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1.1 Background of the Study Nowadays, English has been a universal and important language that must be learned and acquired well. As a foreign language English is not an easy language to be learned and to be understood. There are many important aspects in English that must be learned to master English well. One of the aspects that are considered as the essential and important one to be learned and mastered well in learning English is vocabulary. Vocabulary is the central of language teaching and learning. It plays an important and significant role in the four language skills. Basically, learning language is a matter of learning vocabulary of that language. It is impossible for the learners to perform their English well if their vocabularies are very poor. Research has shown that vocabulary knowledge plays a critical role in students’ literacy development (Scott, Jamieson-Noel, & Asselin (2003) cited in Binta (2010). It is supported by Flower (1995) cited in Oktarina (2007), who said that vocabulary is much more important than grammar, because English has the largest vocabulary in the world. Thus, it can be concluded that learning vocabulary is important as the basic need to encounter a new language. Vocabulary is taught in many different ways. But in our country, many ways of teaching vocabulary still lack and have several problems. One of the problems is in remembering words. Generally in teaching vocabulary, teachers
still uses the conventional method in teaching the materials. Teacher just explains the materials and then gives exercises in written from. There are no variations or other teaching media or technique used by the teacher. When students are finding new and difficult words they have to open thick dictionary to look for the meaning. This type of learning has a tendency to make learners bored, tired, burdened and frustrated when they have to recall or to memorize a list of new words at once. It may take a long time for students to understand the materials and get improvement in vocabulary. Furthermore, it can influence students’ motivation in learning vocabulary especially, and learning English generally. Based on that condition, nowadays, the teachers are demanded to be able to deliver a certain method or technique which is impressive and effective for learners in teaching vocabulary so that the students are able to remember and understand every word which is learned effectively and they are able to know the correct or appropriate situation to use that words. Considering to the problem above, the researcher are interested to study the phenomena in learning vocabulary method, especially the correlation between the phenomena in learning vocabulary and students’ motivation toward the methods. One of the phenomena in learning vocabulary method, which is interested to be studied more, is learning vocabulary through crossword puzzle. Crossword puzzle is considered as one of the most famous games that have been beneficially used in language teaching learning process in the rest of twentieth century. It is strengthened by Dale (2000) cited in Austin (2009), who said that the crossword puzzle is still the most popular
word game. How is students’ motivation in learning vocabulary? 2. it gives much opportunity for the students to practice and repeat the sentence pattern and vocabulary.2 Limitation of the Problem Based on the background of the study above.3 Formulation of the Problem Based on the limitation of the problem above. the formulation of the problem are: 1.4 Objective of the Research The purpose of this research will be to find out and describe the students’ motivation in learning vocabulary. What are the effects of using crossword puzzle toward students’ motivation in learning vocabulary? 1. The words are run together horizontally and vertically. and the effect of using crossword puzzle toward students’ motivation in learning vocabulary. According to Jones (2007) crossword solving involves several useful skills including vocabulary. reasoning. the students’ responses toward learning vocabulary through crossword puzzle. What are the students’ responses toward learning vocabulary through crossword puzzle? 3. 1. 1. Furthermore. and then to measure and describe the 3 . It lies in the ease with which it can be constructed. spelling and word attack skills. the researcher tries to limit the problem on the students’ motivation in learning vocabulary. It is a kind of games that will make the teachinglearning process more attractive than before.
Furthermore. Furthermore. The Students Through this research. Furthermore. the teacher is expected to be able to take some information as a feedback and reference in teaching vocabulary. the researcher can find out the implication of crossword puzzle toward students’ motivation and response in learning vocabulary. the students can be motivated to develop their vocabulary mastery in English. The Teacher Through this research. through varied methods.students’ responses toward learning vocabulary through crossword puzzle. 4 . the students are expected to be able to get evaluation in learning vocabulary. 3. 1. it can be motivated the teacher to prepare good and various methods and techniques more in teaching vocabulary.5 Benefits of The Research Benefits of this research will be useful for: 1. especially by using crossword puzzle. Furthermore. 2. especially through crossword puzzle. The Researcher The Researcher can know more about the usage of crossword puzzle in vocabulary learning process. besides crossword puzzle. it is aimed to identify and describe the effect of using crossword puzzle toward students’ motivation in learning vocabulary.
According to Lado (1961) cited in Oktarina (2007). On the other opinion. the first category will discuss about vocabulary theories. It can be assumed that vocabulary is one of the most important aspects of a language. vocabulary is one of the most important aspects of foreign language.CHAPTER II THEORETICAL FOUNDATION This chapter will discuss some theories underpinning the study. the central component in successful foreign language acquisition ((Beglar & Hunt (2005) cited in Lieb (2007)). and the second one deals with crossword theories. in crossword theories will be presented some theories related to crossword in terms of this research. the first that the learner should be learned and mastered about language is vocabulary. and in some senses. there will be presented some theories in vocabulary related to the research. moreover a foreign language such as: English. The theories will be classified into two categories. Furthermore. such as: the concept of vocabulary. It is the central and basic 5 . techniques in teaching vocabulary.1. aspects of vocabulary. such as: the concept of crossword. factors in teaching and learning vocabulary.1 The Concept of Vocabulary Vocabulary acquisition is a crucial. and the advantageous of teaching vocabulary through crossword puzzle. Related to the vocabulary theories. approaches in teaching vocabulary through crossword puzzle. and approaches in good teaching vocabulary. 2.1 Vocabulary 2.
especially English. the learners will be difficult to master the other language skills. Therefore vocabulary mastery must be on the priority in teaching and learning new language. 2.1. it would be impossible to learn without vocabulary. because English has the largest vocabulary in the world. if we want to master a language. especially foreign language. It will be hard for someone to learn more about a language.2 Aspects of Vocabulary Learning vocabulary is a complex process. In language teaching and learning.aspect of language that should be mastered. According to Nunan (1936) cited in Oktarina (2007). vocabulary is much more important than grammar. It is strengthened by Thornbury (2002) cited in Oktarina (2007) that without grammar very little can be conveyed and without vocabulary nothing can be conveyed. if he cannot master the vocabulary of the language well. They will find any difficulties in expressing or mastering their language skills because of having too limited vocabularies. That statement is strengthened by Kevin (2000) cited in Oktarina (2007) who says that vocabulary is central to language and the crucial aspect to master a language. vocabulary has crucial and important role to be taught and learned well. The students’ aim to be reached in learning vocabulary process is primarily their ability to recall 6 . Without mastering the vocabulary. It means that it is impossible for the learners to perform their English well if their vocabularies are very poor. According to Flower (1995) cited in Oktarina (2007).
(3) Word formation. i. (2) Usage. as well as style and register (the appropriate level of formality). According to Nation (1974) cited in certain website (2010).e.the word at will and to recognize it in its spoken and written form. i.e. knowledge of its collocations.e. clarifies the aspects of vocabulary into 4 items: (1) Meaning. teaching English vocabulary is based on the technique of 7 . i. 2. to use it in the appropriate grammatical form. ability to spell and pronounce the word correctly. According to Carter and McCarthy (1988) cited in Okatarina (2007). there are some vocabulary items which are needed to be taught and learned in language teaching.e. Generally.1.3 Techniques Used for Teaching Vocabulary There are so many techniques that can be used for teaching vocabulary. knowing a word involves knowing its form and its meaning at the basic level. that are: 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) Pronunciation and spelling Grammar Collocation Aspects of meaning Word formation Furthermore Harmer (1993) cited in Shejbalová (2006). i. basically. to know any derivations (acceptable prefixes and suffixes). and (4) Grammar. relate the word to an appropriate object or context. metaphors and idioms. to be aware of any connotations and associations the word might have.
They classified common techniques in teaching vocabulary into four categories: (1) decontextualizing: wordlists. blackboard drawings. on the learner’s hand • By saying the word • By description • By producing the word in • By giving synonyms or morse code or some other opposites Aurally Explanation aural code • By putting the word into a defining context • By translating That theory is strengthened by Oxford and Crokall (1889) cited in Oktarina (2007) in different explanation and categories. (2) semi contextualizing: word grouping.teaching form and teaching meaning of vocabulary itself. and dictionary use. It can be concluded like the table below: Teaching the form of a word Teaching the meaning of a word • By showing the written • By showing an object form of the word or a cutout figure • By showing the • By gestures movements involved in • By performing an saying the word action • By showing hand Visually Demonstration movement s that draw the letters of the word in the air • By showing wooden or plastic letters that spell the word • By using letters made of • By using photographs. physical response. association. so illustration cut from the learners can feel the magazines or shapes of the letters that newspapers make up the word Tactilely Pictures • By using the system of writing like Braille (the writing for the blind) • By writing the word. keyword. imagery. wood. aural imaginary. flash cards. sandpaper. visual. aural imaginary. physical 8 . and so on. cardboard. letter by letter.
(3) fully contextualizing: reading. One person from each team sits in a chair in front of the class. (4) adaptable: reviewing. One person from a team sits in front of the class. the second person gives a 9 . complete the sentences. Pettigrew (1995) try to gives some techniques in teaching vocabulary that more concern to fun & games. 1) Act out/pantomime (Charades) Give students cards with instruction. The rest of the team members are given a card with a category. Have them perform the actions without speaking. antonyms. the other team can confer and try to guess. and semantic mapping. Helps focus on spelling as well as meaning. 4) Password Divide the class into two teams. If the person in front cannot guess. The other students try to guess the word or expression that the student is pantomiming. listening. speaking. Those two people receive a card with a vocabulary word. The team members take turns giving examples of the category until the person in the “hot seat” guesses it or all the team members have given a clue. not definitions. The clues must be examples. writing. If no one from the team can guess. The first person gives a one-word clue to his/her team. 2) Crossword Puzzles The clues can be synonyms. For example: Things that are red. 3) Categories Game Divide the class into teams. On the other hand.sensation.
Basically. This is a fun way to review some vocabulary and break up the class routine.4 Factors Affecting in Learning Vocabulary 2. all of the techniques above are same and strengthening each other. It is something that flexible and relative to be used. Give each one a list of vocabulary words (idiomatic expressions also work well for this). 5) Drawing pictures This works well if you have an empty classroom nearby. All of those techniques depend on how the condition of teaching-learning itself and also the object of the teaching-learning process. or until a specified number of clues have been given. 2. that is the students. The students draw pictures—but no words—on the board so that the students in the other group can guess the words or expressions they’re trying to represent.1.clue to his/her team. Divide the class into two groups.5 Approaches in Good Teaching Vocabulary 10 . Based on the situation and condition that is faced. This alternates back and forth until someone from one of the teams guesses the word. the difference is only in the category. Based on some theories above about techniques in teaching vocabulary.1. and the emphasis that each specialists state. it can be concluded that techniques in teaching vocabulary is not strict and constant. the way.
One of the purposes of that procedure is to make students notice about aspects of understanding a word. (4) making an illustration in sentence form.Nation (2001) cited in Mardika (2008) mentions three procedure in teaching vocabulary. Furthermore. (2) saying the word. asking n answered to the teacher or to other students about certain vocabulary. there are several steps that can be applied in teaching and learning vocabulary that are: (1) listening to word. the second-hand cloze. Step 1: DESCRIBE – Provide students with a description. and students are given cloze passages that is a summary of what are they actually read. students are given opportunity to do interview. (3) understanding the meaning. (5) doing exercise in expressing the meaning. explains about approach in teaching vocabulary more explicit by using instructional steps process format. In recycled words. explanation or example (not a dictionary definition) using common 11 . (6) saying the certain word loudly. In vocabulary interview. which is focused to intentioned learning. Marzano (2005) cited in Jackson (2010). the procedure in teaching vocabulary covers three paces that are: students read text contained target vocabulary. and (7) writing those certain words. that is: recycled words. and the vocabulary interview. procedure in teaching vocabulary move from receptive use to productive use. Meanwhile. students learn vocabulary intentionally. In the second-hand cloze. According to Lado (1979) cited in Mardika (2008).
and ask students to record the picture on the form teacher provides. or by asking students to draw the thing or symbol. Step 5: DISCUSS – Ask students to discuss terms with each other (or whole group). and invite them to answer about what they think they know about this term. It can be in graphic representation illustrating process form. It can be done by doing Dramatization of the term. and ask students to record it on a form that teacher provides. draw an additional graphic. classify terms. Step 2: RESTATE – Students restate the description in their own words. In discussion they can think-pair-share about targeted terms. Step 4: ACTIVITIES – Engage students periodically in activities that add to their knowledge of the terms. And the last. It can be done by asking students to identify synonyms or antonyms. write reminders of common confusions. or discuss similarities and differences of two terms. Step 6: GAMES – Play games with your terms. list related words. 12 . This is a critical step in learning new vocabulary. It can be done by Discuss with a partner. Step 3: PICTURE – Students represent the term nonlinguistically. compare terms. Try to determine prior knowledge by using imagery. Results are not as strong if they copy the teacher’s or a classmate’s description. ask students to record this on paper and put in their vocabulary folder. write metaphors and analogies.language. In the discussion they also can discuss terms that come up while reading in class. They can also add any pertinent info to the vocabulary folder.
1 The Concept of Crossword Puzzle Based on certain information taken from wikipedia. 13 . In languages which are written left-to-right. It means the procedure must be able to bring the students aware with the teaching-learning process. The goal is to fill the white squares with letters. forming words or phrases. and follow the material intentionally.2. crossword puzzles usually consist of checkered diagrams (normally rectangular) in which the solver has to write words guessed from clues. the main point that must be noticed is making the procedure as enjoy as possible for learners to learn.2 Crossword Puzzle 2. Make the learners/students feel comfort with the material and finally has desire from their heart to learn and master the material by themselves. Based on theories above. It is strengthened by Augarde (1984) opinion that is cited in Mollica (2007). 2. The shaded squares are used to separate the words or phrases. and involve in it. it can be concluded that in doing good teaching vocabulary.org. by solving clues which lead to the answers. crossword is a word puzzle that normally takes the form of a square or rectangular grid of white and shaded squares.Crossword puzzles Concentration. the answer words and phrases are placed in the grid from left to right and from top to bottom. The words are separated by black squares or by thick bars between squares. etc.
many weekday puzzles (such as the New York Times crossword) are 15×15 squares. According to Augarde (1984) cited in Mollica (2007).Squares in which answers begin are usually numbered. blocks. At the end of the clue the total number of letters is sometimes given. The types of crossword grid are also depending on the style of puzzle and country of publication. A white cell that is part of only one entry is called unchecked. crosswords are now usually designed so that they look the same when they are turned upside down. should there be more than one.2 Approaches in Teaching Vocabulary through Crossword Puzzle 14 . But many early crosswords lacked this kind of pattern or were designed symmetrically. "4Across" or "20-Down". Furthermore. 23×23. or 25×25. For example. and the shaded cells are sometimes called darks. Some crosswords will also indicate the number of words in a given answer. a white cell that is part of two entries (both across and down) is called checked. The clues are then referred to by these numbers and a direction. Puzzles are often one of several standard sizes. or just simply black squares or shaded squares. for example. depending on the style of puzzle and country of publication. keyed or crossed. unkeyed or uncrossed. The clues are usually called just that.2. 2. so that the left side as the mirror-image of the right side. The horizontal and vertical lines of white cells into which answers are written are commonly called entries or answers. White cells are sometimes called lights. while weekend puzzles may be 21×21. or sometimes definitions. blanks.
For example. And then gives each pair of students two kinds of different puzzle. they had seen and/or heard them in previous lessons.e. The students could practice further in pairs until the teacher feels comfortable that they are adept in using these expressions. it is a good idea to run through some of the language typically used in circumlocution. before handing out the puzzle. Warm-up Activity: Prior to giving the students a crossword puzzle. Once this stage is reached. one with part A containing half the solutions. In addition. i. It is advisable to write the instructions for the activity on each handout since students may forget or not understand the teacher's oral instructions. and the other with part B containing the rest.Wharton (1995) gives approach in teaching vocabulary through crossword puzzle into two kinds of steps. Main Task: The teacher can divide the students in pair.. The answers for the crossword puzzles are words that were familiar to the students in a particular class. Stress the importance of giving one's partner feedback on the initial definition by asking more questions to allow the students to narrow the possibilities and negotiate meaning. the teacher could model an answer by defining an object or an action and then urge the class to ask him/her more questions to narrow down the range of possibilities. warm-up activity and main task activity. 15 . explain to the students that the goal is to complete it in pairs without looking at their partner's copy. the students are ready for the puzzle itself. as a warm-up to the main task.
16 . such as students have to complete it as quickly as possible. All of the winners will have prizes from the teacher. written for EFL/ESL learners. While students are working in pairs on the main task. For the individual game.In case the students are unfamiliar with or have simply forgotten some of the words. it can be used when teaching-learning process is aimed to give more understanding about vocabulary. or in groups. noting down recurrent language problems that can be cleared up later on the board or OHP as a follow-up activity with the whole class. The teacher gives a copy of the “crossword puzzle” and explains the rules. Based on two opinions above. the teacher can circulate. give each pair a dictionary. the winner is the pair or group who can complete it first. According to Wharton’s approach. It means that. Austin (2009) gives other perception about steps in teaching vocabulary through crossword puzzle. it can be concluded that there are two kinds of steps or approach by using crossword puzzle that can be used in different context of teaching vocabulary. acting as a facilitator when needed. the student who can complete it first is the winner and gets the good point from the teacher. procedure in teaching vocabulary through crossword puzzle is more formal. Austin states that this game can be done in individual. in pair. In pair work or group. Meanwhile. since some may simply decide to read out the dictionary definition verbatim rather than put it in their own words. But. make sure they use it sparingly.
relaxed and enjoyable. 2. puzzle solving involves an active style of learning. it can be used when the teacher wants an edutainment process in the teaching-learning process. The students will feel fun. procedure in teaching vocabulary through crossword puzzle is more informal. According to Jones (2007). That statement is supported by Goh and Hooper (2007) cited in Whisenand and Dunphy (2010) who concluded that the use of a crossword puzzle game "provided a unique sense of motivation" and challenged the students "because it required both lateral and longitudinal thinking to solve the puzzle". and will engage students with the material more than passive techniques. The crossword puzzle in Austin approach tends to a game to give fresh condition in teaching-learning process of language. and therefore can be less intimidating for students as a learning tool. It can be concluded that. and they will memorize the vocabulary in different way. the crossword 17 . and recreation. fun. It is strengthened by Jones (2007) who states that crossword puzzles are generally associated with game playing. that is by rewriting them.Crossword puzzle in Wharton approach tends to an exercise to give more understanding about vocabulary. On the other hand. without take off the educative component in it.2. It means that.3 The Advantageous of Teaching Vocabulary through Crossword Puzzle The crossword puzzle is a kind of games that will makes the teaching-learning process more attractive than before. in Austin approach.
so teachers can create curriculum-specific crosswords with little trouble. (4) Word comprehension skills. According to Brown (2010). Jones 18 . According to Jones (2007). (3) Reading skills. and easy to use. crossword puzzles can provide great value to “English as a Second Language” (ESL) teachers. and (7) Memorizing skill It is added by Jones (2007) that crossword puzzle can improve some skill such as: making inferences. (6) Reasoning skills. (5) Dictionary skills. crossword puzzles have the benefit of being customizable to study content. it gives much opportunity for the students to practice and repeat the sentence pattern and vocabulary. classification of different parts of speech. (2) Spelling skills. Moreover. Some of the main areas in which solving and / or creating crossword puzzles can benefit educational efforts include: (1) Vocabulary building.puzzle offers a challenge that will motivate the students to try to fulfill the puzzle. The clues and answers can be an engaging way for students learn English–a comparatively complicated language–through the identification of different combinations of consonants and vowels to determine proper pronunciation. evaluating choices. and drawing conclusions. the education value of crossword puzzles reaches into many skill areas. Additionally. Besides that. Puzzle creation software and websites are abundant. synonyms and antonyms in reading carefully worded clues. and the investigation of more complex concepts like homonyms.
by using crossword puzzles teachers have great teaching tools to teach vocabulary effectively 19 . It means that the students can learn while having fun. but also they can get useful entertainment in learning vocabulary. So. the main advantage point from teaching vocabulary through crossword puzzle is edutainment aspect in teaching language. On the other hand. it can be concluded that. By using crossword puzzle. students are not only able to learn vocabulary.also adds that crossword puzzles can also appeal to various student learning styles.
How is students’ motivation in learning vocabulary? 2. Those lead to the research problems: 1. What are the effects of using crossword puzzle toward students’ motivation in learning vocabulary? 3. subject of the research. data analysis. research method includes data collection technique and instruments. the 20 . Thus.1 Research Problems The focus of this research will concern on the students’ motivation on 2nd grade of high school students’ in learning vocabulary and how students’ responses toward learning vocabulary through crosswords puzzle are. and time schedule.2 Research Method This research will deal with student’s motivation in learning vocabulary through crossword puzzle for eleventh grade high school students. Furthermore.CHAPTER III RESEARCH METHODOLOGY This chapter will present the detailed image of the methodology of this research. 3. It deals with research problems. it will also focus on the effect of using crossword puzzle toward students’ motivation in learning vocabulary. What are the students’ responses toward learning vocabulary through crossword puzzle? 3.
The techniques that will be used in collecting the data are observation to answer about students’ motivation in learning vocabulary and find out the students’ responses toward learning vocabulary through crossword puzzle.researcher will apply qualitative research.2. and then questionnaire to reveal the effects of using crossword in learning vocabulary toward students’ motivation. the data will be obtained from two sources they are: observation. especially descriptive approach through phenomenology design as the research design. narrowly the research questions.1 Data Collection Technique Collection data needs to answer the formulation of the problem. questionnaire and interview. related to the research question. So.2. 3. Table 1 Data collection technique No Research Question How to get data How to analyze data Time allocation Conducted at the beginning and during the teaching learning process Conducted during the teaching learning process 1 Students’ motivation in learning vocabulary Observation Descriptive analysis 2 Students’ responses toward learning vocabulary through crossword puzzle 3 The effects of crossword puzzle toward students’ motivation in learning vocabulary Questionnaire Conducted after the teaching learning process 3.2 Instruments 21 .
Furthermore. It will be conducted to know and find out the effects of using crossword puzzle toward students’ motivation in learning vocabulary. The result of observation will be noted and presented in observation field note which has been provided before. The questionnaire will be given to 20 students as the representative of the subject of the research. The researcher will just observe how students’ motivation in learning vocabulary is and how the students’ responses toward learning vocabulary through crossword puzzle are. The researcher will not make any interaction at all to others. In the observation. The researcher will combine two types of questionnaire in one form.In this research. the researcher will come to the classroom and take a seat at the back row. the researcher will use observation and questionnaire as the instrument. The questionnaire will be combination between closed-questionnaire type and open-questionnaire type. not to the teacher. Meanwhile. the researcher will pay attention to the process of teaching learning English. The observation will be conducted to whole students in the classroom to find out the students’ motivation in learning vocabulary and students’ responses in learning vocabulary through crossword puzzle. especially after the last observation is conducted. which are 22 . the questionnaire will be jotted down in Bahasa in order to be easily understood by the students. And then. the questionnaire will be conducted after the process of teaching learning. not to the students. The observation will be conducted several times from April to May 2012. especially vocabulary. There will be ten questions.
data reduction. In data reduction. It needs to be reduced in order to make the data more readily accessible and understandable.3 Subject of the Research In this research. There are nine classes consists of four science classes and five social classes. simplifying. the subject of the research will be the second grade students of SMA Negeri 4 Tangerang. and the second category will deal with vocabulary learning through crossword puzzle. the collected data will be sorted by selecting. Because the questionnaire is combination between open. The whole raw observation data in descriptive notes about the phenomena of students’ motivation and students’ responses in learning vocabulary through crossword puzzle will be organized and sorted through three phases. Furthermore. data display and conclusion / verification. The subject will be limited to one class only that is eleventh science one. focusing.divided into two categories. After getting sorted. So the research will be conducted to the students in eleventh science one. so that the answer will be Yes / No and essay for the students. 3. The first category will deal with material in learning vocabulary. abstracting and transforming. the collected data which will have been displayed in descriptive analysis will be interpreted to 23 . the collected data will be organized to be presented in descriptive analysis in data display. The analysis of the observation result will be presented in descriptive analysis.and closed-questionnaire. Each class consists of 40 students. 3.4 Data Analysis There will be qualitative data in this research which will be gathered from observation and questionnaire.
5 Time Schedule Table 1. The collected data will be sorted and categorized depends on the questions in questionnaire. And then.draw the conclusion. the collected data which will have been displayed in descriptive analysis will be interpreted and verified to draw the conclusion. it will be displayed and analyzed descriptively per category related to the questions in questionnaire.1 Time Schedule No 1 Activity Observation May Week 1 Observation 2 Questionnaire Week 2 Week 3 Week 4 April Week 1 Week 2 Week 3 Week 4 24 . Furthermore. Furthermore. The raw observation data will be the response of the students toward the effect of learning vocabulary through crossword puzzle personally. 3. the data from questionnaire will be presented in descriptive analysis too.
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