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Skin Diseases

Skin Diseases

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CHAPTER IV

ETHNOMEDICINE AND HEALTH CULTURES OF THE KOYAS
IV. I. INTRODUCTION
Ethnomedicine is used to refer to nature practices of healing and treatment of ailments and diseases using a variety of local practices made of wild plant and animal products. The curing ptactices more often than not involve a medicine man, the healer who communicates with the supernatural. Fa that natters even in the modern societies the treatment many a times is based on magico religious conceptions. In the culture history of humankind the causative factors of afflictions which beset the body and the mind or attributed to naturalistic and super naturalistic. phenomena. There is apparently on underlying conceptual framework founded on the experience of the concerned social systems. Uements (1932 ) classification which includes five basic categories of dements a situations, wide spread throught out the world In folk etiology, responsible for illness are: a) Sorcery. b) Bleach of a taboo c) Intrusion of disease subject. d) Intrusion of a disease causing spirit. e) Lack of sod or soul loss

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Every society may not recognise all these five categories. In deed, marry groups are selective in the emphasis placed upon a combination of causes. For example, Eskimos most frequently trace the origin of a disease to soul loss and breach of a taboo. The malevolence of sorcerer or witches is especially emphasised In many of the world cultures However these categories of

Clements are meet useful in analytically characterizing the etiological beiiefes of a particular group than describing the content of an entire belief system.

Bhnomedlclnal practices refer to the measurers relating to preventive health care, diseases and its curatives, which are being used by the people as medical therapy. It Is proposed in this chapter to discus the cultural factors of the Koyas of Boddugudem which influence their health and their traditional medicinal practices linked to a set of relationships in the social structure. The medicinal systems of the Koyas centers on their perceptions of health, and Illness, and classification of diseases, diagnosis. treatment of diseases, etc. According to the Reader's Digest Dictionary the term 'III' refers poor health, physically or mentally sick. Sickness is nothing but the constant ill health. Illness at times may require a diagnosis and treatment. All of a sudden any individual may be taken ill with any ailment. Generally the term 'ailing' refers the weak a unsound condition of the people's health which persists for some time .Sick people suffer constantly from illhealth and this Illness may be caused due to some disease (i.e. tuberculosis An illness though not may be severe is a persistent one.

Aches and pains (eg Backache) are a few tiresome ailments An ailment is the answer for the question or old fashioned phrases, i.e. what is troubling you? What ails you? Disease refers to an illness or an unhealthy condition of the people. Koyas concept of health Is functional and is also associated with of

their occupational work-related, and it is not clinical Some of the Koyas

Boddugudem suffer from scables, Itches and ringworm and these are related It to their normal daily work. An occasional headache, stomachache or body pain or weakness is not taken seriously as symptoms of disease or illhealth Even these problems may

not be noticed by self or by the members of family, or friends, if one takes them seriously that person may be ridiculed The Koyas ate familiar with the nutritional value of items of food, and drinks, wellbeing and afflictions In the Koyas concept of health, the individual may "commit or omit" certain acts which may bring some affliction upon him or his household Further, an Individual's action may also

cause some harmful affliction to the whole village, dan or a large group This is very dear in the context of beliefs related to the occurrence of chickenpox or any other epidemic in the family, and in the village as a whole This kind of conceptualization is not mediated through an intervening variable like sanitation The Koyas do not associate diseases or epidemics with luck of sanitary conditions of community living as their maintain the houses neatly plastered with coloured mud and clean their utensils every day Another peculiar belief among the Koyas is the phenomenon of "soul loss" and the "soul" of a man may play traunt, quite whimsically, or may be

Such beliefs play an important rote in ensuring health. prosperity and protection to their families The Koyas think that the affliction of diseases is due to the non-honouring or not worshiping of their ancestral spirits. and other food habits of the Koyas represent their personal and community health to some extent. or in the community. the soul loss may result in death.enticed by a sorcerer or by some malevolent spirit. The Koyas believe that the voilation of taboos is responsible fa disease occurrence and they are not aware of the fact that how the violation of taboos is responsible for the occurrence of disease. mountain. resulting In sickness and If the soul can not be recalled and reinstated with in a short time. The Koyas belief in some benevolent and malevolent spirits of their dead ancestors Pretalu that blow as evil and harmful winds. devarulu deities) It is believed by them that their health . apart from disrupting the social life Acts of personal hygiene or keeping the settlement clean or drinking of dean water or washing clothes regularly. The Koyas worship the goddess Mutyalamma as their supreme being for the well being of the people in physical. Gallsudulu cause diseases. The Koyas believe that the infringement of some moral rules or voilation of taboos may effect their health and bring about serious diseases Incestuous relationships among the people of the Koya community Invariably cause serious diseases in the family. According to the Koyas conception epidemics like chicken pox are mostly caused by the goddess Mutyalamma and other diseases by the Konda Devaralu {Konda : hill. mental and social aspects and she is always bengin and compassionate.

Health. They take treatment at the Initial appearance of symptoms IV.2 Etiological Classification of Diseases Diseases among the Koyas can he classified into the following two ways based on their ideas or concert deeply rooted in their folk etiology of disease occurrence: (a) (b) Diseases caused by natural agencies Diseases caused due to supernatural reasons or personalistic beliefs . he has to depend on streams and ponds tor water.Is threatened not only by the spirits. or witchcraft. which may be contaminated and may bring diseases to him Hence the Koya etiology of diseases is attributed not to pathological factors but more the violation of certain socio-cultural norms in their life As the Koyas of Boddugudem are engaged in Kondapodu ( slash and burn cultivation) they ignore common ailments that will not affect their economic activities. birds. When a Koya goes into in the forest. evil mouth and evil touch. but also by persons emanating evil. evil eye. resulting in general calamity. among the Koyas is also explained in the symbolic relationships with the nature as they co-exist with animals. reptiles and plants There are many situations In which not only their health is affected but also they are is harmed. One of the aspects of their perception is that human health and fertility go along with health and fertility of animals and plants.

Treatment logically attempts to restore paper balance through "hot and cold" foods and the treatment alms at neutralising either excess heat or cold from the body Emotional etiologies are explained in the naturalistic sence rather than the personalistic sence Naturalistic explanations of the Koyas in describing the causes of disease are largely restricted It is believed that diseases are caused due to an imbalance of certain elements within the body like "Gali'(air).'Aakesanf(space).2 (a) (V. Health confirms to an equilibrium model when a balance is maintained appropriate to the age and condition of the individual in his natural and social environment Koyas explain the upsets in this balance that trigger illness through the causality concert hot and cold "dichotomy illness as due to excessive heat a cold entering the body. "Nippu'(fire). It is also believed that the body is made up of these elements as they take food and water regularly within certain proportions.IV.2 (a) (I): Diseases Caused by Natural Agencies Common Ailments Ailments are due to natural forces or conditions as cold. heat.Neeru(water). and these may cause some ailments and lead to the in balance of the health Koyas also classified certain of . within certain limits of health. " Vedi Gali (hot air) etc. The elements in the body at times produce useful products and some waste which influence the health system of the body Waste products in the body are "Chali Gali (cold air). "Bhoomi (earth) etc . winds and above all by an upset in the balance of the basic body elements.

their foods in to cold causing and hot causing elements. which represent some disease Koyas who have balanced constitution of hot and cold are not liable to ailments and diseases. In order to restore the balance between the cold and hot. hot foods should be taken in the cold season the Koyas believe that one should eat hot foods and vice-versa A few people also say that they don't bother about this and eat the same thing all the year round As a common practice the Koyas. 103 . in their dietary behaviour try to maintain a balance between hot and cold foods Table. cold foods should be taken Similarly if a person has an ailment due to cold foods. the Koyas take the foods or medicine which has the opposite characteristics For example if a person has an ailment due to consumption of too much hot foods.1: Classification of foods according to the Koya conception of cold and hot.

Odd Foods Tomato Pumpkin Lady's fingers Vippa Sara Bottle gourd Ridge gourd Garlic Snake gourd Onion Palakura (Greens) Totakura (Greens) Gongore (Greens) Sukkakura(Greens) Cabbage Potato Beans Gataka ambali Toddv Sonti Turmeric Bellam Sara Chiguru Dried fish Red Chillies Brinijal Mango Hot Foods. Buffalow Ox Goat Sheep Pigs etc .

2. a by going out In the cold and rain Table: IV.IV.No Ailments related to 'Cold' Thummuluu (sneezing) Rompa (common Cold) Daggu(cough) Edekku (headache) Varagoba ( maigraine) kanchuka (abdominal pain) Dokkaubbu (gastroenteritis) Dokkevoduchu (desentery) Vantulu (vomitings) Challijjaram (rnalaria) Vantapunoppulu (rheumatic pains) .2 (b) Ailments attributed to the consumption of cold foods Cold ailments are caused by eating of cold foods in excess or by working in wet places. Ailments attributed to the Consumption of 'cold foods' S.

The best-known cold aliments are 'edekku' (headache) and 'chalijvaramu' cold fever). Ailments attributed to the consumption of 'hot foods'. a few people say that heat In the body can also be caused by excessive sexual inter course Table: IV.2(c) Ailments attributed to the consumption of 'hot foods' Ailments are usually attributed to eatinq too much of hot foods (heat producing). Keellanoppulu Vendu (joint pains) ( excessive heat in the body) Nadumunoppulu (backache) .3. Chekkurupulu (boils) 6 7. 1. 8. S No 1. IV. 2 3. 4 Ailments related to Hot Jvaram (fever) Bankarverechonalu (amoeblosis) Raktaverechonalu(diarrhoea) kandiakalaka (conjunctivitis) 5.

(b) Telia Kamerlu. Gongura (Hibiscus) etc. Gajji (scabies). Pokkulu (boils). These diseases are believed to be transmitted from infected persons to others. (c) Yerra Kamerlu and (d) Ubbu Kamerlu Koyas are familiar with the cold fever (chali javaram) (malaria fever) which is attributed to the consumption of certain cold foods and due to mosquito bite.. Soben (skin disease). Skin diseases such as Duradalu (Itching). According to some. due to weakness and deficiency of food Koyas identify the following four types of Jaundice: (a) Patcha Kamerlu. Tamara (ringworm). from men In the koyas belief system.9 10 Telakallu Chulanoppulu (giddiness) (pains of pregnant women) 11 12.. and she should not come in contact with other family members. and women are blamed fa these diseases Men also admit that woman can also get sane infectious diseases like "Korukudujabbu"(sexual disease) etc. infectious skin disease are caught through sexual Intercourse. Rommujabbu (milklessness in lacting mother) Endadebba (sunstroke) Kamerlu (Jaundice) is quote common and it is caused according to the Koyas. as It 107 . cheidi (boils) etc are common among the Koyas. sexual intercourse with menstruating woman is prohibited. These are thought to be due to some "Crimi"and consumption of certain foods Vankaya (Brinjal-Solanum Melongama).

During this period she lives at a corner at the outer portion of the house and she is not allowed to cook food in the house.etc are common among women There was no single delivery death In the village.e.effects the health of the other people in the house. upto six days. at the difficult delivery cases are sent to the Primary Health Centre (PHC) Edugurallapalli The diet is restricted severely after delivery since it is thought An elderly woman of that the mother may get any cold or hot related diseases the village generally acts as the Mantrasani (midwife) to attend to the pregnant woman at the village Most of the diseases relate to men are attributed to intercourse with a mensturating women Among the children the most common ailment is fever Ammatelli (Chickenpox) and neonatal (soon after birth) deaths are common Verechanalu( Diarrhoea) and Vanthulu (vomitings. Since she is in a ritually polluted state a menstruated woman has to Keep away from regular household activities till the pollution is cleansed i. Jvaramu (fever) are thought to be transmitted to the baby through mother's milk when the mother eats certain cold foods. which should be avoided during lactation 108 . are common ailments among the children It is believed that most of these lead to the death of the Infants Ailments like Rompa (Cold). Diseases like Chulanoppulu. Vantulu/ Kakku (vomitings).

ancestral spirit.e Vejjodu (a witch or sorcerer) or non-human Pretam (ghost). which may be a human. or an evil spirit. there are certain foods which improve the blood condition There is also the fear of loosing blood by bleeding due to seasonal ailments. as they believe In the Intervention of an active. is same as loosing ones own strength The Koyas Identified Verrijebbu ( rabies) due to dog bites. Loss of blood due to bleeding. i. dog bites snakebites. anger or grief can be caused by a ghost or a spirit or an encounter with a devil Thus the agent intends to harm the victim 109 . According to the Koyas the life of living creature is dependent on blood. They say that the blood must be protected from bleeding due to minor ailments like cuts. IV. sores. It is believed that the sick person literally is a victim the object of aggression or punishment directed specifically against him. cuts. jealously. purposeful agent. burns. fa reasons that concern him alone.Some of the Koyas expressed the belief that the strength and weakness of the body depends on the nature and functions of the blood. wounds. Most of the disturbing illnesses i. enemity. scorpion bites. animal bites. wounds and fractures In the Koya behaviour. or a supernatural deity. shame. etc..3 Diseases attributed to the Supernaturalistic or Personalistic Beliefs The koyas of Boddugudem explained the causes of diseases in personalistic sense.e emotional disturbance such as fright.

some of the Koyas have come to realise that it is an infectious disease or caused by dirt or crimi (insects/ germs). Kshayarogam (tuberculosis) etc. a place where the Koyas worship their Kuladevata (the goddess Mutyalamma) is most often propitiated and her ritual is celebrated by all the villagers It is believed that the whooping cough is also caused by the supernatural elements. and sorcerers are the main causes of illness. . witches. The most dangerous disease among the koyas is Devarasattu (paralysis). in the Koya belief system which produces misfortunes. Now. are believed to be due to possession by the Pretam (ghost or spirit) of some one who died unnatural death or committed suicide. The Koyas have adapted the " personalistic idiom" as the basis of their attempt to understand the world to account for almost everything that happens in the world around them The deities. the Kuladevata (the deity) of the Koyas. Disease like Sompidi (atrophy). Ammavaru (chickenpox) Devarasattu (paralysis). Narikurupu (threadworm) for which they have no cure is ?!so attributed to some supernatural beliefs.Personalistic etiologies among the Koyas are parts of either more comprehensive or a general explanatory systems. Ammatalli (chickenpox) is very common among the Koyas. The Koyas believe that this is also due to the anger or cause of their Kuladevata. Sompidi/Endurogam( emaciation) is attributed to supernatural elements. Gamamu. Ammatalli is believed to be due to a visitation of the goddess Mutyalamma Chickenpox is considered to be caused due to anger of the goddess Mutyalamma. ghosts.

skin ulcers etc.Table: IV. fractures. . which restricts the growth) 2 3 4 5 Devarasattu (paraylsis) IV.are relatively minor and temporary afflictions.No 1 Diseases Ammatalli (chickenpox) Peddadaggu (whooping cough) Mondikurupulu (sores) Sompidi (amaciation.4 Diagnosis and Symptoms of the Diseases According to the Koya system of diagnosis of diseases ailments like sprains. minor burns.4 Various diseases caused by supernatural elements S.

visha purugulu (krimi). The foremost consideration in the diagnosis is based on their experience (and common sense) and the symptoms. The outward manifestation of the disease is considered to be its symptoms. Disease may be disable a person in performing his day-to-day a activities. The great majority of personalistic illnesses are attributed to Vejjollu (sorcerers). Common ailments and diseases in accordance with the conception of the Koyas (A) Naturalistic diseases based on the concept of 'cold' (E)Skin diseases (F) Ailments (G) Animal bites . Similarly naturalistic illnesses are attributed to the vicious creatures. In identifying various diseases. personalistic or naturalistic.The Koya diagnostic patterns are centered in their worldview without any overt expression. The Koyas do make a distinction between illnesses. A curer identifies the exact nature of the disease through his diagnostic technique. symptoms of the respective diseases play a crucial role .5. Table: IV.

1) Tummulu 2) Rompa 3) Daggu 4) Edekku 5) Varagoba 6) Kanchuka 7) Dokkaubbu 8) Dokkavoduchu 9) Vantulu 10) Chalijvaram 11) Vantapunoppulu (B) Naturalistic disease based on the concept of hot 1) Jvaramu 2) Bankaverechonalu 3) Raktaverechonalu 4) Kalluerupu 5) Chekkurupu 6) Kellanoppulu 7) Nadumunoppulu 8) Vendu 9) Telahandlu 10) Chulanoppulu 11) Rommujabbu 12) Endadebba (C)Disesaesdueto supuernatural causes 1) Ammatalli 2) Peddadaggu 3) Mondikurupulu 4) Sompidi 5) Devarasattu D) Diseases due to weakness and deficiency of food 1) Kamerulu a) Patchakamerlu b) Tellakamerlu c) Yerrakamerlu d) Ubbukamerlu 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) Dula Gajjipokkulu Tamara Soben Cheldi Tellamatchalu Korukudujabbu 1) Kattigatlu 2) Debbalu 3) kalinagayalu 4) Pundlu 1) 2) 3) 4) Kukkakantu Pamukantu Telukantu Elugoddukanlu .

sneezing) IV. IV.5(4) Edukku (headache) Headache is also one of the common disorders among the Koyas and the causes are attributed to cold-related phenomena and also stress and strain. IV. It is common among the Koyas of Boddugudem. It is believed that those who exposed themselves to bad whether conditions get this problem. Cough is common among Koyas and they say it is associated with lungs and also a respiratory disorders. out bursts of air through the nose and mouth (i.5( 1) Thummulu (sneezing) Thummulu is commonly linked to the cold whether. and occurs mostly in the mornings and lasts till .e. IV.5(2j Rompa/Padisom/Jalubu (cold) Rompa is nothing but cold and its causes are attributed to bad whether conditions or drinking unclean (polluted) water.IV 5 Symptoms of Ailments Based on the Koya of Concept of Cold IV.5(5) Varagoba (migraine) This is a paroxysmal headache confined to one side of the head and is often accompanied by nausea.5(3) Daggu (cough) Causes of cough are believed to be due to either to eating of cold foods or exposure to bad whether.

as they disclosed is related to the consumption of acidic foods or liquor which affect the stomach.afternoon The Koyas believe that certain foods (cold-related) create an imbalance in the body resulting in migraine. and inflamation of the abdomen. This is attributed to the curse of the goddess IV.5 (9) Vantulu (Vomitings. diarrhoea and vomiting They are aware that it is infections.5 (8) Dokkavoduchu (dysentery) This is an abdominal and intestinal disorder associated with loose motions.) Vanthulu is a common health problem in the Koya society.5 (6) Kanchuka (abdominal pains) This is attributed to certain foods. The reasons given are consumption of acidic foods. and also toddy. nuts and .5 (7) Dokkaubbu (gastroentertis) The Koyas identify this with severe pain in the stomach (abodmen). Though they did not make it explicit. abdominal pain is caused. IV. but they do not know that it is epidemic. IV. This is attributed to the consumption of certain of foods such as a variety roots. IV.

which introduces germs into the blood. This fever may even lead to death in some cases.5 (10) Challijvaram (Malaria) This fever is quite common among the Koyas of Boddugudem. IV. 6. They say that when the body temperature of the body exceeds the normal temperature. (1) Jvaram (fever) Fever is very common among the Koyas. If the fever is high.6. This also causes body pains. This occurs when people eat half-boiled (not fully cooked) foods .liquor like 'old toddy' (which means too much fermented). People experience severe cold and shivering when they get this fever.5 (11) Vatapunoppulu (rheumatoid pains) The symptoms are swelling of some parts of the body due to vatam.VI IV. . It is believed that this is due to mosquito bite. IV. etc Foods taken by the individual and which cannot be digested are also thrown out causing "vomiting". and headache etc. The Koyas explain that the swelling is caused due to accumulation of water (fluids) in the body. Symptoms of Different Diseases Based on the Koya Concept of Hot IV.

6 (6) Keellanoppulu ("joint pains) Old people generally get this problem and the reasons attributed to this are eating hot foods. All people experience this problem.6.6 (2) Bankaverechanalu (amoebiosis) This is attributed to consumption of hot foods.6 (4) Kalluerupu/Kandluerupu/ Kandlakalaka (conjunctivitis) This is also a common one and the affected person feels burning sensation in the eyes. Person affected with this disease may also get stomachache. (3) Raktaverechanalu (blood in the excreta) This is also common among the Koyas of Boddugudem Person affected with this discharges blood in their faeces.IV. This also occurs . in general in their old age. IV. IV. Since it is very painful it effects the normal life of the patient IV. And the symptoms are pain in the joints of legs and hands. and discharges gum like substance in the excreta IV. The boils appear especially on legs and hands. At times the affected eye of the person may discharge water.6 (5) Chekkurupulu/ Chegageddalu (boils) Boils are attributed to consumption of hot foods and having too much of sexual intercourse.

Vendu is caused due to consumption of hot foods.when a person works continuously in the podu fields in hot sun with out taking proper rest If one does not consume adequate quantity of toddy that person get these pains general belief.6 (9) Telakallu/Kallutippatam (giddiness) This is due to consumption of hot Toddy which leads to giddiness and weakness. IV. 6 (7) Vendu (excessive heat in the body) Due to this. IV. Theses pains generally start at first in the waist and spreads to all other part of the body. 6 (10) Chulanoppulu (pains of pregnant women) Pregnant women experience these pains during the time of giving birth to the child. people generally experience burning sensation while they urinate. Exposer to weather during summer also creates excessive heat in the body. IV. The main reason for this is attributed to strainful walking in the hot mid-day. People of village believe that these pains are common during pregnancy and these can be cured by consumption of hot foods. IV. 6(8) Nadumnoppulu (backache) This is common in adults when they walk continuously to the near by places like shandies. . At times people affected with this problem may become unconsciousness and fall down.

The main symptoms are dryness in the mouth. consumption of hot foods'. governmental and non-governmental programmes on health. due to the impact of various goddesses Mutyalamma. Aged people are more phone to suffer a sunstroke. feeling thirsty feeling pain while passing urine and the colour of the urine in yellowish.7(1) Ammatalli(chikenpox ) Ammatalli is a common disease among the people and the reason for its occurrence is attributed to the anger or displeasure of their kula devata the Now a days.6 (12) Endadebba (sunstorke) Those who work continuously in the open and expose themselves to the sun in hot summers suffer sunstroke.IV. the Koyas understand that it is an infectious disease caused by crimi (germs)or dirt.. The main reason attributed to this problem is IV. IV.7 Symptoms of Different Diseases Attributed to Super naturalistic Beliefs IV. .6 (11) Rommujabbu (milklessness in lacting mother) Women effected with this disease cannot produce sufficient milk required to feed the new born child.

7(2) Peddadaggu (whoopingcough) Children suffer from this disease. but people say that these painful sores are not controlled by their traditional medical knowledge. IV. People consider this as a serious . It is observed that the people who get effected with this disease have to bare severe pains Some people may even to die. The symptoms are it retards the physical growth of a person.7(4) Sompidi (atrophy) This is among the Koyas of Boddugudem village. Children affected with this suffer with continuos bouts of cough for a long time. This affects the nerves system.lt is believed that this is caused by the shades of konda Devaralu (spirits) of the dead which move around in the hills and forests. IV.7(3) Mondikurupulu (sores) Mondi kurupulu are considered as dangerous sores and the Koyas do not know the exact reason. The affected body parts become immobile. IV. Hence the reason for these sores are attributed to some evil spirits.7(5) Devarasattu (paralysis) The symptoms are loss of sensation of the affected parts(s) of the body and impairment of the functions of the muscles.IV. The causes are attributed to the intrusion of a supernatural spirit into the body of a person.

They are (a) Patchakamerlu Yerrakamerlu and (d) Ubbukamerlu (b) Tellakamerlu (c) IV. To confirm this a little rice is added to the urine of the patient. The patient looses his appetite gradually and gets fever. Hence occurrence of this disease is attributed to some supernatural causes IV. It the rice turns yellow it is confirmed that the person has been affected the Patchakamerlu.8(1) Kamerlu (Jaundice) Body Weaknesses and Kamerlu is one of the common disease that affects all the people in the village and they have identified four categories of Jaundice in accordance with their nature and symptoms.8(1 a) Patchakamerlu The eyes and nails of the person affected with this disease become yellowish.disease and they are unable to cure this with their traditional medical practices . A few people explained that this disease is due to excessive heat and majority of people said that this occurs due to weakness in the body and deficiency of food .8 Symptoms of Diseases Attributed to Food Deficiency IV.

9(1) Dula/Duradalu (Itching) This causes irritation of the skin and itching. .8(1c) Yerrakamerlu The eyes of the person affected with this become blood red The Koyas expressed that this is also one of the dangerous diseases IV.IV.8(1b) Tellakamerlu It gets manifested in the advanced stages in the form of white patches on the body of the affected person. eyes. IV. Koyas consider Itching as a skin disease causes by some crimi (Insects).9 Symptoms of Different Skin Diseases that are Common Among the Koyas IV.8(1d) Ubbukamerlu This is characterized by swelling in the body especially in legs. According to koyas this is a dreadful diseases. hands and stomach of the effected person. The Koyas. attribute this to the consumption of 'cold foods'. IV. and scratching results in wounds. The eyes become pale white and the nails turn whitish colour.

9(4) Soben /Sobi (skin disease) This is also a common skin disease. spreading of patches on the of body. and it dries most often. This is recognized as an infectious disease and it is attributed to the consumption of hot foods or due to the over heat in the body.9(6) Tellamatchalu (leucoderma) People of the village identified the white patches as a skin disease. The boils result in itching and are painful.9(3) Tamara (ringwarm) Quite a few get this skin disease and the main symptoms are itching. People effected with this suffer from itching and it spreads from one part of the body to other parts. The main reason attributed to this is consumption of certain hot foods. IV. The . IV. IV. IV. These white patches have no sensation and spread from one place to another.9(2) Gajjipokkulu(scabies) This is a contagious disease similar to itching and the reason for this is attributed to vendu (overheat) in the body.IV.9(5) Cheldi (boils) This causes boils over the effected part of the body.

IV.main reason attributed to these white patches is due to over heat in the body or consumption of hot foods. IV. Women are blamed by the males who get affected.9 (8) Pundlu (wounds) Wounds may result in continuos works like bamboo cutting. agricultural activities . etc.(10) Sexual Diseases IV. 10(1) Korukudujabbu (sexual skin disease) It is believed that women pass on this disease to the males. IV. In most cases. The main reason for this disease is attributed to too much sexual intercourse which causes overheat.9(7) Kalinagayalu (burns) These are burns due to fire accidents which result in injuries to their body and to their cattle. Symptoms for this disease are sores on the sexual organ. the Koyasignore these wounds as long as they don't effect their day to day life.. According to them the wounds caused by the burns are very painful. .

IV.) Telukantu is believed to be as dangerous as the snake bite . It is horrible to bare the pains of scorpion bite. This is caused due to dog bites.IV.11(1.) The Koyas believe that certain snakes are poisonous and if they bite any one . The Koyas call this as Verriabbu which is a dangerous and harmful. 11 (4) Elugoddikantu / Elugoddikatu (bear bites) In most of the cases the elugoddi ( bear) bites are attributed to the habit of hunting in their near by forests or during the time of collecting various minor forest produce during which they may encounter bears.(11) Animal Bites and Other Ailments 1V. It is very hard to bare the pains of the elugoddi (Bear) bites and at times these bites lead to the death of the injured individual. 11 (3) Telukantu / Telukatu (scorpion bites. IV. IV. 11 (2) Pamukantu / Pamukatu ( snake bites. it may lead to death Snake bite is very painful and the person biten by snake will discharge some Nurugu (Froth) from the mouth. Kukkakantu / Kukkakatu (Dog Bites. .

Some people of the village say that only worthless people in practice sorcery. Witchcraft or Black Magic Most of the sever illnesses among the Koyas are attributed to sorcery and witch craft. But individual identity of the sorcerer is not that .11(6) KATTIGATLU(cuts) Koyas use kodavallu I Banakattulu (sickles) in their agricultural activities and in collecting toddy from toddy palms. The sorcerer can and in many instances use his abilities for good as well as bad ends. Witchcraft can be an inherited power used only for evil. Sorcerer acquires his powers through apprenticeship. The climbing up and coming down. IV. According to others sorcery is the most forceful mechanism that lies in the hands of a few men or women who know the way to kill others. IV.12 Koya Concepts of Sorcery.IV.11(5) Debbalu (accidental wounds) While climbing up the hills to the Podu field and getting down from this place the Koyas may accidentally slip and get hurt resulting in painful wounds or even fractures. due to abrasion cause bruises and severe cuts. When there is some enimity with the victim the Vejji / Vejju (sorcerer) performs evil acts against that person (her or she). Sorcery refers to the power to manipulate and alter natural and supernatural events with the magical spells and performance of ritual.

12(1a) Sorcery Related lillnesses Severe and persistent diseases and which are insidious and attributed to sorcery. The Koyas resort to sorcery for revenge and some times to weaken the opponents or even to eliminate them (men or women). Sorcery refers the natural and supernatural events and is associated with the performance or several rituals. Vejji (sorcerer) acquires his powers through apprenticeship vejji primarily gives treatment to the victim. There are women sorcerer also in the neighbouring Koya villages.12(1) Practice of Sorcery Among the Koyas The Koyas of Boddugudem call their sorcerers as vejjodu / vejju/ vejji in their mother tongue. Women sorcerers are believed to have powers of controlling certain forces The Koyas of Boddugudem attribute severe or nagging illnesses to sorcery.important matters is the identity of the village that induced the sorcerer to carry out his act. Such diseases gradually lead to degeneration and may eventually . IV. Vejji (Sorcerer) is a tribal shaman who acts as enchanter. and the sick person dies he will be blamed. The Vejji (sorcerer) in many instances use his powers for good as well as bad ends. Most of the severe illnesses among the koyas of Boddugudem are Some illnesses are attributed to poison attributed to sorcery and witchcraft sorcery or assault sorcery. IV.

It can be passed on to . It demands boldness and aggressiveness.cripple the person for life These diseases are note worthy for the belief that they are inflicted by phantoms or the shades of spirits which are under the control of the sorcerer. Whichcraft associated with utterance of magical chants (mantramu) to invoke spirits. and mountains are believed to be the haunting places of these spirits. sometimes people come across bones. Pretalu (spirits of the dead ancestors / demonic / beings) monstromous in size. Sorcerers may also use these bones to induce convulsions or worse. trees. These bones are believed to have therapeutic value. particularly in the treatment of convulsions. to strike a victim.12(1b) Poison Sorcery This involves magical spells to mutilate or poison the victim. Certain disolate places.12(2) Practice of Witchcraft or Black Magic Practice of witchcraft among the Koyas centres on mystical and innate powers. IV. They strike their victims during lightning storms through the medicine of the sorcerer by causing convulsions. IV. which can be used by its possessor to harm the enemies who are in other villages or in their own village. It is the way for young men to demonstrate their virility by participating in this type of sorcery. Achieving the power of witchcraft needs certain observances and secret practices. This is used by people of one village in aggression against the people of another tribal village. In such places.

and can be occasionally during day time. as there are only male witchdoctors in their own village. or other beings who are invisible to common mortals. flapping its wings like a bat heard A witch is gifted with second sight. before dying he must pass to either human beings or to some domesticated animal to destroy their lives Witchcraft is used to damage other people's property or Witches per form most of their deeds at night and The witch involved by witchcraft flies about Its cry resembles some night bird. The Koyas call their female witchdoctors as Matalu and men Witchdoctors as Devar.someone by succession. A person possessing witchcraft cannot take it into the neither world. . he or she can see things in complete darkness as clearly as in the day time or watch things happening far away and can also see gods. People of the Boddugudem village visit their neighboring villagers to consult Matalu. They can work all sorts of wonders. ghosts.

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