχει καὶ ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΗΛ γωνία τῆς ὑπο ΕΘΝ γωνίας. ὅτι εἰ ὑπερέχει ἡ ΒΛ περιφέρεια τῆς ΕΝ περιφερείας. Thus. 5. καὶ ὡς ἄρα ἡ ΒΓ περιφέρεια πρὸς τὴν ΕΖ περιφέρειαν. And so. 5. εἰ ἄρα ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ΒΛ περιφέρεια τῇ ΕΝ περιφερείᾳ. † times is angle BGL also (divisible) by BGC. as circumference BC (is) to circumference EF .27]. ΕΘΖ. as many times as circumference N E is (divisible) by EF .5].27 192 . ἐφ᾿ ὧν βεβήκασιν. 3. whether they are standing at the centers (of the circles) or at the circumferences. καὶ δέδεικται. and if circumference BL is greater than circumference EN then angle BGL is also greater than EHN . so many times is angle N HE also (divisible) by EHF . (namely) circumference BL and angle BGL. Thus. ἀλλ᾿ ὡς ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΗΓ γωνία πρὸς τὴν ὑπὸ ΕΘΖ. ἔστιν ἄρα. τοσαυταπλασίων ἐστὶ καὶ ἡ ὑπὸ ΝΘΕ γωνία τῆς ὑπὸ ΕΘΖ. and BAC to EDF . Thus. For the former (are) double the latter (respectively) [Prop. ὡς ἡ ΒΓ περιφέρεια πρὸς τὴν ΕΖ.† and if (BL is) less (than EN then BGL is also) less (than EHN ). also. two circumferences BC and EF . (namely) circumference EN and angle EHN . ἐάν τε πρὸς τοῖς κέντροις ἐάν τε πρὸς ταῖς περιφερείαις ὦσι βεβηκυῖαι· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. οὕτως ἥ τε ὑπὸ ΒΗΓ γωνία πρὸς τὴν ὑπὸ ΕΘΖ καὶ ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΑΓ πρὸς τὴν ὑπὸ ΕΔΖ. for the same (reasons). καὶ εἰ ἐλάσσων. and of circumference EF and angle EHF . and if (BL is) equal (to EN then BGL is also) equal (to EHN ). in equal circles.

193 .ELEMENTS BOOK 7 Elementary Number Theory† † The propositions contained in Books 7–9 are generally attributed to the school of Pythagoras.

Μέρη δέ. ὁ γενόμενος ἐπίπεδος καλεῖται. Πολλαπλάσιος δὲ ὁ μείζων τοῦ ἐλάσσονος. A primek number is one (which is) measured by a unit alone. or which differs from an even number by a unit. ᾿Αριθμὸς δὲ τὸ ἐκ μονάδων συγκείμενον πλῆθος. ὅταν ὁ πρῶτος τοῦ δευτέρου καὶ ὁ τρίτος τοῦ τετάρτου ἰσάκις ᾖ πολλαπλάσιος ἢ τὸ αὐτὸ μέρος ἢ τὰ αὐτὰ μέρη ὦσιν. the lesser of the greater. Σύνθετοι δὲ πρὸς ἀλλήλους ἀριθμοί εἰσιν οἱ ἀριθμῷ τινι μετρούμενοι κοινῷ μέτρῳ. Περισσὸς δὲ ὁ μὴ διαιρούμενος δίχα ἢ [ὁ] μονάδι διαφέρων ἀρτίου ἀριθμοῦ. A number is part of a(nother) number. And when three numbers multiplying one another make some (other number) then the (number so) created is (called) solid. ηʹ. and its sides (are) the numbers which multiply one another. ιγʹ. τοσαυτάκις συντεθῇ ὁ πολλαπλασιαζόμενος. 19. πλευραὶ δὲ αὐτοῦ οἱ πολλαπλασιάσαντες ἀλλήλους ἀριθμοί. ELEMENTS BOOK 7 VOroi.∗ 10. ιϛʹ. καὶ γένηταί τις. And a number (is) a multitude composed of units. ιαʹ. 1. 8. 16. κβʹ. ὁ γενόμενος στερεός ἐστιν. γʹ. A unit is (that) according to which each existing (thing) is said (to be) one. καθ᾿ ἣν ἕκαστον τῶν ὄντων ἓν λέγεται. And an odd-times-odd number is one (which is) measured by an odd number according to an odd number. ιθʹ. ιʹ. ιηʹ. ιδʹ. Μέρος ἐστὶν ἀριθμὸς ἀριθμοῦ ὁ ἐλάσσων τοῦ μείζονος. and its sides (are) the numbers which multiply one another. 194 . And a cube (number) is an equal times an equal times an equal. But (the lesser is) parts (of the greater) when it does not measure it. 18. Μονάς ἐστιν. ιβʹ. ὅταν. when it measures the greater. ῎Αρτιάκις δὲ περισσός ἐστιν ὁ ὑπὸ ἀρτίου ἀριθμοῦ μετρούμενος κατὰ περισσὸν ἀριθμόν. Κύβος δὲ ὁ ἰσάκις ἴσος ἰσάκις ἢ [ὁ] ὑπὸ τριῶν ἴσων ἀριθμῶν περιεχόμενος. πλευραὶ δὲ αὐτοῦ οἱ πολλαπλασιάσαντες ἀλλήλους ἀριθμοί. ᾿Αριθμοὶ ἀνάλογόν εἰσιν. A square number is an equal times an equal. ιεʹ. And numbers composite to one another are those (which are) measured by some number as a common measure. Περισσάκις δὲ περισσὸς ἀριθμός ἐστιν ὁ ὑπὸ περισσοῦ ἀριθμοῦ μετρούμενος κατὰ περισσὸν ἀριθμόν. An even-times-even number is one (which is) measured by an even number according to an even number. 14. And when two numbers multiplying one another make some (other number) then the (number so) created is called plane. ῞Οταν δὲ τρεῖς ἀριθμοὶ πολλαπλασιάσαντες ἀλλήλους ποιῶσί τινα. and (thereby) some (other number) is produced. ὅταν καταμετρῆται ὑπὸ τοῦ ἐλάσσονος. θʹ. ᾿Αριθμὸς ἀριθμὸν πολλαπλασιάζειν λέγεται. εʹ. Numbers prime to one another are those (which are) measured by a unit alone as a common measure. Τέλειος ἀριθμός ἐστιν ὁ τοῖς ἑαυτοῦ μέρεσιν ἴσος ὤν. or (a solid number) contained by three equal numbers. ϛʹ.STOIQEIWN zþ. ιζʹ. ῞Ομοιοι ἐπίπεδοι καὶ στερεοὶ ἀριθμοί εἰσιν οἱ ανάλογον ἔχοντες τὰς πλευράς. Πρῶτος ἀριθμός ἐστιν ὁ μονάδι μόνῃ μετρούμενος. 7. 15.¶ 9. ζʹ.$ 11.† 3. 12. 13. And an even-times-odd number is one (which is) measured by an even number according to an odd number. 17. Σύνθετος ἀριθμός ἐστιν ὁ ἀριθμῷ τινι μετρούμενος. ᾿Αρτιάκις ἄρτιος ἀριθμός ἐστιν ὁ ὑπὸ ἀρτίου ἀριθμοῦ μετρούμενος κατὰ ἄρτιον ἀριθμόν. Definitions αʹ. A number is said to multiply a(nother) number when the (number being) multiplied is added (to itself) as many times as there are units in the former (number). An even number is one (which can be) divided in half. Πρῶτοι πρὸς ἀλλήλους ἀριθμοί εἰσιν οἱ μονάδι μόνῃ μετρούμενοι κοινῷ μέτρῳ. A composite number is one (which is) measured by some number. Τετράγωνος ἀριθμός ἐστιν ὁ ἰσάκις ἴσος ἢ [ὁ] ὑπὸ δύο ἴσων ἀριθμῶν περιεχόμενος. ῞Οταν δὲ δύο ἀριθμοὶ πολλαπλασιάσαντες ἀλλήλους ποιῶσί τινα. ῎Αρτιος ἀριθμός ἐστιν ὁ δίχα διαιρούμενος. ὅσαι εἰσὶν ἐν αὐτῷ μονάδες. 6. And an odd number is one (which can)not (be) divided in half. And the greater (number is) a multiple of the lesser when it is measured by the lesser. βʹ. δʹ.§ 5. καʹ. 2.‡ 4. ὅταν καταμετρῇ τὸν μείζονα. κʹ. ὅταν μὴ καταμετρῇ. or (a plane number) contained by two equal numbers.

Εἰ γὰρ μή εἰσιν οἱ ΑΒ. “first”. τουτέστιν ὅτι τοὺς ΑΒ. then the original numbers will be prime to one another. ὁ δὲ ΓΗ τὸν ΖΘ μετρεῖ· D For two [unequal] numbers. ὁ δὲ ΓΔ τὸν ΒΖ μετρεῖ. 21. (E) will also measure the remainder 195 . 22. greater. that a unit alone measures (both) AB and CD. HA. ἀνθυφαιρουμένου δὲ Two unequal numbers (being) laid down. καὶ ὁ Ε ἄρα τὸν ΒΖ μετρεῖ· μετρεῖ δὲ καὶ ὅλον τὸν ΒΑ· καὶ λοιπὸν ἄρα τὸν ΑΖ μετρήσει. I say that AB and CD are prime to one another—that is to say. For if AB and CD are not prime to one another then some number will measure them. m and n. since E measures CD. A perfect number is that which is equal to its own parts. ὁ δὲ ΗΓ τὸν ΖΘ μετρῶν λειπέτω μονάδα τὴν ΘΑ. or the same part. †† In other words. μετρήσει τις αὐτοὺς ἀριθμός. ΓΔ μονὰς μόνη μετρεῖ. if the remainder never measures the (number) οἱ ἐξ ἀρχῆς ἀριθμοὶ πρῶτοι πρὸς ἀλλὴλους ἔσονται. ELEMENTS BOOK 7 20. ΓΔ πρῶτοι πρὸς ἀλλήλους. and let GC measuring F H leave a unit. an odd-times-odd number is the product of two odd numbers. a perfect number is equal to the sum of its own factors. $ In other words. ὅτι οἱ ΑΒ.†† † In other words. Α Ζ A Θ H F Γ Η C G Ε Β E ∆ B Δύο γὰρ [ἀνίσων] ἀριθμῶν τῶν ΑΒ. let the remainder never measure the (number) preceding it. ∗ In other words. and CD measures BF . § In other words. such that n a = m b. aþ. Thus. from the greater. ἕως οὗ λειφθῇ μονάς. of the second that the third (is) of the fourth. in turn. Proposition 1 Δύο ἀριθμῶν ἀνίσων ἐκκειμένων. μετρείτω. the lesser being continually subtracted. ἕως οὗ λειφθῇ μονάς· λέγω. ‡ In other words.† And (E) also measures the whole of BA. ᾿Επεὶ οὖν ὁ Ε τὸν ΓΔ μετρεῖ. preceding it. a number a is part of another number b if there exists some number n such that n a = b. k Literally. καὶ ἔστω ὁ Ε· καὶ ὁ μὲν ΓΔ τὸν ΒΖ μετρῶν λειπέτω ἑαυτοῦ ἐλάσσονα τὸν ΖΑ. ἐὰν ὁ λειπόμενος lesser being continually subtracted. and let it be E. a “number” is a positive integer greater than unity. a number a is parts of another number b (where a < b) if there exist distinct numbers. Similar plane and solid numbers are those having proportional sides. from the μηδέποτε καταμετρῇ τὸν πρὸ ἑαυτοῦ. In fact. ὁ δὲ ΑΖ τὸν ΔΗ μετρῶν λειπέτω ἑαυτοῦ ἐλάσσονα τὸν ΗΓ. an even-times-even number is the product of two even numbers. Let (some number) measure them. ὁ δὲ ΑΖ τὸν ΔΗ μετρεῖ· καὶ ὁ Ε ἄρα τὸν ΔΗ μετρεῖ· μετρεῖ δὲ καὶ ὅλον τὸν ΔΓ· καὶ λοιπὸν ἄρα τὸν ΓΗ μετρήσει. an even-times-odd number is the product of an even and an odd number. until a unit remains. Numbers are proportional when the first is the same multiple. and the ἀεὶ τοῦ ἐλάσσονος ἀπὸ τοῦ μείζονος. until a unit remains.STOIQEIWN zþ. in turn. And let CD measuring BF leave F A less than itself. ΓΔ πρῶτοι πρὸς ἀλλήλους εἰσίν. ΓΔ ἀνθυφαιρουμένου ἀεὶ τοῦ ἐλάσσονος ἀπὸ τοῦ μείζονος ὁ λειπόμενος μηδέποτε καταμετρείτω τὸν πρὸ ἑαυτοῦ. AB and CD. E thus also measures BF . and let AF measuring DG leave GC less than itself. or the same parts. ¶ In other words.

then a also measures the remainder of b. ἐπεὶ οὖν ὁ ΓΖ τὸν ΑΕ μετρεῖ. then a also measures c. ὃς μετρήσει τὸν πρὸ ἑαυτοῦ. (since CD) also measures itself. ὁ ΓΔ ἄρα τῶν ΓΔ. and let EA measuring DF leave F C less than itself. καὶ φανερόν. ΓΔ κοινὸν D Let AB and CD be the two given numbers (which are) not prime to one another. ELEMENTS BOOK 7 καὶ ὁ Ε ἄρα τὸν ΖΘ μετρεῖ· μετρεῖ δὲ καὶ ὅλον τὸν ΖΑ· καὶ λοιπὴν ἄρα τὴν ΑΘ μονάδα μετρήσει ἀριθμὸς ὤν· ὅπερ ἐστὶν ἀδύνατον. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. CD is thus a common measure of CD and AB. AB and CD will be prime to one another [Prop. Α Ε A E Γ Ζ C F Η Β G ∆ B ῎Εστωσαν οἱ δοθέντες δύο ἀριθμοὶ μὴ πρῶτοι πρὸς ἀλλήλους οἱ ΑΒ. καὶ ὁ ΓΖ ἄρα τὸν ΔΖ μετρήσει. μονὰς μὲν γὰρ οὐ λειφθήσεται· εἰ δὲ μή. Thus. ὁ δὲ ΑΕ τὸν ΔΖ μετρεῖ. ἔσονται οἱ ΑΒ. But if CD does not measure AB then some number will remain from AB and CD. In fact. λειφθήσεταί τις ἄρα ἀριθμὸς. τῶν ΑΒ. bþ. 7. and b measures c. The very opposite thing was assumed. ὁ ΓΖ ἄρα τῶν ΑΒ. (E) will also measure the remainder CG. And (E) also measures the whole of DC. Thus. E also measures DG. † Here. in turn. Proposition 2 Δύο ἀριθμῶν δοθέντων μὴ πρώτων πρὸς ἀλλήλους τὸ μέγιστον αὐτῶν κοινὸν μέτρον εὑρεῖν. Therefore. So it is required to find the greatest common measure of AB and CD. καὶ ὁ μὲν ΓΔ τὸν ΒΕ μετρῶν λειπέτω ἑαυτοῦ ἐλάσσονα τὸν ΕΑ. ὁ δὲ ΓΔ τὸν ΒΕ μετρεῖ· καὶ ὁ ΓΖ ἄρα τὸν ΒΕ μετρεῖ· μετρεῖ δὲ καὶ τὸν ΕΑ· καὶ ὅλον ἄρα τὸν ΒΑ μετρήσει· μετρεῖ δὲ καὶ τὸν ΓΔ· ὁ ΓΖ ἄρα τοὺς ΑΒ. ὁ δὲ ΓΖ τὸν ΑΕ μετρείτω. ΓΔ πρῶτοι πρὸς ἀλλήλους· ὅπερ οὐχ ὑπόκειται. ΓΔ τὸ μέγιστον κοινὸν μέτρον εὑρεῖν. AB and CD are prime to one another. E also measures F H. And let CD measuring BE leave EA less than itself.1]. Thus. (E) will also measure the remaining unit AH. ΑΒ κοινὸν μέτρον ἐστίν. And CG measures F H. which will measure the (number) preceding it. Thus. ΓΔ ἀριθμοὺς μετρήσει τις ἀριθμός· οἱ ΑΒ. ὅτι καὶ μέγιστον· οὐδεὶς γὰρ μείζων τοῦ ΓΔ τὸν ΓΔ μετρήσει. μετρεῖ δὲ καὶ ἑαυτόν· καὶ ὅλον ἄρα τὸν ΓΔ μετρήσει. if CD measures AB.‡ And AF measures DG. some number does not measure (both) the numbers AB and CD. To find the greatest common measure of two given numbers (which are) not prime to one another. And (E) also measures the whole of F A. μετρεῖ δὲ καὶ ἑαυτόν. ΓΔ ἀνθυφαιρουμένου ἀεὶ τοῦ ἐλάσσονος ἀπὸ τοῦ μείζονος λειφθήσεταί τις ἀριθμός. But if not. Thus. ΓΔ μετρεῖ. where all symbols denote numbers. For nothing greater than CD can measure CD. AF . the lesser being continually subtracted. Thus. Εἰ μὲν οὖν ὁ ΓΔ τὸν ΑΒ μετρεῖ. use is made of the unstated common notion that if a measures b. οὐκ ἄρα τοὺς ΑΒ. and a measures part of b. and let CF measure AE. use is made of the unstated common notion that if a measures b.STOIQEIWN zþ. ὃς μετρήσει τὸν πρὸ ἑαυτοῦ. CF will thus also measure DF . Thus. Thus. ΓΔ. Εἰ δὲ οὐ μετρεῖ ὁ ΓΔ τὸν ΑΒ. some number will remain which will measure the (number) preceding it. And it also measures itself. For a unit will not be left. ὁ δὲ ΕΑ τὸν ΔΖ μετρῶν λειπέτω ἑαυτοῦ ἐλάσσονα τὸν ΖΓ. and AE measures DF . The very thing is impossible. ΓΔ ἄρα πρῶτοι πρὸς ἀλλήλους εἰσίν· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. (despite) being a number. it will 196 . since CF measures AE. And (it is) manifest that (it is) also the greatest (common measure). from the greater. where all symbols denote numbers. δεῖ δὴ τῶν ΑΒ. ‡ Here.

(Which is) the very thing it was required to show. And AE measures DF . some number which is greater than CF cannot measure the numbers AB and CD. Thus. And since G measures CD. Γ κοινὸν μέτρον ἐστίν. And it also measures CD. of the two (numbers) A and B have been taken [Prop. καὶ ἔστω ὁ Η. So D either measures. So it is required to find the greatest common measure of A. C. G will also measure DF . CF is a common measure of AB and CD. λέγω δή. it will also measure the remainder CF . from this. καὶ τὸ μέγιστον αὐτῶν κοινὸν μέτρον μετρήσει· ὅπερ two numbers then it will also measure their greatest comἔδει δεῖξαι. B. Β· ὁ Δ ἄρα τοὺς Α. Β τὸ μέγιστον κοινὸν μέτρον ὁ Δ· ὁ δὴ Δ τὸν Γ ἤτοι μετρεῖ ἢ οὐ μετρεῖ. [(Which is) the very thing it was required to show]. G thus also measures BE. So I say that (it is) also the greatest (common measure). Thus. the greater (measuring) the lesser. And it also measures A and B. For let the greatest common measure. CF measures (both) AB and CD. And CD measures BE. καὶ ἐπεὶ ὁ Η τὸν ΓΔ μετρεῖ. μετρήσει τις τοὺς ΑΒ. and let it be G. Corollary ᾿Εκ δὴ τούτου φανερόν. Εἰλήφθω γὰρ δύο τῶν Α. and C be the three given numbers (which are) not prime to one another. it will also measure the whole of BA. ὅτι καὶ B C D E F Let A. μετρείτω πρότερον· μετρεῖ δέ καὶ τοὺς Α. 7. ὁ δὲ ΑΕ τὸν ΔΖ μετρεῖ· καὶ ὁ Η ἄρα τὸν ΔΖ μετρήσει· μετρεῖ δὲ καὶ ὅλον τὸν ΔΓ· καὶ λοιπὸν ἄρα τὸν ΓΖ μετρήσει ὁ μείζων τὸν ἐλάσσονα· ὅπερ ἐστὶν ἀδύνατον· οὐκ ἄρα τοὺς ΑΒ. And it also measures EA. Γ μετρεῖ· ὁ Δ ἄρα τῶν Α. Proposition 3 Τριῶν ἀριθμῶν δοθέντων μὴ πρώτων πρὸς ἀλλήλους τὸ μέγιστον αὐτῶν κοινὸν μέτρον εὑρεῖν. D. ΓΔ μέγιστον κοινὸν μέτρον.STOIQEIWN zþ. Let it (so) measure (AB and CD). For if CF is not the greatest common measure of AB and CD then some number which is greater than CF will measure the numbers AB and CD. The very thing is impossible. that if a number measures μετρῇ.2]. Β. also measure the whole of CD. Α Β Γ ∆ Ε Ζ A ῎Εστωσαν οἱ δοθέντες τρεῖς ἀριθμοὶ μὴ πρῶτοι πρὸς ἀλλήλους οἱ Α. Thus. καὶ ὁ Η ἄρα τὸν ΒΕ μετρεῖ· μετρεῖ δὲ καὶ ὅλον τὸν ΒΑ· καὶ λοιπὸν ἄρα τὸν ΑΕ μετρήσει. let it measure (C). ΓΔ ἀριθμοὺς ἀριθμὸς μείζων ὢν τοῦ ΓΖ. ΓΔ ἀριθμοὺς ἀριθμός τις μετρήσει μείζων ὢν τοῦ ΓΖ· ὁ ΓΖ ἄρα τῶν ΑΒ. CF also measures BE. Thus. And it also measures the whole of DC. And it also measures the whole of BA. μετρείτω. Β. ELEMENTS BOOK 7 μέτρον ἐστίν. Γ· δεῖ δὴ τῶν Α. Β. Γ τὸ μέγιστον κοινὸν μέτρον εὑρεῖν. gþ. D 197 . Thus. and C. Β. Thus. ὅτι καὶ μέγιστον. B. CF is the greatest common measure of AB and CD. and CD measures BE. ΓΔ μέγιστόν ἐστι κοινὸν μέτρον [ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι]. λέγω δή. mon measure. ὁ δὲ ΓΔ τὸν ΒΕ μετρεῖ. Pìrisma. εἰ γὰρ μή ἐστιν ὁ ΓΖ τῶν ΑΒ. it will also measure the remainder AE. Thus. ὅτι ἐὰν ἀριθμὸς δύο ἀριθμοὺς So it is manifest. To find the greatest common measure of three given numbers (which are) not prime to one another. Thus. or does not measure. Thus. Thus. First of all.

Thus. Γ ἄρα οὔκ εἰσι πρῶτοι πρὸς ἀλλήλους. B. and C. that C and D are not prime to one another. Γ μέγιστόν ἐστι κοινὸν μέτρον. and C will also measure A and B. and C. ἐπεὶ οὖν ὁ Ε τοὺς Α. Β ἄρα μετρήσει· καὶ τὸ τῶν Α. Therefore. F measures D. and C. Thus. Β μετρεῖ. καὶ ὁ Ε ἄρα τοὺς Α. τὸ δὲ τῶν Α. and C. ὁ δὴ τοὺς Α. Γ ἀριθμοὺς ἀριθμός τις μετρήσει μείζων ὢν τοῦ Δ· ὁ Δ ἄρα τῶν Α. E. it will thus also measure A and B. and C. Γ ἀριθμοὺς ἀριθμὸς μείζων ὢν τοῦ Ε. καὶ ἐπεὶ ὁ Ε τὸν Δ μετρεῖ. and let BC be the lesser.]. Β μέγιστον κοινὸν μέτρον ἐστὶν ὁ Δ· ὁ Ε ἄρα τὸν Δ μετρεῖ ὁ μείζων τὸν ἐλάσσονα· ὅπερ ἐστὶν ἀδύνατον. Β μετρήσει.2]. B. Thus. B. Β. the greater (measuring) the lesser. Thus. it will also measure the greatest common measure of A and B [Prop. I say that BC is either part or parts of A. Δ οὔκ εἰσι πρῶτοι πρὸς ἀλλήλους. Γ κοινόν ἐστι μέτρον.2 corr. and it will also measure the greatest common measure. Γ οὔκ εἰσι πρῶτοι πρὸς ἀλλήλους. since E measures A. B. And it also measures C. it also measures A and B. And D is the greatest common measure of A and B. καὶ ἔστω ὁ Ε. Β. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. Γ ἀριθμοὺς ἀριθμός τις μετρήσει μείζων ὢν τοῦ Ε· ὁ Ε ἄρα τῶν Α. Γ μετρεῖ.]. Γ τὸ μέγιστον κοινὸν μέτρον. Β. Any number is either part or parts of any (other) number. and C). the lesser of the greater. Thus. let their greatest common measure. Β. Thus. Β. Β. Γ μέγιστόν ἐστι κοινὸν μέτρον· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. ὁ Ε ἄρα τῶν Α. The very thing is impossible. Β. καὶ ἔστω ὁ Ζ. ELEMENTS BOOK 7 μέγιστον. some number which is greater than D cannot measure the numbers A. Therefore. and C. τὸ δὲ τῶν Α. B. Β μετρεῖ· καὶ τὸ τῶν Α. B. And E is the greatest common measure of D and C. Β ἄρα μέγιστον κοινὸν μέτρον μετρήσει. εἰ γὰρ μή ἐστιν ὁ Δ τῶν Α. Β μέγιστον κοινὸν μέτρον ἐστὶν ὁ Δ· ὁ Ζ ἄρα τὸν Δ μετρεῖ· μετρεῖ δὲ καὶ τὸν Γ· ὁ Ζ ἄρα τοὺς Δ. Β. μετρήσει τις τοὺς Α. Β. μετρείτω. καὶ τὸ τῶν Α. Let it (so) measure (A. ἐπεὶ γὰρ οἱ Α. Β. 7. καὶ τοὺς Α. D. B. D and C are not prime to one another. καὶ τοὺς Α. Β. and D measures A and B. Β. Thus.STOIQEIWN zþ. and C. Μὴ μετρείτω δὴ ὁ Δ τὸν Γ· λέγω πρῶτον. 7. Γ μετρῶν καὶ τοὺς Α. So I say that (it is) also the greatest (common measure). D is the greatest common measure of A. καὶ ἐπεὶ ὁ Ζ τοὺς Α. some number will measure them. τὸ δὲ τῶν Δ. B. F measures E. measures A. B. I say. C are not prime to one another. Γ ἄρα μέγιστον κοινὸν μέτρον μετρήσει. have been taken [Prop. and let it be F . εἰλήφθω οὖν αὐτῶν τὸ μέγιστον κοινὸν μέτρον ὁ Ε. Let it (so) measure (A.]. 7. Proposition 4 ῞Απας ἀριθμὸς παντὸς ἀριθμοῦ ὁ ἐλάσσων τοῦ μείζονος ἤτοι μέρος ἐστὶν ἢ μέρη. ὅτι καὶ μέγιστον. Thus. Γ μέγιστον κοινὸν μέτρον ἐστὶν ὁ Ε· ὁ Ζ ἄρα τὸν Ε μετρεῖ ὁ μείζων τὸν ἐλάσσονα· ὅπερ ἐστὶν ἀδύνατον. For if E is not the greatest common measure of A. B.2 corr. μετρήσει τις αὐτοὺς ἀριθμός. ΒΓ.2 corr. Β ἄρα μέγιστον κοινὸν μέτρον μετρήσει. Γ ἄρα ἀριθμοὺς ἀριθμός τις μετρήσει· οἱ Δ. Thus. And it also measures C. μετρείτω. F measures D and C. it will also measure the greatest common measure of D and C [Prop. Β. B. So let D not measure C. μετρήσει τις τοὺς Α. And since F measures A. and C then some number greater than E will measure the numbers A. Γ ἀριθμοὺς ἀριθμὸς μείζων ὢν τοῦ Δ. E measures D. D is a common measure of A. Γ μέγιστον κοινὸν μέτρον. and C. So I say that (it is) also the greatest (common measure). 7. dþ. and let it be E. Thus.2 corr. B. Thus. E is the greatest common measure of A. B. ὅτι ὁ ΒΓ τοῦ Α ἤτοι μέρος ἐστὶν ἢ μέρη. Β μετρεῖ· μετρεῖ δὲ καὶ τὸν Γ· ὁ Ε ἄρα τοὺς Α. ὁ δὲ Δ τοὺς Α. and C. some number which is greater than E does not measure the numbers A. οὐκ ἄρα τοὺς Α. and C. B. Thus. καὶ ἔστω ἐλάσσων ὁ ΒΓ· λέγω. E is a common measure of A. For since A. and C). it will also measure the greatest common measure of A and B [Prop. and C. And since E measures D. ὅτι οἱ Γ. and C. B. Β. ῎Εστωσαν δύο ἀριθμοὶ οἱ Α. And it also measures C. first of all. Thus. and C then some number greater than D will measure the numbers A. Thus. 7. And D is the greatest common measure of A and B. E thus also measures A and B. οὐκ ἄρα τοὺς Α. the greater (measuring) the lesser. of A and B [Prop. B. some number will measure the numbers D and C. The very thing is impossible. B. Γ μετρεῖ. Β μέγιστον κοινὸν μέτρον τὸν Δ μετρήσει· μετρεῖ δὲ καὶ τὸν Γ· τοὺς Δ.]. λέγω δή. Thus. E measures A. For if D is not the greatest common measure of A. So the (number) measuring A. Γ μετρεῖ. 198 . Thus. Γ μετρεῖ· καὶ τὸ τῶν Δ. Let A and BC be two numbers. B. εἰ γὰρ μή ἐστιν ὁ Ε τῶν Α.

STOIQEIWN zþ. BC is parts of A. eþ. D is a part of A. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. EF . EF . And since D measures A. of A and BC have been taken [Prop. ὅπερ ὁ εἷς τοῦ ἑνός. or does not measure. μέρος ἐστὶν ὁ ΒΓ τοῦ Α. BC is parts of A. or not. and . be prime to one another. ΒΓ πρῶτοι πρὸς ἀλλήλους. For A and BC are either prime to one another. καὶ ἐπεὶ ὁ Δ τὸν Α μετρεῖ. διαι. Β B Ε Η Α Γ E G Θ ∆ H Ζ A ᾿Αριθμὸς γὰρ ὁ Α [ἀριθμοῦ] τοῦ ΒΓ μέρος ἔστω. Thus. καὶ 199 C D F For let a number A be part of a [number] BC. Therefore. μέρος ἐστὶν ὁ Δ τοῦ Α· ἴσος δὲ ὁ Δ ἑκάστῳ τῶν ΒΕ. ΕΖ. and another (numαὐτὸ μέρος ᾖ. ΖΓ. So let A and BC be not prime to one another. ῞Απας ἄρα ἀριθμὸς παντὸς ἀριθμοῦ ὁ ἐλάσσων τοῦ μείζονος ἤτοι μέρος ἐστὶν ἢ μέρη· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. 7. καὶ συναμφότερος συναμφοτέρου τὸ αὐτὸ ber) is the same part of another. καὶ διῃρήσθω ὁ ΒΓ εἰς τοὺς τῷ Δ ἴσους τοὺς ΒΕ. if BC measures A then BC is part of A. Proposition 5† ᾿Εὰν ἀριθμὸς ἀριθμοῦ μέρος ᾖ. and F C are also each part of A. Hence. ΒΓ πρῶτοι πρὸς ἀλλήλους· ὁ δὴ ΒΓ τὸν Α ἤτοι μετρεῖ ἢ οὐ μετρεῖ. then the sum (of the μέρος ἔσται. D. ἔστωσαν πρότερον οἱ Α. εἰ μὲν οὖν ὁ ΒΓ τὸν Α μετρεῖ. And if not. BE. and F C. ΕΖ. EF . equal to D. ΒΓ μέγιστον κοινὸν μέτρον ὁ Δ. first of all. each of the units μονὰς τῶν ἐν τῷ ΒΓ μέρος τι τοῦ Α· ὥστε μέρη ἐστὶν ὁ ΒΓ in BC will be some part of A. ΖΓ· καὶ ἕκαστος ἄρα τῶν ΒΕ. leading numbers) will also be the same part of the sum (of the following numbers) that one (number) is of another. Hence. τοῦ Α. any number is either part or parts of any (other) number. the lesser of the greater. ΖΓ τοῦ Α μέρος ἐστίν· ὥστε μέρη ἐστὶν ὁ ΒΓ τοῦ Α. καὶ ἕτερος ἑτέρου τὸ If a number is part of a number. εἰλήφθω τῶν Α. ΕΖ.2]. let the greatest common measure. ΒΓ γὰρ ἤτοι πρῶτοι πρὸς ἀλλήλους εἰσὶν ἢ οὔ. And D is equal to each of BE. and let BC have been divided into BE. ELEMENTS BOOK 7 Οἱ Α. and F C.Let A and BC. So BC either measures. A. So ρεθέντος δὴ τοῦ ΒΓ εἰς τὰς ἐν αὐτῷ μονάδας ἔσται ἑκάστη separating BC into its constituent units. εἰ δὲ οὔ. Α Β B Ε E Ζ F Γ ∆ A C D Μὴ ἔστωσαν δὴ οἱ Α. Thus.

τὰ αὐτὰ μέρη καὶ ὁ ΔΕ τοῦ Ζ. equal to D. ΕΘ ἄρα τοῖς Α. EF equal to A. as many times as BC is (divisible) by A. then the sum (of the μέρη ἔσται. διῇρήσθω ὁ μὲν ΒΓ εἰς τοὺς τῷ Α ἴσους τοὺς ΒΗ. thus as many numbers as are in BC equal to A. ΕΖ τὸ αὐτὸ μέρος ἐστίν. ΘΕ. DE (is) also the same parts of F . EF that A (is) of BC. thus as many parts of C as are in AB. Thus. ὅπερ ὁ Α τοῦ ΒΓ. so many times is the sum BC. In modern notation. ΔΕ συναμφοτέρου τοῦ Γ. ὅσοι ἄρα εἰσὶν ἐν τῷ ΒΓ ἀριθμοὶ ἴσοι τῷ Α. D. ΕΖ συναμφοτέρου τοῦ Α. EH (is) also equal to A. καὶ ἕτερος ἑτέρου τὰ If a number is parts of a number. Δ. ἅπερ ὁ ΑΒ τοῦ Γ. D. so many parts of F are also in DE. DH and HE. ΗΓ. DE is also the same parts of the sum C. this proposition states that if a = (1/n) b and c = (1/n) d then (a + c) = (1/n) (b + d). for the same (reasons). ὃ μέρος ἐστὶν ὁ Α τοῦ ΒΓ. ὃ μέρος ἐστὶν ὁ ΑΗ τοῦ Γ. GC will be equal to the multitude of (divisions) EH. Δ. καὶ οἱ ΒΗ. ὁσαπλασίων ἄρα ἐστὶν ὁ ΒΓ τοῦ Α. ὃ ἄρα μέρος ἐστὶν ὁ Α τοῦ ΒΓ. D is also the same part of the sum BC. διῃρήσθω ὁ μὲν ΑΒ εἰς τὰ τοῦ Γ μέρη τὰ ΑΗ. καὶ ἕτερος ὁ ΔΕ ἑτέρου τοῦ Ζ τὰ αὐτὰ μέρη. HF . þ. τοσοῦτοί εἰσι καὶ ἐν τοῖς ΒΓ. ΗΒ. I say that the sum AB. D. † another (number) D (be) the same part of another (number) EF that A (is) of BC. ὅπερ ὁ εἷς τοῦ ἑνός. Thus. the sum A. τοσοῦτοί εἰσι καὶ ἐν τῷ ΕΖ ἀριθμοὶ ἴσοι τῷ Δ. ὁ δὲ ΕΘ τῷ Δ. ΘΕ· ἔσται δὴ ἴσον τὸ πλῆθος τῶν ΑΗ. Α A ∆ Η Β D G Θ Γ Ε H B Ζ ᾿Αριθμὸς γὰρ ὁ ΑΒ ἀριθμοῦ τοῦ Γ μέρη ἔστω. Thus. ΘΖ τοῖς Α. as many numbers as [are] in BC equal to A. and another (number) DE (be) the same parts of another (number) F that AB (is) of C. So the multitude of (divisions) AG. equal to A. where all symbols denote numbers. 200 . So. Δ συναμφοτέρου τοῦ ΒΓ. ΕΖ ἴσοι τοῖς Α. Let BC have been divided into BG and GC. Δ ἴσοι. τὸ C E F For let a number AB be parts of a number C. AG and GB. ᾿Επεὶ γάρ. D is the same part of EF . leading numbers) will also be the same parts of the sum (of the following numbers) that one (number) is of another. ΕΖ· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. HF (is) also (equal) to A. ἅπερ ὁ ΑΒ τοῦ Γ· λέγω. F that AB (is) of C. ELEMENTS BOOK 7 ἕτερος ὁ Δ ἑτέρου τοῦ ΕΖ τὸ αὐτὸ μέρος. And since BG is equal to A. EF . Δ συναμφοτέρου τοῦ ΒΓ. thus BG. ὁ δὲ ΔΕ εἰς τὰ τοῦ Ζ μέρη τὰ ΔΘ. ὅσοι ἄρα [εἰσὶν] ἐν τῷ ΒΓ ἀριθμοὶ ἴσοι τῷ Α. ΘΖ. so many are also in BC. Let AB have been divided into the parts of C. τὸ αὐτὸ μέρος ἐστὶ καὶ συναμφότερος ὁ Α. For since which(ever) part A is of BC. τοσαυταπλασίων ἐστὶ καὶ συναμφότερος ὁ ΒΓ. I say that the sum A. Δ. τὸ αὐτὸ μέρος ἐστὶ καὶ ὁ Δ τοῦ ΕΖ. Proposition 6† ᾿Εὰν ἀριθμὸς ἀριθμοῦ μέρη ᾖ. which(ever) part A is of BC. GB will be equal to the multitude of (divisions) DH. καὶ ἐπεὶ ἴσος ἐστὶν ὁ μὲν ΒΗ τῷ Α. D is also the same part of the sum BC. For since which(ever) parts AB is of C. ᾿Επεὶ γάρ. καὶ ἐπεί. ὅσα ἄρα ἐστὶν ἐν τῷ ΑΒ μέρη τοῦ Γ. ΗΓ τῷ πλήθει τῶν ΕΘ. so many numbers are also in EF equal to D. ἃ μέρη ἐστὶν ὁ ΑΒ τοῦ Γ. GC. ὅτι καὶ συναμφότερος ὁ Α. D. Ζ τὰ αὐτὰ μέρη ἐστίν. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. ΘΖ· ἔσται δὴ ἴσον τὸ πλῆθος τῶν ΒΗ. EF also (divisible) by the sum A. τοσαῦτά ἐστι καὶ ἐν τῷ ΔΕ μέρη τοῦ Ζ. ὁ δὲ ΕΖ εἰς τοὺς τῷ Δ ἴσους τοὺς ΕΘ.STOIQEIWN zþ. So the multitude of (divisions) BG. καὶ συναμφότερος συναμφοτέρου τὰ αὐτὰ ber) is the same parts of another. and EF into EH and HF . and DE into the parts of F . ΗΒ τῷ πλήθει τῶν ΔΘ. ὅτι καὶ συναμφότερος ὁ ΑΒ. ὅπερ ὁ Α τοῦ ΒΓ· λέγω. and another (numαὐτὰ μέρη ᾖ. and EH to D. διὰ τὰ αὐτὰ δὴ καὶ οἱ ΗΓ.

ὃ ἄρα μέρος ἐστὶν ὁ ΑΕ τοῦ ΓΖ. τὰ αὐτὰ μέρη ἐστὶ καὶ συναμφότερος ὁ ΑΒ. Proposition 8† ᾿Εὰν ἀριθμὸς ἀριθμοῦ μέρη ᾖ.5]. ELEMENTS BOOK 7 αὑτὸ μέρος ἐστὶ καὶ ὁ ΔΘ τοῦ Ζ. thus which(ever) part AE is of CF . τὸ αὐτὸ μέρος ἐστὶ καὶ συναμφότερος ὁ ΗΒ. Thus. DH is also the same part of the sum C. zþ. the sum GB. which(ever) parts AB is of C.STOIQEIWN zþ. let EB also be the same part of CG. καὶ ὁ λοιπὸς τοῦ λοιποῦ τὰ αὐτὰ μέρη ἔσται. τὸ αὐτὸ μέρος ἐστὶ καὶ τοῦ ΓΔ· ἴσος ἄρα ἐστὶν ὁ ΗΖ τῷ ΓΔ. ὅπερ ὅλος ὁ ΑΒ ὅλου τοῦ ΓΔ· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. where all symbols denote numbers. And which(ever) part AE is of CF . καὶ ἐπεί. which(ever) part AE is of CF . Ζ. For which(ever) part AE is of CF . ῝Ο γὰρ μέρος ἐστὶν ὁ ΑΕ τοῦ ΓΖ. the remainder EB is also the same part of the remainder F D that the whole AB (is) of the whole CD. καὶ ἐπεί. ἃ ἄρα μέρη ἐστὶν ὁ ΑΒ τοῦ Γ. the sum AB. F [Prop. DH is also the same part of F . HE. AB is also assumed (to be) the same part of CD. Thus. DE is also the same parts of the sum C. ἴσος δὲ ὁ ΗΓ τῷ ΖΔ. ΔΕ συναμφοτέρου τοῦ Γ. EB is also the same part of F D. I say that the remainder EB is also the same part of the remainder F D that the whole AB (is) of the whole CD. † B C F D For let a number AB be that part of a number CD that a (part) taken away AE (is) of a part taken away CF . 7. Α Ε Η Β A E Γ Ζ ∆ G ᾿Αριθμὸς γὰρ ὁ ΑΒ ἀριθμοῦ τοῦ ΓΔ μέρος ἔστω. τὸ αὐτὸ μέρος ἐστὶ καὶ ὁ ΕΒ τοῦ ΖΔ. ὅπερ ὅλος ὁ ΑΒ ὅλου τοῦ ΓΔ. ΘΕ συναμφοτέρου τοῦ Γ. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. F .5]. taken away (is) of a (part) taken away then the remainὅπερ ὁ ὅλος τοῦ ὅλου. thus which(ever) part AE is of CF . GF is equal to CD. And since which(ever) part AE is of CF . ὃ ἄρα μέρος ἐστὶν ὁ ΑΕ τοῦ ΓΖ. τὸ αὐτὸ μέρος ἔστω καὶ ὁ ΕΒ τοῦ ΓΗ. the sum AG. HE is also the same part of the sum C. Ζ· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. And since which(ever) part AG is of C. der will also be the same part of the remainder that the whole (is) of the whole. which(ever) part GB is of C. der will also be the same parts of the remainder that the 201 . AB is also the same part of GF [Prop. taken away (is) of a (part) taken away then the remainἅπερ ὁ ὅλος τοῦ ὅλου. ἅπερ ἀφαιρεθεὶς ἀφαιIf a number is those parts of a number that a (part) ρεθέντος. 7. this proposition states that if a = (m/n) b and c = (m/n) d then (a + c) = (m/n) (b + d). ὃ δὲ μέρος ἐστὶν ὁ ΑΕ τοῦ ΓΖ. In modern notation. (AB) is also the same part of CD. also. ἀλλὰ ὃ μέρος ἐστὶν ὁ ΑΕ τοῦ ΓΖ. τὸ αὐτὸ μέρος ὑπόκειται καὶ ὁ ΑΒ τοῦ ΓΔ· ὃ ἄρα μέρος ἐστὶ καὶ ὁ ΑΒ τοῦ ΗΖ. τὸ αὐτὸ μέρος ἐστὶ καὶ ὁ ΑΒ τοῦ ΓΔ· καὶ λοιπὸς ἄρα ὁ ΕΒ λοιποῦ τοῦ ΖΔ τὸ αὐτὸ μέρος ἐστίν. Thus. hþ. Ζ. τὸ αὐτὸ μέρος ἐστὶ καὶ συναμφότερος ὁ ΑΗ. ὃ μέρος ἐστὶν ὁ ΑΕ τοῦ ΓΖ. τὸ αὐτὸ μέρος ἐστὶ καὶ ὁ ΑΒ τοῦ ΗΖ. ὅπερ ἀφαιρεθεὶς ὁ ΑΕ ἀφαιρεθέντος τοῦ ΓΖ· λέγω. † In modern notation. this proposition states that if a = (1/n) b and c = (1/n) d then (a − c) = (1/n) (b − d). Thus. And so. which(ever) part AB is of GF . ὅτι καὶ λοιπὸς ὁ ΕΒ λοιποῦ τοῦ ΖΔ τὸ αὐτὸ μέρος ἐστίν. καὶ ὁ λοιπὸς τοῦ λοιποῦ τὸ αὐτὸ μέρος ἔσται. ὅπερ ἀφαιρεθεὶς ἀφαιIf a number is that part of a number that a (part) ρεθέντος. τὸ αὐτὸ μέρος ἐστὶ καὶ ὁ ΕΒ τοῦ ΓΗ. thus which(ever) part AG is of C. διὰ τὰ αὐτὰ δὴ καὶ ὃ μέρος ἐστὶν ὁ ΗΒ τοῦ Γ. F . Thus. AB is also the same part of CD. the remainder GC is equal to the remainder F D. EB [is] also the same part of GC. ὃ ἄρα μέρος ἐστὶν ὁ ΑΗ τοῦ Γ. Let CF have been subtracted from both. τὸ αὐτὸ μέρος [ἐστὶ] καὶ ὁ ΕΒ τοῦ ΗΓ. ΔΘ συναμφοτέρου τοῦ Γ. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. And since which(ever) part AE is of CF . But. where all symbols denote numbers. and GC (is) equal to F D. κοινὸς ἀφῃρήσθω ὁ ΓΖ· λοιπὸς ἄρα ὁ ΗΓ λοιπῷ τῷ ΖΔ ἐστιν ἴσος. for the same (reasons). EB is also the same part of CG. ὃ μέρος ἐστὶν ὁ ΑΕ τοῦ ΓΖ. Proposition 7† ᾿Εὰν ἀριθμὸς ἀριθμοῦ μέρος ᾖ.

the remainder M K is also the same part of the remainder F D that the whole GK (is) of the whole CD [Prop. ἴσος δὲ συναμφότερος μὲν ὁ ΜΚ. ἅπερ ὅλος ὁ ΑΒ ὅλου τοῦ ΓΔ. LE. διῃρήσθω ὁ μὲν ΗΘ εἰς τὰ τοῦ ΓΔ μέρη τὰ ΗΚ. Thus. ὃ ἄρα μέρος ἐστὶν ὁ ΗΚ τοῦ ΓΔ. since which(ever) part KH is of CD. ΚΘ. τὸ αὐτὸ μέρος ἐστὶ καὶ ὁ ΕΛ τοῦ ΓΖ. καὶ ἐπεί. † F D NH E B For let a number AB be those parts of a number CD that a (part) taken away AE (is) of a (part) taken away CF . the remainder EB is also the same parts of the remainder F D that the whole AB (is) of the whole CD. Thus. AL is also the same part of CF . and HG to BA. Γ Ζ Η ΜΚ Α Λ ∆ C ΝΘ G M K Β A L Ε ᾿Αριθμὸς γὰρ ὁ ΑΒ ἀριθμοῦ τοῦ ΓΔ μέρη ἔστω. ΛΕ. In modern notation. Thus. ὅπερ ὅλος ὁ ΚΘ ὅλου τοῦ ΓΔ. And the remainder M K was also shown to be the same part of the remainder F D that the whole GK (is) of the whole CD. ὃ ἄρα μέρος ἐστὶν ὁ ΚΘ τοῦ ΓΔ.STOIQEIWN zþ.5]. and another (number) is the same part of another. ὃ μέρος ἐστὶν ὁ ΗΚ τοῦ ΓΔ. τὸ αὐτὸ μέρος ἐστὶ καὶ ὁ ΑΛ τοῦ ΓΖ. alternately. ὅπερ ὅλος ὁ ΗΚ ὅλου τοῦ ΓΔ. KH will be equal to the multitude of (divisions) AL. which(ever) part. ΝΘ τοῦ ΔΖ τὰ αὐτὰ μέρη ἐστίν. GK and KH. KN is also the same part of CF . which(ever) part GK is of CD. τὰ αὐτὰ μέρη ἐστὶ καὶ ὁ ΑΕ τοῦ ΓΖ. or 202 . ΛΕ· ἔσται δὴ ἴσον τὸ πλῆθος τῶν ΗΚ. GK (is) thus also greater than AL. Thus. ΝΘ τῷ ΕΒ. which(ever) part KH (is) of CD. Let GM be made equal to AL. EL is also the same part of CF . καὶ ἕτερος ἑτέρου τὸ αὐτὸ μέρος ᾖ. And the sum M K. the remainder N H is also the same part of the remainder F D that the whole KH (is) of the whole CD [Prop. where all symbols denote numbers. Thus. ἐδείχθη δὲ καὶ λοιπὸς ὁ ΜΚ λοιποῦ τοῦ ΖΔ τὸ αὐτὸ μέρος ὤν. If a number is part of a number. μείζων ἄρα καὶ ὁ ΘΚ τοῦ ΕΛ. ἅπερ ἀφαιρεθεὶς ὁ ΑΕ ἀφαιρεθέντος τοῦ ΓΖ· λέγω. I say that the remainder EB is also the same parts of the remainder F D that the whole AB (is) of the whole CD. ὁ δὲ ΘΗ τῷ ΒΑ· καὶ λοιπὸς ἄρα ὁ ΕΒ λοιποῦ τοῦ ΖΔ τὰ αὐτὰ μέρη ἐστίν. ὃ μέρος ἐστὶν ἢ μέρη ὁ πρῶτος τοῦ τρίτου. Thus. ἃ ἄρα μέρη ἐστὶν ὁ ΗΘ τοῦ ΓΔ. GM is also the same part of CF . τὸ αὐτὸ μέρος ἐστὶ καὶ ὁ ΗΜ τοῦ ΓΖ· καὶ λοιπὸς ἄρα ὁ ΜΚ λοιποῦ τοῦ ΖΔ τὸ αὐτὸ μέρος ἐστίν. ὁ δὲ ΑΕ εἰς τὰ τοῦ ΓΖ μέρη τὰ ΑΛ. For let GH be laid down equal to AB. Proposition 9† ᾿Εὰν ἀριθμὸς ἀριθμοῦ μέρος ᾖ. κείσθω τῷ ΕΛ ἴσος ὁ ΚΝ. μείζων δὲ ὁ ΓΔ τοῦ ΓΖ. HK (is) thus also greater than EL. the second (number) will also be the same part. this proposition states that if a = (m/n) b and c = (m/n) d then (a − c) = (m/n) (b − d). ἅπερ ὅλος ὁ ΑΒ ὅλου τοῦ ΓΔ· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. N H (is) equal to EB. τὸ αὐτὸ μέρος ἐστὶ καὶ ὁ ΚΝ τοῦ ΓΖ· καὶ λοιπὸς ἄρα ὁ ΝΘ λοιποῦ τοῦ ΖΔ τὸ αὐτὸ μέρος ἐστίν. also. ὃ μέρος ἐστὶν ὁ ΚΘ τοῦ ΓΔ. the first (number) is of the third. πάλιν ἐπεί. Let KN be made equal to EL. the sum M K. and CD (is) greater than CF . which(ever) parts GH is of CD. 7. μείζων δὲ ὁ ΓΔ τοῦ ΓΖ. and CD (is) greater than CF . Κείσθω γὰρ τῷ ΑΒ ἴσος ὁ ΗΘ. N H is the same parts of DF that the whole HG (is) of the whole CD. ΚΘ τῷ πλήθει τῶν ΑΛ. 7. Again. ἅπερ ὅλος ὁ ΘΗ ὅλου τοῦ ΓΔ. ὅπερ ὅλος ὁ ΗΚ ὅλου τοῦ ΓΔ· καὶ συναμφότερος ἄρα ὁ ΜΚ. ELEMENTS BOOK 7 whole (is) of the whole. Let GH have been divided into the parts of CD. κείσθω τῷ ΑΛ ἴσος ὁ ΗΜ. AL and LE. Thus. and AE into the part of CF . μείζων ἄρα καὶ ὁ ΗΚ τοῦ ΑΛ. So the multitude of (divisions) GK.5]. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. or parts. AE is also the same parts of CF . τὸ αὐτὸ μέρος ἔσται ἢ τὰ αὐτὰ μέρη καὶ ὁ δεύτερος τοῦ τετάρτου. ὅτι καὶ λοιπὸς ὁ ΕΒ λοιποῦ τοῦ ΖΔ τὰ αὐτὰ μέρη ἐστίν. καὶ ἐναλλάξ. jþ. And since which(ever) part GK is of CD.

or the same part. and the multitude of (divisions) BG. ἃ μέρη ἐστὶν ὁ ΑΒ τοῦ ΔΕ ἢ μέρος. which(ever) part. A is of D. and EF into EH and HF . τὰ αὐτὰ μέρη ἔσται καὶ ὁ δεύτερος τοῦ τετάρτου ἢ τὸ αὐτὸ μέρος. I say that. † C D F For let a number A be part of a number BC. which(ever) part. 203 . τὸ αὐτὸ μέρος ἐστὶ καὶ ὁ Δ τοῦ ΕΖ. also. τὸ αὐτὸ μέρος ἐστὶ καὶ ὁ ΒΓ τοῦ ΕΖ ἢ μέρη.STOIQEIWN zþ. καὶ ἕτερος ὁ ΔΕ ἑτέρου τοῦ Ζ τὰ αὐτὰ μέρη· λέγω. the sum BC is also the same part. For since which(ever) part A is of BC. ᾿Επεὶ γὰρ ὃ μέρος ἐστὶν ὁ Α τοῦ ΒΓ. HF . HC. thus which(ever) part. BG is of EH. καὶ ἕτερος ἑτέρου τὰ αὐτὰ μέρη ᾖ. where all symbols denote numbers. of HF . or the same parts. So the multitude of (divisions) BG. Thus. equal to A. τὸ αὐτὸ μέρος ἐστὶ καὶ ὁ ΗΓ τοῦ ΘΖ ἢ τὰ αὐτὰ μέρη· ὥστε καὶ ὃ μέρος ἐστὶν ὁ ΒΗ τοῦ ΕΘ ἢ μέρη. ΗΓ ἀριθμοὶ ἀλλήλοις. the second will also be the same parts. of EF . Καὶ ἐπεὶ ἴσοι εἰσὶν οἱ ΒΗ. And BG (is) equal to A. 7. Ε E Β B Θ Η Α H G Γ ∆ Ζ A ᾿Αριθμὸς γὰρ ὁ Α ἀριθμοῦ τοῦ ΒΓ μέρος ἔστω. which(ever) part. ΘΖ. also. ΗΓ τῷ πλήθει τῶν ΕΘ. equal to D. ΘΖ ἀριθμοὶ ἴσοι ἀλλήλοις. and another (number) D (be) the same part of another EF that A (is) of BC. ἃ μέρη ἐστὶν ὁ πρῶτος τοῦ τρίτου ἢ μέρος. ΘΖ· ἔσται δὴ ἴσον τὸ πλῆθος τῶν ΒΗ. which(ever) parts. τὸ αὐτὸ μέρος ἐστὶ καὶ ὁ ΒΓ τοῦ ΕΖ ἢ τὰ αὐτὰ μέρη· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. BC is also the same part. BG is of EH. BC is also the same part. or parts. and another (number) is the same parts of another. or parts. 7. ELEMENTS BOOK 7 the same parts. or the same parts. of the sum EF [Props. And since the numbers BG and GC are equal to one another. GC is also the same part. ἴσος δὲ ὁ μὲν ΒΗ τῷ Α.6]. ὅσοι ἄρα εἰσὶν ἐν τῷ ΒΓ ἀριθμοὶ ἴσοι τῷ Α. of EF . ΘΖ. thus as many numbers as are in BC equal to A. D is also the same part of EF . Proposition 10† ᾿Εὰν ἀριθμὸς ἀριθμοῦ μέρη ᾖ. also. and EH to D. ὃ ἄρα μέρος ἐστὶν ὁ ΒΗ τοῦ ΕΘ ἢ μέρη. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. or part. Let BC have been divided into BG and GC. of the fourth. alternately. τὰ αὐτὰ μέρη ἐστὶ καὶ ὁ Γ τοῦ Ζ ἢ τὸ αὐτὸ μέρος. ὁ δὲ ΕΘ τῷ Δ· ὃ ἄρα μέρος ἐστὶν ὁ Α τοῦ Δ ἢ μέρη. GC will be equal to the multitude of (divisions) EH. alternately. τὸ αὐτὸ μέρος ἐστὶ καὶ συναμφότερος ὁ ΒΓ συναμφοτέρου τοῦ ΕΖ ἢ τὰ αὐτὰ μέρη. ὅτι καὶ ἐναλλάξ. ὅπερ ὁ Α τοῦ ΒΓ· λέγω. or the same parts. ΗΓ τῷ πλήθει τῶν ΕΘ. or parts. ὃ μέρος ἐστὶν ὁ Α τοῦ Δ ἢ μέρη. I say that. καὶ ἐναλλάξ. εἰσὶ δὲ καὶ οἱ ΕΘ. And hence. ὅτι καὶ ἐναλλάξ. which(ever) parts. or parts. A is of D. διῃρήσθω ὁ μὲν ΒΓ εἰς τοὺς τῷ Α ἴσους τοὺς ΒΗ. or part. καὶ ἕτερος ὁ Δ ἑτέρου τοῦ ΕΖ τὸ αὐτὸ μέρος. iþ. and the numbers EH and HF are also equal to one another. alternately. For let a number AB be parts of a number C. of the fourth. τοσοῦτοί εἰσι καὶ ἐν τῷ ΕΖ ἴσοι τῷ Δ. so many are also in EF equal to D. ὁ δὲ ΕΖ εἰς τοὺς τῷ Δ ἴσους τοὺς ΕΘ. or parts. and another (number) DE (be) the same parts of another F . If a number is parts of a number. καί ἐστιν ἴσον τὸ πλῆθος τῶν ΒΗ. the first (number) is of the third. ᾿Αριθμὸς γὰρ ὁ ΑΒ ἀριθμοῦ τοῦ Γ μέρη ἔστω. ΗΓ. this proposition states that if a = (1/n) b and c = (1/n) d then if a = (k/l) c then b = (k/l) d.5. GC is equal to the multitude of (divisions) EH. In modern notation.

DH is also the same part of F . In modern notation. 7. or the same part. ὃ μέρος ἐστὶν ὁ ΗΒ τοῦ ΘΕ ἢ μέρη. where all symbols denote numbers. καὶ ἐναλλάξ. which(ever) part. iaþ. τὸ αὐτὸ μέρος ἐστὶ καὶ ὁ ΔΘ τοῦ Ζ. AG is of DH. ΘΕ· ἔσται δὴ ἴσον τὸ πλῆθος τῶν ΑΗ. ΘΕ. of F . ὃ μέρος ἐστὶν ὁ ΑΗ τοῦ ΔΘ ἢ μέρη. thus] which(ever) parts. then the remainder will also be to the remainder as the whole (is) to the whole. καὶ] ἃ [ἄρα] μέρη ἐστὶν ὁ ΑΒ τοῦ ΔΕ ἢ μέρος. τὸ αὐτὸ μέρος ἐστὶ καὶ ὁ ΑΒ τοῦ ΔΕ ἢ τὰ αὐτὰ μέρη· ἀλλ᾿ ὃ μέρος ἐστὶν ὁ ΑΗ τοῦ ΔΘ ἢ μέρη. DH and HE. DE is also the same parts of F . † C E F For since which(ever) parts AB is of C. τὰ αὐτὰ μέρη ἐστὶ καὶ ὁ ΔΕ τοῦ Ζ. of F . διῃρήσθω ὁ μὲν ΑΒ εἰς τὰ τοῦ Γ μέρη τὰ ΑΗ. ∆ D Α A Θ Η Β H G Ε Γ B Ζ ᾿Επεὶ γάρ.9]. ὁ δὲ ΔΕ εἰς τὰ τοῦ Ζ μέρη τὰ ΔΘ. C is also the same part. for the same (reasons). τὸ αὐτὸ μέρος ἐστὶ καὶ ὁ Γ τοῦ Ζ ἢ τὰ αὐτὰ μέρη· ὥστε καί [ὃ μέρος ἐστὶν ὁ ΑΗ τοῦ ΔΘ ἢ μέρη. AG is of DH.9]. or the same parts. 7. And so [which(ever) part. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show.6]. AG is of DH. which(ever) part. διὰ τὰ αὐτὰ δὴ καί. But. οὕτως ἀφαιρεθεὶς πρὸς ἀφαιρεθέντα. Let AB have been divided into the parts of C. τὸ αὐτὸ μέρος ἐστὶ καὶ ὁ ΗΒ τοῦ ΘΕ ἢ τὰ αὐτὰ μέρη· καὶ ὃ ἄρα μέρος ἐστὶν ὁ ΑΗ τοῦ ΔΘ ἢ μέρη. So the multitude of (divisions) AG. or parts. καὶ ἐπεί. GB is of HE. which(ever) part. AG and GB. And thus. thus as many parts of C as are in AB. καὶ ὁ λοιπὸς πρὸς τὸν λοιπὸν ἔσται. ΗΒ τῷ πλήθει τῶν ΔΘ. or parts. or the same parts. ἃ μέρη ἐστὶν ὁ ΑΒ τοῦ Γ. alternately. I say that the remainder EB is to the remainder F D as the whole AB (is) to the whole CD. ELEMENTS BOOK 7 AB is of DE. 7. AG is of DH. so many parts of F (are) also in DE. And so. ὃ μέρος ἐστὶν ὁ ΑΗ τοῦ Γ. GB will be equal to the multitude of (divisions) DH. C is also the same parts. ὡς ὅλος πρὸς ὅλον. or parts. τοσαῦτα καὶ ἐν τῷ ΔΕ μέρη τοῦ Ζ. AB is of DE.5. and DE into the parts of F . of F [Prop. ὅσα ἄρα ἐστὶν ἐν τῷ ΑΒ μέρη τοῦ Γ. or the same part. ὡς ὅλος ὁ ΑΒ πρὸς ὅλον τὸν ΓΔ. or parts. of F . of F [Prop. or the same parts. And since which(ever) part AG is of C. AB is also the same part. of DE [Props. ῎Εστω ὡς ὅλος ὁ ΑΒ πρὸς ὅλον τὸν ΓΔ. or the same parts. of HE. 7. this proposition states that if a = (m/n) b and c = (m/n) d then if a = (k/l) c then b = (k/l) d. Proposition 11 ᾿Εαν ᾖ ὡς ὅλος πρὸς ὅλον. or parts. so a (part) taken away (is) to a (part) taken away. C is also the same part. τὸ αὐτὸ μέρος ἐστὶ καὶ ὁ Γ τοῦ Ζ ἢ τὰ αὐτὰ μέρη. ΗΒ. οὕτως ἀφαιρεθεὶς ὁ ΑΕ πρὸς ἀφαιρεθέντα τὸν ΓΖ· λέγω. which(ever) part. GB is also the same part. C was also shown (to be) the same part. HE. or part. τὰ αὐτὰ μέρη ἐστὶ καὶ ὁ Γ τοῦ Ζ ἢ τὸ αὐτὸ μέρος· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. τὸ αὐτὸ μέρος ἐδείχθη καὶ ὁ Γ τοῦ Ζ ἢ τὰ αὐτὰ μέρη. Let the whole AB be to the whole CD as the (part) taken away AE (is) to the (part) taken away CF . also. And. C is also the same parts. If as the whole (of a number) is to the whole (of another). ὅτι καὶ λοιπὸς ὁ ΕΒ πρὸς λοιπὸν τὸν ΖΔ ἐστιν. or the same parts. 204 .STOIQEIWN zþ.

Proposition 12† ᾿Εὰν ὦσιν ὁποσοιοῦν ἀριθμοὶ ἀνάλογον. καὶ λοιπὸς ἄρα ὁ ΕΒ λοιποῦ τοῦ ΖΔ τὸ αὐτὸ μέρος ἐστὶν ἢ μέρη. or the same parts. the following so (the sum of) all of the leading (numbers) will be to (the sum of) all of the following. οὕτως ὁ ΑΒ πρὸς τὸν ΓΔ· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. so AB (is) to CD [Def. of D [Def. C is also the same part. Δ τὸ αὐτὸ μέρος ἐστὶν ἢ τὰ αὐτὰ μέρη. Α Β Γ ∆ A ῎Εστωσαν ὁποσοιοῦν ἀριθμοὶ ἀνάλογον οἱ Α. 7. 7. καὶ συναμφότερος ἄρα ὁ Α. C (is) to B. 205 . B. thus which(ever) part. Δ· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. B C D Let any multitude whatsoever of numbers. Γ συναμφοτέρου τοῦ Β. as EB is to F D.6]. Δ. AB is of CD. 7. ἔστιν ἄρα ὡς ὁ Α πρὸς τὸν Β. of the remainder F D that AB (is) of CD [Props. D [Def. ἔστιν ἄρα ὡς ὁ ΕΒ πρὸς τὸν ΖΔ. thus which(ever) part. this proposition states that if a : b :: c : d then a : b :: a − c : b − d. 7. D that A (is) of B [Props.7. so A. Β. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show.20]. ἅπερ ὁ Α τοῦ Β. Γ. or parts. the remainder EB is also the same part.20]. D. 7. Thus.5. A is of B.20]. so AE (is) to CF . ὃ ἄρα μέρος ἐστὶν ὁ ΑΒ τοῦ ΓΔ ἢ μέρη. τὸ αὐτὸ μέρος ἐστὶ καὶ ὁ Γ τοῦ Δ ἢ μέρη. C (is) to B. or parts. Δ. ᾿Επεὶ γάρ ἐστιν ὡς ὁ Α πρὸς τὸν Β.8]. of CF [Def. οὕτως ὁ ΑΕ πρὸς τὸν ΓΖ. I say that as A is to B. οὕτως ἅπαντες οἱ tional then as one of the leading (numbers is) to one of ἡγούμενοι πρὸς ἅπαντας τοὺς ἑπομένους. (such that) as A (is) to B. τὸ αὐτὸ μέρος ἐστὶ καὶ ὁ ΑΕ τοῦ ΓΖ ἢ τὰ αὐτὰ μέρη. AE is also the same part. 7. ὅτι ἐστὶν ὡς ὁ Α πρὸς τὸν Β. ibþ. so A. ELEMENTS BOOK 7 Γ Α C Ζ F A Ε Β E ∆ B ᾿Επεί ἐστιν ὡς ὁ ΑΒ πρὸς τὸν ΓΔ. οὕτως οἱ Α. of the sum B. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. In modern notation. so C (is) to D. 7. For since as A is to B. Γ πρὸς τοὺς Β.STOIQEIWN zþ. where all symbols denote numbers. D.20]. C is also the same part. † D (For) since as AB is to CD. 7. οὕτως ὁ Γ πρὸς τὸν Δ· λέγω. Thus. C. οὕτως ὁ Γ πρὸς τὸν Δ. ὃ ἄρα μέρος ἐστὶν ὁ Α τοῦ Β ἢ μέρη. as A is to B. Γ πρὸς τοὺς Β. ὡς ὁ Α πρὸς τὸν Β. ἅπερ ὁ ΑΒ τοῦ ΓΔ. Thus. so C (is) to D. Thus. A. or the same parts. be proportional. or parts. οὕτως οἱ Α. or parts. ἔσται ὡς εἷς If any multitude whatsoever of numbers are proporτῶν ἡγουμένων πρὸς ἕνα τῶν ἑπομένων. the sum A.

Proposition 14† ᾿Εὰν ὦσιν ὁποσοιοῦν ἀριθμοὶ καὶ ἄλλοι αὐτοῖς ἴσοι τὸ If there are any multitude of numbers whatsoever. as A is to C. ὡς μὲν ὁ Α πρὸς τὸν Β. so D (is) to F . or the same parts. I say that also. Again. Α Β Γ ∆ Ε Ζ A B C ῎Εστωσαν ὁποσοιοῦν ἀριθμοὶ οἱ Α. or parts. B is also the same part. Γ καὶ ἄλλοι αὐτοῖς ἴσοι τὸ πλῆθος σύνδυο λαμβανόμενοι ἐν τῷ αὐτῷ λόγῳ οἱ Δ. ἐπεί ἐστιν ὡς ὁ Β πρὸς τὸν Γ. where all symbols denote numbers. so C (is) to D. οὕτως ὁ Δ πρὸς τὸν Ε. (which are) in the same ratio taken two by two. For since as A is to B. Δ. οὕτως ὁ Γ πρὸς τὸν Δ. as B is 206 . Ε. (such that) as A (is) to B. so C (is) to D. 7. alterately. οὕτως ὁ Β πρὸς τὸν Δ. καὶ δι᾿ and (some) other (numbers) of equal multitude to them. ἔστιν ἄρα ὡς ὁ Α πρὸς τὸν Γ. which(ever) part. οὕτως ὁ Δ πρὸς τὸν Ε. B. οὕτως ὁ Β πρὸς τὸν Ε. so B (is) to D.13]. ᾿Επεὶ γάρ ἐστιν ὡς ὁ Α πρὸς τὸν Β. πλῆθος σύνδυο λαμβανόμενοι καὶ ἐν τῷ αὐτῷ λόγῳ. ὃ μέρος ἐστὶν ὁ Α τοῦ Γ ἢ μέρη. igþ. or parts. where all symbols denote numbers. of D [Def. οὕτως ὁ Ε πρὸς τὸν Ζ· λέγω. ὡς ὁ Α πρὸς τὸν Γ. For since as A is to B. and D be proportional. C. of equal multitude to them. C. Thus. thus which(ever) part. and as B (is) to C. so E (is) to F . οὕτως ὁ Γ πρὸς τὸν Δ· λέγω. so D (is) to E. A.10].9. ἴσου ἐν τῷ αὐτῷ λόγῷ ἔσονται. Β. Β. or the same parts. I say that they will also be proportional alternately. οὕτως ὁ Β πρὸς τὸν Δ· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. alternately. ὡς δὲ ὁ Β πρὸς τὸν Γ. 7. so E (is) to F . † ELEMENTS BOOK 7 In modern notation.20]. ᾿Επεὶ γάρ ἐστιν ὡς ὁ Α πρὸς τὸν Β. A is of C. ἐναλλὰξ ἄρα ἐστὶν ὡς ὁ Α πρὸς τὸν Δ. ὅτι καὶ δι᾿ ἴσου ἐστὶν ὡς ὁ Α πρὸς τὸν Γ. and (some) other (numbers). alternately. ἐναλλὰξ ἄρα. so D (is) to E. ὃ ἄρα μέρος ἐστὶν ὁ Α τοῦ Β ἢ μέρη. as A is to D.STOIQEIWN zþ. F . as A is to C. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. C is also the same part. Ζ. E. 7.20]. this proposition states that if a : b :: c : d then a : c :: b : d. of D [Props. In modern notation. τὸ αὐτὸ μέρος ἐστὶ καὶ ὁ Γ τοῦ Δ ἢ τὰ αὐτὰ μέρη. A is of B. (such that) as A (is) to B. † B C D Let the four numbers A. 7. thus. Γ. ὡς ὁ Α πρὸς τὸν Β. then they will also be in the same ratio via equality. οὕτως ὁ D E F Let there be any multitude of numbers whatsoever. thus. D. Proposition 13† ᾿Εὰν τέσσαρες ἀριθμοὶ ἀνάλογον ὦσιν. this proposition states that if a : b :: c : d then a : b :: a + c : b + d. be proportional alternately. ὅτι καὶ ἐναλλὰξ ἀνάλογον ἔσονται. so B (is) to E [Prop. οὕτως ὁ Δ πρὸς τὸν Ζ. καὶ ἐναλλὰξ If four numbers are proportional then they will also ἀνάλογον ἔσονται. via equality. τὸ αὐτὸ μέρος ἐστὶ καὶ ὁ Β τοῦ Δ ἢ τὰ αὐτὰ μέρη. so B (is) to D [Def. Α Β Γ ∆ A ῎Εστωσαν τέσσαρες ἀριθμοὶ ἀνάλογον οἱ Α. (which are) also in the same ratio taken two by two. (such that) as A (is) to C. since as B is to C. 7. Thus. πάλιν. idþ. B.

then. εἰσὶ δὲ καὶ οἱ ΕΚ. the unit will measure the third number as many times as the second (number measures) the fourth. equal to D. οὕτως ὁ Γ πρὸς τὸν Ζ. 7. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. as A (is) to D.13]. and LF are also equal to one another. and another numἄλλον τινὰ ἀριθμὸν μετρῇ. Let BC have been divided into its constituent units.20]. ἐναλλὰξ ἄρα ἐστὶν ὡς ὁ Β πρὸς τὸν Ε. Α ∆ Β Ε Η Θ Κ Γ A Λ Ζ E H G K C L F D Μονὰς γὰρ ἡ Α ἀριθμόν τινα τὸν ΒΓ μετρείτω. ΛΖ ἀριθμοὶ ἴσοι ἀλλήλοις. τοσοῦτοί εἰσι καὶ ἐν τῷ ΕΖ ἀριθμοὶ ἴσοι τῷ Δ. For since the unit A measures the number BC as many times as D (measures) EF . καὶ ἐπεὶ ἴσαι εἰσὶν αἱ ΒΗ. Thus. ΛΖ ἀριθμῶν. ἔσται δὴ ἴσον τὸ πλῆθος τῶν ΒΗ. ΗΘ. and HC. ἰσακις δὲ ἕτερος ἀριθμὸς If a unit measures some number. alternately. and the multitude of the (units) BG. So the multitude of (units) BG. ΚΛ. as one of the leading (numbers is) to one of the following. ἴση δὲ ἡ ΒΗ μονὰς τῇ Α μονάδι. ἔσται ἄρα ὡς ἡ ΒΗ μονὰς πρὸς τὸν ΕΚ ἀριθμόν. and LF . οὕτως ἅπαντες οἱ ἡγούμενοι πρὸς ἅπαντας τοὺς ἑπομένους· ἔστιν ἄρα ὡς ἡ ΒΗ μονὰς πρὸς τὸν ΕΚ ἀριθμόν. ΘΓ τῷ πλήθει τῶν ΕΚ. ΗΘ. GH. so BC (is) to EF . so D (is) to F [Prop. ὁ δὲ ΕΖ εἰς τοὺς τῷ Δ ἴσους τοὺς ΕΚ. οὕτως ὁ ΒΓ πρὸς τὸν ΕΖ. καί ἐστιν ἴσον τὸ πλῆθος τῶν ΒΗ. and the unit HC to the number LF . And thus. ὁ δὲ ΕΚ ἀριθμὸς τῷ Δ ἀριθμῷ. 7. also. οὕτως ὁ Α πρὸς τὸν Δ· καὶ ὡς ἄρα ὁ Α πρὸς τὸν Δ. ieþ. ΚΛ. as A is to C.9. GH. ὡς δὲ ὁ Β πρὸς τὸν Ε. ᾿Επεὶ γὰρ ἰσάκις ἡ Α μονὰς τὸν ΒΓ ἀριθμὸν μετρεῖ καὶ ὁ Δ τὸν ΕΖ. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. ELEMENTS BOOK 7 Ε πρὸς τὸν Ζ. alternately. and HC are equal to one another. so (the sum of) all of the leading will be to (the sum of) all of the following [Prop. ΛΖ. οὕτως ὁ Δ πρὸς τὸν Ζ· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. ἔστιν ἄρα ὡς ἡ Α μονὰς πρὸς τὸν Δ ἀριθμόν. ΚΛ. KL. so C (is) to F . HC will be equal to the multitude of (divisions) EK. and the numbers EK. also. KL. 7. And since the units BG. οὕτως ὁ ΒΓ πρὸς τὸν ΕΖ. And as B (is) to E. so many numbers are also in EF equal to D. Thus. 7. Thus. LF .13]. Thus. ΗΘ. BG. LF . where all symbols denote numbers. ΚΛ. And the unit BG (is) equal to the unit A. and EF into the (divisions) EK. so A (is) to D. HC is equal to the multitude of the numbers EK. ἰσάκις ἄρα ἡ Α μονὰς τὸν Δ ἀριθμὸν μετρεῖ καὶ ὁ ΒΓ τὸν ΕΖ· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. thus as the unit BG (is) to the number EK. ΘΓ μονάδες ἀλλήλαις. καὶ ἐναλλὰξ ἰσάκις ἡ μονὰς τὸν ber measures some other number as many times. ὅτι καὶ ἐναλλὰξ ἰσάκις ἡ Α μονὰς τὸν Δ ἀριθμὸν μετρεῖ καὶ ὁ ΒΓ τὸν ΕΖ. GH. † B For let a unit A measure some number BC. οὕτως ἡ ΗΘ μονὰς πρὸς τὸν ΚΛ ἀριθμὸν καὶ ἡ ΘΓ μονὰς πρὸς τὸν ΛΖ ἀριθμόν. the unit A also measures the number D as many times as BC (measures) EF . διῃρήσθω ὁ μὲν ΒΓ εἰς τὰς ἐν ἑαυτῷ μονάδας τὰς ΒΗ. the unit A measures the number D as many times as BC (measures) EF [Def. KL. ΛΖ. ΘΓ. and let another number D measure some other number EF as many times. I say that. also. this proposition states that if a : b :: d : e and b : c :: e : f then a : c :: d : f . so the unit GH will be to the number KL. ΗΘ. 207 . ἔσται ἄρα καὶ ὡς εἷς τῶν ἡγουμένων πρὸς ἕνα τῶν ἑπομένων. KL. so C (is) to F [Prop. GH. In modern notation. 7.STOIQEIWN zþ. and the number EK to the number D. οὕτως ὁ Γ πρὸς τὸν Ζ· ἐναλλὰξ ἄρα ἐστὶν ὡς ὁ Α πρὸς τὸν Γ. † to E. ὅσαι ἄρα εἰσὶν ἐν τῷ ΒΓ μονάδες. Proposition 15 ᾿Εὰν μονὰς ἀριθμόν τινα μετρῇ. Thus. This proposition is a special case of Prop. alternately. τρίτον ἀριθμὸν μετρήσει καὶ ὁ δεύτερος τὸν τέταρτον. so BC (is) to EF .12]. ΘΓ μονάδων τῷ πλήθει τῶν ΕΚ. as the unit A is to the number D. as the unit BG (is) to the number EK. thus as many units as are in BC. ἰσάκις δὲ ἕτερος ἀριθμὸς ὁ Δ ἄλλον τινὰ ἀριθμὸν τὸν ΕΖ μετρείτω· λέγω.

Proposition 17† ᾿Εὰν ἀριθμὸς δύο ἀριθμοὺς πολλαπλασιάσας ποιῇ τινας. ἰσάκις δὲ ἡ Ε μονὰς τὸν Β ἀριθμὸν ἐμέτρει καὶ ὁ Α τὸν Γ· ἰσάκις ἄρα ὁ Α ἑκάτερον τῶν Γ. μετρεῖ δὲ καὶ ἡ Ε μονὰς τὸν Α ἀριθμὸν κατὰ τὰς ἐν αὐτῷ μονάδας· ἰσάκις ἄρα ἡ Ε μονὰς τὸν Α ἀριθμὸν μετρεῖ καὶ ὁ Β τὸν Γ. A thus measures D according to the units in B [Def. B thus measures C according to the units in A [Def. ELEMENTS BOOK 7 iþ. ὁ Α ἄρα τὸν Δ μετρεῖ κατὰ τὰς ἐν τῷ Β μονάδας. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. ὅτι ἴσος ἐστὶν ὁ Γ τῷ Δ. In modern notation. ᾿Επεὶ γὰρ ὁ Α τὸν Β πολλαπλασιάσας τὸν Δ πεποίηκεν. the unit E measures the number A as many times as B (measures) C. Thus. πάλιν. alternately. have the same ratio as the multiplied (numbers). C is equal to D. and let B make D (by) multiplying A.15]. οἱ γενόμενοι ἐξ αὐτῶν ἴσοι ἀλλήλοις ἔσονται. A measures each of C and D an equal number of times. so D (is) to E. ᾿Επεὶ γὰρ ὁ Α τὸν Β πολλαπλασιάσας τὸν Γ πεποίηκεν. And 208 . If a number multiplying two numbers makes some οἱ γενόμενοι ἐξ αὐτῶν τὸν αὐτὸν ἕξουσι λόγον τοῖς πολλα. where all symbols denote numbers. Again. tively). 7. And the unit E was measuring the number B as many times as A (measures) C.15]. I say that as B is to C. And let A make C (by) multiplying B. And the unit E also measures the number A according to the units in it. ἴσος ἄρα ἐστὶν ὁ Γ τῷ Δ· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. Β. ἐναλλὰξ ἄρα ἰσάκις ἡ Ε μονὰς τὸν Β ἀριθμὸν μετρεῖ καὶ ὁ Α τὸν Γ. Α Β ∆ Ζ A B D F Γ Ε C E ᾿Αριθμὸς γὰρ ὁ Α δύο ἀριθμοὺς τοὺς Β. If two numbers multiplying one another make some (numbers) then the (numbers) generated from them will be equal to one another. izþ. For since A has made D (by) multiplying B. Α Β Γ ∆ Ε A B C D E ῎Εστωσαν δύο ἀριθμοὶ οἱ Α. Ε ποιείτω· λέγω. the unit E measures the number B as many times as A (measures) C [Prop.STOIQEIWN zþ. Γ πολλαFor let the number A make (the numbers) D and πλασιάσας τοὺς Δ. Thus. 7. And the unit E also measures B according to the units in it. I say that C is equal to D.(numbers) then the (numbers) generated from them will πλασιασθεῖσιν. ὅτι ἐστὶν ὡς ὁ Β πρὸς E (by) multiplying the two numbers B and C (respecτὸν Γ. ὁ δὲ Β τὸν Α πολλαπλασιάσας τὸν Δ ποιείτω· λέγω. μετρεῖ measures D according to the units in A [Def. μετρεῖ δὲ καὶ ἡ Ε μονὰς τὸν Β κατὰ τὰς ἐν αὐτῷ μονάδας· ἰσάκις ἄρα ἡ Ε μονὰς τὸν Β ἀριθμὸν μετρεῖ καὶ ὁ Α τὸν Δ. οὕτως ὁ Δ πρὸς τὸν Ε. since B has made D (by) multiplying A. Thus. Δ μετρεῖ. the unit E measures the number B as many times as A (measures) D.15]. 7. For since A has made C (by) multiplying B. ὁ Β ἄρα τὸν Γ μετρεῖ κατὰ τὰς ἐν τῷ Α μονάδας. ἐπεὶ ὁ Β τὸν Α πολλαπλασιάσας τὸν Δ πεποίηκεν. † Let A and B be two numbers. 7.15]. καὶ ὁ μὲν Α τὸν Β πολλαπλασιάσας τὸν Γ ποιείτω. B thus ὁ Β ἄρα τὸν Δ μετρεῖ κατὰ τὰς ἐν τῷ Α μονάδας. this proposition states that a b = b a. Thus. Proposition 16† Εὰν δύο ἀριθμοὶ πολλαπλασιάσαντες ἀλλήλους ποιῶσί τινας. Thus.

Α Β Γ ∆ Ε A B C D E Δύο γὰρ ἀριθμοὶ οἱ Α. I say that as A is to B. by) multiplying some number C. Ε πεποίηκεν. as the unit F (is) to the number A.13]. as B is to C. Thus. 7. † the unit F also measures the number A according to the units in it. C has thus also made D (by) multiplying A [Prop. and D be four proportional numbers. And thus. 209 . 7. And let A make E (by) multiplying D. καὶ ὁ μὲν Α τὸν Δ πολλαπλασιάσας τὸν Ε ποιείτω. Proposition 19† ᾿Εὰν τέσσαρες ἀριθμοὶ ἀνάλογον ὦσιν. so B (is) to D [Def. Thus. alternately. If four number are proportional then the number created from (multiplying) the first and fourth will be equal to the number created from (multiplying) the second and third. διὰ τὰ αὐτὰ δὴ καὶ ὁ Γ τὸν Β πολλαπλασιάσας τὸν Ε πεποίηκεν. Γ. ὁ δὲ Β τὸν Γ πολλαπλασιάσας τὸν Ζ ποιείτω· λέγω. So the number C has made D and E (by) multiplying the two numbers A and B (respectively). so D (is) to E [Prop. 7. And if the number created from (multiplying) the first and fourth is equal to the (number created) from (multiplying) the second and third then the four numbers will be proportional. so D (is) to E [Prop. so D (is) to E. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. so C (is) to D. and let B make F (by) multiplying C. οἱ τέσσασρες ἀριθμοὶ ἀνάλογον ἔσονται. οὕτως ὁ Γ πρὸς τὸν Ε· καὶ ὡς ἄρα ὁ Β πρὸς τὸν Δ. ἔστιν ἄρα ὡς ἡ Ζ μονὰς πρὸς τὸν Α ἀριθμόν. (such that) as A (is) to B. Δ. οὕτως ὁ Δ πρὸς τὸν Ε· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. In modern notation. so C (is) to E.16]. C has also made E (by) multiplying B. this propositions states that if a c = d and b c = e then a : b :: d : e. ELEMENTS BOOK 7 δὲ καὶ ἡ Ζ μονὰς τὸν Α ἀριθμὸν κατὰ τὰς ἐν αὐτῷ μονάδας· ἰσάκις ἄρα ἡ Ζ μονὰς τὸν Α ἀριθμὸν μετρεῖ καὶ ὁ Β τὸν Δ.20]. Β πολλαπλασιάσας τοὺς Δ. C. Β. οὕτως ὁ Β πρὸς τὸν Δ. ijþ. οὕτως ὁ Δ πρὸς τὸν Ε. I say that E is equal to F . B. οἱ γενόμενοι ἐξ αὐτῶν τὸν αὐτὸν ἕξουσι λόγον (other numbers) then the (numbers) generated from τοῖς πολλαπλασιάσασιν. In modern notation. as A is to B. Thus. ὅτι ἐστὶν ὡς ὁ Α πρὸς τὸν Β. So. ἐναλλὰξ ἄρα ἐστὶν ὡς ὁ Β πρὸς τὸν Γ. for the same (reasons). (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. And so. οὕτως ὁ Δ πρὸς τὸν Ε· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. ᾿Επεὶ γὰρ ὁ Α τὸν Γ πολλαπλασιάσας τὸν Δ πεποίηκεν. οὕτως ὁ Γ πρὸς τὸν Δ. Ε ποιείτωσαν· λέγω.STOIQEIWN zþ. οὕτως ὁ Γ πρὸς τὸν Ε. Proposition 18† ᾿Εὰν δύο ἀριθμοὶ ἀριθμόν τινα πολλαπλασιάσαντες If two numbers multiplying some number make some ποιῶσί τινας. καὶ ὁ Γ ἄρα τὸν Α πολλαπλασιάσας τὸν Δ πεποίηκεν. ὁ ἐκ πρώτου καὶ τετάρτου γενόμενος ἀριθμὸς ἴσος ἔσται τῷ ἐκ δευτέρου καὶ τρίτου γενομένῳ ἀριθμῷ· καὶ ἐὰν ὁ ἐκ πρώτου καὶ τετάρτου γενόμενος ἀριθμὸς ἴσος ᾖ τῷ ἐκ δευτέρου καὶ τρίτου. ὡς ὁ Α πρὸς τὸν Β. ῎Εστωσαν τέσσαρες ἀριθμοὶ ἀνάλογον οἱ Α.17]. ὅτι ἴσος ἐστὶν ὁ Ε τῷ Ζ. † For let the two numbers A and B make (the numbers) D and E (respectively. as B (is) to D. ἀριθμὸς δὴ ὁ Γ δύο ἀριθμοὺς τοὺς Α. Β ἀριθμόν τινα τὸν Γ πολλαπλασιάσαντες τοὺς Δ. ihþ. so C (is) to E. ἔστιν ἄρα ὡς ὁ Α πρὸς τὸν Β. for the same (reasons). Let A. the unit F measures the number A as many times as B (measures) D. For since A has made D (by) multiplying C. διὰ τὰ αὐτὰ δὴ καὶ ὡς ἡ Ζ μονὰς πρὸς τὸν Α ἀριθμόν. Thus. this proposition states that if d = a b and e = a c then d : e :: b : c. them will have the same ratio as the multiplying (numbers). 7. as the unit F is to the number A. where all symbols denote numbers. where all symbols denote numbers.

Thus. And. ἐπεὶ οὖν ὁ Α τὸν Γ πολλαπλασιάσας τὸν Η πεποίηκεν.18]. so G (is) to E [Prop. So. πάλιν. οὕτως ὁ Α πρὸς τὸν Β· καὶ ὡς ἄρα ὁ Α πρὸς τὸν Β. as A (is) to B. again.17]. τὸν δὲ Δ πολλαπλασιάσας τὸν Ε πεποίηκεν. where all symbols denote numbers. as A (is) to B.STOIQEIWN zþ. let E be equal to F . so C (is) to D. 7. ὁ Η ἄρα πρὸς ἑκάτερον τῶν Ε. the number A has made G and E by multiplying the two numbers C and D (respectively). Α Β ELEMENTS BOOK 7 Γ ∆ Ε Ζ Η A ῾Ο γὰρ Α τὸν Γ πολλαπλασιάσας τὸν Η ποιείτω. οὕτως ὁ Η πρὸς τὸν Ζ. Proposition 20 Οἱ ἐλάχιστοι ἀριθμοὶ τῶν τὸν αὐτὸν λόγον ἐχόντων αὐτοῖς μετροῦσι τοὺς τὸν αὐτὸν λόγον ἔχοντας ἰσάκις ὅ τε μείζων τὸν μείζονα καὶ ὁ ἐλάσσων τὸν ἐλάσσονα. and vice versa. 7. so C (is) to D. οὕτως ὁ Η πρὸς τὸν Ζ. οὕτως ὁ Η πρὸς τὸν Ε. I say that CD measures A the same number of times as EF (measures) B. I say that as A is to B. And as G (is) to F . 5. καὶ ὡς ἄρα ὁ Α πρὸς τὸν Β. also. so C (is) to D [Prop. But. ἔστιν ἄρα ὡς ὁ Α πρὸς τὸν Β. as C (is) to D. Ζ τὸν αὐτὸν ἔχει λόγον· ἴσος ἄρα ἐστὶν ὁ Ε τῷ Ζ. δύο δὴ ἀριθμοὶ οἱ Α. as G (is) to E. since A has made G (by) multiplying C. In modern notation. ἀλλ᾿ ὡς μὲν ὁ Η πρὸς τὸν Ε. ἀλλὰ μὴν καὶ ὡς ὁ Α πρὸς τὸν Β. ἀλλὰ μὴν καὶ ὁ Β τὸν Γ πολλαπλασιάσας τὸν Ζ πεποίηκεν. 7. 210 . οὕτως ὁ Η πρὸς τὸν Ζ. E is equal to F [Prop. Therefore. οὕτως ὁ Η πρὸς τὸν Ε· καὶ ὡς ἄρα ὁ Η πρὸς τὸν Ε. Thus. and the lesser the lesser. Thus. ἔστιν ἄρα ὡς ὁ Γ πρὸς τὸν Δ. But. ὅτι ἰσάκις ὁ ΓΔ τὸν Α μετρεῖ καὶ ὁ ΕΖ τὸν Β. with the same construction. thus as G is to E. thus. in fact. Thus. Β ἀριθμόν τινα τὸν Γ πολλαπλασιάσαντες τοὺς Η. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. by) multiplying some number C. so G (is) to E. † B C D E F G For let A make G (by) multiplying C. οὕτως ὁ Γ πρὸς τὸν Δ· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. ἐπεὶ ὁ Α τὸν Γ πολλαπλασιάσας τὸν Η πεποίηκεν. Again.7]. Β οἱ ΓΔ. as A is to B. ἀριθμὸς δὴ ὁ Α δύο ἀριθμοὺς τοὺς Γ. οὕτως ὁ Γ πρὸς τὸν Δ. But. 7. so A (is) to B [Prop. kþ. so A (is) to B. οὕτως ὁ Α πρὸς τὸν Β. 5. ὅτι ἐστὶν ὡς ὁ Α πρὸς τὸν Β. Ε πεποίηκεν. ῎Εστωσαν γὰρ ἐλάχιστοι ἀριθμοὶ τῶν τὸν αὐτὸν λόγον ἐχόντων τοῖς Α. as G (is) to E. G has the same ratio to each of E and F . Ζ πεποιήκασιν. the two numbers A and B have made G and F (respectively. so G (is) to F . ἔστιν ἄρα ὡς ὁ Η πρὸς τὸν Ε. Thus. οὕτως ὁ Γ πρὸς τὸν Δ. and has made E (by) multiplying D. ΕΖ· λέγω. also.17]. Δ πολλαπλασιάσας τούς Η. as C is to D. And thus. ὡς δὲ ὁ Η πρὸς τὸν Ζ. For. but. ἐπεὶ ἴσος ἐστὶν ὁ Ε τῷ Ζ.18]. this proposition reads that if a : b :: c : d then a d = b c. For let CD and EF be the least numbers having the same ratio as A and B (respectively).9]. since A has made G (by) multiplying C. the greater (measuring) the greater. οὕτως ὁ Η πρὸς τὸν Ε. Τῶν γὰρ αὐτῶν κατασκευασθέντων. so G (is) to F [Prop. as A (is) to B. so G (is) to E. since E is equal to F . The least numbers of those (numbers) having the same ratio measure those (numbers) having the same ratio as them an equal number of times. ἀλλ᾿ ὡς ὁ Γ πρὸς τὸν Δ. ῎Εστω δὴ πάλιν ἴσος ὁ Ε τῷ Ζ· λέγω. so G (is) to F [Prop. B has also made F (by) multiplying C.

as one of the leading (numbers is) to one of the following. οὐκ ἄρα μέρη ἐστὶν ὁ ΓΔ τοῦ Α· μέρος ἄρα. ὅσα ἄρα ἐστὶν ἐν τῷ ΓΔ μέρη τοῦ Α. For if not then there will be some numbers less than A and B which are in the same ratio as A and B. ἔστωσαν οἱ Γ. Thus. CG and GD. GD will be equal to the multitude of (divisions) EH. 211 .13]. CG and EH are in the same ratio as CD and EF . ῎Εστωσαν πρῶτοι πρὸς ἀλλήλους ἀριθμοὶ οἱ Α. 7. ΘΖ ἀριθμοὶ ἴσοι ἀλλήλοις. ΘΖ· ἔσται δὴ ἴσον τὸ πλῆθος τῶν ΓΗ. EH and HF . CD measures A the same number of times that EF (measures) B. So the multitude of (divisions) CG. HF . Β. so GD (is) to HF . τοσαῦτά ἐστι καὶ ἐν τῷ ΕΖ μέρη τοῦ Β. ὅτι οἱ Α. CD is not parts of A. Thus. so many parts of B are also in EF . ΘΖ. ΕΖ ἐλάχιστοι τῶν τὸν αὐτὸν λόγον ἐχόντων αὐτοῖς. Β· λέγω. Thus. ΗΔ ἀριθμοὶ ἀλλήλοις. ὅπερ ὁ ΓΔ τοῦ Α· ἰσάκις ἄρα ὁ ΓΔ τὸν Α μετρεῖ καὶ ὁ ΕΖ τὸν Β· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. οὕτως ὁ ΓΔ πρὸς τὸν ΕΖ· οἱ ΓΗ. Εἰ γὰρ μή. And since the numbers CG and GD are equal to one another. ΗΔ τῷ πλήθει τῶν ΕΘ. 7. 7. ΗΔ τῷ πλήθει τῶν ΕΘ. Β ἐλάσσονες ἀριθμοὶ ἐν τῷ αὐτῷ λόγῳ ὄντες τοῖς Α. εἰ γὰρ δυνατόν. I say that A and B are the least of those (numbers) having the same ratio as them. Α ELEMENTS BOOK 7 Β A Γ Η Ε B C E H Θ G F Ζ ∆ D ῾Ο ΓΔ γὰρ τοῦ Α οὔκ ἐστι μέρη. Thus. ἔστιν ἄρα ὡς ὁ ΓΗ πρὸς τὸν ΕΘ. For. Thus. Let them be C and D. Δ. so CD (is) to EF . Prop.STOIQEIWN zþ. and the numbers EH and HF are also equal to one another. The very thing is impossible. EF is also the same parts of B that CD (is) of A [Def. Β ἐλάχιστοί εἰσι τῶν τὸν αὐτὸν λόγον ἐχόντων αὐτοῖς. (it is) a part (of A) [Prop.4]. ΗΔ. ΕΖ ἐν τῷ αὐτῷ λόγῳ εἰσὶν ἐλάσσονες ὄντες αὐτῶν· ὅπερ ἐστὶν ἀδύνατον· ὑπόκεινται γὰρ οἱ ΓΔ.20. ἔσονταί τινες τῶν Α. ἔσται ἄρα καὶ ὡς εἷς τῶν ἡγουμένων πρὸς ἕνα τῶν ἑπομένων. thus as CG is to EH. Let A and B be numbers prime to one another. Thus.20.12]. ἔστιν ἄρα ὡς ὁ ΓΗ πρὸς τὸν ΕΘ. For CD is not parts of A. and the multitude of (divisions) CG. καί ἐστιν ἴσον τὸ πλῆθος τῶν ΓΗ. ΕΘ ἄρα τοῖς ΓΔ. καὶ ἐπεὶ ἴσοι εἰσὶν οἱ ΓΗ. HF . as many parts of A as are in CD. ἔστω· καὶ ὁ ΕΖ ἄρα τοῦ Β τὰ αὐτὰ μέρη ἐστίν. οὕτως ὁ ΗΔ πρὸς τὸν ΘΖ. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show.13]. καὶ ὁ ΕΖ τοῦ Β τὸ αὐτὸ μέρος ἐστίν. being less than them. Prop 7. Thus. For CD and EF were assumed (to be) the least of those (numbers) having the same ratio as them. ὁ δὲ ΕΖ εἰς τὰ τοῦ Β μέρη τὰ ΕΘ. if possible. kaþ. ΘΖ. And EF is the same part of B that CD (is) of A [Def. so will (the sum of) all of the leading (numbers) be to (the sum of) all of the following [Prop. 7. Numbers prime to one another are the least of those (numbers) having the same ratio as them. εἰσὶ δὲ καὶ οἱ ΕΘ. Let CD have been divided into the parts of A. and EF into the parts of B. ἅπερ ὁ ΓΔ τοῦ Α. Proposition 21 Οἱ πρῶτοι πρὸς ἀλλήλους ἀριθμοὶ ἐλάχιστοί εἰσι τῶν τὸν αὐτὸν λόγον ἐχόντων αὐτοῖς. Thus. let it be (parts of A). GD is equal to the multitude of (divisions) EH. as CG is to EH. 7. διῃρήσθω ὁ μὲν ΓΔ εἰς τὰ τοῦ Α μέρη τὰ ΓΗ. οὕτως ἅπαντες οἱ ἡγούμενοι πρὸς ἅπαντας τοὺς ἑπομένους.

ὅτι οἱ Α. Εἰ γὰρ μή εἰσι πρῶτοι πρὸς ἀλλήλους. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. Β μετρεῖ πρώτους ὄντας πρὸς ἀλλήλους· ὅπερ ἐστὶν ἀδύνατον. So as many times as C measures A. and the following the following—C thus measures A the same number of times that D (measures) B [Prop. the leading (measuring) the leading. μετρείτω. 7. διὰ τὰ αὐτὰ δὴ ὁ Ε καὶ τὸν Β μετρεῖ κατὰ τὰς ἐν τῷ Δ μονάδας. A and B are the least of those (numbers) having the same ratio as them.16]. same ratio as them are prime to one another. the greater (measuring) the greater. Α ELEMENTS BOOK 7 Β Γ ∆ Ε A B C D E ᾿Επεὶ οὖν οἱ ἐλάχιστοι ἀριθμοὶ τῶν τὸν αὐτὸν λόγον ἐχόντων μετροῦσι τοὺς τὸν αὐτὸν λόγον ἔχοντας ἰσάκις ὅ τε μείζων τὸν μείζονα καὶ ὁ ἐλάττων τὸν ἐλάττονα. E also measures B according to the units in D [Prop. Β ἐλάσσονες ἀριθμοὶ ἐν τῷ αὐτῷ λόγῳ ὄντες τοῖς Α. Let A and B be the least numbers of those (numbers) having the same ratio as them. Thus. Α Β Γ ∆ Ε A B C D E ῎Εστωσαν ἐλάχιστοι ἀριθμοὶ τῶν τὸν αὐτὸν λόγον ἐχόντων αὐτοῖς οἱ Α. so 212 . so many units let there be in E. καὶ ὁ Δ ἄρα τὸν Β μετρεῖ κατὰ τὰς ἐν τῷ Ε μονάδας. τοσαῦται μονάδες ἔστωσαν ἐν τῷ Δ. kbþ. Let it (so measure them). ὁ Ε ἄρα τοὺς Α. καὶ ἔστω ὁ Γ. Β· λέγω. and the lesser the lesser—that is to say. Β ἄρα ἐλάχιστοί εἰσι τῶν τὸν αὐτὸν λόγον ἐχόντων αὐτοῖς· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι.STOIQEIWN zþ. And as many times as C measures A. Thus. D also measures B according to the units in E. ὁσάκις δὴ ὁ Γ τὸν Α μετρεῖ. for the same (reasons). Therefore. For if they are not prime to one another then some number will measure them. καὶ ἐπεὶ ὁ Γ τὸν Α μετρεῖ κατὰ τὰς ἐν τῷ Ε μονάδας. which are prime to one another. οὐκ ἄρα ἔσονταί τινες τῶν Α. and let it be C. since the least numbers of those (numbers) having the same ratio measure those (numbers) having the same ratio (as them) an equal number of times. Thus. καὶ ὁσάκις μὲν ὁ Γ τὸν Α μετρεῖ. I say that A and B are prime to one another. The very thing is impossible. καί ὁ Ε ἄρα τὸν Α μετρεῖ κατὰ τὰς ἐν τῷ Γ μονάδας. So. E thus also measures A according to the units in C [Prop. 7.16]. Thus. Proposition 22 Οἱ ἐλάχιστοι ἀριθμοὶ τῶν τὸν αὐτὸν λόγον ἐχόντων The least numbers of those (numbers) having the αὐτοῖς πρῶτοι πρὸς ἀλλήλους εἰσίν. τουτέστιν ὅ τε ἡγούμενος τὸν ἡγούμενον καὶ ὁ ἑπόμενος τὸν ἑπόμενον. ἰσάκις ἄρα ὁ Γ τὸν Α μετρεῖ καὶ ὁ Δ τὸν Β. 7. οἱ Α. Β.20]. Β πρῶτοι πρὸς ἀλλήλους εἰσίν. E measures A and B. τοσαῦται μονάδες ἔστωσαν ἐν τῷ Ε. there cannot be any numbers less than A and B which are in the same ratio as A and B. μετρήσει τις αὐτοὺς ἀριθμός. And since C measures A according to the units in E.

Thus. The very thing is impossible. μετρήσει [τις] τοὺς Γ. Β ἄρα πρῶτοι πρὸς ἀλλήλους εἰσίν· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. ὁ δὲ Γ τὸν Α μετρεῖ. οὐκ ἄρα τοὺς Α. ἀριθμὸς δὴ ὁ Γ δύο ἀριθμοὺς τοὺς Δ. διὰ τὰ αὐτὰ δὴ καὶ ὁ Γ τὸν Ε πολλαπλασιάσας τὸν Β πεποίηκεν. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. Β ἀριθμοὺς ἀριθμός τις μετρήσει. τοσαῦται μονάδες ἔστωσαν ἐν τῷ Ε. kdþ. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. οἱ Γ. ὁ τὸν ἕνα If two numbers are prime to one another then a numαὐτῶν μετρῶν ἀριθμὸς πρὸς τὸν λοιπὸν πρῶτος ἔσται. some number does not measure the numbers A and B. For if C and B are not prime to one another then [some] number will measure C and B. Α Β Γ A ∆ B C D . Β. for the same (reasons). Β μετρεῖ πρώτους ὄντας πρὸς ἀλλήλους· ὅπερ ἐστὶν ἀδύνατον. ὁ Γ ἄρα τὸν Δ πολλαπλασιάσας τὸν Α πεποίηκεν. D and E are in the same ratio as A and B. μετρεῖ δὲ καὶ τὸν Β· ὁ Δ ἄρα τοὺς Α. ELEMENTS BOOK 7 ὁσάκις δὲ ὁ Γ τὸν Β μετρεῖ. And (D) also measures B. Β ἀριθμοὺς ἀριθμός τις μετρήσει. οὕτως ὁ Α πρὸς τὸν Β· οἱ Δ. ber measuring one of them will be prime to the remaining (one). Ε πολλαπλασιάσας τοὺς Α. If two numbers are prime to some number then the number created from (multiplying) the former (two numbers) will also be prime to the latter (number). οὐκ ἄρα τοὺς Γ. many units let there be in D. Ε ἄρα τοῖς Α. ὅτι καὶ οἱ Γ. καὶ ὁ ἐξ αὐτῶν γενόμενος πρὸς τὸν αὐτὸν πρῶτος ἔσται. 7. and let it be D. C has also made B (by) multiplying E. ῎Εστωσαν δύο ἀριθμοὶ πρῶτοι πρὸς ἀλλήλους οἱ Α. A and B are prime to one another. D measures A and B. Β ἀριθμός. Εἰ γὰρ μή εἰσιν οἱ Γ. Proposition 23 ᾿Εὰν δύο ἀριθμοὶ πρῶτοι πρὸς ἀλλήλους ὦσιν. Thus. and let some number C measure A. so A (is) to B [Prop. some number does not measure the numbers C and B. And as many times as C measures B. so many units let there be in E. Proposition 24 ᾿Εὰν δύο ἀριθμοὶ πρός τινα ἀριθμὸν πρῶτοι ὦσιν. kgþ. Since C measures A according to the units in D. C has thus made A (by) multiplying D [Def. C and B are prime to one another. καὶ ὁ Δ ἄρα τὸν Α μετρεῖ. D thus also measures A. and C measures A. 7. I say that C and B are also prime to one another. Β πρῶτοι πρὸς ἀλλήλους εἰσίν. μετρείτω. Thus. Β πεποίηκεν· ἔστιν ἄρα ὡς ὁ Δ πρὸς τὸν Ε. τὸν δὲ Α μετρείτω τις ἀριθμὸς ὁ Γ· λέγω. Let it (so) measure (them). καὶ ἔστω ὁ Δ. Β ἄρα πρῶτοι πρὸς ἀλλήλους εἰσίν· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. being less than them. Thus. 213 . ᾿Επεὶ ὁ Γ τὸν Α μετρεῖ κατὰ τὰς ἐν τῷ Δ μονάδας. as D is to E.15]. Thus.STOIQEIWN zþ. which are prime to one another. Β πρῶτοι πρὸς ἀλλήλους. So. The very thing is impossible.17]. Since D measures C. Thus. ἐπεὶ ὁ Δ τὸν Γ μετρεῖ. So the number C has made A and B (by) multiplying the two numbers D and E (respectively). Β ἐν τῷ αὐτῷ λόγῳ εἰσὶν ἐλάσσονες ὄντες αὐτῶν· ὅπερ ἐστὶν ἀδύνατον. Let A and B be two numbers (which are) prime to one another. οἱ Α. Thus.

ἐὰν δὲ ὁ ὑπὸ τῶν ἄκρων ἴσος ᾖ τῷ ὑπὸ τῶν μέσων. 7. οὐκ ἄρα τοὺς Γ. Thus. Ε ἄρα πρῶτοι πρὸς ἀλλήλους εἰσίν. οἱ δὲ πρῶτοι καὶ ἐλάχιστοι. the leading (measuring) the leading. Δ πρῶτοι πρὸς ἀλλήλους. E has made D (by) multiplying F [Def. ὁσάκις δὴ ὁ Ε τὸν Δ μετρεῖ. F also measures D according to the units in E [Prop. so many units let there be in F . καὶ ὁ Α τὸν Β πολλαπλασιάσας τὸν Δ ποιείτω· λέγω. Β. μετρείτω. Δ πρῶτοι πρὸς ἀλλήλους εἰσίν. Thus. Thus. Δ ἀριθμοὺς ἀριθμός τις μετρήσει. A has also made D (by) multiplying B. And since C and A are prime to one another. Thus. καὶ ἔστω ὁ Ε. E measures B and C. number created from (squaring) one of them will be ῎Εστωσαν δύο ἀριθμοὶ πρῶτοι πρὸς ἀλλήλους οἱ Α. I say that C and D are prime to one another. τὸν δὲ Γ μετρεῖ τις ἀριθμὸς ὁ Ε. Thus. And let A make D (by) multiplying B. καὶ ὁ Α ἑαυτὸν πολλαπλασιάσας τὸν Γ ποιείτω· λέγω. Ε πρῶτοι. Thus. Εἰ γὰρ μή εἰσιν οἱ Γ. Α Β ELEMENTS BOOK 7 Γ ∆ Ε Ζ A B C D E F Δύο γὰρ ἀριθμοὶ οἱ Α. Let it (so) measure them. E measures B. Thus. But. For if C and D are not prime to one another then [some] number will measure C and D. 7. and the lesser the lesser—that is to say. So as many times as E measures D. in fact. so B (is) to F . And the least numbers of those (numbers) having the same ratio measure those (numbers) having the same ratio as them an equal number of times. μετρήσει [τις] τοὺς Γ. ὁ Ε ἄρα τὸν Ζ πολλαπλασιάσας τὸν Δ πεποίηκεν. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. the (number created) from (multiplying) E and F is equal to the (number created) from (multiplying) A and B. as E is to A.16]. ὅτι οἱ Γ. And if the (rectangle contained) by the (two) outermost is equal to the (rectangle contained) by the middle (two) then the four numbers are proportional [Prop.15]. which are prime to one another. and some number E measures C. Β πρός τινα ἀριθμὸν τὸν Γ πρῶτοι ἔστωσαν. ἀλλὰ μὴν καὶ ὁ Α τὸν Β πολλαπλασιάσας τὸν Δ πεποίηκεν· ἴσος ἄρα ἐστὶν ὁ ἑκ τῶν Ε.15]. some number cannot measure the numbers C and D.23]. A and E are thus prime to one another [Prop. The very thing is impossible. Β. οὕτως ὁ Β πρὸς τὸν Ζ. And it also measures C. οἱ τέσσαρες ἀριθμοὶ ἀνάλογόν εἰσιν· ἔστιν ἄρα ὡς ὁ Ε πρὸς τὸν Α. οἱ Α. And (numbers) prime (to one another) are also the least (of those numbers having the same ratio) [Prop. Proposition 25 ᾿Εὰν δύο ἀριθμοὶ πρῶτοι πρὸς ἀλλήλους ὦσιν. οἱ δὲ ἐλάχιστοι ἀριθμοὶ τῶν τὸν αὐτὸν λόγον ἐχόντων αὐτοῖς μετροῦσι τοὺς τὸν αὐτὸν λόγον ἔχοντας ἰσάκις ὅ τε μείζων τὸν μείζονα καὶ ὁ ἐλάσσων τὸν ἐλάσσονα. And A and E (are) prime (to one another). 7. τουτέστιν ὅ τε ἡγούμενος τὸν ἡγούμενον καὶ ὁ ἑπόμενος τὸν ἑπόμενον· ὁ Ε ἄρα τὸν Β μετρεῖ.STOIQEIWN zþ. Thus. οἱ δὲ Α. Δ πρῶτοι πρὸς ἀλλήλους εἰσίν. ὁ ἐκ τοῦ If two numbers are prime to one another then the ἑνὸς αὐτῶν γενόμενος πρὸς τὸν λοιπὸν πρῶτος ἔσται. καὶ ἐπεὶ οἱ Γ. 6. and let it be E. 7. Δ ἀριθμός.21]. τοσαῦται μονάδες ἔστωσαν ἐν τῷ Ζ· καὶ ὁ Ζ ἄρα τὸν Δ μετρεῖ κατὰ τὰς ἐν τῷ Ε μονάδας. prime to the remaining (number). μετρεῖ δὲ καὶ τὸν Γ· ὁ Ε ἄρα τοὺς Β. keþ. the greater (measuring) the greater. Γ μετρεῖ πρώτους ὄντας πρὸς ἀλλήλους· ὅπερ ἐστὶν ἀδύνατον. 7. ὅτι Let A and B be two numbers (which are) prime to 214 . Δ ἄρα πρῶτοι πρὸς ἀλλήλους εἰσίν· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. C and D are prime to one another. For let A and B be two numbers (which are both) prime to some number C.20]. Ζ τῷ ἐκ τῶν Α. and the following the following [Prop. οἱ Γ.

For let D be made equal to A. 7. E and D are also prime to one another. Β πρὸς δύο ἀριθμοὺς τοὺς Γ. And let A make E (by) multiplying B. E and F are prime to one another. the (number) created from (multiplying) C and D will also be prime to E [Prop. οἱ Ε. Α πρὸς τὸν Β πρῶτός ἐστιν· καὶ ὁ ἐκ τῶν Δ. Proposition 26 ᾿Εὰν δύο ἀριθμοὶ πρὸς δύο ἀριθμοὺς ἀμφότεροι πρὸς ἑκάτερον πρῶτοι ὦσιν. Δ πρὸς τὸν Ε πρῶτός ἐστιν. and A (is) equal to D. and let C make F (by) multiplying D. the (number) created from (multiplying) A and B will thus also be prime to C [Prop. Β πρῶτοι πρὸς ἀλλήλους εἰσίν. Α γενόμενος ἀριθμός ἐστιν ὁ Γ. ἑκάτερος ἄρα τῶν Γ. Α Β Γ one another. Α ἄρα γενόμενος πρὸς τὸν Β πρῶτος ἔσται. D and B are thus also prime to one another. I say that B and C are prime to one another. ἴσος δὲ ὁ Α τῷ Δ. C and D are each prime to E. C D For let two numbers. ∆ A B C D Κείσθω γὰρ τῷ Α ἴσος ὁ Δ. Β πρὸς τὸν Γ πρῶτός ἐστιν. Ζ ἄρα πρῶτοι πρὸς ἀλλήλους εἰσίν· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. Β ἄρα γενόμενος πρὸς τὸν Γ πρῶτος ἔσται. A and B. Thus. Since A and B are prime to one another. ὁ δὲ ἐκ τῶν Δ. Δ γενόμενός ἐστιν ὁ Ζ. For since A and B are each prime to C. Thus. ἐπεὶ οἱ Α. both be prime to each of two numbers. Δ ἀμφότεροι πρὸς ἑκάτερον πρῶτοι ἔστωσαν. Β ἄρα πρῶτοι πρὸς ἀλλήλους εἰσίν· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. Δ ἄρα γενόμενος πρὸς τὸν Ε πρῶτος ἔσται. Thus. ὁ δὲ Γ τὸν Δ πολλαπλασιάσας τὸν Ζ ποιείτω· λέγω. Β ἄρα πρῶτοι πρὸς ἀλλήλους εἰσίν· ἑκάτερος ἄρα τῶν Δ. ὅτι οἱ Ε. for the same (reasons). Δ πρῶτοι πρὸς ἀλλήλους εἰσίν. I say that E and F are prime to one another. ὁ δὲ ἐκ τῶν Α. καὶ ὁ μὲν Α τὸν Β πολλαπλασιάσας τὸν Ε ποιείτω. ELEMENTS BOOK 7 οἱ Β. διὰ τὰ αὐτὰ δὴ καὶ οἱ Ε. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. E and C are prime to one another. Thus. Α Β Ε Ζ Γ ∆ A B E F Δύο γὰρ ἀριθμοὶ οἱ Α. And E is the (number) created from (multiplying) A and B. Γ ἄρα πρῶτοι πρὸς ἀλλήλους εἰσίν.24]. ὁ δὲ ἐκ τῶν Γ. If two numbers are both prime to each of two numbers then the (numbers) created from (multiplying) them will also be prime to one another. D and A are each prime to B. ᾿Επεὶ γὰρ ἑκάτερος τῶν Α. C and D. καὶ ὁ ἐκ τῶν Α. Thus. Thus. the (number) created from (multilying) D and A will also be prime to B [Prop.24]. 7. καὶ οἱ ἐξ αὐτῶν γενόμενοι πρῶτοι πρὸς ἀλλήλους ἔσονται. Ζ πρῶτοι πρὸς ἀλλήλους εἰσίν.24]. So. καὶ ὁ ἐκ τῶν Γ. Γ πρῶτοι πρὸς ἀλλὴλους εἰσίν. 215 . And C is the number created from (multiplying) D and A. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. Thus. Β γενόμενός ἐστιν ὁ Ε· οἱ Ε. And F is the (number) created from (multiplying) C and D. οἱ Γ. καί οἱ Δ. C and B are prime to one another.STOIQEIWN zþ. kþ. 7. And let A make C (by) multiplying itself.

Β πρῶτοι πρὸς ἀλλήλους εἰσίν. Proposition 27† ᾿Εὰν δύο ἀριθμοὶ πρῶτοι πρὸς ἀλλήλους ὦσιν. and let it make D (by) multiplying C. Ε ἄρα πρῶτοι πρὸς ἀλλήλους εἰσίν. etc. καὶ ὁ Β ἑαυτὸν πολλαπλασιάσας τὸν Ε πεποίηκεν. For since A and B are prime to one another. and if the original (numbers) make some (more numbers by) multiplying the created (numbers) then these will also be prime to one another [and this always happens with the extremes]. καὶ ὁ Β ἑαυτὸν πολλαπλασιάσας τὸν Ε πεποίηκεν. Ε καὶ οἱ Δ. 216 . Β ἄρα πρῶτοι πρὸς ἀλλήλους εἰσίν. καὶ ὁ ἐκ τῶν Α. then a2 is also prime to b2 . οἱ Γ. Again. and B has made E (by) multiplying itself. Ε πρῶτός ἐστιν. Β πρῶτοι πρὸς ἀλλήλους εἰσίν. ὁ δὲ Β ἑαυτὸν μὲν πολλαπλασιάσας τὸν Ε ποιείτω.25]. κἂν οἱ ἐξ ἀρχῆς τοὺς γενομένους πολλαπλασιάσαντες ποιῶσί τινας. If two numbers are prime to one another and each makes some (number by) multiplying itself then the numbers created from them will be prime to one another. and F the (number created) from (multiplying) B and E. Ε ἀμφότεροι πρὸς ἑκάτερον πρῶτοί εἰσιν. And let B make E (by) multiplying itself. Ζ πρῶτοι πρὸς ἀλλήλους εἰσίν. Proposition 28 ᾿Εὰν δύο ἀριθμοὶ πρῶτοι πρὸς ἀλλήλους ὦσιν. D and F are prime to one another. Ε ἄρα πρῶτοι πρὸς ἀλλήλους εἰσίν. Α Β Γ ∆ Ε Ζ A ῎Εστωσαν δύο ἀριθμοὶ πρῶτοι πρὸς ἀλλήλους οἱ Α. καὶ ὁ Α ἑαυτὸν μὲν πολλαπλασιάσας τὸν Γ ποιείτω. since C and B are prime to one another. τὸν δὲ Ε πολλαπλασιάσας τὸν Ζ ποιείτω· λέγω. C and E are thus prime to one another [Prop. 7. τὸν δὲ Γ πολλαπλασιάσας τὸν Δ ποιείτω. καὶ ὁ Α ἑαυτὸν πολλαπλασιάσας τὸν Γ πεποίηκεν. and let A make C (by) multiplying itself. and A has made C (by) multiplying itself. ELEMENTS BOOK 7 kzþ. and D and F . καὶ πολλαπλασιάσας ἑκάτερος ἑαυτὸν ποιῇ τινα. ἐπεὶ οὖν δύο ἀριθμοὶ οἱ Α. this proposition states that if a is prime to b. Β πρῶτοι πρὸς ἀλλήλους εἰσίν. ὅτι οἵ τε Γ. ὁ δὲ ἐκ τῶν Β. khþ. Γ ἄρα γενόμενος πρὸς τὸν ἐκ τῶν Β. Therefore. καὶ οἱ ἐξ (of two numbers) is prime to any one of them then the ἀρχῆς ἀριθμοὶ πρῶτοι πρὸς ἀλλήλους ἔσονται. 7. and B has made E (by) multiplying itself. ἐπεὶ οὖν οἱ Γ. C and B are thus prime to one another [Prop. In modern notation.26]. And if the sum συναμφότερος πρὸς ἕνα τινὰ αὐτῶν πρῶτος ᾖ. as well as a3 to b3 . are prime to one another.25]. καὶ συIf two numbers are prime to one another then their ναμφότερος πρὸς ἑκάτερον αὐτῶν πρῶτος ἔσται· καὶ ἐὰν sum will also be prime to each of them. the (number) created from (multiplying) A and C is thus prime to the (number created) from (multiplying) B and E [Prop. and let it make F by multiplying E. Therefore. ἐπεὶ οἱ Α. And D is the (number created) from (multiplying) A and C. † B C D E F Let A and B be two numbers prime to one another. Γ ὁ Δ. Γ πρὸς δύο ἀριθμοὺς τοὺς Β. original numbers will also be prime to one another. οἱ γενόμενοι ἐξ αὐτῶν πρῶτοι πρὸς ἀλλήλους ἔσονται. οἱ Γ. 7. ᾿Επεὶ γὰρ οἱ Α.STOIQEIWN zþ. A and E are thus prime to one another [Prop. since the two numbers A and C are both prime to each of the two numbers B and E. πάλιν. καί ἐστιν ὁ μὲν ἐκ τῶν Α. κἀκεῖνοι πρῶτοι πρὸς ἀλλήλους ἔσονται [καὶ ἀεὶ περὶ τοὺς ἄκρους τοῦτο συμβαίνει]. where all symbols denote numbers. I say that C and E.25]. Ε ὁ Ζ.. οἱ Α. 7. Thus. Β. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. since A and B are prime to one another. Ζ ἄρα πρῶτοι πρὸς ἀλλήλους εἰσίν· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. οἱ Δ.

Thus. μετρήσει τις τοὺς ΓΑ. And it also measures BA. μετρήσει τις τοὺς ΑΒ. Since C measures B. Εἰ γὰρ μή εἰσιν οἱ ΓΑ. D measures CA and AB. (despite) not being the same as it. since D measures CA and AB. Εἰ γὰρ μή εἰσιν οἱ Β. be laid down together. καὶ λοιπὸν ἄρα τὸν ΒΓ μετρήσει. Let it (so) measure (them). The very thing is impossible. Β ἄρα πρῶτοι πρὸς ἀλλήλους εἰσίν· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. (Which is) the very thing it was required to 217 . it thus also measures A. ΒΓ μετρεῖ. which are prime to one another. Let it (so) measure (them). καὶ ἔστω ὁ Δ. μετρεῖ δὲ καὶ τὸν ΑΒ· ὁ Δ ἄρα τοὺς ΓΑ. ΒΓ πρῶτός ἐστιν. and let it not measure B. μετρείτω ὁ Γ. Εἰ γὰρ μή εἰσιν οἱ ΑΒ. Thus. some number cannot measure (both) B and A. Α μετρεῖ. καὶ τὸν Α ἄρα μετρεῖ πρῶτον ὄντα μὴ ὢν αὐτῷ ὁ αὐτός· ὅπερ ἐστὶν ἀδύνατον. and let it be D. I say that B and A are prime to one another. For let the two numbers. μετρεῖ δὲ καὶ τὸν ΒΑ· ὁ Δ ἄρα τοὺς ΑΒ. kjþ. it will thus also measure the remainder BC. A and B are prime to one another. Let A be a prime number. D measures AB and BC. οὐκ ἄρα τοὺς ΑΒ. μετρείτω. διὰ τὰ αὐτὰ δὴ καὶ οἱ ΑΓ. ΑΒ ἀριθμός. Let C measure (them). So. ΑΒ μετρεῖ πρώτους ὄντας πρὸς ἀλλήλους· ὅπερ ἐστὶν ἀδύνατον. and A does not measure B. And it also measures AB. ΒΓ ἀριθμός. ὅτι καὶ οἱ ΑΒ. ΒΓ· λέγω. Thus. some number cannot measure (both) the numbers AB and BC. Thus. Α μετρήσει τις ἀριθμός. ΒΓ μετρεῖ πρώτους ὄντας πρὸς ἀλλήλους· ὅπερ ἐστὶν ἀδύνατον. For if AB and BC are not prime to one another then some number will measure AB and BC. AC and CB are also prime to one another. Proposition 29 ῞Απας πρῶτος ἀριθμὸς πρὸς ἅπαντα ἀριθμόν. καὶ ὅλον ἄρα τὸν ΓΑ μετρήσει. which are prime to one another. οἱ ΑΒ. ΒΓ πρῶτός ἐστιν. μετρείτω. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. πρῶτός ἐστιν. some number cannot measure (both) the numbers CA and AB. for the same (reasons). ὅτι οἱ Β. ΑΒ πρῶτοι πρὸς ἀλλήλους. CA and AB are prime to one another. ΒΓ πρῶτοι πρὸς ἀλλήλους. Every prime number is prime to every number which it does not measure. let CA and AB be prime to one another. The very thing is impossible. οἱ Α. Therefore. again. I say that their sum AC is also prime to each of AB and BC. ΒΓ ἀριθμοὺς ἀριθμός τις μετρήσει. So. and let it be D. Α πρῶτοι πρὸς ἀλλήλους εἰσίν. ὁ δὲ Α τὸν Β οὐ μετρεῖ. Thus. ΑΒ πρῶτοι πρὸς ἀλλήλους· λέγω. Α πρῶτοι πρὸς ἀλλήλους. The very thing is impossible. Thus. καὶ ἐπεὶ ὁ Δ ἑκάτερον τῶν ΑΒ. καὶ ἔστω ὁ Δ. ὅτι καὶ συναμφότερος ὁ ΑΓ πρὸς ἑκάτερον τῶν ΑΒ. Thus. ὃν μὴ μετρεῖ. Thus. οὐκ ἄρα τοὺς Β. ἐπεὶ οὖν ὁ Δ τοὺς ΓΑ. ΒΓ ἄρα πρῶτοι πρὸς ἀλλήλους εἰσίν· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. AB and BC. For if B and A are not prime to one another then some number will measure them. C is thus not the same as A. ῎Εστωσαν δὴ πάλιν οἱ ΓΑ. καὶ ἐπεὶ ὁ Γ τοὺς Β. For if CA and AB are not prime to one another then some number will measure CA and AB. οὐκ ἄρα τοὺς ΓΑ. which is prime. μετρήσει τις αὐτοὺς ἀριθμός. ΑΒ ἄρα πρῶτοι πρὸς ἀλλήλους εἰσίν. ΑΒ ἀριθμοὺς ἀριθμός τις μετρήσει· οἱ ΓΑ. (which are) prime to one another. Thus. And since C measures B and A. CA is prime to each of AB and BC. ELEMENTS BOOK 7 Α Β Γ A ∆ B C D Συγκείσθωσαν γὰρ δύο ἀριθμοὶ πρῶτοι πρὸς ἀλλήλους οἱ ΑΒ. ΑΒ μετρεῖ. And since D measures each of AB and BC. Α Β Γ A B C ῎Εστω πρῶτος ἀριθμὸς ὁ Α καὶ τὸν Β μὴ μετρείτω· λέγω.STOIQEIWN zþ. ΒΓ πρῶτοι πρὸς ἀλλήλους εἰσίν. I say that AB and BC are also prime to one another. it will thus also measure the whole of CA. ὁ ΓΑ ἄρα πρὸς ἑκάτερον τῶν ΑΒ. AB and BC are prime to one another. ἐπεὶ ὁ Γ τὸν Β μετρεῖ. ΓΒ πρῶτοι πρὸς ἀλλήλους εἰσίν. ὁ Γ ἄρα τῷ Α οὔκ ἐστιν ὁ αὐτός.

and some prime number measures the numκαὶ ἕνα τῶν ἐξ ἀρχῆς μετρήσει. Β.21]. Proposition 31 ῞Απας σύνθεντος ἀριθμὸς ὑπὸ πρώτου τινὸς ἀριθμοῦ μετρεῖται. I say that A is measured ῎Εστω σύνθεντος ἀριθμὸς ὁ Α· λέγω. ὅτι ὁ Α ὑπὸ πρώτου by some prime number. Α πρῶτοι. A has also made C (by) multiplying B. οἱ δὲ ἐλάχιστοι μετροῦσι τοὺς τὸν αὐτὸν λόγον ἔχοντας ἰσάκις ὅ τε μείζων τὸν μείζονα καὶ ὁ ἐλάσσων τὸν ἐλάσσονα. so B (is) to E [Prop. But. ὁ Δ ἄρα ἕνα τῶν Α. D measures B. ὁ Δ ἄρα τὸν Ε πολλαπλασιάσας τὸν Γ πεποίηκεν. And D and A (are) prime (to one another). 7. τοσαῦται μονάδες ἔστωσαν ἐν τῷ Ε. οὕτως ὁ Β πρὸς τὸν Ε. τὸν Α μετρήσει. Let it (so) measure (A).29]. τινὸς ἀριθμοῦ μετρεῖται. Β μετρεῖ· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. Α Β Γ ∆ Ε A B C D E Δύο γὰρ ἀριθμοὶ οἱ Α. as D is to A. ber (so) created from them. in fact. since D measures C according to the units E. and let some prime number D measure C. μετρήσει τις αὐτὸν it. lþ. one another. Proposition 30 ᾿Εὰν δύο ἀριθμοὶ πολλαπλασιάσαντες ἀλλήλους ποιῶσί If two numbers make some (number by) multiplying τινα. Τὸν γὰρ Α μὴ μετρείτω· καί ἐστι πρῶτος ὁ Δ· οἱ Α. ἀλλὰ μὴν καὶ ὁ Α τὸν Β πολλαπλασιάσας τὸν Γ πεποίηκεν· ἴσος ἄρα ἐστὶν ὁ ἐκ τῶν Δ. some number will measure ᾿Επεὶ γὰρ σύνθετός ἐστιν ὁ Α. For let two numbers A and B make C (by) multiplying one another. I say that D measures one of A and B. καὶ ὁσάκις ὁ Δ τὸν Γ μετρεῖ. For since A is composite. For let it not measure A. ὅτι ὁ Δ ἕνα τῶν Α. ὁμοίως δὴ δείξομεν. Β μετρεῖ.15].20]. τουτέστιν ὅ τε ἡγούμενος τὸν ἡγούμενον καὶ ὁ ἐπόμενος τὸν ἑπόμενον· ὁ Δ ἄρα τὸν Β μετρεῖ. So. laþ. and the following the following [Prop. ELEMENTS BOOK 7 show. Therefore. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. Β πολλαπλασιάσαντες ἀλλήλους τὸν Γ ποιείτωσαν. the (number created) from (multiplying) D and E is equal to the (number created) from (multiplying) A and B. 7. 7. and the lesser the lesser—that is to say. Thus. ἔστιν ἄρα ὡς ὁ Δ πρὸς τὸν Α. 7. and let it be B. And if B 218 . D has thus made C (by) multiplying E [Def. τὸν δὲ Γ μετρείτω τις πρῶτος ἀριθμὸς ὁ Δ· λέγω. D measures one of A and B. Let A be a composite number. the leading (measuring) the leading. A and D are thus prime to one another [Prop. and (numbers) prime (to one another are) also the least (of those numbers having the same ratio) [Prop.19]. and the least (numbers) measure those (numbers) having the same ratio (as them) an equal number of times. ὅτι καὶ ἐὰν τὸν Β μὴ μετρῇ.STOIQEIWN zþ. we can also show that if (D) does not measure B then it will measure A. the greater (measuring) the greater. Ε τῷ ἐκ τῶν Α. Thus. Thus. so many units let there be in E. οἱ δὲ πρῶτοι καὶ ἐλάχιστοι. οἱ δὲ Δ. 7. τὸν δὲ γενόμενον ἐξ αὐτῶν μετρῇ τις πρῶτος ἀριθμός. then it will also measure one of the original (numbers). Thus. Δ ἄρα πρῶτοι πρὸς ἀλλήλους εἰσίν. And since D is prime. Every composite number is measured by some prime number. ἐπεὶ οὖν ὁ Δ τὸν Γ μετρεῖ κατὰ τὰς ἐν τῷ Ε μονάδας. And as many times as D measures C. similarly.

Α A ῎Εστω ἀριθμὸς ὁ Α· λέγω. καὶ ὁ Γ ἄρα τὸν Α μετρεῖ. And if (C is) composite then some number will measure it. prime number. will measure the number A. τοιαύτης δὴ γινομένης ἐπισκέψεως ληφθήσεταί τις πρῶτος ἀριθμός. if A is prime then that which was prescribed has happened. B. And if (B is) composite then some number will measure it. and let it be C. εἰ μὲν οὖν οἱ Α. and C are prime to one another then they are the least of those (numbers) having the same ratio as them [Prop. ELEMENTS BOOK 7 ἀριθμός. Proposition 33 ᾿Αριθμῶν δοθέντων ὁποσωνοῦν εὑρεῖν τοὺς ἐλαχίστους τῶν τὸν αὐτὸν λόγον ἐχόντων αὐτοῖς.STOIQEIWN zþ. Proposition 32 ῞Απας ἀριθμὸς ἤτοι πρῶτός ἐστιν ἢ ὑπὸ πρώτου τινὸς ἀριθμοῦ μετρεῖται. ὅτι ὁ Α ἤτοι πρῶτός ἐστιν ἢ ὑπὸ πρώτου τινὸς ἀριθμοῦ μετρεῖται. Εἰ μὲν οὖν πρῶτός ἐστιν ὁ Α. B. and C be any given multitude of numbers. each of which is less than the preceding. or not. every composite number is measured by some μετρεῖται· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. Let A be a number. Let it (so) measure (B). καὶ εἰ μὲν πρῶτός ἐστιν ὁ Β. And if (it is) composite then some prime number will measure it [Prop. μετρείτω. 219 . And if C is prime then that which was prescribed has happened. B. Οἱ Α. καὶ εἰ μὲν πρῶτός ἐστιν ὁ Γ. To find the least of those (numbers) having the same ratio as any given multitude of numbers.22]. Thus. Β. Γ πρῶτοι πρὸς ἀλλήλους εἰσίν. 7. ἐλάχιστοί εἰσι τῶν τὸν αὐτὸν λόγον ἐχόντων αὐτοῖς. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. ὧν ἕτερος ἑτέρου ἐλάσσων ἐστίν· ὅπερ ἐστὶν ἀδύνατον ἐν ἀριθμοῖς. Β. which will also measure A. In fact. 7. is prime then that which was prescribed has happened. εἰ γὰρ οὐ ληφθήσεται. Γ. Β. lbþ. So it is required to find the least of those (numbers) having the same ratio as A. And if (such a number) cannot be found then an infinite (series of) numbers. lgþ. εἰ δὲ σύνθετος. ὃς μετρήσει τὸν πρὸ ἑαυτοῦ. every number is either prime or is measured by some prime number. μετρήσει τις αὐτὸν ἀριθμός. Γ· δεῖ δὴ εὑρεῖν τοὺς ἐλαχίστους τῶν τὸν αὐτὸν λόγον ἐχόντων τοῖς Α. ῞Απας ἄρα ἀριθμὸς ἤτοι πρῶτός ἐστιν ἢ ὑπὸ πρώτου τινὸς ἀριθμοῦ μετρεῖται· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. and C. μετρήσει τις αὐτὸν πρῶτος ἀριθμός. Γ γὰρ ἤτοι πρῶτοι πρὸς ἀλλήλους εἰσὶν ἢ οὔ. B. καὶ ἔστω ὁ Β. ληφθήσεταί τις ἄρα πρῶτος ἀριθμός. ὃς μετρήσει. Thus. μετρήσει τις αὐτὸν ἀριθμός. ῎Εστωσαν οἱ δοθέντες ὁποσοιοῦν ἀριθμοὶ οἱ Α. I say that A is either prime or is measured by some prime number. which will also measure A). some prime number will be found which will measure (the number preceding it. C thus also measures A. some prime number will (eventually) be found which will measure the (number) preceding it. γεγονὸς ἂν εἴη τὸ ἐπιταχθέν. μετρείτω. For A. and C are either prime to one another. εἰ δὲ σύνθετος.31]. μετρήσουσι τὸν Α ἀριθμὸν ἄπειροι ἀριθμοί. καὶ ἐπεὶ ὁ Γ τὸν Β μετρεῖ. ὃς καὶ τὸν Α μετρήσει. And since C measures B. γεγονὸς ἂν εἴη τὸ ἐπιταχθέν. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. and B measures A. Let A. εἰ δὲ σύνθετος. Α Β Γ A B C ῞Απας ἄρα σύνθεντος ἀριθμὸς ὑπὸ πρώτου τινὸς ἀριθμοῦ Thus. Β. ὁ δὲ Β τὸν Α μετρεῖ. In fact. καὶ ἔστω ὁ Γ. γεγονὸς ἂν εἴη τό ἐπιταχθέν. So. Every number is either prime or is measured by some prime number. The very thing is impossible for numbers. in this manner of continued investigation. if A.

B. καὶ ἐπεὶ ὁ Θ τὸν Α μετρεῖ κατὰ τὰς ἐν τῷ Μ μονάδας. Γ τὸ μέγιστον κοινὸν μέτρον ὁ Δ. Η ἐλάχιστοι τῶν τὸν αὐτὸν λόγον ἐχόντων τοῖς Α. Β. Γ ἰσάκις μετροῦσιν· οἱ Ε. 7. ἴσος ἄρα ἐστὶν ὁ ἐκ τῶν Ε. εἰ γὰρ μή εἰσιν οἱ Ε. Thus. ldþ. Γ μετρεῖ κατὰ τὰς ἐν τῷ Δ μονάδας. Ζ. 7.3]. So it is re- 220 . B. Η ἄρα τοὺς Α. 7. Ζ. G which are in the same ratio as A. And as many times as D measures A. οἱ Ε. εἰλήφθω τῶν Α. then there will be [some] numbers less than E. Β. B. B. B. Γ μετρεῖ. τοσαῦται μονάδες ἔστωσαν ἐν ἑκάστῳ τῶν Ε. Thus. H has thus made A (by) multiplying M . Γ. Thus. L also measure B. (both) measure. Β. Proposition 34 Δύο ἀριθμῶν δοθέντων εὑρεῖν.20].13]. C. And since H measures A according to the units in M . M thus also measures A according to the units in H [Prop. Ζ. C. B. L measure B. respectively. so M (is) to D [Prop. there cannot be any numbers less than E. Ζ. Γ μετρεῖ κατὰ τὰς ἐν τῷ Μ μονάδας. Thus. C. and C.15]. καὶ ὁ Μ ἄρα τὸν Α μετρεῖ κατὰ τὰς ἐν τῷ Θ μονάδας. ὅτι καὶ ἐλάχιστοι. διὰ τὰ αὐτὰ δὴ καὶ ὁ Ε τὸν Δ πολλαπλασιάσας τὸν Α πεποίηκεν. G measure A. Thus. K. And as many times as H measures A. Η ἄρα τοῖς Α. F . C). E. And if not. οὐκ ἄρα ἔσονταί τινες τῶν Ε. H measures A the same number of times that K. οἱ Ε. Λ· ἰσάκις ἄρα ὁ Θ τὸν Α μετρεῖ καὶ ἑκάτερος τῶν Κ. respectively. E. ὁσάκις δὲ ὁ Θ τὸν Α μετρεῖ. Η ἐλάσσονες ἀριθμοὶ ἐν τῷ αὐτῷ λόγῳ ὄντες τοῖς Α. F . For if E. for the same (reasons). C according to the units in K. ὁ Θ ἄρα τὸν Μ πολλαπλασιάσας τὸν Α πεποίηκεν. Η ἐλάσσονες ἀριθμοὶ ἐν τῷ αὐτῷ λόγῳ ὄντες τοῖς Α. ἔστωσαν οἱ Θ. let the greatest common measure. for the same (reasons). B. Α Β Γ ∆ ELEMENTS BOOK 7 Ε Ζ Η Θ Κ Λ Μ A B C D E F G H K L M Εἰ δὲ οὔ. D. L. The very thing is impossible. so many units let there be in E. Η. respectively. so many units let there be in M . respectively. Ζ. Β· δεῖ δὴ εὑρεῖν. οὕτως ὁ Μ πρὸς τὸν Δ.STOIQEIWN zþ. the (number created) from (multiplying) E and D is equal to the (number created) from (multiplying) H and M . F . Β.15]. M (is) also greater than D [Prop. 7. Thus. G are the least of (those numbers) having the same ratio as A. So. Γ μετρεῖ κατὰ τὰς ἐν ἑκατέρῳ τῶν Κ. Β. μείζων δὲ ὁ Ε τοῦ Θ· μείζων ἄρα καὶ ὁ Μ τοῦ Δ. B. Thus. F . And since H measures A according to the units in M . Η ἕκαστον τῶν Α. Let A and B be the two given numbers. And E (is) greater than H. Γ· ὅπερ ἐστὶν ἀδύνατον· ὑπόκειται γὰρ ὁ Δ τῶν Α. F . Γ. B. Γ· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. C. Κ. τοσαῦται μονάδες ἔστωσαν ἐν τῷ Μ· καὶ ἑκάτερος ἄρα τῶν Κ. Β. M measures A.19]. C (respectively). K. as E (is) to H. according to the units in D [Prop. For D was assumed (to be) the greatest common measure of A. G. F . Β. Thus. B. ἔσονται [τινες] τῶν Ε. of A. Ζ. καὶ μετρεῖ τοὺς Α. So I say that (they are) also the least (of those numbers having the same ratio as A. Β. Let them be H. Thus. L. G are not the least of those (numbers) having the same ratio as A. So. Thus. Γ μετρεῖ. Γ τὸ μέγιστον κοινὸν μέτρον. respectively. And (M ) measures A. C (respectively) an equal number of times. C (respectively). Β. ῎Εστωσαν οἱ δοθέντες δύο ἀριθμοὶ οἱ Α. G which are in the same ratio as A. C (respectively). G are in the same ratio as A. Γ. Ζ. B. C (respectively) [Def. and C have be taken [Prop. And thus E. καὶ ἐπεὶ ὁ Θ τὸν Α μετρεῖ κατὰ τὰς ἐν τῷ Μ μονάδας. M also measures B. F . ὃν ἐλάχιστον μετροῦσιν To find the least number which two given numbers ἀριθμόν. B. Β. καὶ ὁσάκις ὁ Δ ἕκαστον τῶν Α. C (respectively). according to the units in M . and C. B. Λ ἑκάτερον τῶν Β. 7. E has also made A (by) multiplying D. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. Ζ. ἔστιν ἄρα ὡς ὁ Ε πρὸς τὸν Θ. διὰ τὰ αὐτὰ δὴ ὁ Μ καὶ ἑκάτερον τῶν Β. Β. λέγω δή. G measure A. 5. F . Γ ἐν τῷ αὐτῷ λόγῳ εἰσίν. Β. E. and C. Λ ἑκάτερον τῶν Β. Δ τῷ ἐκ τῶν Θ. Η ἄρα ἐλάχιστοί εἰσι τῶν τὸν αὐτὸν λόγον ἐχόντων τοῖς Α. Λ μονάδας· ὁ Μ ἄρα τοὺς Α. Γ. Μ. καὶ ἕκαστος ἄρα τῶν Ε.

λέγω δή. so many units let there be in F . καὶ ὁσάκις ὁ Α τὸν Δ μετρεῖ. F and E. ὁ Γ ἄρα ἐλάχιστος ὢν ὑπὸ τῶν Α. Thus. Β οἱ Ζ. Ε τῷ the same ratio as A and B (respectively) [Prop. and the lesser the lesser [Prop. Β μετρεῖται. Thus. Α Γ ∆ Ε quired to find the least number which they (both) measure. 7. the (number created) from (multiplying) A and E is equal to the (number created) from (multiplying) B and F . οἱ δὲ ἐλάχιστοι μετροῦσι τοὺς τὸν αὐτὸν λόγον ἔχοντας ἰσάκις ὅ τε μείζων τὸν μείζονα καὶ ὁ ἐλάσσων τὸν ἐλάσσονα· ὁ Β ἄρα τὸν Ε μετρεῖ. For if not. Β ἄρα τὸν Γ μετροῦσιν. as A (is) to B. ἔστωσαν πρότερον οἱ Α. thus as B is to E. and prime (numbers) are the least (of those numbers having the same ratio) [Prop. Thus.20]. And let A make C (by) multiplying B. 7. A has made D (by) multiplying E. τοσαῦται μονάδες ἔστωσαν ἐν τῷ Ζ. And as many times as B measures D. And since A has made C and D (by) multiplying B and E (respectively). ἔστιν ἄρα ὡς ὁ Α πρὸς τὸν Β. Ζ. B has also made C (by) multiplying A [Prop. or not. μετρήσουσί τινα ἀριθμὸν οἱ Α. οὕτως ὁ Ζ πρὸς τὸν Ε. Thus. οὐκ ἄρα οἱ Α. So let A and B be not prime to one another. Β πρῶτοι πρὸς ἀλλήλους. Thus. οὕτως ὁ Γ πρὸς τὸν Δ. The very thing is impossible. the greater (measuring) the lesser.19]. A and B do not (both) measure some number which is less than C. ἔστιν ἄρα ὡς ὁ Β πρὸς τὸν Ε. 7. Β μετροῦσί τινα ἀριθμὸν ἐλάσσονα ὄντα τοῦ Γ. καὶ ὁ Α τὸν Β πολλαπλασιάσας τὸν Γ ποιείτω· καὶ ὁ Β ἄρα τὸν Α πολλαπλασιάσας τὸν Γ πεποίηκεν. οἱ Α. so F (is) to E [Prop.17]. And B measures E. and B has made D (by) multiplying F . ELEMENTS BOOK 7 ὃν ἐλάχιστον μετροῦσιν ἀριθμόν. Β ἐλάσσονα ὄντα τοῦ Γ. μετρείτωσαν τὸν Δ. and the least (numbers) measure those (numbers) having the same ratio (as them) an equal number of times. And A and B are prime (to one another). Β A C D E Ζ Οἱ Α. Thus. ὅτι καὶ ἐλάχιστον. Thus. Let them (both) measure D (which is less than C). Β γὰρ ἤτοι πρῶτοι πρὸς ἀλλήλους εἰσὶν ἢ οὔ. so many units let there be in E. C is the least (number) which is measured by (both) A and B. Thus.16]. And as many times as A measures D. Let them. Β πρῶτοι πρὸς ἀλλήλους. be prime to one another. so C (is) to D [Prop. have been taken having ἐχόντων τοῖς Α. ὁ δὲ Β τὸν Ζ πολλαπλασιάσας τὸν Δ πεποίηκεν· ἴσος ἄρα ἐστὶν ὁ ἐκ τῶν Α. 221 . as the following (number measuring) the following. So I say that (C) is also the least (number which they both measure). ὁσάκις δὲ ὁ Β τὸν Δ μετρεῖ. καὶ ἐπεὶ ὁ Α τοὺς Β. Ε πολλαπλασιάσας τοὺς Γ. Α Ζ Γ ∆ Η B F For A and B are either prime to one another. C also measures D. τοσαῦται μονάδες ἔστωσαν ἐν τῷ Ε. 7. μετρεῖ δὲ ὁ Β τὸν Ε· μετρεῖ ἄρα καὶ ὁ Γ τὸν Δ ὁ μείζων τὸν ἐλάσσονα· ὅπερ ἐστὶν ἀδύνατον.21]. And καὶ εἰλήφθωσαν ἐλάχιστοι ἀριθμοὶ τῶν τὸν αὐτὸν λόγον let the least numbers. A and B (both) measure C. εἰ γὰρ μή. Β Ε A F C D G Θ B E H Μὴ ἔστωσαν δὴ οἱ Α. 7.33]. οἱ δὲ πρῶτοι καὶ ἐλάχιστοι. B measures E. οἱ δὲ Α.STOIQEIWN zþ. the greater (measuring) the greater. first of all. 7. ὡς ἑπόμενος ἑπόμενον. A and B will (both) measure some (other) number which is less than C. Β πρῶτοι. ὁ μὲν Α ἄρα τὸν Ε πολλαπλασιάσας τὸν Δ πεποίηκεν. Ε· ἴσος ἄρα ἐστὶν ὁ ἐκ τῶν Α. Ε τῷ ἐκ τῶν Β. Δ πεποίηκεν. Thus.

Thus. E measures G. καὶ ὁσάκις μὲν ὁ Α τὸν Δ μετρεῖ. καὶ ὁ Α τὸν Ε πολλαπλασιάσας τὸν Γ ποιείτω· καὶ ὁ Β ἄρα τὸν Ζ πολλαπλασιάσας τὸν Γ πεποίηκεν· οἱ Α. λέγω δή. I say that E also measures CD. the (number created) from (multiplying) A and G is equal to the (number created) from (multiplying) B and H.19]. Thus. μετροῦσι δὲ καὶ ὅλον τὸν ΓΔ· καὶ λοιπὸν ἄρα τὸν ΓΖ μετρήσουσιν ἐλάσσονα ὄντα τοῦ Ε· ὅπερ ἐστὶν ἀδύνατον. so F (is) to E. Proposition 35 ᾿Εὰν δύο ἀριθμοὶ ἀριθμόν τινα μετρῶσιν. ὅτι καὶ ἐλάχιστον. C (is) the least (number) which is measured by (both) A and B. C also measures D. οὐκ ἄρα οἱ Α. ELEMENTS BOOK 7 ἐκ τῶν Β. A and B will thus also measure DF . ὅτι καὶ ὁ Ε τὸν ΓΔ μετρεῖ. Β ἄρα τὸν ΔΖ μετρήσουσιν. and the least (numbers) measure those (numbers) having the same ratio an equal number of times. And (A and B) also measure the whole of CD. Θ· ἔστιν ἄρα ὡς ὁ Α πρὸς τὸν Β. And as many times as A measures D. And let A make C (by) multiplying E. thus as E is to G. so H (is) to G [Prop. ἴσος ἄρα ἐστὶν ὁ ἐκ τῶν Α.17]. Thus. as A is to B. (E) measures 222 . Β ἐλάσσονα ὄντα τοῦ Γ. and B has made D (by) multiplying H. The very thing is impossible. 7. Α Γ Β Ζ A C ∆ Ε B F D E Δύο γὰρ ἀριθμοὶ οἱ Α. οὕτως ὁ Θ πρὸς τὸν Η. Thus. Thus.STOIQEIWN zþ. And as many times as B measures D. so C (is) to D [Prop. Thus. Ε ἐλάχιστοι. Thus. And as A (is) to B. the (number created) from (multiplying) A and E is equal to the (number created) from (multiplying) B and F [Prop. Β ἀριθμόν τινα τὸν ΓΔ μετρείτωσαν. E cannot not measure CD. so many units let there be in H. so H (is) to G. they will also measure the remainder CF . Δ πεποίηκεν. For let two numbers. οὕτως ὁ Ζ πρὸς τὸν Ε· καὶ ὡς ἄρα ὁ Ζ πρὸς τὸν Ε. Thus. leþ. A and B (both) measure C. least (number) measured by them will also measure the same (number). τοσαῦται μονάδες ἔστωσαν ἐν τῷ Η. ὁ μὲν Α ἄρα τὸν Η πολλαπλασιάσας τὸν Δ πεποίηκεν. and (let) E (be the) least (number measured by both A and B). Let them (both) measure D (which is less than C). Thus. And since A and B (both) measure E. The very thing is impossible. ὡς δὲ ὁ Α πρὸς τὸν Β. τοσαῦται μονάδες ἔστωσαν ἐν τῷ Θ. and E measures DF . For if E does not measure CD then let E leave CF less than itself (in) measuring DF . Η τῷ ἐκ τῶν Β. οἱ δὲ Ζ. also. καὶ ἐπεὶ οἱ Α. And F and E are the least (numbers having the same ratio as A and B). as F (is) to E. οὕτως ὁ Θ πρὸς τὸν Η. And E measures G. A and B do not (both) measure some (number) which is less than C. ὁ Ε τὸν ΔΖ μετρῶν λειπέτω ἑαυτοῦ ἐλάσσονα τὸν ΓΖ. A has made D (by) multiplying G. 7. Thus. A and B will (both) measure some number which is less than C. μετρήσουσί τινα ἀριθμὸν οἱ Α. καὶ ἐπεὶ ὁ Α τοὺς Ε. (both) measure some number CD. Thus. ὁ δὲ Ε τὸν Η μετρεῖ· καὶ ὁ Γ ἄρα τὸν Δ μετρεῖ ὁ μείζων τὸν ἐλάσσονα· ὅπερ ἐστὶν ἀδύνατον.19]. 7. Β ἄρα τὸν Γ μετροῦσιν. and the lesser the lesser [Prop. the greater (measuring) the lesser. ἐλάχιστον δὲ τὸν Ε· λέγω. ὁσάκις δὲ ὁ Β τὸν Δ μετρεῖ. Η πολλαπλασιάσας τοὺς Γ. For if not. ὁ δὲ Β τὸν Θ πολλαπλασιάσας τὸν Δ πεποίηκεν. So I say that (C) is also the least (number which they both measure). Β μετρεῖται· ὅπερ ἔπει δεῖξαι. so many units let there be in G.20]. ὁ δὲ Ε τὸν ΔΖ μετρεῖ. Εἰ γὰρ οὐ μετρεῖ ὁ Ε τὸν ΓΔ. Thus. Ζ. ἔστιν ἄρα ὡς ὁ Ε πρὸς τὸν Η. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. Β μετρήσουσί τινα ἀριθμὸν ἐλάσσονα ὄντα τοῦ Γ. ὁ Γ ἄρα ἐλάχιστος ὢν ὑπὸ τῶν Α. B has also made C (by) multiplying F . εἰ γὰρ μή. Thus. Thus. 7. A and B. which is less than E. οἱ δὲ ἐλάχιστοι μετροῦσι τοὺς τὸν αὐτὸν λόγον ἔχοντας ἰσάκις ὅ τε μείζων τὸν μείζονα καὶ ὁ ἐλάσσων τὸν ἐλάσσονα· ὁ Ε ἄρα τὸν Η μετρεῖ. And since A has made C and D (by) multiplying E and G (respectively). the greater (measuring) the greater. Β τὸν Ε μετροῦσιν. καὶ ὁ ἐλάχιστος If two numbers (both) measure some number then the ὑπ᾿ αὐτῶν μετρούμενος τὸν αὐτὸν μετρήσει. οὕτως ὁ Γ πρὸς τὸν Δ. καὶ οἱ Α. οὐκ ἄρα οὐ μετρεῖ ὁ Ε τὸν ΓΔ· μετρεῖ ἄρα· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. μετρείτωσαν τὸν Δ.

Β. Β. and C (all) measure E then A and B thus also measure E. μετροῦσι δὲ καὶ οἱ Α. Β μετρούμενος [τὸν Ε] μετρήσει. and C). Β. Β. Thus. B. Let it. μετρεῖ δὲ καὶ ὁ Γ [τὸν Ε· καὶ] οἱ Α. A. Β ἄρα τὸν Ε μετροῦσιν. and C (all) measure F . D and C (both) measure F . μετρήσουσί τινα οἱ Α. Γ μετρεῖται· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. καὶ οἱ Α. Thus. οὐκ ἄρα οἱ Α.STOIQEIWN zþ. A. Since A. the least (number) measured by A and B will also measure F [Prop. So. Γ μετρούμενος τὸν Ζ μετρήσει. Γ ἄρα τὸν Δ μετροῦσιν. measured by the two (numbers) A and B have been taken [Prop. Γ· δεῖ δὴ εὑρεῖν. B. again. ὃν ἐλάχιστον μετροῦσιν ἀριθμόν. Γ τὸν Ε μετροῦσιν. 7. οὐκ ἄρα οἱ Α. Thus. Β. measured by C and D have been taken [Prop. εἰ γὰρ μή. measure (D). 7. Γ μετρήσουσί τινα ἀριθμὸν ἐλάσσονα ὄντα τοῦ Ε. and C (all) measure the least (number) D. ἐλάχιστος δὲ ὑπὸ τῶν Α.35]. lþ. ἐπεὶ οἱ Α.34]. Α Β Γ ∆ Ε Ζ A B C D E F Εἰλήφθω γὰρ ὑπὸ δύο τῶν Α. B. A. 7. first of all. D will measure E. Thus. The very thing is impossible. And D is the least (number) measured by A and B. D. Β ἐλάχιστος μετρούμενος ὁ Δ. Γ ἄρα τὸν Ζ μετροῦσιν· ὥστε καὶ ὁ ἐλάχιστος ὑπὸ τῶν Δ. Γ μετρήσουσί τινα ἀριθμὸν ἐλάσσονα ὄντα τοῦ Δ· οἱ Α. Μὴ μετρείτω δὴ πάλιν ὁ Γ τὸν Δ. D measures F . Hence. ὁ δὴ Γ τὸν Δ ἤτοι μετρεῖ ἢ οὐ μετρεῖ. Γ ἄρα τὸν Ε μετροῦσιν. Δ μετρούμενός ἐστιν ὁ Ε· ὁ Ε ἄρα τὸν Ζ μετρεῖ ὁ μείζων τὸν ἐλάσσονα· ὅπερ ἐστὶν ἀδύνατον. and D measures E. Β μετρούμενος τὸν Ζ μετρήσει. and C be the three given numbers. A. and C cannot (all) measure some number which is less than D. καὶ εἰλήφθω ὑπὸ τῶν Γ. A and B thus also measure F . ὅτι καὶ ἐλάχιστον. E. μετρείτωσαν τὸν Ζ. ἐλάχιστος δὲ ὑπὸ τῶν Α. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. and C (all) measure D. ὁ δὲ Δ τὸν Ε μετρεῖ. So I say that (E is) also the least (number measured by A. ὃν ἐλάχιστον μετροῦσιν ἀριθμόν. Let them measure F (which is less than E). B. and C will (all) measure [some] number which is less than D. Since A. Thus. Since A and B measure D. Β τὸν Δ μετροῦσιν. B. καὶ οἱ Α. Thus. Γ τὸν Ζ μετροῦσιν. And C also measures F . B. Β μετρούμενός ἐστιν ὁ Δ· ὁ Δ ἄρα τὸν Ζ μετρεῖ. and C [also] measure E. Let them measure E (which is less than D). ἐπεὶ οἱ Α. So it is required to find the least number which they (all) measure. ῎Εστωσαν οἱ δοθέντες τρεῖς ἀριθμοὶ οἱ Α. B. ELEMENTS BOOK 7 (CD). εἰ γὰρ μή. Β. For if not. For let the least (number). Β. 7. B. Β μετρούμενός ἐστιν ὁ Δ· ὁ Δ ἄρα τὸν Ε μετρήσει ὁ μείζων τὸν ἐλάσσονα· ὅπερ ἐστὶν ἀδύνατον. ὁ δὲ ἐλάχιστος ὑπὸ τῶν Γ. B.35]. B. B. Let A.34]. λέγω δή. A and B thus also measure E. So C either measures. λέγω δή. and C will (all) measure some (number) which is less than E. For if not. Δ ἐλάχιστος μετρούμενος ἀριθμὸς ὁ Ε. καὶ ὁ ἐλάχιστος ἄρα ὑπὸ τῶν Α. D. the greater (measuring) the lesser. the least (number) measured by A and B will also measure [E] [Prop. Proposition 36 Τριῶν ἀριθμῶν δοθέντων εὑρεῖν. μετρείτω πρότερον. A. ἐπεὶ οἱ Α. Β. Β ἄρα τὸν Ζ μετροῦσιν· καὶ ὁ ἐλάχιστος ἄρα ὑπὸ τῶν Α. μετρείτωσαν τὸν Ε. Β. Γ ἐλάσσονα ὄντα τοῦ Ε. or does not measure. Thus. ὁ Ε ἄρα ἐλάχιστος ὢν ὑπὸ τῶν Α. And C also measures [E]. Β ἄρα τὸν Ε μετροῦσιν. Γ ἄρα ἐλάχιστον τὸν Δ μετροῦσιν. So I say that (D is) also the least (number measured by A. And E 223 . And D is the least (number) measured by A and B. μετρήσουσιν [τινα] ἀριθμὸν οἱ Α. καὶ οἱ Α. A. And let the least number. 7. To find the least number which three given numbers (all) measure. Β τὸν Δ· οἱ Α. Γ ἐλάσσονα ὄντα τοῦ Δ. ὅτι καὶ ἐλάχιστον. Thus. Thus. the least (number) measured by D and C will also measure F [Prop. And A and B also measure D. μετρεῖ δὲ καὶ ὁ Γ τὸν Ζ· οἱ Δ.35]. and C). let C not measure D. Β. Β.

C is also a part of A called the same as B (i. the unit D thus measures the number C as many times as B (measures) A. lhþ. μετρεῖ δὲ καὶ ἡ Δ μονὰς τὸν Γ ἀριθμὸν κατὰ τὰς ἐν αὐτῷ μονάδας.. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. and C. Thus. ἔστι For since B is a part of A called the same as C. ὥστε ὁ Α μέρος ἔχει τὸν Γ ὁμώνυμον ὄντα τῷ Β· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. ὁ μετρούμενος If a number is measured by some number then the ὁμώνυμον μέρος ἕξει τῷ μετροῦντι.e. which(ever) part the unit D is of the number B. A. lzþ. A has a part C which is called the same as B (i.e. the greater (measuring) the lesser. Proposition 37 ᾿Εὰν ἀριθμὸς ὑπό τινος ἀριθμοῦ μετρῆται. E measures F .. For as many times as B measures A. 224 . (number) measured will have a part called the same as the measuring (number). C is also the same part of A. C is the Bth part of A). ἐναλλὰξ ἄρα ἰσάκις ἡ Δ μονὰς τὸν Β ἀριθμὸν μετρεῖ καὶ ὁ Γ τὸν Α· ὃ ἄρα μέρος ἐστὶν ἡ Δ μονὰς τοῦ Β ἀριθμοῦ. B. Thus. The very thing is impossible. ὅτι ὁ Γ τὸν Α let the [number] C be called the same as the part B (i. a Bth part). Α Β Γ ∆ A B C D ᾿Αριθμὸς γάρ ὁ Α ὑπό τινος ἀριθμοῦ τοῦ Β μετρείσθω· λέγω. sured by a number called the same as the part. Thus. τὸ αὐτὸ μέρος ἐστὶ καὶ ὁ Γ τοῦ Α. I say that A has a part called the same as B. ὃ ἄρα μέρος the unit D is also a part of C called the same as it (i. ὑπὸ ὁμωνύμου ἀριθμοῦ If a number has any part whatever then it will be meaμετρηθήσεται τῷ μέρει.15]. καὶ τῷ Β For let the number A have any part whatever.e. Thus. μετρεῖ. 7. ἐπεὶ ὁ Β τὸν Α μετρεῖ κατὰ τὰς ἐν τῷ Γ μονάδας. And μέρει ὁμώνυμος ἔστω [ἀριθμὸς] ὁ Γ· λέγω. A has a Bth part). and C cannot measure some number which is less than E. alternately. the unit D measures the number B as many times as C (measures) A [Prop.. ὅτι ὁ Α ὁμώνυμον μέρος ἔχει τῷ Β. ᾿Επεὶ γὰρ ὁ Β τοῦ Α μέρος ἐστὶν ὁμώνυμον τῷ Γ. And the unit D is a part of the number B called the same as it (i. Hence. and the unit D also measures C according to the units in it. Thus. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. ἡ δὲ Δ μονὰς τοῦ Β ἀριθμοῦ μέρος ἐστὶν ὁμώνυμον αὐτῷ· καὶ ὁ Γ ἄρα τοῦ Α μέρος ἐστὶν ὁμώνυμον τῷ Β. E (is) the least (number) which is measured by A. ἰσάκις ἄρα ἡ Δ μονὰς τὸν Γ ἀριθμὸν μετρεῖ καὶ ὁ Β τὸν Α. Thus. Proposition 38 ᾿Εὰν ἀριθμος μέρος ἔχῃ ὁτιοῦν. I say that C measures A. Α Β Γ ∆ A B C D ᾿Αριθμὸς γὰρ ὁ Α μέρος ἐχέτω ὁτιοῦν τὸν Β. B. ῾Οσάκις γὰρ ὁ Β τὸν Α μετρεῖ. B is the Cth part of A).e.e.. and δὲ καὶ ἡ Δ μονὰς τοῦ Γ μέρος ὁμώνυμον αὐτῷ. Since B measures A according to the units in C. B. For let the number A be measured by some number B. τοσαῦται μονάδες ἔστωσαν ἐν τῷ Γ. so many units let there be in C.. ELEMENTS BOOK 7 is the least (number) measured by C and D.STOIQEIWN zþ.

the unit D measures the number B as many times as C (measures) A [Prop. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. alternately. Γ A Ε B D Ζ C E F Η G Θ H ῎Εστω τὰ δοθέντα μέρη τὰ Α. the unit D measures the number C as many times as B (measures) A. And (H) is less than G. Ε. B. ljþ. And A. And let the least number. Β. and F [Prop. Γ μέρεσιν. E. Β. E. an Ath part. οὐκ ἄρα ἔσται τις τοῦ Η ἐλάσσων ἀριθμός. Β. Γ μέρεσιν ὁμώνυμοι ἀριθμοί εἰσιν οἱ Δ. Γ μέρεσιν ὁμώνυμοι ἀριθμοὶ οἱ Δ. and F (respectively). B. So I say that (G) is also the least (number having the parts A. and C. Β. Ε. thus which(ever) part the unit D is of the number C. For let D. a Bth part. εἰ γὰρ μή. ἐπεὶ ὁ Θ ἔχει τὰ Α.STOIQEIWN zþ. τοῖς δὲ Δ. G. ἔσται τις τοῦ Η ἐλάσσων ἀριθμός. G has the parts A. Γ μέρη.37]. Ζ μετρεῖται. G has parts called the same as D. Β. there will be some number less than G which will have the parts A.15]. So it is required to find the least number which will have the parts A. B. ἔστω ὁ Θ. and C (i. 225 . Ε. The very thing is impossible. Ζ· ὁ Θ ἄρα ὑπὸ τῶν Δ. Γ μέρη. καί ἐστιν ἐλάσσων τοῦ Η· ὅπερ ἐστὶν ἀδύνατον. Γ· ὁ Η ἄρα ἔχει τὰ Α. Let it be H. ὁ Θ ἄρα ὑπὸ ὁμωνύμων ἀριθμῶν μετρηθήσεται τοῖς Α. C measures A. H is measured by D. B. Thus. ὃς ἐλάχιστος ὢν ἕξει τὰ Α. Γ μέρη. B. Let A. B. τοῖς δὲ Α. and F . ῎Εστωσαν γὰρ τοῖς Α. E. Β. ὁ Γ ἄρα τὸν Α μετρεῖ· ὅπερ ἔδει δεὶξαι. B. have been taken [Prop. measured by D. Ε. Ε. and C are parts called the same as D. Γ μέρη· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. λέγω δή. Β. 7. Γ μέρη. Proposition 39 ᾿Αριθμὸν εὐρεῖν. Thus. and C (respectively). Β. Thus. there cannot be some number less than G which will have the parts A. ELEMENTS BOOK 7 ἐστὶν ἡ Δ μονὰς τοῦ Γ ἀριθμοῦ. and F be numbers having the same names as the parts A.e. and C [Prop.36]. and a Cth part). and F are numbers called the same as the parts A. B. Ζ.38]. B is also the same part of A. E. E. and C). Ζ. Thus. and C. Ζ ὁμώνυμα μέρη ἐστὶ τὰ Α. 7. B. τὸ αὐτὸ μέρος ἐστὶ καὶ ὁ Β τοῦ Α· ἰσάκις ἄρα ἡ Δ μονὰς τὸν Γ ἀριθμὸν μετρεῖ καὶ ὁ Β τὸν Α. Γ· δεῖ δὴ ἀριθμὸν εὑρεῖν. and C. Since H has the parts A. Β. Ζ ἐλάχιστος μετρούμενος ἀριθμὸς ὁ Η. ἐναλλὰξ ἄρα ἰσάκις ἡ Δ μονὰς τὸν Β ἀριθμὸν μετρεῖ καὶ ὁ Γ τὸν Α. 7. and C. Α Β ∆ To find the least number that will have given parts. ὃς ἐλάχιστος ὢν ἕξει τὰ δοθέντα μέρη. Thus. B. H will thus be measured by numbers called the same as the parts A. Ε. D is the Cth part of C). Β.. and F . ὃς ἕξει τὰ Α. For if not. 7. B. καὶ εἰλήφθω ὑπὸ τῶν Δ. Thus. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. E. and C be the given parts. Thus. ὅτι καὶ ἐλάχιστος ὤν. ὃς ἕξει τὰ Α. ῾Ο Η ἄρα ὁμώνυμα μέρη ἔχει τοῖς Δ. and C (respectively). And D.

226 .

ELEMENTS BOOK 8 Continued Proportion† † The propositions contained in Books 7–9 are generally attributed to the school of Pythagoras. 227 .

G. and let it make D (by) multiplying B. being less than A. Δ οἱ Ε. ὅσους ἄν τις ἐπιτάξῃ. Δ ἄρα ἐλάχιστοί εἰσι τῶν τὸν αὐτὸν λόγον ἐχόντων αὐτοῖς· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. (which are) continuously proportional in a given ratio. (which are) in the ratio of A to B. Η. τουτέστιν ὅ τε ἡγούμενος τὸν ἡγούμενον καὶ ὁ ἑπόμενος τὸν ἑπόμενον. ᾿Επιτετάχθωσαν δὴ τέσσαρες. then the (numbers) are the least of those (numbers) having the same ratio as them. being in the same ratio as them. H (by) multiplying C. C. D (respectively). C. and the multitude [of A. 7. δι᾿ ἴσου ἄρα ἐστὶν ὡς ὁ Α πρὸς τὸν Δ. Εἰ γὰρ μή. καὶ ἔτι ὁ Β ἑαυτὸν πολλαπλασιάσας τὸν Ε ποιείτω. Θ]. οἱ δὲ ἄκροι αὐτῶν οἱ Α. Thus. οὐκ ἄρα οἱ Ε. Η. ὁ Ε πρὸς τὸν Θ. ἐν τῷ τοῦ Α πρὸς τὸν Β λόγῳ. Γ. And A and D (are) prime (to one another). and the lesser the lesser—that is to say. A measures E. Proposition 1 ᾿Εὰν ὦσιν ὁσοιδηποτοῦν ἀριθμοὶ ἑξῆς ἀνάλογον. as many as may be prescribed. And. ῎Εστω ὁ δοθεὶς λόγος ἐν ἐλάχίστοις ἀριθμοῖς ὁ τοῦ Α πρὸς τὸν Β· δεῖ δὴ ἀριθμοὺς εὑρεῖν ἑξῆς ἀνάλογον ἐλαχίστους. and the following the following [Prop. Γ. Thus. E. Ε Ζ Η Θ Α Β Γ ∆ A B C D E F G H ῎Εστωσαν ὁποσοιοῦν ἀριθμοὶ ἑξῆς ἀνάλογον οἱ Α. B. 228 . Ε πολλαπλασιάσας τοὺς Ζ.STOIQEIWN hþ. καὶ ἔτι ὁ Α τοὺς Γ. further. οἱ δὲ If there are any multitude whatsoever of continuously ἄκροι αὐτῶν πρῶτοι πρὸς ἀλλήλους ὦσιν. οἱ δὲ ἐλάχιστοι ἀριθμοὶ μετροῦσι τοὺς τὸν αὐτὸν λόγον ἔχοντας ἰσάκις ὅ τε μείζων τὸν μείζονα καὶ ὁ ἐλάσσων τὸν ἐλάσσονα. Δ. (so) E (is) to H [Prop. Δ] τῷ πλήθει [τῶν Ε. F . 7. let A make F . Γ. And let A make C (by) multiplying itself.14]. Θ ἐλάσσονες ὄντες τῶν Α. the leading (measuring) the leading. οἱ δὲ πρῶτοι καὶ ἐλάχιστοι. And the least numbers measure those (numbers) having the same ratio (as them) an equal number of times. Ζ. B. D are the least of those (numbers) having the same ratio as them. Β. Β. ἔστωσαν ἐλάττονες τῶν Α. ἐλάχιστοί εἰσι proportional numbers.20]. For if not. (expressed) in the least numbers. So it is required to find the least numbers. And let the outermost of them. C. ὅσους ἂν ἐπιτάξῃ τις. 7. be prime to one another. Δ ἐν τῷ αὐτῷ λόγῳ εἰσὶν αὐτοῖς. D are the least of those (numbers) having the same ratio as them. and the outermost of them are τῶν τὸν αὐτὸν λόγον ἐχόντων αὐτοῖς. F . And. Δ ἐν τῷ αὐτῷ λόγῳ εἰσὶ τοῖς Ε. Γ. Β. Η. H]. The very thing is impossible. A and D. F . Γ. καὶ ἐπεὶ οἱ Α. D. Δ ἐλάχιστοί εἰσι τῶν τὸν αὐτὸν λόγον ἐχόντων αὐτοῖς. B.21]. I say that A. Θ ἐν τῷ αὐτῷ λόγῳ ὄντες αὐτοῖς. Let A. Θ. G. further. F . Δ πρῶτοι. Β. To find the least numbers. the greater (measuring) the greater. B. Ζ. And since A. καί ἐστιν ἴσον τὸ πλῆθος [τῶν Α. D] is equal to the multitude [of E. H. B. thus. τὸν δὲ Β πολλαπλασιάσας τὸν Δ ποιείτω. B. μετρεῖ ἄρα ὁ Α τὸν Ε ὁ μείζων τὸν ἐλάσσονα· ὅπερ ἐστὶν ἀδύνατον. via equality. Ζ. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. E. A. And prime (numbers are) also the least of those (numbers having the same ratio as them) [Prop. And let B make K (by) multiplying E. οἱ Α. Ζ. οἱ δὲ Α. Β. let E. Δ. as A is to D. let B make E (by) multiplying itself. G. Γ. Η. as many as may be prescribed. the greater (measuring) the lesser. G. ὁ δὲ Β τὸν Ε πολλαπλασιάσας τὸν Κ ποιείτω. Γ. Β. prime to one another. ὅτι οἱ Α. D. B. C. πρῶτοι πρὸς ἀλλήλους ἔστωσαν· λέγω. C. G. bþ. be that of A to B. Let the given ratio. C. H. H be less than A. are not in the same ratio as them. D be any multitude whatsoever of continuously proportional numbers. Θ ποιείτω. καὶ ὁ Α ἑαυτὸν πολλαπλασιάσας τὸν Γ ποιείτω. C. Thus. ἐν τῷ δοθέντι λόγῳ. D are in the same ratio as E. Δ. Β. Proposition 2 Αριθμοὺς εὑρεῖν ἑξῆς ἀνάλογον ἐλαχίστους. Η. Let four (numbers) have been prescribed. ELEMENTS BOOK 8 aþ.

G. Κ ἀνάλογόν εἰσιν ἐν τῷ τοῦ Α πρὸς τὸν Β λόγῳ. ἑκάτερος ἄρα τῶν Α. Ε ἄρα καὶ οἱ Ζ. 229 . respectively. Κ ἐλάχιστοί εἰσι τῶν τὸν αὐτὸν λόγον ἐχόντων τοῖς Α. ἐπεὶ ὁ Α τοὺς Δ. Ε ἄρα καὶ οἱ Ζ. so F (is) to G. B have thus made D. Κ πρῶτοι πρὸς ἀλλήλους εἰσίν. ἔστιν ἄρα ὡς ὁ Α πρὸς τὸν Β. And thus as F (is) to G.17]. C. and G to H. Θ. But. 7. A. thus as A is to B. Ε πεποίηκεν. And since A has made F . Ε πεποίηκεν. 7. ὁ Δ πρὸς τὸν Ε. ἐὰν δὲ ὦσιν ὁποσοιοῦν ἀριθμοὶ ἑξῆς ἀνάλογον. as A is to B. λέγω δή. and H to K. respectively. [so] F (is) to G [Prop. So I say that (they are) also the least (sets of numbers continuously proportional in that ratio). thus as C is to D.STOIQEIWN hþ. (so) G (is) to H [Prop. respectively. And since A. οἱ δὲ ἐλάχιστοι τῶν τὸν αὐτὸν λόγον ἐχόντων πρῶτοι πρὸς ἀλλήλους εἰσίν. οὕτως ὁ Θ πρὸς τὸν Κ. Β τὸν Β πολλαπλασιάσας ἑκάτερον τῶν Δ. Thus. οὕτως ἦν ὁ Α πρὸς τὸν Β· καὶ ὡς ἄρα ὁ Α πρὸς τὸν Β. Θ. Ε πολλαπλασιάσας τοὺς Η. καὶ ὡς ἄρα ὁ Ζ πρὸς τὸν Η. καὶ ἐπεὶ οἱ Α. (so) A (is) to B. (so) F (is) to G. ἐπεὶ γὰρ οἱ Α. [οὕτως] ὁ Γ πρὸς τὸν Δ. But. Δ. ἀλλ᾿ ὡς ὁ Α πρὸς τὸν Β. and the least of those (numbers) having the same ratio are prime to one another [Prop. 7. οἱ Α. 7. G. 7. Α Β ELEMENTS BOOK 8 Γ ∆ Ε A B Ζ Η Θ Κ C D E F G H K Καὶ ἐπεὶ ὁ Α ἑαυτὸν μὲν πολλαπλασιάσας τὸν Γ πεποίηκεν. 7. πάλιν. E and F . D. H. (by) multiplying themselves. ὅτι καὶ ἐλάχιστοι. thus as A is to B. so G (is) to H. ἔστιν ἄρα ὡς ὁ Δ πρὸς τὸν Ε. ὁ δὲ Β ἑαυτὸν πολλαπλασιάσας τὸν Ε πεποίηκεν. K are the least of those (continuously proportional sets of numbers) having the same ratio as A and B. Again. οἱ δὲ ἄκροι αὐτῶν πρῶτοι πρὸς ἀλλήλους ὦσιν. as A (is) to B. K are (both continuously) proportional in the ratio of A to B. Thus. Thus. H.18]. (by) multiplying B. 8. ὁ Ζ πρὸς τὸν Η. Ε ἄρα καὶ οἱ Ζ. D. as A (is) to B. E and F . B have made H. B have made C. And thus as C (is) to D. [so] C (is) to D [Prop. ὁ Γ πρὸς τὸν Δ· καὶ ὡς ἄρα ὁ Γ πρὸς τὸν Δ. so H (is) to K. C. G (by) multiplying C. then the (numbers) are the least of those (numbers) having the same ratio as them [Prop. Κ πεποίηκεν· οἱ Γ. Β ἄρα πρῶτοι πρὸς ἀλλήλους εἰσίν. οὕτως ὁ Δ πρὸς τὸν Ε. Η πεποίηκεν. Again. E. καὶ ἑκάτερος μὲν τῶν Α. K by multiplying C. E. ἐπεὶ ὁ μὲν Α τὸν Β πολλαπλασιάσας τὸν Δ πεποίηκεν. ἀλλ᾿ ὡς ὁ Α πρὸς τὸν Β. E. But. H (by) multiplying D. (so) C (is) to D. so D (is) to E [Prop. ὡς δὲ ὁ Γ πρὸς τὸν Δ. and have made F .27]. καὶ ἐπεὶ ὁ Α τοὺς Γ. and B has made E (by) multiplying itself. Β ἐλάχιστοί εἰσι τῶν τὸν αὐτὸν λόγον ἐχόντων αὐτοῖς. Θ πεποίηκεν.22]. K are prime to one another [Prop. Κ πεποιήκασιν. And thus as A (is) to B. (so) D (is) to E. since A has made D (by) multiplying B. ἔστιν ἄρα ὡς ὁ Γ πρὸς τὸν Δ. For since A and B are the least of those (numbers) having the same ratio as them. E and F . Β ἑαυτὸν πολλαπλασιάσας ἑκάτερον τῶν Γ. οὕτως ὅ τε Ζ πρὸς τὸν Η καὶ ὁ Η πρὸς τὸν Θ.1]. Thus. and has made D (by) multiplying B. And if there are any multitude whatsoever of continuously proportional numbers. ὁ Α πρὸς τὸν Β. so G (is) to H. (Which is) the very thing it was required to show. K (by) multiplying E.17]. Δ πολλαπλασιάσας τοὺς Ζ. And A. ἑκάτερον δὲ τῶν Γ. And since A has made C (by) multiplying itself. Η. Η. οὕτως ὅ τε Η πρὸς τὸν Θ καὶ ὁ Θ πρὸς τὸν Κ· οἱ Γ. ἔστιν ἄρα ὡς ὁ Α πρὸς τὸν Β. D. Ε πολλαπλασιάσας ἑκάτερον τῶν Ζ. Δ. thus as D is to E.17]. ἀλλ᾿ ὡς ὁ Δ πρὸς τὸν Ε. And thus as A (is) to B. οἱ Γ. and the outermost of them are prime to one another. τὸν δὲ Β πολλαπλασιάσας τὸν Δ πεποίηκεν. E. Β τὸν Ε πολλαπλασιάσαντες τοὺς Θ. καὶ ὡς ἄρα ὁ Α πρὸς τὸν Β. ὁ Η πρὸς τὸν Θ. [οὕτως] ὁ Ζ πρὸς τὸν Η. ἔστιν ἄρα ὡς ὁ Α πρὸς τὸν Β. C. οὕτως ὁ Η πρὸς τὸν Θ. πάλιν. Β· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. as D (is) to E. since A has made G. ἐλάχιστοί εἰσι τῶν τὸν αὐτὸν λόγον ἐχόντων αὐτοῖς. And as C (is) to D. A and B are thus prime to one another. so A was to B.

33]. N . ὁ δὲ Δ τῷ Ξ. ἕως τὸ λαμβανόμενον πλῆθος ἴσον γένηται τῷ πλήθει τῶν Α. Let A. thus A. B. respectively. εἰσὶ δὲ καὶ οἱ Λ. Γ. εἰλήφθωσαν καὶ ἔστωσαν οἱ Λ. if four (numbers). I say that the outermost of them. D have been taken [Prop. Thus. Ν. K. Δ πρῶτοι πρὸς ἀλλήλους εἰσίν. πρῶτοι πρὸς ἀλλήλους εἰσίν. Δ. K. M . Θ. N . Γ. Κ πεποίηκεν. respectively. and have made L. Κ ἄρα καὶ οἱ Λ. Ν. Ξ πεποίηκεν. And the three (least numbers) G. F (which are) in the same ratio as A. ἕκαστος ἄρα τῶν Α. D are the least of those (numbers) having the same ratio as them. cube. successively increasing by one. Δ ἑκάστῳ τῶν Λ. οἱ ἄκρον αὐτῶν τετράγωνοί εἰσιν. O are also the least (of those numbers having the same ratio as them). (numbers) having the same ratio as them then the outermost of them are prime to one another. D be any multitude whatsoever of continuously proportional numbers (which are) the least of those (numbers) having the same ratio as them. Ξ. 8. And since E. B. Ξ πρῶτοι πρὸς ἀλλήλους. M . καὶ ἐπεὶ ἑκάτερος τῶν Ε. respectively. 7. F have made G. D. τρεῖς δὲ οἱ Η. Κ. and D to O. C. N . Δ τῷ πλήθει τῶν Λ. Μ. Δ ἄρα πρῶτοι πρὸς ἀλλήλους εἰσίν· ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. gþ. καί εἰσιν οἱ Λ. Β. and the multitude of A. Δ ἐλάχιστοί εἰσι τῶν τὸν αὐτὸν λόγον ἐχόντων αὐτοῖς. C. Ζ. B. N . C.27]. Γ. Β. 8. καὶ οἱ Η. καί ἐστιν ἴσον τὸ πλῆθος τῶν Α. M . καὶ οἱ Α. Let them have been taken. Ζ ἑαυτὸν μὲν πολλαπλασιάσας ἑκάτερον τῶν Η. that if three continuously proἀνάλογον ἐλάχιστοι ὦσι τῶν τὸν αὐτὸν λόγον ἐχόντων portional numbers are the least of those (numbers) havαὐτοῖς. O. ELEMENTS BOOK 8 Pìrisma. and L. C. B. being in the same ratio as A. Ν. Δ λόγῳ οἱ Ε. Ξ. from this. Δ· λέγω. καὶ ἑξῆς ἑνὶ πλείους. Εἰλήφθωσαν γὰρ δύο μὲν ἀριθμοὶ ἐλάχιστοι ἐν τῷ τῶν Α. Ξ πρῶτοι πρὸς ἀλλήλους εἰσίν. Corollary ᾿Εκ δὴ τούτου φανερόν. καὶ ἐπεὶ οἱ Α. Ζ ἐλάχιστοί εἰσι τῶν τὸν αὐτὸν λόγον ἐχόντων αὐτοῖς. O. Ν. οἱ ἄκροι αὐτῶν ously proportional numbers (which are) the least of those πρῶτοι πρὸς ἀλλήλους εἰσίν. until the multitude of (numbers) taken is made equal to the multitude of A.STOIQEIWN hþ. C. And (so on). Ξ ἐλάχιστοι ἐν τῷ αὐτῷ λόγῳ ὄντες τοῖς Α. Β. Μ. Καὶ ἐπεὶ οἱ Ε. Γ. Ξ ἴσος ἐστίν· ἴσος ἄρα ἐστὶν ὁ μὲν Α τῷ Λ. Β. K and L. O. D. M . A and D are also prime to one another. Thus. And since A. Γ. Proposition 3 ᾿Εὰν ὦσιν ὁποσοιοῦν ἀριθμοὶ ἑξῆς ἀνάλογον ἐλάχιστIf there are any multitude whatsoever of continuοι τῶν τὸν αὐτὸν λόγον ἐχόντων αὐτοῖς.2]. ἑκάτερον δὲ τῶν Η. Γ. (Which is) the very thing it was 230 . B. C. A and D.]. D are equal to L. G. Α Β Γ ∆ Ε Ζ A B C D Η Θ Κ E F G H K L M N O Λ Μ Ν Ξ ῎Εστωσαν ὁποσοιοῦν ἀριθμοὶ ἑξῆς ἀνάλογον ἐλάχιστοι τῶν τὸν αὐτὸν λόγον ἐχόντων αὐτοῖς οἱ Α. Γ. ἐὰν δὲ τέσσαρες. And L and O are prime to one another. and. are square. Β. K [Prop. are prime to one another. 7. and let them be L. Κ πολλαπλασιάσας ἑκάτερον τῶν Λ. B. And since E and F are the least of those (numbers) having the same ratio as them they are prime to one another [Prop.2 corr. For let the two least (numbers) E.22]. Μ. B. Β. H. C. Δ. D is equal to the multitude of L. 7. ing the same ratio as them then the outermost of them κύβοι. ὅτι ἐὰν τρεῖς ἀριθμοὶ ἑξῆς So it is clear. ὅτι οἱ ἄκροι αὐτῶν οἱ Α. O (by) multiplying G. (by) multiplying themselves [Prop. O are thus also prime to one another [Prop. Μ. Β. A is equal to L.

Let it. And as many times as C measures G. further. So. K. 7. μετρείτω πρότερον. B and C (both) measure O. οὕτως ὁ Η πρὸς τὸν Κ. τοσαυτάκις καὶ ὁ Α τὸν Θ μετρείτω. τοσαυτάκις καὶ ὁ Δ τὸν Κ μετρείτω. measured by (both) B and C have be taken [Prop. So it is required to find the least numbers continuously proportional in the ratio of A to B. the least number measured by (both) B and C will also measure O [Prop. ὁ δὲ Ε τὸν Κ ἤτοι μετρεῖ ἢ οὐ μετρεῖ. (exἀριθμοὺς εὑρεῖν ἑξῆς ἀνάλογον ἐλαχίστους ἐν τοῖς δοθεῖσι pressed) in the least numbers. Εἰλήφθω γὰρ ὁ ὑπὸ τῶν Β. O. dþ. measure (K). for the same (reasons). and of C to D. and. Λ ἐλάσσονες ἀριθμοὶ ἑξῆς ἔν τε τῷ τοῦ Α πρὸς τὸν Β καὶ τῷ τοῦ Γ πρὸς τὸν Δ καὶ ἔτι τῷ τοῦ Ε πρὸς τὸν Ζ λόγῷ. of E to F . ἐλάχιστος δὲ ὑπὸ τῶν Β. Thus. be the (ratios) of A to B. K. G. Ξ. 7. as E (is) to F . Thus. διὰ τὰ αὐτὰ δὴ καὶ ὡς ὁ Γ πρὸς τὸν Δ. οἱ δὲ Α. continuously proportional in these given ratios. H. and. καὶ ἐπεί ἐστιν ὡς ὁ Α πρὸς τὸν Β. τουτέστιν ὅ τε ἡγούμενος τὸν ἡγούμενον καὶ ὁ ἑπόμενος τὸν ἑπόμενον. and the least (numbers) measure those (numbers) having the same ratio (as them) an equal number of times. Λ ἄρα ἑξῆς ἀνάλογόν εἰσιν ἔν τε τῷ τοῦ Α πρὸς τὸν Β καὶ ἐν τῷ τοῦ Γ πρὸς τὸν Δ καὶ ἔτι ἐν τῷ τοῦ Ε πρὸς τὸν Ζ λόγῳ. Η. further. Thus. as C (is) to D. L are continuously proportional in the ratio of A to B. so K (is) to L. and of C to D. ἔστωσαν οἱ Ν. And as many times as B measures G. For let the least number. and. λέγω δή.20. or does not measure.20]. to find the least numbers λόγοις. ἔστιν ἄρα ὡς ὁ Α πρὸς τὸν Β. ὁ Β ἄρα τὸν Ξ μετρεῖ. further. so many times let A also measure H. K. Α Γ Ε Β ∆ Ζ A C E B D F Ν Ξ Μ Ο Θ Η Κ Λ N O M P H G K L ῎Εστωσαν οἱ δοθέντες λόγοι ἐν ἐλαχίστοις ἀριθμοῖς ὅ τε τοῦ Α πρὸς τὸν Β καὶ ὁ τοῦ Γ πρὸς τὸν Δ καὶ ἔτι ὁ τοῦ Ε πρὸς τὸν Ζ· δεῖ δὴ ἀριθμοὺς εὑρεῖν ἑξῆς ἀνάλογον ἐλαχίστους ἔν τε τῷ τοῦ Α πρὸς τὸν Β λόγῳ καὶ ἐν τῷ τοῦ Γ πρὸς τὸν Δ καὶ ἔτι τῷ τοῦ Ε πρὸς τὸν Ζ. Γ ἄρα τὸν Ξ μετροῦσιν· καὶ ὁ ἐλάχιστος ἄρα ὑπὸ τῶν Β. οὕτως ὁ Ν πρὸς τὸν Ξ. τοσαυτάκις καὶ ὁ Ζ τὸν Λ μετρείτω. and of E to F . καὶ ἐπεὶ ἰσάκις ὁ Α τὸν Θ μετρεῖ καὶ ὁ Β τὸν Η. Let the given ratios.35]. G. and the following the following [Prop. Μ. B thus measures O.13]. so many times let F also measure L. Γ ἐλάχιστος μετρούμενος ἀριθμὸς ὁ Η. And as many times as E measures K. further. οὐκ ἄρα ἔσονταί τινες τῶν Θ. Β ἐλάχιστοι. so G (is) to K. And since A measures H the same number of times that B also (measures) G. of E to F . Κ. so N (is) to O. so many times let D also measure K. And G (is) the least number measured by (both) B and C.34]. Η. And since as A is to B. 7. ELEMENTS BOOK 8 required to show. of E to F . 7. thus as A is to B. Proposition 4 Λόγων δοθέντων ὁποσωνοῦν ἐν ἐλαχίστοις ἀριθμοῖς For any multitude whatsoever of given ratios. M . Λ ἑξῆς ἀνάλογον ἐλάχιστοι ἔν τε τοῖς τοῦ Α πρὸς τὸν Β καὶ τοῦ Γ πρὸς τὸν Δ καὶ ἐν τῷ τοῦ Ε πρὸς τὸν Ζ λόγοις. G. (expressed) in the least numbers. the leading (measuring) the leading. P be (the least such numbers). And E either measures. and A and B are the least (numbers which have the same ratio as them). οὕτως ὁ Κ πρὸς τὸν Λ· οἱ Θ. καὶ ἔτι ὡς ὁ Ε πρὸς τὸν Ζ. 7. L are not the least numbers continuously proportional in the ratios of A to B. οἱ δὲ ἐλάχιστοι μετροῦσι τοὺς τὸν αὐτὸν λόγον ἔχοντας ἰσάκις ὅ τε μείζων τὸν μείζονα καὶ ὁ ἐλάσσων τὸν ἐλάσσονα. and the lesser the lesser—that is to say. καὶ ὁσάκις μὲν ὁ Β τὸν Η μετρεῖ. ὁσάκις δὲ ὁ Γ τὸν Η μετρεῖ. οὕτως ὁ Θ πρὸς τὸν Η. For if H. ὅτι καὶ ἐλάχιστοι. Κ. so H (is) to G [Def. Ο. 231 . and. for the same (reasons). let N . Γ μετρούμενος τὸν Ξ μετρήσει. Γ μετρεῖται ὁ Η· ὁ Η ἄρα τὸν Ξ μετρεῖ ὁ μείζων τὸν ἐλάσσονα· ὅπερ ἐστὶν ἀδύντατον. καὶ ὁσάκις ὁ Ε τὸν Κ μετρεῖ. the greater (measuring) the greater. Κ. Η. and of C to