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Internal Combustion Engines Fundamentals

Internal Combustion Engines Fundamentals

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McGraw-Hill Series in Mechanical Engineering

Jack P. Holman, Southern Methodist University Consulting Editor Anderson: Modern Compressible Flow: With Historical Perspective Dieter: Engineering Design: A Materials and Processing Approach Eckert and Drake: Analysis of Heat and Mars Transfer Heywood: Internal Combwtion Engine Fundamentals H i m : Turbulence,2/e Hutton: Applied Mechanical Vibrations Juvinall: Engineering Considerations of Stress, Strain, and Strength Kane and Levinson: Dynamics: Theory and Applications Kays and Crawford: Convective Heat and Mass Transfr Mutin: Kinematics and Dynamics of Machines Pklan: Dynamics of Machinery Pbelan: Fundamentals of Mechanical Design, 3/e Pierce: Acoustics: An Introduction to Its Physical Principles and Applications Raven: Automatic Control Engineering, 4/e Rosenberg aod Karnopp: Introduction to Physics Schlichting: Boundary-Layer Theory, 7/e Shames: Mechanics of Fluiak, 2/e Shigley: Kinematic Analysis of Mechanisms, 2/e Sbigley and Mitchell: Mechanical Engineering Design, 4/e Sbigley and Uicker: Theory of Machines and Mechanisms Stoecker and Jones: Refrigeration and Air Conditioning, 2/e Vanderplaats: Numerical Optimization Techniquesfor Engineering Design: With Applications


John B.LHeywood
Professor of Mechanical Engineering Director, Sloan Automotive Laboratory Massachusetts Institute of Technology

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This book was set in Times Roman. The editors were Anne Duffy and John M. M o m s ; the designer was Joan E. O'Connor; the production supervisor was Denise L. Puryear. New drawings were done by ANCO. Project Supervision was done by Santype International Ltd. R. R. Donnelley & Sons Company was printer and binder.
See acknowledgements on page xxi.


Copyright 0 1988 by McGraw-Hill, Inc. All rights rese~ed. Printed in the United States of America. Except as permitted under the United States Copyright Act of 1976, no part of this publication may be reproduced or distributed in any form or by any means, or stored in a data base or retrieval system, without the prior written permission of the publisher.




Library o C n r s Cataloging-iP.PublicationData f oges
Heywood, John B. Internal combustion engine fundamentals. (McGraw-Hill series in mechanical engineering) Bibliography: p. Includes index. I. Internal combustion engines. I. Title. 11. Series. TJ755.H45 1988 621.43 87-15251

This book is printed on acid-free paper.

Dr. John B. Heywood received the Ph.D. degree in mechanical engineering from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in 1965. Following an additional postdoctoral year of research at MIT, he worked as a research officer at the Central Electricity Generating Board's Research Laboratory in England on magnetohydrodynamic power generation. In 1968 he joined the faculty at MIT where he is Professor of Mechanical Engineering. At MIT he is Director of the Sloan Automotive Laboratory. He is currently Head of the Fluid and Thermal Science Division of the Mechanical Engineering Department, and the Transportation Energy Program Director in the MIT Energy Laboratory. He is faculty advisor to the MIT Sports Car Club. Professor Heywood's teaching and research interests lie in the areas of thermodynamics, combustion, energy, power, and propulsion. During the past two decades, his research activities have centered on the operating characteristics and fuels requirements of automotive and aircraft engines. A major emphasis has been on computer models which predict the performance, efficiency, and emissions of spark-ignition, diesel, and gas turbine engines; and in carrying out experiments to develop and validate these models. He is also actively involved in technology assessments and policy studies related to automotive engines, automobile fuel utilization, and the control of air pollution. He consults frequently in &he automotive and petroleum industries, and for the U.S. Government. .. His extensive research in the field of eogines has been supported by the U S Army, Department of Energy, Environmental Protection Agency, NASA, National Science Foundation, automobile and diesel engine manufacturers, and petroleum companies. He has presented or published over a hundred papers on



his research in technical conferences and journals. He has co-authored two previous books: Open-Cycle MHD Power Generation published by Pergamon Press in 1969 and The Automobile and the Regulation of Its Impact on the Environment published by University of Oklahoma Press in 1975. He is a member of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers, an associf ate fellow of the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, a fellow o the British Institution of Mechanical Engineers, and in 1982 was elected a Fellow of the U.S. Society of Automotive Engineers for his technical contributions to automotive engineering. He is a member of the editorial boards of the journals Progress in Energy and Combustion Science and the International Journal of Vehicle Design. His research publications on internal combustion engines, power generation, and gas turbine combustion have won numerous awards. He was awarded the Ayreton Premium in 1969 by the British Institution of Electrical Engineers. Professor Heywood received a Ralph R. Teetor Award as an outstanding young engineering educator from the Society of Automotive Engineers in 1971. He has twice been the recipient of an SAE Arch T. Colwell Merit Award for an outstanding technical publication (1973 and 1981). He received SAE's Horning Memorial Award for the best paper on engines and fuels in 1984. In 1984 he received the Sc.D. degree from Cambridge University for his published contributions to engineering research. He was selected as the 1986 American Society of Mechanical Engineers Freeman Scholar for a major review of "Fluid Motion within the Cylinder of Internal Combustion Engines."



I have followed many of the paths he took.





xvii xxiii

Commonly Used Symbols, Subscripts, and Abbreviations
Introduction and Historical Perspective Engine Classifiytions Engine Operating Cycles Engine Components Spark-Ignition Engine Operation Examples of Spark-Ignition Engines Compression-Ignition Engine Operation Examples of Diesel Engines Stratified-ChargeEngines

Chapter 1 Engine Types and Their Operation
1.1 1.2


1.6 1.7


Chapter 2 Engine Design and Operating Parameters
2.1 2.2

2.4 2.5 2.6 2.7 2.8 2.9

Important Engine Characteristics Geometrical Properties of Reciprocating Engines Brake Torque and Power Indicated Work Per Cycle Mechanical Efficiency Road-Load Power Mean Effective Pressure Specific Fuel Consumption and Efficiency Air/Fuel and Fuel/Air Ratios



2.10 2.11 2.12 2.13 2.14 2.15

Volumetric Efficiency Engine Specific Weight and Specific Volume Correction Factors for Power and Volumetric Efficiency Specific Emissions and Emissions Index Relationships between Performance Parameters Engine Design and Performance Data

Chapter 5 Ideal Models of Engine Cycles
5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4

Chapter 3 Thermochemistry of Fuel-Air Mixtures
3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5

Characterization of Flames Ideal Gas Model Composition of Air and Fuels Combustion Stoichiometry The First Law of Thermodynamics and Combustion 3.5.1 Energy and Enthalpy Balances 3.5.2 Enthalpies of Formation 3.5.3 Heating Values 3.5.4 Adiabatic Combustion Processes 3.5.5 Combustion Efiency of an Internal Combustion Engine The Second Law of Thermodynamics Applied to Combustion 3.6.1 Entropy 3.6.2 Maximum Work from an Internal Combustion Engine and Efficiency Chemically Reacting Gas Mixtures 3.7.1 Chemical Equilibrium 3.7.2 Chemical Reaction Rates


Introduction Ideal Models of Engine Processes Thermodynamic Relations for Engine Processes Cycle Analysis with Ideal Gas Working Fluid with c, and Constant 5.4.1 Constant-Volume Cycle 5.4.2 Limited- and Constant-Pressure Cycles 5.4.3 Cycle Comparison Fuel-Air Cycle Analysis 5.5.1 SI Engine Cycle Simulation 5.5.2 CI Engine Cycle Simulation 5.5.3 Results of Cycle Calculations Overexpanded Engine Cycles Availability Analysis of Engine Processes 5.7.1 Availability Relationships 5.7.2 Entropy Changes in Ideal Cycles 5.7.3 Availability Analysis of Ideal Cycles 5.7.4 Effect of Equivalence Ratio Comparison with Real Engine Cycles

Chapter 6 Gas Exchange Processes
6.1 6.2

Chapter 4 Properties of Working Fluids
4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5

Introduction Unburned Mixture Composition Gas Property Relationships A Simple Analytic Ideal Gas Model Thermodynamic Charts 4.5.1 Unburned Mixture Charts 4.5.2 Burned Mixture Charts 4.5.3 Relation between Unburned and Burned Mixture Charts Tables of Properties and Composition Computer Routines for Property and Composition Calculations 4.7.1 Unburned Mixtures 4.7.2 Burned Mixtures Transport Properties Exhaust Gas Composition 4.9.1 Species Concentration Data 4.9.2 Equivalence Ratio Determination from Exhaust Gas Constituents 4.9.3 Effects of Fuel/Air Ratio Nonuniformity 4.9.4 Combustion Inefficiency

6.4 6.5 6.6

6.7 6.8

Inlet and Exhaust Processes in the Four-Stroke Cycle Volumetric Efficiency 6.2.1 Quasi-Static Effects 6.2.2 Combined Quasi-Static and Dynamic Ekects 'iming 6.2.3 Variation with Speed. and Valve Area, Lift, and ' I Flow Through Valves 6.3.1 Poppet Valve Geometry and Timing . 6.3.2 Flow Rate and Discharge Coefficients Residual Gas Fraction Exhaust Gas Flow Rate and Temperature Variation Scavenging in Two-Stroke Cycle Engines 6.6.1 Two-Stroke Engine Configurations 6.6.2 Scavenging Parameters and Models 6.6.3 Actual Scavenging Processes Flow Through Ports Supercharging and Turbocharging 6.8.1 Methods of Power Boosting 6.8.2 Basic Relationships 6.8.3 Compressors 6.8.4 Turbines 6.8.5 Wave-Compression Devices

Chapter 7 SI Engine Fuel Metering and Manifold Phenomena
7.1 7.2

Spark-Ignition Engine Mixture Requirements Carburetors



7.2.1 Carburetor Fundamentals 7.2.2 Modem Carburetor Design 7.3

9.6.2 9.6.3

Knock Fundamentals Fuel Factors

Fuel-Injection Systems
7.3.1 Multipoint Port Injection 7.3.2 Single-Point Throttle-Body Injection

Chapter 10 Combustion in Compression-Ignition Engines
10.1 10.2

7.4 7.5 7.6

Feedback Systems Flow Past Throttle Plate Flow in Intake Manifolds 7.6.1 Design Requirements 7.6.2 Air-Flow Phenomena 7.6.3 Fuel-Flow Phenomena

Chapter 8 Charge Motion within the Cylinder
8.1 8.2


8.4 8.5 8.6 8.7

Intake Jet Flow Mean Velocity and Turbulence Characteristics 8.2.1 Definitions 8.2.2 Application to Engine Velocity Data Swirl 8.3.1 Swirl Measurement 8.3.2 Swirl Generation during Induction 8.3.3 Swirl Modification within the Cylinder Squish Prechamber Engine Flows Crevice Flows and Blowby Flows Generated by Piston-Cylinder Wall Interaction

Chapter 9 Combustion in Spark-Ignition Engines
9.1 9.2





Essential Features of Process Thermodynamic Analysis of SI Engine Combustion 9.2.1 Burned and Unburned Mixture States 9.2.2 Analysis of Cylinder Pressure Data 9.2.3 Combustion Process Characterization Flame Structure and Speed 9.3.1 Experimental Observations 9.3.2 Flame Structure 9.3.3 Laminar Burning Speeds 9.3.4 Flame Propagation Relations Cyclic Variations in Combustion, Partial Burning, and Misfire 9.4.1 Observations and Definitions ' 9.4.2 Causes of Cycle-by-Cycle and Cylinder-to-Cylinder Variations 9.4.3 Partial Burning, Misfire, and Engine Stability Spark Ignition 9.5.1 Ignition Fundamentals 9.5.2 Conventional Ignition Systems 9.5.3 Alternative Ignition Approaches Abnormal Combustion: Knock and Surface Ignition 9.6.1 Description of Phenomena

Essential Features of Process Types of Diesel Combustion Systems 10.2.1 Direct-Injection Systems 10.2.2 Indirect-Injection Systems 10.2.3 Comparison of Different Combustion Systems Phenomenological Model of Compression-Ignition Engine Combustion 10.3.1 Photographic Studies of Engine Combustion 10.3.2 Combustion in Direct-Injection, Multispray Systems 10.3.3 Application of Model to Other Combustion Systems Analysis of Cylinder Pressure Data 10.4.1 Combustion Efficiency 10.4.2 Direct-Injection Engines 10.4.3 Indirect-Injection Engines Fuel Spray Behavior 10.5.1 Fuel Injection 10.5.2 Overall Spray Structure 10.5.3 Atomization 10.5.4 Spray Penetration 10.5.5 Droplet Size Distribution 10.5.6 Spray Evaporation Ignition Delay 10.6.1 Definition and Discussion 10.6.2 Fuel Ignition Quality 10.6.3 Autoignition Fundamentals 10.6.4 Physical Factors Affecting Delay 10.6.5 Effect of Fuel Properties 10.6.6 Correlations for Ignition Delay in Engines Mixing-Controlled Combustion 10.7.1 Background 10.7.2 Spray and Flame Structure 10.7.3 Fuel-Air Mixing and Burning Rates

Chapter 11 Pollutant Formation and Control
11.1 11.2

Nature and Extent of Problem Nitrogen Oxides 11.2.1 Kinetics of NO Formation 11.2.2 Formation of NO, 11.2.3 NO Formation in Spark-Ignition Engines 11.2.4 NO, Formation in Compression-Ignition Engines Carbon Monoxide Unburned Hydrocarbon Emissions 11.4.1 Background 11.4.2 Flame Quenching and Oxidation Fundamentals



11.4.3 HC Emissions from Spark-Ignition Engines 11.4.4 Hydrocarbon Emission Mechanisms in Diesel Engines 11.5


Particulate Emissions 11.5.1 Spark-Ignition Engine Particulates 11.5.2 Characteristics of Diesel Particulates 11.5.3 Particulate Distribution within the Cylinder 11.5.4 Soot Formation Fundamentals 11.5.5 Soot Oxidation 11.5.6 Adsorption and Condensation Exhaust Gas Treatment 11.6.1 Available Options 11.6.2 Catalytic Converters 11.6.3 Thermal Reactors 11.6.4 Particulate Traps

13.3.1 Lubricated Friction 13.3.2 Turbulent Dissipation 13.3.3 Total Friction 13.4 13.5


13.7 13.8

Chapter 12 Engine Heat Transfer
12.1 12.2

12.3 12.4




Importance of Heat Transfer Modes of Heat Transfer 12.2.1 Conduction 12.2.2 Convection 12.2.3 Radiation 12.2.4 Overall Heat-Transfer Process Heat Transfer and Engine Energy Balance Convective Heat Transfer 12.4.1 Dimensional Analysis 12.4.2 Correlations for Time-Averaged Heat Flux 12.4.3 Correlations for Instantaneous Spatial Average Coefficients 12.4.4 Correlations for Instantaneous Local Coefficients 12.4.5 Intake and Exhaust System Heat Transfer Radiative Heat Transfer 12.5.1 Radiation from Gases 12.5.2 Flame Radiation 12.5.3 Prediction Formulas Measurements of Instantaneous Heat-Transfer Rates 12.6.1 Measurement Methods 12.6.2 Spark-Ignition Engine Measurements 12.6.3 Diesel Engine Measurements 12.6.4 Evaluation of Heat-Transfer Correlations 12.6.5 Boundary-Layer Behavior Thermal Loading and Component Temperatures 12.7.1 Component Temperature Distributions 12.7.2 Effect of Engine Variables

Measurement Methods Engine Friction Data 13.5.1 SI Engines 13.5.2 Diesel Engines Engine Friction Components 13.6.1 Motored Engine Breakdown Tests 13.6.2 Pumping Friction 13.6.3 Piston Assembly Friction 13.6.4 Crankshaft Bearing Friction 13.6.5 Valve Train Friction Accessory Power Requirements Lubrication 13.8.1 Lubrication System 13.8.2 Lubricant Requirements

Chapter 14 Modeling Real Engine Flow and Combustion Processes
14.1 14.2




Purpose and Classification of Models Governing Equations for Open Thermodynamic System 14.2.1 Conservation of Mass 14.2.2 Conservation of Energy Intake and Exhaust Flow Models 14.3.1 Background 14.3.2 Quasi-Steady Flow Models 14.3.3 Filling and Emptying Methods 14.3.4 Gas Dynamic Models Thermodynamic-Based In-Cylinder Models 14.4.1 Background and Overall Model Structure 14.4.2 Spark-Ignition Engine Models 14.4.3 Direct-Injection Engine Models 14.4.4 Prechamber Engine Models 14.4.5 Multicylinder and Complex Engine System Models 14.4.6 Second Law Analysis of Engine Processes Fluid-Mechanic-Based Multidimensional Models - 14.5.1 Basic Approach and Governing Equations 14.5.2 Turbulence Models 14.5.3 Numerical Methodology 14.5.4 Flow Field Predictions 14.5.5 Fuel Spray Modeling 14.5.6 Combustion Modeling

Chapter 13 Engine Friction and Lubrication
13.1 13.2 13.3

Background Definitions Friction Fundamentals

Chapter 15 Engine Operating Characteristics
15.1 15.2

Engine Performana Parameters Indicated and Brake Power and MEP







Operating Variables That Affect SI Engine Performance, Efficiency, and Emissions 15.3.1 Spark Timing 15.3.2 Mixture Composition 15.3.3 Load and Speed 15.3.4 Compression Ratio SI Engine Combustion Chamber Design 15.4.1 Design Objectives and Options 15.4.2 Factors That Control Combustion 15.4.3 Factors That Control Performance 15.4.4 Chamber Octane Requirement 15.4.5 Chamber Optimization Strategy Variables That Affect CI Engine Performance, Efficiency, and Emissions 15.5.1 Load and Speed 15.5.2 Fuel-Injection Parameters 15.5.3 Air Swirl and Bowl-in-Piston Design Supercharged and Turbocharged Engine Performance 15.6.1 Four-Stroke Cycle SI Engines 15.6.2 Four-Stroke Cycle CI Engines 15.6.3 Two-Stroke Cycle SI Engines 15.6.4 Two-Stroke Cycle CI Engines Engine Performance Summary



A B Unit Conversion Factors


Ideal Gas Relationships B.l Ideal Gas Law B.2 The Mole B.3 Thermodynamic Properties B.4 Mixtures of Ideal Gases Equations for Fluid Flow through a Restriction C.1 Liquid Flow C.2 Gas Flow Data on Working Fluids


Internal combustion engines date back to 1876 when Otto first developed the spark-ignition engine and 1892 when Diesel invented the compression-ignition engine. Since that time these engines have continued to develop as our knowledge of engine processes has increased, as new technologies became available, as demand for new types of engine arose, and as environmental constraints on engine use changed. Internal combustion engines, and the industries that develop and manufacture them and support their use, now play a dominant role in the fields of power, propulsion, and energy. The last twenty-five years or so have seen an explosive growth in engine research and development as the issues of air pollution, fuel cost, and market competitiveness have become increasingly important. An enormous technical literature on engines now exists which has yet to be adequately organized and summarized. This book has been written as a text and a professional reference in response to that need. It contains a broadly based and extensive review of the fundamental principles which govern internal combustion engine design and operation. It attempts to provide a simplifying framework for the vast and complex mass of technical material that now exists on spark-ignition and compression-ignition engines, and at the same time to include sufficient detail to convey the real world dimensions of this pragmatic engineering field. It is the author's conviction that a sound knowledge of the relevant fundamentals in the many disciplines that contribute to this field, as well as an awareness of the extensive practical knowledge base which has been built up over many decades, are essential tools for engine research, development, and design. Of course, no one text can include everything about engines. The emphasis here is on the thermodynamics, combustion physics and chemistry, fluid flow, heat transfer, friction, and lubrication processes relevant to internal combustion engine design, performance, efficiency, emissions, and fuels requirements.





From a fundamental point of view, how the fuel-air mixture within an internal combustion engine cylinder is ignited appropriately organizes the field. From the method of ignition-spark-ignition or compression-ignition-follows each type of engine's important features: fuel requirements, method of mixture prep aration, combustion chamber design, details of the combustion process, method of load control, emission formation mechanisms, and performance and efficiency characteristics. While many engine processes (such as intake and exhaust flows, convective heat transfer, and friction) are similar in both types of engines, this distinction is fundamental and lies behind the overall organization of the book. The book is arranged in four major sections. The first (Chapters 1 to 5) provides an introduction to, and overview of, the major characteristics of sparkignition and compression-ignition engines, defines the parameters used to describe engine operation, and develops the necessary thermodynamics and combustion theory required for a quantitative analysis of engine behavior. It concludes with an integrated treatment of the various methods of analyzing idealized models of internal combustion engine cycles. The second section (Chapters 6 to 8) focuses on engine flow phenomena. The details of the gas exchange processintake and exhaust processes in four-stroke and scavenging in two-stroke cycles-and the various methods of supercharging engines-are reviewed. Fuel metering methods for spark-ignition engines and air- and fuel-flow phenomena in intake manifolds are described. The essential features of the various types of fluid motion within the engine cylinder are then developed. These flow processes control the amount of air an engine will induct (and therefore its power), and largely govern the rate at which the fuel-air mixture will burn during combustion. The third section of the book focuses on engine combustion phenomena. These chapters (9, 10, and 11) are especially important. The combustion process releases the fuel's energy within the engine cylinder for eventual conversion to useful work. What fraction of the fuel's energy is converted depends strongly on how combustion takes place. The spark-ignition and compression-ignition engine combustion processes (Chapters 9 and 10, respectively) therefore influence essentially all aspects of engine behavior. Air pollutants are undesirable byproducts of combustion. Our extensive knowledge of how the major pollutants form during these combustion processes and how such emissions can be controlled is reviewed in Chapter 11. The last section of the book focuses on engine operating characteristics. First, the fundamentals of engine heat transfer and friction, both of which detract from engine performance, are developed in Chapters 12 and 13. Chapter 14 then focuses on the methods available for predicting important aspects of engine behavior based on realistic models of engine flow and combustion processes. Since the various thermodynamic-based and fluid-mechanic-based models which have been developed over the past fifteen years or so are increasingly used in engine research and development, a knowledge of their basic structure and capabilities is most important. Then, Chapter 15 presents a summary of how the operating characteristics-power, efficiency, and emissions--of spark-ignition and compression-ignition engines depend on the major engine design and oper-

sting variables. These final two chapters effectively integrate the analytical understanding and practical knowledge of individual engine processes together to describe overall spark-ignition and compression-ignition engine behavior. Material on internal combustion engine fuels is distributed appropriately the book. Each chapter is extensively illustrated and referenced, and includes problems for both undergraduate and graduate level courses. While this book contains much advanced material on engine design and operation intended for the practitioner, each major topic is developed from its beginnings and the more sophisticated chapters have introductory sections to facilitate their use in undergraduate courses. The chapters are extensively crossand indexed. Thus several arrangements of the material for a course on engines can be followed. For example, an introductory course on internal combustion engines could begin with Chapters 1 and 1,which review the different types of engines and how their performance is characterized, and continue with the parts of Chapters 3 and 5, which introduce the key combustion concepts necessary to understand the effects of fuellair ratio, and ideal cycle analysis. Selections from the introductory sections of Chapters 6,9, 10, l l , and 15 could then be used to explain several of the practical and design aspects of spark-ignition and diesel engine intake and exhaust processes, combustion, emissions, and performance. A more advanced course would review this introductory material more rapidly, and then move on to those sections of Chapters 4 and 5, which cover fuel-air cycle analysis, a more extensive discussion of engine breathing using additional sections of Chapter 6, and more in-depth treatment of engine combustion and emissions processes based on the appropriate sections of Chapters 9, 10, and 11. Material on engine heat transfer and friction selected from Chapters 12 and 13 could be included next. While Chapter 14 on modeling the thermodynamics and fluid dynamics of real engine processes is primarily intended for the professional scientist and engineer, material from this chapter along with selections from Chapter 15 could be used to illustrate the performance, efficiency, and emissions characteristics of the different types of internal combustion engines. I have also used much of the more sophisticated material in Chapters 6 through 15 for review seminars on individual engine topics and more extensive courses for professional engineers, an additional important educational and reference opportunity. Many individuals and organizations have assisted me in various ways as I have worked on this book over the past ten or so years. I am especially indebted to my colleagues in the Sloan Automotive Laboratory at M.I.T., Professors Wai K. Cheng, Ahmed F. Ghoniem, and James C. Keck, and Drs. Jack A. Ekchian, David P. Hoult, Joe M. Rife, and Victor W. Wong, for providing a stimulating environment in which to carry out engine research and for assuming additional burdens as a result of my writing. Many of the Sloan Automotive Laboratory's students have made significant contributions to this text through their research; their names appear in the reference lists. The U.S. Department of Energy provided support during the early stages of the text development and funded the work on engine cycle simulation used extensively in Chapters 14 and 15. I am grateful


Press. Mobil Oil Corporation. Stanford University. Texas A & M University. and the Mechanical Engineering Department at Imperial College graciously acted as host. xxi . Many organizations and individuals supplied specific material and illustrations for the text. McGraw-Hill Book Company. David E. Society of Automotive Engineers of Japan.I.XX PREFACE to Churchill College. A long-term relationship with Mobil Research and Development Corporation has provided comparable experiences in the area of engine-fuels interactions. Sawyer. Cambridge University Press. Morgan-Grampian Publishers. Pergamon Journals.S. Engineers from the Engine Research and Fluid Mechanics Departments at General Motors Research Laboratories reviewed and critiqued the final draft manuscript for me. . Ltd. Inc. Mellon Visiting Fellow. Dwight Bushnell. M. Stephen. Gordon & Breach Science Publishers. The M. Willard Pulkrabek. Department of Energy provided valuable assistance with the initial organization of this effort. and Ben have encouraged me throughout this long and time-consuming project which took many hours away from them. Lawrence W. Special thanks are due to my secretaries for their faithful and thoughtful assistance with the manuscript over these many years. Lestz. I will always be grateful. CIMAC. and the Engineering Department. University of Wisconsin at Madison. American Institute of Aeronautics & Astronautics.T.I. Inc. Robert Bosch GmbH. Members of General Motors Research Laboratories have interacted extensively with the Sloan Automotive Laboratory over many years and provided valuable advice on engine research developments. Amann. The Technical University of Denmark. Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute. University of California at Berkeley. Head of the Engine Research Department. and Karla Stryket was responsible for producing and coordinating subsequent drafts and the final manuscript. Department of Mechanical Engineering. Plenum Press Corporation. Without their continuing support it would never have been finished. for their patience. Elsevier Science Publishing Company. The Combustion Institute. Cambridge University. Robert F. John J. Linda Pope typed an earlier draft of the book. for a year spent as a Richard C. Brogan of the U. Bolt. sabbatical leave fund supported my full-time writing for eight months in 1983. The Royal Society of London.T. University of Michigan. beyond the "call of duty ". The Japan Society of Mechanical Engineers. McGraw-Hill and the author would like to express their thanks to the following reviewers for their useful comments and suggestions: Jay A. Pennsylvania State University. I also want to acknowledge several individuals and organizations who have provided major inputs to this book beyond those cited in the references. for acting as my host while I developed the outline and earlier chapters of the book. University of Wisconsin. and faith that it would ultimately come to fruition.. and Spencer C. My wife Peggy. University of Michigan.. Caton. Gary L. Society of Automotive Engineers. Cambridge University. Evers. Mir Publishers. Society of Tribologists and Lubrications Engineers. Sorenson. General Motors Corporation. The Institution of Mechanical Engineers. Brown. My regular interactions over the years with the Advanced Powertrain Engineering Ofiice and Scientific Research Laboratories of the Ford Motor Company have given me a broad exposure to the practical side of engine design and operation. made especially helpful inputs on engine performance. Borman and William L. T. John B. American Society of Mechanical Engineers. Charles A. Scientific Publications Limited. Oregon State University. Cole.. Macmillan Press Ltd. Foulis & Co. I am especially grateful to those who made available the high-quality photographs and line drawings which I have used and acknowledged. Heywood - ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The author wishes to acknowledge the following organizations and publishers for permission to reproduce figures and tables from their publications in this text: The American Chemical Society. Joseph E. Shepherd. G. and sons James. 1977-78. Samuel S. Jerald A. Michigan Technological University.

4 AE Ai 4 B c C~ CS CD C Crank radius Sound speed Specific availability Acceleration Area Valve cu.COMMONLY USED SYMBOLS. SUBSCRIPTS. xxiii . AND ABBREVIATIONS 1.. SYMBOLS a a A Ac A.rtain area Cylinder head area Exhaust port area Effective area of flow restriction Inlet port area Piston crown area Cylinder bore Steady-flow availability Specific heat Specific heat at constant pressure Soot concentration (mass/volume) Specific heat at constant volume Absolute gas velocity t Nomenclature specific to a section or chapter is defined in that section or chapter.

AND ABBREVIATIONS COMMONLY USED SYMBOLS. SUBSCRIPTS. R R+.X X ~ V COMMONLY USED SYMBOLS. rate constants for ith reaction Constant Equilibrium constant expressed in concentrations Equilibrium constant expressed in partial pressures Characteristic length scale Connecting rod length Characteristic length scale of turbulent flame Piston stroke Fuel-injection-nozzle orifice length Valve lift Mass Mass flow rate Mass of residual gas Mach number Molecular weight n "R N P P 4 8 Qch QHV r rc Q. AND ABBREVUTIONS XXV Swirl coefficient Discharge coefficient Vehicle drag coefficient Diameter Fuel-injection-nozzle orifice diameter Diameter Diffusion coefficient Droplet diameter Sauter mean droplet diameter Valve diameter Radiative emissive power Specific energy Activation energy Coefficient of friction Fuel mass fraction Force Gravitational acceleration Specific Gibbs free energy Gibbs free energy Clearance height Oil flm thickness Specific enthalpy Heat-transfer coefficient Port open height Sensible specific enthalpy Enthalpy Moment of inertia Flux Thermal conductivity Turbulent kinetic energy Forward. backward. SUBSCRIPTS.R R s S S s* SL SP t T u u' 'T U 1) "9 v Number of moles Polytropic exponent Number of crank revolutions per power stroke Crankshaft rotational speed Soot particle number density Turbocharger shaft speed Cylinder pressure Pressure Power Heat-transfer rate per unit area Heat-transfer rate per unit mass of fluid Heat transfer Heat-transfer rate Fuel chemical energy release or gross heat release Fuel heating value Net heat release Radius Compression ratio Connecting rod lengthlcrank radius Gas constant Radius One-way reaction rates Swirl ratio Crank axis to piston pin distance Specific entropy Entropy Spray penetration Turbulent burning speed Laminar flame speed Piston speed Time Temperature Torque Specific internal energy Velocity Turbulence intensity Sensible specific internal energy Characteristic turbulent velocity Compressorlturbine impellor tangential velocity Fluid velocity Internal energy Specific volume Velocity Velocity Valve pseudo-flow velocity .

SUBSCRIPTS. (4. AND ABBREVIATIONS COMMONLY USED SYMBOLS. (4. SUBSCRIPTS Air Burned gas Coolant Cylinder Compression stroke Compressor Crevice Equilibrium Exhaust Expansion stroke Flame Friction Fuel Gas Indicated Intake Species i Gross indicated Net indicated . (C. inlet conditions Normal stress Standard deviation Stefan-Boltzmann constant Surface tension Characteristic time Induction time Shear stress Ignition delay time Fuellair equivalence ratio Flow compressibility function [Eq.X X V ~ COMMONLY USED SYMBOLS. 'Iv e 1 A Squish velocity Cylinder volume Volume Clearance volume Displaced cylinder volume Relative gas velocity Soot surface oxidation rate Work transfer Work per cycle Pumping work Spatial coordinates Mass fraction Mole fraction Burned mass fraction Residual mass fraction H/C ratio of fuel Volume fraction Concentration of species a per unit mass Inlet Mach index Angle Thermal diffusivity k/(pc) Angle Specific heat ratio cJc. Angular momentum of charge Boundary-layer thickness Laminar flame thickness Molal enthalpy of formation of species i Rapid burning angle Flame development angle 4/(4 + y): y = H/C ratio of fuel Turbulent kinetic energy dissipation rate Availability conversion efficiency Combustion efficiency Compressor isentropic efficiency Charging efficiency Fuel conversion efficiency Mechanical efficiency Scavenging efficiency Thermal conversion efficiency Turbine isentropic efficiency Trapping efficiency Volumetric efficiency Crank angle Relative air/fuel ratio Delivery ratio /' /'I 1 .1)] Isentropic compression function [Eq.15a)l Angular velocity Frequency i P .15b)l Molar N/O ratio Throttle plate open angle Isentropic compression function [Eq. SUBSCRIPTS.1. AND ABBREVIATIONS XXV~~ 'I0 'Ic 'Ic 'lch 'If '. vi Dynamic viscosity Chemical potential of species i Kinematic viscosity p / p Stoichiometric coefficient of species i Flow friction coefficient Density Air density at standard. I 'Ise 'It 'IT 'It.

moles/vol Mass fraction Rate of change with time ABBREVIATIONS (AIF) BC. IPO IVC. before BC Fuel cetane number Damkohler number T = / T ~ Exhaust gas recycle Emission index Exhaust port closing. opening Fuellair ratio Gas/fuel ratio Inlet port closing. u2D/a NOTATION Difference Average or mean value Value per mole Concentration. ATC. EPO EVC. z components Reference value Stagnation value ON Re sfc TC. opening Exhaust valve closing. opening Mean effective pressure Nusselt number h. before TC Weber number p.XXV% COMMONLY USED SYMBOLS SUBSCRIPTS. after TC. 8. y. Ilk . IVO mep Nu Airlfuel ratio Bottom-center crank position. ABC. BTC We Fuel octane number Reynolds number pul/p Specificfuel consumption Topcenter crank position. AND ABBREVIATIONS Liquid Laminar Piston Port Prechamber r. EVO (FIA) (GIF) IPC. after BC. z components Reference value Isentropic Stoichiometric Nozzle or orifice throat Turbine Turbulent Unburned Valve Wall x. opening Inlet valve closing. BBC CN Da EGR EI EPC.

and they are not discussed as separate en$nes in this book. The work transfers which provide the desired power output occur directly between these working fluids and the mechanical components of the engine. as distinct from external combustion engines. however. this energy is released by burning or oxidizing the fuel inside the engine. or gasoline or petrol engines. In internal combustion engines. an "internal combustion engine. by this definition.1 INTRODUCTION AND HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE The purpose of internal combustion engines is the production of mechanical power from the chemical energy contained in the fuel. and air) and power generation. The fuel-air mixture before combustion and the burned products after combustion are the actual working fluids. It is the fact that combustion takes place inside the work- t The gas turbine is also. The operating prinn p l a of gas turbines are fundamentally different. these two types of engine have found wide application in transportation (land. . though other fuels can be used) and compression-ignition or diesel engines.CHAPTER ENGINE TYPES AND THEIR OPERATION 1. The internal combustion engines which are the subject of this book are spark-ignition engines (sometimes called Otto engines." Conventionally. ruggedness and high powerlweight ratio.t Because of their simplicity. sea. the term is used for spark-ignition and compression-ignition engines.

and give higher pressures throughout the process. in Germany) had successfully developed two-stroke internal combustion engines where the exhaust and intake processes occur during the end of the power stroke and the beginning of the compression stroke. an expansion or power stroke where work was delivered to the crankshaft. in the broader sense. His prototype four-stroke engine first ran in 1876. Otto proposed an engine cycle with four piston strokes: an intake stroke. legal restrictions on volatile fuels turned their engine builders toward kerosene. and occurred. yet compression ratios were limited to less than four if serious knock problems were to be avoided with the available fuels.3-m bore fueled by low-energy blast furnace gas produced 600 bhp at 90 revlmin. and exhaust. It was not until the 1860s that the internal combustion engine became a practical reality. Beau de Rochas also outlined the conditions under which maximum efficiency in an internal combustion engine could be achieved. % Overall efficiency. and in Germany it was declared invalid. Lenoir (1822-1900) developed the first marketable engine of this type. Stationary engine progress also continued. E. Gas and air were drawn into the cylinder during the first half of the piston stroke. 1833-1913.. The greatest possible expansion ratio 4. the pressure increased.electric ignition were developed with efficiencies comparable to those of gas engines (14 to 18 percent). almost 50. ignition by a gas flame. J. Piston displacement. an unpublished French patent issued in 1862 to Alphonse Beau de Rochas (1815-1893) was found which described the principles of the four-stroke cycle. approx. Some 5000 of these engines were built between 1860 and 1865 in sizes up to six horsepower. It was recognized that efficiency was a direct function of expansion ratio. in3 Power strokes per min Shaft speed. For the first 150 years. raised to steam. and James Robson. The third condition recognizes that the greater the expansion of the postcombustion gases. The greatest possible pressure at the beginning of expansion The first two conditions hold heat losses from the charge to a minimum.. Practical heat engines have served mankind for over two and a half centuries. though this was not achieved in practice. Atmospheric pressure then pushed the piston inward. and the burned gases then delivered power to the piston for the second half of the stroke. before high-speed gasoline engines suitable for automobiles became available in the late 1880s. In 1884. The fourth condition recognizes that higher initial pressures make greater expansion possible. Production engines. By 1890.000 of these engines had been sold in Europe and the United States. To overcome this engine's shortcomings of low thermal efficiency and excessive weight.1): the enormous reduction in engine weight and volume. This was the breakthrough that effectively founded the internal combustion engine industry. * The early engines developed for commercial use burned coal-gas air mixtures at atmospheric pressurethere was no compression before combustion. By the late 1890s. James Atkinson (1846-1914) in England made an engine with a longer expansion than compression stroke. Thus Otto.g. and finally an exhaust stroke. Low compression ratio "oil" engines with heated external fuel vaporizers and . in England and Karl Benz. By the 1880s several engineers (e. He also proposed incorporating a stratified-charge induction system. lb.'. In Britain. The largest possible cylinder volume with the minimum boundary surface 2 The greatest possible working speed . These were: 1. obtained thermal efficiencies of up to 11 percent. of which about 5000 were built. Otto (1832-1891) and Eugen Langen (1833-1895)-used the pressure rise resulting from combustion of the fuel-air charge early in the outward stroke to accelerate a free piston and rack assembly so its momentum would generate a vacuum in the cylinder. water. he never reduced these ideas to practice. % Expansion ratio 3. Dugald Clerk. which had a high efficiency for the times but mechanical weaknesses. The Hornsby-Ackroyd engine became the most . Efficiency was at best about 5 percent. then a compression stroke before ignition. 18441929. rev/min Mechanical efficiency. Further developments followed fast once the full impact of what Otto had achieved became apparent. This chance discovery cast doubt on the validity of Otto's own patent for this concept. 1854-1913.1 comparison of Otto four-stroke cycle and Otto-Langen engines2 Otto a d h n g e n Otto four-stroke Brake horsepower Weight. A more successful development-an atmospheric engine introduced in 1867 by Nicolaus A. A slide valve controlled intake. was the inventor of the modern internal combustion engine as we know it today. with the rack engaged through a roller clutch to the output shaft. TABLE 1. The charge was then ignited with a spark. both resulting in greater work transfer. large single-cylinder engines of 1. was interposed between the combustion gases produced by burning the fuel and the work-producing pistonin-cylinder expander.2 INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE FUNDAMENTALS ENGINE N P E S AND THEIR OPERATION 3 ' producing part of these engines that makes their design and operating characteristics fundamentally different from those of other types of engine. The cycle was completed with an exhaust stroke. Although Beau de Rochas' unpublished writings predate Otto's developments. J. the greatet the work extracted. Substantial carburetor and ignition system developments were required. A comparison between the Otto engine and its atmospheric-type predecessor indicates the reason for its success (see Table 1.

it took five years to develop a practical engine. the German engineer Rudolf Diesel (1858-1913) outlined in his patent a new form of internal combustion engine. and others. the yield from crude had to be raised. As a result of these developments. On the farm.2 outlines the dimensions of the problem. the maximum lead content in leaded gasoline has been substantially reduced. These advances. The automotive air-pollution problem became apparent in the 1940s in the ~ o Angeles basin. though compression ratios were low (4 or less) to avoid knock. starting in the early 1960s. new factors for change have become important and now significantly affect engine design and operation. or may result from mechanical excitation by rotating or reciprocating engine components. Haagen-Smit that s the smog problem there resulted from reactions between oxides of nitrogen and hydrocarbon compounds in the presence of sunlight. may be due to forces that result from the combustion process. was not successfully tested until 1957. first. These factors are. These thermally cracked gasolines satisfied demand. have followed. The noise may be generated by aerodynamic effects. emission standards for automobiles were introduced first in California. kerosene was the logical fuel for internal combustion engines since it was used for heat and light. The period following World War I saw a tremendous advance in our understanding of how fuels affect combustion. have continued ever ~ i n c e . and the removal and reduction of lead in gasoline has forced spark-ignition engine compression ratios to be reduced. a thermal cracking process was developed whereby heavier oils were heated under pressure and decomposed into less complex more volatile compounds. the Wankel. Internal combustion engines are also an important source of noise. Although a wide variety of experimental rotary engines have been proposed over the years. the internal . Emission standards in Japan and Europe. introduced in 1912. Also. In the late 1930s. The earliest engines used for generating mechanical power burned gas. natural gas. The emission-control requirements and these fuel developments have produced significant changes in the way internal combustion engines are designed and operated. the highly volatile fuel made starting easy and gave good cold weather performance. it was demonstrated by Prof. Of the non-petroleum-based fuels. A.' and it became commercially available as a gasoline additive in the United States in 1923. in Ausburg combined. was based on the designs of the German inventor Felix WankeL6* Fuels have also had a major impact on engine development.' the first practical rotary internal combustion engine. the fan used for cooling. During the 1970s the price of crude petroleum rose rapidly to several times its cost (in real terms) in 1970. and concern built up regarding the longer-term availability of petroleum. It might be thought that after over a century of development. Eugene Houdry found that vaporized oils passed over an activated catalyst at 450 to 480•‹C were converted to highquality gasoline in much higher yields than was possible with thermal cracking. while synthetic gasoline and diesel made from shale oil or coal.' In due course it became clear that theJautomobile was a major contributor to hydrocarbon and oxides of nitrogen emissions. Before 1905 there were few problems with gasoline. and lighter fractions of crude oil. and hydrogen could be longer-term possibilities. Much work is being done on the use of alternative fuels to gasoline and diesel. and to meet the fivefold increase in gasoline demand between 1907 and 1915. a serious crude oil shortage developed.N. and the engine block surface. ~ . J. electrically driven starters. were now possible. perhaps less fundamental but nonetheless important to the steadily widening internal combustion engine markets. but their higher boiling point range created cold weather starting problems. Diesel engines are a significant source of small soot or smoke particles. Substantial reductions in emissions from spark-ignition and diesel engines have been achieved. and for other engine applications. However.A. Fortunately. Engine developments.4 INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE FUNDAMENTALS ENGINE TYPES AND THEIR OPERATION 5 popular oil engine in Britain.~ more recent major development has been the rotary internal comOne bustion engine. Pressures for substantial improvements in internal combustion engine efficiency (in all its many applications) have become very substantial indeed. the intake system. His concept of initiating combustion by injecting a liquid fuel into air heated solely by compression permitted a doubling of efficiency over other internal combustion engines. then nationwide in the United States. Yet emission-control requirements have made improving engine fuel consumption more difficult. Table 1. and was also built in large numbers in the United States2 In 1892. However. ' During the past three decades. Gasoline. even with the efforts of Diesel and the resources of M. and especially the problem of knock. Both the use of catalysts in spark-ignition engine exhaust systems for emissions control and concern over the toxicity of lead antiknock additives have resulted in the reappearance of unleaded gasoline as a major part of the automotive fuels market. without detonation or knock. as well as the prime cause of high carbon monoxide levels in urban areas. Through the work of William Burton (1865-1954) and his associates of Standard Oil of Indiana. improving power and efficiency. There are several sources of engine noise: the exhaust system. permitted fuels with better and better antiknock properties to be produced in large quantities. That engine. Vehicle noise legislation to reduce emissions to the environment was first introduced in the early 1970s. second. the need to control the automotive contribution to urban air pollution and. Much greater expansion ratios. thus engine compression ratios steadily increased. The antiknock effect of tetraethyl lead was discovered at General ~otors. as well as hydrocarbons and oxides of nitrogen. Many early farm engines had heated carburetors or vaporizers to enable them to operate with such a fuel. In 1952. came along just in time. became available in the late 1800s and various types of carburetors were developed to vaporize the fuel and mix it with air. and methanol and ethanol (methyl and ethyl alcohols) are receiving the greatest attention. which evolved through many years of research and development. the need to achieve significant improvements in automotive fuel consumption.

Varies from country to country. NO. Conventional spark-ignition and diesel engines continue to show substantial improvements in efficiency. Method of cooling.. g/kmt Reduction in new vehicles. t Average values for pre-1968 automobiles which had no emission controls. Carburetion. f Compares emissions from new spark-ignition engine automobiles with uncontrolled automobile levels in previous column. Water cooled. 20 percent are evaporative emissions from fuel tank and carburetor. and turbocharged 4. S I engines. radial. "/. liquid petroleum gas..g. The United States. Working cycle. . and 25 percent are crankcase blowby gases. except for HC where 55 percent are exhaust emissions. divided chamber (small and large auxiliary chambers. air cooled. fuel oil (or diesel fuel). portable PoUutnnt Oxides of nitrogen (NO and NO. alcohols (methanol. hemisphere. light aircraft. fuel injection into the intake ports or intake manifold. New materials now becoming available offer the possibilities of reduced engine weight. wedge. many designs: e. many hydrocarbon compounds) Particulates (soot and absorbed hydrocarbon compounds) Impact Reactant in photochemical smog. Reciprocating engines (in turn subdivided by arrange- t Depends on typc of urban area and source mix. dlun Diesel. V. natural gas. truck. Because this book approaches the operating and emissions .ENGINE N P E S AND THEIR OPERATION 7 TABLE 12 The automotive urban air-pollution problem Automobile emissiom Mobile source emissiom as % of totalt Uncontrolled vehicles. power generation 2. determined by U. test procedure which simulates typical urban and highway driving. Canada. as well as ignition in gas engines by pilot injection of fuel oil) 8.) Carbon monoxide (CO) Unburned hydrocarbons (HC. and turbocharged (admitting fresh mixture compressed in a compressor driven by an exhaust turbine). Europc. through.g. n negligible. While they ment of cylinders: e. Automobile. loop-scavenged porting (inlet and exhaust ports on same side of cylinder at one end). disc. Combustion chamber design. some of HC compounds mutagenic power system. Method of mixture preparation. they will be made pos&le in large part by the enormous expansion of our knowledge of engine proasses which the last twenty years has witnessed. g/km 1. prechambers) 9. opposed). Gasoline (or petrol). control of fuel flow alone. fuel injection into the engine cylinder 7. 9 Diesel engine automobiles only.S. locomotive. supercharged. two-stroke cycle: crankcase scavenged. f $ With 95 percent exhaust emissions and 5 percent evaporative emissions. Method of ignition. Western Europe. Spark ignition (in conventional engines where the mixture is uniform and in stratified-charge engines where the mixture is non-uniform).or uniflowscavenged (inlet and exhaust ports or valves at different ends of cylinder) 5. Such is not the case. Exhaust emissions. bowl-in-piston). and Japan have dierent test procedures. swirl chambers. ethanol). - combustion engine has reached its peak and little potential for further improvement remains. rotary valves. supercharged (admitting precompressed fresh mixture). compression ignition (in conventional diesels. cost. and Japan have standards with different degrrn of severity. Standards are strictest in the United States and Japan. dual fuel 6.lpplication. Particulate emissions from spark-ignition engines a n negligible.2 ENGINE CLASSIFICATIONS There are many different types of internal combustion engines. The engine development opportunities of the future are substantial. and of different and more efficient internal combustion engine systems. The United States. rotary engines (Wankel and other geometries) 3. cross-scavenged porting (inlet and exhaust ports on opposite sides of cylinder at one end). marine. Throttling of fuel and air flow together so mixture composition is essentially unchanged. underhead (or L-head) valves. uncooled (other than by natural convection and radiation) All these distinctions are important and they illustrate the breadth of engine designs available. a combination of these 10.g. Open chamber (many designs: e. 7 Truck emissionsti present a formidable challenge to automotive engineers. They can be classified by: 1. is toxic Toxic Reactant in photochemical smog Reduces visibility. hydrogen. Method of load control. such as the stratifiedcharge (which combines characteristics normally associated with either the spark-ignition or diesel) with its wider fuel tolerance. Four-stroke cycle: naturally aspirated (admitting atmospheric air). power. Valve or port design and location. Basic engine design. and degree of emission control. Fuel. tt Representativeaverage emission levels for trucks.. Alternative types of internal combustion engines. may become sufficiently attractive to reach large-scale production. Overhead (or I-head) valves. and heat losses. in-line.

diuel. From the method of ignition-spark-ignition or compression-ignitiont-follow the important characteristics of the fuel used. engine emissions. and total cylinder volumes. 1-1. The steady rotation of the crank produces a cyclical piston motion. the principles of these two cycles are described in the following section. and & indicate clearance. respective1y. W = water cooled. combustion chamber design. these terms will often be abbreviated by SI and CI.) Agricultural Earth moving Military Rail cars Locomotives Outboard Inboard motorcrafts Light naval craft Ships Ships' auxiliaries Airplanes Helicopters Lawn mowers Snow blowers Light tractors Building service Electric power Gas pipeline 1 ENGINE OPERATING 3 CYCLES OK-road vehicles ~ o s of this book is about reciprocating engines. kW the predominant type of engine used in each classification listed. details of the combustion process. method of load control. Some of the other classifications are used as subcategories within this basic classification. Table 1.. where th. Sowee: Adapted from Taylor? BC characteristics of internal combustion engines from a fundamental point of view. The volume swept out by the t These crank positions are also referred to as top-dead-center (TDC) and bottom-dead-center (BDC).3 shows the most common applications of internal combustion \ \ '. Railroad Marine Airborne vehicles Home use Stationary Stroke SI = spark-ignition. airport. scooters Small passenger cars Large passenger cars Light commercial Heavy (long-distance) commercial Light vehicles (factory. the method of ignition has been selected as the primary classifying feature. Y. . D D D D SI SI SI SI SI D D SI Cycle Cooling Clrss Road vehicles Service Motorcycles. piston moves back t and forth in a cylinder and transmits power through a connecting rod and crank mechanism to the drive shaft as shown in Fig. The piston comes to rest a t the t o p center (TC) crank position and . V. method of mixture preparation. A = air cooled. etc.. D D D D D SI SI. displaced. D =.bottom-center (BC) crank position when the cylinder volume is a minimum or maximum. I . respectively. D D SI SI. The engine operating cycle-four-stroke or two-stroke-is next in importance. and the approximateengine power range in each type of service.t The minimum cylinder volume is called the clearance volume V. and operating characteristics./ 180•‹ t In the remainder of the book.-+-' 1 . BC FIGURE 1-1 Basic geometry of the reciprocating internal combustion engine.8 INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE FUNDAMENTALS ENGINE TYPES AND THEIR OPERATION 9 TABLE 13 Classification of reciprocating engines by application Approximate engine power range. Predominant type D or S I SI SI SI SI.

A compression stroke. which draws fresh mixture into the cylinder. I'or[\ I r i the cylinder liner. and a simpler valve design. Nicolaus Otto. where the remaining burned gases exit the cylinder: first. As tile p~stonapproaches TC the inlet valve opens. A co~rpression stroke. 3 A power stroke. The two strokes are: ( a ) Intake ( b ) Compression (c) Expans~on ( d ) Exhaust FIGURE 1-2 The four-stroke operating cycle. 2.qn r. . To increase the mass inducted. Typical values of r. . control the cxh. the piston approaches BC the exhaust valve opens to initiate the exhaust process and drop the cylinder pressure to close to the exhaust pressure. A crankcase-scavengedengine is shown. The four-stroke cycle requires. combustion is initiated.. the inlet valve opens shortly before the stroke starts and closes after it ends. which starts with the piston at T C and ends with the piston at BC.c closes and the cycle starts again. k'lpurc 1-3 shows one of the simplest types of two-stroke engine designs.rst engine operating on these principles in 1876. combustion is initiated and the cylinder pressure rises more rapidly.~lrarrst stroke. Just after TC the exhaust \. or expansion stroke. iI l t ~ p h often called the Otto cycle after its inventor. An intake stroke. The majority of reciprocating engines operate on what is known as the four-stroke cycle.10 INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE FUNDAMENTALS ENGINE TYPES AND THEIR OPERATION 11 lnlet Exhaust lnlet Exhaust lnlet Exhaust lnlet Exhaust J. when both valves are closed and the mixture inside the cylinder is compressed to a small fraction of its initial volume. opened and closed by the piston motion. The ratio of maximum volume to minimum volume is the compression ratio r. and ~hen compresses the cylinder contents and draws fresh charge into the crankc. Each cylinder requires four strokes of its piston-two revolutions of the crankshaft-to complete the sequence of events which produces one power stroke. Both SI and CI engines use this cycle which comprises (see Fig.10 I. the piston approaches TC. the difference between the maximum or total volume (L and the clearance volume. As piston. Exhaust blowdown Scavenging FIGURE 1-3 The two-stroke operating cycle. which starts by closing the inlet and exhaust ports. high-pressure.'O . the more descriptive four- stroke nomenclature is preferred. which starts with the piston at TC and . are 8 to 12 for SI engines and 12 to 24 for CI engines.~\c. the two-stroke cycle was developed.11\. hecause the cylinder pressure may be substantially higher than the exhaust pressure: then as they are swept out by the piston as it moves toward TC. About five times as much work is done on the piston during the power stroke as the piston had to do during compression. two crankshaft revolut~ons each power stroke. Toward the end of the compression stroke. ends at BC as the high-temperature.iust and inlet flows while the piston is close to BC. who built 111c I. for each engine cylinder. gases push the piston down and force the crank to rotate. is called the displaced or swept volume V. The IN'!-\trokc cycle is applicable to both SI and CI engines. To obtain a higher power output from a given for criptnc 47e. 1-2) : 1.

The crank has eccentric portions (crank throws). The block has traditionally been made of gray cast iron because of its good wear resistance and low cost. 1. and some of the fresh mixture flows directly out of the cylinder during the scavenging process. or later on in the machining and assembly process. nodular cast iron crankshafts are also accepted normal practice in automotive engines. is fastened to the piston by means of a steel piston pin through the rod upper end.6). or aluminum as the bearing materials. Sprocket - FIGURE 1-4 Cutaway drawing of Chrysler 2. The crankshaft is supported in main bearings. However. Heavy-duty and truck engines often use removable cylinder sIeeves pressed into the block that can be replaced when worn.5 nie' mm. The piston both seals the cylinder and transmits the combustion-generated gas pressure to the crank pin via the connecting rod. The crankcase is sealed at the bottom with a pressed-steel or cast aluminum oil pan which acts as an oil reservoir for the lubricating system. The maximum number of main bearings is one more than the number of cylinders. .4 ENGINE COMPONENTS Labeled cutaway drawings of a four-stroke SI engine and a two-stroke CI engine are shown in Figs. 1-3). The crankcase is often integral with the cylinder block. It is primarily for this reason that two-stroke SI engines are at a disadvantage because the lost fresh charge contains fuel and air.compression ratio 8. Most of the burnt gases exit the cylinder in an exhaust blowdown process. it is diffcult to fill completely the displaced volume with fresh charge. The spark-ignition engine is a fourcylinder in-line automobile engine. the connecting rod big-end bearings attach to the crank pin on each throw. similar to that in the four-stroke cycle until the piston approaches BC.12 INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE FUNDAMENTALS Air Cleaner 2. The connecting rod. 1-4 and 1-5.? The example shown is a cross-scavenged design. The crankshaft has traditionally been a steel forging. A power or expansion stroke. babbit. Aluminum is being used increasingly in smaller SI engine blocks to reduce engine weight. Passages for the cooling water are cast into the block. Each engine cycle with one power stroke is completed in one crankshaft revolution. when first the exhaust ports and then the intake ports are uncovered (Fig. respectively. the fresh charge which has been compressed in the crankcase flows into the cylinder. ' Bore 87. Iron cylinder liners may be inserted at the casting stage. stroke 92 mm. These are called wet liners or dry liners depending on whether the sleeve is in direct contact with the cooling water. 6. Both main and connecting rod bearings use steelbacked precision inserts with bronze.9. The diesel is a large V eight-cylinder design with a uniflow scavenging process. other approaches use loop-scavenging or unflow systems (see Sec.2-liter displacement four-cylinder spark-ignition e g n . usually a steel or alloy forging (though sometimes ahuninum in small engines). The engine cylinders are contained in the engine block. The piston pin is usually hollow to reduce its weight. The function of the major components of these engines and their construction materials will now be reviewed. maximum power 65 kW at MOO revfmin. The piston and the ports are generally shaped to deflect the incoming charge from flowing directly into the exhaust ports and to achieve effective scavenging of the residual gases. there may be less. When the inlet ports are uncovered. Pistons are made of aluminum in small engines or cast iron in larger slower-speed engines.

The upper rings are compression rings which are forced outward against the cylinder wall and downward onto the groove face. The crankcase must be ventilated to remove gases which blow by the piston rings. The valves shown in Fig. 1-4. 1. camshafts turn at one-half the crankshaft speed. In four-stroke cycle engines. and the scavenging air flows upward along the cylinder axis. rated speed 750400 revfmin. The cam surfaces are hardened to obtain adequate life. The cylinder head (or heads in V engines) seals off the cylinders and is made of cast iron or aluminum. This geometry leads to a compact combustion chamber with minimum heat losses and flame travel time. attached to the valve stem with a spring washer and split keeper. Depending on valve and camshaft location. The cylinder head contains the spark plug (for an SI engine) or fuel injector (for a CI engine).) The oscillating motion of the connecting rod exerts an oscillating force on the cylinder walls via the piston skirt (the region below the piston rings). Mechanical or hydraulic lifters or tappets slide in the block and ride on the cam. stroke 254 mm. the temperature of the air entering . Diesel fuel-injection systems are discussed in more detail in Sec. ignition systems-are described more fully in the remaining sections in this chapter. and. e. in overhead valve engines. The valve seats may be cut in the head or block metal (if cast iron) or hard steel inserts may be pressed into the head or block. using a carburetor (Fig. It must be strong and rigid to distribute the gas forces acting on the head as uniformly as possible through the engine block. The piston skirt is usually shaped to provide appropriate thrust surfaces. Fresh air is compressed and fed to the air box by a Roots blower. parts of the valve mechanism. a push rod and rocker arm are used. Other engine components specific to spark-ignition engines-arburetor. 1. The burned gases exhaust through four valves in the cylinder head. The air inlet ports a t the bottom of each cylinder liner are uncovered by the descending piston. holds the valve closed. A camshaft made of cast iron or forged steel with one cam per valve is used to open and close the valves. The two-stroke cycle CI engine shown in Fig. additional members are required to transmit the tappet motion to the valve stem. avoid local hot spots. or may be a separate unit pressed into the head (or block).57 liters. (Courtesy Electro-Motive Dioision. Camshafts are gear. the valve type normally used in four-strokeengines. or chain driven from the crankshaft. and improves the breathing capacity. which can be an integral part of the cylinder head (or engine block for L-head engines). 1-5 is of the uniflow scavenged design. A recent trend in automotive engines is to mount the camshaft over the head with the cams acting either directly or through a pivoted follower on the valve.. 1-6) or fuel-injection system (Fig. belt.7. to prevent pressure buildup. These valves are controlled through cam-driven rocker arms. 1-7). displaced volume per cylinder 10. A valve rotator turns the valves a few degrees on opening to wipe the valve seat. Bore 230. The lower rings scrape the surplus oil from the cylinder wall and return it to the crankcase. and prevent deposits building up in the valve guide.FIGURE 1-5 Cross-section drawing of an Electro-Motive two-stroke cycle diesel engine. In automobile applications. The piston is fitted with rings which ride in grooves cut in the piston head to seal against gas leakage and control oil flow. A valve spring. The valve stem moves in a valve guide. Previous geometries such as the L head where valves are to one side of the cylinder are now only used in small engines. 1-4 are poppet valves. This engine uses a uniflow scavenging process with inlet ports in the cylinder liner and four exhaust valves in the cylinder head. An intake manifold (aluminum or cast iron) and an exhaust manifold (generally of cast iron) complete the SI engine assembly. fuel injectors. Valves are made from forged alloy steel.g. General Motors Corporation. the cooling of the exhaust valve which operates at about 700•‹Cmay be enhanced by using a hollow stem filled with sodium which through evaporation and condensation carries heat from the hot valve head to the cooler stem. The fuel injectors are mounted in the cylinder' head and are driven by the camshaft through rocker arms. in in-head valve engines with the camshaft at the side.2 mm.5 SPARK-IGNITION ENGINE OPERATION In SI engines the air and fuel are usually mixed together in the intake system prior to entry to the engine cylinder. Most modern sparkignition engines have overhead valve locations (sometimes called valve-in-head or l-head configurations) as shown in Fig.

the inducted fuel and air mix in the cylinder with the residual burned gases remaining from the previous cycle. This approach permits electronic control of the fuel flow at reduced cost. and thus the engine output. Figure 1-7 shows an example of an electronically controlled system.16 INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE FUNDAMENTALS ENGINE TYPES AND THEIR OPERATION 17 idle air bleed float chamber venttlatton full load enr~chmen auxhary alr bleec fuel mlet aux~haryfuel let float needle valve tdle jet float matn let part load control adle mtxture control screw boost venturt alr correctton let emulston tube ' throt'le valve aux~ltarymtxture control Screw . The air flow through the venturi (a converging-diverging nozzle) sets up a pressure difference between the venturi inlet and throat which is used to meter an appropriate amount of fuel from the float chamber. driveless. connected to the spark plug. Crank angle is a useful independent variable because engine processes occupy almost constant crank angle intervals over a wide range of engine speeds. electronically controlled. Just downstream of the venturi is a throttle valve or plate which controls the combined air and fuel flow. the air flow rate is measured directly. Between 10 and 40 crank angle degrees before TC an electrical discharge across the spark plug starts the combustion process. 1-8. the switching is now done electronically. into the air flow at the venturi throat. a rotating switch driven off the camshaft. through a series of orifices. The ratio of mass flow of air to mass flow of fuel must be held approximately constant at about 15 to ensure reliable combustion.) meters an appropriate fuel flow for the engine air flow in the following manner. Several variables are plotted against crank angle through the entire four-stroke cycle. A turbulent flame develops from the spark discharge. The FIGURE 1-7 Schematic drawing of LJetronic port electronic fuel-injection system. With port injection. closes substantially after BC. The intake flow is throttled to below atmospheric pressure by reducing the flow area when the power required (at any engine speed) is below the maximum which is obtained when the throttle is wide open. interrupts the current from the battery through the primary circuit of the ignition coil. The figure shows the valve timing and volume relationship for a typical automotive spark-ignition engine.) the intake system is controlled by mixing ambient air with air heated by contact with the exhaust manifold. cylinder head. In this system. During intake. cam-operated breaker points have been used. and cylinder walls occurs but the effect on unburned gas properties is modest. driveless. fuel is injected through individual injectors from a low-pressure fuel supply system into each intake port. The intake manifold is usually heated to promote faster evaporation of the liquid fuel and obtain more uniform fuel distribution between cylinders. The secondary winding of the ignition coil. Fuel injection into the intake manifold or inlet port is an increasingly common alternative to a carburetor.12 An alternative approach is to use a single fuel injector located above the throttle plate in the position normally occupied by the carburetor. To maintain high mixture flows at high engine speeds (and hence high power outputs) the inlet valve. continuous injection. injection. produces a high voltage across the plug electrodes as the magnetic field collapses. The sequence of events which take place inside the engine cylinder is illustrated in Fig. propagates . After the intake valve closes." (Courtesy Robert Bosch GmbH and SAE. mechanical. in most automotive engines. Some heat transfer to the piston. A distributor. the injection valves are actuated twice per cam shaft revolution by injection pulses whose duration is determined by the electronic control unit to provide the desired amount of fuel per cylinder per cycle.12(Courtesy Robert Bosch GmbH and SAE. There are several different types of systems: mechanical injection using an injection pump driven by the engine. FIGURE 1-6 Cross section of single-barrel downdraft carburetor. the cylinder contents are compressed to above atmospheric pressure and temperature as the cylinder volume is reduced. Traditionally. which opens before TC.

firing cycle. in portable power generation. brake-torque (MBT) timing. the intake and compression processes of a firing engine and a motored engine are not exactly the same due to the presence of burned gases from the previous cycle under firing conditions. and mass fraction burned xb are plotted against crank angle. Hence. 1. the definition used here is more precise. lawn mowers.300. These are often single-cylinder engines. the exhaust valve starts to open. As fuel-air mixture bums in the flame. Small SI engines are used in many applications: in the home (e.fuel consumption. the development of each combustion process differs somewhat.6 EXAMPLES OF SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES across the mixture of air. the torque pulses are widely spaced. A single-cylinder engine gives only one power stroke per revolution (two-stroke cycle) or two revolutions (four-stroke cycle).? this optimum timing is an empirical compromise between starting combustion too early in the compression stroke (when the work transfer is to the cylinder gases) and completing combustion too late in the stroke (and so lowering peak expansion stroke pressures). the intake opens just before TC. The valves are opened and closed slowly to avoid noise and excessive cam wear. dashed line. and engine vibration and smoothness are significant problems.. Combustion Exhaust Compression Expansion . and low cost in relation to the power generated are the most important characteristics.? Note that due to differences in the flow pattern and mixture composition between cylinders. and residual gas in the cylinder. is not exactly the same. The exhaust valve opens before the end of the expansion stroke to ensure that the blowdown process does not last too far into the exhaust stroke. As a result. and cycle-by-cycle. The cylinder pressure is greater than the exhaust manifold pressure and a blowdown process occurs. light weight. The piston then displaces the burned gases from the cylinder into the manifold during the exhaust stroke. the shape of the pressure versus crank angle curve in each cylinder. Called maximum This section presents examples of production spark-ignition engines to illustrate the different types of engines in common use. The duration of this burning process varies with . engine vibration. Cylinder pressure p (solid Line. small bulk. 1-8.g. and in motorcycles. and improved engine balance and smoothness point toward increasing the number of t in practice. motored cycle). To ensure the valves are fully open when piston velocities are at their highest. . the advantages of smaller cylinders in regard to size. fuel. the cylinder pressure in Fig. The exhaust valve remains open until just after TC. for a given mass of fuel and air inside the cylinder. gives maximum torque.2000 kPa 1000 Ivo EVC O I I TC IVC BC TC NO fi Unburned Crank position and angle BC TC 0 FIGURE 1-8 Saquena of events in four-stroke spark-ignition engine operating cycle. weight. cylinder volume V/V. and engine durability are less important. t MBT timing has traditionally been defined as the minimum spark advance for best torque. The duration of this process depends on the pressure level in the cylinder. More advanced (earlier) timing or retarded (later) timing than this optimum gives lower output. As rated power increases.. The burned gases flow through the valve into the exhaust port and manifold until the cylinder pressure and exhaust pressure equilibrate. as outboard motorboat engines. The actual timing is a compromise which balances reduced work transfer to the piston before BC against reduced work transfer to the cylinder contents after BC. as shown in Fig. Multicylinder engines are invariably used in automotive practice. There is an optimum spark timing which. and extinguishes at the combustion chamber wall. and within each cylinder cycle-by-cycle. chain saws). In the above applications.engine design and operation. then backflow of burned gases into the intake manifold occurs when the intake valve is first opened.. About two-thirds of the way through the expansion stroke. Since the torque first increases and then decreases as spark timing is advanced. If the intake flow is throttled to below exhaust manifold pressure. the valve open periods often overlap. 1-8 (solid line) rises above the level due to compression alone (dashed line). but is typically 40 to 60 crank angle degrees. This latter curve-called the motored cylinder pressure-is the pressure trace obtained from a motored or nonfiring engine.

The work transfer to the piston per cycle. a rocking moment is imposed on the crankshaft due to the secondary inertia forces. which controls the power the engine can deliver. that the motion of the piston is more rapid during the upper half of its stroke than during the lower half (a consequence of the connecting rod and crank mechanism evident from Fig.2). Six-cylinder engines provide smoother operation with three torque pulses per revolution. A force must be applied to the piston to accelerate it during the first half of its travel from bottom-center or top-center.5-liter displacement range. however. Certain combinations of cylinder number and arrangement will balance out these secondary inertia force effects. in each cylinder. however. however. V engines and opposed-piston engines are occasionally used with this number of cylinders. which results in the engine being less well balanced than the in-line version.5. It is compact-an important consideration for small passenger cars. The V arrangement. 1-1. The increased frequency of power strokes with a multicylinder engine produces much smoother torque characteristics. Thus. 1-4. provides a compact block and is used extensively for larger displacement engines. the six cylinders being arranged in two banks of three with a 60' angle between their axis. The V-6 arrangement is much more compact. 2. see also Sec. spark-ignition engines. Four-cylinder in-line engines are the most common arrangements for automobile engines up to about 2. Note. An upper limit on cylinder size is dictated by dynamic considerations: the inertial forces that are created by accelerating and decelerating the reciprocating masses of the piston and connecting rod would quickly limit the maximum speed of the engine.20 INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE FUNDAMENTALS cylinders per engine. the displaced volume is spread out amongst several smaller cylinders. Turbochargers are used to increase the maximum power that can be obtained from a given displacement engine.5-liter displacement. low-vibration. smooth. giving rise to crankshaft torsional vibration and making even distribution of air and fuel to each cylinder more ditlicult. Increasing the air density prior to entry into the engine thus increases the maximum power that an engine of given dis- . depends on the amount of fuel burned per cylinder per cycle. This depends on the amount of fresh air that is inducted each cycle. With the V engine. and the example shown provides primary balance of the reciprocating components. It provides two torque pulses per revolution of the crankshaft and primary inertia forces (though not secondary forces) are balanced. larger-displacement. Multicylinder engines can also achieve a much better state of balance than single-cylinder engines. Figure 1-9 shows a V-6 engine. An example of this in-line arrangement was shown in Fig. The in-line arrangement results in a long engine. The resulting inequality in piston acceleration and deceleration produces corresponding differences in inertia forces generated. The piston then exerts a force as it decelerates during the second part of the stroke. It is desirable to cancel these inertia forces through the choice of number and arrangement of cylinders to achieve a primary balance. Six cylinders are usually used in the 2. The V-8 and V-12 arrangements are also commonly used to provide compact. with two banks of cylinders set at 90" or a more acute angle to each other.to 4.

and inlet valve (6) as shmn. Figure 1-11 shows a cutaway drawing of a small automotive turbocharger. The air flow passes through the compressor (2).. Figure 1-12 shows a two-stroke cycle spark-ignition engine. offset its higher heat transfer. oil consumption is higher in two-stroke cycle engines due to the need to add oil to the fuel to lubricate the piston ring and piston surfaces.22 INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE FUNDAMENTALS Lubricatmg passage Compressed alr Outlet ENGINE TYPES AND THEIR OPERATION 23 placement can deliver. The arrangements of the compressor and turbine 1 r ~ o c plate k Compressor housmg Compressor wheel bypass passage f?Exhaust gas Inlet stde FIGURE 1-11 Cutaway view of small automotive engine turbocharger. The Wankel rotary engine is an alternative to the reciprocating engine geometry of the engines illustrated above. Engine inlet pressures (or boost) of up to about 100 kPa above atmospheric pressure are typical. Figure 1-10 shows an example of a turbocharged fourcylinder spark-ignition engine. manifold (5). and chain saws. Examples of such applications are outboard motorboat engines. Also. and . The prime advantage of the twostroke cycle spark-ignition engine relative to the four-stroke cycle engine is its higher power per unit displaced volume due to twice the number of power strokes per crank revolution. uses the energy available in the engine exhaust stream to achieve compression of the intake flow. Ltd. connecting rod. While this turbocharged engine configuration has the carburetor downstream of the compressor. a compressor-turbine combination. This is offset by the lower fresh charge density achieved by the two-stroke cycle gas-exchange process and the loss of fresh mixture which goes straight through the engine during scavenging. and the crank. (Courtesy Regie Nationole des Usines. The wastegate linkage (1 1) is controlled by a boost pressure regulator. carburetor (4). It has three moving parts per cylinder: the piston. intercooler (3). All such engines are of the carburetor crankcase-compression type which is one of the simplest prime movers available. (Courtesy Nissan Motor Co. A wastegate (valve) just upstream of the turbine bypasses some of the exhaust gas flow when necessary to prevent the boost pressure becoming too high.) FIGURE 1-10 Turbocharged four-cylinderautomotive spark-ignition engine. motorcycles. and inherent balance and smoothness. The turbocharger.) rotors connected via the central shaft and of the turbine and compressor flow passages are evident. The two-stroke cycle spark-ignition engine is used for small-engine applications where low cost and weighttpower ratio are important and when the use factor is low. The exhaust flow through the valve (7) and manifold (8) drives the turbine (9) which powers the compressor. some turbocharged spark-ignition engines have the carburetor upstream of the compressor so that it operates at or below atmospheric pressure. It is used when its compactness and higher engine speed (which result in high powerlweight and power/volume ratios).

marine. The combustion chamber lies between the center housing and rotor surface and is sealed by seals at the apex of the rotor and around the perimeters of the rotor sides. during which the eccentric shaft rotates through three revolutions. the rotor apex. thus for each eccentric (output) shaft revolution there is one power pulse. The figure shows the induction. the air flow at a given engine speed is essentially unchanged. air alone is inducted into the cylinder. The fuel (in most applications a light fuel oil. Figure 1-14 shows a cutaway drawing of a two-rotor automobile Wankel engine. Note the combustion chamber cut out in each rotor face. truck. Thus the rotor rotates and orbits around the shaft axis. The two rotors are out of phase to provide a greater number of torque pulses per shaft revolution. and exhaust processes of the four-stroke cycle for the chamber defined by rotor surface AB. Load control is achieved by varying the amount of fuel injected each cycle. and exhaust processes of the four-stroke cycle for the chamber defined by rotor surface AB." Three power pulses occur. compression. maximum power 41 kW at 5500 rev/min. There are two rotating parts: the triangular-shaped rotor and the output shaft with its integral eccentric. 1971. locomotive.7 COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINE OPERATION In compression-ignition engines. The remaining two chambers defined by the other rotor surfaces undergo exactly the same sequence. therefore. Rotary Engines. Figure 1-13 also shows how the Wankel rotary geometry operates with the fourstroke cycle. 1.24 INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE FUNDAMENTALS Fied timing gear . (From Mobil Technical Bulletin. power. Figure 1-13 shows the major mechanical parts of a simple single-rotor Wankel engine and illustrates its geometry.Center housing - Intake pon Eccentric shaft 1 Coolant passages Side housing Induction Compression Ignition Power Exhaust FIGURE 1-12 Cutaway drawing of two-cylinder two-stroke cycle loop-scavenged marine spark-ignition engine. Two spark plugs per firing chamber are often used to obtain a faster combustion process. power. and side seals. though heated residual fuel is used in marine and power-generation applications) is injected directly into the engine cylinder just before the combustion process is required to start. 0 Mobil Oil Corporation. As the rotor makes one complete rotation. Displaced volume 737 cm3. compression. (b) induction. The rotor revolves directly on the eccentric. Naturally aspirated engines where atmospheric air is inducted. The rotor has an internal timing gear which meshes with the fixed timing gear on one side housing to maintain the correct phase relationship between the rotor and eccentric shaft rotations. turbocharged engines where the inlet air is compressed by an exhaustdriven . (Courtesy Outboard Marine Corpo- FIGURE 1-13 (a) Major components of the Wankel rotary engine. each chamber produces one power "stroke.) its sealing and leakage problems. Breathing is through ports in the center housing (and sometimes the side housings). power generation. There are a great variety of CI engine designs in use in a wide range of applications-automobile. for each rotor revolution.

fuel-injection. the cylinder pressure falls rapidly in a blowdown process (Fig.turbine-compreSSOrcombination. accompanied by further combustion (see Fig. As the expansion process proceeds. and expansion processes are similar to the equivalent four-stroke cycle processes. in large part because. The sequence of events in a loop-scavenged two-stroke engine is illustrated in Fig. and is in the range 12 to 24. mixing between fuel. thereby allowing an increase in fuel flow. After the exhaust ports open. fuel injection. combustion. the mass of fuel injected is about 5 percent of the mass of air in the cylinder. only air is lost in [he cylinder scavenging process. At about 20" before TC. In loopscavenged engines both exhaust and inlet ports are at the same end of the cylinder and are uncovered as the piston approaches BC (see Fig. In the two-stroke CI engine cycle. spontaneous ignition (autoignition) of parts of the nonuniform fuelair mixture initiates the combustion process. displaced by this fresh air. The exhaust process is similar to that of the fourstroke SI engine. 1-15. and burning gases continues. and once the cylinder pressure p falls below the inlet pressure p i . air flows into the cylinder. At full load. Several different types of injection pumps and . fuel-air mixing. The valve timings used are similar to those of SI engines. 1-156rThe liquid fuel jet atomizes into drops and entrains air. The operation of a typical four-stroke naturally aspirated CI engine is illustrated in Fig. to reduce engine size and weight for a given power output. The liquid fuel evaporates. and the cylinder pressure (solid line in Fig. continue to flow out of the exhaust port (along with some of the fresh air). Except in smaller engine sizes. 1-166). The burned gases. usually in larger engines. Increasing levels of black smoke in the exhaust limit the amount of fuel that can be burned efficiently. 1-16. The compression ratio of diesels is much higher than typical SI engine values. Air at close-to-atmospheric pressure is inducted during the intake stroke and then compressed to a pressure of about 4 MPa (600 lb/in2) and temperature of about 800 K ( 1 W F ) during the stroke. fuel injection into the engine cylinder commences. At the end of the exhaust stroke. The inlet ports then open. The diesel fuel-injection system consists of an injection pump. air. 1-15c) rises above the nonfiring engine level. Turbocharging and supercharging increase engine output by increasing the air mass flow per unit displaced volume. compression. fuel vapor then mixes with air to within combustible proportions:The air temperature and pressure are above the fuel's ignition point. combustion and expansion processes Proceed as in the four-stroke CI engine cycle. and fuel injector nozzles. the two-stroke cycle is competitive with the four-stroke cycle. a typical rate of injection profile is shown in Fig. Therefore after a short delay period. These methods are used. delivery pipes. depending on the type of diesel engine and whether the engine is naturally aspirated or turbocharged. 1-16a). it is the intake and exhaust pressure which are different. the cycle starts again. and supercharged engines where the air is compressed by a mechanically driven pump or blower are common. The flame spreads rapidly through that portion of the injected fuel which has already mixed with sufficient air to burn. Once the ports close as the piston starts the compression stroke. with the diesel cycle. 1-154. compression.

acting on part of the valve surface. Injection starts shortly after the line pressure begins to rise. The injection nozzle (Fig. and rate of fuel injection thIh/. Thus. are plotted against crank angle. 1-18) has one or more holes through which the fuel sprays into the cylinder.. gas exchange. cylinder pressure P. In one common fuel pump (an in-line pump design shown in Fig... nozzles are used.180•‹ BC TC -90•‹ 0" Crank angle 90•‹ BC 10 8' FIGURE 1-15 Sequence of events during compression. FIGURE 1-16 Sequence of events during expansion. firing cycle. A spring-loaded valve closes these holes until the pressure in the injection line. and expansion processes of a naturally aspirated compression-ignition engine operating cycle.IPC EPC \ fl Crank a g e nl . dashed line. because the high . rate of fuel cylinder pressure p (solid tine. the phase of the pump camshaft relative to the engine crankshaft controls the start of injection. and compression processes in a loopscavenged two-stroke cycle compression-ignition engine. the inlet port is closed and the fuel trapped above the plunger is forced through a check valve into the injection line. Cylinder volume/clearancc volume V/Y. Early in the stroke of the plunger. combustion. and intake port open area A. Injection is stopped when the inlet port of the Pump is uncovered by a helical groove in the pump plunger. 1-17) a set of cam-driven plungers (one for each cylinder) operate in closely fitting barrels. Cylinder volume/clearance volume V/%. burning (or fuel chemical energy release rate) mIb are plotted against crank angle. motored cycle). overcomes tiie spring force and opens the valve. exhaust port open area A.

High pressure is generated by the plunger which is made to describe a combined rotary and stroke movement by the rotating eccentric disc or cam plate. In the larger diesels. and an injection timer.ENGINE TYPES AND THEIR OPERATION 31 pressure chamber P. 1. In-line pumps are used in the mid-engine-size range. Distributor-type pumps have only one pump plunger and barrel.) pressure above the plunger is then released (Fig. a high-pressure injection pump (on right).8 EXAMPLES OF DIESEL ENGINES A large number of diesel engine configurations and designs are in common use. nozzle holder assembly and fueldelivery contr01. which meters and distributes the fuel to all the injection nozzles. The amount of fuel injected (which controls the load) is determined by the injection pump cam design and the position of the helical groove. Thus for a given cam design. 1-18). They are normally used on smaller diesel engines. individual singlebarrel injection pumps.) E. rotating the plunger and its helical groove varies the load. close mounted to each cylinder with an external drive as shown in Fig. The very large marine and stationary power-generating diesels are two-stroke . an overspeed governor. Distributor pumps can operate at higher speed and take up less space than in-line pumps. A schematic of a distributor-type pump is shown in Fig. The unit contains a low-pressure fuel pump (on left).'~(Courtesy Robert Bosch GmbH. FIGURE 1-18 Details of fuel-injection nozzles. are normally used. 1-19. the rotary motion distributes the fuel to the individual injection nozzles.rtle nozzle closed Pmtle nozzle open chamber Multthotenozzla open Nozzle-holder assembly with nozzle to nozzle Helm Vertlcal proove Marmum dellvery Port opening BDC Partial dellvery Port openmg Zero delwery BDC Governor T m t n g deuce F-el delivery control (lower helix) FIGURE 1-17 Diesel fuel system with in-line fuel-injection pump (type P ) " (Courtesy Robert Bosch GmbH. 1-5.

The engine has pressed-in cylinder liners to achieve better cylinder wear characteristics. Figure 1-20 shows a diesel engine typical of the medium-duty truck application. During the latter stages of the compression process.) . bore 125 mm. All large engines are turbocharged. to achieve adequate fuel-air mixing and fuel burning rates. it is often necessary to use a swirling air flow rotating about the cylinder axis. The drawing indicates that diesel engines are generally substantially heavier than spark-ignition engines because stress levels are higher due to the significantly higher pressure levels of the diesel cycle. In particular. shown left-of-center in the drawing.3.and medium-size engines use the four-stroke cycle.32 INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE FUNDAMENTALS ENGINE TYPES AND THEIR OPERATION 33 Overflow valve I Control lever Govern& ~ l i d i n g s l r e v t~ ~ S z e v e r l //I s u p p l y &mpl) - hub Drive Governor Cam \ hiaximumeffectke stroke. air is forced through this nozzle from the Presupply pump through 90' ') S h o w n turned t h r o u g h 90- FIGURE 1-19 Diesel fuel system with distributor-type fuel-injection pump with mechanical govern~r. The fuel jets move out radially from the center of the piston bowl into the (swirling) air flow. (Courtesy Cwnmins Engine Company.Direct-injection four-stroke cycle six-cylinder turbocharged Cummins diesel engine. typically with three to five holes.) cycle engines. This type of diesel is called a direct-injection diesel. Small. turbocharging is used extensively. Because air capacity is an important constraint on the amount of fuel that can be burned in the diesel engine. start drive plate T ~ m i n g device') 1 1) Shown additionally turned - of diesel engine. and therefore on the engine's power. which is created by suitable design of the inlet port and valve.3. The in-line fuel-injection pump is normally used with this type of diesel engine. though they can be turbocharged and many are. cylinder head and piston shapes. The design shown is a six-cylinder in-line engine. The majority of smaller diesels are not turbocharged. different combustion chamber geometries and fuel-injection characteristics are required to deal effectively with a major diesel engine design problemachieving suffciently rapid fuel-air mixing rates to complete the fuel-burning process in the time available. Figure 1-21 shows a four-cylinder in-line overhead-valve-cam design automobile diesel engine. With this FIGURE 1-20 . The fuel injector. The fuel is injected into a combustion chamber directly above the piston crown. maximum power 168 to 246 kW at rated speed of 2100 rev/min. which puts most of the clearance volume into a compact shape. The details of the engine design also vary significantly over the diesel size range. Inc.'~ (Courtesy Robert Boxh GmbH. A wide variety of inlet port geometries. This is accomplished by using an indirect-injection type of diesel. and fuel-injection patterns are used to accomplish this over the diesel size range. stroke 136 mm. The engine shown has a displacement of 10 liters. and is usually turbocharged. The combustion chamber shown is a " bowl-in-pistonn design. The smallest diesels such as this operate at higher engine speed than larger engines. Fuel is injected into an auxiliary combustion chamber which is separated from the main combustion chamber above the piston by a flow restriction or nozzle. Displaced volume 10 liters. a compression ratio of 16. hence the time available for burning the fuel is less and the fuel-injection and combustion system must achieve faster fuel-air mixing rates. compression ratio 16. has a multihole nozzle.

Indirect-injection diesel engines require higher compression ratios than directinjection engines to start adequately when cold.14 Displaced volume 1. and very high mixing rates are achieved. and more power delivered. some production diesels are air cooled. stroke 165. Figure 1-23 shows a V-8 air-cooled direct-injection naturally aspirated FIGURE 1-21 Four-cylinder naturally aspirated indirect-injection automobile Volkswagen diesel engine. bore 76. driven off the camshaft at half the crankshaft speed by a toothed belt.) . is shown on the right of the figure. All the larger diesels are turbocharged. Figure 1-22 shows how a turbocharger connects to a direct-injection diesel. rated power 200-300 kW and rated speed of 1600-2100 revlmin depending on application. rapid mixing then occurs in the main chamber as the burning jet mixes with the remaining air and combustion is completed. smaller diesels can be and often are. this plug is electrically heated prior to and during cold engine start-up to raise the temperature of the air charge and the fuel sufficiently to achieve autoignition. and air into the main chamber. Bore 137. The compression ratio of this engine is 23.47 liters.34 INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE F W A M E N T A L S ENGINE N P E S AND THEIR OPERATION 35 Diesel engines are turbocharged to achieve higher powerlweight ratios. By increasing the density of the inlet air.2 mm.5 mm. stroke 80 mm. FIGURE 1-22 Turbocharged aftercooled direct-injection four-stroke cycle Caterpillar six-cylinder in-line heavy-duty truck diesel engine. Hence more fuel can be injected and burned. fuel. Since this outflow is also extremely vigorous. (Courtesy Caterpillar Tractor Company. All the above diesels are water cooled. maximum power 37 kW at 5000 rev/min. which is normally used in this engine size range. and the resulting pressure rise in the prechamber forces burning gases. A distributor-type fuel pump. cylinder into the prechamber at high velocity. Combustion starts in the prechamber. Fuel is injected into this highly turbulent and often rapidly swirling flow in this auxiliary or prechamber.1 mm. a given displaced volume can induct more air. It supplies high-pressure fuel pulses to the pintle-type injector nozzles in turn. A glow plug is also shown in the auxiliary chamber. while avoiding excessive black smoke in the exhaust.

The gas exchange between cycles is controlled by first opening the exhaust valves. compression ratio 17. the motion induced by the centrally injected fuel jets is sufficient to mix the fuel with air and bum it in the time available. The goals have been to operate such an engine at close to the optimum compression ratio for efficiency (in the 12 to 15 range) by: (1) injecting the fuel directly into the combustion chamber during the compression process (and thereby avoid the knock or spontaneous ignition problem that limits conventional spark-ignition engines with their premixed charge).4 liter. which achieves efficient combustion even with the low-quality heavy fuels used with these types of engines.9 MW per cylinder at 78 revlmin. Expanding exhaust gases leave the cylinder via the exhaust valves and manifold and pass through the turbocharger turbine. The blower is driven off the injection pump shaft. bore 128 mm. These large engines are used for marine propulsion and electrical power generation and operate on the two-stroke cycle in contrast to the small. maximum rated power 188 kW at rated speed of 2300 rev/min.9 m and stroke of 2-3 m.) diesel. (Courtesy Kliieker-Humboldt-Deutz AG. The pistons are water cooled in these very large engines. Diesels are also made in very large engine sizes. These engines are normally of the crosshead type to reduce side forces on the cylinder. Bore 840 mm. air is supplied from the turbocharger and cooler. Because these large engines operate at low speed. which operates at speeds of about 100 revlmin. Figure 1-24 shows such a two-stroke cycle marine engine. The nozzle shown injects four fuel sprays into a reentrant bowl-in-piston combustion chamber. stroke 2900 mm. and then the piston uncovering inlet ports in the cylinder liner. At part load electrically driven blowers cut in to compress the scavenge air. shown on the right of the cutaway drawing. (2) igniting the fuel as it mixes with air with a spark plug to provide direct control of the ignition process . Displacement 13. 1-22. Compressed air enters via the inlet ports and induces forced scavenging. The in-line injection pump is placed between the two banks of cylinders. which in turn is driven off the camshaft.") FIGURE 1-24 Large Sulzer two-stroke turbocharged marine diesel engine. The primary advantage compared to the water-cooled engines is lower engine weight. 4 to 12 cylinders. The injection nozzles are located at an angle to the cylinder axis.9 STRATIFIED-CHARGE ENGINES Since the 1920s. 1.36 INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE FUNDAMENTALS ENGINE TYPES AND THEIR OPERATION 37 FIGURE 1-23 V-8 air-cooled direct-injection naturally aspirated diesel engine. available with from 4 to 12 cylinders. The combustion chamber and fuel-injection characteristics are similar to those of the engine in Fig. The splash oil piston cooling used in medium.and medium-size diesels illustrated above. rated power 1.6-0. An air blower.and small-size diesels is not adequate. stroke 130 mm. (CourtesySulzer Brothers Ltd. with a maximum bore of 0. The fins on the cylinder block and head are necessary to increase the external heat-transfer surface area to achieve the required heat rejection. therefore. A simple open combustion chamber shape can be used. provides forced air convection over the block. attempts have been made to develop a hybrid internal combustion engine that combines the best features of the spark-ignition engine and the diesel.

In this particular design. Many different types of stratified-charge engine have been proposed. Because such engines avoid the spark-ignition engine requirement for fuels with a high antiknock quality and the diesel requirement for fuels with high ignition quality. An alternative stratified-charge engine concept. and then ignited by the discharge at the spark plug which enters the chamber vertically on the right. This particular engine is air cooled. so the cylinder block and head are finned to increase surface area. The flame spreads downstream.65 liters.A.17 Late injection FIGURE 1-25 Two multifuel stratified-charge engines which have been used in commercial practice: the Texaco Controlled Combustion System (TCCS)16and the M. A few have even been used in practice in automotive applications. the fuel injector comes diagonally through the cylinder head from the upper left and injects the fuel onto the hot wall of the deep spherical piston bowl. and some have been partially or fully developed. displacement 2.N. Such engines are often called stratified-chargeengines from the need to produce in the mixing process between the fuel jet and the air in the cylinder a "stratified" fuel-air mixture. Mixing continues. Its operating principles are illustrated in Fig. high-speed multifuel four-cylinder direct-injection stratified-charge engine. The fuel is carried around the wall of the bowl by the swirling flow. tangentially into the bowl.N. The operating principles of those that are truly fuel-tolerant or multifuel engines are illustrated in Fig. 1-26. Fuel is injected into the cylinder.N. first Proposed by Ricardo in the 1920s and extensively developed in the Soviet Union and Japan. This concept is usually called a direct-injection stratified-charge engine. and the final stages of combustion are completed during expansion. uses a small prechamber fed during intake with an auxiliary fuel system to obtain an easily ignitable mixture around the spark plug.A. is often called a jet-ignition or torch-ignition stratified-charge engine. A long-duration spark discharge ignites the developing fuel-air jet as it passes the spark plug. 1-27 which shows a three-valve . compression ratio 16. The combustion chamber is usually a bowl-in-piston design. Texaco M. evaporated off the wall.5. FIGURE 1-26 Sectional drawing of M. rated power 52 kW at 3800 rev/min. This concept.ENGINE TYPES AND THEIR OPERATION 39 (and thereby avoid the fuel ignition-quality requirement of the diesel).A. and envelopes and consumes the fuel-air mixture. which has also been mass produced. The engine can be turbocharged to increase its power density. during the latter stages of compression. stroke 100 mm.5 mm. they are usually fuel-tolerant and will operate with a wide range of liquid fuels. (3) controlling the engine power level by varying the amount of fuel injected per cycle (with the air flow unthrottled to minimize work done pumping the fresh charge into the cylinder).-FM System. and a high degree of air swirl is created during intake and enhanced in the piston bowl during compression to achieve rapid fuel-air mixing. with an easily ignitable composition at the spark plug at the time of ignition. 1-25. Most successful designs of this type of engine have used the four-stroke cycle. mixed with air. Bore 94.17 A commercial multifuel engine is shown in Fig.

rich b u r n i n g mixture issues as a jet through the orifice i n t o the m a i n chamber. Based on the design details in Figs." SAE paper 740605. Eng. G. Yamamoto. connecting rod.4. Suggest reasons why this potential advantage of the twocycle is offset in practice. J. Hofbauer. Multifucl Engine: L9204 FMV. .and topcenter crank positions. 1952. The Wankel rotary spark-ignition engine." SAE paper 790697. G. F. 1978. T.. lean mixture from the main chamber is compressed i n t o the prechamber bringing the mixture a t the spark plug t o a n easily ignitable. and Yagi. F. Jr." SAE paper 740122. 1. composition. L. London.: The Wankel RC Engine Design and Performance.2 Liter 4 Cylinder Engine. M. 44.1974. pp. intake and exhaust manifolds. Suggest reasons why multicylinder engines prove more attractive than single-cylinder once the total engine displaced volume exceeds a few hundred cubic centimeters.: "Advanced Automotive Power Systems-Part 2: A Diesel for a Subcompact Car. cams and camshaft. McGraw-Hill. p. After intake valve closing. 1968. R. 9. vol." SAE paper 852321. 85..1 3 . 1342. SAE Trans. 8. 16 Alperstein. crankshaft. However. 1953. 15. 4. D. 12. A." Ind. 11. SAE.: The Internal Combustion Engine in Theory and Practice. 1965. S. 7. Iliffe Books. Robert Bosch GmbH." SAE paper 760605 in A History of the Automotive Internal Combustion Engine.: "Texaco's Stratified Charge EngineMultifuel. 115-156. vol. and Practical.: "Early IC and Automotive Engines. 360' for the two-stroke cycle): bottom. 1.1974. Garthe. vol. G. 1. 1976. and crank in the positions shown in Fig. Haagen-Smit..: "High-speed.: Internal Fire. Oreg.: Rotary Engine.. Martens.1976. Wankel. maximum cylinder pressure. SP-409. 13. 5. P. 1J.: "Chrysler Corporation's New 2. J. Mass. I. a very lean mixture (which contains excess air beyond t h a t required to burn the fuel completely) is fed to the m a i n combustion chamber through the main carburetor and intake manifold.Clean. Bosch: Automotive Handbook. 86. and the direction of these forces.. Hiroshima. Indicate the approximate crank angle at which the following events in the four-stroke and two-stroke internal combustion engine cycles occur on a line representing the full cycle (720" for the four-stroke cycle.. C. SP-409. Efficient. K. 1976.. F. end of combustion process. Taylor.: Rotary Piston Machines. Rogowski." SAE paper 810007. Iliffe Books. table 10-1." SAE paper 760604 in A History of the Automotive Internaf Com6ustion Engine. A. Hempson.1981. connecting rod. Cambridge. Agnew.: "Fifty Years of Combustion Research at General Motors." SAE paper 770113. Schafer.' IN~AKE CO~.: Elements of Internal Combustion Engines. while lighter and more compact than a reciprocating :park-ignition engine of equal maximum power. L. Ansdale. vol. 1969. and Chmela. inlet and exhaust valve or port opening and closing. After combustion starts in the prechamber.: "The Deutz BF8L 513 Aircooled Diesel Engine for Truck and Bus Application.2.: "Research and Development of the Honda CVCC Engine. MIT Press. start of combustion process. 3.6. 6.1." Progress in Energy and Combustion Science. 1968. The two-stroke cycle has twice as many power strokes per crank revolution as the four-stroke cycle. G. A.. C.1974. F.. 2 Cummins. Chem. during the engine's expansion stroke with the piston. Urlaub.7. 1-1. L. London. H. J.. Date.: "Chemistry and Physiology of Los Angeles Smog." SAE paper 740563. 10. 4. 18. 1976. Cummins. entraining and igniting the lean m a i n chamber charge.1985.'FRES~W COMBUSTIOF! FIGURE 1-27 Schematic of three-valve torch-ignition stratified-chargespark-ignitionengine.. 13. 14. this engine is really a jet-ignition concept whose primary function is t o extend the operating limit of conventionally ignited spark-ignition engines t o mixtures leaner than could normally be burned.: "The General Motors 2.1977.: "The Automobile Engine 1920-1950. and 1-14 suggest reasons for these higher losses. Toyo Kogyo Co. valves. R. Describe the major functions of the following reciprocating engine components: piston. J. 1st English edition. K. vol. W. G. Ltd. Weertman. slightly rich. PROBLEMS 1. Jr. C. and Sator. 1. At the same time. D u r i n g intake the rich prechamber flow fully purges the prechamber volume. A. List five important differences between the design and operating characteristics of spark-ignition and compression-ignition (diesel) engines. and Dean. W. REFERENCES carbureted version of the concept. Indicate on an appropriate sketch the different forces that act on the piston. Though called a stratifiedcharge engine. G.1979.'' A separate carburetor a n d intake manifold feeds a fuel-ech mixture (which contains fuel beyond the a m o u n t that c a n be b u r n e d with the available air) through a separate small intake valve i n t o the prechamber which contains the spark plug. SAE Trans. 17. W. and Villforth.. H.8 Liter 60" V-6 Engine Designed by Chevrolet. 1 4 1 . 2. typically has worse eficisncy due t o significantly higher gas leakage from the combustion chamber and higher total heat loss from the hot combustion gases to the chamber walls. two-stroke cycle engine power outputs per unit displaced volume are less than twice the power output of an equivalent four-stroke cycle engine at the same engine speed. F. Carnot Press Lake Oswego.

2 GEOMETRICAL PROPERTIES OF RECIPROCATING ENGINES The following parameters define the basic geometry . and how these affect engine availability and operating costs maximum cylinder volume -.V. efficiency.of a reciprocating engine (see Fig. The highest power an engine is allowed to develop for short periods of operation. i I I nB2 (2.and medium-size engines. The engine's fuel consumption within this operating range and the cost of the required fuel 3 The engine's noise and air pollutant emissions within this operating range . increasing to 5 to 9 for large slow-speed. The initial cost of the engine and its installation 5. Rated speed. 4. The range of speed and power over which engine operation is satisfactory The following performance definitions are commonly used: ENGINE DESIGN AND OPERATING PARAMETERS Maximum rated power. decreas-. in any way. is the clearance volume. The highest power an engine is allowed to develop in continuous operation. and emissions characteristics of engines.4) I .1) where V. some basic geometrical relationships and the parameters commonly used to characterize engine operation are developed. reduce their great importance.8 to 1. R = 3 to 4 for small.and medium-size engines. 2. .ENGINE DESIGN AND OPERATING PARAMETERS 43 CHAPTER Engine performance is more precisely defined by: 1. the stroke and crank radius are related by Typical values of these parameters are: rc = 8 to 12 for SI engines and rc = 12 to 24 for CI engines. The reliability and durability of the engine.+ I/. The crankshaft rotational speed at which rated power is developed. the omission of the other factors listed above does not. Normal rated power. The engine's performance over its operating range 2. The cylinder volume V at any crank position 8 is V = K+-(l+a-s) 4 These factors control total engine operating costs-usually the primary consideration of the user-and whether the engine in operation can satisfy environmental regulations. 2-1): Compression ratio rc : rc = 2. B/L = 0. Ratio of cylinder bore to piston stroke: Ratio of connecting rod length to crank radius: In addition. is the displaced or swept volume and V. ing to about 0.2 for small. minimum cylinder volume I/. its maintenance requirements.5 for large slow-speed CI engines. (2. The factors important to an engine user are: 1. The maximum power (or the maximum torque) available at each speed within the useful engine operating range 2.1 IMPORTANT ENGINE CHARACTERISTICS In this chapter. This book is concerned primarily with the performance.CI engines.

I = connecting road length. The rotor is .6) The piston velocity is zero at the beginning of the stroke.a2 sin2 @'I2 (2... a = crank radius. (2-7) can be rearranged : Figure 2-2 shows how S. 2-I). 2 3 BRAKE TORQUE AND POWER An important characteristic speed is the mean piston speed S. reaches a maximum near the middle of the stroke.5).= 1 + 4 (r.44 INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE FUNDAMENTALS ENGINE DESIGN AND OPERATING PARAMETERS 45 FIGURE 2-1 Geometry of cylinder. is the piston crown surface area.sin2 8)'12) K A = A. For example. where s is the distance between the crank axis and the piston pin axis (Fig. 0 = crank angle.1)[R + 1 .: 3.(R2 .. + xB(1 + a . Figure 2-3 illustrates the operating principle of a dynamometer. Equation (2.5. and decreases to zero at the end of the stroke.4) with the above definitions can be rearranged: v . and is given by s = a cos 8 + (I2 . A. connecting rod. (2. For flat-topped pistons. Resistance to gas flow into the engine or stresses due to the inertia of the moving parts limit the maximum mean piston speed to within the range 8 to 15 m/s (1500 to 3000 ft/min). the lower end is typical of large marine diesel engines. and crankshaft where B = bore. varies over each stroke for R = 3.5.' The engine is clamped on a test bed and the shaft is connected to the dynamometer rotor.9) where N is the rotational speed of the crankshaft. Eq. = xB2/4.7) where A.cos 8 . gas-flow velocities in the intake and the cylinder all scale with S. Using Eq.s) (2. defined as shown in Fig. 8 B C FIGURE 2-2 Instantaneous piston speedfmean piston speed as a function of crank angle for R = 3. Automobile engines operate at the higher end of this range. Differentiation of Eq.5) and substitution gives The combustion chamber surface area A at any crank position 8 is given by + A. is called the crank angle. Mean piston speed is often a Engine torque is normally measured with a dynamometer. piston. . 180 TC Crank angle. (2. is the cylinder head surface area and A. (2. is obtained from The angle 8. = 2LN (2.5) more appropriate parameter than crank rotational speed for correlating engine behavior as a function of speed. The instantaneous piston velocity S. L = stroke. 2-1.

or pneumatic means. These will be defined as: Gross indicated work per cycle W. which equals (area A . Net indicated work per cycle W.4 INDICATED WORK PER CYCLE Pressure data for the gas in the cylinder over the operating cycle of the engine can be used to calculate the work transfer from the gas to the piston. 2-4b and c. 2-3. The stator is balanced with the rotor stationary. (c) a four-strokecycle spark-ignitionengine exhaust and intake strokes (pumpingloop) at part load. The torque exerted on the stator with the rotor turning is measured by balancing the stator with weights. the application of Eq. or in U S units: P@P)= N(rev/min) T(1bf. TC Vol. (b) a four-stroke cycle engine. 2-4.in . The value of engine power measured as described above is called brake power P b .13~) With two-stroke cycles (Fig. 2-4a).. coupled electromagnetically. With the addition of inlet and exhaust strokes for the four-stroke cycle. The pumping work transfer will be to .? where N is the crankshaft rotational speed. where each of these areas is regarded as a positive quantity. power is the rate at which work is done. area enclosed on the diagram: (2.i. 5 and 13). t With some two-stroke engine concepts there is a piston pumping work term associated with compressing the scavenging air in the crankcase. The indicated work per cycle WGit (per cylinder) is obtained by integrating around the curve to obtain the f The term indicated is used because such pV diagrams used to be generated directly with a device called an engine indicator. (2. a "brake. This power is the usable power delivered by the engine to the load-in this case. the cylinder gases if the pressure during the intake stroke is less than the pressure during the exhaust stroke. Work delivered to the piston over the compression and expansion strokes only. entire four-stroke cycle. which is normally the case with highly loaded turbocharged engines." + 2.. hydraulically. which is supported in low friction bearings. some ambiguity is introduced as two definitions of indicated output are in common use. or by mechanical friction to a stator..~ Vol BC ~ ~ .area B).12) The power P delivered by the engine and absorbed by the dynamometer is the product of torque and angular speed: P = 2xNT RGURE 24 Examples of pV diagrams for (a) a twostroke cycle engine.i. Wc. Work delivered to the piston over the . . Area B + area C is the work transfer between the piston and the cylinder gases during the inlet and exhaust strokes and is called the pumping work W (see Chaps.14) is straightforward. This is the situation with naturally aspirated engines. if the torque exerted by the engine is T: T = Fb (2.46 INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE FUNDAMENTALS ENGINE DESIGN AND OPERATING PARAMETERS 47 FIGURE 2-3 Schematic of principle of operation of dynamometer. The pumping work transfer will be from the cylinder gases to the piston if the exhaust stroke pressure is lower than the intake pressure.. The cylinder pressure and corresponding cylinder volume throughout the engine cycle can be plotted on a p-V diagram as shown in Fig. Using the notation in Fig. springs. is (area A area C) In Fig. In SI units: . is (area A + area C) and Wc.(area B + area C). ft) 5252 Note that torque is a measure of an engine's ability to do work.. BC TC C o m ~ .

gross or net) should always be explicitly stated. It differs from the brake power by the power absorbed in overcoming engine friction. . The major sources of inaccuracy with this method are that gas pressure forces on the piston and rings are lower in the motored test than when the engine is firing and that the oil temperatures on the cylinder wall are also lower under motoring conditions. The sum of brake power and friction power provides an alternative way of estimating indicated power.. 13. and to drive the engine accessories. This power . Furthermore. the most appropriate definition. mechanical efficiencydepends on throttle position as well as engine design and engine speed.015)3 M u = mass of vehicle [for passenger cars: curb mass plus passenger load of 68 kg (150 Ibm). oil and water temperatures.t Thus: Friction power is difficult to determine accurately. = coefficient of rolling resistance (0. C. i. = drag coefficient (for cars: 0.ENGINE DESIGN AND OPERATING PARAMETERS 49 The power per cylinder is related to the indicated work per cycle by where nR is the number of crank revolutions for each power stroke per cylinder. are determined empirically. .5 MECHANICAL EFFICIENCY We have seen that part of the gross indicated work per cycle or power is used to expel exhaust gases and induct fresh charge.6 ROAD-LOAD POWER A part-load power level useful as a reference point for testing automobile engines is the power required to drive a vehicle on a level road at a steady speed. It represents the sum of the useful work available at the shaft and the work required to overcome all the engine losses. For four-stroke cycles. the definition used for "indicated" (i. All of these power requirements are grouped together and calledfriction power P. such as work per cycle or power. specific fuel consumption..e.. 5 0.5)3 A. in U S units W. and C. is the indicated power. 2. The engine speed. Typical values for a modern automotive engine at wideopen or full throttle are 90 percent at speeds below about 30 to 40 rev/s (1800 to ~ 0 rev/min).e. The gross indicated output. driving engine accessories. n equals 1. g = acceleration due to gravity pa = ambient air density C. etc. < 0. Indicated quantities are used primarily to identify the impact of the compression. One common approach for high-speed engines is to drive or motor the engine with a dynamometer (i. and other mechanical components of the engine.012 < C. and expansion processes on engine performance. decreasing to 75 percent at maximum rated speed. nR equals 2. this power overcomes the rolling resistance which arises from the friction of the tires and the aerodynamic drag of the vehicle. the rate of work transfer from the gas within the cylinder to the piston. therefore..3 < C. The ratio of the brake (or useful) power delivered by the engine to the indicated power is called the mechanical eflciency q. for two-stroke cycles. the value obtained is a close approximation to the gross indicated power. the definition most commonly used. and (in the case of gross indicated power) the pumping power. and specific emissions (see the following sections) in a manner similar to that used for work per cycle and power. pistons.e. combustion. Called road-load power.. The gross indicated output is. Rolling resistance and drag coefficients. the standard engine test codes2 define procedures for measuring brake power and friction power (the friction power test provides a close approximation to the total lost power in the engine). = vehicle speed I With the quantities in the units indicated: t The various components of friction power are examined in detail in Chap. and ambient conditions are kept the same in the motored test as under firing conditions. An additional portion is used to overcome the friction of the bearings. respectively. Suppliedby the dynamometer to overcome all these frictional losses. An approximate formula for road-load power Pr is 2. In discussing indicated quantities of the four-stroke cycle engine.= vehicle weight in lbfl . = frontal area of vehicle S. As the engine is 0 throttled. eventually to zero at idle operation. operate the engine without firing it) and measure the power which has to be where C. The terms brake and indicated are used to describe other parameters such as mean effective pressure. mechanical efficiencydecreases. : Since the friction power includes the power required to pump gas into and out of the engine. will be chosen where possible in this book for the following reasons. throttle setting.

(2. For naturally aspirated sparkignition engines.8 SPECIFIC FUEL CONSUMPTION AND EFFICIENCY In engine tests. Since. Estimate the required engine displacement.ft) &(in3) The maximum brake mean effective pressure of good engine designs is well established.(2. at a specified speed.20~) gives - For a four-cylinder engine. mep = V. At maximum rated power. for design calculations. is the number of crank revolutions for each power stroke per cylinder (two for four-stroke cycles.2): mep(lb/in2) = 75. (2. It measures how efliciently an engine is using the fuel supplied to produce work: . An example of how the above engine performance parameters can be used 10 initiate an engine design is given below. At the maximum rated power. Assume that 925 kPa is an appropriate value for bmep at the maximum engine torque point. Equation (2. 1b. A more useful relative engine performance measure is obtained by dividing the work per cycle by the cylinder volume displaced per cycle. bmep is about 850 to 950 kPa (125 to 140 lb/in2). 2. Equation (2. maximum values are in the range 850 to 1050 kPa ( 125 to 150 lb/in2) at the engine speed where maximum torque is obtained (about 3000 rev/min). it depends on engine size. with the bmep at the maximum rated power of about 700 kPa (100 1b/in2). one for two-stroke cycles). the fuel consumption is measured as a flow rate-mass flow p r unit time m. bmep values are 10 to 15 percent lower. the displaced volume. bmep is in the 900 to 1400 kPa (130 to 200 lb/in2) range. Two-stroke cycle diesels have comparable performance to four-stroke cycle engines. A four-cylinder automotive spark-ignition engine is being designed to provide a maximum brake torque of 150 N-m (110 Ibf-ft)in the mid-speed range ( 3000 rev/min).50 INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE FUNDAMENTALS 2. for turbocharged aftercooled this can rise to 1400 kPa.. can be estimated by assuming appropriate values for bmep for that particular application. 15 m/s (see Sec.4nRT(lbf.N For SI and U. 800 kPa (116 Ib/in2).15).S.'in2)range. then Pn. and the maximum brake power the engine will deliver. The maximum rated engine speed can be estimated from an appropriate value for the maximum mean piston speed.204 relates torque and mep. and is essentially constant over a wide range of engine sizes. For naturally aspirated four-stroke diesels. Work per cycle = N where n. from Eq. the engine displacement required to provide a given torque or power.196): - 2.13): Assume B = L. Typical values for bmep are as follows. For turbocharged automotive spark-ignition engines the maximum bmep is in the 1250 to 1700 kPa (180 to 250 lb/in2) range.using Eq. bore and stroke. At the maximum rated power. respectively. and stroke are related by Mean effective pressure can also be expressed in terms of torque by using Eq.~urbochargedfour-stroke diesel maximum bmep values are typically in the range 1000 to 1200 kPa (145 to 175 lb/in2). the maximum bmep is in the 700 to 900 kPa (100 to 130 The maximum brake power can be estimated from the typical bmep value at maximum power. Large low-speed two-stroke cycle engines can achieve bmep values of about 1600 kPa. this gives B = L = 86 mm. units. Also. Pn.7 MEAN EFFECTIVE PRESSURE While torque is a valuable measure of a particular engine's ability to d o work. bore. Example. The parameter so obtained has units of force per unit area and is called the mean eflective pressure (mep). A more useful parameter is the specijc fuel consumption ( s f c t t h e fuel flow rate per unit power output. the actual bmep that a particular engine develops can be compared with this norm. Thus. and the effectiveness with which the engine designer has used the engine's displaced volume can be assessed.

Volumetric efficiencyis only used with four-stroke cycle engines which have a distinct induction process.. For CI engines. It is a measure of the engine's efficiency. The fuel energy supplied which can be released by combustion is given by the mass of fuel supplied to the engine per cycle times the heating value of the fuel.9 AIRIFUEL AND FUEL/AIR RATIOS In engine testing.t is given by - Typical heating values for the commercial hydrocarbon fuels used in engines are in the range 42 to 44 MJ/kg (18. for CI engines with diesel fuel. Thus.." which will be called the fuel conversion eficiency qf .52 ENGINE DESIGN AND OPERATING PARAMETERS INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE FUNDAMENTALS 53 With units. intake valve--restricts the amount of air which an engine of given displacement can induct. This topic is discussed in more detail in Secs.056 < F/A 5 0.defines its energy content. 70 2.10 VOLUMETRIC EFFICIENCY t This empirically defined engine effciency has previously been called thermal effciency or enthalpy efficiency. Note that there are several different definitions of heating value (see Scc.000 to 19. and the thermal energy released by the combustion process is absorbed by a calorimeter as the combustion products cool down to their original temperature. plate (in a sparkignition engine).26) where mf is the mass of fuel inducted per cycle.5 and 4.h. best values are lower and in large engines can go below 55 pg/J = 200 g/kW h = 0. The numerical values do not normally d f i r by more than a few pcmnt. QHv.056). The parameter used to measure the effectivenessof an engine's induction process is the volumetric eficiency q. specific fuel consumption is inversely proportional 'to fuel conversion efficiency for normal hydrocarbon fuels. 3. and distinguishes it clearly from other definitions of engine effciehcy which will be developed in Sec.47 lbm/ hp . Substitution for P/mf from Eq. intake manifold. A dimensionless parameter that relates the desired engine output (work per cycle or power) to the necessary input (fuel flow) would have more fundamental value. In this text. The intake system-the air filter. The specific fuel consumption has units. or with units: Low values of sfc are obviously desirable. 2. The term fuel conversion effciency is preferred because it describes this quantity more precisely.h. 3.2 1) gives The normal operating range for a conventional SI engine using gasoline fuel is 12 S AIF I 18 (0. It is defined as the volume flow rate of air into . This measure of an engine's "efficiency.4. oxidize the fuel completely.6. When insufficient air is present to oxidize the fuel completely. intake port. both the air mass flow rate ma and the fuel mass flow rate rit/ are normally measured. the lower heating value at constant pressure is used in evaluating the fuel convenion effciency. When enough air is present in the cylinder to . and throttl. The heating value of a fuel. It is determined in a standardized test procedure in which a known mass of fuel is fully burned with air. 3.9. carburetor. Note that the fuel energy supplied to the engine per cycle is not fully released as thermal energy in the combustion process because the actual combustion process in incomplete.000 Btu/lbm). (2.083).014 I F/A 10. The ratio of these flow rates is useful in defining engine operating conditions: Airlfuel ratio (A10 = % mf Fuellair ratio (F/A) = % 4 (2.32 lbm/hp. it is 18 s AIF I (0. almost all (more than about 96 percent) of this fuel energy supplied is transferred as thermal energy to the working fluid.5). For SI engines typical best values of brake specific fuel consumption are about 75 pg/J = 270 g/kW h = 0. however. The ratio of the work produced per cycle to the amount of fuel energy supplied per cycle that can be released in the combustion process is commonly used for this purpose. lack of oxygen prevents this fuel energy supplied from being fully released.

. = 7) is a constant.38 inHg Temperature 29.12 CORRECTION FACTORS FOR POWER AND VOLUMETRIC EFFICIENCY The pressure. plp. C): where ma is the mass of air inducted into the cylinder per cycle. measures the pumping performance of the inlet port and valve only).34) Volumetric efficiency is proportional to mJpa [see Eq. (see App.32) Pi. Thus 2. a consistent definition of what components and auxiliaries are included in the term "enginen must be adhered to.6 mmHg 29. at a given engine speed. The inlet density may either be taken as atmosphere air density (in which case q.m where the subscripts s and m denote values at the standard and measured conditions. Typical standard ambient Pb. po and T..54 INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE FUNDAMENTALS ENGINE DESIGN AND OPERATING PARAMETERS 55 the intake system divided by the rate at which volume is displaced by the piston: Dry air pressure where pa. = measured ambient-water vapour partial pressure Tm = measured ambient temperature. for naturally aspirated engines are in the range 80 to 90 percent.P1. then for a given intake system and engine. are the total pressure and temperature upstream of the restriction and p is the pressure at the throat of the restriction.. it has been assumed that the fluid is an ideal gas with gas constant R and that the ratio of specific heats (cJc. measures the pumping performance of the entire inlet system) or may be taken as the air density in the inlet manifold (in which case q. (2. If. Thus if (2.2711.m (2. Typical maximum values of q. the correction factor CFis given by For these parameters to be useful in engine comparisons. = CFPi. affect the air mass flow rate and the power output. is assumed constant at wide-open throttle.. = standard ambient temperature. respectively. These parameters indicate the effectiveness with which the engine designer has used the engine materials and packaged the engine components? where p . in the engine.00 inHg Water vapour pressure 9. Since pa is Proportional to p/T.35) . the indicated power at full throttle Pi will bt proportional to rit. is 112 (2. 6. The volumetric efficiency for diesels is somewhat higher than for SI engines. Volumetric efficiency is discussed more fully in Sec. Correction factors are used to adjust measured wide-open-throttle power and volumetric efficiencyvalues to standard atmospheric conditions to provide a more accurate basis for comparisons between engines.i is the inlet air density.m . Two parameters useful for comparing these attributes from one engine to another are: engine weight Specific weight = rated power Specific volume = engine volume rated power For mixtures containing the proper amount of fuel to use all the air available (and thus provide maximum power).65 mmHg 0. the correction factor for volumetric efficiency. An alternative equivalent definition for volumetric efficiency is 736. the dry air flow rate.11 ENGINE SPECIFIC WEIGHT AND SPECIFIC VOLUME Engine weight and bulk volume for a given rated power are important in many applications.2. (2.s = CFPi. the mass flow rate of dry air ma varies as 2. K T..33) to correct the indiw e d power and making the assumption that friction power is unchanged.4"C 85•‹F The basis for the correction factor is the equation for one-dimensional steady compressible flow through an orifice or flow restriction of effective area A. K The rated brake power is corrected by using Eq. CF. and temperature of the ambient air inducted into an engine. humidity. 1" deriving this equation. = standard dry-air absolute pressure ~ pm = measured ambient-air absolute pressure p.

carbon monoxide (CO).23)]. High mean piston speed with similar expressions for CO.ENGINE DESIGN AND OPERATING PARAMETERS 57 2. (2. often called the specific power. torque.36b) Mean piston speed can be introduced with Eq. NO. (2. From Eq. (2.13 SPECIFIC EMISSIONS AND EMISSIONS INDEX Levels of emissions of oxides of nitrogen (nitric oxide. O W . Increasing the output of a given displacement engine by increasing the inlet air density 4. Maximum torque.). An emission index (EI) is commonly used: e-g. and particulates. at the operating points indicated. (2. Since both of these quantities depend on displaced volume. HC. fuel conversion efficiency [Eq. and nitrogen dioxide. The concentrations of gaseous emissions in the engine exhaust gases are usually measured in parts per million or percent by volume (which corresponds to the mole fraction multiplied by lo6 or by lo2. and two of these are in common use. is a measure of the engine designer's success in using the available piston area regardless of cylinder size. and the speed at which it is achieved. h. (2. and volumetric efficiency [Eq. however.38) . the following relationships between engine performance parameters can be developed.8 to 2. and g/hp. and mean effective pressure are expressed in terms of these parameters. These relationships illustrate the direct importance to engine performance of: I. Normalized indicators of emissions levels are more useful. From the definitions of engine power [Eq. emission rates can be normalized by the fuel flow rate.36~) . (2. For power P: P= 2. Specific emissions are the mass flow rate of pollutant per unit power output: For four-stroke cycle engines. have most significance:' m NQdFIA) a "R (2. reliability.10 to engine performance becomes evident when power.19)]. the specific power is litco sC0 =P ~ H sHC = .9) to give (2. High volumetric efficiency 3. (2.13)]. Alternatively. NO. Specific power is thus proportional to the product of mean effective pressure and mean piston speed. mean effective pressure [Eq.27)]. unburned hydrocarbons (HC).. respectively). Maximum fuellair ratio that can be usefully burned in the engine 5. High fuel conversion efficiency 2. is usually given also. h. usually grouped together as NO. P Indicated and brake specific emissions can be defined. and durability under service conditions. Units in common use are &J. for comparative analyses between engines of different displacements in a given engine category normalized performance parameters are more useful. 2. volumetric efficiency can be introduced: For torque T: For mean effective pressure: The power per unit piston area.C (2. and particulates are important engine operating characteristics.. fuellair ratio [Eq.2611.14 RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN PERFORMANCE PARAMETERS The importance of the parameters defined in Secs.39).15 ENGINE DESIGN AND PERFORMANCE DATA Engine ratings usually indicate the highest power at which manufacturers expect their products to give satisfactory economy. 2. The following measures.

Typical performance data for spark-ignition and diesel engines over the normal production size range are summarized in Table 2. Explain why the brake mean effective pressure of a naturally aspirated diesel engine is lower than that of a naturally aspirated spark-ignition engine. Indicates relative economy with which materials are used. Measures comparative success in handling loads due to inertia of the parts. Brake specific emissions. Brake mean eflective pressure. Specific weight. I PROBLEMS 2. In naturally aspirated engines bmep is not stress limited. 2. their natutally aspirated maximum bmep levels are higher. For the largest diesel engines. Indicates relative effectiveness with which engine space has been utilized. regardless of cylinder size. At all useful regimes of operation and particularly in those regimes where the engine is run for long periods of time: Brake specificfuel consumption or fuel conversion eficiency.1. As engine size increases.1: The four-stroke cycle dominates except in the smallest and largest engine sizes. At all speeds at which the engine will be used with full throttle or with maximum fuel-pump setting: Brake mean eflective pressure. The maximum brake mean effective pressure for turbocharged and supercharged engines is higher than for naturally aspirated engines. ~t maximum or normal rated point: Mean piston speed. brake fuel conversion efficiencies of about 50 percent and indicated fuel conversion efficiencies of over 55 percent can be obtained. brake specific fuel consumption decreases and fuel conversion efficiency increases. Power per unit piston area. 3. Because the maximum fuel/air ratio for spark-ignition engines is higher than for diesels. and fuel conversion efficiency. Measures ability to obtain/provide high air flow and use it effectively over the full range. The larger engines are turbocharged or supercharged. The maximum rated engine speed decreases as engine size increases.ENGINE DESIGN A M ) OPERATING PARAMETERS 59 1. fuellair ratio (effectiveness of air utilization in combustion). Explain why the bmep is lower at the maximum rated power for a given engine than the bmep at the . It then reflects the product of volumetric eficiency (ability to induct air). due to reduced importance of heat losses and friction. maintaining the maximum mean piston speed in the range of about 8 to 15 m/s. Specific volume. Measures the effectiveness with which the piston area is used. and/oi engine friction. In supercharged engines bmep indicates the degree of success in handling higher gas pressures and thermal loading. resistance to air flow.

(a) Derive a n expression for P/A. Obert. 2. 1973. frontal area. cylinder bore.13. in terms of mean effective pressure and mean piston speed for two-stroke and four-stroke engine cycles.g. bmep. in terms of vehicle speed.) which is filled by one cylinder charge just before the intake valve opens and this charge enters the cylinder (i..14.3.. 1-4. Stuttgart. chap.F. time. Bosch: Automotive Handbook. connecting rod. 1-23. 2. You are doing a preliminary design study of a turbocharged four-stroke diesel engine. 3. and varies little with fuel type.. 1968. etc. volumetric efficiency. Table 2-1 may be helpful. the intake process. mass. In the reciprocating engine. Cambridge.05 what is the fuel flow rate. (a) Derive an equation relating the engine inlet pressure (pressure in the inlet manifold at the turbocharger compressor exit) to the fuellair ratio at this maximum rated power operating point.. 2nd English edition. and determine the maximum rated speed of this preliminary engine design. Estimate sensible values for number of cylinders. (b) Compute typical maximum values of P/Ap for a spark-ignition engine (e.10. 2. 1-20 is operating with a mean piston speed of 8 m/s.g. and hydrogen (relevant data are in App.INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE FUNDAMENTALS Describe the impact o n air flow. bmep. operating at wide-open throttle at 2500 rev/min. 11. and a large marine diesel (Fig. estimate the overall fuellair and air/fuel ratios a t the maximum rated power. Taylor. E. You will have t o make several appropriate geometric assumptions. bmep. 4. stroke. (c) The time occupied by one engine operating cycle. the manifold runner.g.. If we also assume that engine weight per unit displaced volume is essentially constant. and maximum power of changing a spark-ignition engine cylinder head from 2 valves per cylinder to 4 valves (2 inlet and 2 exhaust) per cylinder. SAE Standard: "Engine Test Code-Spark Ignition and Diesel. how will the specific weight of an engine (engine weight/maximum rated power) at fixed total displaced volume vary with the number of cylinders? Assume the bore and stroke are equal. methanol. C. the expansion process. one cylinder volume extends in the intake system). coefficient of rolling resistance.) (d) The average velocity with l~hichthe flame travels across the combustion chamber. Calculate the volumetric efficiency based on atmospheric conditions. (a) The mean piston speed and the maximum piston speed. The values of mean effective pressure at rated speed. Make estimates of the following quantities for a 1. The power per unit piston area P/Ap (often called the specific power) is a measure of the designer's success in using the available piston area regardless of size. Robert Bosch GmbH." SAE J816b. 1-9. The diesel engine of Fig. and acceleration due to gravity. New York. The spark-ignition engine in Fig. and length scales are useful in understanding what goes on inside engines. vol. and only approximate answers are required. MIT Press. 1986. The measured air flow is 60 g/s. D).92. and the bore and stroke for sensible cylinder geometry and number of engine cylinders. State your assumptions clearly. and specific power of the diesel engines in Figs. 2. Fig. Other reciprocating engine parameters (e. a turbocharged four-stroke cycle diesel engine (e.6-liter displacement four-cylinder spark-ignition engine. during the power or expansion stroke. (b) The maximum charge velocity in the intake port (the port area is about 20 percent of the piston area). and 1-24 at their maximum rated power. and the exhaust process. 1-21. 1-22).: Internal Combustion Engines and Air Pollution. and maximum specific power (engine power/totalgiston area) are essentially independent of cylinder size for naturally aspirated engines of a given type. the compression process. cylinder. estimate the required engine displacement. 1-4 is operating at a mean piston speed of 10 m/s.: The Internal Combustion Engine in Theory and Practice. SAE Handbook. Calculate the mean piston speed. Calculate this power when the car mass is 1500 kg. The calculations are straightforward. 1-4). If (F/A) is 0.) appear in this equation also. (Note: The word process is used here not the word stroke. The maximum rated power is limited by stress considerations to a brake mean effective pressure of 1200 kPa and maximum value of the mean piston speed of 12 m/s. how far back from the intake valve. and the vehicle speed is so mip. Show the direction of the forces acting on the piston on a sketch of the piston. 1-22. Intext Educational Publishers. (You are not asked to manipulate or solve these equations. List the forces acting on the piston during this part of the operating cycle.e. 1-24). Calculate the air flow if the volumetric efficiency is 0. etc. crank arrangement. 0 The length of exhaust system filled by one cylinder charge after it exits the cylinder (assume a n average exhaust gas temperature of 425•‹C). Assume appropriate values for any other parameters you may need. the gas pressure force acting on the piston is transmitted to the crankshaft via the connecting rod. and specific power of the spark-ignition engines in Figs. the hill angle is 15 degrees. the combustion process. maximum torque. Based on typical values for brake mean effective pressure and maximum mean piston speed. . REFERENCES I. and 1-12 at their maximum rated power. gasoline. Several velocities. (b) The maximum rated brake power requirement for this engine is 400 kW.F. 1-20. maximum mean piston speed.) 211. Write out the force balance for the piston (a) along the cylinder axis and (b) transverse to the cylinder axis in the plane containing the connecting rod. Calculate the mean piston speed. What is the maximum rated engine speed (rev/min) I for your design? What would be the brake torque (N-m) and the fuel flow rate (g/h) at this maximum speed? Assume a maximum mean piston speed of 12 m/s is typical of good engine designs. (c) If the pressure ratio across the compressor is 2. Mass. Fig. Develop an equation for the power required to drive a vehicle at constant speed up a hill of angle a. (e) The length of the intake system (the intake port. Calculate the brake specific fuel consumption for isooctane. 2. a. fuel conversion efficiency. in centimeters. drag coefficient. You are designing a four-stroke cycle diesel engine to provide a brake power of 300 kW naturally aspirated at its maximum rated speed. and the mass of fuel injected per cylinder per cycle? The brake f u d conversion efficiency of a spark-ignition engine is 0. Briefly explain any significant differences.

In spark-ignition engines. At the walls. which rapidly.e. In turbulent flows.~ The combustion process is a fast exothermic gas-phase reaction (where oxygen is usually one of the reactants). near the end of the compression stroke. In the diesel engine. The Reynolds nurpber (density x velocity x lengthscale/viscosity) is the ratio of inertial to viscous forces. A flame is a combustion reaction which can propagate subsonically through space. The distinguishing feature here is whether the flame structure and motion change with .e. and emissions. limits the reaction. and fluid flow. of portions of the developing mixture of already injectedand vaporized fuel with this hot air starts the combustion process. mixing and transport are done by molecular processes. Following the compression of this fuel-air mixture. mixing and transport are enhanced (usually by a substantial factor) by the macroscopic relative motion of eddies or lumps of fluid which are the characteristic feature of a turbulent (high Reynolds number) flow. governed by the convection velocity. Some background in relevant combustion phenomena is therefore a necessary preliminary to understanding engine operation. Flame structure does not depend on whether the flame moves relative to the observer or remains stationary as the gas moves through it. An undesirable combustion phenomenon-the "spontaneousn ignition of a substantial mass of fuel-air mixture ahead of the flame.' Flames are usually classified according to the following overall characteristics. The autoignition.1 CHARACTERIZATION OF FLAMES Combustion of the fuel-air mixture inside the engine cylinder is one of the processes that controls engine power. More detailed information on these combustion he nomena can be found in texts on combustion such as those of ~ r i s t r o kand westenberg' and Gla~srnan. This autoignition or self-explosion combustion phenomenon is the cause of spark-ignition engine knock which. The existence of flame motion implies that the reaction is confined to a zone which is small in thickness compared to the dimensions of the apparatus-in our case the engine combustion chamber.. a steady-state flame results. efficiency. the fuel is normally mixed with air in the engine intake system. The second means of classification relates to the basic character of the gas flow through the reaction zone: whether it is laminar or turbulent. The reaction zone is usually called the flame front. Burning then proceeds as fuel and air mix to the appropriate compositionfor combustion to take place. the and thermodynamic properties of the pre. before the flame can propagate through this mixture (which is called the end-gas)--can also occur. an electrical discharge initiates the combustion process. motion of the flame relative to the unburned gas is the important feature. If the fuel and oxidizer are essentially uniformly mixed together.. or self-ignition. fuel-air mixing plays a controlling role in the diesel combustion process. A third area of classification is whether the flame is steady or unsteady. Thus. These combustion phenomena are different for the two main types of engines-spark-ignition and diesel-which are the subject of this book. This flame characteristic of spatial propagation is the result of the strong coupling between chemical reaction. a flame develops from the "kernal" created by the spark discharge and propagates across the cylinder to the combustion chamber walls. the flame is "quenched" or extinguished as heat transfer and destruction of active species at the wall become the dominant processes. the supply of fresh reactants. can lead to engine damage.and postcombustion workingfluids in engines and the energy changes associated with the combustion processes that take place inside the engine cylinder. Laminar flows only occur at low Reynolds number. When these processes are in balance. the transport processes of mass diffusion and heat conduction.- CHAPTER 3 THERMOCHEMISTRY OF FUEL-AIR MIXTURES 3. the fuel is injected into the cylinder into air already at high pressure and temperature. The generation of heat and active species accelerate the chemical reaction. The first of these has to do with the composition of the reactants as they enter the reaction zone. Later chapters (9 and 10) deal with the phenomenological aspects of engine combustion: i. Chapters 3 and 4 focus on the thermochemistry of combustion: i. due to the high pressures generated. If the reactants are not premixed and must mix together in the same region where reaction takes place. In laminar (or streamlined) flow. the flame is called a dlfusion flame because the mixing must be accomplished by a diffusion process. the details of the physical and chemical processes by which the fuel-air mixture is converted to burned products. At this point it is useful to review briefly the key combustion phenomena which occur in engines to provide an appropriate background for the material which follows. the flame is designated as premixed.

methane. and Z. This chapter reviews the basic thermodynamic and chemical composition aspects of engine combustion.g. h. . helium. B. Chapters 9 and 10 contain a more detailed discussion of the spark-ignition engine and diesel combustion processes. the amount depending on temperature and degree of saturation. The diesel engine combustion process is predominantly'an unsteady turbulent diffusion flame. for calculating the thermodynamic properties of mixtures of ideal gases.696 lbf/in2)and 25•‹C(77•‹F)is 1. though it can rise to about 4 percent under extreme conditions. its molecular weight is slightly different from that of pure molecular nitrogen. on a per unit mass basis and on a per mole basis (where the notation ii.0739 lbm/ft3). Dry air is a mixture of gases that has a representative composition by volume of 20. is used) of an ideal gas.3 J/ kmol . 3 3 COMPOSITION OF AIR AND FUELS Normally in engines. co. 14. 78. with the turbulent convective transport process. Air 300 1. (3. fuel vapor.000 44.) can usually be treated as ideal gases. Also given are equations .93 percent argon. usually approximated by 29. the value for the density of dry air at 1 atmosphere (1. Typically the proportion by mass is about 1 percent. The molecular weight of air is obtained from Table 3. The relative humidity compares the water vapor content of air with that required to saturate. oxygen is the reactive component of air.1 principleconstitutents of dry air ~a.time. because vaporization of liquid fuel and fuel-air mixing processes are involved too. are developed.1) with R = 8314. TABLE 3. m the mass of gas.000.. Both these flames are extremely complicated because they involve the coupling of the complex chemical mechanism. For each mole of oxygen in air there are 3. T the temperature.16 will be used. oxygen. In the following sections. The final characterizing feature is the initial phase of the reactants-gas.5 ppm by volume Mokeuhr weight Mok frpetioo Mohr ratio r.009 28. fuels are burned with air. liquid.09 percent nitrogen. by which fuel and oxidizer react to form products. i. It is defined as: The ratio of the partial pressure of water vapor actually present to the saturation pressure at the same temperature. (B. and the fuel is initially in the liquid phase. water vapor.962.773 -- In combustion.773 moles of nitrogen per mole of oxygen will be assumed.. The density of dry air can be obtained from Eq. or solid. It is usually suficiently accurate to regard air as consisting of 21 percent oxygen and 79 percent inert gases taken as nitrogen (often called atmospheric or apparent nitrogen).K and M = 28. and the fuel-air mixture through which the flame propagates is in the gaseous state. neon. M the molecular weight.1 with Eq. V the volume. Relations for evaluating the specific internal energy u. Engine flames are turbulent.962: where p is the pressure.. Because atmospheric nitrogen contains traces of other species.17) as 28. E.2 IDEAL GAS MODEL The gas species that make up the working fluids in internal combustion engines (e.95 percent oxygen. ? the universal gas constant. an obvious consequence of the internal combustion engine's operating cycle. carbon dioxide. The diesel combustion process is even more complicated than the spark-ignition combustion process. nitrogen. and other gases..e. nitrogen will refer to atmospheric nitrogen and a molecular weight of 28.184 kg/m3 (0. m 4. S. There can be found the various forms of the ideal gas law: moles of atmospheric nitrogen. Table 3. etc.3 Thus. specific heats at constant volume c. and constant pressure c. i and n the number of moles.962 - ~ . Actual air normally contains water vapor. The conventional spark-ignition flame is thus a premixed unsteady turbulent flame. enthalpy h. An air composition of 3. 0. respectively. and trace amounts of carbon dioxide. . Flames in engines are unsteady. The relationships between the thermodynamic properties of an ideal gas and of ideal gas mixtures are reviewed in App. and entropy s.1 shows the relative proportions of the major constituents of dry air. Only with substantial augmentation of laminar transport processes by the turbulent convection processes can mixing and burning rates and flame-propagation rates be made fast enough to complete the engine combustion process within the time available.0133 x lo5 Pa. R the gas constant for the gas.

. C3H8. These fuels are predominantly carbon and hydrogen (typically about 86 percent carbon and 14 percent hydrogen by weight) though diesel fuels can contain up to about 1 percent sulfur.. propane. C4H8. It is a good approximation to assume that the wet-bulb temperature is the adiabatic saturation temperature. c. (From R e y n o l d ~ . Other fuels of interest are alcohols (which contain oxygen). and 4.H. The wet-bulb temperature is lower than the dry-bulb temperature due to evaporation of water from the wick. 3-1. propyl.e. respectively. no more hydrogen can be added. 2. n-octane and isooctane. This consists of two thermometers exposed to a stream of moist air. Examples: C3H6. k is the thermal conductivity." The effect of humidity on the properties of air is given in Fig. I I I I H H H H CnHzn + z C~cloparafins or napthenes (cyclanes) H-<-c-H Mixture (dry-bulb) temperature. methane.. These are called normal (n-) and iso compounds. and 'diesel fuels) are blends of many different hydrocarbon compounds obtained by refining petroleum or crude oil. Radicals deficient in one hydrogen take the name methyl. The dry-bulb temperature is the temperature of the air. respectively. D. C2H6. methane. gaseous fuels (natural gas and liquid petroleum gas).~ different classes are as follows: The Alkyl Compounds Parafins (alkanes) H-C-C-H Single-bonded open-chain saturated hydrocarbon molecules: i.indicating five carbon atoms in the straight chain (pentane) with three methyl (CH. For the larger molecules straightthain and branched-chain configurations exist. C.and dry-bulb temperatures and a psychrometric chart such as Fig. and c. Some knowledge of the different classes of organic compounds and their FIGURE 3-2 ~ f of ~ humidity on properties of air: R is the gas constant. propane. 3 molecular structure is necessary in order to understand combustion mechanism~. ~ ) /"\H . etc..Water vapor content is measured with a wet. 3-2. isooctane) which are often used in engine research. ethane.and dry-bulb psychrometer..5 The fuels most commonly used in internal combustion engines (gasoline or petrol. y = cdc.H. The bulb of the other thermometer is wetted by a wick in contact with a water reservoir. By isooctane is usuaily meant 2.g. cyclopropane (three C-atom ring). and single hydrocarbon compounds (e. since ring can be broken and additional hydrogen added." depending on the relative position of the branches. . Single bond (no double bond) ring hydrocarbons. "C H H I I \ / H FIGURE 3-1 Psychrometric chart for air-water mixtures at 1 atmosphere. There are several " isooctanes. Water vapor pressure can be obtained from observed wet.2. Properties of the more common internal combustion engine fuels are summarized in App. cyclobutane (four C-atom ring).4-trimethylpentane. C. Examples: CH. . ethyl. Unsaturated. cyclopentane (five C-atom ring). are specific heats at constant t tolurne and pressure.) branches located respectively at C-atoms 2..(From T ~ ~ l o r .

i. but when the products are at low temperatures the nitrogen is not significantly affected by the reaction. propyl.2 .cH H CnH2n-6 . C3H6. . Air contains nitrogen. atomic carbon.H8. (3. From butene upwards several structural isomers are possible depending on the location of the double bond in the basic carbon chain. Consider the complete combustion of a general hydrocarbon fuel of average molecular composition C.16.e. C2H.3) becomes C& + 502 = 3CO2 + 4H20 (3. The carbon in the fuel is then converted to carbon dioxide CO.4) only relates the elemental composition of the reactant and poduct species. Determine the number of moles of air required for stoichiometric combustion and the number o moles of f products produced per mole of fuel. A carbon balance between the reactants and products gives b = 3. and the molecular weights of the reactants and the products. (3.c-< H Open-chain hydrocarbons containing a double bond. etc. i. C. H-C-C-H. Since these relations depend only on the conservation of mass of each chemical element in the reactants.9) depend on fuel composition. . and atomic hydrogen are.008. Alcohols Monohydric alcohols H In these organic compounds. butene (or butylene).5).011. The stoichiometric air/ fuel or fuellair ratios (see Sec. hence they are unsaturated.5): H-F-oH H CnH2n+1OH I 3. For example. which is much more complex. The overall complete combustion equation is HC\c. C. similar to higher alkenes but with each double bond replaced by a triple bond. one hydroxyl (-OH) group is substituted for one hydrogen atom... xylene (several structural arrangements). ethene (or ethylene).. and 1. 32. Thus the fuel composition could have been written CH. and heavier alkyl side chains in a variety of structural arrangements.. a hydrocarbon fuel can be completely oxidized. ethane becomes ethyl alcohol. 12. depends only on y. and the hydrogen to water H 2 0 . as y varies from 1 (e. Straightand branched-chain structures exist. This ring structure is very stable and accommodates additional -CH2 groups in side chains and not by ring expansion. Diolefins contain two double bonds. Note that Eq. Examples: C. . propene (or propylene).4) Aromatics H H ~ @ ~ \ ~ H Building block for aromatic hydrocarbons is the benzene (C6H6) ring structure shown. it does not indicate the process by which combustion proceeds. Thus methane becomes methyl alcohol.. Thus Eq. (FIA). An oxygen balance gives 2b + c = 10 = 2a. .1..15.9 percent by mass H has a molecular weight of 114. (AIF). Examples are: C2H4. Additional members of the alkyne series comprise open-chain molecules.4 COMBUSTION STOICHIOMETRY This section develops relations between the composition of the reactants (fuel and air) of a combustible mixture and the composition of the products. only the relative proportions on a molar basis are obtained. or a = 5. Note that only the ratios of the numbers in front of the symbol for each chemical species are defined by Eq. consider the overall chemical equation for the complete combustion of one mole of propane C3H8: Open-chain unsaturated hydrocarbons containing one carbon-carbon triple bond. First member is acetylene.68 INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE FUNDAMENTALS OleJins (alkenes) H H H CnH2n Acetylenes (alkynes) H-CEC-H CnH2n. ~f suficient oxygen is available. with air. Example 3. Fig. where y = b/a. . there is just enough oxygen for conversion of all the fuel into completely oxidized products. 3-3 shows the variation in (AIF). toluene. .g.H8. respectively. (3. only the relative elemental composition of the fuel and the relative proportions of fuel and air are needed. From Eq.0H (ethanol). benzene) to 4 (methane). (3. 28. . .H. or c = 4.H.e. CH30H (also called methanol). The molecular weights of oxygen. More complex aromatic hydrocarbons incorporate ethyl. atmospheric nitrogen. Equation (3.. Calculate ( A l e .5) defines the stoichiometric (or chemically correct or theoretical) proportions of fuel and air.1 percent by mass C and 15. A hydrocarbon fuel of composition 84. A hydrogen balance gives 2c = 8. 2.

. gives Assume a fuel composition C H .2).9.16 = 64. with fuel-rich combustion.16 x 28. For example. Because the composition of the combustion products is significantly different for fuel-lean and fuel-rich mixtures.e. The molecular weights of the reactants M Rand products M pare I I I l l FIGURE 3. the combustion of isooctane with 25 percent excess air.0661. Equation (3. 4. Fuel-air mixtures with more than or less than the stoichiometric air requirement can be burned.66 moles of air and produces 64. and because the stoichiometric fuellair ratio depends on fuel composition.O.16 = 1842. Note that for fuels which are mixtures o hydrocarbons.8 =8 + 9 + 47.15 114.773N2) = 8C02 + 9 H 2 0 + 47.16N2 + 1 1 Air Products In moles: + 12. the extra air appears in the products in unchanged form.is 15. The product composition cannot be determined from an element balance alone and an additional assumption about the chemical composition of the product species must be made (see Secs.96 + 1727. is 0. f is also sometimes used.14 and (FIA).70 INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE FUNDAMENTALS I ' I I I l l per unit mass fuel: Thus for stoichiometric combustion.16 moles of products.. The products are a mixture of COz and H.773) + 59.2 and 4. and H. a and b need not be integers.011a + 1.O with carbon monoxide C O and hydrogen Hz(as well as N.25 times the stoichiometric air requirement.). i.15 = 12. The stoichiometric (A/F). 1 mole of fuel requires 59. Thus a=8 b=18t The fuel is octane C.The molecular weight relation gives . .5(1 + 3. 114.H. or 1. there is insufficient oxygen to oxidize fully the fuel C and H to CO.3 will be used throughout this text for this purpose.16 Relative mass: 114.66 x 28.01 + 9 x 18.5 = 8 x 44. the relative airlfuel ratio A. . The inverse of 4.Y02 + 3.3 4 1 2 3 Fuel molar HIC ratio Stoichiometric airffuel ratio for air-hydrocarbon fuel mixtures as a function of fuel molar H/Cratio..00Sb The gravimetric analysis of the fuel gives With less than the stoichiometric air requirement.02 + 47. the ratio of the actual fuellair ratio to the stoichiometric ratio (or its inverse) is a more informative parameter for defining mixture composition: The fuellair equivalence ratio 4.5) then becomes Fuel CsH18 12.66 + 59. With excess air or fuel-lean combustion.

fuel and oxidizer react to produce products of different composition. . to choose independently the zero internal energy or enthalpy reference states of &emid substances transformed into each other by reaction. The actual path by which this transformation takes place is understood only for simple fuels such as hydrogen and methane. when chemical reactions occur. D along with other fuel data.O + 5. Consider a system of mass m which changes its composition from reactants to producB by chemical reaction as indicated in Fig. The first law of thermodynamics relates changes in internal energy (or enthalpy) to heat and work transfer interactions. . thennodynamics can be used to relate the end states of mixtures undergoing a process. care must be exercised in relating .. We are not free..OH. Nonetheless..e. For methyl alcohol (methanol).0H. More general relationships for the composition of unburned and burned gas mixtures are developed in Chap. The standard thermodynamic sign convention for each energy transfer interaction-positive for heat transfer to the system and positive for work transferjwm the system-is used.7) and (3.773N2) = CO. (3.p and work transfer WR-. T'. . 3-4. PR. are negative]. In applying the first law to a system whose chemical composition changes. = 9. .1> 1 For stoichiometric mixtures: 4 = 1= 1 For fuel-rich mixtures: 4>1. the first law -.O occurs (see Sec. 3. For ethyl alcohol (ethanol). At normal combustion temperatures significant dissociation of CO.A<1 When the fuel contains oxygen (e. VR. .5(02 + 3. the stoichiometric combustion equation is and (AIF).13) becomes The internal energy of the system has changed by an amount (AU). = 6. which can be measured or calculated. Note that the composition of the products of combustion in Eqs. . Then Eq.--Initial state Reactants 7k. the details are not well defined.he reference states at which zero internal energy or enthalpy for each species or proups of species are assigned. C2H. the procedure for determining the overall combustion equation is the same except that fuel oxygen is included in the oxygen balance between reactants and products. then (AU).. Q and ( A U ) . recombination brings the product composition to that indicated by these overall chemical equations depends on the rate of cooling of the product gases. (3. Combustion processes are exothermic [i. (3. with alcohols). For hydrogen fuel.47. (IR FIGURE Combustion process Heat and work transfer interactions Final statc Products.' SWem changing from reactants to products for first law analysis. ..10) to (3. a constant volume process where the initial and final temperatures are the same. The stoichiometric (AIF) and (FIA) ratios of common fuels and representative single hydrocarbon and other compounds are given in App. Whether.10) and (AIF). the stoichiometric &ation is and the stoichiometric (AIF) ratio is 34. at low temperatures. If Eq.00. its application does not require that the details of the process be known. If there are significant amounts of sulfur in the fuel. due to normal force displacements may occur across the system boundary. UP u t The approach used here follows that developed by Spalding and Cole. the appropriate oxidation product for determining the stoichiometric air and fuel proportions is sulfur dioxide.12) may not occur in practice. Applying the first law to the system between its initial and final states gives of Heat transfer Q .PPI VP. SO. TP.66N2 (3. is known as the increase in . . 4. and of H.7.g.1 Energy and Enthalpy Balances In a combustion process.5 THE FIRST LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS AND COMBUSTIONt 3. We will consider a series of special processes: first. For fuels with more complicated structure.3.1).72 THERMOCHEMISTRY OF FUEL-AIR MIXTURES INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE FUNDAMENTALS 73 For fuel-lean mixtures: (6<1.14) is expressed per mole of fuel. 3.5. CH. the stoichiometric combustion equation is CH30H + 1. therefore the system's internal energy decreases. + 2H.

for the products and the reactants. (3. (3. and (AU).. is known as the heat o reacf tion at constant volume at temperature T . and (AU).(AU). . one of the products. For a constant pressure process . (AH). and -(AU). = R(n'.16) is written per mole of fuel. If U (or H) for the reactants is arbitrarily assigned a value U x o r Hi) at some reference temperature To.I .. . . which can be measured or calculated.. ' Next. I ( A ~ ) vT'.. . .O. With a hydrocarbon fuel. Again for combustion reactions. (3. If all the reactant and species are ideal gases.3T1 . . . (or c. The internal energy differences between the curves is (3.17) (Amp. respectively. on the internal energy or enthalpy versus temperature plot shown schematically in Fig. is called the increase in is called the heat o reaction at f enthalpy at constant pressure and -(AH). [or (All).1) gives - . the magnitude of (AWV.13) becomes The enthalpy of the system has changed by an amount (AH). I-. T'. The internal energy (or enthalpy) of the products in the constant volume (or constant pressure) processes described above in Fig. I ~ 2 u . (3. The limiting cases of all vapor and all liquid are shown in Fig. 3-5.H 2 0 vnp = m internal energy at constant volume. ( W v . (3. is a negative quantity. . . . then the value of (AU)v. .n. .~ is the internal energy is of vaporization of water at the temperature and pressure of the products. (AH). (AH)....3. constant pressure at T . Similar T'..[or (AH). 3-6a for a U-T plot. If Eq.. . (b)Effect of fuel in reactants as either vapor or liquid.r. . Note that any inert gases do not contribute to (n'. g ~ z ~ 0 Reactants 1 Reactants so Eq. The difference between (AH). can be in the gaseous or liquid phase. .18) FIGURE 3-5 Schematic plot of internal energy (U) or enthalpy (H) of reactants and products as a function of temperature. then the ideal gas law Eq. 3-5 will depend on the relative proportions of the water in the gaseous and liquid phases.iq I . is .. respectively. Note that the slope of these lines (the specific heat at constant volume or pressure if the diagram is expressed per unit mass or per mole) increases with increasing tem- .HZO. H. .n.) for the products is greater than for the reactants.. decreases with increasing temperaturebecause c. . consider a constant pressure process where the initial and final temperatures are the same..74 INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE FUNDAMENTALS THERMOCHEMISTRY OF RIELAIR MIXTURES 75 ~ r a t u r ealso. . FIGURE 3-6 Schematic plots of internal energy of reactants and products as a function of temperature. . T = ~ V -Pvd Only if the volumes of the products and reactants in the constant pressure process are the same are (AH).J fixes the relationship between U(T) or H(T).. .19) where mHzo the mass of water in the products and u. equal. ' These processes can be displayed. (a) Effect of water in products as either vapor or liquid. . .

-965. + 202 = C02 + 2H20 Thus.18 = and for H20liquid: (AH).54 74. Selected values of thermodynamic properties of relevant species are tabulated in App. .21a.87 = -890.87 MJ/kmol CH. the enthalpy of the products at the standard state relative to the enthalpy datum is then given by H2 0 Hz0 CO Liquid Gas Gas Gas Gas CH. of a stoichiometric mixture o f methane and oxygen at 298.15 K. The reference state of each element is its stable standard state. Elements at their reference state are arbitrarily assigned zero enthalpy at the datum temperature.i products . of a chemical compound is the enthalpy increase associated with the reaction of forming one mole of the given compound from its elements. standard enthalpy.O liquid: H. The enthalpy of formation AL.2 and Eq.83 -285.110.33 MJ/kmol CH. We will use this datum throughout this text." Enthalpies of formation of species relevant to hydrocarbon fuel combustion are tabulated in Table 3. standard Gibbs free energy (called free energy in the tables). Since thermodynamic calculations are made as a difference between an initial and a final state.17). MJ/kmol CH.. The vertical distance between the two reactant curves is mf u (or mf hfgf) where the subscriptf denotes fuel.85 -201.87 = -802.45 -249. " ni~QSi reactants The enthalpy increase.15 K (25•‹C)and 1 atmosphere.. equilibrium constant for the formation of each species from its elements.H.241. .58 -208.. = -393. Hi = .52 -241.103.15 K. Calculate the enthalpy of the products and reactants. TABLE 3 3 standard enthalpies of formation species 0 2 I (AH)p.OH GH. Some primary references for thermodynamic data on fuel compounds are Maxwell? Rossini et al. ..84) = -965.20 = + 3-285. enthalpy of formation and Gibbs free energy of formation.2.31 + 74. 3-6b. as indicated in Fig. (AH).20 MJ/kmol CH.Ha. We will denote the standard state by the superscript ". The U-T(or H-T) line for the reactants with the fuel as liquid or as vapor will be different. For some fuels. For H. Enthalpies of formation are tabulated as a function of temperature for all commonly occurring species.52 + 3. with each substance in its thermodynamic standard state at the given temperature. or where the precise fuel composition is known. CH.2 Enthalpies of Formation For fuels which are single hydrocarbon compounds.5. the reactants may contain the fuel as either liquid or vapor.1•‹ and Stull et al.18 MJ/kmol CH.20) T ..(3. b): H.is then obtained from the difference (Hi. + 74.OH CH. For a given combustion reaction. 298. (3.g. the most common datum is 298.15 and the enthalpy of the reactants is given by H.17 -238.87 . lip I . The standard state is the state at one atmosphere pressure and the temperature under consideration.76 INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE FUNDAMENTALS THERMOCHEMISTRY OF FUELAIR MIXTURES 77 curves and relationships apply for enthalpy: (3. for oxygen at 298.35 0 3. C. The internal energy increase can be obtained with Eg.877. CaHm t At - Liquid Gas Liquid K (25•‹C)and 1 atm. e. from Table 3. the reference state is 0. The stoichiometric reaction is CH. for H20gas.83) = .Hz0 vap I = m ~ 2 h H z 0 ' 0. D. Example 32. Hi = ni~fi.I HZO St.T. While a number of datum states hove been used in the literature.. and the enthalpy increase and internal energy increase of the reaction. gas. For inorganic compounds. and log. -877.74. standard entropy.84 .* These tables include values of the molar specific heat at constant pressure.tef MJlkmol 0 0 0 N2 HI C Gas Gas Gas Gas Gas Gas co2 -393. it is necessary to select a datum state to which all other thermodynamic states can be referred. the internal energies or enthalpies of the reactants and the products can be related through the enthalpies of formation of the reactants and products. the JANAF Thermochemica1 Tables are the primary reference source. = -393.52 Hence for H20gas : (AH).

though this must exceed the stoichiometric requirement. A applies for the higher and lower replacing hjg similar expression with u heating value at constant volume.2 MJ/kg and average molar H/C ratio of 2 is mixed with the stoichiometric air requirement at 298. A sample of the fuel is placed in the bomb calorimeter. (3. The heating values of common fuels are tabulated with other fuel data in App.. It is immaterial whether the oxidant is air ar oxygen.and slny sulfur present is converted to SO. The heating value determined by this process is the higher heating value at constant volume. .. -(AVg.. we have shown that whether the H. The heating value at constant pressure is the more commonly used.O produced to mass of fuel burned. The following example illustrates how the enthalpy of a reactant mixture relative to the enthalpy datum we have defined can be determined from the measured heating value of the fuel. the term lower heating value QLHv(or net heating value) is used when the H.3 MJ/kmol CH.09 = -43. D. Liquid kerosene fuel of the lower heating value (determined in a bomb calorimeter) of 43.18). (AH).4 kg where M = 28. Note that the presence of nitrogen in the mixture or oxygen in excess of the stoichiometric amount would not change any of these calculations.2 + 0. TO and Q H V ~= -(AU)v. With H. The heating value determined by this process is the higher heating value at constant pressure. . The heating value given is at constant volume.( A H ) p . It is therefore unnecessary to specify how much oxidant was mixed with the fuel. Oxygen at 30 atmospheres is admitted to the bomb.66 kmol 14 kg fuel + 7'160 kmO1) air + 221.o/mf) is the ratio of mass of H. The term higher heating value QHHv(OXgross heating value) is used when the H. The combustion equation per mole of C can be written 7.15 K. it i. The two heating values at constant pressure are related by Example 33. For H. Suficient water is placed in the bomb to ensure that the water produced in the combustion process will condense. 0. (AH). which is a stainless-steel container immersed in cooling water at the standard temperature.33 = .53 Heating Values For fuels where the precise fuel composition is not known. For gaseous fuels.4 MJ/kmol CH.4kg products 207.O liquid: (AV)". TO (3. is obtained from Eq.8. the enthalpy of the reactants cannot be determined from the enthalpies of formation of the reactant species.3143 x 10-3(1.15 MJ/kmol CH.22a) = QHV.18) to find (AU)". often the qualification "at constant pressure" is omitted. The difference between the heating values at constant pressure and constant volume is small. = Heating valuest of fuels are measured in calorimeters.885.78 INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE FUNDAMENTALS THERMOCHEMISTRY OF FUEL-AIR MIXTURES 79 Use Eq. noting that the fuel is in the liquid phase: where (mH. For liquid and solid fuels. The heating value QHv or calorific value of a fuel is the magnitude of the heat of reaction at constant pressure or at constant volume at a standard temperature [usually 25•‹C(77"F)l for the complete combustion of unit mass of fuel.15 K.O gas.O formed is all in the vapor phase.O in the products is in the liquid or gaseous phase affects the value of the heat of reaction.226) calorimeter. -890.1 MJBg fuel Standard methods for measuring heating values are defined by the American Society for Testing . ( Complete combustion means that all carbon is converted to CO. The heating value of the fuel is then measured directly. A length of firing cotton is suspended into the sample from an electrically heated wire filament to act as a source of ignition..O. all hydrogen is converted to H. = -43. The heating value is usually expressed in joules per kilogram or joules per kilomole of fuel (British thermal units per pound-mass or British thermal units per poundmole).and H at 298. The entering fuel is saturated with water vapor and mixed with sufficient saturated air for complete combustion at the reference temperature. When combustion is complete the temperature rise of the bomb and cooling water is measured.962 for atmospheric air.O formed is all condensed to the liquid phase. (3. most convenient and accurate to use a continuous-flow atmosphere pressure -802. The heat transferred to the cooling water is calculated from the measured water flow rate and water temperature rise. N. the number of moles of reactants and products are equal. . Calculate the enthalpy of the reactant mixture relative to the datum of zero enthalpy for C. so = (AV)". I kfaterials. 3. For fuels containing hydrogen. Thus (3. The mixture is burned in a burner and the combustion products cooled with watercooled metal tube coils to close to the inlet temperature. (AUK = . it is more satisfactory to burn the fuel with oxygen under pressure at constant volume in a bomb calorimeter.3)298.

i.24) that [VAT) .5.O vapor): hp = 1(-393. the datum used throughout this text).U(T. Because a fraction of the fuel's chemical energy is not fully released inside the engine during the combustion process. . however.80 INTERNAL COMBUSTlON ENGINE FUNDAMENTALS The enthalpy of the products per kilogram of mixture is found from the enthalpies of formation (with H. Given the initial state of the reactants (T. 4.g. however. Since it follows from Eq. The amount of fuel energy supplied to the control volume around the engine which can be released by combustion is mf QHv. To T FIGURE 3-7 Adiabatic constant-volume combustion prows on U-T diagram or adiabatic constant-pmsurr combustion ' process on H-Tdiagram. Frequently. 0..83) 221. . (3. The final temperature of the products in an adiabatic combustion process is called the adiabatic flame temperature.. V) we can determine the final state of the products (T. the constant-volume or constant-pressure constraint must also be used explicitly. the tables or graphs of internal energy or enthalpy for species and reactant or product mixtures which are available give internal energies or enthalpies relative to the species or mixture value at some reference temperature To. the enthalpies of . the combustion .59 MJ/kg = 22 1. (3.1 x 14 + . Given the initial reactant state (TR. = 2. the exhaust gas of an internal combustion engine contains incomplete . 3-11.e.UP(T0)l /i II II I TR I I I I I I T. = pp = pa.4 The enthalpy of the reactants per kilogram of mixture is then hR = hp . (3.87 35. .. For an adiabatic constant-pressure combustion process.52) + 1(-241. 3-5.4 Adiabatic Combustion Processes We now use the relationships developed above to examine two other special processes important in engine analysis: constant-volume and constant-pressure adiabatic combustion. .13) gives Hp. and 3-7 we have shown U and H for the reactants and products to be functions of T only. and H. U(T) . The analysis presented here is general.CuR(T) . it is useful to define a combustion efficiency.13) becomes Up. Eq. combustion products (e. Consider a mass m which passes through the control volume surrounding the engine shown in Fig. Reactants (fuel and air) flow into the system. products (exhaust gases) flow out.U R = O (3.(Ah).) or H(T) . The engine can be analyzed as an open system which exchanges heat and work with its surrounding environment (the atmosphere). unburned hydrocarbons. 3-8. (3.( A ~ ) v To . (3. p). Under lean operating conditions the amounts of incomplete combustion products are small. Note that while in Figs. For an adiabatic constant-volume process.. are evaluated relative to the same datum (e.O) (see Sec. soot) as well as complete combustion products (CO.g..15 K. p) we can determine the final product state (T. 3 5 5 Combustion EZficiency of an Internal Combustion Engine In practice.and H.H(G) are tabulated.HR=O which combines with Eq. batic combustion process. are zero at 298.16) to give Figure 3-7 illustrates this process also.25) relates the product and reactant states. the net chemical energy release due to combustion within the engine is given by . Under fuel-rich operating conditions these amounts become more substantial since there is insufficient oxygen to complete combustion. Hence.9). in practice for the products at high temperature U and H will be functions of p and T.87 MJ/kg 43. Figure 3-7 illustrates the adiabatic constant-volume combustion process on a U-T diagram. CO. Eq.V).24) when Up and U.. C. 3-6.i is the standard enthalpy of formation of species i at ambient temperature TA.4 = 2.UR(TO)]= . to determine the final state of the products in an adia- Enthalpy is the appropriate property since p.N . ni is the number of moles of species i in the reactants or products per unit mass of working fluid and Ah. Examples of typical adiabatic flame temperatures are shown later in Fig. H .

The discussion earlier relating enthalpies (or internal energies) of reactant and product mixtures applies to entropy also.r-----------1 Engine Air Contml volume bustion process remains stable. could be.. non-p dV work) to the environment and AH = Hp . The standard state entropies of chemical species are tabulated in the JANAF tables relative to zero entropy at 0 K. we can derive an expression for the maximum useful work that the engine can deliver. it is shown how the entropy of a mixture of ideal gases of known composition can be calculated. for lean equivalence ratios. B. Since the heat transfer AQ occurs only with the atmosphere at temperature T. For spark-ignition engines. the combustion efficiency is usually in the range 95 to 98 percent. For mixtures richer than stoichiometric. . L-----------A 3. products (exhaust gases) flow out. and TR= T .13Usually p. provided the engine com- 3. Reactants (fuel and air) flow into the system. Combustion efficiency is little affected by other engine operating and design variables.AWu= AH X Diesels 1 Exhaust equivalence ratio where AW.9.1 Entropy In App. = p.TAS. For diesel engines. lack of oxygen prevents complete combustion of the fuel carbon and hydrogen.H R. The maximum work will be obtained when pp = p. on which these combustion efficiencies are based. . Details of exhaust gas composition. The first law gives AQ. FIGURE 1 9 Variation of engine combustion efficency with fuel/air equivalence ratio. then the values of the entropy of a reactant mixture of given composition and of the resulting product mixture of given composition are both determined. which always operate lean.6 THE SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS APPLIED TO COMBUSTION 3. H . Figure 3-9 shows how combustion efficiency varies with the fuellair equivalence ratio for internal combustion engines. 4. from the second law These equations combine to give where B is the steady-flowavailability function. Consider a mass m of fluid as it passes through the control volume surrounding the engine. If the entropies of the elements at a datum temperature are arbitrarily set equal to zero.. .e. eficiencpthe fraction of the fuel energy supplied which is released in the combustion process-is given by1' Note that m and m. replaced by the average mass flow rates m and m . and Tp = TA. and the combustion efficiency steadily decreases as the mixture becomes richer.6. can be found in Sec. FIGURE 3-8 Control volume surroundingengine. 3-8. as illustrated in Fig.6.2 Maximum Work from an Internal Combustion Engine and Efficiency An internal combustion engine can be analyzed as an open system which exchanges heat and work with its surrounding environment (the atmosphere). is the useful work transfer (i. By applying the second law of thermodynamics to a control volume surrounding the engine. the combustion efficiency is normally higher-about 98 percent.

for selected fuel combustion reactions are given in Table 3.TABLE 3 3 Enthalpies and free energies of combustion reactions Reactiont C+Oz+COz Hz ~ O + H z 0 Z CH4 + 202 + C 0 2 + 2HiO + CHLO(I)+ go2 CO2 + 2HzO C 3 H 8 ) 5 0 1 + 3C02 4H2O C6H6(l)+ T O 2 + K O 2 + 3H20 CIH1. A fundamental measure of the effectiveness of any practical internal combustion engine is the ratio of the actual work delivered compared with this maximum work. The fuel conversion efficiency is the most commonly used definition of ingine efficiencybecause it uses an easily measured quantity. (3) be one of the rate-controlling processes that determine how the composition of the mixture changes with time. or (Ag). (3.27)] is less than unity. is measured directly as the heating value of the fuel. . since the engine overall is a steady flow device and the water in the exhaust is always in vapor form.30).78 -800. it is the heating value.9 - t H O (gas) in products. to define the usable fuel energy supplied to the engine. Depending on the problem under consideration and the portion of the engine cycle in which it occurs chemical reactions may: (1) be so slow that they have a negligible effect on mixture composition (the mixture composition is essentially "frozen").35 2074.. We will use Qmvcin Eq.2 -5074..7 CHEMICALLY REACTING GAS MIXTURES The working fluids in engines are mixtures of gases. -(AG).. which is usually measured.52 -240. however.. For the pure hydrocarbons they are closely comparable because at 298 K.13 3.1 -3175. and (AG).30) and sometimes the lower heating value.. incomplete combustion by defining an efficiency which relates the actual work per cycle to the amount of fuel chemical energy released in the combustion process. (3. (3. This topic is discussed more fully in Sec. Eq. The normal in internal combustion engine analysis is to use the lower heating value at constant pressure.30) throughout this text..59 -2044..91 -802. The second law limit to the availability conversion efficiency is unity. and (Ah)". will be a maximum when combustion is complete.76 -685. It is sometimes useful to separate out the effects of . it is standard practice to use the following definition of efficiency: It is important to understand thai there is a fundamental difference between availability conversion efficiency as defined by Eq.. For a thermodynamic heat engine (which experiences heat-transfer interactions with at least two heat reservoirs) the efficiencyis limited to a value substantially less than unity by the temperatures of the heat reservoirs available. passing through the engine and interacting only with the atmosphere.29) [and the fuel conversion efficiency for internal combustion engines.MJ/kmol + + + + -393. which closely approximates it] and the efficiency of a thermodynamic heat engine.40 -232.. Under these conditions. Values of (Ag)".. the heating value.30 -638. and combustion efficiencies are related by 4 = ' t c 'It 1 ' (3.. which was defined as the fuel conversion eficiency in Sec. This efficiency therefore defines the fraction of the availability of the unburned fuel and air which. Availability analysis of engine operation is proving valuable in identifying where the significant irreversibilities or losses in availability occur.32) The property availability is the maximum useful work transfer that can be obtained from a system atmosphere (or control-volume atmosphere) combination at a given state.. Because For for practical fuels -(Ah)". Note that sometimes the higher heating value is used in Eq. is the Gibbs free energy increase in the reaction of the fuel-air mixture to products at atmospheric temperature and pressure...6 -394. A%"4 APIT. This ratio will be called the availability conversion efficiency qa: Obviously the fuel conversion.. MJ/kmol A&. 5. 2. ~l?' x AP". . H .3.1 -5219.TS. (3. is actually converted to useful work. . not all the fuel energy supplied to the engine is released by the combustion process since combustion is incomplete: the combustion efficiency [ ~ q (3. We will call this the thermal conversion efficiency qr: G is the Gibbs free energy. Whichever value is used should be explicitly stated...8. is not an easy quantity to evaluate for practical fuels. the fuel conversion efficiency and the availability conversion are closely comparable in value. (2) be so rapid that the mixture state changes and the composition remains in chemical equilibrium.7.. In practice...(f) + Y O z + 8C02 9H20 A&. -(Ah).0 -3135. hydrogen and methanol the differences are larger. For hydrocarbon fuels. thermal conversion. (AG).

this equation holds for finite changes : Thus. At higher temperatures (greater than about 2200 K). The reactant species Ma.and other species in lesser amounts...7. of M. H. and produce 6n1 of M. CO. it follows from Eqs.. These amounts are in proportion: 6ni = vi 6n (3. as the composition changes is given by - - - - j where 6ni is the change in number of moles of species i and l is the chemical potential.001 ..? By this we mean that the chemical reactions. The second law of thermodynamics defines the criterion for chemical equilibrium as follows.H.33) T =0 . . the major species present at low temperatures are N.the first law gives Consider a reactive mixture of ideal gases. capillarity). . M. OH. to obtain e K.NO.etc. For an ideal gas. at constant pressure and temperature. etc. reactions can only occur (at constant pressure and temperature) if G (= H . = co. molecules. M. C0. is in equilibrium. gravity. molecules are dissociating into CO and 0.37) that and The second law gives Combining these gives Since we are considering constant-temperature processes.1. constant-temperature process. * . CO. 0. etc. of M.13). dn. if the temperature of a mass of carbon dioxide gas in a vessel is increased sufficiently.etc. these major species dissociate and react to form additional species in significant amounts. 11). molecules dissociate into CO and 0. where ji equals &' the standard specific Gibbs free energy of formation. and product species MI. the adiabatic combustion of a stoichiometric mixture of a typical hydrocarbon fuel with air produces products with species mole fractions of: N.O. Hence at equilibrium (3. is the equilibrium constant at constant pressure: t This assumption is not valid late in the expansion stroke and during the exhaust process (see 4. Consider a system of chemically reacting substances undergoing a constant-pressure. by which individual species in the burned gases react together.7.9).. The standard state pressure po is usually one atmosphere. 0 0. For example.35) The change in Gibbs free energy of a mixture of ideal gases. . H.O. an intensive property. or CO and Hz. motion. The chemical potential... (B. W can divide by 6n and rearrange.. (3.+vmM.. at equilibrium. 0.36) gives. and 0.344 where the vi are the stoichiometric coefficients and by convention are positive for the product species and negative for the reactant species. For example.-=vlM. is defined as It is equal in magnitude to the specific Gibbs free energy at a given temperature and pressure. 0. In the absence of shear work (and electrical work. Nor does it take account of pollutant formation processes (see Chap. and 0. are related by the general reaction whose Stoichiometryis given by vaMa+vbMb+.1 Chemical Equilibrium It is a good approximation for performance estimates in engines to regard the burned gases produced by the combustion of fuel and air as in chemical equilibrium. then CO. (3.TS) for the products is less than G for the reactants. If the mixture of CO. In combustion products of hydrocarbon fuels..15) (3..01 . 0. react with Sn. This can be written as + a * . molecules are recombining in the proportions required to satisfy the equation CO + to. No net change in species composition results. Let an amount 6na of M.. at the same rate as CO and 0.3. H. produce and remove each species at equal rates. Substitution in Eq. CO. some of the CO. (B.

CO.280.. = 3. the number of moles of reactants nR is 3.2 can be written . determine the mole fractions of the product species at 1700 K. CO. the number of moles of products n. the converse is true. H20. as indicated in Eq. = 27.40)J gives vi > 0 If Ci v. For xi vi = 0. 12. log.555np = 5. If C.40) and (3. changes in pressure have no effect on the composition.. 8. log. CO.699 .12. for C.88 INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE FUNDAMENTALS It is obtained from the Gibbs free energy of the reaction which can be calculated from the Gibbs free energy of formation of each species in the reaction. The equilibrium constant for a specific reaction is then obtained via the relation If the degree of dissociation in the products is a (i. K. (1 . and Kc are equal.. An equilibrium constant.. the pressures in Eqs. (3.0. (3. (3. CO. a 5 For this mixture. and Kc: - The pressure of the product mixture is p = 5.037 "P Equation (3.. Example 3. K.180 = 0. < 0 (recombination reactions). (equilibrium constants of formation from the elements in their standard state) at 2500 K of CO.011 + 4.4. For 4 = 1. The composition of the products in mole fractions is. Kc. . (3. is (1 a/2). initially at 1 atm and 300 K. Kp = 8. a fraction cc of the CO. The reaction relating these species (often called the water gas reaction) is C 0 2 + H2 CO +H20 From the JANAF tables. If (dissociation reactions).-air combustion products. It is a function of temperature only. as 8. and 0. values of log. (K. K. the product composition is CO. log. and H.39) above.. based on concentrations (usually expressed in gram moles per cubic centimeter) is also used: zi which can be solved to give a = 0.440 which gives K. Thus. Kc = n [MilVi i x". from Eq.. (3.530 from which K. The JANAF tables give log. The combustion equation is CO + 40. In fuel-rich combustion product mixtures. Hz%).a) . equilibrium between the species CO. = 8.6. H2. Substitution of the mole fractions A.6.2.. 4. .H. from Eq. = C 0 .180. The ideal gas law gives + pR V = nR f i ~ pP V = npfiTp ~ Thus With the JANAF table values of (K. The combustion reaction for CBHl.). formed by complete combustion is dissociated). is exploded.. theequilibrium constants of formation of one mole of each species from their elements in their standard states..074. K of formation for these species at 1700 K are: ..e.41).41) must be in atmospheres.40) can be used to relate K.280 . therefore.5. CO. is often assumed to determine the burned gas composition.76 atm for p. then the mole fractions of the dissociation products decrease as pressure increases. respectively. The equilibrium constant for the 0 above reaction is.840.41).-air with 4 = 1. = 1 atmosphere. the equilibrium constant for the CO combustion reaction above is. Calculate the composition of the products of combustion at 2500 K and the gas pressure. a. and 0.). In the JANAF tables: to simplify the calculation of equilibrium constants.40).. A stoichiometric mixture of CO and 0. O. (3. and mixture pressure p gives The equilibrium relation [Eq.840 = 1. The effect of pressure on the equilibrium composition can be deduced from Eq. are tabulated against temperature.699.388. = -. v. in a closed vessel. = 0. Example 35..011.

such as those in App. The basic equations for the NASA program are the following. 0. Hz.83 2b The equilibrium relation gives (bc)/(ad) 3. a = 5. HzO." are obtained by combining standard enthalpies of formation at the datum temperature (298. If the stoichiometric coefficients aij are the number of kilomoles of element i per kilomole of species j. conservation of elements will provide C equations which relate the concentrations of these N species.44).. Using the method of lagrangian multipliers. For each species. ~ in combustion are C (solid. each in equilibrium. For each species. These four equations can be solved to obtain which gives c = 2. i. and entropy and volume (useful for isentropic compressions and expansions). and entropy as functions of temperature are given in the form: The Gibbs free energy per kilogram of mixture is .29. O.(g)]. must then be used. which includes each species at least once will then provide the additional equations required to determine the concentration of each species in the mixture.051. CO. the term I n is defined. b = 7. 0.14 The approach taken is to minimize explicitly the Gibbs free energy of the reacting mixture (at constant temperature and pressure) subject to the constraints of element mass conservation. br is the number of kilomoles of element i per kilogram of mixture. enthalpy. 0.388 (since the equilibrated reac= tion has the same number of moles as there are reactants or products. and nj is the number of kilomoles of speciesj per kilogram of mixture. standard state enthalpies I.C) > 2. Any set of (N . The equations required to obtain mixture composition are not all linear in the composition variables and an iteration procedure is generally required to obtain their solution. 0.. temperature and volume. the thermodynamic state may be specified by other pairs of state variables: enthalpy and pressure (useful for constant-pressure combustion processes).(g).C) nonlinear equations which is difficult to solve for cases where (N . A generally available and welldocumented example is the NASA program of this type.023. 0.). is the chemical potential in the standard state and p is the mixture pressure in atmospheres.12. entropy and pressure. with sensible enthalpies (I. The condition for equilibrium then becomes Treating the variations 6nj and 6Ai as independent gives and the mole fractions of the species in the burned gas mixture are CO2. this complete set of equations is a coupled set of C linear and (N .For gases.. the chemical potential A carbon balance gives: a+c=8 is A hydrogen balance gives: An oxygen balance gives: + 2d = 18 2a + b + c = 20. H. graphite). For complex systems such as this. The total number of moles of products is where ji.89.0908. N. B which define the thermodynamic properties of gas mixtures. Standardized computer methods for the calculation of complex chemical equilibrium compositions have been developed." . Equations (3. N2. Consider a mixture of N reacting gases in equilibrium. internal energy and volume (useful for constant-volume combustion processes). 6 is zero [the elements important .48) permit the determination of equilibrium compositions for thermodynamic states specified by a temperature T and pressure p.72.(g). In the NASA program. the thermodynamic quantities specific heat.C) chemical reactions. If there are C chemical elements. ~ ~ ~ For the elements in their reference state.15 K) ~h. additional relations. the moles of each species can be substituted for the partial pressures). element mass balance constraints are and the original mass balance equation (3.698 Our development of the equilibrium relationship for one reaction has placed no restrictions on the occurrence of simultaneous equilibria. Unfortunately.44) and (3.Rg. the following approach to equilibrium composition calculations is now more widely used. and d = 1. Once the composition is determined.137..e.

Thermodynamic mixture properties (obtained from the equilibrium composition and the appropriate gas mixture rule. and Hzfor rich mixtures..-H. the species to be included in the mixture must be specified as an input to the calculation. In the NASA program. Figure 3-1 1 shows adiabatic flame temperatures for typical engine conditions as a function of the equivalence ratio. At low temperatures. h. Chemical processes in engines are often not in equilibrium.2 Chemical Reaction Rates Whether a system is in chemical equilibrium depends on whether the time constants of the controlling chemical reactions are short compared with time scales over which the system conditions (temperature and pressure) change. 4. Equilibrium composition. s. H. 3. f Figure 3-10 shows how the equilibrium composition of the products of combustion of isooctane-air mixtures at selected temperatures and 30 atm pressure varies with the equivalence ratio. see App.(a In V/a In T).4. Important examples of nonequilibrium phenomena are the flame reaction zone where the fuel is oxidized. for lean mixtures and N. CO.. CO. Flame temperatures for adiabatic combustion at constant pressure (where pR and HR are specified) and at constant volume (where VR and U Rare specified) are shown. and H becoming significant. y. . T. For each reactant composition and pair of thermodynamic state variables. the products are N. (a In V/a In p). and the air-pollutant formation mechanisms. Flame temperatures at constant volume are higher..O.7).92 INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE FUNDAMENTALS The coefficients are obtained by least-squares matching with thermodynamic property data from the JANAF tables. and a (sound speed) c. all allowable species are included in the calculation. In some equilibrium programs. Maximum flame temperatures occur slightly rich of stoichiometric. Mole fractions of each species (which are present in significant amounts). p. obtained with the NASA program using the methodology of Sec. 0. p. 3. though species may be specifically omitted from consideration.O. the program calculates and prints out the following: 1.. M . The isooctane-air unburned mixture state was 700 K and 10 atm. Usually two sets of coefficients are included for two adjacent temperature intervals (in the NASA program these are 300 to 1000 K and 1000 to 5000 K) (see Sec. . As temperature increases. the burned-gas mixture composition becomes much more complex with dissociation products such as OH. B). Such nonequilibrium processes are controlled by the rates at which the actual chemical reactions which convert . and 0. because the final pressure is higher and dissociation is less. CO.. 2. .7.5.

and M. ~ h & . (The only first-order reactions are decomposition processes. also. H+H+M=H2+M* (3. FIGURE %I1 Equilibrium product temperatures for constant-volume (T.e. The law of mass action states that the rate at which product species are pduced and the rate at which reactant species are removed is proportional to the product of the concentrations of reactant species. temperature.g. Ma and M. where two reactant molecules. and whether any catalyst is present.)isequilibrium pressure for adiabatic wnstant-volume combustion. respectively. for reaction (3. and O H combine during the final stage of the fuel oxidation process: e..51) An important example of such a reaction is the rate-controlling step in the process by which the pollutant nitric oxide. subscripts R and P denote reactants and products.. reactants to is given by If the reaction can also proceed in the reverse (-) direction. then the backward rate R.51) above. reactants to products occur...are the rate constants in the forward and reverse directions for this reaction. and v.52) These results can be stated more generally as follows. Examples are the recombination reactions by which radical species such as H. 0.) Third-order reactions are important in combustion.. Pressure @. are each unity and sum to 2.. and there are n reactant species and m product species.+Mb=Mc+Md (3. the reaction rate R + in the forward (+) direction. NO.94 INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE FUNDAMENTALS THERMOCHEMISTRY OF FUEL-AIR MMTURES 95 M is any molecule (such as N ) which takes part in the collision and carries away .. The net rate of production of products or removal of reactants is.. M. with the concentration of each species raised to the power of its stoichiometric coefficient v. The rates at which chemical reactions proceed depend on the concentration of the reactants. forms: O+N1=NO+N This is a second-order reaction since the stoichiometric coefficients of the reactants v. the excess energy. The forward reaction rate R+ and the reverse reaction rate R are given by The net rate of removal of reactant species MR.is given by I 0!2 0:4 ' 66 0!8 lb 1 : I Fuellair equivalence ratio 9 r! 0 k + and k . i. there- fore. 3 and constant-pnssure (Tp.' Most of the chemical reactions of interest in combustion are binary reactions. with the capability of reacting together collide and form two product molecules. This field is called chemical kinetics and some of its basic relations will now be reviewed. as a function of fuellair equivalena ratio. M. Any reaction can be written as where vi is the stoichiometric coefficient of species Mi.S adiabatic combustion of isooctane-air mixture initially at 700 K and 10 atm.is .

usually follow the Anhenius form: 35. essentially zero.9. PROBLEMS 31 . What is the volumetric efficiency? Calculate the exhaust gas composition of a butane-fueled spark-ignition engine ope[ating with equivalence ratio of 0.Calculate the equivalenceratio. Q . m .. Eq. 10%. Assume N/O ratio in the combustion products is 15.. = .. Carbon monoxide reacts with air at 1 atm and 1000 K in an exhaust gas reactor. and hydrogen. .R. are determined experimentally. (c) The equilibrium constant K.. these radicals react so quickly once they are formed that their concentrations d o not rise but are maintained in steady state with the species with which they react. At equilibrium. Calculate the air flow rate for stoichiometric combustion.. The measured engine fuel flow rate is 0. The functionaldependence of k on T and the constants in the Arrhenius form.) 39 The exhaust gases of a hydrogen-fueled engine contain 22. (The actual time will be longer but this calculation indicates approximately the time required. Then. Butane is C.. exp O " [. (c) heat losses. is 190 kW. O. Isooctane is supplied to a four-cylinder spark-ignition engine at 2 4s. isooctane. air flow rate is 5. one must sum algebraically the forward and reverse rates of all the reactions which produce (or remove) a species of interest. E/R = 20. That is.THERMOCHEMXSTRY OF FUEL-AIR MIXTURES 96 a7 INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE FUNDAMENTALS The molar composition of dry exhaust gas of a propane-fueled SI engine is given below (water and the net rate of production of product species M. Calculate the N O concentration at equilibrium at 2500 K and 30 atm.42).6 g/s. (3. EA is the activation energy. if that is appropriate./RT) defines the fraction of all collisions that have a n energy greater than E. (b) The rate of reaction is given by + d[CO]/dt = -4.3. sufficient energy t o make the reaction take place.0%. C o t . percent 0. Unburned hydrocarbon emissions can be neglected. The fuel chemical energy entering the engine per unit time. What is the ratio of hydrogen atoms to carbon atoms in the fuel? . (b) friction work. 7.4 g/s.Calculate the initial reaction rate of CO. is was removed before the measurement). log.94. The fuel is gasoline with a H/C ratio of 1. The Boltzmann factor exp (-E. The methodology reviewed above still holds. (d) exhaust chemical energy. 7% (a) Calculate the concentration of CO and 0.000 K. however. 3. M. (3. and exhaust gas composition (measured dry) is CO.O. (3.59. k.43). Compare the equivalence ratio calculated from the fuel and air flow with the equivalence ratio calculated from exhaust gas composition. (d) Determine the time to reach this equilibrium concentration of CO using the initial reaction rate. What percentage of this energy becomes (a) brake work. estimate the mass of fuel and air entering each cylinder per cycle.74%.87. (3. (4 The fuel is a synthetic fuel derived from wal containing only carbon and hydrogen. the forward and reverse reaction rates are equal.= 0: 3 . Gas is sampled at 1 atmosphere pressure from the exhaust manifold of an internal combustion engine and analyzed. and NO are the only species present. where A is called the frequency o r preexponential factor a n d may be a (moderate) function of temperature.8.. 3. An upper estimate can be made of the amount of NO formed in an engine from considering the equilibrium of the reaction N. and 70. The engine displaced volume is 2. The heat losses to the coolant and oil are 60 kW. The net rate at which their concentration changes with time is set equal to zero.At what equivalence ratio is it operating? 3-10. 3%.8% with 0. = 13. Assume the fuel is fully burned within the c@der. x [CO][O J . Find the equilibrium CO concentration. in gram moles per cmqn the entering mixture. CO = 2. by Eq. the equilibrium constant based on partial pressures. from Eq.4 liters. with R + .2 percent N. at 1000 K is 10l0. The mole fractions of species in the exhaust are: Other species such as CO and unburned hydrocarbons can be neglected. N2. d[CO]/dt: time is in seconds.. K.. 6%. = CO. It can be related t o K.3 percent H. H20.H. The mole fractions of the exhaust gas-air mixture flowing into the reactor are CO. Assume a H..2 for this reaction at 2500 K. 3. I n such complex mechanisms it is often useful to assume that (some of) the reactive intermediate species o r radicals are in steady state. Assume the fuel is fully vaporized.E / ( R q [ I denotes concentration in gram moles per cm3.-i. where Kc is the equilibrium constant based on concentrations defined by Eq. The rate constants. 02.3 x 10.44 . 0. If the engine is operating at 1500 rev/ min. ..59).7. for the reaction CO + 40.e.2. The brake fuel conversion efficiency of an engine is 0. The combustion efficiency is 0. concentration equal to one-third the CO concentration. Evaluate and compare the lower heating values per unit mass of stoichiometric mixture and per unit volume of stoichiometric mixture (at standard atmospheric conditions) for methane. N.1.8. The mechanical efficiency is 0. The chemical reaction mechanisms of importance in combustion are much more complex than the above illustrations of rate-controlled processes. . Such mechanisms usually involve both parallel and sequential interdependent reactions. methyl alwhol.. = 2N0. (e) exhaust sensible energy.

and Laby. W C. London. I Combustion. H :Thermodynamics. 49.: The Internal Combustion Engine in Theory and Practice. Glassman.OH) benzene (C. isooctane (C. D.. of the fuel consists of 70 percent by volume propane C3H. pounds. C. Braun. 4. and Westenberg. . : . . 1950. John Wiley. Stanford University. Using the overall combustion reaction for a range of equivalence ratios from 0. and then analyzed for CO.: "Relationship of Brake Power to Various Energy mciencies and Other Engine Parameters: The EfficiencyRule. (d) The engine has a displaced volume of 2 liters. in mole fractions. . D. John Wiley.). 9.. vol. alcohol (CH. before the water is removed? REFERENCES 1.. M. 50. nitrogen N. Determine the stoichiometric fuellair and airlfuel ratios on a mass basis. J. G.H6).. and the stoichiometric FIA and AIF. What is the exhaust gas composition.11.: 8. B J. C. pp. H z . 1975. Mass. D. Svehla. 32. Estimate approximately the percentage by which the fuel flow rate would be increased if this engine were operated at its maximum load at this same speed (2000 revlmin). 1969.: Hydrocarbon Fuels. B.38 MJ/kg.56 MJ/kg. carbon C.. The following are approximate values of the relative molecular mass (molecular weights): oxygen O. hydrogen Hz. Department of Mechanical Engineering. A. G. in the exhaust is 3 : 1. Arnelt. R. per unit mass of LPG? 3. and the lower heating value per unit mass of stoichiometric mixture for the following fuels: Methane (CHJ. Taylor. and Primentel. Matthews. M. Keenan. 1970). 1. 1973.5." NASA Technical Note TN D-7056. calculate the mole fractions of CO. D.).. London.H. Pittsburgh. For high-power engine operation the airlfuel ratio is 14 :1.Academic Press. 1965. J. 7.. E. Longmans. . Engineering Thermodynamics. methyl 6.H. 1971.. R. 1973.13. (a) Work out the overall combustion reaction for stoichiometric combustion of 1 mole of LPG with aii. Spalding D. NASA Lewis Research Center. 0. B. Carnegie Press. 12.: Selected Valws of physical and Thennodynamic Properties of Hydrocarbons and Related Compounds. T. Fristrom.. CO. 12. E F and Sinke. 13. G.5 to 1.12. 1973. and (b) that there is no hydrogen in the exhaust for lean mixtures. 1941 (MIT -Press. A.Van Nostrand. Rossink F. 2. A spark-ignition engine is operated on isooctane fuel (C. J. 3.1983. Assume: (a) that all the fuel is burnt inside the engine (almost true) and that the r'atio of moles CO to moles H..H. W. R.. (c) Is the internal combustion engine a conventional spark-ignition or a diesel engine? Explain. Explain briefly what limits the equivalence ratio at maximum load. .. 5 percent by volume butane C. A.: "Fortran IV Computer Program for Calculation of Thermody- Heating values for these fuels are given in App. H. 5. S. vol." Int. C. Liquid petroleum gas (LPG) is used to fuel spark-ignition engines. C. Mass. K. Macmillan. H. New York. The exhaust gases are cooled.. and plot the results as a function of equivalence ratio. Maxwell. Cambridge.. R L. (b) What are the higher and lower heating values for combustion of this fuel with excess air. 3. R. McGraw-Hill. 48.98 INTERNAL COMBUSTION E N G M FUNDAMENTALS THERMOCHEMISTRY OF FUEL-NR MIXTURES 99 (b) Calculate the fuellair equivalence ratio at which this engine is operating.. 10. 11. Kaye. 25 percent by volume propene C3H6 The higher heating values of the fuels are: propane. Pa. E H. Edward Arnold. butane.: Data Book on Hydrocarbons. Goodger.95 MJ/kg. 1979. propylene (propene). MIT Press. F. New York.: The Chemical Thennodynamics of Organic Corn. Westrum. 2. and Cole..: Tables of Physical and Chemical Constants. 491-500. New York.Pitzer. 1953. hydrogen (H.).. 5. 3. . no. M ed. JANAF Thennochemical Tables. Stull. 1977. National Bureau of Standards Publication NSRDS-NBS37. R. dried to remove water.28. 4. .. Cambridge. and McBride. . and 0.CO. M. in the dry exhaust gas. Reynolds. A typical sample namic and Transport Properties of Complex Chemical Systems.. 1960. of VehicleDesign.: Thermodynamic Properties in S1.: Flame Structure. 14.

4.. The composition of the working fluid. reactions are sufficiently slow so that for calculating thermodynamic properties the composition can be regarded asfrozen. H. expansion. Og NO. Cog. OH.4 Air Fuel vapor Recycled exhaust Residual gas Combustion products .1. H 2 0 . 11. it consists of air and previously burned gas. CO. All these engine simulations (from the simplest to the most complex) require models for the composition and properties of the working fluids inside the engine. burned gases. Towards the end of the expansion process. a constant-specific-heat model can be matched to the thermodynamic data over a limited temperature range. The combustion products or burned mixture gases. This chapter deals with models for the working fluid composition. and exhaustthat make up the engine operating cycle. CQg CO.HzO. 5). mainly vapor within the cylinder. The earliest attempts at this analysis used the constant-volume and constant-pressure ideal cycles as approximations to real engine processes (see Chap. 14).2. . COZ. a mixture of N.) Combustion products [mainly Nz. the simulation of engine processes has become much more sophisticated and accurate (see Chap. fuel.3. OH. The appropriateness of frozen and equilibrium assumptions has already been discussed above.1 INTRODUCTION The study of engine operation through an analysis of the processes that occur inside the engine has a long and productive history. and 15.1 CHAPTER Working fluid collstituents Air Recycled exhaust$ Intake Air Fuel7 Recycled exhaust$ Residual ga.. HzO..7. therefore. compression. . The unburned mixture for a sparkignition engine during intake and compression consists of air.1).1). . is indicated in Table 4. and thermodynamic and transport properties. The first category is only useful for illustrative purposes since the specific heats of unburned and burned mixtures are significantly different.5. During the exhaust process. CO. 3-10. and either O2( 4 < 1) or CO and Hz (4 > I)] dual & PROPERTIES OF WORKING FLUIDS i om press ion Air Recycled exhaust Residual gas Combustion products (mixture of Nz . which changes during the engine operating cycle.Sometimesusad to wntrol NO. It is suffi- ciently accurate to assume the composition is frozen. HzO.HzO. With the development of highspeed digital computers. during the combustion process and much of the expansion process. and previously ..PROPERTIES OF WORKING FLUIDS 101 TABLE 4. Hz. and fuel (usually vapor). NO.2.. The models used for predicting the thermodynamic properties of unburned and burned mixtures can be grouped into the five categories listed in Table 4. 15. C o p . It is. This approach provides a simple analytic model which can be useful when moderate accuracy of prediction will sufice. CO. the unburned mixture prior to injection contains no fuel. H. and H for fuel-rich mixtures. 0 . as well as models for the individual processes-induction. and 0 3 Expansion Exhaust f Liquid and vapor in the intake. For the compressionignition engine. 0 2 . combustion. ) Combustion products (mainly Nz. The composition of such mixtures has already been discussed (Sec. Hz. 3. 0 . Approximations to thermodynamic equilibrium calculations are useful because of . As these combustion products cool. (mixture of N . O. The composition of the unburned mixture does not change significantly during intake and compression..2. While the specific heats of the working fluids increase with increasing temperature in the range of interest. emissions (see Sccs. recombination occurs as indicated in Fig.. are close to thermodynamic equilibrium. g Within the cylinder. recombination can no longer occur fast enough to maintain the reacting mixture in equilibrium. the gas composition departs from the equilibrium composition.

either (a) the water gas reaction Typical residual fractions in spark-ignition engines range from 20 percent at light load to 7 percent at full load.100 + EGR* EGR* . respectively.511 can be written per mole 0. If the inducted mixture is fuel and air (or air only). 3. and burned mixture properties. If t An alternative definition of percent EGR is also used based on the ratio of EGR to fresh mixture ( h l and air): The two definitions are related by -= EGR* 100 EGR 100-EGR and EGR -100 .2). The combustion equation for a hydrocarbon fuel of average molar H/C ratio y [e. as the savings in computational time. the unburned o mixture. approach 30 to 40 percent.773 for air) y = the molar H/C ratio of the fuel 4 = fuellair equivalence ratio ni = moles of species i per mole 0. 2 For rich and stoichiometricmixtures (4 2 1) 0. = ~ E G R 4. reactant The n. The residual fraction (x. c . the residual fraction is smaller (a few percent) due to the higher compression ratio. then the burned gas fraction in ER h e fresh mixture is x. the burned gas fraction during compression can. u p to about 30 percent of the exhaust can be recycled. a fraction of the engine exhaust gases is recycled to the intake to dilute the fresh mixture for control of NO. For rich mixtures. which can result from their use. c . constant Frozen mixture of ideal gases.2 UNBURNED MIXTURE COMPOSITION The mass of charge trapped in the cylinder (me) is the inducted mass per cycle (mJ. A selection of this material is included in this chapter and App. Eq. In diesels.. constant Frozen mixture of ideal gases. m Ideal gas.? Unburned mixture 1. can be neglected. c. For lean and stoichiometricmixtures (4 a. emissions (see Sec. where $ = the molar N/O ratio (3.. relative to full equilibrium calculations. 11. Approximations fitttd to equilibrium thermodynamic properties Mixture of reacting ideal gases in thermodynamic m c + fi = ( )+ E1 x. and in naturally aspirated engines is approximately constant since the intake is unthrottled.) is 1.) in the unburned mixture during compression equals the residual fraction. and algebraic relationships developed to match tabulated data. m Frozen mixture of ideal gases. In some engines.) x. The references indicate additional sources. m 2. c. . tables. plus the residual mass (m.g. then the burned gas fraction (x.AT) Frozen mixture of ideal gam. (and hence c . are determined using the following assumptions: 4. equilibrium Note: Subscripts i. 5. and b denote species i i the gas mixture.) left over from the previous cycle. 3. The composition of the burned gas fraction in the unburned mixture can be calculated as follows. 1) CO and Hz can be neglected.2 Categories of models for thermodynamic properties -- he percent of exhaust gas recycled (%EGR) is defined as the percent of the total intake mixture which is recycled exhaust. D. therefore. ) constant Ideal gas.102 INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE FUNDAMENTALS TABLE 4. (3.. c. Burned mixture Single ideal gas throughout operating cycle with c. where m G is the mass of exhaust gas recycled. Values of thermodynamic properties of unburned and burned mixtures relevant to engine calculations are available from charts. u. c .

and a burned gas fraction).74 becomes which is identical in form to the reactant expression for a hydrocarbon fuel (4.. (4. rnoka/rnole 0. . reactant as The unburned mixture (fuel. While Eq. If the C.4. M. can be written: TABLE 43 Burned gas composition under 1700 K n.PROPERTIES OF WORKING FLUIDS 105 can be assumed to be in equilibrium with the equilibrium constant K(T): where where K(T) can be determined from a curve fit to JANAF table data? If we write 4* = (4 where T is in K.9).in the mixture depends on the molecular weight of the fuel. where n. The mole fractions of each species are obtained by dividing by the total number of moles of unburned mixture nu. the reactant mixture x. in the mixture. reactant co. is given in Table 4. For a fuel of molar composition CH. 0. or (b) K can be assumed constant over the normal engine operating range. average molecular formula of the fuel is ( H ) then Mf = u(12 where n. The molecular weights of the (low-temperature) burned and unburned .. 4.7~) the reactant expression (4. it can readily be modified for alcohols or alcohol-hydrocarbon blends.6).)c$ (4. Now consider the unburned mixture. t c defined by Eq. The ni obtained from an element balance and the above assumptions are shown in Table 4. e4C + 2(1 .4) is for a fuel containing C and H only.5 is often assumed (see Sec. + y) + $N2 The fresh fuel-air mixture (not yet diluted with EGR or residual). is The number of moles of each species in the unburned mixture. H2O CO H . ~hus Table 4.3. A value of 3. except that 4 * replaces 4 and $* replaces $ in the expressions for n. summarized in Table 4.&)#Hz+ O2 then becomes can be rearranged per mole of 0.(4.O. = ni is given in the bottom line of Table 4. The number of moles of fuel per mole 0. N2 Sum:n.4).3. air.3 can still be used to give the composition of the burned gas residual fraction in the unburned mixture. per mole 02.. The value of c is obtained by solving the quadratic: The mole fractions are given by and $* = (1 - . per mole 0.3. which corresponds to evaluating the equilibrium constant at 1740 K..

is therefore t Units: kg/kmol or Ibm/lb.773 n.PROPERTIES OF WORKING FLUIDS 107 TABLE 4A TABLE 4.5 Unburned mixture composition n. (4. + co.16$ t Given by Eq. = 0.284 138. 4(1 + %)# Mr '+$1' xbnb {: :: + 4.H.-air General equation^ nb= (1 -814 n~= (2 . tbe mixture Equation for C. is given by m = 32 + 4#1 + 28) + 28. moles/mole 0. : The molecular weight of the unburned mixture.364 nb= 1. reactant ~pctors relating properties on molar anti mass basis for w n t i t y . - Equivalence ratio @ The individual species in the unburned and burned gas mixtures can with SUEcient accuracy be modeled as ideal gases. + 1 + $.7~) substiare tuted for 4 and S. per mole 0.084 + 4. and Mb for a range of 4 and x. To obtain properties in these units.124 . m. Mass of air7 32 + 28. + JI. B.(4. 4 1 4>1 nb= 0.. Ideal gas relationships are reviewed in App.1) + 9. Mb. 2 8 ~ ~ 4 n.2 .16$ . Mu. the mixture.773 + 3.8).. which is with units of kilograms per kilomole or pound-mass per pound-mole. per mole 0. thermodynamic properties of unburned and burned mixtures are expressed per unit mass of air in the original mixture (for burned mixture this is the mixture before combustion). +* and $* given by Eq..773. = 0.814 mixtures Seis pce Fuel 0 2 Mola of burned mixture nb ~ o l e of unburned s mixture n.084 + 4. Frequently. we need in the mass of original air. Table 4. 4 3 GAS PROPERTY RELATIONSHIPS FIGURE 4-1 Molecular weight of unburned and lowtemperature burned isooctane-air mixtures as a function of fuel/air quivalena ratio and burned gas fraction.. For hydrocarbon fuek $ for air = 3.1w mixture can now be determined.is Figure 4-1 gives M. The most important relationships for property determination for engine calculations are summarized below..5 summarizes the factors needed to relate properties expressed on a molar and a mass basis.773 +0 .364 N 2 H2O CO H i Sum7 ass of mixture7 (burned or unburned) n b = 32 + 4#1 + 2s)+ 28. The mass of mixture (burned or unburned) per in mole 0. isooctane. for air. The molecular weight of the burned mixture.773 +xdl. for fuels containing oxygen. the mixture.mol.2 138. burned gas mixtures. respectively.

.2 is too inaccurate for other than illustrative purposes.4 A SIMPLE ANALYTIC IDEAL GAS MODEL While the first category of model listed in Table 4.1. . 500 lb/in2 abs) and 1200 K. It is a quantitative version of Fig. Y.p. For gas mixtures. o) or s(T.. once the composition is known. mixture properties are determined either on a mass or molar basis from u=Cxiui h=Cxihi s = C xisi and The entropy s(T. and @ can be in joules per kilogram-kelvin (British thermal units per poundrnass-degree Rankine) or joules per kilomole-kelvin (British thermal units per pound-mole-degree Rankine).e.1Sa) and then 4. The units for u are kilojoules per kilogram of air in the original mixture (the units of the charts in Sec. for the burned gas mixture. If we define (4.. and C (solid) at 298 K. Figure 4-2 shows an internal energy versus temperature plot for a stoichiometric mixture. the extreme end states are approximately 2800 K. . the units of u and h can be on a per unit mass or molar basis [i. . s. R. H z .) is s.i cp = C xi cP. the temperature range of interest for the unburned mixture in an SI engine is 400 to 900 K (700 to 16W0R). Note that the specific heats of the unburned and burned mixtures (the slopes of the lines in Fig. Linear approximations to the unburned and burned mixture curves which minimize the error in u over the temperature (and pressure) ranges of interest are shown as dashed lines.s.) and (T2. 4-2) are a function of temperature. 4.7). joules per kilogram (British thermal units per pound-mass) or joules per kilomole (British thermal units per pound-mole)]. the internal energy of the burned mixture is a function of temperature and pressure. (4. the second category-constant but different specific heats for the unburned and burned gas mixtures--can with careful choice of specific heat values be made much more precise. c.108 INTERNAL COMBUSTION FNGINE FUNDAMENTALS PROPERTIES OF WORKING FLUIDS 109 Since internal energy and enthalpy are functions of temperature only. Data to construct such graphs can be obtained from charts or tables or computer programs (see Secs.R In (4. p) is given by cu = C xi cv. and are useful in evaluating entropy changes and in following isentropic processes. The fuel is isooctane. at high temperatures. b) are functions of temperature only. the entropy change between states (TI. = cD2 For an isentropic process.5). 3-5.i The integrals in Eqs. However. 2 atm (2200"R. N .5 to 4. p.17) .14a. Thus. 35 atm (5000•‹R. The datum is zero enthalpy for O . the specific heats at constant volume and constant pressure are given by and In these equations.. The unburned mixture line is for a burned gas fraction of 0. The error in T for a given u is less than 50 K. .a. The advantages of a simple analytic model may be important for certain problems. for example. c. 30 lb/in2 abs). similarly. 4.

.1 x 1 = 4. unburned residual fraction 0. for isooctane fuel with 4 = 1.).5. 1 and 2) for a range of 4 and x b . Values for Mu and Mb can be obtained from Eqs.b = If we solve for T. Determine the values of y. are available in the literature (e. can be obtained from graphs such as Fig. the mixture is in and = 0. the number of n. Then.10) and (4. and Ah.U Since a = 8. Values for y. (kJ/kg air) = 0. straight-line fits for u..5T(K). K FIGURE 4 2 Internal energy versus temperature plot for stoichiometric unburned and burned gas mixtures: isooctane fuel. and use the relations (RdRJ = (MJM..) c... Thus..1./Ru must be determined. y.110 INTERNAL C M U n N ENGINE FUNDAMENTALS O B SO PROPERTIES OF WORKING FLUIDS 111 For a constant-pressure adiabatic combustion process. is small. = 0.g.s (from Table 4. 4-2.773 + 0. the number of moles o in f unburned mixture per unit mass of air in the original mixture is The basis for this ideal gas model is The molar specific heat of the unburned mixture i is therefore .36 x 1 + 4.700 I t 1 I 500 low lsoo 1 2000 I 2500 I 3000 Temperature. and Ah. hu = h.5) i nb = 0. .1 I). + hfeU c .1 below). (4...08 x 1 + 4. Example 4. 4-2 are u.. . Refs. where h .4250 From Table 4. and we obtain The number of moles of burned mixture per mole 0. T. values used for computations should always be checked over the temperature range of interest. .773 = 5. 4-2 (see Example 4.11. uu = ub or C.(T)in Fig. to ensure that the particular linear fit to u(T)used is appropriate.(T) and u.0 and x. suitable values of y. K ..881 The mass of air per mole 0. and Ah#.1. .28 x 0./R. ub (kJ/kg air) = 1. Mu.JR = l/(y . moles of unburned mixture per mole 0. for a constant-volume adiabatic combustion process./& which correspond to the .? Values of Y.. respectively. However. at 0 K.1. = h.96T(K). (MJM. t The error in ignoring the effect of dissociation on M. s Tb + h1. .h. and it can similarly be shown that To use the model.133 where Ah. y. yb. Equations for the straight lines in Fig. y.314 kJ/kmol. the mixture is 138. and Ah. and hIc are the enthalpies 9f formation of unburned and burned gas mixture.2..

1.4 0.0. pressure. is For r.. computer models for the thermodynamic properties of working fluids have replaced the charts. isentropic) compression process. We have developed a new set of charts in SI units. The following assumptions are made: 1 The compression process is reversible and adiabatic. R. however. i K h p m s of mixtnre Mdcs of mixture Kilomole of mixture PI.JT) curves shown in Fig.o 1. .2 t -.0792 4.^ 1.S.0348 + 0 .6.0. 0 0 1 6 2 ~ ~ 291 + 0.314 x 0.15 K. Equations (4. 0 0 2 0 3 ~ ~ 292 + 0 . 0. Between end states 1 and 2. Each species in the mixture can be modeled as an ideal gas.1 Unburned Mixture Charts The thermodynamic properties of each unburned fuel-air mixture are represented by two charts.13a. It proves convenient to assign zero internal energy or enthalpy to the unburned mixture at 298.112 INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE FUNDAMENTALS PROPERTIES OF WORKXNG FLUIDS 113 The number of moles of burned mixture per unit mass of air in the original mixture is TABLE 4 6 unburned mixture composition for charts ~qrivrleaee rntio $ (FIA) 0. charts are useful for illustrative purposes. Two sets of charts are in common use: those developed by Hottel et aL3 and those developed by Newhall and Starkman.0528 0. The burned . units. and the following equivalence ratios: 4 = 0..4.6 provides the basic composition data for the unburned mixture charts. Charts are no longer used extensively for engine cycle calculations.0661 1.0351 + 0 . Equations (4.4*' Both these sets of charts use U.853 4. The charts presented below are for isooctane fuel.821 4.0396 1.e. To find AhJR.28Oxb 0. 3.030350 + 0 . 4. the second gives the mixture internal energy and enthalpy as functions of temperature.837 4.0792 E + 0. By sensible we mean changes in u or h which result from changes in temperature alone. Rt per kilognm of air per mole of 0 2 per kilogram of air J/kg air. and volume at the beginning and at the end of the compression process. The burned gas fraction is zero. and we exclude changes due to chemical reaction or phase change. 0.0661 0..0.. b) provide the basis for obtaining the u.(T) and h. The fuel is in the vapor phase. 0 0 3 8 8 ~ ~ 292 and y. 5 3 6 ~ ~ 0.0264 0.0528 1. per kilogram of air in the mixture. we obtain. 1. Values Bas fraction must.293 k3/kg air K and so 2.8. 45. following the approach of Newhall and Starkman. Internal energy and enthalpies relative to this datum are called sensible internal energy u.869 0. be included when the unburned mixture properties are related to burned n x t u r e properties in a combustionprocess.805 4.0371 The molar specific heat . 1 6 8 ~ ~ 0.0353 = 0.2. Error h neglecting X.15) and (4. 0 0 0 8 1 ~ ~ 289 + 0 .0. .? 4 5 THERMODYNAMIC CHARTS One method of presenting thermodynamic properties of unburned and burned gas mixtures for internal combustion engine calculations is on charts.0396 0.0352 + 0 .16) provide the basis for following a reversible adiabatic (i. is given by R. or sensible enthalpy h. Nonetheless. t This assumption introduces negligible error into calculations of the compression process for m x itures with nonnal burned gas fractions. 2 2 4 ~ ~ 0. 0 0 1 2 2 ~ ~ 290 + 0 . 4-3. The mixture composition is homogeneous and frozen (no reactions between the fuel and air).6 08 1.0264 1.112~. Table 4.. where nu is the number of moles of unburned mixture per kilogram of air. 5. since the major constituent of the residual is N .. The first chart is designed to relate the mixture temperature. = 8. is usually mall. is therefore Z t. and afford an easy and accurate method where a limited number of calculations are required.0349 + 0 .

125 m3/kg air Note that j .26) Example 4.R' are given in Table 4. K . 4-4 and ~ ~ . 4-4. is . A spark-ignition engine with a compression ratio of 8 operates with a stochiometric fuel vapor-air mixture which is at 350 K and 1 atm at the start of the compression stroke. f Units: kJ/kg air in mixture.114 INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE FUNDAMENTALS PROPERTIES OF WORKING FLUIDS 115 Figure 4-4 then gives T2 = 682 K The ideal gas law [Eq. 2 5 6 ) : p. From Eq.5 atm = 1. Given T.2611 gives v1 = and 292 x 350 1 x 1. pressure. Calculate the compression stroke work. and volume per unit mass of air at the end of the compression stroke.. . = 15. (4.292 In = 4 (i) = 757 J/kg air . at the end of compression using the isentropic compression chart.25a).(T. Find the temperature. assuming the process is adiabatic and using the data in Fig. ) . 4-3. find T. (4. YAW = Y .uAT.K . and Eq.nwRIn (2) 150 .= 0. can also be obtained from Fig. ( 4 .) .0 m3/kg air l ( ~ =~ ~ x 8 = 15. Y . Fig. and @(T)are given in Fig. 4-4.6. ( T . K FIGURE 4 3 Sensible mthalpy and internal energy o unburned isooctane-air mixtures as fundon of temperature.W. Note of nu and n.For T. (4.o v2 = .57 MPa The compression stroke work. Y(7') that v. Temperature. = u.= 350 K .) = 350 . = 350 K at the start of compression.e. as an isentropic process). a n d T are related by air p(Pa)v(m3/kg air) = nuR'(~/kg K)T(K) (4. = 150 J/kg air.5 atm PI = p 8 ) 1.40 = 310 kJ/kg air -. p. The compression process in an internal combustion engine can be modeled approximately as adiabatic and reversible (i.013 x l o s = 1.2.25a).

At the datum state of 298. and u. = 2825 K.125 m3/kg air. An illustration of the use of these charts follows. 2. the pressure in the cylinder of a spark-ignition engine at top-center immediately following combustion is 7100 kPa.15 K (25•‹Cor 77•‹F)and 1 atm the chemical . assuming the process is adiabatic. The extensive properties (internal energy. elements in their naturally occurring form (N. Hzas diatomic gases and C as solid graphite) are assigned zero enthalpy and entropy.. The compression ratio is 8. . Datum. each is a plot of internal energy versus entropy for a particular fuel and equivalence ratio. For lean and stoichiometric mixtures this distinction is not important because the mole fractions of dissociated species below this temperature are .e. can be modeled approximately as an adiabatic and reversible process (i. entropy.1540 kJ/kg air The expansion stroke work.45. the mixture is stoichiometric. The gas expands at constant entropy to v. isentropic). 3. = 1 m3/kg air. - .. The equilibrium assumption is then no longer valid. This gives T.) = 1540 . 4-8).2 Burned Mixture Charts The primary burned mixture charts are for the products of combustion at high temperatures. Find the gas state at the end of the expansion stroke and the expansion stroke work. is W.e. Example 4.0 burned gas t chart (Fig. This is usually assumed to occur at about 1700 K (see Sec. following completion of combustion. u. i. and the volume per unit mass of air at the start of expansion is 0. they correspond to the combustion of 1 kg of air with the appropriate mass of fuel. = . 3. K. the mixture composition is frozen below 1700 K.7. 4-8 gives T.u. Figures 4-5 to 4-9 are property charts for the high-temperature burned gas. = 9.e. The expansion process in an internal combustion engine.33 kJ/kg air.5 = 1535 kJ/kg air As the burned gases in an engine cylinder cool during the expansion process.3. Following a constant entropy process from state 1 on Fig. Locate p. Each species in the mixture can be modeled as an ideal gas. p. = -5 kJ/kg air. Under full-load operation. = 1840 K.9. = 8 x v.= -(u. and specific volume) are all expressed per unit mass of air in the original mixture. = 0.125 m3/kg air on the $ = 1. 0. enthalpy. pressure. the composition eventually "freezes"-becomes fixed in compositionbecause the chemical reactions become extremely slow. The following assumptions are made: 1. 4.9). = 7100 kPa and v. = 570 kPa. and s.. and specific volume are drawn on each chart. for the working fluid during the expansion process. Lines of constant temperature. The charts were prepared with the NASA equilibrium program described in Sec. The mixture is in thermodynamic equilibrium at temperatures above 1700 K..10 The C/H/O/N ratio of the mixture is specified for each chart. i. The mass basis for the unburned and burned mixture charts are the same.

kllkg air K FIGURE 4 7 Internal energy versus entropy chart for equilibrium burnbd gas mixture. --.8.K FIGURE 4-6 Internal energy versus entropy chart for equilibriumburned gas mixture. equivalence ratio 0. isooctanc fuel.Entropy s.6. kJIkg air.- Entropy s. . isooctane fuel. cquivalena ratio 0.


0395 1. The assumed frozen burned mixture are listed in Table 4. zero internal energy and enthalpy for the mixture at 298.698 27.0 1.13 0. 4-3 is different from the datum for internal energy and enthalpy for the burned mixture. expressions for Ah.7 Frozen burned gas composition: C8H18-aircombustion CO. and H would continue to change if equi.15 K. isooctane fuel.70 0. per kilogram of air in the original mixture. and C (solid graphite) at 298.4 and 4.15 K was assumed.3 0..7. Values of ni are obtained from Tables 4.138 5.15 K was assumed.000 39.and C.000 35. d f * > d where ni is the number of kilomoles of species i per kilogram of air.. a frozen composition must be selected and used because [he mole fractions of CO. of each species in the unburned mixture.122 4.000 36.876 - Alternately." (4.0866 3.113 4. 0. If A&.. 4-10.0770 2.767 27.85 0. These are sensible internal energies and enthalpies. can be obtained from - - 0.6 0.140 5. then Temperature. . and H z .735 27. + AU. - 0.1 1.:' : .: Similarly.6 1.5.64 0.8 and App. from Ah. CO. - - :* 2 P t K(T)in Eq.8 1. is the enthalpy of formation of the unburned mixture at 298. and Au..2 0.H2 . is therefore given by the sum of the sensible enthalpy hs. and Ah. . For the burned mixture.O 0.3 Sum 1.02 0.29) Au.08 0.7. f z ..K ?X k t Note mol/lrgair.. per kilomole. multiply by lo-) for kmol/kg air.0905 3.4 below. of the frozen burned mixture are plotted against temperature in Fig. is given by TABLE 4..0802 2.14 0. 453 Relation between Unburned and Burned Mixture Charts W now address the questions: Given unburned mixture at TI.756 27.. D. 0. N2..0224 0.. pl.3 0. with the same datum as the burned mixture enthalpy. H20.." in kilojoules per kilogram of .78 0. zero enthalpy for the gaseous species O. what is the e state of the burned mixture following (1) constant-volume adiabatic combustion or (2) constant-pressure adiabatic combustion? The datum for internal energy and enthalpy for the unburned mixture in Fig. Following the procedure used in Example 4.0516 2.3 0. Units: kJ/kg air in original mixture.89 0. N.000 36.122 INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE FUNDAMENTALS PROPERTIES OF WORKING FLUIDS 123 For rich mixtures.746 27. from 0..2t 0. Eq.38 CO H.1 1.. $ #a Enthalpies and internal energies of formation of the relevant burned gas Species and individual fuel compounds are given in Table 4.given relative to their values at 298. (3.1 Units mole fractions mol/kg air$ mole fractions mol/kg air? mole fractions mol/kg air$ mole fractions mol/kg air? mole fractions mollkg air$ 0. librium is assumed as the temperature decreases. For the unburned mixture.45 N. The unburned mixture enthalpy h. ..4 0. H.15 K.0521 1. K 4 FIGURE 410 Sensible enthalpy and internal energy of low-temperature burned gases as function of temperature..15 K. Internal energy and enthalpy.125 4. is the enthalpy of formation of species i at 298. "u = Us.6 1.34 0. the internal energy u... These data can be related through the enthalpies of formation. = 3.18) can be used to obtain Au.0586 2.54 - - . p r kilogram of air in the original mixture. v.000 37.3 0. and Ah.6) evaluated at 1740 K. (4.101 3.

6 x lo6)] Sources: JANAF tableq8 Rossini et al.4.7 .2 kg/kmol..15 K. .. from Table 4..)fiT = (-0. = 5.3 x 106)(1 t At 298..2: A. (4. = and Example 4.11. from Table 4..PROPERTIES OF WORKING FLUIDS 125 TABLE 4.H.30) gives Auj. EI$C+ 241 .. For the charts of Figs.MJ/kmol A. = -51. COr H20(gas) CO C H . 1 -xb . and Au. CO. in the original mixture.3. from Eq.. = (- .5 X lo6) + 5. Thus the number of kilomoles of each species per kilogram of air is C8Hi8.2 9 5 1 ~ x )lo3 .233 x N. (4. . the "product" gas is the unburned mixture and the "reactant" gas is the mixture of elements from which the unburned mixture is formed.2 .5 or Since (np ...773 Table 4.. Table 4.7 (-393. + $N2 Thus...(n.0. from Ah.2 3 6 1 ~ ~ . for C.5 . 0 ~ ~ )lo3 ~ x 118. N. 0 ~ ~ ) lo3 J/kg air x Au.6 -111.2 9 5 1 ~ x )lo3 ~ J/kg air With Aii... (4.5 gives the mass of air per mole 0.3143 x lo3 x x 298.787 x x (-224.118.8. The number of gaseous moles in the unburned mixture np... ..64 = (-11. n. For 4 = 1 .129. 4. . is .MJ/kmol + xbc4.. = (.-air mixture with 4 = 1..7 Au.27) gives Ah. = 114.the moles of gaseous elements. + xb[4.2 9 5 6 ~ x )lo3 ~ J/kg air N.103..208 x lo-) x (-241.6: Ah.. For this calculation.787 x O.08(1 ..=2(1-~)4+1+$ 4 = 0.n.15 138.8 4 =0.3 and H arc zero by dc6ni. Eq.129. the internal energy of formation of the unburned mixture.2 9 5 6 ~ ~ )lo3 = x J/kg air air can be obtained.0 ... f$ = 1. (gas) .8: Ah. = -77. 0 . = (.6 + 4 = 1.(4.2 .16 Au~.. with I$ = 1.110.4: Ah.8 With A&.x ) .208 x 10-3xb CO and H z .8 ..787 x lo-* x x (-204.xb) (1 .9 Alternatively. Calculate Ah.5 -241. .5 .n&T + 0. h . 0 Au. as 138.0 and burned g u fraction x." (..208 x x (-240.. C. 4 a n d 4-5 t o 4-9. = Ah.e)4HZ 0.H. ) The combustion process links the unburned and burned mixture properties as follows: For an adiabatic constant-volume combustion process.. per mole 0. 5.28~~) 8.5 -224.5 + 5 . 0 and .1 -393.155.0. 6 4 ~ ~ H20.629 lo-) x (-393.(.8 x 106)] -393. tion.5 for I$ < 1) -1181~~ -1771~~ The elemental reactant mixture from which the unburned mixture is formed is. X Standard enthalpies and internal energies of formation? & .7 -204.0: Ah.773. = 5. per mole 0.8. + = 3. 7 2 ~ ~ CO and Hz. using Eq. = ... 5. 7.O.xb) 0 .240.1 x 1O6)(1 .2 + 5 . (. Eq. for a C..41. n fuel E = 0. &-i. these expressions 3 : are: 4 = 0. we can determine Au.129. 2.xb) x lo6) + 5.729 x 10-2 (1 . .4 gives the moles of each species in the unburned mixture.64 and M.lor 0. .x . .. as C8HI8.~ J R T CO. .. the enthalpy of formation of the unburned mixture. is (fromTable 4..8 .31). = -2 9 5 1 ~ ~ -2 7 5 9 ~ ~ For air.629 X Ah. n .629 x 10-'xb H.

. = 0. D.125 m3/kg air For an adiabatic constant-volume combustion process [Eq.57 MPa.) Since given ha. kJ. and v .236. so Since p.kg. and Kaye's Gas rnbles6 are the standard reference for the thermodynamic properties of air at low pressures (i..355 kJ/kg air ub = 350 . = h. tables. along the p = 1570 kPa line on Fig. Chao.. u. A trial-and-error solution for v.. is given in App. = 2825 K. The relative pressure p.2951xb = . For an adiabatic constant-pressure combustion process.355 = . kJ/kg K Also v. 4-8) gives T.7 .) on the burned gas chart (Fig.5 = . = 7100 kPa For a constant-pressure wmbustion process [Eq. + Ah?. and at the state corresponding to the end of the compression process examined in Example 4. v. kJ/kg K volume. 4-8 gives u. = 350 kJ/kg air.v..3311. (4. A set of tables for air in SI units has been prepared by Reynolds7 following the format of the Keenan et al. kJ/kg T. . q = 0. . Keenan. diesels and compressors.. = relative volume c. kJ/kg u = internal energy.236 = -366 kJ/kg air h. These gas tables are in U.2 . = 0. e= For 4 = 1. = h. A condensed table of thermodynamic properties of air.118.125 m3/kg air all as a function of T(K). @ is the standard state entropy at temperature T and 1 atrn pressure. at pressures substantially below the critical pressure when the ideal gas law is accurate). = 1. (4. At T. and vb must be found by trial and error along the specified constant-pressure line on the appropriate burned mixture chart..= 682 K. The entropy at pressures other than 1 atm is obtained using Eq. = 0. is given by u. Ub Y= = U. p..2 . Example 4.S.6).Thus. = p. given u . Calculate the temperature and pressure after constant-volume adiabatic combustion and constant-pressure adiabatic wmbustion of the unburned mixture (with 4 = 1. (4. is given by Eq. = . and SI units. = 465 kJ/kg air. and p. (4.7 . it follows from Eq. = -655 kJ/kg air.57 MPa. T. T.6 TABLES OF PROPERTIES AND COMPOSRION Tables of thermodynamic properties of air are useful for analysis of motored engine operation.118. .32) as Au.2.0. = 1. the internal energy u. = + AU?. h. (4. corresponding to temperatures T. Ah..14b).0.2956xb = .5 kJ/kg air p. = 465 . Au?. derived from Reynolds.pbvb = 99 . i. kJ. and u.kg.129. The state of the unburned mixture at the end of the compression process in Example 4. is given by Eq. .0 and x. = 682 K.34)]. It contains: h = enthalpy.. given TI and W/kg air PJPI(see Example 4. the state of the burned mixture can be determined from the appropriate burned mixture chart.2 was 4. = specific heat at constant y = ratio of specific heats Hence pressure.. p. = 2440 K. = v. For 4 = 1. is equal to the ratio of relative pressures.e.e. Along a given isentropic.57 x 103vb This affords a means of determining T. = h .129.18) that the ratio of actual pressures p.485 m3/kg air (Use the ideal gas law to estimate p.32) as Ah. h . or v more accurately. . and p.K [@) dT. = [@) dT. .. relative to the entropy at 0 K and 1 atm pressure. us. = relative pressure v.for an isentropic process.366 = 99 kJ/kg air and is a function of T only. = specific heat at constant c.. is defined by Locating (u. (4.K .

D). Hz.15 K were assigned arbitrary positive values for enthalpy to avoid negative enthalpies for the equilibrium burned gas mixture. given Tl and V2/Vl (see Example 4. the air conditions a t the start of compression are p. Example 4. !L=pz=60 Pr. is in cubic meters per kilogram when T is in kelvins and p.92 . at TI = 325 K . and the compression ratio V.6 Use Eq. usual datum (enthalpy for 02.6). and pressures. v. = 60 atm. that their enthalpy datum differs from the N.13 " ~ and v. is in pascals. The most extensive set of tables of combustion product composition and thermodynamic properties is the AGARD set.. .'' Note. (4. = 960.15 K). They are useful sources of property and species concentrations data in burned gas mixtures for a range of equivalence ratios. by Banes et a/. The elements in their reference state at 298.vu 960'6 V. = 1 atm and TI = 325 K .128 lNTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE FUNDAMENTALS The relative volume v.. In a diesel engine. Along a given isentropic. Tables giving the composition and thermodynamic properties of combustion products have been compiled. however. 48.-= 19. is defined by The units are selected so that v. (4. .. Find the ternperature T. = 48. PI to give pr2 = 5828 Tables then give T. Air tables (see App. Summary information on four generally available sets of tables is given in Table 4. Properties o Air and Combustion Products with Kerosene and Hydrogen f Fuels.6 v. and TI.9.. the ratio of actual volumes V and Vl (for a fixed mass) at temperatures T.6.37). temperatures. = 992 K and v. for an isentropic process./V. give p. = 97. At the end of compression p. and C is zero at 298.. from Eq. is equal to 2 the ratio of relative volumes This affords a means of determining T..36).92 The compression ratio is given by ---.

O. from Eq. 0 .14). CO. H z .. SG.sn !2z x x!2m.7 COMPUTER ROUTINES FOR PROPERTY AND COMPOSITION CALCULATIONS When large numbers of computations are being made or high accuracy is required.. The 1000 to 5000 K range is appropriate for burned mixture property calculations.z.. 0. 6 6 6 G G I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I rod -!A% QIm I 5 I 7. For each species i in its standard state at temperature T(K). 3. These vary considerably in range of application and accuracy.. The approach used as the basis for representing JANAF table thermodynamic datas in the NASA equilibrium p r ~ g r a r n ~ .. Relationships which model the composition and/or thermodynamic properties of unburned and burned gas mixtures have been developed for computer use. SG... 0 3 ~2 2 2 a s 2:: 2m $ i9 R I - I I I The standard state enthalpy of species i is then given by -. The most complete models are based on polynomial curve fits to the thermodynamic data for each species in the mixture and the assumptions that (1) the unburned mixture is frozen in composition and (2) the burned mixture is in equilibrium.7) will be '~ summarized here because it is consistent with the approach used throughout to calculate unburned and burned mixture properties. 2 8- (4. Values of the coefficients aij for CO. OH. and H from the NASA program are given in Table 4. T + .3 $g 2 5.. (4. H. The 300 to 1000 K range is appropriate for unburned mixture property calculations.7. NO. 4..O.41) 0.1 Unburned Mixtures Polynomial functions for various fuels (in the vapor phase) have been fitted to the functional form :I3-' .(see Sec. H.T2 + 7 T 3 + 7 T4 + a.M Grt =vE. SG.' s x 23 v 8" g l 2 % zi? E ? S i SG. .a. in T + a. engine process calculations are camed out on a computer.is approximated by ..--+ + s + + + + + + + + 2 + 2 s = g g 5 %s g 5 % arz g g 3 d 3 2 XIS a x 2 2 . l 60 The standard state entropy of species i at temperature T(K) and pressure 1 atm. the specific heat Z . is then I l de l d d 66 66 d d 0 6 d I I I l 8 Si "i3 ai4 ai5 .. N. C02.4. Figure 4-11 gives values of cJR for the major species.10. N. as a function of temperature. Hz. Two temperature ranges arc given. and CO.

. average molecular weight. . H z . A.. and for I. and N.'^ Chemical analysis of the fuel was performed to obtain the H/C ratio. ./ are kcal/grnol. The of the coefficients give.43) to data from Rossini et a1. in cal/gmol. at 298. N. as function of temperature for ..FIGURE 4 1 1 Specific heat at constant pressure. Temperature..16 Values for relevant pure fuels are given in Table 4. (FromJANAF tables8) where t = T(K)/1000. For pure hydrocarbon compounds. K cJR. . H O O . is added to A. For a 0 K datum. (4. with t = T(K)/1000.... species CO.Z and h.1 1 gives values for the coefficients A. the coefficients A. component molar fractions and average carbon numbers can be determined.15 K. and the weight percent of aromatics.42) and (4. K. respectively* . for typical petroleum-based fuels. and total paraffins (including cycloparaffins). The fuel was then modeled as composed of a representative aromatic. are cal/gmol. Multicomponent fuel coefficients were determined as follow^. From atomic conservation of hydrogen and carbon and the chemical analysis results. . olefins. Table 4.. were found by fitting Eqs.K and kcal/gmol. The units for E . olefin.1 1. heating value. and paraffin hydrocarbon. H . . to A... is the constant for the datum of zero enthalpy for C. O . and CO. A.

. c. . at 30 atm. burncd gas mixtures as function of 1 " perature. = cr. air. 49. show how c.) Because the computational time involved in repeated use of a full equitbrium program can be substantial.and 2750 K. puted.7. simpler equilibrium programs and approxMate fits to the equilibrium thermodynamic data have been developed. For 1200 K S T 5 2000 K. (4. burned gas mixtures as function of temperature. and burned gas fraction.burned mixture properties are given by p is in atmospheres. 3 7 is readily available for this purpose and is well docu. and burned gas frac. "frozen" composition data are shown where the gas composition is in equilibrium at the given T and p but is frozen as c and c are com. Below about 1500 K.. The NASA equilibrium program (see Sec.~.4.2 Burned Mixtures cal- fhe most accurate approach for burned mixture property and composition FIGURE 4-13 Ratio of specific heats. .The following are examples of its output. equivalence ratio. functions of equivalence ratio at 1750. and y as .obtained with the abow relations. for T .and Figs.The thermodynamic properties of the unburned mixture can now be obtained. . ad burned gas fraction. are equilibrium values.2250. . Figures 4-17 and 4-18 show cpc and y as a function of temperature and pressure for selected . . FIGURE 4-12 Specific heat at constant pressure of unburned gasoline.5 for the water-gas equilibrium constant which adequately describes gases (see Sec. 4-15and 4-16give c. equivalence ratio.# y.m . . culations is to use a thermodynamic equilibrium program at temperatures above about 1 0 K and a frozen composition below 1700 K. 4.2250. air.and 2750 K.39) (4. ". fixed composition data are shown corresponding to value of 3. cJ . Units: kJ/kg mixture* K. equivalence ratios for mixtures lean and rich of stoichiometric.(= c J . 0 0 K. Figure 4-14shows the burned gas molecular weight M.With the moles of each species per mole 0 . vary with temperature. tion. equivalence ratio. . Figure 3-10showed species concentration data for burned gases as a function of equivalence ratio at 1750. 4.0 Eqs. Figures 4-12 and 4-13." For rich mix20 tures ($ > I). for a gasoline-air mixture...41) their coefficients in Table 4 1 . and the mass of mixture per mole O . The 'PProach usually used is to estimate the composition and/or properties of undis&ated combustion products and then to use iterative procedures or corrections 'O account for the effects of dissociation.at 30 atm. . n. and y. The properties of each 70 species at high and low temperatures are given by polynomial functions such as to and .. determined from Table 4 5 the .. determined from Table .Jc*r* y of unburned gasoline.) lo rn~nted.

8 1. 1. has been developed by Olikara and Borman and is readily available. The equilibrium constants are curve fitted from data in the JANAF table^.4 0. y = c.4 a n d 2 7 5 0 K . tions and equilibrium constants for seven nonredundant reactions provide the set of 11 equations required for solution of these species concentrations (see Sec.4 I Fuellair equivalence ratio Molecular weight of equilibrium burned gases & a function bf equivalence ratio at T = 1750.).^ The initial estimate of mole fractions to start the iteration procedure is the nondissociated composition. designed specifically for use in internal combustion engine applications. Ar.6 0.O. Units: kJFg mixture-K.4 0.2 Fuellair equivalence ratio FIGURE 4-15 Specific heat at constant pressure of equilibrium burned gases as a function of equivalence ratio at T = 1750. The second step was to limit the range of T and p to values found in internal combustion engines.. A computer program for calculating properties of equilibrium combustion products. One commonly used approach is that developed by Krieger and Borman.18 The fuel composition (C. Fuel: isooctane. I I I I I 0. a n d 3 0 a t m . l o Several techniques for estimating the thermodynamic properties of hightemperature burned gases for engine applications have been developed.8 I 1.and30atm.4 1. for equilibrium burned gases as a function of equivalence ratio at T = 1750. H. and equivalence ratio are computed.2 1.2 I 4 0.4 0. CO.dcdc.0 1 I 1.0 1. The element balance equa. 2250.2 0.0 2 . The species included in the product mixture are: CO..lg The internal energy and gas constant of undissociated combustion products were first described by polynomials in gas temperature.6 0. OH. 0. 2250.Fuel:isooctane. and N. H . F u e l : i s o octane.0 1. 0 . 22% and2750K.N.7).8 I 1.. and 30 atm. H. and the calculated nondissociated values were fitted ..2 0.O.FIGURE 4-16 1 26[ 0. and product pressure and temperature are specified. the thermodynamic properties and their derivatives with respect to temperature. pressure.H.2 Fuellair equivalence ratio Ratio of specific heats. and 2750 K. N. Once the mixture composition is determined. Then the deviations between the equilibrium thermodynamic property data published by Newhall and Starkman4. and is much more rapid than the extensive NASA equilibrium program?. This limited set of species has been found to be sufficiently accurate for engine burned gas calculations. . 3. NO.6 0. fuellair equivalence raho.

. Fuel: CH.I I 500 1000 1500 I I 2000 2500 Temperature. frozen. each set applying to a specific value of equivalence ratio (see Ref. applicable to a wide range of hydrocarbon and alcohol fuels. 2000 2500 Temperature.Jc. and 4. the products of combustion of hydrocarbon (or . the undissociated equations for thermodynamic properties are sufficiently accurate. sets of equations were developed.H... a single set of equations resulted. 19)..'' With this method. and tixed composition burned gases as a function of temperature and pressure: (a) equivalence ratio q5 5 1. K (a) I 3000 3500 500 I loo0 I I I 1500 2000 2500 Temperature. (b) equivalence ratio 4 > 1. for equilibrium. An alternative approach for property calculations.0: (b) equivalena ratio 4 z 1. K (b) 3000 I 3500 FlGURE 4-18 Ratio of specific heats. Units :J/kg mixture.2. and fmed compaition burned gases as a fmtion of temperature and pressure: (a) equivalena ratio q5 s 1. . K (4 I 3000 3500 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 Temperature. frozen. by an exponential function of T. yb = c. K. the fit for internal energy is within 24 percent over the pressure and temperature range of interest and the error over most of the range is less than 1 percent. For many applica- 'ions. p. For 4 2 1. Fuel: C. K (b) 3000 3MO I I I I 500 loo0 I500 FIGURE 4-17 S p d c heat at constant pressure for equilibrium. is used extensively in the author's laboratoty. In general. For 4 I 1.0.

O m + .707. . The simplest approach for computing the transport properties is based on [he application of kinetic theory to a gas composed of hard-sphere molecules. In engines. mRpis the mass of products per mole 0.. temperature. + 2UM1 for 4>1 The method is based upon a fitting of data obtained from sets of detailed chemical equilibrium calculations to this functional form. fuel-air mixin& friction at a gaslsolid interface.46) processes by which mass. is the average specific enthalpy of formation of the products.4. the viscosity varies as T1I2. Reynolds. at higher temperatures. thermal conductivity.381 x lo-'.&)&Hz O2 [(2- 4 3 TRANSPORT PROPERTIES + + + $N2 ~ ) . the combustion reaction can be written as &4C 2(1. rotational. and N. and is Boltmann's constant. An expression for the thermal conductivity k of a monatomic hard-sphere gas Ck = U(dT/dx).2 percent.? it can be shown (Chapman and Cowling. However. t being the shear stress and (du/&) the velocity gradient] is given by ne + + + where N. diatomic. momentum.U + $]M.examples of such processes are evaporation of liquid fuel. T. R + ~ R h. 235): U and Y are found using an approximate solution to the equations obtained by applying the fitted equilibrium constants to the dissociation reactions. Effectively. equivalence ratios 0. By analyzing the momentum flux in a plarie Couette flow..). which contain the fluid's transport properties of viscosity. Then. diatomic. For such a gas.P *ph = . =2M. if Y is the extra number of moles of diatomic molecules due to dissociation of triatomic molecules and U is the extra number of monatomic molecules due to dissociation of diatomic molecules.. Equations are presented for the partial derivatives of enthalpy h and density p with respect to T.4 + 3Y4 + U + $]MI + 2UM1 for 4I 1 (4. and the enthalpy of formation: T. and vibrational contributions to the specific heat. and monatomic molecules. In the absence of pressure gradients. d is the molecular diameter. The errors in density are less than 0. pressures 1 to 30 a m and temperatures 1000 to 3000 K. and heat transfer between gas and the walls of the combustion chamber.2Y]M3 + [I. Prandtl. rate processes are usually characterized by correlations between dimensionless numbers (e. one at rest and moving with constant velocity.. p. = ~ R P 1+(1-&)4+*+Y+U ~ R P for 4I 1 (4. and monatomic molecules respectively per mole 0.2 U M 3 + [2(4 .4 ) 4 . the higher average kinetic energy of a pair of colliding molecules requires that they approach closer to each other and experience a greater repulsive force to be deflected in the collision. p. and fi.alcohol)-air mixtures are divided into triatomic. etc. The molecular weight is given by M.g. Nusselt numbers.4 to 1. This approach has been developed to -give equations for enthalpy which sum the translational. The error for burned mixture temperatures relevant to engine calculations is always less than f 10 K. Ref. M. but will not vary with gas pressure or density. M. the fluid velocity varies hearly across the distance between the surfaces. and diffusion coe&cient as well as the flow properties. respectively.911. The measured temperature dependence can only be explained with more sophisticated models for the intermolecular potential energy than that of a hard sphere.1) + 3Y . As a result. 21.45) [(2 . the fluid is contained between two infinite plane parallel surfaces. 218) that the viscosity p of a monatomic hard-sphere gas [where p = r/(du/dx). the molecules appear to be smaller spheres as the temperature increases.(T) to calculate the relative species concentrations. is a fitted vibrational reactant [Eq.(8N3 + 7N2 SN1)T R(3N3 2) exp ( T J . 1.'' These relationships have been tested for fuels with H/C ratios of 4 to 0. Measurements of viscosity show it does only vary with temperature. In internal combustion engines. p. h. but generally not proportionally to T1l2. J/K. 21. reactant. and 4. is obtained by fitting a correction to the undisssociated products enthalpy of formation. where q is the heat flux per unit area and dT/dx is the temperature gradient] can be derived from an analysis of the thermal equivalent of plane Couette flow (Ref. Two general dissociation reactions : 2M3 =3M2 and M. are then used with fitted equilibrium constants Kl(T) and K. and MI.1 ~ 2 (4.47) or M* = (2-&)4+*+ Y + U for 4 > 1 3 1 where m is the mass of the gas molecule. (4. most of these processes are turbulent and are therefore strongly influenced by the properties of the fluid flow. and energy are transferred from one point in a system to another are called rate processes. are the number of moles of triatomic. ' IQ Couette flow. N.

as an independent variable. where one gas diffuses through another. can be found in Hirschfelder et d.48) and (4. The viscosity of combustion products is almost indepenwhere Pr is the Prandtl number.. It was suggested by Eucken that transport of vibrational and rotational energy was slower than that of translational energy. 4-19. for a monatomic gas.53). Values of y and c. p.). The principal advantage of these correlations is computational speed. The above model does not take into account the vibrational and rotational energy exchange in collisions between polyatomic molecules which contribute to energy transport in gases of interest in engines. it was found convenient to use y. For Prandtl number WJk). in the x direction to the concentration gradients. and ~randtlnumber in addition to the thermodynamic calculations described in Secs. % since. 21. for 4 = o up to 4 = 4 is shown in Fig. dnJdx and dnjdx (n is the molecular number density): 1. The NASA computer program "Thermodynamic and Transport Properties of Complex Chemical system^"'^ computes the viscosity. Therefore. and Txj. of combustion products as a fundion of temperature and equivalence ratio.0 I NASA 0 0 I Eq(4. is the sum of the translational specific heat and the specific heat due to internal degrees of freedom. then permit determination of the thermal conductivity. the specific heat ratio (cJc. 3.49) can be combined to give k = %..17 These quantities are functions of temperature T. The viscosity of hydrocarbon-air combustion products over the temperature range 500 up to 4000 K. which is in good agreement with experimental data. equivalence ratio 4.Z2The NASA program has been used to compute the transport properties of bydro~arbon-air combustion products.7 for high-temperature equilibrium and frozen gas mixtures. The procedures used in the NASA program to compute these transport properties are based on the techniques described in Hirschfelder .7 and 4. and (except for viscosity) pressure p. The viscosity as a function of temperature of hydrocarbon-air combustion products differs little from that of air. atomic gases.. delined by Fick's law of molecular diffusion which relates the fluxes of species i and j.53) I I I ----- - II The binary diffusion coefticient for a mixture of hard-sphere molecules is (Ref. thermal conduc- V'lscosit~. A similar analysis of a binary diffusion process. for such polyatomic gases. Dij is a transport property of the gas mixture composed of species i and j. Equalions shown are (4. He proposed an empirical expression "vjty.t d. the specific heat at constant volume is 3k/(2m). based on more redistic intermolecular potential energy models. kg/m-s. 245) k f C where mij is the reduced mass mi mi/(mi + mj). leads to an expression for the binary diffusion coefficient D. T .5 X I 4 0.0 1. Equations (4.PROPERTIES OF WORKING FLUIDS 143 which has the same temperature dependence as p.52) and (4. a power law based on air viscosity data was used to fit the data: where T is in kelvins. This simple equality is in good agreement with measurements of p and k for mon. Approximate correlations were then fitted to the calculated data of viscosity and Prandtl number. for pressures from 1 up to 100 atm. . Experimental measurements of k and p show that k is less than jpc. A more rigorous treatment of gas transport properties. where c.?' who also present methods for computing the transport properties of mixtures of gases.

g. Eq.9 EXHAUST GAS COMPOSITION While the formulas for the products of combustion used in Sec. typical engine exhaust gas composition will be reviewed. (4. There is less than 4 percent error. Equation (4. 4-15 to 4-18. (4. It is also done to determine the relative proportions of fuel and air which enter the engine so that its operating equivalence ratio can be computed. NO. the composition becomes frozen.1 Species Concentration Data Standard instrumentation for measuring the concentrations of the major exhaust gas species has been de~eloped.144 INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE FUNDAMENTALS dent of pressure.. during combustion and the early part of the expansion stroke) the burned gas composition corresponds closely to the equilibrium composition at the local temperature. we suggest that where a fixed composition for the mixture is appropriate (e.9. the contents of each cylinder are not necessarily uniform in composition.g. and the amounts of fuel and air fed to each cylinder of a multicylinder engine are not exactly the same. During the expansion process. is the binary diffusioncoefficient for species i and j. Since the expression for Prandtl number of a monatomic hardsphere molecule gas is a function of y. In this section.. A good approximation for the vis- 4.6. late in the expansion stroke and during exhaust blowdown. the recombination reactions are unable to maintain the gases in chemical equilibrium and. The predicted values of Pr in this case are also close to the calculated values of Pr.4 are useful for determining unburned mixture stoichiometry.0274 Pair Figure 4-19 shows that the viscosity predicted using Eqs.7(y .. and equivalence ratio are given in Figs. and techniques for calculating the equivalence ratio from exhaust gas composition will be given. and equivalence ratio.55) can also be used with fixed Composition values of y..~ as functions of temperature.12 4. As there are no data for Pr of rich mixtures at low temperatures.g. are known. The Prandtl number of hydrocarbon-air combustion products has also been correlated over the above ranges of temperatures. At high temperatures (e. v is the number of species in the mixture. and Di. (4. This is done to determine engine emissions (e. However. Part of this sample is fed directly to the instrument used for unburned hydrocarbon analysis.52) and (4. a flame ionization detecfor (FID). pressures. 3. Values of y.54) are within 5 percent of the equilibrium Pr values calculated with the NASA program. in the exhaust process. This correlation was corrected to include the effect of the equivalence ratio 4 on the viscosity of hydrocarbon-air combustion prodpcts: Ppd I PROPERTtES OF WORKING FLUlDS 145 cosity of a multicomponent gas mixture is =1 + 0. for the temperature range 1200 to 2000 K.2(y where 5i and M iare the mole fraction and molecular weight of the ith species. The thermal conductivity can be obtained from the Prandtl number if values of p and c. unburned hydrocarbons. The FID is effectively a carbon atom counter. and c. .1)' 451 : % The values of Pr predicted with Eq. Also. using frozen values of y. "frozen"means the gas composition is in equilibrium at the given T and PI but is frozen as c.05 + 4. and particulates). they do not correspond closely to the actual burned gas composition. producing ions in an amount proportional to the number of carbon atoms burned. The hydrocarbons present in the exhaust gas sample are burned in a Small hydrogen-air flame. with less than 10 percent error. the combustion inefficiency even when excess air is present is a few percent (see Fig.1) . 3 f . CO. For rich mixtures the following equation is a good fit to the equilibrium values of Pr using equilibrium values of y. In addition. a second-order polynomial of y was used to curve-fit the calculated Prandtl number data. pressure. for temperatures greater than 2000 K: $ . Unburned hydrocarbon concentrations are normally expressed as a mole fraction t In the NASA program. during the exhaust process in an internal combustion engine). various approximate methods have been proposed for evaluating these transport properties for gas mixtures. pressure. and equivalence ratios. and k arc computed.55) is also a reasonable fit to the frozen values* of Pr for rich mixtures. The Prandtl number can be obtained from the above relations if y is known. Since the fundamental relations for viscosity and thermal conductivity are complicated. 3-9). not all the fuel which enters the engine is fully burned inside the cylinder. A good fit to the data for lean combustion product mixtures was the following: Pr = 0. For all these reasons.. pi is the viscosity of the ith species..53) is very close to the viscosity values calculated with the NASA program.. the composition of the engine exhaust gases cannot easily be calculated. It is now routine to measure the composition of engine exhaust gases. recombination reactions simplify the burned gas composition. It calibrated with sample gases containing known amounts of hydrocarbons.'~ Normally a small fraction of the engine exhaust gas stream is drawn off into a sample line. c.

The amount of radiation is measured with a photomultiplier and is proportional to the amount of NO. to convert these to ppm C. Measurements with a wide range of liquid fuels show that CO concentrations depend only on the equivalence ratio or relative fuellair ratio (see Fig.'~ S~indt. Fuel composition has only a modest effect on the magnitude of the species concentrations shown. Radiation not absorbed in the reference cell is absorbed by the gas in the other half of the detector. the relative airjfuel ratio 1 is the appropriate correlating parameter. concentrations increase from 13. H/C 2 to 2.and natural gas (predominantly methane. concentrations rise steadily as 4 increases and CO. e. SPARK-IGNITION ENGINE DATA. The fuel compositions (gasolines and isooctane) had H/C ratios ranging from 2. concentrations fall. where the infrared absorption by the hydrocarbons in a sample cell was used to determine their ~oncentration. t o 14. CO. the fuellair equivalence ratio 4 (or its inverse. CO.29 = . The reaction produces electronically excited NO. levels are low (-0.). Different amounts of absorption in the two halves of the detector result in a pressure difference being built up which is measured in terms of diaphragm distention.) concentration can be determined. and 0. and CO concentration measurements.5 percent 0.75 percent CO. ..146 MTERNAL COMBUSnON ENGME FUNDAMENTALS PROPERTIES OF WORKING FLUIDS 147 or volume fraction in parts per million @pm) as C. 4-20. for stoichiometric mixtures with 0. concentration at a given 4 are slightly affected by the fuel H/C ratio. Particulate emissiom are measured by filtering the particles from the exhaust gas stream onto a previously weighed filter.and singlecylinder automotive spark-ignition engines over a range of engine speeds and loads are shown in Fig. On the rich side of stoichiometric. CO and H.H. is fuel composition significant.3 percent) but are not zero. either the amount of nitric oxide (NO) or total oxides of nitrogen (NO + NO. The detector contains the gas being measured in two compartments separa~edby a diaphragm.2 to 0.). are measured with a chemiluminescent analyzer. Since water vapor IR absorption overlaps CO.7 percent for isooctane (H/C = 2. for several different multi. oxygen concentrations increase. (From D'Alleva and L o ~ e l l ?StiCendm?' ~ Harrington and Shish~..'~ Values of HC concehtrations in engine exhaust gases measured by an FID are about two times the equivalent values measured by an NDIR analyzer (on the same carbon number basis.) or ppm hexane (C. Propane (C3H8).. At stoichiometric operation.5 percent for typical gasolines (H/C in range 2-1. NOJ. NDIR analyzers are used for CO. Analysis of unburned fuel-air mixtures should be done with special care.2 percent). the exhaust gas sample is dried with an ice bath and chemical dryer before it enters the NDIR instrument. 0 . the sample line is often heated. Oxygen concentrations are usually measured with paramagnetic analyzers. Sometimes results are expressed as ppm propane (C3H. respectively. Radiation not absorbed in the sample cell is absorbed by the gas in the detector on one side of the diaphragm. as the H/C ratio decreases CO. multiply by 3 or 6. On the lean side of stoichiornet) ric. thus.14). in the sample stream to NO by decomposition in a heated stainless steel tube so that the total NO. Dry exhaust gas composition data.25). there is typically half a percent 0." To prevent condensation of hydrocarbons in the sample line (especially important in diesel exhaust gas). CH. drying the filter plus particulate.25.g.) show that only with the high H/C ratio of methane. NDIR-obtained concentrations are usually multiplied by 2 to obtain an estimate of actual HC concentrations. NDIR detectors are calibrated with sample gases of known composition. and three-quarters of a percent CO.23 Gas chromatography can be used to determine all the inorganic species (N. concentrations fall. 11-20). The instrument can also convert any NO. to 16 for toluene (H/C 1. CO. Older measurements of unburned hydrocarbons were often made with a nondispersive infrared (NDIR) analyzer. and CO absorption bands. as a function of the fuel/air equivalence ratio. .~' data from the author's laboratory at MIT.. Substantial concentrations of oxygen in the exhaust gas affect the FID measurements. as 4 decreases. The NO in the exhaust gas sample stream is reacted with ozone in a flow reactor. For example." The values of CO.0 to 2.8). Exhaust gas composition is subs tan ti all^ Exhaust equivalence ratio FIGURE 4-20 Spark-ignition engine exhaust gas composition data in mole fractions as a function of fuelfair equivalence ratio. 0..26 A comparison of exhaust CO concentrations with gasoline. and CO levels are low but not zero (-0. Fuels: gasoline and isooctane.) and different on the lean and the rich side of the stoichiometric airlfuel or fuellair ratios. Hz) or can be used to measure the individual hydrocarbon compounds in the total unburned hydrocarbon mixture. and reweighing. C.2 to 14.25. Oxides of nitrogen. and then only for CO 2 4 percent. Infrared absorption in a sample cell containing exhaust gas is compared to absorption in a reference cell. (NO + NO. molecules which emit radiation as they decay to the ground state.

unburned hydrocarbons (unburned fuel and proO. the equivalence ratio. and completeness of combustion. 0. Figure 4-22 shows that 0. concentrations vary linearly with the fuellair equivalence ratio over the normal operating range.. The overall combustion reaction can be written explicitly as DIESEL EXHAUST DATA.30 the composition of fuel can be represented as C.. fuel composition. and CO. . * FIGURE 4-21 Hydrogen conantration in spark-ignition engine exhaust as a function of carbon monoxide conantration.O..and propane fuels.0 5&2) + (4.57) where 4 is the measured equivalence ratio [(F/A)ac.31 f Unburned hydrocarbon exhaust concentrations vary substantially with engine design and operating conditions. + 3.773N2).O. 49. depending on the amount of information available.. oxygen will be present. concentrations plotted as a function of C0. Hydrogen concentrations in engine exhaust are not routinely measured. H.. There are several methods for using Eq.2 Equivalence Ratio Determination from Exhaust Gas Constituents & Exhaust gas composition depends on the relative proportions of fuel and air fed to the engine. However. Normally CO. the oxidizer is air (0.57) to determine 4.uaJ(F/A)swch*.products The fuel is C.O. CO.. their exhaust gas composition is straightforward.. For conventional petroleum-based fuels. and about half that level with natural gas . is the mole fraction of the ith component. % by MI.5 percent of the fuel mass) for it to be omitted from the analysis. The amount of solid carbon present is usually sufficiently small ( s0. oxygen will be absent. ji. A general formula for $ $ $ -I-%NO~NO.nn is the J. The overall combustion reaction can be written as Fuel + oxidizer -. and soot particles (which are mainly solid carbon). and 2.nor number of 0. The products are CO. Spark-ignition engine exhaust levels in a modern low-emission engine are typically of the order of 2000 ppm C. N. for fuels containing alcohols. concentrationr as mole fractions and unburned hydrocarbon (as + + .H20H. NO. Diesel emissions of CO and unburned HC are low. n. with liquid hydrocarbon fuels. Hz. These relationships can be used to determine the operating fuelfair equivalence ratio of an engine from a knowledge of its exhaust gas composition. % O. ducts of partial fuel reaction).H. when the mixture is oxygen-deficient-fuel rich-hydrogen is present with CO as an incomplete combustion product. Figure 4-21 summarizes much of the available data on H. is the total number of moles of exhaust products.r/2). (4.8) and the diesel combustion process is essentially complete (combustion inefficiency is 1 2 percent).Exhaust equivalence ratio Carbon monoxide. Units: percent by v o l u n ~ . NO. Since diesels normally operate significantly lean of stoichiometric (4 5. molecules required for complete combustion (n m/4 .H.. ~ ~ FIGURE 4-22 Exhaust gas composition from several diesel engines in mole fractions on a dry basis as a function of fuel/air equivalence ratio.

CO. Equations (4.O). For partially dry exhaust gas analysis.PROPERTIES OF WORKING FLUIDS 151 mole fraction or ppm C. for fuels comprised of carbon and hydrogen only. CARBON BALANCE AIRIFUEL AND EQUIVALENCE RATIOS. = (H. The following equations .. The difference between these values has little effect on the computed magnitude of 4.64) above. The most common approaches are summarized below..66) are not applicable under these circumstances.65) and (H.t Values of 3. dry.6)] and Eq. For completely "wet " analysis (uncondensed). Z J . b. ZHZ. and Eq. The concentration of the inorganic gases are usually measured dry (i..CO.57) there are seven unknowns which are: 4.01 1.64) and (4.) To solve for these unknowns we need seven additional equations. The fuellair equivalence ratio 4 is obtained from the ratio of the stoichiometric airlfuel ratio [Eq. and is + + 2ZHz0+ 2283 Since nitrogen oxides collectively comprise less than 0. (4. and NO.66) above. It has been assumed that the "nburned hydrocarbons have the same C/H ratio as the fuel:32 + im iCO2) + where ( ) are molar concentrations (all with the same background moisture) in where y is the H/C ratio of the fuel. its concentration is usually sufficiently low (<0.O. fully dried sample stream for CO. are measured. based on available exhaust gas composition data.6)] and Eq.25 and 3.e. when all species are measured with the same background moisture (wet.32 Mole fractions add up to 1: ZCHb Zco + + RH2 + ZHzO iN2 N+ ZcOz+ Zo2 = 1 + +Z ~ (4. H.oficn described as assuming a specific value for the water-gas reaction equilibrium constant.' are commonly used for K. (There will be additional unknowns if the measurements listed above are incomplete. a. Mf = 12. a carbon balance airlfuel ratio may be employed:25. We can obtain five equations using an atomic balance for each element and the definition of mole fraction. their concentrationscan be omitted with negligible error. Mair= 28. the following expression based on the ratio of measured and computed oxygen-containing species to measured arbon-containing species gives the airlfuel ratio.. For fuels com- prised of carbon and hydrogen only. . (4. (H. (4..66) is accurate. that CO. is the molar percent water vapor at the analyzers. EQUIVALENCE RATIO BASED ON WET HC AND DRY INORGAMC GAS ANALYSIS. in Eq. and Hz concentrations are related by where K is a c0nstant.5 percent) for its effect on equivalence ratio determination to be negligibly small.008~ (HC) molar percent unburned hydrocarbons as C. O. (4. (4.96. The symbols are as defined above. Unburned hydrocarbons may be measured wet or dry or partially dry. The fuel/air equivalence ratio q5 is obtained from the ratio of the stoichiometric airlfuel ratio [Eq. The use of ice bath exhaust sample chillers generally reduces the (H. In fact K is an empirical constant determined from exhaust gas composition data. ZHZ0. (H. To complete the analysis. or partially dry).O).O removed) or partially dry.5. and a fully wet (uncondensed) stream with an FID for unburned hydrocarbons.O). . NO.(aZHydrogen balance : m = np(bZCb Oxygen balanee: OXYGENBALANCE AIRIFUEL AND EQUIVALENCE RATIOS. i.(3. term to less than 1 percent and little accuracy is then lost by neglecting it.. with H. ZNz Thus. percent.. This carbon balance (AIF) is sensitive to moisture concentration a t the analyzers.5 percent of the exhaust mixture. various assumptions are made concerning the composition and relative importance of the unburned hydrocarbons. knowledge of the dew point of the mixture will provide the (H.O) is the molar percent water in the combustion products defined by Eq. np.63) is.O).62) An additional assumption is made. When oxygen Nitrogen balance : analysis is not available.824...O). (3. is mainly nitric oxide (NO). term by reference to steam tables.e. Engine exhaust gas composition is often determined by analyzing a t Equation (4. as follows: Carbon balance : n = n.

FIA).5). For diesel engines 'he variations of major exhaust gas species concentrations with fuellair equiva- . . if the mean fuellair ratio is stoichiometric. (4.5 had a neglgible effect on the value of 4 computed from Eq. varying the value of K between 1. For each mean (FIA) and maldistribution parameter S. A 2 percent error in CO.63) (with K = 3. for a fuel H/C ratio of 1. level of 1000 ppm. .define the exhaust gas composition and equivalence ratio under these conditions. = Figure 4-23 shows wet exhaust gas concentra@pm C. (4 < 1)concentrations. for a normal distribution in the fuellair ratio. with Eq. .2.93 Effects of Fuel/Air Ratio Nonuniforrnity Neither the masses of air inducted into the different cylinders of a multicylinder engine per cycle nor the masses of fuel which enter the different cylinders Per cycle are exactly equal. (4. is the measured (wet) HC concentration as a mole fraction C. concentration. varying K from 2. The sensitivity of the computed 4 to errors in the measurements of CO. with standard deviation S. were used to derive these results.57) to (4. (4. The equations apply for a fuel of composition C. For stoichiometric mixtures. CO.67). CO. no exhaust HC) and the CO.8 (typical of gasoline). Note that X. The concentrations of each species for each (FIA) were weighted by the distribution functionf (x) and summed to produce the average exhaust concentration. Eltinge has developed a method for defining this nonuniformity in the fuel/ air ratio distribution for spark-ignition engines which operate close to stoichiometric. For leaner and richer mixtures.) relative to an engine operating with identical fuellair ratios in each cylinder. and H. In addition. For 4 z 1.1 percent error in computed 4. (A correction to allow for the presence of unburned HC in the exhaust was also developed. 4-20 and Eqs. CO.O. extra oxygen will be contributed by any cylinders operating lean of the average and extra carbon monoxide by any cylinders rich of the average. This type of information can be used to define the fuel-air mixture nonuniformities in sparkignition engines operating relatively close to stoichiometric.. (4. but is still significantly less than the measurement error in fuel and air flow. and wet HC concentration. increasing to 1 percent for an NO.68). based on the dry exhaust gas composition data in Fig.62). so that the exhaust gas will have higher levels of 0.63) to relate CO. is modest within the normal range of 4 used. 4..29 A function f ( x ) for theafuel/air ratio distribution (x = F/A) was assumed. is 0. x tions. For example. 4-20. shown in Fig. H.) Figure 4-24 shows one set of results.O. For lean mixtures. : The notation jti denotes the wet mole fraction of species i and 5 denotes the dry mole fraction of species i. CO.5 to 4. 0. mixing of fuel and air within each cylinder is not necessarily completely uniform. concentrations were related by Eq. as well as Eqs. and CO (4 > 1) and 0. (the standard deviation of the FIA distribution) the corresponding dry concentrations of CO. level of 5000 ppm. (4. CO. and C O (and a lower level of CO. Equations (4. are shown.ZHZO)q' and Fuellair equivalence ratio FIGURE 4-23 Wet exhaust gas species concentrations as a function of fuel/air equivalence ratio.5 varied the computed 4 by 2 to 3 percent. aZCaHb.. The error in 4 involved in omitting NO. varying K from 2. H.e..O. H.. the error in 9 increases for errors in measured CO... Thus the exhaust gas composition may correspond to a distribution in the fuellair ratio in the unburned mixture about the mean value. and 0.e. or CO or 0.5 varied the computed 4 by 3 to 4 percent. The fuellair equivalence ratio is given by where the wet and dry mole fractions are related by jti = (1 . complete utilization of the available bxygen was assumed (i.2 percent for an NO.H.68). ZCHb. based on the MIT measured dry concentrations of CO. at 4 x 1 gives about a 0. concentrations and the assumption that b/a = m/n.5 and 5.5 to 4. For each value of x (i. and 0..

and particulates..63) equals 3. Combustion efficiency data as a function of equivalence ratio have already been presented in Fig. use the results of Example 4. the combustion efficiency rt. and 2750 K. 4. a small fraction of the fuel escapes f fl . 4-1. .2. so the effects of any nonuniformities are not apparent in this manner (see Fig. and xb = 0. EGR.23) (constant-volume adiabatic combustion) and (4.O). and (4) N0.1. (b) CO. and particulates. Explain any differences. Compare the 0. usually the mass fraction is low enough for their contribution to be small. 0..'') 4. 0.. 4-15 and 4-16 to calculate Mb for & = 1750. 12. 4-14.4.154 PROPERTIES OF WORKING FLUIDS INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE FUNDAMENTALS 155 PROBLEMS Assumptions: Fuel HIC atom ratio = 1. 4. and c. When their concentrations are known.5 in Eq.27) can be calculated. 1600ppm. (b) Compare the specific heat at constant pressure of isooctane-air combustion products at 4 = 1. The exhaust from a spark-ignition engine has the following composition (in mole fractions): TO - The fuel is isooctane. by acting as a diluent in the intake mixture. Assume diesel fuel is a hydrocarbon with H/C ratio of 2. H.. The chemical energy carried out of the engine in these combustibles represents the combustion inefficiency. both at 1750 K. HC.. tal balance in Table 4.6). Assume the following unburned mixture conditions: T = 700 K. where the xiare the mass fractions of CO.0 and decreased from 1. are the lower heating values of these species. Compare this result with that obtained using Figs. emissions. exhaust gas recirculation. why does M.5 (a) Calculate the low-temperature burned gas composition resulting from the combustion of 7 g/s air with 0. CO. Determine the fuellair equivalence ratio 4 for the following three sets of data.5%.) 4. No unburned fuel Stoichiometric airlfuel ratio = 14.. given by Eq. x HC (ppm C.0. 14.3.0%. CO OH%. NO. CO.6). (c) CO.H.80 Water gas constant = 3 5 . 1 . Fuel: (CH. s o the fuel heating value (typically 42 to 44 MJ/kg) is used.48 g/s ethanol (C. molar concentrations are all measured fully dry. and NO. respectively. (4.7 x lo-.decrease as x. .4 Combustion Inefficiency Internal combustion engine exhaust contains combustible species: CO.8%.. (b) Calculate the low-temperature burned gas composition for the combustion of 7 g/s air with 0. airjfuel ratio.H.24) (constant-pressure adiabatic combustion) to calculate T. . CO. 0. and the subscripts f and . for a stoichiometric isooctane-air mixture.5. The particulates (only present in diesels) are soot with some adsorbed hydrocarbons. 43. The following exhaust data were obtained from a four-stroke cycle spark-ignition engine. (3) the unburned hydrocarbon H/C ratio is the same as that of the fuel. 4-14 and explain any differences. : 4. C.. 4-14.0. p = 15 atm. evaluate the accuracy of the simple analytic ideal gas model. lence ratio are linear. 4-22 with the predictions of the elemen. 13. denote fuel and air. as shown above.HC 34% ppm. 3-9. the heating values of hydrocarbons are closely comparable. (3.1 and Eqs.7. (4. why does Mb decrease as 4 increases? Show how. Make the following assumptions: (1) the constant K in Eq. (a) CO.05%. unburned hydrocarbons.9. and 4 = 1. is often used to reduce NO. 0..q. However.8. The composition of the unburned H C is not usually known.is entirely NO.16%. Explain qualitatively the causes of the trends in the curves in Fig. obtained from Fig. FIGURE 4-24 Computed relationship between dry exhaust gas composition (CO. HC is measured fully wet as ppm C. 4-23 as 4 is increased from 1. 2250.125 m3/ kg air. for an ideal gas with fixed composition.9. MJ/kg) and Hz(120 MJFg) are well defined. Compare these results with values of M. and O. H z . NO. Assume K = 3.). 5 45. and maldistribution parameter S..0%.5 in Eq. increases? decrease as T increases? (b) In Fig.) (From ~Itinge. NO.0 to that of air... (a) For low-temperature isooctane-air combustion products at 4 = 1. Ox. CO 3. Use Figs. Assume K = 3.. the molecular weight M is related to the specificheats c. This difference is one reason why EGR instead of leaner fuel-air mixture is used to control NO. the Q .8 MJ/kg) can be used. 3690ppm. 4.H.).48 g/s ethane (C. and a heating value for solid carbon (32. 4-3 and 4-8. (Note the large differencein burned gas composition due to this difference in fuel.). The correction to be added to the burned gar (FIA) which allows for the measured unburned hvdrocarbon concentration is 4.. CO. 4-22). why does Mb (c) In Fig. (4.. determine the percentage of the burned gases' average specific heat at constant pressure which comes from each component in the burned gas mixture. (4. (2) the fuel composition is C. The heating values for C O (10. $ k 4. HC 2100 ppm.1.7%. and J?. CO 0.H.6. (a) In Fig. HC 3200ppm.0. 4. 4600ppm.and CO data in Fig. v = 0.

9%. (a) Calculate the combustion inenlciency in the engine. (b) Since the exhaust gas temperature is significantly above ambient.. N = 14.5 kas.) which exits the engine unburned as (1) CO and (2) unburned HC.74. What percentage improvement in engine specific fuel consumption would result? 4. Use the gas tables. with a molecular weight of 14). Fuel and air enter the engine at ambient conditions.e. At low engine speed. 4.Q. 0. H20.4 MJ/kg.6%. At this temperature. respectively. reactants and the reaction products. of carbon monoxide is 10. The temperature of the combustion products in the exhaust manifold is 660 K.Diesel fuel has a heating value of 42 MJ/kg and stoichiometric fuel/air ratio of 0. 4. 4. In practice.10...13. the percentage of the entering fuel enthalpy which is not fully released in the combustion process and leaves the engine in the exhaust gases (for this problem. the average sensible enthalpy of the exhaust gases as they leave the engine.. calculate the additional power obtained and the brake fuel conversion efficiency of the combined cycle system (diesel plus Rankine cycle). (c) Compare the work of compression in (a) and (b) above. (b) Assume the cylinder contains air which may be regarded as a semiperfect gas (use the gas tables). The atomic weights of the elements are C = 12.4 and R = 287 J/kg K.. i. The mechanical efficiency of the diesel engine is 85 percent.14.12 A direct-injection four-stroke cycle diesel engine is used to provide power for pumping water. the exhaust can be assumed to be at room temperature). 0.0 a s . The atomic weights of the elements are: C = 12. A gasoline engine operates steadily on a mixture of isooctane and air. has the following exhaust composition (in percent by volume or mole percent): 0%.1 MJ/kg. The conditions in the cylinder at the start of compression are p = 101. CO. the advantages of using the diesel exhaust gas stream to heat the boiler of a Rankine cycle (see sketch) and generate additional power are to be explored. with a heating value of 44 MJ/kg.5%. Compare your answers with those of Prob. heat losses reduce the final compression temperature by 100 K. unburned hydrocarbons C 0 2 . 2.. Constants for the calculations: Enthalpy of formation. 2%. N 2 . (a) Calculate the rated brake power of the engine. kJ/kmol r Diesel engine - Hot diesel exhaust Rankine cycle boiler cooled diesel exhaust 400 KI 7 Rankine cycle fluid (vapor) t (liquid) FIGURE P4-12 Sensible enthalpy at 660 K.5%.. A diesel engine has a compression ratio of 22 :1. calculate the air pressure and temperature at the start of injection. The gross indicated fuel conversion efficiency is 45 percent. for the diesel engine of Prob.. and it is conditions at time of spark (for an SI engine) or fuel injection (for a CI engine) that determine ignition. The heating values of CO and HC are 10 and 44 MJ/kg. i. . 0 = 16. (b) Calculate the fraction of the input fuel energy (m. the actual compression process starts somewhere between bottom-center and when the inlet valve closes. CO.067. assuming the compression process is isentropic: (a) ~ s s u m e the cylinder contains an ideal gas with y = 1. The inlet valve closes at 30' after BC. The engine operates at its maximum rated power at 2000 rev@& with an equivalence ratio of 0.. and of hydrogen is 120 MJ/kg.8 and an air flow of 0.156 INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE FUNDAMENTALS PROPERTIES OF WORKING FLUIDS 157 from the cylinder unburned.. Calculate the pressure and temperature at the end of compression. 4. O. an analysis of the combustion products yields the following values (on a dry volumetric basis): CO. The output of the engine is 50 kW.0 = 16. compression starts about the time when the inlet valve closes. 11.e. 4. For a diesel engine operating at an equivalence ratio_of 0. H = 1.11. The lower heating value of isooctane is 44. and the average exhaust gas temperature. The air and fuel enter the engine at 25OC. A %liter displacement four-cylinder engine. injection commences 15" before TC.4%. 1. H = 1 . kJ/kmol 4. 11. 11%.. The fuel consumption is 3.13(b).75 (full load): (6)Calculate the ratio of heat loss during compression to the fuel energy added per cycle. N = 14. If the exhaust gases leave the Rankine-cycle system boiler at 400 K and 30 percent of the heat transferred from the exhaust gas stream in the boiler is converted to power at the Rankine-cycle power plant drive shaft. (b) Determine the heat-transfer rate from the working fluid as the working fluid passes through the engine. (b) What fraction of this inefficiency is due to the unburned fuel emissions? .5% The fuel is (CH. N2.).3 kPa and T = 325 K. . (expressed as CH.13. (c) An inventor claims a combustion efficiency of 100 percent can be achieved. operating at 2000 rev/min and 30 percent of its maximum power at that speed. With this assuplption. and the heat losses from the working fluid to the engine coolant and elsewhere within the engine are 280 kW. Hz. 02.1% (a) Find the composition in moles (number of moles per mole of isooctane) of the . 84.5%. While the geometric compression ratio of an engine is VJV. (a) Is the engine a diesel or spark-ignition engine? Is there enough oxygen in the exhaust to burn the fuel completely? Briefly explain.

2d ad. A: "Combustion and Emissions Characteristics of Methanol. S.: Thermodynamic Charts for Combustion Processes. K.0. H. JIgmol . Williams.4. Graphs. B. McIntyrc. 1979. A. LoRusso. Newhall. John Wiey.4) for products of combustion of isooctane (C.K . See also charts in C. and Gasoline-Methanol Blends in a Spark Ignition Engine.vol. (2) Use these data and the equilibrium program to calculate the temperature attained after combustion at constant pressure. MIT Press. J. NSRDS-NB537. Use a log scale for the composition axis. 0 . and gas composition (mole fractions of N." NASA publication SP-273. K. and McBride. temperature. 13. molecular weight. Filton.. Plot these temperatures and pressures against the equivalence ratio 4. H.: "Fortran IV Computer Program for Calculation of Thermodynamic and Transport Properties of Complex Chemical Systems.66 % . 1960. J.. published by Bristol Siddeley Engines Ltd. k d / m o l . Emissions and the Effects of Exhaust Gas Recirculation in Spark-Ignition Engines. Department of Mechanical Engineering. TP-7.. The mixture is then ignited with a spark. C. 1967.16.. and Propane and Air for Engine Performance Calculations. 82. N. 600 K..1976. C.K Q Jlpof For butane T. A gas engine... Incident and Reflected Shocks. G. NO." NASA technical note TND7056. S. The charge composition is air plus 50 percent of the stoichiometric quantity of butane fuel.. -53.. 5 Starkman. SAE Trans. Heywood. 11 Banes. B. K. National Bureau of Standards. vol.e..H. W. Hottel." S. W.6. General Electric Company.. U." SAE paper 730475. Ferguson. 1981. 83.1971 (NTH number N71-37775). JANAF Thmnochemical Tables. May 1976.48 x loS N/m2. H. CO. Emissions ModelSig of a Jet Ignition Rechamber Stratified Charge Engine. J. R. 10. 85.. 4. OH. Keenan. SAE Trans. Reynolds.: Properties of Combustion Gases. CO. F.. J.158 INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE FUNDAMENTALS PROPERTIES OF WORKING FLUIDS 159 4. also calculate the volume per unit mass of mixture (cm3/g) for 4 = 0. Ekchian.17.: "Thermodynamic Properties of Octane and Air for Engine Performance Calculations. J. 1. B. J.: "Knock in Spark-Ignition Engines.. Advisory Group for Aerospace Research and Development (AGARD).: ThermodynMlie Properties in SI. J. Komiyama. 1.B.. Put all species concentrations on the same graph. MIT.. Kempinski. vol. et al.. 2d ed.. Rocket Pcrformanoe." SAE paper 760161. vol.. J. 1967. 1973.: "Thamodynamic Properties of Methane and Air. and NO) as a function of the equivalence ratio ( 4 = 0..: Gas Tables. Propulsion and Energetics Panel. H. and Rife. B Tabaczynski. Use an equilibrium computer code (which calculates the composition and properties of chemically reacting gas mixtures in equilibrium) to calculate the data you need for the following graphs: (a) Values of c.. and Sims. O. Id. John Wiey. and temperature and pressure attained after combustion at constant volume. Ohio. C. Taylor. J. Calculate the pressure and temperature at the end of combustion using the data given below. and Starkman. 7. A heavy wall bomb with a volume of 1000 cm3 contains a mixture of isooctane with the stoichiometric air requirement at p = 101." in Digital Calculations of Engine Cycles. H.. I I Fremont. Thermodynamic data for isooctane vapor T. D. and Wall. C. and Kaye. Hires. Chao. J. vol. 1. R.79 4. S.3 kPa and T = 25•‹C. 1.. pp. M." SAE paper 810147. A.S. 4. A. .00 27.659 MJ/gmol.0. 1. "Predicting the Emissions and Performance Characteristicsof a Wankel Engine.. M. C. running on a gaseous mixture of butane. A. 45.K 298 700 Z cal/mol.1973 (NTIS number N73-15954). 9. and McBride." SAE paper 670466... before heat losses to the wall are significant).8.57 -62.. 1955. Internal energy of combustion of butane at 298 K is Ar = -2. Stanford University. Progress in Technology.: "Predicting NO. and Newhall. 8.. 76. and Keck. H20. and Satterfield. Tables. 2.1974.k d / m o l . Assume the burned gases are uniform.. (1) Calculate the enthalpy and internal energy of isooctane vapor at 700 K in cal/gmol. IJ. H. C. Heywood. and Computational Equations /or Forty Substances. Bristol.: "Computer Program for the Calculation of Complex Chemical Equilibrium Composition.4. 0. (b) Unburned mixture consisting of isooctane vapor and air at 700 K and 20 atm is burned fist at constant pressure and then at constant volume. G. BY. Hz.0. y. J. Methanol-Water.02 &. and air has the following conditions in the cylinder prior to constant-volume adiabatic combustion: pressure. 6. 1964..H.0. 1. i Extract from gas tables for products of combustion for 50 percent stoichiometric fuel : REFERENCES J. The Internal Combustion Engine in Theory and Practice. E.: "Performana and . . June 1971. Thesis. SAE Trans. 38-48.14 85. S. vols.. and ChapmanJouguet Detonations. Gordon. Svehla." SAE paper 740186.2. K c. and Heywood..) with air at p = 40 atm and T = 2500 K. SAE.& . Find the pressure and temperature of the equilibrium combustion products just after combustion is complete (i.2 to 1. 1949. B. J. A: Properties of Air and Combustion Products with Kerosene and Hydrogen Fuels.vol. J.. SAE Trans. R. For air T.. 6.C. NATO. Danleli. England. I-XIII. E. Cincinnati.2.15. Department of Mechanical Engineering. 1983.

6 Fuel Stoichiometry and Hydrogen-to-Carbon Ratio on CO. L. 1 . and dual cycle. R. and Eccleston. Diesel Gas Power. S. With models for each of these processes. 23.1975. Sci. and Bud. Cambridge. Mixture Temperature on Exhaust Emissions. R. G. 3 .: Molecular Theory of Gases and Liquids. Ideal t These cycles are also referred to by the titles Otto cycle. and HC Exhaust Emissions.1980. Martin. In this chapter we consider the simplest set of models which provide useful insights into the performance and efficiency of engines. 2 . Pa. Carnegie Preq Pittsburgh.. compression. R C. Equivalence Ratio... G. Spindt. For each engine cycle. vol. Diesel cycle. K for historical reasons.pp.: "Correlation for the Viscosity and Prandtl Number 7 Hydrocarbon-Air Combustion Products.1968. 2 . . and Borman. G. and Primentel. 4 .SAE paper 730476. H. 90-96.: "Combustion Efficiency in Internal Combustion Engines. G.SAE Trans. 1-la 5 1977. 0 . NO. and Lovell. Models of individual engine processes at various levels of approximation have been developed. vol. 4..." SAE 5 .1 INTRODUCTION The operating cycle of an internal combustion engine can be broken down into a sequence of separate processes: intake. Bishop.no. M. M. 1961. 1954. G. General Motors Auto2 motive Engine Test Codefor Four Cycle Spark Ignition Engines. paper 710604. P. B. 2 . 2 . 1975. R. T. Fleming. and Henein. John Wdey.1971. and Cowling. and exhaust. a choice of models for working fluid thermodynamic Properties must be made..16. . &d the CI or diesel engine is best approximated by the constant-pressure cycle. 38. J. A. These assumptions not necessarily wmct. S. Eltinge.D. 3 . F. The Engine Test Code Subcommittee of the General Technical Committee. N. O . Mansouri. Technology. Rossini. R. and Borman. R.: The Mathematical Theory of Non-Uniform Gases. and limited-pressure cycles. 2 . A.S. K. Curtiss. Osjara. 1953. These models have been reviewed in Chap. Cambrid@ 1 University Press. 251-256. J. S. B. D L.: "Development of a Fuel-Based Mass Emission Measurement Procedure. Technology. L. D . ASME paper 66-WA/DGP-4. D. a simulation of a complete engine cycle can be built up which can be analysed to provide information on engine performance." in Proc. Leonard. February 1985. F. 1965. and Heywood." 4 ." Combust. B. Department 1 of Mechanical Engineering.1966. L. 1 . combustion." SAE paper 710012.: Etnissionsfrom Combustion Engines and Their Control. 14.: "Approximate Relationships for the Thennodynamic Proper. C. Engines. 2 . 0 3 .and Heywood. R. Patterson. Arnett. Hamngton.SAE Trans. MIT. vol 7 7 .: "The Effect of Fuel Composition. The cycles analysed are commonly called the constant-volume. Stivender. 3 pp.. 1972 2 . J. Sci..J." B.. B.1971. "Air-Fuel Ratios from Exhaust Gas Analysis." SAE paper 379A. B A . J. 1 . constantpressure. 6th ed. S. 1955. C.." SAE paper 750468.: Selected Values q Physical and Thennodynamic Properties of Hydrocarbons and Related Compounds." SAE paper 650507. and 28.1973. vol. D'Alleva.: "The Computation of Apparent Heat Release for Internal 9 Combustion Engines.. L : "Fuel-Air Ratio and Distribution from Exhaust Gas Composition.: "Relation of Exhaust Gas Composition to Air-Fuel Ratio. pp.March 1936. 29.: "A Computer Program for Calculating Properties of Equilibrium 8 Combustion Products with Some Applications to LC. Chapman.. SAE J. Ann 3 Arbor Science Publishers. 1 . .S. CHAPTER IDEAL MODELS OF ENGINE CYCLES 5. The more descriptive titles used above are preferred ~ C C ~ U they avoid the o h m a d e assumption that the SI or Otto engine is best approximated by the constant-volumecycle.. Thesis. L." SAE paper . and Shishu. Pitzer. B.: "A SingleCylinder Engine Study of the Effects of Fuel Type. 2 . ties of Hydrocarbon-Air Combustion Products. Braun. expansion.. R. respectively. each title describes the approximation made for the engine combustion process. C. vol. Krieger..t The description of more accurate Simulations of engine processes is deferred until Chap.: "Fuel Distribution by Exhaust Gas Analysis. Hirschfelder.. 77. 680114. 2 . W." Combust. D. K .

The temperature changes which occur around minimum and maximum cylinder volumes are not primarily a result of heattransfer interactions. .6. Inlet and exhaust pressures constant 5. 3. Rather. FIGURE 5-1 Pmsure-volume diagram of firing spark-ignition engine.4 atm. The cycle can be divided into compression. = 2.2) provide analytic results and are useful for illustrative purposes. 1.. Adiabatic 2. librium mixture for the burned mixture--model 5 in Table 4. TABLE 5. Combustion is complete (q. Adiabatic and reversible (hence isentropic) 1. NO change in cylinder volume as pressure differences across open valves drop to m o 4. pi = 0. cylinder pressure (p) and volume (V) data from a throttled four-stroke cycle SI engine are plotted as a p-V diagram in Fig.) Thus. the cycles discussed in this chapter are not thermodynamic cycles. Adiabatic and reversible (hence isentropic) 1. An engine can best be analyzed as an open system which exchanges heat and work with its surrounding environment (the atmosphere). = 8. 5-1. r. It is not a closed system. Velocity effects negligible compression(1-2) combustion (2-3) ~xpansion (3-4) Exhaust (4-5-6) and intake (6-7-1) 5. Reactants (fuel and air) flow into the system. (4 Throttled constant-volume W e .3. 3330 rev/min. atm. (e) supercharged constant-volumecycle. To illustrate these processes. Pe (b) constant-pressure combustion. Combustion occurs at (a) Constant volume (b) Constant pressure (c) Part at constant volume and part at constant pressure (dled limited pressure) 3.9 atm.4. Ideal engine cycles combined with more realistic models of working fluid properties (a frozen mixture of ideal gases for the unburned mixture and an equi. = 1) 1. Cylinder volumelV. (An overall second law analysis of the engine from this point of view has already been presented in Sec.2) are called fuel-air cycles and provide more quantitative information on engine operation. An internal combustion engine is not a heat engine in the thepodynamic definition of the term. prasure-volume diagrams of ideal cycles. products (exhaust gases) flow out. Unthrottled operation: (a) constant-volume combustion. each is a consecutive sequence of processes through which we can follow the state of the working fluid as the engine executes a complete operating cycle. we will call these cycles ideal gas standard cycles. Valveevents occur at t o p and bottomcenter 3. (c) limited-pr&urc combustion.162 INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE FUNDAMENTALS engine cycle models combined with a simple ideal gas model (specific heats constant throughout the engine cycle-model 1 in Table 4.1 ldcal models of engine processes Rarss kssumptiom 1.2 IDEAL MODELS OF ENGINE PROCESSES The sequence of processes which make up a typical SI and CI engine operating cycle has been described in Sec. The working fluid does not execute a thermodynamic cycle. Adiabatic 2. imep.

Sec.~. (which. 5-2 to define the endpoints of each engine process.1.. the limitedpressure cycle lies in between.. 3-4 (or 2-4 in the constant-pressure cycle) is the expansion process. and limited-pressure cycles for unthrottled engine operation are illustrated in Fig. and Expansion stroke: For the constant-volume cycle. Sets of assumptions which simplify each of these processes to a form convenient for analysis are given in Table 5. 4-5-6 is the exhaust process. 2-3 is the combustion process.= rc u2 Since the process is adiabatic and reversible S2 = S1 The compression work is Combustion process: For the constant-volume cycle. In each cycle 1-2 is the compression process. > pJ are shown in Fig. . is equal to the indicated thermal see conversion efficiency v. and intake processes. the following relationships are obtained by applying the fist and second laws of thermodynamics to the cylinder contents: . P3 = P2 53 THERMODYNAMIC RELATIONS FOR ENGINE PROCESSES The overall engine operating parameters of greatest interest which can be determined from a thermodynamic analysis of the engine operating cycle are: The indicated fuel conversion efficiency v.the indicated work per cycle. "3 = u2 For the constant-pressure cycle.6.U4 = m(u3 . and 6-7-1 is the intake process.) For the constant-pressure cycle.~: For the limited-pressure cycle.. expansion. is the sum of the compression stroke work and the expansion stroke work: P3 = P2 "4 . exhaust. the constantpressure cycle would correspond to slow and late combustion. and the spark or fuel-injection timing may be retarded from its optimum advance to closer to TC. since the combustion efficiency is unity. 5-2a to c. constant-pressure. W..combustion. Pressure-volume diagrams for the constant-volume. compression stroke: "1 . 3.. The real engine combustion process occupies a finite crank angle period (between about 20 and 70 crank angle degrees).14. The constantvolume cycle is the limiting case of infinitely fast combustion at TC. 5-2d and e.rc s4 = s3 "2 and the expansion work is Using the notation of Fig. The most critical assumption in determining how useful these ideal cycles are as indicators of engine performance is the form assumed for the combustion process.2) The indicated mean effective pressure (imep): and the expansion work is WE= U 3 . Throttled engine operation (pi < pJ and supercharged engine operation (p.

Since it is also assumed that no heat transfer occurs..1 s FIGURE 5-3 Enthalpyzntropy diagram of gas state during exhaust process.m6 (5.b 3 v33 4 )~ 3 ( ~ 3 b v3lr)I = mC(u3b . 5-4. therefore.~2 v21 m.i = mC(:(h3 h4) . the cylinder pressure is above the exhaust manifold pressure and a blowdown process occurs.(u2 ..) . he = m 4 " 4 . shownin Fig.us) at the end of the blowdown process following an isentropic expansion from p4 to pe and then by reducing the cylinder volume to the clearance volume V.P3 03al The indicated fuel conversion efficiency is found by substitution into Eqs. See text for explanation. is slightly less than T. in the cylinder at point 6 in the cycle is obtained by first determining the state of the gas (T. (5.. Applying the first law of thermodynamics for an open system gives (5. The s~ecificexhaust enthalpy is. When the exhaust valve opens at point 4. The mixture temperature at the end of the intake stroke and at the start of Ihe stroke (point 1 in Fig.~ + - = mC(h3b . In the ideal exhaust process model.(% -~ 1 + P4 04 . If heat-transfer and kinetic energy dissipation e k t s are neglected. cylinder walls. the temperature of the last element exhausted is T5. QLHV For the limited-pressure cycle: rnC(h3b 41.m 6 u 6 + ~ e 6 "'4 .i = . 5-3. he gas remaining in the cylinder expands isentropically along the line 4-5. A displacement of gas out of the cylinder follows the blowdown process as the piston moves from BC to TC.17) The average state of the exhausted gas can be determined by considering the Open system defined by the piston face. a gradient in temperature within the exhausted gas.He where He is the enthalpy of the mass of gas exhausted from the cylinder. The gases escaping from the cylinder undergo an unrestrained expansion or throttling process which is irreversible. An element that leaves the cylinder at an intermediate state b on the expansion line 4-5 would enter the exhaust manifold at state c.18~) U6 . vdu3a b P4 = P3b = P3a S4 = S3b and the expansion work is = u3b . = -u3 -( mf QLHV ~ . and cylinder head. this blowdown occurs with the piston stationary at BC.P3 u3aI ) mf QLHV The state of the mixture at point 1 in the cycle depends on the intake mixture properties and the residual gas properties at the end of the exhaust stroke. The mass of residual gas m. again using . These processes are illustrated on an h-s diagram in Fig.h 3 .166 INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE FUNDAMENTALS For the limited-pressure cycle. no change in thermodynamic state of the gas occurs. 5-2) can now be determind.. the gas which remains inside the cylinder expands isentropically.U4 = p&V4 .~ - 1 ) ~4 v4 + . defines the average exhausted-gas state. vdvs . therefore. T. The residual mass fraction is thus given by -=x.02 rc us (5.u4 + ~ 3 ( ~.1): For the constant-volume cycle: mC(u3 41.18b) which. the enthalpy of each element of gas after it leaves the cylinder remains constant. In this displacement process.V. The temperature of the first element exhausted. There is.with p = pe. At the end of the blowdown process the gas in the cylinder and the last gas to leave have the same stat-5.h4) + P4 v4 .=--m m. The fint element of gas which leaves the cylinder at point 4 enters the exhaust manifold at state a on the pressure = pe line. the mass of gas within the cylinder at the end of the blowdown process is further decreased by the ratio &/&. It is assumed that the kinetic energy acquired by each gas element as it is accelerated through the exhaust valve is dissipated in a turbulent mixing process in the exhaust port into internal energy and flow work. During this blowdown process.3) and (5.u1)1 2 For the constant-pressure cycle: 4f.

Note that when pi < pe. = pi. Eq.cy is related to the gross indicated fuel conversion efficiencyby the open system in Fig.T. m. the equations developed in the where hi is the specific enthalpy of the inlet mixture and p. Hence. with cu and c.9) becomes WE= mc. 5.19) above.) The denominator in Eq. since the flow of residual through the intake valve is a constant enthalpy process.27). For the working fluid model under consideration.U 6 = -pi(Vl . of magnitude c. the closing of the exhaust valve and the opening of the intake valve overlap. for a constant-volume adiabatic combustion process The work done by the cylinder gases on the piston during intake is W = PXVI . Application of the first law between points 6 and 1 gives U 1 .. (5.. where E is the combustion dtiency given by Eq. AND c.18) and (5. 3-5 are parallel and have equal slopes.m6)hi + (5. constant throughout the engine operating cycle. The right-hand side of the equation should then be E m. CONSTANT If the working fluid in these ideal cycles is assumed to be an ideal gas. The work done by the cylinder gases on the piston during exhaust is previous section which describe engine performance and efficiency can be further simplified.19) would have to be modified to account for valve overlap. 5. is negative for pi < pe and positive for pi > PI- t Note that if insutficient air is available for complete combustion of the fuel. (5. (5.QLHv. 5.T2) The expansion work (Eq.T diagram such as Fig.22) W = (Pi .P~XVI V2) p which.Exhaust f i e ~umpingmean effective pressure (pmep) is usually defined as a positive Thus: For Pi < Pe: For pi > pe: The net and gross indicated mean effective pressures are related by - 'I Definition of system boundary for thermodynamic analysis of ideal cycle processes. work is done on the piston during the intake and the exhaust processes. QLHv.19~) 5.V2) (5. the U(T)lines for the reactants and products on a U . The net indicated fuel conversion efficie.1 Constant-Volume Cycle The compression work (Eq.V6) (ml . the pumping work.14). In many engines.(T3 .21) The net work to the piston over the exhaust and intake strokes. This flow will cease when the cylinder pressure equals pi.4 CYCLE ANALYSIS WITH IDEAL GAS WORKING FLUID WITH c.4. 5-4.6) becomes Wc= mc. part of the residual gas in the cylinder at the end o f the exhaust stroke will flow into the intake system when the intake valve opens. provided no heat transfer occurs. this backflow will not affect Eqs. We will use the notation of Fig. Flow of exhausted gases from the exhaust system through the cylinder into the intake system can then occur. However.28) must be modified. is (5. for the cylinder gas system.. In the four-stroke engine cycle. be related to the temperature can rise during combustion. 5-2. (3.(Tl . . Equations (5.

32) and (5. the relationships between the working fluid properties at points 1 and 6 do depend on the degree of throttling or supercharging. per unit mass of working fluid. and decreases as Q*/(c. y = E#. can be determined as follows. Equations (5. (5.. TI.Note that the heating values at constant volume and constant pressure are the same for this working fluid. decreases as r. the temperature of the residual gas T can be . the residual gas mass fraction x. . obtained from Eq. The ratio p31pl can be determined from the ideal gas applied at points 2 and 3.. x.33) then give where y = cJc.) are sufficient to describe [he characteristics of the constant-volume ideal gas standard cycle.17). becomes Q* is the specific internal energy (and enthalpy) decrease. From Eq. The relation for indicated fuel conversion efficiency (Eq. For convenience we will define The indicated mean effectivepressure. using Eqs. relative to its initial conditions pl. 5. (5. Hence: A high value of imeplp. (5. Engine weight will increase with increasing p.. and imep/p3 for this ideal cycle model do not depend on whether the cycle is throttled or supercharged. since state 5 corresponds to an isentropic expansion from state 4 to p = p. T. (5.2) and (5. However.)increases. and the relation Since 1-2 and 3-4 are isentropic processes between the same volumes. p3. The residual mass fraction increases as pi decreases below pe. 1t is useful to compare the imep-a measure of the effectiveness with which [he displaced volume of the engine is used to produce work-and the maximum pressure in the cycle. it follows that FIGURE 5-5 Ideal gas constant-volume cycle fuel conversion dficiency as a function of cornpression ratio. and Q*/(c. Through a similar analysis. is given by and Eq. 5-5. to withstand the increasing stresses in components.T. increases.. bustion.28). is desirable. Vl and V2. For throttled engine operation. The indicated fuel conversion efficiency increases with increasing compression ratio and decreases as y decreases. The indicated fuel conversion efficiency and the ratios imeplp. y. for different values of y are shown in Fig.31).. during isothermal com.14) becomes The dimensionless numbers r. determined: .30) can be rearranged as Values of q.

2 Limited. for isooctane fuel. = 12.19).3 for the entire cycle is thus a reasonable compromise. ..4 can be found in Taylor. Q*/(c.3 (r. Ti) all cycles would be burning a stoichiometric mixture with an appropriate residual gas fraction. For a working fluid with c . In Sec.u3a)I For the combustion process.2.3 and an average molecular weight M = 29. The imep values are proportional t o tl/. the ratio of imep to p3 increases. the compression work remains The expansion work. stant. and the maximum pressure chiefly affects the strength required of the engine structure. fresh air fills the displaced volume and the residual gas fills the clearance volume at the same density. analysis of pressure-volume data for real engine cycles indicates that pVn. Pressure-volume diagrams for the three ideal cycles for the same compression ratio and unburned mixture composition are shown in Fig. For TI = 333 K . is the enthalpy decrease during isothermal combustion per unit mass of working fluid. Q* is given by 2. defined by Eq. (5. and c. Overall performance characteristics for each of these cycles are summarized in Table 5. Values for a stoichiometric mixture appropriate to an SI engine are y.and ConstantPressure Cycles The constant-pressure cycle is a limited-pressure cycle with p3 = p2. becomes w~= mCcdGb . For the limited-pressure cycle. c.7g. Q*/(c. this result gives the constant-pressure cycle efficiency as a special case.K.e.' Heat transfer from the burned gases increases the exponent above the value corresponding to yb. 4. 5.Tl .T2) + d T 3 b T-4 .(5. For each cycle.37)leads to the relation 5. This can be seen from Eq. con._ ttjJ = 1 - (T3~ . r. respectively.and (5. T . and c. and p3 via Use of Eqs. with Eq. x 1. yb z 1.l)/r. = 8. (5.l)/r. (5. where n 1.. (5. h) give for a working fluid with c. from Eq.3.. A simple approximation for (mdm) is (r. average values of y. .43) where the term in square brackets is equal to unity for the constant-volume cycle and greater than unity for the limited. (5. Eqs. constant throughout the cycle. T I )becomes 9.29).2.36) and (5.3.39)to (5.' The above expressions are most useful if values for y and Q*/(cuT I )are chosen to match real working fluid properties.41)and simplifying gives .4. Q*. .3). (5.31). For a = 1.3. Figure 5-5 has already shown the sensitivity of llj for the constant-volume cycle t o the value of y chosen.i since the mass of fuel burned per cycle is the same in all three cases. The constantvolume cycle has the highest efficiency. and yb were determined which match real working fluid properties over the compression and expansion strokes. T I )= 9.l)/rc J/kg air.T3a) Use of the isentropic relationships for the working fluid along 1-2 and 3b-4. y = 1.1).and constant-pressure cycles.l)/r. For this value of Q+/(c.3. A value of y = 1.525. = 946 J/kg . 5-6.13). This ratio is important because imep is a measure of the useful pressure on the piston.3(rc . (5.4.43 Cycle Comparison Extensive results for the constant-voluine cycle with y = 1. with the substitutions leads to the result For p = 1 this result becomes the constant-volume cycle eficiency (Eq. the constant-pressure cycle the lowest cfliciency.92 x lo6 (rc . Hence 5. Combining Eqs. is a good fit to the expansion stroke p-V data. Then. for a stoichiometric mixture.The mixture temperature at point 1 in the cycle can be related to the inlet mixture temperature. this equation becomes The mean effective pressure is related to p. i. However. As the peak pressure p3 is decreased. For y = 1.T4) + ~ 3 ( u 3 b.

3(rC.525. P1 16. Example 5. .466 y = 1. limited-pressure ideal gas cycles.l)/r.3 A more extensive comparison of the three cycles is given in Figs.. y . compression ratio r.231 0. For y =.3(r.5 11. Example 5. y = 1.Tl) = 9 .3 15. TI) = 9. Q*/(c. r.----. at constant p3/pl.l)/r. For limited-pressure cycle. TI) = 9.1. and mixture temperature at point 1 in the constant-volume cycle for pJpi = 1 (unthrottled operation)and 2 (throttled operation). .Constant volume \ --- -.3. For a given maximum pressure p. re = 12.128 0.constant pressure Constant volume Limited pnssure ? Limited pressure and Fuel conversion etliciency as a function of compression ratio. 5-7 and 5-8.. FIGURE S6 Pressure-volume diagrams for constant-volume.3. pJp. residual gas temperature. = 67. = 6. For the limited-pressure cycle. there is little improvement in eficiency and imep above a compression ratio of about 8 to 10 as r..67.) = 8. TABLE 52 Comparison of ideal cycle results imep P Vf. 1. limited-pressure. Q*/(c. = 33. T. pJp. find the residual gas fraction.380 0. the constant-volume cycle has the highest emciency and lowest imeplp. and a stoichiometric mixture with intake temperature 300 K..3.~ = 8. ~ l)/r. for constant-volume. = 12. over a range of compression ratios.3 and Q*/(c. is increased. y = 1. Q*/(c. An iterative procedure is required if intake conditions are specified.3.525. For all cases y = 1.100. and constant-pressure ideal gac standard cycles.8 Constant volume Limited pressure Constant pressure 0.525 0. the constantpressure cycle has the highest efficiency (and the highest compression ratio)..i imep m P3 u P1 128 67 25.constant-pressure.500 0. At any given r.1 shows how ideal cycle equations relate residual and intake conditions with the gas state at point 1 in the cycle.

-= 300 1-x.x. the resulting cycles are called fuel-air cycles.1.3 x 6)]@Jp.1. = 946 J/kgSK and -= eg)~~~~ . 3-4 Reversible adiabatic expansion of the burned gases which remain in chemical equilibrium. c.3.2.769 + T.35). without heat loss. 6-7-1 Ideal intake process with adiabatic mixing between residual gas and fresh mixture. Xr (.3) (4 A trial-and-error solution of Eqs. (5.5. both of which are fixed in chemical composition. 5-2): 1-2 Reversible adiabatic compression of a mixture of air. 4.3)]0. evaluate Q*/(c.become Q* 2. solve for Tlfrom (4.7. and check the value of x. ..3. or the computer codes summarized in Sec. to burned gases in chemical equilibrium. for isooctane.x. Details same For a stoichiometric mixture. 44. TIx 6•‹. 4-5-6 Ideal adiabatic exhaust blowdown and displacement processes with the burned gases fixed in chemical composition. + 0. and residual gas without change in chemical composition.~~~ 2 t)"'I3(' = = 2 [l + Q*/(c. assumed from with that given by (b). When these working fluid models are combined with the ideal engine process models in Table 5. (a) to ( 4 is required.xd Q* = Q w = = For y = 1.7W . fuel vapor.3 Q* r9 The basic equations for each of these processes have already been presented in Sec.36).75 x lo6 (1 c. Values for thermodynamic properties for these working fluid models can be obtained with the charts for unburned and burned gas mixtures described in Sec.) as a function of wm~ressionratio for constant-volume. 5.x. The use of the charts for a complete engine cycle calculation will now be Ilustrated. 2-3 Complete combustion (at constant volume or limited pressure or constant pressure). 60. TI 961 41 I Equations (5.Pd~d~. TI) (a). FIGURE 5-8 Indicated mean effective pressure (imep) divided by maximum cycle pressure (p.3.38 (1 . For @JpJ = 1(unthrottled operation) the following solution is obtained: For (pJpi) = 2 the following solution is obtained: 55 FUELAIR CYCLE .' The sequence of processes and assumptions are (with the notation of Fig. 1 . and limited-pressure cycles. ANALYSIS A more accurate representation of the properties of the working fluid inside the engine cylinder is to treat the unburned mixture as frozen in composition and the burned gas mixture as in equilibrium.) = 2910 (1 . 4. It is easiest to estimate x.) TI = 6 and y = 1. and (5.ClM1. constant-pressure.381 for r.

125 m3/kg air.17). (4..49) where us. (5.3 kPa.3. (4.13)] now gives the The expansion work WE.3 kPa. Example 4.1).55.. = hrs us. ub3= UU2 = us. usl = 40 kJ/kg air J/kg air (5.. is the internal energy of formation of the unburned mixture [given by Eq.24 are appropriate average values to use for initial estimates. Use the notation of Fig. For the constant-volume cycle.08): p. for adiabatic constant-volume and constant-pressure combustion. 4-5 to 4-9).5. 4. for a limited-pressure cycle is given. = 4. is the chart mixture specific volume (in cubic meters per kilogram of air in the original mixture).17) is which is significantlydifferent from the assumed value of 0.i is the inlet air density (in kilograms per cubic meter) and u. For the constant-pressure cycle.. from Fig. The residual fraction from Eq. The following approximate relationships can be used for this purpose:3 can be checked against the calculated values and an additional cycle computation carried out with the new calculated values if required. u4 = v3 = v . p4 = 570 kPa. and x. + v .2.3211.l)/y = 0.. = 1400 K and (y . and vl (m3/kg air). h. the burned gas state at point 3 can be located (by iteration) on the high-temperature burned gas charts. where pa. = 1 m3/kgair. the burned gas state at point 3 can be located on the appropriate burned gas chart (Figs. 4-4). ~+ p3 v2 p3 = 7100 kPa Example 4. The convergence is rapid. If values of T.5 analyzed the constant-volume adiabatic combustion process (it was assumed that the residual gas fraction was 0. = 350 kl/kg air W. K + Ah. 2. (5. the pressure and temperature inside the cylinder at the start of compression are 1 atm and 350 K. were assumed at the start of the cycle calculation to determine TI. the constant entropy expansion process on the chart in Fig. as illustrated by Example 4.5.11) or (5. the assumed values To check the assumed residual gas fraction. 4-8 is continued from state 4 to the exhaust pressure p. and 4. = 1.031 (the compression process will not be changed significantly and the initial temperature is . = 0. the residual gas fraction is obtained from Eq.4.9) [or (5.08. p. (5.3 analyzed the expansion process. T3 = 2825 K..5 kJ/kg air. the state at point 2 at the end of compression through a volume ratio vl/v2 = r.. of 1 atm = 101. (5. Calculate the performance characteristics of the constant-volume fuelair cycle defined by the initial conditions of Examples 4. = . The volumetric efficiency (see Sec.2). is obtained from Eq. Given the equivalence ratio 4 and initial conditions T' (K). = 1320 K.5. point 3b can be located on the appropriate burned gas chart.1540 kJ/kg air + W3-4 = WE= 1535 kJ/kg air Since p.3. Since 0.2. For the limited-pressure cycle. pl = 101. Equation (5. The compression work W (J/kg air) is found from Eq. to v4 (v4 = ol) on the burned mixture charts.. W = -310 kJ/kg air = .. .-. respectively. T. to the volume v4 at BC of 1 m3/kg air: T4= 1840 K. The compression ratio is 8. the fuel is isooctane and the mixture is stoichiometric. u3 = ua2 Au. v. The indicated fuel conversion efficiencyis obtained from Eq. (5.0 m3/kg air and T. + Au.51) h3b = uja + p3 vjb = u2 + p3 02 = uS2 A u .33 kJ/kg air. = p. = pi (Pa). The residual gas temperature can be read from the equilibrium burned gas chart. 4-3 and Au. has already been illustrated in Sec.25~) and the isentropic compression chart (Fig. Example 4.2 analyzed the compression process: Tl = 350 K.10) for a four-stroke cycle engine is given by where T. = 0. s3 = 9.. = 682 K .50) Since p. The expansion process 3-4 follows an isentropic line from v. This gives v . is the sensible internal energy of the unburned mixture at T. 4-3). The use of charts to relate the state of the burned mixture to the state of the unburned mixture prior to combustion. = v. state of the residual gas at points 5 and 6 in the cycle is obtained by continuing this isentropic expansion from state 4 to p = p.1 SI Engine Cycle Simulation The mixture conditions at point 1 must be known or must be estimated. The combustion and expansion calculations are now repeated with the new residual fraction of 0.6) c with the internal energy change determined from the unburned mixture chart (Fig. application of the first law to the mixture between states 2 and 3b gives J/kg air (5.125 m3/kgair.57 MPa. J/kg air (5. 5-21 to define the states at the beginning and end of each process. The indicated mean effective pressure is obtained from Eq.. Example 5. from these conditions after combustion at TC.

2.1457 kJ/kg air W . (5. the air is cooled. = 1 atm: T. decreasing the burned gas specific heats and thereby increasing the effective value of y over the expansion stroke. . G . Equation (5.)= 0 ~ equivalence ratio is similar to that demonstrated by the constant y constantvolume cycle analysis (provided the appropriate value of y is used.. Continue expansion at constant entropy to the exhaust pressure.= 1360 K v.2956 x 0.e. therefore. The mean effective pressure. .T. per unit mass of fuel. the decreasing fuel conversion eficiency (due to decreasing combustion efficiency) more than offsets the increasing fuel mass. is the specific heat at constant volume of air. as the fuel vaporins and heats up. . This occurs because the burned gas temperatures after combustion decrease. p. 7''.'.. the expansion stroke work is increased.. the fuel-air mixture is made progressively leaner than stoichiometric).)x 70 K at full load. = 4 m3/kgair. Figures 5-9 and 5-10 show the effect of variations in these two parameters on indicated fuel conversion efficiency and mean effective pressure. + c . Localized cooling in a real engine will be greater. The effect of increasing the compression ratio on efficiency at a constant which agrees with the value assumed for the second iteration.031 = 140 kJ/kg air With v3 = 0. substitution of typical values for fuel and air properties gives (T. The limited-pressure cycle is a better approximation to the diesel engine than the ~~IIStant-p~eSSUre or constant-volume cycles.1. T3 = 2890 K Expand at constant entropy to v. . cVqf is the specific heat at constant volume of the fuel vapor. " Efficiencyis little affected by variables other than the compression ratio r. = kg fueI/kg air at state I = (:)(I . u = . 4. 3..2 .e.e. i. additional factors must be taken into account. As the equivalence ratio increases above unity (i.e. the decreasing fuel mass per unit displaced volume more than offsets the increasing fuel conversion e(frdency. ma is the mass of air used.53) mfcu/. the efficiency decreases because lack of sufficientair for complete oxidation of the fuel more than offsets the effect of decreasing burned gas temperatures which decrease the mixture's specific heats. The mixture during compression is air plus a small amount of residual gas. from Eq.118. Fig. and equivalence ratio 4. For 4 greater than this value. p = 595 kPa.0 and 4 % 1. 5-19). At point 2 liquid fuel is injected into the hot compressed air at temperature T2. i.53 CI Engine Cycle Simulation With a diesel engine fuel-air cycle calculation. 4-8 gives po = 7270 kPa. is the latent heat of vaporization of the fuel. uf. The efficiency increases because...T. 5. slightly rich of stoichiometric.17)now gives the residual fraction m f is the mass of fuel injected. the burned gas charts which assume uniform composition will not be as accurate an approximation to working fluid properties as they are for SI engines. = WE= 1597 kJ/kg air 3. for a given volume-expansion ratio. For 4 less than the value corresponding to this maximum.To11 + m a ~ v . From the available results. 3. = 1 m3/kgair: .. a (. T = 1920 K.XJ The indicated mean effective pressure is 5.125 m3/kgair. The fuel conversion efficiency can now be calculated: where Thus n. the following conclusions can be drawn: 1.. the mixture is made progressively richer than stoichiometric). Note that because nonuniformities in the fuel/air ratio exist during and after combustion in the CI engine.: (5.2). and c. is the mixture temperature (assumed uniform) after vaporization and mixing is complete. For a constantsolume mixing process which is adiabatic overall. This exhibits a maximum between 4 = 1. the burned gases expand through a larger temperature ratio prior to exhaust. the efficiency increases.1 1 INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE FUNDAMENTALS 8) IDEAL MODELS OF ENGINE CYCLES 181 assumed fixed): ub3= 350 .53 Results of Cycle Calculations Extensive results of constant-volume fuel-air cycle calculations are available. the mixture intemd energy is unchanged.. is proportional to the product dqf. see Fig. As the equivalence ratio is decreased below unity (i.

where expansion Continues beyond point 4' (the conventional ideal cycle exhaust valve opening mint) at &.05. = re Y.") 0. however.6 OVEREXPANDED ENGINE CYCLES The gas pressure within the cylinder of a conventional four-stroke engine at exhaust valve opening is greater than the exhaust pressure.4 1. The exhaust stroke in this overexpanded cycle is 4-5-6. as shown in Fig. inlet temperature. = 1 atm.FIGURE 510 Fuel-air cycle results for indicated mean effective pressure as a function of quivalcnce ratio and compression ratio. p. Fuel: octene. The available energy of the cylinder gases at this point in the cycle is then dissipated in the exhaust blowdown process. Additional expansion within the engine cylinder would b e a s e the indicated work per cycle.6 0.x. 5-11. The intake stroke is 6-1. residual gas fraction. T.0 1. 6. = r. 5. The effects of variations in these variables on imep are more substantial. and atmospheric moisture fraction have only a modest effect on the fuel conversion efficiency. = 0. because imep depends directly on the initial charge density. to point 4 at Y .2 1. The area 14'451 has been added .4 0. Comparison of results from limited-pressure and constant-volume fuel-& cycles1 shows that placing a realistic limit on the maximum pressure reduces the advantages of increased compression ratio on both efficiency and imep..6 Fuellair equivalence ratio 6 5.8 1. Variations in initial pressure. (From E h and Taylor. = 388 K.

For example. 5-11.) %lid to dashed line transition marks the complete expansion point (Atkinson cycle). (5..3.33) to relate T3 and T2. Eficiencies given relative to re = rc value.(5.54): where Note that the eficiency given by Eq. (5.at maximum load. If the crank angle between exhaust valve opening and BC on the expansion stroke is less than the crank angle between BC and intake valve closing on the compression stroke.l)/rc and imep PI The isentropic relations for 1-2 and 3-4 are With Eq. Significant increases in efficiency can be achieved. 5-12 for = 4. the following expression for indicated fuel conversion efficiency can be derived from Eqs. thereby increasing the engine's eficiency. and re are volumetric compression and expansion ratios. (5. r. The ratio rJrc for complete rficien~y is given by FIGURE 911 PU PI =='-5* V. it can be achieved in a conventional four-stroke cycle engine by suitable choice of exhaust valve opening and intake valve closing positions relative to BC. This contrasts with the ideal constant-volume cycle [Eq. (5. Complete expansion within the cylinder to exhaust pressure pe (point 5*) is called the Atkinson cycle. From Eqs. q. and (5. = 1. 8. for the same fuel input. I. 5-11. rc he effect of overexpansion on fuel conversion efficiency is shown in Fig. and is a Indicated fuel conversion eficiency and mean effective pressure for overexpanded engine cycle as a h i o n of ?ire. The Atkinson cycle (complete expansion) values are indicated by the transition from a continuous line to a dashed line. (5. and 16 with y = 1. Unthrottled operation is shown in Fig.3.3(re ..29). Many crank and valve mechanisms have been propbsed to achieve this additional expansion. rcVc revc v Pressure-volume diagram for overexpanded engine cycle (1234561) and Atkinson cycle (1235*61).1). The indicated work per cycle for the overexpanded cycle is standard cycle efficiency is plotted against r. Pa/(% = 9. which is independent of load. throttled operating cycles can also be generated.2).o. The effect of overexpansion on efficiency can be estimated from an analysis of the ideal cycle shown in Fig.3131. and the relations t$ = V1(re . One major disadvantage of this cycle is that imep and power density decrease significantly because only part of the total displaced volume is filled with fresh charge.l)/rc. An ideal gas working fluid with specific heats constant throughout the cycle will be assumed. . especially at low compression ratios. (5.29).55) is a function of load (via Q*). respectively. The ratio of overexpanded cycle efficiency to the to the conventional cycle p-V diagram area. then the actual volumetric expansion ratio is greater than the actual volumetric compression ratio (these actual ratios are both less than the nominal compression ratio with normal valve timing).

5-13. With these relations.7 The availability of this system which is in communication with the atmosphere is thus the property of the system-atmosphere combination which defines its capacity for useful work.62). In the absence of mass flow across the system boundary. 5. The availability transfer associated with a work transfer is equal to the work transfer. The problem is that of determining the maximum possible work output (or minimum work input) when a system (the charge within the cylinder) is taken from one specified state to another in the presence of a specified environment (the atmosphere). expansion devices (which are not generally available for mobile power plant systems). heat transfers. + - t The issue of chemical equilibrium with the atmosphere must also be considered. are plotted in Fig. an availability balance for the gas working-fluid system around the engine cycle can be carried out.~. Consider the system-atmosphere combination shown in Fig. which is best expressed in terms of the property of such a system-environment combination called availability5 or sometimes e~ergy. The availability transfer dAp associated with a heat transfer 6Q occurring when the system temperature is T is given by Values of imeplp. is less than or equal to as the change in availability: When mass flow across the system boundary occurs. as the system changes from state 1 to state 2.13 System-atmosphere configuration for availability analysis. FIGURE 5. w.1 Availability Relationships Of interest in engine performance analysis is the amount of useful work that can be extracted from the gases within the cylinder at each point in the operating cycle. Inclusion of these additional steps to achieve full equilibrium kyond equality of temperature and pressure is inappropriate. the system changes from state 1 to state 2. The useful work such a system-atmospherecombination can ~rovide.= 12 -(U2 . and mass transfers across the system boundary.' . high pressure ratio. The availability transfer associated with a mass transfer is given by Eq. therefore. the availability associated with this mass flow is B is usually called the steadygow availabilityfunction.7 AVAILABILITY ANALYSIS OF ENGINE PROCESSES 5. For any process between specified end states which this system undergoes (interacting only with the atmosphere). 5-12 as a function of r(=rJr. the change in availability AA is given by The availability transfers in and out occur as a Rsult of work transfers. (5. The substantial decrease from the standard constant-volume cycle values at r = 1 is clear. It must.7. Combining these two equations gives the total work transfer: The work done by the system against the atmosphere is not available for proAtmosphere (%. Po) since both an energy and entropy transfer occurs across the system boundary. the first and second laws give ' % $ '. it follows that imep for the overexpanded cycle is given by ductive use. The first and second laws of thermodynamics together define this maximum or minimum work.Ul) + Q1.INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE FUNDAMENTALS IDEAL MODELS OF ENGINE CYCLES 187 = mRT. be subtracted from the total work to obtain the work transfer: The maximum useful work will be obtained when the final state of the system is in and mechanical equilibrium with the atmosphere. This would require such devices as ideal semipermeable membranes and efficientlow input pressure. Attainment of ch~ical equilibrium with the environment requires the capacity to extract work from the partial Pressure differences between the various species in the working fluid and the partial pressures of those same species in the environment.).

s. Equation (5. 5-6 with r. As shown in Table 3.. .14) (with constant specific heats): FIGURE 5-14 Tcmperaturecntropy diagram for ideal gas constant-volume.. T. Assumptions same as in Fig. the change in availability between states i and j during the portion of the cycle when the valves are closed is given by For the limited-pressurecycle: S3.664 An availability analysis for each process in the ideal cycle illustrates the magnitude of the availability transfers and where the losses in availability occur. For the combustion process in each of the ideal gas standard cycles. with Eq. the entropy is constant. calculated from the above equations.' 5. In For the constant-pressure cycle: (2) + cp in B (5. is the Gibbs free energy change for the combustion reaction.(-Ag.. 5-4 in communication with an atmosphere at po. The three cycles shown correspond to those of the p-V diagrams of Fig. To as indicated in Fig..29). 5-6. is the enthalpy change for the combustion reaction.3.42).525. In (2) (2) + cp ln = c.g In general. again per unit mass of fuel. 5-13. . 3.73 Availability Analysis of Ideal Cycles For the constant-volume cycle: S3 . (5. however. these two quantities differ by only a few percent for common hydrocarbon fuels. then becomes t A.. on a T-s diagram.28). The availability destroyed is given by Constant volume where ASirrev the entropy increase associated with the irreversibilities occurring is within the system boundary.'. the increase in entropy during combustion clearly demonstrates the irreversible nature of this process. 3 to 4 (or 3b to 4). = e. (4.67).S2 = m(s3. after combustion is complete. for the system of Fig. First. Figure 5-14 shows the entropy changes that occur during each process of these three idear engine operating cycles. However. is adiabatic and reversible.)$ = m.. For an adiabatic reversible compression process.Availability is destroyed by the irreversibilities that occur in any real process. we will consider the variation in the entropy of the cylinder gases as they proceed through these ideal operating cycles. Since the expansion process.. The appropriate normalizing quantity for these changes in availability is the thermomechanical availability of the fuel supplied to the engine cylinder each cycle.QLHVas the normalizing quantity since it can be related to the temperature rise during combustion via Eq. y = 1.)? (see Sec. g. ln a with a and B defined by Eq.) = 8. it is more convenient to use m/(-Ah. 5. (5. and limited-pressure cycles. = 12... per unit mass of fuel. the entropy increase can be calculated from the relations of Eq.S. and Q*/(c. m. constant-pressure. there is no further change in entropy.3.7. :Ah.2 Entropy Changes in Ideal Cycles The ideal models of engine processes examined earlier in this chapter provide useful illustrative examples for availability analysis. Since the combustion process was assumed to be atliabatic. (5.6.) = mc.2).

71). b).)= 8.46)].3 summarizes the changes in availability during each process and the availability of the cylinder gases. 5. so: where we have assumed po = p. T. Qe/(c. T.. at the beginning and end of each process. the volume and internal energy remain unchanged (Eqs. relative to the datum for the atmosphere TABLE 5 3 Availability changes in constant-volume cycle AI I 1-2 2 2-3 3 34 4 Fuel conversion The availability of the exhaust gas at state 4 relative to its availability at (TI. replaced by temperatures intermediate between TI and T. ~ v a i l a b i k ~ made dimensionless by m. = 12. pl) over the compression and expansion strokes of the constant-volume operating cycle example used in Figs. and T. 300 K - 0 6 v/v. Table 5. . were used to compute the variations during compression and expansion.3. This loss in availability results from the increase in entropy associated with the irreversibilitiesof the combustion process. Thus Constant-volumecycle r. when the mixture is made leaner.g.69) and (5. Equations (5. During combustion. 5-6.. with T. This lost or destroyed availability. decreases as the compression ratio increases (since T2 increases as the compression ratio increases.The compression process is isentropic. as a fraction of the initial availability of the fuel-air mixture. see Eq. T3/T2 decreases for fixed heat addition) and increases as Q* decreases [e. 5-6 and 5-14 is shown in Fig. and T. Q . respectively. The second term is the work done by the atmosphere on the system.7a. for the constant-volume cycle. For the constant-volume cycle expansion stroke: The availability of the gases inside the cylinder relative to their availability at (T. in Fig..) is given by Availability conversion d f i c i w Vf. The first term in the square brackets is the compression stroke work transfer... 2 Availability of cylinder charge relative to availability at state 1 for constant-volume ideal gas cycle as a function of cylinder volume. which is subtracted because it does not increase the useful work which the system-atmosphere combination can perform. A t i o n s as . The changes in availability during combustion for the constant-pressure and limited-pressure cycles are more complex because there is a transfer of availability out of the system equal to the expansion work transfer which occurs. and T. p. (5. 5-15.525 y = 1.

of course. 58 COMPARISONWITH REAL ENGINE CYCLES To put these ideal models of engine processes in perspective. 0 FIGURE S17 = 36 0. the availability lost in the exhaust process.r. 5-18? The real engine and the fuel-air cycle have the same geometric compression ratio.0286 + 0. so does P"k. plus the inability of this ideal constant-volume cycle to use the availability remaining in the gas at state 4. 5.70).4 Effect of Equivalence Ratio The fuel-air cycle with its more accurate models for working fluid properties can be used to examine the effect of variations in the fuellair equivalence ratio on the availability conversion efficiency. relative to the fuel availability. Midway through the compression stroke. ability conversion efficiency is ~~~J1. (From Flynn et al!) 5.2 0.3). 300 K). 0. The increase in the expansion stroke work as the equivalence ratio decreases more than offsets the increase in the availability lost during combustion. so the availability conversion eficiency (or the fuel conv'ersion efficiencywhich closely approximates it) increases. Entropy. the logarithmic term (which decreases). As 9 decreases. .. fuel chemical composition and equivalence ratio.7.' The loss d availability increases as the equivalence ratio decreases.A. This is the fundamental reason why engine indicated efficiency increases with an increasing compression ratio. this chapter will conclude with a brief discussion of the additional effects which are important in real engine processes. kJ1kg. residual fraction and mixture density before compression. The avail. 5.' The entropy increase is the result of ineversibilities in the combustion process and mixing of complete combustion products with excess air. 5-17 where the availability after constant-volume cornbustion divided by the availability of the initial fuel-air mixture is shown as 1 function of equivalence ratio for compression ratios of 12 and 36. 1. allows for the difference between T. 5-9? The reason is that the expansion stroke work transfer.0008)mrQLHv..31).0286 is the ratio (-Agig8)/(-Ah. It is. QLHv) ( A ~ . air.K FIGURE 5-16 Temperature and entropy of combustion producw after constant-volume combustion following tropic compression from ambient conditim through specified compression ratio as a fundQ of compression ratio and equivalence ratio. following isentropic compression from ambient temperature and pressure through different volumetric compression ratios.4 0. Why then does engine efficiency increase with a decreasing equivalence ratio as shown in Fig. decrease in magnitude..AJorQLHv).0008.6 0. Because both work-transfer processes in this ideal cycle case an reversible. . Figure 5-16 shows the temperature attained and the entropy rise that occurs in constant-volume combustion of a fuel-air mixture of different equivalence ratios. The availability at state 1 of the fuel. that decrease th availability conversion efficiency below unity. the fuel conversion efficiency qrViis given by (A.? * 'This is consistent with the ideal gas standard cycle result (Eq. and To. as the compression ratio increases. (F* Flynn et a!. Both these loss mechanism. A comparison of a real engine p-V diagram over the compression and expansion strokes with an equivalent fuel-air cycle analysis is shown in Fig.3 from the formula for efficiency (Eq. T ) The factor which multiplies the natural logarithm (which increases) has a greater impact . Note that it is the availability destroyed during combustion.0 Availability of combustion products after constant-volume combustion relative to availability before combustion following ismtropic compression from ambient through spedied compression ratio as a function of equivalence ratio.0286.) (see Table 3.(1 atm. The second number. hence. = 12 and y = 1. again expressed as a fraction of the fuel availability.)/(m.? The combustion loss is J stronger function of the rise in temperature and pressure which occurs than of [he change in the specific heat ratio that occurs. --. as a fraction of the fuel availability. increases as the equivalence ratio decreases.8 Fuellair equivalence ratio 1. The significance of these combustion-related losses-the destruction of availability that occurs in this process-is shown in Fig. equal to the value obtained for r. decreases. obtained previously. residual-gas mixture for isooctanc (1.

All these effects reduce the cylinder pressure during the latter stages of compression.>rocas and the closing bf the intakevalve 40 to 60" after BC in the real engine. (4) gas flow into crevice regions and leakage past the piston rings. After peak pressure. Exhaust blowdown loss.t JS k The compression stroke pressures for the two cycles essentially coincide. Heat transfer from the unburned mixture to the cylinder walls has a negligible effect on the p-V line for the compression process. 1-15). This matching process is approximate. and cylinder wall. cycle will be lower. A comparison of the constant-volume and limited-pressure cycles in Fig. the exhaust valve is opened some 60" before BC to reduce the pressure during the first part of the exhaust stroke in four-stroke engines and to allow time for scavenging in twostroke engines. expansion stroke pressures in the engine are higher than fuel-air cycle values in the absence of other loss mechanisms. Due to heat transfer during combustion.' Use is often made of this ratio to estimate the performance of actual engines from fuel-air cycle results. the peak pressure in the engine is substantially below the fuel-air cycle peak pressure value. the pressure at the end of combustion in the real t Note that in the fuel-air cycle with idealized valve timing. For spark or fuel-injection timing which is retarded from the optimum for maximum efficiency. 4. piston rings. (3) exhaust blowdown loss due to opening the exhaust valve before BC. leakage in a well-designed and maintained engine is small (usually less than one percent of the charge). In the real engine operating cycle. The pressure rises rapidly to a peak some 5 to 10" after TC since the initial rate of burning is fast. Heat transfer from the burned gases is much more important (see Chap. when the cylinder volume is much greater than the clearance volume. and is essentially complete 30 to 40" after TC. Together. In a diesel engine. Heat transfer. the burning process starts shortly before TC. 5-6 demonstrates this point. Peak pressure occurs at about 15" after TC (see Fig. in decreasing order of importance. (5) incomplete combustion of the charge. A decrease in expansion-stroke work transfer results. (2) finite time required to burn the charge. In most engines.8 times the efficiency calculated for the fuel-air cycle. Though much of this gas returns to the cylinder later in the expansion. and combustion continues until 40 to 50" after TC (see Fig. 1. close to the time that the i& valve closes some 40 to 60" after BC. (From Edson and ~ a y l o r ? ) the pressure in the fuel-air cycle has been made equal to the real cycle pressure. some of this gas is unburned and some of it will not burn. The expansion stroke pressures for the engine fall below the fuel-air cycle pressures for the following reasons: (1) heat transfer from the burned gases to the walls. 3. 5. Crevice efects and leakage. In premixed charge engines. heat transfer will cause the gas pressure in the real cycle to fall below an isentropic expansion line as the volume increases. they contribute to the enclosed area on the p-V diagram for a properly adjusted engine with optimum timing being about 80 percent of the enclosed area of an equivalent fuel-air cycle p-V diagram. because combustion continues until well after TC. The gas pressure at the end of the expansion stroke is therefore reduced below the isentropic line. and this flow is cooled by heat transfer to the crevice walls. 12). 1-8). t Finite combustion time.combustion typically starts 10 to 40 crank angle degrees before TC. r. are described below. during combustion. However. These differences. = 11. because less work has been extracted from the cylinder gases. and expansion stroke pressures after the peak pressure will be higher than in the optimum timing cycle. Modest 2 differences in pressure during intake and the early part of the compression -1 ' Drocess result from the pressure drop across the intake valve during the intake . gas flows into crevices such as the regions between the piston. the charge compression starts later. As the cylinder pressure increases. For example. a fraction. In an SI engine with spark-timing adjusted for optimum efficiency. the compression process starts immc diately after BC. These crevice regions can comprise a few percent of the clearance volume. Thus. in spark-ignition engines the hydrocarbon emissions from a warmed-up engine (which come largely from the crevice regions) are 2 to 3 percent of the fuel mass under . dm3 FIGURE 5-18 Pressure-volume diagram for actual spark-ignition engine compared with that for equivalent fuel-air cycle. This flow reduces the mass in the volume above the piston crown. The indicated fuel conversion or availability conversion efficiency of the actual engine is therefore about 0.INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE FUNDAMENTALS Displaced volume. Incomplete combustion. However. Combustion of the cylinder charge is incomplete. the exhaust gases contain combustible species. flows into the crankcase. the final stages of burning are much slower. from behind and between the piston rings. is half complete at about 10" after TC. During expansion. and during expansion below the value that would result if crevice and leakage effects were absent. the peak pressure in the real cycle will be lower. A decrease in efficiency results from this heat loss.

Compression ratio r. At compression ratios above about 14. y = 1. The weakest link in these ideal cycles is the modeling of the combustion processes in SI and CI engines.4) and fuel-air cycle (solid lines. so this effect is smaller.4 shows the magnitude of the loss in availability (as a fraction of the initial availability) that occurs due to real cycle effects in a typical naturally aspirated diesel engine.8. Refs.25 to 1. and 11). however. flow or aerodynamic losses. Table 5.8 fuel-air cycle curve (which corresponds approximately to the actual airffuel ratios used) are similar.4. even with excess air present (see Sec. with an appropriate choice for the value of y (1. None of the models examined in this chapter are sufficiently close to reality to provide accurate predictions of engine performance.8 relating real engine and fuel-air cycle efficiencies holds roughly.9). about 1to 2 percent.25. The fuel-air cycle pressures after combustion d l be higher because complete combustion is assumed. It can also provide approximate estimates of trends as major engine parameters change. carbon monoxide and hydrogen in the exhaust contain an additional 1 to 2 percent or more of the fuel energy. The factor of 0.0). FIGURE S19 Indicated fuel conversion efficiency as a function of compression ratio for ideal gas constant-volume cycle (dashed lines. A limited number of such calculations have been published (e. fraction of fuel availability Combustion Exhaust Heat transfer Aerodynamic Mechanical friction Total losses Availability conversion efficiency (brake) Source: Traupel. The effect of all these loss mechanisms on engine efficiency is best defined by an availability balance for the real engine cycle. 8.I4 Availability losses in naturally aspirated diesel Loas. 14. Hence. howeverg). the combustion inefficiency is usually less.5. The trends in the data with increasing compression ratio and the 6 = 0. I$ = 0. and mechanical friction are real engine effects. The loss in availability due to heat losses.1•‹ The combustion and exhaust losses are present in the ideal cycle models also (they are smaller. correspond closely to the fuelair cycle analysis results. The top three sets of engine data are for the best efficiency airlfuel ratio.0. 3. the data show that the indicated efficiency of actual engines is essentially constant. Differences in the data are in part due to different fuels [(12) isooctane.3. More sophisticated models of the spark-ignition and diesel %ne operating cycles have been developed and are the subject of Chap..normal operating conditions. Increasing crevice and heat TABLE 5 4 t a . is about 95 percent). 1.3). (14) propane] which affect efficiency slightly through their different composition and heating values (see Table D. Also shown are available engine data for equivalence ratios given: best dfkiency b = l.g.5. SUMMARY. see Sec. 1. The ideal cycle provides a convenient but crude approximation to the real engine operating cycle. (13) gasoline. 1. Figure 5-19 shows standard and fuel-air cycle efficiencies as a function of the compression ratio compared with engine indicated efficiency data. * $ I + . the chemical energy of the fuel which is released in the actual engine is about 5 percent less than the chemical energy of the fuel inducted (the combustion efficiency.. 4. They also result from different combustion chamber shapes which affect the combustion rate and heat transfer.4). . In diesel engines. The standard ideal gas cycle analysis results. It is useful for illustrating the thermodynamic aspects of engine operation. 10."' losses offset the calculated ideal cycle elfiency increase as the compression ratio is raised above this value.

5.4. use an ideal 0 cycle model to estimate and compare the gross imep of the two engines. = 9. One method proposed for reducing the pumping work in throttled spark-ignition engines is early intake valve closing (EIVC).0 atm to 1. Assume mf/m = 0. with 4 = 0. (c) Compare the calculated residual gas fraction with the assumed value of 0. Assume the same initial conditions at point 1. = 0. The compression ratio is 16. 3... Q. T. p) and the inlet valve is :. y = 1-30 Q for gasoline is 44 MJ/kg.5 MJ/kg fuel.Use y = 1. The fuel heating value is 42. (b) Use the ideal gas cycle with constant-pressure combustion to model an engine with a compression ratio of 14 through such a supercharged cycle.10.)/(mc. Use this cycle approximation with y = cJc. and 5 in Fig. the inlet manifold is held at a pressure pi (which is higher than the normal engine intake pressure.K. c./p. . Calculate the compression stroke. Mechanical friction mep for both engines 0 is 1 0 kPa. Find the pressure and ternperature at points 2. Part-load operation of the engine is modeled by the cycle shown in Fig. which procedure will give: (a) The highest pressure of the cycle? (b) The highest efficiency? (c) The highest mep? Assume g = 1. = 40•‹C. . 5-2a. originally designed to be naturally aspirated. (a) Use the ideal gas cycle with constant-volume combustion to describe the OPeration of an SI engine with a compression ratio of 9. A single cycle calculation is sulcient. c. The EIVC cycle is 1-2-3-4-5-6-7-8-1 (the conventional throttled cycle is 1-2-3-4-5-6-7'-1).2. .1). Assume that the engine can be modeled with the limited-pressure cycle. K. Assume mass fuel < mass air. Use a limited-pressure cycle analysis to obtain a plot of indicated fuel conversion 5. 5.3(rC.3 and c. constant-pressure combustion.3. Use the appropriate tables and charts to carry out a constant-pressure fuel-air cycle calculation for the supercharged engine described in Prob./m = 0. .0 bar.6 atm. 5. Draw a p-V diagram and compute the fuel conversion efficiency of the cycle. A spark-ignition engine is throttled when operating at part load (the inlet pressure is reduced) while the fuellair ratio is held essentially constant. = 4S•‹C. (a) Determine the pressure and temperature at points 2.: expanded to the normal cycle (lower) intake pressure. shade in the area that corresponds to the difference between the pumping work of the EIVC cycle and that of the normal cycle. Assume mf/m = 0. and pumping work per cycle per kg air.3.025. versus p. and the ambient temperature is T.4. T. Assume a pressure of 200 kPa and temperature of 325 K at point 1.75 at full load. = 1. Assume y = cJcD = 1. with half the injected fuel burned at constant volume and half at constant pressure. = 1. One is an SI engine with the throttle partially closed to maintain the correct load. a fraction of the fuel is burnt at constant volume and the remaining fuel is burnt at constant pressure.198 INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE FUNDAMENTALS PROBLEMS 5. and 5. is turbocharged the fuellair equivalence ratio 4 at full load must be reduced to maintain the maximum cylinder pressure essentially constant. The second engine is a naturally aspirated CI engine which requires no throttle.3.l)/r.9. QmV = 44 MJ/kg fuel.03 and the fuel is a light diesel oil.35. 5. and both exhaust manifold pressures are 105 kPa.4 and a residual gas fraction of 0.. estimate the maximum permissible value of 4 for the turbocharged engine at full load if the air pressure at the engine inlet is 1. Find the pressure and temperature at points corresponding to 2. = 946 J/kg.1.06. and 5 on Fig. (b) Find the gross and net indicated fuel conversion efficiency and imep.12. = 100 k P a (b) What additional information is necessary to draw a similar plot for the engine's indicated torque. r. m.3 to analyze the following problem: Inlet conditions: Compression ratio: Heat added during combustion: Overall fuellair ratio: p. closed during the inlet stroke at 8.3 and (m. 55. With EIVC./m = 0.025.045 kg fuelkg air 16. the inlet air is at pressure PI* the exhaust pressure is atmospheric pa. and a pressure of 100 kPa at points 5 and 6. (a) On a sketch of the intake and exhaust process p V diagram. Assume a pressure of 100 kPa and 1 temperature of 320 K at point 1. Assume p. 5-2d. 57. 5-2. Explain why constant-volume combustion gives a higher indicated fuel conversion efficiencythan constant-pressure combustion for the same compression ratio. Two engines are running at a bmep of 250 kPa. 5-2 for a supercharged cycle with .5. Many diesel engines can be approximated by a limited-pressure cycle. expansion stroke. that the air temperature at the start of compression is 325 K. p You can assume that both cycles have the same mass of gas in the cylinder. You may neglect the pressure drop across the valves during the intake and exhaust processes.06. Using the constant-volume cycle as a model for engine operation. for a compression ratio of 15 with light diesel oil as fuel. 4.0666. = 946 J/kg. The ideal cycle p-V diagram shown illustrates the concept. (a) Plot net imep versus pi for 20 kPa < pi < 100 kPa for a constant-volume cycle using the following conditions : m. T. and (FIA). TI) = 9. (a) Half of the fuel is burnt at constant volume. then half at constant pressure. = 946 J/kgSK. will give the maximum reduction in pumping work for the EIVC cycle. If the intake manifold pressures for the SI and CI engines are 25 kPa and 1 0 kPa respectively. It is desired to increase the output of a spark-ignition engine by either (1) raising the compression ratio from 8 to 10 or (2) increasing the inlet pressure from 1. g = 1. If the naturally aspirated engine was deslgned for 4 = 0.5 atm. 3. When a diesel engine. The trapped fresh charge and residual is then . temperature. .11. 5. (b) Compare the efficiency and peak pressure of the cycle with the efficiency and peak pressure that would be obtained if all of the fuel were burnt at constant pressure or at constant volume. and pressure at state 1 of the cycle. and indicated power? ~ 1 0 (a) Draw a diagram similar to those in Fig. In a limitedpressure cycle. (c) Calculate the gross and net indicated fuel conversion efficiency and imep for this engine under these operating conditions. 4.000 kJ/kg of fuel 0. 53. 5.04. Derive an expression for the decrease in net indicated fuel conversion efficiency due to throttling from the ideal constant-volume cycle efficiency and show that it is proportional to (pdp. (b) Find the indicated fuel conversion eficiency and imep for this engine under thoperating conditions. (b) What value of pi and V .. . = 289 K 15: 1 43.

Conditions at the end of compression for both cases are: T = 700 K.0 Fuel :isooctane C.) If the expansion ratio r.2 m3/kg air in the original mixture.0. carry out an analysis of an appropriate ideal model for this cycle where the compression ratio r. the appropriate ideal cycle assumptions. = 300 K. In spark-ignition engines. The compression stroke work is 300 kJ/kg air in the original mixture. = 1 atmosphere with an equivalence ratio of 1.. Hint: Start the calculations using the residual mass fraction 0. while maintaining the same compression ratio rc (cycle 1-2-3-44-5A-6-1).200 INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE FUNDAMENTALS IDEAL MODELS OF ENGINE CYCLES 201 I I v. v. Calculate the following parameters for a constant-volume fuel-air cycle (Fig..) 116. for this engine concept. (c) Briefly explain how you would increase the work per cycle with 30 percent burned gas fraction in the unburned mixture to the value obtained with 10 percent burned gas fraction. 5. (a) Find the indicated fuel conversion efliciency and mean effective pressure of this fuel-air cycle model of a spark-ignition engine. (Thk can be done with valve timing. (a) Calculate the reduction in burned gas temperature that occurs when. The following cycle has been proposed for improving the operation of a four-stroke cycle engine. compression ratio = 8 : 1.3. FIGURE PSI2 (c) Derive an expression for this maximum difference in pumping work between the normal cycle and the EIVC cycle in terms of p. (b) The compression ratio is 8. where the cylinder pressure blows down to the exhaust pressure rapidly and most of the remaining combustion products are expelled as the piston moves from the BC to the TC position. Calculate the above parameters (points a+) using the SI units charts. You can make . due to exhaust gas recycle. The cycle 1-2-3-4-5-6-1 is a conventional constant-volume fuel-air cycle with a compression ratio of 8.13.14. Thus.H. Assume combustion occurs at top-center. Its aim is to expand the postcombustion cylinder gases to a lower pressure and temperature by extending the expansion stroke. with a lower heating value o f 44.. is 8 and the expansion ratio r. larger. Use 44. (4) an expansion stroke. where the inlet valve remains open (and the cylinder pressure is constant) for the first portion of the stroke. and is adiabatic.is (1) 8. equivalence ratio = 4 = 1. The gas state at 1 is T. V . Assume the following: Pressure in the cylinder at inlet valve close 1 atm Mixture temperature at inlet valve close 300 K Mixture equivalence ratio = 1.0 and zero residual fraction. (3) a combustion process. for these two cases. (a) Sketch a pV diagram for the cylinder gases for this cycle operating unthrottled. is required here.066 Calculate the indicated work per cycle per kg of air in the original mixture (the standard chart units) and the indicated mean effective pressure for these two expansion ratios.H.) inside the cylinder is increased from 10 percent (the normal residual fraction) to 30 percent. and V. what is the indicated efliciency and mean effective pressure (based on the new. 5. v. (5) an exhaust stroke. and 6 (b) The indicated fuel conversion efficiency (c) The imep (d) The residual fraction (e) The volumetric efli&ency Inlet pressure = 1 atm. The cycle consists of: (I) an intake stroke. (b) Using the charts in SI units developed for fuel-air cycle calculations. displaced volume) of this new engine cycle? 515. The temperature at the end of compression at state 2 is 600 K.. (2) a compression stroke.5. which occurs rapidly close to toptenter. is 12.4 MJ/kg for heating value of the fuel. Base the mean effective pressure on the volume displaced by FIGURE PSI4 . C. the burned gas fraction in the unburned gas mixture (x.05 Stoichiometricfuellair ratio = 0. The fuel can be modeled as isooctane. . with fixed engine geometry. the compression ratio rc (ratio of cylinder volume at inlet valve closing to clearance volume) is less than the expansion ratio re (ratio of cylinder volume at exhaust valve opening to clearance volume). the equivalence ratio is 1.4. p f . exhaust pressure = 1 atm. p = 1000 kPa. inlet temperature = 300 K. only.. The fuel is isooctane. while the compression ratio and other details of the cycle remain the same as in (a). and hence extract more work per cycle.4 MJ/kg. 5-2a): (a) The pressures and temperatures at states 1.4 MJ/kg Residual gas mass fraction at inlet valve close 0. (b) The eficiency of the cycle can be increased by increasing the expansion ratio r. at constant volume. exhaust gas is recycled to the intake at part load to reduce the peak burned gas temperatures and lower emissions of nitrogen oxides. Lower heating d u e = 44.2. where the exhaust valve remains closed until the end of the stroke. Find the indicated work per cycle for the compression and expansion strokes.03 and the residual gas temperature 1370 K. p. (2) 16. per kilogram of air in the original mixture.9 m3/kgair in the mixture. (A qualitative answer. The specific volume at state 1 is 0. v = 0.

Briefly summarize the reasons why: (a) The efficiency of these two engines is approximately the same despite their different compression ratios. (a) Sketch a cylinder pressure versus cylinder volume diagram for this engine. (d) At part load. This DISC engine is to replace an equal displacement conventional naturally aspirated spark-ignition (SO engine. At part load the DISC engine has negligible boost an operates with an inlet pressure of 1. a piston moves away from its top-center position. (b) The maximum power of the smaller displacement engine is approximately the same as that of the larger displacement engine. During the first half of the first stroke.) (c) Comment briefly on the effect of increasing the ratio r.5 liters and a compression ratio of 12. the e x h d valve is opened. operated at an equivalence ratio of 0.3-cm bore. fuel-air mixture is drawn into l cylinder through the inlet valve. the inlet valve is closed. (b) Use available fuel-air results to estimate how much the DISC engine inlet pres sure must be boosted above atmospheric pressure by the compressor to provid the same maximum gross indicated power as the naturally aspirated SI engin The SI engine operates with an equivalence ratio of 1.4 1 atm Inlet pressure = 1 atm Inlet mixture temperature = 300 K Mixture equivalence ratio = 1. Estimate from fuel-air cycle results the indicated fuel conversion efficiency.20. When half the total cylinder volume is filled w fresh mixture. Lower heating value = 44. (c) Under these conditions. What is the ratio DISC engine net indicated fuel conversion efficiency to SI engine efficiency these conditions? 5.17.The inlet manifold pressure is close to 1 atmosphere. A four-stroke cycle version of this engine has a displa& volume of 2. 5. The constant-volume combustion fuel-air cycle model can be used to estimate the effect of changes in internal combustion engine design and operating variables on engine efficiency. 8-cm stroke. the exhaust stroke. (d) Explain briefly why the real Lenoir engine would have a lower efficiency than the value you calculated in (b) (the actual brake fuel conversion efficiency of the engine was about 5 jm&nt). one crankshaft revolution). 5. 5-9 and 5-10) to estimate the ratio of the diesel engine brake fuel conversion efficiency to the spark-ignition engine brake fuel conversion efficiency. compression ratio of 10. The following table gives the major differences between a diesel and a spark-ignition engine both operating at half maximum power. 5.0 atm. (b) Estimate what percentage of the higher diesel brake M conversion eficiency comes from: (1) The higher diesel compression ratio (2) The leaner diesel equivalence ratio (3) The lack of intake throttling in the diesel compa~ed with the spark-ignition engine . Additional calculations are not required.4 MJFg Clearance volume negligible (c) Compare these values with typical values for the constant-volume fuel-air cycle. giv that the mechanical rubbing friction is the same? Briefly explain. The compressor is geared directly to the engine drive shaft. above 1. completes the cycle as piston returns to top-center.8 A six-cylinder engine with an 8. operated at an equivalence ratio of 1. (Note: You are given the initial conditions for the cycle calculation. With the piston in its bottom-center position.o Compression ratio Fuellair equivalence ratio Inlet manifold pressure 16:l 0. changing the value of requires only modest changes in the cycle calculation. The mixture is then ignited and bums rapidly.2.H.2cm bore.5 atm.18. The operating cycle of this engine consisted of s strokes (i.5 atm 1. Use fuel-air cycle results to determin the equivalence ratio at which the DISC engine must be operated to provide t same net indicated mean effective pressure as the SI engine. carry out cycle analysis and determine the indicated fuel conversion efficiency and m a P effective pressure for the Lenoir engine. Tabulate your answers. the inlet pressure is boosted by a compressor to above atmospheric pressure. will the brake powers of these engines be the same.e.0 with thjj concept on engine eficiency and specific power (power per unit engine weight). During the second half of the first stroke. and the maximum indicated power (in kilowatts) at wide-open throttle of these two four-stroke cycle spark-ignition engines: A six-cylinder engine with a 9.0 and in1 pressure of 0. the DISC engine limited by smoke emissions to amaximum equivalence ratio of 0. Assume the following: % +' Fuel: isooctane C. The second stroke.0 (a) Use the graphs of fuel-air cycle results (Figs.202 INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE FUNDAMENTALS IDEAL MODELS OF ENGINE CYCLES 203 the piston during the expansion stroke. the ST engine operates at an equivalence ratio of 1. 9-cm stroke. a spark discharge is then used to initiate the combustion process. Diesel engine Spark-ignition engine 9:l 0. (b) Using the charts in SI units developed for fuel-air cycle calculations../r. The maximum permitted value of the mean piston speed is 15 m/s.1 Assume that actual indicated engine efficiency is 0..19. power is delivered from the high-pressure burned gases to the piston.8 times the appropriate fuel-air cycle efficiency. Explain (with thermodynamic arguments) why the two cycles have such different indicated mean effective pressures and efficiencies.7. The earliest successful reciprocating internal combustion engine was an engine de oped by Lenoir in the 1860s. (a) Draw qualitative sketches of the appropriate constant-volume ideal cycle pressure-volume diagrams for the complete operating cycles for these two engines at maximum load. compression ratio of 7. At high load. In a direct-injection stratified-charge (DISC) engine fuel is injected into the engine cylinder just before top-center (like a diesel). The exhaust pressure is 1 atm. which has a compression ratio of 8. the indicated mean effective pressure.

H. Kamel. F.1964. the gross indicated efliciency and gross indicated mean effective pressure are 0. These overall Brameters depend on the design of engine subsystems such as manifolds." Mech. E. 5-37. 10. Mas. 6. 9. valves. W. 3 8. no. 2d ed. Equation (2. v d % 67.: Thermodynamics. vol. 6541.. and scavenging eficiency and trapping eficiency (for two-stroke cycles). M. 7.2 paper C53/76. K.: "Measurement and Analysis of Engim . 39-54. CIMAC Int. R. and Lienesch. D.204 INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE FUNDAMENTALS The values of fuel conversion efliciency and mean effective pressure given the graphs are gross indicated values (i. ? 1984. the flow through individu components in the engine intake and exhaust system has been extensively 1 .1964. M. 1962. Engng Sci. 13.: "Lean Fuel-Air Mixtures for High-Compression S @ Ignition Engines. Caris.: "Letter: Heavy Duty Diesel Fuel Economy.(if used for -r For and mission control) recycled exhaust. C. 3.p: GAS EXCHANGE PROCESSES ip. 14... ' 2 I This chapter deals with the fundamentals of the gas exchange processes-intake and exhaust in four-stroke cycle engines and scavenging in two-stroke cycle engines. Bolt. F. and Primus. 4... and Taylor. Taylor. in Technology. MIT Press. 16. A. D.: "The Thermodynamic Cycle Requirements for Very High Rational Efiiciaci~%.. vol.." Digital Calculations of Engine Cycles. 16173. K. Part 2. pp. Clarke. SAE Prog. The above topics are the subiect of this chaoter . ---. M.: "A New Perspective on D i d Ennine Evaluation Based on Second Law Analysis. W.1962. 3 * $ : . 93.vol 7. vol. 4. R. SAE Prog.: The Internal Combustion Engine in Theory and Practice.: "A Critical Review of the Theorems of Thermodynamic Availability. pp.: "The L i t s of Engine Perfomance-Comparison of Actual and Theoretical Cycles. in Technology. 1941." Digital Calculations of Engine Cycles. H. Keenan. wl ih Concise Formulations. values obtained from j p dV over the compression and expansion strokes only). fludied also. and Thurston. Traupel. vol. 1974. if necessary. D. J. the mechanical rubbing friction for each engine is 30 percent of the mt indicated power or mep. Cambridge.1959.: "Reciprocating Engine and Turbine in Internal Combustion Engineering" in Pr* i . Mech. 1975. pp. SAE Trans. F. The purpose of the exhaust and inlet processes or of the scavenging process is to remove the burned gases at the end of the power stroke and admit the fresh charge for the next cycle. 5. J. H. pp. V. E." J. J. CHAPTER REFERENCES 1.: "The Indicated Performance of Otto-Cycle Engine%"SAT % 6 ~ r a k . J. 7. chaps. R." SAE Trans. Supercharging and turbocharging are used to increase air flow engines. Part 1. I. and Ports. 70. 70. 12. Clarke. Institution of Mechanical Engineers. . Mech. Engng." SAE paper 840032. 258-267.. New York. W. vol.vol. 1970. Fluid Flow. Mech. as well as engine operating conditions.1974. and hence power density.. and Holkeboer. B. p. pp.. the fresh charge is fuel. Hoag. F.. Pdormame. C. 49-64. Congr.1957. Zurich. H. Irreversibility.. R Krieger. vol. 11.1966. R.e. Thus. Also. Kerley. R.: "A New Look at High Compression Engines. and Nelson. Pressure Data. 112-124.: "The Influence of Compression Ratio and Dissociation on Ideal Otto Cy& E n d e Thermal Efficiency. Haywood.8 times the fuel-air cyck values. 2 and 4. on Combustion Engines. 84. vol." SAE paper 750026. & . You may assume. W. J. M. 3.. 105-106. M. 2.. Thug inducting the maximum air mass at wide-open throtth or full load and retaining that mass within the cylinder is the primary goal of the gas exchange processes. Edson.38) shows that the indicated power of an internal combustion engine at a given speed is proportional to the mass flow rate of air. air. Obviously.spark-ignition engines.: "A Critical Review of the Theorems of Thermodynamic Availability. M.. Engng Sci. 1: Thmmodynamicr. no. w l ih Concise Formulations. 16. M a d + 1983." J." SAE Tram. so mixture preparation is also an important . SAE Trans. Haywood.. I. Engng Sci. pp. Edson. pp. Availability. Flynn... Engine gas exchange processes are characterized by overall parameters such as volumetric eficiency (for four-stroke cycles). whether the engine is natuRlly aspirated or supercharged (or turbocharged) significantly affects the gas ('change processes. that for the real engines. H. 1974. L. . R. Lancaster. John Wiley. 195.

7.= l o n a across the intake valve.1 INLET AND EXHAUST PROCESSES IN THE FOUR-STROKE CYCLE In a spark-ignition engine. the cylinder is scavenged by the piston as it moves toward TC. These flows are pulsating. atmospheric conditions. dashed for part throttle. 8. Mixture preparation and manifold flow phenomena are discussed in Chap. and recycled exhaust amongst the different cylinders. backflow of exhausted gas into the cylinder and of cylinder gases into the intake will usually occur. Figure 6-1 illustrates the intake and exhaust gas flow processes in a conventional sparkignition engine. fuel.. In diesels. Mixture preparation includes both achieving the appropriate mixture composition and achieving equal distribution of air. po. the carburetor or EFI system and t k throttle plate are absent. The drop in pressure along the intake system depends on engine speed. The intake valve remaim openuntil 50 to 70" after BC so that fresh charge may continue to flow into the cylinder after BC. and intake manifold. The terms blowdown and displacement are used to denote these two phases of the exhaust process Typically. The advantage of valve overlap occurs at high engine speeds when the longer valve-open periods improve volumetric ef'liciency. and the pressures indicated in the intake system in Fig. and a-mutller or silencer. and when pJp. 6-la represent time-averaged values for a multicylinder engine. During the induction process. exhaust pipe. Until about BC the burned cylinder gases are discharged due to the pressure difference between the cylinder and the exhaust system. Solid ha are for wide-opcn throttle. 6. The exhaust process usually begins 40 to 60" before BC. the cross-sectional area through which the fresh charge moves. many aspects of these flows can be analysed on a quasi-steady basis. for four-stroke cycle spark-ignition engine: (a) intake system and average pressures within it. Figure 6-ld shows the inlet and exhaust valve lifts versus crank angle. Ap" = k k e losses upstream of throttle. = pressure losses in air cleaner. often a catalytic converter for emission control. Diesel engines are more frequently turbocharged A hake and exhaust promu. and the charge density. gas flows from the intake into the cylinder.' . To. (d) cylinder pressure p and valve lift Lv v e n u crank angle 0. the exhaust valve closes 15 to 30" after TC and the inlet valve opens 10 to 20" before TC. the flow resistance of the elements in the system. A third goal of the gas exchange procesm is to set up the flow field within the engine cylinders that will give a fast-enough combustion process for satisfactory engine operation. Both valves are open during an overlap period. a carburetor and throttle or fuel injector and throttle or throttle with individual fuel injectors in each intake port.. pressure losses occur as the mixture passes through or by each of these components. There is an additional pressure drop across the intake port and valve. Ap. In-cylinder flows are the subject of Chap. the intake system typically consists of an air filter. < 1. Apt. After BC... (b) vahe timing and pressure-volume diagrams. = l o w s across throttle.goal of the intake process. However. The usual practice is to extend the valve open phases beyond the intake and exhaust strokes to improve emptying and charging of the cylinders and make the best use of the inertia of the gases in the intake and exhaust systems. (c) exhaust system. The exhaust system typically consists of an exhaust manifold. A p v S . In a diesel engine intake system. As the piston moves past TC and the cylinder pressure falls below the intake pressure. only air (or air plus recycled exhaust) is inducted.

. T. (2.' 8 $$ 5 i >" The effects of several of the above groups of variables are essentially quasi steady in nature. Fuel type.6. inlet port.10. Manifold pressure p. 6. and fuel/air ratio (FJA). many of these variables have effects that depend on the unsteady flow and pressure wave phenomena that accompany the time-varying nature of the gas exchange processes. lift. Volumetric efficiency is affected by the following fuel. It is the air flow under these conditions that constrains maximum engine power. an expression for volumetric eRciency can be derived which is a * function of the following variables: intake mixture pressure pi. the cylinder gases flow through the exhaust manifold to the turb charger turbine T. compression ratio re. 2. Cylinder pressure during intake is less than p. When the exhaust valve openf the burned cylinder gases are fed to a turbine which drives a compressor which compresses the air prior to entry to the cylinder. and the exhaust during these gas exchange processes V W in a complicated way. fuellair ratio.1 similar set of diagrams illustrating the intake and exhaust processes for a turbocharged four-stroke diesel is shown in Fig. V. Quasi-Static Effects VOLUMETRIC EFFICIENCY OF AN IDEAL CYCLE For the ideal cycles of Fig.1) The air density pa. qu is then the overall volumetric efficiency. gas inerb effects. their impact is either independent of speed or can be described adequately in terms of mean engine speed. may vary during the exhaust process and lies between cylinder pressure and ambient. Intake and exhaust manifold and port design 7.2711 as " = ' 4 2m. 5-26 and e. and timings FIGURE 6-2 Intake and exhaust process for turbocharged four-stroke cycle engine. Due to the time-varying valve open area and cylinder volume.e. can be evaluated at atmospheric conditions..2. the cylinder. i.3 for a review of available methods).Or it can be evaluated at inlet manifold conditions. Analytical calculation of these processes is diEcuIt (* Secs... and valve alone. The turbocharger compressor C raises air pressure and temperature from ambient po.6 3 VOLUMETRIC EFFICIENCY volumetric efficiencyis used as an overall measure of the effectiveness of a fourstrokecycle engine and its intake and exhaust systems as an air pumping device. and wave propagation in the intake and exhaust systems. The overall volumetric efficiency is . Eq. these proce@ are often treated empirically using overall parameten such as volumetric ciency to define intakd and exhaust system performance. Intake and exhaust valve geometry.. qD then measures the pumping performance of the cylinder. This discussion will cover unthrottled (wide-open throttle) engine operation only. During exhaust. Ratio of exhaust to inlet manifold pressures 4. size. To to p.. Lesser air flows in SI engines are obtained by restricting the intake system flow area with the throttle valve. In practice. fraction of fuel vaporized in the intake system. is defined [see Sec. Mixture temperature as influenced by heat transfer 3. and engine operating variables : I. and molecular Weight M and y for the cycle working fluid. 6-2.0 (6.N Pa. exhaust pressure p. temperature I. Compression ratio 5. 7. Engine speed 6. However.. engine design.2 and 14. and fuel heat of vaporization 2.. the pressures the intake.

Engine test data indicate that a square root dependence of volumetric efficiencyon temperature ratio is closer to real engine behavior./ma) is shown in Fig.. For mixtures of air.3 these effects are shown in Fig. .T. is through the factor (T. A after evaporation.2)] shows that the effect of gas temperature variations. propane. the 3 0. For Y = 1.a the last term in the denominator can often be neglected.O R . Ratio of air inlet pressure pa. the steady-flow energy equation is ignition engine.Jpi.5 octane vapor. . the above expression for q.. air properties. 2.128•‹C. Experimental data show that the decrease in air temperature that accompanies liquid fuel evaporation more than offsets the reduction in air partial pressure due to the increased amount of fuel vapor: for the same heating rate.In practice heating occurs.lT. fraction of the cylinder volume occupied by the residual gas at the intake pressure varies.TB= .. TA.12).~ The ideal cycle equation for volumetric efficiency [Eq. liquid. would be . This ratio.03). methane.19•‹C..210 GAS EXCHANGE PROCESSES INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE FUNDAMENTALS 211 where m is the mass in the cylinder at point 1 in the cycle. For gaseous fuels and for methanol vapor. In a spark- heat transfer. TA. is small. For methanol under the same conditions. (5. Note that (mf/ma) only equals the engine operating fuellair ratio if the fuel is fully vaporized..h.For a constant-pressure flow with liquid fuel evaporation and with and Eq.. If no heat transfer to the inlet mixture occurs. the fuel is not necessarily fully evaporated prior to entry to the cylinder. is the mass fraction evaporated and the subscripts denote: a.. the volumetric efficiency is significantly reduced by the fuel vapor in the intake mixture. PHASE. volume increases so volumetric efficiency decreases. HEAT OF VAPORIZATION. Eq. % 2cp.38) relates TI to T. EFFECT OF FUEL COMPOSITION. water vapor. \ EXHAUST PRESSURE RATIO AND COMPRESSION 4m RATIO.2). As the pressure ratio (pJp.. volumetric efficiency with fuel vaporization is higher by a few per~ent. and hydrogen.). As this. (6. can be written For (pJpi) = 1. The square root dependence is a standard assumption in engine test data reduction (see Sec. B before evaporation.%o Ma For conventional liquid fuels such as gasoline the effect of fuel vapor. and fuellair ratio. pa..) and the compression ratio are varied. the term in { 1is unity. V. AND FUELIAIR RATIO. the presence of gaseous fuel (and water vapor) in the intake system reduces the air partial pressure below the mixture pressure. Approximating the change in enthalpy per unit mass of each component of the mixture by cpAT.. 6-4. FRACTION FUEL VAPORIZED. (6. = hjSLv (the enthalpy of vaporization). (6-4) becomes The water vapor correction is usually small (10. and with hj. measured at entry to the cylinder.f.TI M R and P. and gaseous or evaporated fuel we can write the intake manifold pressure as the sum of each component's partial pressure: which with the ideal gas law gives where x. AND HEAT TRANSFER. with 4 = 1. For complete evaporation of isooctane. L. for several common fuels as a function of (m.0. 6-3. These effects on ideal-cycle volumetric efficiency are given by the { ) term in Eq. Since pi v1 = m . also. versus fuel/air equivalence ratio 4 for iso1. methanol vapor. to mixture inlet pressure p. fuel properties. the mixture temperature decreases as liquid fuel is vaporized.. Since c. EFFECT OF INLET . vapor.5 1.O = P. O FIGURE M Equivalence ratio 6 Effect of fuel (vapor) on inlet air partial pressure.

During the intake stroke. the total quasi-steady pressure loss due to friction is ~ ~ u a t i o(6. Each loss is a few percent.212 INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE FWAMENTALS here Aj and A. . are the component minimum flow area and the piston area. and inlet valve. Hence. carburetor. inlet port.' Stroke = 89 mm. both friction. Bernoulli's equation gives where 6 is the resistance coeficient for that component which depends on it^ Ramre lona in the intake system of a four-stroke cycle spark-ignition engine d e t e d n d under *ady flow conditions. throttle. and manifold plenum of a standard four-cylinder I nrottle FIGURE 6-4 Eflect of exhaust to inlet pressure ratio on ideal-cycle volumetric efficiency. pressure drop is the sum of the pressure loss in each component of the intake system: air filter.2 Combined Quasi-Static and Dynamic E f c s fet When gas flows unsteadily through a system of pipes. Both quasi-steady and dynamic effects are usually significant. This total pressure . ports. and valves. carburetor and throttle. FRICIlONAL LOSSES.6) indicates the importance of large component flow areas for n reducing frictional losses. chambers. Air cleaner I 63. and intake and exhaust manifold. and the dependence of these losses on engine speed. The relative importance of these forces depends on gas velocity and the size and shape of these passages and their junctions. While the effects of changes in engine speed. manifold. As a result.Bore = 84 mm. the pressure in the cylinder p. due to friction in each part of the intake system. For each component in the intake (and the exhaust) system. is less than the atmospheric p by an amount dependent on the square of the speed. with the port and valve contributing the largest drop. several separate phenomeha which affect volumetric efficiency can be identified. port and valve design are interrelated. the pressure in the cylinder during the period in the intake process when the piston is moving at close to its maximum speed can be 10 to 20 percent lower than atmospheric. pressure. and inertial forces are present. Figure 6-5 shows an example of the pressure losses due to friction across the air cleaner.

automobile engine intake system. These methods are complicated.' At higher engine speeds. so more detailed discussion is deferred to Chap. These expansion waves can be reflected at the open end of the manifold (at the plenum) causing positive pressure waves to be propagated toward the cylinder. These pressure waves may aid or inhibit the gas exchange processes. . the pressure waves set up by each cylinder.4 At high speeds and loads the exhaust manifold operates at pressures substantially above atmospheric. the exhaust system is said to be tuned. These steady flow tests. kP8 2 0 3 0 4 0 5 I I I I .4 sure waves in the exhaust system. is almost entirely determined by the pressure level in the inlet port during the short period before the inlet valve is closed. Figure 6-6 shows the time-averaged exhaust manifold gauge pressure as a function of inlet manifold vacuum (which varies inversely to load) and Inlet manifold vacuum. These pressure waves propagate at the local sound speed relative to the moving exhaust gas. This effect becomes progressively greater as ~ngine speed is increased. transmitted through the exhaust and reflected from the end. however. 14. In multicylinder engines. This reverse flow is largest at the lowest engine speeds. Such an intake system is described as tuned. When they aid the process by reducing the pressure in the exhaust port toward the end of the exhaust process. can interact with each other. r 1 I 0 0 I ~ 7 0 hi EFFECT.6 Methods which predict the unsteady flows in the intake and exhaust systems of internal combustion engines with good accuracy have been developed. The pulsating flow from each cylinder's exhaust process sets up pres- FIGURE 66 Exhaust manifold pressure as a function of load (defined by inlet manifold vacuum) and speed Toustroke cycle four-cylinder spark-ignition engine. The mass of air inducted into the cylinder. the inertia of the gas in the intake system as the intake valve is closing increases the pressure in the port and continues the charging process as the piston slows down around BC and starts the compression stroke. conducted over the fun engine speed range: show that the pressure loss depends on speed squared. The pressure in the inlet manifold varies during each cylinder's intake process due to the piston velocity variation. It is an inevitable consequence of the inlet valve closing time chosen to take advantage ofthe ram effect at high speeds.6 The time-varying inlet flow to the cylinder causes expansion waves to be propagated back into the inlet manifold. This will increase the inducted air mass.peed for a four-cylinder automobile spark-ignition engine. and hence the volumetric efficiency. These interactions cause pressure waves to be reflected back toward the engine cylinder. this REVERSE FLOW INTO THE INTAKE. Because the inlet valve closes after the start of the compression stroke. The pressure waves interact with the pipe junctions and ends in the exhaust manifold and pipe. TUNING. If the timing of these waves is appropriately arranged. valve open area variation. the positive pressure wave will cause the pressure at the inlet valve at the end of the intake process to be raised above the nominal inlet pressure. The inlet valve is closed some 40 to 60" after BC. in part to take ad~antage~of ram phenomenon. a reverse flow of fresh charge from the cyliader back into the intake can occur as the cylinder pressure rises due to piston motion toward TC. Equivalent flow-dependent pressure losses in the exhaust system result in the exhaust port and manifold having average pressure levels that are higher than atmospheric. and the unsteady gas-flow effects that result from these geometric variations.

The amplitude of the pressure fluctuations increases substantially with increasing engine speed. I 0 and EO. Higher harmonics that result from pressure waves in both the intake and exhaust are clearly important also.' Stroke = 89 nun. in schematic form. The diesel curve with its double peak shows the effect of intake system tuning. how the Examples of the pressure variations in the inlet and exhaust systems of a four-cylinder automobile spark-ignition engine at wide-open throttle are shown in Fig. exhaust manifold runner 200 mm from cylinder 1. intake and exhaust valve open periods for that cylinder.23 Flow effects on volumetric efficiency depend on the velocity of the fresh mixture in the intake manifold. at wide-open throttle. for different engines.g The volumetric efficiencies of spark-ignition engines are usually lower than diesel values due to flow losses in the carburetor and throttle. p.. and valve. and Timing 6. intake manifold runner 150 mm from cylinder 1. volumetric efficiencies as a function of speed.. Lift. port. respectively. The complexity of the phenomena that occur is apparent. intake manifold heating. versus speed curve. 6-9.' Figure 6-8 shows typical curves of I Mean piston speed - -- s w + Effect on volumetric efliciency of different phenomena which affcet the air flow rate as a function of Ipeed. the presence of fuel vapor. m/s FIGURE 6-8 Volumetric efficiency versus mean piston speed for a four-cylinder automobile indirect-injection diesele and a six-cylinder spark-ignition engine? L L I I I 0 180 360 Crank angle. Bore = 84 mm. Locations: p. ? . should be compared at the same mean piston speed. Since the intake system and valve dimensions scale approximately with the cylinder bore. The primary frequency in both the intake and exhaust corresponds to the frequency of the individual cylinder intake and exhaust processes. mixture velocities in the intake system will scale with piston speed. 1 volumetric efficiency versus mean piston speed for a four-cylinder automobile indirect-injection diesel engine8 and a six-cylinder spark-ignition engine.. . 6-7. deg 2 -* FIGURE 6-7 Instantaneous pressures in the intake and exhaust manifolds of a four-stroke cycle four-cylinder spark-ignition engine.INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE FUNDAMENTALS 1200 revlmin 4800 revlmin 0 2 4 6 8 1 0 1 2 Mean piston speed. Hence. Variation with Speed. The shape of these volumetric efficiency versus mean piston speed curves can be explained with the aid of Fig. exhaust manifold runner 700 mm from cylinder 1. Local velocities for quasi-steady flow are equal to the volume flow rate divided by the local cross-sectional area. deg 540 I 720 Crank angle. and a higher residual gas fraction. Solid line is final q. p. and Valve Area. This shows.

Later-than-normal inlet valve closing is only advantageous at very high 0 2000 4000 Speed.2. ~ . Figure 6-11 shows data from a four-cylinder spark-ignition engine3 which illustrates the effect of varying valve timing and valve lift on the volumetric efficiency versus speed curve. Once this occurs. Charge heating in the manifold and cylinder drops curve A to curve B. The penalty is reduced air flow at high speed. The induction ram effect.6.I0 . Non-speed-dependent effects (such as fuel vapor pressure) drop r . curve F to G. 6. In an unsteady flow calculation of the gas exchange processes of a four-cylinder spark-ignition engine. Late inlet valve closing. which allows advantage to be taken of increased charging at higher speeds. below 100 percent (curve A).3dm"our-cylinda spark-ignition engine. 6-10. the length of the intake manifold runners was increased successively by factors of 2. the flow into the engine during at least part of the intake process becomes choked (see Sec. At higher engine speeds. It has a greater effect at lower engine speeds due to longer gas residence times. Frictional flow losses increase as the square of engine speed. An example of the effect on volumetric efficiency of tuning the intake manifold runner is shown in Fig. intake and/or exhaust tuning can increase the volumetric efficiency (often by a substantial amount) over part of the engine speed range. further increases in speed do not increase the flow rate significantly so volumetric efficiency decreases sharply (curve C to D). the loss in q.10 Further discussion of intake system tuning can be found in Sec. raises curve D to curve E.effect on volumetric efficiency of each of the different phenomena described in this section varies with speed. The 34-cm length produces a desirable "tuned " volumetric efficiency curve with increased low-speed air flow and flat mid-speed characteristics. Earlier-than-normal inlet valve closing reduces backflow losses at low speed and increases q. results in a decrease in r . at higher engine speeds. at high speed would be unacceptable. revlmin 6000 FICURE 610 Effect of intake runner length on volumetric cfficicncy versus speed for 2.3. 7. Finally. at low engine speeds due to backflow (curves C and D to F).2).. While the longest runner further increases low-speed air flow. ~ . and drop curve B to curve C.

and critical design areas of typical inlet (top) and exhaust (bottom) valves and Inner seat diameter D ports.10-1.1 Poppet Valve Geometry and Timing Figure 6-12 shows the main geometric parameters of a poppet valve head and seat. 2 Mechanical lifters. Larger valve sizes (or four valves compared with two) allow higher maximum air flows for a given cylinder displacement. 63. and the cross-sectional area is no larger than is required to achieve the desired power output." Each of these chamber shapes (see Secs. . Hydraulic lifters. The characteristics of flows through poppet valves will now be reviewed. Valvo opening and closing positions are the points of 0.15-mm (0. Low valve lifts significantly restrict engine breathing over the mid-speed and high-sped operating ranges. 6.110 (b) - "cor~close to seat FIGURE 6-13 Shap. The inlet port is generally circular.105~ 1. leads to a different design. is usually the most important flow restriction in the intake and the exhaust system of four-stroke cycle engines. Typical valve timing. valve-lift points. lift is no longer a major constraint on effective valve open area (see Sec. For example. Some are based upon a spe- Core close to bottom of valw aide Area > 0. Figure 6-13 shows the proportions of typical inlet and exhaust valves and ports. Typical valve head sizes for different shaped combustion chambers in terms of cylinder bore B are given in Table 6. 10. There is no universally accepted criterion for defining valve timing points. 6-14. Although a circular cross section is still desirable. Opening and closing positions are the 0. relative to the valve inner seat diameter D. or nearly so. SAE defines valve timing events based on referc ence valve-lift points:13 1. or valve and port together. Kq seat angle B " lift criterion. the importance of good valve seat and guide cooling. 6 3 FLOW THROUGH VALVES The valve. with the shortest length of exposed valve stem.75 area at ' W Section 2-2 0. YIUHead diameter. Above a critical valve lift." Scat width W.2 and 15. and valve open areas for a fourstroke cycle spark-ignition engine are shown in Fig.006-in) 1 FIGURE 6 1 2 Parameters defining poppet valve geometry. proportions.095-b.006-in) lift plus the specified lash. valve-lift profiles. D. a rectangular or oval shape is often essential around the guide boss area.1.15-mm (0.3).4 for a discussion of spark-ignition and diesel combustion chamber design) imposes different constraints on valve size. For the exhaust port.220 INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE FUNDAMENTALS GAS EXCHANGE PROCESSES 221 speeds.

is the valve lift. is the port diameter. .48458 0. For this stage: [(D: and . the minimum flow area corresponds to a frustrum of a right circular cone where the conical face between the valve and the seat. For this stage: W ~ sin /3 cos /3 and the minimum area is >L. seat. L. . where D. For the second stage. respectively. There are three separate stages to the flow area development as valve lift increases.w tan (4 Typical valve timing diagram for high-speed 2.35-0.468 0. (b) Schematic showing three stages of valve lift. For low valve lifts.1 Valve head diameter in terms of cylinder bore B" Approximate mean Combustion cbamber shape7 Wedge or bathtub Bowl-in-piston Hemispherical Four-valve pent-roof piston speed.378 0.222 INTERNAL COMBUSTlON ENGINE FUNDAMENTALS GAS EXCHANGE PROCESSES 223 TABLE 6.8) ~WRE 6-14 A.6 a d 3 1 cm. but this surface is no longer perpendicular to the valve seat.448 0. defines the flow area. .[(L.14 as shown in Fig.w). D.12 What is important is when significant gas flow through the valve-open area either starts or ceases.>O where /3 is the valve seat angle. > sin /3w /3 cos f12 + w2I1l2 (6.w21112 40.378 0. 15-15. valve events can be defined based on angular criteria along the lift curve." .43-0. is the valve head diameter (the outer diameter of the seat). and w is the seat width (difference between the inner and outer seat radii).34-0. The base angle of the cone increases from (90 .D:>' . and Dm is the mean seat diameter (D.2dm3four-cylinder spark-ignition engine.8)" toward that of a cylinder. The instantaneous valve flow area depends on valve lift and the geometric details of the valve head.414438 0.28-0. the minimum area is still the slant surface of a frustrum of a right circular cone.424. and stem. = rrD. (c) Valvelii curve and corresponding minimum intake and ~Lhaustvalve open areas as a function of camshaft angle. Alternatively. 90". Inlet Exhaust mnx power.328 1 5 14 18 20 t See Fig.378 0. which is perpendicular to the seat. m/s 0.35-0. Inlet and exhaust valve diameters are 3. is the valve stem diameter. + w tan /3 2 L. 6-14b. D.

for then I Intake and exhaust valve open areas corresponding to a typical valve-lift profile are plotted versus camshaft angle in Fig. Inlet valve closing (IVC) usually falls in the range 40 to 60" after BC. The broad peaks occurring at maximum piston velocity reflect the fact that valve flow area is constant at this point. The effect of valve geometry and timing on air flow can be illustrated conceptually by dividing the rate of change of cylinder volume by the instantaneous minimum valve flow area to obtain a pseudojlow velocity for each valve:'' Exhaust Crank angle from TC. (6.. a1 area of the valve stem. valve minimum flow area A. These three different flow regimes are indicated. is the valve area given by Eqs.5)] and A. it regulates how much of the cylinder burned gases are exhausted. Late EVC favors high power at the expense of low-speed torque and idle combustion quality.Finally. (64.9) in App. Exhaust valve closing (EVC) ends the exhaust process and determines the duration of the valve overlap period.12 between the wrist pin and crank axis [see Fig.2. (C. or (6. Engine performance is relatively insensitive to this timing point. The peaks close to TC result from the exhaust valve closing and intake valve opening profiles. when the valve lift is sufficiently large. Inlet valve opening (IVO) typically occurs 10 to 25" BTC. It should occur sufficiently before TC so that cylinder pressure does not dip early in the intake stroke. and where V is the cylinder volume [Eq. Note from the timing diagram (Fig. so that blowdown can assist in expelling the exhaust gases. TbL equation is derived from a one-dimensional isentropic flow analysis. IVC is one of the principal factors that determines high-speed volumetric efficiency. deg Rnle of change of cylinder volume dVld0. 2-1 and Eq. it is the port flow area minus the section.8) or (C. 6-14. (2. EVC timing should occur sufficiently far after TC so that the cylinder pressure does not rise near the end of the exhaust stroke. C]. 2-2) do not coincide. At idle and light load. s is the distana . These are the periods when exhaust blowdown and ram and tuning cfkcts in the intake are most important. The goal here is to reduce cylinder pressure to close to the exhaust manifold pressure as soon as possible after BC over the full engine speed range. 6-14a) that the points of maximum valve lift and maximum piston velocity (Fig. 6-14c. At high engine speeds and loads. Exhaust valve opening (EVO) occurs 50 to 60" before BC. it therefore regulates the quantity of exhaust gases that flow back into the combustion chamber through the exhaust valve under the influence of intake manifold vacuum. Note that the timing of EVO affects the cycle efficiency since it determines the effective expansion ratio. The peak at the end of the exhaust stroke is important since it indicates a high pressure drop across the valve at this point. it also affects low-speed volumetric efficiency due to backflow into the intake (see Sec. Instantaneous pseudo flow velocity profiles for the exhaust and intake strokes of a four-stroke four-cylinder engine are shown in Fig. 6. Thus. The maximum valve lift is normally about 12 percent of the cylinder bore.3). in spark-ignition engines (which are throttled). (2.4)]. 63.7). which will result in higher trapped residual mass. and pseudo flow velocity as function of crank angle for exhaust and inlet valves of Fig.9). Th pseudo velocity peak at the start of the intake stroke is much less important.2 Flow Rate and Discharge C~fficients The mass flow rate through a poppet valve is usually described by the equation for compressible flow through a flow restriction [Eqs. B is the cylinder bore. The magnitude of this exhaust stroke pseudo velocity peak depends strongly on the timing of exhaust valve closing. the minimum flow area is no longer between the valve head and seat. well before the end of the expansion stroke. That the pseudo velocities early in the exhaust stroke and late in the intake stroke are low indicates that phenomena other than quasi-steady flow govern the flow rate. 6-15. Note the appearance of two peaks in the pseudo flow velocity for both the exhaust and intake strokes. EVC typically falls in the range 8 to 20" after TC. to provide more time for cylinder filling under conditions where cylinder pressure is below the intake manifold pressure at BC.

11) When the flow is choked. giving high values for the discharge coefficient. charge coefficient C.g. pressure p. static pressure just downstream of.l5 the geometric minimum flow area [Eqs.'~. at which the shifts in flow regimes illustrated in Fig. The three segments shown correspond to different flow regimes as indicated. However.16 steady flow operation. and a reference area A .1) m=- (6. is the cylinder pressure and p . p.8). steady flow dischargecoefficient results can be used to predict dynamic performance with reasonable preci~ion. pT/po 5 [2/(y is + l)]Y1'Y-l'. the appropriate equation (Y + 1)/2(Y . The value of C . Rounding the upstream corner of the valve seat reduces the tendency of the flow to break away. in Section 8.25. is the cylinder pressure. the pressure upstream of the valve varies significantly during the intake process.' the port area at the valve seat nD.226 INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE FUNDAMENTALS real gas flow effects are included by means of an experimentally determined di. is the exhaust system pressure. For flow out of the cylinder through an exhaust valve. valve seat angle. and the choice of reference area are linked together: their product. or the cylinder head can be shaped to restrict the flow through one side of the valve open area to generate swirl.e. the flow remains attached to the valve head and seat. Different segments correspond to flow regimes indicated. At intermediate lifts.. 6. and stagnation temperature To..16 The discharge coeflicient based on valve curtain area is a discontinuous function of the valve-lift/ diameter ratio. 6-16 occur. 6-13) the discharge coefficient of the port and valve assembly need be no lower than that of the isolated valve (except when . p. increasing the Reynolds number decreases the discharge coefficient. is the valve lift./4. At low valve lifts. and (6. At very low lifts. is the intake system pressure pi and p. rounding of the scat corners. CD increases as seat width decreases.). it has hen shown that over the normal engine speed range. the geometric minimum flow area is a complex function of valve and valve seat dimensions. Swirl production is discussed later.2. C A. (6. the performance of the inlet valve assembly is influenced by the following factors: valve seat width. An important question is whether these steady flow data are representative of the dynamic flow behavior of the valve in an operating engine. Once the flow breaks away from the Wall. The discharge coeflicient then increases with increasing lift since the size of the separated region remains approximately constant while the minimum flow area is increasing.9)]. the flow restriction (assumed equal to the pressure at the restriction. There is some evidence that the "change points" between different flow regimes shown in Fig 6-16 occur at slightly different valve lifts under dynamic operation than unda FlCURE 6-16 Discharge coefficient of typical inlet poppet valve (effective flow area/valve curtain area) as a function of valve lift. ent reference areas have been used. 6-16. In addition to valve lift. though some of these choices allow easier interpretation than others. Also. cylinder head shape. An abrupt decrease in discharge coefficient occurs at this point. The most convenient reference area in practice is the so-called valve curtain area: since it varies linearly with valve lift and is simple to determine. These include the valve head area nD.12) For flow into the cylinder through an intake valve.. when the flow remains attached.7).'~ where L. is the effective flow area of the valve assembly A. In many engine designs the port and valve assembly are used to generate a rotational motion (swirl) inside the engine cylinder during the induction process. Figure 6-16 shows the results of steady flow tests on a typical inlet valve configuration with a sharp-cornered valve seat.3. Several differ. p. INLET VALVES.2. As has been shown above. and the curtain area RD. The seat angle B affects the discharge coefficient in the low-lift regime in Fig. the flow separates from the valve head at the inner edge of the valve seat as shown./4. are 0. thus increasing CD at higher lifts. Fig. (6..I6 For well-designed ports (e. The choice is arbitrary. i.L. Changes in seat width affect the LJD. the flow rparates from the inner edge of the valve seat as Typical maximum values of LJD. characteristic of the valve design: m=- (6.. At high lifts. there is no Reynolds number dependence of CD. as has been discussed in Sec. Swirl generation significantly reduces the valve (and port) flow coeficient. port design. The air flow rate is related to the upstream stagnation .

= 0..5. Z corresponds closely. LJD. An alternative equivalent approach to this problem has been developed. as indicated by the data from four port designs in Fig. However.16 At high engine speeds.e. This is due to the flow becoming choked during part of the intake process. For LJD.16 ~t high lifts. Taylor and coworkers7 correlated volumetric eficiencies measured on a range of engine and inlet valve designs with an inlet Mach index Z formed from an average gas velocity through the inlet valve: ow lift High lift where Ai is the nominal inlet valve area (nDt/4). if the inlet valve is closed too early. In studies of the flow from the cylinder through an exhaust poppet valve. Ci is a mean valve discharge coefficientbased on the area A. A sharp-cornered isolated poppet valve (i. volumetric efficiency will decrease gradually with increasing Mi. From the method used to determine Ci.I6 a.lg EXHAUST VALVES. Good designs can approach the performance of isolated where ii is the mean inlet flow velocity during the valve open period. to the mean Mach number in the inlet valve throat.lg A mean inlet Mach number was defined : RGURE 6 1 7 now pattern through exhaust valve at low and high lilt. if the cross-sectional area of the port is hot sufficient or the radius of the surface at the inside of the bend is too small a significant reduction in CDfor the assembly can result. and a is the sound speed. when M iapproaches 0. the port is used to generate swirl).5.). based on the average flow velocity through the valve during the period the valve is open. (At LJD. straight pipe downstream.e. are given in Fig. 6-18.5 the volumetric efficiency decreases rapidly. therefore. it is apparent that Ci Aiis the average effective open area of the valve (it is the average value of CDzD.lJ r?O d. Also. reach sonic velocity at the minimum valve flow area). even if the valve open area is suficiently large. < 0. For a series of modern small four-cylinder engines. 6-17.2 it is about 95 percent. Values of CD based on the valve curtain area. Mi is related to Z via Isolated valve. 6-18. sharp corners UII This mean inlet Mach number correlates volumetric efficiency characteristics better than the Mach index.. different flow regimes at low and high lift occur.21 .. for Mi < 0. Taylor's correlations show that qu decreases rapidly for Z 2 0.16) The port design significantly affects CD at higher valve lifts. for several different exhaust valve and port combinations. 2 0.25 the effective area is about 90 percent of the minimum geometric area. the breakaway of the flow reduces the discharge coeficient. This relationship can be used to size the inlet valve for the desired volumetric efficiency at maximum engine speed.2. no port) gives the best performance FIGURE 6 1 8 Discharge coefficient as function of valve lit for several exhaust valve and port designs.. Various definitions of inlet Mach number have been used to identify the onset of choking. as shown in Fig. the inlet flow during part of the induction process can become choked (i.20 b.L. Choking substantially reduces volumetric efficiency. unless the inlet valve is of sufficient size.

5-3. mmHg abs Airlfuel ratio FIGURE 6-19 Residual gas fraction for 2dm3 four-cylinder sparkignition engine as a function of intake madd pressure for a range of speed. where the subscripts C and e denote compression and exhaust.. concentration in a sample of gas from the cylinder during the compression stroke. and valve overlaps: also as a function of d r p ratio for a ran& of volumetric efficiencies. and exhaust system dynamics. A correction factor K. and efficiencyand emissions through its effect on workingfluid thermodynamic properties. compression ratio. For pressure ratios greater than about 2 the flow will be choked. are dry mole fractions. however. four-cylinder engine. In the real exhaust process.9).95 maximum torque. The origin of this variation for an ideal exhaust process is evident from Fig. The thermodynamic state (pressure. 6-19. the valve lift varies with time. Residual gas fractions in diesel engines are substantially lower than in SI engines because inlet and exhaust pressures are comparable in magnitude and the compression ratio is 2 to 3 times as large.24 Figure 6-20 shows the instantaneous mass flow rate data at three different engine speeds. and valve overlap are the most important variables. valve timing. 88. . The residual gas fraction is primarily a function of inlet and exhaust pressures. Residual gas measurements in a spark-ignition engine are given in Fig. until the cylinder pressure closely approaches the exhaust manifold pressure. speed. (or burned gas fraction if EGR is used) is Usually determined by measuring the CO.f 2 1 M - 3 w 400 500 600 700 Manifold pressure.'~ Normal settings for inlet valve opening (about 15" before TC) and exhaust valve closing (about 12" after TC) provide sufficient overlap for good scavenging.5. Exhaust valves operate over a wide range of pressure ratios (1 to 5). etc. Usually C 0 2 volume or mole fractions are measured in dry gas streams (see Sec. ~ ' .valves. compression ratio = ~ . but avoid excessive backflow from the exhaust port into the cylinder.5-mm bore. Its magnitude affects volumetric efficiency and engine performance directly. Inlet pressure. Also. and &. spark timing set to give 0. are mole fractions in the wet gas. and the cylinder volume changes during the blowdown process.& & 5 percent at LJD. The blowdown and displacement ?zo I I I 1 \ \ 0' L 5 k L 7 k Manifold pressure. temperature.. a substantial fraction of the residual gas is air. Operating conditions. = 0.3). though the exhaust pressure also affects the residual fra~tion. the exhaust valve restricts the flow out of the cylinder.z0. mmHg abs 1 i where y is the molar hydrogen/carbon ratio of the fuel and ji. valve overlap. 5 .15 The residual gas mass fraction x.) of the gas in the cylinder varies continually during the exhaust blowdown phase. but the effect of pressure ratio on discharge coefficient is small and confined to higher lifts (e. compression ratios. 4. and air/fuel ratio for a range of inlet manifold pressures for a 2-dm3.22 The effect of variations in spark timing was negligible. but the principles remain the same. unless noted: speed = 1400 rev/* A/F = 14. Then 6. which shows the effect of changes in speed. compression ratio. Measurements have been made of the variation in mass flow rate through 'he exhaust valve and gas temperature at the exhaust port exit during the exhaust Process of a spark-ignition engine. mmHg abs 2 0 r 1 Manifold pressure. speed.4 RESIDUAL GAS FRACTION The residual gas fraction in the cylinder during compression is determined by the exhaust and inlet processes. 6 5 EXHAUST GAS FLOW RATE AND TEMPERATURE VARIATION The exhaust gas mass flow rate and the properties of the exhaust gas vary significantly during the exhaust process..can be used to convert the dry mole fraction measurements.

and the gas comes momentarily to rest and loses a substantial fraction of its thermal energy to the exhaust port walls.25 der walls. The exhaust temperature variation with equivalence ratio follows from the variation in expansion stroke temperatures. The gas temperature at the port exit at the start of the exhaust flow pulse is a mixture of hotter gas which has just left the cylinder and cooler gas which left the cylinder at the end of the previous exhaust process and has been stationary in the exhaust port while the valve has been closed. Equation (C.r.9) is used when the pressure ratio across the valve exceeds the critical value. spark timing = 10"BTC. The port exit temperature has a minimum where the transition from blowdown flow to displacement occurs. imep = 414 kPa. and measured gas temperature at exhaust port exit T. Increasing speed ( B . and measured gas temperature at exhaust port exit for a single-cylinder spark-ignition engine at mid-load and speed.C) increases the mass and temperature in the blowdown pulse. Speed = 1000 rev/min. The blowdown model shown applies orifice flow equations to the flow across the exhaust valve using the measured cylinder pressure and estimated gas temperature for upstream stagnation conditions.. is the most critical factor. Figure 6-22 shows the effect of varying load and speed on exhaust port exit .8) is used when the pressure ratio is less than the critical value. The exhaust gas temperature varies substantially through the exhaat process. Equation (C. temperatures. The displacement model assumes the gas in the cylinder is incompressible as the piston moves through the exhaust stroke.24Diesel engine exhaust temperatures are significantly . deg FIGURE 6-20 Instantaneous mass flow rate of exhaust gas through the valve versus crank angle: equivalena ratio = 1. There is evidence of dynamic effects occurring at the transition between the two phases The peak mass flow rate during blowdown does not vary substantially with speed since the flow is choked. As engine speed increases. calculated cylinder-gas temperature T. wide-open throttle. and decreases due to heat loss as the gas flows past the exhaust v a k and through the exhaust system. These effects are the result of variations in the relative importance of heat transfer in the cylinder and heat transfer to the exhaust valve and port.D ) raises the gas temperature throughout the exhaust process.2. Increasing load (A + B . Figure 6-21 shows the measured cylinder pressure.24 $ 2 Crank angle phases of the exhaust process are evident. with maximum values at q5 = 1.2.0 and lower values for leaner and richer mixtures. Simple quasi-steady models of these phases give good agreement with the data at lower engine speeds. equivalence ratio = 1. the proportion of the charge which exits the cylinder during the blowdown phase decreases but the mass flow rate during displacement remains essentially constant. As the inlet manifold pressure is reduced below the wide-open throttle value. = 7. ethaust mass flow rate me. The time available for heat transfer. The mass flow rate at the time of maximum piston speed during displacement scales approximately with piston speed. calculated cylinder temperature and exhaust mass flow rate.2. Dash-dot line is onedimensional compressible s flow model for blowdown and incompressible displacement model for exhaust stroke.25 The average cylinder-gas temperature falls rapidly during blowdo and continues to fall during the exhaust stroke due to heat transfer to the cylin- Measured cylinder pressure p. the crank angle duration of the blowdown phase increases. for single-cylinder spark-ignition engine. compression ratio = 7. which depends on engine speed and exhaust gas flow rate..232 INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE FUNDAMENTALS Crank angle..

Raising the pressure of the intake mixture is done in a separate pump or blower or compressor.6 SCAVENGING IN TWO-STROKE CYCLE ENGINES 6. (b) loopscavenged. load.2. a greater air mass flow rate must be achieved to obtain the same output power. for different loads and speeds. Mass-averaged exhaust temperatures (which are close to f if c. and particulate traps.. 1000 revlmin. All these temperatures increase with increasing speed. Figures 1-12. 1000 rev/min. compression ratio = 7. 6-23 and 6-24. 1600 rev/min. and (c) uniflow-scavenged two-stroke cycle flow configurations. A n enthalpy-averaged temperature is the best indicator of exhaust thermal energy. Cross. Equivalence ratio = 1 2 spark timing = 1 " BTC.1 Two-Stroke Engine Configurations In tw~-stroke cycle engines. . Curve A: imep = 2 7 kPa. each outward stroke of the piston is a power stroke. curve D :imep = 414 kPa. (b) loopscavenged. 1000 rev/min.6. and the most common arrangements are indicated. and 1-5 and 1-24 show sectioned drawings of a two-stroke spark-ignition engine and two two-stroke diesels. curve B: 6 imep = 414 kPa.234 INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE FUNDAMENTALS 1 6. air capacity is just as important as in the four-stroke cycle. The operation of clearing the cylinder of burned gases and filling it with fresh mixture (or a i r b t h e combined intake and exhaust process-is called scavenging.27 The uniflow system may use inlet ports with exhaust valves in the cylinder head. and spark retard. The time-averaged exhaust temperature does not correspond to the average energy of the exhaust gas because the flow rate varies substantially. usually. Crank angle FIGURE 6-22 Measured gas temperature at exhaust port exit as a function of crank angle.26 (0) Cross-scavenged. However. catalytic converters. The average exhaust gas temperature is an important quantity for determining the performance of turbochargers. variations are small) for a spark-ignition engine at the exhaust port exit are about 100 K higher than time-averaged or thermocoupledetermined temperatures. with speed being the variable with the largest impact. Scavenging arrangements are classified into: (a) cross-scavenged. achieve this operating cycle. Average exhaust gas temperatures are usually measured with a thermocouple. The location and orientation of the scavenging ports control the scavenging process. uncovered by the piston as it approaches BC. Mass-average temperatures in the cylinder during the exhaust process are about 200 to 300 K higher than mass-averaged port temperatures. The different categories of two-stroke cycle scavenging flows and the port (and valve) arrangements that produce them are illustrated in Figs. and (c) unifow-scavenged conJigurations. 0 lower than spark-ignition engine exhaust temperatures because ofthe lean operating equivalence ratio and their higher expansion ratio during the power stroke. single-cylinder sparkignition engine. Thermocouple-averaged temperatures are close to time-averaged temperatures.15 . curve C: imep = 621 kPa. the fresh charge must be supplied to the engine cylinder at a high-enough pressure to displace the burned gases from the previous cycle.and loop-scavenging systems use exhaust and inlet ports in the cylinder wall.

Proper flow patterns for the fresh charge are extremely important for good scavenging and charging of the cylinder. the exhaust valve opens and a blowdown discharge process commences. similar sequence of events for a loopscavenged engine.\ FIGURE 6-24 Common porting arrangements that go with (a)cross-scavenged. scavenging port open area A. the exhaust flow-continues and no backflow occurs. As the cylinder pressure rises above the exhaust pressure.6. This flow continues as long as the inlet ports are open and the inlet total pressure exceeds the pressure in the cylinder. 1-24. which now have a large open area. Between 100 and 110" after TC. air enters the cylinder and the scavenging process starts. The scavenging ports open between 60 and 40" before BC when the cylinder pressure slightly exceeds the scavenging pump pressure. C) and the flow at the valve will be sonic: as the cylinder pressure decreases. Air in a diesel. (b) loop-scavenged. more complex combinations of these approaches are often used. 6-26. 6. Scavenging 1 or inlet and exhaust ports with opposed pistons. When the cylinder pressure falls below the inlet pressure. the pressure ratio drops below the critical value.. Initially. the pressure ratio across the exhaust valve exceeds the critical value (see App.2 Scavenging Parameters and Models The following overall parameters are used to describe the scavenging pro~ess.'~ The delivery ratio A: A= mass of delivered air (or mixture) per cycle reference mass (6.' and exhaust valve lift L. The exhaust valva usually close after the inlet ports close. Figure 1-16 illustrates the k~ir from compressor (6) PC (0) FIGURE 625 Gas exchange process in two-stroke cycle uniflow-scavenged diesel engine: (a) valve and port timing and pressurevolume diagram. Despite the different flow patterns obtained with each cylinder geometry. Figure 6-25 illustrates the principles of the scavenging process for a uniflow engine design. as functions of crank angle. The discharge period up to the time of the scavenging port opening is called the blowdown (or free exhaust) period.20) . (b) pressure. as shown in Fig. or fuel-air mixture in a spark-ignition engine. the general operating principles are similar. the fresh charge flowing into the cylinder displaces the burned gases: a part of the fresh charge mixes with the burned gases and is expelled with them. additional scavenging is obtained. Common methods for supercharging or pressurizing the fresh charge are shown in Fig. must be supplied to the inlet ports at a pressure higher than the exhaust system pressure. In large two-stroke cycle engines. Because the burned gas flow is toward the exhaust valves. and (c) uniflowscavenged configurations. Since the flow in the cylinder is toward the exhaust valve.

mass of delivered air (or mixture) retained mass of delivered air (or mixture) (6. Thus the mass of air delivered between t and t + dt which is retained. indicates to what extent the residual gases in the cylinder have been replaced with fresh air. Two limiting ideal models of this process are: (1) perfect displacement and (2) complete mixing. roots blower.' compares the actual scavenging air mass (or mixture mass) to that required in an ideal charging process.. for complete mixing.238 INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE FLXDAMEMALS The charging eflciency qch: qch = mass of delivered air (or mixture) retained displaced volume x ambient density (6.is given by qsc = A qsc = 1 FIGURE 6-26 Common methods of pressurizing the fresh charge in two-stroke cycle engines: left. The scavenging efficiency qse: = mass of delivered air (or mixture) retained mass of trapped cylinder charge (6.and delivery ratio are related by When the reference mass in the definition of delivery ratio is the trapped cylinder mass m..27) q . . the delivery ratio. trapping efficiency. For analytical work. is constant. with the above definitions. t If scavenging is done with fuel-air mixture. for the perfect displacement and complete mixing assumptions as a function of A.24) indicates how effectively the cylinder volume has been filled with fresh air (or mixture). For pegect displacement (with m. mixing occurs as the fresh charge displaces the burned gases and some of the fresh charge may be expelled. The purity of the charge: Purity = mass of air in trapped cylinder charge mass of trapped cylinder charge (6.22) Assuming m. this integrates over the duration of the scavenging Process to give mar -=I-expe) mtr Thus. A equal amount of fluid. Charging eficiency. Between time t and t dt.. (or closely approximated by it) then In real scavenging processes.? The reference mass is defined as displaced volume x ambient air (or mixture) density. as the reference mass in the delivery ratio). =A for A > 1 and For the complete mixing limit. center. Figure 6-27 shows qrc and q. Perfect displacement or scavenging would occur if the burned gases were pushed out by the fresh gases without any mixing. consider the scavenging process as a quasisteady flow process. This definition is useful For experimental purposes. centrifugal compressor. with the same proportions of air and burned gas as the n cylinder contents at time t. with burned gases.23) indicates the degree of dilution.. crankcase cornpression. right.. Ambient air (or mixture) density is determined at atmospheric conditions or at intake conditions. Complete mixing occurs if entering fresh mixture mixes instantaneously and uniformly with the cylinder contents. then mixture mass is used instead of air mass. dm. The trapping efficiency qtr: = . leaves the cylinder during this time interval.supplied to the cylinder is retained in the cylinder. qtr = 1 for A < 1 and (6. as in spark-ignition engines.. use the trapped cylinder mass 4 as the reference mass. it is often convenient to .2 1) + indicates what fraction of the air (or mixture). a mass element dm. . of air is delivered to the cylinder and is uniformly mixed throughout the cylinder volume. of the unburned mixture in the cylinder.

This is called shortcircuiting. When short-circuiting occurs. There is no simple model for this process. These unscavenged zones are most likely to occur in regions of the cylinder that remain secluded from the main fresh mixture flow path.'' Accurate measurement of scavenging efficiency is dificult due to the problem of measuring the trapped air mass.. it is obviously undesirable since some fresh air or mixture is wasted.0 Delivery ratio.o 2. Estimation of & from indicated mean effective pressure and from gas sampling are the most reliable methods. versus delivery ratio A for perfect displacement and complete mixing models.' Flow visualization experi~nents'~-~~liquid analogs of the in cylinder and flow velocity mapping techniques3' have proved useful in providing a qualitative picture of the scavenging flow field and identifying problems such as short-circuiting and dead volumes. 6. Another phenomenon which reduces scavenging eficiency is the formation of pockets or dead zones in the cylinder volume where burned gases can become trapped and escape displacement or entrainment by the fresh scavenging flow.63 Actual Scavenging Processes Several methods have been developed for determining what occurs in actual cylinder scavenging processes. Flow visualization studies indicate the key features of the scavenging process.-Perfect displacement --Perfect mixing 0 0 1. Figure 6-28 shows a sequence of frames from a movie of one liquid scavenging another in a model of a large two-stroke cycle loop-scavenged >a & 8$ $ . and trapping efficiency q. An additional possibility is the direct flow of fresh mixture through the cylinder into the exhaust without entraining burned gases. A FIGURE 6-27 Scavenging efficiency q . lower scavenging efficiencies result even though the volume occupied by the shortcircuiting flow through the cylinder does displace an equal volume of the burned gases.

6-29. During this initial phase. Early in the scavenging process.29 The physical variables were scaled to maintain the same values of the appropriate dimensionless numbers for the liquid analog flow and the real engine flow. the outflowing gas contains no air. 6-24). either in the center of the cylinder or along the walls. the . At 24 crank angle degrees after the onset of scavenging..4. If there are "tongues" of scavenging flow toward the exhaust port. Swirl in uniflowscavenged systems may be used to obtain an equivalent result. measurement of the velocity profile in this region is a good indicator of the effectiveness o the scavenging flow. While the scavenging front remains distinct as it traverses the cylinder. The jets of scavenging mixture.4. . and thereafter flow at lower velocity along the cylinder wall toward the cylinder head. For uniflow scavenging this perfect scavenging phase lasts somewhat z longer. The density of the liquid representing air (which is dark) was twice the density of the liquid representing burned gas (which is clear). The short-circuiting fluid flows directly between the scavenge ports and the exhaust ports above them. The most desirable loop-scavenging flow is illustrated in Fig. i. Then short-circuiting losses start to occur. short-circuiting losses will also continue. More efficient scavenging-i. At the time the displacement front reached the exhaust port (65" after the onset of scavenging). If the flow along the cylinder wall toward the head is f stable.) versus delivery ratio (A) closely followed the perfect displacement line for A c 0. the outflowing gas. within the cylinder both displacement and '' . By proper direction of the scavenging jets it is possible to achieve almost no outflow in the direction of the exhaust from the cross-hatched stagnation zone on the opposite cylinder wall. not mixing throughout the cylinder volume. fresh air due to shortcircuiting was detected in the exhaust. The X I=- Desirable air flow in loop-scavenged engine: air from the entering jets impinges on far cylinder wall and flows toward the cylinder head. The departure from perfect scavenging behavior is evident when fresh mixture first appears in the exhaust. The actual plot of degree of purity (or q. the scavenging flow will follow the desired path. contains an increasing amount of fresh air. mixing at the interface between burned gas and fresh gas are occurring. less mixing-is obtained by reducing the size of the inlet PO* while increasing their numbex. if its maximum velocity occurs near the wall and the velocity is near zero on the plane perpendicular to the axis of symmetry of the ports (which passes through the cylinder axis). Otherwise the scavenging 4 front will reach the exhaust ports or valves too early.diesel. The mixing that occurs is short-range mixing. showed that inlet jets directed tangentially to a circle of half the cylinder radius gave the most stable scavenging front profile over a wide range of condition~. Initially.4. Results of measurements of scavenging front location in rig flow tests of a valved uniflow two-stroke diesel cylinder. once the "displacement" phase is over. Since this damming-up of the inflowing fresh air back toward the exhaust ports continues. the fresh air jets penetrate into the burned gas and displace it first toward the cylinder head and then toward the exhaust ports (the schematic gives the location of the ports). For loop-scavenged engines this is typically when A z 0.e. For A > 0. the shape of the actual curve was similar in 9 shape to the complete mixing curve. In fact.e. the inlet ports are evenly spaced around the full circumference of the cylinder and are usually directed so that the xavenging jets create a swirling flow within the cylinder (see Fig.~~ Though the scavenging processes in spark-ignition and diesel two-stroke engines are similar. mix readily with gases in the immediate neighborhood of the jet efflux. on entering the cylinder. However.. In mixture-scavenged spark-ignition engines. any significant expulsion of fresh fluid with the burned gas results in a significant loss of fuel and causes high hydrocarbon emissions as well as 10s of the energy expended in pumping the & . these two types of engine operate with quite different delivery ratios. then significant short-circuiting will In uniflow-scavenged configurations. pure displacement of the burned gas from the cylinder is being achieved. Outflowing fluid composition measurements from this model study of a Sulzer two-stroke loop-scavenged diesel engine confirm this sequence of events. exhausted gas contains no fresh air ar mixture.. The jets are frequently directed to impinge on each other or against the cylinder wall. for cross-scavenging it is over sooner (because the short-circuiting path is shorter). only burned gas is being dis." 3 :cavenging jets enter symmetrically with sufficient velocity to fill up about half the cylinder cross section. loss of fresh air due to scavenging amounted to 13 percent of the scavenge air flow." It is important that the jets from the inlet PO* slow down significantly once they enter the cylinder. placed from the cylinder. For both these reasons (short-circuiting and short-range mixing). its turbulent character indicates that mixing between burned gas and air across the front is taking place. due to the damming-up or buildup of fresh air on the cylinder wall opposite the exhaust ports. Engine tests confirm these results from model studies. as the inlet port angle was varied to give a wide range of swirl.

5 and 0. For fully open ports with sharp corners the flow detaches at the upstream comers. and scavenging efficiency ir at fd load. O I 1. with uniflow scavenging being the most efficient.3c36 For twostroke cycle spark-ignition engines. as well as the details of the flow pattern produced by the port system inside the cylinder during scavenging. are important. and location of the ports around the cylinder circumference.6. Ports can be tapered. These quantities depend significantly on intake and exhaust port design and open period and the exhaust system configuration. Figure 6-32 defines the essential geometrical characteristics of inlet ports.4. so only the pumping work is lost.6 Delivery ratio A FIGURE 6-31 Purity as a function of delivery ratio A for diierent types of large marine two-stroke diesel engines.8. Solid W' 147 an3displacement engine. the size.." .4 1. revlmin 5 FIGURE 630 Delivery ratio A.8 I 1. For small openings. the pressure ratio across the port. Rectangular ports make best use of the cylinder wall area and give precise timing control. geometry. charging. Discharge coefficients for ports have been measured as a function of the open fraction of the port. 6.6 I 0.4 0. the flow remains attached to the port Walls. The different scavenging configurations have different degrees of effectiveness. Both a rounded entry and converging taper to the port help prevent flow detachment within the port. trapping efficiency q.7 FLOW THROUGH PORTS The importance of the intake and exhaust ports to the proper functioning of the two-stroke cycle scavenging process is clear from the discussion in Sec. A summary of the information available on flow through piston-controlled ports can be found in Annand and Roe. as functions of speed for two single-cylinder two-stroke cycle spark-imition engins. which use crankcase pumping." Dashed line is loopscavenged 246 an3displacement engine. delivery ratios vary between about 0.16 Both the flow resistance of the inlet and exhaust port configurations.2 I I 1. 01 0. These diesel engines normally operate with delivery ratios in the range 1. Figure 6-31 shows scavenging data typical of large two-stroke diesek3' The purity (mass of air in trapped cylinder charge/mass of trapped cylinder charge) is shown as a function of the delivery ratio. Figure 6-33 illustrates the flow patterns expected downstream of pistoncontrolled inlet ports. One consequence of this is that twostroke spark-ignition engines are usually crankcase pumped. and the direction and velocity of the jets issuing from the ports into the cylinder all affect the scavenging flow. the motion of the scavenging front within the cylinder also slows down Figure 6-30 shows the delivery ratio and trapping.. and may have axial and tangential inclination as shown. Speed. as the crankcase pressure falls during the scavenging process. and scavenging eficiencies of two crankcase-scavenged spark-ignition engines as a function of engine speed. number. In diesels the scavenging medium is air. This approach pro"ides the maximum pressure and thus also the maximum velocity in the scavenging medium at the start of the scavenging process just after the cylinder pressure has blown down. The crank angle at which the ports open. charging efficiency qch.244 INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE FUNDAMENTALS flow which passes straight through the cylinder." 6.2 to 1.

r) but greater than r this is (6. the walls are 4 ) I I I I fQ - - Uli - F i I O (a) I 40 20 I 60 80 I 100 Uncovered pon height.60 0. corner radius r Height / Axial inclination &R * Axial convergence h.x 1 . . can usually be interpreted by reference to the flow patterns illustrated in Fig. 6.43r2 -3 B where Y is the port height. For the open height h.~' Tangentially inclined inlet ports are used when swirl is desired to improve scavenging or when jet focusing or impingement within the cylinder off the cylinder axis is required (see Sec. The effects of inlet port open fraction and port geometry on CD are shown in Fig.4 I I 0.'^ and port geometry and inclination (see Ref.1•‹ FIGURE 6 3 2 Parameters which define geometry of inlet port^.0. 6-32).o Port opm fraction FIGURE 6 3 4 Discharge coefficients as a function of port open fraction (uncovered height/port height) for different inlet port designs. increasing as the pressure ratio increases.31) % AR = X Y . For h. less than (Y .8 I 1. the angle of the jet from a thin-walled cxhaust port increases as indicated in Fig. 6-35.6 0.35. = Y.30) A. 6-33.6. The most appropriate reference area for evaluating the discharge coefficient is the open area of the port (see Fig. small 0 and large opening witb sharp and rounded entry. (b) port axis inclined.86r2 The effect of variations in geometry and operating conditions on the discharge coefficient C. The discharge coelfcient decreases as the jet tangential inclination increases. 3 3 4 the reference area is ** (6. % (b) FIGURE 6 3 3 Flow pattern through piston-controkd inlet ports: (a) port axis perpendiculr to w d ." . and r the corner radius.31 In piston-controlled exhaust ports. The jet angle and the port angle can deviate significantly from each other depending on the details of the port design and the open fraction.0.31 In thick ports. square ports 0. 16 for a detailed summary). 6-34: geometry effects are most significant at small a d large open fraction^. Empirical relations that predict this variation with pressure ratio have been de~eloped. = Xh.16 n C U ~ ~ 635 b& o f i t exiting exhaust p n as a function of open port height. circular ports 0.2 1 X Sharp enuy.^' CD varies with pressure ratio. X the port width. Open height L Y//h 0 Sharp entry.3). Pressure ratio across port = 2.

The changes in exit jet angle and separation point explain the effects d increasing open fraction and pressure ratio. turbines.C p. Two-stage turbocharging (big. The pressure ratio has a significant effect on the exhaust port discharge coefficient. 6-37e). = cylinder pressure. This section reviews the operating characteristics of the blowers. If the ind is compressed to a higher density than ambient. 6. can be used to increase further the air or mixture density as shown in Fig. use of a second turbine in the exhaust directly geared to the engine drive shaft (Fig.39 6.8.5). Three basic methods its used to accomplish this. 15. An example of a pressure wave supercharging device is the Comprex.2) is one example of this method of increasing air density.. The first law. in large marine engines. Fig. The method-pressure wave supercharging-uses wave action in the intake and exhaust systems to compress the intake mixture.8. The first is mechanical supercharging where a %prate pump or blower or compressor. applied to a c0Nrol volume around the turbomachinery component is .2. prior to entry to the cylinder. and mean effective pressure are proportional to inlet air de& The term supercharging refers to increasing the air (or mixture) density by increasing pressure prior to entering the engine cylinder. The use of intake and exhaust tuning to increase volumetric efficiency (see Sec. and wavecompression devices used to increase inlet air or mixture density or convert exhaust-gas availability to work.. The discharge coefficient also increases modestly with increasing gas temperature. Charge cooling with a heat exchanger (often called an aftercooler or intercooler) after compression. The pressure ratio acros the exhaust ports varies substantially during the exhaust process. Figure 6-37 shows typical arrangements of the different supercharging and turbocharging systems. Energy available in the engine's exhaust stream is used to drive the turbocharger turbine which drives the turbocharger compressor which raises the inlet fluid density prior to entry to each engine cylinder. Some form of supercharging is necessary in two-stroke cycle engines to raise the fresh air (or mixture) pressure above the exhaust pressure so that the cylinder can be scavenged effectively.1 Methods of Power Boosting The maximum power a given engine can deliver is limited by the amount of fud that can be burned eficiently inside the engine cylinder. Turbocompounding. as shown in Fig.2 Basic Relationships Expressions for the work required to drive a blower or compressor and the work Produced by a turbine are obtained from the first and second laws of thermodynamics. 6-376). pe =. usually driven by power taken f o the rm engine.7 mm high) in the wall d a 51-nun bore cylinder as a function of open fractipn and pressure ratio.8 SUPERCHARGING AND TURBOCHARGING 6. 6-374 is one viable approach for providing very high boost pressures (4 to 7 atm) to obtain higher engine brake mean effective pressures. which uses the pressure available in the exhaust stream to compress the inlet mixture stream by direct contact of the fluids in narrow flow channels (see Sec. is an alternative method of increasing engine power (and cfkiency). Combinations of an engine-driven compressor and a turbocharger (Fig.39) to (2.e. 6-36. 6-37c) are used (e. 6. The operating characteristics of suprcharged and turbocharged engine systems are discussed in Chap.g. 6. This is limite amount of air that is introduced into each cylinder each cycle. prior to entry into the the maximum power an engine of fixed dimensions can deliver will be incre This is the primary purpose of supcnharging. torque. Steady-ilow rig tests a 21. 6-37a) or turbocharger (Fig.8.Port open fraction FIGURE 66 3 Discharge coefficient of a single rectangular exhaust port (7.41) show b power. where turbocharger-a compressor and turbine on a single shaft-is used to boost the inlet air (or mixture) density. (2.6 mm wide x 12. Eqs. the power density is also raised.provides the compressed air. exhaust system # -F 3 usually tapered to allow the outward flow to diffuse. 1-24). The most common arrangements use a mechanical supercharger (Fig. in the form of the steady flow energy equation. 6-371: Supercharging is used in four-stroke cycle engines to boost the power per unit displaced volume. compressors. The second method is turbocharging. With additional boost in two-stroke cycle engines. i.

po2) constant-pressure lines are shown.36) A component eficiency is used to relate the actual work-transfer rate to the work-transfer rate required (or produced) by an equivalent reversible adiabatic device operating between the same pressures. ~ n ) (6. Since the process 01 to 02s is isentropic. ho . and gz is the specific potential energy c2/2 (whichis not important and can be omitted). from Eq. is the specific kinetic energy.can be defined as C2 ho=h+2 (6. @is the shaft workrnnsfer rate out of the control volume. . The second law is then used to determine this reversible adiabatic work-transfer rate.33): C2 &=Ti-(6.33) For an ideal gas. For a compressor.To. and turbines is usually small enough to be neglected. A stagnqtion or total enthalpy... becomes VCTT = FlGURE 637 Suprchnrging and turboeharging configurations: (a) mechanical supercharging. with constant specific heats. C Comprasor. or fuel-air mixture. Both static (p.32) then gives the work-transfer rate as - *= ~ o . Equation (6.. M out ho.0 is the heat-transfer rate into the control volume. To.(b) turbochar&&. h is the specific enthjpy. blowers. . (e) turbochar&& turbocompounding. a stagnation or total temperature follows from Eq. the compressor isentropic eflciency qc is 'lc = reversible power requirement actual power requirement Figure 6-38 shows the end states of the gas passing through a compressor on an h-s diagram.32) for pumps. since cp is essentially constant for air. E Engine. which is that occurring in an isentropic process.) and stagnation (pol.34) *cP A stagnation or total pressure is also defined: it is the pressure attained if the gas is isentropically brought to rest: Q in Eq. (4 en&edriuen compressor and turbocharger. m is the mass flow. The total-to-total isentropic eficiency is. (6.To1 T. which. . (d) two-stage turboeharging. (6. compressors. (f)turbocharger with intercooler.37). 1 inter-cooler* Turbine. p. (6.

then Eq. exit state 4.42)$ the thermodynamic power requirement. Since the kinetic energy of the gas leaving the compressor is not usually recovered.39) becomes If the exhaust gas is modeled as an ideal gas with constant specific heats.the blower or compressor. Equation (6. is the blower or compressor mechanical efficiency. equivalent isentropic turbine exit state 4s. then p. The turbine isentropic 4ciency is defined as FIGURE 6-38 Enthalpy-entropy diagram for compressor. . may vary significantlywith temperature (see Figs. In internal combustion engine applicap tions the compressor feeds the engine via a large manifold. (6.. respectively. If q. State 03 is the inlet stagnation state. the total-to-total turbine eficiency is Equation (6. There will also be mechanical loss6 s FIGURE 6-39 Enthaipy-entropy diagram for a turbine.) can be recovered. 3 " The work-transfer rate or power required to drive the compressor b 9 3: obtained by combining Eq. Thus the power required to drive the device. States 4s and 04s define the static and stagnation efit states of the equivalent reversible adiabatic turbine.Wc.42). The blower or compressor should be designed for effective recovery of this kinetic energy before the exit duct. replaces po. equivalent isentropic wm. (6. (6. . . This is termed the total-to-static efficiency.40) it has been tacitly assumed that the kinetic energy pressure head (. lnld state 01. ' actual power output "= reversible power output n u s . Dressor exit state 2s. and much of this kinetic energy will be dissipated. 4 and 04 are the exit static and states.p. and Eq. is used to define compressor performance. The basis on which the efficiency b s$ Ecalculated should always be clearly stated. e. exit state 2. the ideal gas model. (6. .45) can be written In deriving Eq. d l be . Inlet state 03. in Eq.&ere q. (6..36). 4-10 and 4-17).40): @ A where the subscript i denotes inlet mixture properties. Figure 6-39 shows the gas states at inlet and exit to a turbine on an h-s diagram. a more realistic definition of efficiency is based on exit static c ~ n d i t i o n s : ~ ~ Note that for exhaust gas over the temperature range of interest.

).in ND RT. The displaced volume V is given by - where q.51) becomes. It is advantageous if the operating characteristics of blowers. (6. and is then discharged through the outlet port. and turbines can be expressed in a manner that allows easy comparison between different designs and sizes of devices.in ' PD ' The Reynolds number. With a turbocharger. and temperature diffqrence across the device ATo.. i.out (6.4). Also. number of vanes. compressors. has little effect on performance and y is fixed by $1 P ' t the gas. The disadvantage of this convention of removing D and R is that the groups of variables are no longer dimensionless. The trapped air is compressed as the compartment volume decreases. 6.. The actual flow rate and pressure rise at constant speed will be reduced by leakage. N(speed). Four different types of positive displacement compressors are illustrated in Fig. By dimensional analysis. PO. (6. SO it bas become the convention to plot . Hence. Similar plots are used for turbines: po3/p4 against lit&/po3 along lines of constant N/&.i n D Z TO. y (cJc. * in is referred to as the corrected mass flow.T04 To. the last type is an aerodynamic compressor. component isentropic efficiency q. ~(characteisf~ dimension). rh/(pD).in .po. This can be done by describing the performance characteristics in terms of dimensionless numbers?' The most important dependent variables are: mass flow rate m.T. and the . in RTo. l 3 e volumetric efficiency can vary between 0. where the reversible batic power output is that obtained between inlet stagnation conditions and the exit static pressure. (6.(To~/To~) . . is the mechanical efficiency of the turbocharger. these eight independent variables can be reduced to four dimensionless groups : PO.4611 where the subscript e denotes exhaust gas properties. The rotor is mounted eccentrically in the housing. at constant turbocharger speed. Therefore these variables can be omitted and Eq.83 Compressors practical mechanical supercharging devices can be classified into: (1) sliding vane compressors. Ambient air is drawn through the intake port into each compartment as its volume increases to a maximum. nt Contours of constant effciency are superposed.in PO. eccentricity. As the rotor rotates. 6-40a).T03 . the quality of the design. In the sliding vane compressor (Fig. Po.h .9 depending on the size of the machine.@4/pO3)" ''IY ho3 . and the rotor and stator. The mechanical losses are mainly bearing friction losses.36) and (6. 6. is more realistic:40 Vns = h03 For a particular device.and p(viscosity). then p4 replaces po4 in Eq. The mechanical effciency is usually combined with the turbine efficiency since these losses are difficult to separate out.h04 . method of lubrication and cooling employed. The flow capacity of the sliding vane compressor depends on the maximum induction volume which is determined by the housing cylinder bore. 6-40. N& / is referred to as the corrected speed..51) .e.out (or pout). The first two types are positive displacement compressors.) or along lines of ~ ~ n s t a corrected s p e d (N/&). I The power delivered by the turbine is given by [Eqs. and (3) centrifugal compressors. dimensions of the inlet and outlet ports. h&~po. rotor diameter and length. If the total-to-static turbine efficiency(qns) is used in the relation for wT. ND PO. Since these occupy a narrow region of the turbine performance map.48). Each of these are a function d the independent variables : po. deep slots are cut into the rotor to accommodate thin vanes which are free to move radially. and performance plots or maps relate to a specific machine. the centrifugal forces acting on the vanes force them outward against the housing. in . a total-to-static turbine isentropic effciency. Compressor characteristics are usually plotted in terms of the pressure ratio @02/p01) (PJPOI)against the corrected mass flow (lit&/po.Tk 1 . in .254 MTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE FUNDAMENTALS Since the kinetic energy at the exit of a turbocharger turbine is usually wasted. R(gas constant). the turbine is mechanically linked to the compressor.8. the dimensions are fixed and the value of R is fixed. (2) rotary compressors.6 and 0. other plots are often used (seeSec. heat transfer from the moving vanes and rotor and stator surfaces will reduce compression efficiency unless cooling is used to remove the thermal energy generated by friction between the vanes. thereby dividing the crescent-shaped space into several compartments.

The working principles are as follows.N~l(Zr ~0lpstd + *here qc is the device volumetric efficiency.. rotor length. Air trapped in the recesses between the rotor lobes and the housing is carried toward the delivery port without significant change in volume. In the three-lobe machines shown (two lobes are sometimes used) the volume of each recess VRis ~CURE 1 a Monnance map for sliding vane cornpres~or.N its speed. rotational speed. The mass flow rate at constant speed depends on the pressure ratio only through its (weak) effect on volumetric efficiency. This intermittent delivery produces nonuniform torque on the rotor and pressure pulses in the delivery line. and standard atmospheric conditions. E the eccentricity. The volumetric efficiency depends on the running clearances. Roots blowers are most suitable for small pressure ratios (about 1. since the suction side is closed. and pressure ratio. As these recesses open to the delivery line. and the subscripts i. w b ) . The isentropic is relatively low. inlet stagnation.. 0 and std refer to inlet.~' .2). Figure 6-41 shows the performance characteristics of a typical vane compressor.41 An alternative positive displacement supercharger is the roots blower (Fig. The two rotors are connected by gears.here r is the rotor radius. The mass flow rate parameter is = constant x piq. nspectively. and 1 the axial length of the cornp w o r . the trapped air is suddenly compressed by the backflow from the higher-pressure delivery line.

trifugal compressor (see below). well suited to the high mass flow rates at the relatively low pressure ratios (up to about 3. and a collector or volute to bring the compressed air leaving the diffuser to the engine intake system (see Fig. and large size. the flow rate depends on increasing pressure ratio only through the resulting decrease in volumetric efficiency (Eq.56):' The advantage of the roots blown is that its performance range is not limited by surge and choking as is the ten.42 Screw compressors (Fig. To operate eficiently it must rotate at high angular speed. Figure 6-44 indicates.2~ The centrifugal compressor consists of a stationary inlet casing. 6-40c and d) must be precision machined to achieve close tolerances between rotating and stationary elements for satisfactory operation. It is usually necessary to cool the rotors internally. The mass flow parameter is nJYTu~= constant x PO/PS. a rotating bladed impellor.258 INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE FUNDAMENTALS where R is the rotor radius and 1 the blower length. on an h-s diagram.5) required by the engine. At constant speed. 6-43). kgls FIGURE 6-42 Performance map at standard inlet conditions for roots L s Enthalpymtropy diagram for Bow through centrifugal compressor. Air at stagnation Air mass flow rate. pi qv NR'I A performance map of a typical small roots blower is shown in Fig. how each component contributes to the overall pressure rise across the compressor.000 rev/min. It is a singlestage radial flow device. . a stationary diffuser (with or without vanes). Impeller FIGURE 6-43 Schematic of centrifugal cornpre~sor. It is therefore much better suited to direct coupling with the exhaust-driven turbine of the turbocharger than to mechanical coupling through a gearbox to the engine for mechanical supercharging. High values of volumetric and isentropic efficiency are ~laimed. poor etliciency.~' A centrifugal compressor is primarily used to boost inlet air or mixtun density coupled with an exhaust-driven turbine in a turbocharger. They run at speeds between 3000 and 30. Its disadvantages are its high noise level. 6. ~t " similar in character to that of the sliding vane compressor. 6-42.

It can be related to change in gas angular momentum via the velocity components at the impella entry and exit.h. U. This shows lines of constant compressor effion a plot of pressure ciency qc. and C.. .36)]. causing a drop in pressure. are the absolute ga. and velocity C. CBz rlC8.corresponding to a stagnation state 02 if all t h exit kinetic energy were recovered. (6. When the mass flow is reduced at a constant pressure ratio. 6-44 [see Eq. respectively.. (6.) slowing down the gas in carefully shaped expanding passages. Normally in compressors the inlet flow is b a l so C. 2 to 3. 'O . and w. In practice. This relieves the adverse pressure gradient. Pzb= 90").(6. The final state..) in Fig. The diffuser.. velocities. the collector.e.Ideal (no slip) -With pmuhirl --. (6. Thus Eq. p2 is the backsweep angle. has static pressure p3. there is slip and 8.59) equals the change in stagna. Compression in the impeller flow passages increases t h pressure to p. T k torque T exerted on the gas by the impeller equals the rate of change of angular momentum : = C82 l-his is often called the Euler equation. Figure 6-46 indicates the form of such a map.. Many compressors B have radial vanes (i. and velocity to C2. /I. < 90") give higher efficiency.260 INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE FUNDAMENTALS state 0 is accelerated in the inlet to pressure p. and the process repeats.. In the ideal case with no slip. local flow reversal eventually occurs in the boundary layer.JPo. is less than p. are the gas velocities relative to the impeller all at inlet (I) and exit (2). in against corrected mass flow m z $ p o . converts as much as practical of* air kinetic energy at exit to the impeller (C22) to a pressure rise (p3 . which are shown in Fig. The operating characteristics of the centrifugal compressor are usually described by a performance mp.. low kinetic energy C:/2. A recent trend is backswept vanes ( . C. and a stagnatipressure po3 which is less than pol since the diffusion process is incomplete a well as irreversiblePO The work transfer to the gas occurs in the impeller.rlC~t) The rate of work transfer to the gas is given by -@c = T o = mit(o(r. ratio PO. *C m *here = U. [see Eq. The enthalm change 01 to 1 is C:/2.) - ---.u. The stable operating range in the center of the map is separated from an unstable region on the left by the surge line. ---. are the tangential blade velocities. Further reductions in mass flow cause the flow to reverse completely. Since work transfer to the gas occurs only in the impeller. The isentropic equivalent compression prhas an exit static state 2s. the work-transfer rate given by Eq.Without prewhirl FIGURE 6-46 FIGURE 6-45 Velocity diagrams at inlet (1) and exit (2) to centrifugal compressor rotor or impeller. and U.ion enthalpy (ho3 . = 0. and constant corrected speed N/&.53)].) =iit(UZCe2 UIC. and w. is the blade Bza. builds up again. Here C. 6-45. Compressors should not be operated in this unstable regime..58) can be written: ..40 ad%% Mass flow rate Po Schematic of compressor operating map showing stable operating range.p. The * - . The flow reestablishes itself.

The velocities increase as m increases. the map variables corrected speed and mass flow rate are U S U ~ ~ Y defined as44 pch = charging pressure p. Turbines can be designed to accept such an unsteady flow. With pulse turbocharging. Two types of turbines are used in turbochargers: radial and axial flow turbines. The turbine must be specifically designed for this pulsating flow to achieve adequate efficiencies. Extra mass flow through the compressor can only be obtained higher speed. however. 6-46) is important in turbochargers used for transportation applications. ! Pp. the flow is radially inward not outward.262 INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE FUNDAMENTALS 0 .40 For automotive engines. 6-48. = ambient pressure where T. A wide flow range for the compressor Fig. short smallcross-section pipes connect each exhaust port to the turbine so that much of the kinetic energy associated with the exhaust blowdown can be utilized. with reasonable turbine efficiencies. Though the details of different compressor maps vary. but they operate more efficiently under steady flow conditions. 4 Turbines The turbocharger turbine is driven by the energy available in the engine exhaust. are standard atmospheric temperature and pressure. compressor speed may rise subst tially with only a limited increase in the mass flow rate? Figure 6-47 shows an actual turbocharger compressor performance map. The combination of increased energy available at the turbine. In constant-pressure turbocharging. the losses inherent in the mixing of this high-velocity gas with a large volume of low-velocity gas cannot be recovered. The disadvantage of this approach is that it does not make full use of the high kinetic energy of the gases leaving the exhaust port. their general cbf' acteristics are similar. . the flow unsteadiness can be held to an acceptable level. and p r . The radial flow turbine is similar in appearance to the centrifugal compressor. In practice. an exhaust manifold of sufficiently large volume to damp out the mass flow and pressure pulses is used so that the flow to the turbineis essentially steady. FIGURE 6-48 5 (C+ I V Constant-volume cycle p-V diagram showing available exhaust energy. The high eficiency region runs parallel to the surge (and close to it for vaneless diffusers). It consists of the blowdown work transfer produced by expanding the gas in the cylinder at exhaust valve opening to atmospheric pressure (area abc) and (for the four-stroke cycle engine) the work done by the piston displacing the gases remaining in the cylinder after blowdown (area cdej). and eventually the flow becomes sonic in the limiting area of t machine. two for recovering a fraction of the available exhaust energy are commonly used: constant-pressure turbocharging and pulse turbocharging. By suitably grouping the different cylinder exhaust ports so that the exhaust pulses are sequential and have minimum overlap. When the diffuser is choked. constantpressure turbochargingis used. The ideal energy available is shown in Fig. b practice. Radial flow turbines are FIGURE -7 Centrifugal compressor operating map Lines of constant corrected speed and compressor efficency are plotted on a graph of pressure ratio against corrected &? mass I? : stable operating regime is limited on the right by choking. results in the pulse system being more commonly used for larger diesels. tively. The reciprocating internal combustion engine is inherently an unsteady pulsating flow device.

a single row of nozzles or stator blades. (b) Velocity diagrams at turbine rotor inlet (2) and exit (3). occurs solely in the rotor passages. and the turbine rotor or wheel. The velocity triangles at inlet and exit relate the work transfer to the change in angular momentum via the Euler equation: WT= To = m 4 r 2 Ce. or marine-use axial flow turbines. This turbine consists of an annular flow passage. Many different types of plots have been used to define radial flow turbine characteristics. . A drawing of a radial flow turbine is shown in Fig. For maximum work transfer the exit velocity should be axial. rected mass flow rate against corrected rotor speed. stationary.h03) (6. Figure 6-52 shows an alternative plot for a radial turbine: tor. 2-3: hence. and hence the work transfer.62) The turbine isentropic efficiencyis given by Eqs. of the radial turbine shown in the h-s diagram of Fig.44) to (6. On this map. The velodty triangle entry and exit to the rotor. relate the work transfer from n be gas to the rotor to the change in angular momentum: at " T = COT hw(r2 Ce2 r. shown i Fig. C. The changes in gas state across each component are similar to tho* FIGURE 6 0 5 (a) Enthalpycntropy diagram for radial turbine.hO3)= h(hol . It consists of an inlet casing or scroll. it asymptotically approaches a limit corresponding to the flow becoming choked in the stator nozzle blades or the rotor. Larger engines-locomotive. The work-transfer rate relates to the change in stagnation enthalpy via WT = Ijl(ho2 . (6. and a rotatins blade ring. efficiency is usually presented on a different diagram because the operating regime in Fig 6-51 is narrow.) = + FIGURE 6-49 Schematic of radial flow turbine. .U3 Cod (6. a set of inlet nozzles (often omitted &th small turbines).r3 Ce3)= Ijl(U2 Ce2. For turbines. the rotor is designed for minimum kinetic energy C$/2 at exit. The function of each component is evident from the h-s diagram and velocity triangles in Fig. The nozzles (01-2) accelerate the flow.Casing . 6-50. 6-49. 6-54. 6-51 Usually a single stage is sufficient to expand the exhaust gas efficiently through the pressure ratios associated with engine turbocharging. Figure 6-51 shows lines of constant corrected speed and efficiency on a plot of pressure ratio versus corrected mass flow rate. As flow rate increaKJ at a given speed.61) where T is the torque and o the rotor angular speed. with modest loss in stagnation pressure. A schematic of a turbocharger axial flow turbine is shown in Fig.. the operating regime appears broader. The drop in stagnation enthalpy.47). 6-50. normally used in automotive or truck applications.

I@ revlmin . the variation in centrifugal effects with spbed cause a noticeable spread in the constant speed lines (Fig. tan 8. = mU(C2 sin a.) = mU(C. This ratio is the blade speed U (at its mean height) for an axial flow t u r a .) (6. Pr = mU(CB. To. usually equals the mid-radius r. + C. 6-51)." u Blade speed ratio = where c s cs= [2(ho3 .. Hew the constant speed lines converge to a single choked flow limit as the mass flow increased.+ C. = turbine exit pressure (bar). An alternative performance plot for turbines is eficiency versus blade d ratio. N = speed (rev/min).. sin a. = turbine inlet temperature (K). p. . m = mass flow rate (kds). divided by the velocity equivalent o the isentropic enthalpy drop across the turbine stage... map: corrected mass flow rate is plotted against corrected rotor speed.. FIGURE 6-52 Alternative radial turbine perform an^. FIGURE 6 5 3 Schematic of single-stage axial flow turbine. Figure 6-55 shows axial turbine performance characteristics on the sta. In the radial turbine.81 I I I I I 1 I 1 *O I U ) I 1. i.) + C.h J J " 2 Since the mid-radius r.63) Equation (6. = turbine inlcl pressure (bar).4s lo 4 0 m 6 0 7 0 I I 8 0 g 0 or the wheel tip speed for a radial flow turbine.62) relates the work-transfer rate to the stagnation enthalpy change as in the radial turbine. .266 INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE FUNDAMENTALS 2.e. f FIGURE 6-51 Radial turbine performance map showing lines of constant corrected speed and efliciency on a plot of pressure ratio versus corrected mass flow rate.3 I i I Corrected rotor speed N. dard dimensionless plot of pressure ratio versus corrected mass flow rate. Cs. po. tan fi.

4 < UIC.< 0. Since the compressor and turbine a n on a common shaft with speed N: ' N 'hrbine choking (6.68) huming that the turbine exit pressure p4 equals atmospheric pressure pol.8.2 + (FJA)]= m./T. the equation is easily modified): Since the compressor and turbine powers are equal in magnitude: ( &4) ~p. can be . ~-~ 0 3 Equation (6-681. the compressor and turbine characteristics are linked. Figure 6-56 shows such plots for an axial and radial flow turbine.Pol ' = turbine inlet pressure (bar).dT02 G I ) = ~ r n ~ p . the Wilibrium or steady-state running lines for constant values of T.40) and (6. with Eqs. The peak efficiency can occur for 0. = m (ifmc[l 2. gives FIGURE 655 Axial flow t w b i i performance map: p m ratio is plotted against corrected mass Row nu To. ~ ~ For a given turbocharger.N o d e blades plot of turbine total-to-static efficiencyversus blade speed ratio U/C. turbine inlet temperature (K). p4 = turbine pressure (bar)..^' FIGURE 6-54 Velocity diagrams at entry (2) and exit (3) to axial flow turbine blade ring4' This method of displaying performance is useful for matching compressor and turbine wheel size for operation of the turbine at optimum eficiency.65) For mc = m. (6. th = mass flow rate (L& N = speed (rev/min). depending on turbine design and a p p l i ~ a t i o n .46). (a) axial flow and (b)radial for flow turbine^..*O (6..

. only a portion of the exhaust gases will flow through the turbine and generate power. e W lization of pressure occurs faster than mixing. The dash-dot-dash line is for p. where the rotational motion of the channels has ken unrolled. to the left of this line p.01 0 1 I 2 I 3 IilfiOI I I I 4 s I 6 Pol FIGURE 6-57 Steady-state turbocharger operating lines plotted as constant ToJTo. 2 atm) when the engine is operated at its rated power. The other casing (the gas casing) connects the high-pressure engine exhaust gas (4 to one set of ports at the other end of the rotor. O The problem of overspeeding the turbocharger and generating very high cylinder pressures often requires that some of the exhaust be bypassed around the turbine. the remainder passes directly into the exhaust system downstream of the turbine. the Comprex. Turbine cham teristics defined by Fig.. To. 6-59. c Belt drive."~ The wave-compression process in the Comprex can be explained in more detail with the aid of Fig. As the rotor makes one revolution.. = turbine inlet temperature (KA th = mass flow rate (kg/s).~' Engine. The belt drive merely overcomes friction and maintains the rotor at a speed proportional to engine speed (usually 4 or 5 times faster): it provides no compression work. pO3 > po2. When the wastegate is open. lina on compressor map. There is no contact between the rotor and the casing. 6-58. The pressure wave process does not depend on the pressure and flow fluctuations within the manifold caused by individual cylinder exhaust events: its operation can be explained Wuming constant pressure at each set of ports. PO. By appropriate arrangement of these passages and selection of the geometry and location of the ports.g. = compressor inlet temperature (K). The working ch* nels of the Comprex are arranged on a rotor or cell wheel (b) which is rOtatd between two castings by a belt driven from the crankshaft (c). 6-51. p. = po3. b a Cell wheel or rotor. but the gaps are kept small to minimize leakage. an enicient energy transfer between the engine exhaust gases and the fresh charge can be reali~ed. and connects a second set of ports to the exhaust system () Fluid can flow g. d High-pressure exhaust gas (G-HP). N = speed FIGURE 6-58 Schematic of Comprex ~upercharger. To. One casing (the air casing) contains the passage which brings low-pressure air 0 to one set of ports and high-pressure air (e) from another set of ports in the rotor-side inner casing. 6. e High-pressure air (A-HP). Figure 6-57 shows an example of such a set of turbocharger characteristics. The exhaust gas inlet port is made small enough to cause a significant pressure rise in the exhaust manifold b. 6-51.. = compressor inlet pressure (bar). a compression or shock wave (1) propagates from gas . into and out of the rotor channels through these ports. g Low-pressure exhaust gas (G-LP) determined. plotted on a turbocharger compressor map for a radial turbine with characteristics similar to Fig. = compressor exit pressure (bar).1. been developed for internal combustion engine supercharging which operate using this principle? It is shown schematically in Fig.85 Wave-Compression Devices Pressure wave superchargers make use of the fact that if two fluids having differ ent pressures are brought into direct contact in long narrow channels. It consists of a spring-loaded valve acting in response to the inlet manifold pressure on a controlling diaphragm. the ends of each channel are alternatively closed. TO the right of this line. Consider the channel starting at the top. One such device. > p. it is closed at both ends a d contains air at atmospheric pressure. or are open to a flow Passage.f Low-pressure air (A-LP).. As it opens at the upper edge of the Ylh-~ressure (G-HP) duct. The bypass valve or wastegate is usually built into the turbocharger casing.

EP. Thus [he device can be tuned for full-load medium-speed operation and still give acceptable performance at other loads and speeds because the pockets allow the paths to change without major losses.46 'Qpical net air volume flow rate.2-dm3 diesel engine: charge-air pressure ratio plotted versus net air volume flow rate (total air flow less scavenging air flow). S Scavengin& HP High pressure. restoring it to its initial The speed of these pressure waves is the local sound speed and is a function gas temperature only. The compressed air behind the wave occupies less space so the highpressure exhaust gas moves into the channel as indicated by the dotted line. allow flow from one to adjacent channels via the pocket if the wave action requires it. The values of isentropic efficiency [defined by Eq. When this wave reaches the left-hand end.by the scavenging air flow (A-S) and filled with fresh air at atmospheric P pftwure. This line is the boundary between the two fluids. An expansion wave (3) then propagates back to the left.39)] are comparable to those of mechanical and aerodynamic compressors. GP an pockets. the cell's contents expand into the exhaust.2. LP Low pressure. The inlet duct is shaped to provide the same mass flow at lower velocity: this deceleration of the air produces a second compression wave (2) which propagates back into the channel. 2 A-LP w G-LP FIGURE 6 5 9 Unrolled view of the Comprex pressure-wave process. 0.03 0. d / s . Note that the map depends on the engine to which the device is coupled because the exhaust gas expansion process and fresh air compression process occur within the same rotor. G Gas.02 0. When the right-hand end of the cell reaches this duct.47 A Air. This motion is transferred through the channel by an expansion wave (4) which propagates to the left at sonic speed. the right end of the channel toward the left. As this wave (1) reaches the left end. all the driving gas has left. When the dotted line-the interface between air and the exhaust gasreaches the right end of the cell.04 I _ FIGURE 6-60 Appannt compressor map of Comprcx connected to a 1. compressing the air through which it passes.6.8) and pressure losses at each end of the cell.01 O - I / 0. The cell is then . the cell is closed at both ends. As this wave (2) arrives at the right-hand side. marked ue ~p and EP on the air side and G P on the exhaust gas side. the high-pressure gas (G-HP) channel closes. The operating range is extended by the use of "pockets" as shown in Fig. A-HP is closed and all the gases in the channel are at rest. 6-59. The volume flaw rate is the net air: it is the total air flow into the device less the scavenging air flow. ~t wave (9). These pockets. the cell opens to the low-pressure air duct (A-LP) and fresh air is drawn into the cell. (6. Thus.7.s a substantial change in flow velocity in the channel. d local -. CP. the above process will only work properly for a given exhaust gas temperature at a particular cell speed.46 Figure 6-60 shows the apparent compressor performance map of a Comprex when connected to a small three-cylinder diesel engine. When this wave (3) reaches the left-hand end.05 0. separating the now motionless and partly expanded fluid on the right from still-moving fluid on the left. The cell's contents are still at a higher pressure than the low pressure in the exhaust gas duct. The flow to the right continues. but with decreasing speed due to wave action (5. 1 . As a result the compressed air leaving the cell on the left has a higher pressure than the driving gas on the right. the channel is opened and compressed air flows into the engine inlet duct (A-HP). Note that the first gas particles (dotted line) have not quite reached the air end of the channel: a cushion of air remains to prevent breakthrough. 1. The pockets the reflection of sound waves from a closed channel end which would .

Hydrogen is a possible future fuel for spark-ignition engines. c.4 MJ/kg What is the heating value per kilogram of fuel mixture? (c) Engine operation with isooctane and the mixed (H.. y. p (pJp. TI. Fig. Explain why these valve timings improve engine breathing relative to valve opening and closing at the beginnings and ends of the intake and exhaust strokes. for re = 8.. the inlet and exhaust valve opening and closing crank angles are typically: IVO 15" BTC. (a) The fuel composition with "mixed" fuel operation is H. Explain your method and assumptions clearly.4 138 kPa ? ? + C8H18 Estimate approximately the inlet manifold pressure and the pumping mean effective pressure with (H. Are there additional design issues that are important? Estimate approximately the pressure drop across the inlet valve about halfway through the intake stroke and across the exhaust valve halfway through the exhaust stroke./ = 0. A conventional spark-ignition engine operating with gasoline will not run smoothfy (due to incomplete combustion) with an equivalence ratio leaner than about = 0.assuming the values of T. Suggest an explanation for any significant difference. . load. 6. The gas properties c. What is the stoichiometric air/fuel ratio for the "mixed" fuel? (b) The lower heating value of Hz is 120 MJ/kg and for isooctane is 44. is defined as qm=-= bmep lmep. The stoichio.H. at the start of compression is the same for both cycles.. estimate the fraction of the original mass left in the cylinder: (a) at the end of the blowdown process and (b) at the end of the exhaust stroke. EVC 10' ATC. The by addition of H.0. r. The mass of gas in the cylinder is m.8. For four-stroke cycle engines. EVO 55" BBC. The inlet manifold is unthrottled.2. 6-19 with ideal cycle estimates of residual gas fraction as follows. Using the data in Fig.24 in Eq. The exhaust pressure is p. and the compression ratio r.3..H. The lower heating value of hydrogen is 120 MJ/kg and for gasoline (C.) = 2 find the ratio Wp(b)/Wp(a). c. and (pJp. 1-2-345-6-7-1. + C. C8H18--one mole of hydrogen to every mole of gasoline. the equivalence ratio is 1. IVC 50" ABC.H.274 INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE FUNDAMENTALS PROBLEMS 6.1)/ . 6-6. Assume T = 1400 K and (y . Sketch (a) shows an ideal cycle p-V diagram for a conventional throttled sparkignition engine.) 6.) fuel. the inlet valve is closed rapidly partway through the intake stroke at point 8. The pressure p . metric air/fuel ratio for hydrogen is 34. Sketch (b) shows an ideal cycle p V diagram 1-2-3-4-5-6-8-1 for a sparkignition engine with novel inlet valve timing. You are given the following information about the engine operation: + Fuel Equivalence ratio Gross indicated fuel conversion efficiency Mechanical rubbing friction mep Inlet manifold pressure Pumping mep C8HV3 Hz 0. 6.7.air. = 8. 6-21.3 and for gasoline is 14.) is 44 MJ/kg.3. Then estimate the ratio of the fuel energy per unit time entering a hydrogen-fueled engine operating with a stoichiometric mixture to the fuel energy per unit time entering an identical gasoline-fueled engine operating at the same speed with a stoichiometric mixture(Note that the "fuel energy" per unit mass of fuel is the fuel's heating value. which is proportional to the partial pressure of.(5. it h s essentially the same pressure as the exhaust.35 138 kPa 46 kPa 55 kPa 0. bmep bmep + rfmep + pmep &4. and for the gas composition and state. 6-19 at 1400 revlmin and 27" valve overlap.. The gas in the cylinder at inlet valve closing at 8 is then expanded isentropically to 1 with the inlet valve closed. (5. for cycles (a) and (b).5 0. Note that mechanical efficiency q. Be consistent about the signs of the work transfers to and from the gas.) fuel is Compared in a particular engine at a part-load condition (brake mean effective pressure of 275 kPa and 1400 revfmin).). A disadvantage of hydrogen fuel in the SI engine is that the partial pressure of hydrogen in the Hz-air mixture reduces the engine's volumetric efficiency. It is desirable to extend the smooth operating limit of the engine to leaner equivalence ratios so that at part-throttle operation (with intake pressure less than 1 atmosphere) the pumping work is reduced.8 0. + C.4.1. Compare the engine residual gas fraction data in Fig. y.47) plot the fuel-air cycle residual mass fraction x. Leaner than normal operation can k a ~ h i e ~ e d adding hydrogen gas (H.) to the mixture in the intake system.47). (c) For y = 1.. Find the partial pressure of air in the intake manifold downstream of the hydrogen fuel-injection location at wide-open throttle when the total intake manifold pressure is 1 atmosphere. Using Eq. against pip.. R throughout the cydc are constant. Which area is greater? (b) Derive expressions for the pumping work per cycle W in terms of m.5 on the same graph as the engine data in . and m are the same in both cases. Assume appropriate values for any valve and port geometric details required. To reduce the mass inducted at @ 65. (a) Indicate on p V diagrams the area that corresponds to the pumping work per cycle for cycles (a) and (b). makes the fuel-air mixture easier to bum. when the piston speed is at its maximum for a typical four-stroke cycle spark-ignition engine with B = L = 85 mm at 2500 and 5000 revfmin at WOT. which is assumed the same as is~octan~.

F. a n d 0. Ohata. R. T. 85. R. H.7.: "Scavenging the 2-Stroke Diesel Engine. 15. G." SAE paper 820407. 17.: "Ford's 1982 3." SAE paper 820112.. REFERENCES 1. A. 21... J.1977.20.. 180. 9. vol. SAE Trans. 19.: "Scavenging and Other Problems of Two-Stroke Cycle Spark-Ignition Engines. vol. T h e conditions used to evaluate the air density for the reference mass are 300 K a n d 1 atm. T. Caton.. SAERecommended Practice." ASME paper 74-DGP-11.: "Investigating the Gas Exchange Process of a Two-Stroke Cycle Engine with a Flow Visualization Rig. Hofbauer. Phatak.: "High-Output Medium-Speed Diesel Engine Air and Exhaust System Flow Losses.." SAE paper 710579. SAE Trans. 9." SAE paper 790484. Mass. 951-978. 10. Ohigashi. 00. 581-595.1968. Pergamon Press. S.. M. 6..: "Air Flow through Exhaust Valve of Conical Seat. T.. F. F. Mech.1982.8 atm and 325 K after the aftercooler) = 0.: "The Theory of Sudden Enlargements Applied to Poppet ExhaustValve. G. (Hint: consider what must happen to the inlet manifold pressure in order to maintain constant mass in the cylinder as the intake valve is closed sooner. Kannappan. .. 2. ." Proc. K.: "Time-Resolved Measurements of Hydrocarbon Mass Flow Rate in the Exhaust of a Spark-Ignition Engine. Haessner PubliW. no. and Stein. Winter Annual Meeting. 1963-1964. and Whitelaw. 5. B. Newfoundland. T.8L V6 Engine. A. B. no. SAE Trans. and Stebar. 91. R.INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE FUNDAMENTALS One concept that would increase SI engine efficiency is early intake valve closing (EIVC) where the intake valve closes before the piston reaches BC o n the intake stroke. (a) Calculate the power required to drive the turbocharger compressor. pt. vol. 17-22." SAE paper 710144.: Motor Vehicle Engines. and Kenny. and Achiwa. J. A. vol. pp. D. .1960.9. 36." Proc.: "Further Developments in Scavenging Analysis for Two-Cycle Engines. (based o n inlet manifold conditions of 1. vol." SAE paper 780944. Y. and Stirrat." SAE paper 760765.8 atmospheres a t its maximum rated power a t 2000 rev/ min. thus limiting the amount of charge inducted into the cylinder. 1. and Ishida. Matsuoka.: "Comparisons of Thermocouple. JSME.: "The Evaporation of Fuel and Its Effect on Volumetric Efticiency. pp. C. shing. Wallace. ASME. and Yura. A. SAE Trans. Williams. H. A. 13&136.: "Experimental Studies of the Mixing Processes and Flow Configurations in Two-Cycle Engine Scavenging. Heywood. 2 4 Tabaczynski." SAE paper 800038.6 g/s per cylinder. (b) the delivery ratio. SAE T r m vol. Kashiwada.. 4-22). ASME. 364-378. Mir Publishers." SAE paper 720112. T h e compressor isentropic efficiency is 0.: "A Study of Gas Exchange Process Simulation of an Automotive Multi-Cylinder Internal Combustion Engine. vol. W.... and Roe.1971.: "Numerical Modeling of Inlet and Exhaust n o m in Multi-Cylinder Internal Combustion Engines. Benson. o r in the exhaust blowdown pulse prior t o any mixing with fresh air. 1979. 80.: "Measuring the Trapping Eficiency of Internal Combustion Engines through Continuous Exhaust Gas Analysis. 287-295. 91. Time-Averaged and Mass-Averaged Exhaust Gas Temperatures for a Spark-Ignited Engine. An eight-cylinder turbocharged aftercooled four-stroke cycle diesel engine operata with a n inlet pressure of 1. L. B. J.: Internal Combustion Engines. A. . 7. Technol.. Heat Mass Transfer. D.1980. L.4 percent (see Fig. Instn Mech. and Kobashi.: "An Experimental Study of Flow through poppet valvW" h. vol. and Khan. vol." Int." Int.. pp.. and Heywood. J. and Tsuruta. J. G. S.10. Benson. Evaluate (a) the charging efficiency. Part 2: A Diesel for Subcompact Car. 3241. 91. A. E w s . [ u r n Mech.: Gas Flow in the Internal Combustion Engine. vol." in Flows in Internal Combustion En9iws Winter Annual Meeting. " Instn Mech. 24. pt. and Sator. Jante. 1982.. M. 1971.. N.1976. 6.. R. W. NJ. 172. 34 Huber. B. pp. vol. pt. vol. P. SAE Trans.. J. 3. 28. W. vol.: "Poppet Inlet Valve Characteristics and Their influence on the Induction P ~ ~ C ~ S S . 33.. Khovakh. I and Watanabe.: The Internal-Combustion Engine in Theory and Practice. 1974.. J. 3N. 1.: "Cumulative Sampling Technique for Investigating the Scavenging Process in Two-Stroke Engine.. 1979. (b) If the exhaust gas temperature is 650•‹Ca n d the turbocharger isentropic efficiency is 0.. . Bicen. 1982. SAE Trans. Dedeoglu. 32.: UA New Method of Analyzing Two-Stroke Cycle Engine Gas Flow Patterns. M. 3. Takiuawa. F. J. no. vol. a n d CO. Engrs. J. 1978. The charging efficiency of two-stroke cycle diesel engines can be estimated from measurement of the concentration of 0.2d ed.. 29. Based on a comparison of p-V diagrams. N. pt.. Instn Mech. A.1971. Sher. 1984. 8. 1971. ~nnand. E. E. 3D.. 88.." Bull. J. 77. 80. in the burned gases within the cylinder. 178. K... and Mills. New York. FED-"01. S. E. D. SAE Trans. Tanaka.1967-1968. J. vol. . Proc.1953.1931. 3. G... J. Appl. N. SAE Trans. is this method inferior to EIVC? 6. pp. Instn Mech. Engrs. 1976. B = 128 mm. SAE Trans. in the in-cylinder burned gases are 7. J. pp.) (b) This part load reduction in charge could be achieved by using late intake valve closing where the intake valve is not closed until the compression stroke has pushed some of the cylinder gases back out into the intake manifold." SAE paper 820050.: "Advanced Automotive Power Systems. J604d. 4. Engrs. H. T. W. Chapman. 88." SAE paper 770113. J..1982.2 and 10. lB. 27. vol.. 25. 86.: "Scavenging Model Solves Problems in Gas Burning Engine. stroke = 150 mm." Proc. Moscow.1965-1966. Cole. 81. Novak. 1982. J. 1974. and White. 1985.: "Manifold Fuel Film Effects in an SI Engine.. 1. I." in Flows in Internal Combustion Engines-41. and (c) the trapping efficiency (assuming the trapped mass equals the reference mass). M. and Keck.. "Engine Terminology and Nomenclaturdeneral.1982.. 134-144. 182. vol.: "Dynamic Inlet Pressure and Volumetric Eficiency of Four Cycle Four Cylinder Engine. 23. Tavlor. S. 20. Tasaka. 31. Rizk. T h e scavenging air flow rate is 8 0 g/s. pp.1958. pp." in SAE Handbook. 4. (a) Explain why EIVC improves engine efficiency a t part load. Congr. estimate the pressure at turbine inlet." Israel J. 1972..: "An Analysis of the Volumetric Efficiency Characteristics of +Stroke Cycle Engines Using the Mean Inlet Mach Number Mim. 26. Oue. SAE Trans. Caton. Kay. * - 14. J.. Annstrong.: "Eva!uation of Burned Gas Ratio (BGR) as a Predominant Factor to NO. vol. E. W. R.65. with Special Reference to Exhaust-Pulse Scavenging. The molar concentrations (dry) of CO. 2. 2. Cambridge.. q. C.: "Effects of Charge Diluation on Nitric Oxide Emission from a Single-CylinderEngine. Blair.: "An Experimental and Analytical Study of Heat Transfer in an Engine Exhaust Port. R.. B." SAE paper 790487. M1T Press. 417437." SAE paper 710008. revised. The engine bore = 125 mm. and Whitehouse. Nohira. 80. 89. SAE Trans. 16. D." JAR1 technical memorandum no. English Translation. Uno. P. Y.1979. pp. Toda. vol." SAE paper 680468. vol. R. Fukutani. Engrs. woods. vol.9. B.1981. 18. vol. The fuel flow rate a t 1800 revlmin is 1. compression ratio = 15. Kstner. K. L = 140 mm. The turbine exhausts to the atmosphere. vol." SAE paper 820410. 127-136.: "Steady and Unsteady Air Flow through an Intake Valve of a ~eciprocating Engine. .. 30. G. SAE Trans. 22.

Brandstetter. John Wdey. Mixture requirements and preparation are usually discussed in terms of the airlfuel ratio 0' fuellair ratio (see Sec. 194.1980. vol.1966. P." SAE paper 840243. vol. 875-g~ 9 dn.: "Some Scavenging Models for Two-Stroke Engines.. F. and Janota.1984. 89. - CHAPTER M. Wiley-Intersdena publications. 45. Watson. and Rochelle.1983." J. "Turbocharger Nomenclature and Terminolo%y.: "Turbocharging Four-Cycle Diesel Engines. and satisfy the emissions requirements. R. 203-210. Benson.. Armand. Flynn. In practice." proc." Proc.1983.: "Comprex Supercharging for Passenger Diesel Car Engines. T A. W.1 SPARK-IGNITION ENGINE MIXTURE REQUIREMENTS The task of the engine induction and fuel systems is to prepare from ambient air and fuel in the tank an air-fuel mixture that satisfies the requirements of the engine over its entire operating regime. F. 2..: "How D&S the Comprex PressunWave Supercharger Work?" SAE paper 830234. -. 800884. G. 448. the relative proportions of fuel and air can be stated more generally in terms of the fuellair equivalence ratio 4. 4 . tives. Engng Sci. 3 . Volkswagen and Audi. Gyannathy. SI ENGINE FUEL METERING AND MANIFOLD ' 7. Mech.: "Compressible Flow through Square-Edged Oiie: An Empirical Approx." in SAE Hadbook. the constraints of emissions control may dictate a different airlfuel ratio. In principle. Bhinder. consistent with smooth and reliable operation.- 1960. 42 Bhinder.: "Experiments on a Piston Controlled Port. S. 91.S.pp.SAE Trans. SAE Recommended Practice. C~MAC. (4. S. 46. F.1979." SAE paper 790314.: Turbocharging the Internal Combustion Engine. 3 . and may also require the recycling of a fraction of the exhaust gases (EGR) into the intake system.SAE Trans.1982 44. paper B. 8 p. the optimum airlfuel ratio for a spark-ignition engine is that which gives the required power output with the lowest fuel consumption. 22.1980. at the required power level..J922.: "Some Fundamental Considerations Concerning the Pressure Charging of S m a Diesel Engines. smooth reliable operation. Gyssler." SAE paper 7 . "Problems Associated with Turbocharging Large Two-Stroke Diesel Engines. imation for Computer Calculations. The relative proportions of fuel and air that provide the lowest fuel consumption." SAE paper 820441. D.1965.no.. vol..pp.9) and percent EGR [see Eq. G : 7 .: "The 4.and 5-Cylinder Turbocharged Diesel Engines for . J. 8 rfcs . 41. Baudequin. 210. vol. Automobile Division. 1982. While the fuel metering system is designed to provide the appropriate fuel flow for the actual air flow at each speed and load.-. W and Dziggel.N.3 .2)]. which is the actual fuel/air ratio normalized by dividing by the stoichiometric fuellair ratio [Eq.: "Supercharging Compressors-Problems and Potentid of the Various Altema. depend on engine speed and load. P.SAE Trans. .16. Kollbmnner. vol 88. New York." The Engineer. F. . vol.. . 3 . lwn 6 Mech. 43." SAE papa 830145. R. . S. Engrs.

The amount of diluent that the engine will tolerate at any given speed and load depends on the details of the engine's combustion process.6.4. as load increases the mixture is leaned out from a fuel-rich or close-to-stoichiometric composition at very light load. 11. 5. less dilution of thefresh mixture can be tolerated because the internal dilution of the mixture with residual gas increases (S Sec. emission% and performance are discussed more fully in Chaps. the mixture is steadily enriched to rich-of-stoi~hiomet~ic the at maximum bmep point. mixture requirements for two common operating strategies: Top diagram shows equinlenc. the percentage of recycled exhaust increases from zero at light load to a maximum at mid-load. thereby increasing the inducted air density.5. Deterioration in combustion stability therefore limits the amount of dilution an can tolerate. which govern engine performance. CO. the fresh mixture will not usually tolerate any EGR and may need to be stoichiometric or fuel-rich to obtain adequate combustion stability. when operated with a close-to-stoichiomtrk mixture..6. flow . in the range 14. 5-10. emission requirements. so pumping work decreases-see Fig.SI ENGME FUEL METERING AND MANIFOLD PHENOMENA 281 (3. At part-load (or part-throttle) operating conditions. For example. for gasoline. The combustion characteristics of fuel-air mixtures and the properties of combustion products. 7-1. lean operation at light load can be used for best efficiency.2. and then decreases to zero as wide-open throttle conditions are approached so maximum bmep can be obtained. Most gasolines have (AIF). With the stoichiometric operating conditions required for three-way-catalyst-equipped engines. Increasing excess ah the amount of recycled exhaust slows down the combustion process and *eases its variability from cycle to cycle. Combinations of these strategies are possible.7. Mixture composition requirements over the engine load and speed range illustrated schematically for the two approaches outlined above in Fig. (AIF).12 High speed -14 / - 4 F 16 . At wide-open throttle. and at part throttle engines have traditionally operated lean. and Mid 1 . the equivalence ratio will be used as the defining parameter. Mixtures that are richer still are sometimes used to increase volumetric efficiency by increasing the amount of charge cooling that accompanies fuel vaporization [see Eq. efficient utilization of the fuel is the critical issue. A certain minimum combustion npeatability or stability level is required to maintain smooth engine operation. nt10 Vanation with intake mass flow rate (percent of maximum flow at rated speed) at constant low.2. 11. At idle conditions.4). and CO emissions is required. correlate best for a wide range of fuels relative to the st~ichiometfi~ mixture proportions. and 15.8)].3 and 5. and HC emissions simultaneously. When tight control of NO. achier6 sub stantial reductions in NO. If sloichiometri~ operation and EGR are not required for emissions control.18 V 100% Intake mass Row rate CURE 7-1 t Typical value only. A typical value for the stoichiometric air/fuel ratio of gasoline is 14. 5. Mixture requirements are different for full-load (wideopen throttle) and for part-load operation. and emissions. (2) for a given mean effective pressure.5. Bottom diagram shows recycled exhaust (EGR) schedule as a function of ntdi~ rate. As load decreases. In the absence of strict engine NO.1 and 15.t Thus. and high engine speeds. 6.7. it is advantageous to dilute the fuel-air mixture. Where appropriate. efficiency. when EGR is used. At the former operating condition. 4 x 1.5)]. the intake pressure increases with increasing dilution. 9. A brief summary is sufficient here. This dilution improves the fuel conversion efficiency for three reasons:' (1) the expansion stroke work for a given expansion ratio is increased as a result of the change in thermodynamic properties of the burned gases-see Sees. The appropriate diluent is then recycled exhaust gases which significantly reduces NO. HC. either with excess air or with recycled exhaust gas. emissions from the engine itself. excess air is the obvious diluent.3). for low. therefore. complete utilization of the inducted air to obtain maximum power for a given displaced volume is the critical issue.4 to 14. operation of the engine with a stoichiometric mixture is advantageous so that a three-way catalyst$ can be used to clean up the exhaust. maximum power for a given volumetric efficiency is obtained with rich-of-stoichiometric mixtures. (3) the heat losses to the walls are reduced because the burned gas temperatures are lower. As wide-open throttle operation is approached at each engine speed. (6.1 (see the discussion of the fuel-air cycle results in Sec. Where less than the maximum power at a given speed is required. could lie betw14.see Sec. and high speeds for stoichiometricoperation. t A three-way catalyst system. The effects of equivalence ratio variations on engine combustion.. mid.

where APJPO 0. the fuel and air dL. C relates the mass flow rate of a gas through a Row restriction to the upstream stagnation pressure and temperature. Figure 7-2 shows the essential components of an elementary carburetor. and the pressure at the throat. The average mixture must be chosen to avoid excessive combustion variability in the leanest operating cylinder. emissions.as h. A spread of one or more airffuel ratior between the leanest and richest cylinders over the engine's load and speed ran& is not uncommon in engines with conventional carburetors.282 INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE FUNDAMENTALS stoichiometric mixtures (with a three-way catalyst) and/or EGR can be used at mid loads to control NO. the effects of compressibility which reduce 8 below 1. S 1 'I2 FLOW THROUGH THE FUEL ORIFICE. 1 Iniet section 2 Venturi throat 3 Float chamber 4 Pressure equalizing passage 5 Calibrated orifice 6 Fuel discharge tube 7 Throttle plate rcv/min). If we assume the velocity at the carburetor inlet can be neglected. Fuel evaporation starts within the carburetor and continues in the manifold as fuel droplets move with the air flow and as liquid fuel floks over the throttle and along the manifold walls. The fuel level is maintained at a constant height in the flea chamber (3) which is connected 'via an air duct (4) to the carburetor i section (I). . FLOW THROUGH THE VENTURI. they share the same basic concepts which we will now examine. Generally. The fuel enters the air stream through the fuel discharge tube or ports in the carburetor body and is atomized and convected by the air stream past the throttle plate and into the intake manifold. Ap.~is usually assumed that the flow processes in the carburetor can be modeled as quasi steady. 7. where + @= [(A) - @dpJ2" .2. The air then flows into the carburetor venturi (a converging-diverging nozzle) (2) where the air velocity increases and the pn* sure decreases.J112@ . the appropriate fuel flow into the air stream over the complete engine operating range is a highly developed and complex device.(~T/PO)''"" . 1/(2N) (20 ms at FIGURE 7-2 Schematic of elementary carburetor. For the carburetor venturi: where C. In a carburet0 the air flows through a converging-diverging nozzle called a venturi. Equation (C. the characteristic times of changes in throttle setting are longer. lions to the venturi throat for the air stream. The fuel-air mixture flows through the diverging set of the venturi where the flow decelerates and some pressure recovery occurs.1 Carburetor Fundamentals A carburetor has been the most common device used to control the fuel flow int the intake manifold and distribute the fuel across the air stream.0 are small. ual cylinder on a cycle-by-cycle basis).. The fuel flows through the main jet (a calibrated orifice) (5) as a of the pressure difference between the float chamber and the venturi throa through the fuel discharge nozzle (6) into the venturi throat where the air st atomizes the liquid fuel. the mean equivalence ratio must be moved toward stoichiometric and away from the equivalence ratio which gives minimum fuel consumption. = C Ad2p. $.pT. it takes several engine operating cycles to reestablish steady-state engine operation after a It sudden change in throttle p~sition. Thus.2 CARBURETORS 7.. tribution between engine cylinders is not uniform (and also varies in each individ. For the normal carburetor operating range. is the characteristic time of this periodic cylinder filling process. A modem carburetor which meters. In practical spark-ignition engine induction systems. Figure C-3 shows the value of @ as a function of pressure drop. due-to the periodic filling of each of the engine cylinden which dr air through the carburetor venturi.2) can be rearranged in terms of the pressure drop from upstream condi. flow then passes the throttle valve (7) and enters the intake manifold. The induction time. Apa = p . Then are many types of carburetors. Since the fuel is a liquid and therefore antially incompressible. respectively. and AT are the discharge coellicient and area of the venturi throat.(PT/Po) and accounts for the effects of compressibility. Note that the flow may be unsteady even when engine load and speed constant. the fuel flow rate through the main fuel jet is given by .8) in App.1. as the spread in mixture nonunifomity increases. The pressun difference set up between the carburetor inlet and the throat of thenozzle (which depends on the air flow rate) is used to meter the appropriate fuel flow for that air flow. The air enters the intake section of the carburetor (1) from the air cleaner which removes suspended dust particles. (7.

lence ratio 9 with venturi pressure drop.and equiva. Suppose the venturi and orifice are r i d lo air flow increases. At low loads the mixture becomes leaner.. (6) orifice inlet and exit chamfers. The deficiencies of the elementary carburetor can be summarized as follows: I. fuel. the equivas lence ratio remains essentially constant./p. m (AIF). is the stoichiometric airlfuel ratio. the mixture equivalence ratio should increase to 1.. kN/rn2 FIGURE 7-3 Performance of elementary carburetor: variation of CD. The carburetor delivers a mixture of increasing fuellair equivalence ratio as the flow rate increases. is given by give a stoichiometric mixture at an air flow rate corresponding to I kN/m2 venturi pressure drop (middle graph in Fig.5) represents the effect of all deviations from the ideal one-dimensional isentropic flow.284 INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE FUNDAMENTALS ' Eq. is the pressure difference across the orifice. to prevent fuel spillage when the engine is inclined to the horizontal (e.. the mixture equivalence ratio increases slightly as the and the equivalence ratio 4 = -5- 4 [ =(A/F)J(A/F)] (AIF). ma. . except for very low flows.. 3.. The air/fuel ratio delivered by this carburetor " 18 I I I I 0 1 2 3 4 5 I Ap. < p. Usually. the mixture delivered leans out rapidly. At higher air flow rates. Hence. are all constant for a given carburetor. 5. at very high flow rates it will eventually deliver an essentially constant equivalence ratio. It is influenced by many factors of which the most important are the following: (1) fluid mass flow rate.2. = pVD. C. 7-3). (2) orifice lengthldiameter ratio. the engine requires the mixture to be enriched at low loads. Also. AT. the equivalence ratio of the mixtun delivered by an elementary carburetor is not constant. 7-1 are: . The use of the orifice Reynolds number. A the air flow approaches the maximum wide-open throttle value. The discharge coefficient of a typical carburetor main fuel-metering system orifice increases smoothly with increasing Re. and length scale to a good first approximation. (8) fluid viscosity. by (J2J(:y2(l - syi2 * where (AIF). the elementary carburetor cannot provide the variation in mixture ratio which the engine requires over the complete load range at any given speed (see Fig. Nor can it enrich the mixture during engine starting and warm-up. However.(~P. Once fuel starts to flow* a consequence of these variations the fuel flow rate increases more rapidly than the air flow rate. as a correlating parameter for the discharge coeficient accounts for effects of mass flow rate. 7-1).AP.. (3) orifice/approach-area ratio. where his typically of order 10 mm. and the orifice area h assumed much less than the passage area. 7. tively.2 Modern Carburetor Design the equiva- The changes required in the elementary carburetor so that it provides Ihce ratio versus air flow distribution shown in Fig. C as = CDo A. and @ . Thus. Figure 7-3 illustrates the performance of the elementary carburetor. (7) fluid specific gravity. The terms A. the fuel level in the float chamber is held below the fuel discharge nozzle.. and P. CD. Thus.g. and (9) fluid surface tension. (C. @. The elementary carburetor cannot compensate for transient phenomena in the intake manifold. 4.3 CARBURETOR PERFORMANCE. and ambient conditions. At intermediate loads. in a vehicle on a slope)..5) where CDoand A. . the carburetor will deliver a fuel-rich mixture. (5) orifice surface roughness. The discharge coeficient CDein Eq. At lower air flow rates.1 or greater to provide maximum engine power.2) in App.)"~ (7. however. p. fluid density and viscosity.. CD. vary with flow rates. Ap. 2. and CDo typically vary with the venturi pressun drop? Note that for Ap. The elementary carburetor cannot adjust changes ambient air density (due primarily to changes in altitude). The discharge coeficients CDo and C. p.. The engine requires an almost constant equivalence ratio. (7. The top set of curves shows how @. 7-2. are the discharge coefficient and area of the orifice. (4) orifice surface area. as shown in Fig.gh 4 Ap.. respa. Re.gh there is no fuel flow.

There are many different designs of complete carburetors. is obtained at the boost .SI ENGINE FUEL METERING AND MANIFOLD PHENOMENA 286 INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE FUNDAMENTALS 287 1. within the constraints of a low prenun loss across the complete venturi and diffuser. power as wide-open throttle is approached. therefore. the throttle plate(s) on the sec~"ary banel(s) (usually of larger cross-sectional area) start to open when the air flow exceeds about 50 percent of the maximum engine air flow. the use of multiple . with throttle plates compounded on two shafts. and adequate vacuum. without increasing the height of the carburetor. As the pressure at the venturi k m t decreases. This flow reduces the pressure difference across the main fuel-metering 4fice which no longer experiences the full venturi vacuum.5A triple-venturi system can be used to give further increases in metering The overall discharge coefficient of a multiple-venturi carburetor is lower than a single-venturi carburetor of equal cross-sectional area. and minimum carburetor height as engine size and maximum air flow increases. air is bled through an orifice (or wries of orifices) into the main well. SIULTIPLE-BARRELCARBURETORS. and since this air and fuel mixture is discharged centrally into the surrounding venturi. A boost venturi is positioned upstream d the throat of the larger main venturi. and to reduce the pressure loss across the total venturi system. The w i n metering system must be compensated to provide essentially constat lean or stoichiometric mixtures over the 20 to 80 perant air flow range. 6. Four-barrel carburetors consist of a pair of two-barrel carburetors in parallel. The throat area of [he main venturi in a multiple-venturi system is usually increased. The mixing of bleed . Since the pressure at the boost venturi exit equals the pnnun the main venturi throat. Only a fraction of the air flows thmuP the boost venturi. .. Air flows through the primary banel(s) at low intermediate engine loads. Figure 7-6 shows a main fuel- FIGURE 7-4 Schematic of carburetor double-venturi sysfm metering system with air-bleed compensation. the venturi length increases and the metering signal generated at low flows decreases. throat which can be used to obtain more precise metering of the fuel (p. As venturi size in a single-barrel carburetor is increased to provide a higher engine air flow at maximum power. = p. Some decrease in air stream velocity is tolerated to maintain a high discharge coefficient (and hence a high volumetric efi~iency).. A &ke must be added to enrich the mixture during engine starting a d warm-up to ensure a combustible mixture within each cylinder at the t h e d ignition. 3 An enrichment system must be added so the engine can provide its maximu.ntu. Figure 7-5 shows a schematic of a conventional modern carburetor and the names of the various components and fuel passages. The fuel is better atomized in the smaller boost . In a single venturi. At higher loads. An accelerator pump which injects additional fuel when the throttle is o p n d rapidly is required to maintain constant the equivalence ratio delivered to t k engine cylinder. COMPENSATIONOF MAIN METERING SYSTEM. The vacuum developed at the venturi throat of a typical double-venturi is about twice the theoretical vacuum of a single venturi of the same flow area. 4. gh. .~ . The operating principles of the methods most commonly used to achieve the above listed modibtions will now be reviewed. An idle system must be added to meter the fuel flow at idle and light loads. a more homogeneous mixture rnu1ts. a higher vacuum Ap.cntun with its higher air velocity. high volumetric efficiency at wide-open throttle. Two-barrel carburetors usually consist of two single-barrel carburetors mounted in parallel. [he manometer fluid density). In addition. the pressure loss increases. with its discharge at the location d maximum velocity in the main venturi. BOOST VENTURIS The carburetor venturi should give as large a vacuum at the throat as possible at maximum air flow. Maximum wide-open throttle air flow is some 30 to 70 times the idle air flow (the value depending on engine displacement). Altitude compensation is required to adjust the fuel flow to changes in & density. U e of carburetors with venturi systems in s parallel is a common way of maintaining an adequate part-load metering signal. 2. above the single-venturi size to compensate for this. 5. Two common methods used to achieve t are the following.nturis makes it possible to obtain a high velocity air stream (up to 200 m/s) *here the fuel is introduced at the boost venturi throat. A hi@ vacuum signal at the venturi throat and higher velocities for improved atom ization can be obtained without increasing the overall pressure loss through tb8 use of multiple venturis. it is necessary to increase the magnitude of the pressure dr available for controlling the fuel flow.as the d i a m ~ of the throat is decreased at a given air flow to increase the flow velocity and hence the metering signal at the throat. Best results are obtained with the boost venturi slightly upstream (z5 mm) of the main venturi throat. Figure 7-4 shows the geometry and the pressure distribv tion in a typical double-venturi system. Because only a fratlion of the total air flow goes through the boost venturi.

as the air-bleed flow rate increases.. Since typical values are pf = 730 kg/m3 and pa = 1. % air with the fuel forms an emulsion which atomizes more uniformly to smaller drop sizes on injection at the venturi throat.14 kg/m3. and fuel properties. They are simple. and the system operates just like an elementary carburetor.10)]. & p pa. an additional compensation system consisting of a Wered rod or needle in the main metering orifice is used. With the engine running. as the throttle plate is opened. < p.ghl < Ap.. fuel enters air at ( 1 . have considerable design flexibility. The schematic in Fig.p. usually p. The effective open area of the main metering orifice. The pressure loss at the main discharge nozzle with two-phase flow can be several times the pressure loss with single-phase flow. > p.p. It is determined empirically. For p.) c p. Main metering systems with controlled air bleed provide reliable and stable control of mixture composition at part throttle engine operation.gh.Fuel I and does not significantly affect the composition of the mixture. which results in a significant presswe drop across the main nozzle. or of a series of holes in the main well or emulsion tube as shown in Fig. appropriate choice of ) An bleed orifice area A. the air flow and the vacuum in the venturi throat increase. 7-5. 7-6: ma... ( 2 .A. in the limit of large A.gh.and () (CourtesyS. As the bleed orifice area is increased. 7-6 illustrates the operating principle.E. fuel flow rate. Weber.. there is no fuel flow from the main metering system. relative velocity between fuel and bleed air.) the fuel flow rate is reduced below its equivalent elementary carburetor value (the A.) ) 1) 3. and has been found to correlate with p.(=po . The amount of air FIGURE 7-6 Schematic of main metering system with air-bkrd compensation. Figure 7-7 illustrates the behavior of the system shown in Fig. fuel enters at (1I. During transition. Additional control flexibility is obtained in practice through use of a second orifice. [as defined by Eq. When the engine is not running. 8 Throttle plate 1 Main venturi 9 Idle air-bleed orifice 2 Boost venturi 10 Idle fuel orifice 3 Main metering spray tube or n o d e 11 Idle mixture orifice 4 Air-bleed orifice 12 Transition orifice 5 Emulsion tube or well 13 Idle mixture adjusting screw 6 Main fuel-metering orifice 14 Idle throttle setting adjusting screw 7 Float chamber 1) Fuel enters the air stream from the main metering system through (3). In Some carburetor designs. A wide range of two-phase flow patterns can be generated by bleeding an air flow into a liquid flow. + a . and atomize the fuel effectively. Fundamental studies of the generation and flow of . This pressure drop depends on nozzle length and diameter.. in the main well and nozzle is usually approximatedby FIGURE 7-5 Schematic of modern carburetor.8) . and neglecting the pressure losses in the main nozzle. and the fuellair equivalence ratio 4 are plotted against Ap. and hence the fuel flow rate.2. For Ap.here CDband A. However. will provide the desired equivalence ratio versus pressure drop or air flow characteristic. At idle. The amount of air ente. = 0 line).P ~ ) P J " ~ (7. are the discharge coefficient and the area of the air-bleed The fuel mass flow rate through the fuel orifice is given by where The density of the emulsion p. the fuel flow rate remains constant (A. > pf gh. the fuel is at the same level in the float bowl and in the main well. air enters the main well together with fuel. can thus be directly related to throttle position (and manifold vacuum).ghl. For Ap. m.AbC2@o .ng the well is controlled by the size of the main air-bleed orifice. Thus.. Once the bleed system is operating (Ap. (7. The airmass flow rate is given by mab = CD. the height of the column of becomes less significant. the decrease in emulsion density due 10 increasing air bleed increases the flow velocity. bleed air flow rate. only fuel flows through the main well and nozzle.

Figure 7-5 shows the essential features of an idle system. The fuel which impacts on the walls evaporates more slowly than fuel carried by the air stream and introduces a lag between the airlfuel ratio produced at the carburetor and the airlfuel ratio delivered to the cylinder. The valve.Slem~ coupled. The total combined fuel flow ~rovides rich (or close-to-stoichiometric) mixture at idle. past a check valve. Becaux the tro ACCELERATOR PUMP. a progressive a of the mixture as air flow increases. through the accelerator pump discharge nozzle(s). the manifold vacuum is high with the pressure drop occurring across the almost-closed throttle plate.3). The idle system is required because at low air flows through the carburetor insufficient vacuum is created at the venturi throat to draw fuel into the air stream. past an idle mixture adjusting screw (13). FIGURE 7-7 Metering characteristics of system with air-bled compensation: mass flow rate of air m. As the throttle ~1. Typically. the fuel-air mixture flowing into the engine cylinder leans out temporarily. This system delivers additional fuel to enrich . A pump diaphragm and stem is actuated by a rod attached to the throttle plate lever.6. the rod-driven diaphragm will increase the fuel pressure which shuts the valve and discharges fuel past a discharge check valve or weight in the discharge passage. Emulsifying air is admitted into the id* system [at (9) and (12)l to reduce the pressure drop across the idle port and permit larger-sized ports (which are easier to manufacture) to be used. 7.' For a given pipe and bleed hole size. [he following factors introduce additional special requirements for the complete carburetor: 1. When the throttle is opened to increase air flow. bypassing the metering orifice. When a cold engine is started. and equivalence ratio 4 as functions of venturi pressure drop for diferen~~ air-bleed orifice are as^. a fraction of the fuel flows onto the manifold and port walls and forms a liquid film. fuel is supplied to the accelerator pump chamber from the float chamber via a small hole in the bottom of the fuel bowl. A calibrated orifice controls the fuel flow. As the throftk is opened from its idle position.he mixture as wide-open throttle is approached so the engine can deliver its maximum power. When the throttle plate is opened rapidly. two-phase mixtures in small diameter tubes with bleed holes similar to those used in carburetors have been carried out. to the idle dkcharge port (11) in the throttle body. Satisfae tory engine operation at idle is obtained empirically by means of the idle throtdc position stop adjustment (14) and the idle mixture adjustment (13). While much of the fuel flow into the cylinder is fuel vapor or small fuel droplets carried by the air stream. An accelerator pump is used as the throttle plate is opened rapidly to supply additional fuel into the air stream at the carburetor to compensate for this leaning effect.. mass flow rate of fuel m. especially at low ambient temperatures. The additional fuel is normally introduced via a submerged which communicates directly with the main discharge nozzle. IDLE SYSTEM. The primary reason for this is the time lag between fuel flow into the air stream at the carburetor and the fuel flow past the inlet valve (see Sec. One or more holes (12) located above the idle discharge port (11) as air bleeds when the throttle is at or near its idle position. However.. the idle metering system perfoms a transition4 function. which is spring loaded.INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE FUNDAMENTALS SI ENGINE FUEL METERING AND MANIFOLD PHENOMENA 291 . they interact and the main system behavior in this transition are is modified by the fuel flow through the idle system.w opens and the air flow increases. . As the throttle plate is o w d further. 2 This low manifold vacuum draws a lower-than-normal fuel flow from the car- buretor idle system. the type of flow pattern set up depends on the flow rates of the two phases. at idle and light loads. Because the starter-cranked engine turns slowly (70 to 150 revlmin) the intake manifold vacuum developed during engine start-up is low. past one or more idle air-bled orifices (or holes) (9). A spring connects the rod and diaphragm to extend the fuel discharge over the appropriate time period and to reduce the mechanical strain on the linkage. the main fuel metering system starts to supply fuel also. This low manifold pressure at idle is exploited for the idle fuel system by connecting the main fuel well to an orifice in the throttle body downstream of the throttle plate. is operated either mechanic a l ~through a linkage with the throttle plate (opening as the throttle approaches ~ its wide-open position) or pneumatically (using manifold vacuum). CHOKE. Additional fuel is forced out of these holes into the stream to provide the appropriate mixture ratio. The main well (5) L connected through one or more orifices (lo). and eventually (as the main system lakes over full control of the fuel flow rate) an approximately constant mixture PO~YER ENRICHMENT SYSTEM.. and into the air stream. . these additional discharge holes are expored to the manifold vacuum.

To keep the air volume flow rate through the venturi equal to what it was at sea-level atmospheric pressure (calibration condition). ~uxiliaryjet method. and within a few engine revolutions have stabilized at the periodic values associated with the new throttle angle. too lean to ignite.292 INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE FUNDAMENTALS 3. much smaller dependence through @ and Ap. 7-8. a bypass circuit around the venturi for the additional volume flow is provided. For example. A fast idle cam is rotated into position by the automatic choke lever. The primary element of typical choke system is a plate. a cruise equivalence ratio of 0. Because of the low manifold temperature and vacuum. Note the rapid increase in boost venturi suction as the throttle is suddenly opened. This results from the sudden large increase in the air flow rate and corresponding increase in air velocity within the boost venturi. When the engine starts. the choke is opened either manually or automatically with thermostatic control. 5): To a good approximation. ALTITUDE COMPENSATION. with changes due to changes in pressure with altitude being most significant. tions are established. manifold. conpensated air-bleed method. can produce changes of comparable magnitude. The effects of increase in altitude on the carburetor flow curve shown Fig. While ambient temperature variation& winter to summer.2 would be enriched to close to stoichiometric. (see Ref. which can close 0 the intake system. A number of can be used to compensate for changes in ambient pressure with altitude: 1. the carburetor must supply a fuel-rich mixture. the enrichment E with increasing altitude z is given by carburetor during actual engine operation is illustrated by the data shown in Fig.^ TRANSIENT EFFECTS. A manifold vacuum cont often used to close the choke plate partially if the engine is accelerated dunng warm-up. 4.5 percent. Fuel bowl back-suction method. As altitude increases. 7-1 are: (I) to enrich the entire part-throttle portion of the curve and (2) lo Intake manifold vacuum 40 I " I Time FIGURE 7-8 Throttle angle. Note also that the pressure fluctuations decay rapidly. the choke is partly opened to admit the necessary air flow and reduce the vacuum in the venturi to avoid flooding the intake with fuel. Air density changes with ambient pressure and temperature. r. the choke must be excluded. at 1500 m above sea level. fuel evaporation in the carburetor. upstream of the carburetor.6) shows how the air/fuel ratio delivered by the main metering system will vary with inlet air conditions. boost venturi suction. the mixture which reaches the engine cylinder would k . fuel tion is also impaired. the temperature of the air entering the carburetor for warmed-up engine operation k controlled to within much closer tolerances by drawing an appropriate fraction of the air from around the exhaust manifold. mean atmospheric pressure is 634 mmHg or 83.u flow into the carburetor barrel. This is obtained with a choke. At engine start-up.' The changes in pressure with time in the intake manifold and at the boost venturi throat of a standard two-barrel carburetor installed on a production V-8 engine are shown as the throttle is opened from light load (22') to wide-open throttle at 1000 revlmin. At wide-open throttle. An inherent characteristic of the conventional bring in the power-enrichment System at a lower air flow rate due to decreased manifoldvacuum. Equation (7. This causes almost full manifold vacuum within the venturi which draws a large fuel flow through the main orifice. throttle setting or air mu) flow rate) there may be an additional. Once normal manifold con&. modem carburetors are altitude compensated. As the engine warms up. depending on what is held constant (e.9 of *. the pulsating nature of the flow as each A Boost vcnturi suction For z = 1500 m.4 percent of the mean sea-level value. 3. The orifices in the bleed circuits to each carburetor system are fitted with tapered metering pins actuated by a single aneroid bellow^. an aneroid bellows moves a tapered rod from an orifice near the venturi throat. ~ h u s during cranking. thus. (AIF) = 16. and inlet port is much reduced. During engine warm-up the idle speed is increased to prevent engine stalling. and intake manifold vacuum variation with time as throttle is opened from light load (229 to wide-open throttle at 1000 rcv/min. E = 9. Venturi bypass method. To overcome these deficiencies and ensure prompt starb and smooth operation during engine warm-up. Standard two-barrel carburetor and production V-8 ~ n g i n e . Until normal manifold conditions are established.. To reduce the impact to changes in altitude on engine emisions of CO and HC. The primary dependence is through t k term. ~ . For normal engine operation the choke plate is fully and does not influence carburetor performance. The pulsating and transient nature of the flow through a float type carburetor is that it meters fuel flow in proportion to the air volumc flow rate.g. An auxiliary fuel metering orifice with a pressurecontrolled tapered metering rod connects the fuel bowl to the main well in parallel with the main metering orifice. the choke plate is closed to restrict the . admitting to the bowl an increasing amount of the vacuum signal developed at the throat.

7. the choked flow at the throttle plate prevents the manifold pressure fluctuations from propagating upstream into the venturi. the injector spindle. Figure 7-9 shows a schematic of a speed-density system.294 INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE FUNDAMENTALS cylinder draws in its charge is evident. and nc. 0 has a value of about 0. A pressure regulator maintains the pressure in the line at a fixed value (e-8- 270 k ~ / m 39.2 Thus. An empirical equation for R is + R = constant x (1 .3. the excess fuel returns to the tank via a second line. in some systems. in kilonewtons per square meter and N in revolutions Der minute a tv~ical value for the constant is 7. The transient behavior-of the air and fuel flows in the manifold are discussed more fully in Sec. The value of the constant depends on carburetor and engine geometry. then R is related to the amplitude and frequency of pressure waves within the intake manifold as well as the damping effect of the throttle plate. Nnc. When the solenoid is not excited. The inducted air flows through the air filter. The advantages of port fuel injection are increased power and torque through improved volumetric eficiency and more uniform fuel distribution.1 Multipoint Port Injection The fuel-injection systems for conventional spark-ignition engines inject the fuel into the engine intake system. one or more injectors to supplement the fuel flow during starting and warm-up). 73. the manifold pressure. Fuel injection allows the amount of fuel injected per cycle. ing jet also fluctuates. 7-10) is located either in the intake manifold tube or the intake port of each cylinder. the number of revolutions per power stroke. The electrically driven fuel pump delivers the fuel through a filter to the fud line. This section reviews systems where the fuel is injected into the intake port of each engine cylinder. N the crank speed. If the ratio of the effective metering signal for a pulse cycle to that for steady air flow at the same average mass flow is denoted as 1 R. n. When the solenoid coil is excited. Thus these systems require one injector per cylinder (plus. The pulsations in the venturi air flow (and hence fuel flow) due to the filling of each cylinder in turn are negligibly small at small throttle angles and increase to a maximum at wide-open throttle. the major difference between the two is the method used to determine the air flow rate. Separate runners and branches lead to each inlet port and engine cylinder. the solenoid plunger of the magnetic circuit is forced. more rapid engine response to changes in throttle position.2. and more precise control of the equivalence ratio during cold-start and engine warm-up. the helical spring.) where M is the throttle plate Mach number.I0 . An electromagnetically actuated fuel-injection valve (see Fig. the magnetic plunger to which the spindle is connected. Branch lines lead to each injector. FIGURE 7-9 g@-density electronic multipoint port fuel-injection system: Bosch D-Jetronic System? (Courtesy Robert Bosch GmbH and SAE. 73 FUEL-INJECTION SYSTEMS .6. to be varied in response to inputs derived from sensors which define actual engine operating conditions. where R is the pulsation factor. ings. Ib/in2. for each cylinder. with its seal. The pressure drop across the main meter. spring FIGURE 7-10 Cross section of fuel injector... at wide-open throttle at is00 rev/min. usually relative to manifold pressure to maintain a con~ stant fuel pressure drop across the injectors). p. For p. past the throttle plate to the intake manifold. At small throttle open. . There are both mechanical injection systems and electronically controlled injection systems. The effective time-averaged boost venturi suction is greater for the pulsating flow case than for the steady flow case. the number of cylinders per barrel. n.. against the valve seat by the helical spring and closes the fuel passage. the plunger is attracted and lifts the spindle about Valve needle ~etum. where engine and manifold pressure and air temperature are used to calculate the engine a flow. TWO basic approaches have been developed. and the solenoid coil.M)p. The major components of the injector are the valve housing.

shown in the photo in Fig. and V. It 0.Fuel-pressure regulator. and the temperature sensors installed in the intake manifold to monitor air temperature and engine block to monitor the water-jacket temperaturethe latter being used to indicate fuel-enrichment requirements during cold-start and warm-up. (CourWV RM Bosch GmbH. An alternative air-flow measuring approach is to use a hot-wire air mass flow meter. (3) less acceleration enrichment is required because the air-flow signal precedes the filling of the cylinders. is the volumetric efficiency. The pulse width is inversely proportional to speed and directly pro~ortionalto air flow.. starter switch. and (5) lack of sensitivity of the system to EGR since only the fresh air flow is measured.15 mm so that fuel can flow through the calibrated annular passage around the valve stem. The mass of air inducted per cycle to each cylinder." The appropriate coil excitation pulse duration or width is set by the elec. wear and changes in valve adjustments. combustion chamber deposit buildup. it provides a voltage proportional to the air flow rate. and wide-open throttle enrichment.'' The advantages of direct air-flow measurement are:12 (1) automatic compensation for tolerances.) Thus the primary signals for the electronic control unit are air flow and engine speed. The engine block temperature sensor. In the speed-density system. is the displaced volume per cylinder. 7-9 and 7-12). The meter shown measures the force exerted on a plate as it is displaced by the flowing air stream. 7-11. Figure 7-12 shows an alternative EFI system (the Bosch L-Jetronic) which uses an air-flow meter to measure air flow directly. minimizes the intake manifold wall wetting with liquid fuel. The relatively narrow spray cone of the injector. The mass of fuel injected per injection is controlled by varying the duration of the current pulse that excites the solenoid coil. The pulse width depends primarily on the manifold pressure.5 to 10 ms. Typja injection times for automobile applications range from about 1. is the inlet air density. the engine speed sensor (usually integral with the distributor). idling. m. one (or more) cold-start injector valve is used to additional fuel into the intake manifold (see Figs. varies as FIGURE 7-11 Short time-exposure photograph of liquid fuel spray from Bosch-type injector. For cold-start enrichment. The control unit also initiates mixture enrichment during cold-engine operation and during accelerations that are detected by the throttle sensor. The electronic control unit forms the pulse which excites the injector solenoids. (2) the dependence of volumetric efficiency on speed and exhaust backpressure is automatically accounted for. it also depends on the variation in volumetric efficiency q. The air-flow meter is placed upstream of the throttle. the mass of air per cylinder per cycle m. Since short Opening and closing times are not important. this valve can be designed to . For warm-engine operation. p. The front end of the injector spindle is shaped as an atomizing pintlc with a ground top to atomize the injected fuel.) where q. is given by (Courtesy Robert Bosch ~ln-tronic multipoint port fuel-injection system with air-flow meter: Bosch L-Jetronic system. (4) improved idling stability. warm-up.9 GmbH and SAE. the primary inputs to the ECU are the outputs from the manifold pressure sensor. N is engine speed. with speed N and variations in air density due to variations in air temperature. and throttle valve switch provide input signals for the necessary adjustments for coldStart. tronic control unit (ECU).

and FIGURE 7-13 Mechanical multipomt port fuel-injection system: Bosch K-Jetronic system. With electronically controlled injection systems. is least desirable. air-flow-based metering. Thus the pulse width varies from being much less than to greater than the duration of the intake stroke. The other group of injecIon inject one crank revolution later.298 INTERNAL COMBLSTION ENGINE FUNDAMENTALS . as shown in Fig. given the short pulse width relative to the intake process over much of the engine load-speed range. The fuel-injection pulse width to provide the appropriate mass of fuel for each cylinder air charge varies from about 1.6).'' The K-Jetronic mechanical injection system injects fuel continuously in front of the intake valves with the spray directed toward the valves. It is the most important part of the system. Thus about three-quarters of the fuel required for any engine cycle is stored temporarily in front of the intake valve. Engine performance and emissions do change as the timing of [he start of injection relative to inlet valve opening is varied. In the Bosch L~ctronic system. The fuel is sucked out of the tank by a roller-cell pump and fed through the fuel accumulator and filter to the fuel distributor. the fuel is injected intermittently toward the intake valves. Injection with valve lift at its maximum.5 to 10 ms over the engine load and speed range.) In the speed-density system. fuel is injected twice per cycle. However. tains the fuel pressure constant.'' 73. To reduce the complexity of the electronic control unit. The mixture-control unit consists of the air-flow sensor and fud distributor.) . 7. for a six-cylinder engine. lo Air it drawn through the air filter. and onequarter enters the cylinder directly during the intake process. Mechanical. where one or two electronically controlled injecton meter the fuel into the air flow directly above the throttle body. : .g. flows past the air-flow sensor. (This approach is called simultaneous double-firing.2 Single-Point Throttle-Body Injection Single-point fuel-injection systems. Fuel-injection systems offer several options regarding the timing and location of each injection relative to the intake event. continuous injection systems are also used. past the throttle valve. IS another option. Downstream of each of these metering slits b a differential pressure valve which for different flow rates maintains the pressuE drop at the slits constant. the injectors are usually divided into groups. In crank angle degrees this varies \ Injection group 2 \ Injection group 1 g Injection duration Iniet valve b Ignition nCuRE 7-14 fn. where the phasing of each injection pulse relative to its intake valve lift profile is the same.10 from about 10" at light load and low speed to about 300" at maximum speed and load. each group being pulsed simultaneously. A primary pressure regulator in the fuel distributor main. are also Wd. as with carburetor systems. the problems associated with slower transport of fuel than the air from upstream of the throttle plate to the cylinder must now be overcome (see Sec. $ . provide extremely fine atomization of the fuel to minimize the enrichment required. groups of injectors are often operated simultaneously. They provide straightforward electronic control of fuel metering at lower than multipoint port injection systems. Figure '-15 shows a cutaway of one such system. Excess fuel not required by the engine flows back to the tank. or decreasing. For example.' (Courtesy Roberr GmbH and SAE. Figure 7-13 shows a schematic of the Bosch K-Jetronic system. each in a separate lir-flow passage with its own throttle plate. all injectors are operated simultaneously. To achieve adequate mixture uniformity. each injeclion contributes half the fuel quantity required by each cylinder per cycle. two groups of three injectors may bc used. meter the fuel in response to calibrations of air flow based on intake manifold pressure. into the intake manifold.'' Two injectors.ection pulse diagram for D-Jetronic system in si&ylinder engine. and provides the desired metering of fuel to the individual cylinders by controlling the cross section of t h metering slits in the fuel distributor. Sequential injection timing. air temperature. Injection for each group is timed to occur while the inlet valves are dosed or just starting to open. 7-14. and into the individual cylindqrs.

Injector fuel dcliverY scheduling is illustrated in Fig.SI ENGINE FUEL MJ3ERING AND MANIFOLD PHENOMENA 301 by the pressure drop across the throttle shears and atomizes the liquid sheet. 11.'" engine speed using the speed-density EFI logic described in the previous section. and oxides of nitrogen-with a single catalyst in the exhaust system if the engine is operated very close to the stoichiometric air/f~el ratio. especially at part throtUe. An electrochemical reaction takes place at the metal electrodes: md the oxygen ions transport the current across the cell. 7.ides good mixture uniformity and distribution between cylinders. depending on load and s p d and control logic used. Eq. each injection pulse correspon& to one cylinder filling.03)-stabilized zirconia (ZrO.9)] is an oxygen concentration cell with a solid electrolyte through which the current is carried by oxygen ions.14 7. The sensor [called an oxygen sensor or lambda s e n s o r 4 being the symbol used for the relative air/fuel ratio. Equilibrium is established in the exhaust gases the catalytic activity of the platinum metal electrodes. can be related to the oxygen partial pressures p& and p& through the Nernst equation: wOT 4400 revlmin ~ 6 . 6m s 4 7 'here F is the Faraday constant. The open-circuit output *ohage of the cell V. The cell can be represented as a series of interfaces as follows: Exhaust 3 I Metal 1 Ceramic I Metal ( Air p& is the oxygen partial pressure of the air (s2O kN/m2) and pb2 is the equi- librium oxygen partial pressure in the exhaust gases. vigorous mixing of fuel and air then occurs. The oxygen partial Preme in equilibrated exhaust gases decreases by many orders of magnitude as [he equivalence ratio changes from 0. carbon monoxide. The walls and plate accumulate liquid fuel which ROWS in a sheet toward the annular throttle opening (see Sec. Such systems (called three-way catalyst systems) are described in more detail in Sec.99 to 1. 7-17a. The high air velocity created ' 's st is ~ossibleto reduce engine emissions of the three pollutants-unburned hydrocarbons. (3. as shown in Fig. 7-16 for an eight-cylinder engine for a throttle-b~dy fuel-injection system.2. The engine operating air/fuel ratio is maintained close 10 stoichiometric through the use of a sensor in the exhaust system.) ceramic which separates two gas chambers (the ex%aust manifold and the atmosphere) which have different oxygen partial pressures. The electrolyte is yttria (Y. This signal is the input to a feedback system which controls the fuel feed to the intake. and pro. Under alternative firing. Thus the *"SO[ output voltage increases rapidly in this transition from a lean to a rich Injector A ~njector B 0 .4 FEEDBACK SYSTEMS FIGURE 7-15 Cutaway drawing of injector throttle-body fuel-injectionsystem. Injectors are fired alternatively or simultaneously. which provides a voltage signal dependent on the oxygen concentration in the exhaust gas stream.6.01. Smoothing of the fuelinjection pulses over time i s achieved by proper placement of the fuel injector assembly above the throttle : bore and plate.6.3).

(b) controlkr output voltage-the integrated comparator output. This location provides rapid warm-up of the sensor following engine start-up. and the sensor and control system time delay. the controller continues to influence the fuel flow rate in the same direction. The comparator output is then integrated in the integral controller wbm . The shield. it is well suited as a sensor signal for a feedback system. Such sensors were first developed for air/fuel ratio control at close to the stoichiometric value. For closed-loop feedback control at close-to-stoichiometric. This ii behavior of the control system is called the l m t c y c k The frequency f of this limit cycle is given by 7. as shown in Fig. Use of a similar sento control airlfuel ratios at lean-of-stoichiometric values during part-throt* engine operation is also feasible. to give adequate low-temperature electrical conductivity. A control voltage reference level is chosen at about the mid-poin( of the steep transition in Fig. screwed into the wall of the exhaust manifold." mixture at the stoichiometric point. as shown in Fig. The sensor body is made of Zr02 ceramic stabilized with Y20. output varies the fuel quantity linearly in the opposite direction to the sign of the comparator signal. h - - ~ - ~ ~ h i o m e t Time - Lean FIGURE 7-19 Operation of electronic control unit for rclosed-loop feedback: (a) sensor signal comi c pared with reference level. and housing are made from heat. There is a time lag 7. 7-176. The outer electrode which is exposed to the exhaust gases is protected against corrosion and erosion by a loo-@ spinal coat and a slotted shield. In the electronic control unit the s e w * signal is compared to the reference voltage in the comparator as shown in F 7-19a. Air passes to the inner electrode through holes in the protective sleeve. oscillations in the equivalence ratio delivered to the engine exist even under steady-state conditions of closed-loop control.0 has been passed. Because of this time lag. (b)sensor output voltage. 7-19b. Since this transition is not temperature dependent.Variation as a function of relative airlfuel ratio and temperature of: (a) oxygen partial pressure in equilibrated combustion products. Thus.'' Figure 7-18 shows a cross-section drawing of a lambda sensor. The inner and outer electrodes arre 10. protective sleeve. use is made d the sensor's low-voltage output for lean mixtures and a high-voltage output for rich mixtures.SI ENGINE FUEL METERING AND MANIFOLD PHENOMENA 303 positive electrical Rich Lean Rich Lean Relative aidfuel ratio X FIGURE 7-17 Oxygen-sensor characteristics.-pm thick poroi platinum layers provide the required catalytic equilibration. in the loop composed of the transport rime of fuel-air mixture from the point of fuel admission in the intake system to the sensor location in the exhaust. 7-17b.and corrosion-resistant steel alloys. It also gives the shortest flow time from the fud injector or carburetor location to the sensor-a delay time v the operation of the feedback system. although the reference point ) = 1.12 .

the optimum average equivalence ratio may not be precisely the stoichiometric value. and manifold plenum floor at different throttle plate angles. (a) 20' throttle plate angle -- (b) 30" throttle plate angle --4 7 5 FLOW PAST THROTTLE PLATE Except at or close to wide-open throttle. Under typical road-load conditions. Introducing the additional delay on the positive slope of the sensor signal produces a net rich bias. One method of providing a biasasymmetrical gain rate biasing1'-uses two separate integrator circuits with dif." Closed Open to angle J. where K is the integrator gain (in equivalence ratio units per unit time). and NO3 in the exhaust. more than 90 percent of the total pressure loss occurs across the throttle plate. By introducing this additional delay only on the negative slope of the sensor signal.12 Note that the sensor only operates at elevated temperatures. The jets are primarily two dimensional.' plate geometry and parameters are illustrated in Fig.+ 1 percent) in operating point from the stoichiometric can be obtained by varying the reference voltage level. An alternative biasing technique incorporates an additional delay time T . During engine start-up and warm-up. The minimum-to-maximum flow area ratio is large--typically of order 100. Furthermore. FIGURE 7-20 Throttle plate geometry. larger shifts are obtained by modifying the control loop to provide a steady-state bias.304 INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE FUNDAMENTALS SI ENGINE FUEL METERING AND MANIP and the change in equivalence ratio peak-to-peak is A4 =~ KT. so that the controller output continues decreasing (or increasing) even though the sensor signal has switched from the high to the low level (or vice versa). Depending on the details of the three-way catalyst used for cleanup of all three pollutants (CO. a net lean bias is produced. 7-20 creates a :hree-dimensional flow field. the reference voltage for maximum sensor durability may not correspond exactly to the stoichiometri~ point or the desired catalyst mean operating point. While a small shift (. At part-throttle operating conditions the throttle plate angle is in the 20 to 45' range and jets issue from the "crescent moonw-shaped open areas on either side of the throttle plate. the feedback system does not operate and conventional controls are required to obtain the appropriate fuel-air mixture for satisfactory engine operation.to integrate the comparator output. the throttle provides the minimum flow area in the entire intake system. 7-20. ferent gain rates K + and K . throttle plate. Throttle (c) - 45' throttle plate angle ( d ) 6 throttle plate angle 0 ' FICCRE 7-21 Photographs of flow in two-dimensional hydraulic analog of carburetor venturi. HC. depending on whether the comparator output is positive (rich) or negative (lean). Figure 7-21 shows photographs taken of a two-dimensional hydraulic analog of a typical carburetor . A throttle plate of conventional design such as Fig.

The measured pressure drop across the throttle depends (+ 10 percent) on the circumferential location of the downstream pressure tap. There is little or no mixing between the two jets. cmHg .1831. throttle angle. For pressure ratios greater than the critical ratio.do).b0 + 2 [A(COS' cos2 $0)'1' J/ cos * sin-' rzi: f ') . There is a stagnation point on the upstream side of the throttle plate. p. (7. The mass flow rate through the throttle valve can be calculated from standard orifice equations for com~ressiblefluid flow [see App. there is usually some minimum leakage area even when the throttle plate is closed against the throttle bore. 10. Thus. For pressure ratios across the throttle less than the critical value (pTlp0= 0. The jets on either side of the wake (at part throttle) are at or near sonic velocitv.. 7-8) may be less than under steady flow conditions. The throttle plate open area A. the agreement with data is excellent." The flow accelerates through the carburetor venturi (separation occun at the corners of the entrance section). is the pressure downstream of the throttle plate equal to the pressure at the minimum area: i. the throttle plate is usually completely closed at some nonzero angle (5. The pressure loss across the throttle plate under the actual flow conditions (which are unsteady even when the engine speed and load are constant. 7-20.The throttle plate discharge coeficient (which varies with A J and minimum leakage area. it is not corrected immediately below the throttle plate. The figure shows that for an intake manifold pressure below the critical loo Throttle angle 3 80- e ?!! (1 . when the flow at the thmttle plate is choked. pressure ratio. see Fig. 19.306 lNTF.!= ID' COS * -) l. the mass flow rate is given by . C. is the throttle plate open area [Eq. and engine speed for a two-barrel carburetor and a 4. D is the throttle bore diameter. This leakage area can be significant at small throttle openings.528). and throttle plate Reynolds number. Eqs. w t inlet manifold pressure. (C-8) and 20 FIGURE 7-22 Variation in air flow rate past a ih throttle.a(1 . the following Tactors should be considered:'.RNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE FUNDAMENTALS SI ENGINE FUEL METERING AND MANIFOLD PHENOMENA 307 venturi and throttle plate in steady flow at different throttle angles.cos . and varies with throttle angle. 4. 4. po and T. The discharge coeficient of the throttle plate is less than that of a smooth converging-diverging nozzle.are the upstream p~ssure and temperature. d is the throttle shaft diameter.. no pressure r a o v e v wsurs). ne wake of the throttle plate contains two vortices which rotate in opposite directions. O ' 1 The throttle plate shaft is usually of sufficient size to affect the throttle open . and CD is the discharge coeficient (determined experimentally).18) where a = d/D.a2 7I E U "40- COS *' a -- $0 I (7. is given by2 (c-g)]. and engine speed. To prevent binding in the throttle bore. it then divides on either side of the throttle plate. if maldistributi~~ of the fuel-air mixture occurs above the throttle plate.7dm3 displacement eight-cylinder engint2 0- 0 50 60 70 Intake manifold pressure.. 6.).7-dm3 (288-in3) displacement eight-cylinder production engine is shown in Fig. Due to the manufacturing tolerances involved. and $O is the throttle plate angle when tightly closed against the throttle bore When J/ = cos-' (a cos $. In analyzing the flow through the throttle plate. throttle angle.e.a')'" + sin-' cos J . intake manifold pressure. or 15"). 3. 7-22. The path lines traced by the particles in the flow indicate the relative magnitude of the flow velocity. the throttle open area reaches its maximum value (=nD2/4 . While the lines are from a quasi-steady computer simulation.. 5. 2. as a function of angle $ for the geometry in Fig. The relation between air flow rate. where A. must be determined experimentally. area.

~' Exhaust gas heated stoves at the floor of the plenum are also used in some intake manifolds to achieve adequate fuel vaporization and distribution.. in-line-six. Some of these design choices are illustrated in Fig. these flow pulses sequence such that the outflow is essentially zero between pulses. four. At high intake vacuum. the intake manifold may contain passages to bring the exhaust gas to the plenum or throttle body. The flow at the throttle will fluctuate as a consequence of the pulsed flow out of the manifold into the cylinders. During engine transients.g.and eightcylinder engines. This manifold is heated by engine coolant as shown and uses an electrically heated grid beneath the carburetor to promote rapid fuel e~aporation. = 53.5 kN/mZ = 40. These two topics will therefore be reviewed in sequence. At wide-open throttle when the flow restriction at the throttle is a minimum. liquid fuel atomization. backflow from the cylinder into the intake manifold occurs during the early part of the intake process until the cylinder pressure falls below the manifold pressure.6. With port fuel injection it is not norm all^ necessary to heat the manifold. The combination of pulsating flow into each cylinder.6.2 Air-Flow Phenomena The air flow out of the manifold occurs in a series of pulses. sufficient (but not excessive) heating to ensure adequate fuel vaporization with carbureted or throttle-body injected engines.1 Design Requirements The details of the air and fuel flow in intake manifolds are extremely complex. to the inlet of which bolts the throttle body. runner and branch lengths that take advantage of ram and tuning effects. 7. due to rising cylinder pressure. Important design criteria are: low air flow resistance.1 crnWg) the air flow rate at a given throttle position is independent of manifold pressure and engine speed because the flow at the throttle plate is choked. runner and branch sizes must be large enough to permit adequate flow without allowing the air velocity to become too low to transport the fuel droplets. A large number of different manifold arrangements are used in practice.8-dm3 engine. good distribution of air and fuel between cylinders.528 x pa. When the engine is throttled.8-dm3displacement spark-ignitionengine? be considered as unaffected by the fuel flow. and the mixing of EGR with the fresh mixture under steadystate engine operating conditions are difficult enough areas to untangle. the cylinder will draw mixture from the rest of the intake manifold. 7-23 which shows an inlet manifold and carburetor arrangement for a modem four-cylinder 1.308 INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE FUNDAMENTALS value (0.6 FLOW IN INTAKE MANIFOLDS 7. Different cylinder arrangements (e. With port fuel-injection systems. For six-cylinder arrangements the pulses will overlap. with individual runners feeding branches which lead to each cylinder (or the plenum can feed the branches directly).. vaporization and transport phenomena. During the portion of the intake stroke when the flow into the cylinder is lower than the flow through the throttle. e. the flow will be continuously inward at the throttle and flow pulsations will be small.) provide quite different air and fuel distribution problems. to provide closely comparable flow paths. the fact that the processes which govern the air and the fuel flow to the cylinder are substantially different introduces additional problems. mixture will flow back into the rest of the manifold. one going to each cylinder. In this design the four branches that link the plenum beneath the carburetor and throttle with the inlet ports are similar in length and geometry. even under steady operating conditions. For four. This is due to differences in runner and I % 3 8 . Larger and longer runners and branches. the task of the inlet manifold is to control the air (and EGR) flow.' 7. Note that with EGR. Fuel does not have to be transported from the throttle body through the entire manifold. when the throttle position is changed. are not identical. When the outflow to the cylinder which is undergoing its intake stroke is greater than the flow through the throttle. Intake manifolds consist typically of a plenum. can be used to provide equal runner lengths and take greater advantage of ram and tuning effects. Each pulse is approximately sinusoidal in shape. different geometry flow paths from the plenum beneath the throttle through each runner and branch of the manifold to each inlet port. Air-flow phenomena in manifolds c a EGR gas passage' senjon A-A -C&nt FIGURE 7-23 Inlet manifold for four-cylinder 1. The reverse is definitely not the case: the fuel flow-liquid and vapor4epends strongly on the air flow. Some compromises are necessary.'g The air flows to each cylinder of a multicylinder engine. with larger angle bends. V-six.. Backflow can also occur early in the compression stroke before the inlet valve closes.g. flow Pulsations at the throttle location will be much more pronounced. This section reviews our current understanding of these phenomena. etc.

For throttle-body injection or a carburetor. etc Crankshaft. The air flow through the valve to each 9linder can be computed from the valve area.. 7-24. This transient air-flow phenomenon affects fuel metering. Opposite effects will occur for a decrease in throttle angle. respectively. and 4. The flow me past the throttle is given by Eq. 'here ma. The continuity equation for air flow into and out of the intake manifold is 500 Minimum 650 15 5 x 10.4 300 AIR-FLOW MODELS.8-dm3fourcylinder in-line SI engine?' . For port fuel injection.20). 100$ 4 6 lo5 t 5. Actual results for the air flow rate and manifold pressure in response to an opening of the throttle (increase in throttle angle) are shown in Fig. the flow rate is indepenlow dent of manifold pressure. are the air. rev/min Peak air velocity in manifold branch." One simple manifold model that describes many of the above phenomena is the plenum or filling and emptying model. The mass flow rate to the engine cylinders can be modeled at several levels of accuracy.'~. fuel flow should be related to throttle air flow. (7.19) or (7. so this lags the throttle air flow. . ms the manifold. For manifold pressures S~aciently to choke the flow past the throttle plate. Thus.s TABLE 7.' 46 Maximum 5000 1307. the pressure difference across the throttle is larger than it would be under steady flow conditions and the throttle air flow overshoots its steady-state value. mass flow rates past the throttle and into each cylinder. . fuel flow should be related to cylinder air flow. cm3 Range of speeds. The air flow into each cylinder depends on the pressure in the manifold. and ma. The overshoot in throttle air flow and lag in manifold pressure as the throttle angle is increased are evident.6-drn3 V eight-cylindcr SI engine?' 1. v-83 30 16 I-4t 33 9. cm Average intake-passage flow area. m/s Peak Reynolds number in manifold branch Duration of individual cylinder intake process. discharge coeEcient.SI ENGINE FUEL METERING AND MANIFOLD PHENOMENA 311 Ti. cm2 Volume of one direct flow path from throttle bore to intake valve. It is based on the assumption that at any given time the manifold pressure is uniform.Several models of the flow in an intake manifold have been pr~posed. the pressure level in the manifold increases more slowly than would be the case if steady-state conditions prevailed at each throttle position. and pressure .1 Parameters that characterize manifold air flow Engine geometry Typical flow-path distance between throttle bore and intake valve. is the mass of air in the manifold.

th m dt 2Vm vm + ~GCRE 7-25 ~ ~ l ~ h oresonator models for (a) singlecylinder engine and (b)multicylinder engine..fed by a single pipe open to the atmosphere. Helmholtz resonator models for the intake system have been proposed. is given by two degrees of freedom and two resonant frequencies.2)].~' single-cylinder engine modeled as a Helmholtz resonator is A shown in Fig. gives the two frequencies at which the manifold shown in Fig. = V'r. (I. Recently. V1 and &. based on an electrical analog (in which capacitors represent volumes and inductors pipes). junctions. + 1)/[2(rc . 14. Tm. and two volumes. In general case. ~ ~ This approach to intake and exhaust flow analysis is discussed more fully in Ec...). and V.4. and hence the engine speeds at which increases in air flow due to intake tuning occur. with a time constant . The plenum model is useful for investigating manifold pressure variations that result from load changes. Eq. A. 5./Ll. The intake (or exhaust) system can be modeled as a combination of pipes..312 INTERNAL COMBU~TION ENGINE FUNDAMENTALS difference across the valve. For calculating the manifold response to a change in loa throttle setting. cyl = s o pa. or a sine wave function can be assumed. The Helmholtz theory predicts the engine speeds at which positive . m 2 VsN The& is usually adequate. i3 = CJC. a constant equal K about 2 for most engines. Flow in the pipes is one dimensional and no axial heat conduction occurs. The standard method of solution of the governing equations has been the method of characteristics (see Ben~on'~). pipe friction. For a single-cylinder. The effective resonator volume V. simplifying assumptions can be made.. is chosen to be one-half of the displaced volume plus the clearance volume. 7-24 are predictions made with Eq.21) must be combined with the first law for an open sy (see Sec.. 4 Boundary conditions are considered quasi steady. finite difference techniques which are more efficient have been used. (7. (7. L. have some dependence on pm[e." The dynamics of the flow in multicylinder intake (and exhaust) systems can bc modeled most completely using one-dimensional unsteady compressible flow equations. In the absence of this weak dependence.) and ( I ? . the resonant tuning speed N. = V. The smooth curves in Fig.3. (7. heat transfer. States in the engine cylinders and plenums are uniform in space.30The assumptions usually made in this type of analysis are: I. It provides no information concerning pressure variations associated with momentum effects.21) can k m written as d~m qvVdN RTm P = m a . The following equation. T i hs type of model can predict the resonant frequencies of the combined intake and engine cyGnder system. The two pipes. pmV = ma. 2. Eq. A. and .22) and show good agreement with the data. 7-25b would be tuned:" where a = L. (6.. L. A rarefraction wave travels down the intake pipe to the open end and is reflected as a compression wave.. Helmholtz theory for multicylinder engines treats the pipes of cylinders not undergoing induction as an additional volume.2). C2 = &. C1 = I. N) x VdvCy..22) would be a first-order equation for p. A the effective cross-sectional area of the in system (cm'). 7-25b form a vibrating system with Both and ma. (7. = (l/A).... Eq. = (IIA).. R. in Fig.27 ltz he. and bend losses for steady flow are valid for unsteady flow. 6 The gases can be modeled as ideal gases. . see Eq. 3..'~ using the ideal gas law for the manifold. 14. A positive tuning effect occurs when the compression wave arrives at the inlet valve as the valve is ~losing. tuning resonances occur with reasonable accuracy. Coefficients of discharge. 7-251.g. A quasi-steady appro imation for the cylinder air flow: C m a . where a is the sound speed (m/s). The Helmholtz resonator theory analyzes what happens during one inlet stroke. 1the effective length of the inlet system (cm). and the air temperature can be assumed con~tant.r = 2VJ(q0 V. a reduced pressure occurs at the inlet valve relative to the pressure at the open end of the inlet pipe. and plenums. I . as the air in the manifold pipe is acted on by a forcing function produced by the piston motion.2. As the piston moves downward during the intake stroke. the piston velocity is then close to its maximum and the pressure in the inlet system close to its minimum The tuning peak occurs when the natural frequency of the cylinder volume coupled to the pipe is about twice the piston frequency.I)] ( ~ m ~ ) . It does not predict the magnitude of the increase in volumetric efficiency. which is 2 to 4 times the intake stroke duration..

The equilibrium state of a hydrocarbon-air mixture depends th on the vapor pressure of the hydrocarbon at the given temperature. the higher will be the saturated vapol pressure at a given temperature.ls While insuficient time is us available in the manifold to establish equilibrium. in a standard four-cylinder production engine. Figure 7-27 shows the engine conditions under which liquid fuel was observed on the floor of the manifold plenum beneath the throttle plate and in the manifold Nnners. and the total pressure of the mixture.23 This manifold was bled by engine coolant at 90•‹C.ckE 7-26 II pcrcentage of indolene fuel evaporated at equilibrium at 1 atmosphere pressure.ls For carbureted and throttle-body injection systems. Fuellair ratio Fuel evaporated at reduced pressure Fuel maporated at atmospheric pressure (b) (4 n(. and the distribution of fud between the different engine cylinders is not exactly equal. Since gasoline. The droplets vaporize. For the former systems. With conventional spark-ignition engine liquid metering systems. The fuel transport processes in the intake system are obvio extremely complex. The boiling point of hydrocarbons depends marily on their molecular weight: the vapor pressure also depends on mo structure. the re amounts of the hydrocarbon and air. mixture is not homogeneous. the fuel may not be vaporized as it enters the engine. The charge going to each cylinder is not us uniform in fuel/air ratio throughout its volume. Figure 7-26b shows the effect of manifold pressure on the amount evaporated. These ha be compensated for in the fuel metering strategy. Observations of fuel behavior In intake manifolds with viewing ports or transparent sections show that there is wbstantial liquid fuel on the walls with carburetor fuel metering systems. T e air.63 Fuel-Flow Phenomena TRANSPORT PROCESSES. there are transient fuel-flow phenomena. Until the throttle plate is close to fully opened. Figure 7-26a shows the effa mixture temperature on percent of indolene fuel (a specific gasoline) eva at equilibrium at atmospheric pressure. The fuel does nor usually divide equally on either side of the throttle plate axis. The liquid i s reentrained as the air flows at high velocity past the throttle plate. this range is 30 to 200•‹C. Thus. the liquid fuel is injected in inlet port. Only a modest fraction of the fuel vaporizes upstream of the throttle. and liquid streams or films can important. These mix with the air and also deposit on the w the intake system components. most of the fuel metered tnto the air stream impacts on the throttle plate and throttle-body walls. much of the fuel which has aot evaporated is impacted on the manifold floor. in addition to the transient non-quasi-steady air-flow nomena described above. The liqui atomizes into droplets. equilibrium fraction of fuel evaporated at a given temperature and pressure be calculated from Bridgeman charts3' and the distillation characteristics of fuel (defined by the ASTM distillation curve"). the fuel path is the following. vaporized fuel and liquid droplets which remain suspended in the air . transport of fuel as a liquid film or rivulet in the manifold and vaporQtion from these liquid fuel films and rivulets and subsequent transport as 'Wr may occur. Depending on engine operating "nditions. recycled exhaust. The greatest amount of liquid was present at h h engine loads and low speeds. fuel must be transported past the throttle plate and through complete intake manifold. and there 'ere no films or rivulets in the manifold runner. the quality of the mixture entering the engine is imperfect. the fuel enters the a& stream as a liquid jet. For all these practical fuel met h ing systems. The lower the molecular weight. p u r e on amount of indolene fuel evaporated.314 SI ENGINE FUEL METERING AND MANIFOLD PHENOMENA INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE FUNDAMENTALS 7. (6) Effect of . liquid Pms or rivulets were in a zone bounded by 120 mmHg vacuum and 2500 revjmin. Typically. is a mixture of large number of individual hydrocarbons it has a boiling temperature ran rather than a single boiling point. when engine fuel and air requirements and manifold conditions chan is obvious that the above fuel transport processes will not all vary with time the same way.Individ hydrocarbons have the saturation pressure-temperature relationships of a p substance. The flow of liquid fuel along the walls can be signi The transport of fuel as vapor. toward the back of the intake valve. During engine sients. the trends shown are indica of what happens in practice: lower pressures increase the relative amount 0 vaporized and charge heating is usually required to vaporize a substantial tion of the fuel. The details of the fuel transport process are different for multipoint injection systems than for carburetor and throttle-body injection systems. droplets. vaporization of the fuel on the walls occurs. For latter systems. Heating the manifold to a higher temperature bith steam at llS•‹Cresulted in a substantial reduction in the amount of liquid: fiere Was no extensive puddling on the plenum floor. The air undergoes a 90•‹bend in the plenum beneath the throttle. the standard spark-ignition engine fuel.

the velocity of the liquid jet as it exits the nozzle is high enough to shatter the flowing liquid. Secondary atomization a t the throttle at part-load operating conditions is important to the fuel transport process: the very high air velocities at the edge of the throttle plate produce droplets of order or less than 10 pm diameter. 34 for a review of m e t h d of calculating droplet vaporization rates). With a representative residence time in the manifold of about one crank " revolution (10 ms at 6000 revlmin. because the drops are smaller.38 but these drops are also likely to impact the walls due to their inertia as the flow is turned. some fuel is carried as liquid drops into the cylinder. However.. drops of less than 10 pm diameter are essentially carried by the gas stream (< 10 percent impaction). and its interaction with the coaxial air flow further atomizes the fuel. almost all of the fuel will impact first on the throttle plate and then on the manifold floor as the flow turns 90" into the manifold runners. Fu injected onto the back of the inlet valve (and surrounding port wall). Vaporization of liquid fuel off valve and walls occurs. Oo om c Engine speed. are liquid and gas densities. a substantial fraction of the drops may stay entrained in the air flow. will follow the air flow. due to their density being many times that of the air. Drops small enough to be carried by the air stream are likely to vaporize in the manifold. droplet deposition 00 the manifold walls may occur due to gravitational settling and to inertial effect) as the flow goes round bends in the manifold. Typical droplet-size distributions are not well defined. 100 ms at 600 rev/min). or rivulw were observed: (a) on manifold plenum floor and (b) in manifold runner. The liquid fuel drops are accelerated b Y the surrounding air stream and start to vaporize. Vaporization rates have calculated using established formulas for heat and mass transfer between 8 droplet and a surrounding flowing gas stream (see Ref. Manifold heated by coolant at 90"CZ3 &ere Dd is the droplet diameter. g acceleration due to gavity. Ih. gravitational settling of large (> 100 pm) droplets would occur at low air flow rates. enhanced by the backflow of hot residual gases from cylinder (especially at part load). Deposition on the manifold floor due to gavity may also occur. Most of these large droplets impact on the wails. coalescence and deposition on the walls and subsequent reentrainment probably increase the mean droplet size. . and the bjction of the fuel vaporized is small (in the 2 to 15 percent range35. the liquid fuel atomizes as it enters the air stream. 100 pm droplets will O"f vaporize fully at any speed. In the carburetor venturi this occurs as the fuel-air emulsion from the fuel jet(s) enters the hi& velocity (> 100 m/s) air stream..For 6 < Re < 500 the drag coefficient of an evaporating droplet is a strong function of the Reynolds number. At high air flows. usu while the valve is closed or only partly open.33 FUEL DROPLET BEHAVIOR. Re: e. Four-cylinder automob& engine. Liquid fuel drops.v. Approximate estimates which combine the two phenomena outlined above show that at low engine air flow rates. where Re = @ Dd Ivd . even under fully w a r d up engine conditions. There is evidence that. pl and p. almost all droplets larger than 25 pm Impact on the walls.36). and the greater inertia of the droplets causes them to move across the streamlines to the outer wall. With carburetor and throttle-body injection systems. .g. revlrnin (b) (a) FIGURE 7-27 Regions of engine load and speed range where extensive pools or puddles.- i g 300 B 3 200 1 Liquid films or rivulets No liquld films or rlvulets No liquid films or rivulets . and CDis the drag coefficient. revlmin Engine speed. Calculations of fuel vaporization in a ~arburetor venturi and upstream of the throttle plate show that the temperatun g i P *? Z 5 1 " < iL & ! $ 3 . With an injector. size would vary over the load and speed range Droplet diameters in the 25 to 100 pm range are usually assumed to be representafive: larger drops are also produced.26* 5 ' 3 7 3 For 90" bends. Droplet sizes produced first in the carburetor venturi or fuel rnjector spray and then by secondary atomization as liquid fuel is entrained from the throttle plate and throttle-body walls depend on the local gas velocity: higher local relative velocities between the gas and liquid produce smaller drop sizes. v. sre the droplet and gas velocities.26 stream will be transported with the air stream. 200 B 4 - 5 loo liquid fuel droplets decreases rapidly (by up to about 30"C35). anyway. and p. Droplet impaction on the walls may occur as the ~hangesdirection. In the manifold. Studies of droplet impaction and evaporation using the above equations typical manifold conditions and geometries indicate the following. However. The equation of motion for an individual droplet flowing gas stream is .). only drops of size less lhan about 10 pm will evaporate at the maximum speed. a is the droplet acceleration. Estimates of droplet evaporation rates in the manifold indicate the follow1. liquid films. The fuel transport processes for port fuel-injection systems are different will depend significantly on the timing and duration of the injection pulse.

has been de~eloped. v ~ u k vapor l - where mf. it varies with engine operating conditions and is especially Knsitive intake manifold temperature. At light load. An of the dynamics of the fuel film leads to expressions for steady-state film belocityand thickness. Due to the multicomponent nature of the fuel.318 MTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE FUNDAMENTALS FUELFILM BEHAVIOR. Such models have been used primarily to lo develop fuel metering strategies which compensate for the fuel transport lag. 7-28a.39 The engine operating range where fuel puddling. The fuel which impacts on the wall will also va and. and increase wi "f. This characterist~c response time is of order 1 second for typical manifold conditions.38 Metered fuel enters the puddle. the metered fuel flow . the characteristic time for reestablishing steady state is 1/(2uf?. . The predicted fuel fraction evaporated ranged from 40 to 60 percent for the conditions examined. for liquid film flow in the manifold runner and bran&. (b) Observed variation in air/fuel ratio for uncompensated throttle opening at 1600 rev/rab which increased manifold pressure from 48 to 61 c ~ n H g . ization. Thus changes in the air and the fuel flow into each engine cylinder. Increasing inlet air temperature increases the fraction of fuel vaporized. As air and metered fuel flows change due to a throttle position change. Any liquid film or pool on the manifold floor or walls is imp because it introduces additional fuel transport processes-deposition. provides a greater increase in fraction evaporated than does .equivalent heating of the air flow upstream of the carburetor. significantly increases the fraction of fuel evaporation in the manifold. Of the full boiling range liquid composition at entry. The puddle behavior predicted by this model in response to a s increase in engine load is shown in Fig.ncreasing load and speed.35 with a multicomponent model lor gasoline based on its distillation curve. fuel films. 7-29. is the mass of fuel in the puddle. and rivulets are observed (see Fig. then a liquid film w build up.armed-up engine.x) of fuel flows directly with the air. will not occur in phase with each other unless compensation is made for the slower fuel transport. transport. manifold system. 7-27) can now be explained. as the throttle is opened rapidly a lean air/ ratio excursion is predicted. in approximate agreement with values obtained from transient engine experiments. which heats the liquid film on the wall directly.. A more extensive analysis of both fuel droplet and film evaporation in a complete carburetor. Figure 7-286 shows that this behavior (without a metering compensation) is observed in practice. One approach analyzes a liquid puddle on the floor of the manifold plenum. m + A "f.. throttle.~' is deposited on the manifold walls and forms Fuel a film which flows toward the cylinder due to the shear force at the gaspiquid lnlerfaceas shown in Fig.38 An alternative model. and evaporation-which together have a much longer time constapt than the air transport process. indicates the following phenomena are important. but only a modest amount of the high boiling point fraction have evaporated at the manifold exit. depending on where in the manifold deposition occurs and the local fold geometry. Heating the wall. this effect is larger at lower loads since secondary atomization under these conditions increases the liquid fuel surface area significantly. Because only part (1 . Estimates of the volume of fuel the puddle (for a 5-liter V-8 engine) are of order 1000 mm3. Several models of the behavior of liquid-fuel wall-films have been dev& oped. secondary atom- . where 1 is the manifold length and uf the average film velocity. One set of measurements of the fraction of fuel vaporized in the manifold of a warmed-up fourcylinder engine showed that 70 to 80 percent of the fuel had vaporized. It is assumed the reentrainment/evaporation rate is proportional to the mass of fuel in puddle divided by the characteristic time T of the reentrainment/evaporatio process. ~ ~ . the residual liquid fuel composition changes significantly as fuel is transported from the carburetor to the manifold exit. m Metered fuel flow Time (4 toe FIGURE 7-28 (a) Predicted behavior of the fuel film for an uncompensated step change in engine operating tions. during a change in engine load. most of the midrange components. which produces the smallest droplet sizes when the throttle open angle is small. Vaporization from the film also occurs. Secondary atomization of the liquid fuel at the throttle. may be transported along the manifold as a liquid film or n If the vaporization rate off the wall is sufficiently high. is and x is the fraction of the metered flow that enters the puddle. The time constant is of order 2 seconds for a fully . fuel leaves primarily through vapor. all the light ends. m. confirming that under these operating conditions "most" but not necessarily *all" the fuel enters the cylinder in vapor form. The equation for rate of change of mass of fuel in the puddle is & ~ i ~ A d film FIGURE 7-29 Schematic of fuel flow paths in the manifold when liquid film flows along the manifold runner Boor.

compared to what occurs at full load. could be of comparable magnit~de. typical mani heating at light load substantially exceeds the heat required to vaporize the completely. Backflow of hot residual gases at part-load operation have a substantial effect on fuel vaporization. The equivalence ratio in a conventional spark-ignition engine varies from no load (idle) to full load. and liquid flow along wall are all likely to be important with port fuel-injection systems also. liquid fuel enters the cylinder and drop are present during intake and compression. rl. (By load is meant the percentage of the maximum brake torque at that speed.. valve stem. the fuel transport processes substantially different and are not well understood. Gross indicated mean effective pressure.1. At the conditions tested. With port fuel-injection systems. Also. and backside of the valve. especially when injection towa closed valve occurs. the surviving droplets contained negligible fraction of the fuel. However. comparable though smaller than that shown in Fig. whereas amount of fuel injected does not.320 INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE FUNDAMENTALS ization at the throttle and the lower manifold pressure would reduce the am0 of liquid fuel impinging on the manifold plenum floor. It became much more uniform with . Because the manufacture and operation of individual fuel injectors are not identical. Du the droplet number density in the clearance volume increased to a @. uniform air distribution is especially impor with port injection systems. evaporation off the wall. Largest variations between cylinders usually occur at wide open throttle. Compensation for fuel lag du transient engine operation is still required. and for a particular engine varies over the load and speed range.~' With multipoint port fuel-injection systems.. Provide a briejjustification for the shape of the curves you draw. Limited measurements have made of the distribution. The fuel vaporization and transport processes depend on the duration of injection and the timing of injection pulse(s) relati* to the intake valve-lift profile. . q. Some of the injected fuel will impinge on the port walls. Spreads in the equivalence ratio (maximum to minimum) of about 5 percent of the mean value are typical at light load fa carbureted engines. manifold design can be optimized for air flow alone since fuel transport from (hc throttle through the manifold is no longer a design constraint. draw carefully proportioned qualitatioe graphs of the following parameters versus load (0 to 100 percent): Combustion efficiency. During injection.imum at the end of injection (the injection lasted from 45 to 153' ATC) and decreased due to evaporation during compression to a very small value at Ibc time of ignition. There b pometric variation where fuel is not divided equally among individual cylinden There is also a time variation under steady-state engine conditions where the air/fuel ratio in a given cylinder varies cycle-by-cycle?' Data on time-averagd air/fuel ratios in each cylinder of multicylinder engines show that the extent d the maldistribution varies from engine to engine. size. Indicate clearly where the maximum occurs if there is one. Gross indicated fuel conversion eficiency.porated. and number density of these fuel droplets.2'** Time variations are less well defined. and a throttle-body injection system with feedback to maintain engine operation close to stoichiometric. the distribution of droplets laoS~the clearance volume was nonuniform. Brake mean effective pressure. while spreads as high u 20 to 30 percent are not uncommon at particular speeds for some engines. However.. after injection ended. again for carbureted engines. since there is a time delay between a change in the fuellair ratio at the injector location and the detection of that change by the sensor (corresponding to the flow time between the injector and the sensor).Using formats similar to those shown. WOT spreads in the equivalence ratio of about 15 percent of t b mean appear to be typical. as shown at the top of Fig. imep. The fuel flow to each cylinder per cycle is not exactly the same. Average droplet size during intake was 10 to 20 pm in diamde.me. bmep Mechanical efficiency. there is still some variation in fuel mass injected cylinder-to-cylinder and cycle-to-cycle. Si individual cylinder air flows depend on the design of the manifold. some 10 to 20 percent of the fuel was in dropletform at the end of injection. drop sizes produced in the carburetor are much smaller. P7-1. At ignition. PROBLEMS 7. (a) Estimate the average-flowtime between the injector and the sensor at an engine speed of 2000 revlmin.2 The four-cylinder spark-ignition engine shown in the figure uses an oxygen sensor in the exhaust system to determine whether the exhaust gas composition is lean or rich of the stoichiometric point. it increased during compression as the smaller drops in the distribution . the limited data available suggest they -. 7. 7-28 for a throttle-body fuel-injecd system. at a fixed engine speed.33 .) Also shown is the variation in total friction (pumping plus mechanical rubbing plus accessory friction). so impingement on the walk is much reduced. sudden throttle openings are acc panied by a "lean spike" in the mixture delivered to the engine.40 and manifold floor temperatures are of order 15•‹Chigher tha full load. All the above is consistent with less liquid on the floor and none in runners at light load. and where the value is zero or unity or some other obvious value. the control system shown results in oscillations in fuevair ratio about the stoichiometricpoint. Thus wall wetting. if appropriate. At high speed. Air-flow phenomena are corn parable to those with carbureted or throttle-body injection systems.

estimate the ratio of the intake manifold runner cross-sectional area to (nB2/4). Y. In practice.85." .1970. K.: "Effects of Exhaust Gas Recirculation O n Fuel Consumption.V. 3 cm diam Aback Sensor Exhaust manifold. (a) Plot dimensionless throttle plate open area ~AJRD*) as a function of throttle . = t=o (1 + cvn where t is the time (in seconds) after the voltage signal last changed sim (FIA). stoichiometric-mixture..4 mm. Estimate approximately the change in mixture temperature due t o vaporization of the additional fuel used to decrease AJF from 14. For the engine and intake manifold shown in Fig. D. 0. The intake manifold is no longer heated. estimate and plot the total force on the throttle plate and shaft.: 'Influence of Fuel Properties on Metering in Carburetors. The volumetric efficiency is 0. 369-376. to the maximum power obtained with P & fuel injection. and C is a constant. 80. A. engine speed. J. vol. volts when the fuel/& equivalence ratio 4 is less than one and a voltage of . 30. J. estimate approximately the injcctlon pulse duration (in crank angle degrees) for the same engine at idle. K. Bolt.. the fuel is o@ partly vaporized prior to entering the cylinder. the ratio of the volume of each inlet port to each cylinder's displaced volume. and the combined effect of vaporization and lower y. the fud flow rate is controlled by the injection pulse duration. The feedback injection system provides a fuellair ratio (FIA) given by + ) ) . Use the relationship between $.2 in the intake system.3.. You may neglect the effects of the h d capacity of the liquid and vapor fuel. The intake mixture preurs and equivalence ratio remain the same in both these cases.INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE FUNDAMENTALS (b) The sensor and control unit provide a voltage V of V. 195. (the feedback systm (c) Find the value of the constant C. The inlet manifold is heated to ensure that under steady-state conditions the fuel is vaporized before the mixture enters the cylinder.. assuming that the fuel is fully vaporized. the ratio of the length of the flow path from the intake manifold entrance to the inlet valve seat to the bore. Harrington. Assume $ = 10".6-dm3 displacement four-cylinder engine. (a) At normal wide-open throttle operating conditions. on the unburned mixture temperature at WOT when the cylinder pressure IS at its peak of 40 atm. 7-23. injector 1 p& cylinder ] FIGURE P7-2 7. and Muranaka. D (throttle bore diameter) = 57 rnm. Port fuel-injection systems are replacing carburetors in automobile spark-ignition List the major advantages and any disadvantages of fuel metering with port fuel injection relative to carburetion..4 kW. 1981.6 The fuel-air cycle results indicate that the maximum imep is obtained with gasolineair mixtures at equivalence ratios of about 1. Again use Fig. during compression. Explain briefly how you developed these graphs. Y. Nakajima.. such that (FIA) variations about the stoichiometric value do not exfccd + 10 percent for V. 7.8. REFERENCES 1. Control unit I Intake manifold. 5500 rev/min) of an automobile spark-ignition engine. SAE Trans. is the fuellair ratio at the injectoiat t = 0." in Proceedings of Institution of Mechanical Engineers. pp. Idle conditions are: 700 revlmin. 7. and the ratio of the volume of each intake manifold runner to each cylinder's displaced volume. assuming that the temperature entering the intake manifold is still 40OC a i d 50 percent of the fuel b vaporized. D. vol.6 (an equivalence ratio of 1. Assume that the inlet valve is the dominant restriction in the flm into the engine and that the pressure ratio across the inlet valve is the same fa both carbureted and port-injection fueled engines. (The principal effect of the richer mixture is its impact o n knock. L. . 7-22.. Develop carefully proportioned quantitative sketches of the variation in the fuellair ratio at the injector and at the exhaust sensor. for air is 1 kJ/kg. the temperature d the air entering the carburetor is 40•‹C. Derezinski. (c) For the throttle of part (a). The air density h 1. no. and the force parallel and perpendicular to the throttle bore axis (i. and Bolt. at 2500 revlmin. .With multipoint Port fuel injection and single-point injection systems. The vaporization of the additional gasoline lowers the temperature of the inlet air and the richer mixture has a lower ratio of specific heats y. and inlet manifold pressure given in Fig. d (throttle shaft diameter) = 10.7. vol. A.. SAE paper 700082. A/F = 12.8. Estimate the mixture temperat? as it passes through the inlet valve with the EFI system.. ( ( . Assume a discharge coeficient C = 0. S. in a four-stroke cyde 1." SAE paper 710207. volts when 6 is greab than one. in volts-'-seconds-' gain). (c) Estimate the ratio of the maximum indicated power obtained at these conditiom with this engine with a carburetor. . liquid fuel is added to the inlet air upstream of the inlet manifold above the throttle. 7-22 for the relationship between $ and inlet manifold pressure.3 atm inlet manifold pressure. In many spark-ignition engines. with time. If each injector operates continuously at the maximum rated power point (wide-open throttle. What is the throttle plate area? (b) Estimate the average velocity of the air flowing through the throttle plate open area for $ = 26" at 3000 rev/rnin and $ = 36" at 2000 revlmin. (b) With port electronic fuel-injection systems. J.06 kg/m3 and c.. 79.1971.0. and Harrington. Takagi.) 7. the maximum wide-own throttle power of a spark-ignition engine at a given speed is obtained with an airlfuel ratio of about 12.0) to 12. . Automobile Division. plate angle $.: "Analysis and Digital Simulation of Carburetor Metering. z. showing the phase relatioo between the two curves. S. The heat of vaporization of the fuel b 350 kJ/kg and the rate of heat transfer to the intake mixture is 1. SAE Trans.e. Sugihara. in the mean flow direction and normal to that direction) as a function of throttle angle at 2000 revlmin. the fuel is injected directly into intake port. . However. The cylinder bore is 89 mm. L. = 1 V. Estimate the temperature of the inlet mixture as it passes through the inlet valve.

..: "An Approach to Altitude Compensation of the &.9.." Battelle Memorial Institute. 196% 27.. W." SM paper 800164.1963.: "Closed-Loop Electronic Fuel and Air Control of Internal Combustioa ~ngines." NationaEBureau of Standards research paper 694. Hiref S. and Yii.. 16. and Yuen. SAE Trans. P." SAE paper 710206. 1977.-Ce& for Application in Automotive Emission Control Systems. A. A.. Kay. John Wiley. P.1987. J.: "Throttle Body Fuel Injection (TBI)--AnIntegrated Engine Control System.1980.1984. and Manger. paper C89/79.: "Transient A/F Control Characteristics of the 5 Liter Central Fuel I n j c a .J. H. 37 ~ervati. I. vol. 80..: "Lambda-Sensor with Y. Czadzeck. SAE Trans. W. The Thennodynamics Dynamics of Internal CombustionEngines. Coll~ns. J. SAE Trans. and Loddih D.: "Effects of Mixture Distribution oo Exhaust Emissions as Indicated by Engine Data and the Hydraulic Analogy.1974. . 87.1976. Bosch. 78." SAE paper 760289.: "Bosch Electronic Fuel Injection with Loop Control. D. and Boerma. E. lntemaIcombustion Engines. 53/74. Bridgeman. 1976. Seiter. Vaporization. R.: "Compressible Flow through a Butterfly Throttle Valve in Pipe. H. F. and Steinke.: "Measurement of Air Distribution in a ~ulticyliinda Engine by Means of a Mass Flow Probe. 1320-1329.: "Ford's 1980 Central Fuel Injection System. Clarendon Press. Moscow.: " BOSCH Fuel Injectors-New Developmcn4SAE paper 870124. Apr. 78. L. Horlock and D. vol. R. SAE Trans. 10. 11-14. R." SAE p p 820111. e " ~ ~ t i t u t i o nMechanical Engineers. C. F. 5..O.. 71. R S." BUN. vol. pp. 93. H.1982.Sci. T." SAE paper 780944. --R 3 . J. R. M." SAE 810494. Manifold of a Gasoline Engine. pp. M."in Flows in Internul Combustion EnQiM. N. J. T. A.: "In0uence of Air Pressure and Temperature on Carburetor ing. Yun.. SAE Trans. R. 1. V O ~ .: "Equilibrium Volatility of Motor Fuels from the Standpoint of n e i r Use in . G. Engelman. 8.). vol.: "Manifold Fuel Film Effects in an SI Engine. B.. no.: "Design of a Tuned Intake Manifold. and Mixing Processes on PofluW Emissions from Motor-Vehicle Powerplants. 14-19. W. 18. 90.: "Two Dimensional Numerical Simulation of Inlet Manifold Flow in a F W cylihder Internal Combustion Engine. Nov. C.: "Steady and Non-steady Flow in a Sipla Carburetor. vol. vol.. 84..1978. 1977..: "Numerical Modeling of Inlet and Exhaust in Multi-cylinder Internal Combustion Engines.. Gorille.. 1978." in Proceedings of Institution of Mechanical Engineers. 14.. . 80. J. D. Camp. SAE Trans. and Steinbrenner. I. Rittmannsberger.: "The GM 1. vol. SAE Trans.. H." SAE paper 800467.810495. Walker. J.. Woods. 0...291-322 . SAE Trans. ~ ~ ~ i nin . 12. Measurement of Fuel Droplets in a . and Werner. Gliickler. and Smith. R. Winterbone (eds. D. Brandstetter. G. Oxford." SAE paper 710618.: "A Study of the Influence of Fuel Atomhtion. Baruah. v d 86.: in J. J.." SAE paper 760286. SAE Trans. Engine.4. H. Shinoda.. Creswick. 89.1979. 6. K .. .: "Theoretical Studies of Fuel Droplei Evaporation and Transportation in a Carburetor Venturi.1975. Khovakh. E. O. 11..324 INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE FUNDAMEXTALS 4. A. pp." ASME paper 73-WA/DGP-2 1373. 24. R. 1979. C. Hurt." SAE paper 840239. 17.: "Transient Mixture Strength Excursions-An Investigation of heir Causes and the Development of a Constant Mixture Strength Fueling Strategy.: "Ford Three-Way Catalyst and Feedback Fuel Control System.: "Analysis and Experiments on Carburetor Metering at Transition Region to the Main System. P." SAE paper 660119. Oya. v o ~ 14 no. and Overington.. 21.1975. 23.. vol.: "Upward Liquid Flow in a Small Tube into which Air Streams. retor.. 22. H. and Finlay. and Hull. Giesike. vol... D.. and Sierens.. Hazard. R.. R. June 12-14. W..1981..-Stabilized Zr0. W. M.: "Laser-Video Imaging andPetroleum Product%" ANSIJASTM D86Spark-Ignition 1 peters. 596413. 1979. 193. C. . 20. A. 188.1969. R. 1971. W. Knapp. and Goh. and Clark.1971. 90. D. M. SAE Trans." in Proceedings of Institution of Mechanical Engineers. ~a." SAE paper 750368.: "Effects of Inlet and Exhaust System Design on Engine ~erformana.Koide. 10. A. L. . Chapman. I I I I - . F. 9. J. 26. 531548. pp.ASm Winter Annual Mating." Prog.SAE paper 780203. R.: Fuel Economy of the Gasoline Engine.. Chapman.." SAE paper 770401. W. M. A.. J. and Rachel. and Cam. Robert Bosch GmbH. GI Benson. D. Tabanvsnki." SAE paper 790244. 237-244.. Boam. . 91.1976. and Thomas. vol.: Fuel Droplet Vaporization and Spray Combustion Theory.Proceedings of Confirence on Combustion in Engineering.W. New York. Greiner. Liiiatta.1980. vol. R. Institution of Mechanical Engineers. "Deposition of Fuel Droplets in Horizontal Intake Manifolds and the Behavior of Fuel Film n o w on Its Walls. S. combust.1978. W. H. Mir Publishes. Hamann. S.: H. E.. Wrausmann.. Energy and . M..: "A Technique to Characterize Quantitatively the Airpuel Mixture in the Inlet 9 M.. C. A. 1983.1966. Benson." SAE paper 790742. R. 13.1973. R... Bowler. U) Blackmore. 1983. H. Stuttgart. M. L. Trayser. and Stein. K.. J. Deller. . vol. Automotive Handbook. and Lo. 19.. H. M. W. 1st English ed.1982." SAE Tram. 1983.1982 ASME.: "Fuel Distribution Studies-A New Look at an Old Problem. 25. of . L ASTMB." SAE paper 690515. Romann." SAE 1 l 9 paper . pp. A.: Motor Vehicle Engines (English translation).'w paper 821577. C-: "A Computer Model of Fuel Evaporation in the Intake System of a carbureted Petrol Engine. Weller. Manger." SAE paper 730494. vol. J. 7. Odord. s i r i ~ a n oW. !(. Ohio. R. E. A. 1982.1979. T. 41 YU. b . I.1934. Columbus. H. London. standard Method: "Distillation of ( i p 123168). Aquino.." Conference on Fuel Economy and Emissions of LRon Bum EngineS. I. SAE Trans. T. no.JSME.: "Present Status and Future Development of Gasolk Fuel Injection Systems for Passenger Cars. Bolt. .1971. vol.. Novak." SAE paper 750369. 15. U.8 Liter L-4 Gasoline Engine Designed by Chevrolet.1979. H. L.

6. I@. in a motored modd engine with transparent walls and single valve located on the cylinder axis. This separation of the jet sets up recirculation regions beneath the valve head and in the corner between the cylinder wall and cylinder head.1 INTAKE JET FLOW The engine intake process governs many important aspects of the flow within the cylinder. a substantial fraction flows upward toward the cylinder head. to permit easy optical access. It also has a significant impact on heat transfer. usiW laser doppler anemometry (see next section). The motion of the intake jet within the cylinder is shown in the schlieren photographs in Fig. so the jet starts after the intake stroke has commenced. at 35" ATC. at the valve exit plane. This chapter reviews the important features of gas motion within the cylinder set up by flows into and out of the cylinder through valves or ports. and axial mean velocity iz and rms velocity fluctuation ( 15 mm below the cylinder head. Once the jet reaches the wall (8 > 41" ATC). measured during the intake process. This engine had a square cross-section cylinder made up of two quartz walls and two steel walls. the wall deflects the major portion of the jet downward toward the piston. at 3' ATC 6 In model engine operated at 200 revfmin. The schlieren technique makes regions with density gradients in the flow show up as lighter or darker regions on the film.2 The engine was throttled to one-half an atmosphere intake pressure. The gas issues from the valve opening into the cylinder as a conical jet and the radial and axial velocities in the jet are about 10 times the mean piston speed. and by the motion of the piston. Velocities normalized by mean piston Gas motion within the engine cylinder is one of the major factors that controls the combustion process in spark-ignition engines and the fuel-air mixing and combustion processes in diesel engines.FIGURE 8-1 Radial mean velocity i. the inlet valve is the minimum area for the flow (see Sec. ' 8. The highly turbulent nature of the jet is evident. 8-2 taken in a transparent engine. The front of the intake jet can be seen propagating from the valve to the cylinder wall at several times the mean piston speed. In four-stroke cycle engines. Both the bulk gas motion and the turbulence characteristics of the flow are important. It may then be substantially modified during compression. following backflow of residual into the intake manifold. The interaction of the intake jet with the wall produces large-scale rotating flow patterns within the cylinder volume. Figure 8-1 shows the radial and axial velocity cornponenu close to the valve exit. These are easiest to visualize where the engine geometry has been simplified so the flow is axisymmetric.3) so gas velocities at the valve are the highest velocities set U P during the intake process. The photograph .' The jet separates from the vale scat and lip. The initial in-cylinder flow pattern is set up by the intake process. producing shear layers with large velocity gradients which generate turbulence. and root mean square (rms) velocity fluctuations v. Valve lift = 6 mm. however.

Valve lift = 4 mm4 . at least. However. photographs . The vortices become unstable and break up earlier in the intake stroke than was the case with the axisymmetric fl0w. The vortices are now displaced to one side. were maintained equal to typical engine values. and the flow into the valve is along the cylinder axis. During the first half of the inlet stroke. % FIGURE 8-3 Large-scale rotating flow set up within the cylinder intake jet. a flow pattern similar in character to that in Fig. the presence of large-scale rotating flow patterns can still be discerned. the intake generated flow is more complex. 6-13). the Reynolds and Strouhal numbers.4 ~ the effect of off-axis valve location (with the flow into the valve still parallel to the cylinder and valve axis). The bulk of the cylinder as the piston moves down is filled with a large ring vortex. Numbers an crank angle degrees after TC. photograph of lines in water flow into engine with axisymmetricv ~ J from: (a) streak photographs of in-cylinder intake generated flow in water analog of intake Procffsin model engine with offset inlet valve.INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE FLNDAMENTALS the intake generated flow in a thin illuminated plane through th.' in Fig. The valve is located in the center of the P cylinder head. The ~treaksare records of the paths of tracer particles in the flow during the period the camera shutter is open. with intake port and valve geometry shown. at 90" ATC. These vorpersist until about the end of the intake stroke.' (b)streak photographs of flow in diamplane. and the planes of their axes of rotation are no longer perpendicular to the cylinder axis but are tipped at an angle to it. 8-3 is evident.f FIGURE 8-2 Sequence of schlieren photographs of intake jet as it develops during ~ntakestroke. however. when they became unstable break u p 3 With inlet valve location and inlet port geometry more typical of normal engine practice. rotating in the opposite direction. The photograph shows the major features . whose center moves downward and rzmajn~ about halfway between the piston and the head.e cylinder axis.j With an offset valve and a normal inlet port (see configuration which turns the flow through 50 to 70•‹ Fig. 8-3 of a water analog of an engine intake flow was taken in a transparent $ model of an engine cylinder and piston. 30 mm below cylinder head. The upper corner of the a[inder contains a smaller vortex. Figure 8 .? 4 mental parameters have been scaled so that the appropriate dimensionlar numbers which govern the flow. The expri. with steady flow into cylinder.

c the turbulence intensity.1 Definitions The flow processes in the engine cylinder are turbulent. It leads to increased rates of momentum and heat and mass transfer. The normally used are: the mean velocity. the application of these turbulence concepts is complicated by the fact that the flow pattern changes during the engine cycle. In turbulent flows. 0(9).3. In engines.2. details of this aspect of the intake flow depend on the port design. Recirculating flows of this type are usually sensitive to small variations in the flow: hence there are probably substantial cycle-by-cycle flow variations. The ensemble3Vwaged velocity is the average over a large number of measurements taken at the same crank angle (two such points are indicated by dots): N . and is essential to the satisfactory operation of spark-ignition and diesel engin& Turbulent flows are always dissipative. statistical methods are therefore used to define such a flow field. Turbulence is rotational and characterized by high fluctuating vorticity: these vorticity fluctuations can wb persist if the velocity fluctuations are three dimensionaL6 The character of a turbulent flow depends on its environment. the rates of transfer and mixing are several times greater than the rates due to m o b ular diffusion. There are both cycle-to-cycle variations in the mean or bulk flow at any point in the cycle. eithe during the intake or the compression process. This flow pattern occurs because t b cylinder wall closest to the valve impedes the flow out of the valve and forces t b flow on either side of the plane passing through the valve and cylinder axes to circulate around the cylinder in opposite directions. as well as turbulent fluctuations about that specific cycle's mean flow. The flow is unsteady and may exhi? substantial cycle-to-cycle fluctuations. is the number of cycles for which data are available. The production and characteristics of such "swirling " flows are reviewed in Sec. This turbulent "diffusion" results from the local fluctuations in the flow field.or phase-averaged velocity.2 MEAN VELOCITY AND TURBULENCE CHARACTERISTICS 8. and several length and time scales. the instantaneous local fluid velocity U (in a specific direction) is written: For steady flow. valve. is defined as the average of *dues at a specific phase or crank angle in the basic cycle. valve stern orientation. By repeating this . it is possible to develop a single vortex flow within the bulk of the cylinder. One approach used in quasi-periodic flows such as that which occurs in the engine cylinder is ensemble-averaging or phase-averaging. So energy is required to generate turbulence: if energy is supplied. In a steady turbulent flow situation. In the eng* cylinder. and the valve lift? With suitable port and/or cylinder head design. with small and large cycle-to-cycle variations. der in a plane 30 mm (one-third of the bore) from the cylinder head. turbulence decays. creates large-scale rotating flow patterns withi the cylinder. the fluctuating velocity about mean. the mean velocity 0 is the time average of U(t): ~ h fluctuating velocity component u is defined by its root mean square value. Thc instantaneous velocity at a specific crank angle position 9 in a particular cycle i can be written as The ensemble. Figure 8-5 shows this approach applied schematically to the velocity variation during a two-stroke engine cycle. A common source of energy for turbuld velocity fluctuations is shear in the mean flow.' An important characteristic of a turbulent flow is its irregularity 0' since the time average of (uo) is zero. velocity measurements are made over many engine cycles. the flow involves a complicated combination of turbulent shear l a m recirculating regions. Both large-scale and small-scale t u r b d d motions are important factors governing the overall behavior of the flow. and boundary layers. the jet-like character of the intake flow. interacting with t k cylinder walls and moving piston. Usually. Viscous shear stresses perform deformtion work on the fluid which increases its internal energy at the expense of iU turbulence kinetic energy. with standard inlet port design. The direction of flow with this vortex pair is toward the left across the center of the cylinder. In summary. while the overall features of the flow repeat each cycle. The upper vortex follows the flow direction of the port and becomes larger still as the valve lift increases.' domness. the details do not because the mean flow can vary significantly from one engine cycle to the next. The details of these flows are strongly dependent on the inlet port. Also. 8. 8.330 INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE FUNDAMENTALS of the flow pattern in a diametral plane show an additional large-scale rotatioa Figure 8-4b shows the flow pattern observed in a water-flow model of the cylip. and cylinder head geometry. u': Alternatively. and over a range of crank angles. dimensional turbulent motions. These flows appear to become unstable. and break down into three.



(a) Low

cycle-to-cycle variation

(b) Large cycle-to-cycle variation

Schematic of jet created by flow through the intake valve indicating its turbulent struct~re.~.

Ensemble average


Schematic of velocity variation with crank angle at a fixed location in the cylinder during !wo consecutive cycles of an engine. Dots indicate measurements of instantaneous velocity at the same crank angle. Ensemble- or phase-averaged velocity obtained by averaging over a large number of sucb measurements shown as solid smooth line. Top graph: low cycle-to-cycle flow variations. Here I k individual-cycle mean velocity and ensemble-averaged velocity are closely comparable. Bollom graph: large cycle-to-cycle variations. Here the individual-cycle mean velocity (dotted line) is ditTertal from the ensemble-averaged mean by 0. The turbulent fluctuation u is then defined in relation to l k individual-cycle


process at many crank angle locations the ensemble-averaged velocity pr~fil over the complete cycle is obtained. The ensemble-averaged mean velocity is only a function of crank since the cyclic variation has been averaged out. The difference between the velocity in a particular cycle and the ensemble-averaged mean velocity over man cycles is defined as the cycle-by-cycle variation in mean velocity: O(0, i) = U(8, i) - UEA(0) Thus the instantaneous velocity, given by Eq. (8.4), can be split into three co

Figure 8-5 illustrates this breakdown of the instantaneous velocity into an ensemble-averaged component, an individual-cycle mean velocity, and a component which randomly fluctuates in time at a particular point in space in a single cycle. This last component is the conventional definition of the turbulent velocity fluctuation. Whether this differs significantly from the fluctuations about ~hc ensemble-averaged velocity depends on whether the cycle-to-cycle fluctuations are small or large. The figure indicates these two extremes.? In turbulent flows, a number of length scales exist that characterize different aspects of the flow behavior. The largest eddies in the flow are limited in size by the system boundaries. The smallest scales of the turbulent motion are limited by molecular diffusion. The important length scales are illustrated by the schematic of the jet issuing into the cylinder from the intake valve in Fig. 8-6. The eddies responsible for most of the turbulence production during intake are the large eddies in the conical inlet jet flow. These are roughly equal in size to the local jet thickness. This scale is called the integral scale, I,: it is a measure of the largest scale structure of the flow field. Velocity measurements made at two points separated by a distance x significantly less than I, will correlate with each other; with x % I , , no correlation will exist. The integral length scale is, therefore, defined as the integral of the autocorrelation coeficient of the fluctuating velocity 31 two adjacent points in the flow with+respect to the variable distance between


'There is considerabledebate as to whether the fluctuating components of the velocity U(0,i) defined
E q (8.7) (cycle fluctuations in the mean velocity and fluctuations in time about the individual cycle are physically distinct phenomena. The high-frequency fluctuations in velocity are often defined u-~Urbulence." The low-frequency fluctuations are generally attributed to the variations in the mean dOw k u e e n individual cycles, a phenomenon that is well established. Whether this distinction is ad has yet to be resolved.









FIGURE 8-7 Spatial velocity autocorrelationR, as a f u n ~ od n x, detining the integral length scale I, and
micro length scale I,.

be isotropic (have no preferred direction) than are the large eddies, and have a yncture like that of other turbulent flows. The dissipation of turbulence energy ukes place in the smallest structures. At this smallest scale of the turbulent motion, called the Kolntogorov scale, molecular viscosity acts to dissipate smallkinetic energy into heat. If s is the energy dissipation rate per unit mass and ,,he kinematic viscosity, Kolmogorov length and time scales are defined by (8.1 1) The ~(olmogorovlength scale indicates the size of the smallest eddies. The );olmogor~vtime scale characterizes the momentum-diffusion of these smallest dructures. A third scale is useful in characterizing a turbulent flow. It is called the mjcroscale (or Taylor microscale). The micro length scale,1 is defined by relating the fluctuatingstrain rate of the turbulent flow field to the turbulenac intensity:




the points, as shown in Fig. 8-7: i.e., 1 =[ R , , where R, = dx


1 u(xo)u(xo + -9 U'(X~)U'(X~ x) Nm- 1 + X)
i= 1

This technique for determining the integral scale requires simultaneous measuments at two points. Due to the d i c u l t y of applying such a technique in most efforts to determine length scales have first employed correlations to de mine the integral time scale, T. The integral time scale of turbulence is defined , a correlation between two velocities at a fixed point in space, but separated time :

11 can be determined from the curvature of the spatial correlation curve at the & i n ,as shown in Fig. 8-7.'.' More commonly, the micro time scale TM is determined from the temporal autocorrelation function of Eq. (8.9):



For turbulence which is homogeneous (has no spatial gradients) and is isotropic T (has no preferred direction), the microscales,1 and , are related by These different scales are related as follows. The turbulent kinetic energy per unit mass in the large-scale eddies is proportional to u". Large eddies lose a substantial fraction of this energy in one "turnover" time 1,/u1. In an equilibrium situation the rate of energy supply equals the rate of dissipation:

R, dt

where 1 u(to)u(to + t) R, = N m - 1 i = ul(to)u'(to+ t) and N, is the number of measurements. Under conditions where the turbul pattern is convected past the observation point without significant distortion the turbulence is relatively weak, the integral length and time scales are rela by 1, = Orl In flows where the large-scale structures are convected, r, is a measure of it takes a large eddy to pass a point. In flows without mean motion, the int time scale is an indication of the lifetime of an eddy.5* Superposed on this large-scale flow is a range of eddies of sm smaller size, fed by the continual breakdown of larger eddies. Since the eddies respond more rapidly to changes in local flow pattern, they are mo

ut3 1 1


' 'here Re, is the turbulent Reynolds number, ull,/v. Within the restrictions of homogeneous and isotropic turbulence, an energy can be used to relate 1 and,1 , ':





where A is a constant of order 1. Thus,


d d t y fluctuation is


112 ~ ~ j l I 2

These restrictions are not usually satisfied within the engine cylinder dUrhr intake. They are approximately satisfied at the end of compression.


Application to Engine Velocity Data

As has been explained above, it is necessary to analyze velocity data on an in& vidual cycle basis as well as using ensemble-averaging techniques. The basic nitions for obtaining velocities which characterize the flow will now be develow The ensemble-averaged velocity has already been defined by Eq. (8.5). ~h~ ensemble-averaged fluctuation intensity uk, is given by



u EA(@ = ; ,

{- x [ ~ ( e ill2} {- x [U(&')i ,


Nc i=1


- oEA(e)2]r12 (8.16)

It includes all fluctuations about the ensemble-averaged mean velocity. Use of Eqs. (8.5) and (8.16) requires values for U and u at each specific crank angle under consideration. While some measurement techniques (e.g., hot. wire anemometry) provide this, the preferred velocity measurement method ( doppler anemometry) provides an intermittent signal. With laser doppler mometry (LDA), interference fringes are produced within the small volume created by the intersection of two laser beams within the flow field. When a small particle passes through this volume, it scatters light at a frequency proportio to the particle velocity. By seeding the flow with particles small enough to camed without slip by the flow and collecting this scattered light, the flow velocity is determined.9 A signal is only produced when a particle moves through the measurement volume; thus one collects data as velocity crank angle pairs. It h necessary, therefore, to perform the ensemble-averaging over a finite crank angle window A8 around the specific crank angle of interest, 8. The ensemble-averad velocity equation becomes

AS has already been explained, this definition of fluctuation intensity [the mamble-averaged rms velocity fluctuation, Eq. (8.18)] includes cyclic variations the mean flow as well as the turbulent fluctuations about each cycle's mean flow.7 ~t is necessary to determine the mean and fluctuating velocities on an ,ndividual-~y~le to characterize the flow field more completely. The critical basis p ~ of this process is defining the mean velocity at a specific crank angle (or ~ t %;thina small window centered about that crank angle) in each cycle. Several have been used to determine this individual-cycle mean velocity (e.g., moving window, low-pass filtering, data smoothing, conditional sampling; see ~ c f7.for a summary). A high data rate is required. In this individual-cycle velocity analysis the individual-cycle time-averaged or mean velocity o(8, 0 is first determined.'." The ensemble average of this mean velocity


is identical to the ensemble-averaged value given by Eq. (8.17). The root mean square fluctuation in individual-cycle mean velocity can then be determined from

This indicates the magnitude of the cyclic fluctuations in the mean motion. The instantaneous velocity fluctuation from the mean velocity, within a specified window A0 at a particular crank angle 0, is obtained from Eq. (8.4). This instantaneous velocity fluctuation is ensemble-averaged, because it varies substantially cycle-by-cycle and because the amount of data is usually insufficient to give reliable individual-cycle results:

where Ni is the number of velocity measurements recorded in the window during the ith Cycle, N , is the number of cycles, and N, is the total number of measu* ments.t The corresponding equation for the ensemble-averaged root mean squa* This quantity is the ensemble-averaged turbulence intensity. Several different techniques have been used to measure gas velocities within [he engine cylinder (see Refs. 13 and 14 for brief reviews and references). The 'ehnique which provides most complete and accurate data is laser doppler anemometr~.~ Sample results obtained with this technique will now be reviewed t o

t This need to ensemble-average over a finite crank angle window introduces an error called
angle broadening, due to change in the mean velocity across the window. This error depends on velocity gradient, and can be made negligibly small by suitable choice of window me?-''






illustrate the major features-of the in-c must be interpreted with caution since where the geometry and flow have been modi their interiretation easier. Also, the flow withi in nature. It takes measurements at many poi of a flow visualization technique to characterize the flow adequately. Figure 8-8 shows ensemble-averaged velocities throughout the engine at two measurement locations in a special L-head engine designed to gene swirling flow within the cylinder. The engine was motored at 300 rev/min, a mean piston speed of 0.76 m/s. Figure 8-8b of the swirling intake flow within the clear High velocities are generated during the inta then decreasing in response to the "..-..-, ---- - - is a motored engine cyclc A cornparism with an equivalent firing ycle showed close agreement.'' The expansi


--- Cycle by cycle


Crank angle, deg


Intake Compression Expansion Exhaust Crank angle, deg

(l(;cRE 8 9 temrhk-averaged rms velocity fluctuation and ensemble-averagedindividual-cycle turbulence inten-1, ds a function of crank angle: (a)at location bin Fig. 8-8a; (b)at location c in Fig. 8-8a.l'


. .
- -0

. .

, , ,




Intake Compression Expansion Exhaust Crank angle, deg

~ntakeCompression Exhaust Ex~msio" Crank angle, deg

plha~~t stroke velocities are not typical of firing engine behavior, h0wever.t [lgurc 8-8c shows the mean velocity in the clearance volume in the same direcrlon but on the cylinder axis. At this location, positive and negative flow veloc,rlsswere measured. Since this location is out of the path of the intake generated b w , velocities during the intake stroke are much lower. The nonhomogeneous character of this particular ensemble-mean flow is evident. Figure 8-9 shows the ensemble-averaged rms velocity fluctuation (which tncludcs contributions from cycle-by-cycle variations in the mean flow and rurbulence) and the ensemble-averaged individual-cycle turbulence intensity at rhcw same two locations and directions. The difference between the two curves in c~rh graph is an indication of the cycle-by-cycle variation in the mean flow [see 1q. 18.7)]. During the intake process, within the directed intake flow pattern, the c)cle-by-cycle variation in the mean flow is small in comparison to the high ~urbulcncelevels created by the intake flow. Outside this directed flow region, again during intake, this cycle-by-cyclecontribution is more significant relative to the turbulence. During compression, the cycle-by-cycle mean flow variation is comparable in magnitude to the ensemble-averaged turbulence intensity. It is 'hmfore highly significant. Two important questions regarding the turbulence in the engine cylinder m whether it is homogeneous (i.e., uniform) and whether it is isotropic (i.e., Inhendent of direction). The data already presented in Figs. 8-8 and 8-9 show during intake the flow is far from homogeneous. Nor is it isotropic.ll



lgine cycle in motored four-stroke L-head engin Ensemble-averaged velocities roughout the el ! schematic showing measurement locations ad rev/min, mean piston speed 0. m/s. (a)Engine intake flow palth; (c) velocity at c on cylinder axis.'' ity directions; (b) velocity at b

increase in velocity when the exhaust valve opens is due to the flow of gas into the cylinder bust. due primarily to heat losses, the cylinder pressure is then below 1 a m .




However, it is the character of the turbulence at the end of the com process that is most important: that is what controls the fuel-air mi burning rates. Only limited data are available which relate to these With open disc-shaped combustion chambers, measurements at differen tions in the clearance volume around TC at the end of compression show turbulence intensity to be relatively homogeneous. In the absence of an in generated swirling flow, the turbulence intensity was also essentially isotr near TC.16 These specific results support the more general conclusion that inlet boundary conditions play the dominant role in the generation of the flow and turbulence fields during the intake stroke. However, in the ab swirl, this intake generated flow structure has almost disappeared by the compression process commences. The turbulence levels follow this t mean flow, with the rapid decay process lasting until intake valve closing. ~a in the compression process the turbulence becomes essentially homogeneous.11 When a swirling flow is generated during intake, an almost solidrotating flow develops which remains stable for much longer than the inlet generated rotating flows illustrated in Fig. 8-3. With simple disc-shaped cham bers, the turbulence still appears to become almost homogeneous at the end d compression. With swirl and bowl-in-piston geometry chambers, however, (bC flow is more complex (see Sec. 8.3). The flow through the intake valve or port is responsible for many featurn of the in-cylinder motion. The flow velocity through the valve is proportional 10 the piston speed [see Eq. (6.10) for pseudo valve flow velocity, and Eq. 2.10)]. % would be expected therefore that in-cylinder flow velocities at different en@ speeds would scale with mean piston speed [Eq. (2.1111. Figure 8-10 show) ensemble-averaged mean and rms velocity fluctuations, normalized by the mean piston speed through the cycle at three different engine speeds. The measuremest location is in the path of the intake generated swirling flow (point b in Fig. 8-84 An the curves have approximately the same shape and magnitude, indicating ths






0 :







Mean piston speed, m/s

nCURE 8-11 .. ~~ridual-cycle turbulence intensity u;., (OX) and ensemble-averaged rms fluctuation velocity symbols) at TC at the end of compression, for a number of different flow configurations chamber geometries as a function of mean piston speed.'6 Two data sets for two-stroke ported mpncs. Four data sets with intake generated swirl.

of this velocity scaling.? Other results support this conclusion, though in the absence of an ordered mean motion such as swirl when the ensemble-averaged mean velocities at the end of compression are low, this scaling k r the mean velocity does not always hold.16 Figure 8-11 shows a compilation of cnscmble-averaged rms fluctuation velocity or ensemble-averaged individualcycle turbulence intensity results at TC at the end of compression, from 13 different flow configurations and combustion chamber geometries. Two of these sets of r~ults from two-stroke cycle ported configurations. The measured fluctuating are wlocities or turbulence intensities are plotted against mean piston speed. The l~navrrelationship holds well. There is a substantial variation in the proportionality constant, in part because in most of these studies (identified in the figure) the ensemble-averaged rms fluctuation velocity was the quantity measured. Since this includes the cycle-by-cycle fluctuation in the mean velocity, it is larger (by up to a htor of 2) than the average turbulence intensity u;, A consensus conclusion is emerging from these studies that the turbulence lnlmity at top-center, with open combustion chambers in the absence of swirl, a maximum value equal to about half the mean piston speed:'"

5 u kher than is typical of normal engine geometries.


that because of the valve and combustion chamber of this particular engine, the ratio of ff to





The available data show that the turbulence intensity at TC with swirl is usua higher than without swirl16 (see the four data sets with swirl in Fig. 8-11). some data, however, indicate that the rms fluctuation intensity with swirl may be lower.18 The ensemble-averaged cyclic variation in individual-cycle mean veloriv at the end of compression also scales with mean piston speed. This quantity be comparable in magnitude to the turbulence intensity. It usually decrease 'when a swirling flow is generated within the cylinder during the intake pr0cess.l l6 During the compression stroke, and also during combustion while t k cylinder pressure continues to rise, the unburned mixture is compressed. Turbulent flow properties are changed significantly by the large and rapidly imposed distortions that result from this compression. Such distortions, in the absence dissipation, would conserve the angular momentum of the flow: rapid comprsion would lead to an increase in vorticity and turbulence intensity. There evidence that, with certain types of in-cylinder flow pattern, an increase in turbu. lence intensity resulting fro-m piston motion and combustion does occur toward the end of the compression process. The compression of large-scale rotating flow can cause this increase due to the increasing angular velocity required to con. serve angular momentum resulting in a growth in turbulence generation by shear.19 Limited results are available which characterize the turbclence time and length scales in automobile engine flows. During the intake process, the integral length scale is of the order of the intake jet diameter, which is of the order of the valve lift (510 mm in automo-bile-size engines). During compression the flow relaxes to the shape of the combusion,chamber. The integral time scale at the end of compression decreases with increasing engine speed. It is of order 1 ms at engine speeds of about 1000 revlmin. The integral length scale at the end of compression is believed to scale with the clearance height and varies little with engine speed. It decreases as the piston approaches TC to about 2 m m (0.2 x clearance height). The micro time scale at the end of compression is of order 0.1 ms at 1000 revlmin, and decreases as engine speed increases (again in automobile-size engine cylinders). Micro length scales are of order 1 mm at the end of compression and vary little with engine speed. Kolmogorov length scales mm.8* 21 20. at the end of compression are of order

the injected fuel. Swirl is also used to-speed up the combustion process in ,park-igniti~n engines. In two-stroke engines it is used to improve scavenging. In wme designs of prechamber engines, organized rotation about the prechamber ,is is also called swirl. In prechamber engines where swirl within the precombustion chamber is important, the flow into the prechamber during the compresion process creates the rotating flow. Prechamber flows are discussed in Sec. 8.5.


Swirl Measurement

The nature of the swirling flow in an actual operating engine is extremely difficult to determine. Accordingly, steady flow tests are often used to characterize the swirl. Air is blown steadily through the inlet port and valve assembly in the cylinder head into an appropriately located equivalent of the cylinder. A common technique for characterizing the swirl within the cylinder has been to use a light paddle wheel, pivoted on the cylinder centerline (with low friction bearings), mounted between 1 and 1.5 bore diameters down the cylinder. The paddle wheel diameter is close to the cylinder bore. The rotation rate of the paddle wheel is used as a measure of the air swirl. Since this rotation rate depends on the location of the wheel and its design, and the details of the swirling flow, this t e h nique is being superseded by the impulse swirl meter shown in Fig. 8-12. A honeycomb flow straightener replaces the paddle wheel: it measures the total torque exerted by the swirling flow. This torque equals the flux of angular

Swirl is usually defined as organized rotation of the charge about the cyli axis. Swirl is created by bringing the intake flow into the cylinder with an ini angular momentum. While some decay in swirl due to friction occurs during engine cycle, intake generated swirl usually persists through the compressio~ combustion, and expansion processes. In engine designs with bowl-in-pi combustion chambers, the rotational motion set up during intake is substant modified during compression. Swirl is used in diesels and some stratified-char engine concepts to promote more rapid mixing between the inducted air charge

Restraining torque











momentum through the plane coinciding with the flow-straightener upstr face. For each of these approaches, a swirl coeflcient is defined which essent compares the flow's angular momentum with its axial momentum. For paddle wheel, the swirl coefficient C, is defined by
C, =

o B

produced under corresponding conditions of flow and valve lift Ibe mains in the cylinder. Steady-state impulse torque-meter flow rig data can be to estimate engine swirl in the following manner.23Assuming that the port valve retain the same characteristics under the transient conditions of the mgineas on the steady-flow rig, the equivalent solid-body angular velocity o, at :he end of the intake process is given by


where w, is the paddle wheel angular velocity (=2nNp, where N, is the rotatio a1 speed) and the bore B has been used as the characteristic dimension. characteristic velocity, vO, is derived from the pressure drop across the v using an incompressible flow equation:

*here Q1 and 6, are crank angles at the start and end of the intake process and


- P$ (C


, are constant throughout the intake process, and introducing volumetric effi,
,jfncy q, based on intake manifold conditions via Eq. (2.27), it can be shown that where A,CD is the effective valve open area at each crank angle. Note that the crank angle in Eq. (8.29) should be in radians. Except for its (weak) dependence on q,, Eq. (8.29) gives R, independent of operating conditions directly from rig ( 1results and engine geometry. 6 The relationship between steady-flow rig tests (which are extensively used because of their simplicity) and Wual engine swirl patterns is not fully understood. Steady-flowtests adequately describe the swirl generating characteristics of thc intake port and valve (at fixed valve lift) and are used extensively for this purpose. However, the swirling flow set up in the cylinder during intake can change significantly during compression.

, [he local crank angle. Using Eq. (8.27) for T, Eq. (6.11) for

,hc torque T and mass flow rate m are evaluated at the valve lift corresponding
m, assuming vo and

or a compressible flow equation:



27 Po (Y- 1) Po


where the subscripts 0 and c refer to upstream stagnation and cylinder values, respectively. The difference between Eqs. (8.25) and (8.26) is usually small. With the impulse torque meter, characteristic velocity and length scales must also k introduced. Several swirl parameters have been defined.22.23 The simplest is
C, = -

8T rhvo B

where T is the torque and m the air mass flow rate. The velocity oO,defined by Eq. (8.25) or Eq. (8.26), and the bore have again been used to obtain a dimensionless coefficient. Note that for solid-body rotation of the fluid within the cylinder at the paddle wheel speed o,, Eqs. (8.24) and (8.27) give identical swirl coefficients. In practice, because the swirling flow is not solid-body rotation and because the paddle wheel usually lags the flow due to slip, the impulse torqw meter gives higher swirl coefficient^.^^ When swirl measurements are made in an operating engine, a swirl ratio is normally used to define the swirl. It is defined the angular velocity of a solid-body rotating flow o s , which has equal angular momentum to the actual flow, divided by the crankshaft angular rotational speed :
W, R, = 2nN

83.2 Swirl Generation during Induction
Two general approaches are used to create swirl during the induction process. In one, the flow is discharged into the cylinder tangentially toward the cylinder wall, ahere it is deflected sideways and downward in a swirling motion. In the other, the swirl is largely generated within the inlet port: the flow is forced to rotate about the valve axis before it enters the cylinder. The former type of motion is achieved by forcing the flow distribution around the circumference of the inlet valve to be nonuniform, so that the inlet flow has a substantial net angular momentum about the cylinder axis. The directed port and deflector wall port in Fig. 8-13 are two common ways of achieving this result. The directed port brings the flow toward the valve opening in the desired tangential direction. Its passage straight, which due to other cylinder head requirements restricts the flow area and results in a relatively low discharge coefficient. The deflector wall port uses 'he pon inner side wall to f o m the flow preferentially through the outer peripht'Y of the valve opening, in a tangential direction. Since only one wall is used to Obtain a directional effect, the port areas are less restrictive.


During the induction stroke in an engine the flow and the valve open a m and consequently the angular momentum flux into the cylinder, vary with angle. Whereas in rig tests the flow and valve open area are fixed and the a n d u momentum passes down the cylinder continuously, in the engine intake p r e




Mse akd

FIGURE 8-14 shrouded inlet valve and masked cylinder head approaches for producing net incylinder angular momentum.

Dierent types of swirl-generating inlet ports: (a) deflector wall; (b) directed; (c) shallow ramp helical; (d) steep ramp

ratios for these ports calculated from this rig data using Eqs. (8.27) and (8.29) are: 2.5 for the directed port, 2.9 for the shallow ramp helical, and 2.6 for the steep ramp helical. Vane swirl-meter swirl ratios were about 30 percent less. These

Flow rotation about the cylinder axis can also be generated by masking off or shrouding part of the peripheral inlet valve open area, as shown in Fig. 8-14. Use is often made of a mask or shroud on the valve in research engines because changes can readily be made. In production engines, the added cost and weight, problems of distortion, the need to prevent valve rotation, and reduced volumetric eficiency make masking the valve an unattractive approach. The more practical alternative of building a mask on the cylinder head around part of the inlet valve periphery is used in production spark-ignition engines to generate swirl. It can easily be incorporated in the cylinder head casting process. The second broad approach is to generate swirl within the port, about the valve axis, prior to the flow entering the cylinder. Two examples of such helical ports are shown in Fig. 8-13. Usually, with helical ports, a higher flow discharge coefficient at equivalent levels of swirl is obtained, since the whole periphery or the valve open area can be fully utilized. A higher volumetric efficiency resultr Also, helical ports are less sensitive to position displacements, such as can occur in casting, since the swirl generated depends mainly on the port geometry above the valve and not the position of the port relative to the cylinder axis. Figure 8-15 compares steady-state swirl-rig measurements of examples the ports in Fig. 8-13. The rig swirl number increases with increasing valve reflecting the increasing impact of the port shape and decreasing impact of the flow restriction between the valve head and seat. Helical ports normally 2s more angular momentum at medium lifts than do directed ports.23v Th


impulse-swirl-meter derived engine swirl ratios arewithin about 20 percent of the solid-body rotation rate which has equal angular momentum to that of the cylinder charge determined from tangential velocity measurements made within the cylinder of an operating engine with the same port, at the end of the induction process."

Valve lift Valve diameter

Steady-state torque meter swirl measurements of directed, shallow ramp, and steep ramp helical ports as a function of inlet valve lift/diameter ratio.23





Directed and deflector wall ports, and masked valve or head designt produce a tangential flow into the cylinder by increasing the flow resistanfc through that part of the valve open area where flow is not desired. A highly nonuniform flow through the valve periphery results and the flow into the cylinder has a substantial v, velocity component in the same direction about the cylin. &r axis. In contrast, helical ports produce the swirl in the port upstream of the valve, and the velocity components v,, and v, through the valve opening, and v, about the valve axis are approximately uniform around the valve open area. Figure 8-16 shows velocity data measured at the valve exit plane in steady-flow rig tests with examples of these two types of port. The valve and cylinder wU a locations are shown. In Fig. 8-16a, the deflector wall of the tangentially oriented port effectively prevents any significant flow around half the valve periphery. contrast, in Fig. 8-166 with the helical port, the air flows into the cylinder around

lhc full valve open area. The radial and axial velocities are essentially uniform ,round the valve periphery. The swirl velocity about the valve axis (anticlockwise *hen viewed from above) for this helical port is relatively uniform and is about hdlf the magnitude of the radial and axial velocities. The swirling air flow within the cylinder of an operating engine is not ,,ifom The velocities generated at the valve at each point in the induction Crwessdepend on the valve open area and piston velocity. The velocities are highest during the first half of the intake process as indicated in Fig. 6-15. Thus, [he swirl velocities generated during this portion of the induction stroke are hleher than the swirl generated during the latter half of the stroke: there is swirl slratificati~n. Also, the flow pattern close to the cylinder head during induction is disorganized, and not usually close to a solid-body rotation. It of a system of vortices, created by the high-velocity tangential or spiraling intake jet. Further down the cylinder, the flow pattern is closer to solid-body with the swirl velocity increasing with increasing radius.23.24 This more ordered flow directly above the piston produces higher swirl velocities in that region of the cylinder. As the piston velocity decreases during intake, the swirl pattern redistributes, with swirl speeds close to the piston decreasing and swirl ' speeds in the center of the cylinder increasing." Note that the axis of rotation of rhc in-cylinder gases may not exactly coincide with the cylinder axis.

833 Swirl Modification within the Cylinder
The angular momentum of the air which enters the cylinder at each crank angle during induction decays throughout the rest of the intake process and during the compression process due to friction at the walls and turbulent dissipation within the fluid. Typically one-quarter to one-third of the initial moment of momentum about the cylinder axis will be lost by top-center at the end of compression. However, swirl velocities in the charge can be substantially increased during compression by suitable design of the combustion chamber. In many designs of direct-injection diesel, air swirl is used to obtain much more rapid mixing between the fuel injected into the cylinder and the air than would occur in the absence of swirl. The tangential velocity of the swirling air flow set up inside the cylinder during induction is substantially increased by forcing most of the air into a compact bowl-in-piston combustion chamber, usually centered on the cylinder "is, as the piston approaches its top-center position. Neglecting the effects of friction, angular momentum is conserved, and as the moment of inertia of the air is decreased its angular velocity must increase. However, the total angular momentum of the charge within the cylinder does decay due to friction at the chamber walls. The angular momentum of the cylinder charge T changes with time according to the moment of momentum , conservation equation:


1 - 1

= 50 mls

Swirl, axial, and radial velocities measured 2 mm from cylinder head around the valve circul~fie for (a) tangential deflector-wall port and (b)helical port; magnitude of velocity is given by the dis along a radial line (from valve axis), from valve outline to the respective curve scaled by the refe 27 length (examples of radial velocity indicated by two arrows); valve lift = 12.8

For a disc-shaped combustion chamber. x m.33).5)28 z and Re. as the moment of inertia of the air about the cylinder axis is of dt-creased the air's angular velocity must increase to conserve angular momentum.. replacing the bore. it is usually about a factor of 2 to 3. (8. as defined in Fig. In an operating engine with this bowl-in-piston chamber design. except close to the cylinder wall where friction causes the velocity to decrease. and engine speed.1). While t angular momentum entering the cylinder during the intake process is the actual angular momentum within the cylinder at the end of induction will be less. respectively.055). Friction on the cylinder head. and the fact that a fraction of the fluid remains in the clearance height above the piston crown. The most common example of this phenomenon murs with the bowl-in-piston combustion chamber design of medium. = p(Boj2)(xB)/A. and z is the distance of the piston crown from the cylinder head.0371(~eJ-O. the initial angular momentum and solid-body rotation a.23. 8-17. is the equivalent solid-body swirl. I. where DB and h. the bowl diameter. is an element of the valve open area. is the moment of inertia of the charge about the cylinder axis.'~ Next. is the equivalent of the flat plate Reynolds number [Re. is the torquc due to wall friction. However. are the diameter and depth of the bowl.2.25 This is because of wall friction. the observed increase in swirl in the bowl is less. for solid-body rotation of the cylinder air charge of mass m. Friction on the cylinder wall can be estimated from the wall shear stress: *here CI is an empirical constant (~0. Thus. depending on port design and operating conditions it is . sith where dA. since the FIGURE 8-17 Definition of symbols in equation for a n g m momentum flux into the cylinder [Eq. (8. At the end of induction. An alternative approximate is to evaluate these components of the wall shear stress at the mean ndi~s.31)l. initial swirl flow pattern. and piston crown (including any combustion chamber within the crown).. cylinder head.and highdirect-injection diesels (see Sec. % m D28.iluated at each radius and integrated over the surface: e. Friction continues through the compression process so the total charge angular momentum at the end of cornpression is further reduced. The loss in angular momentum due to these effects will vary with geometric details. consider the effectson swirl of radially inward displacement of the air &rge during compression. For a given swirling in-cylinder flow at the end of induction and neglecting the ~Rects friction. frictionw. Friction on the cylindrical walls of a piston cup or bowl can be obtained from the above expressions with D. . At each point in the intake process Jiis given by Ji = U n F . Zc = mc B2/8 and is constant. 10.. B2/8. the shape of the combustion chamber close to top-center can also force radially inward motion of the charge. While the velocity distribution is not that of a solid-body rotation. pruBY dA. mated with sufficient accuracy using friction formulas developed for flow over a flat plate.~ (8. and piston bowl floor can be estimated from expressions similar to Eqs. at the wall varies with radius. For example. the shear stress should be o. where o. piston crown. would increase by usually a factor of about 4. At TC crank position.350 INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGW FUNDAMENTALS where Ji is the flux of angular momentum into the cylinder and T..33) where 1is an empirical constant introduced to allow for differences between the flat plate and cylinder wall (1 z 1. For a bowl-inpiston combustion chamber. However. due to wall friction during the intake process.32) and (8.tial velocity v..g. in the absence of . Swirl velocity distributions in the cylinder at the end of induction show the tangential velocity increasing with radius. z x 0 and I. in spark-ignition engines shere swirl is used to increase the burning rate. The friction factor C is given by the flat plate formula: CF = 0. dissipation in the fluid due to turbulence and velocity gradients. with suitable definition of characteristic length and velocity scales.29 1. This friction can be esti. There is friction on the cylinder wall. are related at bottom-center by where I.

roughly as predicted by the ideal model. some studies show that the ensemble-averaged fluctuation intensity goes down when swirl is introduced.25 The effect of swirl generation during induction on velocity fluctuations in the combustion chamber at the end of compression has been e~arnined.e.25Swirl ratios of 3 to 5 at top-center can be achieved with the shown in Fig. Figure 8-19a shows a typical Wge-shaped SI engine combustion chamber and Fig.~~. the percentage of the piston area. Different swirl velocity profiles exist within and outside bowl as the piston approaches TC. Neglecting the effects of friction. The rate of displacement of gas into the bowl depenQ on the bowl volume VB.. the flow p continues to develop toward a solid-body distribution throughout the corn sion stroke. The amount of squish is often defined by the PPrcentage squish area: i. dt "(-)( 3 L V B )sp V V The gas velocity into the bowl will therefore increase rapidly toward the end the compression stroke and reach a maximum just before TC (see Sec. Figure 8-19 shows how gas is thereby displaced into the combustion chamber. at that parti* lar piston position: Radius. 8-19).~~ Sguish is the name given to the radially inward or transverse gas motion that Occurs toward the end of the compression stroke when a portion of the piston lace and cylinder head approach each other closely. 8-19b shows a bowl-inP h n diesel combustion chamber. Also.23. Even if the solid-body rotation assump tion is reasonable at the end of induction." "= .~' The ~urbulenceintensity with swirl was higher than without swirl (with the same chamber geometry). Amplification factors relative to topped piston swirl &retypically about 2. 8.5B. Swirl velocities within the bowl TC is approached. in the absence of any amplification during compressi~n). cylinder volume V. such as the bowl in piston. there is a increase in u. 8-18.'Integral scales of the turbulence were smaller with swirl than without. These measurements made by analysing the motion of burning carbon particles in the cylinder o operating diesel engine frog movies of the combustion process. 8-13. Swirl ratios in bowl-in-piston engine designs of up to about 15 ca achieved with DBx 0. the tangential velocity distribution wia radius will change during compression. the profile will distort as gas move into the piston bowl.23.5 to 3. Thus t k increase in tangential velocity of cach fluid element as it moves radially inward proportional to the change in the reciprocal of its radius. Sometimes the bowl axis is offset from the cylinder axis and some additional loss in swirl amplification results. and piston speed S. bowl-inity prlon. Solid lines are calcubtions based on the assumption of constant angular momentum for fluid elements as they move d~ally inward.35) as z + 0.e. Cyclic fluctuations in the mean velocity are.. (8.23* Departures from the solid-body ve 25 distribution are greater at higher engine speeds. direct-injection diesel engine.. Thus. The figure the engine geometry and the data compared with a model based on gas di ment and conservation of angular momentum in each element of the charge is displaced inward.4 w this radial "squish" motion is discussed more fully). some 30 percent lower than ideal factor of (BJDJ' given by Eq.352 INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE FUNDAMENTALS CHARGE MOTION WITHIN THE CYLINDER 353 often close to solid-body rotation. The lower lay the bowl rotate slower than the upper layers because that gas entered the earlier in the compression process. Squish-generated Bas motion results from using a compact combustion chamber geometry.18 There is evidence that swirl makes the turbulence intensity more homogeneo~s. Measurements of th swirl velocity distribution within the cylinder of bowl-in-piston engine desim support this description. nB2/4. Schematic shows the chamber geometry. the effects of wall friction (enhanced by the higher gas velocities in the bowl). This difference is due to tbr mass remaining within the clearance height which does not enter the bowl. 25 With combustion chambers where the chamber radius is less than the cy der bore. at top-center. in the bowl as the crank angle approaches TC. A theoretical squish velocity can be calculated from the instantaneous dis- . reduced by swirl.25 Velocity measurements illustrating the development of this radial dist tion in tangential velocity are shown in Fig. Outside th swirl velocity decreases with increasing radius due to the combine friction and inward gas displacement as the clearance height decreases. which closely approaches the cylinder head (the shaded areas in Fig. with flat-topped pistons (i. mm ~GURE 818 ~ ~ l ~ cmeasurements as a function of radius across the combustion chamber of a firing.30 absence of radially inward gas displacement during compression. suggesting that the flow p in the cylinder at this point in the cycle is still developing with time. apparently. mm Radius. the angular momentum d each fluid element will remain constant as it moves radially inward.

. a reverse squish motion occurs as gas flows out of the bowl into the clearance height region. Under motored conditions this is equal to the forward motion. leakage p the piston rings. (b) Schematic of wedge chamber with transverse squish for Eq.. Bowl-in-piston chamber (Fig... see Fig. is negative. Sp is the instantaneous piston speed [Eq. 8-20a and b). and heat transfer. The effect of leakage on u.s. and ZMr. (8. and heat transfer..(8.. is small for normal gas leakage rater A decrement on squish . These models omit the effects of gas inertia. Leakage was modeled as a choked flow through 'he effective leakage area..37). The squish velocity decrement AvL due to leakage is proportional to the mean piston speed and a dimensionless leakage number: s. is the cross-sectional area oft cylinder (nB2/4). The maximum squish velocity occurs at about 10" before TC. gas leakage past the piston rings.. (b)bowl-in-piston direct-injection diesel combustion chamber. placement of gas across the inner edge of the squish region (across the dash lines in the drawings in Fig. Values of Avdv.. A. 8-21 for different ratios of D$B and clearance heights c. and z is 1 distance between the piston crown top and the cylinder head (z = c -t where Z = 1 + a . are shown in Fig. Gas inertia and friction effects have been shown to be small. Simple wedge chamber (Fig.. After TC.1) evaluated at the end of induction. is the effective leakage area and T. 2. where As is the squish area. 8-22. b is the width of the squish region.36).. expressions for the squish velocity are: 1. 2-1). (2. friction. is the temperature of the cylinder gases at inlet valve closing. v. where A. . 8-20a):33 where VBis the volume of the piston bowl. The effects of gas leakage past the piston rings and of heat transfer are more significant.354 INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE FUNDAMENTALS CHARGE MOTION WITHIN THE CYLINDER 355 (4 FIGURE 8-19 Schematin of how piston motion generates squish: (a) wedge-shaped SI engine combustion chamber. friction. required to satisfy mass conservatio Ignoring the effects of gas dynamics (nonuniform pressure).1111. FIGURE 8-20 f (u) Schematic of axisymmetric bowl-in-piston chamber for Eq. 8-20b):j4 The theoretical squish velocity for a bowl-in-piston engine normalized by the mean piston speed is shown in Fig.

the combustion generated gas expansion in the open portion of the combustion chamber substantially increases the magnitude of the reverse squish motion after TC3' 8 5 PRECHAMBER ENGINE FLOWS Small high-speed diesel engines use an auxiliary combustion chamber. though thcy become more important as the squish velocity decreases from its maximum value as the piston approaches TC. to achieve adequate fuel-air mixing rates. 3. stroke = 93 mm.. I I -20 I .. This results in the required high fuelmixing rates. 8-22." velocity due to heat transfer.CHARGE MOTION WITHIN THE CYLINDER 357 1 6k - No lse oss 1 -30 FIGURE 8-21 Theoretical squish velocity divided by mean piston speed for bowl-in-piston chambers.10 I I TC c a k angle. VJY. are also shown in Fig. 1500 rev/rnin. to calculated ideal squish velocity (solid lines) and l &ulations corrected for leakage and heat transfer (dashed lines). Values of Av. 8-23). B/L= 0. Again the effects are small in the region of maxlmum squish. connecting rod lmgth/crank radius . Velocity measurements in engines provide good support for the above thcory. Bore = 85 mm. nonnalizcd 9 ideal squish velocity. using standard engine hcat-transfer correlations (see Sec. ~d~arneter:boreratios and clearance heights.056. has also been derived. Flow of air through this restriction into the prechamber during the compression process sets up high velocities in the prechamber at the ['me the fuel-injection process commences. the above theory predicts the effects of the bowl diameterlbore ratio and clearance height on squish velocity (see Fig. = 0. 12. passageway.76. The ideal theory adequately predicts the dependence on engine speed. deg rn Cornpanson of measured squish velocities in bowl-in-piston combustion chambers. or 0 " or more orifices. The change in direction of the radial motion as the piston moves through TC has been demonstrated under motored engine conditions.. or prechamber.914.'" .4). Av. for different D JB and c/L (clearma height/stroke).36 With appropriate corrections for leakage and heat-transfer effects. Under firing conditions. with different h . The prechamber is connected 10 the main combustion chamber above the piston via a nozzle./v. as a function of crank angle3' . Figures 1-21 and 10-2 show examples of these prechamber or FIGURE 8-22 Values of squish velocity decrement due to leakage AnL and heat transfer Av.

for a typical small as swirl-prechamberautomotive diesel. AT = lit. the mass in the prechamber m. the prechamber equivalence ratio. where the flow through the passageway enters the chamber tangentially producing rapid rotation within the chamber. Combustion in the pre- 6 8 BC 30 60 90 C Wa & . first the nozzle velocity and then the mass flow rate decrease to zero. While this flow is driven by a pressure difference between the main chamber above the piston and the auxiliary chamber. 1-27. in the absence of combustion. 1-27) is one such concept. an order of magnitude or more larger than the mean piston speed. during compression. The variation of with crank angle during the compression process for values of 4(mcN) and vT/Sp rc. Figure 8-25 shows a gas displacement calculation of this process and relevant data. The gas velocity at the throat vT can be obtained from m via the relation pv. an equivalent flow in the reverse direction out of prechamber would occur. * a 5 P . In the concept shown in Fig. Auxiliary chambers are sometimes used in spark-ignition engines. therefore. and V the prechamber volume. In prechamber stratified-charge engines. Vp/K. or passageway can be estimated using a simple gas displacement model. and Eq. a very rich fuel-air mixture is fed directly to the prechamber during intake via the prechamber intake valve. initially greater where AT is the effective cross-sectional area of the throat. The mass flow rate through the throat of . = 2NL. can be achieved depending on the relative effective throat area. 10-2a).39) can be written as where is the clearance volume. During compression. is given by mc(Vp/V). while a lean mixture is fed to the main chamber via the main intake valve. SJSP is given by Eq. 14. 10-2b) with one or more connecting orifices designed to produce a highly turbulent flow but no ordered motion within the chamber.358 INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE FUNDAMENTALS CHARGE MOTION WITHIN THE CYLINDER 359 indirect-injection diesels. The prechamher is used to create a rich mixture in the vicinity of the spark plug to promote rapid flame development. After TC. this pressure difference is small. the density p = mc/V. where mc is the cylinder mass.4. but has no mixture stratification. (2. (2. and the prechamber (Fig. and 3. 61 f I I I I BC C a k angle. Eq. and the pressure in the prechamber then rises significantly above the main chamber pressure. The torch-ignition three-valve stratified-charge engine (Fig. the flow of gas into the prechamber during compression is critical to the creation of an appropriate mixture in the prechamber at the crank angle when the mixture is ignited. An alternative concept uses the prechamber around the spark plug to generate turbulence to enhance the early stages of combustion. is the instantaneous piston speed. V the cylinder volume. dm. Assuming that the gas density throughout the cylinder is uniform (an adequate assumption toward the end of compression-the most critical period). The most critical phase of flow into the prechamber occurs towards the end of compression. dcg rn TC FIGURE 8-24 Velocity and m s flow rate at the prechamber nozzle throat. The outflow from the prechamber is then governed by the development of the combustion process. = nB2L/4.1 I). The two most common designs of auxiliary chamber are: the swirl chamber (Fig. (8. and the above simple gas displacement model no longer describes the flow. and AT/(nB2/4) typical of a swirl prechamber diesel are shown in Fig. orifice. This combustion generated prechamber gas motion is discussed in Sec. The velocity reaches its peak value about 20" before TC: very high gas velocities. l a &g 150 n : ' Effect of gas flow into the prcchamber during compression on the pnxhamber equivalena ratio in a three-valve prcchamber stratificd-charpe ennine. m=-=--dt mc V dV . the restriction is. the flow into the prechamber reduces the prechamber equivalence ratio to a close-to-stoichiometric value at the time of ignition. ~alculationsbased gas displacement . and V/K is given by Eq. h ~ d e l ? ~ on . 8-24.40): chamber diesel usually starts just before TC. and the mass flow rate and velocity at the nozzle. $ . V2 dt Using the relat4ons dV/dt = -(nB2/4)Sp where S. Note that as the piston approaches TC. (8.6).4.

Very high swirl rates can be achieved just before TC: local swirl ratios of up to 60 at intermediate radii and up to 20 at the outer radius have been measured. for this prechamber concept are available. These crevices consist of a series of volumes (numbered 1 to 5) connected by flow restrictions such as the ring side clearance and ring gap. Some gas flows out of these regions into the crankcase. crevices between the intake and exhaust valve heads and cylinder head. Figure 8-26 shows calculations of this developing flow field.9 0.47 2. .77 0. These high swirl rates produce large centrifugal accelerations. it is called blo. The volumes between the piston. % 632 89 0. Total crevice volume is a few percent of the clearance volume.52 2.1 V-6engine crevice datat4* m3 Displaced volume per cylinder Clearance volume per cylinder Volume above first ring Volume behind first ring Volume between rings Volume behind second ring Total ring crevice volume Spark plug thread crevice Head gasket crevice Total crevice volume Determined for cold engine. and mass flow of gas into and out TABLE 8.75 percent of the clearance volume). burned gases will flow into each crevice until the cylinder pressure starts to decrease. and ring motion are therefore coupled.5 mls FIGURE 8-26 Calculations of developing flow field in (two-dimensional) swirl prechamber during compression process.6 CREVICE FLOWS AND BLOWBY The engine combustion chamber is connected to several small volumes usudly called crevices because of their narrow entrances. The geometry changes as each ring moves up and down in its ring groove.$inder wall.So BTC Scale: 1. based on gas displacement. ring motion. gas flows back from each crevice into the cylinder.25 0. dimensions and crevice will change. Then.5 mls 24' BTC Scale: 2 mls - 1 . continues to flow into these crevice volumes. the gap around the fuel injector. with the length of the streamlines indicating how the particles of fluid move relative to each other. the gas flowing into the crevice cools by heat transfer to close to the wall temperature. piston rings. unburned mixture or air is forced into each crevice region. the space around the plug center electrode. Other crevice volumes in production engines are the threads around the spark plug. piston rings.j60 INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE FUNDAMENTALS 128' BTC Scale: 0.47 0. 8-27. After flame amval at the crevice entrance. and .41 The velocities increase with increasing crank angle as the compression process proceeds.5 mls 8 ' BTC 6 Scale: 1 mls - 51•‹ BTC Scale: .1. sealing either at the top or bottom ring surface. depending on engine type.05 0. Once the crevice gas pressure is higher than the cylinder pressure. unburned mixture or air.1 100 1.4' than 3. the vortex in the swirl chamber expands to fill the entire chamber and mean velocities decay. The largest crevices are the volumes between the piston. and the piston and ring crevices are the dominant contributors. is leaned out to unity as mass flows through the orifice into the prechamber (whose volume is 8.93 0.&. the nozzle In flow sets up a vortex within the chamber.5 8.52 0.34 3. Since these volumes are thin they have a large surface/volume ratio. instantaneous flow streamlines have been drawn in. During combustion while the pressure continues to rise.1 shows the size and relative importance of these crevice regions in one cylinder of a production V-6 spark-ignition engine determined from measurements of cold-engine components.3 3. Lines are instantaneous flow streamlines. The gas flow.38 Charts for estimating the final equivalence ratio.68 0. Velocities vary linearly with mean piston ~ p e e d . Table 8. When the engine is warmed up. 4 ~ swirl prechambers. and the head gasket cutout.28 0. pressure distribution. and reach a maximum at about 20" before TC.3g The velocity field set up inside the prechamber during compression is strongly dependent on the details of the nozzle and prechamber geometry. Gas flows into and out of these volumes during the engine operating cycle as the cylinder pressure changes. The important crevice processes occurring during the engine cycle are the following. As the cylinder pressure rises during compression. analogous to streak photographs of flow field. Figure 8-28 illustrates this behavior: pressure distributions.55 0. as the piston approaches TC and the flow through the passageway decreases to zero. and cylinder wall are shown schematically in Fig.

but continues to flow into regions 3. with a prescribed cylinder pressure versus crank angle profile coupled with a dynamic model for ring motion. g d C a k angle. Figure 8-30 shows how measured blowby flow rates increase linearly with the smallest gap area. and 4 (which now have the same pressure). (b) relative position of top and second rings. c. about 1 percent goes to the crankcase as blowby. in region between rings (3)."l . Blowby of gases from the cylinder to the crankcase removes gas from these crevice regions and thereby prevents some of the crevice gases from returning to the cylinder. Crankcase blowby gases used to be vented directly to the atmosphere and constituted a significant source of HC emissions. is good contact between the compression rings and the bore. This is the smallest of the compression ring ring-gap areas. Schematic of piston and ring assembly in automotive spark-ignition engine. and the percentage of mass trapped beneath these planes. (c) percentage of total cylinder mass that flows into and out of the different crevice regions across planes a. The crankcase is now vented to the engine intake system and the blowby gases are recycled. b. 3. c. 8-27. and the rings and the bottom of the grooves. then the only leakage path of consequence is the ring gap. d. and assuming that the gas temperature equals the wall temperature?* During compression and combustion.cL ring Iower surface (~r00ve --YYYLY Gmove upper surface * m . FIGURE 8-27 5 Oil ring -~roove upper surface . In a special square-cross-section flow visualization engine. Some 5 to 10 percent of the total cylinder charge is trapped in these regions at the time of peak cylinder pressure. There is substantial experimental evidence to support the above description of flow in the piston ring crevice region. as a function of crank angle. of the regions defined by planes a. In spark-ignition engines this phenomenon is a major contributor to unburned hydrocarbon emissions (see Sec. there is a substantial pressure drop across each ring.4. The gas flow back into the cylinder continues throughout the expansion process. These results come from an analysis of these regions as volumes connected by passageways. and behind second ring (4). Blowby is defined as the gas that flows from the combustion chamber past the piston rings and into the crankcase.4~ the top ring gap later in the expansion process when the pressure difference across the ring changes sign have been observed. It is forced through any leakage paths affordedby the piston-bore-ring assembly in response to combustion chamber pressure. In all engines it results in a loss of power and efficiency. deg rn (b) FIGURE 8-28 (a) Pressures in the combustion chamber (1). The top ring then shifts to seal with the upper grove surface and gas flows out of regions 2. and 5 until the pressure in the cylinder falls below the pressure beneath the top ring. in region behind top ring (2). and d and through the ring gap g in Fig.3). Once the cylinder pressure starts to decrease (after 15" ATC) gas flows out of regions 1 and 2 in Fig.Combustion chamber Region behind rq i5 Top ring gap. and through the ring gap g are plotted versus crank angle through compression and expansion. Most of this gas returns to the cylinder. b. both into the cylinder and as blowby into the crackcase. 11. The pressure above and behind the first ring is essentially the same as the cylinder pressure. deg rn (a) . 4. 8-27 into the cylinder. Automotive spark-ignition engine at wide-open throttle and 2000 re~lmin. both the low-velocity gas expansion out of the volume above the first ring after the time of peak pressure and the jet-like flows through C a k angle. however. Figure 8-29 shows these flows with explanatory schematics. x'!. If there. the rings are forced to the groove lower surfaces and mass flows into all the volumes in this total crevice region. . Blowby at a given speed and load is controlled primarily by the greatest flow resistance in the flow path between the cylinder and the crankcase.

B 0. L is the stroke. v is the kinematic viscosity. or if the rings do not contact the bore all around. Piston crown on left.2 fo. in piston-stationary wrdinates. Gas flows out of the ring gap as a jet once the pressure above the ring falls below the pressure beneath the ring?' where A. or if the compression rings lift off the bottom of the groove. transition.*' Extrapolation back to the zero kap area gives nearly zero blowby. however.3). When the piston moves toward top-center a vortex flow is generated. It has been shown that a quasi-steady flow assumption is valid and that FIGURE 8 2 9 Schlieren photographs of the flow out of the piston-cylinder wall crevices during the expansion stroke.3 - 1200 revlmin pan 0. this linear Elationship may no longer hold. Gas flows at low velocity out of the crevice entrance all around the production piston circumference once the cylinder pressure starts decreasing early in the expansion stroke. that if the bore finish is rough. and turbulent flow regimes have been identified. . = S. When the piston is moving away from topcenter a sink-type flow occurs. 87 FLOWS GENERATED BY PISTON-CYLINDER WALL INTERACTION lw Expanding f o out of inner piston topland Jet through inner piston ring gap \ 55O A C T (4 Because a boundary layer exists on the cylinder wall.4. due to the boundary layer on the cylinder wall. A production piston was inserted into the square cross-section piston of the visualization engine. L/v) is a Reynolds number. Note. in the engine). (a) Sink flow set up during intake and expansion." Arrow shows cylinder wall velocity relative to piston.1 1 1 1 1 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 si Y in2 1 / (4 1 1 (b) 8 1 9 1 1 3 4 5 6X10-~ cm2 Smaller ring gap area FIGURE 8-30 Measured blowby for one cylinder of automobile spark-ignition engine as a function of the smallest ring gap area. cylinder wall at bottom.- Experimen"l (Wentworth) a Calculations $0. and (0.+Production 1 range-.364 INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE FUNDAMENTALS of blowby based on the model described earlier are in good agreement. is the wall velocity in piston stationary coordinates (v. 8-31). (b) vortex flow set up during compression md exhaust. Figure 8-31 shows schematics of these flows (in a coordinate frame with the piston face at rest). v. is the vortex area (area inside the dashed line in Fig. compand with blowby calculations based on flow model described in 43 FIGURE 8-31 %hematics of the flow pattern set up in the piston facccylinder wall comer.6 am = 0. the motion of the piston perates unusual flow patterns in the corner formed by the cylinder wall and the piston face. The vortex flow has been studied because of its effect on gas motion at the time of ignition and because it has been suggested as a mechanism for removing hydrocarbons off the cylinder wall during the exhaust stroke (see Sec. The vortex flow has been studied in cylinders with water as the fluid over the range of Reynolds numbers typical of engine o p e r a t i ~ n ? ~ . ~ ~ Laminar.1- - 0 . 11.

(8. 6-15 to the mean piston speed at the same crank angle. all at TC = 0. v will remain approximately constant as the pressure and temperature do not change significantly. 8-1.366 INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE FUNDAMENTAU For the laminar flow regime.09L.the vortex has grown to of order 0. for piston moving toward the cylinder head." The vortex diameter as the piston approaches TC is about 20 percent of the bore. (b) Compare this ratio with the ratio of inlet valve pseudo flow velocity determined from Fig. maximum gas velocity through the inlet valve (see Prob. = 9.r. Hence a Reynolds number for the compression stroke is 4 x lo4. Figure 8-33 shows schlieren photographs taken during the exhaust stroke in a special squarecross-section flow visualization spark-ignition engine. Growing vortex in the piston face-cylinder wall corner and turbulent outflow toward the valve are apparent at 60•‹ BTC. an entrainment theory was used.1. micro length scale. sp Sfhlierenphotographs of in-cylinder flow during later stages of exhaust stroke. (c) Are the engine velocity data in (a) consistent with the velocity calculated from the simple piston displacement model of (b)? Explain.2 x lo-' and 1. this can be estimated from boundary-layer theory. and Kolmogorov length scale. 2 0. (a) Estimate the ratio of the maximum gas velocity in the center of the hollow cone inlet jet to the mean piston speed from the data in Fig.42 & g This vortex flow has been observed in an operating engine.2./L? x 0. In t h turbulent flow regime.002 I@ FIGURE 8-32 to' Reynolds number 16 t Ratio of area of vortex in piston faa-cylinder wall corner to square of stroke.). v decrease substantially as the gas temperature and pressure increase (v decreases by a factor of 4 for a compression ratio of 8). which assumed that the rate of change of vortex area was proportional to the product of the exposed perimeter of the vortex and the velocity difference between the vortex and the stationary fluid ( x v. L = 0. During compression.4 x loh4m2/s for compression and exhaust stroke.28 diameter. L/v) 2 2 x lo4: -= L? (". A. use Eqs.1) (b) Turbulence intensity. Typical parameter values at 1500 rev/min are: = 5 m/s. a good assumption is that Av is proportional to the shear area in the vortex (shown cross-hatched). The engine is that of Fig.14L. 1-4. PROBLEMS 8.006 L? 6' BTC 0 Figure 8-32 shows these two theories correlated against hydraulic analog data. integral length scale. For the exhaust stroke. E. During the exhaust stroke following blowdown.L/v) l x lo4: 2 For (v.23)] and that the turbulence integral scale is 0. Thus the vortex dimensions at the end of the upward stroke of the piston are comparable to the engine clearance height. respectively. Av/L? x 0. the Reynolds number is 4 x lo3. which equals boundary-layer area. average values of v are 1. at 1000 and 5000 rev/min and wide-open throttle: (a) Mean and maximum piston speed. At 20" BTC.2 x clearance height.006.015. This will decrease the size of the vortex until the turbulent regime is reached.15) to estimate the following quantities for a spark-ignition engine with bore = stroke = 86 mm.= 0. and the vortex diameter dv x 0. The accompanying schematic identifies the vortex structure which is visible in the photo because the cool boundary-layer gas is being scraped off the cylinder wall by the upward-moving piston and "rolled up.u . Given the relationship between turbulence intensity and mean piston speed [Eq.1 m. and d. The relevant relationships are: For (v. These theories are for constant values of v."I-"' - 20' BTC Av . (8. as a function Reynolds number based on piston velocity.14) and (8. 8.

spark discharge (30" BTC). maximum cylinder pressure (15" ATC)..I. Felton.1984...SAE Trans.. and Bracco. 7. 12 Lioy T-M. Inlet Port. J. 14. G. Fraser. P-156. and Santavicca. Liou.. Diesel Engine and Its Effect on Engine Pdormana. 2 . Tindal. estimate the fraction of the cylinder mass within these crevice regions at these crank angles: inlet valve closing (50' ABC). exhaust valve 6' f opening ( 0 BBC). P-156. New York. bore B. H. R. ASME.. C.: "Turbulence and Turbulent Combustion in Spark-Ignition Engin-" Frog.: "Comparison of Model Calculations and Experimental Measurements of the Bulk Cylinder Flow Processes in a Motored PROCO Engine. ask.1979. and Yamamasu. of a disc-shaped bowl-in-piston direct-injection diesel engine combustion chamber in terms of compression ratio r. and Wigley." SAE paper 810255. REFERENCES 1 Bi&n. J. = 0. M.). Martin. G.. 232-240. Brandstiitter. vol. 1981. 4 Hirotomi..: "Cycle Rwolved LDV Measurements in a Motorad IC ~ngine. FED voL 28.. 8. 135-148. 2.. L. from 50 to 0 percent. 2 . Johns. Fluids Engng. and Rife." in Flows in Internal Combustion Engines. W. H.pp. ask.: "Flow Visualization Study of the Intake Process of an Internal . Lyford-Pike. vol. For B = L = 100 mm.1980..1984. C.: "The Effect of Inlet Port Design on Cylinder Gas 4 Motion in Direct Injection Died Engines.5. J. vol. that the n o d e throat is at 0.1985. What is the average tangential velocity 0 engine of bore I (evaluated at the inlet valve-axis radial location) required to give this swirl ratio? What is the ratio of this velocity to the mean piston speed and to the mean flow velocity through the inlet valve estimated from the average valve open area and open time? (a) Derive a relationship for the depth (or height) h. L. 2 . and Lumley. Mean Velocity and Turbulence in Internal Combustion Engines. J. SAE Trans. vol.. November 1984. Valve of a Reciprocating Engine. M. Amann.. Cartellieri. vol. R = l/a = 3. R. 88. vol. 45 and 47. 101-11 1 . vol. B.SAE Trans.1981.. R. c/B = 0.. A.D. B: "Comparison of Window.1976. A. F. Nagayama..:"A Critical Comparison of Hot-wire Anemometry and Laser Doppler Velodmetry .1986. 1972. J. SAE. Heywood.0. TC o the exhaust stroke. W. Combustion Modelling in Reciprocating Engines. A. H. (8. J.in Diesel Combustion and Emissions. 88. C. and assume the inlet pressure is 0. pp. C. 1985.1985. Shioji. "Schlieren Visualization of the Flow and Density Fields in the Cylinder of a Spark-Igniuon Engine. . 88.: "Characterization of Flow Produced by a High-Swirl 2 . Aj(nB2/4)x 100. J... = 10. ~ z k a n .: "Turbulena Intensity and Spatial Integral Scale 1 during Compression and Expansion Strokes in a Fow-cycle Reciprocating Engine. P.. A. (b) If the swirl ratio at the end of induction at 2500 rev/min is 3 find the swirl ratio and average angular velocity in the bowl-in-piston chamber of dimensions given above. I f . 1 Witze." SAE paper 860021. Smoothed-Ensemble. vols.. = 16. and Nishimoto.. and Whitelaw.: 'Modeling of Fluid Motions in Engines-An Introductory Overview. 1985. vol. 28. 1982. A. 2 ..SAE 1985.: "Calculation of Flow Roduced by a Tangential 6 Inlet Port. M. 1979. K. G. Rackley (eds. -15.: "Turbulent Air Flow in the Com5 bustion Bowl of a D. Arcournanis. -.pp. vol. J. T.: "Preliminary Turbuhce Length Scale Measure0 ments in a Motored IC Engine." SAE paper 790290..I ~ P C ~ . and Bracco. Brandstiitter.1987." ICALEO ' 4 Confmnce Proceedings.: ." SAE D a m 830266. C.. F." SAE paper 800044. 2." SAE paper 790095.SAE Trans. I.pp. 89. Williams. 19. and that the flow enters the prechamber tangentially. D. Assume B = L. pt. and Borgnakke.bowl diameter D. SP-484. . Fluid Mechanics of Combustion Systems." Combust. Johns. F. 8.. M." SAE paper 860023. 8 ~ ~ a s u r e m e and Control and h e r Diagnostics and Photochemistry. R. R. J. tnd ~ettifer. r. J.: "Laser Doppler Anemometer Measurements of .. D. Sanchez-Barsse. If the gas in these crevice regions is close to the wall temperature (450 K) and at the cylinder pressure." in International Symposium on Flows in Internal Combustion Engines-III. Techniques for Laser Doppler Anemometer Measurements of In-Cylinder Velocity.01. Reynolds. vol. Fluids Engng. I. H.pp. W.C. Bopp. 69-124. K. and Dent. 2. neglect friction.pp. S.: A First Course in Turbulence. Compare the tangential velocity at the bowl edge with the mean piston speed.8 x prechamber radius. 6 Tennekes. vol. Engine Applications. A. S. 2 Namazian.: "The Effect of Inlet Port Geometry on In7 Cylinder Flow Structure. J. Davis.. Neglect any friction effects. 9 Witze. 201..SAE Trans. P. ~ . H. C. J. 16. g. Sci. M. J. J. Technol.. and Morel. vol.7.5B. C. pp. 89. Hansen.. pp. W. (c) What would the swirl ratio be if the top-center clearance height was zero? 85." in J. M. Figure 8-24 shows the velocity at the prechamber nozzle throat during compression for dimensions typical of a small swirl chamber indirect-injection diesel. 5.1979."ASME Ttmu.. Sci. F..SAE Trans. P. in Engine Combustion Analysis: New Ap~roaches. Ikegami. R.. 1983. G.37) and Fig. C.67 atm. S.ASME. Spark Ignition Engine. R J.: "Classical Combustion Diagnostics for Engine Research. 18. vol.: "The Effectof Engine Speed on the TDC Flowfield in a Motored Reciprocating Engine. 1 1% ASME. E. Amann (eds..: "New Experimental Techniques for In-Cylinder Engine Studiw" SAE paper 850396. . T..SAE Trans.Borgnakke. vol. 143-165. Hall.. estimate the swirl ratio based on the total angular momentum about the swirl chamber axis in the precharnber at top-center. 1-8 for your input data. 90. B. ." SAE paper 850499. J. and Whitelaw. W. Revmncic.. 90. Laser Institute of Amnt Boston. I 1.. and Kent.. and J. Mattavi and C A. O." SAE paper 800132.1979. r. and Hoult. and Cycle-by-Cycle Data Reduction .. Kobayashi. 413-420. T. Rask. Use the information in Fig.INTERNAL COUBUSTION ENGINE FUNDAMENTALS The swirl ratio at the end of induction at 2000 rev/min in a direct-injection d i w stroke = 1 0 mm is 4. 93. P.: "Rapid Distortion Theory Applied to Turbulent Combustio~" SAE paper 790357. M. 2. and Wigley.. 36. Plenum Press. for LC. Lohmann. P. V. Dyer. Won& V. 8-20b plot the squish velocity divided by the mean piston speed at 10" BTC (the approximate location of the maximum) as a function of squish area expressed as a percentage of the cylinder cross section. SAE Trans.-M. D. 301-317. MOM R." SAE p a p 870372. Brand]. B. New York. in Engine Combustion Analysis: New Approaches.: "Laser Dopper Velocimetry Measurements in Valved and Ported Engines.1979. Assuming that the swirl chamber shape is a disc of height equal to the diameter. 1980.1980.. ~abaczynski.. stroke L.6.1981. and Aldoory. Using Eq. and Whitelaw..1985.. The total crevice volume in an automobile spark-ignition engine is about 3 percent of the clearance volume. T.: "Study of Induction Swirl in a . 13. 107. J." in T. 3 Ekchian. 0.R. Energy Combust. P. New York. c = 1 mm find the fraction of the air charge within the bowl at TC.1987. 2. MIT Press. and top-center cylinder-head to pistoncrown clearance c. 57-74.. 107. Engrs. 2 . Combustion Engine.. Assuple the swirling flow is always a solid-body rotation. M. SAE Trans..: "Steady and Unsteady Airflow through the Intake ." SAE paper 840375. . Monaghan. Santavicca. 88. P.).: "Fluid Mechanics of Internal Combustion Engines: A Review." ASME Trans.: "Conditionally-Sampled Velocity and Turbul0 %feasuremmtsin a Spark Ignition Engine. J." SAE paper 850395. N.. T. B/L = 1.: "Laser Doppler Anemometer Measurements in an Internal Combustion Engin%" SAE paper 790094. M.. M." SAE paper 790040. R.: "Air Motion and Its Effects on Diesel Performance and 3 Emissions. pp. Vafidis. F." SAE paper 810496. V.1986." Proc. and Hoult. Vafidis C. D. Imtn Mech.

S.. 3 . burned gas mixture until it reaches the combustion chamber walls. 42. Lichty. and Obokata. J. 88.: "A Study of Squish in Open Combustion Chambers of a 5 Engine.: "Piston and Ring Variables Affect Exhaust Hydrocarbon Emissions.pp. Babu. 3 .: "Air Motion in a Four-Stroke Direct Injection D i e d EnginGq 6 Proe. R. Hires. D. 2.SU Trans. K. E 43. A. no... and Wall..." Proc.1982. vol. 45. C. Mitsuda. 15. Meintjes... 1974. J. M. 105.: "Air Swirl in a Road-Vehicle Diesel Engine.pp. 249-255." SAE paper 780319. e.SAE Trans. Arcoumanis. T. and Derham. McGraw-Hill. 90. 85. Under normal operating conditions." SAE paper 680109. Fitzgeorge. approximately circular in outline in this n C U ~ ~(On color plate opposite p.: "Gas Velocity Measurements of a Motored and Firing Engine 7 Laser Anemometry. 44.1983. 1967..91. and Turbulence Intensity for an Open Chamber Cup in Piston Engine. and Whitelaw. 41. and T a b a c z ~ s b R.1971.no. T." J. T. T. R. Emissions Modelling of a Jet Ignition Prechamber Stratified Charge Engine. 151-168." SAE paper 820088. 1430 revlmin. SAE. J.: "Performance and 9 NO. Kawatchi. 63. B.pp.. and Yagi.. vol.1970.1983. 87.1970." Trans." JAM technical memorandum no. A. from hia-spacd lb%h mane of spark-ignition engine combustion process. ASME. K. 3 ." SAE paper 820275. E. C. T. E. A. The flame first becomes visible in the photos at about -24'. and Fujikawa. and Particulates. where mixing with residual gas takes place. in Diesel Engine Combustig Emissions. H. Lieu.pp. Davis. In a conventional spark-ignition engine the fuel and air are mixed together in the intake system. vol. Tabaaynski.: Combustion Engine Processes. Namazian. C. Hoult. 498) 9-1 Color photograph. JSME. C. D." SAE paper 830452. 231-245.: 'Flow in the Piston-Cylinder-Ring Crevices of a SparkIenition Engine: Effect on Hydrocarbon Emissions. 92.1976. J.1983.. vol.: "Squish and Swirl-Squish Interaction b 0 Motored Model Engines. Sci. Photographs of this process taken in operating engines illustrate its essential features. 4 3 . 40. Fuller. J. C. 1973. propagates through this essentially premixed fuel.. Zmmerman. Wentworth. G.SAE Trans. B. and Deckker. 3 .: "Laser Anemometer Measurements of the Air Motion in the Prechamber of an Automotive Diesel Engine.: "Vortex Motion Induced by the Piston d an Internal Combustion Engine.SAE Trans.: "Cycle Resolved Turbulence Measurements in a p o w 2 Engine With and Without Swirl. J. J.370 INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGME FLINDAMENTALS 2 . Daneshyar. Ignition timing 30" BTC. vol. L. inducted through the intake valve into the cylinder.+frch 3 Engrs (AD. F. 3 . 91. vol.. vol.Diesel Prechamben. S. P-107." SAE papa 760161. Bicen... K. Shinamoto. Instn . vol. T. 3 . vol. 4 pp. L.. F. a turbulent flamedevelops. A. Following inflammation. 1 Direct Injection Diesel Engines...). and then compressed." SAE paper 790096. 3 . and Santavicca. Y.30". 3 . pp.vol. Figure 9-1 (color plate) shows a sequence of frames from a high-speed color movie of the combustion process in a special single-cylinder engine with a glass piston crown. R. J. M. 77. 9 . . Ikegami. SAE Trans. and then extinguishes. Borgnakke. taken glass piston crown. K. D. CHAPTER COMBUSTION IN SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES 91 ESSENTIAL FEATURES OF PROCESS . combustion is initiated towards the end of the compression stroke at the spark plug by an electric discharge. T. 9' 371 .1962-1963. (AIF) = 1.SAE Trans. D.. 381-390. 42.: "Air Motion and Combustion . C.: "An Experimental and Computational Investigation of the Flow in -.... A.1968.: "High Reynolds Number Flow in a Movins Corner. G. H. Fluids Engng. J. J. and Heywood. Dent. D.. L. Asanuma. J." Int.: "simulation of Thermodynamic Cycle of Three-Val* 8 Stratified Charge Engine. Mech.' The spark discharge is at . and Akiyama. Asanuma. Ekchian. 1981. Heywood.1979. 269-280. 188.SAE Trans. 13. 3 . Fluid Mech. J. flame.-M..1978. C. and Keck.. D.21/74. Engrs. Instn Mech.. vol. J.. pp. C.. 105-112. Efficiency and Power.. ~ A ~rans. Tabaaynski. 1096-1103." SAE paper 830419. 1982. vol.: "Predictions of In-Cylinder Swirl Ve1odt). vol. P. B." Bull. and Alkidas. light load. M. and Allison. air." SAE paper 810224. J.

The combustion event must be properly located relative to top-center to oi Crank angle. At TC the flame diameter is about two-thirds of the cylinder bore. Additional features of the combustion process are evident from the data in Fig. taken from several consecutive cycles of an operating spark-ignition engine. and then decreases as the cylinder volume continues to increase during the remainder of the expansion stroke. see Sec. Also. widaopn throtUe. The flame reaches the cylinder wall farthat from the spark plug about 15" ATC. In large part. q5 = 0. Our understanding of each of these phases will be developed in the remainder of this chapter. deg FIGURE 9-2 Cylinder pressure.2). there is some unburned mixture behind the visible front to the flame: even when the entire combustion chamber is fully enflamed. and mass fraction burned curves for each cycle differ significantly.1). 9-2. the pressure then steadily rises above the value it would have in the absence of combustion. From this description it is plausible to divide the combustion process into four distinct phases: (1) spark ignition. there is a period during which the energy release from the developing flame is too small for the pressure rise due to combustion to be discerned. IOU rev/min. This is because flame growth depends on local mixture motion and composition. Especially significant are mixture motion and composition in the vicinity of the spark plug at the time of spark discharge since these govern the early stages of flame development.view through the piston. volume fraction enflamed. cycleby-cycle. 9-1) are shown. 9. this is because the density of the unburned mixture ahead of the flame is about four times the density of the burned gases behind the flame. (2) early flame development. and volume fraction enflamed for five vcnsccutive c ~ l in a n sPark-imitionengine as a function of crank angle. additional radiation-initially white. all as a function of crank angle. The cylinder pressure. since the shape of the pressure. The irregular shape of the turbulent flame front is apparent. As the flame continues to grow and propagate across the combustion chamber. fraction of the charge mass which has burned (determined from the pressure data. then propagates outward from the spark plug locatioe The blue light from the flame is emitted most strongly from the front.4. Cycle-by-cycle and cylinder-to-cylinder variations in combustion are important because the extreme cycles limit the operating regime of the engine (see Sec. Note that the volume fraction enflamed curves rise more steeply than the mass fraction burned curves. but combustion continues around parts the chamber periphery for another 10". The flame development and subsequent propagation obviously vary.98.4 Following spark discharge. and (4) flame termination. some 25 percent of the mass has still to bum. turning to pinky-orange-centered at the spark plug location is evident.'.4 . IgnXon timing 30' BTC. mass fraction b u d . These quantities vary in successive cycles in any given cylinder and may vary cylinder-to-cylinder. as these are compressed to the highest ternperatures attained within the cylinder (at about 15" ATC) while the rest of the charge burns. 9. This afterglow comes from the gases behind the flame which burned earlier in the combustion process. The pressure reaches a maximum after TC but before the cylinder charge is fully burned. and fraction of the cylinder volume enflamed by the front (determined from photographs like Fig. (3) flame propagation. At about 10" ATC.

The products of these reactions may then autoignite: i. the spark is often Rtarded to give a 1 or 2 percent reduction in brake torque from the maximum value. Some of the end-gas fuel-air mixture may undergo chemical reactions prior to normal combustion. Combustion starts before the end of the compression stroke. certain engine design and operating parameters. EBect of spark advance on brake torque at constant speed and (All3 8' (b) wide-open throttle. As the flame propagates across the combustion chamber. When this happens. The maximumis quite flat.to permit a more precise definition of timing relative to the optimum. In practice. If the start of the combustion process is progressively advanced before TC. continues through the early part of the expansion stroke. The optimum spark setting will depend on the rate of flame development and propagation. Surface ignition may result in knock. Surface ignition is ignition of the fuel-air charge by overheated valves or spark plugs.e. deg 20 30 Spark advance.6. The other important abnormal combustion phenomenon is surface ignition. the end gas burns very rapidly. b a r k advance = 50 deg - 0 10 Crank angle. the length of the flame travel path across the combustion chamber. causing its pressure. burned gas mixture. This causes highfrequency pressure oscillations inside the cylinder that produce the sharp metallic noise called knock. Abnormal combustion phenomena are reviewed in more detail in Sec. by glowing combustion-chamber deposits. and combustion chamber deposits-may prevent this normal combustion process from occurring. several factors-e. Knock will occur if the precombustion reactions produce autoignition before the flame front arrives. the unburned mixture ahead of the flamethe end gas-is compressed. spontaneously and rapidly release a large part or all of their chemical energy. air. Uncontrolled combustion is most evident and its effects most severe when it results from preignition. It may produce a single flame or many flames. For example. the spark discharge no longer has complete control of the combustion process. fuel composition. and the details of the flame termination process after it reaches the wall. Knock will not occur if the flame front consumes the end gas before these reactions have time to cause the fuel-air mixture to autoignite. (2) half the charge is burned at about 10" after TC. These changes reduce the expansion stroke work transfer from the cylinder gases to the piston. MBT is maximum brake torque timing. The pressure versus crank angk curves shown in Fig. 9. Figure 9-3b shows the effect of variations in spark timing on brake torque for a typical spark-ignition engine. If the end of the combustion process is progressively delayed by retarding the spark timing the peak cylinder pressure occurs later in the expansion stroke and is reduced in magnitude. 9-3a allow us to understand why engine torque (at given engine speed and intake manifold conditions) varies as spark timing is varied relative to TC. It may occur before the spark plug ignites the charge (preignition) or after normal ignition (postignition). and the properties of the fuel. However.. and ends after the point in the cycle at which the peak cylinder pressure occurs. releasing its energy at a rate 5 to 25 times that characteristic of normal combustion. MBT timing (30'). or MBT. residual gas mixture ahead of the advancing flame. and density 10 increase. the compression stroke work transfer (which is from the piston to the cylinder gases) increases. . Two types of abnormal combustion have been identified: knock and surface ignition. The presence or absence of knock reflects the outcome of a race between the advancing flame front and the precombustion reactions in the unburned end gas.g. retarded timing (lo0). These depend on engine design and operating conditions. air. with optimumspark timing: (1) the maximum pressure occurs at about 16" after TC. deg FIGURE 9-3 (a) Cylinder pressure versus crank angle for overadvanad spark timing (109. Timing which is advanced or retarded from this optimum gives lower torque. timing--occurs when the magnitudes of these two opposing trends just offset each other. Knock is the most important abnormal combustion phenomenon. temperature. The optimum timing which gives the maximum brake t o r q u ~ a l l e d maximum brake torque. The combined duration of the flame development and propagation process is typically between 30 and 90 crank angk degrees.. . However. or by any other hot spot in the engine combustion chamber: it is ignition by any source other than normal spark ignition. Knock which occurs following normal Spark ignition is called spark knock to distinguish it from knock which has been Preceded by surface ignition.COMBUSTION IN SPARK-IGNITION ENGINE 375 obtain the maximum power or torque. SO far we have described normal combustion in which the spark-ignited flame moves steadily across the combustion chamber until the charge is fully consumed.' Empirical rules for relating the mass burning profile and maximum cylinder pressure to crank angle at MBT timing are often used. even when surface ignition occurs after the spark plug fires (postignition). Its name comes from the noise that results from the autoignition of a portion of the fuel.

As each element of fuel-air mixture bums. (9. At the temperatures and pressures typical of spark-ignition engines it is a reasonable approximation to assume that the volume of the reaction zone where combustion is actually occurring is a negligible fraction of the chamber volume even though the thickness of-the turbulent flame may not be negligible compared with the chamber dimensions (see Sec. Heat transfer occurs to the chamber walls. and displaces them back toward the spark plug. Several categories of models are described in Chap. temperature. Uo is the internal energy of the cylinder contents at some reference point 80. models for the thermodynamic properties of the burned and unburned gases are required. at any point in time or crank angle. u is the specific internal energy. m is the mass of the cylinder contents. the unburned gas elements move away from the spark plug. and Q is the heat transfer to the walls. 4. the pressure throughout the cylinder is close to uniform. individual gas elements move back toward the spark plug. the cylinder pressure increases due to the release of the fuel's chemical energy. primarily from the burned gases. The condi- and conservation of energy: where V is the cylinder volume. The gas pressure. its density decreases by about a factor of four. The subscripts u and b denote unburned and burned gas properties. is heattransfer rate to chamber walls. However.2 THERMODYNAMIC ANALYSIS OF SI ENGINE COMBUSTION 9. Accurate calculations of the state of the cylinder gases require an equilibrium model (or good approximation to it) for the burned gas and an ideal gas mixture model (of frozen composition) for the unburned gas (see Table 4. Consider the schematic of the engine cylinder while combustion is in progress.6 l. and therefore end up at different states after combustion.5) gives FIGURE 9-4 Schematic of flame in the engine cylinder during combustion: unburned gas (U) to left of burned gas to right. The thermodynamic state and composition of the burned gas is. A first law analysis of the spark-ignition engine combustion process enables us to quantify these gas states. shown in Fig.2). the changes in state and the motion of the unburned and burned gas are much more complex than the ideal cycle analysis in Chapter 5 suggests. non-uniform. xb is the mass fraction burned. and density change as a result of changes in volume due to piston motion.. BL denotes thermal boundary layer in burned gas. Further. The combustion-produced gas expansion also compresses those parts of the charge which have already burned. Work transfer occurs between the cylinder gases and the piston (to the gas before TC. The work and heat transfers are % : 4 5 where 0 is the instantaneous heat-transfer rate to the chamber walls. With normal engine operation.1) to (9. is work-transfer rate to piston. following combustion. where II W 11 .1 Burned and Unburned Mixture States - tions in the burned and unburned gas are then determined by conservation of mass : Because combustion occurs through a flame propagation process. 9-4.2. During combustion. During the combustion process.2). Combining Eqs. each with constant specific heats. This combustion-produced gas expansion compresses the unburned mixture ahead of the flame and displaces it toward the combustion chamber walls. 9. o is the specific volume. W is the work done on the piston. therefore. To proceed further. to the piston after TC).e. respectively.3. A denotes adiabatic burned-gaJ core. elements of the unburned mixture which burn at different times have different pressures and temperatures just prior to combustion. useful illustrative results can be obtained by assuming that the burned and unburned gases are different ideal gases.376 INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE FUNDAMENTALS COMBUSTION IN SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES 377 9.

were measured by Lavoie8 through two different windows.9) enables determination of both xb and ? .378 INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE FUNDAMENTALS COMBUSTION IN SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES 379 are the mean temperatures of the burned and unburned gases. from the thermodynamic properties of the burned and unburned gases. where it is assumed that no mixing occurs between gas elements which burn at different times. deg 0 60 where &(x.Two limiting models bracket what occurs in practice: (1) a fully mixed model. Measurements of burned gas temperatures have been made in engines using spectroscopic techniques through quartz windows in the cylinder head.. Equations and (9.the middle (B). Mass fraction burned and cylinder gas pressure are uniquely related. t This model applies to burned gas regions of the chamber away from the walls. Heat transfer to tht walls results in a thermal boundary layer on the walls which grows with time. the assumption is made that no mixing occurs between gas elements that burn at different times. Mixture which bums early in the combustion process-is further compressed after combustion as the remainder of the charge is burned. the subscripts e and I denote early and late burning gas elements. and known values of p. is burned gas temperature. ends up at a different final state. The mean buroed gas temperature is closer to the lower of these temperatures. and is the mean burned gas temperature. 9-5.r. B. xb) is the temperature of the element which burned at the pressure p(. 9-6. The real situation lies in between. with Eqs. Each set of exPerimental temperatures shows a temperature gradient across the burned gas to that predicted. Curves labeled W2and W. Alternatively. a d W3 (with W. A mixture element that burns right at the start of the combustion process reaches. The gas in the bounb ary layer is not isentropically compressed and expanded. m. T.p(xb).) 1973. (9. again in an L-head engine. T.t Thus: I -20 d ~ l l l l I 0 FIGURE 9-5 Cylinder pressure.8) and (9. and the two sets have similar shapes. and gas temperatures as functions of crank angle during combustion.) when the pressure is p(x. where it is assumed that each element of mixture which burns mixes instantaneously with the already burned gases (which therefore have a uniform temperature). These two models approximate respectively to situations where the time scale that characterizes the turbulent mixing process in the burned gases is (1) much less than the overall burning time (for the fully mixed model) or (2) much longer than the overall burning time (for the unmixed model). a peak temperature after combustion about 400 K higher than an element that burns toward the end of the combustion process. temperature resulting from isenthalpic combustion of the unburned gas at T&(xb).9) defines a mean burned gas temperature. W. and (2) an unmixed model. mass fraction burned. is unburned gas temperature. An example of the temperature distribution computed with this model is s h w n in Fig. American ' 20 40 Crank angle.' (Reprinted with permission. Copyright Chemical Society. and C are the burned gas temperatures measured by Rassweiler and Withrow7 using 'he sodium line reversal technique in an L-head engine.~. therefore. and 0. (9. if xb is known then p can k determined. then -40 This equation. respectively. Mixture which burns late in the combustion process is compressed prior to combustion and. A temperature gradient exists across the burned gas with the earlier burning portions at the higher tern. While Eq. The solid lines marked A. V. the burned gas is not uniform. In the fully mixed model the burned gas is uniform. and the opposite end (C) of the chamber. = and the equations given above fully define the state of the cylinder contents. In the unmixed model.7) may now be solved to obtain and T --T. for the spark plug end (4.mRuTu mRb xb If we now assume the unburned gas is initially uniform and undergoes tropic compression. in the absence of mixing. T. closer to the spark). - pV .Rb R. perat~re. and each burned gas element is therefore isentropically compressed (and eventually expanded) after combustion.). and z.+ . is the . Examples of measured temperatures are shown in Fig.

3) and whether flows into and out of crevice regions are significant (see Sec. and often there is a bulk gas motion at the time combustion is initiated. Eqs. it can be concluded that a window in the cylinder head initially views earlier burned gas (of higher temperature and entropy) and that as more of the charge burns. The effect of neglecting the temperature distribution in the calculation of mass fraction burned is small. previously burned gas is compressed and moved back toward the spark plug. expanded as the pressure falls after p. More accurate calculations relating the mass fraction burned.'. ii. As has already been mentioned. Dashed lines show isentropic behavior.1 and 4. the gas motion in a spherical or cylindrical combustion bomb with central ignition which can readily be computed illustrates the features of the combustion-induced motion in an engine. gas pressure. (9. For a given equivalence ratio. The experimental fit this description: they cross the constant entropy lines toward lower Note that the gradient in temperature persists well into the expansion indicating that the "unmixed" model is closer to reality than the "fully " model. The measured temperature curves in Fig.ptb - (9.2) can be written as g . the unburned gas is then compressed '. and gas temperature distribution are often required. initially at ambient conditions.1 7 4 b) ' TO simplify the calculations.. -Xb 0 I' xb 0.. the . and specific heat models which vary with temperature for each of the components of the unburned mixture (see Secs. . Defining this motion in an engine requires sophisticated tiow models. = . the temperature of each burned gas element follows a different isentropic line as it is first compressed as p increases to p and then .INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE FUNDAMENTALS COMBUSTION IN SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES 381 FIGURE 9-6 Burned gas temperatures measured using spectroscopic techniques through windows in the cylinder head. dx and similar definitions hold for iib and ii. described above. In the absence of significant crevice effects. In addition. and Eb = vb(Tb.1) and (9. Figure 9-7 shows calculated particle trajectories for a stoichiometric methane-air mixture.&jow views later burned gas of progressively lower entropy. the expansion of a gas element which occurs during combustion compresses the gas ahead of the flame and moves it away from the spark plug. . Note that the accuracy of calculatio~l~ depends on the accuracy with which the time-varying heat loss to the chamber walls can be estimated (see Sec.4. 9-6 do not follow the calculated isentropes because of gas motion past the observation ports. F is specified for some initial state of the unburned gas (where N o d 4 radius . isentropically.6). as a function of cylinder pressure Temperatures measured closer to spark plug have higher values. as well as the accuracy of the models used to describe the thermodynamic properties of the gases. where Eb = Xb -1 : : < 1 xb ub d x and E. the spark plug is not usually centrally located.pfi. Appropriate more accurate models for the thermodynamic properties are: an equilibrium model for the burned gas. 6.7). for the burned gas... as a laminar m e with a constant burning velocity propagates outward from the center of a sphericalcontainer. However. = ub(pb. At the same time. 4. Applying this gas motion model to an engine. This corresponds to the fully mixed assumption p) p). 12. the heat losses from the unburned gas can usually be neglected. - fib = hb . fuel and burned gas fraction : and FIGURE 9-7 Particle trajectories in unburned and burned Bar as flame propagates outward at constant vebc1r)l from the center of a spherical combustion bomb Stoichiometric methamair mixture initially at 1 atm and 300 K. 8. it is convenient to assume that. = h. because the combustion chamber shape is rarely symmetrical. In the unmixed model.

Equations (9. since for any isentr process Tu can be determined.. (b)methanol.. where U = UO.18) above.6. Then.18) constitute a Set of nine equations for the unknowns Ir. In the adiabatic core. fib . 5 10 15 20 m Pressure.. (9. burned gas is compressed and then expanded isentropially. 10. The effect of . More accurate burned gas temperature c presence of a thermal boundary layer (of order 1 mm thick) around th bustion chamber walls (see Sec. The burned gas region in Fig. Dashed line is temperature of each element just aIter it bums.i).0.and the mass of charge m. -bustion.13) to (9. V. (9. So the burned state of an clcment of unburned charge. usually in the range 0. which burns at p = p i .93 the difference from unity is the combustion inefftcency for lean mixtures ( 3-9) and incomplete oxygen utilization for rich mixtures (see Fig. . in the absence of mixing between gas elements that burn at different times.Q. temperature difference across the bulk of the charge (0. iib.. One convenient sol method is to eliminate xb from Eqs. 4 = fuelfair equivalence ratio. T.13). can then be solved using a obtained from Eq. Each small element of unburned mixture burns in a constant-enthalpy constant-pressure process.W . flow into and out of crevice and leakage. 9-9. heat transfel to the chamber walls. The first two of these effects are the largest. The &men1 ignited by the spark is compressed to the highest peak temperature at L. or p.13) and (9. a divided into an adiabatic core and a boundary layer that grows in thickness with tune.. Irb. Some exa measured pressure data. (9.and x. Tb. Degrees after spark '-22 Analysis of Cylinder Pressure Data (4 FIGURE 9-8 M s fraction burned curves determined from measured cylinder pressure data uing two-# as bustion model: (a) gasoline.. the unburned mixture state can be determined using Eq. 4-20). 12. 9-4 . The burned gas temperature distribution can be calculated as follows.&.ii.5).05 < xb < 0. 4 = 1. this element which burned at p = p i is compressed and txpanded along the isentropic: An example of the temperature distribution computed in this manner for this mixed model in the burned gas adiabatic core is shown in Fig. FIGURE 9-9 Calculated temperature distribution in the adiabatic core of the burned gas zone for the unmixed model assuming thermodynamic equilibrium. Gwen the pressure versus crank angle data. wi With accurate pressure versus crank angle rec burned should be close to but lower than unity.ii. M u .95) The hit 200 K. can be obtained from the &lation After combustion. An of pressure dp/dO and equat found in Ref." qlindfl pressure changes with crank angle as a result of cylinder volume change.14) to obtain fib .382 lNTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE FUNDAMENTALS COMBUSTION IN SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES 383 xb = 0) by p o . 5.

bustion. Log p-log V plots such as Fig.. Assuming that the unburned gas filling the volume V.33. Also. it occupied at time of spark is Similarly..21) and (9.l 3 show that the compression and expansionare well fitted by a polytropic relation: pVn = constant (9. Since V = + V. the crystal is compressed and generates an electric charge which is proportional to the pressure..). the observed behavior is as More extensive studies12. Eqs. A charge amplifier is then used to produce an output voltage proportional to this charge. then the volume K . as the cylinder pressure increases. (9. combustion rate information can be obtained from accurate pressure data provided models for the remaining phenomena can be developed at an appropriate level of approximation. at the end of combustion.4-13 and 4-16). This type of transducer contains a quartz crystal. .20) could be used to account for the effect of cylinder volume change on the pressure during combustion.22) differs appropriately from y. The end of com- bustion can be located approximately in similar fashion. would. the expansion stroke following combustion is essentially linear G t h slope 1. the burned gas behind the flame filling the volume V.22) then give: Fraction of maximum volume Fraction of maximum volume (b) (4 FIGURE 9-10 (a) Pressure-volumediagram.~ correlated cylinder pressure data with flame photographs. and showed how Eq. where Vo amd V are the total cylinder volumes at time of spark and at the end of com. Since both the compression of the unburned mixture prior to-combustion and the expansion of the burned gases following the end of combustion are close to adiabatic isentropic prmsses (for which pVY = constant. . ahead of the flame at any crank angle during combustion has been compressed polytropically by the advancing flame front. (2) the pressure versus crank angle (or volume) phasing is accurate to within about 0. r. y = cJc. Log p versus log V plots can be used to check the quality of cylinder pressure data. Heat-transfer effects are included only to the extent that the polytropic exponent fi in Eq. thus. The start of combustion can be identified by the departure of the curve from the straight line. though it contains several approximations. It is comparable to the average value of y for the unburned .. ) and to V. One end of the crystal is exposed through a diaphragm to the cylinder pressure.3 (f0.20) n e exponent n for the compression and expansion processes is 1. the expansion stroke on the log plog V plot for a firing engine shows excessive curvature. O n the log p-log V diagram the compression process is a straight line of slope 1. (3) the clearance volume is estimated with sufficient accuracy./V.72. (9. The mass fraction burned x.. propane fueLL2 rev/min. the polytropic exponent n is not constant during combustion. for the burned gas mixture during expansion due to heat loss to the combustion chamber walls (see Figs. The previous section has developed the fundamental basis for such calculations. given by . Accurate cylinder pressure versus crank angle data can be obtained with these systems provided the following steps are carried out: (1) the correct reference pressure is used to convert the measured pressure signals to absolute pressures. The first three of the above requirements can be validated using log p-log V diagrams for a motored engine. (".I2 Figure 9-10 shows pressure-volume data from a firing spark-ignition engine on both a linear p-V and a log p-log V diagram. mixture over the compression process.3&1 INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE FUNDAMENTALS volume change on the pressure can readily be accounted for. Selecting an appropriate value for n (whether n is assumed to be con- . but is larger than y. respectively. = 8. If the effects of thermal cycling are significant. fill a volume V. MBT timing imep = This method is widely used. d V . One wellestablished technique for estimating the mass fraction burned profile from the pressure and volume data is that developed by Rassweiler and W i t h r ~ w They .(K. is equal to 1 . (b)log 4 = 0. 9-10 approximately define the start and end of combustion.05) for conventional fuels. The pressure rise due to combustion is Proportional to the amount of fuel chemical energy released rather than the mass of mixture burned. Cylinder pressure is usually measured with piezoelectric pressure transducers. but do not provide a mass fraction burned profile. (4) transducer temperature variations (which can change the transducer calibration factor) due to the variation in wall heat flux during the engine cycle are held to a minimum.

the combination is termed net heat release-the combustion energy release less heat lost to the walls. Use of Eq.. Inserting this crevice model . y should vary.24). Then Eq. As the mean charge temperature increases during compression and combustion and then decreases during expansion. is often interpreted as the burned mass fraction (or. is combined with the heat-transfer and crevice terms.> 0 when flow is out of the cylinder into the crevice dm. Figure 9-11 the appropriate open-system boundary for the combustion chamber. (9./R [= l/(y . An approximate approach. and leakage can be explicitly inc rated into cylinder pressure data analysis by using a "heat release" app based on the first law of thermodynamics. Crevice e can usually be modeled adequately by flow into and out of a single vo cylinder pressure. < 0 us of the ideal gas law (neglecting the change in gas constant R) with Eq.6). T. normalized to give unity at its maximum value.386 INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE FUNDAMENTALS COMBUSTION IN SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES 387 stant or to vary through the combustion process) is the major difficulty applying this pressure data analysis procedure. is the mean wall temperature. T is the mean gas temperature. = mc. Since these crevice regions are narrow. on su ing for dU. with the gas in the crevice at a substantially lower te Leakage to the crankcase can usually be neglected. it represents flow into and crevice regions (see Sec. 8Qhtis heat tra to the chamber walls. becomes 8Qch= mc.26) together. t13. the distributions of heat release and heat transfer with crank angle are different. (=dmcr = -dm). is given by mu(T). The change in sensible energy of the charge dU. The accuracy with which this energy balance can be made depends on how adequately each term in the above equation can be quantified. and 4-18). and 4-18 and with y constant during combustion. (9. dT + (h' Open system . (9. modeling . more correctly. The work is piston work and equal to p dV. < 0 when flow is from the crevice to the cylinder /jis evaluated at cylinder conditions when dm.IT) with a linear function of temperature fitted to the appropriate curves in Figs.(T) dT + u(T) dm Note that this mean temperature determined from the ideal gas law is close t mass-averaged cylinder temperature during combustion since the mole weights of the burned and unburned gases are essentially identical. while retaining the simpli treating the combustion chamber contents as a single zone. In the absence of fuel injection. The effects of heat transfer. When the heat or energy release 6Qch. is separated from that due to change in composition: the term 8Qchrepresents the "chemical energy" r e l e d by combustion. The net heat-release profile obtained from integrating the first two terms on the right-hand side of Eq. his equation can be used in several ways.4-16. where T is the mean charge temperature and m is the m a s within the system boundary. represent the sensible energy change and work transfer to the piston. The mass Aux term represents flow across the boundary. Since crevice effects are usually small. (9. and hc is the heat-transfer coefficient (averaged over the chamber surface area).25) then gives + 8Qht+ 8W + hi dm. a sufficiently accurate model for their overall effect is to consider a single aggregate crevice volume where the gas is at the same pressure as the combustion chamber. Assuming that U. heat transfer becomes more important as the combustion process ends and average gas temperatures peak. A major advantage of sue approach is that the pressure changes can be related directly to the amount fuel chemical energy released by combustion. While heat losses during combustion are a small fraction of the fuel energy (10 to 15 percent).. 4-13.u)dmcr+ p dV + 6Qh.26). hc can be estimated from engine heat-transfercorrelations (see Sec. (9. 8. crevices. where A is the chamber surface area. but at a different temperature.26) requires a value for c.4-16. the energy-release fraction) versus crank angle profile. an appropriate assumption is that the crevice gas is at the wall temperature. > 0 and at crevice conditions when dm. The ratio of specific heats y for both unburned and burned gases decreases with increasing temperature and varies with composition (see Figs. ' ~ The convective heat-transfer rate to the combustion chamber walls can be calculated from the relation FIGURE 9-11 Open system boundary for "mb chamber for heat-release analysis.4.3). then dU. has been shown to give adequate r e s ~ l t s . It is equal to the first two terms on the right-hand side of Eq.. and dm.I)].' law for this open system is 8Qch= dUs dm=. 12.

'' Figure 9-8 shows results from such an analysis. The crank angle interval between the spark discharge An example of the use of Eq.. 9-13). (9.or gross heat-release curve in Fig. This stage is obviously influenced by conditions throughout the combustion chamber. the measured combustion inefficiency was close to the amount shown. Due to this complexity. of A. is approached due to flow into crevices. crevices f -1M) FIGURE 9-12 the -50 0 50 100 150 shdW and Degras ATC combustion indficien~y.$ Overall burning angle AO. and (mf Qwv) should equal the combustion ineffi.The combustion inefficiency can be determined from the exhaust gas composition (see Sec. Usually this fraction is 10 percent.4). : . The curve at the top of the figure is the mass of fuel within the combustion chamber times its lower heating value. The stage during which the major portion of the charge burns as the flame propagates to the chamber walls is next.COMBUSTION IN SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES 389 into Eq. The following definitions are most commonly used to characterize the energy-release aspects of combustion: Flamedevelopmentangle At?. ngion must be developed.'~ t This angle is sometimes called the ignition delay. 9-2 and the chemical energy. 9. and A: are usually closely compara8 ble. Inaccuracies in the cylinder pressure data and the heat-release calculation will also contribute to this difference. with y(T) = a release rate: + bT. 923 Combustion Process Characterization f i e mass fraction burned profiles as a function of crank angle in each individual cycleshown in Fig.or gross heat. and motion in the vicinity of the spark plug (see Sec. and At?. The rate at which fuel-air mixture bums increases from a low value immediately following the spark discharge to a about halfway through the burning process and then decreases to close to zero as the combustion process ends. cannot as easily be quantified because energy-release rates are comparable to other energy-transfer processes that are occurring.3).. 9-12. The final stage. The addition of heat transfer and crevice models gives the chemical energy release. uses the maximum burning rate to define an angle or time characteristic of the bulk charge burning process4(see Fig. gives the chemical energy..3). The integrated heat release is plotted against crank angle.27)' to analyze an experimental pressure versus crank angle curve for a conventional spark-ignition engine is shown in Fig. and the terminology used here is preferred (see kc 9. O.1. The difference between the final value of Q. and a model for the composition of the gas flowing into the crevice and the time when a small but significant fraction of the cylinder mass has burned or fuel chemical energy has been released. It is influenced primarily by the mixture state. crevice models are usually omitteddespite the fact that their impact can be significant. 9. The flame development process. (9. The crank angle interval required to burn the bulk of the charge. In the example in Fig. An alternative definition for AO. though other fractions such as 1 and 5 percent have been used. 4. 9-12. An important advantage of a heat-release analysis that relates the pressure changes to the amount of fuel chemical energy within the cylinder is that this error can be determined. ciency (which is a few percent of mf QLHv). The lowest curve shown is the net heat release. It decreases slightly as p. using the methodology described in Sec. It proves convenient to use these mass fraction burned or energy-release fraction curves to characterize different stages of the spark-ignition engine combustion process by their duration in crank angles. It is defined as the interval between the end of the flame-development stage (usually mass fraction burned or energy-release fraction of 10 percent) and the end o the flame-propagation process (usually mass fraction burned or energy-release f fraction of 90 percent). The disadvantages a n that the unburned and the burned zone heat-transfer areas must both now be estimated.. It is the sum -*150 Results c of heat-release analysis effects o heat transfer. is one such stage.26). 9-12 have a characteristic S-shape. The advantage of a two-zone analysis is that the fhermodynamic properties of the cylinder contents can be quantified more accurately. composition. The duration of the overall burning process. AO. from the spark discharge which initiates the combustion process to the point where a small but measurable fraction of the charge has burned.. Two-zone models (one zone representing the unburned mixture ahead of the flame and one the burned mixture behind the flame) are used to calculate the mass fraction burned profile from measured cylinder pressure data. thereby defining the fraction of the engine cycle that they occupy.2. Since the flame starts to propagate outward immediately followingthe spark discharge there is no delay.t Rapid-burning angle At?.9. where the remainder of the charge bums to completion.

and the turbulence erates. and the mass fraction burned profile calculated from the Pressure data using the method of Rassweiler and Withrow2 (see Set. from a highrpced schlieren movie taken in a special visualization spark-ignition engine operathg at 1400 r e v b i n and 0 5 atm inlet pressure. This secti experimental evidence that describes the essential features of the fla ment and propagation processes. but otherwise operated nomally. a parallel light beam is passed through the combustion ~ b e r Portions of the beam which pass through regions where density gra. where 8 is the crank angle. charg and chamber geometry. deg one engine cycle in a square-cross-section cylinder. With these techniques. or tion of fuel energy released.eo ] a n be obtained from photographs @en with techniques that are sensitive density changes in the flow field. pressure versus crank angle data. With the shadowgraph technique. on mass fraction versus crank angle curve. While the selecti and 90 percent points is arbitrary. With L&SC techniques.16 9 3 FLAME STRUCTURE AND SPEED 9. This flow field is produced by the high shear ffows set intake process and modified during compression. corresponding pressure and mass fraction burned curves. such as schlieren and shadowgraph. A&. is the start of combustion. 9-1 indicate the location shape of the actual reaction zone which radiates in the blue region of the spectrum.17 Visualization of I.390 INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE FUNDAMENTALS CoMBUsTION IN SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES 391 - '40% FIGURE 9-13 Definition of flamedevelopment angle. the deflected parts of the beam are displaced relative lo the knife edge and produce lighter or darker regions when subsequently rfe. A rapid-burning angle. Figure 9-14 shows a set of photographs from one engine cycle. Further insight into the str Crank angle. such a choice avoids the difficult determining accurately the shape of the curve at the start and end These angles can be converted to times (in seconds) by dividing by 6 revolutions per minute). was eliminated and the rate of flame propagation decreased sub Understanding the structure of this engine flame as it develops from discharge and the speed at which it propagates across the combustion and how that structure and speed depend on charge motion. due to the refractive index gram dmfs that result from the density gradients. A0 is the total co bustion duration (xb = 0 to xb = I). singlecylinder. a d onto film. . are critical to engine optimization. and a and m are adjustable parametm Varying a and m changes the shape of the curve significantly. the parallel beam emerging born the combustion chamber is photographed directly.400 rev. deflected parts of the karn produce lighter and darker regions on the film. &tails of flame structure can be discerned. This engine had a square-cross-section cylinder with two quartz walls to permit easy optical access. A functional form often used to represent the mass fraction burned ve crank angle curve is the Wiebe function: xb=l-exp[-a(T) e . versus crank angle plot. the beam a focused on a knife edge.22). Actual mass frao tion burned curves have been fitted with a = 5 and m = 2. Figure 9-13 illustrates these definitions on a mass fraction burned. b a t s normal to the beam exist are deflected. In the schlieren technique.1 Experimental Observations process in the spark-ignition engine takes place in a turbulcat The flow field. as described in importance of the turbulence to the engine combustion process was reco long ago through experiments where the intake event. 9. An irregular front is apparent. Also shown are the cylinder . Direct flame photographs such as those in Fig.3. 8. .

Maximum cylinder pressure occurs close to the time the flame makes contact with the far wall. 9-14e.The volume enflamed behind the front continues to grow in a roughly spherical manner." roughly spherical in shape. ) does depend on the equivalence ratio. The mass fraction burned and the associated pressure rise due to combustion become significant by the time the flame front has traversed two-thirds to three-quarten of the field of view. burned g a ~ fraction in the unburned mixture. gas temperature. * ume fraction burned y. central plug without swirl. 9-14eand$ A useful relationship between the mass fraction burned. 9-15. Finally. side plug with normal swirl.18 The approximately spherical development of the flame .'' FIGURE 9-15 Burned volume fraction. has a universal form.COMBUSTION IN SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES 393 the flame is especially important during the early stages of flame development when the pressure rise due to combustion is too small to be detected. 9-14a. xb(=mdm). as seen in Fig. grows steadily from the time of spark discharge.can be obtained from the identities and the ideal gas law: While the density ratio ( p d p . This curve is an important aid in interpreting flame geometry information. ude plug with high swirl. x. its value is close to 4 for most spark-ignition engine operating conditions. Figure 9-16 shows shadowgraph photographs of the flame at fixed crank angle intervals after %nition. ti~n. taken through a transparent cylinder head with different geometric and flow configurations. and pressure. against y. yb Relation between mass fraction burned xb and vd. The effect of turbulence is already visible in the convoluted flame surface in Fig.~ ? The above-described features of the developing and propagating flame are common to almost all engine geometries and operating conditions. two plugs without swirl. These photographs show how the flame "ball. is residual m& f* . Note that the fraction of the cylinder filled with enflamed charge is less than is suggested by the photos because the front of the flame is approximately spherical and the cylinder has a square cross section.1•‹ as shown in Fig. Thus. the plot of x. From top to bottom: side plug without swirl. as seen in Fig. clearing the field of view as shown in Fig. degrees from ignition FIGURE 9-16 h e r shadowgraph photographs of engine combustion process taken in single-cylinder engine with "ansparent cylinder head. the unburned mixture ahead of and within the front burns out and the density gradients associated with the flame reaction zone disappear. Crank angle. except where intersected by the chamber walls. 9-14band c. and the volume fraction occupied by the burned gas. yb(= WV).

the greater the mass of fresh charge that can cross this surface and enter flame zone. (8. the turbulence intensity u' [Eq. DJSL. pressure. 9-16 illustrate the importance of flame area. air.g. measure of the size of the large energy-containing structures of the flow.e. small-scale kinetic energy is dissipated via molecular viscosity. can be defined as n 2&3 3& Engine speed. the development angle Ad.'~~The burned gas friction in the unburned mixture. the relative importance of combustion chemistry effects depends on combustion chamber design and burn rate. propane. + Ad.394 INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE FUNDAMENTALS COMBUSTION l N SPARK-IGNITION ENGlNES 395 from the vicinity of the spark plug. Only with unusually hi swirl and aerodynamic stabilization of the flame at the spark plug location d the flame become stretched out and distorted by the flow in a major way.19 Figure 9-17 shows how the in between the spark discharge and 10 percent mass fraction burned. affects the burning rate: increasing the burned gas fraction dews down both flame development and pr~pagation.11)] defines the smallest structures of the flow where .. the geometry of the combustion chamber a d the spark plug location govern the flame front surface area-the area of t k approximately spherical surface corresponding to the leading edge of the flw contained by the piston..2. cylinder head.. 4. dimensional arguments give the most commonly used definition: 6 = . While mixtures of isooctane or conventional gass oline~ with air and burned gases (at identical conditions) have closely comparable burning rates. Reducing the inlet pressure (and maintaining the ratio of d a u s t to inlet pressure fixed to hold the residual gas fraction constant) increases both the flame development and rapid burning angles. once the flame fronts are intersected by the cylinder wall.3).8). The larger this surf== area. Additionally. at a fixed crank angle int val after spark). and ethanol mixtures exhibit modest diKerences in burning rate and hydrogen-air mixtures substantial differences. Mixture burning rate is strongly influenced by engine speed. The bjsic combustion chemistry of the fuel. except where it intercepts the chamber w is evident for side and center ignition with one plug. gas motion. (841 is a . Increasing engine speed and introducing swirl both increase the levels of turbulence in the engine cylinder at the time combustion (see Sec. With normal levels of s the flame center is convected with the swirling flow.54 atm. laminar flame speed is the velocity at which the flame propagates into quiescent premixed unburned mixture ahead of the flame. at given engine speed. and for ignition with plugs in the absence of any intake generated swirl. i.2 Flame Structure Laminar flames in premixed fuel. It is well esta lished that the duration of combustion in crank angle degrees only incre slowly with increasing engine speed. . For homogeneous and isotropic (no Preferred direction) turbulence.'' The fuellair equivalence . Several dimensionless parameters are used to characterize turbulent premixed flames. increasing in-cylinder gas velocities (e. revlmn 4000 FIGURE 9-17 Effect of engine speed on flame-deve angle (0 to 10 percent burned) and burning angle (0to 90 percent burn& intake pressure 0.. (see Sec.2.3)]. Both flame development and burning angles show a minimum for slightly rich mixtures (4 x 1. and gas composition and state are interrelated.3 engine speed." Both intervals increase by a factor of about 1." Given the molecular diffusivity DL (see Sec. = ullI/v.21 11 93. (8. 9. due to the residual gas fraction and any recygases.2) and increase significantly as the 20 becomes substantially leaner than stoi~hiometric. ~h~ center plug location gives approximately twice the flame area of the side plu geometry at a given flame radius. A characteristic turbulent eddy turnover time 7. The integral length scale 1 [Eq. air. and cylinder wall. Turbulent flames are also characterized by the root mean square velocity fluctuation. 9-16 is larger than for the quiescent case with the same plug location at t crank angle intervals after spark shown. The Kolmogorov scale 1 [Eq. and the various length scales of the turbulent flow ahead of the flame.18 At any given flame radius. the fl front areas are comparable. 9. the burning rate throughout the combustion pr increases almost. The dimensionless parameter used to define the turbulence is the turbulent Reynolds number. the integral and Kolmogorov scales are related by Eq.2). However. is also well established that unburned mixture composition and state the burning rate. though not quite. and the interval between the spark and 90 percent mass fraction burned. but the flame front grows is still approximately spherical in shape. methanol. methane.6 for a increase in engine speed.tio the burning rate.3. with intake ge erated swirl) increases the burning rate: the flame size for the swirling flows Fig.". spark 30" BTC. The arrangement with two spark plugs at opposite sides o f t chamber is not significantly different in enflamed volume from the single ce plug because. There are several ways to define the thickness of a laminar flame. Re. 8. The photos in Fig. and temperature than are slower burning engines (which have lower turbulence). Faster burning engines (which have higher turbulence) are less sensitive to changes in mixture composition. the overall burning angle Ad.'~Fuel composition ~ b n g e can be significant also. The . The effects of chamber geometry. residual gas mixtures are characterized by a laminar flame speed SL and a laminar flame thickness 6 (see Sec. as rapidly as engine speed. Increased turbulence increases the rate of develo ment and propagation of the turbulent premixed engine flame. and burns about twice as fast (the fraction the cylinder volume enflamed is about twice the size. (8.14): I& = Re. burned gas mixture influences the combustion process.

Figure 9-19 shows how this development of a flame kernel occurs. l7 The structure of the flame continues to develop as it propagates across the chamber. 6-19). As this developing sheetlike flame grows it interacts with the turbulent flow field in the vicinity of the spark plug: the flame outer surface becomes increasingly convoluted and the flame center can be convected away from the plug in a direction and with a velocity that can vary substantially cycle-by-cycle. 40 ps between photos. the Structureof the flame in a spark-ignition engine.(Courtesy A. The ratio ut/SL is a measure of the relative strength of t~rbulence. corresponding to a thin reaction zone with hightemperature gases inside. is measure of the stretch or local distortion to which a laminar flame is subjected b the turbulent flow. 9. In the reaction sheet regime. lie above the 1J6. SL flame speed.Fration at high speed (the lower right boundary) and low load (the lower left boundary) gives values of Da and Re..22It has been that DL z v and that the relationships for homogeneous isotropic turbu valid. with a set of shadowgraph photographs taken at 40-ps intervals of the spark plug electrode gap in one cylinder of a 2-liter conventional engine. One would expect.4 and Fig. Values of Da and Re. 9 1 the concept of a localized flame region little significance. = 1 line. 1100 Avhin. In the initial breakdown phase of ignition.) . The complete sequence (-200 ys) corresponds to 1. are integral mogorov scale. I.. 9-20?. described below. then. shows that early in the burning process the flame FIGURE 9-18 Different turbulent Bame regimes Damkohler number versus turbulence number. Two regimes--distributed reactions and reaction sheets-are norm identified. =L ($I($) It is an inverse measure of the influence of the turbulent flow on the chemid processes occurring in the flame. The ratio 6 J . Engine . to be that of a thin reaction sheet wrinkled and convoluted by the turbulent flow. The first photograph is between 20 and Sops after the spark breakdown occurred. Evidence. A flame develops from the spark discharge which causes ignition as follows... there is a region in Fi 9-18 where I. = 1 line. Other ratios are of interest.3. r. propagating react fronts are wrinkled and convoluted by the turbulence. Unless 1. chemical reactions proceed in d tributed reaction zones and thin-sheet flames do not occur. Whether the flame structure under these conditions is significantly different is not known. 9-18. % 6.'~ electrical energy is fed into the discharge. and laminar flame (From Abraham et a1. Observations of engine flames to date. > l K : the characteristics of flames in this regime are unclear. Douad. Stoichiometnc mixture. > 6. > 1. as seen in Fig.") CURE 9-19 1 l@ lo4 lo6 lo' Turbulent Reynolds number R ~ T s b d ~ ~ g r a pphotographs of spark-generated kernel between the spark plug electrodes First phoh '"~aphon left.396 m E R N A L COMBUSTION ENGINE FUNDAMENTALS COMBUSTION I SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES N 397 A characteristic chemical reaction time is the residence time in a laminar flame: 6. once developed. A sufficient condition the existence of reaction sheets is I .~~ Different regimes of turbulent flames are apparent in the plot of Damk ler number versus turbulent Reynolds number in Fig./6. A sufficient condit for this regime is I . a cylindrical discharge between the spark plug electrodes is establi~hed.3 crank angle degrees. For Re. =- SL The ratio of the characteristic eddy turnover time to the laminar burning time b called the Damkohler number: Da = ' = . within the reaction sheet regime. This is hrgely due to the low values of laminar flame speed that result from the high mounts of residual gas and EGR under these conditions (see Sec. Institut Francais du Petrole. In the distributed reaction regime. 4 6. 9-18) lie predominantly in the reaction sheet flame regime. and 6. u' is turbulence intensity. I. 20 to 50 p after breakdown. for a typical spark-ignition engine (the cross-hatched Ngion in Fig. the arc expands and exoAs thermic chemical reactions capable of sustaining a propagating flame develop. The outer boundary of this developing flame kernel is approximately spherical and is smooth with modest irregularities. which fall below the IJ6. Detailed observations have been made of flame structure from ignition to flame extinguishing at the far cylinder wall. largely from schlieren photographs and studies of flame structure with laser diagnostics.

and the region behind the flame. 0. spark timing 3" BTC. The thickness of the front is about 0.5 atm pressure. propane fuel. The scale of the wrinkles is typically about 2 mm at engine speeds 1000 to 2000 rev/min. 4 = 0. 9-21.6 mm. 4 = 0.8 rnm diameter. burned gas mixture (see Sec. The difference is due to the substantially higher laminar flame speed for the hydrogen. flame thickness z 4. spark advance 45" BTC. It shows the irregular but smoothly curved surfaces which Wmprise the leading edge of the flame. obtained with the schlieren or shadowgraph technique. photograph at 14" ATC. photographs were selected from a large number to give the minimum flame thickness corre- Wndink! to the flame front perpendicular to the channel length. 9-18.4) which increases [he Damkohler number and shifts the flame toward the weak-turbulence (i. showing different con" processes in two different cycles. . with narro crown (at bottom of pictures) which permits observation of 13-mm wide section 0 fuel. 5" after spark discharge. 1400 rev/min. As the flame propagates across the chamber.398 INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE FUNDAMENTALS COMBUSTION IN SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES 399 FIGURE 9-20 Schlieren photographs of developing flame. Figure 9-226 shows the back of the flame 70' after the spark.5 mm for hydrogen. and the scale of the wrinkles tends to decrease with time.. Additional insight into the structure of the developed engine flame can be obtained by enlarging photographs of the leading and trailing edges of the flame." is a thin. flame thickness z 1. Stoic 1380 rev/min.5 mm. Figure 9-22a shows the front of the flame 40' after the spark.5 atm inlet press~re. 0. that on the right is hydrogen-air. spark timing 36" BTC.17 (4 FIGURE 9-21 burned mixture exists-is apparent. 9.9. less winkled) flame regime in Fig. moderately wrinkled but simply connected. 0.? It was 4 to 5 mm for propane and 1.1 which is comparable to the thickness of a laminar flame under the prevaili conditions. propane fuel." The flame on the left is for a propanemixture. where 0 FIGURE 9-22 Enlrrged schlieren photographs of (a) flame front and (b) flame back in square-cross-section cylinder mginc with two glass side walls. These show a flame gating across the combustion chamber of a square-cross-section singleengine with a special transparent piston crown containing a 13-mm wide to isolate a small section of the flame.9. It shows large clear regions of burned gas behind the flame and smaller clear regions connected by a lacelike Schlieren photographs of flame in square-cross-section cylinder engine. Spark plug wires 0.3.e. when it has propagated about halfway across the chamber. the flame front beco more convoluted.~' 'Th.24 Further evidence that the thin reaction sheet front becomes highly wink and convoluted by the turbulent flow field into a thick turbulent flame " brus is provided by the schlieren photographs in Fig. The energy density per unit volume mixture and the flow field are comparable for each fuel. front or reaction sh between unburned and burned gas. the thickn of the reaction sheet front remains roughly constant. air. when the front of the flame has just reached the wall of the mmbustion chamber farthest from the spark plug. 1400 rev/min. photograph at 10' ATC. The effective thick this turbulent flame-the average distance between the region ahead of the where only unburned mixture exists.5 atm inlet pressure.

suggest this is an jppropriate scaling parameter (see Table 9 1 . photographs.400 INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGME FLJNDAMENTALS COMBUSTION I SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES N 4 1 30 29 28 27 Flame radius. Re.5 29 . The fraction of oscillograms showing sue "islands" varied from 0 at 300 revlmin to 20 percent at 1800 revlmin. The signal on the left corresponds to unburned gas.07 13 . with light beam normal to flame front. is of order 1 cm. The overall thickness of the turbulent flame "brush. where "snapshots" of the density profit along a laser beam passed through the flame were obtained using Rayleigh scat tered light from the gas molecules. The above theoretical discussion and experimental evidence indicates developed turbulent flames in spark-ignition engines.0 40 . Each do represents the intensity of the scattered light which is a. = I. Intensity it measure of gas density. US.5 an "island" of unburned gas. Re. The flame is gating from right to left. Enlarged schlieren tographs of a 9-mm diameter section of the developed engine flame. revjmin.u'/v. The oscillogram shows a thin transition zone o 0. mm FIGURE 9-23 Upper picture: oscillogram of output of opt multichannel analyzer showing the intensity light scattered from a narrow laser beam as a tu tion of distance through the flame.1 Parameters for shadowgrapb photographs in Fig. unshrouded (produced higher turbulence due to km Orderedflow).1 mm. Figure 9-24 shows a set of such photographs.U'/Y (see Sec. provide explicit evidence of this structure.'~ The above results suggest that increasing engine speed.0 19 .3 18 .Re. measure of the g density. 1 atm inlet pressure. followed at a distance of 1. of 1 G m m diameter section of flame.1. An int pretation of this signal consistent with the available photographic evidence shown ~nderneath. under normal operating conditions. vi normal to the flame surface. propane 4 = 1. S S US S S US US US 106 157 173 193 224 234 285 333 229 503 611 760 1024 1117 1658 2263 f 9 1200 600 900 h 1200 Valve: S shrouded. are highly wrinkled and probably multiply-connected thin reaction sheets. revlmin Turbulence intensity. 9-24 Engine speed. were achieved by increases in engine speed and by modifying the in valve. The thickness of the thin reaction sheet is comparable to estimates of the laminar flame thickness under the prevailing unburned mixture conditions which are of order 0.8 1.25 mm between unburned and burned gas. 8. 7 . Relevant parameters for each photograph are given in Table 9. which measured. arranged in order of increasing turbulent Reynolds number." front to back.)1 structure within which the remaining regions of unburned mixture are being con sumed.0. m/s htograph o Valve Re. Laser scattering experiments.27 . The scale of the wrinkles is of order 1 mmZ4Direct evidence to date is limited to the low to mid engine speed and low to high engine TABLE 9." Figure 9-23 shows an oscillogram of the output of the optical analyzer.44 08 .~~ flCURE 9-24 shadowgraph photographs. increasingly convolutes and p multiply-connects the thin reaction sheet flame front.21). indicate that increasing turbulence intensity a decreasing turbulence scales result in increasingly finely wrinkled flame St tures." The analogy with a crumpled sheet of paper is appropriate. which incre turbulence levels in the unburned charge. arranged in order of incr ing turbulent Reynolds number. = I. Lower picture: schema of flame structure corresponding to this signal. b c 300 600 300 900 d 0. Increases in turbulence intensity.



load ranges. Whether the structure becomes significantly different at high engine speed is not known. Models of this turbulent flame development and propagation process are reviewed in Chap. 14.

9 3 3 Laminar Burning Speeds
An important intrinsic property of a combustible fuel, air, burned gas mixture is its laminar burning velocity. This burning velocity is defined as the velocity, relative to and normal to the flame front, with which unburned gas moves into the front and is transformed to products under laminar flow conditions. Some details of flame structure help explain the significance of this quantity. A flame is the result of a self-sustaining chemical reaction occumng within a region of space called the flame front where unburned mixture is heated and converted into products. The flame front consists of two regions: a preheat zone and a reaction zone. In the preheat zone, the temperature of the unburned mixture is raised mainly by heat conduction from the reaction zone: no significant reaction or energy release occurs and the temperature gradient is concave upward (d2T/ ax2 > 0). Upon reaching a critical temperature, exothermic chemical reaction begins. The release of chemical energy as heat results in a zone where the temperature gradient is concave downward (a2T/ax2 < 0). The region between the temperature where exothermic chemical reaction begins and the hot boundary at the downstream equilibrium burned gas temperature is called the reaction zone. The thicknesses of the preheat and reaction zones can be calculated for onedimensional flames from conservation equations of mass and energy. The thickness of the preheat zone 6 , is .

eated as negligibly thin. Laminar burning velocities for methane, propane, isotane, methanol, gasoline, and hydrogen-premixed with air-at pressures, temperatures, and equivalence ratios which occur in engines have been measured using this t e ~ h n i q u e . ~ ' -Also, the effect of a burned gas diluent on laminar ~~ burning velocity with gasoline-air mixtures has been deter~nined.~' Correlations derived from these data are the most accurate means available for estimating laminar burning velocities for mixtures and conditions relevant to spark-ignition The effect of the mixture fuellair equivalence ratio on laminar burning for several hydrocarbon fuels and methanol is shown in Fig. 9-25. The burning velocity peaks slightly rich of stoichiometric for all the fuels shown. The ~alues isooctane and gasoline are closely comparable. Data at higher presfor sures and temperatures have been fitted to a power law of the form:

where T = 298 K and po = 1 atm are the reference temperature and pressure, o o and SL, , a, and B are constants for a given fuel, equivalence ratio, and burned gas diluent fraction. For propane, isooctane, and methanol, these constants can be represented by


p = -0.16
where ,,$t

+ 0.22(4 - 1)


, ,

! t
where and 2, are the mean thermal conductivity and specific heat at constant pressure in the preheat zone and S, is the laminar burning velocity." Thus, the factors which govern the laminar burning velocity of a specific unburned mixturethe velocity at which this flame structure propagates relative to the unburned gas ahead of it-are the temperature and species concentration gradients within the flame and the mixture transport and thermodynamic properties. Laminar burning velocities at pressures and temperatures typical of unburned mixture in engines are usually measured in spherical closed vessels by propagating a laminar flame radially outward from the vessel center. The laminar burning velocity is then given by dm,/dt SL = (9.32) A, P U where the mass burning rate is determined from the rate of pressure rise in the vessel and Af is the flame area. Because the laminar flame thickness [e.g., given by Eq. (9.3111 under engine conditions is of order 0.2 and is therefore much less than characteristic vessel dimensions, in applying Eq. (9.32) the flame can be

St,o = B f B&$ - 43' m (9.35) is the equivalence ratio at which S , is a maximum with value Bm. ,













Fuellair equivalence ratio $

FIGURE 9-25 Laminar burning velocity for several fuels as funo tion of equivalence ratio, at 1 atm and UK) K. Lines are least-squares polynomial fits to data.".



1.11 .

B,, and B, for E . q
B,, cm/s

Methanol Propane Isooctane Gasoline

B,, em/s

3, , -


- 140.5
. A n "

Note: Values of S , , given by Eq. (9.35) arc obtained from least-squarm fits of Eq. (9.33) to data over the range

0 0

Mole fraction diluent f b 0.1 0.2

FIGURE 9-26 Effect of burned gas mole fraction P in unburned , ~ i i i n e .on~ laminar burning velocity. Fuel: gasmixture ~

Values of 4,,,B,,, , and B1 are given in Table 0 7 30 gasoline with average molecular weight of 107 ~USU tional data were available and were correlated by3'
a, = 2.4


@solinela reference




- 0.27143.51


For methane, simple equations such as ( 9 . 3 4 ~ do not adequately correlate the b) data over the range of p and T relevant to engines. However, laminar burning nave velocity data from a spherical constant-volum. WUW the obtained along an unburned gas isentropic path, as the pressure inalnn~ rises during combustion. Variation in laminar burning velocity L--= ---unburned gas isentropes does correlate with a power law:
S,, = s , (Puo ) s= o ~

The presence of burned gas in the unburned cylinder charge due to residual gases and any recycled exhaust gases causes a substantial reduction in the laminar burning velocity. Any burned gas in the unburned mixture reduces the heating value per unit mass of mixture and, thus, reduces the adiabatic flame temperature. It acts as a diluent. The effect of increasing burned gas or diluent fraction on laminar flame speed is shown in Fig. 9-26. The diluent used was a mixture of CO, and N2, chosen to match the heat capacity of actual gasoline-air combustion products.f The proportional reduction in laminar burning velocity is essentially independent of the unburned mixture equivalence ratio, pressure, and temperature over the range of interest in engines. The data in Fig. 9-26 are correlated by the relation:


Values for SL, and E from the literature are summarized in Table 9.3.

Parameters for methane& burning velocity correlation



where & is the mole fraction of burned gas diluent. Other studies corroborate the magnitude of this burned gas effect.3Z Note that for equal heat capacity added to the unburned mixture, burned gases have a much larger effect on laminar burning velocity than does excess air. For example, the laminar burning velocity of a stoichiometric mixture as it is leaned to 9 = 0.8 is reduced by 23 percent. The excess air required has a heat capacity of about 0.2 times that of the combustion products of the undiluted mixture. Adding the same heat capacity by adding stoichiometric burned gmes (which requires a burned gas mole fraction of 0.175) reduces the laminar burning

t At 298 K initial temperature.
$ S a Fig. 9-25.

f The water in actual residual and exhaust gas was omitted. A mixture of 80 percent N . percent CO, ,by volume, was used.

nnd 3n





velocity by 55 percent.32 Proper allowance for the burned gas fraction in ing laminar burning velocities for spark-ignition engines is most important. The above correlations define the laminar burning velocity as a functi unburned mixture thermodynamic properties and composition, only. It has assumed that flame thickness and curvature effects are negligible.28 Our in laminar burning velocity is twofold: first, it is used to define the char chemical reaction time of the mixture in Eq. (9.30); second, a presumed c quence of the wrinkled thin-reaction-sheet turbulent-flame structure is locally, the sheet propagates at the laminar burning velocity. The above corre tions adequately characterize a quiescent burning process. Ho flame propagation can be influenced by the local flow field If the flame thickness is less than the Kolmogorov scale, the of straining which affects both the flame area (usually referred to as ing for an area increase) and the local (laminar) burning velocity. While this problem is not yet well understood, it is known that straining can affect the laminar burning velocity and can cause flame extinction. The laminar burning velocity decreases with increasing strain rate, and the Lewis number of the unburned mixture has a significant influence on this rate of decrease. The Lewis number is the ratio of diffusivities of heat and mass. For stoichiometric mixtures it is close to one; it increases above about unity as the unburned fuel-air mixture is leaned out. Thus the local flow field may 'have a discernable effect on the local burning velocity of the thin laminarlike reaction-sheet flame, especially for lean or dilute mixtures.34



0 Distance

FIGURE 9-27 Schematic of spherical h e front in engine cornbustion chamber identifying parameters which define flame geometry. (From Beretta et a13


Flame Propagation Relations

spherical surface within the combustion chamber which would contain all the burned gas behind it; i.e., a r b , rc, a,, 2,) = UP, The spherical burning area A, is the area of this spherical surface; i.e., A, = a Urb ,rc ac , 2,) arb

If the heat-release or mass burning rate analysis of Sec. 9.2.2 is coupled with an analysis of flame geometry data, substantial additional insight into the behavior of spark-ignition engine flames is obtained. Flame photographs (such as those in Figs. 9-1,9-14, and 9-16 and Refs. 4 and 35) effectively define the position of the front or leading edge of the turbulent engine flame. The "shadow" of the enflamed zone, under normal engine conditions, is close to circle: only in the presence of very high swirl does substantial distortion of the flame shape occur.'" Thus, to a good approximation, the surface which d e h e s the leading edge of the turbulent flame (ahead of which only unburned mixture exists) is a portion of the surface of a sphere. Figure 9-27 indicates the geometrical parameters which define this flame surface: rc,ac,z, ,the coordinates of the flame center; rf , the radius of the best-fit circle to the flame front silhouette; and the geometry of the cornbustion chamber walls. The flame is initiated at the spark plug; however, it may move away from the plug during the early stages of its development as shown, We d e h e theframefront area Af as the spherical surface of radius rf coinciding with the leading edge of the flame contained within the combustion chamber, and the enframed volume V as the volume within the chamber behind this flame front. f The thermodynamic analysis of cylinder pressure data allows us to define additional geometrical parameters. The burned gas radius rb is the radius of the



The laminar burning area A, is the surface area the flame would have if it burned at the laminar flame speed, i.e.,
A, = P, SL



speed in the unburned mixture ahead of the flame Several velocities can be defined. The mean expansion speed of the front uf uf = dAs/dt Ls




where A, is the "shadow" area enclosed by the " best-fit" circle through the! leading edge of the flame and

is the arc length within the chamber of this " best-fit " circle. The mean expansion speed of the burned gas u, is

This derivative is taken with the piston position fixed since only burned volume changes due to combustion are of interest. The burnina sneed Sl is defined bv

The mean gas speed just ahead of the flame front u, is

u, = U b - Sb
Note that combining Eqs. (9.41) and (9.44) gives the relation Sb A, = SLA, Also, it follows from Eqs. (9.29), (9.43), and (9.44) that

As x, and y, + 0, ub/Sbapproaches the expansion ratio p J p , . As x, and y, -r 1, u$Sb approaches unity. The variation of the above quantities during the engine combustion shows results from an analysis of cylinder pressure data and the corresponding flame front location information (determined from high-speed movies through a window in the piston) of several individual engine operating cycles. The combustion chamber was a typical wedge design with a bore of 102 mm and a com~ressionratio of 7.86. The flame radius initially grows at a rate that increases


tually rf - r, goes to an essentially constant value of about 6 mm for r, >, 30 mm. This difference, r, - r,, is approximately half the thickness of the turbulent :






Normalized enflamed and burned volumes, and flame front area and laminar burning area, are shown in Fig. 9-28c. Volumes are normalized by the cylinder volume, and areas by nRh, where h is the average clearance height and R the cylinder radius. Discontinuities occur in the flame area a, at the points where the flame front contacts first the piston face and then the near cylinder wall. The laminar area A is initially close to the flame area A, and then increases rapidly , as the flame grows beyond 10 mm in radius. During the rapid burning combustion phase Cv, 2 0.2) the value of y, is significantly greater than y,. During this phase, the laminar area exceeds the flame area by almost an order of magni. tude. These observations indicate the existence of substantial pockets of unburned mixture behind the leading edge of the flame.4 The ratio of the volume of the unburned mixture within the turbulent flame zone (V, - h)to the reaction-sheet area within the flame zone (AL- A,) defines a characteristic length

- 3.0







Crank angle, deg

IT =

V' - v,
A, - 4

which can be thought of as the scale of the pockets of unburned mixture within the flame. For the data set of Fig. 9-28,1T is approximately constant and of order 1 mmZ4 These flame geometry results would be expected from the previous photographic observations of how the flame grows from a small approximately spherical smooth-surfaced kernal shortly after ignition to a highly wrinkled reaction-sheet turbulent flame of substantial overall thickness. Initially, the amount of unburned gas within the enflamed volume is small. During the rapid burning phase of the combustion process, however, a significant fraction (some 25 percent; see Fig. 9-2) of the gas entrained into the flame zone is unburned. The front expansion speed u,, burning speed S,, and laminar flame speed S, are shown in Fig. 9-281. The expansion speed increases as the flame develops to a maximum value that is several times the mean piston speed of 3.1 m/s and is comparable to the mean flow velocity through the inlet valve of 18 m b Z 4The burning speed increases steadily from a value close to the laminar flame speed at early times to almost an order of magnitude greater than S, during the rapid burning phase. During this rapid burning phase, since (r, - r,) is approximately constant, the flame front expansion speed and the mean burned gas expansion speed are essentially equal. The difference between u, x u, and S, is the unburned gas speed u, just ahead of the flame front. Note that the ratio u//Sb (%udSb) ,/b decreases monotonically from a value equal to the expansion ratio @,p) at spark to unity as the flame approaches the far wall, as required by Eq. (9.47). The effect of flame propagation on the flow field in the unburned mixture ahead of the flame is important because it is the turbulence just ahead of the flame that determines the local burning velocity. Measurements of mean velocities, rms fluctuation velocities, and turbulence intensities have been made using laser doppler anemometry (see Sec. 8.2.2) at different locations within engine combustion chambers (e.g., Refs. 36 and 37). Such data are difficult to interpret

FIGURE 9-29 Laser doppler anemometer measurements of ensemble-averaged mean velocity a,, [EQ.(8.2011, m s , ; fluctuation in individual-cycle mean velocity U, p q . (8.21)] and turbulence intensity u CEq. (8.22)], close to the cylinder axis, from before ignition to after flame amval. Disc-shaped chamber, spark plug in cylinder wall, measurement at x / B = 0.57, B = 76 m a 300 rev/min. $p = 0.83 rnls.36

because the mean flow varies cycle-by-cycle, the turbulence is not homogeneous, and the flame motion and shape show substantial cyclic variations. The results in Fig. 9-29 were taken in a special single-cylinder engine with a disc-shaped combustion chamber where the spark plug was located in the cylinder liner. Shown are the ensemble-averaged mean velocity, cyclic variation in mean velocity, and the turbulence intensity, normal to the front, during the major portion of the combustion process, close to the chamber center. The mean velocity normal to the front increases steadily from shortly after ignition, as the combustion-produced gas expansion displaces unburned mixture toward the wall. It peaks as the flame arrives at the measurement location. The cyclic variation in mean velocity and the turbulence intensity normal to the front remain essentially constant until a few degrees before the flame arrival. These two quantities are comparable in magnitude; thus the turbulence intensity is lower than the rms fluctuation velocity (in this case by about a factor of 2) (see Sec. 8.2.2). Whether the increase in turbulence as the flame approaches is due to rapid distortion resulting from the compression of the unburned mixture which occurs during combustion or is the result of inadequate resolution of cycle-to-cycle flow variations is unclear. Rapidly imposed distortions of a turbulent flow field, such as those imposed by combustion-produced gas expansion, would lead to an increase in vorticity and turbulence intensity. Other studies, e.g., Ref. 37, indicate there is little or no increase in turbulence intensity ahead of the flame. The variation of burning speed with engine speed has also been carefully examined in a study where flame position was determined from high-speed movies, mass burning rates from cylinder pressure, and turbulence information





from experiments at equivalent motored condition^.^^ The turbulence q obtained during motoring experiments was the ensemble-averaged root square velocity fluctuation defined by Eq. (8.18). Values of Sb/SLand ~ $ 3 , determined at two points in the combustion process: at a flame radius of (the end of the flame development process) and at mass fraction burned eq 0.5 (halfway through the rapid burning phase). To correct the motored tu lence data for the higher pressure levels corresponding to engine firing tions, a simple rapid distortion model (see Sec. 14.4.2) based on conservati , angular momentum in turbulent eddies was used. A linear correlation between S and uk results, as shown in Fig. 9-30, for the rapid burning combustion phase. Note that as u;/SL goes to zero, SJSL approaches a value close to unity. Once the flame front reaches the far cylinder wall (see Fig. 9-27) the front can no longer propagate: however, combustion continues behind the front until all the unburned mixture entrained into the enflamed region is consumed. This final burning or termination phase of the combustion process can be approximated by an exponential decay in the mass burning rate with a characteristic time constant z, of order 1 m . Since these "islands" or "pockets" of unburned s mixture behind the leading edge of the flame have a characteristic scale I, based on the laminar flame area [Eqs. (9.41) and (9.48)], it follows that



Observations and Definitions


= rbSL

In summary, the above flame data analysis procedures show that the Aj relationships between r j and r,, V/ and 6 , and A,, u,, S, and SL are distinctly different in the three phases of combustion: (1) the development phase, where a highly wrinkled reaction-sheet " thickv-overall turbulent flame evolves from the essentially spherical flame kernal established by the spark discharge; (2) the rapid-burning phase, where this thick "developed" turbulent flame propagates across the combustion chamber to the far wall, during which most of-the mass is burned; and (3) the termination phase after the flame front has reached the far wall and propagation of the front is no longer possible, when the remaining unburned mixture within the flame bums up. The burning velocity, in the rapid-burning phase of the combustion process, scales with turbulence intensity, which in turn scales with engine speed.

3025 -

. ... . . d! * :
5 1



2 0


' 1 1 0 1 15



20 1


FIGURE 9-30 Variation of burning speed with turbulena intensity. The ensemble-averaged r s velocity m fluctuation was measured during motoring engine operation. The ratio p/p, (firing pressure1 motoring pressure) corrects for the eff'ect of addi' tional compression on the turbulence intensity. Range of engine speeds and spark timing.35

observation of cylinder pressure versus time measurements from a spark-ignition engine, for successive operating cycles, shows that substantial variations on a cycle-by-cy~le basis exist. Since the pressure development is uniquely related to the combustion process, substantial variations in the combustion process on a cycle-by-cyclebasis are occurring. In addition to these variations in each individual cylinder, there can be significant differences in the combustion process and pressure development between the cylinders in a multicylinder engine. Cyclic variations in the combustion process are caused by variations in mixture motion within the cylinder at the time of spark cycle-by-cycle, variations in the amounts of air and fuel fed to the cylinder each cycle, and variations in the mixing of fresh mixture and residual gases within the cylinder each cycle, especially in the vicinity of the spark plug. Variations between cylinders are caused by differences in these same phenomena, cylinder-to-cylinder. Cycle-by-cycle variations in the combustion process are important for two reasons. First, since the optimum spark timing is set for the "average" cycle, faster-than-average cycles have effectively overadvanced spark-timing and slower-than-average cycles have retarded timing, so losses in power and e6ciency result. Second, it is the extremes of the cyclic variations that limit engine operation. The fastest burning cycles with their overadvanced spark timing are most likely to knock. Thus, the fastest burning cycles determine the engine's fuel octane requirement and limit its compression ratio (see Sec. 9.6.3). The slowest burning cycles, which are retarded relative to optimum timing, are most likely to burn incompletely. Thus these cycles set the practical lean operating limit of the engine or limit the amount of exhaust gas recycle (used for NO emissions control) which the engine will tolerate. Due to cycle-by-cycle variations, the spark timing and average air/fuel ratio must always be compromises, which are not necessarily the optimum for the average cylinder combustion process. Variations in cylinder pressure have been shown to correlate with variations in brake torque which directly relate to vehicle driveability. An example of the cycle-by-cycle variations in cylinder pressure and the variations in mixture burning rate that cause them are shown in Fig. 9-31. Pressure and gross heat-release rate [calculated from the cylinder pressure using Eq. (9.2711 for several successive cycles at a mid-load, mid-speed point are shown as a function of crank angle. The maximum heat-release rate and the duration of the heat release or burning process vary by a factor of two from the slowest to the fastest burning cycle shown. The peak cylinder pressure varies accordingly. The faster burning cycles have substantially higher values of maximum pressure than do the slower burning cycles; with the faster burning cycles peak pressure occurs The heat-release rate data in Fig. 9-31 show that there are cycle-by-cycle variations in the early stages of flame development (from zero to a few percent of


35 30



20 15 10 5

point of efficiency,hydrocarbon emissions, torque variations, and rough^ness. e partial-burn and misfire regimes are discussed in Sec. 9.4.3. various measures of cycle-by-cycle combustion variability are used. It can defined in terms of variations in the cylinder pressure between different cycles, or terms of variations in the details of the burning process which cause the &fferenCc?S pressure. The following quantities have been used: in the crank angle at which this maximum pressure occurs 8 ; , the maximum rate of pressure rise (dpld6)-; the crank angle at which (dp/d8), occurs; the indicated mean effective pressure [which equals j p dV/&, see Eqs. (2.14), (2.15), and (2.19)l. 2. Burn-rate-related parameters. The maximum heat-release rate (net or gross, see Sec. 9.2.2); the maximum mass burning rate; the flame development angle AB, and the rapid burning angle, Ad, (see Sec. 9.2.3). 3. Flame front position parameters. Flame radius, flame front area, enflamed or burned volume, all at given times; flame arrival time at given locations.
1. pressure-related parameters. The maximum cylinder pressure p,,,;







2010 -

- 10 1











Degrees ATC

FIGURE 9-31 Measured cylinder pressure and calculated gross heat-release rate for ten cycles in single-cylinder spark-ignition engine operating at 1500 rev/min, 4 = 1.0, p,,,,, = 0.7 am, MBT timing 25" BTC.14

Pressure-related quantities are easiest to determine; however, the relation between variations in combustion rate and variations in cylinder pressure is complex.38 Equation (9.26) defines the factors that govern this relationship. Because the rate of change of pressure is substantially affected by the rate of change of cylinder volume as well as rate of burning, changes in the phasing of the combustion process relative to TC (e.g., which result from changes in flame development angle) as well as changes in the shape and magnitude of the heatrelease rate profile affect the pressure. Figure 9-32 illustrates how the magnitude of the maximum cylinder pressure p,, and the crank angle at which it occurs e? vary as the crank angle at which combustion effectively starts (e.g., 8 at whch 1 percent of the cylinder mass has burned) and the burning rate are varied. , vary for a k e d fast-burning heat-release Curve CABE shows how p,, and 8 profile (the duration of the heat-release process and its maximum value are held

the total heat release) and in the major portion of the combustion process-the rapid-burning phase-indicated by the v&ations in the maximum b;rning rate. As the mixture becomes leaner with excess air or more dilute with a higher burned gas fraction from residual gases or exhaust gas recycle, the magnitude of cycle-by-cycle combustion variations increases. Eventually, some cycles become sufficiently slow burning that combustion is not completed by the time the exhaust opens: a regime where partial burning occurs in a fraction of the cycles is encountered. For even leaner or more dilute mixtures, the misfire limit is reached. At this point, the mixture in a fraction of the cycles fails to ignite. While sparkignition engines will continue to operate with a small percentage of the cycles in the partial-burn or misfire regimes, such operation is obviously undesirable from

Fast bum

FIGURE 9-32 Schematic of variation in maximum cylinder pressure and crank angle at which it occurs, in individual cycles. CABE typical of fast heat-release process; CA'B'D'E' typical of slow heat-release process. (From





constant), as the phasing of this combustion process relative to TC is varied. corresponds to MBT timing where the start of combustion is phased to maximum brake torque, B corresponds to retarded timing, and C to advanced timing. C'A'B'D'E' is a similar curve for a slow-burning heatprofile. A' corresponds to MBT timing, and B' and D' to increasingly timing. Note that with a suficiently slow-burning heat-release profile, beyond gl, om, decreases as the bum process is increasingly retarded. This occurs when the rate of increase of pressure due to combustion becomes so low that it is more than offset by the pressure decrease due to volume increase: eventually for extremely slow and late burning, the maximum pressure approaches the motored pressure at TC. The dashed lines show the constant start-of-combustion timing relative to MBT for each burn rate curve. Note that dm, for constant relative timing varies little as the heat-release profile or bum rate varies3' We can now explain the effects of variations in the heat-release profile (both in the development stage of the burning process, which effectively changes the location of the start of combustion, and in the rate of burning throughout the process) on p, and 8*,, when the spark timing occurs at a fixed crank angle. For a fixed burning rate profile (duration of bum and maximum burning rate) as the start of combustion is delayed to be closer to TC, p,, decreases and 8 initially increases (A to B or A' to B'). This is the effect of a change in relative timing or phase of the burning process due to a slower initial rate of flame development with fixed spark timing. If, in addition to the flame development being slower, the heat-release rate throughout the burning process is lower, then that combustion process is even more retarded from the optimum and p,,, decreases and 8 , increases further, to their values at Dr. The effect of a faster initial flame development and faster burning rate, with fixed spark time, is the opposite. The magnitudes of the changes in p,, and 8 depend, obviously, on the extent of the cyclic variations; they also depend on whether the average burn process is fast or slow. For fast-burning engines, a larger fraction of the heat release occurs near TC when the chamber volume is changing relatively slowly. Thus pressure variations are mainly due to combustion variations. With slow-burning engines, where a significant fraction of the energy release occurs well after TC, the effect of volume change also becomes significant and augments the effect of combustion variations. For large variations and a slow average burning process, p,, can fall below E', and Om, then decreases. A fast-burning combustion process significantly reduces the impact of cyclic combustion variations on engine perf~rmance.~' We can now evaluate the various measures of combustion variability. The maximum pressure variation has been shown to depend on both changes in phasing and burning rate. The magnitude of this variation depends on whether the combustion chamber is faster or slower burning, on average. It also depends on whether the burning process is substantially retarded relative to MBT. It depends, too, on cyclic cylinder fuel and air charging variations. Thus the interpretation of variations in p , [or in the maximum rate of pressure rise (dp/dO)J in terms of variations in the rate and phasing of the burning process

One important measure of cyclic variability, derived from pressure data, is the coflcient of variation in indicated mean effective pressure. It is the standard deviation in imep divided by the mean imep, and is usually expressed in percent:
x 100 (9.50) lmeP ~tdefines the cyclic variability in indicated work per cycle, and it has been found that vehicle driveability problems usually result when COV,,,, exceeds about 10



between p,,, 8 and imep for 120 cycles of an engine cylinder at fixed operating conditions and three different spark timings.38 The MBT timing data show a spread in imep at a fixed value of d,,. This imep data band is relatively flat and is centered around Omax z 16"; only at later values of 8does imep fall off significantly. The vertical spread in = 16" is due to variations in the amount of fuel entering the imep around 8 cylinder each cycle; normal variations in the bum profile under these conditions, which effectively change the phasing of the combustion process, produce only modest reductions in imep. For early 8 (the extreme upper left of Fig. 9-33a), the variations in p,, are also due mainly to these fuel-charging variations, cycleby-cycle; these are the fastest burning cycles with the most advanced phasing. As


deg An:


deg ATC



(a) Individual-cycle maximum pressure versus crank angle at which p ,

occurs. (b) Individual-cycle

indicated mean effective pressure versus em,





Om, increases, the dispersion increases as cyclic variations in phasing a burning rate have increasing impact. An important issue is whether variations in the early stages of flame opment and variations in subsequent portions of the burning process are pendent of each other or are correlated. Plots of early flame development an (spark to 1 percent mass burned) against the burning angle (1 to 90 per burned) from individual cycles for several different combustion chambers ind the following. There is a trend with increasing flame development angle for burning angle to increase (or the burning rate to decrease); however, ther much scatter about this trend (for a given value of flame development different cycles show a substantial range in burning angle), and the quanti aspects of the trend depend on operating conditions and on combustion ch design. In addition, as the mean rapid burning angle increases (due to changing operating conditions or a slower-burning chamber design) the mean flame devel. opment angle, the cyclic variation in the flame development angle, and the cyclic variation in the rapid burning angle all in~rease.~' This topic is discussed more fully in the following section. The shapes of the frequency distributions in individual-cycle pressure data (e.g., in p,,, ,(dp/dO),,, , 8-3 and in burn rate data such as dBd,AO,, (dQ/dO), depend on whether the combustion process is fast and "robust" (e.g., with closeto-stoichiometric mixtures at higher loads at optimum timing-well away from the lean operating limit of the engine) or slower and less repeatable, closer to the lean or dilute-mixture operating limit. Under robust combustion conditions these distributions are close to normal distribution^.^'^^ When the combustion process is much slower, the cyclic variability becomes large and the distribution becomes skewed toward the slower burning cycles which have low imep (due to the substantial retard of these slower cycles). When partial burning and then misfire occur, the low-pressure tail of the distribution approaches the motored pressure value at TC.44 Examples of the frequency distributions of imep in these two combustion variability regimes are shown later in Fig. 9-36. Cylinder pressure data are often averaged over many cycles to obtain the mean cylinder pressure at each crank angle. The primary use of this average pressure versus crank angle data is in calculating the average indicated mean effective pressure (which is a linear function of p). Since combustion parameters are not linearly related to the cylinder pressure [see Eq. (9-2711, analysis of the average pressure data will not necessarily yield accurate values of average combustion parameters. The error will be most significant when the combustion variability is largest. It is best to determine mean combustion parameters by averaging their values obtained from a substantial number of individual cycle analysis results. The number of cycles which must be averaged to obtain the desired accuracy depends on the extent of the combustion variability. For example, while 40 to 100 cycles may define imep to within a few percent when combustion is highly repeatable, several hundred cycles of data may be required when cyclic combustion variations are large.''


Causes of Cycle-by-Cycle and cylinder-to-Cylinder Variations

cycle-by-cycle combustion variations are evident from the beginning of the combustion process. Analysis of flame photographs from many engine cycles taken in research engines with windows in the combustion chamber has shown that dispersion in the fraction of the combustion chamber volume inflamed is present from the start of combustion (e.g., see Refs. 3 and 23). Dispersion in burning rate is also evident throughout the combustion process (see Figs. 9-2 and 9-31). Three factors have been found to influence this d i s p e r ~ i o n : ~ ~
1. The variation in gas motion in the cylinder during combustion, cycle-by-cycle 2 The variation in the amounts of fuel, air, and recycled exhaust gas supplied to

a given cylinder each cycle 3. Variations in mixture composition within the cylinder each cycle-especially near the spark plug-due to variations in mixing between air, fuel, recycled exhaust gas, and residual gas The relative importance of these factors is not yet fully defined, and depends on engine design and operating variables. The variation in the velocity field within the engine cylinder throughout the cycle, and from one cycle to the next, has been reviewed in Sec. 8.2.2. Toward the end of the compression stroke, the ensemble-averaged rms velocity fluctuation is of comparable magnitude to the mean piston speed, and may be larger than the mean flow velocity if there is no strongly directed local mean flow pattern (see Figs. 8-8 and 8-9). This ensembleaveraged velocity fluctuation combines both cycle-by-cycle variation in the mean flow and the turbulent velocity fluctuations. During compression, these two components are of comparable magnitude (see Figs. 8-9 and 9-29). While this data base is limited, it indicates that substantial variations in the mean flow exist, cycle-by-cycle, both in the vicinity of the spark plug and throughout the combustion chamber. Velocity variations contribute in a major way to variations in the initial motion of the flame center as it grows from the kernel established by the spark, and in the initial rate of growth of the flame; they can also affect the burning rate once the flame has developed to fill a substantial fraction of the combustion chamber. Variations in gas motion near the spark plug convect the flame in its early stages in different directions and at different velocities, cycle-bycycle. This affects the flame's interaction with the cylinder walls, changing the flame area development with time. Variations in the turbulent velocity fluctuations near the spark plug will result in variations in the rate at which the small initially laminarlike flame kernel develops into a turbulent flame. Variations in the mean flow throughout the chamber will produce differences in flame front shape; also, they may produce differences in turbulence which affect the propagation velocity of the front (see Fig. 9-30 for the relation between mean burning speed and turbulence intensity).

lo4 ppm C (a) Air/fuel ratio in 50 consecutive cycles. concentration about the mean value. Figure 9-34 indicates the extent of these composition nonuniformities. By conditions are meant the turbulent velocity fluctuations and length scales in the flow. hence on average it correlates inversely with the total hydrocarbon concentration. recycled exhaust. and burned gas in the mixture.4). 9. In addition. and recycled exhaust gas flows'into each cylinder of a multicylinder engine are not identical. Conditions in the vicinity of the spark plug will influence the initial stages of the flame propagation process-establishing a stable kernel and its development into a turbulent flame. indicating significant fluctuations. air. The CO. there is substantial fluctuation in CO. Engine operated at 1200 rev/min.2 and 7.~-~ Figure 9-34b shows the relationship between total hydrocarbon and CO. cycle-by-cycle. the flame development angle At?. 6. During the developed flame propagation phase. of order f5 percent46). Using the turbulent combustion model described in Sec. gasoline fuel4' . proportions of fuel. the fuel.3). in the vicinity of the spark plug electrode gap will affect the early stages of flame development. Nonuniformities in EGR distribution between cylinders and EGR mixing within the cylinder would also increase the variations in burned gas fraction locally at the spark gap. air..424) IN'ERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE FUNDAMENTALS It is well known that. MBT timing. the average conditions in the bulk gas within the combustion chamber will be the determining factors since the flame front spans the chamber. especially as the flame grows through the laminarlike burning phase following the creation of a small flame kernel by the spark discharge (see Sec. cycle-by-cycle.5.98. cycle-by-cycle?' Experiments in a multicylinder production SI engine. These flow rate differences are typically a few percent (see Secs.3. in vicinity of spark plug.2 (which is based on the description of the flame development and propagation process in Sec. for individual cycle composition analysis. The available data comes from experiments where a small rapid-acting sampling valve located in the spark plug center electrode was used to extract gas from the vicinity of the electrode gap.^^ An explanation for cycle-by-cycle variations can be developed from the description of the turbulent flame propagation process in Sec. where the combustion process is more repeatable (and always completed relatively early in the expansion stroke) and the residual gas fraction smaller (see Sec. Composition variations. effectively averaging out local nonuniformities.6. 9. sarily identical due to differences between the individual intake manifold runner and port geometries in many production engines. on a time-averaged basis. concentration is a measure of the burned gas fraction in the sampled unburned mixture.3). cycle-by-cycle. All these factors contribute to cylinder-to-cylinder variations in the combustion process: there can be significant differencesin the mean bum rate parameters as well as in the cyclic variations in these Also. at a given fuel fraction. air. (the time to bum a few large eddies and establish a developed turbulent flame) can be expressed asz0 . concentrations in unburned mixture. 14. At light loads (particularly at idle). 7. Figure 9-341 shows the cycle-by-cycle airlfuel ratio fluctuations in the burned gases sampled from one cylinder of a four-cylinder gasoline-fueled carbureted engine just after combustion has started. variations in the total amount of residual are not expected to be significant. variations in the residual gas mass and its composition may become important.1).6. and especially with high valve overlap engine designs. p = 0.. The standard deviation was typically 2 to 6 percent of the mean (A/F). 9. Engine operated at 1400 rev/min. showed that the three contributing factors to cyclic combustion variations-velocity variations. where combustion variability is much higher and partial-burning cycles may occur. where the fuel/& ratio nonuniformities and the nonuniform mixing of fresh mixture with residual HC concentration. and residual is not complete: nonuniformities in composition exist within the cylinder at the start of combustion.5 atm. is not known. However. and the mixture state. sampled just before spark discharge. ~t is also known that the flow patterns within the different cylinders are not neces. At higher loads. 4 = 0. fuellair ratio variations.. Whether the amount of residual gas left in the cylinder varies significantly. i m p = 314 kPa4' (b)C02 and unburned HC concentrations in gas sampled in individual cycles from the vicinity of the spark plug just prior to ignition. measured just after ignition with a rapid-acting sampling valve located in the plug center electrode. and residual gas mixing variations-are of comparable importance at road-load condition^. gas were removed in turn as contributors to cycle-by-cycle variations (by comparing premixed propane operation with conventional carbureted operation with gasoline.4. the limited data available on the variation in mixture composition within each cylinder for each cycle indicates that cyclic charging variations in individual cylinders are comparable in magnitude to cylinder-tocylinder differences (i. mixing of fuel.e. close to the start of combustion. in the mixing of fresh mixture with residual gas. and by removing residual gas by purging with nonfiring cycles).

and residual in the chamber could also. 14. tion influences A .52) will have different values. variation in average quantities are significant.) that enters the cylinder each cyc1e. u'. is centered at about 10" ATC qxndent of the bum rate. With fixed spark timing. From the discussion of flame development and structure in Sec. 2 0 3 0 40 SO 60 70 80 90 100110 t Variations in the total amount of air. There is the O variability in the flame development period. variati turbulent flow field and mixture composition across the gas entering t front are averaged out and are not important. It can be seen from Eq. be significant. (9.. a given magniretard (of say 10") relative to optimum timing gives almost the same ction in torque for a very fast bum as it does for a very slow burn. which correspond to modest retard and overin nonaverage bum rate cycles.422 INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE FUNDAMENTALS c o ~ s u s n o ~SPARK-IGNITIONENGINES IN 423 The turbulent flow field influences AO. 9. - Mb.16 One of the major advantages of fast-burn engines is apparent. p the density.3. Data from many different engines and a wide range of operating cases show that this is the case. we would expect that mixture conditions and motion leading to slower flame development rates (longer flame development angles. Thus. i. these smaller combustion variations in fast-burn engines. B is the bore. This is ause the burning process.e. (9.51) and (9.. In contrast.*/p~)'~/~[(ii'*St)/h~] = Here. (9. deg FIGURE 9-35 Variation in mean value of flame development angle (spark to 1 percent mass burned) and standard dWhti0ns of development angle and rapid burning angle A& (1 to 90 pcrcmt mass burned) with mean rapid burning angle Range of cornbustion chamber geometries and engine operating ~onditions?~ a q.52) above. 9-35): the ratio of standard deviation in A8. though there is substantial variation about the mean trend. AO&-lower turbulence intensities and more dilute mixtures-would also give lower burning rates (longer rapid burning angles. Thus. and v the kinematic viscosity. ance height. and A8. the integr the turbulence intensity. Fig. the following expression for the maximum burning rate: ~m. such variations in the combustion process cycle-by-cycle result in slower developing and/or burning veloping and/or burning cycles being overus combustion timing (relative to optimum g). 9-3b. for some operating regimes. when the flame spans the combustion cham depends on the average rate of burning in the flame. since all of these quantities can v in the vicinity of the spark plug on a cycle-by-cycle basis. and the B standard deviation of AOb for a given chamber and operating condition generally increase as the average burning process becomes s l ~ w e r ? ~ One final factor of importance is how variations in flame development and burning rate affect engine torque. The pressure development during the rapid-burning developed flame propagation phase.4. . for optimum timing. and Eqs. the * denotes the value at the time of the maximum burning rate and the subscript i the value at spark. through the laminar flame speed S.. AO. 6' the average turbulence intensity across the flame front. on average. to the mean values remains approximately constant.t Also. and the microscale. it can be seen that variations in the flame development process will result in variations in the maximum burning rate because the crank angle at which the maximum burning rate occurs is shifted. Figure 9-35 shows these trends. recycled exhaust gas. respectively. m is the mass of fuel in the chamber. h is the instantaneous (mean) clear. the larger combustion variations of slow-burning engines result in significant cyclic torque variations. and I.). through I. and all the starred parameters in Eq. C is a constant depending on engine design. The magnitude of the variations in the flame development process and subsequent flame propagation rate are decreased as the burning rate is increased (see Fig. it also shows that the standard deviation of A .(h*/B)(~. and retard or advance shifts this "center" by equal ounts for all burn rates. The combustion model in Sec..52) that cycle-bycycle variations in the maximum burning rate can result from variations in the overall flow pattern within the combustion chamber (which vary kt*) and from variations in the amount of fuel (m. The mixture c . have little effect on torque. However. is almost independent of the burning rate..

and the point is soon reached where the engine will not run at a l l. The spark timing [advanced from maximum brake torque (MBT) timing] at which misfire (i. usually a percent or less of the cycles. can be similarly defined.. Imep in partial-bum cycles was less than 46 percent of the mean. t This l . 0.partial burning and not failure of flame initiation is the primary cause of unstable engine operation. 4 = 1. Increasing EGR widens the distribution significantly and cycles with low imep. Then as burning lengthens further. it has been found that COV. is selected arbitrarily for convenience). the duration of the rapid burning and the cycle-by-cycle fluctuations in the combustion process all increase. The leanest mixture stoichiometry at which the ifr engine could be stabilized to operate at MBT spark timing with a misfire frequency below a specified value (again. The individual figures show the possible interactions of the maximum brake torque (MBT)timing line-leaner mixtures require greater advance--with the ignition limit and partial-burn limit lines.. In misfiring cycles. tually a point is reached where engine operation becomes rough and un and hydrocarbon emissions increase rapidly. For spark timings retarded relative to MBT. the maximum amount of exhaust gas recycle that can be absorbed at a given stoichiometry for stable engine operation. 20. [see Eq.g.. combustion is complete but ends after 80" ATC and the indicated mean effective pressure is low (between 85 and 46 percent of the mean value).. Finally. and high hydrocarbon emissions. At a given spark timing. 9-36. Engine conditions: 1400 revlmin. (9. cycle-by-cycle. misfking cycles where the mixture never ignites may start to occur. in some cycles there is insufficient time to complete combustion within the cylinder. and misfire cycles.424 INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE FUNDAMENTALS COMBUSTION IN SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES 425 9.e. flame extinguishment before the exhaust valve opens and before the flame has propagated across the chamber may start to occur in some cycles. partial-burn. HC emissions. depending on the location of the lines and the spark timing selected. progressive leaning of the mixture fed to the engine will lead to the onset of misfire or to the onset of partial burning. the flame development period. Slow burn. is shown in Fig. Since what limits engine operation in practice is excessive torque fluctuations. stable operating limit is a more appropriate term. and 28 percent EGR. Figure 9-36a shows the distributions of individual-cycle indicated mean effective pressure values for 0. imep = 324 kPa. in a given small but arbitrary fraction o cycles (e. The spark timing (retarded from MBT) at which incomplete flame propagation occurs at a given mixture composition in a given small percent of the cycles (again. An explanation of combustion phenomenon at the engine stable operating It limit has been developed by Q ~ a d e r . this frequency. and Engine Stability As the unburned mixture in a spark-ignition engine is leaned out with excess or is diluted with increasing amounts of burned residual gas and exhaust recycle. 20 percent acceptable stability. Engine experiments have defined the locations of the ignition limit line and the partial-burn limit line. and then misfire cycles occur with increasing frequency. this frequency is selected arbitrarily for experimental convenience).0. Misfire. imep < 0. occur. also. The proportion of partial burning or nonburning cycles increases rapidly if the mixture is made even more lean or dilute. and eventually zero imep.43 Partial Burning. initiation) first occurs at a given mixture composition. then partial burn. In the slow-bum cycles.4p (0) Frequency distributions in indicated mean effective pressure at Partial-bmo-limited s p k tim* or the prrtinl-bnra limit. and percentage of normal. The impact on engine stability of increasing combustion variability. The point at which these ph ena occur effectively defines the engine's stable operating limit. Empirically. It will depend on the engine and ignition system design and operating conditions. resulting from the use of mixtures made overly dilute with either air or burned gases (or with both).5 to 1 percent). ~ ' involves the following terms: Ignition-lited spark timing or the ignition limit. the spread in imep is narrow. first a fraction of the cycles burns so slowly that combustion is only just completed prior to exhaust valve opening.. 0 percent gave excellent engine stability. f i t has often been called the &an operating limit. they are shown qualitatively in Fig. and 28 percent poor stability. due to increased exhaust gas recycle at part-load. 9-37. failure of flame EGR rate. At MBT timing the partial-burn limit may or may not be reached prior to misfire or the ignition limit. Without EGR at these conditions. Leno m s i elimit at MBT spark. % (b) different EGR rates. Figure 9-366 shows how the coefficient of variation of imep and hydrocarbon emissions increase as EGR is increased.MBT timing.? These phenomena result from the lengthening of all stages of the combustion process as the unburned mixture is diluted. which here occurs just before the onset of partial-burning cycles49. on this spark timing versus equivalence ratio plot.5011 is about 10 percent at the engine's stable operating limit. With increasing dilution. slow. (b) Coefficient of variation in imp. A dilute misfire limit.

The function of the ignition system is to initiate this flame propagation process. and magneto ignition systems where the magneto-a rotating magnet or armaturegenerates the current used to produce a high-voltage pulse.5.2). and. Too-slow flame development and prop- 95.1). methane fuel. With MBT timing. 9. An example of these limiting combustion regimes for lean engine operation is shown in Fig. the most common type of incomplete-combustion cycle was a slow-burning cycle which required more time to complete burning than was available: flame extinguishment during expansion was much less common. in a repeatable manner cycle-by-cycle. as the mixture is leaned out (at constant air flow rate).J spark energy. and described in the accompanying text. ~ ~ . Shadowgraph and schlieren photographs of the kernel created by the discharge between the plug electrodes. complete combustion in all cycles changes to partial burning in some cycles which changes to no ignition in some cycles at the ignition limit. This section reviews our basic understanding of electrical discharges in inflammable gas mixtures relevant to engine ignition (Sec.1 Ignition Fundamentals A spark can arc from one plug electrode to the other only if a sufficiently high voltage is applied. 1200 revlmin. and the current through the gap increases rapidly. of order 80 crank angle degrees (depending on engine geometry and spark plug location). the electrical discharge produced between the spark plug electrodes by the ignition system starts the combustion process close to the end of the compression stroke. just before the partial-burn limit line where some slow-burning cycles occur but combustion is still complete in all cyclesP4 From the above it is clear that flame initiation is a necessary but not sufficient condition for complete combustion. Experiments have shown that a limited interval. In a typical spark discharge. is available during the engine cycle when conditions are favorable for complete flame p r ~ p a g a t i o n . briefly. the growth of that kernal. Thus. the mixture pressure and temperature are too low. and the turbulence intensity is too low to sustain a sufficiently rapid rate of combustion. Outside of this interval. In the pattial-burning regime. volumetric efficiency 60 percent. battery systems where the spark energy is stored in a capacitor and transferred as a high-voltage pulse to the spark plug by means of a special transformer (capacitive-discharge ignition systems). partial-bum limit.u . 40 m. (From Quader.") 95 SPARK IGNITION In spark-ignition engines. and its transition to a propagating flame have already been presented in Figs. 9. over the full load and speed range of the engine at the appropriate point in the engine cycle. the major design and operating characteristics of conventional engine ignition systems (Sec. Engine performance measurements showed that the engine stability limit--evidenced by minimum fuel consumption and onset of rapid increase in HC emissions--occurred at 4 = 0.5. This stage of the Equivalence ratio FIGURE 9-38 Actual limiting combustion regimes for lean-operating engine. 2.65. the electrical potential across the electrode gap is increased until breakdown of the intervening mixture occurs. The impedance of the gap decreases drastically when a streamer reaches the opposite electrode.5 ms spark duration. Ignition systems commonly used to provide this spark are: battery ignition systems where the high voltage is obtained with an ignition coil (coil ignition systems). it is factors which increase the flame opment and propagation rates which primarily extend the partial-burn FIGURE 9-37 Schematics of three possible combinations of ignition limit. some alternative approaches to generating a propagating flame (Sec. and MBT timing curves as function of fuel/air equivalence ratio. The high-temperature plasma kernel created by the spark develops into a self-sustaining and propagating flame front-a thin reaction sheet where the exothermic combustion chemical reactions occur.pation with dilute mixtures. 9-38.426 ~NTERNALCOMBUSTION ENGINE FUNDAMENTALS COMBUSTION IN SPARK-IGNITTON ENGINES 427 Rich Fuellair equivalence ratio Lean agati~n following successful ignition is usually the factor which limits engine . A spark can arc from one electrode to another when a sufficiently high voltage is applied. Ionizing streamers then propagate from one electrode to the other. 9-19 and 9-20.

10 kV). 9-40. and where the mixture flows past the electrodes. only a fraction of the energy supplied to the spark gap is transmitted to the gas mixture. but the degree of ionization is much lower (about 1 percent). Source: Maly and Vogel.000 K and a few hundred atmospheres. Voltage drops at the cathode and anode electrodes are a significant fraction of the arc voltage. arc. turning the discharge into an arc. the plasma temperature and pressure fall.428 INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENCiINE FUNDAMENTALS COMBUSTION IN SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES 429 discharge is called the breakdown phase. The arc requires a hot cathode spot.4 below). The breakdown phase is characterized by a high-voltage (. which can be transferred to the plasma in these three phases of the discharge. most of this is regained since spherical blast waves transfer most of their energy to the gas within a small (-2 mm diameter) sphere into which the breakdown plasma soon expands.. A strong shock or blast wave propagates outward. It is followed by the arc phase. a large electrode voltage drop at the cathode (300 to 500 V). " . the energy storage device (e. the exothermic reactions which lead to a propagat] flame develop. Typical values are shown. and the energy deposited in these electrode sheath which is conducted away by the metal electrodes. Some 30 percent of the plasma energy is carried away by the shock wave. a cold cathode. and glow phases of the discharge is given in Table 9.52. the 53 coil) will dump its energy into the discharge circuit. in the arc phase the degree of dissociation may still be high at the anter of the discharge. and less than 0. however. though the current can be as high as the external circuit permits. high-peak current (-200 A). heat losses to the electrodes then become substantial.2 mJ of energy is required to ignite a quiescent stoichiometric fuelair mixture at normal engine conditions by means of a spark. and an extremely short duration (. where thin cylindrical plasma expands largely due to heat conduction and diffusion a with inflammable mixtures. s t Typical vslus. due to its long discharge time.54 Conventional ignition systems deliver 30 to 50 mJ of electrical energy to the spark. % FIGURE 9-39 Schematic of voltage and current variation with time for conventional coil spark-ignition system. under idealized conditions with small electrodes.but the energy supplied is small (0. are shown in Fig.g. de on the details of the ignition system. % <1 5 6 94 <1 70 70 30 Time. and glow discharge-are given. A narrow (-40 pm diameter) cylindrical ionized gas channel is established very early. Energy losses are higher than in the arc phase. In contrast to the breakdown phase where the gas in the channel is fully dissociated and ionized. Due to these energy transfers the gas temperature in the arc is limited to about 6000 K: the temperature and degree of dissociation decrease rapidly with increasing distance from the arc axis.52 About 0. respectively. % 5 45 50 50 Glow. The glow discharge has the lowest power level (. For substantially leaner and richer mixtures. The energy balance for the breakdown.1 MW). the channel expands. arc.55 The different transfer capabilities for breakdown arc and glow discharges arise TABLE 9A Energy distribution for breddown.3 to 1 mJ). Currents less than 200 mA.01 percent ionization are typical for the glow discharge. The arc phase voltage is low (< 100 V).= Radiation loss Heat loss to electrodes Total losses Plasma energy Are. and. Radiation losses are small throughout. The arc increases in size due prirnarily to heat conduction and mass diffusion. actual values depend on the details of the electrical components.10 W) but the highest energy (30 to 100 mJ). The energy supplied is transferred almost without loss to this plasma column. This may be followed by a glow discharge phase where. The arc phase lies between. an order of magnitude greater energy (-3 mJ) may be required. The proportions of the electrical energy supplied.5 3 A breakdown phase always precedes arc and glow discharges: it creates the electrically conductive path between the electrodes.53. The end of the breakdown phase occurs when a hot cathode spot develops. The breakdown phase reaches the highest power level (. The temperature and pressure in the column rise very rapidly to values up to about 60. and glow dischargest Breakdown. so evaporation of the cathode material occurs. arc. as a result. and peak equilibrium gas temperatures are about 3000 K. is a substantial fraction of the total arc energy (see Table 9.4.52* Figure 9-39 shows the behavior of the discharge voltage and current as a function of time for a conventional coil ignition system. Due to the physical characteristics of the discharge modes discussed above. Typical values for energy and voltage in the three phases-breakdown.10 ns).

During the breakdown discharge. Figure 9-41 shows the expansion velocities and diameters of the volumes activated by a 3-mJ. slope of the velocity curves for the plasmas at about 100 jis indicates the transition from an expansion caused by the initial high pressure in the breakdown discharge to expansion resulting from heat conduction and diffusion. . The radial profiles in the undisturbed rnidplane of the arc are shown. because their power inputs are much lower. Arc and glow discharges. In addition cold gas flows into the central region of the plasma. 9-42. The expansion-wave-induced expansion of the plasma behind the shock with the breakdown discharge produces a larger plasma. respectivel~. x . the time available for ignition in the engine limits increases in discharge time. they extend the cooling period on a microsecond and millisecond time scale. Thus it creates favorable conditions for transfemng heat and radicals to the surrounding unburned mixture.52 ~ h curves e shown are (1) for the shock wave following a discharge in air at 1 atm. the discharge changes to the arc mode and heavy electrode erosion will result. ~ system: 3 mJelectrical energy. They are initiated by the very high radical density in the break- - . with essentially the same total electrical energy input (30 J. effectively insulating the hottest plasma region from the cold electrode surface^. These losses increase with increasing supplied energy.-energy does not produce higher kernel temperatures. The temperature distributions within the three different types of discharge provide additional insight.~~ The characters of the temperature profiles that each of these three types of discharge create in air. The change in . Increasing the breakdown .each preceded by a much lower energy initial breakdown process. L.s FIGURE !A41 Diameters (d) and expansion velocities (v) of volumes activated by a capacitive-discharge ignition -'-"-" L. (2) the plasma in air at 1 atm. on a time scale of nanoseconds. also. electrical and chemical plasma in stoichiometric methane-air m xture at 1 atm i A ' primarily from the differencesin heat losses to the electrodes. p ' ' ' ' --in air at 1 atm.000 K on a microsecond time scale as the plasma expands behind the shock wave. as explained above. If the glow discharge current is increased above about 100 mA.'^ The arc and alow dk-charges. instead the channel diameter increases. with a steep temperature front.. do not increase the kernel temperatures. Subscriptsdenote: ' S' O C K111 ax at I am. producing a larger plasma volume. earlier.000 K. 3. The kernel temperatures then decrease to the order of 10. due to the boundarv lavers which . increases in either discharge time or discharge current (or in both) always lead to substantialdecreases in energy-transfer efficiency. the effects of fuel combustion chemistrv are small. 100 ps duration. show a much slower expansion rate and the more gradual temperature profile produced by heat conduction and diffusion. the temperature rises to 60. a . In arc and glow discharges. . (3) the electrical and chemical plasma following a discharee in a stoichiometric methane-air mixture at 1 atm. Up to times of order microseconds. ml FIGURE 9-40 Energy transferred to the spark kernal as a function of supplied electrical energy for breakdown and glow diiharge~?~ Time. Thus there are practical limits to the arc and glow discharge currents. the rapidly expanding flow-sets up od the electrodes. to 33 m ) are indicated in Fig.430 100 ( INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE FUNDAMENTALS Brealrdown -- Arc Supplied electrical energy. Chemical reactions can be observed spectroscopically a few nanoseconds after spark onset. The initiallv strong shock wave attenuates rapidly to the local sound speed. The initial expansion velocities in the discharge are much higher than those in self-propagating flames. 100-ps discharge from a capacitntdischarge ignition system as a fuhction of time after spark onset.. rather.

. shown in Fig. the large number of radical particles transfer their energy to the mixture molecules within a few collisions. 9-43). the plasma temperature at the interface has fallen to a value comparable to •’lame temperatures. breakdown discharge. Refs.5(-2) 6. T . however. appear. the plasma ceases to be the energy source for continued growth of the activated volume. mm FIGURE 9-42 Radial temperature profiles at selected times after spark onset for ignition systems with different electrical energies and discharge times in air at 1 atm. molecules such as OH. 3 m~ energy.3) 24-31 o OH 0 2 5. T. capacitive discharge. 9-41). both in a stoichiometric mixture and in air. An indication of the gas composition across the steep temperature profile at the plasma interface can be obtained from Table 9. 100 p duration with superimposed constant-current glow discharge of 60 m ~ 30 m~ energy.g. Continuing the supply of electrical energy in the arc and glow discharge does produce a higher expansion rate in both the combustible mixture and in air. This.T-2) 5. Note. . 100 ps duration with superimposed current arc of 2 A. 60 ns duration.q-3) 2.7(-3) 1.y -4) I .7(. for 230 ps. Additional energy input during the arc and glow discharge phases has a more modest effect on these critical kernel properties. At this point.. In addition. As a consequence of these conditions. Radius. combustion reactions take place at the outer plasma surface where the conditions are ideal for rapid chemical activity (temperatures of one thousand to a few thousand kelvins). chemical energy release must more than offset heat losses across the front to the surrounding unburned mixture via diffusion and c o n d u c t i ~ n . energy. Thus the H radical will diffuse furthest into the as-yet unreacted mixture. due to additional heat conduction and diffusion to the interface.q -2) = 9. CH. 3 mJ energy. above-equilibrium concentrations of combustion-initiating radicals ( 0 and H)build up.1) 1(-5) 4. but the onset of inflammation is not signscantly affected. by conduction down the steep temperature gradient. that the gas will not be in The different radicals have different diffusivities.7(-2) 9.5. T.) 1.1) 8. indicating that combustion reactions are now occurring. Figure 9-43a shows that for t 2 20 p..1(-4) I . etc. Several models of the plasma-unburned mixture interface have been developed in attempts to quantify the complex phenomena described above (e. a high heat flux into the region occurs. The size of the activated volume a given time interval after spark initiation. after about 10 ps.y-2) 1 I(-s) n 4000 9 4 . ~ ~ Thus the characteristics of the breakdown phase of the discharge have the greatest impact on inflammation.0 x lo-'. 9-44 where the same energy input into breakdown.7(-4) 7. and glow discharge modes produces substantially different ignition limits.8(-2) 3.3-2) 6(-5) 1. On the high-temperature side of the inflammation zone. reactions will occur and energy will be released more rapidly than in a normal flame. The radial temperature profiles across the discharge at selected times.1(.q-2) 5.3) 1 . It can be seen from the air curves for the capacitive discharge (CDI) and breakdown discharge that. and the velocity of the interface are all substantially increased by increasing the breakdown phase energy (see Fig. i.%-1) 3. arc.3-2) 2. the temperature difference across the kernel interface.q. At this time. therefore.53 Figure 9-43a shows the size of the activated volume as a function of time for several types of discharge. which shows the equilibrium composition of C.1) 5 4 ... 30 m~ . with the hydrogen atom some five times that of other species.q-2) 3. the inkTABLE 95 Equilibrium composition of stoichiometric isooctane-air combustion products Tempemhue.Y-3) 14-4) 1.~' down plasma where all the heavy particles are present as highly excited atoms and ions.2) 5. 9-43b.1) 24-21 1 1 6.. This is graphically illustrated by Fig.1(. On the low-temperature side of the zone.q .q-4) a-5) 2. CO.432 INTERNAL cOMBUS~ON ENGINE FUNDAMENTALS COMBUSTION m SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES 433 I Oo I 1 2 1 3 .) n n 3000 6. C. n = <5 x or of the plasma still consists of a fully dissociated reacted gas mixture with of its energy stored in radicals. With combustible mixtures. durati~n.e.H. from the plasma core.1) 9.3( -2) 1.q. 30 ml energy. Since the kernel temperatures are much too high to allow the species present in normal combustion products to exist. 9. the volume activated by the discharge with the combustible mixture grows much faster than the volume activated in air. capacitive-discharge system.-air combustion products over the relevant temperature range.1) 1 4 .q-3) 1.3-2) t ~t 4 atm pressure: mole tractions. is the critical point in the inflammation process: at some 20 ps after onset of the discharge the flame reactions must be proceeding sufficiently rapidly to be self-sustaining. Kt Seis pce MOO 2.2) 5.7(-2) 5000 co co.O N NH NO N 2 9. H HZ H. 1 2(-5) 6. 770 p .. The chemical energy released is added to the plasma energy and becomes evident when the plasma velocity falls below about 100 m/s (see Fig.Y-4) I.3. illustrate these points.

Thus more time is available for heat losses from the inflammation zone. 100 p duration. v = mixture velocity. They are based on the requirement that the energy release due to chemical reaction in the plasma front (and production of radical species) exceed the losses due to conduction and diffusion to the unburned gas ahead of the front. p = 1 atm. as function of relative air/fuel ratio L (= 114) for different ignition discharges with equal total electrical energy (30-33mJ). a: CDI. 230 p duration arc. mls 56 and 57). plus 2 A. 500 p duration. In the arc and glow discharge phases. 30 mA.^^ The curve shows a minimum for slightly rich-of-stoichiometric mixtures. 770 p duration glow discharge.1 1 10 100 loo0 T i e after spark onset. 3 mJ energy. 100 ps duration. c: CDI plus arc discharge. more energy must therefore be supplied to the d i s ~ h a r g e . * ~ . 30 mJ. 30 mJ energy. and the rate of energy transfer into the zone decreases. 2 ms duration. the minimum energy required for successful ignition increases rapidly as the mixture is leaned out. 100 ps duration. 9 = 1 FIGURE 9-43 (a) Size of discharge-activated volume as function of time for several types of discharge in air and in stoichiometric methane-air mixture at 1 atm. The lean side of the minimum is of more practical interest than the rich side. 770 p duration glow di~charge?~ Relative airlfuel ratio A FIGURE 9-44 Probability of inflammation of stoichiometric methane-air mixture. Breakdown: 30 mJ. d: CDI. however. plus 60 mA. plus 60 mA. the arc is convected Radius. 80 ns duration. 30 mJ energy. 8. important. 500 V. they do provide a theoretical basis for the well-known fact that the minimum energy required to ignite a premixed fuelair mixture depends strongly on mixture composition. While the initial plasma kernel Equivalence ratio FIGURE 9-45 Effect of mixture equivalence ratio and flow velocity on minimum ignition energy for propane& mixtures at 0. plus 2 A. 30 mJ energy. mm (b) Velocity. (b) Temperature profiles for diierent discharge modes at different times in stoichiometric methane-air mixture at 300 K. b: breakdown discharge. 3 mJ. Arc: CDI. On the time scale of the breakdown discharge phase (10 n) this fluid motion is not s. less energy is available to offset these losses. 100 ps duration.2). Because the chemical energy density of the mixture and flame temperature decrease as the mixture is leaned out. 3 mJ. 230 p duration arc. Glow: CDI. the flame speed decreases and the flame becomes thicker.17a t ~ n . the inflammation process and the thickness and rate of propagation of the resulting flame are strongly affected. 3 mJ energy.- --=)~&-air. 3 mJ energy. 20 ns duration. a: CDI. 4 a m . 30 mJ. c: CDI. Figure 9-45 shows a typical set of results on the minimum ignition energy as a function of the equivalence ratio under quiescent condition^. at 300 K. 20 mJ energy.2.52 0. While these models are incomplete. 40 V. 60 ns duration. p (4 gowth (up to 10 to 100 ps) is not greatly affected by the mixture equivalence ratio. The consequence is that. the approximately spherical discharge-created plasma must grow to a larger size before inflammation will occur. ~ ~ In engines. Substantially. 100 ps duration. 3 mJ energy.434 INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE FUNDAMENTALS COMBUSTION IN SPARK-IGNITlON ENGINES 435 loo0 -.5 A. 100 ps duration. 1. d: CDI +glow discharge. 4 atm. b: breakdown discharge. the mixture is not quiescent: mean and fluctuating velocities in the range 1 to 10 m/s exist in the clearance volume at TC (see Sec. as the mixture is leaned out.

When compounds formed by the burning of fuel. and therefore with a higher available energy.5 ms reliable ignition is obtained. has to be sufficient to initiate combustion under the most unfavorable conditions expected in the vicinity of the spark plug over the complete engine operating range. increasing velocity may increase or decrease the minimum ignition energy or the lean ignition limit for a specific ignition system. Usually spark timing is set to give maximum brake torque for the specific operating condition. electrical energy supplied to the spark. the ratio of total discharge voltage to anode plus cathode voltage drop increases substantially. the system must have means for automatically changing the spark timing as engine speed and load vary. In addition to the spark requirements determined by mixture quality. burning rates are proportional to flame surface area. circunstances are less ideal. For velocities below 15 m/s a steady increase in discharge channel length occurs. fuel. and mixture and discharge conditions. recycled exhaust gas. inlet manifold pressure. After inflammation. the flow has little impact: at high flow velocities the minimum ignition energy increases. Thus. Usually if the spark energy exceeds 50 d and the duration is longer than 0. in most applications. Ignition energy supplied after inflammation has occurred will have only a modest impact on flame o IIIIS FIGURE P46 Photographs of single glow discharge (30 mJ. increasing mean flow velocity up to the point where reignitions start to occur extends the lean limit.Thus discharges and plasma geometries that produce the largest inflammation zone surface area. and density. only that fraction contained within the outer surface layer of the plasma (of thickness of the order of the inflammation zone) is available for initiating the flame propagation process. The fundamental requirements of the high-voltage ignition source can be mnmarized as: (1) a high ignition voltage to break down the gap &ween the . This radius increases rapidly as the mixture is leaned out (or diluted). spark energies of order 1 rnJ and durations of a few microseconds would suffice to initiate the combustion process. For a given engine design. 9-46. Highest energy densities and temperature gradients if the ignition energy is supplied in the shortest time interval. spark plug fouling due to deposit buildup on the spark plug insulator can result in side-tracking of the spark. and mixture composition vary. The erosion of the plug electrodes over extended mileage increases the gap width and requires a higher breakdown voltage. an increasing number of reignitions occur. and their additives are deposited on the spark plug insulator. The air. However. temperature. Depending on flow velocity. therefore.436 INTERNAL COMBUS~ON ENGINE F U N D A M E ~ A L S COMBUSTION IN SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES 437 4. Also.53With capacitive-discharge systems at low flow velocities. In practice. These vary significantly over the load and speed range of an engine. If the resistance of the spark plug deposits is sufficientlylow. and the relative importance of heat losses to the electrodes decreases. With breakdown discharge systems. the loss of electrical energy through the deposits may prevent the voltage from rising to that required to break down the gas. Below 25 m/s almost no multiple discharges. The energy density and the temperature gradient in this layer depend on the discharge mode. 3. and especially the automotive applications. this optimum spark timing varies as engine speed. the pressure.5 ms) ~n air at 2 atm flowing perpendicular t~ axis of electrodes. most rapidly. For higher velocities. temperature. as illustrated in Fig. It must create this spark at the appropriate time during the compression stroke. these deposits provide an alternative path for the spark current. The time over which the ignition energy can be used effectively for inflamma- tion decreases as the initial flame velocity increases. it decreases with increasing pressure and increasing plasma expansion velocity." Maly53 has summarized these fundamental aspects of spark-discharge ignited flames as follows: 1 . Both the mean flow velocity and turbulence levels are important. though this maximum torque may be constrained by emission control or knock control requirements. of the total 95. there are others determined by the state of the plugs. are advantageous. the lean ignition limit decreases as flow velocity increases.53-58 With a conventional coil ignition system. 0. above 25 m/s only multl~lebcharges. A minimum radius of the spark plasma is required for inflammation of the fuel-air mixture to occur. and density of the mixture between the spark plug electrodes at the time the spark is needed affect the voltage required to produce a spark.2 Conventional Ignition Systems The ignition system must provide sufficient voltage across the spark plug electrodes to set up the discharge and supply sufficient energy to the discharge to ignite the combustible mixture adjacent to the plug electrodes under all operating conditions. so the discharge energy is distributed into many separate channels. 1. As the channel lengthens.2 mm electrode gap?6 by the flow and lengthened accordingly. lubricating oil. are 2. as the channel is lengthened. the mixture of air. and residual gas within each cylinder is not homogeneous. The spark energy and duration. fuel. With an equivalence ratio best suited for ignition and with homogeneous mixture distribution. Also. the energy transferred is spread over a larger volume. Thus more energy is transferred to the gas-the energy-transfer efficiency increases. pressure. and recycled exhaust are not uniformly distributed between cylinders.77-1. The influence of side-tracking on spark generation decreases with lower source impedance of the high-voltage supply.

and the necessary wiring. scronm voltage (no sprk plug) ~ ~ ~vailable~vv' voltage been used in automotive engines for many years. Vo is the supply voltage. The spark must then possess sufficient energy and duration to initiate combustion under dl conditions of operation. contacts. the available voltage of the system is given by 1 K= (Y)ll2 I (9. This alters the waveform as shown in the bottom trace of Fig. ~L. interrupting the primary current flow. resistor.54) I all the energy stored in the primary circuit of the coil. The value of this voltage which caused breakdown to occur is called the required voltage of the spark plug. switch. 60 COIL IGNITION SYSTEMS. The voltage induced in the secondary winding is routed by the distributor to the correct spark plug to produce the ignition spark. they provide a useful introduction to ignition system design and operation. and the decreasing time available to build up the primary coil stored energy. coil. because of the high source impedance (about 500 kn) the system is sensitive to side-tracking across the spark plug insulator.. This current sets up a magnetic field within the iron core of the coil. Hence. primary winding of the ignition coil. where C. and back to the battery through ground. There are several commonly used concepts that partly or fully satisfy these requirement^. (Courtesy Robert B O S C ~GmbH and SAE. and L. and a discharge between the plug electrodes will occur.") When the coil is connected to a spark plug.55) i Distributor I FIGURE 9-47 Schematic of conventional coil ignition system. is transferred to f where I. is the total capacitance of the secondary circuit. = . distributor. = . Breaker-operated inductive ignition systems have Breaker points m w current points Time A.(1 . 9-48. is the primary current. spark plugs.c v: . through the resistor. When ignition is required.438 INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE FUNDAMENTALS COMBUSTION rN SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES 439 plug electrodes. The major limitations of the breaker-operated induction-coil system are the decrease in available voltage as engine speed increases due to limitations in the current switching capability of the breaker system. . only at higher engine speeds does the term e-RtlLpbecome significant. When the points open the primary current falls to zero and a voltage of order 15 kV is induced in the secondary winding. (4) sufficient duration of the voltage pulse to ensure ignition. Thus. (3) a high energy storage capacity to create a spark kernel of sufficient size. Also. At low speeds the time of contact closure is sufficient for the primary current to reach the maximum permitted by the circuit resistance. The available voltage of the ignition system must always exceed the required voltage of the spark plug to ensure breakdown. at high speeds the primary current may not reach its maximum. The peak value of this voltage is the maximum voltage that can be by the system and is called the available voltage K of the system. is the primary circuit inductance.Z. The primary current requires time to build up.^^. the breaker points are opened by the action of the distributor cam..R@P) R FIGURE 9-48 Spark duration tion ~ and w ~ ocam Comnt L sy~tem.~' voltage waveforms for breaker i a i k this induced voltage will have a damped sinusoidal waveform. current flows from the battery. If the breaker point is closed when the ignition is switched on. The current and voltage waveforms are shown in Fig. After the spark occurs. I the coil is not connected to a spark plug f Ignition g 1 ' cs (y2 (9. the voltage is reduced to a lower value until all the energy is dissipated and the arc goes out. 2 .I. The resulting decay of magnetic flux in the coil induces a voltage in both the primary and secondary windings. A further disadvantage is that due to their high current . The circuit functions as follows. While they are being replaced with more sophisticated systems (such as transistorized coil ignition systems). The interval during which the spark occurs is called the spark duration. The maximum energy transferred to the secondary system is given by Es. Figure 9-47 shows the circuit of a typical breaker ignition system. (2) a low source impedance or steep voltage rise. The system includes a battery. The primary current for any given time of contact closure t is given by vo I. as shown in the center trace. 9-48. R is the total primary circuit resistance. the secondary voltage will rise to the breakdown potential of the spark plug.

pulse shaping unit. There are many types of pulse generators that could trigger the electronic circuit of the ignition system6' A magnetic pulse generator. The number of teeth on the rotor is the same as the number of cylinders. the spark is strong but short (0. The electronic module switches off the coil current to produce the spark as the rotor tooth passes through alignment and the pickup coil voltage abruptly reverses and passes through zero. 54 and 61). producing a voltage signal proportional to d+/dt. extended spark plug life. Figure 9-49 shows the block circuit diagram of a transistorized coil ignition system.54 A FIGURE 9-49 Schematic of transistorized coil ignition system with induction pulse generator. and control unit. the need for much reduced ignition system maintenance. The increasing portion of the voltage waveform. is usually used. increased currents cause a rapid reduction in breaker point life and system reliability. and increased reliability and life has led to the use of coil ignition systems which provide a higher output voltage and which use electronic triggering to maintain the required timing without wear or adjustment (see Refs... = 4 A. about 1 mm) to extend the ability to ignite the fuel mixture over a wider range of engine operation. inducing the high voltage in the secondary windings which is distributed to the spark plugs as in the conventional breaker system.g. The ignition transformer steps up the primary voltage. Because of the fast capacitive discharge. Most of the solid-state ignition systems now in use operate on the same basic principle. rather than an induction coil. In addition to higher voltage. The CDI trigger box contains the capacitor. 9-50) a capacitor. Acceptable life is obtained with I .54) I . TRANSISTORIZED COIL IGNITION (TCI) SYSTEMS. In automotive applica- tions. With this type of system (shown schematically in Fig.3 ms).1 to 0. improved ignition of lean and dilute mixtures. (Courtesy Robert Bosch GmbH and SAE.54) To induction-type pulse generator I transformer NGURE 9-50 To distributor Schematic of capacitive-discharge system. to the high voltage required at the spark plug. The module switches off the flow of current to the coil primary windings. As each rotor tooth passes the pole piece it first increases and then decreases the magnetic field strength linked with the pickup coil. The control module contains timing circuits which then close the primary circuit so that buildup of primary circuit current can occur. the breaker points are subject to electrical wear in addition to mechanical wear. The life of the breaker points is dependent on the current they are required to switch. COMBUSTION IN SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES 440 INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE FUNDAMENTALS 441 load. The capacitance and charging voltage of the capacitor determine the amount of stored energy. charging device (to convert battery voltage to the charging voltage of 300 to 500 V by means of pulses via a voltage transformer). The distributor points and cam assembly of the conventional ignition system are replaced by a magnetic pulse generating system which detects the distributor shaft position and sends electrical pulses to an electronic control module. A magnetic field is provided by a prmanent magnet. is used to store the ignition energy. The higher output voltage is required because spark plugs are now set to wider gaps (e. These are called transistorized coil ignition (TCI) or high-energy electronic-ignition systems. . and because during the extended mileage between spark plug replacement electrode erosion further increases the gap. generated at the time of spark by the discharge of the capacitor through the thyristor. after this voltage reversal. This can lead to ignition failure at operating conditions where the mixture is very lean or dilute. longer spark duration (about 2 ms) has been found to extend the engine operating conditions over which satisfactory ignition is achieved. In automotive applications an available ignition voltage of 35 kV is now usually provided. where a gear-shaped iron rotor driven by the distributor shaft rotates past the stationary pole piece of the pickup. thyristor power switch. + Induction-type pulse CAPACITIVEDISCHARGEIGNITION (CDI) SYSTEMS. (Courtesy Robert Bosch GmbH and SAE. The principal advantage of CDI is its insensitivity to electrical shunts in the high-voltage ignition circuit that result from spark plug fouling. which results in short maintenance intervals. is used by the electronic module to establish the point at which the primary coil current is switched on for the next ignition pulse.

62 Conventional ignition systems normally ignite the unburned fuel. and pact strength. or longer-duration discharges. A wide range of electrode geometries are available. 9-53.54 + mponents: an insulator. This .442 INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE FUNDAMENTALS COMBUSTION IN SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES 443 FIGURE 9-51 Schematic of breaker-triggered magneto syste ignit~onarmature. and the flux collapses rapidly from @ to @. These use different geometry electrodes. The spark plug insulator tip temperature increases with increasing speed. There are many different designs of spark plugs. primary current generates an additional flux @ . these alternative ignition approaches have the goal of extending the engine stability limit (and/or of reducing the cyclic combustion variability near the stability limit). It is desirable to have the tip hotter than about 350•‹Cto prevent fouling at low speed. giving a resultant flux @ = cPo @. The location of the special conductive seal within the shell affects the heat rating of the spark plug. The insulated material must adequate thermal shock resistance. gap widths. (Courtesy Robert Bosch Gm S A E 54) MAGNETO IGNITION. For extremely dilute mixtures this is usually increased to 1. have been proposed and examined. higher energy. . use of more than one plug. Figure 9-52 shows a typical spark plug design. High-compression-ratio racing engines use smaller gaps (0. an insulator with a long conical nose is used. High-speed high-load tip temperatures must be kept below about 950•‹Cto prevent preignition.The center-electrode surface temperatures can average 650-700•‹C under operating conditions. Thus. burned gas mixture within the cylinder and perform satisfactorily under conditions away from the lean or dilute engine stable operating limit. .53 Alternative Ignition Approaches A large number of methods for initiating combustion in spark-ignition engines with electrical discharges. Normally. Figure 9-51 illustrates the system and its operation. high temperatures. and ignition systems that initiate the main combustion process with a high-temperature reacting jet-plasma-jet and flame-jet ignition systems. producing a high-voltage pulse in the winding which is connected to the spark plug electrode. Since the flux generated by the rotating pole wheel depends on engine speed. The length of the heat path from the insulator nose to the shell is changed in this way to vary and control the temperature of the exposed part of the insulator.tion gases and high resistivity to prevent leakage of high-voltage charge at th ambient temperatures and normal operating temperatures. Magneto ignition is commonly used in small four-stroke and two-stroke engines. The current can be interrupted with contact breakers (breaker-triggered magneto) or with a transistor (semiconductor magneto). use of higher power. electrodes. The effects of the major plug electrode design features on the engine's stable lean operating limit are illustrated in Fig.63Ignition system effects are important when misfire due to the quenching effect of the spark plug SPARK PLUG DESIGN. in addition to those described in the previous section. air. To generate the ignition voltage.2 mrn. it must provide a gas-tight conducting path from the high-voltage wire to the electrode gap. The electrodes are normally made of high-nickel alloys to withstand the high ignition voltage. The function of the spark plug is to provide an electrode gap across which the high-voltage discharge occurs which ignites the compressed mixture of fuel vapor and air in the combustion chamber. For a "hot" plug.54 9.5 mm). and gap arrangements..4 mm). (Courtesy Robert Bosch GmbH and SAE. Magneto ignition systems use smaller gaps (-0.'q . for a "cold" plug a short-nosed insulator is used.7 to 0. a magneto supplies th ignition voltage for the spark discharge independent of a battery or generator. With this type of ignition system. usually by achieving a faster initial burning rate than can be obtained with conventional systems. Alumina is usuallyused as the insulator material. the gap between the center and ground electrodes is 0. This section describes the more interesting of these alternative ignition ALTERNATIVE SPARK-DISCHARGE APPROACHES.9 mm. A time-varying magnetic flux m0 is set up in the ignition armature (IA) as the rotating permanent magnets on the pole wheel generate a current in the closed primary winding W1. the primary current flow is interrupted . tensile and compressive strength. and a shell. In addition. the magnitude of the ignition voltage varies with speed. There are three principal Center elearode G ~ O U ~ electrode Insulator nose FIGURE 9-52 Cutaway drawmg of conventional spark plug. and corrosive gases with minimum erosion. It must also have low porosity to limit absorption of com.3 to 0. These include different designs of spark plug.

as a function of relative air/fuel ratio 1 (= 1/41. smaller spark plug centerelectrode diameters (Fig. deg BTC FIGURE 9-53 Effect of spark plug electrode diameter. and longer spark durations t.75 mm. It also extends the lean stable operating limit and reduces cyclic combustion variability under conditions where slow and occasional partial-burning cycles would occur with fewer spark plug gaps. It is useful to differentiate between higher current discharges and longer duration discharges: most high-energy (conventional-type) ignition systems have both these features. increasing the discharge current or duration has no significant effect on engine operating characteristics. 2.444 INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE FUNDAMENTALS COMBUSTTON IN SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES Spark gap width. 3.8dm3six-cylinder engine. and slightly lean mixtures. as would be expected. the effective flame area in the early stages of flame development is increased substantially (e. Fig. and rapid-burning angle. the variations in flow velocity and mixture composition in the vicinity of the (multiple) plugs produce less variability in the initial mixture burning rate than occurs with a single plug.49 The advantages are twofold. The higher current does. 1600 rev/ . on fuel consumption. The figure also shows that both higher Spark timing. For spark timing closer to TC and for larger gap widths. and projection of gap into chamber on J airlfuel ratio at engine's lean stable operating limit. HC emissions.~' electrodes determines the stable operating limit.3 for a detailed discussion of the stable operating limit..? Thus. these data show the lean stability limit to be much less sensitive (or not sensitive at all) to plug geometry or spark energy. Studies of heat-release rates. 40" BTC spark timing. Use of more than one plug. designed to produce a series of discharges which together form a long arc. plug gap width. and MBT spark timing. 9-53a). gap width 0. at separate locations in the combustion chamber and fired simultaneously. .g. 2OOO revfmin.4. and higher electrode temperatures (obtained by projecting the gap further into the combustion chamber. 9-53c). result in a larger flame kernel during the inflammation process and thereby modestly reduces the spark advance required for maximum brake torque with a given combustion chamber and set of operating conditions. center electrode diameter 25 mm. all extend the lean stability limit to leaner (or more dilute) mixtures for the more advanced spark timings and smaller gap widths. bmep = 3 atm. Multigap plugs. larger electrode gap widths (Fig. The results of these studies show that away from the lean or dilute stable operating limit. Figure 9-54 shows these trends for rich. is also common. have also been used to generate a larger initial flame kernel and thereby extend the lean limit. 9. Many studies have examined the effects of higher-energy discharges on engine operation near the lean operating limit. intake pressure 300 rn~uHg. Second. and imep and torque fluctuations have defined the effects of both increasing the number of ignition sites from 1 to 12 and of changing their geometric location.65 t See Sec. flame Relative aidfuel ratio A FIGURE 9-54 Effect of higher spark currents I. 9-53b). mm (4 development angle. min.5 mrn projection. Baseline conditions: 30 m spark energy.'j4 These results confirm that increasing the number of simultaneously developing flame kernels increases the initial mixture burning rate. First. as anticipated. by almost a factor of two for two widely spaced plugs). stoichiometric.

The plasma enters the combustion chamber as a turbulent jet. The discussion of discharge fundamentals in Sec. Examples of the three major types of flame-jet ignition systems are shown in Fig.e. nor is there any prechamber fuel metering system. 9-55a). it thus depends on the amount of energy deposited. Note the HC emissions data. 9-56. In addition. Ignition systems of this type have been used.62 The effects of plasma-jet ignitors on engine combustion are similar to those of breakdown ignition systems: the flame development period is significantly shortened. FLAMEJET IGNITION. This high-power discharge creates a hightemperature plasma so rapidly that the pressure in the cavity increases substantially.67 PLASMAJET IGNITION. however. and acceptable engine stability obtained (i. The anticipated effects on the engine's combustion process are observed. igniting the unburned mixture in the main chamber.66 - currents and longer duration discharges do extend the lean engine stability limit [and also the dilute (with EGR) stability limit]. As the flame develops in this cavity the pressure of the gases in the prechamber rises. the flame starts out as a turbulent flame in contrast to the flame with conventional ignition systems. and a low-impedance discharge path allows the energy stored in the capacitor to be discharged into the gap very rapidly. The lean limit can also be extended.446 INTERNAL COMBUSnON E N G N FUNDAMENTALS COMBUSTION IN SPARK-IGNTTION ENGINES 447 5 Relative airlfuel ratio X Relative aidfuel ratio (4 (bl FIGURE 9-55 (a) MBT spark timing and location of 5 and 95 percent mass fraction burned points for conventional transistorid coil ignition (TCI) system (43 ml energy. and this energy is discharged in some 20 ps. Many different systems for achieving this goal have been developed. and the engine's lean stable operating limit is extended. In such systems. the spark discharge is confined within a cavity that surrounds the plug electrodes. ignition occurs in a prechamber cavity which is physically separated from the main chamber above the piston and is connected to it via one or more orifices or nozzles. The jet or jets penetrate into the main chamber. which is the failure to initiate combustion in a fraction of the engine's operating cycles. which is typically of order 1 ms after the discharge commences. some of these have been used in production spark-ignition engines. 9. Figure 9-56a shows an example of the simplest type of flame-jet ignition concept (often called a torch cell). The gas dynamic effects of the blast wave are dissipated by the time combustion starts. tolerable cycle-by-cycle combustion variations) for leaner or more dilute engine operation. If the cavity is filled prior to ignition with a hydrocarbon (or a mixture of hydrocarbons) the ignition capabilities are enhanced due to the large increase in hydrogen atoms created in the plasma. preceded by a hemispherical blast wave. Away from the lean engine stability limit. which is initially laminarlike. causing a supersonic jet of plasma to flow from the cavity into the main chamber.1 showed that depositing energy into the discharge during the initial short breakdown phase resulted in faster flame kernel growth than did depositing the same energy at slower rates.68 The lean operating limit of the engine is. Ignition in the main combustion chamber takes place in the turbulent jet. The function of the prechamber cavity is to increase the initial growth rate of the flame immediately following spark discharge by having this flame growth take place in a . cavity size. Stored energies of about 1 J are typically used. The function of the prechamber or cavity is to transform the initial flame around the spark plug electrodes into one or more flame jets in the main chamber. Ignition within the cavity is usually achieved with a conventional spark discharge. a capacitor is connected in parallel with the spark plug electrodes. which connects with the combustion chamber via an orifice. In a plasma-jet ignitor. the primary impact is a reduction in the flame development period due to the more rapid initial flame kernel growth. The cavity has no separate valve so is unscavenged. 10 ns duration) as function of relative air/fuel ratio 1 (= 114). 2 ms duration) and breakdown system (BD) (43 m energy.. Thus MBT timing is less advanced with these breakdown systems than with conventional systems (see Fig. normally controlled by flame extinguishment.5. the phenomenon of misfire. The increase in fuel consumption as the lean operating limit is approached is due to the rapidly increasing cycle-by-cycle combustion variability. as shown in Fig. which have a substantial surface area that can ignite extremely lean or dilute mixtures in a repeatable manner. With this type of system. which indicate that longer discharges have a greater impact than higher currents on extending the misfire limit. thereby initiating the primary combustion process. (b)Standard deviation J in indicated mean effective pressure as a function of relative airlfuel ratio 1 for TCI and BD systems. forcing gas out into the main chamber through the orifice (or orifices) as one or more turbulent burning jets. 9-55b. The penetration of the jet depends on its initial momentum. and orifice area. no longer occurs. The electrical energy supplied to the plug elec- des is substantially increased above values used in normal ignition systems by allowing a capacitor to discharge at a relatively low voltage-and high current through the spark generated in a conventional manner with a high-voltage lowcurrent ignition system.66.

~' more turbulent region than the main combustion chamber: the flame jet or jets which then emerge from the cavity produce a large initial flame surface area in the main chamber to start the bulk charge combustion process.70(c) prechamber stratified-charge engine with prechamber inlet valve and auxiliary ~arburetor. A major problem with these systems is that the prechamber is never completely scavenged by fresh mixture between cycles. With this approach. The operating principle of these stratified-charge systems is described briefly in Sec.448 INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE FUNDAMENTALS COMBUSnON IN SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES 449 Intake port M i combustion an ~uxiliary intake Figure 9-56b and c shows two prechamber stratified-charge engine flame-jet the prechamber cavity is enriched by addilightly rich-of-stoichiometric at the time of on process in the cavity then occurs more and more repeatably. while the main fuel metering system feeds lean mixture to the main intake valve. The flow pattern produced within the prechamber by the flow into the cavity during compression and the location of the spark plug electrodes within the cavity and of the nozzle or orifice are critical design issues. With this approach. so the burned gas fraction in the unburned mixture within the prechamber is always substantially higher than the burned gas fraction in the unburned main chamber ~nixture.69 Another approach is to incorporate the cavity into the spark plug. Systems with prechamber volumes varying from 20 percent of the clearance volume to less than 1 percent have been developed. With this the prechamber volume is usually 20 to 25 percent of the clearance volume. Two different approaches are shown in the flame development stage in Fig. The prechamber system shown was called a turbulent generating pot. Figure 9-566 shows a system where the prechamber is unscavenged and fuel is injected directly into the prechamber cavity (in addition to the main fuel-injection process which occurs into the fresh charge in the intake system) to richen the mixture (which is lean overall) at the time of spark to an easily ignitable rich-of-stoichiometriccomposition. a separate small intake valve feeds very rich mixture into the prechamber during the intake process.9. During compression the lean mixture flowing from the main chamber to the prechamber brings the prechamber mixture equivalence ratio to slightly rich-of-stoichiometric at the time of spark The number and size of the orifices connecting the prechamber and the main chamber have a significant effect on the development of the main chamber burning process. Figure 9-57a shows the jets produced when the prechamber has more than one small nozzle which direct the burning prechamber mixture deep into the main chamber charge.04 cmroach used by Honda in their CVCC engine. During intake the prechamber is completely scavenged by the rich intake stream. prechamber volumes of 2 to 3 percent of the clearance volume and nozzle arealprechamber volume ratios of 0.69 (b) prechamber stratified-charge engine with auxiliary fuel injector with no prechamber scavenging.73 . (b) large orifice for lower-velocityjet and slower burn. Main chamber ---- (b) FIGURE 9-56 Hame-jet ignition concepts: (a) turbulence-generating torch cell.03 to 0. Figure 9-56c shows a prechamber stratified-charge flame-jet ignition system where the prechamber is scavenged between each combustion event.'~ (b) esign with the prechamber stratified-chargecarbumed and scavenged engine: (a) one or more small orifice@) for deep jet penetration and faster burning proass. A fast burning of the lean main-chamber charge results. 9-57. 1.

3. Normal combustion A combustion p m s which is initiated Abnormal combustion A combustion process in which a flame front may be staned by hot combustionchamber surfaces either prior to or after spark ignition.. rise associated with very early ignition or multiple surface ignition. d Kwdring* surface ignition I Continuation of engine fYing after the electrical ignition is Knock which has been preceded by surface ignition.1. I I I Spark knock* A knock which is recurrent and repeatable I Swface ignition hot spots-combnstionehamber deposits Surface ignition is ignition of the fuel-air charge by any hot surface other than the spark discharge prior to the arrival of the normal flame front. All these concepts extend the engine's lean stable operating limit. (Courtesy Coordinating Research Council. by several air/fuel ratios. Of the various abnormal combustion processes which are important in practice. Probably caused by the high rates of pressure. and therefore the phasing and rate of development of the flame.75. k m m a y surfnce ignition Surface ignition which does not result in knock. various combinations of th two phenomena-surface ignition and knock-can occur. there is an extremely rapid release of much of the chemical energy in the end-gas. Autoignition is the spontaneous ignition and the resulting very rapid reaction of a portion or all of the fuel-air mixture.1 . FIGURE 9-58 Ddinition of combustion phenomena-no& and abnormal (knock and surface ignition)--in spark-ignition engine.25). The prechamber stratified-charge flame-jet ignition concepts can operate much leaner than this. the best combination of fuel consump.04 to 0. relative to equivalent operation with uniform airlfuel ratios. causing very high local pressures and the propagation of pressure waves of substantial amplitude across the combustion chamber.0. I x 1. 1 Surface ignition which occurs earlier and earlier in the cycle. Surface ignition is ignition of the fuelair mixture by a hot spot on the combustion chamber walls such as an overheated valve or spark plug. the two major phenomena are knock and surface ignition. load with air/fuel ratios of 18 (equivalence ratio 4 x 0. they can cause major engine damage. The stratified-charge prechamber con. and (2) even if not severe. mixture ahead of the propagating flammccurs. For example.e. These abnormal combustion phenomena are of concern because: (1) when severe. relative air/fuel ratio I x 1. When autoignition occurs repeatedly.70* One performance penalty associated with all these flame-jet ignition concepts is the additional heat losses to the prechamber walls due to increased surface area and flow velocities. 'Knock: The noise associated with autoignition of a portion of the fuel-air mixture ahead of the advancing flame front. relative to equivalent conventional engines. due to the presence of fuel-rich regions during the combustion process. Rumble A low-pitched thudding noise accompanied by engine roughness. Because the spontaneous ignition phenomenon that causes knock is g erned by the temperature and pressure history of the end gas. tion and emissions characteristics is obtained with 4 x 0. It is controllable by the spark advance. It may occur before the spark ignites the charge @reignition) or after normal ignition (postignition). however. a turbulent flame develops at each surface-ignition location and starts to propagate across the chamber in an analogous manner to what occurs with normal spark ignition. air. 9-58.9 .450 INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE FUNDAMENTALS COMBUSTION IN SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES 451 A larger prechamber (5 to 12 percent) and larger orifice (orifice area/precham volume ratio of 0. advancing the spark increases the knock intensity and reZarding the spark reduces the intensity.1 Description of Phenomena Abnormal combustion reveals itself it many ways. cepts also suffer an efficiency penalty. the unscavenged cavity without auxiliary fueling can operate satisfactorily at part. When this abnormal combustion process takes place. Knock is the name given to the noise which is transmitted through the engine structure when essentially spontaneous ignition of a portion of the end-gas-the fuel. or glowing combustion chamber deposit: i. It can lead to serious overheating and struchral damage to the WUd ping Knocking surface ignition characterized by one or more erratic sharp cracks.2 cm-') gives a lower velocity jet which penetrates t main chamber charge more slowly.) a . by any means other than the normal spark discharge. solely by a timed spark and in which the flame front moves completely across the combustion chamber in a uniform manner at a normal velocity.6 ABNORMAL COMBUSTION: KNOCK AND SURFACE IGNITION 9. em in t r s of audibility. resulting in a slower burn. 9. It can occur before the occurrence of the spark (preignition) or after (postignition). It is probably the result of early surface ignition from deposit particles. It is not controllable by spark advance.8. or a process in which some part or all of the charge may be consumed at extremely high rates. Following surface ignition. they are regarded as an objectionable source of noise by the engine or vehicle operator. residual gas. These have been gorized as indicated in Fig.6.

in turn. Engine design features that minimize the likelihood of preignition are: appropriate heat-range spark plug. 9-59a. radiused metal cooled exhaust valves with sodium-cooled valves as an extreme Knock primarily occurs under wide-open-throttle operating conditions.452 INTERNAL C O M B U ~ O N ENGINE FUNDAMENTALS COMBUSTION IN SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES 453 otherwise normal combustion events. About one-third of the cycles in this engine at these conditions had no trace of knock and had normal. Wild ping is a variation of knocking surface ignition which produces sharp cracking sounds in bursts. Runaway surface ignition is surface ignition that occurs earlier and earlier in the cycle. the terms knocking surface ignition and nonknocking surface ignition are used. or an organomanganese compound can be used. The other abnormal combustion phenomena in Fig. using suitable heat-range spark plugs. Rumble and knock can occur together. it limits the engine compression ratio. which convert low-octane hydrocarbons to high-octane hydrocarbons. metal asperities such as edges of head cavities or piston bowls. The ability of a fuel to resist knock is measured by its octane number: higher octane numbers indicate greater resistance to knock (see Sec. Of all the engine surface-ignition phenomena in Fig. since by effectively limiting the temperature and pressure of the end-gas. Figure 9-59 shows the cylinder pressure variation in three individual engine cycles. smoothly varying. removal of asperities. When and heavy knock. or propagates from more than one source). non varies substantially cycle-bycycle.3). An engine's tendency to knock. the remainder of Sec. Run-on is probably caused by compression ignition of the fuel-air mixture.~~ knock occurs. Sina surface ignition usually causes a more rapid rise in end-gas pressure and temperature than occurs with normal spark ignition (because the flame either starts propagating sooner. This type of surface ignition produces very high rates of pressure rise following ignition. lead alkyls. antiknock additives such as alcohols. Nonknocking surface ignition is usually associated with surface ignition that occurs late in the operating cycle. Rumble is a relatively stable low-frequency noise (600 to 1200 Hz) phenomenon associated with depositcaused surface ignition in highcompression-ratio engines. and does not necessarily occur every cycle (see below). and between the cylinders of a multicylinder engine. Higher heat rejection causes higher temperature components which. Knocking surface ignition cannot normally be controlled by retarding the spark timing. high-frequency pressure fluctuations are observed whose amplitude decays with time. as defined by its octane requirement-the octane rating of the fuel required to avoid knock-is increased by factors that produce higher temperatures and pressures or lengthen the burning time. 9-58. Thus knock is a constraint that depends on both the quality of available fuels and on the ability of the engine designer to achieve the desired normal combustion behavior while holding the engine's propensity to knock at a minimum. Under normal conditions. Gasoline octane ratings can be unproved by refining processes. The parts which can cause preignition are those least well cooled and where deposits build up and provide additional thermal insulation: primary examples are spark plugs. exhaust valves. This is because surface ignition is a problem that can be solved by appropriate attention to engine design.6. while less common. Repeatedly here means occurring more than occasionally: the knock phenome. since the spark-ignited flame is not the cause of knock. re~pectively. Colder running exhaust valves and reduced oil consumption usually alleviate this problem: locating the exhaust valve between the spark plug and the end-gas region avoids contact with both the hottest burned gas near the spark plug and the end-gas. knock is an inherent constraint on engine performance and e5ciency since it limits the maximum compression ratio that can be used with any given fuel.74 The pressure variation in the cylinder during knocking combustion indicates in more detail what actually occurs. The octane-number requirement of an engine depends on how its design and the conditions under which it is operated affect the temperature and pressure of the end-gas ahead of the flame and the time required to burn the cylinder charge. During run-on. the engine usually emits knocklike noises. It is thought to result from early ignition of the fuel-air mixture in the combustion chamber by glowing loose deposit particles. It is the most destructive type of surface ignition and can lead to serious overheating and structural damage to the engine. knock occurs late in the burning process and the amplitude of the pressure fluctuations . 9.74 After some additional description of surface-ignition phenomena. the phenomena is called spark-knock. preignition is usually initiated by an exhaust valve covered with deposits coming from the fuel and from the lubricant which penetrates into the combustion chamber. Knocking surface ignition usually originates from preignition caused by glowing combustion chamber deposits: the severity of knock generally increases the earlier that preignition occurs. To identify whether or not surface ignition causes knock. Knock of varying severity occurred in the remaining cycles. It disappears when the particles are exhausted and reappears when fresh particles break loose from the chamber surfaces. can advance the preignition point even further until critical components can fail. Run-on occurs when the fuel-air mixture within the cylinder continues to ignite after the ignition system has been switched off. light knock. It is usually caused by overheated spark plugs or valves or other combustion chamber surfaces.6 will focus on knock. 9-58. The occurrence and severity of knock depend on the knock resistance of the fuel and on the antiknock characteristics of the engine. cylinder pressure records as in Fig. Any process that advances the start of combustion from the timing that gives maximum torque will cause higher heat rejection because of the increasing burned gas pressures and temperatures that result. such as catalytic cracking and reforming. have the following identifying names. Figures 9-59a and b have the same operating conditions and spark advance. rather than surface ignition. 9. Spark-knock is controllable by the spark advance: advancing the spark increases the knock severity or intensity and retarding the spark decreases the knock. With light or trace knock. and fuel and lubricant quality. preignition is potentially the most damaging. for normal combustion. Also. It also constrains engine eficiency. knock is a likely outcome following the occurrence of surface ignition. It is thus a direct constraint on engine performance. In contrast.

illustrated here with more advanced spark timing and by selecting an especially high intensity knocking cycle. The filter is set for the first transverse mode of gas vibration in the cylinder (in the 3 to 10 kHz range. and since the details of the knock process in each cycle and in each cylinder are different. A high-intensity flash is observed when knock occurs. Cylinder pressure is determined with a pressure transducer. Use of this measure of knock severity or intensity shows there is substantial variation in the extent of knock. thereby causing a shock wave to propagate away from the end-gas region across the combustion chamber. Often the transducer signal is filtered so that the pressure fluctuations caused by knock are i~olated. wide-open thr~ttle. depending on bore and chamber geometry). These pressure fluctuations produce the sharp metallic noise called "knock.~' The amplitude of the pressure fluctuation is a useful measure of the inten- : of k:nock because it depends on the mount of end-gas which ignites spontausly and rapidly. The cylinder pressure signal (from a high-frequency response pressure transducer) is filtered with a band-pass filter so that only the component of the pressure signal that corresponds to the fluctuations occumng after knock remains. 9-593 and c. The lowfrequency component of pressure change due to normal combustion is filtered out and the rate of pressure rise is averaged over many cycles during the pressure fluctuations following knock. and (c) heavy knock. 9-60 were determined in FIGURE 9-60 D Firing cycle number Knock intensity (maximum amplitude of bandpass-filtered pressure signal) in one hundred individual consecutive cycles.s1 The knock intensities in individual cycles shown in Fig.s0 Since the knock phenomenon produces a nonuniform state in the cylinder. cycle-by-cycle. The most precise measure of knock severity is the maximum amplitude of the pressure oscillations that occur with knocking combustion. 4000 rev/min. mixture composition and conditions. For more detailed studies of knock in engines. Optical probes and ionization detectors have therefore been used. spark 2g0BTC -20 TC 20 40 O C A (c) Intense knock. The maximum rate of pressure rise has been used to quantify knock severity. 381-cm3 displacement single-cylinder engine. The spark plug can serve as an ionization detector. the expansion wave that accompanies it. bum rate. The maximum amplitude of pressure oscillation gives a good indication of the severity of knock.454 tNTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE FUNDAMENTALS COMBUSTION IN SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES 455 -20 TC 20 40 O C A (a) Normal combustron. the piezoelectric pressure transducer is the most useful monitoring device. This produces a substantial local increase in gas pressure and temperature.77 is small (Fig. and because engin damage due to knock results from the high gas pressures (and temperatures) in the end-gas region. One or more cylinders may not knock at all while others may be knocking heavily. The ASTM-CFR method for rating fuel octane quality (see Sec.6. spark 3Z0BTC FIGURE 9-59 Cylinder pressure versus crank angle traces of cycles with (a) normal combustion. Note that once knock occurs. wideopen throttle.a fundamental definition of knock intensity or severity is extremely difficult." They are the result of the essentially spontaneous release of much of the end-gas fuel's chemical energy. 9-59b). The human ear is a surprisingly sensitive knock detector and is routinely used in determining the octane requirement of an enginethe required fuel quality the engine must have to avoid knock.'~ . this is accompanied by a sharp increase in ionization. (b)light knock.3) by the severity of knocking combustion uses the time derivative of pressure during the cycle. This shock wave. With heavy knock. 2S0BTC spa~k -20 TC 20 40 O C A (b) Shght knock. One cylinder of V-8 engine. Figure 9-60 shows the knock intensity in one hundred conrnutive cycles in a given cylinder of a multicylinder engine operating at fixed for knocking operation. the pressure distribution across the combustion chamber is no longer uniform: transducers located at different points in the chamber will record different pressure levels at a given time until the wave propagation phenomena described above have been damped out7' Many methods of knock detection and characterization have been used. An accelerometer mounted on the engine can give indications of relative knock severity provided that it is mounted in the same location for all tests. and the reflection of these waves by the chamber walls create the oscillatory pressure versus time records shown in Fig.79 Cylinder-to-cylinder variations are also substantial due to variations in compression ratio. This approach obviously provides only an average relative measure of knock intensity. 2400 rev/min. Knock detectors used for knock control systems normally respond to the vibration-driven acceleration of parts of the engine block caused by knocking combustion pressure waves. and combustion chamber cooling. knock occurs closer to top-center earlier in the combustion process and the initial amplitude of the pressure fluctuation is much larger. 9. The intensity varies randomly from essentially no knock to heavy knock.

tion to the location of the knocking end-gas and the shape of the combustion chamber will affect the magnitude of the maximum recorded pressure-fluctuation amplitude. Preignition damage is largely thermal as evidenced by fusion of spark plugs or pistons. does not occur. 82-84 9. Two theories have been to explain the origin of knock: the autoignition theory and the detonation theory. and breakage of rings and lands. substantial additional heat is transferred to the combustion chamber walls and rapid overheating of the cylinder head and piston results. Under these conditions. These high local pressures are combined with the higher-than-nomal local surface temperatures which occur with the higher knocking heat fluxes and waken the material. (4 FIGURE %1 Examples of component damage from abnormal engine combustion.2 Knock Fundamentals t Note that heavy knock can also remove deposits from the combustion chamber walls. can lead to two types of engine damage. (a) Piston hobng by preignitioWs3 @)piston crown erosion after 10 hours of high-speed knocking. even if runaway knock . and therefore more and more intensely." Acceleration knock is primarily an annoyance. failure of the cylinder head gasket. The damage due to heavy knock over extended periods-erosion of piston crowns and (aluminum) cylinder heads in the end-gas region-is due primarily to the high gas pressures in this region. resulting in high local Pressures. cylinder head erosion. and the uncontrolled running away of this phenomena can lead to engine failure in minutes.78. there is no complete fundamental explanation of the knock phenomenon over the full range of engine conditions at which it occurs.? 2. This soon leads to severe engine damage.83 (d) erosion of atuminum cylinder head along the top of the cylinder liner due to heavy knock. the fuel oxidation Process*tating with the preflame chemistry and ending with rapid . Pitting and erosion due to fatigue with these excessive mechanical stresses. the location of the pressure transducer in rela. It is generally agreed that knock originates in the extremely rapid release of much of the energy conin the end-gas ahead of the propagating turbulent flame. When knock is very heavy. Heavy knock at constant speed can easily lead to: 1. In automobile applications.7g Note that because the pressure fluctuations are the consequence of a wave propagation phenomenon. and due to its short duration is unlikely to cause damage. in the 5 to 10 kHz frequency range.6.82(c) cylinder head gasket splitting failure due to heavy knock. piston crown and top land erosion. Runaway knock--spark-knock occurring earlier and earlier. The former holds that when the fuel-air mixture in the end-gas region is compressed to sufficiently high pressures and temperatures. however. Trace knock has no significant effect on engine performance or durability. a distinction is usually made between "acceleration knock " and " constant-speed knock. Preignition. Constant-speed knock. As Yet. piston melting and holing. 9-61.456 INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE FUNDAMENTALS COMBUSTION IN SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES 457 this manner. can then occur. 3 Gradual erosion of regions of the combustion chamber. This damage is due to overheating of the engine: the piston and rings seize in the bore. It becomes heavier and heavier. Extremely high pressure pulses of up to 180 atm due to heavy knock can occur locally in the end-gas region. Heavy knock can lead to extensive engine damage. breakage of the piston rings and lands. This could lead to runaway preignition. The nonuniform nature of this pressure distribution causes pressure waves or shock waves to propagate across the chamber. The impact of knock depends on its intensity and duration.83 The engine can be damaged by knock in different ways: piston ring sticking. thereby decreasing the octane requirement of the engine. which may cause the ~hamberto resonate at its natural frequency. Examples of component damage due to preignition and knock are shown in Fig.82-84 The mechanisms that cause this damage are thought to be the following. knock is not stable: the overheating increases the engine's octane requirement which in turn increases the intensity of knock. if significant deposits are present on critical combustion chamber components. It is especially a problem at high engine speeds where it is masked by other engine noises and is not easily detected.

Disc-shaped combustion chamber with details of window shown in insert. 85 to studies." These theories attempt to describe what causes the rapid release of chemical energy in the end-gas which creates very high pressures. In the normal combustion sequence. 1200 revjmin.88 These photographs were taken in an overhead valve engine with a disc-shaped combustion chamber. and transmission of sound through the engine structure. locally. See Refs. 80 percent volumetric efficiency. This sequence of processes can occur extremely rapidly. (b)25" Z" 8 - . the turbulent flame front moves steadily through the end-gas as combustion goes to completion. one from a cycle with normal combustion and the other from a cycle with knock. Operating conditions. the smoothly throughout this end-gas temperature and pressure are increased significantly and knock occurs. Most recent evidence indicates that knock originates with the spontaneous or autoignition of one or more local regions within the end-gas. In this sequence of photographs (b). the autoignition theory is most widely accepted. the initial flame propagation process (photographs 1 to 3) is like that of the normal combustion sequence: then almost 6 0 0 - P 6 8 t See Refs. A reflecting mirror on the piston crown permits use of the schlieren technique which identifies regions where changes in gas density exist. The detonation theory has led many to call knock "detonation. 88 to 91 for some recent P G 2 m FIGURE 9 6 2 Schlieren photographs from high-speed movies of (a) normal flame propagation through the end gas and (b) knocking combustion (autoignition occurs in photograph 4). under knocking conditions. Thus. The cylinder pressure varies When the spark is advanced by 15". non "knock" includes also the .? Figure 9-62 shows two sets of schlieren photographs.propagation of strong pressure waves across the chamber." However. were the same for both cycles. (AIF) = 12. N 87 for early high-speed photographic studies. except for spark advance.energy r e l e a s ~ a n occur spontaneously in parts or all of the end-gas region. the advancing flame front accelerates to sonic velocity and consumes the end-gas at a rate much faster than would occur with normal flame speeds. The latter theory postulates that. with a window which permits observation of the chamber opposite to the spark plug. Additional regions (some adjacent to already ignited regions and some separated from these regions) then ignite until the end-gas is essentially fully reacted. The engine phenome. Photographic studies of knocking combustion have been an important source of insight into the fundamentals of the phenomenon over the past fifty years. since this-engine phenomenon includes more than the end-gas energy release. with corresponding cylinder pressure versus crank angle traces.5. spark timing: (a) 10" BTC. in the end-gas region. the more general term "knock" is preferred. chamber resonance. and there is much less evidence to support the detonation theory than the autoignition theory as the initiating process. .

In photograph 5 the flame is no longer visible: the end-gas expansion has pushed the flame back out of the field of view. The digitized version of the second photograph is also shown in Fig. Figure 9-65 shows two simultaneously recorded pressure traces with heavy knock from two transducers at the top of the cylinder liner. indicative of changing local density fields as pressure waves propagate back and forth across the chamber. 9-64c.~~ shock wave and expansion wave reflect The off the walls of the chamber. develop as shown in Fig. and then decays as the gas motion is damped out. Under heavy knocking con&ions the entire end-gas region became ignited very rapidly and high-amplitude pressure oscillations occurred. Figure 9-646 shows the pressure and temperature distribution across the combustion chamber due to the normal flame propagation process. where one expects the end-gas to be located. The erosion damage that knock can produce. indicate that the location or locations where ignition of one or more portions of the end-gas first occur and the subsequent rate with which the ignition process develops throughout the rest of the end-gas vary substantially cycle-by-cycle and with the intensity of the knocking process. These waves reflect off the walls and interact. The exact location where autoignition occurred was identified with a photodigitizing system which ranked regions of the photograph by their brightness or darkness. the total sequence shown lasts lo. at the time rapid ignition of the end-gas occurs. as shown. one located near the spark plug and one in the end-gas region. Photodigitized picture of m n d photograph showing additional details of the autoignition sites in the end-gas region on right.83 19. More extensive studies of this type. With the chamber geometry typical of most engines where the flame propagates toward the cylinder wall. which relate photographs from highspeed movies of the combustion process to the cylinder pressure development. and an expansion wave propagates into the highpressure region toward the near wall. A shock wave will now propagate to the right and an expansion wave to the left. The third. fourth. due to stress-induced material fatigue as described in the previous section. and the location of the transducer in relation to the end-gas region. Standing . Operating conditions and engine details as in Fig. indicates the location of this high-pressure region. In the end-gas region the pressure rises extremely rapidly when knock occurs. Subsequent photographs are alternatively lighter and darker. yet the spread of the autoignited region could be sufficiently slow for no pressure oscillations to be detected. 9-63. Additional smaller regions of autoignition are evident ad@ent to the wall and in the vicinity of the flame front. 9-64a. the combustion chamber geometry. While the location of autoig- 18.07 19. Under trace knock conditions. the gas pressure in the end-gas region rises substantially due to the rapid release of the end-gas fuel's chemical energy. Examination of the cylinder pressure trace shows that this corresponds closely to the time when the pressure recorded by the pressure transducer rises rapidly. can be illustrated by the following example. Beheen photographs 3 and 4 substantial changes in the density and temperature throughout most of the end-gas region have occurred. Immediately after this. in the end-gas region and on the opposite side of the chamber at the spark plug. the damage is confined to the thin crescent-shaped region on the opposite side of the chamber to the spark plug. If the end-gas ignites completely and instantaneously. eventually producing standing waves. and fifth photographs show the spread of these ignited regions with time through the remaining end-gas. When the above-described end-gas ignition process occurs rapidly. A shock wave propagates from the outer edge of this high-pressure end-gas region across the chamber at supersonic velocity. The second photograph shows the onset of autoignition with the appearance of dark regions near the wall (two identified by arrows) where substantial density gradients resulting from local energy release exist. 9-62.~toignited end-gas region also varied significantly. The pressures at the cylinder wall. The presence of such a shock wave has been observed photographi~ally. to a value considerably higher than that recorded on the opposite side of the chamber where the pressure rises more gradually.460 INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE FUNDAMENTALS COMBUSTION IN SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES 461 the entire region ahead of the flame appears dark (photograph 4). the majority of occurrences in this study were in the vicinity of the cylinder wall. The frequency of the pressure oscillations (normally in the 5 to 10 kHz range) decreases with time as the initially finite-amplitude supersonic pressure waves decay to smallamplitude sound waves. 9-62.55 19.The first photograph shows the flame front prior to onset of knock. The pressure variation across the cylinder bore. Figure 9-63 shows five shadowgraph photographs from a knocking engine cycle in a research engine similar to that shown in Fig.31 19. as shown in the distance-time diagram in Fig. Consider the disc-shaped combustion chamber with the spark plug located in the cylinder wall shown in Fig.sg . 9-64d. its pressure and temperature will suddenly rise. pressure oscillations (at 6 to 8 kHz) are detected. Crank angle of each photo indicated: 33 p between frames. Usually these standing waves are due to transverse gas vibration and are of substantial amplitude.80 Thus the pressure signal detected with a transducer during a knocking combustion cycle will depend on the details of the end-gas ignition process. The amplitude of the pressure oscillations builds up as the standing waves are established. The rate of spread of the . autoignition could occur. due to knock.79 FIGURE 9-63 Five shadowgraph photographs of knocking combustion cycle identifying location of autoignition sites (arrows).ition sites varied with engine operating conditions.89 The photographs are 33 ps apart.

Before discussing the relevant theories of hydrocarbon oxidation. no reaction occurs below 400•‹C unless the mixture is ignited by an external . The state at which such spontaneous ignition occurs is called the selfignition temperature and the resulting self-accelerating event where the pressure and temperature increases rapidly is termed a thermal explosion.gas Fame Burned gas / 1 Position 1 I FIGURE 9-65 1. . 2000 rev/min. (b) Pressure and temperature across the diameter of a disc-shaped engine combustion chamber.92. . interdependent reactions or chain reactions. Often in the basic combustion literature this phenomenon is called an explosion.IN SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES End. (a) Schematic of discshaped combustion chamber at time of knock. the necessary terminology will be defined and illustrated with the autoignition behavior of the much simpler hydrogen-oxygen system. In such chains there is an initiating reaction where highly reactive intermediate species or radicals are produced from stable molecules (fuel and oxygen). and at the opposite side of the cylinder. deg I Simultaneously recorded pressure traces on opposite sides of sparkignition engine combustion chamber in heavily knocking cycle. the chemical reaction schemes by which the fuel molecules are broken down and react to form products are extremely complicated. For stoichiometric hydrogen-oxygen mixtures. position 2 I" Crank angle.93 The oxidation of hydrogen at high pressures and temperatures provides a good illustration of these phenomena. For the hydrocarbons commonly found in practical fuels. Autoignition is the term used for a rapid combustion reaction which is not initiated by any external ignition source. (4 end-gas region. IAIF) = 17A.or even a few-step process. the reaction rate becomes extremely fast and a chain-branching explosion occurs. More and after end-gas autoignition (assumed to occu very rapidly. due to their exponential temperature dependence. at constant end-gas density). The process ends with termination reactions where the chain propagating radicals are removed." The fundamental theories of knock are based on models for the autoignition of the fuel-air mixture in the end-gas. Position 1: at top of cylinder liner closest to spark plug. Position 2: at top of cylinder liner farthest from spark plug. wide-open throttle. in many situations the self-accelerationsin temperature and radicals occur simultaneously and the two phenomena must be combined. Some propagating reactions produce two reactive radical molecules for each radical consumed. The autoignition of a gaseous fuel-air mixture occurs when the energy re- leased by the reaction as heat is larger than the heat lost to the surroundings. and are as yet imperfectly understood.78 ~ -1 0 I 0 r R 1 (b) FIGURE 9 4 Illustration of how cylinder pressure distribution develops following knock. the number of radicals increases sufficiently rapidly. due to chain-branching. the rates of the reactions involved. 1 . thereby rapidly accelerating. When. the actual chemical mechanism consists of a large number of simultaneous. the "reaction" is not a single. This step is followed by propagation reactions where radicals react with the reactant molecules to form products and other radicals to continue the chain. (c) Schematic of shock and expansion wave pattern followPressure variation with time at cylinder wall in the ing end-gas autoignition on distance-time plot. & . as a result the temperature of the mixture increases. waves are then set up and the amplitudes of the oscillations decay as the waves are damped out. In complex reacting systems such as exist in combustion. These are called chain-branching reactions. While the terms thermal and chain-branching explosions have been introduced separately. spark advance 20" BTC.

The process by which a hydrocarbon is oxidized can exhibit four different types of behavior. at higher temperatures to form the hydrogen atom radical H. depending on the pressure and temperature of the mixture: slow reactions.t The initiating steps proceed primarily through hydrogen peroxide ( . While all hydrocarbons exhibit induction intervals which are followed by a very rapid reaction rate. accompanied by faint blue light emission. then R1. some on compounds do not exhibit the cool flame or two-stage ignition Figure 9-66 shows these ignition limits for isooctane. the multiplication factor is less than 2 but greater than 1. Since all three reactions are required. Benzene. required in these recombination reactions to remove the excess energy. The cool flame phenomena vary enormously with hydrocarbon structure. methane.+OH=H. these three reactions do not correspond to the overall stoichiometry 0 Hz 4 . A quasi equilibrium is est&lished. also. atm boundaries for specific mixture ratios of fuel and oxidizer that separate regions of slow and fast reaction-exist.464 INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE FUNDAMENTALS COMBUTON m SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES 465 source such as a spark. Singlestage ignition occurs in the hightemperature region. t In between. . In flames. does not exhibit the cool flame phenomenon and other aromatics give hardly detectable l ~ m i n o s i t y . and benzene. the sequence R3. however.= H 2 0 or multiple cool flames (slightly exothermic reactions). or through dissociation of H. branched-chain paraffins are more resistant. low-temperature (<200•‹C) phenomenon not normally ~ccurringin engines. Over a longer time scale. two radicals are produced for each one consumed. single Ressure. O l e h s give even lower luminosity cool flames with longer induction periods. these are nof however. The third reaction is necessary to complete the chain sequence: starting with one hydrogen atom. a transition from two-stage to single-stage ignition occurs. above 600•‹C explosion occurs spontaneously at all pressures. single-stage ignition (hot flame)." . For isooctane. when only a small fraction of the reactants have reacted and the temperature rise is only tens of degrees.It ~ thought that some com~ is + and other reactions must become important. Ho) to form the hydroxyl radical (OH) at lower temperatures. Two-stage ignition occurs in the lowtemperature region. At 300 to 400•‹C one or more combustion waves often appear. Slow reactions are a low-pressure. and benzene. the h t stage may be a cool flame. methane. as indicated in Fig. the reaction is quenched.=H+OH H. substantial amount of the available energy is still cona tained in the high radical concentrations.O+H The first two reactions are chain-branching.=O+OH O+H. However. or a sequential combination of them. As the temperature of the mixture increases. Methane shows only the high-temperature ignition limit. 9-66. ignition in the low-temperature regions is by a two-stage process: there is a first time interval before the cool flame appears and then a second time interval from the appearance of the cool flame to the hot flame combustion process. These are called cool James. Repeating this sequence over and over again rapidly builds up high concentrations of radicals from low initial levels. the chain-branching process ceases when the reverse of reactions Rl-R3 become significant. Normal paraffins give strong cool flames. then R2 produces two OH. starting with OH. The basic radical-producing chain sequence is composed of three reactions: (R1) (R2) (R3) H+O. three separate explosion limits-pressure-temperature FIGURE 9-66 Ignition diagrams for isooctane. while the overall process has proceeded a considerable way toward completi~n. This is termed two-stage ignition. two-stage ignition (cool flame followed by a hot flame). this energy is released through three-body recombination reactions (the principal chain terminating reactions): (R4) (R5) H+H+M=H2+M O+O+M=O. the sequence R1 then R2 and R3 produces two H.g2 With this introductory background let us now turn to the autoignition of hydrocarbon-air mixtures. of interest to us here. Depending on conditions and the fuel.'+M (R6) H+OH+M=HzO+M M refers to any available third-body species. a cool flame may be followed by a "hot flame" or hightemperature explosion where the reaction accelerates rapidly after ignition. Ignition in the high-temperature region is by a continuous one-stage process.

. ~ ~ 0 .. They have the form ROOH. shown in Fig. Bottom: single-stage ignition at E at postcompression conditions of 2. In motored engines. motored-engine gas temperatures with a peak much higher than normal to simulate end-gas conditions in a firing engine) have also been demon~trated.k + H6. e: (9. These intermediates can then either react to form stable molecules or to form active radicals. and the transition to a single-stage ignition process at very high compression ratios (i. shows a single-stage ignition process.'~..86 MPa and temperature of 686 K. the dominance and rate of either of these paths depending on the temperature: i. The top trace shows a well-defined cool flame at D. R4 and R5 yield the main intermediates. Although chain-branching reactions are taking place. these principally include olefm. Hydroperoxides are an important metastable intermediate produced in the chain propagation process in the low-temperature ignition process.. A .B + C is the piston-motion-produced compression. initial slow increase in reaction rate. ~ ~ The following evidence indicates the relevance of the above mechanism to knock in engines. + Degenerate branching pounds knock by a low-temperature two-stage ignition mechanism. 94 .. Vertical scale: 690 kPa/division.95 Many of the above phenomena-long induction periods. Examples of these two mechanisms in rapid-compression machine experiments. Horizontal scale: 1 ms/division?' KH + 0. two-stage ignition process--cannot be explained with simple mechanisms like the hydrogen oxidation procefs reviewed above. where R is an RO. at higher temperatures. H 2 0 2 is relatively stable at lower temperatures. .e. the two-stage nature of the autoignition ignition process at intermediate compression temperatures. Top: twostage ignition (at D. the occurrence of cool flames.58) Radicals - This is called a degenerate-branching mechanism.. Aldehydes and ketones have been measured in significant and increasing concentrations in motored engines where the peak cycle temperature was steadily increased. A + B + C is the compression process. the hdical generation process must be more complex. some via a high-temperature single-stage ignition mechanism. and for some fuels both mechanisms may play a role. . it is hydrogen peroxide. single-stage ignition fuels such as benzene and toluene gave no detectable peroxide. then at E) at postwmpmsion pressure of 1. preceding hot ignition at E. Reaction R1 is slow and explains the induction period in hydrocarbon combustion.9) in a rapid compression machine. and ketones (RnCO).XMBUSTION ENGINE FUNDAMENTALS radical (formed by abstracting a hydrogen atom from a fuel hydrocarbon However. Explanations of the long induction periods are based on the formation of unstable but long-lived intermediates...e." Such studies have shown increasing concentrations of peroxides (predominantly H 2 0 2 with traces of organic peroxides) with isoparaffic fuels which show two-stage ignition behavior. An outline of the basic hydrocarbon (RH) oxidation process due to Semenov is as (R1) FIGURE 9-67 Pressure records of the autoignition of isooctane-air mixture ($ = 0. + RH R& ---- -+ ROOH R'CHO R6 +d + R"0 } + I Chain propagation (9. Higher temperature. aldehydes (R'CHO).destruction } Chain termination (R9) The dot denotes an active radical. ROOH is no longer the major of the chain propagation process: instead. End-gas sampling studies have identified products of slow combustion reactions of isooctane. R3 leads to olefins known to occur in the oxidation of saturated hydrocarbons. + } Chain initiation (R4) 00. are .Y3 Stable molecules A M <. The lower trace. R2 is fast and of near-zero activation energy.93 A more extensive discussion of hydrocarbon oxidation mechanisms can be found in B e n ~ o n . The degenerate branching comes about from the delay in decomposition of the reactive species in R7 and R8. . each dash denotes the number of free bonds on the organic radical R. cyclic ethers.59) (R7) (R8) ROOH -----+ + OH RfCHO+02-----+R'CO+HO. As one radical is used up to form the reactants in R7 and R8. above 500•‹C it While decomposes into two OH radicals. the multiple radicals do not appear until these reactants decompose. 9-67. where a homogeneous isooctane-air mixture was compressed to different final conditions in a piston-cylinder apparatus and allowed to autoignite. at a higher temperature..12 MPa and 787 K.

(9. n. An important question with any model of the end-gas autoignition process is characterizing the end-gas temperature. 6 8 ( ~ ~ ' 4 0 2 p . for given fuel-air mixtures. predicted by the Shell model in spark-ignltlon engine combustion process. During compression. and species concentrations in the end-gas region of an operating spark-ignition 10-~ ($) f where A.3). depends only on the gas state and that the concentration of the critical species required to initiate autoignition is fixed (i. The rate constants are either fixed at values consistent with the literature or fitted so that measured induction times (such as those illustrated in Fig. independent of the gas state). 99). 12. Q.9s. products (P). However. Often. radicals formed from the fuel (R). Refs. The scheme involves the fuel (RH). unburned mixture away from the wall will be compressed essentially adiabatically (see Sec. During intake. dunng. as heat is now transferred to the wall. In the absence of substantial heating by the exhaust valve and piston. lo2 The Shell model is based on a generic eight-step degenerate chainbranching reaction scheme. before. A thermal boundary layer will build up adjacent to the wall.59). and t. and degeneratebranching agent (B). the mean unburned mixture temperature is used to characterize its state. It is then assumed that autoignition occurs when " dt l=oT=l where z is the induction' time at the instantaneous temperature and pressure for the mixture.62) together can be used to determine whether autoignition occurs before the normally propagating flame consumes the end-gas. and T is in kelvin.59)]. ON is the appropriate octane number of the fuel (see Sec. over the relevant mixture pressure and temperature ranges. and mmpositlon in the end-gas. t is the elapsed time from the start of the end-gas compression process (t = O). intermediate product (Q). no detailed models are yet available for use with real blended fuels in engines.temperature. This is justified by the broadly similar (though f complex) ignition behavior ofa variety o different fuel molecules and the similar kinetics exhibited by the organic radicals of the same type in the hydrocarbon oxidation process [Eq. R defined In text 103 . the core temperature corresponding to adiabatic compression of mixture from conditions at the start of compression is used. due to ~ubstantid heat transfer to the unburned mixture.5). oxygen. Eqs.468 MTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE FUNDAMENTALS COMBUS'ITON IN SPARK-IGNITIONENGINES 469 Two types of models of this autoignition process have been developed and used: (1) empirical inductiofi-time correlations. 9-67) are adequately predicted. and after autoignition.g. It shows the calculated pressure.lo2 An example of results obtained with this scheme is shown in Fig. The model uses generic chemical entities representative of a variety of individual species which undergo a set of generalized reactions. Alternatively.. is the time of autoignition. The most extensively tested correlation is that proposed by Douaud and Eyzat :loo 3800 = 1 7 .1exp . (2) chemical mechanisms which embody many or all of the features of the "full" hydrocarbon oxidation process given in Eq. This equation can be derived by assuming that the over$l rate of production of the critical species in the induction period chemistry.e.6. 91 and 101). (9. Induction-time correlations are derived by matching an Arrhenius function to measured data on induction or autoignition times. heat is transferred from the walls to the fresh mixture. p is absolute pressure in atmospheres.60) and (9. 9. has been developed and tested with some success. The ability o these types of equations to predict the onset of knock with sufficient accuracy is unclear. temperature." A number of empirical relations for induction time for individual hydrocarbons and blended fuels have been developed from fundamental or engine studies of autoignition (see Ref. the end-gas temperature is not uniform and the distribution of temperature is extremely complex.6. 9-68. If the temperature and pressure time history of the end-gas during an individual cycle are known.7 (T) where z is in milliseconds. Thus. These relations have the form =AP-~ exp piston (which run at higher temperatures than the water-cooled wall regions) be at higher temperatures than adiabatically compressed mixture. the combustion chamber walls are hotter than the entering gases: thus. B. In addition. any unburned mixture which for some portion of time during intake and compression has been in close proximity to the exhaust valve and 0 10-9 a E 9 4 10-11 10-13 lo-'" Crank angle. known as the Shell model. for a given mixture. the mixture temperature rises to levels substantially above the wall temperature. While more complex and complete chemical models of the autoignition process are being developed for simple paraffinic hydrocarbon fuel compounds (e. and B are fitted parameters that depend on the fuel. (9. deg ABC s I E U Pressure. a generalized kinetic model for hydrocarbon oxidation based on a degenerate branched-chain mechanism.. the core temperature is a better representation of the maximum unburned mixture at any point in the cycle.

operating conditions during test. knock is a phenomenon that is governed by both engine and fuel factors. A more extensive d16cussion IS given by Goodger. and propylene (C.). Compacting the carbon atoms by incorporating side chains (thereby shortening the length of the basic chain) decreases the tendency to knock. for example. $ The Cooperative Fuel Research Committee is now the Coordinating Research Council. Their tendency to knock has been measured by the critical compression ratio of an engine: i. In addition. under specified operating conditions. cyclanes @apthems).. Several octane rating methods for fuels have been developed. Inc. 14. its presence or absence in an engine depends primarily on the antiknock quality of the fuel. the letter and number defines the t See Sec.5-in) stroke.lo3 bngthening the side chain attached to the basic ring structure increases the knocking tendency in both groups of fuels.. decreases the knocking tendency. two and three double bonds generally reduce knocking tendency appreciably. pressure. ambient weather conditions during test. mechanical condition of engine. Napthenes have significantly greater knocking tendency than have the corresponding size aromatics. 2. a blend of 10 percent n-heptane and 90 percent isooctane has an octane number of 90.).alkenes (olefins).H. ethylene (C. the autoignition mod has been incorporated in a multidimensional model of the flow and flame pro gation processes within the combustion chamber (see Sec.g. .) to the side of the basic carbon chain. The engine used in the ASTM research and motor methods is the single-cylinder engine developed under the auspices of the Cooperative Fuel Research Committee in 1931-the CFR engine. Individual hydrocarbon compounds vary enormously in their ability to resist knock.3 for a review of hydrocarbon structure and ~ t s nomenclature. the compression ratio at which. and aromatics (see Sec. In this example. The compression ratio can be varied from 3 to 30 while 9.5).$ This test engine is a robust four-stroke overhead-valve engine with an 82.).6-mm (3.e. in the .Hl. However. normal heptane (n-C7H16)has a value of zero and isooctane (C. A practical measure of a fuel's resistance to knock is obviously required. and the time spent at high values of these two properties before flame arrival. i. 5.63 Fuel Factors The tendency to knock depends on engine design and operating variables which influence end-gas temperature. Introducing one double bond has little antiknock effect.lo7. The introduction of one double bond has little antiknock effect. the higher the resistance to knock.4-trimethylpentane) has an octane number of 100.H. the tendency to knock is decreased through reductions in the end-gas temperature that follow from decreasing the inlet air temperature and retarding the spark from MBT timing. 3. two or three double bonds generally result in appreciably less knocking tendency. Blends of these two hydrocarbons define the knock resistance of intermediate octane numbers: e. Olefins 4. road octane rating methods have been developed to define the antiknock quality of fuels in cars operated on the road or on chassis dynamometers. The strong dependence of knocking tendency on fuel molecular size and structure is apparent. 7. depending on their molecular size and structure.25-in) bore and 114.3). . Knocking tendency is related to molecu~ lar structure? as f o l l ~ w s : ''06 ~ ~ Parafins 1 Increasing the length of the carbon chain increases the knocking tendency.3-mrn (4. It determines whether or not a fuel will knock in a given engine under given operating conditions: the higher the octane number.470 ~ N A COMBUSTION ENGINE F U N D A M E ~ A L S L engine.: 52. Thus. Practical fuels are blends of a large number of individual hydrocarbon comp u n & from all the hydrocarbon series of classes: alkanes (par&ns). Two of thesethe research method (ASTM D-2699)f and the motor method (ASTM D-2700Fare carried out in a standardized single-cylinder engine. the specific fuel compound will exhibit incipient knock.. f ASTM denotes American Society for Testing and Materials. leading up to knock at 209" ABC. and type of oil and fuel used in past operation. which knock much more readily than the corresponding saturated hydrocarbons. Figure 9-69 identifies the magnitude of these trends on a plot of the critical compression ratio against the number of carbon atoms in the molecule. By definition. second from the end or center position. 3 Adding methyl groups (CH. whereas branching of the side chain decreases the knocking tendency. and may vary considerably depending on engine design. These hydrocarbons were chosen because of the great difference in their ability to resist knock and the fact that isooctane had a higher resistance to knock than any of the gasolines available at the time the scale was established. Napthenes and aromatics 6. In the motor method. Octane number is not a single-valued quantity. the engine operating conditions are more severe. 3.H. A fuel's octane number is determined by measuring what blend of these two hydrocarbons matches the fuel's knock resistance. the conditions are more likely to produce knock.e.'04 specific testing code. The octane number (ON) scale is based on two hydrocarbons which define the ends of the scale. Exceptions to this rule are acetylene (C.lo8 This property is defined by the fuel's octane number.

tetraethyl lead. . the fuel/air ratio is adjusted for maximum knock. Tetraethyl lead.472 COMBUSnON INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE FUNDAMENTALS ENGINES conditions1 for research and motor methods R Inlet temperature Inlet pressure Humidity Coolant temperature Engine speed %ark advance d method Motor metbod \ ' Aromatics k \ -. D. gallon. (UmlOpeaJrornW W W .0072 kg/kg dry air --100•‹C(212•‹F) 600 rev/min 900 rev/min 13" BTC 19-26"BTC (constant) (varies with compression ratio) Adjusted for maximum knock C-C \ I 3 0 I I @ I c-c-e-c-c n-heptane A \ 2 'c-c-c+c-c-c I 8 I I 1 I 4 2 I C-C-C-Q-C-C-C 6 7 5 Number of carbon atoms 9 10 the engine is operating.-0. as measured with a magnetostriction knock detector. T is milliliters of tetraethyl lead per U. The test conditions are chosen to represent the engine operating range where knock is most severe. The octane number of the gasoline is then obtained by interpolation between the knockmeter scale readings for the two reference fuels and their octane numbers.035216T~112]. the primary reference fuels are blends of isooctane and nheptane. 10 gallon.6. with a mechanism which raises or lowers the cylinder and cylinder head assembly relative to the crankcase. s " '* 1 I C-C+C-C C C \ ~ir/fuelratio 52•‹C(125•‹F) 149•‹C (30O0F) Atmospheric . For fuels below 100 ON.4. (C. For fuels above 100 ON. The compression ratio is then adjusted to produce knock of a standardized intensity. Practically all fuels exhibit a difference between their research and motor octane numbers.28T/ 142 where C. the percent by volume of isooctane in the blend is the octane number.736T + (1.H. 7 7 . With the fuel under test. the antiknock quality of the fuel is determined in terns of isooctane plus milliliters of the antiknock additive. The engine is equipped with multiple-bowl carburetors so two reference fuels (usually blends of n-heptane and isooctane) and the fuel being rated can be placed in separate bowls.06 weight percent lead.S.S. . + 0.0'+ . per U.0. The level of knock obtained with the test fuel is bracketed by two blends of the reference fuels not more than two octane numbers apart (with one knocking more and one less than the test fuel). The motor method of determining O N uses more severe operating conditions than the molecular structure. the engine can be operated on any of the three fuels.06 Brams of lead.? The octane ratings of several individual hydrocarbon compounds and common blended fuels are summarized in App. Table D.0036-0.)4Pb. A special valve mechanism maintains a constant tappet clearance with vertical adjustment of the head. t The octane number of the fuel is calculated from ON = 100 + 28. The engine operating conditions of the research and motor methods are summarized in Table 9. contains 64. By means of a selector valve. 1 ml of TEL contains 1.


D.5 0.476 o 12- MTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE FUNDAMENTALS COMBUSTlON IN SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES 477 8 E g Pb per U.74 44.57 83 MTBE 105 18 11. and depends on the gasoline composition with which the compound is blended. . is in overcoming engine knock that results from fuel component segregation in the intake manifold. In other cases."' In some Cases.5 to 1 octane number gain.43 when used alone as a fuel..S. Several oxygenates have been used as automotive fuels. coal.7 0. gallon. ethanol (C&@H). The blending value of index [Eq. Problems include its energy content of one-half that of gasoline.03 g Mn/g Pb. economically it is less attractive + each successive increment added steadily decreases. an energy content about half that of gasoline. when used in low-concentration (-5 percent) methanol-cosolventgasoline blends. Va with fuel composition: average values shown. Problems with these blends include poor solubility in gasoline in the presence of water.H. One of its major values. the maximum economic limit to lead concentration) provides an average gain of about 10 octane numbers in modem gasolines. MTBE-gasoline blends have good water stability. Commercial antiknock fluids. and MTBE has little effect on vapor pressure and material compatibility. W given in the table is not necessarily the same as the antiknock index [(R M)/2 from App. causing lead-fouling of the spark plug electrodes and tracking across the plug insulator. The octane gains vary significantly with fuel composition. gasoline fractions of different volatility separate in the intake manifold of a rnulticylinder engine and the heavier fractions lag behind (see Sec. Low concentrations of methylcyclopentadienyl manganese tricarbonyl (MMT) act as an octane promoter. biomass. because it can be made from natural gas. blending effects on gasoline volatility which may force the displacement of large volumes of butane. The addition of about 0. toxicity. the good antiknock blending characteristics of oxygenates can aid in meeting Octane quality denIands where increasingly stringent regulations limit lead alkyl use. ( 9 .methyl teriary butyl ether. coal) and thus may offer strategic or economic benefits.16 65 Etbanol 110 35 9. though effectiveness varies with chemical composition of the fuel.2 0.746 35. It is sometimes used as a supplement to TEL.5 0. These deposit on the walls of the combustion chamber and on the spark plug. MMT is about twice as effective as TEL in terms of research octane number gain and about equally effective in terms of motor octane number gain.34 55 Gmiine Lower heating value.g.84 78 TBA 98 22 11. . however.OH).0 1. Some of these problems can be partially reduced by using cosolvents such as TBA or isobutanol.796 20. "C 87-93 0 14. When a gasoline containing a lead alkyl is burned in a spark-ignition engine.0 0. can help offset the octane loss from lead alkyl phase-out. Use of methanol as a neat fuel in specially designed engines permits advantage to be taken of its high octane rating via high compression ratios. tertiary butyl alcohol (TBA) (C.7 lists the antiknock characteristics of these compounds and their ysical and chemical characteristics relative to gasoline.6. TML offers a greater octane number gain than TEL in many gasolines. MTBE.OH). particularly in highly aromatic fuels with a low sulfur content.2 g Pb per Liter FIGURE 9-70 Gasoline octane number increase resulting fr use of antiknock additive tetraethyl lead. Ethanol is technically feasible as a high octane supplement or substitute for gasoline.0 0. toxicity. Its high octane quality (130 RON. engine starting problems which require starting aids such as 5 to 10 percent isopentane at temperatures below 10•‹Cor intake system heaters. primarily due to the buildup of combustion chamber deposits within the engine cylinder. TBA is moderately susceptible to water extraction and loss.'Og The use of oxygenates (oxygen containing organic compounds) as extenders or substitutes for gasoline is increasing. this is because the oxygenate can be produced from nonpetroleum sources (e. it is most effective in highly paranic gasolines. kg Latent heat of vaporization.S. gallon 1 2 3 I I I 4 I . those of major interest are methanol Methanol. or cellulose materials. contain scavenging agents+ombinations of ethylene dibromide and ethylene dichloride-which transfer the lead oxides which would otherwise deposit into volatile lead-bromine which are largely exhausted with the combustion gases. MMT-TEL antiknock fluids are tailored to optimize octane cost effectiveness and the average fluid contains about 0.2 0.3). tertiary butyl alcohol. While these deposits increase the engine's compression ratio modestly. Table D.5 0.791 32. their largest effect is to increase the temperature of the outer surface of Oxygenate properties1l 0 Methanol Typical ( R + M)/2 blending value Weight percent oxygen 112 50 6."~ The octane requirement of an engine-vehicle combination usually increases during use. 7.794 26. it produces nonvolatile combustion products.35 27-227 TBA. and thy1 tertiary butyl ether (MTBE). has near. In unleaded fuels MMT is sometimes used in low concentrations to provide from 0.8 g lead per liter (3 g Pb per U. Table 9. therefore. and hot corrosion o f the exhaust valve. On a weight of metal basis. MJ/kg Boiling temperature. incompatibility with many commonly used metals and elastomers.and long-term potential.8 0. high latent heat of vaporization and oxygen content which contribute to poor driveability. extensive engine modifi~ations. 95 MON).

and the approximate location of the end of combustion.85 Natural Methaool Gasoline CH. the engine wmprasion ratio is 9. from halfway through the compression stroke to halfway through the expansion stroke. the mixture is stoichiometric.9 Stoiehiometric ~e~tiog . Note: Accurate numerical calculations are not required to answer this question. Show the motored and firing pressure curves for each engine. The compression ratio increase associated with this volume deposits is small (0. (a) At part-throttle operation-at an intake pressure of 0.000 of driving).6-liter displaced volume engine are to be optimized for each fuel over the engine's operating load and speed range. Manifold and valve design remains the same. the increase can vary from between 1 to over 13 octane numbers. The volume of the chamber is constant.8 times the fuel-air cycle efficiency at those conditions. Combustion in such a device has many features in common with spark-ignition engine wmbustion.ae nuu~ber k. O at Research Fornola 0et. For gasoline.78 0. For unleaded fuels the major element is carbon (one-third to one-half by mass).5 atm and a speed of 2500 rev/min--estimate the gross indicated fuel conversion efficiency and specific fuel consumption for each engine-fuel combination.. its combustion event takes three-quarters of the time). the engine's octane requirement typically increases by about 5 oct numbers. You may assume that for each engine-fuel combination. with unleaded fuels it is a factor of 5 lower. of the natural gas and methanol fueled engines to the maximum imep of the gasoline engine. initially at r/Ro = 40.2 6. Each engine-fuel combination operates at the lean limit given. For this problem.)" 120 105 95 4 = fucl/air equivalence ratio. I n a n experiment where the removed from various regions of the combustion chamber in octane requirement after each removal was determined. the gross indicated fuel conversion efficiency and imep at any operating condition are given by 0.75 0. at the same conditions as in (b).7 0.ir/fuel ratio 17. sketch a carefully drawn qualitative cylinder pressure versus crank angle curve for the two engines. The fuel is a typical hydrocarbon fuel. The table gives relevant properties of three different spark-ignition engine fuels.9 MJ/h 50 20 44 rl.8 0. thus increasing t knock. as explained above.5. PROBLEMS 9. the composition and density are substantially different. change during the combustion process as the flame propagates radially outward from the center (r = 0) to the outer wall (r = Ro). assume that for every five research octane number increase above 95 (the gasoline value) in fuel antiknock rating. so if the octane number of the fuel is 100. You will be graded on the amount of physical insight your diagrams and the supporting brief explanations of your logic communicate. Show the location of spark timing. The chamber diameter is 10 cm and the height is 1. with 1 atm inlet pressure at the same speed (2500 rev/min). (d) If the methane engine burns 33 percent faster than the gasoline engine (i. Explain these volumetric efficiency values. Essentially all of the octane requirement increase results fr of deposits on the combustion chamber walls: when the deposits are removed from the engine the octane requirement returns to close t o value. a compression ratio of 10 can be used. The spark timing should be set for maximum brake torque for each engine. The design and operating parameters of a four-cylinder 1.478 INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE FUNDAMENTALS COMBUSTION I SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES N 479 the combustion chamber. the flame can be thought of as a thin cylindrical sheet. CH.4 14. the initial temperature is room temperature.1. the location of maximum cylinder pressure. (a) Sketch qualitative but carefully proportioned graphs of the following quantities versus time from the start of combustion to the end of combustion: (1) The ratio of actual pressure in the chamber to the initial pressure (2) The ratio of average density of the gas ahead of the flame to the initial density (3) The ratio of the average density of the gas behind the flame to the initial (b) On a qualitative but carefully proportioned graph of r/Ro versus time show how the radial positions of gas elements.2 The figure shows the flame propagating radially outward from the center of a discshaped combustion chamber. Its radius increases approximately linearly with time.1 compression ratio) and contributes therefore o n the order 10 percent of the octane requirement increase.5 cm.e. and 1. As the combustion chamber deposits stabilize (over 15. and are in 1 cm3 per cylinder. Conditions are as in (b). Also. 9."' (c) Estimate the ratios of the maximum indicated mean effective pressure. Put both curves on the same graph. You should write down any equations or approximate numerical values for relevant quantities that help explain your .0 before combustion. This increases heat transfer to the fresh mixtu induction and decreases heat transfer from the unburned charge d sion. The deposit density with leaded fuels is 2 to 5 g/cm3. Though the volume of the deposits for leaded and unleaded fuels are comparable. the compression ratio can be increased by one unit. End-gas temperatures are therefore higher. (b) At the appropriate equivalence ratio for maximum power. The volume of deposits for leaded and unleaded fuels inside the engine cylinder are similar in magnitude.OH (CH. the volumetric efficiencies are as shown.n operating limit 0. The primary effe is thought to be changes in heat transfer between the end-gas and t chamber walls. Each fuel is fully v a p o w in the inlet manifold and the inlet mixture temperature is held constant for all fuels. 0.000 to 25. it w deposits on the cylinder head around the end-gas region were the cause of about two-thirds of the total OR1 observed.

P9-4. (a) Draw a carefully proportioned qualitative graph of cylinder pressure p and mass fraction burned x.. yet it has about the same maximum bmep at ! maximum bmep and result in negligible total change. The table co Compact chamber 1 5 liter Conveational 1 5 titer 9: 1 97 RON 965 kPa 13: 1 25" BTC 16: 1 Compression ratio Fuel octane requirement Maximum bmep Air/fuel ratio at WOT MBT timing at 2000 rev/min and WOT AirJfuel ratio at cruise conditions 14: 1 97 RON 980 kPa 17 : 1 5" BTC where A. Use the data provided. 1 I FIGURE PP4 . to answer the following bustion process.The rate of burning of the charge dmddt is given by Highly compact bowl-in-piston or bowl-in-head combustion chambers permit SI is achieved by these chamber designs.INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE FUNDAMENTALS Flame Compact chambers FIGURE P9-3 (d) The eficiency of the compact-chamber engine at part-throttle conditions is higher than that of the conventional engine. is the unburned mixture 22: 1 For gasoline. Briefly explain why this is the case and estimate approximately the ratio of the two engine eficiencies. and any additional quantitative information you have or can generate easily. In a spark-ignition engine. on both p and x. as a function of crank angle 0 for -90' < 0 < 90" for a typical SI engine at wide-open throttle with the spark timing adjusted for maximum brake torque. RON = research octane 46 number. MBT = maximum brake torque. (b) Estimate approximately the fraction of the cylinder volume occupied by burned gases when the mass fraction burned is 0. (b) The compactchamber engine has a higher compression ratio than the conventional engine.5 (i. (c) A simple model for this turbulent flame is shown on the left in Fig. yet the compact-chamber engine has a much higher co which features of the engine allow it to operate without knock at a 14 : 1 cornpression ratio while the conventional engine can only operate without knock at 3 9 : 1.e. a turbulent flame propagates through the uniform premixed fuel-air mixture within the cylinder and extinguishes at the combustion chamber walls. and of the flame development period (0 to 10 percent burned) and end of combustion. . p. versus 0 curves relative to the topcenter crank position. WOT = wide-open throttle. halfway through the burning process). Mark in the crank angles of spark discharge. (c) Both engines have been designed to have the same fuel octane requirement. the stoichiometric air/fuel ratio is 1 . is the area of the flame front (which can be approximated by a portion of a cylinder whose axis is at the spark plug position).

peak cylinder pressure. Using typical fuel-air cycle efficiencies and the relation between th fuel-air cycle and real cycle efficiency. however. chamber surface/ volume ratio. and ST is the turbulent flame speed (the speed at which the front m relative to the unburned mixture ahead of it). is also shown. wall temperature. (A careful qualitative sketch is sufficient. with optimum spark timing. is being developed from coal for automotive use. (3) the more advanced timing for maximum brake torque? Explain your answers. spark plug distance from cylinder axis. and pressure at the exhaust valve opening." for a decrease. determine whether the slower-burnin higher-compression-ratio engine using "X" will be more efficient. engine compression ratio can be increased to 14 : 1 from the 8 : 1 values typl for gasoline. (4 Compare wmbustion chambers A and C in Fig. Compare combustion chambers A and B shown in Fig. Sketch carefully drawn pressure-time curves over the entire engine four-stroke cycle for the two mixtures. have about the same efficiency. for two mixtures at the same equivalence ratio. The independent variables are: speed. for the same displacement and compression ratio engines. What do you conclude about the relative size of the fuel systems required to provide equal power? "Xn-air mixtures take twice as long to bum as gasoline-air mixtures (the crank angle between the spark and end of combustion is twice as large). for the same imep (for throttled engine operation) for stoichiometric mixtures. provide a quanti justification for your sketch. deg ATC 1 1 1 1 40 1 60 FIGURE ~ 9 . In these columns show the corresponding irduence on the dependent variables by a " " for an increase and a " . flame speed. and the relative values of intake pr sure. Show the effect of increase in engine system independent variables on: cylinder pressure and temperature. what is the heating value of a stoichiometric mixture of "X" and air. Use your experience of what changes in other variables do. (You do not need to make cal lations to sketch these Though "Xn-air mixtures are slower burning than gasoline-air mixtures.) Sketch the mass fraction burned versus cr curves for these two combustion chambers on the same graph. P9-4 which have the same fl travel distance but have different chamber shapes. Which chamber has (1) the faster rate of mass burning during the first half of the combusti process. fuel octane number. each spark timing set for maximum brake torque. and consult this and other textbooks to complete a table with the dependent variables shown at the to^ of the columns.7 .O).INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE FUNDAMEWALS COMBUSTION IN SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES 483 density. inlet mixture pressure. per kilogram o mixture? How does this value compare f with a stoichiometric gasoline-air mixture? Then. peak cylinder pressure. squish motion. + me o et f Dependent vdables inue8se I I I I I S= F% nvlmin Etc.0 1 1 0 -40 1 -20 1 1 o 20 Crank angle." First make the following calculations: (a) What is the stoichiometric airlfuel ratio for "X"? How does this compare with the stoichiometric airjfuel ratio for gasoline? (b) Given that in a constant-volume calorimeter experiment to determine the heat value of "X" the combustion of 50 g of fuel with excess air at standard con tions resulted in a temperature rise of 1. the approximate location of the flame front when 50 percent of the mass burned. autoignition induction period. Knock in spark-ignition engines is an abnormal wmbustion condition. You may assume the value the same for A and B. air swirl. residual and EGR). You are making an evaluation of what changes in the sparkignition engines you produce might be required if gasoline is replaced by this fuel " X. percent EGR.) as factors that influence ST (turbulent intensity. or be less efficient than the faster-burning lower-compressionratio gasoline engine. Estimate the tem- 0. The rate of mass burnin enced therefore by combustion chamber geometry (through A. A new synthetic fuel with chemical formula (CH. (c) Compare approximately the specific fuel consumption of a spark-ignition engine operated on stoichiometric gasoline and "X" mixtures. indicating the relative crank angle location of spark. fuellair ratio.0. The attached graph gives the pressurecrank angle curve for a spark-ignition engine running at 4 = 1. total burn time. Almost everyone who rides a motorcycle or drives a car experiences this phenomenon at some time and usually changing into a lower gear will take the engine away from this condition.25"C of the water and calorimeter combined heat capacity 650 kJ/K). inlet mixture temperature. tendency to knock. compression ratio. (2) the faster rate of mass burning during the second half of the combusti process . (F/A). and end of combustion. The mass fraction burned x. Provide in the extreme right-hand column brief comments to explain your answers.

L. C. Nakamura..11.. 9-30 (appropriate firing and motored pressures are given in Fig.. P9-7. assume autoignition occurs at 10 crank angle degrees after the topcenter position. 8-14). B. and Keck. (b) the average flame travel speed based on A8. 52. K.. J. 3. SAE Trans... Hirano. Use charts (Chap. Akishino. Lavoie. 36. pp. 9. and inlet mixture conditions.. Estimate the energy transferred during the breakdown and glow phases of the discharge. (a) Reducing the amount of EGR.: "The Effects of Charge Dilution on Combustion and Its Improvement-Flame Photograph Study." SAE Trans. A. . 5. G. The following combustion chamber design changes increase the mass burning rate in a spark-ignition engine at fixed compression ratio. 4) or an equilibrium computer code. Q spond to at a typical part-load condition (pi = 0. vol. operating on gasoline.1978. Hori. the normal knock control strategy is to retard the spark timing when knock is detected. Reissued as SAE paper 800131. L. K. 1938.just after combustion. 1935. at T C using Fig. vol." (b) SI engine knock is primarily a problem at wide-open throttle and lower engine speeds. Estimate (a) the mean piston speed. (b) the temperature at 0•‹. they should be compatibl with Prob. G. (b) Only a fraction of this energy is transferred to the fuel-air mixture between the spark plug electrodes. 9. Use the charts (Chap. 1975.. From the mass fraction burned and approximate average burned gas conditions at this time." SAE paper 780007. T. adding EGR). of the zone which bums at 0'. 1 pp. G. Amann. We assume that the inertia of the burned gases prevents significant gas motion while the end-gas autoignites.INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE FUNDAMENTALS COMBUSTION M SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES 485 perature of the reactants at a number of crank angles and plot a graph of T. ( 4 In a knocking engine. T. Discuss briefly the relative magnitudes of these velocities. 9. M.g. does this correWhat fraction of the cylinder contents' chemical energy (m. the crank angle at which autoignition occurs and the magnitude of the pressure oscillations which result vary substantially. Rassweiler. cycle-by-cycle." SAE paper 852067.: "Cylinder-Pressure Measurement and Its Use in Engine Research. Plot your results versus crank angle to show whether there is a spatial distribution of temperature in the cylinder after combustion...1985..12.7. J. (e) the turbulent burning speed S. estimate the volume occupied by the end-gas as a fraction of the cylinder volume just before autoignition occurs. the cylinder pressure is 7. Almost all this energy is transferred from the coil during the glow discharge phase. (a) The electrical energy stored in a typical ignition system coil is 50 mJ. of the zone which burns at -30". (the spark plug is located 15 mm from the cylinder axis). 84. 217-245.: "Development of a New Combustion System (MCA-JET) in Gasoline Engine. bore.0)? Assume 500 cm3 per cylinder displaced volume. J. at TC. Explain why S I engine torque varies. (c) the temperature at + 30".. M. 4) or an equilibrium computer code. 7. vol. Inoue. 125-133. T. Rassweiler. Suggest reasons why this happens. pp. M. (c) the turbulence intensity at TC [see Eq.1983. Heywood.. 9-40. Y. vol.. at fixed speed and inlet mixture conditions. If the combustion takes place progressively through a large number of very sma zones of gas and there is no mixing between the zones.. determine: (a) the temperature at -30•‹.. 9. just after combustion of the zone which bums at + 30". Y. (a) Explain the causes of the observed variation in cylinder pressure versus crank angle and imep in spark-ignition engines.: "Experimental and Theoretical Investigation of Nitric Oxide Formation in Internal Combustion Engines. (b) What impacts do these cylinder pressure variations have on engine operation? (a) Describe briefly what occurs when a spark-ignition engine "knocks. 4 = 1. 9-2a). At spark timing (30" BTC) in an automobile spark-ignition engine (with bore = stroke = 85 mm and r.. and Withrow. Flame. An approximate way to calculate the pressure in the end-gas just after knock occurs is to assume that all the end-gas (the unburned gas ahead of the flame) burns instantaneously at constant volume. If the average burned gas temperature within the flame kernal just after spark is 3500 K and the cylinder pressure is 6 atm. C. Explain how each change affects the burning rate. The unburned gas state is given by Prob.10. Explain why this is the case. (10 to 90 percent mass burned) is 35". Explain why this strategy is effective and is preferred over other possible approaches (e. For the pressure data in Fig. If the glow discharge lasts for 2 ms. ( 4 Using a combustion chamber with higher clearance height near the spark plug and a more central plug location. as + the spark timing is varied from very advanced (e. (b) Using two spark plugs per cylinder instead of one.5 atm and the mixture temperature is 650 K. pp.1970. = 9) at 2000 revlmin. Beretta.. (8. what radius of kernal has fuel chemical energy equal to the electrical energy transferred to the kernal? REFERENCES 1. Sci. Nakagami. Assume the reactants in the cylinder are a t 333 K and 1 atm pressure at the of compression. use the data in Fig. Rashidi.: "Flame Temperatures Vary with Knock and CombustionChamber Position. C. Ohinouye. 9-39 to estimate the glow discharge voltage and current..g. Note: Each small unburned gas element burns at essentially constant pressure and is subsequently compressed and/or expanded. The fuel-air mixture is stoichiometric with a residual gas fraction of 8 percent." SAE paper 750054. Determine the maximum pressure reached in the end-gas after knock occurs. It is necessary to make simplifications in order to d o this and you should explain clearly what other assumptions you make." Combust. 4. T. (c) With a knock sensor. 313-326. S. Technol. vol.. until knock no longer occurs. ( 4 the laminar flame speed at spark. 60" before TC) to close to TC.8 below. v 8. The rapid burning angle A8. . and Ohisashi. Nakanishi. 87. cycle-by-cycle. using the data in Fig. and Keck. (c) Overall about one-tenth of the coil energy is transferred to the fuel-air mixture. and Withrow..23)]. (f) the mean expansion speed of the burned gases u. 83. H.: "Motion Pictures of Engine Flames Correlated with Pressure Cards. SAE Trans. P. 185-204." Combust. and Tsukamoto.1980. vol. throttling the inlet. Kiyota.: "Turbulent Flame Propagation and Combustion in Spark Ignition Engines.5 atm. G. (c) Generating swirl within the cylinder using a mask on the cylinder head (see Fig. A. 6. just after combustion. 9. ( 4 the temperature of the products in these three zones at 30". )." SAE Trans. What is the "best " spark timing? Explain how it varies with engine speed and load. speed. 2. K.

" SAE paper 820044. 7 pp. formance. 44.: "The Computation of Apparent Heat Release for Internal 0 Combustion Engines... B. M. New Approach for Low NO.. Balles. and Muranaka. Heywood. C. I. and Gasoline-Methanol Blends in a Spark-Ignition Engine..Flame. J. 2 . octane. J. Ndajima.: "Formation of Hydrocarbons and Oxides of Nitrogen Automobile Engines. Cycle Simulation to Predict SI Engine Emciency and NO. R.SAE Trans. F. and Bracco.pp. vol.: "Development and Use of a . Hilliard and G. 71. P. A.. G.: "Direct Measurement of the Turbulent Burning 6 Velocity in a Homogeneous-Charge Engine.pp.1982. 1 . 12. 12-17. JSME. .The Combustion Institute. 1982. and Keck. F. 216223. ference of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. 11.. Department of Mechanical Enginecring.. B. and Hamai.: "A New Look at High Compression Engines. F l m .. Witze. 51. E." M. 85.1963. Engines. 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58." SAE paper 770218. K.Kumagai. M...pp. A." Ethyl technical note PCDTN-MS 117768 Rev. 1978. Energy Combust. 1936. 59. 1954. 9-17. 89.1985. Schiipert~ns.1983. 91-100.: 1982 84.." Combust.. A." SAE paper 852092. knson. J. also in XX FISITA Congress Proceedings. Westbrook. C.1982. 67." SAE paper 840992. Douaud. 57. 1972. W. 9 5 1983.: "Developments in High-Voltage Generation and Ignition Control. E.: "Multidimensional Modelling of Knocking Combustion in SI Engines.: "Autoignition of Hydrocarbon Fuels at High Temperatures and Pressures-Fitting of a Mathematical Model" Combust.000 Frames per Second of Combustion and Detonation in a Reciprocating Engine.488 INI'ERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE FUNDAMWALS COMBUSTION I SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES N 489 54. Combustion Institute. Goodger. and Rife. SAE Trans.: "A Comparative Study of Plasma Ignition Systems.1975. R. chap.. D. W. 87. I. and Osterstrom. Itoh. S.. vol. 78.. ." SAE paper 841336. S. vol. O. 99. S. E. C. A.. Linuma. 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573..~ anningham ( ~ . vol.. 1-18.c.. vol. usually injected at high velocity as one or more jets through small orifices or nozzles in the injector tip. Since the air temperature and pressure are above the fuel's ignition point. ~ i t ~ F. V. 67-97. The fuel vaporizes and mixes with the high-temperature high-pressure cylinder air. 84. G. pp.".in Chfmtecfr. 16-25 American ~ ~ ~ ~ January 1976. conferme on 830935. Injection continues until the desired amount of fuel has entered the cylinder. Tokyo. PCD'I'N 107. and Lowther.: "Additives. B. G. which then bums rapidly. atomizes into small drops and penetrates into the combustion chamber. B~~~~~ J.. The consequent compression of the unburned portion of the charge shortens the delay before ignition for the fuel and air which has mixed to within combustible limits. Mc~abe.: "Some Factors Which Meet Octane Requirement 1n-T SAE paper 750933. J. fuel-air mixing. J.a . Macpherson. just before the desired start of combustion. vaporization.PP.1975.. 109. B ~J. 106.: & ~ ~ "Knocking Characteristics of Hyd-bon%" 2388-2438. 1967. B. 1-77. 108. It also reduces the evaporation time of the remaining liquid fuel. New York and Basel. spontaneous ignition of portions of the already-mixed fuel and air occurs after a delay period of a few crank angle degrees. Li&ty. Figures 1-17.Ewyclopedia of Chemical Prmessing and W. The liquid fuel.:Combustion Engine Recesses. Japan. R.490 ~ R N A COMBUSTIONENGINE W A M E N ' M L S L E ~ % Chemv b 40. Fuel is injected by the fuel-injection system into the engine cylinder toward the end of the compression stroke.1 ESSENTIAL FEATURES OF PROCESS The essential features of the compression-ignition or diesel engine combustion process can be summarized as follows. 2. pp. ." in J. in proceedings of Second International En$ine ofi4*$ SAE AYomoti"e Enginemmng. CHAPTER COMBUSTION IN COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES 10. 110. Marcel Dekker.: "What Good are Octanes. and combustion continue until essentially all the fuel has passed through each process. The cylinder pressure increases as combustion of the fuel-air mixture occurs. and 1-19 illustrate the major components of common diesel fuel-injection systems. M. ~ ~ d ) s . ~ ~ Cowration: "Determining Road Octane Numbers. 105. 7-14 19B3. Engine Fuel. H. M ~ andK A. Nov. Mffimw-Hill. and Amberg. L. D. J. L ~ W. H. Atomization. .L. SAE Trans.: "Future Trends in Automotive Fuels and h . In addition.1948. 1977. mixing of the air remaining in the cylinder with burning and already burned gases continues throughout the combustion and expansion processes.'' Ethyl t e c h i d h ~ l SP-347 (1 13) Rev..



and rail traction applications (only the spray of the multispray combustion system could be igh-speed DI engine with swirl and four fuel jets centrally .4. The concept of heat-release rate is important to understanding this model. 4% INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE FUNDAMENTALS COMBUSTION M COMPRESSION-IGNITIONENGINES 497 ~iliary chamber during the latter part of the compression stroke. as the energy release required to create the measured pressure.1-1. Although the relative importance of each phase does depend on the combustion system used. In that system the fuel is injected into the main chamber and not the auxiliary cell.1 Photographic Studies of Engine Combustion High-speed photography at several thousand frames per second has been used extensively to study diesel engine combustion. 10.Deep bowlin-piston in-piston Swirl pre.0 15-16 2500-5000 130-80 1. These are: (a)a quiescent chamber typical of diesel engines in the 3 to 20 dm3Icylinder displacement used for industrial. An ID1 engine to the two types listed in Table 10-1 is the air cell system. 1 and 2). In the smallest engine sizes. mm Strokemre Compression ratio Chamber 2-1 Cstroke TC/NA Cstroke TC/NA Cstroke NAflc dstroke NApc dstroke NA/TC Cstroke TC/S 120-2100 900-150 3. "M"DI system. Sequences of individual frames from movies provide valuable information on the nature of the combustion process in the different types of diesel engines. each phase being controlled by differentphysical or chemical processes. 10-2a.Single/ chamber mufti- Air-fiow pattern Number of nozzle holes Injection Quiescent Medium swirl Multi Multi High swirl Highest Very high Very turbu- Single Medium Multi High Single Lowest Single Lowest Very high High 103.3-1.2 12-15 1800-3500 15&100 1.3 PHENOMENOLOGICAL MODEL OF COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINE COMBUSTION studies of photographs of diesel engine combustion. under normal engine operating conditions (e. rev/min Bore.9 16-18 3500-430'3 100-80 3-800 95-70 4500 10.. and (d) a Ricardo Comet V swirl The combustion sequences were recorded on color film and show the fol- the spherical bowl in the piston crown. and engine operating conditions. Refs. Some of these studies have been carried out in combustisn chambers very close to those used in practice. The most common design of swirl chamber is the Ricardo Comet design shown in Fig.. these four phases are common to all diesel Open or shallow dish Bowl-inpiston Deep bowl. combined with analyses of engine cylinder pressure data. marine.2-0. have led to a widely accepted descriptive model of the compression-ignition engine combustion process. the ID1 engine has traditionally been used ." The auxiliary chamber acts as a turbulence generator as gas flows into Cycle Turbocharged/ supercharged/ naturally aspirated Maximum speed. It is defined as the rate at which the chemical energy of the fuel is released by the combustion process. using the techniques described in Sec. The combustion model defines four separate phases of diesel combustion. . or they enerate intense turbulence in the prechamber through use of several small oris to the flow within the prechamber. using a nozzle connecting passage that enters the auxiliary chamber tangentially. It can be calculated from cylinder pressure versus crank angle data. Figure 10-3 shows four combustion chamber geometries that have been studied photographically..g.

The appearance of a brown region. the radiation from the particles changes color through orange to red. Table 10. Difusionjame. PremixedJlame.'-' Fuel spray@).The fuel droplets reflect light from spot lamps and define the extent of the liquid fuel spray prior to complete vaporization.FIGURE 9-1 FIGURE 10-3 Four diesel combustion chambers used to obtain photographs of the compression-ignition combustion process shown in Fig. (c) M. 10-4 on color plate: (a) quiescent DI chamber. 10-4 on the color plate.N. indicates an excessively rich mixture region where substantial soot particle production has occurred. "M"DI chamber.A. (b) multihole n o d e D I chamber with swirl: on p. 499. The addition of a copper additive dope to the fuel gives these normally blue flames a green color bright enough to render them visible. Where this fuel-rich soot-laden cloud contacts unburned air there is a hot white diffusion flame.(d) Ricardo Comet ID1 swirl chamber. As the flame cools. These regions are of too low a luminosity to be recorded with the exposure level used. The burning high-temperature carbon particles in this flame provide more than adequate luminosity and appear as yellow-white. Over-rich mixture. discernable in the photographs shown in Fig. usually surrounded by a white diffusion flame.2 summarizes the characteristics of these different regions. .

The fuel spray is shown penetrating into the chamber.N. (b) combustion of four sprays in DI engine with counterc1ockwise swirl. burning under conditions typical of a large quiescent DI engine. facing this page) S q u e n a of photogapha from high-speed movies taken in special vsudimtion diesel en&= shown in Fig. (c) combustion of sinde spray in M. imep = 827 kPa (120 lb/in2)1. 1250 rev/min. burns with a blue-green low-luminosity flame (colored green by the copper fuel additive). which has had a long residena time in the chamber.2 (Courtesy Ricardo Consulting Engineers.COMBUSTION IN COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES . - 499 Figure 10-4a shows a sequence of photographs from one combustion event of the single spray. (4 combustion in prechamber (on left) and main chambr (on right) in Rirsrdo Comet ID1 swid chamber diesel. 'M" DI diesel.A.) . The flame engulfing the remainder of the spray is brilliant of white-yellow from the b u r ~ n g the soot particles which have been formed in FIGURE 10-4 (OnColor Plate. The flame then spreads rapidly (-7') along the outside of the spray to the spray t i p Here some of the fuel. 10-3: (a)combustion of single spray burning under large DI engine conditions. Ignition occurs at -8' in the fuel-air mixture left behind on the edge of the spray not far from the injector.

The flame is of the carbon-burning type throughout. the fuel was injected through a two-hole nozzle which produces a main jet directed tangentially onto the walls of the spherical cup in the piston crown. Frame 1 shows how the main spray follows the contour of the chamber. At this stage (-lo). contributing to the Poor air utilization with this type of combustion chamber.15").5" the fuel spray is about halfway round the bowl. Also the air which is between the individual fuel sprays of the quiescent open-chamber diesel mixes with each burning spray relatively slowly. the tips of the sprays have ken deflected slightly by the anticlockwise swirl.500 INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGIM FUNDAMENTALS COMBUSTION IN COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES 501 TABLE 10. wmbushon products later) IS transparent and not glowing Early in combustion process. low luminosity "premixed"-type flame. white-yellow flame activity continues near the injector. Ignition has just occurred of fuel adjacent to the wall which has mixed sufficiently with air to burn. well into the expansion Figure 10-4c shows the combustion sequence for the M. The first flame occurs at -1" in the vaporized fuel from the auxiliary spray and is a green premixed flame. rendered visible by copper added to fuel. A soot cloud is seen near the top right of the picture at 5" ATC which spreads out around the circumference of the enflamed region. probably due to combustion of ligaments of fuel which issued from the injector nozzle as the injector needle was seating. There is always a rim of flame between the soot cloud and the cylinder liner as excess air is mixed into the flame zone (10. and an auxiliary spray which mixes a small fraction of the fuel directly with the swirling air flow. The swirl chamber (on the left) is seen in the view of the lower drawing of Fig. This soot then finds excess air and burns up. Two sprays emerge from the Pintaux nozzle after the start of injection at . and yellow-white Yellow. The flame then spreads to the main spray (TC). The fuel sprays (of which two are visible without obstruction from the injector) first appear at . The last frame (30" ATC) shows the gradual diminution of the soot-particle-laden regions as they mix with the excess air and burn up. about 60 percent of the fuel has been injected. More recent " M" systems use a pintle nozzle with a single variable orifice. becoming a yellow-white carbon-particle-burning flame with a green fringe. little premixed green flame is seen even at the beginning of the combustion process. The brown (13") are soot-laden fuel-rich mixture originating from the fuel which impinges on the wall.13". burned gas above about 1800•‹C Carbon particle burnup m diausion flame. The remainder is injected into this enflamed region.tion Green White. The fuel downstream of each spray is next to ignite. burning yehw-white due to the soot . Out by the ht bowl walls. leaving green patches where all carbon is burned out (4". producing a very fuel-rich zone apparent as the dark brown cloud (11").2 Interpretation of diesel engine combustion color photographs1 co dr Grey ~nterpret. Where these meet rur (grey) there is always a white fringe of hot flame formed by the richer mixture. 10-3d (with the connecting passageway entering the swirl chamber tangentially at the bottom left to produce clockwise swirl). In the version of the system used for these experiments. and is convected round the cup by the high swirl air flow. Figure 10-4d shows the combustion sequence in a swirl chamber ID1 engine of the Ricardo Comet V design. A brown soot cloud is emerging from the throat. where fuel vapor has been blown around by the swirl. Flame propagation back to the injector follows rapidly and at TC the bowl is filled with flame. At 4" ATC the swirl chamber appears full of carbon-burning flame.4). By shortly after TC the flame has filled the bowl and is spreading out over the piston crown. The flame spreads rapidly (-2". 8. which is being blown down the throat and into the recesses in the piston crown by the combustion generated pressure rise in the prechamber. orange-red Brown Background. Later. 10-3b). Figure 1 0 4 shows a combustion sequence from the DI engine with swirl (the chamber shown in Fig. 11•‹.N. The main chamber is seen in the plan view of the upper drawing of Fig. one on each spray. 2~0-2500•‹C Carbon burnup i diffusion flame n at lower temperatures. while the yellow-white the fuel-rich spray core.5").11". The last dull-red flame visible on the film is at about 75" ATC. combustion continues well into the expansion stroke (31•‹C). 1") to envelop the fuel spray. The frame at -3" shows the first ignition. the gas (air m early stages. the auxiliary spray has evaporated and can no longer be seen. hi^ sequence shows that fuel distribution is always highly nonuniform during the combustion process in this type of DI engine. At 5' ATC the flame spreads out over the piston crown toward the cylinder wall due to combustiongas expansion and the reverse squish flow (see Sec. The inner circle corresponds to the deep bowl in the piston crown. larger greenish burning regions indicating the presence of premixed flame can be seen. The smaller auxiliary spray which is radial is sharply deflected by the high swirl. 10-3d. ~ r i ~ luminous flame zones are visible. This soot cloud moves to the outer region of the chamber (11" to 20"). with a bright yellow-white flame at its periphery. The flame jet impinges on the piston recesses entraining the air in the main chamber.A. ~t -70 they have reached the wall of the bowl. last visible in film at 1000•