# 1

The Time Value of Money The Time Value of Money
Timothy R. Mayes, Ph.D.
FIN 3300: Chapter 5
2
What is Time Value? What is Time Value?
We say that money has a time value because that
money can be invested with the expectation of
earning a positive rate of return
In other words, ´a dollar received today is worth
more than a dollar to be received tomorrowµ
That is because today·s dollar can be invested so that
we have more than one dollar tomorrow
3
The Terminology of Time Value The Terminology of Time Value
Present Value - An amount of money today, or the
current value of a future cash flow
Future Value - An amount of money at some future
time period
Period - A length of time (often a year, but can be a
month, week, day, hour, etc.)
Interest Rate - The compensation paid to a lender (or
saver) for the use of funds expressed as a percentage
for a period (normally expressed as an annual rate)
4
Abbreviations Abbreviations
PV - Present value
FV - Future value
Pmt - Per period payment amount
N - Either the total number of cash flows or
the number of a specific period
i - The interest rate per period
5
Timelines Timelines
0 1 2 3 4 5
PV FV
Today
A timeline is a graphical device used to clarify the
timing of the cash flows for an investment
Each tick represents one time period
6
Calculating the Future Value Calculating the Future Value
Suppose that you have an extra \$100 today that you
wish to invest for one year. If you can earn 10% per
year on your investment, how much will you have in
one year?
0 1 2 3 4 5
-100 ?
¸ )
FV
1
100 1 010 110 = + = .
7
Calculating the Future Value (cont.) Calculating the Future Value (cont.)
Suppose that at the end of year 1 you decide to
extend the investment for a second year. How much
will you have accumulated at the end of year 2?
0 1 2 3 4 5
-110 ?
¸ )¸ )
¸ )
FV
or
FV
2
2
2
100 1 010 1 010 121
100 1 010 121
= + + =
= + =
. .
.
8
Generalizing the Future Value Generalizing the Future Value
Recognizing the pattern that is developing,
we can generalize the future value
calculations as follows:
¸ )
FV PV i
N
N
= + 1
If you extended the investment for a third
year, you would have:
¸ )
FV
3
3
100 1 010 13310 = + = . .
9
Compound Interest Compound Interest
Note from the example that the future value is
increasing at an increasing rate
In other words, the amount of interest earned each
year is increasing
 Year 1: \$10
 Year 2: \$11
 Year 3: \$12.10
The reason for the increase is that each year you are
earning interest on the interest that was earned in
previous years in addition to the interest on the
original principle amount
10
Compound Interest Graphically Compound Interest Graphically
0
500
1000
1500
2000
2500
3000
3500
4000
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20
Years
F
u
t
u
r
e

V
a
l
u
e
5%
10%
15%
20%
3833.76
1636.65
672.75
265.33
11
The Magic of Compounding The Magic of Compounding
On Nov. 25, 1626 Peter Minuit, a Dutchman, reportedly
purchased Manhattan from the Indians for \$24 worth of beads
This happened about 371 years ago, so if they could earn 5% per
year they would now (in 1997) have:
If they could have earned 10% per year, they would now have:
\$54,562,898,811,973,500.00 = 24(1.10)
371
\$1,743,577,261.65 = 24(1.05)
371
12
The Magic of Compounding (cont.) The Magic of Compounding (cont.)
The Wall Street Journal (17 Jan. 92) says that all of New York
city real estate is worth about \$324 billion. Of this amount,
Manhattan is about 30%, which is \$97.2 billion
At 10%, this is \$54,562 trillion! Our U.S. GNP is only around \$6
trillion per year. So this amount represents about 9,094 years
worth of the total economic output of the USA!
At 5% it seems the Indians got a bad deal, but if they earned
10% per year, it was the Dutch that got the raw deal
Not only that, but it turns out that the Indians really had no
claim on Manhattan (then called Manahatta). They lived on
Long Island!
As a final insult, the British arrived in the 1660·s and
unceremoniously tossed out the Dutch settlers.
13
Calculating the Present Value Calculating the Present Value
So far, we have seen how to calculate the
future value of an investment
But we can turn this around to find the
amount that needs to be invested to achieve
some desired future value:
¸ )
PV
FV
i
N
N
=
+ 1
14
Present Value: An Example Present Value: An Example
Suppose that your five-year old daughter has just
announced her desire to attend college. After some
research, you determine that you will need about
\$100,000 on her 18th birthday to pay for four years of
college. If you can earn 8%per year on your
investments, how much do you need to invest today
¸ )
PV = =
100 000
108
769 79
13
,
.
\$36, .
15
Annuities Annuities
An annuity is a series of nominally equal payments
equally spaced in time
Annuities are very common:
 Rent
 Mortgage payments
 Car payment
 Pension income
The timeline shows an example of a 5-year, \$100
annuity
0 1 2 3 4 5
100 100 100 100 100
16
How do we find the value (PV or FV) of an
annuity?
First, you must understand the principle of
 The value of any stream of cash flows is equal to
the sum of the values of the components
In other words, if we can move the cash flows
to the same time period we can simply add
them all together to get the total value
17
Present Value of an Annuity Present Value of an Annuity
We can use the principle of value additivity to find
the present value of an annuity, by simply summing
the present values of each of the components:
¸ ) ¸ ) ¸ ) ¸ )
PV
Pmt
i
Pmt
i
Pmt
i
Pmt
i
A
t
t
t
N
N
N
=
+
=
+
+
+
+ +
+
=
¿
1 1 1 1
1
1
1
2
2
18
Present Value of an Annuity (cont.) Present Value of an Annuity (cont.)
Using the example, and assuming a discount rate of
10% per year, we find that the present value is:
¸ ) ¸ ) ¸ ) ¸ ) ¸ )
PV
A
= + + + + =
100
110
100
110
100
110
100
110
100
110
379 08
1 2 3 4 5
. . . . .
.
0 1 2 3 4 5
100 100 100 100 100
62.09
68.30
75.13
82.64
90.91
379.08
19
Present Value of an Annuity (cont.) Present Value of an Annuity (cont.)
Actually, there is no need to take the present
value of each cash flow separately
We can use a closed-form of the PV
A
equation
¸ )
¸ )
PV
Pmt
i
Pmt
i
i
A
t
t
t
N
N
=
+
=

+

¸

¦
|
¦
¦
¦ =
¿
1
1
1
1
1
20
Present Value of an Annuity (cont.) Present Value of an Annuity (cont.)
We can use this equation to find the present
value of our example annuity as follows:
¸ )
PV Pmt
A
=

¸

¦
|
¦
¦
¦
=
1
1
110
010
379 08
5
.
.
.
This equation works for all regular annuities,
regardless of the number of payments
21
The Future Value of an Annuity The Future Value of an Annuity
We can also use the principle of value additivity to
find the future value of an annuity, by simply
summing the future values of each of the
components:
¸ ) ¸ ) ¸ )
FV Pmt i Pmt i Pmt i Pmt
A t
N t
t
N
N N
N
= + = + + + + +

=

¿
1 1 1
1
1
1
2
2
22
The Future Value of an Annuity (cont.) The Future Value of an Annuity (cont.)
Using the example, and assuming a discount rate of
10% per year, we find that the future value is:
¸ ) ¸ ) ¸ ) ¸ )
FV
A
= + + + + = 100 110 100 110 100 110 100 110 100 61051
4 3 2 1
. . . . .
100 100 100 100 100
0 1 2 3 4 5
146.41
133.10
121.00
110.00
}
= 610.51
at year 5
23
The Future Value of an Annuity (cont.) The Future Value of an Annuity (cont.)
Just as we did for the PV
A
equation, we could
instead use a closed-form of the FV
A
equation:
¸ )
¸ )
FV Pmt i Pmt
i
i
A t
N t
t
N
N
= + =
+

¸

¦
|
¦
¦

=
¿
1
1 1
1
This equation works for all regular annuities,
regardless of the number of payments
24
The Future Value of an Annuity (cont.) The Future Value of an Annuity (cont.)
We can use this equation to find the future
value of the example annuity:
¸ )
FV
A
=

¸

¦
|
¦
¦
= 100
110 1
010
61051
5
.
.
.
25
Annuities Due Annuities Due
Thus far, the annuities that we have looked at begin
their payments at the end of period 1; these are
referred to as regular annuities
A annuity due is the same as a regular annuity,
except that its cash flows occur at the beginning of
the period rather than at the end
0 1 2 3 4 5
100 100 100 100 100
100 100 100 100 100 5-period Annuity Due
5-period Regular Annuity
26
Present Value of an Annuity Due Present Value of an Annuity Due
We can find the present value of an annuity due in
the same way as we did for a regular annuity, with
one exception
Note from the timeline that, if we ignore the first cash
flow, the annuity due looks just like a four-period
regular annuity
Therefore, we can value an annuity due with:
¸ )
¸ )
PV Pmt
i
i
Pmt
N
=

+

¸

¦
|
¦
¦
¦
¦
+

1
1
1
1
27
Present Value of an Annuity Due (cont.) Present Value of an Annuity Due (cont.)
Therefore, the present value of our example
annuity due is:
¸ )
¸ )
PV
=

¸

¦
|
¦
¦
¦
¦
+ =

100
1
1
110
010
100 416 98
5 1
.
.
.
Note that this is higher than the PV of the,
otherwise equivalent, regular annuity
28
Future Value of an Annuity Due Future Value of an Annuity Due
To calculate the FV of an annuity due, we can
treat it as regular annuity, and then take it
one more period forward:
¸ )
¸ )
FV Pmt
i
i
i
N
=
+

¸

¦
|
¦
¦
+
1 1
1
0 1 2 3 4 5
Pmt Pmt Pmt Pmt Pmt
29
Future Value of an Annuity Due (cont.) Future Value of an Annuity Due (cont.)
The future value of our example annuity is:
¸ )
¸ )
FV
=

¸

¦
|
¦
¦
= 100
110 1
010
110 67156
5
.
.
. .
Note that this is higher than the future value
of the, otherwise equivalent, regular annuity
30
Deferred Annuities Deferred Annuities
A deferred annuity is the same as any other
annuity, except that its payments do not
begin until some later period
The timeline shows a five-period deferred
annuity
0 1 2 3 4 5
100 100 100 100 100
6 7
31
PV of a Deferred Annuity PV of a Deferred Annuity
We can find the present value of a deferred annuity
in the same way as any other annuity, with an extra
step required
Before we can do this however, there is an important
rule to understand:
When using the PV
A
equation, the resulting PV is
always one period before the first payment occurs
32
PV of a Deferred Annuity (cont.) PV of a Deferred Annuity (cont.)
To find the PV of a deferred annuity, we first
find use the PV
A
equation, and then discount
that result back to period 0
Here we are using a 10% discount rate
0 1 2 3 4 5
0 0 100 100 100 100 100
6 7
PV
2
= 379.08
PV
0
= 313.29
33
PV of a Deferred Annuity (cont.) PV of a Deferred Annuity (cont.)
¸ )
PV
2
5
100
1
1
110
010
379 08 =

¸

¦
|
¦
¦
¦
¦
=
.
.
.
¸ )
PV
0
2
379 08
110
31329 = =
.
.
.
Step 1:
Step 2:
34
FV of a Deferred Annuity FV of a Deferred Annuity
The future value of a deferred annuity is
calculated in exactly the same way as any
other annuity
There are no extra steps at all
35
Uneven Cash Flows Uneven Cash Flows
Very often an investment offers a stream of
cash flows which are not either a lump sum
or an annuity
We can find the present or future value of
such a stream by using the principle of value
36
Uneven Cash Flows: An Example (1) Uneven Cash Flows: An Example (1)
Assume that an investment offers the following cash
flows. If your required return is 7%, what is the
maximum price that you would pay for this
investment?
0 1 2 3 4 5
100 200 300
¸ ) ¸ ) ¸ )
PV = + + =
100
107
200
107
300
107
51304
1 2 3
. . .
.
37
Uneven Cash Flows: An Example (2) Uneven Cash Flows: An Example (2)
Suppose that you were to deposit the following
amounts in an account paying 5% per year. What
would the balance of the account be at the end of the
third year?
0 1 2 3 4 5
300 500 700
¸ ) ¸ )
FV= + + = 300 105 500 105 700 155575
2 1
. . , .
38
Non Non- -annual Compounding annual Compounding
So far we have assumed that the time period is equal
to a year
However, there is no reason that a time period can·t
be any other length of time
We could assume that interest is earned semi-
annually, quarterly, monthly, daily, or any other
length of time
The only change that must be made is to make sure
that the rate of interest is adjusted to the period
length
39
Non Non- -annual Compounding (cont.) annual Compounding (cont.)
Suppose that you have \$1,000 available for
investment. After investigating the local banks, you
have compiled the following table for comparison. In
which bank should you deposit your funds?
Bank Interest Rate Compounding
First National 10% Annual
Second National 10% Monthly
Third National 10% Daily
40
Non Non- -annual Compounding (cont.) annual Compounding (cont.)
To solve this problem, you need to determine which
bank will pay you the most interest
In other words, at which bank will you have the
highest future value?
To find out, let·s change our basic FV equation
slightly:
FV PV
i
m
Nm
= +

'

+
'
¦
1
In this version of the equation ¶m· is the number of
compounding periods per year
41
Non Non- -annual Compounding (cont.) annual Compounding (cont.)
We can find the FV for each bank as follows:
¸ )
FV = = 1 000 110 1100
1
, . ,
FV = +

'

+
'
¦
= 1 000 1
010
12
1104 71
12
,
.
, .
FV = +

'

+
'
¦
= 1 000 1
010
365
110516
365
,
.
, .
First National Bank:
Second National Bank:
Third National Bank:
Obviously, you should choose the Third National Bank
42
Continuous Compounding Continuous Compounding
There is no reason why we need to stop increasing
the compounding frequency at daily
We could compound every hour, minute, or second
We can also compound every instant (i.e.,
continuously):
F Pe
rt
=
Here, F is the future value, P is the present value, r is
the annual rate of interest, t is the total number of
years, and e is a constant equal to about 2.718
43
Continuous Compounding (cont.) Continuous Compounding (cont.)
Suppose that the Fourth National Bank is offering to
pay 10% per year compounded continuously. What
is the future value of your \$1,000 investment?
¸ )
F e = = 1 000 110517
0 10 1
, , .
.
This is even better than daily compounding
The basic rule of compounding is: The more frequently
interest is compounded, the higher the future value
44
Continuous Compounding (cont.) Continuous Compounding (cont.)
Suppose that the Fourth National Bank is offering to
pay 10% per year compounded continuously. If you
plan to leave the money in the account for 5 years,
what is the future value of your \$1,000 investment?
¸ )
F e = = 1 000 1 648 72
0 10 5
, , .
.

What is Time Value?  



We say that money has a time value because that money can be invested with the expectation of earning a positive rate of return In other words, ´a dollar received today is worth more than a dollar to be received tomorrowµ That is because today·s dollar can be invested so that we have more than one dollar tomorrow

2

The Terminology of Time Value 
  

Present Value - An amount of money today, or the current value of a future cash flow Future Value - An amount of money at some future time period Period - A length of time (often a year, but can be a month, week, day, hour, etc.) Interest Rate - The compensation paid to a lender (or saver) for the use of funds expressed as a percentage for a period (normally expressed as an annual rate)

3

Abbreviations
PV - Present value  FV - Future value  Pmt - Per period payment amount  N - Either the total number of cash flows or the number of a specific period  i - The interest rate per period 

4

Timelines A timeline is a graphical device used to clarify the timing of the cash flows for an investment Each tick represents one time period PV 0 Today 1 2 3 4 FV 5 5 .

Calculating the Future Value  Suppose that you have an extra \$100 today that you wish to invest for one year. how much will you have in one year? -100 0 ? 1 2 3 4 5 FV1 ! 100. If you can earn 10% per year on your investment.

10 ! 110 6 .1  0.

)  Suppose that at the end of year 1 you decide to extend the investment for a second year. How much will you have accumulated at the end of year 2? -110 0 1 ? 2 3 4 5 FV2 ! 100.Calculating the Future Value (cont.

1  0.10 .

1  010 ! 121 . or 2 FV2 ! 100.

10 ! 121 7 .1  0.

Generalizing the Future Value  Recognizing the pattern that is developing. we can generalize the future value calculations as follows: FVN ! PV.

1  i  N If you extended the investment for a third year. you would have: FV3 ! 100.

1  010 ! 13310 . 3 8 . .

10  The reason for the increase is that each year you are earning interest on the interest that was earned in previous years in addition to the interest on the original principle amount 9 . the amount of interest earned each year is increasing  Year 1: \$10  Year 2: \$11  Year 3: \$12.Compound Interest   Note from the example that the future value is increasing at an increasing rate In other words.

Compound Interest Graphically 4000 3833.33 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Years 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 10 .75 500 265.65 1500 2500 Future Value 1000 672.76 3500 5% 3000 10% 15% 20% 2000 1636.

Was this a good deal for the Indians? This happened about 371 years ago.05) 371  If they could have earned 10% per year.743. a Dutchman.10) 371 That·s about 54.261.563 Trillion dollars! 11 . so if they could earn 5% per year they would now (in 1997) have: \$1.898.577.562.00 = 24(1.65 = 24(1. reportedly purchased Manhattan from the Indians for \$24 worth of beads and other trinkets.The Magic of Compounding   On Nov. they would now have: \$54.811. 25. 1626 Peter Minuit.973.500.

GNP is only around \$6 trillion per year. 12 . They lived on Long Island! As a final insult.S.562 trillion! Our U.)      The Wall Street Journal (17 Jan. but if they earned 10% per year. it was the Dutch that got the raw deal Not only that. Of this amount. this is \$54.2 billion At 10%.094 years worth of the total economic output of the USA! At 5% it seems the Indians got a bad deal.The Magic of Compounding (cont. but it turns out that the Indians really had no claim on Manhattan (then called Manahatta). Manhattan is about 30%. which is \$97. the British arrived in the 1660·s and unceremoniously tossed out the Dutch settlers. So this amount represents about 9. 92) says that all of New York city real estate is worth about \$324 billion.

we have seen how to calculate the future value of an investment  But we can turn this around to find the amount that needs to be invested to achieve some desired future value:  PV ! FVN .Calculating the Present Value So far.

1  i N 13 .

000 on her 18th birthday to pay for four years of college. If you can earn 8% per year on your investments. you determine that you will need about \$100.Present Value: An Example  Suppose that your five-year old daughter has just announced her desire to attend college. .000 . After some research. how much do you need to invest today to achieve your goal? PV ! 100.

108 13 ! \$36.79 14 .769.

Annuities   An annuity is a series of nominally equal payments equally spaced in time Annuities are very common:     Rent Mortgage payments Car payment Pension income  The timeline shows an example of a 5-year. \$100 annuity 100 0 1 100 2 100 3 100 4 100 5 15 .

if we can move the cash flows to the same time period we can simply add them all together to get the total value 16 .The Principle of Value Additivity  How do we find the value (PV or FV) of an annuity?  First. you must understand the principle of value additivity:  The value of any stream of cash flows is equal to the sum of the values of the components  In other words.

Present Value of an Annuity  We can use the principle of value additivity to find the present value of an annuity. by simply summing the present values of each of the components: PVA ! § .

1  i ! .

1  i  .

1  i      .

1  i Pmt t Pmt 1 Pmt 2 t 1 2 t !1 N Pmt N N 17 .

Present Value of an Annuity (cont.)  Using the example. . and assuming a discount rate of 10% per year. we find that the present value is: PVA ! 100 1 . .

110 .

.110  100 2  100 .

110 3  100 . .

.110 4  100 .

08 62.13 82.09 68.64 90.110 5 ! 379.91 379.08 100 0 1 100 2 100 3 100 4 100 5 18 .30 75.

Present Value of an Annuity (cont.)  Actually. there is no need to take the present value of each cash flow separately  We can use a closed-form of the PVA equation instead: PVA ! § .

1  i Pmt t t !1 N t «1  1 » N ¬ .

1  i ¼ ! Pmt ¬ ¼ i ¬ ¼ ­ ½ 19 .

Present Value of an Annuity (cont. .)  We can use this equation to find the present value of our example annuity as follows: » «1  1 5 ¬ .

¼ ¬ ½ ­  This equation works for all regular annuities. regardless of the number of payments 20 .08 PVA ! Pmt ¬ ¼ 010 .110 ¼ ! 379.

The Future Value of an Annuity  We can also use the principle of value additivity to find the future value of an annuity. by simply summing the future values of each of the components: FVA ! § Pmt .

1  i t t !1 N Nt ! Pmt 1 .

1  i N 1  Pmt 2 .

1  i N 2     Pmt N 21 .

The Future Value of an Annuity (cont.)  Using the example. and assuming a discount rate of 10% per year. we find that the future value is: 4 3 2 1 FVA ! 100.

110  100.

 100. .

.  100.

00 100 0 1 100 2 100 3 100 4 100 5 } = 610.00 110. 110 110 110 146.41 133.10 121.51 at year 5 22 .51 .  100 ! 610. .

The Future Value of an Annuity (cont.)  Just as we did for the PVA equation. we could instead use a closed-form of the FVA equation: FVA !  § Pmt .

1  i t t !1 N Nt « .

1  i N  1 » ¼ ! Pmt ¬ i ¬ ¼ ­ ½ This equation works for all regular annuities. regardless of the number of payments 23 .

)  We can use this equation to find the future value of the example annuity: « .The Future Value of an Annuity (cont.

¼ ! 610.110 5  1 » .51 FVA ! 100¬ . ¬ 010 ¼ ­ ½ 24 .

except that its cash flows occur at the beginning of the period rather than at the end 100 100 1 100 100 2 100 100 3 100 100 4 100 5-period Annuity Due 5-period Regular Annuity 0 100 5 25 . the annuities that we have looked at begin their payments at the end of period 1. these are referred to as regular annuities A annuity due is the same as a regular annuity.Annuities Due   Thus far.

we can value an annuity due with: PVAD » «1  1 . with one exception Note from the timeline that. if we ignore the first cash flow.Present Value of an Annuity Due    We can find the present value of an annuity due in the same way as we did for a regular annuity. the annuity due looks just like a four-period regular annuity Therefore.

N 1 ¬ .

1  i ¼  Pmt ! Pmt ¬ ¼ i ¼ ¬ ¼ ¬ ½ ­ 26 .

Present Value of an Annuity Due (cont. the present value of our example annuity due is: » «1  1 .)  Therefore.

51 ¬ . .

98 ! 100¬ ¼ 010 . regular annuity 27 .110 ¼  100 ! 416. otherwise equivalent. ¼ ¬ ¼ ¬ ½ ­ PVAD  Note that this is higher than the PV of the.

we can treat it as regular annuity. and then take it one more period forward: FVAD « .Future Value of an Annuity Due  To calculate the FV of an annuity due.

1  i N  1 » ¼.

1  i ! Pmt ¬ i ¬ ¼ ­ ½ Pmt 2 Pmt 3 Pmt 4 5 28 Pmt 0 Pmt 1 .

)  The future value of our example annuity is: FVAD « .Future Value of an Annuity Due (cont.

110 5  1 » . ¼.

¬ 010 ¼ ­ ½  Note that this is higher than the future value of the. ! 100¬ . . regular annuity 29 . otherwise equivalent.110 ! 67156 .

Deferred Annuities  A deferred annuity is the same as any other annuity. except that its payments do not begin until some later period  The timeline shows a five-period deferred annuity 100 0 1 2 3 100 4 100 5 100 6 100 7 30 .

PV of a Deferred Annuity   We can find the present value of a deferred annuity in the same way as any other annuity. there is an important rule to understand: When using the PVA equation. with an extra step required Before we can do this however. the resulting PV is always one period before the first payment occurs 31 .

and then discount that result back to period 0  Here we are using a 10% discount rate PV2 = 379. we first find use the PVA equation.PV of a Deferred Annuity (cont.08 PV0 = 313.)  To find the PV of a deferred annuity.29 0 0 1 0 2 100 3 100 4 100 5 100 6 100 7 32 .

PV of a Deferred Annuity (cont.) «1  1 » 5 ¬ . .

.08 PV2 ! 100¬ ¼ 010 .08 . ¬ ¼ ¬ ¼ ­ ½ Step 1: Step 2: PV0 ! 379.110 ¼ ! 379.

29 33 .110 2 ! 313.

FV of a Deferred Annuity The future value of a deferred annuity is calculated in exactly the same way as any other annuity  There are no extra steps at all  34 .

Uneven Cash Flows Very often an investment offers a stream of cash flows which are not either a lump sum or an annuity  We can find the present or future value of such a stream by using the principle of value additivity  35 .

.Uneven Cash Flows: An Example (1)  Assume that an investment offers the following cash flows. If your required return is 7%. what is the maximum price that you would pay for this investment? 100 0 1 200 2 300 3 4 5 PV ! 100 1 . .

107 .

107  200 2  300 . .

04 36 .107 3 ! 513.

What would the balance of the account be at the end of the third year? 300 0 1 2 500 2 700 3 1 4 5 FV! 300.Uneven Cash Flows: An Example (2)  Suppose that you were to deposit the following amounts in an account paying 5% per year.

105  500.

75 . 37 .555.105  700 ! 1. .

monthly. or any other length of time The only change that must be made is to make sure that the rate of interest is adjusted to the period length 38 . quarterly.Non-annual Compounding Non    So far we have assumed that the time period is equal to a year However. there is no reason that a time period can·t be any other length of time We could assume that interest is earned semiannually. daily.

Non-annual Compounding (cont. you have compiled the following table for comparison. After investigating the local banks. In which bank should you deposit your funds? Bank First National Second National Third National Interest Rate 10% 10% 10% Compounding Annual Monthly Daily 39 .) Non Suppose that you have \$1.000 available for investment.

let·s change our basic FV equation slightly: i¸ ¨ FV ! PV© 1  ¹ ª mº In this version of the equation ¶m· is the number of compounding periods per year 40 Nm . at which bank will you have the highest future value? To find out.Non-annual Compounding (cont. you need to determine which bank will pay you the most interest In other words.) Non   To solve this problem.

) Non We can find the FV for each bank as follows: FV ! 1.000.Non-annual Compounding (cont.

365 ! 110516 . .000© 1  ¹ ª 365 º 12 ! 1104.000© 1  ¹ ª 12 º 0.10 ¸ ¨ FV ! 1. . Obviously. you should choose the Third National Bank 41 .10 ¸ ¨ FV ! 1.71 . 1 First National Bank: Second National Bank: Third National Bank: 0.110 ! 1100 .

F is the future value.Continuous Compounding    There is no reason why we need to stop increasing the compounding frequency at daily We could compound every hour. r is the annual rate of interest.. minute. continuously): F ! Pe  rt Here. t is the total number of years. and e is a constant equal to about 2. or second We can also compound every instant (i. P is the present value.e.718 42 .

Continuous Compounding (cont.)  Suppose that the Fourth National Bank is offering to pay 10% per year compounded continuously.000e   0 .10 .000 investment? F ! 1. What is the future value of your \$1.

This is even better than daily compounding The basic rule of compounding is: The more frequently interest is compounded. . the higher the future value 43 .1 ! 110517 .

If you plan to leave the money in the account for 5 years.)  Suppose that the Fourth National Bank is offering to pay 10% per year compounded continuously.000 investment? F ! 1. what is the future value of your \$1.000e 0.10.Continuous Compounding (cont.

5 ! 1.72 44 .648.