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find a material plane called the octahedral plane, where the stress state can be decoupled into dilation strain energy and distortion strain energy1. On the octahedral plane, the octahedral normal stress solely contributes to the dilation strain energy and is

σh = σ1 + σ2 + σ3 3

(1)

This is the average of the three principal stresses. For example, if σ1 = σ2 = σ3 = p where p is the pressure, then σh = p. The remaining stain energy in the state of stress is determined by the octahedral shear stress and is given by

τh =

1 3

(σ 1 − σ 2 )2 + (σ 2 − σ 3 )2 + (σ 3 − σ 1 )2

(2)

We expect yielding when the octahedral shear stress is equal to or exceeds a stress criterion value for failure for a given material, which is the octahedral stress criterion τ h 0 : τ h ≥ τ h0 τ h = τ h0 (failure) (at yielding) (3) (4)

The octahedral stress criterion for say 1080 Al is not likely to be reported in the literature so we need to relate it to the axial yield strength σ0. For a given material under axial load where σ1 = σ0 and σ2 = σ3 = 0, we assume that yielding occurs when the octahedral shear stress is equivalent to the octahedral stress criterion. This means we can combine Eq. 2 and 4 to get the octahedral stress criterion in terms of the yield strength:

τ h0 = τ h =

With σ 0 =

3 2

1 3

(σ 0 − 0)2 + (0 − 0)2 + (0 − σ 1 )2 =

2 3

σ0

(5)

τ h 0 , we expect to observe yielding in a material under 3-D loading when, as before,

**we combine Eq. 2 and 4 to get σ0 =
**

1 2

(σ 1 − σ 2 )2 + (σ 2 − σ 3 )2 + (σ 3 − σ 1 )2

(6)

**As a result, we can define the effective stress for von Mises theory to be equivalent to Eq. 6. σH =
**

1

1 2

(σ 1 − σ 2 )2 + (σ 2 − σ 3 )2 + (σ 3 − σ 1 )2

(7)

For dilation, stresses are the same in all directions and there is no shear. For distortion, stresses are different in magnitude and/or direction and so there exists shear stress. See full derivation in Popov, E.P., 1968 Introduction to Mechanics of Solids, 1st edition, Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ.

AspectRatio ® 1E s2 1 0.5 1 s1 -0. :s2 ® js1 + "################ y ::s2 ® j 4 . 7 in terms of the stress invariants (I1 and I2): σH = Failure is likely when σH ≥ σ0 For plane stress ( σ 3 = 0 ).3 s12 z 2 k { •!!!! •!!!! PlotA8 Eqn@@1DD@@1DD@@2DD. AxesLabel ® 8s1.5 -1 -0. Figure 1."################ y . Eqn@@2DD@@1DD@@2DD<.3 s12 z z> j 4 .5 -1 . we expect yielding when σ H = σ 0 and so (9) 1 2 2(I1 − 3I2 )2 (8) σ0 = 1 2 (σ 1 − σ 2 )2 + (σ 2 − 0)2 + (0 − σ 1 )2 1 σ 0 2 = 2 (σ 1 − σ 2 )2 + σ 22 + σ 12 1 σ 0 2 = 2 σ 12 − 2σ 1σ 2 + σ 22 + σ 2 2 + σ 12 2 2 2 σ 0 = σ 1 − σ 1σ 2 + σ 2 (10) The last form in Eq. . -2 3 ’ 3. 2 3 ’ 3=.5 0.3 s12 z z>> 2 k { 2 k { Eqn[[1]][[1]][[2]] 1 i "################ y j z js1 . 9s1.We can express Eq.s2] 1 i 1 i js1 . s2<. We can solve this and graph it in MATHEMATICA: Eqn = Solve[s1^2-s1*s2+s2^2Š1. 10 is an ellipse with its major axis along the σ1 = σ2 line. Mathematica code to plot octahedral stress failure for plane stress.4 .

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