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Head, Face, Neck

Muscle Name Origin Insertion Action


Buccinator posterior alveolar process
modiolus
of maxilla Compress the cheek(s)
Depressor Labii Inferioris
mandible, between symphysis
skin of and
lower lip draws the lower lip downward
mental foramen and laterally
Levator Labii Superioris
medial 1/2 of infraorbitalupper
marginlip muscles elevates the upper lip
Medial Pterygoidsmedial surface of lateralinner
pterygoid
surface mandibular
closes
ramus
the lower jaw
plate of the sphenoid palatine
angle ofbone
the mandible (clenches the teeth)
Lateral PterygoidsSuperior head: lateral surface
neck ofofthe
themandibularchewing
condyle
greater wing of the sphenoid opens mandible (inferior)
closes the mandible (superior)
Temporalis temporal fossa coronoid process elevate mandible
Masseter zygomatic arch ramus of mandible back and forth of jaw
Sternocliedomastoid
manubrium of sternum mastoid process temporal bilaterally
bone flexes the neck
medial portion of clavicle

Location Only
Galia Aponeurotica
Frontalis
Galia Aponuerotica
Occiptalis
Orbicularis Oculi
Orbicularis Oris
Mentalis
Depressor Anguli Oris
Zygomaticus Major/Minor
Platysma
Genioglossus*
Styloglossus
Digastric*
Geniohyoid*
Mylohyoid*
Sternohyoid
(*) Forms floor of mouth

Back and Trunk


Muscle Name Origin Insertion Action
External Abdominal
anterior angles of the lower
Outer anterior half of iliac
supports
crest abdominal wall
Obliques eight ribs assists forced expiration
abducts and rotates trunk
Internal Abdonimal
lumbar fascia pubic crest and pectineal
supports
line abdominal wall
Obliques anterior 2/3 of the illiac crest assists forced expiration
abducts and rotates trunk
Rectus Abdominispubic crest & pubic symphysis
costal cartilages flexes trunk
med inf costal marginaids forced expiration

Location Only
Splenius
Erector Pinae
Scalenes
Diaphragm
External Intercostals*
Internal Intercostals*
Transverse Abdominis
(*) Fiber direction:
Sliding hands into front pockets = External
Sliding hands into back pockets = Internal

Upper Extremity (Extrensic)


Muscle Name Origin Insertion Action
Pectoralis Major medial 1/3 of clavicle lateral lip of bicipital groove
adducts
to humerus
cartilaginous attachments
theofcrest
upperof the greatermedially
tuberclerotates humerus
6 ribs flexion of the arm from extension
Pectoralis Minor outer surface of ribs 2-5 medial
or 3-5 or
aspect
6 of coracoid
depresses & downwardly rotates the
process of the scapulascapula
Rhombidoidus Major
spinous processes of T2-T5medial scapula from the retract
scapular
scapula
supraspinous ligament spine to the inferior angle
Rhombidoidus Minor
spinous process of C7 & medial
T1 margin of the scapula
retract scapula
at the medial angle
Trapezius external occipital protuberance
lateral third of clavicle elevation
ligamentum nuchae acromion upward Rotation
Latissimus Dorsi spinous process of T7-L5lateral lip of the intertubercular
adduction of humerus
iliac crest groove medial rotation of the humerus
downward rotation of the scapula

Location Only
Levator Scapulae
Serratus Anterior

Upper Extremity (Intrensic)


Muscle Name Origin Insertion Action
Biceps Brachii long head- supraglenoidradial
tubercle
tuberosity flexes the forearm at the elbow
short- tip of the coracoidbicipital
processaponeurosis supinates forearm from neutral
of the scapula
Brachioradialis upper lateral supracondylar
superior
ridgeaspect
of of styloid
flexes
process
the forearm at the elbow
humerus (between the triceps
of radius and pronates the forearm when supinated
brachialis muscles) lateral side of the distal supinates
1/2 to 1/3the forearm when pronated
of the radius
Bachialis lower 1/2 of anterior humerus
ulnar tuberosity elbow flexion (major mover)
both intermuscular septa coronoid process of ulna slightly
Triceps Brachii long head - infraglenoid posterior
tubercle of surface of thelong
olecranon
- adducts the arm, extends at the
the scapula process of the ulna shoulder, and a little elbow flexion
lateral head - upper halfdeep
of thefascia of the antebrachium
lateral - extends the forearm at the
posterior surface shaft of humerus elbow
medial head - posterior shaft of medial - extends the forearm at the
humerus elbow
Supraspinatus* supraspinous fossa uppermost of three facets abduction
of of arm (first 15-20°)
muscle fascia greater tubercle of humerus
Infraspinatus* infraspinous fossa middle facet of greaterexternal
tuberclerotation of the humerus
muscle fascia of humerus stabilizes the glenohumeral joint
Teres Minor* middle half of the scapula’s
lowest of three facets of lateral
the rotation of the humerus
lateral margin greater tubercle of humerusstabilizes the glenohumeral joint
Teres Major inferior, lateral margin ofcrest
scapula
of lesser tubercleassists in adduction of arm
assists in medial rotation of arm
assists extension from flexed pos.
Subscapularis* subscapular fossa lesser tubercle of humerus medial rotation of the humerus
stabilizes the glenohumeral joint

Extensor Capri lower third of lateral supracondylar


posterior base of 2nd metacarpal
extends and abducts hand at wrist
Radialis Longus ridge of humerus
Extensor Capri extensor origin on anterior
posterior
aspectbase of 3rd metacarpal
extends and abducts hand at wrist
Radius Brevis of lateral epicondyle of humerus
Extensor Carpi Ulnaris
anterior aspect of lateralbase of 5th metacarpalextends and adducts hand at wrist
epicondyle of humerus groove by ulnar styloid
Extensor Digitorum
anterior aspect of lateralexternal expansion to middle
extends&to all joints of fingers
epicondyle of humerus distal phalanges by four tendons
Supinator lateral epicondyle of humerus
proximal portion of anteriorlateral
supinates the forearm
supinator crest of ulna surface of the radius
Pronator Teres humeral head: lateral aspect of radiuspronates
at the forearm (during rapid or
upper portion of medial middle
epicondyle
of the shaft forced pronation)
ulnar head- coronoid process ulna weakly flexes the elbow
Flexor Capri Radialis
common flexor origin of bases
medialof 2nd & 3rd metacarpals
flexes and abducts wrist
epicondyle of humerus groove in trapezium
Flexor Capri Ulnaris
humeral head: flexor origin
pisiform,
of hook of hamate flexes and adducts wrist
medial epicondyle
Palmaris Longus flexor origin of medial epicondyle
flexor retinaculum andflexes wrist
of humerus palmar aponeurosis tenses palmar aponeurosis
Flexor Digitorum humeral head: flexor origin
tendons
of split to insert onto
flexessides
proximal interphalangeal joints
medial epicondyle humerus
of middle phalanges of medial
medial ligament of elbowfour fingers
(*) "SITS" shoulder muscles

Location Only
Deltoid
Coracobrachialis
Brachioradialis
Extensor Digiti Minimi
Abductor Pollicis Longus*
Extensor Pollicis Brevis*
Tendon of Extensor
Pollicis Longus*
(*) Form anatomical "snuff box"

Lower Extremity
Muscle Name Origin Insertion Action
Gluteus Maximus outer rim of ilium (medial IT aspect)
band (primary insertion)
powerful extensor of hip
dorsal surface sacrum and gluteal
coccyx
tuberosity of femur
laterally rotates thigh
sacrotuberous ligament upper fibers aid in abduction of thigh
Gracilis body pubis & inferior pubicmedial
ramus
surface of proximal
adducts
tibiathigh
inferior to tibial condyle
flexes knee
medially rotates tibia
Adductor Magnus anterior fibers: inferior pubic
adductor
ramustubercle adducts the thigh
oblique fibers: ischial ramus posterior fibers also extend and
posterior fibers: ischial tuberosity laterally rotate thigh
Sartorius anterior superior iliac spine
upper(ASIS)
medial surface body
flexes tibia
hip and knee
Rectus Femoris* straight head: anterior inferior
quadriceps tendon to patella
extends leg at knee
iliac spine flexes thigh at hip
Vastus Intermediusanterior lateral aspect ofquadriceps
the tendon intoextends
patella knee
femoral shaft tibial tuberosity
Vastus Lateralis* greater trochanter quadriceps tendon intoextends
patella knee
lateral lip of linea asperatibial tuberosity can abnormally displace patella
lateral intermuscular septum
Vastus Medialis* intertrochanteric line of quadriceps
femur tendon intoextends
patella knee
medial aspect of linea aspera
tibial tuberosity
Biceps Femoris (Long)
upper inner quadrant of styloid
posteriorprocess of headflexes
of fibula
and laterally rotates knee
surface of ischial tuberosity extends hip
Bicepts Femoris (Short)
middle third of linea aspera
lateral collateral ligament
flexes
andand laterally rotates knee
lateral supracondylar ridgelateral
of femur
tibial condyle
Semitendinosis** upper inner quadrant of upperposterior
medial shaft of tibia
flexes and medially rotates knee
surface of ischial tuberosity
below gracilis extends hip
Semimembranosus upper outer quadrant of medial
posteriorcondyle of tibiaflexes
belowand medially rotates knee
surface of ischial tuberosity
articular margin extends hip
Tibialis Anterior upper half of lateral shaftbase
of tibia
of 1st metatarsalextends and inverts foot at ankle
and interosseous membrane holds medial longitudinal arch of foot
Extensor Digitorumupper two thirds of anterior
extensor
shaft expansion of extends
lateral toes and extends foot
Longus of fibula four toes at the ankle
Fibularis Longus upper two thirds of lateral plantar
shaft aspect of base plantar
of flexes and everts foot
of fibula , head of fibula 1st metatarsal
Fibularis Brevis lower two thirds lateral shaft
tuberosity
of of base of flexes and everts foot
fibula 5th metatarsal supports lateral longitudinal arch
Gastrochemius medial: above med. condyle calcaneus
femur plantarflex the ankle
lateral: above lat. condyle of femur knee flexion (when not weight bearing)
stabilizes ankle & knee when standing
(*) Quadriceps Femoris
(**) Hamstrings

Location Only
Gluteus Maximus
Gluteus Minimus
Piriformis
Quadratus Femoris
Iliacus
Psoas Major
Pectineus
Adductor Longus
Adductor Brevis
Tensor Fascia Lata
"Illiotibial Band"
Extensor Hallucis
Extensor Hallicus Longus
Soleus
Plantaris
Tibialis Posterior*
Flexor Digitorum Longus*
Flexor Hallucis Longus*
(*) "Tom, Dick and Harry" muscles
er lip downward

ndible (superior)

es the neck
tates trunk

tates trunk

es humerus
rm from extension
ownwardly rotates the

n of the humerus
tion of the scapula

arm at the elbow


arm from neutral

arm at the elbow


orearm when supinated
orearm when pronated

major mover)

the arm, extends at the


a little elbow flexion
ds the forearm at the

ds the forearm at the

rm (first 15-20°)

on of the humerus
glenohumeral joint
of the humerus
glenohumeral joint
ction of arm
al rotation of arm
on from flexed pos.
n of the humerus
glenohumeral joint

bducts hand at wrist

bducts hand at wrist

dducts hand at wrist

oints of fingers
rm (during rapid or

aponeurosis
l interphalangeal joints

d in abduction of thigh

s also extend and


y displace patella

rally rotates knee

rally rotates knee

dially rotates knee

dially rotates knee

verts foot at ankle


ongitudinal arch of foot
nd extends foot

and everts foot

al longitudinal arch

when not weight bearing)


e & knee when standing