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("INTRODUCTION, THE SOCIOLOGICAL IMAGINATION, & SOCIOLOGICAL METHODS", "SOCIOLOGICAL THEORY", "CULTURE & SOCIETY", "SOCILIZATION & SOCIAL INTERACTION")
Why is the act of drinking coffee symptomatic of globalization? a. b. c. The act shows how we are caught up in a complicated set of social and economic relationships stretching across the world. The act unites us with the millions of others who start their day with a cup of coffee. The act increases an individual’s sense of connectedness with people of other races, ethnicities, and national backgrounds from all over the planet. Drinking coffee is simply drinking coffee and does not involve globalization.
John recently finished a research project studying the inner workings of a Chicago street gang. In his analysis and write-up of the data, he discussed how his race, class, and gender affected his work. Specifically, he explained how the status differences between him and his research participants at times distorted the dialogue between them. Which sociological method did he most likely use? a. b. c. d. ethnography survey research an experiment historical analysis
Sociology can be considered a science because it does which of the following? The production and distribution of coffee require global transactions; the consumption of coffee, like many aspects of our lives, is now affected by worldwide social influences and communications. Today, feminist sociology is characterized by a focus on the intersection of a. b. c. d. women and men. functionalism and Marxism. microsociology and macrosociology. gender, race, and class. a. b. c. d. It uses systematic methods of empirical investigation to study a phenomenon. It uses haphazard methods of theoretical thinking. It involves the making of recommendations to policy makers. It is conducted by people with advanced professional degrees wearing white lab coats.
What is the definition of functionalism? a. the study of the function of a social activity to determine the contribution that the activity makes to society as a whole the study of the way people function in groups the study of the probability that any given individual has for upward social mobility the conservative response to the Social Reform movement
What is microsociology? a. b. c. d. the study of the internal dynamics of individual consciousness the study of face-to-face interaction in everyday life the study of children in social life another name for the sociology of computing b. c. d.
Who was W. E. B. Du Bois and what is his significance to sociology? What role do theoretical questions play in sociological research? a. b. c. d. They show the facts of a situation. They interpret what the facts mean. They make moral judgments about the collected facts. There is no role for theoretical claims in sociological research. a. b. He was the first black president of the Social Reform movement. He was the first African American to earn a doctorate at Harvard and the first researcher to focus sociologists’ attention on the social and economic underpinnings of African Americans’ problems. He was the first sociologist to be appointed to the cabinet; he was secretary for urban affairs in the first Roosevelt administration. He was a sociologist and chair of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) when Martin Luther King, Jr., led the civil rights movement.
What term did Max Weber use to speak collectively of the development of science, modern technology, and bureaucracy? a. b. c. d. rationalization organic solidarity functionalism social facts
Essentials of Sociology: PRACTICE EXAM #1 (Chapters 1-4)
cognition. It is dedicated to providing a scientific underpinning for the Liberal and Social Democratic political agendas. The autism epidemic is fueled by increasing levels of toxic chemicals in the environment. b. It started the field known as the sociology of death. It is the ability to “think ourselves away” from the familiar routines of our daily lives in order to look at them anew. the median size will be a safe. it is not the same for Catholics as it is for Protestants. b. c. order more of the mean shoe size because this will take into account the range of possible shoe sizes order mostly the median shoe size because in a distribution with extreme values (e. but he knows that keeping statistics on customer demand for different shoe sizes will help him economize by buying more of the sizes that will sell the best. Which type of question is the following: “What accounts for the decline in the proportion of the population voting in presidential elections in recent years?” a. A researcher would know she had formulated her research problem precisely enough if her hypothesis a. d. Brimble wants to make sure he gets the most value for his investment when ordering the shoes he stocks in his shoe store. c. and societies. He has told you that most women buy a size 7 and most men buy a size 11. seemingly the most individual of acts. b. d. groups. emotion. d. Sociology is the study of individuals. middle-sized value order mostly the modal shoe sizes because that will take into account the sizes that will be most popular and fit the most customers find something more fulfilling to do than selling shoes c. suicide rates vary according to the social cohesion of groups. c. b. The autism epidemic is related to changes in the media’s depiction of illness and disease. Which of the following pieces of advice should you give him? a. Sociology is the study of human social life. b. b. were subsequently approved by her department chair made a causal claim referred to data contained in a random sample could be either supported or disproved with evidence Sociologists ask factual. He does not know whether to stock his store primarily with shoes that are customers’ mean shoe size. or customers’ modal shoe size. factual comparative developmental theoretical Why is Émile Durkheim’s study of suicide important to sociology? a. Essentials of Sociology: PRACTICE EXAM #1 (Chapters 1-4) 2 . b. d.g. d. The autism epidemic is being brought on by the increasing number of adolescents that are having children. It showed that the meaning of suicide varies across social groups. Mr. c. comparative. is socially influenced. It is the application of Liberal and Socialist political values to social scientific inquiry. d. and theoretical questions as they study the social world.. Sociology is a branch of the Social Reform movement. c. a. developmental. customers’ median shoe size. It is the worldview of Karl Marx. experiment survey life history participant observation Which of the following best captures the way your text defines sociology? Which of the following is a sociological theory aimed at explaining the rapid increase in the incidence of autism? a. d. c. and motivation. d. It showed that suicide. Which of the following research methods tests a hypothesis in a highly controlled environment? a. b. c. He plans to order shoes of all different sizes. The autism epidemic is related to changes in what parents consider acceptable child behavior. Sociology is the study of personality. It is the study of the way private troubles aggregate into public issues. shoe sizes 4 through 14). focusing on the industrialized world. It showed sociology to be superior to psychology in explaining human behavior.What is the sociological imagination? a.
a way of studying people firsthand using participant observation or interviewing Which of the following best captures the definition of the term globalization. each being used to check or supplement the material obtained from the others. a hypothesis conclusions the research design a research problem d. Surveys can help researchers understand behavior—the natural behavior people exhibit when they are unaware they are being studied. d. Sociology primarily attempts to catalog facts about society without analyzing them. Surveys can help researchers who are unable to obtain an adequate sample size learn meaningful things about their population of interest. is called a. c. sociologists are less likely to let personal bias influence their research. b. Sociology primarily attempts to understand and explain the impact of social forces. sampling correlation triangulation control Essentials of Sociology: PRACTICE EXAM #1 (Chapters 1-4) 3 . c. c. There is no standard for conducting sociological research. resource-rich nations of the “North” and the underdeveloped. sociologists can make sure a subject is telling the truth. Surveys can help researchers become aware of nuances of respondents’ lives and how those nuances are shaped by the contexts in which respondents are embedded. The social contexts of our lives consist of more than just random assortments of actions or events. b. b. the study of ethnicity. communication. c. there are regularities in the ways we behave and in the relationships we have with one another.Which of the following best reflects the definition of ethnography? a. d. b.. race. By working in teams. a. including the development of social and economic relations that stretch around the world d. What is usually the key strength of surveys? All research begins with a. b. de facto world language and ethnicity the decreasing monetary and social costs of international travel. b. c. d. memory. b. d. By asking numerous questions. d.g. This patterned nature of social contexts is what sociologists refer to as which one of the following? a. and personality. The best results can be obtained by making the questions posed as precise as possible and by gathering factual evidence before making a conclusion. perception. and so on. c. c. the Russian Revolution) and involving the analysis of documentary sources such as government statistics. and trade the widening gap between the wealthy. The process in which researchers often combine two or more methods in their work. resource-poor nations of the “South” the increasing interconnection of the local and global. including trick questions. the obliteration of local languages and cultural patterns resulting from the ascendancy of a single. b. structuration functionalism macrosociology social structure How does the text suggest sociologists can conduct good sociological research? a. Sociology primarily attempts to make moral pronouncements about ethics in society. Sociology primarily attempts to understand thoughts. Surveys can help researchers gather and quickly process data from a large sample of a population of interest so that the researchers can posit generalizations. to explain a type of human behavior during a certain time in history. After reading Chapter 1. as used by in the authors of your text? a. c. which of the following would you say best characterizes sociology’s main goal? a. and urban social relations in multicultural contexts questions that relate to the knowledge produced when sociologists link a current phenomenon to historical forces the study of something with a historical basis (e. d. newspapers.
d. globalization. c. The female propensity toward nurturing others is a learned behavior. d.Which of the following best represents a sociological understanding of “love”? a. d. marriage. meaning that for the first time since 1983. a high proportion of day-to-day encounters consisting of stranger-to-stranger contact. can be understood as a universal feature of human life. according to the text’s authors. the idea of romantic love is shaped by historical and social forces. New Zealand’s production of textiles has tripled since 1980. the level of inequality that characterizes this form of society? a. material cultures. gift giving. it is clear that Dr. of coffee beans. postindustrial cultures. prohibition of incest. Semiotics is the analysis of a. she will quickly be able to tell Jackie that these are all examples of: a. it is rarely connected to marriage. Falling in love is not an experience most people across the world have—and where it does happen. d. rather than exporter. verbal and nonverbal cultural meaning. The idea of romantic love did not become widespread until fairly recently in our society. Romantic love. share of global steel production has dropped significantly over the past 30 years. Based on this information. Elaborate courtship rituals increase population doubling time among humans and thus threaten the persistence of humans as a species. the United States has become a net importer. Brazilian coffee bean production has increased five-fold. c. Dr. Kavanaugh is describing a(n): a. c. d. O. Only in modern times have love and sexuality become closely connected. South Korea’s production of steel has doubled in the last decade and the U. Essentials of Sociology: PRACTICE EXAM #1 (Chapters 1-4) 4 . agrarian society pastoral society traditional civilization industrialized society In preparation for their Introduction to Sociology exam. If Georgia has been paying attention in class and reading the textbook. over 90 percent of its population living in cities and towns. b. According to the text’s authors. Males dominate females in human societies because of male genetic superiority. c. or buildings. b. Kavanaugh discusses a societal form that has a rapid pace of technological innovation. cultural relativism. b. In his Introduction to Sociology lecture. no inequality little inequality high inequality extreme inequality What is a signifier? a.S. premodern cultures. squeezing the United States out of its former rank as the number two exporter of finished clothing. For all but a tiny part of our existence on the planet. Wilson in his 1975 book. A signifier is any vehicle of meaning. c. Sociobiology: The New Synthesis? a. godly expression of human emotions. such as speech. bodily adornment. Which of the following best identifies. In many non-Western countries today. which of the following is an example of how Newly Industrialized Economies (NIEs) directly affect the United States’ economic health? a. c. d. d. and rules of hygiene. b. b. c. Love and sexuality have been closely connected since the Middle Ages. humans have lived as huntergatherers. not only physical traits. and in many other cultures it has never even existed. A signifier is an electronic sign. Jackie asks her classmate Georgia what all of the following have in common: language. b. and its association with marriage. Which of the following best captures the main argument of E. dress. but behavior as well. all of the above b. writing. Genes influence. cultural universals. d. A signifier is the meaning of a symbol. romantic love is seen as the natural. and a substantial degree of impact in citizens’ lives by the government and large-scale organizations. A signifier is the name given to the meaning of a spoken or written word. c. norms. b.
c. why can sociology no longer leave the study of developing nations to other disciplines? a. c. the seemingly irresistible spread of Western ways of life across the world. pastoral. d. political cohesion decreasing economic strength military inferiority increasing national pride a. What happened to destroy the forms of society (hunter-gatherer. c. the prohibition against incest the right to political protest a concept of individual rights and freedoms the idea of a teenager Essentials of Sociology: PRACTICE EXAM #1 (Chapters 1-4) 5 . They cite many different reasons for this phenomenon. a culture a subculture a society a cultural composite Which of the following is an example of a cultural universal? Kamal and his friends are discussing major global changes that have occurred over the past 200 years. The continued spread of the acceptance of the metric system has meant time and distance are measured differently now. c. c. compared to even three decades ago. b. agrarian and traditional/civilization) that dominated the whole of history up to two centuries ago? a. Anthropology fails to adequately conceptualize the nature of social change in the developing nations because it uses static. including the emerging global society) must study all the elements in the picture if it is to understand its subject matter. d. it must study and write about topics global consumers now demand. d. in particular. people’s perceptions of time and distance have changed accordingly. Which of the following is one of them? a. c. and if sociology is to maintain its share of publishing profits. Our perception of the world influences the language we use. d. b.According to the text’s authors. Our lives are increasingly and quickly influenced by events happening far removed from our everyday activities. Language determines human behavior. b. atheoretical models. d. c. Definitions of time and distance from different cultures are converging in a multicultural amalgam set of new. What is the claim made by Sapir and Whorf’s linguistic relativity hypothesis? a. globalized definitions of what these terms mean. The language we use influences our perception of the world. d. cultural relativism the cultural turn globalization industrialization What was colonialism? a. none of the above Which of the following best captures what the text’s authors mean when they refer to globalization’s “reordering of time and distance”? a. b. The global market for scholarly works favors works written about Third World nations. c. Since the discovery of quantum mechanical principles such as time dilation. d. the creation by the European powers of a network of colonies in ports of call along their trade routes the military conquest of African peoples by Europeans the process whereby Western nations established their rule in parts of the world away from their home territories the impact of trade with the Empire on the economies of the European powers Computer hackers could be said to be an example of which of the following? a. d. sociology (whose goal is to understand society. b. b. Because industrialized and developing societies have developed in interconnection with one another and are today closely interrelated. Some cultures can prosper without language. b. b.
. what is culture? a.industrialization cultural turn.. theater. c. clothes.cultural composite ethnocentrism. one-fourth one-third one-half two-thirds Which of the following accounts for the population size of pastoral and agrarian societies exceeding that of hunter-gatherer societies? a. national-level government the judging of other cultures by our own standards d. shoes. Which of the following pairs is a pair of opposites? a. b. d. provinces. b. are all part of: a. d. Culture consists of the values and norms of a society.” Sociologists ask how nature and nurture interact to produce human behavior. d.g. the United Nations) wherein the interests of multiple nations are balanced in policymaking a sense of identification with one’s nation that is expressed through a common set of strongly held beliefs a form of governance in which subunits of a nation (e. c. c. museums. d. material culture. norms. the percentage of adult Americans who smoke cigarettes today is _____ the rate of 1964.. Culture can be described as a “design for living. b. poems.. c. to the cars we drive.. d. Culture consists of the values. from the clothes we wear. states. as used by your text’s authors? a. cooking utensils. No sociologists today acknowledge a role for nature. symbolic culture.cultural relativism The task of social science is to do which of the following with the cultural diversity of the modern world? a. and material goods of a people. and territories) answer to. d. East Asia South America Western Europe Middle East As an indication of how cultural norms change over time. appreciate it and celebrate it describe it place it in historical context understand it Which of the following best captures the definition of nationalism. b.. tables. a practice of global-level governing bodies (e. c. c.. Essentials of Sociology: PRACTICE EXAM #1 (Chapters 1-4) 6 . b. d. c. popular culture. According to the text’s authors.The earliest civilizations (societies of a large size having cities. to the houses we live in. b. b..pastoral societies globalization.” was issued. c. Sociologists do not have a position. d. a. Pastoralism and horticulture provided for a more reliable supply of food.” Culture is the sum total of a society’s artistic expression—all the novels. dance.. manufacturing and a distinct apparatus of government) developed where? a. and so on. b. c. b. trade. and its beliefs about the kinds of conduct appropriate in everyday life.. Pastoralists and horticulturalists developed religious ideologies extolling large family sizes. when the first Surgeon General’s report. Culture is the material apparatus of everyday life—the chairs. “Smoking and Health. modern culture. What is the position of sociologists on the nature/nurture debate? a. its founding “myths” and ideals. and have less power than. Raising animals and gardening motivated pastoralists and horticulturalists to aggressively expand their territory and incorporate members of other groups in their path of expansion. agrarian societies. and coats that we use in our daily lives.g. all of the above The goods we consume. Sociologists believe that “biology is destiny.
c. when sitting alone in a room with the lights out. Children learn the ways of their elders. What people are talking about when they refer to “they”—for example. although choosing is difficult. d. social interaction. found in the fertile river areas of the Middle East. sex role learning. b. Much like children today. thereby perpetuating the values. so the cultures were based only on the spoken word. Once the paintings were cleaned properly. The adult-like features of children’s faces in medieval paintings were discovered to be a red herring. Changing patterns of family structure may mean that an increasing proportion of older people will live alone and a majority of such people will likely be women. c. The cultural settings in which we are born and mature to adulthood influence our behavior. given that women on average outlive men. socialization. In medieval times. it must always be done quickly. b. Why in the paintings of medieval Europe are children portrayed as little adults. d. d. b. b. Laws regulating access to Medicare benefits will change. People living in medieval Europe did not have a conception of a phase of development called “childhood. characterized by equality and small town life. fashion-conscious children in medieval Europe dressed as much like adults as they could. Learning the value of freedom is a critical aspect of being socialized in American culture. empires formed through conquest and the incorporation of other people. c. d. Annabelle tells her mother that sociologists suggest that social isolation will become a more serious problem in the future. b. most traditional (premodern) civilizations were: a. c. but that does not mean that humans are robbed of individuality or free will. with mature faces and the same style of dress as adults? a. who mimic the styles of teenagers and adults. Socialization teaches children that life in a consumer society is an endless menu of choices and that. norms. What role does socialization play in individual freedom? a. formed prior to the invention of the written word.According to your text. What is the generalized other? a.” The sense of the general values and moral rules of one’s culture. that you are not alone. “They’re going to put another supermarket in the mall. Socialization is essential to our sense of self-identity and our capacity for independent thought and action. genderization. gender socialization. c.” but rather only distinguished between infants and adults. Artists living in medieval Europe did not have the technical skills to portray the facial features characteristic of children. This learning process is known as a. Beliefs about aging and independence will change as the Baby Boom generation ages. c. In the course of socialization. each of us develops a sense of identity and the capacity for independent thought and action. rather than in the childhood games we now take for granted. evolution. Patterns of gender relations are changing as a result of higher rates of divorce and lower rates of remarriage. Annabelle calls her mother after a particularly engaging lecture in her sociology class on trends among the aging population in the United States. The learning of male or female roles takes place through a process called a. d. d. b. The “generalized other” is related to the concept of “the other” in literary criticism. The feeling you get. Children took part in the same work and play activities as adults. and social practices of their culture. What explanation does Annabelle give her mother for why sociologists think this will occur? a. Socialization teaches children the proper limits of freedom—when to play and when to obey. More people will be living in poverty in their later years because of government cutbacks in pension funding. d. sexualization. c. Essentials of Sociology: PRACTICE EXAM #1 (Chapters 1-4) 7 . b. natural selection. the children’s faces were recognizable as child-like by any modern standards. the young moved directly from a lengthy infancy into working roles within the community.
children are able to grasp highly abstract and hypothetical ideas. b. and the workplace the mathematical principle that any constant is equal to itself. b. b. the postoperational stage the formal operational stage the concrete operational stage the preoperational stage According to your text. d. Which of the following best captures the text authors’ definition of self-identity? a. b. the understandings people hold about who they are and their relationship to the world around them Which of the following is an agent of socialization? a. c. your astrological sign social class vacation destinations your family frequents year of birth In this stage of development. concrete operations. b. b. Parents tend to believe their reactions to male and female infants are the same. Groups or social contexts in which significant processes of socialization occur are called a. rather than a social context or ongoing social influence. a. context operations. self-consciousness other-consciousness selfishness the sensorimotor stage Weitzman’s study found that images of males outnumber images of females by a ratio of 11:1 (and including animals with gender identities. and not necessarily on concrete objects the socialization that occurs later in childhood and into maturity. What is the highest stage of cognitive development Clementine can possibly have reached? a. the media. d. Essentials of Sociology: PRACTICE EXAM #1 (Chapters 1-4) 8 . The Super Bowl is a single. ________ is accomplished when individuals see themselves as others see them. In the concrete operational stage. sensorimotors. Images of females outnumber those of males in the majority of children’s literature. boys and girls today are equally likely to show no gender preferences when selecting toys with which to play. the ratio is 95:1). FOX television network is a part of the mass media. d. d. c. and by the formal operational stage. According to recent research. which is one of the main agents of socialization in today’s society. c. d. or number. d. few depict boys in non-traditional roles. the main agents of which are peer groups. In George Herbert Mead’s theory of socialization. logical notions. c. c. Which of the following statements about gender socialization is correct? a. which of the following is one of the main sources of identity? a. b. agents of socialization. weight. even though they are markedly different. c.George Herbert Mead’s ideas have formed the basis of which general theoretical approach in sociology? a. the learning that occurs when the individual is able to begin making judgments based on abstract ideas. c. yearly event. children master abstract. are playing with clay. Children’s toy preferences depend on the cultural expectations of the society in which they grow up. symbolic interactionism Marxism functionalism postmodernism Clementine and her older brother. such as speed. d. While some storybooks today portray females as main characters. the FOX television network illness and dying the Pacific Ocean the Super Bowl b. children have no general understanding of categories of thought. c. d. Ted knows he can make Clementine think he’s being nice and giving her a greater portion by rolling his clay into a ball and rolling Clementine’s into a hotdog shape (even though really both portions are identical in volume). Ted. Parents are aware that they treat male infants differently than female infants.
the importance of sociobiology. peer groups. c. what is the difference between the “I” and the “Me”? a.000 school-aged children found that 50 percent of high school students and 25 percent of those in grades 5 through 8 communicate with _____ on the Internet. and work movies. Which conclusion is most likely to be drawn from the research on video game use among children? a. Anderson argued that when many blacks and whites interacted on city streets. d. c. b. this helped them to define the situation and allowed others to know in advance what was expected of them and what they could expect in return. the importance of psychopathology. d. a. Children begin to understand the overall values and morality according to which social life is conducted. the “Me” is the inner self who works out what the “I” actually needs. c. family. the emergence of a sense of self.According to George Herbert Mead’s theory of child development. and the urban system family. c. Children learn to be competitive and see others as rivals. d. only their closest friends their parents strangers their overseas relatives What are the main agents of socialization in contemporary society? a. b. videos. They must grasp the general values and moral rules of their culture. d. The “I” is the inner self who wants endlessly. b. compulsion of proximity response cries front regions versus back regions social roles and statuses According to Mead. Children learn how to use a computer keyboard. c. Class. Video games only have a socializing effect on children in the United States. Children can have fun at an early age and then focus on succeeding at school and work later in life. and Change in an Urban Community? a. of self-awareness. sociologists can learn more about how humans act creatively to shape their reality and illuminate the larger social systems and institutions of society. schools. Video games have no socializing effect on children. d. A 2006 study conducted on 170. the political system. Video games harm children’s achievement at school. By studying _____. The “I” is the private. the economic system. Essentials of Sociology: PRACTICE EXAM #1 (Chapters 1-4) 9 . Jean Piaget’s theory of child development is based on a. b. schools. d. c. The “I” is the unsocialized infant. the stages of cognitive development. the mass media. d. b. a. children in other countries are virtually free from the influence of video games. computers. the “Me” is the social self. d. children must understand the rules of play and notions of fairness and equal participation. radio. The “I” is the id. only their closest friends global information flows other cultures social interactions To learn organized games. the “Me” is the social self that others see. It is unlikely that video games cause a decline in school performance. and the internet newspapers. magazines. the “Me” is the ego. b. members of both groups obtained information about each other and brought into play information already possessed. b. inner self. b. an important skill throughout one’s life. c. Streetwise: Race. c. and television Which of the following is most conceptually central to the spirit of Elijah Anderson’s claims in the study. what is the importance of playing organized games at the age of eight or nine? a.
“Have a nice day. sociologists need to study the “background expectancies. b. c.. upon repetition. response cries. People naturally like to socialize with others. Societies that are located close together can make clear distinctions between themselves and their neighbors. b. ethnomethodology. a controlled study of nonverbal communication in a laboratory setting a study of role-playing a study of the taken-for-granted character of everyday interaction by disrupting conventional expectations of conduct appropriate to a given situation a study of something that appears on the surface to be quite sensible. They showed no reaction. exactly?. Garfinkel’s experiments in ethnomethodology. In a society such as our own. c. b.g. regionalization. Ekman’s experiments in facial muscle analysis.” and so forth). b. c. b. “Enjoy in what sense. Goffman’s experiments in conversational analysis. d. Businesspeople like the free food that is served at meetings. Marcie’s cues to the server are all examples of a. many of the people with whom we come in contact over the course of a given day are strangers. one emotion: happiness. why do people have a compulsion of proximity and a desire for copresence? a. c.” the student was to respond “Nice in what sense. “Enjoy your meal!” and you reply. After dessert. raising her hand out to the side of the table in order to indicate that she would be taking care of the bill.” “Which part of the day do you mean?. none of the six emotions. d. makes no sense in that space at all and can. d. with which we organize ordinary conversation. Passing By: Gender and Public Harassment. taken-for-granted cultural assumptions. Marcie made eye contact with and waved over the server. b. c. Duneier and Molotch conducted a conversation analysis in New York City. What is the technique we use to communicate to a stranger that we are not suspicious of or hostile to him or her and that we do not wish to avoid them? a. c. They tended to quicken their step and stare fixedly ahead. d. d. but actually. bad manners sex-role socialization of blue-collar and manual laborers male exploitation of the earth and its natural resources the larger system of gender inequality If a waiter says. c. when members of an isolated New Guinea community were shown pictures of facial expressions conveying six emotions. Goffman’s experiments in social interactions. d. d. They cried.” or the unstated. Which of the following is most representative of an experiment Harold Garfinkel would have conducted? a.Carol Brooks Gardner’s study. Marcie and Pat were out to dinner on a blind date. nonverbal communication. In a study by Ekman and Friesen. What did their analysis reveal about how white pedestrian women responded to black men’s complimentary remarks? a. d. b. Only through face-to-face interaction do people feel that they can learn what is really going on and become confident that they can impress their own views on others. all of the six emotions. Essentials of Sociology: PRACTICE EXAM #1 (Chapters 1-4) 10 . become really annoying According to Boden and Molotch. b. examined unwanted interactions women experience in public places and linked the harassment to which of the following? a. Garfinkel’s experiments in the 1960s asked student volunteers to engage a friend or relative in conversation and to insist that casual remarks or general comments be actively pursued to make their meaning precise (e. upon reflection. a hard stare a quick glance and then a look away a complete avoidance of the other person’s eyes a big smile and a quick “how-do-you-do” Garfinkel argued that in order to understand the way people use context to make sense of the world. they were able to identify a. They smiled. only half of the six emotions. c. exactly?” then you have used one of a. If someone said.
d. he maintains different email addresses for home and work. d. and body movements Social interactions are always situated in a particular time and space. Which term refers to how social life is organized in time and space? a. It is the study of the way different ethnic groups relate to science. In order to keep their esteemed reputation and their employees focused. mutual attraction. c. Human beings have a “compulsion to proximity. if individuals at a large party exhibit mutual awareness of one another’s presence. d. Michael is a 42-year-old attorney in a large. compulsion of proximity. c. interruptions.” or the need to a. the analysis of the ways in which we actively make sense of what others mean by what they say they mean. the back region the middle region the front region the stage region What is focused interaction? a. unfocused interaction. a form of mental interaction that includes facial expression. The formal role that Michael acts out at work. conversation analysis. d. perceive themselves as discrete social units. b. It is the study of the way people use back regions and front regions to negotiate encounters. conversations in a café voting patterns in presidential elections rates of drug use among college students cross-national infant mortality rates Essentials of Sociology: PRACTICE EXAM #1 (Chapters 1-4) 11 . Examining all facets of a conversation for meaning—from the smallest filler words (such as umm and ah) to the precise timing of interchanges (including pauses. Individuals directly attend to what others say and do. b. and overlaps) is called a.What is ethnomethodology? a. including keeping a strictly work-related email address. the examination of all facets of a conversation for meaning Individuals act out formal roles in the social occasions or encounters. Because Michael does not want to jeopardize his chances of making partner in the firm. It is the study of the variations in common forms of social interaction across different cultures. c. b. occurs in which region? a. According to Erving Goffman. it is called a. focused interaction. his firm has a very strict policy against sending personal emails from company email addresses. b. interactional vandalism. c. d. c. Some sociologists argue that there is no substitute for face-to-face interaction and that humans have a true need to interact with others in their presence. c. exclamations that demonstrate our controlled management of the details of social life. b. c. successful law firm. d. an encounter. b. d. Response cries refer to a. experience sexual intimacy. It is the study of the way people make sense out of everyday conversation. gestures. b. a form of social interaction that includes facial expression. the nonintrusive recognition of others. b. c. b. c. and body movements. focused interaction. Ethnomethodology studies which of the following? a. regionalization focused interaction interactional vandalism globalization “Front region” is a setting of social activity in which people seek to put on a definite “performance” for others. d. gestures. use whatever electronic means are available to communicate. meet up with one another in situations of co-presence. d.
traditional societies a. the end of life. c. Clock time a. b. d. Anderson showed how studying the way people use context when speaking with strangers on the street illuminates the larger social structures that influence our everyday conversations. a system for determining difficulty of. b. d. a. educational curricula based on students’ ages a contradiction between a child’s social sophistication and his or her year in school a system for keying children’s cognitive development with the grade they are enrolled in school a formalized peer group often only for males and usually only in small. Essentials of Sociology: PRACTICE EXAM #1 (Chapters 1-4) 12 . d. past and present. also racialized) structure of society. men dominate women in both public and private life. c. c. Anderson showed that when blacks and whites at a large party exhibit mutual awareness of one another’s presence they are also demonstrating the racial equality of the society in which they live. c. such as eye contact with strangers. _______ is a period of personal and sexual development that seems to be growing in importance. referring to the parts that actors play in a stage production. there are more men than women. varies by culture. c. Childhood Young adulthood Mature adulthood Old age Roles are socially defined expectations that a person in a given status or social position follows. which is itself linked to the economic structure of society. making possible the complex international transport systems and communications we now depend on. macro-level economic (and. women dominate men in both public and private life. d. The measuring of time by clocks is today standardized across the globe. d. where people act in front regions. Which of the following best represents how Elijah Anderson shows the link between microsociology and macrosociology in Streetwise: Race. studied in terms of time and geography. b. b. Anderson showed that the ways many blacks and whites interact on the streets of a northern city had a great deal to do with the structure of racial stereotypes. b. affects all societies. b. and grading schemes for. such as the larger background of gender hierarchy and systemic gender inequality. It is important to understand micro-level occurrences. Anderson showed how when individuals from urban communities across the globe were shown pictures of individuals conveying six emotions. The idea of social role originally comes from the theater. Roles are a. nonverbal communication. d. micro-level interactions on city streets to assumptions about individuals that are rooted in the larger. d. b. and Change in an Urban Community? a. in light of macro-level factors. c. old age. arguably. is most important in modern societies. socially defined. Anderson connected individual. and death—or when life has run its course the physiological changes associated with aging the daily routines necessary for maintaining physiological and social subsistence the various transitions individuals experience during their lives c. Class. they were able to identify which countries the individuals in the pictures were from. Which of the following best captures the definition of the life course? Which of the following best captures the definition of an age-grade? a. women have the same status as men in both public and private life.Men may feel more freedom than women in making eye contact with strangers in societies where a. was invented by Auguste Comte.
who was responsible for more than half of the cases of abuse? a. alert. How do people approach aging. They have a higher likelihood of staying married and having three or more children. As the elderly withdraw from their former roles. b. In a study of elder abuse in Boston. c. when economic conditions were not so favorable. and useful as they age. d. d. and useful as they age. d. ages 55 to 65 ages 65 to 74 ages 75 to 84 ages 85 and older This theory argues that it is functional for society to remove people from their traditional roles when they become older. an adult child a spouse a caretaker a physician Ageism is fueled by a focus on youth. b. according to disengagement theory? a. c. There is no direct relationship between activity level and physical or mental health. who presumably will carry them out with fresh energy and new skills. young adulthood.Why are the oldest old much less likely to have enjoyed the same advantages as the young old. the term third age is used to describe a. the young old came of age during the post–World War II period of strong economic growth and benefited as a result. a process of renewal in old age involving a new phase of education. and social d. Government legislation during the George W. b. Their education and careers began at an earlier time. Older people who are active and engaged in social life are less likely to remain healthy. c. d. b. c. the third transition people make over their lifetime. d. alert. a. activity theory. d. structural. they find it easier to adjust to retirement. Aging can be sociologically defined as the combination of ___________ processes that affect people as they grow older. cultural. such as stable employment and wealth in the form of a home. The elderly withdraw from their former roles. Older people who are active have a harder time maintaining strong friendship networks. elder abuse. or investments? a. c. People who disengage from all forms of paid employment earlier find it more difficult to adjust to retirement. and social biological. Both the American obsession with youthfulness and stereotypes that depict the elderly as lonely. New information technology reinforces these prejudices and leads many younger people to be dismissive toward their elders. b. b. social foundations of ageism. d. cultural. both of which are reflected in the media. What is the central argument of activity theory? a. and their preoccupation with their inner life and the prospect of dying are seen as normal and healthy and should be encouraged. Older people who are active and engaged in social life are more likely to remain healthy. Social Security payments were lowered for the oldest old in order to free up money for the vast number of young old Baby Boomers now collecting these benefits. as well as negative stereotypes. the period in middle age when many people switch careers and undergo many life changes. Essentials of Sociology: PRACTICE EXAM #1 (Chapters 1-4) 13 . from work to retirement. c. their preoccupation with their inner life and the prospect of dying are seen as abnormal and unhealthy and should be discouraged. infirm. c. psychological. These differences reflect cohort differences. and social cultural. biological. Today. c. the third stage in the life course. disengagement theory. and inflexible are examples of a. b. As people disengage from all forms of paid employment earlier. What age category does the term young-old refer to? a. Bush presidency prohibited these types of advancements for individuals over the age of seventy-five. and social psychological. savings. b. thereby freeing up those roles for younger people.
and this proportion is projected to steadily rise over the next forty years. b. c. The population will become more predominantly female as the proportion of men continues to decline. The population will become older as the proportion of the elderly increases. There has been a great increase in the proportion of the population over age sixtyfive. d. b. The population will become more middle-aged as the proportion of adults increases. d. the sources of social conflict between the elderly and society. d. how lifestyle and exercise improve one’s health. how well the elderly were integrated into the larger society. The second generation of aging theories emphasizes a. how an elderly person can play an active role in determining his or her own physical and mental well-being. The population will become younger as the proportion of children increases. the juvenile old (ages 55 to 64) the young old (ages 65 to 74) the old old (ages 75 to 84) the oldest old (ages 85 and older) What is the demographic change that will likely alter our society’s definition of the life course in the next fifty years? a. b. c.Which of the following is the fastest-growing group of the aged population in the United States? a. c. Essentials of Sociology: PRACTICE EXAM #1 (Chapters 1-4) 14 .
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