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406 Lesson 20 Directional Drilling

406 Lesson 20 Directional Drilling

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1

Petroleum Engineering 406
Lesson 20
Directional Drilling
(continued)
2
Lesson 17
- Directional Drilling cont¶d
Tool-Face Angle
Ouija Board
Dogleg Severity
Reverse Torque of Mud Motor
Examples
3
Homework:
READ:
Applied Drilling Engineering´, Chapter 8
(to page 375)
4
Fig. 8. 30: Graphical Ouija Analysis.
Solution
Tool Face (¸)
5
Fig. 8. 30: Graphical Ouija Analysis.
Solution
Tool Face (¸)
Initial Inclination = 16
o
GIVEN:
¬ = 16
o
As = 12
o
¬
N
= 12
o
¸ = ?
o
¡ = ?
o
As = 12
o
Over one drilled interval (bit run)
6
Fig. 8.33
Basis of chart
construction is a
trigonometric
relationship
illustrated by two
intersecting
planes
¡
¡ = dogleg angle
¬
As
¬
N
7
Problem 1
Determine the new direction (s
N
) for a
whipstock set at 705 m with a tool-face
setting of 45
0
degrees right of high side
for a course length of 10 m.
The inclination is 7
0
and the direction is
N15W. The curve of the whipstock will
cause a total angle change of 3
0
/30 m.
8
Problem 1
¬ = 7
o
(inclination)
s = 345
o
(azimuth)
¸ = 45
o
(tool face angle)
L = 10 m (course length)
o = 3
o
/ 30 m (dogleg severity)
s
N
= ?
o
¸ = 45
o
9
Solution to Problem 1, part 1
I. Use Equation 8.43 to calculate .
The dogleg severity,
¡
o
1
m 30
m 10 3
i
L
) i (
L
=
-
=
o
= ¡
¡
= o
Q
10
Solution to Problem 1, part 2
2. Use Equation 8.42 to calculate the
direction change.
New direction =345
0
+5.3
0
= 350.3
0
= N9.7W
¸ ¬ ¡ + ¬
¸ ¡
= s A
cos cos tan sin
sin tan
tan arc
Q Q Q Q
Q Q
45 cos 7 cos 1 tan 7 sin
45 sin 1 tan
tan
1
+
= s A

Q
3 . 5 092027 . 0 tan
1
$ = s A

11
Problem 2
Determine where to set the tool face angle,
for a jetting bit to go from a direction of 10
0
to 30
0
and from an inclination of 3
0
to 5
0
.
Also calculate the dogleg severity, assuming
that the trajectory change takes 60 ft.
¬ = 3
s = 10
Find
ft 60 L
30
5
N
N
=
= s
= ¬
Q
Q
o ¸ and
s
¸
12
Solution to Problem 2, part 1
1. Find ¡ using Equation 8.53
. J
. J
o 1
o o o o o 1
N N
1
4097 . 2 999116 . 0 cos
3 cos 5 cos 3 sin 5 sin 20 cos cos
cos cos sin sin cos cos
$ =
+ =
¬ ¬ + ¬ ¬ s A = ¡

13
Solution to Problem 2, part 2
2. Now calculate ¸ from equation 8.48.
o 1
15 . 45 7052 . 0 cos = = ¸

¦
|
¦

¸

= ¸

o o
o o o
1
4097 . 2 sin 3 sin
5 cos 4097 . 2 cos 3 cos
cos
¦
|
¦

¸

¡ ¬
¬ ¡ ¬
= ¸

sin sin
cos cos cos
cos
N
1
14
Solution to Problem 2, part 3
3. The dogleg severity,
o = 4.01
o
/ 100 ft
Alternate solution: Use Ouija Board
100
60
4097 . 2
(i)
L
o
- =
¡
= o
15
Fig. 8.31: Solution to Example 8.6.
16
Problem 3
Determine the dogleg severity following a
jetting run where the inclination was changed
from 4.3
o
to 7.1
o
and the direction from N89E
to S80E over a drilled interval of 85 feet.
1. Solve by calculation.
2. Solve using Ragland diagram
L = 85 ft
o
N
o
o
N
o
100 89
7.1 3 . 4
= s = s
= ¬ = ¬
A¬ = 7.1 - 4.3 = 2.8. As = 100 - 89 = 11
17
Solution to Problem 3, part 1
1. From Equation 8.55
2 / 1
2 2 2 1
2
1 . 7 3 . 4
sin
2
11
sin
2
8 . 2
sin sin 2
¦
|
¦

¸

¦
'
+

'

+
+ = ¡

2 / 1
N
2 2 2 1
2
sin
2
sin
2
sin sin 2
¦
|
¦

¸

¦
'
+

'

¬ + ¬ s A
+
¬ A
= ¡

¡ = 3.01
o
18
Solution to Problem 3, part 1
1. From Equation 8.43
the dogleg severity,
100
85
01 . 3
(i)
L
- =
¡
= o
feet 100 / 5 . 3
o
= o
19
Solution to Problem 3, part 2
2. Construct line of length ¬ (4.3
o
)
Measure angle As (11
o
)
Construct line of length ¬
N
(7.1
o
)
Measure length ¡
(Measure angle ¸)
4.3
7.1
11
o
Ragland Diagram
¡
20
Some Equations to Calculate ¡
) cos cos sin sin cos(cos arc
N N
¬ ¬ + ¬ ¬ s A = ¡
N N
sin sin cos sin sin cos cos ¬ ¬ ¬ A + ¬ ¬ s A = ¡
Eq. 8.53
Eq. 8.54
¦
'
+

'

¬ + ¬
¦
'
+

'

s A
+
¦
'
+

'

¬ A
= ¡
2
sin
2
sin
2
sin sin arc 2
N
2 2 2
Eq. 8.55
21
Overall Angle Change and
Dogleg Severity
Equation 8.51 derived by Lubinski is used
to construct Figure 8.32,
a nomograph for determining
the total angle change ¡ and
the dogleg severity, o.
22
Fig. 8.32: Chart
for determining
dogleg severity
23
As = 11
o
¬+¬
N
)/2 = 5.7
o
¬
N
¬ = 2.8
o
¡ = 3
o
o = 3.5
o
/100 ft
24
As = 11
o
¬+¬
N
)/2
= 5.7
o
25
¬
N
¬ = 2.8
o
¡ = 3
o
26
¡ = 3
o
o = 3.5
o
/100 ft
27
As = 11
o
¬+¬
N
)/2 = 5.7
o
¬
N
¬ = 2.8
o
¡ = 3
o
o = 3.5
o
/100 ft
28
Problem 4 - Torque and Twist
1.Calculate the total angle change of
3,650 ft. of 4 1/2 inches (3.826 ´ ID)
Grade E 16.60 #/ft drill pipe and 300 ft.
of 7´ drill collars (2 13/16´ ID) for a bit-
generated torque of 1,000 ft-lbf.
Assume that the motor has the same
properties as the 7´ drill collars. Shear
modules of steel, G = 11.5*10
6
psi.
2. What would be the total angle change if
7,300 ft. of drill pipe were used?
29
Solution to Problem 4
From Equation 8.56,
g drillstrin BHA motor
M
GJ
ML
GJ
ML
GJ
ML
¦
'
+

'

+
¦
'
+

'

+
¦
'
+

'

= ¿
) )
4 4 4 4 4
in 22 . 19 826 . 3 5 . 4
32
ID OD
32
J Pipe, for =
x
=
x
=
)
4 4 4
in 6 . 229 813 . 2 7
32
J Collars, for =
x
=
30
Solution to Problem 4, cont.
. J
o
4 4
2
pipe collars
M
2 . 137
rad
deg 180
rad 394 . 2
radians 394 . 2 88 . 278 , 2 68 . 15 001043 . 0
in 22 . 19
in 12 650 , 3
in 6 . 229
in 12 300
in
lbf
10 5 . 11
ft
in
12 lbs . ft 000 , 1
J
L
J
L
G
M
=
x
- = ¿
= + =
¦
¦
|
¦

¸

-
+
-
-
-
=
¦
¦
|
¦

¸

¦
'
+

'

+
¦
'
+

'

= ¿
radians
31
Solution to Problem 4, cont.
If Length of drillpipe = 7,300 ft.,
¿
M
= 0.001043 .15.68+2*2278.88]
= 4.77 radians *
rad
deg 180
x
o
M
3 . 273 = ¿
~ 3/4 revolution!
137.2
32
Example 8.10
Design a kickoff for the wellbore in Fig. 8.35.
From Ouija Board, ¡ = ª?
o
, ¸ = 77
o
s = S48W = 228
o
s
N
= N53W = 307
o
¬ = 2
o
L = 150 ft ¬
N
= 6
o
As = 79
o
Find ¡, ¸ and o
33
Fig. 8.36: Solution for Example 8.10.
Where to Set the Tool Face
High
Side
Present Direction
High
Side
New
Direction
¡ = ª?
o
¸ = 77
o
34
Dogleg Severity
From Equation 8.43
the dogleg severity,
100
150
8 . 5
(i)
L
- =
¡
= o
feet 100 / 87 . 3
o
= o
35
Fig. 8.36:
Solution
for
Example
8.10.
307
o
With jetting bit: 325
o
345
o
228
o
¿
M
= 20
o
36
Fig. 8.36: Solution for Example 8.10.
Where to Set the Tool Face
High
Side
Present
Direction
New
Direction
Tool Face
Setting
Compensating for Reverse
Torque of the Motor
High
Side

Lesson 17
- Directional Drilling cont¶d 
Tool-Face Angle Ouija Board Dogleg Severity Reverse Torque of Mud Motor Examples
2

Homework:
READ: 
Applied Drilling Engineering´, Chapter 8 (to page 375)

3

30: Graphical Ouija Analysis. 8. 4 .Solution Tool Face (K) Fig.

GIVEN: E = 16 o o Over one drilled interval (bit run) Solution Tool Face (K) (I = 12 o E2 = 12 (I = 12o Initial Inclination = 16 o K=? o F=? 5 o Fig. 8. . 30: Graphical Ouija Analysis.

Fig. 8.33 F E2 Basis of chart construction is a trigonometric relationship illustrated by two intersecting planes F= dogleg angle 6 E (I .

The inclination is 70 and the direction is N15W. 7 .Problem 1 Determine the new direction (I2) for a whipstock set at 705 m with a tool-face setting of 450 degrees right of high side for a course length of 10 m. The curve of the whipstock will cause a total angle change of 30/30 m.

Problem 1 E=7 o I = 345 o o (inclination) (azimuth) K = 45 o K = 45 (tool face angle) L = 10 m (course length) o H = 3 / 30 m (dogleg severity) I2 = ? o 8 .

F H ! (i) L @F ! HL i ! 3  10 m 30 m Q !1 o 9 . The dogleg severity. part 1 I.Solution to Problem 1.43 to calculate F . Use Equation 8.

092027 $ 5.7W 10 .30 = 350.Solution to Problem 1. part 2 2.30 = N9. Use Equation 8. (I ! arc tan (I ! tan 1 tan F sin K Q Q Q sin E  tan F cos E cos K tan 1 sin 45 Q Q Q sin 7  tan 1 cos 7 cos 45 1 (I ! tan 0.3 Q New direction =3450 +5.42 to calculate the direction change.

Also calculate the dogleg severity. assuming that the trajectory change takes 60 ft. K for a jetting bit to go from a direction of 100 to 300 and from an inclination of 30 to 50. Q E= 3 EN ! 5 I= 10 Q I Find K and H I N ! 30 L ! 60 ft 11 .Problem 2 Determine where to set the tool face angle.

Find F using Equation 8.999116 $ 2.Solution to Problem 2. part 1 1.4097 1 12 .53 F ! cos 1? cos (I sin E N sin E  cos E N cos E A ! cos 1 ? 20 cos o sin 5 sin 3  cos 5 cos 3 o o o o o A ! cos 0.

15 o 13 . Now calculate K from equation 8.4097 o  cos 5 o » ¬ ¼ o o sin 3 sin 2.4097 ­ ½ 1 1 K ! cos 0.7052 ! 45 . K ! cos K ! cos 1 « cos E cos F  cos E N » ¬ ¼ sin E sin F ­ ½ « cos 3 o cos 2.48.Solution to Problem 2. part 2 2.

01o / 100 ft Alternate solution: Use Ouija Board 14 . The dogleg severity. part 3 3. F 2.Solution to Problem 2.4097 H ! (i) !  100 L 60 o H = 4.

8.Fig. 15 .31: Solution to Example 8.6.

8.4.3 = 2.1 L = 85 ft (I = 100 .1 .3 I ! 89 o E N ! 7.1o and the direction from N89E to S80E over a drilled interval of 85 feet. 16 .89 = 11 o o o IN ! 100 (E = 7.3o to 7. Solve using Ragland diagram E ! 4 . 1. 2.Problem 3 Determine the dogleg severity following a jetting run where the inclination was changed from 4. Solve by calculation.

1 ¸ » F ! 2 sin ¬sin  sin sin © ¹¼ 2 2 2 ª º½ ­ 1 1/ 2 F = 3. From Equation 8.Solution to Problem 3.55 « 2 (E 2 (I 2 ¨ E  EN ¸» sin © F ! 2 sin ¬sin  sin ¹¼ 2 2 ª 2 º½ ­ 1 1/ 2 « 2 2. part 1 1. 3  7. 8 2 11 2 ¨ 4 .01 o 17 .

part 1 1. From Equation 8.5 / 100 feet o 18 .01 H ! (i) !  100 L 85 H ! 3. F 3.43 the dogleg severity.Solution to Problem 3.

1o) Measure length F 4. part 2 2.3o) Measure angle (I (11o ) Construct line of length EN (7.1 19 .3 (Measure angle K) 11 Ragland Diagram o F 7. Construct line of length E (4.Solution to Problem 3.

8.54 cos F ! cos (I sin EN sin E  cos (E  sin E sin EN ¨ (E ¸ 2 ¨ (I ¸ 2 ¨ E  EN ¸ F ! 2 arc sin sin © ¹  sin © ¹ ¹ sin © ª 2 º ª 2 º ª 2 º 2 20 Eq.55 . 8.53 F ! arc cos(cos (I sin EN sin E  cos E cos EN ) Eq. 8.Some Equations to Calculate F Eq.

32. 21 . H.Overall Angle Change and Dogleg Severity Equation 8. a nomograph for determining the total angle change F and the dogleg severity.51 derived by Lubinski is used to construct Figure 8.

32: Chart for determining dogleg severity 22 . 8.Fig.

.

EE2  = 5.5 /100 ft 23 .8 o (I = 11 o o F=3 o H = 3.7 o E2 E = 2.

.

7 (I = 11 o 24 .EE2  o = 5.

8 o F=3 o 25 .E2 E = 2.

F=3 o H = 3.5 /100 ft 26 o .

.

8 o (I = 11 o o F=3 o H = 3.5 /100 ft 27 .EE2  = 5.7 o E2 E = 2.

2. Assume that the motor has the same properties as the 7´ drill collars. G = 11. Shear modules of steel.Torque and Twist 1. What would be the total angle change if 7.Calculate the total angle change of 3. of 4 1/2 inches (3. of 7´ drill collars (2 13/16´ ID) for a bitgenerated torque of 1.60 #/ft drill pipe and 300 ft.826 ´ ID) Grade E 16.000 ft-lbf.5*106 psi.Problem 4 . of drill pipe were used? 28 .650 ft.300 ft.

J ! OD  ID ! 4.56. ¨ ML ¸ ¨ ML ¸ ¨ ML ¸ UM ! © © © ¹ ¹ ¹ ª GJ ºmotor ª GJ ºBHA ª GJ º drillstring T T 4 4 for Pipe.Solution to Problem 4 From Equation 8.22 in 4 32 32 .826 4 ! 19 .5 4  3.

.

813 4 ! 229 .6 in 4 32 . J ! 7  2. T 4 for Collars.

29 .

001043 radians « 300  12in 3. ft ! lbf 11 .88 A! 2.6 in ­ ½ ? . M «¨ L ¸ ¨L ¸ » © ¹ ¼ @ UM ! ¬© ¹ G ­ª J º collars ª J ºpipe ¼ ¬ ½ in 1000 ft.650  12 in »  ¬ ¼ 4 4 19 .5  10 2 in ! 0. cont.394 rad  ! 137 .22 in ¼ ¬ 229 .394 radians 15 30 180 deg o @ U ! 2.68  2.lbs  12 .Solution to Problem 4.2 T rad .278 .

3 o ~ 3/4 revolution! 137. If Length of drillpipe = 7.001043 ?15.2 31 ..88] = 4.68+2*2278.77 radians * 180 deg T rad UM ! 273 . UM = 0.300 ft.Solution to Problem 4. cont.

35. 8. I = S48W = 228o IN = N53W = 307o E = 2o L = 150 ft EN = 6o (I = 79o Find FKand H S S From Ouija Board.10 Design a kickoff for the wellbore in Fig.Example 8. F! K! 32 .

36: Solution for Example 8. 8.New Direction Where to Set the Tool Face F! S K! S High Side Present Direction High Side Fig. 33 .10.

8 H ! (i) !  100 L 150 H ! 3.43 the dogleg severity.87 / 100 feet o 34 . F 5 .Dogleg Severity From Equation 8.

228 o 35 .With jetting bit: 325 307 o o 345 o o UM = 20 Fig.10. 8.36: Solution for Example 8.

10.Tool Face Setting New Direction Where to Set the Tool Face Compensating for Reverse Torque of the Motor High Side Present Direction High Side Fig. 36 . 8.36: Solution for Example 8.

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