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1 Personal pronouns 2 Reflexive/Emphatic pronouns 3 Possessive pronouns 4 Demonstrative pronouns 5 Impersonal pronouns 6 Interrogative pronouns 7 Quantitative pronouns 8 Relative pronouns PERSONAL/POSSESSIVE/REFLEXIVE or EMPHATIC PRONOUNS PERSONAL PRONOUNS subject object I you he she it we you they me you him her it us you them POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS (1) (as determiners) This is my book. This This This This is is is is your bunny. his car. her mother. its place. POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS (2) (standing on their own) The book is mine! That bunny is yours. This car is his. That is hers. This place is its.* Is this ours? Those books are yours? These shoes are theirs. REFLEXIVE/EMPHATIC PRONOUNS I hurt myself while I was... Did you see yourself? He is talking to himself! She herself did the job.* The robot destroyed itself. We recognised ourselves... You made it (all by) yourself?* They told themselves off.

This is our fault. This is your job. This is their responsibility.

PERSONAL PRONOUNS - can refer to people/things e. g. I love cats. Do you like them?

Is that a cat? Look at it! IMPERSONAL PRONOUNS - IT/THEY (THEM)/ YOU/ (ONE*/THERE...*) - when referring to something or someone indefinite (a person/people in general/a situation/etc.) e. g. It's raining today. (=> situation) (=> in general; car

They make great cars in Germany. manufacturers) What do you do if you've been assaulted?

(=> people in general) 1

I would like person/anyone/everyone)





lives without any


(=> a

REFLEXIVE/EMPHATIC PRONOUNS - when the action goes back to the subject/object e. g. He cut himself shaving. I'm going to tell Jane the truth about herself. - for stress or emphasis - to say on one's own e. g. I myself set the table, Mom!

You did it (all by) yourself? Great!

RECIPROCAL PRONOUNS (each other/one another) - to express reciprocal actions e. g. Look at them! They're kissing each other! Look at them! They're hitting one another! RELATIVE PRONOUNS (who, whom, which, that, etc.) Relative Pronouns in DEFINING RELATIVE CLAUSES Subject Object Time -when Reason Person -why who, that Place Thing

where that, which that, which whose, of which

who/whom/that whose, of whom

Possessive whose -

= defining RCL define a noun/noun phrase bought. = never go with a comma standing here?

e. g. e. g.

That's the house that/which he Where's the man that/who was

= the pronoun can be combined with prepositions e. g. Where's the man that/who I was talking with? = the pronoun can be omitted when it is an object e. g. That's the house he bought.

Relative Pronouns in NON-DEFINING RELATIVE CLAUSES always with a comma! Subject Object Time -when Reason Person -why who who/whom whose, of whom Place where Thing which which whose, of which e. g. John, who we saw yesterday, has e. g. She committed suicide, which was

Possessive whose -

= non-defining RCL is always extra arrived. = always go with a comma stupid.

= the pronoun can be combined with prepositions e. g. War and Peace, which was written by Tolstoy, is a novel on war. = the pronoun can never be omitted capital of Croatia. e. g. Zagreb, where I was born, is the

INTERROGATIVE PRONOUNS (who, whom, what, which, whose) - pronoun used for asking questions - these pronouns may take the suffixes -ever and soever (whoever, whatsoever, etc.) WHAT can be used to ask about objects or people. it?/What do you want? WHICH can be used to ask about objects or people. like?/Which is your sis? WHO can be used to ask about people. WHOSE can be used to ask about a possession relation. this?/Whose car did they steal? WHOM* can be used to ask about people. (OBJECT!!!) e. g. What time is e. g. Which book do you e. g. Who is that? e. g. Whose is e. g. Whom did you phone?


unountable nouns are also called mass nouns and do not take cardinal number before them: you can't say 'two rices' (=dos arroces) Countable nouns Can be numbered

Affirmative - There is a lot of /plenty of food in the fridge, so you don't have to buy much more - A great deal of the money we earn is from repairing old bicycles - Such a great amount of water will cause problems. - A lot of/plenty of people believe in UFO's - Lots of things were invented by the Chinese - Many people in the party praised the quality of the food.

Interrogative/Negative - There isn't much food in the fridge, so we'd better go down to the shops. - Is there much milk in the fridge ? MUCH can also be an intensifier - Not many people understood the real meaning of the project. - Are there many different kinds of snakes ?

2. LITTLE, A LITTLE, FEW, A FEW are another group of quantifiers: uncountable nouns Positive meaning 'There is a little money in this box, so don't worry much ('a little' might even mean 'a lot') Negative meaning 'There is little food at home today, so we'd better get some note: very little is also possible. 'He drank very little and remained quiet'. Countable nouns 'A few students went out to demonstrate Few has negative against the law' (which might even mean 'a lot' connotations and admits of students) intensifiers like in It is also very usual to have quite a few meaning a lot as in 'Quite a few students were left without a seat'. 'She had very few friends.' It also takes comparatives and superlatives: 'Women usually have fewer opportunities. He's got the fewest friends in class. He's so nasty. INDEFINITE PRONOUNS 4

- do not refer to any specific person, thing or amount pronoun singular another anybody/anyone anything each an additional or different person or thing no matter what person no matter what thing every one of two or more people or things, seen separately one or the other of two people or things as much or as many as needed all people all things a smaller amount a small amount a large amount not one and not the other of two people or things no person no single thing, not anything an unidentified person a different person or thing from one already mentioned That ice-cream was good. Can I have another? Can anyone answer this question? The doctor needs to know if you have eaten anything in the last two hours. Each has his own thoughts. meaning example

either enough everybody/everyone everything less little much neither nobody/no-one nothing one other

Do you want tea or coffee? / I don't mind. Either is good for me. Enough is enough. We can start the meeting because everybody has arrived. They have no house or possessions. They losteverything in the earthquake. "Less is more" (Mies van der Rohe) Little is know about his early life. Much has happend since we met. I keep telling Jack and Jill butneither believes me. I phoned many times butnobody answered. If you don't know the answer it's best to say nothing. Can one smoke here? | All the students arrived but now one is missing. One was tall and the other was short.

somebody/someone something you plural both few fewer many others several they singular or plural all

an unspecified or unknown person an unspecified or unknown thing an unidentified person (informal)

Clearly somebody murdered him. It was not suicide. Listen! I just heard something! What could it be? And you can see why.

two people or things, seen together a small number of people or things a reduced number of people or things a large number of people or things other people; not us more than two but not many people in general (informal)

John likes coffee but not tea. I think both are good. Few have ever disobeyed him and lived. Fewer are smoking these days. Many have come already. I'm sure that others have tried before us. They all complained and several left the meeting. They say that vegetables are good for you.

the whole quantity of something or of some things or people no matter how much or how many a greater quantity of something; a greater number of people or things the majority; nearly all not any; no person or persons

All is forgiven. All have arrived. Is any left? Are any coming? There is more over there. More are coming.

any more

most none

Most is lost. Most have refused. They fixed the water so why isnone coming out of the tap? I invited five friends but nonehave 6

come.* some an unspecified quantity of something; an unspecified number of people or things of the type already mentioned Here is some. Some have arrived.


He was a foreigner and he felt that he was treated as such.

DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS A demonstrative pronoun represents a thing or things: near in distance or time (this, these) bigger than those! far in distance or time (that, those) were the days!

e. g. This is my book. /These are e. g. That is my book. /Those

near singul ar plural this

far that

the se

thos e