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01/20/2012
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Petroleum Engineering 406
Lesson 20
Directional Drilling
(continued)
2
Lesson 17
 Directional Drilling cont¶d
ToolFace Angle
Ouija Board
Dogleg Severity
Reverse Torque of Mud Motor
Examples
3
Homework:
READ:
Applied Drilling Engineering´, Chapter 8
(to page 375)
4
Fig. 8. 30: Graphical Ouija Analysis.
Solution
Tool Face (¸)
5
Fig. 8. 30: Graphical Ouija Analysis.
Solution
Tool Face (¸)
Initial Inclination = 16
o
GIVEN:
¬ = 16
o
As = 12
o
¬
N
= 12
o
¸ = ?
o
¡ = ?
o
As = 12
o
Over one drilled interval (bit run)
6
Fig. 8.33
Basis of chart
construction is a
trigonometric
relationship
illustrated by two
intersecting
planes
¡
¡ = dogleg angle
¬
As
¬
N
7
Problem 1
Determine the new direction (s
N
) for a
whipstock set at 705 m with a toolface
setting of 45
0
degrees right of high side
for a course length of 10 m.
The inclination is 7
0
and the direction is
N15W. The curve of the whipstock will
cause a total angle change of 3
0
/30 m.
8
Problem 1
¬ = 7
o
(inclination)
s = 345
o
(azimuth)
¸ = 45
o
(tool face angle)
L = 10 m (course length)
o = 3
o
/ 30 m (dogleg severity)
s
N
= ?
o
¸ = 45
o
9
Solution to Problem 1, part 1
I. Use Equation 8.43 to calculate .
The dogleg severity,
¡
o
1
m 30
m 10 3
i
L
) i (
L
=

=
o
= ¡
¡
= o
Q
10
Solution to Problem 1, part 2
2. Use Equation 8.42 to calculate the
direction change.
New direction =345
0
+5.3
0
= 350.3
0
= N9.7W
¸ ¬ ¡ + ¬
¸ ¡
= s A
cos cos tan sin
sin tan
tan arc
Q Q Q Q
Q Q
45 cos 7 cos 1 tan 7 sin
45 sin 1 tan
tan
1
+
= s A
Q
3 . 5 092027 . 0 tan
1
$ = s A
11
Problem 2
Determine where to set the tool face angle,
for a jetting bit to go from a direction of 10
0
to 30
0
and from an inclination of 3
0
to 5
0
.
Also calculate the dogleg severity, assuming
that the trajectory change takes 60 ft.
¬ = 3
s = 10
Find
ft 60 L
30
5
N
N
=
= s
= ¬
Q
Q
o ¸ and
s
¸
12
Solution to Problem 2, part 1
1. Find ¡ using Equation 8.53
. J
. J
o 1
o o o o o 1
N N
1
4097 . 2 999116 . 0 cos
3 cos 5 cos 3 sin 5 sin 20 cos cos
cos cos sin sin cos cos
$ =
+ =
¬ ¬ + ¬ ¬ s A = ¡
13
Solution to Problem 2, part 2
2. Now calculate ¸ from equation 8.48.
o 1
15 . 45 7052 . 0 cos = = ¸
¦

¦
¸
= ¸
o o
o o o
1
4097 . 2 sin 3 sin
5 cos 4097 . 2 cos 3 cos
cos
¦

¦
¸
¡ ¬
¬ ¡ ¬
= ¸
sin sin
cos cos cos
cos
N
1
14
Solution to Problem 2, part 3
3. The dogleg severity,
o = 4.01
o
/ 100 ft
Alternate solution: Use Ouija Board
100
60
4097 . 2
(i)
L
o
 =
¡
= o
15
Fig. 8.31: Solution to Example 8.6.
16
Problem 3
Determine the dogleg severity following a
jetting run where the inclination was changed
from 4.3
o
to 7.1
o
and the direction from N89E
to S80E over a drilled interval of 85 feet.
1. Solve by calculation.
2. Solve using Ragland diagram
L = 85 ft
o
N
o
o
N
o
100 89
7.1 3 . 4
= s = s
= ¬ = ¬
A¬ = 7.1  4.3 = 2.8. As = 100  89 = 11
17
Solution to Problem 3, part 1
1. From Equation 8.55
2 / 1
2 2 2 1
2
1 . 7 3 . 4
sin
2
11
sin
2
8 . 2
sin sin 2
¦

¦
¸
¦
'
+
'
+
+ = ¡
2 / 1
N
2 2 2 1
2
sin
2
sin
2
sin sin 2
¦

¦
¸
¦
'
+
'
¬ + ¬ s A
+
¬ A
= ¡
¡ = 3.01
o
18
Solution to Problem 3, part 1
1. From Equation 8.43
the dogleg severity,
100
85
01 . 3
(i)
L
 =
¡
= o
feet 100 / 5 . 3
o
= o
19
Solution to Problem 3, part 2
2. Construct line of length ¬ (4.3
o
)
Measure angle As (11
o
)
Construct line of length ¬
N
(7.1
o
)
Measure length ¡
(Measure angle ¸)
4.3
7.1
11
o
Ragland Diagram
¡
20
Some Equations to Calculate ¡
) cos cos sin sin cos(cos arc
N N
¬ ¬ + ¬ ¬ s A = ¡
N N
sin sin cos sin sin cos cos ¬ ¬ ¬ A + ¬ ¬ s A = ¡
Eq. 8.53
Eq. 8.54
¦
'
+
'
¬ + ¬
¦
'
+
'
s A
+
¦
'
+
'
¬ A
= ¡
2
sin
2
sin
2
sin sin arc 2
N
2 2 2
Eq. 8.55
21
Overall Angle Change and
Dogleg Severity
Equation 8.51 derived by Lubinski is used
to construct Figure 8.32,
a nomograph for determining
the total angle change ¡ and
the dogleg severity, o.
22
Fig. 8.32: Chart
for determining
dogleg severity
23
As = 11
o
¬+¬
N
)/2 = 5.7
o
¬
N
¬ = 2.8
o
¡ = 3
o
o = 3.5
o
/100 ft
24
As = 11
o
¬+¬
N
)/2
= 5.7
o
25
¬
N
¬ = 2.8
o
¡ = 3
o
26
¡ = 3
o
o = 3.5
o
/100 ft
27
As = 11
o
¬+¬
N
)/2 = 5.7
o
¬
N
¬ = 2.8
o
¡ = 3
o
o = 3.5
o
/100 ft
28
Problem 4  Torque and Twist
1.Calculate the total angle change of
3,650 ft. of 4 1/2 inches (3.826 ´ ID)
Grade E 16.60 #/ft drill pipe and 300 ft.
of 7´ drill collars (2 13/16´ ID) for a bit
generated torque of 1,000 ftlbf.
Assume that the motor has the same
properties as the 7´ drill collars. Shear
modules of steel, G = 11.5*10
6
psi.
2. What would be the total angle change if
7,300 ft. of drill pipe were used?
29
Solution to Problem 4
From Equation 8.56,
g drillstrin BHA motor
M
GJ
ML
GJ
ML
GJ
ML
¦
'
+
'
+
¦
'
+
'
+
¦
'
+
'
= ¿
) )
4 4 4 4 4
in 22 . 19 826 . 3 5 . 4
32
ID OD
32
J Pipe, for =
x
=
x
=
)
4 4 4
in 6 . 229 813 . 2 7
32
J Collars, for =
x
=
30
Solution to Problem 4, cont.
. J
o
4 4
2
pipe collars
M
2 . 137
rad
deg 180
rad 394 . 2
radians 394 . 2 88 . 278 , 2 68 . 15 001043 . 0
in 22 . 19
in 12 650 , 3
in 6 . 229
in 12 300
in
lbf
10 5 . 11
ft
in
12 lbs . ft 000 , 1
J
L
J
L
G
M
=
x
 = ¿
= + =
¦
¦

¦
¸

+



=
¦
¦

¦
¸
¦
'
+
'
+
¦
'
+
'
= ¿
radians
31
Solution to Problem 4, cont.
If Length of drillpipe = 7,300 ft.,
¿
M
= 0.001043 .15.68+2*2278.88]
= 4.77 radians *
rad
deg 180
x
o
M
3 . 273 = ¿
~ 3/4 revolution!
137.2
32
Example 8.10
Design a kickoff for the wellbore in Fig. 8.35.
From Ouija Board, ¡ = ª?
o
, ¸ = 77
o
s = S48W = 228
o
s
N
= N53W = 307
o
¬ = 2
o
L = 150 ft ¬
N
= 6
o
As = 79
o
Find ¡, ¸ and o
33
Fig. 8.36: Solution for Example 8.10.
Where to Set the Tool Face
High
Side
Present Direction
High
Side
New
Direction
¡ = ª?
o
¸ = 77
o
34
Dogleg Severity
From Equation 8.43
the dogleg severity,
100
150
8 . 5
(i)
L
 =
¡
= o
feet 100 / 87 . 3
o
= o
35
Fig. 8.36:
Solution
for
Example
8.10.
307
o
With jetting bit: 325
o
345
o
228
o
¿
M
= 20
o
36
Fig. 8.36: Solution for Example 8.10.
Where to Set the Tool Face
High
Side
Present
Direction
New
Direction
Tool Face
Setting
Compensating for Reverse
Torque of the Motor
High
Side
Lesson 17
 Directional Drilling cont¶d
ToolFace Angle Ouija Board Dogleg Severity Reverse Torque of Mud Motor Examples
2
Homework:
READ:
Applied Drilling Engineering´, Chapter 8 (to page 375)
3
30: Graphical Ouija Analysis. 8. 4 .Solution Tool Face (K) Fig.
GIVEN: E = 16 o o Over one drilled interval (bit run) Solution Tool Face (K) (I = 12 o E2 = 12 (I = 12o Initial Inclination = 16 o K=? o F=? 5 o Fig. 8. . 30: Graphical Ouija Analysis.
Fig. 8.33 F E2 Basis of chart construction is a trigonometric relationship illustrated by two intersecting planes F= dogleg angle 6 E (I .
The inclination is 70 and the direction is N15W. 7 .Problem 1 Determine the new direction (I2) for a whipstock set at 705 m with a toolface setting of 450 degrees right of high side for a course length of 10 m. The curve of the whipstock will cause a total angle change of 30/30 m.
Problem 1 E=7 o I = 345 o o (inclination) (azimuth) K = 45 o K = 45 (tool face angle) L = 10 m (course length) o H = 3 / 30 m (dogleg severity) I2 = ? o 8 .
F H ! (i) L @F ! HL i ! 3 10 m 30 m Q !1 o 9 . The dogleg severity. part 1 I.Solution to Problem 1.43 to calculate F . Use Equation 8.
092027 $ 5.7W 10 .30 = 350.Solution to Problem 1. part 2 2.30 = N9. Use Equation 8. (I ! arc tan (I ! tan 1 tan F sin K Q Q Q sin E tan F cos E cos K tan 1 sin 45 Q Q Q sin 7 tan 1 cos 7 cos 45 1 (I ! tan 0.3 Q New direction =3450 +5.42 to calculate the direction change.
Also calculate the dogleg severity. assuming that the trajectory change takes 60 ft. K for a jetting bit to go from a direction of 100 to 300 and from an inclination of 30 to 50. Q E= 3 EN ! 5 I= 10 Q I Find K and H I N ! 30 L ! 60 ft 11 .Problem 2 Determine where to set the tool face angle.
Find F using Equation 8.999116 $ 2.Solution to Problem 2. part 1 1.4097 1 12 .53 F ! cos 1? cos (I sin E N sin E cos E N cos E A ! cos 1 ? 20 cos o sin 5 sin 3 cos 5 cos 3 o o o o o A ! cos 0.
15 o 13 . Now calculate K from equation 8.4097 o cos 5 o » ¬ ¼ o o sin 3 sin 2.4097 ½ 1 1 K ! cos 0.7052 ! 45 . K ! cos K ! cos 1 « cos E cos F cos E N » ¬ ¼ sin E sin F ½ « cos 3 o cos 2.48.Solution to Problem 2. part 2 2.
01o / 100 ft Alternate solution: Use Ouija Board 14 . The dogleg severity. part 3 3. F 2.Solution to Problem 2.4097 H ! (i) ! 100 L 60 o H = 4.
8.Fig. 15 .31: Solution to Example 8.6.
8.4.3 = 2.1 L = 85 ft (I = 100 .1 .3 I ! 89 o E N ! 7.1o and the direction from N89E to S80E over a drilled interval of 85 feet. 16 .89 = 11 o o o IN ! 100 (E = 7.3o to 7. Solve using Ragland diagram E ! 4 . 1. 2.Problem 3 Determine the dogleg severity following a jetting run where the inclination was changed from 4. Solve by calculation.
1 ¸ » F ! 2 sin ¬sin sin sin © ¹¼ 2 2 2 ª º½ 1 1/ 2 F = 3. From Equation 8.Solution to Problem 3.55 « 2 (E 2 (I 2 ¨ E EN ¸» sin © F ! 2 sin ¬sin sin ¹¼ 2 2 ª 2 º½ 1 1/ 2 « 2 2. part 1 1. 3 7. 8 2 11 2 ¨ 4 .01 o 17 .
part 1 1. From Equation 8.5 / 100 feet o 18 .01 H ! (i) ! 100 L 85 H ! 3. F 3.43 the dogleg severity.Solution to Problem 3.
1o) Measure length F 4. part 2 2.3o) Measure angle (I (11o ) Construct line of length EN (7.1 19 .3 (Measure angle K) 11 Ragland Diagram o F 7. Construct line of length E (4.Solution to Problem 3.
8.54 cos F ! cos (I sin EN sin E cos (E sin E sin EN ¨ (E ¸ 2 ¨ (I ¸ 2 ¨ E EN ¸ F ! 2 arc sin sin © ¹ sin © ¹ ¹ sin © ª 2 º ª 2 º ª 2 º 2 20 Eq.55 . 8.53 F ! arc cos(cos (I sin EN sin E cos E cos EN ) Eq. 8.Some Equations to Calculate F Eq.
32. 21 . H.Overall Angle Change and Dogleg Severity Equation 8. a nomograph for determining the total angle change F and the dogleg severity.51 derived by Lubinski is used to construct Figure 8.
32: Chart for determining dogleg severity 22 . 8.Fig.
.
EE2 = 5.5 /100 ft 23 .8 o (I = 11 o o F=3 o H = 3.7 o E2 E = 2.
.
7 (I = 11 o 24 .EE2 o = 5.
8 o F=3 o 25 .E2 E = 2.
F=3 o H = 3.5 /100 ft 26 o .
.
8 o (I = 11 o o F=3 o H = 3.5 /100 ft 27 .EE2 = 5.7 o E2 E = 2.
2. Assume that the motor has the same properties as the 7´ drill collars. G = 11. Shear modules of steel.Torque and Twist 1. What would be the total angle change if 7.Calculate the total angle change of 3. of 4 1/2 inches (3. of 7´ drill collars (2 13/16´ ID) for a bitgenerated torque of 1.60 #/ft drill pipe and 300 ft.826 ´ ID) Grade E 16.000 ftlbf.5*106 psi.Problem 4 . of drill pipe were used? 28 .650 ft.300 ft.
J ! OD ID ! 4.56. ¨ ML ¸ ¨ ML ¸ ¨ ML ¸ UM ! © © © ¹ ¹ ¹ ª GJ ºmotor ª GJ ºBHA ª GJ º drillstring T T 4 4 for Pipe.Solution to Problem 4 From Equation 8.22 in 4 32 32 .826 4 ! 19 .5 4 3.
.
813 4 ! 229 .6 in 4 32 . J ! 7 2. T 4 for Collars.
29 .
001043 radians « 300 12in 3. ft ! lbf 11 .88 A! 2.6 in ½ ? . M «¨ L ¸ ¨L ¸ » © ¹ ¼ @ UM ! ¬© ¹ G ª J º collars ª J ºpipe ¼ ¬ ½ in 1000 ft.650 12 in » ¬ ¼ 4 4 19 .5 10 2 in ! 0. cont.394 rad ! 137 .22 in ¼ ¬ 229 .394 radians 15 30 180 deg o @ U ! 2.68 2.lbs 12 .Solution to Problem 4.2 T rad .278 .
3 o ~ 3/4 revolution! 137. If Length of drillpipe = 7.001043 ?15.2 31 ..88] = 4.68+2*2278.77 radians * 180 deg T rad UM ! 273 . UM = 0.300 ft.Solution to Problem 4. cont.
35. 8. I = S48W = 228o IN = N53W = 307o E = 2o L = 150 ft EN = 6o (I = 79o Find FKand H S S From Ouija Board.10 Design a kickoff for the wellbore in Fig.Example 8. F! K! 32 .
36: Solution for Example 8. 8.New Direction Where to Set the Tool Face F! S K! S High Side Present Direction High Side Fig. 33 .10.
8 H ! (i) ! 100 L 150 H ! 3.43 the dogleg severity.87 / 100 feet o 34 . F 5 .Dogleg Severity From Equation 8.
228 o 35 .With jetting bit: 325 307 o o 345 o o UM = 20 Fig.10. 8.36: Solution for Example 8.
10.Tool Face Setting New Direction Where to Set the Tool Face Compensating for Reverse Torque of the Motor High Side Present Direction High Side Fig. 36 . 8.36: Solution for Example 8.
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