PUBLICATIONS OF THE UNIVKRSITY OF PENN;

Philology Literal
VOL

Archeology

A

PRIMER OF

MAYAN HIEROGLYPHIC
DANIEL G. BR1NTGN, AM.
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Hieroglyphics old,
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GINN & COMPANY
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MAX NI2MEYHR
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. 2 A PRIMER OF MAYAN HIEROGLYPHICS DANIEL G. LL. M.. " Hieroglyphics old. a S. for MAX NIEMEYER Agent for the Continent of Europe Halle. Germany .S. Then living on the earth.PUBLICATIONS OF THE UNIVERSITY OF PENNSYLVANIA SERIES IN Philology Literature and Archaeology VOL. Which sages and keen-eyed astrologers.D. ETC. Boston.A. PRESIDENT OF THE AMERICAN ASSOCIATION FOR THE ADVANCEMENT OF SCIENCE.^BRINTON. with labouring Won from the gaze of many centuries.M. U. and England Agents 7-13 Tremont Place.D.. PROFESSOR OF AMERICAN ARCHEOLOGY AND LINGUISTICS IN THE UNIVERSITY OF PENNSYLVANIA.D.. Canada. ? A. thought. Sc. Ill No.. ETC." KEATS GINN & COMPANY United States.

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rather than to summarize it. would express my thanks to the officers of the Bureau of American Ethnology.Bancroft Library PREFACE. for various facilities . In the following pages I have endeavored with the greatest brevity to supply the learner with the elements necessary for a study of the native hieroglyphic writing of Central America. and of the PeaIn conclusion body Museum of Archaeology. they have obligingly furnished me. diminish the use- work I as an elementary treatise. I believe. may be noted by vanced scholars fulness of the but they will not. This ad- explain various omissions which . The material is already so ample that in many directions I have been obliged to will refer to it. Washington. Cambridge.

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CONTENTS. THE MAYAN MANUSCRIPTS OR CODICES. FIGURES OF BIRDS. /. THE CODICES AS ASTRONOMICAL TREATISES. THE CALCULATIONS IN THE CODICES. 4. 5. FIGURES OF QUADRUPEDS.. THE RELIGION OF THE ANCIENT MAYAS Itzamna 24 25 29 .. 9. 8. ///. 7. ASTRONOMICAL KNOWLEDGE OF THE ANCIENT MAYAS. 72 10. . the Pole Star Of the Planet Venus 46 47 50 4. The Mathematical Elements. OR RITUAL CALENDAR. THE CODICES AS TIME-COUNTS." " THEORIES OF INTERPRETATION. THE COSMICAL CONCEPTIONS OF THE MAYAS PICTORIAL REPRESENTATIONS OF DIVINITIES. OCCUPATIONS AND CEREMONIES. 37 Kin ich Other Gods The Cardinal Points The Good Gods The Gods of Evil The Conflict of the Gods. RULES FOR TRACING THE TONALAMATL. 6. 13 1. God of Serpent Goddess Of Xmucane Of Ah puch.. Of the God of War Of Ek-Ahau and other 68 69 70 71 Black Gods. 9. THE COSMOGONY OF THE MAYAS. ALPHABETS " AND " KEYS. 7. 8. THE MAYA PRIESTHOOD. Introductory.. Growth Of the God 5. //. FIGURES OF REPTILES. The Pictorial Elements.. THE MAYAN METHODS OF COUNTING TIME. Representations of Itzamna Of Cuculcan Of Ek. 3. " PAGE GENERAL CHARACTER OF MAYAN HIEROGLYPHICS. 3. 6. of Death Kin ich Of Xaman Of Ghanan." .. 1. FANCIFUL ANALOGIES. 9 1 1 2. NUMERICAL AND ALLIED SIGNS THE RHETORICAL AND SYMBOLIC USE OF NUMBERS. Cuculcan 2. 74 76 V . 2. THE MAYAN NUMERAL SYSTEM 18 19 19 3. 11. TOTAL NUMBER OF REPRESENTATIONS. 31 32 34 1.

INSCRIPTION ON AN AMULET FROM OCOCINGO. DRESDEN CODEX. 2." Points The Directive Signs The Eye and 82 5. OF THE SUN. 4^ 5. 11. 131 131 .VI CONTENTS. AND KIN ICH. AUGURIES FROM THE NORTH STAR. DRESDEN CODEX." CHIAPAS INSCRIPTION ON A TABLET FROM TONINA. INSCRIPTION ON THE "TAPIR TABLET. 133 133 134 135 12. THE GOD OF GROWTH. THE " INITIAL SERIES" FROM THE TABLET OF THE CROSS. AND OF THE EAST. CODEX TROANO. AN ANALYSIS OF VAEIOUS GRAPHIC ELEMENTS. AND OF WAR. THE DIRKCTION COMPOS. GUATEMALA.. 6. THE HIEROGLYPHS OF THE DEITIES. CHIAPAS. 109 116 121 1. 7. 9. PALENQUE. 14. IN . CORTESIAN CODEX. THE DEAD YEAR. CUCULCAN MAKES NEW FIRE. 8. SUN. OF GROWTH. END OF ONE AND BEGINNING OF ANOTHER TIME PERIOD. 81 81 THE PiOPE* METHOD OF STUDYING GLYPHS. 10. DRESDEN CODEX. THE HIEROGLYPHS OF THE MONTHS. 132 132 . IV. IN 2. Ci. i. AND OF THE NORTH STAR. OF THE ITZAMNA. 127 128 3. the Atlatl and the Mimosa The " Constellation Band " The Signs for the Cardinal The " Cuceb. 129 . THE GODS OF DEATH. INSCRIPTION AN 136 . CHIAPAS. 7. THE SERPENT GODDESS. The Hand The " Spectacles" The Similar Figures Ear Crescentic Signs Sun and Moon Signs Supposed VariaThe Knife Signs The " Fish and Oystions of the Sun Sign ter" Sign The Sacred Food Offerings The Ben ik and Other Signs The Drum Signs The Yax and Other Feather Signs The Cross-hatched Signs Some Linear Signs and Dots Linear The "Cloud-balls" and the "Corkscrew Curl" Prefixes The "Tree of Life" The "Machete" and Signs for Union Similar Signs Supposed Bird Signs The "Crotalean Curve" Objects Held in the Hand The Aspersorium. 6. 17. 16. SACRIFICE AT THE CLOSE OF A YEAR. DRESDEN CODEX. . THE HIEROGLYPHS OF THE DAYS. 3. 137 138 139 139 140 . CODEX. The Graphic Elements. 13. INSCRIPTION ON A VASE FROM A QUICHE TOMB. CORTESIAN CODEX. FROM KABAH LINEAR INSCRIPTION FROM YUCATAN.vi'iis. DRESDEN CODEX. THE GOD OF GROWTH AND THE GOD OF DEATH. CORTESIAN V. 15. Specimens of Texts. THE GOD OF TIME BRINGS . 11 PAGE 78 1. THE GODS OF DEATH. WHICH THE GLYPHS ARE TO BE READ. DRESDEN CODEX.

Chiapas. 9 . Introductory. seem to me to be the most add from my own studies additional suggestions toward the decipherment of these unique records of aboriginal American civilization. and the important collections of casts. to sum up briefly what solid gains in this direction and to . Within the last decade decided advances have been made toward an interpretation of this curious writing.A PRIMER OF MAYAN HIEROGLYPHICS I. For these reasons I propose. i . and Western Honduras in other words. the ruined cities of Central The explorations among America undertaken of late years by various individuals and institutions in the United States and Europe. General Character of Mayan Hieroglyphs. One and the same hieroglyphic system is found on remains from Yucatan. Guatemala. Tabasco. tracings and photographs from those sites now on view in many of the great museums of the world. in all Central American regions occupied . but the results of such studies are widely scattered and not readily accessible to American students. in the present essay. are sure to stimu- late inquiry into the meaning of the hieroglyphs which constitute so striking a feature on these monuments.

231.IO at the MAYAN HIEROGLYPHICS." Verhand. on the other hand.8. differ only as we might expect from the variation in the material or the period. There seems an endless variety but this is of the writing are not exceedingly in the glyphs or in formation. (for. is a fatal error of method. indeed. The characters engraved on stone or wood. as many have done. I employ the adjective " Mayan" when " Maya. any longer from us the general tenor 1 In accordance with usage in this study. and confine branch of the stock resident in Yucatan. 1 It Conquest by tribes of the Mayan linguistic stock. north of Vera Cruz. Seler : " Es ist eine verhaltnissmassig geringe Zahl von Bildern und Grundelementen. and in the skill or fancy of the artist. GeselL. or painted on paper or pottery. In general character and appearance the Mayan is markedly different from the Mexican writing. presenting a much more developed style and method. They present analogies and reveal the early form of ered among many conventionalized figures. like arranged as with of our alphabet we form thousands of words If positively knew the meaning or often have several different meanwords. it has not been discov- the remains of any tribe not of Mayan affinities. 1887. characters . Although the graphic elements preserved in the manuscripts and on the monuments vary considerably among themselves. these divergencies are not so great but that a primitive identity of elements is demonstrable in them all. die in diesen Schriftzeichen wiederkehren. The Mexican manuscripts offer. a valuable ancillary study. they meanings ings) of a hundred or so of these simple elements. . to that speaking of the whole stock. Berliner Anthrop. because they are composite radicals. . variously made up of a number of the twenty-six letters of diverse significations. which occupied the valley of the river Panuco. none of the we inscriptions could conceal 2 of its contents. 2 This is also the opinion of Dr. but to take them as interpreters of Mayan graphography." in an adjectival sense. The simple elements numerous. has not been shown to prevail among the Huastecan branch of that stock. and.

F. etc." or. of the Bureau of Ethnology. cycles. them ces " in several editions. a pebble). Le Plongeon. Rep.THE MANUSCRIPTS. . a " is called a "glyph. The Mayan Manuscripts or "Codices" hieroglyphic writing is preserved to us on two classes of remains painted on sheets of native paper. Prof. It will I I may the be indefinitely numerous. and Mr. which is in Paris and the Codex Dresdensis. as soldiers. They have all been published with great care. Maudslay has informed me that according to his estimate there are in the Dresden Codex about seven hundred. 2. probably parts of the same book. Each separate group of characters the French writers. readily be understood that the composite characters Mr. . p. pottery." the latter a Maya word applied objects arranged As the glyphs often have rounded outlines. Holden found that in all monuments portrayed in Stephen's * Travels in Central America there are about fifteen hundred. Desire Charnay. W. 2 Among those who have ing material for the study of the especially merited the thanks of archaeologists in collectmonuments are M. the Mayan script has been sometimes called " calculi- form writing " (Latin. in Dresden. calculus. which were inscribed on both sides and folded in the manner of a screen and engraved or 2 painted on stone. or plaster. 1 " Studies in Central American Picture Writing. and the : . years. They are usually spoken of as "codiunder the following names the Codex Troanus and the Codex Cortesianus. by to katun. Maudslay. the original of which is at Madrid the Codex Peresianus. P. none of them perfect. A. when he makes public his material. There are reasons to believe that the two first mentioned were written in central Yucatan. Of the former only four examples remain. The two former and the two latter resemble each other more closely than they do either member of the other pair. letters. wood. like the cross-section in rows. of a pebble." in First An. . some of . Mr. about ten inches The wide and of any desired length. Putnam and I shall hope to add Dr. 210.

the competent editor of the Codex Peresianus. Pousse. the mathematical portions of the essays of Professor Cyrus forerunners 1 The Peresianus has been supposed by some to have been written in Guatemala by others. are of great utility and will be frequently edition of the In France. 1887. of others of the first importance. W. issued in 1880 under the supervision of Dr. and ritual were almost identical with those of the Mayas. those by Dr. whose early death was a severe loss to this branch of research. it cannot be said that the serious study of the Mayan hieroglyphs dates earlier than the faithful Dresden Codex. Forstemann himself. and M.) gives several cogent reasons for believing that the Dresdensis written in or near Palenque. or near Tabasco. in Arch. June. 87 sqq. both it and the Dresdensis have been considered of Tzental origin. mythology. was .. Although Lord Kingsborough had included the Dresden Codex in his huge work on " Mexican Antiquities" and the Codex Troanus had been published with close fidelity by the French government in 1869. The earlier of Bollaert are wholly fanciful. See " Les Annotations Pousse.12 last MAYAN HIEROGLYPHICS. The most important studies of the codices have been published in Germany. Tonina and others. and we know that their culture. E. Besides the excellent writings of Dr. A. In our own counspeculations try. Professor Leon de Rosny. whose investigations have yielded valuable results." in the same. In England no one has paid much attention to it but Mr. the Count de Charencey. de la Soc. adjacent to it . therefore. P. librarian-in-chief of the Royal Library of Saxony. referred to in these pages. and Paul Perrin. deserve especial mention. 1 Ococingo. Forstemann . Schellhas and Dr. I shall treat of them. III. on the south. who spoke a dialect very close to the pure Maya of Yucatan they were the descendants of the builders of the imposing cities of Palenque. Amer. Europeennes du Codex Peresianus. Forstemann. Alfred P. as practically one people. (Entzijf. of Berlin. was occupied at the time of the Conquest by the Tzental-Zotzil branch of the Mayan stock. p. Seler. 1885. E. 126. Maudslay. two in This district and that of Chiapas. p.

have maintained that they are mainly or wholly ideographic the French school." I. but we constantly meet with merely as representing the sound of its name. 3. ington." and have explained it so fully. and Seler. The contributions of Dr. and also in the quarter some of his most thoughtful contributions have appeared and in the ProFour of his articles bear ceedings of the. IV. Holden's paper on Central American picture-writing. in the same manner as are confessedly the Aztec picture-writings. Dr. Schellhas and Dr.REBUS WRITING. Dr.International Congress of Americanists. to them by these numbers. Theories of Interpretation. The articles of Professor Thomas. have regarded them as largely phonetic. The theories which have been advanced as to the method of interpreting the Mayan hieroglyphs may be divided into those which regard them as ideographic. . Holden are contained in the annual reports of the Bureau of Ethnology. and in 1 Edward S. dollars. The German writers. 1 886 and later. and others. de Ros'ny. and . headed by the Abbe Brasseur. III. is that while chiefly ideographic. 1891. they are occasionally phonetic. as The four Codices can be obtained by placing an order with one of the leading The four cost about one hundred importers of foreign books in New York City. 13 Thomas are worthy of the highest praise and useful suggestions can be found in Charles Rau's article on the inscriptions of Palenque. Seler will be found in the numbers of the Berlin Zeitschrift 1 fur Ethnologic. In these delineations of objects which are not to be understood as conveying the idea of the object itself. Forstemann has likewise published in the Centralblatt filr Bibliothekivesen. as phonetic. applied to this ''chanting arms " the term ikonomatic writing. and Mr. I refer the general title. Zeitschrift. Cresson/Dr. which I have defended. Le Plongeon. either in whole or in part. de Charencey. Professor Rau. or as mixed. in which they have been followed in the United States by Professor Cyrus Thomas. The study of the German writers is indispensable. in which remote . II." or in the " I have of European heraldry. Forstemann. The intermediate position. Washwhere they can be readily consulted by American students. " Zur Entzifferung der Mayahandschriften. Schellhas. just as in our familiar "rebus writing. .

like that of the letters of the Spanish alphabet. and in 1883. written about It has been twice 1570. has been made by refer the reader to I would what various writers." Books of Chilan Balam. The attempt to frame a real alphabet. Relacion de las Cosas de. that the characters he employed for this purpose were those used in the native manuscripts. Maya-Tzental and thence carried 2 to the Chords." Society. 1890. 1890. Twenty years later. my Essays of an Americanist. one failed to be of much without meaning. that a native scribe peculiar was able to give a written character for an unfamiliar sound. and. p. is As to how far this or any Philadelphia. under On the the competent editorship of Juan de Dios de la Rada y Delgado. in Bishop Landa's important work. secondly." and All these are reprinted in Coates. who. 2 especially This alphabet was extended by de Rosny. Though not without considerable value in certain directions." "The Ikonomatic Method of " The " The Writing and Records of the Ancient Mayas . Americanist" that I need not enter upon nection. in my Essays of an Americanist. Quiches. but it has value as evidence of two facts. relative merits of the two editions.Yucatan. I reproduced a photographic fac-simile of it from the original MS. by means of which the hieroglyphs could be read phonetically. in the Proceedings of the American Philosophical . This is proof that some sort of phonetic writing was not unknown. defined twenty-nine 1 The essays to which I particularly refer are " : The Phonetic Elements in the Graphic Phonetic Writing . that the signification seems to me to have been fixed etc. by Porter is phonetic system stock. at Paris." published Systems of the Mayas and Mexicans. The the first copy of Landa's alphabet published in the United States was by myself American Historical Magazine. 1887. I can only say district. by the Abbe Brasseur. must be carefully read by every student on this branch. is found in the Mexican manuscripts. 1870. I do not think it worth while to dwell upon it here. 1864. It use to modern investigators. published. consistent with the known differences of dialects in the Mayan & a question which space does not permit me to enter in the upon. first. but in it my " Essays of an 1 further in this con- have there written. see my "Critical Remarks on the Editions of Diego de Landa's Writings. and more fully at Madrid. The has first is that preserved in the work of Bishop Landa. in 1884. first by the Abbe Brasseur. 242.14 it MAYAN HIEROGLYPHICS.

Paris. that there are also ideographic and pictorial characters as well as phonetic. His theory was that the glyphs stood for the names of pictures 1 worn down to a single phonetic element. he 2 believed. however. Le Plongeon's " Alphabet" was published January. folio. for . FIG. Dr. i.Brasseur's whimsical speculations are in his introduction to the Codex Troano. 1 Two Maya " Ancient years later. The Abbe. New York. Cresson. published by the French government in 1869. but added nothing to corroborate the correctness of the interpretations. A. letters." con- This he applied to taining twenty-three letters. Le Plongeon published an Hieratic Alphabet according to Mural Inscriptions. Another student who devoted several years to an attempt to reduce the hieroglyphs to an alphabetic form was the late Dr. 5 with numerous variants from the Codices and inscrip- tions. The chief work of De Rosny on the subject is his Essai sur le Dechiffrement de r Ecriture Hieratique de r Amerique 2 Centrale. in the Supplement to the Scientific American.ALPHABETS AND KEYS. 1885. stood for a definite letter. Dr. the translating of certain inscriptions. Hilborne T. Landa's Alphabet. 1876. He fully recognizes. after a photograph from the original manuscript. with variants. Each sign.

t. /. shortly before lingual. which the author considered in every way complete. p. This element he conceived was consonantal. A. The author was one time attached to the In the American Anthropologist. to be read with any vowel. n. x. and the consonant was permutable with any of its class. that is. in 1892. Cresson had left with me a full exposiHis enthusiasm was unbounded. //. and the sacrifices he had made in the pursuit of archaeological science merit for his memory a kindly recognition among 2 students of this subject. alphabetic or syllabic. 1893. o. D. Guatemala. and in July. In 1892 Professor Cyrus Thomas. palatal. By means of it he offered a volume of ! codices little from the inscriptions and are in the highest degree fanciful. tz. or letters. v. pub3 In theory. also for a large sounds which he claimed to have recognized. Washington. either prefixed or suffixed. ch. by F. to the American Association for the Advancement of Science several translations from the Codex Troano. . /. it is the same as Dr. that the elements of the the " glyphs were . 10 sqq. c. In the article referred to he gives the characters for the following letters of the Maya alpRabet: b.employed as true phonetic elements. etc. and can have They interest other than as a warning against the intellectual interlinear translations aberrations to which students of these ancient mysteries seem peculiarly prone. m. with variants. et la Palenque Civilisation is Maya (Paris. th. out ten An alphabet of twenty-seven characters. lished a detailed description and applications of it. as -a On this basis he submitted. C. Previous to this. 1 888). announced with considerable emphasis that he had discovered key" to the Mayan hieroglyphs. h. c\ dz. Dr. was published in 2 1888. de la Rochefoucauld. of the Bureau of Ethnology. he had announced his method it in the journal "Science" and claimed that he had worked 1 years before. k. his death in 1894. z . At the time of his unexpected death. 1 number of syllabic With such an tion of his theory. The "Alphabet phonetique at des anciens Mayas " French legation 3 in on pp. Cresson's.l6 MAYAN HIEROGLYPHICS.

and of objects of art or utility and. or fantastic beings. shall refer to these as. plainly intended elements according to some system for the preservation of . the fact that this key has wholly failed to add any tangible. one would expect re'sults . Pictures or figures of men. . for graphic 3. prompt but. aside from the doubtful character of " " many of his analyses. and the same may be said of all the attempts mentioned. numerals. of ceremonies or transactions. apparatus. animals.ALPHABETS AND KEYS. knowledge. Simple or composite characters. Maya : Arithmetical signs. if it I/ to reach had any value. and (3) the Graphic Elements of the Mayan I hieroglyphic writing. (i) the Mathematical Elements. (2) the Pictorial Elements. valuable addition to our knowledge of the and important inscriptions is enough to show its uselessness . and numerical computations. manuscripts and of almost any of the inscriptions will satisfy the observer that they are made up of three classes of objects or elements slight inspection of the A 1. . 2.

and of nine out of ten of the inscriptions. therefore. I. and values of the numbers themselves. proceeding by multiples of twenty up to very large sums. 1882). this world. No. or pottery. . and when we find with almost equal frequency the signs for days and months associated with these numerals. Here. we become certain that in these records we have before us time-counts true of all some sort of ephemerides or almanacs.1 8 MAYAN HIEROGLYPHICS. to say here that they employed. 37-50 (Philadelphia. II. But did the future ? this incessant Was it time-counting refer to the past or to history or was it prophecy ? Or. will answer these vital questions. In the same work I have quoted from original sources the information that the fives up to fifteen were represented by single straight lines and the intermediate numbers by dots. passing beyond was it astronomy ? Was it mythology or ritual. constitute a striking feature of such remains. counting . This is the Codices. the epochs and the eons of the gods ? Perhaps the disposition. stone. therefore. whether on paper. 1 See my Library of Aboriginal American Literature. This has also been discovered independently by several students of the manuscripts. is a first and most important step gained toward the solution of the puzzle before us.Counts. Introduction. pp. work I have explained the numeral system in vogue the ancient Mayas. The Codices as Time. I : The Maya Chronicles. once comprehended. sequence. In another their system was vigesimal. The frequency and prominence of these elementary numerals in nearly every relic of Mayan writing. and forcibly suggest that by far the majority of them have one and the same purpose. that is. as well as the etymology of the terms among 1 It will be sufficient. The Mathematical Elements.

154. . 160. important discovery of Dr. Pineda makes the multiplier 400 instead of 20. however. has repaired ancient negligence. Forstemann 3. The rection first Numerical and Allied Signs. 3. No restore the numerical notation of the aboriginal arithmeticians. Gramatica de la Lengtta Tzel-tal. one kinchil or 8000. . either Spanish or native. 19 The Mayan Numeral System. sqq.000. Modern sagacity. 20 bac-baquetics one mam (grandfather) 20 mams one me chim (grand20 medium one mucul mam (great-grandfather). some ornamental given in design. probably selected as a rebus but the the species I have not found. though the terms differed one tab (cord or net-ful) 20 tabs one bac . 20. It has a number of variants. 2 The name of 1 object portrayed is evidently a shell.000. . tell us little about Maya mathematics.000.ooo.. almost to a certainty. They say the computation ran thus: 20 units 20 kal 20 bak = one kal. in which he is certainly in error. tzotzceh. The scholar who has worked most successfully in this field is Dr. Unfortunately. The ordinary terms are///y and xicin. 2.000.200. the editor of the Codex of Dresden. mother). the same. o. for . = one^z<r. = 1 64. Forstemann. 400. referring the student to his own writings for their demonstration. It is 2 in Fig.ANCIENT ARITHMETIC. 20 pic 20 calab ' = one calab. he discovered the system of notation of high Vincente Pineda. and we can. . and I shall introduce a condensed statement of his results. 64.one bafc. Next. 20 kinchil = one alau. in this di- was that of the sign for the naught or cipher. 1887). doubt in the numerical notation there were special signs each of these higher unities but neither Bishop Landa nor the native writers who composed the singular " Books of Chilan Balam " have handed them down. 20 bacs one bac-baquetic (bundle of bacs).ooo. 2. pp. the old writers. The Tzental system was units somewhat: 20 = = = = = . (Chiapas.

i X .

NUMERICAL SIGNS. 3 another also employed under certain circumstances for 20 is shown Fig. 246." as catalogued by Mr. and 7200. No. fied No. The highest is N.ft j-*> That generally used for 20 was identified by several students. Maudslay. 57- . This was identi. Anthropologist > Vol.bak. 6 and 7. The next step was the identification of the graphic signs for that on " Stela 1 the higher unities. 2. No. de France. which ascends to 1. the last day of the month. 360. IV. Forstemann was en- *. are not established. p. Nos. Forstemann has given cogent reasons for recognizing them respectively in the two 4. it is used to designate the particular day which falls on the 2Oth of the month.414. t K(<^I S-o corresponding to the ' J^ l^(. 7200. 3. VI. native kal. 21 An them also the examination of the mural inscriptions showed that on same plan for the expression of high numbers had been employed. Thomas states that it is used with month symbols only where the month (of 20 days) is complete or follows one completed. that is. and Dr. J / 3. so certainly but Dr. It is shown in Fig. There is some doubt whether No. 1887. 1 cana. Zeitschrift fur Ethnologie. Ouirigua. 20. 3. 360. and Palenque FIG. and pic." " final. first by Pousse. Archeology. p. 1887. Amer. 3. shown Fig. 165).800 days. ~^$\ 4-. 2 According to Pousse (Archives de la Soc. 4 is not " an element of union. and the pic. It is written as an affix to the month sign. or 3930 years of 360 days." rather than of 20." Amer. p. abled to interpret with accuracy the computations IT r~ on the monuments devel- \22jS^ (% \^v)j Maya Numerals. 2. . perhaps a variant of it. and has therefore the sense of " last. No. Forstemann. Biologia Centrali-AmeriPart IV. poing incidentally the remarkable fact that the inscriptions of Copan contain as a rule higher numbers and are therefore presumably of later date than those of Palenque. Entzifferting. and Maudslay. Compare Seler. 2 independently. later by Seler. 4 is The signs for the bak. from Copan.

10. 1891. The corresponds to one-third of an ahau katun. 18.720 days. No. 4." assigning the reasons for these identifications. is an old cycle of 20 years of 360 days. . This 24 years of 365 days. One of these is a small right or oblique cross. Higher signs than these . = = 2920 days. in the direct numerical scale have not but such plausible reasons have been yet been ascertained advanced by Dr. It represents the katunic cycle of 52 years of 365 days each. fourth. 13 There are also a series of other signs evidently connected with the numerals. 13 an old year of 360 days. 8760 day s?-''The third is No.980 days: '-The second is No. shown No. 12 Calendar Signs. the precise value of which is yet undetermined. Forstemann for assigning calendar values to certain other signs that they should be added in this description of the numerals. or sometimes two " Zur Maya-Chronologie. 8. 4. The first is that shown in Fig. No. 9. This is taken to be the sign of the ahau katun. 12 means an old katunic cycle of 52 years of 360 7200. 1 ^ 11 FIG. = ^ = 18. Forstemann's article. and No. 1 1. appeared in the Berlin Zeitschrift fur Ethnologie. 1 Dr.22 MAYAN HIEROGLYPHICS.

Those for high numbers brought forward by Brasseur. and also the sign No. (See Fig. Nos. To this I shall recur on a later page. XV^V-t/vML ' .THE COSMIC SIGN. 1-4. This could readily be chosen to express ikonomatically chun. 6. (London. )C Numeral Signs. The character b closely resembles the day-sign c/nten. Nos. x FIG. of which are held to represent union. " the beginning. both 5. like is also an 6" placed lengthwise. P. I. the first. 23 arcs abutting against each other. : 2 A. in indicate a change or alternation in the series presented of days or years. Fig. 5. It is usually by the side of a single dot or unit. change of opposite sense is the sign No. Archeology . Maudslay has offered reasons for believing that the character in Fig.Americana . Text. Part II. In seems to be a multiplier with the value 20. connected or not. 3. Of an This list exhausts the mathematical signs so far as they have been ascertained with probability. This 2. further Etude sur Manuscrit Troano. Maudslay pp. have no 1 evidence in their favor. 220. 'H>O. or between two such." and my studies convince me that it repeatedly must be so understood. understood to be a sign of series of years or alternation or cycles. Mr. He p. a. 4. it it would Of somewhat similar value are the calendar signs C/2. . 1890). 40-42 Biologia Centrali. "stands for the numeral 20 in a certain class of 1 ations.) certain places. mural le 2 inscriptions. 3. others. 5. 4. the spiral.

as I shall show later." and is merely a superlative. " plained as a phallic emblem. Stewart Culm. It is thus evident that a has or calendar meaning. 13. Maudslay calls the ology. has called Since the above was written. and/. and 'that it with a double both these sets of numerals are at times replaced by the sign a. As a character itself. pp. giving the composites d. The cross-hatching some numerical is the " " upon it means. The Rhetorical and Symbolic Use of Numbers. is exnature of the computations they preserve. and this explains their appearance in non-mathematical portions of the Codices and inscriptions. of superlative excellence. upper and idea of the fundamental dual principles of existence. 49-59 (Philadelphia. . One or a. etc. Mr. from various Codices. It may very well mean 20. as is seen by the examples to which Mr. 1 University of Pennsylvania. it cosmic sign. out that the character b is not unfrequently united with almost alone of the mural glyphs is found (b} set of numerals attached to it as in c. e. convey the male and female. as that is the number conveying completeness or perfection in this mythThat it appears on what Mr. " is Another combination. Director of the museum of the my attention to the fact that the cross-hatching on the "cosmic sign" would. especially Chinese symbolism." conveying the idea of the world or universe as a whole. belonging most is the following I >te8!jr where the " cosmic sign united as a superfix to the pax and the flint. strong. In the old Maya language we find that certain numbers were used in some The two most commonly employed were 9 and a rhetorical sense. mighty. likely to a similar class." 2 Thomas 4. Maudslay refers. The same interpretation may quite possibly apply in the Mayan symbolism. in Oriental. 1893)." and by It has usually been exas " tortillas.24 points MAYAN HIEROGLYPHICS. lower. These con- veyed the ideas of indefinite greatness. 2 See my Native Calendar of Central America. 1 " Initial Series " plained by the of glyphs (which I consider terminals).

based on several bien adventurado . these numbers also stood independently . Landa. The Maya system was 1 a complicated one. Aguilar. odor from something burning." hun miatz.SACRED AND SYMBOLIC NUMBERS.. Motul. 25 " of infinity. Pio Perez. Why a symbolic or superlative sense was attached to such numbers is a question too extensive to discuss here. 13. " cosa eterna. the most distinguished. and having learned that these records are mainly time-counts." tive sense. In another connection we find maay. etc. still la and as the month of 20 days of completeness and perfection was divided into four equal parts of 5 days each. but offers no evidence that the Mayas entertained the Nahuatl myth to which this refers. I have touched upon it in my Native Calendar of Central " America. The " demon Tzental mythology in the time of with thirteen powers" was Nunez de numerals occasionally employed in 1 4. were assigned. A " etc. and in an article on The Origin of Sacred Numbers" in The American Anthropologist. which has been supplemented by the researches of modern authors." owing to the vigesimal method of numeration." bolon dzacab\ and The dictionaries give: " bolon pixan. by which markets. the next question which arises is : How did the Mayas count time? About this we have considerable information from the works of the Spanish writers.. " twenty. 1894.. pp. April. and 7. etc. e. etc." i. Thus. Other a symbolic sense were 3. The Mayan Methods of Counting Time. All these occur in the Codices as prefixes in relations where they are not to be construed in their arithmetical values. conveyed the associated ideas prominent in Vega. qualquier olor suavissimo y transcendente " Dice. had a superla" the one scholar. as as in English. oxlahun dzacab. nine-souled man very lucky man was a " thirteen generations old. heavens . Cogolludo. 8. Having ascertained the characters for the numerals. " bolonmayel. 3 . 5. Seler has suggested that the number 13 may refer to the thirteen Tbe numeral " one. for other concepts than those of computation. Dr." that which had existed forever was . but in those assigned them by the usages of the language or the customs of religious symbolism.

had nothing to do with the motions of the sun. create no difficulty in but a disturbing element The real time-count by which they adjusted the imenters. (3) Father Martin que fueron sus cauiculares " Calendario Mexicano" states that the fourth year was a de Leon. considerable probability that some of them at least 2 correction arranged for in our bissextile or leap year. at 30 days. fol. and which is most prominent in their records. 3 seconds but primitive peoples usually estimate it at 28 days. in his pointedly . 236). or 1 deciphering these aboriginal almanacs Schrader : Prehistoric Antiquities of the- Aryan Peoples. bissextile year this (Camino del Cielo. 1611). 307-9. Undoubtedly their earliest time-count was that . portant events of their lives. 1639). . could not be invariably Maya year true even for five years. unless the bissextile correction was made. but that it had been acquired by the astronomer-priests localities. 100. I do not maintain that knowledge was general. Madrid. which he asserts of a Maya year given by Aguilar {Informe contra was done (2) the example Idohtm Cultores del Obispado de Yucatan.26 MAYAN HIEROGLYPHICS.^. in this con- 2 To enter into this debated question at length would not be possible nection. which it was the duty and the aim of the astronomer-priests to bring into unison. At the time of the Conquest they had undoubtedly reached a knowledge of the length of the year as 365 days and there is early Aryans 1 j or. " they estimate the moon " allow 12 moons to the year. made the This is all familiar enough and would .common to a measurement of the solar year primitive tribes everywhere " by lunations or moons. but I would merely note: (l) The positive assertion of Landa that the " " began July 1 6 (Cosas de Yucatan." The exact lunar month is 29 days. as do yet many North Asiatic peoples. and the effort to accomplish this will chiefly explain their elaborate computations. and allow 13 months to the solar year. some the other method. Mexico. and as probably did the . of certain The investigations of Mrs. is actually one containing " and " sets dias six intercalary days. Zelia Nuttall tend to demonstrate this opinion. 12 hours. originally distinct methods. and There are good grounds for believing that the Mayan tribes were at one time divided in custom about this. pp. 44 minutes. . . some using one.

the less and greater cycles. white. assignment. these two numbers. future events foretold. These were estimated by the methods of the sacred year. 260 years. But the importance to us of the tonalamatl is that its computations underlay the measurement of long periods of time. 52. each of which was assigned to the rule of a special planet or star. and even the names of the 20 days are 1 It practically of the same meaning in all these languages. again each having its own divinity. . these points I would refer the reader to my work. 104. As the number 20 (fingers and toes) completes the man. by which auspicious and inauspicious days were assigned. This singular time-count of 20 X 13 260 days was adopted = with slight variations by every semi-civilized nation of Mexico and Central America. in groups of 13. Each five " month " of 20 days was subdivided into four periods of days each. or any other natural' phenomenon. and the like. To 1 devise a mathematical method of equalities and differences On Central America delphia. and with the observed motions of the planets.THE RITUAL YEAR. and as all the directions. This sacred period was subdivided into four equal parts of 65 days each. constituted the to nalamatl of the Nahuas. 13 and 20. etc. who were divinities controlling the ritual divisions of time. These irregular numbers had to be brought into unison with the lunar and solar years. with the vigesimal system of counting by 20 and its multiples. 20. It 2/ purely mythical relations supposed to exist nature.Mexico . The Native Calendar of and . and to a particular cardinal point with attendant divinities and each was marked with a color of its own. the major feasts and festivals of religious worship dictated. Study in Linguistics and Symbolism (Phila- A . formed the basis of an astrological and ritual calendar. black. the " Book of Days. etc. of the visible was based on between man and and invisible worlds were held to be 13. 24. that is. potencies. 1893). or blue. the moon." used in divination. red.

The older cycle of years. 5. each. The bissextile year (?). 260. days 364. 15. 17. 20. counted as 18 months of 20 days each.. . days The apparent revolution of Mars (?). astronomy with no records.. . . 366. 260. or the dates of conquests. Pre-Columbian This will be history will not be reconstructed from them. 365. 20. 14. 19. subsumed under common measures. days Its divisions into four parts. We shall . by which these conflicting numbers could be placed in harmonious relations. 10. 360. counted as 12 months of 30 days each. 20. . 1 8. 364. 584. division into four parts (called tzuc). 104. 115. not find them. each. The katun cycle of years. 65. The solar year. '. The solar year. The complete 6. The kin katun. days. The solar year. and the ceremonies and forecasts which they controlled assigned by uniform laws this is the arithmetical problem which fills the pages of the Mayan Codices. tonalamatl. The solar year. but it is the conclusion toward a disappointment to many which tend all the soundest investigations of recent years. 4. The "month" of 20 days.28 MAYAN HIEROGLYPHICS. Its '. The newer cycle of years. . . or day-cycle of years. 8. . Chronometry we but not chronicles but astrological aims rituals. 7. 3. The double cycle of years. . counted as 13 lunar months of 28 days . The great cycle of years 780. 13. the names of mighty kings. counted as 28 weeks of 13 days each. 24. the Great Star). and in parts or at length is spread over the surface of the inscribed monuments and painted vases. 5. 13X2 . The " week " of 13 days. The apparent revolution of Mercury (?). . The true solar year. 11. We need not search for the facts of history. The apparent revolution of Venus (Noh-ek. 13. 1 6. Let us recapitulate the numbers which the Maya mathematician had to deal with and adjust under some scheme of unishall find. formity 1. days. 52. 9. each. 360. 12. : 2. 13.

I add to the right. in the following simple notation.73 tonalamatl. -. To bring these into accord with the tonalamatl years. 1886. or 37. or eight * . Then followed the unit. 20. so prominent in the calendar and ritual of the = Nahuas. a period of 104 solar years. and Tikal. the solar year. three times that number of days are required. and of 14. he believes. " The Maya Year.THE NATIVE CHRONOLOGY.040 days. on the year of 365 days. 13. That the Mayas had. in his carefully written article.560 days. "Venus. 2Q The Calculations in the Codices. was demonstrated from the Codices by Dr. that is. Dresdensis. 113. The Codices contain numerous calculations intended to bring these various quantities into definite relations as aliquot parts of some arithmetical whole. could not be adjusted to the cycle of the ahau katun.960 days. etc. was used in Palenque. 1894). long known the year of 365 days." in . This number. 6. This period had still to be brought into relation to the old = year of 360 days. p. together. as well as in the Cod.980 days. 1892). the interpretation of which into our system of calculation. 1 Professor Cyrus Thomas. page 24. which was 24 years of 365 days each nor to " the ceremonially prominent revolution of the Great Star. or 3744 years. (See his Erlduterungen zur Maya-Handschrift. 52 solar years. 21. with the divisors of these numbers. and this requires the estimation of a term covering 1. 65. has collected evidence that the same calendar system. Menche (Lorillard City). the ahau katnns. based.366. which might be taken as a general have begun by establishing a period This equals 39 years of 360 days each. according to the method above explained. 312 years.880. Dresden. The scribes appear to determination of the period of 18." in the Bulletins of the Bureau of Ethnology (Washington. Globus. and the tonalamatl. and this extended era we find expressed in the Dresden Codex. the revo- Venus. at the time of the Conquest. which coincides with the Earth's revolutions in 292odays. also 54 years of 260 days each. of course. however. and his " Die Zeitperioden der Mayas. and to required solar adjust under one lutions of number the katuns. Forstemann. 18. January.

or fasten together. whose demonstrations of it appear to be conclusive. much more extended 2 some of their calculations seem is.Handschriften. and ferung der Maya.. None of them has been recorded by the Spanish writers but from the analogy of the Nahuatl script and language. and to be sufficient for the purposes they had in view.3O MAYAN HIEROGLYPHICS.366.696 years ! doubt each of these periods of time had its appropriate the technical language of the Maya astronomers. Forstemann.296. would seem The credit of establishing it from their ancient writings is exclusively due to Dr. II. This long period allowed all their important time.040 days. 1 .000 9 (unit 7. however. that 33. Enlzif- 2 The grounds for this opinion are stated in his Zur Entzifferung. IV. 1894. and from certain indications in the Maya writings. See especially his articles.299. Die Zeitperioden der Mayas. we may surmise that some of these technical terms were from one of the radicals meaning "to tie.560 This acute observer has.200) 64. 1. * his Zur No.000) = 1.800 1 6 (unit 360) = 5.9 (unit = = = 144.measures to be dealt with as aliquot parts of one whole. to require an era which embraced 12. discovered some reasons to suppose that the native priests occasionally contemplated a era." and that the corresponding signs would No name in . and also its corresponding sign or character in their writing. 1892. etc.760 20) = " o Total. .

Pousse. to the second black number on the kind are and so on. multiplied by the represented by A. Sequences rules 1 . the whole calendar. with a superfix. similarity Proceeding on the first of these suppositions. the they are to be read from left to right. or ikonomatically. that is. Dr. Forstemann has suggested that the character. when written one above the other. Fig. the total less 13 (or its multiples. beginning with the first black number on right. 7. the Nahuatl xiuhmolpilli. returning passing to the first black of this number on the left. That the computations of the tonalamatl underlie most of the numerals in the Codices is shown by the rules for reading them. 1886. of faggots tied with cords. the The sum of the numbers written in number of days with different names 1 black. . they are to be read from below upward when in two vertical columns. to the other. column the left. either directly. the tying together of the years. that 31 is. If to a red number be added the black number immediately : following above 2. they are to be read passing from one same line. pictorially. or Ritual Calendar. Rules for Tracing the Tonalamatl. No. 3. When the red and black numbers are written alternately on it. 2. formulated by Pousse with reference to the red and black 1 numerical signs. when the total is 13) equals the next following red number. and both are written in red. 4.POUSSE'S RULES." represented in the Aztec pictographs by a bundle The Maya figure is explained as the the first day of the calendar. representing a kind of synecdoche. 1887. " 8. by day-sign imix. in Archives de la Societe Amiricaine de France. These rules are as follows 1. governed by the following : In any of the above systems the beginning is always marked by one or more columns of days surmounted by a number. and. express this idea. This number is always the same as that which ends the series. by of sound. . signifies the period of 52 years.

hieroglyphs attached. for instance. This conclusion is most recent research entirely in accordance with the results of the in neighboring fields of American culture. that days in the tonalamatl. Seler has expressed his distrust in Dr. and that evidently in " " they were unfolded and spread out. pages 4-10. have been misunderstood and underrated by most writers. that the pages are not to be read from top to bottom. A good example of this is in Cod. Zelia Nuttall have vindicated for 1 a truly surprising ac- In the American Anthropologist for July. . is. the planets. Forstemann's opinions as to their astronomic contents. but that the separate parts or chapters are to be read in many instances from left to right in the section of the page in which they begin. that both figures and characters are to be interpreted as referring in the first instance to the sun and moon. The profound studies of the Mexican Calendar undertaken by it Mrs. the number of The above rules enable the student to recognize the relations of the different parts of the Codices. careful examination of Dr. without respect to the folds of the MSS. A ies. Forstemann's remarkable stud- as well as a number of other considerations drawn from the Codices themselves. as those of Palenque. 1893. They prove.32 MAYAN HIEROGLYPHICS. on which one chapter covers all the upper thirds of the seven pages. In one of his latest papers Professor Cyrus Thomas says of the " These records are to a large extent only religious calCodices " endars and Dr. and those constellations which are most prominent in the nightly sky in the latitude of Yucatan. . . 8. Dresden. The Codices as Astronomical Treatises. always equals 260. have persuaded me that the general purpose of the Codices and the greater inscriptions. reading these books . My own conviction is that they will prove to be much more astronomical that they are primarily and than even the latter believes records of the motions of the heavenly bodies and essentially 1 : .

33 curacy which could have come only from prolonged and accurately registered observations of the relative apparent motions of the celestial bodies. behind the Nahuas be sure that the Mayas were not and in the grotesque figures and strange groupings which illustrate the pages of their books we should look for pictorial representations of astronomic events. He showed that it was intended five revolutions of Venus to bring the time covered in into relation to the solar years and . 1894. in this . Forstemann has prosecuted his analysis of the astronomical meaning of the Codices is offered by his explanation of the 24th page of the Dresden Codex. with this serious astronomic were associated notions of astrology. assigned respectively to the four cardinal points and to four divinities . I do not pretend to furnish us. to the 1 See her " Note on the Ancient Mexican Calendar System. and the intimate relations we find in them between astronomy and mythology. A proof of the correctness of this opinion and also an admirable example of the success with which Dr. laid before the International Congress of in 1894. incantations and prescriptions for religious funcBut through this maze of superstition I believe we can tions. mythical narratives. of 260 days forth the relations between the revolutions of the . Stockholm. thread our way if we hold on to the clue which astronomy can In the present work. also to set Moon and of Mercury further. cosmogonical traditions and liturgies. five designate to which divinities under consideration should be Venus-years This illustrates at once the great advance his method has made in the interpretation of the Codices. and. finally. 1 We may Of lore course." communicated Tenth International Congress of Americanists. or tonalamatl. to divide the year of Venus into four unequal parts. more than prepare the soil for such a labor. however. as everywhere else. dates for fixing rites and ceremonies. . to each of the dedicated.ASTRONOMY OF THE MAYAS. the ceremonial years. Americanists.

" the Controller or Companion Star. July. p. Cod. That they looked with especial reverence to the planet Venus is evident from the various names they applied to it. 3 4 " El lucero de la manana." for of the 3 Dawn." Ah-Zahcab. Take. north. These were: Noh Ek. 262." " Chac Ek. while Thomas says of them. " the Guardian of the Sky. star)." and Mucid Canan. and therefore was probably one of their special divinities. Cort. In American Anthropologist. In the Tzental dialect was called Canan Chulchan. " north wind. 7). The historian Landa states that the Mayas measured the pas- 1 As verse lines." Chimal is the Nahuatl chimalli." and Xux Ek. de Motul. 1893. may safely be assumed ! that these figures refer to the " 2 Maya process of making bread ! 9.. Astronomical Knowledge of the Ancient Mayas. shield." Dice." or "Star on the Shield. pp. i6V Forstemann and myself would consider them (indicated " It to represent the position of certain celestial bodies before the summer solstice by the turtle on p. the series of figures. Like chimal ik. "the Shield Star. Such a theory of the Mayan books which we have at hand is world-wide distant from that of Thomas and Seler. . que parece hacer amanecer. de MotuF). " the Great Guardian. Our information from European sources as to the astronomical knowledge possessed by the Mayas is slight.34 MAYAN HIEROGLYPHICS. the custom of students the pages of the Codices are generally divided into compartments by transis to designate these from above downward by small letters added to the 2 number of the page." 4 It was spoken of as " the Guide of the Merchants" (Dice. " the Brilliant Star . "the Bee or Wasp reasons which will be considered it later." The North Star was well known as Xaman Ek (xaman. and also as Chimal Ek. 14% 15*. for example. ek. f-o these terms must be of late origin in Maya. " the Strong Star (or " the Red Star ") Zaztal Ek. " the Great Star" or "the Right-hand Star. .

" stars were Chamal Dzutan. . con otras. 3 similarity of outline to that of the tortoise. both of obscure application. cycle. The Milky Way was spoken of under two different names. ." and the latter term was also applied to a youth who had just attained the age of puberty. or Ac Ek. and named Ac. Certain stars of the constellation Gemini were defined. insanity. hacen forma de tortuga. Shooting Magicians' Pipes. 3 4 These definitions are given in the Dice." as they were regarded as the fire-tubes of certain power. their position in the of the year (or. In the opinion of Dr. Motul. cap." Landa. The stars in Orion were known as Mehen Ek. by fasting and the administration of 1 4 " astilejos 2 Regianse de noche. por el medio dia. as %vere represented in heavens decided the beginning with the Nahuas). " the Sons." for a comet " in Maya were Budz Ek. and its representations in stone at Copan and elsewhere. Forstemann. 34. " the Tortoise Stars. Perhaps the connection of the word lies in the ceremonies of initiation practiced by many tribes when a youth reached this age. a word which also means the 2 rattles of the rattlesnake. por el lucero. de Motul. Breathing or Blowing. ful enchanters. The name of the former in their language is Tzab. Tamacaz and Ah Poou. perhaps. " Las tres estrellas juntas que estan en el signo de Geminis. " Smoking and Ikomne. i las cabrillas de dia. las quales." from an imagined This may explain the not infrequent occurrence of the picture of that animal in the Codices. Star " Dust. IV." Dice. No. The terms Star. Another meaning of the former word is "madness. para conocer la hora." doubtless referring to some astronomical myth. and which. 35 1 sage of time at night by observations of the Pleiades and Orion. and they the hieroglyphs by the moan sign (to be ex- plained on a later page)." as it was supposed " to blow forth its fiery train in Tzental it was Tza EC. Cosas de Yucatan.MAYA STAR-NAMES. i los Entzifferung der Mayahandschriften.

. as they sometimes suggested the graphic representations of the occur- " In Cod. was hunbalan ?/. the expression nupp. which probably signifies the moon in 1 conjunction. " the rope of the moon. opposed." the popular story being that it was bitten by a kind of ant called xulab. " the moon roped. shut up. or. toxic herbs. pp. from When -in conjunction. "the eye of the day is covered over. opposition was referred to as u nitpptanba. the sun is shown bitten by birds. etc.." or. .36 MAYAN HIEROGLYPHICS. often led to temporary mania Milky Way may have presided over these and the deity of the rites. 19." It is useful to record such expressions. snakes. opposite. Peres. 18. u uich kin. it ." or. tupan When it was in eclipse. " the moon bitten. An eclipse of the sun was also chibil kin. " the sun bit" ten but more frequently the phrase was tupul u uich kin. hieroglyph of the double loop of the rope." in The moon was chibil u. We On a later page I shall show the probably have in this a reference to an eclipse.

of blight and night. His name means " the 1 The account of Hernandez is given by Las Casas. 3 I. . cap. To understand The Religion of The religion of the . 359. ftfotul defines all Hunab Ku thus : " the one true and living God .MYTHOLOGY OF THE MAYAS. fold Chief of the beneficent gods was Itzamna. of famine and pestilence. The spirit of this religion was dualistic. Cosas de Yucatan. acquaintance the Ancient Mayas. 3 2 The Dice. the earliest missionary to Yucatan x and these. the pictorial portions of the inscriptions some with the native mythology is indispensable. is one of the Maya language. was Hunab Ku. and they greatly facilitate a comprehension of the Codices and epigraphy. was a polytheism. being placed in contrast to those of misfortune and pain." greatest of ary. He says the votaries came from Chiapas and Tabasco. because they said that he could not be represented. has been partly republished by Brasseur in the Appendix to Landa. of birth and food. 37 III. Lizana's work. indeed the source of them all. with all its mani- mythical associations. The Pictorial Elements. for he was incorporeal and invisible. 2 Both these statements are confirmed by a comparison of the existing remains. the rising sun. " the One Divine " but of him no statue and no picture was made. Lizana. were the same as those worshipped by the Tzentals of Tabasco and Chiapas. Back of them all. I shall often refer. Historia de las Indias. as is expressly stated by Father Francisco Hernandez. seeing that he was This dictionincorporeal. to which. composed is at the Con- vent of Motul. darkness and death. but the principal Mayas deities were few in number. Itzamna. A copy in my possession. of which only one complete copy is known to exist (in Madrid). He dew was or the personification of the East. of the fertilizing showers and the cultivated fields. and he had no idol.^bout 1570. the gods of life and light. The monk says that the principal lords alone knew the histories of the gods. of the sun and day. p. according to the explicit assertion of Father (1517). the the gods of Yucatan was so named. CXXIII.

and Cocol chan. he gave the names to the various localities in Yucatan. and was spoken of as the god of chills and fevers. 1 " was active in framing laws and introducing the calendar." and he was the mists and showers. spirit of the early moisture of the morning. the Serpent of the East/' under which he seems to have been popu- known. IV. but possessing the " power of healing by touch. was Cucidcan or He also was a the feathered or winged serpent. the skilful hand. at the head of which some Maya tribes placed his name was skilled in leechcraft. American Hero. Mayapan . noble master of knowledge. he was said to have been the creator of men. 2 " Todos conforman en que este (Cuculcan) entr6 por la parte del poniente. tionally the founder of the great cities of Chichen Itza. For " the royal or his wisdom he was spoken of as Yax coc ak-mut. 1 In my work. hero-god. and He plants. As light is synonymous with both life and knowledge. was the first priest of their religion. famous. so was Cuculcan with the West. and divided the land among -the people as a physician he was . and was the founder of the culture of the Mayas. and therefore he presided over that quarter of the world and the days and years assigned to it. of the mythical concepts embodied in Itzamna. and thither 2 In the Tzental calendars he was connected with the returned." He was tradia deity of culture and of kindliness. " The Hero-gods of the Mayas. 1882).38 MAYAN HIEROGLYPHICS. and invented writing and books. As Itzamna was identified with the East.Myths (Philadelphia. ." . Thence he was said to have come. in others a completion Cuculcan. Chap. animals. He was said to have skiff come in his magic from the East." In some sense a contrast. across the waters." under which he was worshipped in Chichen Itza. knowing not only the magic herbs. whence his name Kabil." I have treated at considerable length the duplicate traditions relating to Itzamna and Cuculcan. For larly similar reasons he received the name Lakin " chan.

Hist. " In the calendars of the Tzentals he was painted in the likeness " " of a man and a snake. was the right-hand god.) Herrera. the destruction of the crops through locusts. " right-hand coming. . y han explicado los Maestros que es culebra de plumas que andaen el agua. Vega. so the sun in the meridian was distinguished from both of them. p. cap. ." that is. que llaman Cttchitl chan. it bore the name Kin ich. Lib. In the myth he is described as clothed in a long robe and wearing sandals. 2. dzicnial. having a beard. Historia de las Indias. manik) hence he is mystically associated with that number. day. As a divinity. morning sun. Dec." when it was believed that the deity descended in the shape of the red the bird (the Ara macao). and his attributes were occasionally assigned to Itzamna. Looking toward the North. 39 seventh day (moxic. which moves in the waters." Nunez clela tg^l Constitution es Diocesanas." from the color of its plumage. As Itzamna was thus connected with the rising. of fire.THE SUN-GODS. de Yucatan. and other public calamities." and the masters explained this as " the snake with feathers. Maya. He corresponds to the Gukumatz of the Quiche mythology. IV." whereas Bishop Landa was of opinion that he was the Mexican Bishop Nunez de la l Quetzalcoatl." (Cogolludo. the cloud serpent . to whom we owe this information. . " the eye or face of the The sacrifices to it were made at the height of noontide. Kin ich. known as Kak mo. IV. It seems probable from the accounts that Kin ich was a much less prominent divinity in the popular mind than either of the other two solar deities. "left-hand coming. the arrival of the former was called noknial. Itzamna hence. a name which has the same signification. what is noteworthy. " identified him with the Mexican Mixcoatl. Such ceremonies were performed especially in times of great sickness. 132. the heavenly waters. cap. and Cuculcan with the afternoon and setting sun. Cuculcan the left-hand 1 " En los Repertorios mas generales tienen pintado el 7 signo en figura de hombre y de Culebra." of the latter. the clouds and the rains for which reason . IV. general mortality. N Parte II. and consumed the offer- macaw " ing. and.

and the day and years kan. Their FIG.o\: Ckacs (giants). To Itzamna was assigned as consort Ix C/icl. the color red . catches the dew of the morning)." also known as Ix Kan Leom. of the winds which blow from them. and the food supply. and her children were the Bacabs. Otlier Gods. The Beneficent Gods draw from their Stores." were calendar.4O as MAYAN HIEROGLYPHICS. the color yellow." The Dice. the hollow one or the belly. . 1 " The word chac means " : " strong ." las aguas. huracan. heat . 7. and consequently of agriculture. tempestad de agua. She was goddess of (which medicine and of childbirth. of the thunder and the lightning. . (Photographed from the Cortesian Codex. given the south. we find the combination Kin icJi ahau Itzanma among the names of " divinities. assigned a particular color and a certain year " " To each were in the and day To Hobnil. the harvests. " the spider-web" the rainbow. who were the gods of the four cardinal points.) position in the ritual was of the first importance. of the 1 rains these bring. chacal ik. Motnl tambien dios de says Significa agua en algunas maneras de decir relampago y trueno. water. four mighty brethren.

Southeast wind. The red Bacab was and the black." American Anthropologist. 4 . Black one). Red. Elements. that is. and elements mythically associated with them. Air. West. 41 to the east. ix to the west. from right to in the most instances. Northeast wind. Ceremony. entitled " Die Amerikanischen Cotter der vier Weltrichtungen. Uniform results have not been obtained." " ik. xaman white north wind. Hozan ek (the Disembowelled Cauac. " Lord of the Vase. mulucto the north. Earth. cycles. in it should be noted that the names of the east. Water. Days. Ix." of the the direction of left. days. Fewkes' This should be remembered in studying " A Central-American article. differ. White. Schultz-Sellack." zac nohol " ik. XI. North. character were Lord of Waters or Rains " Yum Kaax. the pictorial portion of the Codices. white south wind. of the calendar series. July. maybe profitably read in this connection. Colors. Canzicnal (Serpent Being).THE CARDINAL the first POINTS. white wind. Black. The Cardinal Points. Divinities of a beneficent .^&. " Lord of " the Harvest Fields Cum Ahau. Walter Fewkes Mayas. East. J. is certainly correct in his cuit. Zaczini (White Being)." in the Zeitschrift fiir Ethnologie. Fire." to the west. Yum 1 Chac. The arrangement based on Landa's statements would be as follows : Cardinalpoint. in movement in " argument that the ceremonial cirtheir ceremonies was sinistral. 1893. Much attention has been directed to and these divinities as representing the worship of the cardinal points to the colors. Muluc. whose name " 1 was Hozan Ek. Bacab. 2 An article by Dr. 2 as probably did also the customs of various Pio Perez assigns kan to the east. East wind. and so on. Mr. the white to the north. Hobnil (the Belly). and cauac to the south. South. as the authorities localities. C. The Good Gods." that is. Yellow." left for The solution of these difficulties must be future inves- tigation. Maya distinctly assign the color white to the zac zac " ik. On winds thus : the other hand. Kan. See Mr. the Disembowelled. though some of its statements are antiquated. " .

cardinal point. " The Master of Cold. Yuca" Lord of the East Wind. the God of Singing. " the Neck. " the swallow-legged. that being its name. 1 Probably this was a representation of Itzamna as lord of the . caps. the God of Poetry (xoc." also a hunting goddess as well as the patroness of those who hanged themselves Ah Kak " He Who Looks after the Cooking Fire. His festival was celebrated every fourth year with sham battles. and a paint-brush). to whom altars and temples were dedifirst 1 Relacion de la printed in the Villa de Valladolid This Relacion was '(1579). His idol was of pottery in the shape of a vase. as these used the cacao beans as a . on the east coast. Compte Rendu of the Congress of Americanists. " the God of the Intoxi- cating Mead. A minor deity was f&'Guxaa*. On a lofty pyramid." divinities . . Ek " Chua.42 MAYAN HIEROGLYPHICS." goddess of the workers in jade and amethysts Cit Bolon Tun. and Ah Dziz. Motul as " Lucifer. ." patroness of infants Znhuy Dsip. " Chief of the Devils and is probably a name of Itzamna Zuhuy . " Master of Dew. numberless) Precious Stones. where is now the city of Valladolid. To this list should be added Acan. "The Ix Tabai. to sing or recite) Ix Chebel Yax. of the rains. was worshipped Ah zakik ual. medium of " exchange Ix Tub Tun. . . The " Island of Women." a god of medicine Xoc Bitum. was so named because the explorers found there the statues of four female divinities.. "Virgin Fire. I and X." god of the cacao planters and the merchants. the Madrid Meeting." Ah Ppua. moulded in front into an ugly face. the first inventress of painting and of colored designs on woven stuffs (chebel." the national beverage. In it they burned copal and other gums. to paint. she who spits out Precious Stones." Isla de Mugeres. e. " the Nine (i." a divinity of the island of Cozumel ("Swallow Island"). the Black Companion. and Ah Kin Xoc or Ppiz Lim Tec. Virgin of Dressed Animals. of the fishermen. who is described in the Die. Kak. ." tan." a hunting goddess " Goddess of the Ropes or Snares.

which prompted the gods to destroy it. the appearance of the dawn " " moonrise yet hokol kin. Travels in Yucatan. known as ppuz. L. p.of genuine ancient myFor instance. goddess of the earth." They are sometimes represented in the carvings. See the article " The Folk-lore of Yucatan. . as the dictionaries give as the meaning of ye. Ix-chebel-yax. first old woman. II. called acat. disease. tzapa uinic. by Seler. an interesting example legend concerning such being in the Peabody Museum. The ruins of this ancient fane are vol.VARIOUS DIVINITIES. Historia Antigua de Yucatan. The Gods of Evil. Stephens. p. " " bent over " . Rel. were said to become transformed into flowers. 1 writer in the Registro Yucateco. 2 One class of these little creatures. " He las Cosas de Landa. " ppntiirn. the goddess Ix-nuc. at Prominent among mythical beings were the dwarfs. 2 3 plainly visibly from the sea. . death. yethaz u hokol " u. at sunrise. 207. Brasseur to have been goddess of the mountains. or Xnuc said by thology. 1890). de still Yucatan. last two seem to have been goddesses connected with the moonrise " and " to show at sunrise. " as in the phrases yethaz y alialone's self. cated.). brownies was that before the last destruction of the world the A whole human race degenerated into like diminutive beings. In contrast to the beneficent deities were who Distinctively presided over war. and the underwar go. and small of body. 358. is in fact As I t not a " member of the Maya Pantheon." and was mentioned by The name means simply an anonymous modern those world. 72 (Madrid Ed. 1 43 They were Ix-chel. not safe to look at such survivals as part. shortened men " . Ix-hun-ye. " turtle men " .ds were Uac Loin Chaam. " . ac ninic. The hun-yeta. Carrillo. to appear . have shown elsewhere. 3 many similar superstitions surBut it is vive in the folk-lore of Yucatan and Tabasco to-day. and IxThe first two have already been mentioned." in my Essays of an Americanist (Philadelphia. cab. goddess of water. and by Schellhas. p." . J.

and.the 3 One lord." who Ah Chuy -Kak. text " is the Quiche name for Both the terms in the may therefore be borrowed. the " . matar a pedradas. These 1 words mean to "the Undoer. avoid pronouncing a and bones. "The dangerous one. name preserved in the first account we have of Yucatecan mythology. " Pucugh. His paakal. which is given by the the gods. 3 " thrice beaten bones. Berlin. . is said to have carried in battle a shield of fire " Ah Cun Can. which was called Mitna. Another name he gives is Ox kokol tzek. See my Essays of an Americanist. according to Father Lara. 127." e. pp." apparently a In name of evil omen. Chief of all these evil beings was the God of Death. 1 In Maya//#M tun means to stone to death. whose The Archer. MotuL 2 Beltran." painted holding an Ahulane. white teeth Spoiler. Ah-puch. " before is judged)." that " The serpent charmer. where they spent name for this i. to be a calendar name but it is significant. the underworld. teeth are six lances. Maya. . Another The Hades was tancucula (perhaps tan kukul. Arte de la lengua Maya." lord " and was then called Chamay Bac. or Zac Chamay Bac." to go to the spirit (pixaii) after death was supposed Underworld. Gesell. or Metna where presided the god Xibilba or Xabalba. of death. 217. Die. sometimes called Hun Ahan.. Motul as an (vocablo antiguo). Anthrop. 416) considers Hun Ahau without having recourse to this round- the place of disappearance. Xibilbay. " He was painted as a skeleton with bare skull. Hex Chun Chan. 1 886." worshipped anciently at Ti-ho. for destruction He who works in fire. . present Merida arrow. p." Kak u pacat. "." also worshipped at Ti-Ho.44 MAYAN HIEROGLYPHICS.j where one " " ancient word Dice. is Tzental. " Fire (is) his face. whose shrine was on the island of Cozumel Pakoc (from ." or euphemism modern Maya he is plain Yum cimil." for to his realm must all come at last. it was the same among the Tzentals." about explanation. 143. to frighten) and divinities of the Itzaes . Hun Pic Tok.. S. ." Dr. The happy souls then passed to a realm of joy. corresponding to the Mictlan of the Nahuas. is." who had a temple at Chichen Itza. " He of 8000 lances. Seler ( Verhand. that by Father Hernandez.

The gods of Life and of Growth plant the tree. the god of heaven. where the former offers incense. (Photographed from the Cortesian Codex. Death breaks it in twain." . 45 under the great green tree Yaxche. the latter lifts an empty vase bearing the signs of drought and death. but in such a manner that with him all turns nought and emptiness. the latter carries the sign of fire wherewith to consume it where the former presents the sign kan ' ' .THE BATTLE OF THE their time GODS. death appears as the inevitable foil of the god of light and In whatever action the latter is depicted. while those who were condemned sank down to a place of cold and hunger. In the Codex Troano. Seler remarks. 8. FIG. as " death to is imitating it.) The god of Dr. t food. an eternal conflict. both in the myths and in the picture life of man ' writings. in the hands of the death -god it is torn asunder. Where the light-god holds the string. T/ie Conflict of the Gods. Between these two classes of deities those who make for good and those who make for evil in the there is.

Dres. See Forstemann. haycabal or haycabil (destruccion. to stand erect. Motnl seems to explain by mentioning a tradition that the water was so high " that its surface was within the distance of one stalk of maguey from the sky!" Another term for this catastrophe was bulcabal. Many for the of the high calculations of the priests must have been purpose of discovering the length of the present epoch thought and how soon the world would end. the inhabitants were all dead " . We know practically but it is nothing of the cosmogony of the Mayas instructive in connection with their calendar system to Nahuas. Dice. 746. however. The early writer. The Cosmogony of the Mayas. the priests calculated that the world had then been in existence 3744 years. " the terrestrial Paradise. VII Session. says that he learned from the native books themselves that they recorded three such periodical cataclysms. a universal deluge. ." was known as hun anhil. in Compte-Rendu du -Congres des Americanistes.this corresponds to the " prophecies contained in the Books of Chilan Balam. . This would make the present the fourth age of the world (not the fifth." which I have quoted in another work." that is. p. and the third. they believed in Epochs of the Uniwhich there was a general destruction of both gods and men.both apparently from the verb anhel. The scene of the creation of man. MAYAN HIEROGLYPHICS. Oc na kuchil. . another suggestion as to the meaning of that number is offered. Hun yecil. as the Nahuas believed) and . " the general death ravens enter the houses. " the second.46 2. which each could divide without remainder. They seem to have this would take place when all their various time-measures would merge together into a common unity. The first was called verse. asolamiento y diluvio general con que me destruido y asolado el mundo. at the close of each of find that. Elsewhere. 1 1 There are some reasons to believe that at the time of the composition of the Cod. Motul}. like the MayacimU. . Aguilar. and the name of the first man was Amim. a term which the Dice.

of Mani (Fig. Mayas have not but by a study of existing documents believe they can be correctly explained in outline. 47 Cosmic al Conceptions of the Mayas. The is Universe. with a in his interpretation which the natives designedly gave him.IDEA OF THE UNIVERSE. and inserted totally false It was copied by Father CogolHistory of Yucatan. 9. of the ancient The cosmical conceptions hitherto been understood I . Sacred Book. FIG. (From the Chilan Balam of Mani. . or 9). ludo in 1640. 3.) One of these the central design in the Chilan Balam.

upward. and therefore that of it hang the heavy rain clouds. Cushing in my Native Calendar of Central America 3 and Mexico. ready to Life. cum. of vegetation. always conceived of this shape in It bears. 10.48 MAYAN HIEROGLYPHICS. 6. 2 See the interesting observations of Mr. it Thus " in the Popol Vuh.* mythology symbolizes the 2 possible directions of space. The Earth the great altar of the Gods. within it grows the yax che. is called "the quadrated earth. which rep- resents the earth. it . expresses the totality of Space and Time symbolizes Life within Space and Time. supported on four legs which rest upon the four quarters of the mundane plane. Motul. H. not the lettering. we can readily see in the light of the above explanation that its the See my Essays of an Americanist. the Tree of Above far spreading its branches life. and the offering upon it is Life. him. which contains the heavenly waters. on their extremities the flowers or fruit of called ol or yol? the soul or immortal principle of man. 8. Berendt. F. Above the earth-cube. C. above figure is by the late Dr. and native sources. " Notes on Codex Troano and Maya Chronology. four-pointed." Die. p. or greater cycles of years." in the Codex Cortesianus. but. pp. In Cogolludo's work. Turning now to the central design of what has been called " Tableau of the Bacabs. this design is surrounded by thirteen heads which signify the thirteen ahau lettering in the The katuns." in the American Naturalist. Fig. . lows : At the bottom of the field 3 lies and the design itself This is shown as fola cubical block. The . therefore. and was obtained by him from other books of Chilan Balam. 1 the 1881. Mayan mythology. as is however. fill life the animal world as well. H. the Altar." 4 OL . as The number thirteen in American thirteen I have explained elsewhere. 4. 269 and also an article by me. we might expect. the Earth. . four-sided. significantly. four-bordered. p. tern. the rains and showers. on which depends the muyal. is the celestial vase. border. el corazon formal y no el material. September.

COSMICAL CONCEPTIONS. and above it the cloud-masses. lesson 49 is the same. across it the earth The Vase. FIG.) Again sents. The design is surrounded by the signs of the twenty days. on the left Xmucane. Our First Parents. the divine pair called in the Fopol Vuh "the Creator and the Former. Grandfather and Grandcelestial *- /3 6. 10. (From the Cortesian Codex. beyond which the field (not shown in this cut) is apportioned to the four cardinal points and the deities and time-cycles connected with them. it is Life within Space is and Time which the . On the right sits Cuculcan. artist pre- not represented but we readily recognize in conventionalized form the great Tree of Life. i .

field in these designs resembles the glyph a It is found in both Mayan and Mexican 2 MSS. I attribute to the neglect of the myths by previous writers. 1884). Cyrus Thomas's suggestive monograph. Francis Parry. Mr. symbolizing the fructifying and motherly waters. and a persistent Turning to the Codices mythological lore in one's ties mythology of the Mayas. 102). 1892. Pictorial Representations of Divinities. The total extension of the in Fig. and the monuments with the above memory. 4. one containing the life-sign (product of union) and these are surmounted by the head of a fish. Quiches. p. are justified by the confusion of with Mexican myths in Dr." in Bull. and it is that which I wish to define. Xmucane has before her one with the sign of union (sexual) above it. as in most of his identifications. desire to discover in the We may turn first to the 1 " E alom. 158. . ." Universe. I find 3 myself unable to agree with him. each containing the sign of Life. Zapotecs. e qaholom." Origen de los Indios. as the Nahuas. 6. who give Life." Popol Vuh. Schellhas as to the worth of mythology in these (Zeitschrift fiir Ethnologic. but those of some other 3 nation. ." in the third annual Report of the Bureau of Ethnology (Washington. Ximenes adds " y mas en los nacimientos de los ninos son los que asisten. " but in Soc. p. Geog.. Seler's writings . I shall pay small attention to such analogies. but I hope to show not by the studies Mayan facts themselves. 6. it seems to me there is no in identifying most of the pictures presented by them. : 2 See numerous examples in Prof. not the diviniwhich they themselves worshipped. The doubts expressed by Dr. of the Amer. p. ik. who give Reproduction. l mother of the race. difficulty That this has not been accomplished heretofore. classes it as a " sun symbol this. " Notes on certain Maya and Mexican Manuscripts." In his right hand Cuculcan holds three glyphs. t 1894. as the Mayas had a religion of their own. or Pueblo dwellers. and expresses the conception these peoples had of the Hence I give it the name of the " cosmic sign.5O MAYAN HIEROGLYPHICS. in an article entitled " The Sacred Symbols and Numbers of Aboriginal America. .

Codices. being alone not less than 130 times. The Maya would be Likin can . followed by Dr." who was portrayed formed teeth. i.'\s in the Tzental dialect. serpent. holding it. while the Abbe Brasseur." appears in the 4 The . or emerging from its throat. and No other deity has half so many representations. 214. was This at once suggests Itzamna. a serpentine trait. p. sitting upon it. 2 3 Brasseur. Without pausing to discuss whether " or this is " tooth " tongue. that he the Jove of their Pantheon.e." in Zeitschrift fur This is a classical article which I shall have frequent occasion to Ethnologie. even swallowed by 1 in his hand. Schellhas in his excellent study of the divinities of the Codices. extremely prominent the painted in the Dresden Codex in the others about 70 times. argue. as may readily be seen by comparison with many serpents picI may add that Professor Cyrus Thomas writes me that he tured in the Codices. 1892. the god of the deity east.THE GOD OF LIGHT. The god B is associated with the signs of the east. one in front. and his especial and invariable characteristic are two long." and this was unquestionably but another name for Itzamna. therefore. 5! I have no hesitation in Representations of Itzamna.like teeth. Troano. As a " Die Schellhas. Le MS. the " with strangely deserpent of the east. " " " These traits enable us to identify B with Lakin Chan. quote. but a phrase of the historian " " Cogolludo leaves no doubt about it. may be adduced represented in to confirm relations This is it close with the serpent. and we may well believe. at any rate. identifyItzamna with the " god B. which project from 3 his mouth. a rain god." it is." Chan. Gottergestalten der Mayahandschriften. 1 and which he believes to be Cuculcan.. 2 He is & in FIG. the other to the side and backward. Monogram of Itzamna." as catalogued ing by Dr. " Books of Chilan Balam. also considers the " long-nosed god" : The name Lakin phrase of Cogolludo is "con dientes muy disformes. that it is a "Tlaloc" or Chac. n. 4 An this abundance of evidence opinion. Seler. east. though lakin. to be Itzamna.

The mayordomo was called ah caluac. " cosa muy agujerada " (Dice. It is well shown on a later page. 13. as was Itzamna. Rel. to recall his advent the Skilful Hand. MAYAN HIEROGLYPHICS. called in Maya caluac. the baton being his staff of office. physician who heals disease. As the rising sun which dispels the darkness." en caan. de Yucatan?\>. : FIG. he is portrayed sitting on the head of the owl. 40. Itzamna: from the Inscription of Kabah. Landa omits the prefix by 1 Caluac is mistake. and he is frequently associated with the over the medicine man " he carries the " FIG. itz en muyal. its " I am what trickles from the clouds. from calacal. Molut]. hinting at his name above given." * suror baton. who said of himself. or else as the showers. 12. He is often in a boat. . Itzamna from the Codex Troano. medicine bag." and the wand " the perforated stick. from the sky. Kabil. mounted with a hand. eastern sea. the bird of night and sickness and as the giver of .52 44 .

divinity. The lance and tomahawk which he often carries are to drive away the spirits of evil. was multiform. 14. Itzamha : from the Dresden Codex.ITZAMNA. This I shall consider later. he is portrayed as an elderly his nose is long and curved downward. appearing in various incarnations." which in the Maya Codices indicates a man. found on so many of this people and which has excited so much comment. like most deities." the ancient monuments celebrated symbol of the cross. He himself is never connected with the symbols of death or misfortune. . Life. but always with those of life and light. life 53 he is associated with the emblem of the snail. his eye is always " the ornamented eye. FIG. . Besides the above peculiarities. In the ceremonies this was represented by masks with this in mind I class as merely one of the forms or epiphanies of Itzamna that figure . typical of birth. We know from the mythology that Itzamna. He is associated with all four quarters of the globe. and what is especially for the East defines the cardinal points " it is he who is connected with the Maya Tree of interesting.

1888. and 67. slate tablets from Chiapas. where Itzamna is carrying the mask on his That there is a particular head). but extends the identification to the figures in the codices. Dresden. as Waldeck and Seler have shown. Thomas calls it it " elephantine. is undoubtedly intended to imitate the snout of the tapir} When we remember that this animal who tan. the Codices described by Dr. Dr. Voyage Pittoresque dans /' Yucatan. 74. Schellhas as a separate deity. pp. 12. (Paris. 1892). not a different deity. remarkable and constant feature in the representations of A Itzamna is his nose. 34. According to Bishop Landa the tapir was not found in Yucatan except on the western shore 1 near the bay of Campeche. etc. and that the interesting played the ." I am led to this conclusion by a careful study of all the pictographs in which this deity the " they all seem to show Itzamna wearing a mask to indicate some one manifestaappears that it . in the National Museum of Mexico. Cod. p. portray the sacred tapir in intimate connection with the symbol of the hand? that associated with Itzamna. 15. 37. Zeitschrift 2 fur Ethnologie. Texto. Relacion de las Cosas de Yucatan.. 1838. Mask of Itzamna (?). 65. etc. was sacred to Votan. p. same part in Chiapas that Itzamna did in Yucadividing and naming the land.54 in MAYAN HIEROGLYPHICS. Seler does not mention Waldeck's remarks. god with the ornamental nose. monogram for this character merely indicates that it was a and separate mythological manifestation. . pp. 26. 109 (Madrid Edition). we are led to identify the two mythical personages as one and the same. is tion of his FIG. and adds that he found the animal still venerated by the natives." but. On the symbolism of the tapir see the erudite remarks of Don Alfredo Chavero in the Antiguedades Mexicanas publicadas por la Junta Colombina de Mexico. 3 which shows Waldeck." whom he catalogues as " god K.) This writer recognized the tapir snout on various masks and statues at Palenque. 25. power (see especially /. 3 xxxv (Mexico.

assembled in the house of their prince. a dull animal. J. First. Walter Fewkes devotes an to what he calls "the long-nosed god" in the Cortesian Codex (Itzamna). and asperged their pages with water drawn from a spring of which no woman had ever tasted. that it arose from the represent a divinity of light. " " ikonomatic method of writing." thinks the heads portrayed in the Codices are " masks or ceremonial helmets. He He clusion does not mention the similarity of the nose to the snout of the tapir." parallel with Tlaloc. and his con" is that it is a "snake rain god. Mr. pages 2943. As I believe the reasons above Representations of Cuculcan. July. loving forests.'' needless to point out the divergence between his opinions and mine on these It is points.THE TAPIR GOD. in Tzental tzemen. Then the which are entirely taken up with the deeds and ceremonies of Itzamna. No such sacredness attached to the brute among the Quiches. in their called tongue the allusive sound did not exist. ." prognostics for the We may chief priest arose and declared the 2 coming year as written in the holy records. the tapir being This rebus also confirms the identity of Itzamna with the tapir-nosed deity of the Codices. swamps and dark recesses of the should have been chosen to I reply. Next they spread out upon a table covered with green leaves the sacred books. This was the ceremonial " cleansing." On with Itzamna as the founder of their order and burned to him incense fire newly made from the friction of sticks." article In the American Anthropologist. was one of the books spread out on this solemn occasion. they invoked ing." "'probably Cuculcan. 2 Landa : Relacion de las Cosas de Yucatan. It 55 myth of the tapir god was imported from Tzental may be asked why the tapir. 1 The annual festival to Itzamna was called Pocam "the cleansy that occasion the priests. p. The word for tapir in Maya is tzimin. well believe that the Dresden Codex. for tixl. and from the similarity of this sound to i-tzam-^na the animal came to be selected as his symbol. 1894. arrayed in all their insignia. 87. that the territory. given are sufficient to establish the identity of the 1 " god B.

Codices. when we perceive 1 All these traits coincide with the myths of Cuculcan but that he. that which I here adopt appears to have It is a compound of cucul. Monogram of FIG. he has the "ornamented " eye peculiar to deities and to his forehead is attached. " of Dr. Cuculcan. most various orthographies . snake. Indeed. Schellhas' catalogue. and is sometimes associated with women apparently as an obstetrician. with sunken mouth and toothless jaws. is exaggerated as a distinctive sign.. covered (*. with owl head-dress. an " affix. D" The characteristics of this divinity are : A face of an old man." or " a moon god. He is con-* nected with serpent emblems. so I think his god 1 is Cuculcan.56 MAYAN HIEROGLYPHICS. above explained. and holds in his hand a sacred rattle formed of the rattles of the rattlesnake. 16. with Itzamna. is . and can." because the setting or night FIG. which generally bears the sign akbal. which. 17. Seler considers it to portray Itzamna.") ." while Dr. he is which means darkness. The name has in its favor. <?. or . he is at eared owl. with feathers). and Cortes. and is never associated with symbols of misfortune or death. being accompanied with the symbol of the snail. over it hangs. (cucul also means "revolving. sun . for which reason his head-dress is often the horns of the clearly a beneficent deity. in the Tro. He is times evidently a god of birth. except one tooth in the lower jaw. He himself believes it to be a " night god. and he alone of all the deities. Cuculcan.

He is richly arrayed with large ear-rings and a J * is There He gram characteristic. did not occupy a prominent place in Maya mythology and this is also the case in the . of Here he is seen with face emerging from the his mouth of the great. The most most striking of his representations. its The very characteristic face reidentity with the pole star. 2 Space does not permit me to enter into the symbolism and myths connected with "the feathered serpent" of Central American mythology. 5 in American Anthropologist. Corhave evidently to do with an tesianus. " " has the ornamented eye and a full head dress. which extends over pp. the Representations of Kin ich. curs extremely frequently. (God " FIG.. conceived as a divinity.THE MIDDAY SUN. Schellhas' list. and Peresianus. especially in Codices Troano. I begin with " y god Representations of Xaman Ek the Pole Star. one of the to Examples are frequent. and. It will be seen on a later page. of Schellhas). and traces may be found still further north." is the picture the Dresden Codex. his hieroglyph immediately above his head. 2 As has already been observed. of MonoKin ich. is accompanied by the well-known ideogram of the sun scattered over his body and represented above him. who suggests C. just as Cucul1 in the legend. Not be con- founded with the moan hairs around the mouth. Schellhas 1 " says. green-feathered snake-dragon. . -This is the " of Dr. See Fewkes. pictorial designs. as Dr. prominent nose decoration. the identification becomes complete. 4 and 5. Mr. and that which is " distinctive of his identity with the green-feathered ser- pent. p. indicative of own personality. of the ornamented face. 1893. nor with the chin beard of the black . sun at noon. monkey. July. Fewkes has argued that it also extended to the Pueblo tribes. It no doubt as to his representation. middle. 24*^. 57 can wore occasionally depicted with a beard under his chin. We important divinity. T 18. Proceeding now to consider other divinities of the beneficent G" class. Tro. a good one is Cod.

Cod.. forehead is attached a small vase." (3) from its (2) from its appearance in the " and that it in certain pictures the "tree of life. Schellhas seems to think. to me. and explains why the north . 40. are not at all against the identification. decorated face. . 29). Schellhas' opinion.58 MAYAN HIEROGLYPHICS. belongs above the highest.. which at once confirms Dr. represented by this peculiar. That the figure is associated at times with all four quarters of the world. I shall refer to this peculiar is " edging or border as the pottery decoration. and also with the supreme number 13 (see above. as Dr. " called the shield star. most remarkable and difficult figures in the manuscripts. surmounting is the North Star is shown by its presence in the hieroglyph of that quarter and its association with the sign for north. on which tortillas." Its representation is associated with symbols of it peace and plenty (removing the contents of a tall vase. " " in Maya is xaman." That it is the personification of a star he argues.. The only other word is resembles this xamach. language which at all decorated plate or dish (Nain the but as this it a foreign word (from the Nahuatl. chimalli. p. so as to distinguish it by For a similar reason it is also recalling the familiar utensil." and find it we shall elsewhere. 10 " constellation band . ibid. the contents of which are trickling into his mouth (?). Cort. decisive argument. p. There is another. north wind) . shield). star is The term north star. whence for north xaman ek. comalli) writing the decorations on the rim of this dish were conventionally transferred to the face of the deity. 24). C. was doubtless later and local. CorIn front of his tes. and. p. the flat. but in favor of it for at night." cliimal ek (like chimal ik. p. etc. seated under a canopy. . The North Star is especially spoken of 'as " the guide of merchants. all four directions are recognized by the position of the pole and its immovable relation to the other celestial bodies seems to indicate that . In the rebushuatl. are served. (i) from the ring of rays with which it is surrounded.

his presence seems to have been practically over. On the left. Troanus. in the dark.. Codex god ( These pages have been explained by FlG 2 '~ e r J^. but by the accompanying . he is seated on the "Tree of Life. again with the kan symbol. Thomas as relating to apiculture and the festivals of the bee-keepers. i*-io*) there are a great many nearly fifty pictures of an insect re' sembling a bee in descending flight. Tro. precisely as in Cod. who rejects that - - rendering. In view of the prominent Representations of the Planet Venus. a (which is growing from the vase of the rains." as in Cod. 17. In one part of the Codex Troano (pp. holding in his night (on a black background). it has surprised students that is the sun pictorial figures of this bright star appear on their pages. where especially prominent in the earlier pages of the Cod. hand the kan symbol of fortune and food. On this point I no have some suggestions to make. and on the left.. A similar contrast is on page 7. descent of deities to is indicated not only hiero- by the position of the insect.THE PLANET VENUS. On the right of the column he is shown in the darkness of 14. which is head downward. looked by previous writers and it is true that the drawings are Close inspection will show. where the star-god is sailing in the vase itself). on both sides of the long column of figures which portrayed runs up the middle of page 3. however. $. that he is nearly erased. which the Venus-year plays in the calculations of the part Codices. On the intermediate page he is seated opposite the figure of Kin ich Ahau. signifying that FlG - 19- The North when absent the pole star rules the sky. and by Seler. p. 59 He is Peres. where on the right of the column he is seen above the fish. as referring generally to the Direction downward receive offerings.

' My suggestion is that in this bee-like insect we have an ikonomatic allusion to the Evening Star. first glyph. a food offering. Tro. strength short or low. like himself. as may be noted in the interesting scene on Cod. means downward. into which this object is placed upon the earth.. one waking. It is seur to be a honeycomb. indicating that another stellar deity is represented. it seems to mean " to go or sink slowly into something. or below (all given in the Dice. Thither sinks the star of evening to join the departed orb of day hence this star mythically becomes the Earth-goddess. the "sign or monogram of the bee title pages of the deity (Fig. xux is usually translated " wasp. place. 33*. as I have already stated. and Cod. Cortes. honey . the red or white or power. 4* and one " on p. a point which has been urged in proof that it is honey. 5*. Tro. which reads caban." Not only " " sign three anthropomorphic pictures of the bee (two on p. the Evening Star descends ? 8 refers to the Earth." " abispa brava. . and by Seler. 20) appears on the so-called Cod. in Maya." naturally Cuculcan is very frequently the associate of the setting sun. and the fire. 22. cab. in his Vocabulario Tzental. Cod. and the consistent. having." 1 bee as xanab 2 The two bees. down. was sometimes called xux ek. " the bee or 1 wasp star. de Motul}. p. Tro. almost precisely the conventional representation of the clouds.'' As a radical. the " syllable of which. where below which is the cloud symbol. the flame of the setting sun.. Furthermore. town. " downward. downward. a bee-hive . but one Father Lara. MS. Often it is yellowish.. 3 The word cab has various meanings: a bee . The . which. 5*). object toward which the insect descends is generally either 2 This was supposed by Brasor that shown in Fig. but that a deity is referred to is shown by " " The a fire. depicted in relation to an old crone. clay with which potters painted their jars. are placed between signs representing the winds. Does it not mean the golden-hued clouds of sunset. is the picture phonetically appropriate. adjacent to that of the north star. one sleeping. gives the name of one variety of xux.6O MAYAN HIEROGLYPHICS. or world. sign caban.

d. 2 My con- elusion is. They who impart life. She. for the planet Venus. 21. as have already mentioned. that the old woman so frequently associated with Cuculcan is the Evening Star. ever 61 engaged in kindly offices. the Former. which most likely the aTzentalname FIG. the Serpent clothed in feathers. protector. The bury. Here. They are clothed in color green and blue. They who beget. also Popol Vuh. ancestress of the race. to ments of Venus. x-mucane (?//) is is Quiche feminine form of muc canan. Xmucane. in her form as the Earth-Goddess. rest Ruler. Therefore their 2 name in is Gucumatz. like himself. good to the Evening Star in her epiphany as Mother Earth. Monograms I of the Bee Go. ancestor " and ancestress of all that 1 is. the Maker. applied to the 4. the feathered serpent. 1 " Thus it is that are named. the think these representations of the bee Offerings should be interpreted as indicating the move. In the Popol Vuh." in the Mayan The word mucul (" that which is wane (luna menguante). all ' Feathered Serpent. striking verbal analogy supports this.THE BEE GOD. I I shall recur to her all on a later page. Bee God. to disappearing ") moon when . preserver. whose name is Xpiyacoc. sung. 6. twofold grandfather. and. men. the grandmother. tooth." Gukumatz. and the mythical conceptions with which they were connected in the native mind. and celebrated those who are the grandmother and grandfather. therefore.' " dialects. 22. source of life. They upon the waters like a growing light. pp. I take it.FlG. is positively said to be the bisexual principle of life represented by the male Xpiyacoc and the female Xmucane. to hide. muc. root the means " is to cover over. twofold * * * They alone. is A the sacred book of the Quiches.

and he generally has about him the kan symbol.45. Cosas de Yucatan. he is seen with the loom Cod Dres " P." presenting offerings " to the tcee of life. derived from ancient skulls. we find that ghan is the general term for the ear of maize aghan." are both deformed in this manner. Tomo III. XXX. From tents of one. . so impressed this that He FIG. the Die. god of fertility and the among maize harvests. " pechhec hoi.62 Representation MAYAN HIEROGLYPHICS. 23." Landa. speaks of the custom.. carries a vase or is drawing forth the con- Growth. and Dr. as there is evidence. is he argues that all such forms were by obtained by the artists through copying the*convenimaginary. p. Perhaps were those destined for the service of this they or similar deities. The officiants on the Palenque "Tablet of the Cross. of Ghanan. Cort. See Crescendo Carrillo. and on turning to the Tzental Dictionary prepared by Father Lara. The maize god is associated with symbols of food. . 1 el de cabeza chata. in Anales del Museo National de Mexico. Cod. " Dr. Schellhas. Bishop Nunez de ered Vega tells the calendar he discov" " the natives of his diocese. 350-357 . however. 40. is going too far. Boas. This. the fourth sign or day corresponded to the Mexican Centeotl. of vegetable growth. indeed (who catalogues him as God E "). They all present in a marked degree the flattening of the forehead and prolongation of the occiput upward which is so striking in many of the sculptures. tional drawings of an ear of maize arranged as a head-dress. when the grains are still soft. that certain classes of Maya priests used to have the head 1 artificially flattened in this manner. and of prosperity. that of means ' - and comfort. la God of Growth and us that in Fertility. the This fourth day in the Tzental calendar bore name Ghanan. in Proceedings of the American Antiquarian Society for 1890. His representations in the Codices are moderately frequent and quite peculiar. Motul gives the Maya word for one with head thus flattened. cap. pp.

or else there was another serpent goddess in the mythology for in a number of places a similar serpentine head-dress is borne by a . her face wrinkled. in the Codices is the Serpent Goddess. She is pouring from a vase (Cod. clearly distinguished is one with features of an old woman. In expression she is severe. style. tzab f to the signification of the serpent goddess. She is.VARIOUS GODDESSES. decorated with embroidery and bells. think there can be no question of and associations.. her mouth sunken. with necklace and ear-rings of jade. and 43. She usually wears her hair in a peculiar wisps or ends of it twisted above her head.. the rattles she carries are the thunderclaps. her severe mien is In Maya. it. 27.. however. 25. A third goddess who can be Representations of Xmucane. her lips protrude in anger. storm. and often splendid. 20). pp. two She does not appear in the Peresianus. 15. her costume ample girdle. mammae. 67. rattlesnake (Cod. and perhaps not in the . a figure which . which she wears as a head-dress or as a She is depicted as an old woman. May in which be a sign of the constellathe Maya language bore the same this I name As as the rattles of the rattlesnake." pecchac. the the terror inspired by the din of the elements. and her hands and feet sometimes end in claws. whose famiing pictures liar is the rattlesnake. 63 One of the most strikRepresentations of the Serpent Goddess. word for " thunder. 74) . signs. not always represented as in old age. Dres. young woman who holds shows seven black tion of the Pleiades. 34*). dots.. Motut]. Her business is with water and the rains. Dres. The sinister crossbones sometimes decorate her skirts. from a study of her appearance. She was the personification of the thunder- The vase she empties is the descending torrent of rain. is derived from the noun pec. pp. which means " a sound like that of a bell or rattle " (Dice. Tro. a vase containing the rattles of the 1 8) or (ibid. pp. hands. or she is ejecting it forcibly from her mouth (Cod. or water is flowing from her armpits. and but one tooth left in her lower jaw. p.

but not with the name. With the last supposition I agree. as I have already said. Life. god of picture is given about eighty times. Dresden manuscript. etc. and the personification of the Earth. Xmucane. In plainly " " Tableau des Bacabs of the Codex Cortes. the head of a corpse and cross-bones. Tro. is represented most In the former his frequently on both Codices and monuments. 1 1).64 MAYAN HIEROGLYPHICS. Some of his delineations seem fully " . carrying a plate of cakes. He has numerous costumes and head dresses. p.. they are placed face to face. to West Next to Itzamna. she seated under a canopy hung with black and red dotted lines. pp. but holds a prominent place in the Troanus and Cortesianus. Her occupations are peaceable. Dr. whose home is with him in the West. and whom she soon joins. de Motul describes him. always with fleshless skull and backbone. intimately associated with the quarter of the which he belongs. p. and the Earth. she is weaving on a loom (C. usually as a skeleton with tremendous jaws. the ill-omened owl and the ravenous dog.. Representation of Ah-Puch. In her. 49) while in . Much more probably we have in this ancient crone. wonder- European" indeed. the female counterpart of Cuculcan. intended to represent his companion or wife. the consort of Cuculcan. the god of Death. and occasionally bells are attached to his ankles and clothing. His symbols are unmistakeable. God of Death.. we have a person of great importance. the personification of the Evening Star. Ah-Puch. and is alone are represented sitting under the central "tree of life. In appearance she 1 1). Seler has argued that she was the goddess Ix chel. the section of the tableau showing the West. Cortes. Ix chel was distinctly by name and myth the goddess of the rainbow." where they are placed back to back (see above. the companion of the sun when worn out by his day's work. therefore. 10. these two the is (Cod." as the Dice. some quite fanciful. a true '"God Barebones.

20. this design. as Cod. Symbols of the God of Death'. 3. and his head-dress is sometimes as No. FIG. Vien. 1 shown 2. I. for death knows no distinction of places or persons.. (From the Codices. to reveal a sense of ghastly " dance of death. The God of Death. 3. the mythical home of departed souls but he is also present in the other . 22. Besides the cross-bones.GODS OF WAR AND DEATH. 25. 25. pp.quarters of the compass. usually FIG.) as in Fig. Frequently associated Representation of the God of War. 24. because in that direction lay . It is also found in ." 65 in the humor. No. he often bears the curious design No. Schellhas the god F. with rays. the figure of death is that of a deity with a black line with " across his face. decorated with teeth. I. which I take to be a maggot. This is numbered by Dr." 1 Former students have been unable to explain Mexican pictography. or flints. as we see medieval He is associated with the north.

a 27 at 28 *. In the Representations of Ek Ahau and Other Black Gods. which is in parts devoted Forty He is depicted with a to a prominent character of this hue. Which of the gods of war is have named this leading one may have been. his body striped with war-paint like his -^1 _J C^c^c^^^J The God of ^>^y^ FIG. War. hanging under-lip. Thomas suggested that it was Ek Chuah.. a reddish-brown band around his mouth.. of a ferocious appearance. he wears a war helmet with nose-piece. large. and with a large. 24. armed with torch in one hand and a knife in the other. a tomahawk. Codices there are about fifty figures painted black. 25. Tro. but this is not a constant mark of Xipe. For * c t instance. He is generally armed and often His figure is sometimes drawn unusually fighting.. following the god of death. it is nothing more than the line of black paint athwart the face which meant " war" very generally among the American Indians.) Previous writers have not been able to assign a this deity. who before him beating on a drum and goes singing a song of war (as shown by the face. a shield. intended to truculent expression. name to Prof. In fact. from his mouth). and his lines issuing I body black-striped also. Tr. a lighted torch. 29 he is shown repeatedly flaming flint full length. *." Much has been made of the line across his face as identifying him with the Mexican god " " Xipe. said . An inspection of the pictures clearly indicates that this a is war god. of them are in the Codex Troano. evidently represent deities supposed to be thus colored. In Cod.66 MAYAN HIEROGLYPHICS. pp. (See Cod. 26. in Cod. firing the canopies of princes. the flayer. " and called by him a god of death. 6 e. and carrying a huge spear. p. or other fearful sign of war. as Father Duran neither mentions it nor portrays it. I leave undetermined. Dresden.

Ahau. IX. 21. Seler appositely suggests that this chuh. the black " chief.." 2 The "blacks he was king were seven in number. Carta Pastoral. They were the Black Captain. 1702. of the cacao planters. nas. 14.) .. 24. several minor black gods are 1 In Cod." a rebus for the name of the god.." may have been an erroneous explanation of Among Ek the remainder of the seven were doubtless the " god " Chuah. the king of the blacks. 6 Senor de los negros. The latter is found in the Cod. he adds. p. signs of seven days. Ek Ahau. that. 29*. 2 may be " En figura hombre. but not at all in the Troanus. and the god L of Dr. names which he " translates. Maya. however. M. however." Nunez de la Vega Constitudones Diocesa: (Rome.THE BLACK GODS. 46. there can The paintings correspond with what Nunez de la Vega precisely tells us of the Tzental divinity leal be no doubt. 9. de feroz negro. to . by Landa be the god of the cacao planters but to this. The name black god has a girdle." About his name. * * negro principal. with Friday. p. Schellhas objects that his warlike traits exclude such a sup1 So the latter refers to him merely as " the god position. pp." or. 27." He was " depicted in the figure of a ferocious blackamoor with " the members of a man. 7. Ek Ahau." He was reported " to have been a famous warrior and most cruel. Tro. as Dr. beginning. literally" the black scorcher. to which are attached the of the large black scorpion in Maya is ek Dr. It is evident. Schellhas observes. et seq. the among the Tzentals. como una imagen de esculptura. which " the masters. the leg and claw of a scorpion. con los miembros de * Fue * * * Quiere decir gran guerreador y crudelissimo. Dresden. Schellhas' list. and were painted in most of the native calendars which the bishop found of whom FIG.

high priest. 25. polvillo que sale del tabaco. and ahau can the was variously called ah-kin word mat. (See p. etc. referring to the sacred rite of blowing substances through a tube in incantation.. c. who conjured the winds " ah-uai chac. 3 than. Cosas de Yucatan. who fetchers. add the following definitions " MAI.68 MAYAN HIEROGLYPHICS. which the right of the (Dice. Doubtless the priests. ix-cunal than. the designs of the inscriptions and Codices are to be considered deities." should perhaps " here be translated." as another term for the " one who has high priest was ah-chun can. having power to predict auspicious and chief priest inauspicious days. 1 " En muchos pueblos de las provincias de este obispado tienen pintados en sus Repertories 6 Calendarios siete negritos para hacer divinaciones y prognosticos correscontar." 2 Nunez de 1 : Maya 3 as an expression of admiration. depicted." Motul^ They were divided into a number of classes exercising spethe cial functions as the ah-mac ik. first speech in business . qualBolon. made a specialty of interviewing departed spirits the ah-cunal and others. The Maya Priesthood. . . called respectively. etc. as we find often represented in the Codices. which is explained by the statement of the Bishop of 1 Chiapas. who . . espuma del palo que se quema." could cause sickness. nine. MAAY. the ah-uai xibalba. also appear. however. prophetess . that there were seven of them. which is rendered can. induce sleep. also. . . ah-kin and ix-kin. who could bring rains the ah-pul. These were numerous and of both sexes. p. masters of days and mis- tresses of days. comenzandola por el viernes la Vega: Constituciones Diocesanas. who conjured by magical words In their rites they were accustomed to appear in masks. 5. BOLON MAYEL. vapor. in the last word is used in quier olor suavissimo y transcendente. "]. master of words. conjuress.) The term is from Landa." pondientes a los siete dias de la semana. Among feminine forms I find ix-bouat. 2 Ahau " at times means rattlesnake. cuando le tratan con las manos. that is. inai The tnai. . fragrance. dust. their repreall Not sentatives. 9..

That the adjacent nations of equal culture influenced the people of Yucatan to some extent. of the Pueblos and of the Old World. Dice. kup to cut. usually with a total oversight of the only point in which such analogies have much value the similarity disclosed the world over by independent evolutions of the religious sentiment. myths. as the old writers report. It could not have been otherwise. y ppeta. They are said to have worn their uncombed and long. Molul gives: Ah-kohkeuel. for the wizard wearing mask and . testify. 1 69 and dressed in skins of wild animals. often matted with the blood of the sacrifices." etc. etc." " serpent gods. bearing the Moan Bird. Fanciful Analogies. Motul}. on the monuments.. was no doubt a fact. This also abundantly pictures of scarifying transfixion of the tongue shown by the the body and and ears. los cabellos como los traen FIG. to pick out abundant analogies to the mythologies of Peru and Mexico. (el que trae largos revueltos y marafiados los idolatras. AND PRIESTESSES. It has been done over and It over again. as tigers. But that the 1 Mayan mythology and civilization were distinctly indea The Dice. The hair expression for this was hunhun bnclah u tzotzel hoi. to is cry out with pain. clothed in the skin of the jaguar. and as the words to express them. with which so many pages of other writers have been fruitlessly taken up. Their ceremonies were often painful.) 6. and pictures. For that reason I shall say nothing about " Tlaloc deities.PRIESTS koh. 28. were easy in these names. The effort by such resemblances to prove identity of historical origin is to be deprecated whenever the natural growth of myths and rites will explain the facts considered. A Maya Priestess. (From the Dresden Codex.

which are preserved in the manu- number of about 950. nor anywhere in North America. pendent. find that the total of anthropomorphic scripts. They are distributed as follows Peresianus./O MAYAN HIEROGLYPHICS. just how far the influence of this potent and personal culture of the Mayas extended. Total Number of Representations. or deities. upon which so much of it was based but this. On the other hand. reasonable doubt. by their neighbors. peculiar forms in South America. 345 " " 47 72 125 283 825 " Confining our attention to the male which have been 'above described. and were only superficially touched I am deeply convinced. The may I best be shown by a few statistics. actual progress toward an analysis of the pictorial elements of the Codices which the above identifications indicate. beyond the boundaries within which that extraordinary calendar was accepted. Cortesianus. 7. 1 lin- . included not less than seven entirely different guistic stocks. as I have shown . Dresdensis. Codex Codex Codex Codex 40 males " 157 no females 6 " " Troanus. the attributes of are find their pictures 1 See The Native Calendar of Central America and Mexico. SchellI have limited my identifications to such figures as seemed to me beyond has). My count does not agree entirely with that of other observers (Fewkes. is just figures of men and women. p. of which 825 are males and 125 are : females. 2 . we distributed as follows: 2 deities. elsewhere. 5. it is difficult to I have found no trace of its delimit.

ANALYSIS OF THE PICTURES. .

72

MAYAN HIEROGLYPHICS.

marily some star or constellation. spots to represent stars, Cod. Dres.,
the night.

At times he
p. 2
1
;

is

dotted with

His body

is

often in

human
;

the akbalsign. refers to form, carrying a torch in

each hand, Cod. Dres., p. 39. (Compare Cod. Tro., p. 23*.) In Cod. Dres., p. 40, he falls from the sky and in ibid., p. 47, he is

by the shaft of Itzamna. (Compare id. 2, where Itzamna is sitting upon him.) He plays on the medicine drum, Cod. Tro. He reprep. 20, and is associated with the rains, id. pp. 26, 27. sents the end and beginning of time-periods, Cod. Cort, p. 32. The spotted leopard, the jaguar, Maya, balam, whose name is attached to the Chacs, and which appears in the calendar and
slain
in

}

of the myths of the Mayan stock, is represented in a of passages of the Codices, as Cod. Dres., pp. 8, 26 Cod. In one part, Cod. Tro., 14, he enters Tro., pp. 17, 20, 21, 22. dressed as a warrior with a human body.

many

number

;

The monkey, maax

y

is

not often depicted, but
is

is

found with

astronomic relations, Cod. Tro., 25*; his sign

distinguishable
,

by the markedly prognathic jaws. Deer are numerous, especially

in the

Cod. Troanus, where

the pages 9-12 are occupied with a series of pictures of the animal in snares. On page 14 a large one is shown, sitting on

organ erect and prominent. I have little doubt In Cod. Dres., p. 2, a composite these represent a constellation.
his

rump,

his

figure with deer's hoofs appears three times, sailing

through the

sky on the serpent's head.

(Compare Cod.

Cort., p. 14.)

The

cincta, in

small edentate, the nine-banded armadillo, Tatusia novemMaya, ibach, is shown twice in the Cod. Tro., both
9,

times caught under a trap, once, p. again, p. 22*, under the cauac sign.

under the wind
it

sign,
is

What

represents

un-

known.
9.

Figures of Birds.

Birds had important symbolical functions, and a number are In their identification I have had the figured in the Codices.

advantage of the advice of Mr. Witmer Stone,

who

has pursued

THE BIRD SYMBOLS.

73

his ornithological studies in Yucatan itself. The following are recognizable i. The red macaw, Ara macao, Maya, moo or ahlo ; the type This was the symbol of Kin ich. is shown in Fig. 29.
:

FIG. 29.

Bird Symbols from the Codices.

2. The horned or eared owl, a large raptorial bird of the genus Bubo, Maya, cos} He is usually shown in full face to He appears as display his ears or horns, e.g., Cod. Tro., 18*. an associate of the gods of death and war, and symbolizes clouds, His horns frequently appear darkness, and inauspicious events. on the head-dress of Cuculcan to indicate the departing sun and

night, like the akbal sign. (See Cod. Tro., pp. He is often associated with the number 13, and
in

19,

29*, 35*.)

may

represent

3-day period. 3. Two species of vulture, the king vulture, Vultus papa, and the turkey vulture, Cathartes aura, both abundant in Yucatan,
1

the calendar the

Maya, kuch and ahchom.
"

The former

is

the bird seated on the
;

tree of life," tearing out the eyes of the victim, Cod. Dres., p. 3

Cod. Tro., pp. 15, 17, or the entrails, Cod. Tro., p. 15, 17. The naked head and neck of the vulture on a human body is seen Cod. Dres., pp. 8, 13, 19, 38; Cod. Cort, p. 10, etc. His head is his monogram, frequent in Cod. Peres., pp. 4, 7, (See 9, etc.
Fig. 29, No less white.
4.
2.)

Its

body

is

sometimes black,

at others

more or

The

quetzal

bird,

in
1

Cod. Dres.,

p. 16,

Trogon splendens, is above the middle figure.
of
it,

distinctly

shown

In Spanish, bujarro.

coge gallinas y grita 6

The Dice. Motul says como muchachos."

sub voce,

coz,

" ave de rapina

;

9

74
5.

MAYAN HIEROGLYPHICS.

The crested falcon, Spizcetus tyrannus, the moan bird, in Maya muan or muyan. This has well-developed tufts of erectile
feathers on the head

and resembles

in the

drawings the horned

owl.

It
;

is

Pleiades

believed by Forstemann to be the symbol of the by Seler, to be associated with the clouds and rains.
correct.
1

Both are probably
6.

The
fish

the

"

7.

human body and and oysters " sign in Cod. Cort., pp. 20, 21. Blackbirds, of which two species live in Yucatan, are porpelican or cormorant

(See Fig. 28.) is drawn with a

trayed in Cod. Tro., p. 31. 8. The wild turkey is easily recognized by his " " wattle among the food offerings.

head and

10.

Figures of Reptiles.

Among

reptilians, the turtle or tortoise

(Maya, ac)

is

one of

the most prominent. By Dr. Schellhas it has also been called a Blitzthier, or animal symbolical of the lightning, basing his opinion especially on Cod. Dres., p. 40, where a human figure with a
tortoise

seen holding a torch in each hand. It is distinctly represented as a celestial body in Cod. Cort., pp. 13, 17, and when we are informed that the Mayas called a 37, and 38
is
;

head

" portion of the constellation Gemini by the name the tortoise," it is quite clear that we are dealing with an astronomical, not a

meteorological, emblem. Dr. Forstemann has advanced the theory that at least one and an important function of the tortoise was as a symbol of the summer solstice, in accordance with which he explains Cod.
Dres., p. 40;

east
if

and that on the earth-plane it indicated the northand northwest directions. His arguments for this opinion,
it

not conclusive, certainly attach to
1

a high probability.

Some

writers

H. Berendt found the name
akin in sound to
a symbol of the rains^ etc.

have thought that the moan bird was a mythical animal ; but Dr. C. still applied to the falcon. In the form tmiyan, it is muyal, cloud, moan, cloudy which may account for its adoption as
;

9. also in use. Dres.. The word derived from the radical zin. 13. 75 ut) Between the in the tortoise and the snail (Maya. Tzental." to a certain constellation. 5 and 37. depicted several times. pp. Cod. The Mayas applied the term zinaan ek.FIGURES. 7. But it is also likely that the same holds true of the mal is visible in close relation 12. 23. white. the natives believed there were four varieties. in his character as a rain god. Maya. In the Aztec symbolism the snail is often an emblem of death but also of birth. The frog.. Itzamna. which occurs about that season of the year. and thinks it probable that it is found in the hieroglyph of the month 1 mol. Regarding it as a counterpart of the tortoise. Entziffcrung> No. pp. was called sinil. to is the animal represents the earth-plane. III. corresponding to the four sacred colors. and Tro. 14. 13. p. and yellow. OF ANIMALS. It is shown falling from the sky in Cod. zinaan) is cially in Cod. 1 Forstemann. and on p. and hence its name ahau chan). extend and the entire earth. It was distinctively called. Maya designs. tzab can. Dres. p. but it is Another pospossible they derived it from the Spaniards. Motul. aghau Its rattles were termed tzab. Cod. According to the Dice. appears y with the body of one. The size. as one extended plane.. which means to stretch . Its sibility is that zinaan out. scorpion (Maya. uo is a well-known symbol of water and the rains. Dr. black. The aniassociated distinctly with the beneficent deities. where it is of large symbolic sense is not clear. espe9. red. It is . Cort. both in Tzental " and Maya. ahau can. hub or there is Codices some mythical relation. 17. " the Snake King (Maya. . Cort.. with the god of death. 12. muck. The rattlesnake appears to be the only serpent which is represented as a symbol. notably with Itzamna and Cuculcan. Forstemann has given various reasons for holding that it symbolizes the winter solstice and the directions southwest and southeast. " scorpion stars.

. astronomically. pp. . light Among engaged the illustrations are a number which throw on the habits and customs of the ancient Mayas. cap. 17* baptizing children. pp. which 1 of four years. 14. realistically. Cod. Dres. Cod. 16*. p. etc. pp. p.. (From the Dresden Codex. 1 1 . Cort. as the body of Itzamna. 1 Reladon de la Villa de Valladolid (1579). Tro.. Dres.. 7 .. Various religious ceremonies are pictured. 13 as the head-dress of the serpent goddess. 12*. in the sky among the stars. already described as the companion of Itzamna and Cuculcan. Cod." and may generally be regarded as one of the symbols of Time. .76 It is MAYAN HIEROGLYPHICS. 12. etc. 10. We see persons in spinning and weaving.. Tro. Occupations and Ceremonies. Tro. Dres. . 45 others making idols.. Cod. FIG. 43 Cort. p. n*. Dres..) the tongue. It carries the " constellation band. A Religious Function. biting a man's foot. Cod. as piercing p.. Cod. p. . Tro. 16*. frequently. 30. and Cod.. in shown . Cod. Cod. 6. in the Codices. 20* and the was performed at the age . Tro. Tro.

p. JJ important functions at the end of the years.. Above are also two. . 20-24. and the like. y Those who would follow Forstemann's (and my own) views in understanding the Codices. at certain seasons of certain stars. pp. the meteorological variations. the second squatted before a flaming altar. representing the movements of the celestial bodies. in one hand the holy staff. Tro. . are of the . Its successful result is shown in the picture which follows it in the Codex. and transactions they depict as largely symbolic. symbol of the products of the sea. nant. on each side two figures.INTERPRETATION OF THE CODICES. just as in the ancient zodiacs of the Old World we find similar presented. caluac. tility..^Dres. his soul escaping altar. the second on the medicine drum. Below. often one downward and one upward. depicted both in 1 Cod. while the other lifts above his head " " fish and oyster the sign. one shaking the sacred rattle. indicate the rising and the setting of constellations the tortoise and the snail mark the solstices the mummied bodies. curious scene is that Fig. objects.. earth. and their representations in the Codices have been explained by Thomas in his Manuscript Troano. A These are described at length by Landa. the changes of the seasons.*si from the Dresden MS. one playing on a flute. the turkey and the dog and below them a ladder. On the right hand are other offerings. must accustom themselves to look upon the animals. A In the center. . on which this ceremony took or should take place. eb-che probably signifying the day eb. etc. and Cod. the disappearance from the sky . a more pregthe only correct meaning is thus awarded to believe. 25-28. resting upon an altar of three degrees surmounted by the sign caban. these strange memorials. is the head of the god of fer- from his nostril. pp. the revolutions of the sun. plants. and. 35. 1 I higher. the Codices uncouth animals and impossible collocations of images The great snakes which stretch across the pages of mean Time the torches in the hands of figures. moon. and planets.

the interpretations of the hieroglyphs themselves. clear that many of the hieroglyphs are those of the twenty and the eighteen months of the Maya year. . the sun. by their appearance and disposition. and stars others are in the columns of numerals. the native artists had no hesitation in disregarding it. The Direction in which the Glyphs are first to be read. . IV. The Graphic Elements. 1 I stated that whatever the prevailing rule in this respect might have been. This is the conclusion which has since been arrived at by conservative later students. and must have numerical values and others are so related to the pictures that they are plainly a repetition of them in a partial and conventional manner. must be connected with the cardinal points and others suggest. of Yucatan. others. that they portray the celestial bodies. moon.78 MAYAN HIEROGLYPHICS." in the American Historical Magazine for 1870. when artistic or other reasons presented themselves. explaining the we are well prepared to approach the more difficult part of our task. I shall have numerous illustrations of it to offer in the following Most of the diversity in this respect was not capricious. . pages. which are predays served to us in the work of Bishop Landa. shows us is Fortunately. . The In to as- my earliest essay on this subject. by their arrangement. satisfactory Having made numeral and the this progress in pictorial portions of the Codices. is step in the decipherment of any inscription certain the direction in which it is to be read. as the written characters for divinities. I. again. which are usually merely the head of the divinity more or less cursively expressed. an even superficial inspection of the manuscripts It that we are not without material aids to this end. 1 " The Ancient Phonetic Alphabet '.

snakes in Cod. Forstemann. 3 and 4 the manuscripts of the Tuaregs of the Sahara. and proceeding toward the left on the extended sheet. No. beginning at the last page of the series. Brinton. xi (Mexico. These facts look as if the lines were written from right to left. is seen on pages 18 and Why the rule should be reversed in those sections is 19 of the Codex Peresianus. p. as I shall same uncertainty in in show. 64 (Philadelphia. p. Porjirio Diaz must be read from right to left. viii. both manuscript and mural. l . and the minor portions or affixes and in placing numerals on a line. . Antiguedades Mexicanas. this question in any given instance can A 2 Study of the MS. and when in columns from top to bottom. some of which have been Three points in this connection will immediately attract the The movement of the principal figattention of the student. as precisely the the arrangement is found in the Mexican exists to-day picture-writing. Dr. and the dots which mean units less than five are placed to the left. in 79 accordance with rules. " The Alphabets of the Berbers tal Club of Philadelphia. the numerals in connection with the left. Alfredo Chavero. G. p. 4 3 The Codex " in Proceedings of the OrienD. need not surprise us. however. Troano. however. 5 For instances. as Chavero has pointed out. 1891. are to be read from right to and from below upward. 2 That this rule does not hold good in a number of instances. commented o'n by de Rosny. The general opinion. and 69-73. Preface. that the characters when arranged in lines are to be read from left to right. still a problem. upright strokes which mean the fives are placed to the right. ures in the records. is that expressed by Pousse and by Thomas.DIRECTION OF THE WRITING. Forste- has shown conclusively that the numerical elements in the long computations to which I have referred (above p. Dres. 1894). the are added on the left . pp. is generally from right to left the main portion of the composite characters are drawn on the right.. 61- 64. II. 30) are to be read from below mann Great aid in settling be obtained by a close examination of the rubrication of the notable exception to this. but ascertained. 1892). Entzifferung. 1 5 upward^and from right to left.

bounding as it : a . Each such sentence consists usually of four or six characters.8o MAYAN HIEROGLYPHICS. manuscript.faint red were the different sentences or paragraphs he intended to set down. the whole of which may be called a following diagram illustrates the manner in which the separate glyphs are to be read in ordinary cases lines. before he filled in the glyphs or letters." The square. divided his 'sheet into small compartments by. The native scribe. arranged either in a column or in a " cartouche.

is an and below it. It to determine what visible objects these simple characters were intended to represent. 8 1 Composition of the Glyphs." in the He there illustrates their methods Internationales Archiv fur Ethnographic.. which are generally known as " " " affixes. personal ornaments." then in another of these positions and a certain class of elements are employed as affixes only. noting the relative positions of these. Schellhas. costumes. The next step is vitally important and often most difficult. wearing the hair. as shown . placed " . behind it. a called " suf- . that the I have already stated. the student should proceed to 1 In this connection I would call the especial attention of students to the article by Dr. This identification accomplished. I shall refer to the single elements as " simple characters.RULES FOR STUDY." and to the complex glyphs as fix infix " " . of tattooing. 2. a " superfix postfix The same element will often be found first in one and fix. etc. ." An element within another it. dependent on the degree of skill or care of the scribe or sculptor. a " subabove it. Usually each glyph or katun consists of one main element with a number of others drawn in or around it. " composite characters. 10. utensils. 1890. p. main elements of the hieroglyphic writing are not numerous. The proper method is first adopt in studying composite characters which is carefully to separate them into the simple characters of they are composed." 3. and the material which he used for the record. and each of which has many variant forms. " Vergleichende Studien auf dem Felde der Maya-Alterthumer. They are often so conventionalized or so negligently sketched that the most careful students have reached absurdly different opinions as to what they were designed to 1 portray. The Proper Method of Studying to the Glyphs. The apparent complexity of many of the glyphs arises from the combination Mayan of a number in different positions of frequently recurring elements which are placed and relations. in the Codices and other remains. in front of a " " or prefix " .

I shall An Analysis of Various Graphic Elements. to examnumber of simple and composite characters. in the Mayan in the pictures writing and the significant poses assigned and statues prove how expressive it was to this people. The Hand. as a 3. by the nature of the Maya 4. or will yield useful results. In their application it must always be remembered that any Maya character may be employed rebus . I do not believe that that to the isolation of distinct analysis elements as has been pursued by a number of a further phonetic alphabetic writers already referred to. FIG. and instances of which I give in these pages.82 ascertain the MAYAN HIEROGLYPHICS. may be employed as pure ideogram in one connection. hiero- The hand glyphs it contributes to some of the most numerous . as an astronomical or numerical sign. 2. though in " name of the object in the Maya language because. ine a now proceed. it ikonomatic. 6/2. but rather merely offering suggesand examples for future students. is justified script. in either of three values : I. as I have above explained." or rebus method. not by any tions means exhausting the stock. 31. . in the manner above described. As an ideogram . another it may be used for its phonetic value according to the .

las manos. Vol. thumb down- ward (very " common. this and W. 1885). p." Brasseur). composition) No. 5 is the . 21). shows the closed hand as a suffix to the sign ik. 6. 2. supporting hand is g... sap. . Phonetically the hand is kab. 7 occur repeatedly in Cod. must mean union or friendtwo hands held as No. Clark." Die. palm upward. intended to show the hand. Motul). to which " Thomas. 83 tions. tomar con cant. the Nos. "to grasp" ("asir. e. (pollice verso). 32 are supposed to 2 may also stand for a tooth. " No. it would signify offering (very frequent. 3 has been called une hache . 10 shows the hand and arm pointing No. from the ship. Tro. and is explained by Dr.. No. It is the " for the day manik.. i. here to give more than the most meager details on important topic. 7. . 6 .. Tro.. 3. 2. of the Bureau I. . in Rep. 30. Dres. and Cort. Sign It is the interpretation of these and allied signs the student should consult Garrick Language among the North American Indians. 6. 8 and 9 are explained by Seler as the ing. By some represent the the 1 writers eye. Cort.. the index finger extended No. which also means 1 2.. ." but I take it On Mallery. 3 is the hand closing (" la main qui se ferme. not possible for me The Indian Sign Language (Philadelphia. often thus. and signs. 4. forming a cup " " (Cod. name. Seler. 3 1 . P." and by Brasseur as ornaments. 1 p. of Ethnology. p. is . and as a rebus all I it could stand for kaba. juice. has No. and for the small bells " worn weeping eye. pp.THE HAND SIGNS. 30 by no means exhaust its delineaThey are drawn from gesture-speech and each is signifi. " probably an inauspicious significance Cod. supporting ! . 40. by means of his key. hand No. is the usual sign " to give " No. stelae Dres. . Cod. pp. 7) No. finger. usually in . from the Cod. shows it in hasty writing No. s* ""< . from the Cod. Fig. " to eat sign but I take it to be the rebus for mack. No. " arm. Tro. the hand closed. The forms presented Fig. The of Copan." assigns the wonderful mean" " a meat pie Nos. 28. tears " . in the Tro. 2 6y . Per. 1 1 Cort. Cod.

6 and 8 are supposed by Seler to be the eye torn out. and signifies sleep " " " or death. and. No. is the characteristic of a deity. 4 shows the eyelashes of the closed eye. . 5 is the " ornamented or serpent eye. 6 as head and creeping foot of a snail. Schellhas explains No. Nos. according to Thomas." I am persuaded that it is a to be the space within bird's wing. 31. and means " supe- 1. No. 2. No. the closing hand (Figs.84 MAYAN HIEROGLYPHICS. or the chief feather of a wing. They are " the extremely common affixes. 3).

It is not the ordinary 16) is either an ear or an ear ornament. This latter is ear-ring. 5. 34. 2. 57. Cort. to cover over. and to be a variant of Fig. p. "the spectacles of Tezcatlipoca. often used as an affix. 3. Fig." and for a name. we "the spectacles glyph." " 1 Ear-rings are tup.. In No." 1 " Tup . The Ear. pp. and Nos. 3. No. which is the lower jaw bone.) " ear is xicin. 3. which also means shell. as has been proved by de Rosny and Thomas. y llamanse ahora las arracadas 6 zar- cillos. mann 37. from Cod. 36). 33. a word which as a verb signifies to stop up. 36. y^X^^V FIG.EYE AND EAR SIGNS. and 4 2. 5. it is Brasseur explains it as postfixed to a human figure reversed. 4. which is clearly shown in Figs.." are from the pottery of that city. I (Cod. Seler thinks it Venus. and with No. on which it is the most common glyph I have noted. etc. The human ear has been represented by No. Motul. and has been confused with the serpent rattle. 17. ciertas arracadas de palo antiguas. carved on the great tortoise of Copan. cham or catnach. Cort. The " Spectacles. etc. Dres. . FIG. p. 3. The (See Cod.. No. to extinguish. 35." may call it 2. It 2." Dice. 34. is to represent the planet 4. 12. an ornamental kin (see Fig.

in the opinion of Seler. or to a serpent's mouth (Allen) comb be while No. a claw. It may (Valentini). 10 may be an eye and eyelashes (Allen). with a general value." Nos. a . 5-11 outlines of the mouth. II. 35. as the sign for ca. beginning with a person seated. The group of signs. refer to a crescent moon. of venison (Cod. all derivatives from " and 4 he calls eyes. person. . Tro. Nos. r food.). 3. " man. means anything favorable or advantageous vase. " jaws^and face. This as a verb means " . 6. Fig. or an ear (Schellhas). are. The word u never means " Thomas has lowing the unreliable Brasseur. This was called u. to pull out hair. part of a plant. 2." gives 2 it Landa Ikonomatically. 1 The picture of a necklace two " shown In Maya a comb is xel. that the crescentic outlines. My belief is that some of these affixes show the necklace on which beads and precious stones were strung. repeatedly stated. 35. 2 By the latter fact I this sign C o UJJJ D would explain the frequent appearance of d on the neck of vases and on haunches etc.86 MAYAN HIEROGLYPHICS. 7//also " cosa provechosa. to cut in . " called the comb sign. and in sound is akin to nil. the comb sign may have these significations. as Valentini suggests. w hich is also the word for moon." Other suggestions are." Die. 22. a feather. fol- Motul. Crescentic Signs." l FIG. 7." and Nos. for cac. perhaps. two-and-a-half-day journeys. etc." as Prof." and as a numeral prefix it divides in half unities less than 20 as xel u yox kinbe.

" to distinguish it from one the moon. "day. power. Fig. this sign is That u. The kin sign usually indicates The third sign in Fig. 3. Nos. Dr. mistaken. p. but from uinic. is disproved by Landa." and bare teeth.SUN AND MOON SIGNS." from it are derived kinal. " strength. but that of the neckabove mentioned. a dark month. the four teeth indicate the biting heat." ah-kin. veneration " . Fig. 7. cannot be In the latter. bravery. No. in the 8/ Lienzo de Tlascala. man. festival. to rule." kinam. month. 36. light. " heat. rand 2. The hieroglyphs of the sun. 21). fear. hot . claims that a beneficent divinity. He explains the figure as a human it is y head with a In all bleeding eye. given for Landa's alphabet (see above. who calls " it uinal hun ekeh. employed in composition. the symbol of " night. 15) FIG. Sun and Moon Signs. time." etc. . confirms my supposition. Maya grammar does not authorize the derivation of uinal from uinic (in which Seler follows Brasseur) but relating to a month. which has the further meanings. poison." and that where it means 20 (see above. Cf. close examination of most of the lighted by will show that the line on which the supposed bare drawings it t " A teeth are lace not that of the mouth. " may come from u. in p." . will demonstrate how close is the resemblance. The word for No. a priest. inn or uen His statement that the 2O-day period was not spoken of as an uinal. p. 3. these points I think he is in error. 36. it is not derived from u moon. which has the value ?/. 36 is Seler. news. however. This design often occurs on war shields. is shown . that for moon (Schellhas). I sun is is that usually kin.

3 may be a modification of the kin.. 6. No. 37. 37. muluc. the xihuitl. 2. Supposed Derivatives of the Sun Sign. where it stands for be. 2. footprints. the Copan pottery. id. FIG. 3. No. 46-50. constantly associated with deities on the leg." introduce from Mexican pictography. FIG. a modification I it or of the kin sign. and chuen. . By it I explain the very common No. 2. Dres. 5. . at least in the Cod. It is given in Landa's alphabet." As a "directive sign. Dres. The of the flint knife was an important implement. Cod. the i. 12 on the back. large ones kept Landa speaks numerous by the priests for slaughtering . 3. Fig. id..." yellow . The Knife Signs. and the color appears as an occasional variant of the day-signs lamat. and signify house. p. where it is very It is repeated with slight variations on frequent on pp. 39 either of . 38. No.. It may " also be the stones of the hearth. it is " green jade jewel. and it it stands for the point south.MAYAN HIEROGLYPHICS. sacred divine. meaning precious. 4 is thought by Seler to be merely an ornamental form of the kin sign but by Forstemann is taken for the monogram of . the planet Venus. 4. 21 and always on the head-dress of the God of Growth). (on the hand.

as bulkin. They were called ta. My reasons for this are - that in Cod. and 4. No. surmounted by the " trinal " sign. 6 is a rare sign for a dog. 67. I consider it the sacred No. places the fish in . from chi. 31. etc). pp. and have not been explained by previous writers. 3.. show the usual forms in which they are drawn. a very common affix. Dres. But it is too constantly distinguished from it to have this meaning. I believe them to be representations of the ~ food products of the sea. I. 25)." p. 36) ing bird. 18*). FIG. This was called bul.THE KNIFE their victims. excrement tah. chinax. p. 50." the whole of anything. showing his biting teeth (Cod. p. " " fish and oyster shall refer to this as the sign. " the whole day.. they are seen along with other . and as an affix (see Fig. refers probably to lightning. Dres. Ed. Madrid. as sprinkled with blood (Cod. 20. The two I shells are often seen in other relations. Dres. p. p. to represent food a in some . means " all.. war. 2. signification. 39 were long a puzzle to me. pp. a word which. etc. tail is unmistakeable (Cod. is bean. Fig. No. shells are replaced by one conch shell fish and two shells are painted separately. 39. they are associated with a fish7. fice. p. 89 licit dzicil . 7 c Tfood-offerings (see Fig. 107. As a rebus.. Cod.. showing a fish and two shellfish. 21. 1 " Los navajones para los 7 sacrificios. Nos. 1 SIGNS." This may suggest its The curious objects in Fig. The flint knife typifies sacri- ta. 38. the East. it could stand for death. The "Fish and Oyster" Sign. from the sea. 10). Tro. It has been regarded as a 5 variant of the knife (Seler. Dres. 6. as an affix. No. to bite. . Tro. 30) . with which divination was practiced and lots cast. the small squares at the end being the biting edges.. a pelican or cormorant in Cod. . and fire. and in Tzental.. Cort. 34. de los quales tenian buen recaudo los sacer- dotes. the two and in Cod. . a dramatic representation.

but in some of the drawings I dis(Schellhas). Madrid). ring with a ben-ik superfix. represented by his head in a dish. 122. 40. as stated by Landa. shells " tortillas. that it porHe trays the forequarter and head of a food-animal. does not specify what animal. the second is the fish. I and 2. the third is the wild turkey. 41. 12. 1 The robes of some of the FIG. who is apt to see gory I Relation de la Villa de Valladolid (1579). p. XIV. 1 Fig. The ben-ik and other Signs. Seler. the strap which fastens * it. with his sharp teeth. are variants of an element often occurDr. 40. 122. 14) and a fifth is the object shown No. It has been explained as a grain of corn p. 41. here shown with a subfix. 112 (Ed. sprouting from the ground. or a mole emerging from its hole the iguana (see . What looks like the kan sign below . priests were bordered with them. Another is p. Some first is other sacred food-offerings are shown in Fig. No. the species raised 2 by the Mayas to be eaten on festival occasions. had a peculiar sacredness in Maya symbolism." 2 it is Thomas sees in the Cosas de Yucatan. I 3- 4-V FIG. Nos. on The true explanation is that of Brasseur. am aware cum that some two variants of this glyph have a striking resemblance to a penis flaccidus testiculis .9O Shells MAYAN HIEROGLYPHICS. but after close comparison I have rejected this rendering. tinctly recognize the dog. The Sacred Food-Offerings. tied up. Chap. The the haunch of venison tied up (identified as such by Bras- seur).

" rain. A similar design was the tress of hair. FIG.} ben-ik sign referred to is rendered by Seler to mean conand destruction by Forstemann. No more found in the prominent hieroglyph than No. The . . plained it as a caterpillar (chenille).. I would say. 42. y I- 2. 3. and ik of life and power." for kaxala (Hover. " Schellhas. astronomically. and may symbolize the and I prefer this to later suggestions. and as a symbol of the serpent goddess. around the . be " to tie together.THE PAX SIGN. can be Mayan inscriptions. Fig. Cod.. Dres. and none which has proved Valentini has called such a stumbling block to interpreters. to rain. 28* b. Its signification would seem to Tro." or. Forstemann. Tro. p." Dr. mother earth. xoc. kax pol or kaaxi. . as perhaps sometimes is drawn to have a fish-like waters the 7). as the quest lunar month of 29 days in a general sense. 42. worn by women (see Cod. 27 . " It is a very constant association strength and deific power/' of the two day-signs so named. ben giving the idea of motion." No. to join.. 3 is a long worm-like figure under the ben-ik sign. p. 4 is explained by Brasseur as the girdle. " Seler speaks of it as an eagle. with greater probability. la lluvia). " as it has occasionally as a superfix the cloud-balls. (See the significant designs. In No. Per. it is 9! in a sling human heads everywhere. considers that it symbolizes an astronomical event connected with the motions of the sun.. p. means " thinks one carried and conquered in war. 45). and ex. as a rebus. Brasseur pointed out that it is a variant of the day-sign men. It more so body appearance (Cod. Cod. The Drum Signs. I.

92

MAYAN HIEROGLYPHICS.

it the picture of a censer or brazier; de Rosny thought it a Dr. Seler explained it as a precious variant of the ahau sign " " stone and Thomas as a stone heap It is the upper figure
;
;
!

in the

Series" of glyphs at Palenque, Copan, Quirigua, etc. (see above, p. 24), and recurs with but slight variations in all the Codices.
Initial

"

I first announced what it represents and its signification at the meeting of the American Association for the advancement of Science, August, iS^. 1 It is the picture of a drum, the large variety, made of the hollow trunk of a tree resting upon

the trunk being sawed across partly through so as two vibrating surfaces, which were often decorated with Such drums are described by the early Spanish cross-hatching. and one is shown in the Atlas to Duran's History. 2 Their writers, sound could be heard for two leagues, and they were important

short

feet,

to give

adjuvants in the services in the temples. In the hieroglyphics the significance of this design is primarily phonetic. The name of this particular kind of drum
a che, from pax, musical instrument, and che, wooden one was bolon pax che, the word bolon, nine, being a superlarge lative prefix in Maya. Employed according to the ikonomatic this expressed the word paxan, a very common term in method,

was pax

;

Maya, meaning

"

it

is

finished,"

pleted, ended, or destroyed, in a
1

and applied to anything com3 This is good or bad sense.

lore,

Mr. Marshall H. Saville, in a paper published in \ht Journal of American FolkSeptember, 1894, and stated to have been read before the American Association

the preceding month, entitled " Comparative Study of the and Quirigua," observes of the design of \htpaxche that it "

Graven Glyphs of Copan probably a drum." No expression to this effect was in the paper as read before the Association, and in the following number of the Journal Mr. Saville concedes that I was the first to offer this
is

A

identification.
2 3

Duran
I

:

Hist, de las Sn(fias,Tr&t. I,

Lam. 29;

Trat. II,

Lam.

6.

" Paxaan : cosa que esta quote the explanation from the Dice, de Motul, quebrada, como vasija, cabeza, barco, etc.; cosa que esta desparecida; paaxan in cab,

huido se

me han

ha

el

pueblo, ido se

mis abejas paaxan in cuchtel, paaxan in cahal, despoblado se me me ha mi gente. Y asi se puede decir de muchachos, de hormi;

THE DRUM

SIGNS.

93

the numeral signs it marks the end of a series (see above, " Initial Series" (which I believe to p. 22), and in the so-called be terminal), it surmounts and thus closes (reading from below

why

in

For the same reason the support of the figure representing the dying year in the ceremonies at its termination (Cod. Tro., pp. 20-24), an d is often
it is

upward) the rows of computation signs.

associated with the deities of old age, destruction, and death. Several other varieties of drums were in use among the

Mayas. That shown Fig. No. 2, is noteworthy. It is the dzacatan (Berendt), or medicine-drum (from dzacah, to cure, to practice medicine). It was used in the sacred ceremonies (see Fig.
30),
34).

and Itzamna
Its

portrayed playing upon one (Cod. Dres., p. representations in the Codices are peculiar, and have
is

been entirely misunderstood by previous writers. I show them in Fig. 43, Nos. I, 2, 3. In a more highly conventionalized form

we

find

them

in the

Cod. Troano, thus

:

If/vM

I'lT^l

which

has

been explained by Pousse, Thomas, and others, as making fire or as grinding paint. It is obviously the dzacatan, what I have
pottery decoration (see p. 58) around the figures, showing that the body of the drum was of earthenware. Fig. 42, No. 3 shows the ordinary hand drum, the huehuetl of
called the
"
"

the Mexicans.

Its name in Maya is tunkul, properly tankul, which " either "before the gods," or now one worships " (ahora se adora, Baeza.) It was either of wood and was struck with a

means
stick

or of pottery with a skin stretched over its mouth, when the sound was produced by the fingers. Some were large and
;

stood upright, as shown
gas,

in Fig. 43.

L

Representations of these are

humo,
el

niebla, nublados, dolor de cabeza, de la voluntad, etc., anadiendose al

paaxan

" the edge of the sky
1

In a similar sense the phrases paaxal yit caan, cosa." " the broken," paaxal zt chun caan, beginning of the sky is " broken," are translated, reir el alba, venir el dia, 6 amanecer asi."
la
is

nombre de

In the Tzental dialect the
it,

drum

entirely of

wood was

called culinte ; that with a

skin stretched across

cayob.

Lara, Vocabulario Tzenlal,

MS.

94

MAYAN HIEROGLYPHICS.
the Codices, and have generally been mistaken for (See Cod. Cort., p. 27.) Even Nos. 4 and 5, Fig. 44, are
in

common
vases.

probably some such musical instruments.
12,

(See Cod. Cort., pp.

30,31-)

2.

3.

FIG. 43. Standing Drum. (From the Cortesian Codex.)
FIG. 44.

A

Si...ol

-fo'\

I;"

V,

N
.-'

Graphic Delineations of Drums.

2.

3.

A-.

FIG. 45.

The yax and

other P'eather Signs.

Few
to

alone or

glyphs are more frequent than No. in such combinations as Nos. 2 and 3.
it

I,

The guesses

Fig. 45, either as

what

said, a kind

Rosny None of

Brasseur represents have been singularly divergent. of gourd a tree Schellhas, the zapote Seler, and Forstemann, the phallus, etc.
; ; ;

represents a

these suggestions seems to me tenable. I believe it common feather decoration made of short green or
staff.

blue feathers, attached to a style or

It

is

frequent

on

Mexican and Maya figures, and in No. 4, Fig. 45, I copy one from a Maya war dress. The lower portion represents the ornament to which I allude. It was called yax kukul, and this

1 in mind I shall refer to it as the " In Mexican writing the three trinal " sign. virile. Lienzo de Tlascala. similar design is found on Mexican shields. Oaxaca. 70). No. by Allen. 2." in the form given Fig.. etc. Three was a sacred number with the Mayas. fresh. also developed in the hieroglyphs to an important sign. See Cod. 46. identified by Seler as " feather balls. and on the curious sculptures at Monte Alvan. as shown in No. although called a " phallus by " " " article of food Rosny.FEATHER SIGNS. As feather in is Maya is kukum. 56. Porf. lam. 2." are " Mother Earth sign. which is yax. etc..g. e. p. . and (metaphorically) new. 1 A figured in Captain Dupaix's Second Expedition. plate 21. sometimes portrayed above the men. in Kingsborough's Mexican Antiquities. which he calls " Chac Mool. pp. green. for a good example. to ku. young. " Feather the trinal makes. in the Lienzo de Tlascala. No. an by Thomas. royal. 7. It is shown in Fig. Fig. Cod. 47. 46. and with this 2. appear in the ikonomatic sign for tecpan. No. Peres. plate 12.. They appear on the head of the important statue unearthed by Dr. 78. FIG. 46. 95 gives the phonetic rebus value of the sign. 4. feathers 57. or and in other relations. Diaz. Care must be taken not to confound this with the character seen in the sign of the dog (see p. which really represents " the ribs and breast-bone.) These three feathers indicated in Maya symbolism the highest place and power. which allied in sound rn/flin. 45. strong. plate The three feathers which surmounted thej/ax kukul. I.. we see what an appropriate rebus " " The " Trinal Emblem. and is the uppermost sign " Initial glyph "of Palenque (see p. divine. Le Plongeon at Chichen Itza. (See Fig. kul. god. s. Rounded figures. 137) and was a mark in the of eminent distinction. a breast" and a " vertebral column " by Seler.

and plaited and I consider its value when used " strong. chich. violent. I frequent. swift. a part of a helmet made of interlaced and twisted cords attached to a frame. chichin bil kuch" " also " Dice.. regard them as meaning a canopy. " " tenia un docel de pluma sobre el guarda polvo. 47. and that for twisting and interlacing 2 again a simple rebus. No. Forstemann. hard. " " is chich. 22*. wicker-work. are " : strong. are supposed by Seler and Thomas to represent a house. Tro.47. 23*. Father Ximenes speaks of the " asiento del rey . 1 FiG. de grandmother. 129. Cross-hatched "Signs. . Hilo torcido . cotton cloth.-The 2. 2 " Torcer hilo con huso. . or that twisted. of the shell of a torIn some places it is clearly toise. an imitation of a snake skin ." Origen </e los Indios de Guatemala. appears as a written It forms part of the sign of the day character with superfixes. mighty. 196. Thomas calls P ai"t it a trellis or lattice work Seler." because the word for phonetically to be This cross-hatching I . on p. knotted. and is attached to the sign of the sun and of the world. both as an affix and as 2 3 f costume." to which early writers allude as part of the Probably the armor of a Maya warrior. kuch. A number of rials drawings in the Codices represent textile mateis mats. etc. 3. in Maya strong cords is chich-kuch. The symbol is therefore one of power and authority. chicchan. dos. 3 Meanings of chich. Motul. pp. rather than of a mere inanimate object.96 MAYAN HIEROGLYPHICS. p. tenia cielos de diversos colores. the roof of which is indicated by the cross- The hatched or plaited objects. That Fig. (See Cod. 3 1 " morriones de madera. the practical and symbolic uses of which article are often referred to by the early visitors to these tribes." . 6. etc. 19..) it In Nos. I gPVVV and Oa^-r. 2 and 3 regard as showing woven stuff. tres. designs.

1 ashes. pp. z>.. 27). Nombres Geograficos de Mexico . earth.LINES AND DOTS. I give a frequent postfix. 3 is called by Seler an ideogram for " man " or " person. See Antonio Penafiel. Estudio Jeroglifico. " grain-husks. p. 1 ?/. or the tail of a dog (Cod. 3. sand. salt. No. akin in sound to and may be allusive for these ideas. line or lines of dots Some have Tro. and from the latter.. 44. region. place. Another series of admirable examples are in the " Lienzo de Tlascala. the claw of a reptile or insect. stars. world. A as . 4-. food. mean xiix. it was used by the ancient Mexicans. under the editorship of the distinguished antiquary. 2 is the conventional sign for smoke. . FIG. I believe we see the dots with the " signification " speech attached to the drum. 1892). the foot of an animal. 3 coming from the mouth of a dog. nil. In the sign for the day. 5*. 20. 48." 2. Tro. month. Dots in Maya are ua or ual. etc. 6*. to the student who would familiarize himself with the method of " ikonomatic" writing as sim (Mexico. No.. 97 it In Fig. Cod. singing. No. Fig. mistaken this for the sign of death. Some Linear Signs and Dots. etc. in which I have not traced They have many significations Mayan Codices. such as seed. Don Alfredo Chavero. 48. p. No. as may be seen in Cod. No. 1885). In the pictures portrays the wing of a bird. Tro." published by the Junta Colombina (Mexico. I." or vocal sound. pasI would especially recommend this easily obtainable work. 4 trate the I introduce from the Mexican pictography to illus- use of black dots.

lam." and is translated in the dictionaries. ' I are quite fre- quent. 5* and Where symbolized the exercise and transfer of the deity is portrayed with this addi- he For 10*. times it also conveys the idea of speech. power. i. No. 3... Tro. 1 Nagualism . Porfirio Diaz. lightning. 3 represents the usual mode of portraying the antennae of scorpions. as in Fig. or the burning of incense. Tro. " rociar con la boca. where the head p." . The kan and imix signs are often associated under two super- fixes enclosing dots." in Cod. Sometimes water was used. 44. No. No. 2 . etc. 50. (Seler. as Fig... in Cod. and the scorpion. or that from a drum. examples.' * It spiritual tion. "to blow water. the act of blowing was the essential feature in the practice of the ' medicine men. where it is not easy to Modifications of Fig. tions. them any such meaning. ~ 35 Jll/ O No. I. also means the rays of the sun and of light. e. a Study in Native American Folk-lore and History. and the figure might so be interpreted. No. I 5TL Linear Prefixes. over various glyphs. At precisely like one in the Cod. especially those of a beneficent character. 49. see the "bee god. pp." is in the act of exerting his divine influence.. when the word in Maya is puhaa. -- Tfaffi) ^~LK FIG. as typifying fire. 49. g. occur elsewhere as superfixes 2. of interest because the word for these in Maya. 20. note. is as in No. This sign has had various explanaor wind . insects.98 MAYAN HIEROGLYPHICS. The sign is associated with various deities. p. Schellhas) but represents divine or magical power believe it " exerted by blowing. or vocal sound. matzab. The same assign objects. These have been interpreted by Seler to indicate copal gum. 2. etc. As I have explained in my Nagualism. however. Fig.

p. again. Forstemann believes that the circle of dots. show the rain-clouds as conceived by the native artist. means " movement or precession . the Maya women. 51. desses. p. as others would say." worn by ffTTTT FIG. cloud-balls. o Oo FIG. "la boveda del cielo. The expression in Maya was u nak caan. The double curves see on the snake. 700. 1 Seler speaks of them as pictography of the northern tribes. as in the lower portion of No. indicating the junction of two time-periods. p. It is a No. as a trayal ornament." literally.CURVILINEAR SIGNS. Cort. etc. Symbols for the Earth. picture of a twisted lock of hair. The CO sign is so surrounded. Codices they are seen in the day-sign cauac. 1 appears in the monograms of various godIdeographically it has two meanings. Nos. I construe as the sign of the sky. The "Cloud-Balls" and the "Cork-screw Curl. 52." as in Cod. I and 2. and An almost identical conception appears in the elsewhere. or " cork-screw curl.. woman or It : Picture Writing of the American Indians. 15. 2. or.." an appropriate name for the ele- ment. copied from the great tortoise of Copan. 68." Dr. Schellhas first saw its real intention. Cod.. one. the " of the sky." In Fig. 99 Dr. Dres. 51. has been explained by Thomas and Seler as the por" nose of trickling fluid or. the crooked lightning darting from the sky. In the " Wolkenballen. by the latter. 3 . 2 . "belly Mallery that we .

signifying the union of day series (pp. 50. The Knotted Head Dress. Troano. p. as the Earth is the feminine it is in . the radical of the mouth.) etc. 53. . occurs with great frequency. 3.100 female MAYAN HIEROGLYPHICS. down the hieroglyph of the Earth. (which we do latter sense... " it may imply sexual union. 5. from the Cod. down or downward either from its name not know). as in the Tableau des Bacabs above. p. Other signs common on union are No.) " . it as I " but Allen explains I. its frequency. 61. as that which is or below us. 54. It is common in the form No. yetal." In the writing it is probably among other " and. FIG. with the " meaning union. and No. Mother Earth." others as " falling water. No." etc. which for . would suggest that this 4. which is a knotted head-dress. the other. 2. accept without hesitation Brasseur's identification of it as the side view of the joint of a reed or maize stalk. In the . in the Vienna Codex. 53. 3. is the intimation conveyed by the sign. 64. I principle in nature. or because it hangs downward. 58." which explains things the conjunctive conjunction. Signs for Union. males. Fig. 52 although. 4. Fig. (see FIG.

FIG. S. Zeitschrift fur Ethnologic. 2 for September. .. the Mexican manuscripts. The middle design between the two crescents is frequent as an affix (e. beautifully 1 shows the sacred tree. 18. 5. 18. leaves (omitted in this p. 19. 2 is taken from the Cod. Tro. 1886. pp. original." have already hinted at the significance of the "tree of life" It is shown in the Codices under two In the former it seems to be forms.. . by the R'ev. lifting its fourfold branches. Schellhas. . here distinctly anthropomorphic. etc. 55. plates 8. quently observations upon this point. Vaticanus. Cod. transformation of the human into the arboreal form and its opposite are freSome interesting referred to in the myths and pictography of the red race. Lam. Nos. Cod. Tro. in the vase In the of the heavenly waters. 53. instance) are well The shown in Cod. 55. Amer. etc. 1894. 17*. 1887. in relation.. Usually the tree Both forms are frequent in is associated with Itzamna. p. 2.. Cod. Fig. No. Colomb. and consult Pousse in Arch. IOI perhaps indicates the union of two month periods. 37. Peres. I and 2. They are cordate it and pendent. 16. the god of the north star is resting upon them. 17. 17. The "Tree of Life. I in Mayan mythology. may be found in the American 1 The Antiquarian. or the new and old moons.g. p. 3 .THE TREE OF LIFE. and the myths relating to them have 2 been subjects of study by various writers. Peet. growing from a bottle-shaped vase. la Soc. p.. 102.). de p. D. Cod. 7. See the Codex Borgia.. plate 65 . Vienna.

31. 3. Seler is as an bill owl symbol. 3 and 4. but this is doubtful. Forms like Nos. Nos. 3. 2. 57. Crotalean curve.IO2 MAYAN HIEROGLYPHICS. I and 2. " has been called by Seler the representation of man. Fig. o FIG. 4 " a well-known form of " closing hand " moan" meaning explains depict the it the Pleiades (Entziff." the outline of the jaws of the rattlesnake. The representation of this weapon or implement is seen in Cod. Nos. and perhaps No. in all the forms of writing. where I. 2. 56. 17. from Copan and Guatemalan pottery. while Dr. follow closely the Codices. 56. Supposed Bird Signs.. negligent manner in des Schlagens"). The "Machete" and Similar Signs." No. p. are usually taken to represent a chopper or machete. 3. FIG. has been dwelt upon with emphasis by Allen and Maudslay as one of the most notable emblems in The " . In the conventional and which these characters are often written. IV) ." Forstemann calls No. With a " comb affix. Crotalus horridus. 2. it is not easy to distinguish them from others of different origin and meaning. The design enclosed held to of a bird. I. 4-. Seler explains the machete as the symbol of striking or* wounding (" Ausdruck a man is killing a snake with one. It may be a variant of No. which is a I Characters like the above recur from Fig. 3. Tro. No. 2 and 3 may be feather signs.

Nos. Nos. 37 (Philadelphia.. 59. : An Analysis of the : Life Form in Art. FIG. 3. with Cod. Maudslay Biol. II. Harrison Allen . is in fact a 2. 3. and No. Objects Heldjn the Hand. 1 103 Maya art. 58. serpent wand. No. Dres. As a graphic element. illustrates its radical. 1-4. 7. p. pp.. Cent. from Stephens. 2. are outlines of objects often seen in the Codices. Fig. etc. show some of its forms in the Codices. 42. P. Archeology. pp. it is less prominent than in architecture. 1875) A. 4. Amer. plate 23. 40. 5. 31*. Tro. I. 6. 2. as can readily be seen by comparing Cod. FIG. Part .CURIOUS CURVES. which looks like a carriage-wrench. 4-. The Crotalean Curve. 59. 1 Dr. 58." Fig. 5. 43. I.

JO4

MAYAN HIEROGLYPHICS.
is

No. 2
in

the

"

medicine
etc.

rattle."

Sometimes

it

was a gourd,
"

at others of earthenware, as

we

see

by the
it

"

Cod. Tro., 34, 35,
1

Sometimes

pottery decoration looks like a fan or a

mirror.

No. 3 is the hatchet, and No. 4 the chisel. The peculiar shape and mode of use of the latter are seen Cod. Tro., 34, etc. Both of these implements were made of metal obtained from Tabasco, and Landa especially says that the latter was that
with which they carved their idols, exactly as

we

see in the

MSS. 2 The word for same root come

the

tomahawk
"

to fight batul, " " " in front of; or hail for bat,
;

in "
;

Maya was
"

bat ; and from the
"
"

a chief; batan, first batab, any of which ideas the weapon
It
is of frequent occurrence in persuaded, was to indicate a

might be a symbol or a rebus.
the texts.

One

of

its

uses,

I

am

thunderbolt or stroke of lightning. The name for this in was u the blow of the cloud," 3 and in the group of the

Maya
moan

sign and the tomahawk we have this well expressed. The first design in Fig. 60 shows the aspersorium, lilabal, with which the high priest sprinkled the holy water (which was the

dew
it

To
1

were attached the

collected in the early morning) during the ceremonies. rattles of the rattlesnake and tails of

Mr. E. P. Diesel dorff,

in a description of a very beautiful decorated vase

from the

vale of

Cham a, Guatemala,

says that fans were noi in use

among

the natives,

and

that

the object in the paintings usually identified as such is a " soplador," or fire-blower, made of woven palm leaves, and still found in every house. Verhand. der Berliner

Anthrop. Gesell., 1894, p. 374. 2 " Tenian cierto azofar blando y con alguna poca mezcla de oro, de que hazian las hachuelas de fundicion y unos cascabelejos con que vaylavan y una cierta nianera de ftelacion de Yucatan, p. 107. escoplillos con que hazian los idolos." (Madrid edition.)
3

U hadz muyal, literally, "
same
is

its

blow, the cloud."

Another

figure

which seems

to

indicate the

Cod. the broad, pointed object seen in the hands of deities. It is the same as the Nahuatl tlauiteCort., p. 28; Cod. Tro., pp. 29, 30, 38, 39.
portrayed in the hands of Tlaloc, in plate 70, of Boban's Catalogue Raicollection.

quiliztli,

sonneof the Goupil

VARIOUS OBJECTS.
1

105

poisonous serpents.
inscriptions.

It

is

often portrayed in the Codices

and

The second design is the throwing-stick, in The admirable monograph of Mrs. Zelia Nuttall
2
:

Nahuatl, atlatL
explains its imwell portrayed

portant symbolic uses. Examples where it is are Cod. Dres., p. 60, 65 Cod. Tro., pp. 21* and 22*.
;

!
FIG. 60.

The Aspersorium,

the Atlatl,

and the Mimosa.

The
that
it

third design in Fig.

ish, escobilla,
is,

60 is what Seler calls a broom (SpanNahuatl, mallinalli^} and Schellhas, a feather. But as Brasseur said, a mimosa, seems clear from Cod.

where it is shown growing. In id., p. 32*, where it above the turtle, it has an astronomic significance. Other objects sometimes depicted are fans, ual or picit; mirrors, nen ; shields, chimal ; and planting sticks, xul.
Tro., p. 29,
is

The

designs

shown

in Fig.

61 recur in

all

the Codices, and

I

agree with Dr. Forstemann that they must refer to the celestial bodies and their relative motions (contrary to the view of Dr.
Seler).

That they have not all been identified is perhaps because none of the students of the subject has been astronomer enough

to understand the lessons they convey. few we are certain about. No.

A

I

is

the sun, No. 2 the
"

moon No.
;

13

must be
lil,

"

the rope of the

moon

(see

above

p. 36)

1

tion.

The name is from The Relacion de
el

to sprinkle, haa, water,

and

bat, the instrumental termina:

la Villa de Valladolid, 1579, cap. xiv, says

"

el

ahkin llevaba

un hisopo, atado en
2

muchas

colas de vibora y culebras ponzonosas."

The

Atlatl or Spear

Thrower of

the

Ancient Mexicans.

By

Zelia Nuttall

(Cambridge, Mass., 1891).

io6
indicating
its

MAYAN HIEROGLYPHICS.
1

No. 12, from the Cod. Peres., might reasonably indicate its opposition; No. 14 is the pole star, occurring in Cod. Tro., pp. 20, 22, 23. Dr. Forstemann has
conjunction;
certain reasons, reaching a moderate probability, that and 4 symbolize the planet Mercury Nos. 5 and 6 the planet Venus No. 7, Jupiter No. 8, Mars and No. 1 1, Saturn No. 15 I have seen only on the casts from Sastanquiqui, Peten, at the World's Columbian Exposition.

offered

Nos.

3

;

;

;

;

;

2. L
"

3.

107 the heavenly shield. Cod. Designs from Copan Potsherds. 62. East. also seem of astronomical intent. Figs. have been left After considerable discussion the signs for the cardinal points definitely determined to be as in Fig. 64. which seem to be developments from a form very which is shown in Fig. 3 may be a variant of in the common Mexican MSS.. from the same source.West." a designation I Its signification was first explained by Schellhas.. however. which. 57). though No. I. 56. 63. Nos. This has been called shall retain.CELESTIAL SYMBOLS. The East sign is composed " " of the kin (sun) sign with the a/iauas a superfix and the claw postfix. ancl the ik (comp. Dres. 3. FIG. the West the kin sign with the mack as a superfix . I have copied from a potsherd brought from Copan. 63. 2. North. 2 and 3. the North has the north star god's monogram with the lunar prefix . " " The orbs are suspended from the constellation band " by curi- FIG. The " Heavenly Shield." ous bearings. South. pp. I . No. reading from to right.

The Signs for the Cardinal Points. East. the* others may confiis highly significant." The precise purpose of these has remained obscure. That any quarter in the native astrology could be transferred into any other. West. explains why they 'are all . Seler has suggested that they indicate the colors which were assigned to the four directions. 65.io8 (see p. This is true as far as it goes. where one is found. 83) MAYAN HIEROGLYPHICS. left They are shown Fig. South. but does not explain many of their " uses.. with these directive signs. 65.. North. dently be looked Another series of signs are intimately associated with these. for. I take it. FIG. Space not permit a further analysis of these important composites. but FIG. the lower marked with the cardinal points. but always together. the upper. This was somewhat made by the superposition of two surfaces. the South has the yax with will the mac superfix and sometimes an augment. My own studies have led me to believe they are primarily directive signs. etc." intended to guide the learner in the use of the calendar wheel. intricate. and the " claw " postfix . Dr. The " Directive Signs. each These signs never occur isolated. and read from to right. 64.

IOO. and therefore do not tell us the I hesitated its some time to assign the flint knife to the East. This. Thus. xxxv). white. and zacan. yellow. " their 66." zac. a tempest. may also signify . rain. work on " The Native Calendar of Central America 5." and is close to zacal. yellow." sign for the East. black or. the fat of meat. very. or for colors. a star. red. beginning is This is identical with several variants of the North " directive sign cuceb above and the reason it was called was that the verb cucul means " to move round and round " as they did their J . "strong. in Mexican symbolism. My view is work the "the squirrel. but believe the evidence is in favor. south. darkness. is " also an intensive particle. . . 89). much. ikonomatically that is. may also be translated dark. : east. As Chavero has pointed out {Antiguedades Mexicanas. while ek. 66. however. These four may directive signs occur repeatedly as affixes. the flint knife. west : . dyewood. also means "jewels. north. a web. the tecpatl belongs decidedly to the West. These are numerous. for the other meanings of the color names. abundance. water. red. the signs of the cardinal points. They be read." and marked with the Fig. kan. bread. money. may as such have the values assigned above to that object (see p. does not make the method so complicated as one may think." calendar wheels. for " The in all rebus-writing we find the ordinary signs employed are limited to a few recognized meanings. p. 1 borne out by the Books of Chilan Balam. The "Cuceb. " to be looked 1 pointed out that the hieroglyphs of the names of the days are upon as rebuses. . the rain god. black. (2) for the homonyms of the names of these colors. T FIG. (i) ideographically either as directions. a hamac chac. In I my The Hieroglyphs of the Days. white. In this rotation of the time-periods is called cuceb. " a rope. to 'weave.THE DIRECTIVE found with all SIGNS. . food.

abundance. i. 4 (Philadelphia. kan. In purchasing a wife the " he who must pay kans" as these were the consideraexpression was ah coy kan. 1 The Native Calendar of Mexico and Central America. (Dice. de Motul. It is To quite misleading to seek the real meaning or derivation of a day-name or other word from the figure which represents it in the hieroglyphic writing. and to fish or hunt with one. meaning of the name given the day." It should be remembered. It was their circulating medium. shell penMaya. etc. . 6 piedras que Servian a los indios de moneda y de adorno al : cuzcas I owe this identification to my late friend. . anything precious or valuable length a set task . and it stands for money. Its correctness will be confirmed by examining Berendt. tirely different The latter usually stands for a ] word of an en- meaning. prosperity. the name of which has more or less similarity to the name of the day. 12. a profound Maya scholar. and all which that magic word conveys. a measure oi . etc. cap. therefore. Cod. 33. Cort. This circulating medium of the Mayas is cuello. Dice. 48. 1579.. Cod. the only connection being a more or less similarity of sound. C. and hence ripe fruit. portion Others explain it as an eye (Seler) a tooth (Brasseur) a grain of maize (Schellhas). 2 The dot or eye in the upper food. Kan. p.IIO real MAYAN HIEROGLYPHICS. that some of these hieroglyphics of the day-names recur as independent characters with other than calendar significations. and would serve by an ocular representation to recall it repeat what I there said on this essential point to " : mind. Motul . pictures of They are merely the some familiar visible object or objects. or bead..) : 2 Kan mentioned yolk of an egg. Dres. H. p." in the Relacion de Valladolid. Other meanings of kan are yellow. . the tion. in . dant. cooked maize. The object represented is a polished stone. . Dr. " p. 1893). is the perforation by which it was strung on a "cord. a net.

the sunsetting enough to recall the day name. Muluc. 65). a petticoat. cimil . p. The root mol or mul means a . as do the words. The figures bear a close resemblance to some of the sun signs. The day sign muluc and the month sign mol have a resemblance. 37." Its phonetic value is " not kab. Seler a serpent's skin. The allusive design to suggest the name is sup- plied by the twisted threads it Brasseur sees in chick kuch. etc. ' 5. or Represented either by an eye closed as by the maggot (see above p. Lamat. act of grasping. 96. in death. Correctly explained by Brasseur as a hand in the " une main qui se ferme. hand. to grasp " (see above p. 4. See above. 3. but mach. . They seem to show the orb partly below a line the horizon which would give as a rebus lamal kin. Cimi. 83).THE DAY 2. Manik. 6. SIGNS. I I I Chicchan. See Fig.

the b. 67. where a is FIG. the strengthened pax. and appears occasionally as a numeral . as is evident from allied designs though Brasseur and Seler claim that it is of a monkey. "the winds united. 67. Both signs seem to portray same kind. Seler. Chuen. following him. think that the others portray the ears of a dog. SchellThe day name is close in sound to chun. as that particular animal is intended. chi. one thing inside of another of the reference to the sense of the root. the first. The figure is that of a mouth. within. as in * f~JL^^ some Mayan dialects the dog is called oc. together. (See p. a calabash. Piles of chuen are shown as offerings. with fangs but was not very near in sound. liter- a congregation or meeting.112 MAYAN HIEROGLYPHICS. c. p. is sometimes portrayed at the bottom of the circle. chu. 23). (/!rtn(\ fc^JJ^JVSTTC* The full glyph is thus: It is of frequent occurrence in such a cartouche as shown in Fig. 92). the dog sign son and d. the beginning. of a snake. has. Oc. the haunch of veni. or piling up. e. . . and. etc. Brasseur. " coming ik.g. The mouth of no 8. (see above. monogram of Xmucane with a vigesimal or personal prefix. " the The hurricane word for religion is is called molay umolay." ally.. . with a probable various meanings this word signifies a trail" and "footprints. Among its " variant. A Cartouche." Such seems the design in the first 7.

3 might offer valuable material. to suck the teat. by be che. p. a Explained by Brasseur as showing a path. highly important. Cod. mat and a straw roof. This rebus In Tzental tradition Been gives the first syllable of the name. Pineda. tu chun uitz. or Been. " at the foot of the tree . Seler.p. 10. Constitutions Diocesanas. 3. In many inscriptions the position of the chun is antithetic chunel. pp. 7. The face of an old man with a peculiar pointed ear The word eb means "ladder. To me.. Vega. the beginning. 26. Variants of the chuen are extremely frequent in the mural inscriptions. and its As stated in the text." find such expressions as tu chun che. mark. was the ancient hero who erected the inscribed stelae (piedras 2 paradas) at Quixte. Description Geografica de Chiapas* pp. it looks like a wooden bridge. chit is the teat or mamma. Do " they mean . which means "the foundation. " at the base of the hill. i * 9. first /. 11. >*. 8. Dres. the two supports of which are shown and which was sometimes covered with a straw mat. etc. ebzah. which the natives still decorate at certain times with garlands of flowers. the first. The usual figure contains a number of black dots. this last may explain the 10. near Comitan. to sharpen or point a flint sharpened ear and dots. 42 . therefore. " the cause. 3 1 correct interpretation. . I believe they generally stand for chun. Nunez de la inscribed his own name upon them. E. . the other the end of a series. " ebtun. Ben. The story was that Been I have not ascertained that this locality has It been examined by modern travelers. Eb.*. Ix. 113 " fruits?> Cod. We to the/tf. In Tzental. Cort.THE DAY SIGNS." etc. a stone stairway. as a be . the 2 one indicating the beginning.

Men. Cib. which closely corresponds with the name. Caban. The 15. Sometimes it is extended wormlike. These suggest the word xiix. decoration The trickling down. Ezanab. 13. 99). indicates a jar or vase. supposed by Brasseur and Seler to be Mother Earth." Je/. 12. as ix is it conventionally portrays the feminine the feminine prefix in Maya.. 58) certainly ci. 14. . and stands for cab (see p. scattered grain husks. (see p. as in Fig. Brasseur proposed that parts. 3. " pottery " design is that of the cork-screw curl" of a woman. Seler thinks " it shows the round hairy ear and spotted skin of the jaguar. Brasseur and Seler believe the enclosed spiral repre" sents the fermented liquor. No. The picture is of the sacrificial knife of flint.MAYAN HIEROGLYPHICS. The head of an aged person. 43. 6 .o 0D ^"^ ( V.

ing of a full face. as Seler thinks. spirit. however. The design shows a side face. S. life " coming forth (or. 15. breath. etc." and the sign for wood. 1 6. On the other hand. with pendent clouds for the eye." 17. and. life. though Generally regarded as representing a mammary it is not quite like those shown in the Codices. Ik. gland. y. . Imix. sometimes shown with what looks like leaves emerg(Cod Tro. the " windcross " for the ear. IV.. 6*. Ahau. Usually considered to be the conventional draw. is a sign of 1 See Forsteraann. tions or four winds. as Seler thinks. 5*. 1 In the calendar it indicated the beginning of a time-period. the hairy mouth it of the moan bird. of prosperity and is often attached to the kan sign. Rosny explains as " Thomas as " the plan of a building. Entzifftrung. 1 8." Brasseur calls it a flower. and enclosing the sign of the four direcair. It is typical 19. perhaps.THE DAY SIGNS.). the because it is ing from it the spirit of wind-cross. soul. Cauac. The word means The design is a katun wind. pp. This indicates.

and is probably teeth of a mouth with (Brasseur. . the second and third are from the Dresden Codex. p. Cort. Akbal. Uo." The principal element in the glyph is the south or yellow sign.i6 sacrifice etc. line is The Hieroglyphs for the Months.). Pop. I. indicating speech (see p. the same superfix occurs on the kan. or the rays of the sun after sinking below the As a general glyph it is frequent with the signification horizon. variant shows the " windcross. t prefix latter. . The word resembles akab. 6. intricate than those of the days. the first on the from Landa's work." 2. The . of night and darkness. MAYAN HIEROGLYPHICS. 20. with the alar subfix. Cod. These are more wider variation. not necessarily in a bad sense. 37. . The word means " a mat. Seler). a species of frog usual meaning of this term is a prickly pear uooh a written character or letter. 98) seems to indicate the The chief element is the mol sign with the night sun as a subfix. The also. The design may be that night. referring perhaps to the The prefix to the first color of a mat. and show In the designs given below. derived from it.

Dice. depict conventionally the claws of that animal." The word means " bat. tzekel . p. a play on the phrase.THE MONTH 3. Z^. 1 1 2). ^Uiiimiiu explained by Brasseur as a death's head. by others. The design shows the sun below the flint knife. is." and the design shows the 4. that the slain or departed sun." . head of one with the kin as a superfix. Xid. The three signs are quite unlike." they may of wearing the hair. The first presents 1 Seler observes. The design is the head are supposed by Schellhas to represent a peculiar mode But as tzec means " scorpion. " Tzec scheint der Zermalmer zu bedeu- ten. as an open mouth with teeth (compare ckuen. Maya. on doubtful premises. or Tzec. 1 6. signifying to extinguish. Zodz. the sun set (ponerse by the mac el sol. The projecting curved lines above 5. The idea is strengthened " as a prefix. 117 Zip. zipik kin. Motul}. SIGNS.

referring to water month and two prefixes. with reference sign The first is more complex. of a bird of the finch or sparrow family . making a rebus for mol. 8. a conven(?) . Y See remarks on the day sign muluc.n8 the conical bill MAYAN HIEROGLYPHICS. . Motul. or extremity. Seler holds that it shows the heart. ual. Dr. the the third." the by glyph kin (sun) sign and the dotted postfix. new " or " strong . The word xul xulub. 9. the sign of . ol. means to end or to and. may be ikonomatic for finish . the phrase dze yax kin was applied by the 7. or (3) the sun after setting. the '7 strong sun. shows a water jar bearing the sign of fluid. Forstemann suggests that the above designs represent either (i) a snail in its shell. for moan mouth. According to the Dice. This means a spring or well of water. Yaxkin. month. p. the horned owl or the falcon The second tionalized bird's head. The to the sense of the word. horns. main element for is a face with a an eye the infix u. second. within the body." The the yax sign. Maya. or (2) an egg with its yolk. This means " new sun " or " expresses this " Mayas to the hottest part of the summer. The second Clien. in. . end. limit. Mol.

tapa de vasija. The second. The measure called mac was much greater (doce brazas." is inappropriate. Zac. the deer. . 1 2. the 13. placed as a superfix to the cauac sign. is a variant of the kan or imix. carries yax ii. Pio Perez). as white was the color sacred to the North. 100)." and the design shows knife used in slaughtering that animal. Mac. The feather sign to the cauac sign. thus making a perfect rebus. 113). Yax. This word means "white. 94) is the superfix the postfix ual. The meaning of ceh is " flint jimuu a The first glyph represents the cover of a jar. name of which in Maya is mac." The opinion of Allen that the sign represents the extended arms.THE MONTH union (see (seep. SIGNS. month. p. not plain. which (see p. with the 1 1 " Mac. Ceh. the " great span." and this is here expressed by the cauac sign carrying as a superfix the north directive sign (see p. Another meaning of mac is the sea turtle and its shell (galapago y concha del). and above it what may be a variant of ben 10. 109).

125). with his ears or horns. a shield. see 16. 15. muan bird. Muan. showing the sun sign. 14." The second glyph is the sign for a breast-bone. or dog first The (seep. pax che. above explained (see p. 65)." a perfect rebus. as the Kayab. which means " yellow. In Landa's alphabet this has the value ." of tupp kak. 74. The main element was recognized by Schellhas head of a turtle. 91). The head of the p. subfix. and glyph the south directive sign (see Fig. The only or main element is the drum. the extinguishing of the was to secure rain for the growing crops. the crested falcon. " comb " In this month was celebrated the important fire. kin. rite the aim of which figure The may refer to this. 17.120 " MAYAN HIEROGLYPHICS. Kan kin. is This expression means "the yellow sun. Pax.

' 5. A. which Seler explains as No. 1-4. these in a clear and satisfactory manner is due almost defining entirely to Dr. and 3 has The bean (or flint) been already referred to (see p. Dres. which is repeated in a number of the month signs. retaining his alphabetic nomenclature.. 2. His signs are clearly established and vary but little. the name." Rather. It is 121 first applied as a rebus to recall the syllable of %'t one case combines kan and cum. a or ak. which has in some degree been accepted by Dr. Schellhas. appears as a prefix in No. The glyph in with prefixes of cauac and cib. 3. 7. we have here the rebus cum kan. p. I Two of them are usually written. have already mentioned that in the texts the gods are sever- The credit of ally represented by their signs or monograms. Cum ku. I The Hieroglyphs of the Deities. recalling the name.MONOGRAMS OF THE GODS. from Cod. 18. The god of Death. and the cauac sign. The prefix to Nos. 9 . Frequentlyassociated with his monogram is No. Dr. and I shall here present the results of his careful studies. with a skull the sign of the owl. Forstemann and others. as a subfix in No. 50. Forstemann fancifully ex" from one point two flashes of lightplains it as portraying ning or sun's rays striking the maize field. 6. 84).

Dres. 19. As prefixes. 23. The diNo. 18. No. D. 24. He is "the old man god. as in 16 and 17. 17. Dres. the hand closing on the rattles of the crotalus. may " B. 22. one of his attributes is shown in gram. as in No. rective sign. Itzamna. as in 58). the crescent. indicating completeness or perfection. p. fromi also be a priest or a companion. ." Star. or night god. Some C. p. 11. or the god with the snake-like tongue. 21 the number 13. No. 33. 15." The complete hieroglyph is No. " the moon god. 14. " have already explained the " pottery decoration (above. may be a priest of ths divinity . 19 It is easy to recognize his monogram. we find the bean. 13. 10. Nos. or c. p. The food symbols. 22. Nos. " the god with the ornamental face. No. is occasionally associated with his monoIn Cod. etc.122 for a head-dress.." with one tooth. the vase. 8 and 9. 12." His hieroglyphs are. Cuculcan. MAYAN HIEROGLYPHICS. and I . generally followed by No.. 21. 16. 20. Nos. are often connected with him. 7. The North regard them as the four elements. beyond mistake.

29." His monogram is uniform No. p. 90). 29 is a picture of the maize plant from Cod. 26 and 23.MONOGRAMS OF THE GODS. His usual monogram is No." His hieroglyphs. often contain the numHis signs appear in connection with G. 30 own col-34. lations persuade me that the maize should here be understood My as a general harvests. are conventional designs for growing maize. 105. growth. Nos. No. the sun god. fertility. sometimes connected with the moon symbol as often holds in his hand the aspersorium. " E. The god War. four cardinal points. a male maize god. 28. a^companion of the god of death. Schellhas argues that the head-dresses of this divinity. 27. 1 symbol of for vegetable " or. shown ber ii. Tro. (See It is the sun with the ben ik superfix and alar postfix. 42. as shown in Nos. from which Dr. Kin " ich. in The black all line is characteristic. 25 . and in Nos." in 123 No.. His nose orna- . shown See p. p. 35-41. Ghanan. and the F.

are doubtful. appears as a hieroglyph I doubt this deity." No. from Cod. 53. 45. 52." No. 54-) L. and is M" is for Kin Dr. The is rattle.. Seler. 1891.." The hieroglyph is No. p. etc. 1 Dr. are usually distinctive " The Her same H. Dres. 46 . He supposed to be shown in Cod. 1 1. and The god with the ornamented nose. elsewhere. often accompanied by K. Dr. The serpent god. No. Tro. pp. (See p. p. 1 . 43. with the "blowing" prefix (see p.. and the 1 of his portraits. ill. 20. serpent goddess. 48." signs are not distinct. 98) and the "machete" subfix. are also assigned him.and 47. Schellhas believes them to be Nos. 17. " ment. 49-5 " but I cannot accept that they are intended for the individual. . Nos. 61." The hieroglyph and the personage. " the " " dog is No. I have already expressed the belief that this merely one of the manifestations of Itzamna. flower. in Cod. sign. Schellhas distinguishes between a divinity whose sign " " a second black god. Dres. in Zeitschrifl fur Ethnologic.124 MAYAN HIEROGLYPHICS. 44. No. p. No. gives another monogram ich the cauac. 12. "a black god. /. leal Ahau." whose hieroglyph 54.

are shown No. me as representing divinity. These do not His sign is No. the latter more fre- "A is figure with features of an old man.. Dres. p. 13. Tro. 21. 125 No. as in Cod. 60. He appears in Cod. p. 70 is the usual hieroglyph of the dog. and Cod. 58 is occasionally associated. doubtful if a deity is intended. 20. is Her hieroglyphs quent. He often associated with the god of death. "A god with the features of an old man.MONOGRAMS OF THE GODS. with the pax sign. 56." and may His face and peculiar refer to his festival on that date (Seler). 16. The moan is bird. 57. with the sign No. strike O. 64 and 65 . 66-69. sometimes with the 13. Dres. 62. 59. with the signs Nos. 61. P. and T. The sign No. No." Shown Cod. No. "A goddess with features of are but simply " old age. pp." an old woman" (Xmucane?)." It is seen Cod. It shown Nos." which may be translated " 5 Zac. "An isolated deity. 28. N. Cort. 43. is that of the vulture. 5. 63.. p.. Q. and whose face is shown No. Tro. Dres. and bears the hieroglyphs Nos. 55.. p. probably a mere personage. 5. and is common in the Cod.. 71. head-dress. . R.

though some have thought otherwise. as seen and in Cod.. MAYAN HIEROGLYPHICS. There is no doubt but 74. Dres. 26. Its monogram is seen Nos. 72 is the sign of the jaguar. pp. the a of Landa's alphabet. V. 8. in Cod. Tro. p.126 U. The turtle or tortoise. 73. No. 75. that the turtle's head and not that of the parrot is intended.. 17. It is .

stone. . and for this reason have a special value. 68 I would explain as the god of time bringing It is part of the ceremonies depicted as belonging to the close of the year. etc. That the wolf-headed figure represents time. Some of the examples have not been previously published. (in it dead year. I infer from its relations in the early pages of the Ferjevary Codex. 68. as it is found in the various regions occupied by tribes of Mayan culture and affinity. principally In the selection of the following texts I have been guided by the desire to illustrate Mayan palaeography as and presented on different surfaces..SPECIMENS OF TEXTS. FIG. 127 V. (From the Dresden Codex. where days. earthenware. The God of Time brings in the Dead Year. Specimens of Texts. etc.) in the Fig. paper. the Devourer. is shown eating a string of Kingsborough's Mexican Antiquities).

A Sacrifice at the Close of the Year. around his waist is the broad carrying-band. their significance is principally due to Prof. or magician's staff. The recognition of 20-23. 1 See Cogolludo : Hisloria de Yucatan. xiquipilli) .. the sign of Time below this are footprints.128 MAYAN HIEROGLYPHICS. kan. Cyrus Thomas. 317. In his left hand he holds the rattle. his 1 . (From the Dresden Codex. p. The god arrives in the vase of the heavenly waters. I. a log folded in a robe and surIn front are seen mounted by the leaves of the Tree of Life. To the left of these stands the statue of Mam. and the Cod. . Above the latter is the moon symbol with the number 15. Troano. The person on the right is the celebrant. caluac. 25-28. while his left strews grain. pp. and the medicine bag (Maya chimil. Dres.) In Fig. the Grandfather. holding a beheaded fowl in Before him is a right hand. 69 is another scene from the same ceremonies. These ceremonies are represented in the Cod. in the loop of which he has the dying year. Tom. F IGt 69 . pp. the serpent's head. haunch of venison and a turkey. Nahuatl. in his right the magic wand.

SPECIMENS OF TEXTS.
to indicate that time
is
is

I2 9

gone

;

and beneath the form of the god
"
it is

the sign pax, with the meaning,

ended."

FIG. 70.

Symbolic Representation of the Close of one Time-Period and the Beginning of another. (From the Cortesian Codex.)

In interesting contrast to these two is Fig. 70, showing the beginning of a time-period. On the left, two dogs, back to back

beneath the same canopy, indicate the closing of one period and the beginning of another. On the right, the serpent of time,

The resting on the earth, brings to the heavens the new sun. between the serpent's jaws carries the world-sign youthful god " new for an eye, and holds in his hand the symbol yax kin, Above are appropriate hieroglyphs, the tenor of which sun.

I3O

MAYAN HIEROGLYPHICS.

the diligent student of
in

my

previous pages will have

little diffi-

culty catching. In Fig. 71 the God of
caluac surmounted

Growth and
bird,
its

Fertility holds an elaborate
filled

by a

apertures

with shells.

Be-

hind him

is

seated the

formidable spear-head. monogram, but that of the old Cuculcan.

God of Death, his caluac tipped with a The God of Growth has not his own
the sign for nought," the of Death with his spear will bring
is

When we
indication
to

recall that the shell

"

seems that the God
efforts of the

of Fertility. 72 the North Star in a series of relations to other celestial bodies or divinities. Beginning at the left, he is

nought the

God

We

see in Fig.

seated on his
is

own sign which is surrounded by rays next, he upon the sign of the four winds and four quarters of the earth
;

;

he is suspended in a sling from the " constellation " band between the sun and a planet and fourth, he is above the clouds, which rest upon a canopy protecting a pile of kans money or food emblems.
in the third
;

y

The

each bearing

three figures in Fig/73 present the beneficent deities, in the hand the food symbol, kan.

The group copied in Fig. 74, show the God of Death followed by Kin ich, who seems remonstrating with him, who in
followed by the God of War with a wrathful visage: The The sign mol positions of the hands are especially noteworthy.
turn
is

leads each of the cartouches.

In Fig. 75 Cuculcan is making fire from the friction of two On his head is the moan symbol, on his thigh pieces of wood. the kin. Each of the three cartouches begins with the drum
sign.

His own monogram

is

the third

member

of the second

cartouche.

In Fig. 76 the text is the same in each of the three cartouches except the monograms of the three divinities represented.

1

.

*

'

(**
FIG. 71.

The God

of Growth and the

God

of Death.

(From the Cortesian Codex.)

FIG. 72.

Auguries from the North Star.

(Cortesian Codex.)

and Kin ich. The God of Death. 74. 32 (Dresden Codex.) 'oVo rL^ FIG. Kin ich. I and the God of War. the Serpent Goddess. (Dresden Codex. 73.FIG.) . Itzamna.

76. Cuculcan Makes New Fire. The Gods of Death. (Dresden Codex). of Growth.FIG.) FIG. 133 . (Codex Troano. 75. and the North Star.

without restoration. They show. (Dresden Codex. The lower glyphs differ FIG. Kin ich. etc.) All the above specimens of texts have been photographed from the Codices. . been defaced. not only the general character of those documents. followed by the materially. In Fig. The God of Growth. the God of D. Cuculcan.. ing Kin ich. and is immediately monogram of the god. Sometimes it is possible to restore the obliterations by a comparison of parallel passages. therefore.134 MAYAN HIEROGLYPHICS. and this has been done successfully by various scholars. 77. but also In many instances the pages have their state of preservation.eath. and portions of the inscriptions upon them injured. 77 each cartouche begins with mol. and Itzamna. in the manner in The which we find them in the Codices. Itzamna. extracts have been selected also with the object of showthe representations of the most prominent deities.

we recognize familiar signs. as the medicine-drum and the cloudsigns at the bottom. 1875). painted on stucco. See de Rosny. was copied by H. 12. note (Paris. yax. L? Interpretation desanciens Textes Mayas. 1 This inscription.. 78. etc. writing was It is sufficient to prove that at Kabah the same in use. p. Becker and printed in the Archives de la Societe Americaine de France. and cauac. F. within the Bandroft Library FIG. . In this 135 interesting inscription from Central Yucatan. The Inscription of Kabah. chikin.SPECIMENS OF TEXTS. square area.

read them together downward (as Thomas suggested). from Labna. that in this part of the lines Mayan it territory there had been a development of into a series of this writing until had become conventionalized and small I of the katun. part of an inscription on a vase 1 Peabody Museum.. 79." upon which. The engraving. The tablets at Palenque are too extensive a study for me to enter upon in the present work. Schellhas. Fig. then the next two to the left in a similar manner but the last two on the of the tablet . has been published by Dr. is merely to show the character of the writing and to present the " glyphs. Maudslay lays so much stress (see above. 80. 3 of his separatum). they seem to me to prove that the proper reading initial is to begin at the top of the two right-hand columns. Yucatan. Fig. . 79. Incidentally.fur Ethnographie. also from a vase from Yucatan (now in Berlin). This differs from any scheme yet proposed. should be read from below upward. third. but alone corresponds with the natural sequences of the groups of glyphs. Internat. enclosed in the usual square or oval have seen several examples of this remarkable circles script. The student of the preceding pages 1 will not be at a loss to explain their purport. now in the I. those headed by the great pax. however. " FIG. The terminal (upper left) glyph shows the pax surmounted by the xihuitl wt\& this by the " trinal " signs. p. is There some reason to suppose. in Copan and elsewhere.136 MAYAN HIEROGLYPHICS. left. 23). and a Another example is in the Thompson collection. 1890 (p. Linear Inscription from Yucatan. Archiv. somewhat similar. and. give one. Mr.

81. p. I 137 " bashave already referred (above. carved in low sist. The " Initial Series" of the Tablet of the Cross. a tracing of relief all 10 .SPECIMENS OF TEXTS. Palenque. acter. 80." They FIG. on the argillaceous slate of which they conhave hieroglyphics of a decorative Mayan charNearly For the sake of comparison I add Fig. 54) to the singular are covered with elaborate designs reliefs of Chiapas.

chuen. 82. The original. formerly in the possession of Don Secundino front Orantes. C. 81. The interesting group. Inscription on the " Tapir Tablet. iguana.138 MAYAN HIEROGLYPHICS.. twenty glyphs enough familiar forms to conPax. from the region of the Zotzils. H." Chiapas." o rode FIG. . the The copy was made by the are soon recognized. The is badly injured. find in We this cartouche of vince us of the identity of the graphic method. in the four glyphs which are placed " front of the tapir on the tapir tablet. late Dr. but the back well preserved. etc. in the city of Chiapas. is the most complete example of the ancient writing I know of. measures 26 by 17 inches. Berendt. Fig.

.C.. The beautiful inscription. Chiapas. tion shown in Fig. FIG. The original is now in the American Museum of Natural History. New York city. 84. Fig. Inscription on an Amulet from Ococingo. 139 '^ Tonina is about 80 miles south of Palenque and near Ococingo. Squier obtained the amulet bearing the neat inscrip- Obverse. is on . Reverse. 83.^ SPECIMENS OF TEXTS. FIG. Inscription on a Tablet from Tonina. whence Mr. Chiapas. 82. 83. hitherto unpublished.

etc. the pax. Fortunately. Mayan in territory. the bean subthe fix. 84. of Chichen . Museum The mit limits me to which I have prescribed add further comparisons student can find inscriptions of for this in work do not per- Mayan palaeography. the imix. Inscription on a Vase from a Quiche Tomb.140 MAYAN HIEROGLYPHICS. near Huehuetenango. Guatemala. The original. the examples. but it is*also the most extensive inscription I have seen on pottery from any part of the FIG. It is not only the longest and most perfect example known of Quiche palaeography. is of the University of Pennsylvania. a burial vase from the Quiche district of Guatemala. The ready access to abundant Copan and Quirigua. a vase of high artistic merit. Again we see familiar signs. the numerals.

others from Tikal have been made accessible by the labors of Berendt. before they are destroyed or lost.SPECIMENS OF TEXTS. as will readily be seen from the advances in that direction chronicled in the preceding pages. Charnay and de Rosny and we are justified in believing that b'efore many . are or will be represented with admirable fidelity in Mr. still exist to attest the character of ancient Mayan The most urgent duty resting upon the present generation of students interested in this subject is to collect and accurately reproduce as many of these texts as possible. years the intelligent explorations of competent archaeologists will add hundreds of texts from the relics in stone. Extended comparisons will ultimately reveal their meaning. clay. and wood whfch literature. Itza. Maudslay's work already referred to. 141 and Palenque. .

.

000). water. 128.000. to pull out. a comet. priest. 52 ben. a constellation. 42 ac ek. priest. 68 ah~kin. (T. note ah-cunal than word-conjurer. night. 68. T. 34 can zicnal. 72 bak. cayob) T. 90. conjurer of departed 68 ah-zahcab. a drum. . v. 104 be. hail. 1 19 116 alau (64. 113 ben-ik. the office. 68 ah-ttai-chac. 123 bolon. serpent being. 115 be che. a day name. the rattlesnake. canan ah-uai xibalba. 41 . 69 ahlo. or been. four hundred.. mead. calab (160. a vulture. 60. shooting wood. INDEX-VOCABULARY OF MAYA WORDS. tree. Venus. 109 chac ek. 104 batul. a chief. 88 1 ahau. 43 chac.I. perforated. 19 che." 52.000). p. a day name. to paint. 34 chacal ik. 114 cac. the mayordomo. strong wind. the (molar) teeth.. a conjurer. 68 ahau katun. 35 balam. a 40 bac-baqitetic. 73 ah-mac ik. a bean. a deer . 34. 1 10. strong. 25 bolon paxche. a day name. downward. the staff bearer. 86 etc. 34 chulchaii. 46 ah-chun can. 75 ahau can mat. 93 ceh.. Venus. Venus. chebel. 41 caitac. or turtle. 35 ah -pul. 85 chainal dzttlan. the milky way. 52 " staff of caluac. the macaw. 68 ah-poou. rattlesnake. a numeral. 35 aghan. 73 " bulcabal. 35 'bit/. 68 caan. a large drum. 34 68 souls. red. 91. 22 ahau tzab can. the sky. to stand erect. 45 stars. 56. a month name. a graphic sign. the jaguar. a day name. cha'am. high ah-coy-can. 19 jaw bone. nine. rain conjurer. footprints. darkness. 46 bacab. all. the whole. etc. 89 ah-ch'om. 74 bat. a sentinel. 40. 75 ah-caluac. 130 camach.'] ac. 99. signifies the Tzen tal dialect. a masked priest. a bridge.. chief priest. 62 batab. young ear of maize. chief priest. guardian. to fight. 52 cal>. 114 caban. a destruction. wind conjurer. 68 ah-kin-mai. a jaw bone. an axe. 40 chain. 92 budz ek. 68 ah koh-kcuel. a day name. lord. a paint brush. ruler. 104 acan. 35. a tortoise. 13 ahau can. 19 anhel. down. 19 calacal. 42 '43 . 85 canan. 115 * akbal.

the sky or heavens.. 52 feminine prefix. the first. 25 chimal chimal chimal. ill coz. to heal by magic kak.the moon ibach.. a day name. a spider-web. ^ kinal. black. 23. the beginning. 23. 42 kan kin. 40 . coolness. a calabash. 41 kab. 48 cum ku. hard. sap. soul. in 96 hozan. powerful. black. ghan. 113 eb-che. 120 dziz. shield. zV^. a comet. a squirrel. a day name. kin katun. his hand. 40 ix-cunal than. 114 </. 25 dzacah. a bird. money. a vase. a name. 50. hair. to bite. 42 dzacab. ^z2/>. 93 kak mo.. T. a day name. 44 cuzaan. a month name. a solar eclipse. 96 htm. a ix kan leom.144 chel. katun. kax or kaax. ch>en. a generation. priestess. arm. cun. chick kuch. 84 chu. 67 ezanab. ik. a conjuress. revolving. to 39 42 kan. hunab. to trickle. in conjunction. scorpion. a day name. breath. T. swift. 40 cimi. 118 hobnil. a harvest-field. covered. 73 ix-bouat. the tress of the kaxala. fluid. twenty. 91 the rain. juice. a knife. 113 ebzah. the rainbow. 22. 40 ix kin. 115 itz. twins. 19 dzicnial. \- see p. 34 chun. the north wind. 83 kabil. cold. a knife. 34 or ic. a prophetess. hollow chi. 20 34. an owl. 89 T. a destruction. rites. to twist thread. a day name. 36 haycabal. a day name. wind. 128 chinax. 109 drum of wood. 35 imix. a knot. 112 chuen. II. a medicine drum. 112 chidchan. 109 kin. a lunar eclipse. 41 hub. food. 56. tears. a rainbow. the I. a medicine bag. 40 month name T. to rain . 43 kaax. 93 dzacatan. 109 cucul. INDEX-VOCABULARY OF MAYA WORDS. 34 ek. 62 a well. an eye a face . 68 cuceb. chicchan. or cuzam. 83 kaba. 115 ik omne.. 75 chick. J . 121 culinte. dyewood. strong. 91 kax pol. maize. 114 cicil. star. the north ik. only. 114 cib. disembowelled. ek chuh. fire. 34 chimil. 72 zVtf/. 46 the belly. 42. life. . a snail. 87 kinam. 91. a hand. 68 ix nuc. sole. a month name. 93 cum. 84 z>. a mouth. 1 38 20 39 etc. 67 . 28 a day name. 113 kayab. 68 ix chel. 28 fat. 112 chibil kin. to conjure. a stone stairway. one. old woman. a ladder. a knot. 36 star.. 89.. 109 skin animals. 77 eb. 36 chibil it. 113 ci. a month name. 37 hunbalan &. etc. 91 1 eb-tun. kal. an armadillo. to sharpen. a swallow. 41. 115 ik. finger. a day name.

42 lakin chan (deriv. 35 pixan. 74 small. a shell. 95 kup. moxic. 46. lorn. 48 instrument 92 . 44 105 pacat. to perform religious rites. wflf. 73 . 118 molay ik. much. to extinguish a turtle . strong . the soul. pax che. a dog. old. face. to destroy. INDEX-VOCABULARY OF MAYA WORDS: 19 kinchil (3. 200. see muan tamacaz.. finished. before the gods. a scholar. completed. a month name. bent over. name. a day name. 92. 39 muan. 63 peek hec hoi. a ek. rays. antennae. to ol. excrement. thunder. 25 paakal. the earth. a month maax. 34 //. 44 name. to spoil. to blow forth water from the mouth. T. a numeral. lamat. a feather.).). 39 koh. 42 muyan. 52. 95 ku kum. 42 #*00. with pain. 89 tab. 129 83 mat or mam. 34 noh ek. 89 lilabal. 43 a month puch. a monkey. a month name. a knife. a lance. a day name. divine. a numeral.I. clouds. a fan. the milky way. to rattle. 74 a knife . 55 pop. a day name. nohnial. paxan. 92 pec. manik. dust. a wooden drum. grandfather. a mat. cord. 71 pic. a hurricane. a ta. 34 muctd mam. 19 105 mehen w. 25 day name. 116 ppeta. a house. 38 oc. a constellation. to sacrifice. a day name. 119 mach. nak caan. 75 puhaa. the sky. a god . to bury. 1 12 ppua. also. nen. a sprinkler. 62 pek. 48. to cut. 43 ppuz. dew. to frighten. 112 spirit. great star. a cleansing. flatheaded.?w. 128 maay. a month name. the macaw. the soul or 48 oxlahun. to thunder. 120 a cover . 44 /a^r. 37 right hand. Venus. smoke. muluc. 39. twenty. ill licil dzicil. 37 >&^fc. III matzab. 63. 19. divine. cloudy. to grasp. 19 picit. 19 mucul u. 39 nuc. 25. 69 to cry mol. 114 miatz. enter. pputum.000). a mask. 61 frog. a falcon. the waning moon. 89 61 tah. 71 125. 73 #. a mirror. to undo. 98 puy. provisions. 19. 68 a numeral. eight thousand. III tnuyal. a vulture. 44 . thirteen. 99 kin ich (deriv. pec chac. 98 mechun. 69 ku. 25 moan. 35 tan kukul. see muan pocam. a musical 43 /z*w. 120 muc. 43 69 <?f/5. great. fume. a dramatic representation. a day name. to cover. 19 mucul canan. 105 noA. 72 .

xicin. 45. zuhny. 75 month name. to appear. to stop rings. the north star. 85 ~xik. rattles of the rattle-snake ttich kin. 43 ual. a comb. 117 zin. 41 zac. 75 . a fan. 117 zodz. . a nil. the sunset. to weave. a scorpion tzekel. 75 zinil. 118 xux. 42 xocy the breech clout. 117 a month name. yax kukul. 34 zee. horns. east wind. 75 xanab xux. a book . the tapir. advantageous. 117 tzec. to end . . 87 a man. an ear. 58 xaman. husks of grain. and. 85. a frog. 36 zacan. a drum. twenty. east. xux ek. 93 tetn. a month up. 43 a five-day period. his . 43. 42 . 129 95 .146 INDEX -VOCABULARY OF MAYA WORDS. etc. 119 zacal. ruler. 86 month . see tanknl tup.). southeast wind. a stone. a month name. 55 . a snail. 91 xul.000). to chant. short. bread. tzapa.200. food ly y . 84 xiixy bran. a constellation. 42 tunkul. 75 xamachy a platter. a queen. 48 yax kin. 43 a month name. 87 uo. pp. white. a letter. 55 tub) to spit. the moon. 109 month. v. a month name. father. 34 34 zinaan. a dot. Venus. 97 xocy to sing. a month name. a virgin. strong . . white being. a bee. a month name. 42 tun. 116 uooh. 63 tza ec. 48 fix I (Cak. 41 zac xaman. Venus. northeast wind. xaman xel. the moon in opposition. 36. month name. 86. 119 yax che. 41 zac zini. a shell. ek... 97 . the tapir. 41 zaztal ek. 109 zac ik. 118 u nitpptanbct. 1 18. six. a comet. a planting stick. also. wing of a bird. a scorpion. show oneself. . 117 tzimin. 84 60 86 zip. 60 20 tupul u a solar eclipse. to 1 extinguish . 19 tzitc. 36 xulub. green early. 28 100 yum. a jewel. a death's head. a bat . 105 tan kul. 109. 87 tea or nal. to yetal. to stretch out. a necklace . no. ye. green tree. ear- name. 35 yax. 116 ut. U. 35. 60 blue a fresh virile des. the earth. 75 zinaan ek. 117 zipik kin. 117 xttlaby an ant. 36 the Pleiatzab. north. 95 tzotzceh (3. a wasp. . a feather ornament. . 41 zac nohol ik.ik. an altar of stone. 105 uac. xikal.

Schellhas. P. F. de.. 136 Motul. 26.. 23. 60.. Lord. 12. 39 Holden. P.. etc. Penafiel. S. 104 Brasseur. 109 Clarke. 26 no. 93 Becker.. 24 Gushing. J. A. Maudslay. 26. H... 25. Nuttall.70 Forstemann. P. 115. 95. 93. II. 138 Parry. A. 68. A. H. 19 Pio Perez. 12.... 48. Baeza. 33. Orantes. JI2. 41. C. Rau. 55. H. 62 Las Casas. 104 Pineda. Boas. 71. 45 Allen. 62. 95 Duran.. 116 14. W. B.. 43.II. 54. C. 97. 21.. 35. de la Vega. 74. 83 15 Cresson. 79... 13. P. de. 113 Pineda. F. 50 Peet. 54. Le.... 81. E. 37 62 de. 104. Z. Herrera. 44 Berendt. 95 Popol Vuh. 51. 11. P. etc. C. 136... 105 Charnay. 43. 93 Lara.. L. 109 Chilan Balam. Kingsborough... 50. A. Books of. D. P.... E. 37 Mallery. D. 14. E. 39. H. 50. 51. G. 101 W. 119. 12. etc.. 102. A.. 143 Chavero. 47. 32. 13 M. 41. S. 18.. 86. Aguilar. n. 39. 66.. 13 J. M. F. etc. 92 12. 80. u. Abbe. 95 121. 13. S. 47. 137 Saville. A... Rada y Delgado. 86. 39. 103. 15. E. 51 Perrin. D. Carrillo. R. 74.. D. 97 Cogolludo. 21. 79. P. 138 Lizana.. 85. Landa. F. 12 Nunez. 46. 16 Hernandez. V. 83. 68. 12 Culin. 14. W. 15. 62. Dice. C. W. T. INDEX OF AUTHORS. 99 Boban. 48.37 Rosny. H7 . H.. 90.. II.. 119 Plongeon. 137 Beltran de Santa Rosa. Dr. E. F. P.. H.. D. 31. II Dupaix. 1 13 Charency. 12. 37 Leon. P. 101 Putnam. S. 92 Fewkes. 29... 67. 14 Rochefoucauld. F. 6 1 Pousse.. 57. 12. D. 13. 26.. 83. 48 Dieseldorff. 23.

. 10.. Dr.. 76. C. 43.. 16. 50. E.. 51. \V. etc. Ximenes.. 25. II. II Waldeck. 26 Schultz-Sellack. 13.. 41 Seler. E. 24. F. 141 86 Stephens. J.148 Schrader.. C.. L.. 83. 34. 44. 128. Valentini. 124. 50. 136 86. F. 32. G. 71. E. 29. 45. Thompson. 32. etc. INDEX OF AUTHORS. 54 Stone. Thomas. Squier. 96 . Dr. 72 F. 86.

44 cun can. 72 Bissextile years. 64. 95 Chacs. 64 Chac mool. 108 Centeotl. as ornaments. 61 Cum ahau. 24. 40 Chamay bac. 130 Bacabs. Ceremonial circuit. 136 Corkscrew curl. the. 96 I Deers. Cloud balls. 138 Chichen Itza. 107. 42 kin xoc. 98 Codices. 21 signs for. Acan. 76 Baton of office. 113 Cuculcan. the. 66. 89. 22 systems. the. 26-29 159 1 44. 41 Armadillo. 68 Constellation band. Bells. 91. 41 Cardinal points. 83 Ben. 42 Alphabets. 88. 40. 38. 55-57. Crotalean curve. 42 Acat. 14. 105 Comb sign. 46 Colors. native. 50 89 59-61. 108 49 . Ahulane. 123 Birds. 44 dziz. 64. 72 signs for. Tablet of. 40 Baptism. 49. 96 Cross. 98 Beards. 124 Calendar signs. 72. 109 Aspersorium. the. 21. 44 Chiapas. hieroglyphs Death. on images. or Been. 57 Cosmogony of Mayas. 18 Anum. 24. the. 84. 42 ppua. 102 of. 52. the. 37. Books Cit bolon tun. 41. symbolism of. the. 62 Ah chuy kak. as time-counts. 43 Canzicnal. 42 . myths Ben-ik sign. 44.III. 86 Comets. 105. n. 19 of other writers. 40. the first man. 44 Ah zakik ual. 121. 14 Chilan Balam. 62. of. 123 Atlatl. sign. figures of. 119 Directive signs. Bean symbol. 39. 97 Canopies. GENERAL INDEX. the. inscriptions. 41 42 kak nech. 98 Cosmic sign. 42 puch. 137 Bee god. the. of Landa. 106 128. 38 of. the. 122 Copan. Black gods. 46 Cross hatching. 41 26 Days. god of. 35 Conjurers. the.

109 Knives. 24. 88 Jaguar. 106 Female Fish. 88. 43 Food offerings. 42. 43 hun yeta. 41 Huastecas. 82 tree of. 64. 40. the. 88 Knife signs. 115 the closing. 66. 104 Lorillard City. 109 Keys" Folk-lore of Yucatan. 10 the. 91. 97 " Initial series " of glyphs. 46 Evening Star. 29 Hex chun Hohnil. 95 signs. the. 13. 49. the. 86 Kinich. the crested. signs 88 Macaw. 16. the. 38. Frog. 44 pic tok. 40 chan. 49.95. 51 Kak " u pacat. 104. 71. 72. 90. the. See/^jr leal ahau. 85 Ikonomatic writing. 102 signs for. 43 83-85 Eye. 104 House. III. divinities. 35 Knots. 100 Ghanan. 97 Hun ahau. 122 Ear rings. 124 Ix chebel yax. 44 Drum signs. 43 tabai. 92. II2 as food animals. Evil. 122. 64 hun ye. 62. sacrificial. 84. the. Kabil. 73 Machete. 105 Feather balls. Hand. 61. 37. 123 Gukumatz. 123. 52. 89 oyster Flatheacls. 43 Iguana. 75 89 Gemini. 135 90 62 " " Fish and sign. 38. their meanings. 57. 42 tub tun.150 Dogs. 38. 59. 64 Ek ahau. 136 Lakin chan. 53. 123 . symbols. the. 102 Maize god. 93. the. jewels of. 36 Itzamna. 67. planet. 39. 61. 44 to the hieroglyphs. 40 nuc. Hunab ku. 26 Holy water. 62. gods of. 101. signs for. 126 94 Jupiter. 89. 42 chel. the. 66. 74 Fans. GENERAL INDEX. 67 Epochs of the Universe. inscription of. 88. 44 Lunar for. 74. 91. figures of. 17 Flint-knife. 136 Earih-goddess. 82. 40-44 Kabah. symbol of. 128 Lightning. 124 Dwarfs. Hozan ek. 62. 89. 37 129 I2 5 signs for. 42 Falcon. the. Jade. 51-55. lor. 61 Labna. 40 Kin sign. 95. 124 ahau Itzamna. 67 chua. 51 38 Life. the. as deity. 100 Eclipses. 90 Dots. years. 71. 43 kan leom. 90 sign for.

24 Rubrication of codices. 93 rattle. 54. 25 Sastanquiqui. 75 Mitna. the. 106 Metals. 95 Picture writing. 128 the feathered. 91-94 Mirrors. 35 90 Shield. 140 Quiiigua. 98 Milky Way. 29 Mercury. GENERAL INDEX. the 74. 36 signs for. 39 104 bag. 44 sign. 121 Sacred numbers. the. use of. symbol i*m of. 74. Mugeres. 128 Menche. 21 104 Mexican writing. Quiches. 10. 55 Priesthood. fate of. 63 Mam. 24. 85 Palenque inscriptions. the god. 39 Rays. sign for. 98 Spider-web goddess.III. the. 16. 21. the. 39. 38. 106 Scorpion symbol. sacred and symbolic. 123 signs. 86. 75 Rattlesnake. the. the. planet. the. 74 Phallic emblems. Monkey. signs the. 72. 84 goddess. 68 Mayan. ruins of. words for. 79 Monograms of gods. 87 . 19. 86 gods. sign for. Mimosa. 42 Nagualism. 10 Medicine drum. 90. 105 symbols. 103 57-59 Shells. 40 Rain signs. 106 Months. the. 124. 75. Pleiades. the. 35 for. the heavenly. 44. the. 122 Ppiz lim tec. the. 13. 88 Moon. Man. 117 Mother Earth. 72 no Rhetorical use of numbers. 97. Numbers. 44 Mixcoatl. 34. sign for. 98 Pelican. 105 Rainbow goddess. use of. sign for. 106 Pottery decoration. 87 Saturn. designs on. 127 Sols:ice. 97 Mars. Rebus writing. 98 Necklace. 104. 57 North wand. planet. 97 of. the. 54. 25 Ococingo. 95 ! " Spectacles 36 > 137 Speech. Pakoc. 57. Star. 58 Shields. signs for. 56. 44 Quetzal bird. 62. 35 Smoke. 139 Orion. 57-59 signs for. 35. meaning of. loo Serpent eye. 42 Masks. planet. 63. 125 Money. the 46 Pole star. 73 Quetzalcoatl. 13 Moan bird. 73 Shooting stars. 124 Isla de. 91/95. the native. 40 Sun god. 58. Mayan. 44 Palaeography. 128 first. Pucugh. 38. 107 star. 67. 95 Owl. 79 the. 24. symbol " 74 Souls.

37. 46 Textile signs. 35. the. 50. 41 Zac chamaybac. 64 Tancucula. GENERAL INDEX. Yum chaam. 41 Wind cross. 38. 42. 73. 127. 100 Venus. 44 Xipe. 29. 90 Turtle. 44 Tapir. 104 the. sign for. 128 Xibilba. 38 Yellow. 41 cimil. 95. personified. 112. 88. 33. etc. 60 Yax coc ahmut. 139 Tree of life. 123 Water deities. 61 Xux Ek. 41 Zotzils. 125 Xoc bitum. the planet. 27. 116 Tel cuzaan. the. 138 Zuhuy dzip. see Ix nuc 55 the. 53. Tonalamat!. 119. of. Tongue. Uac lorn 44 kaax. 37. 136 Turkey. 65. direction of. 42 Zuhuy kak. 54. 31 Xmucane. the North Star. 61. 42 Terrestrial Paradise. 44 Zac zini. gods of. 113 Tzentals. 18 Vultures. 74. as symbolic. 43 Underworld. War. 115.152 Tableau des Bacabs. 19. 129 Writing. 96 World-sign. 125 chac. 76 Tonina. 9. 5 i. the. 76. 44. 34. 126 49. 101. the. piercing. the. 63 Tikal. the. 29 Xabalba. 63. 42 . 48. 31 Xnuc. 57 Time. 66 Xiuhmolpilli. Tzental dialect. 59. 79 Thirteen. the. 138 III. 106 Vigesimal system. Tomahawk. 48. 12. Venus. 113 88 Yucatan. 128 " Trinal " emblem. 106 sign for. symbols Tlaloc. 74. signs for. 25 Thunder. 44 Union. 40. 42 Xpiyacoc. 62. 44 Xaman ek.

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