A Laboratory Manual for

Pharmacognosy
First Year Diploma in Pharmacy (PH)

Maharashtra State Board of Technical Education, Mumbai

CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT CELL, MSBTE, MUMBAI.
LABORATORY MANUAL DEVELOPMENT PROJECT Particulars Education Technology Consultant Project Institution Mr. D. M. Makone Team for design

Padmashree Dr. D. Y. Patil Institute of Pharmacy, Akurdi, Pune - 411 044. November 2005toMay 2006 Prof. K. R. Deshmukh Principal,D.Y.P.I.O.P.Akurdi, Pune - 411 044. Mr. Yogesh. S. Bafana D.Y.P.I.O.P. Akurdi, Pune - 411 044. 1. 2.
3.

Project Period Chief Project Coordinator

Project Coordinator

Subject Experts

Mr. Pravin V. Buge D.Y.P.I.O.P., Akurdi, Pune. Mr. Ravi B. Chintamani D.Y.P.I.O.P., Akurdi, Pune. Ms. R. S. Bende Shree Fattechand Jain College Of Pharmacy, Chinchwad, Pune.

O 2006, Maharashtra State Board of Technical Education, 49, Kherwadi, Aliyawar Jung Road, Bandra (East), Mumbai - 400 051 Maharashtra State, India. No part of this Laboratory Manual be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from MSBTE Mumbai.

MAHARASHTRA STATE BOARD OF TECHNICAL EDUCATION
Certificate
This is to certify that, Mr./Ms./Mrs. Roll No. of First Year Diploma in pharmacy of

of First Year Diploma in Pharmacy has completed the term work satisfactorily in Pharmacognosy (0807) for the academic year 200 -to 200 as prescribed in the curriculum.

Place : Date :

Enrolment No.: Exam. Seat No.:

( Subject Teacher

(

Principal

Seal of Institution

Pharrnacognosy

LEARNING OVERVIEW
IMPORTANCE OF THE SUBJECT
Man knows disease since origin of human being, but causes of them were not known. They were assumed evil spirits. So people tried to cure them with plants, which are easily available. In that way ancestors accumulated knowledge of plants and preserved them in literature such as, 1. Rigveda 2. Ayurveda (ancient science of life)
3. Materia rnedica
4. Ebers papyrus

In all the old texts, preference has been given to description of plant as compared to other characteristics. The word 'Pharmacognosy' was coined in 1815 by C. A. Seydler. Pharmacognosy initially known as materia medica may be defined as scientific study of those substances ( plant and animal origin )which are used or have been used in medicine and pharmacy. Pharmacognosy can be considered as a valuable part of the cultural heritage of pharmacy. The name Pharmacognosy is formed from two Greek word 'Pharmakon' meaning drug and 'gnosis' meaning knowledge. The modern aspect of Pharmacognosy includes not only the crude drug but also covers their chemical scrutiny, leading to isolation of active principles. This subject deals with biological, biochemical, therapeutic and economic features of natural drugs and their chemical constituents. Even we are movirlg with great pace in the 21st century, Herbal medicine, cosmetics, Ayurvedic dosage form and research in the field of herbal formulation are of great interest. Therefore it is need of time to explore into area of systematic knowledge about herbal drugs. In recent year, popularity of natural drug is considered as an important contribution of Pharmacognosy in modern medicine.

MAHARASHTRA STATE BOARD OF TECHNICAL EDUCATION

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5) Understand various drugs. 5) Academic Institution.IECTIVE AND JOB PROFILE. CURRICULUM 0B.Pharmacognosy LINK 1 BLOCK DIAGRAM SHOWING INTER RELATIONSHIP OF SUBJECT AREAS. I ii + MAHARASHTRA STATE BOARD OF TECHNICAL EDUCATION .Il JOB PROFILE 1) Entrepreneur (Wholesaler. 3) Pharmaceutics . 2) Bio-Chemistry and Clinical Pathology. (Laboratory Technician. their formulations and counseling to patients for their appropriate use. CURRICULUM 0B. 2) Hospital and Clinical Pharmacy. I 1 6) 7) Develop technical skills for industry and hospital activities. 1/ 1 5) 1 5) Pharmaceutics . 1 CORE TECHNOLOGY 1) Human Anatomy and Physiology. Manufacturing) Supervisor 4) Community Pharmacist. Cosmetics) Medical Representative.I PharmaceuticalChemistry . I TECHNOLOGY SUBJECTS I 1) Pharmacologyand Toxicology. Develop communication skills.II 4) Drug Store and Business Management 5) Pharmaceutical Jurisprudence 6) Practical Training.IECTIVES 1) Develop attitude for personal development. 3) Health Education and Community Pharmacy.I 1 4) Pharmaceutical Chemistry . Chemist and Druggist. 2) Develop social skills for social development.) 6) Repackqging of Drugs other than those specified in Schedule C and C1 of Drugs and Cosmetics Act 1940 and Rules 1945. 2) Industry Skilled personnel (Bulk drug formulations. 3) Develop continued learning skills for life long learning. Distributor. 3) Hospital Pharmacist (Dispensing. 4) Gain basic knowledge of human body and various illness 1 disorders. 4) Pharmacognosy.

and Different Mountings. PHARMACY PHARMACOGNOSY (0807) APPLICATIONS Understanding organized and unorganized drugs. CONCEPT Staining view. PRINCIPLES Principle of magnification. Micro chemical test and chemical test. Dissection box. their preparation and tests. . Identifying the drugs by morphologicaland microscopic character. Preparationof sample for section cutting.. etc. PROCEDURE Handlirlg Microscope. etc. GRAPHICAL STRUCTURE OF SUBJECT AREA FIRST YEAR D. FACTS Simple and Compound microscope. evaluation and extraction. signification and Clarity of field view. etc. MAHARASHTRA STATE BOARD OF TECHNICAL EDUCATION iii .Pharmacognosy :. Staining preparation.

Students are expected to focus on acquiring specific skills mentioned therein. To study the lblorphologicaland Microscopical characteristics of Coriander Fruit. 2. ) To handle and observe instrument and crude drug correctly. ( M-. d d d d d d d d d d 10. To study the compound microscope. 4. intellectual Skills : 1. 4.( I-. ) Motor Skills : 3. ) To follow step by step sequence of chemical test I operation. 1. 4. GRID TABLE Following table gives grid of the experiments and related intellectual and motor skills. - 3. ( M-. No. Teacher shall ensure for development of generic skills during the practical. 12 13 14 M2 M3 M4 d d d d d d d 3. Following table gives grid of the experiments and related intellectual and motor skills.) Identification of different stages I crude drug with the help of morphology. To study the Morphological and Microscopical characteristics of Ginger Rhizome. To study the Morphological and Microscopical characteristics of Fennel Fruit. ( I-. To understand technique of Section Cutting. 9. ) Labeling different component of T. 8.S. 5. 2. 11 A. To study the Morphological and Microscopical characteristics of Clove Buds. ) Ability to prepare thin transverse section. ( M-. & Title Intellectual skills Motor skills MI . ) Develop the creativity in section cutting and staining. To study the Morphological and Microscopical characteristics of Cinchona Bark. ) Interpretation from transverse section I chemical and Microchemical test. To study the Microchemical reagent. 2. iv + MAHARASHTRA STATE BOARD OF TECHNICAL EDUCATION . ( M-.Pharmacognosy DEVELOPMENT OF SKILLS The objective of curriculum is to develop the desired skills in the students so that they can solve the field problems. Logical thinking. ( I-. d d d d d d d d d 7. ( I-. TO KNOW YOUR PHARMACOGNOSY LABORATORY 1. d d 11. d d d d d d 6.. it is expected that the following skills shall be developed in the students. To study the Morphological and Microscopical characteristics of lpecacuanha Root. GROSS ANATOMICAL STUDY OF CRUDE DRUGS. Experiment No. To study the Morphological and Microscopical characteristics of Cinnamon Bark. Staining and Mounting. d d d B. To study the Morphological and Microscopical characteristics of Datura Leaf. After undergoing through the laboratory experiments.

To study the Morphological and Microscopical characteristics of Nux-Vomica Seed. To study Morphological characters of carminatives (Ajowan. a. Tragacanth.. To study the Morphological characters of Miscellaneous drugs (Garlic. b. Silk and Wool). 19. Senna b. Experiment No.. To study the Morphological and Microscopical characteristics . To study Morphological characters of Drugs acting on Central nervous System (Aconite. Tannins : Pale and Black Catechu. Antihypertensive (Rauwolfia) and Diuretic (Gokhru) d . a. Mineral : Kaolin. To identify unknown organized powder drug with the help of Physical and chemical tests. d d d d d 13. To study the Morphological characters of Antidiabetics drugs (Gymnema) and unorganized crude drugs (Asafoetida and Kaolin) d d d 20. Agar.Leaf. To identify unknown unorganized powder drug with the help of physical and chemical tests. Shankpushpi and Shatawari) D. 14. 23. b. 24.d.) and laxatives (Isapghula and Rhubarb ).of Senna C. To identify unknown unorganized powder drug with the help of physical and chemical tests. Carbohydrates : Acacia. Vitamin (Amla) and Antirheumatics (Colchicum). Resin : Benzoin myrrh. Protein : Gelatin. - 4 d d - 18. Honey. b.Pharrnacognosy - No. & Title Intellectual skills P 13 12 13 14 Mq M2 M3 M4 12. 16. Algin. Termeric d d d d d d d d d MAHARASHTRA STATE BOARD OF TECHNICAL EDUCATION V . 21. To study the Morphological characters of Anti tumor (Vinca). IDENTIFICATIONTEST FOR CRUDE DRUGS. Ephedra) and Antitussive (Tulsi and Vasaka).. 22. Starch c. To identify unknown unorganized powder drug with the help of physical and chemical tests. To study the Morphological characters of Antiseptic (Curcuma and Neem ) . a. Ashwagandha.. . Liquorice.. To study the Morphological characters of perfumes and Flavouring agents (Sandal wood) and F~bres (Cotton. a.d d d d d 17. MORPHOLOGICAL STUDY OF CRUDE DRUGS.. Black pepper. cardamom and Nutmeg. 15. Lipids : Bees wax.

Pharmacognosy J No.Identified Skills STRATEGY FOR IMPLEMENTATION It is expected that 45 to 50% experiment shall be completed in first term and remaining in te second term. Cotton b. vi + MAHARASHTRA STATE BOARD OF TECHNICAL EDUCATION . Silk C. Experiment No. a. wool d d NOTE : d. & Title Intellectual skills 11 12 13 Motor skills MI M 2 M 3 M 4 14 25 To identify unknown fibres with the help of Physical and chemical tests.

17. Teacher shall instruct the students to attempt all questions given at the end of each experiment. seminar proceedirlgs. 11. Teacher is expected to share the skills and competencies to be developed in the students. wherever needed. 15. Teacher shall also refer to the circular No. Teacher may provide additional knowledge and skills to the students even though not covered in the manual but are expected from the students by the industries. 7. Learning Overview :To develop better understanding of importance of the subject. 20. Teacher shall ensure that each student writes the answers to the allotted questions in the laboratory manual after performance is over. 5. 9. Teacher may suggest the students to refer additional related literature of the technical papers. Teacher shall assess the performanceof students continuously as per norms prescribed by MSBTE. Teacher shall ensure that required equipment are in working condition before start of experiment. Teachers shall ensure that industrial visits recommended in the manual are covered. objectives and job profiles. Teacher should enlist the skills to be developed in the students that are expected by the industry.specification of equipment. If the experiment setup has variations in the specifications of the equipment. During assessment teacher is expected to ask questions to the students to tap their achievements regarding related knowledge and skills so that students can prepare while submitting record of the practical. This is changed in the form of fact. MSBTEID-50lPharm. 21. brain storming sessions. principle. Link Diagram: context of the subject in the form of link diagram showing interrelationshipof various subject areas. Teacher should organized group discussion. planning time etc. 10. Involve the student's activity at the time of conduct of each experiment. 2. 14. List of questions given at the end of each experiment. reference books. seminars to facilitate the exchange of knowledge amongst the students. the teachers are advised to make necessary changes. 18. 8. curriculum. 4. procedure. Lab. application and problem. procedure. Graphical structure: in this topics and sub topics are organized in systematic way so that ultimate purpose of learning the subject is achieved. To know related skills to be developed such as intellectual skills and motor skills. 16. 1.Pharrnacognosy GUIDELINES FOR TEACHERS Teachers shall discuss the following points with students before start of practical of the subject. Focus should be given on development of enlisted skills rather than theoretical knowledge. 12. Know your laboratory:to understandthe layout of laboratory. 6. also keep operating instruction manual available. While taking observation each student (from batch of 20 students) shall be given a chance to perform the experiment. Manual /200613160 dated 4th May 2006 for additional guidelines. 3. etc. 13. concept. Teacher should ensure that revised CIAAN-2005 norms are followed simultaneously and progressively. Teacher should give more focus on hands on skills and should actually share the same. Explain prior concepts to the students before starting of each experiment. also to know total amount of work to be done in the laboratory. working in groups. 19. MAHARASHTRA STATE BOARD OF TECHNICAL EDUCATION + vii .

Pharmacognosy INSTRUC'TIONS FOR STUDENTS Students shall read the points given below for understanding theoretical concepts and practical applications. instruments. Understand the purpose of experiment and its practical applications. skills to be developed. rough notebook and practical requirementswithout fail. trade fair etc. Students should be well prepared while submitting the write up of the experiments. before performing experiment. This will develop the continuity of the studies and he will not be over loaded at the end of the term. Gloves and Slipper before entering into the laboratory. refers websites related to the scope of the subjects and update their knowledge and skills. industries. technical exhibitions. information about equipment. students should have exposure to the area of work right in the student's hood. proceedings of the seminars. Students shall develop maintenance skill as expected by the industries. Students should perform the practical only at the place which allocated to him 1 her. Students shall attempt to develop related hands-on -skills and gain confidence. Students shall develop habits of evolving more ideas. Extra files etc. even not included in the lab manual. a day in advance. Students should always carry Laboratory Manual. Write the answer of the questions allotted by teacher during practical hours if possible or afterwards. Students should develop the habit to submit the practical exercise continuously and progressively on the scheduled dates and should get the assessment done. Students shall visit nearby workshops. Students should keep their belongings in locker which are not required during practical like. Listen carefully to the lecture given by teacher about importance of subpct. etc. Students shall focus on development of skills rather than theoretical or codified knowledge. Cap. Bag. (No change can be done without permission of subject teacher) Students shall undergo study visit of laboratory for types of equipment. workstation. tentative plan of working laboratory and total amount of work to be done in a year. Read write up of each experiment to be performed. Students should not hesitate to ask any difficulty faced during conduct of practical. viii 6 MAHARASHTRA STATE BOARD OF TECHNICAL EDUCATION . material to be used. but immediately. Organize the work in the group and make a record of all observations. graphical structure. method of continuous assessment. Mask. Students should develop the habit to react with the teacher without hesitation with respect to the academics involved. procedure. The students shall study all the questions given in the laboratory manual and practice to write the answers to these questions. Students should develop the habit of not to depend totally on the teachers but to develop selflearning techniques. Students shall insist for the completion of recommended laboratory work. group discussion related to the experiments so that exchanges of knowledge. Students should wear white Apron. than included in the scope of the manual. curriculum philosophy. instruments. Students shall develop technical magazines. answers to the given questions. In short. skills could take place. innovations skills etc. Students should develop the habits of pocket discussion. Students should clean the platform before leaving the laboratory. industrial visits.

To study the Morphological and Microscopical characteristics of Fennel Fruit. 01 06 14 To study the Morphological and lVlicroscopical characteristics of Cinchona Bark. 54 11. GROSS ANATOMICAL STUDY OF CRUDE DRUGS. To study the Morphological and Microscopical characteristics of Coriander Fruit. TO KNOW YOUR PHARMACOGNOSY LABORATORY To study the compound microscope. 30 7. To study the Morphological and Microscopical characteristics of Senna Leaf.Pharmacognosy List of Experiments and Record of Progressive Assessment Sr. To study the Morphological and Microscopical characteristics of Ginger Rhizome. To understand technique of Section Cutting. 2. 1. Date of Performance Date of submi ssion Assess. To study the Morphological and Microscopical characteristics of Cinnamon Bark. To study the Morphological and Microscopical characteristics of Datura Leaf. 24 6. 67 13. 12. 18 5. 3. 36 8. ture Marks 10 A. No. Name of the Experiments Page No. To study the Morphological and Microscopical characteristics of Clove Buds. B.Teacher's ment SignaMax. Staining and Mounting. 42 9. To study the Microchemical reagent.. 73 MAHARASHTRA STATE BOARD OF TECHNICAL EDUCATION + ix . 48 10. To study the Morphological and Microscopical characteristics of To study the Morphological and Microscopical characteristics of Nux-Vomica Seed. 4.

No. Vitamin (Amla) and Antirheumatics (Colchicum). Ashwagandha. Shankpushpi and Shatawari) 79 15. 14. Tragacanth. To study Morphological characters of Drugs acting on Central nervous System (Aconite.Teacher's Signament ture Max. 104 19. Marks 10 C. Ephedra) and Antitussive (Tulsi and Vasaka). Glycosides : Aloe. To study the Morphological characters of Antidiabetics drugs (Gymnema) and unorganized crude drugs (Asafoetida and Kaolin) To study the Morphological characters of Miscellaneous drugs (Garlic. 121 22. Algin.) and laxatives (Isapghula and Rhubarb ). a. 98 18. To identify unknown unorganized powder drug with the help of physical and chemical tests. To study the Morpholog~cal characters of Anti tumor (Vinca). To study Morphological characters of carminatives (Ajowan. To study the Morphologicalcharacters of perfumes and Flavouring agents (Sandal wood) and Fibres (Cotton. 93 17. Carbohydrates : Acacia. Protein : Gelatin. c. Tannins : Pale and Black Catechu. 115 D. b. 21. Silk and Wool). Agar. 110 20. Antihypertensive (Rauwolfia) and Diuretic (Gokhru) To study the Morphological characters of Antiseptic (Curcuma and Neem).Pharrnacognosy Sr. Name of the Experiments Page No. cardamom and Nutmeg. b. Honey. IDEN'rIFICATION TEST FOR CRUDE DRUGS. Black pepper. Mineral : Kaolin. To identify unknown unorganized powder drug with the help of physical and chemical tests a. MORPHOLOGICAL STUDY OF CRUDE DRUGS. 128 X 6 MAHARASHTRA STATE BOARD OF TECHNICAL EDUCATION . Liquorice. Date of Performance Date of submi ssion ' Assess. 86 16.

142 147 149 152 154 Sr. Name of the Experiments Page No. (From-To) Total WIarks [No. 2.The guidelines for the conduct of Annual Practical Examination are enclosed at the end of page no. 3. Wool. a. Date of Performance Date of submi ssion Assess. First sessional Practical Examination Second sessional Practical Examination Third sessional Practical Examination * To be transferred to Proforma of CIAAN . b. Marks 10 23. MAHAFWSHTFW STATE BOARD OF TECHNICAL EDUCATION + xi . 137 25.1) Note :. To identify unknown unorganized powder drug with the help of physical and chemical tests. Lipids : Bees wax. Senna b. X Max. No. a.of Exp.1 1. S~lk c. Appendices Appendix-l (Reagents and solutions) Appendix-Il (Botanical terms) Appendix-Ill (Therapeuticalterms) Appendix-IV (Guidelines for Annual Practical Examination) Appendix4 (Colour diagrams) 133 24. Marks (lo)] Average Signature Marks. Starch c.Teacher's Signament tu re Max. To identify unknown organized powder drug with the help of Physical and chemical tests. Examination Experiment No.Pharmacognosy Sr. a.177. Termeric. No. To identify unknown fibres with the help of Physical and chemical tests. Cotton b. of Subject (Total marks teacher I No.2004 (Proforma I . Resin : Benzoin myrrh. of Exp.

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0 TITLE : To know the compound Microscope. the components and making it ready for working. Develop skills to get magnified real image. Motor Skill : To set the microscope for observations and operation.0 REQUIREMENTS : Apparatus : Simple Microscope. Proposition 2 : Magnification system Magnified real image can be viewed by objective and eyepiece.Pharmacognosy Experiment No. PRIOR CONCEPTS: Simple microscope. Experiment No.0 2. 5. 1 . Acquire skills of operating compound microscope.0 LEARNING OBJECTIVES : Intellectual Skill : 1. 1. Permanent slide etc. which may be either plane or concave mirror or electrically illuminated by tungsten filament.0 NEW CONCEPTS: Proposition 1 : Illumination system For distinctive and proper viewing of field object. 1 1. 1. . 4. 2. it provides light. Compound Microscope.1 Simple Microscope MAHARASKTRA STATE BOARD OF TECHNICAL EDUCATION 1 . Lens Folder Arm Stage Adjust ment SCIrew Mirror Fig. 3.

it partially magnified the object) and eyepiece (a more magnified form of real image is observed) Facts and figures about microscope 1. R. greater is the resolving power. Resolving power of objective (R.0 STEPWISE PROCEDURE : 6.P. Magnification system :This includes objective (is a set of lenses placed a near the object.-- Fine Focus illumination System Fig. e. situated a short distance apart. which are. lesser is the working distance.2 3. measured by Numerical Aperture (N. Illumination system : It comprises of lightsource or mirror.Experiment No. This means higher the power of the objective. Working distance : The distance between the object and the objective is known as working distance. . stage and body tube. 2. This is done with the help of coarse and fine adjustment of knob.) M. It decreases with increasing magnification. Support system : It comprises of base. Focusing : Focusing an object while viewing through eyepiece means adjustment of working distance.P.1 Microscope : It is an optical instrument. 1. Greater the N. comprising of a kns or a combination of lenses. the object viewed is magnified 150 times. The compound microscope essentially consists of three major systems. The Englishman Robert Hooke developed an instrument that was the true forerunner of the compound microscope used today.1-.A) of an objective. = 15x X l o x = 150x thus. 6. 4.2 Compound Microscope 6. Magnifying power (M. M.g.) Resolving power of an objective is defined as the ability to separate distinctly two small elements of an object. iris diaphragm and condenser.. Objective turret .P. which enables to view magnified images of a minute object. P can be . = magnification of objective x magnification of eyepiece.P. i Pharmacognosy .A. 2 * MAHARASHTRA S T N E BOARD OF TECHNICAL EDUCATION .

. .... . When concave mirror is used in compound microscope? 3.. which one can view through the eyepiece. State the meaning of 'Field of View' in Microscope. 5. . . . .P. . ... 4.... .. 4. .. Why CEDAR WOOD OIL is used in case of oil immersion lenses? Give reason. State the importance of job description in designing the curriculum. . ) (Space for observations) 8.. 9.. . . . c.. List the parameters of the graphical structure in the hierarchy.. .. Q Q from Group B and Q Q from Group C (Questions shall be allotted by the subject teacher... MAHARASHTRA STATE BOARD OF TECHNICAL EDUCATION 3 ... ....0 CONCLUSION : From the observation it is concluded that the component of given permanent slide is found to be. Name four types of microscope. . . .. What is the role of inclination joint in compound microscope? . . State two motor skills to be developed through this subject.. What is the contribution of Robert Hooke in Microscope? 2...P. ... 7.. Magnifying power (M.Pharmacognosy Experiment No...) Revolving power of objective (R. .. . State the importance of graphical structure in understanding the scope of the subject.. GROUP :C Which precautions should be taken while handling the microscope? 1.) b. . . . ..0 QUESTIONS : Write answers to Q Q from Group A.. . Working distance.0 OBSERVATION : (Subject teacher on the basis of permanent slide shall give one exercise to the students.. Classify the curriculum in different groups of subject. . Field of view : The area of the object. The field of views narrows as magnification increases.. .. 5. (Refer the graphical structure) 3.... . Subject teacher shall give idea about tissue components present in the permanent slide for confirmation of the learning. Subject teacher shall also add few more relevant questions) GROUP :A 1. 1 5. . State the condition where simple microscope is used in Pharmacognosy practical. 4. State the meanirlg of a.. 2. 3. Mention mechanical and optical units of compound microscope. In exercise he shall ask student to focus the slide and observe the particular tissue component.... . . 2. is the field of view. GROUP : B 1. . 5.

Experiment No 1 Pharmacognosy . . (Space for answers) 4 + MAHARASHTRA STATE BOARD OF TECHNICAL EDUCATION .

(Space for answers) MAHARASHTRA STKrE BOARD OF TECHNICAL EDUCNION 5 . . .. 1 .Pharmacognosy Experiment No.

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stem. chemicals. 4. mounting and its observation. 6 + MAHARASHTRA STATE BOARD OF TECHNICAL EDUCATION . Crude Drug : Subject teacher shall give any single drug to the students among the root. each section revealing details from a different angle. 2. watch glass. etc to see the understanding of the methods of section cutting. Staining. To observe the section under microscope. test tube holder. stolon : Different section can be obtained from a stem. seed. 2. beaker. root. dyes or colorants are used to impart colour to various tissue in section of drug sample. To discriminate different components of the section. test tubes. root. 3. cover slips. forceps. Mounting and Observation of section under Microscope. Proposition 3 : Observation For observation of section. Identification of different stages. leaf. 2 Pharmacognosy Experiment No.0 PRIOR CONCEPT Preparation of sample for sectioning. 6. root stolon.Experiment No. dropper. selection of place in a laboratory where sufficient light is available is important.0 LEARNING OBJECTIVES : Intellectual Skill : 1. rhizome. For distinctive transverse section high power observation is used. bark. 5. etc Chemicals : Staining reagent. sharp razor. filter paper. stolen and perpendicular to long axis. 2 1. Motor Skill : 1.0 TITLE : To understand the method of Section Cutting Technique. fruit. The low power observation helps to draw a schematic diagram.0 STEPWISE PROCEDURE : 6. glass slides.0 NEW CONCEPT Proposition 1 : Transverse section Transverse section is obtained by cutting along the -radialplane of a cylindrical portion of the stem. dissecting needle. camel hair brush. tripod stand. staining.1 Section of a stem. Proposition 2 : Staining To distinguish the arrangement of various tissues in the samples of crude drug.0 REQUIREMENTS : Apparatus : Microscope. wire gauze. glycerin and water. Develop creativity in section cutting using different attributes and materials. 3. depending on the plane of cutting.

root. transverse section is important as it reveals the horizontal section of cells and shows lenticels. the important aspect to study is a section through the midrib taken perpendicular to the midrib and Observation of a surface preparation. Fig. Fig.4 Section of bark In case of bark. 2.S. 2 6. Fig. 2.Pharmacognosy Experiment No. 2.2 6.2 Transverse section (T.3 6. MAHARASHTRA STATE BOARD OF TECHNICAL EDUCATION 7 . stolon and perpendicular to long axis.3 Section of leaf In case of leaf.1 This section when prepared and observed under the microscope reveals the radial arrangement of tissues and shows concentric layers and vascular bundles.) Transverse section is obtained by cutting along the radial plane of cylindrical portion of the stem.

separate section technique is required for individual drug. Eg. Micro-slide 13. 2 Fharmacognosy Fig.6 Section cutting technique Following materials are required for Pharmacognosy laboratory work. There are various techniques of section cutting depending on the part of crude drug used. generally T. which fac~litate learning of the tissuecomponents.4 6. 2. Drug sample 11. Section cutting can be done by taking transverse as well longitudinal section. Section cutting is a skill. Watch glass 5. A sharp razor blades 6. Green unripe papaya or potato is used for easy sectioning of the leaves. Test tube holder and stand 1. Fig.S.4 6.5 8 + MAHARASHTRA STATE BOARD OF 'TECHNICAL EDUCAl-ION . Camel hair brushes 3. of various parts are observed under the microscope. Boiling of the sample Fig. In case of fruit and seed drug. Adropper 8. Needle 9. Mostly transverse easy section is taken for study of crude drugs. Stains 10. 2. Cover slip.5 Section of fruit and seed in case of fruit and seeds. Napkin 2. 2. 7.Experiment No. Filter paper 4. Forceps 12. Section cutting includes the following steps : Preparation of Sample for Sectioning 1.

so that excess stain is washed away. 2. 2. 2 2.9 3.10 Mounting Process 1. 2.6 3. Take a clean watch glass and add the staining solution to it.g.11 MAHAFWSHTFW STATE BOARD OF TECHNICAL EDUCATION 9 . Transfer it to watch glass containing plane water.Pharmacognosy Experiment No. e. 2. Transfer the section in to watch glass containing water. 2.8 Fig. Fig. Fig. This section is ready for mounting. Section cuttiqg. Fig. which combines chemically or physically with a cell content to impart colour to it. Staining Process 1. Transfer the section to be mounted on the glass slide with the help of brush Fig. 2. Sudan red Ill dissolves in the fixed oil present in the oil seed to impart red color. Fig.7 Staning : A stain is a chemical dye (colorant).

with the section placed exactly in line with the stage window lying above the condenser. Add 1 .17 I ui . with which the sample can be compared.4 ~ ~ . Set the microscope in a such a way that the C-Arm towards to you and the objective and mirror facing the light. Glycerin is used to avoid evaporation of water and drying of section. Fig. a special process is adopted named as Double Staining Technique. wipe out excess of water present outside the cover slip. Fig. Observation : 1. 2.2 drops of water on the section with the help of Dropper. 2. With the help of blotting paper. Place the slide prepared on the stage of the microscope at the centre. Fix the slide between the clips. 2. The slide is ready for observation Fig. 2. Open the diaphragm completely withthe help of the substage mirror. Take observations. One of the stain Imparts colour to the lignified tissue and the other to the cellulose part. Fig. so there may be evaporation of water and slide prepared will not last long. A permanent preparation is useful for preservation of good sections for study and for preparation of standards. Fig. In order to prepare a permanent mount. 2.15 2. 2 Pharmacognosy 2.14 Procedure described above is the routine laboratory technique. I 10 + MAHARASHTRA STATE BOARD OF TECHNICAL EDUCATION . backward or sideways above the stage with the helpof two screws provided on the mechanical stage. This process generally involves staining with two reagents.16 3. Place a clean cover slip over the section with the help of a forceps and needle.Experiment No. where sufficient light is available. Select a place in the laboratory for microscope. Fig. 2 13 4. hence called as Double Staining Technique.12 3. Adjustthe position so that the field of view issufficiently illuminated. Now the slide Can be moved forward.

. What is role of condenser and iris diaphragm in critical illumination? 3.... (Questions to be allotted by the subject teacher.. seed.... Subject teacher shall also add few more relevant questions) 1...........) containing tissue components.... Space for writing answers MAHARASHTRA STATE BOARD OF TECHNICAL EDUCATION 11 .... Give two examples of staining agent with their reactions..... 4........... List the necessary material required for section cutting.. 10... 9.) (Refer Exp.. 6. What is the purpose of taking transverse section of crude drug? 9..................... Write the reactions of cell wall and cell content with staining agent along with observation. 7.Pharrnacognosy Experiment No. Mention special method for section cutting of leaf. No. root........Q......0 CONCLUSION : From the observation it is concluded that the given crude drug is found to be a ..... fruit. leaf........... rhizome etc..0 OBSERVATION : (Subject teacher on the basis of permanent slide shall give two to three exercises to the student............. bark..Q.. 2 7... Why young leaves are preferred to get fine section? Give reason.......Q.. State a role of a chemical dye during staining procedure... 5. ( stem...... How to focus the Transverse section in order to get fine image? 2......1) (Space for observations) 8.. How to make a sample preparation for microscopic examination? 8......0 QUESTIONS : Write answers to Q........ .

2 Pharmacognosy (Space for answers) 12 e MAHARASHTRA STATE BOARD OF TECHNICAL EDUCATION .Experiment No..

Pharmacognosy Experiment No. 2 (Space for answers) MAHARASHTRA STATE BOARD OF TECHNICAL EDUCATION 13 .

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Hydrogen peroxide. which stains the different components of T. test tube holder.0 REQUIREMENT : Apparatus : Microscope. they are treated with various reagents such as : 1. e. Glycerin or mixture of glycerin and water. 3. Individual Staining Solutions 14 + MAHARASHTRA STATE BOARD OF TECHNICAL EDUCA1-ION . filter paper.0 TITLE : To study Microchemical reagent. stem.0 NEW CONCEPT : Preposition 1 : Microchemical Reagents Microchemical reagents are used in Pharmacognosy practical for diagnostic identification of crude drug.g. leaf. etc to see the understanding of the procedure of staining. Dehydrating Reagents : These reagents are used to remove water from the section or tissue and to make tissue clear in appearance. Absolute alcohol. 4. 5. Acetic acid. 2. This drug can be studied by their morphological or sensory characters and microscopical characters. glass slides. etc Chemicals : Microchemical reagents and water. For microscopical characters. test tubes. watch glass. 4.1.g. 2.0 STEPWISE PROCEDURE : 6. dropper. Ability to interpret from observation. e. seed.g.2 Specific Microchemical Reagents.0 LEARNING OBJECTIVE : Intellectual Skill : 1. rhizome. e. 3. 2. tripod stand.0 PRIOR CONCEPT : Morphology or Sensory characters of crude drug. bark. sharp razor.Experiment No. Cleansing Reagents : These reagents are used to make the tissue clear in appearance. Crude Drug : Subject teacher shall give any single drug to the students among the root. camel hair brush. 6. cover slips. 3 1. To acquire skills of staining. forceps. Mounting Reagents : These reagentsare used to mount the tissues or section and to prevent the drying of sections. Bleaching Reagents : Reagents are used to bleach the tissues or section and to make tissue clear in appearance.g. 3 Pharrnacognosy Experiment No.S. of crude drug. Chloral hydrate and water. beaker. Chloroform. dissecting needle. 6. e. fruit. Study Of Microchemical Reagents : Pharmacognosy includes study of crude drugs obtain from natural origin. wire gauze.

Mount the slide and observe it. Issue the glass watches and add microchemical reagents to it. Sulphuric Acid Ferric Chloride Component Cellulose Colour Lignin Lignin Mucilage Protein Fixed Oils And Fats Starch Saponins I Stone Cells Tannins 0bservation Red Or Pink Colour Pale Blue Colour Red Or Pink Colour Red Or Pink Colour Red Or Pink Colour Yellow Colour Yellowish Brown Colour Deep I Pale Blue Green Colour Blue I Black Colour 6.111 Dilute Iodine Conc. Place section in to watch glass containing microchemical reagents. Hcl Safranin Rheuthenium Red Alcoholic Picric Acid Sudan Red . 7. 3. Sulphuric Acid + Iodine Phloroglycenol + Conc. 5. No. Keep it for specified period.Pharmacognosy Experiment No.) ) (Refer Exp.3 Procedure : 1.0 OBSERVATION : Subject teacher on the basis of permanent slide shall give two to three exercises to the student. 4. Take section of crude drug and transfer section in to watch glass containing water. 3 Name of Reagent Eosin Conc. 2.I (Space for observations) MAHARASHTRA STATE BOARD OF TECHNICAL EDUCAI-ION 15 .

............. 3 Pharmacognosy 8. components in given crude drug........... 6............... (Questions t o be allotted by the subject teacher. Which cell component is detected by ruthenium red? 5....... Why dehydrating agent is used in Microchemical test? Explain it with the help of example... 7... colour indicating presence of ....... . Why glycerin is used as mounting reagent? Give reason........Q.. 3.Q... (Space for answers) 16 + MAHAWSHTW STATE BOARD OF TECHNICAL EDUCATION ... ............. (Name of the microchemical reagent) gives.. Define cleansing and bleaching reagent with help of example.... Define micorchemical reagent and list out different types of it.. Subject teacher shall also add few more relevant questions) 1..........Experiment No.... Which lblicrochemical reqgent is used for detection of Calcium oxalate crystal? 8.. 9..... 2......0 QUESTIONS : Write answers to Q......... 10.........Q.................. Tabulate Microchemicaltests for fennel........ Which Microchemical reagent is used for detection of tannin in cell? 4.......0 CONCLUSION : From the above microscopical tests..... Write the stepwise procedure of staining and mounting? 9............ ................... Tabulate Microchemicaltest for Cinchona.................

Pharrnacognosy Experiment No. 3 (Space for answers) MAHARASHTRA STATE BOARD OF TECHNICAL EDUCATION 17 .

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glass slides.0 NEW CONCEPT : Proposition 1 : Morphological characters It includes organoleptic characters and extra features. 5. staining. 4. sharp razor.0 REQUIREMENT SSSS : Apparatus : Microscope. Ability to interpret the tissue components. Glycerin. Ability to prepare thin transverse section of cinnamon bark. 4 Pharmacognosy Experiment No.0 DIAGRAM : Fig. Conc. etc. dissecting needle. 4. 2. Proposition 3 :Adulterants It is debasement of genuine crude drugs. filter paper.IECTIVE : Intellectual Skill : 1. camel hair brush. Labeling different component of cell. Motor Skill : 1. 3. To handle and observe instrument and crude drug correctly.0 PRIOR CONCEPTS : Section cutting technique.Experiment No. tripod stand. Iodine solution. watch glass. HCI. 2. 3. Chemicals : Phloroglucinol.0 LEARNING 0B. 6. test tubes. dropper. wire gauze. etc. 4 1. Crude Drug : Cinchona bark.0 TITLE : To study Morphological and Microscopical characteristics of Cinchona Bark. Proposition 2 : Microscopical characters It includes observation of important tissue components of transverse section of Cinnamon bark. cover slips. test tube holder.1 Cinchona Bark and Plant 18 + MAHARASKTRA STNE BOARD OF TECHNICAL EDUCATION . forceps. mounting and observation of transverse section of Cinchona Bark. beaker. which proved harmful.

It contains not less than 6 percent of total alkaloids of cinchona. Mocns. Pheloderm : 6 to 8 layers of thin walled rectangular cells without any cellular content.. 4. succirubra Pav. Microscopy : I.2 7. Macroscopy : Organoleptic characters : Odour : Slight and Characteristic Taste : Intensely bitter and slightly astringent. Peruvian bark. officinalis Linn.0 STEPWISE PROCEDURE : 7. C. impregnated with suberin.Pharrhacognosy Experiment No: 4 Fig.S.4 Synonyms : English : Jesuit's bark.. Klotzsch. PERIDERM : Cork : Several layers of thin walled. C. MAHARASHTRA STATE BOARD OF TECHNICAL EDUCATION + 19 . polygonal cells with reddish brown content.3 7.2 T. flat. Family : Rubiaceae.1 7. Biological source : It consists of dried bark of the cultivated trees of Cinchona calisaya Wedd. C. Phellogen : 2to 3 layers thin walled cells without any cellular content. ledgeriana. of Cinchona Bark (Refer colour diagrams given in Appendix-V) 7. ex. or hybrids of either of the last two species with either of the first two.

Medullary rays : One to three seriate. Cinchona extract. Cavities (secretion canals) are present. Boding of the sample. having striated walls and conspicuous tubular or funnel-shaped pits. so that excess stain is washed away. Select a place in the laboratory for microscope. . 6 to 10 m in diameter. . 2. 2. Section cutting. Calcium oxalate crystals : 2 to 6 m long.5 7. CORTEX: Several layers of thin walled tangentially elongated cells containing reddish brown matter.6 7. dark-reddish brown walls. 6. With the help of brush. Issue the sample of crude drug. mostly isolated. Staining Process. transfer the section taken from watch glass containing water to stain solution and keep it for 2 . Take a clean watch glass and add the staining solution to it. large. extended up to cortex cells. Mounting Process. . Marketed preparations : 1. fusiform. Compound cinchona tincture. . Transfer the section in to Watch glass containing water.9 Sieve Tubes : The compact cells being about 200 m long and 15 to 20 m wide and having narrowcompanioncells. wipe out excess of water present outside the cover slip.8 7. or in any case where subject teacher may feel then the preparation of sample for sectioning is done before one hour or a day of the practical or may be varied in certain cases) 4. Place the slide prepared on the stage of the microscope at the centre. . Preparation of sample for sectioning. Clean the platform and issue the apparatus. some times in groups of 2 to 3 fibres. Quinidine. microsphenoidal crystals Starch grains : Rounded. Fibres : Nemerous. Chemical constituents : Alkaloids : Quinine.3 minutes. . . Antimalarial 2. somewith micro-priims of calcium oxalate. Open the diaphragm completely with the help of the sub stage mirror. Colombian bark. 4 Pharrnacognosy 2. With the help of blotting paper. . Allied drugs : 1. 3.Experiment No. Antipyretic.2 drops of water on the section with the dropper. with the section placed exactly in line with the stage window lying above the condenser. Transfer the section to be mounted on the glass slide with the help of brush. SECONDARY PHLOEM : 7. Add 1 . Observation. Adjust the position so that the field of view is sufficiently illuminated. redially elongated and contain starch grains. . Procedure 1. 3. Cuprea bark. 20 + MAHARASHTRA STATE BOARD OF TECHNICAL EDUCATION . where sufficient light is available. Place the clean cover slip over the section with the help of a forceps and needle. The slide is ready for observation. (If crude drug is too hard. 2.7 7. Chichonidine Uses : 1. lignified phloem fibres. most of the sieve tubes are compressed and collapsed. Set the microscope in such a way that the C-Arm towards to you and the objective and mirror facing the light. . Transfer it to watch glass containing plane water. . 5. This section is ready for mounting. Cinchonine. Pholem parenchyma : Thin. Sclerei&s are absent. . .

.0 OBSERVATIONS : 8.. . Staining : 1. .10 Fix the slide between the clips.... . 7. (Cinchona bark) 10. T.. ..2 Observation table for Staining : Sr. MAHARASHTRA STATE BOARD OF TECHNICAL EDUCATION 21 . Subject teacher shall also add few more relevant questions) 1. 3.4 (Refer colour diagrams given in Appendix-V) 8. 4. . . 1. Test Colour Odour Taste Observation 2..0 QUESTIONS : Q Q Q Q (Questions to be allotted by the subject teacher. T. 2. Lignified Phloem fibres Fig.... 2....... + Phloroglucinol + Conc. Hydrochloric acid? 6.S.1 Observation table for Macroscopy : Sr...S.. backward or sideways above the stage with the help of two screws provided on the mechanical stage. .. Write answers to Q . Now the slide can be moved forward.. .. .. + Iodine Blue colour. Test Observation Inferences 9. of Cinchona with Dil. 1. No.... Fig. 3... The name 'Cinchona' is derived from which incident? 4. Take observations. 3.. Differentiate between stem.. root and bark of Cinchona with the help of external characters. Which microscopic component is present in periderm of Cinchona bark? . 8..... Which staining test is used to detect starch? 5. 4 . No.. Write two external characters of Cinchona. .. What will be the inferences after treatment of T.. . 4.Pharmacognosy Experiment No... HCI (1:1) Pink colour. .S.... . . .0 CONCLUSION : The given sample of crude drug is found to be . .3 2.. Starch..

Which parasites are responsible for infection of Malaria? Give two names. (Space for answer) 22 + MAHARASHTRA STATE BOARD OF TECHNICAL EDUCATION . 10.Experiment No. 4 Pharmacognosy 7. 9. 8. Draw well labeled diagram of Cinchona bark. Which microscopical test is used for identification of Lignified phloem and fibres? Mention four species of Cinchona bark.

4 (Space for answers) MAHARASHTRA STATE BOARD OF TECHNICAL EDUCKI-ION 23 .Pharmacognosy Experiment-No.

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3. HCI. Iodine solution.0 LEARNING 0B. cover slips. 5 1. camel hair brush. glass slides. Ability to interpret the tissue components. Ruthenium Red solution. Motor Skill : 1. forceps.0 DIAGRAM : Fig. dissecting needle. staining. To handle and observe instrument and crude drug correctly. 5. Proposition 3 :Adulterants It is debasement of genuine crude drugs. Conc. test tubes. 5 Pharmacognosy Experiment No. filter paper. Chemicals : Phloroglucinol. 3. watch glass. test tube holder.Experiment No. Crude Drug : Cinnamon Bark. wire gauze. Proposition 2 : Microscopical characters It includes observation of important tissue components of transverse section of Cinnamon bark. etc. 6. 2. etc. Labeling different component ofcell.IEC'I'IVES : Intellectual Skill : 1. dropper.0 TITLE : To study lblorphological and lMicroscopical characteristics of Cinnamon Bark. tripod stand. mounting and observation of transverse section of Cinnamon Bark seed.1 Cinnamon Bark and Plant 24 + MAHARASHTRA STATE BOARD OF TECHNICAL EDUCATION .0 NEW CONCEPTS : Proposition 1 : Morphological characters It includes organolepticcharacters and extra features. 4. which proved harmful. Ability to prepare thin transverse s e d i n of cinnamon bark. beaker. Glycerin. 5.0 REQUIREMENTS : Apparatus : Microscope. PRIOR CONCEPTS : Section cutting technique.0 2. sharp razor.

7. Microscopy : 1. closely packed compound quills. Taste : Warm.3 7. 5 Fig.O% vlw of volatile oil. sweet and aromatic Extra features : Bark is free of cork.Dalchini Biological source : It consist of dried inner bark of the shoots of coppiced trees of Cinnamomum zeylanicum Nees. PERICYCLE (stone cell layers) : Produce the light coloured wavy. Macroscopy : Organoleptic characters : Colour : Outer surface.2 7. Inner surface darker in colour Odour : Fragrant. siqgle or double. belonging to family Lauraceae.2 Cinnamon Bark (Refer colour diagrams given in Appendix-V) STEPWISE PROCEDURE : 7. 5.4 MAHARASHTRA STATE BOARD OF TECHNICAL EDUCATION 6 25 . longitudinal lines on the outside of the bark.1 Synonyms : English : Cinnamon Bark Hindi : Kalmi . It contains not less than 1. dull yellowish-brown. Fracture : Splintery.Pharmacognosy Experiment No.

being above 12 to 22 to 35 p wide and 200 to 500 to 600 p long Mucilage cells : can be identified after staining with Ruthenium red (shows pink / red colour). Section cutting. . Cork and cortex are absent. narrow at innersight. Flavouring agent. so that excess stain is washed away. Open the diaphragm completely with the help of the sub stage mirror. Transfer the section to be mounted on the glass slide with the help of brush. or in any case where subject teacher may feel then the preparation of sample for sectioning is done before one hour or a day of the practical or may be varied in certain cases) 4. eugenol(4 to lo%). Set the microscope in such a way that the C-Arm towards to you and the objective and mirror facing the light. 2. . Sclerides : 3 to 4 layers of pitted sclerides.Experiment No. Observation. Allied drugs : 1. Place the clean cover slip over the section with the help of a forceps and needle. 3. Issue the sample of crude drug. With the help of blotting paper. contains starch. 7.2 drops of water on the section with the dropper. (If crude drug is too hard. Cinnamon is an ingredient of Compound-cardamom tincture I. Pericyclic fibres : Small groups of about 6 to 15 pericyclic fibres (lignified) occur at intervals.3 minutes. SECONDARY PHLOEM : Parenchymatous: few cells contains acicular calcium oxalate crystals and starch grains (diameter upto 10 p). Clean the platform and issue the apparatus. transfer the section taken from watch glass containing water to stain solution and keep for 2 . 3. . With the help of brush. Oliver bark. with starch grains.9 Marketed preparation : 1. . . Take a clean watch glass and add the staining solution to it. This section is ready for mounting. wider in thescleride band side.6 2. tannins. Boiling of the sample. 6. Transfer it to watch glass containing plane water. . Staining Process. lignified with stratification. . isolated. 3. acicular raphides. . The slide is ready for observation. terpenes. 4. Java Cinnamon. Medullary rays : Biseriate. 2. Select a place in the laboratory for microscope. . Pholem fibres :single. 7. .Saigon Cinnamon.5 to 1%). wipe out excess of water present outside the cover slip. Procedure 1. mucilage. starch. 7.P. . 26 + MAHARASKTRA STATE BOARD OF TECHNICAL EDUCATION . Cassia bark or Chinese Cinnamon. Mounting Process.slightly elongated tangentially (U-shaped thicknening ). Oil cells : big. Transfer the section in to Watch glass in to Watch glass containing water. Adjust the position so that the field of view is sufficiently illuminated. 4. Preparation of sample for sectioning. isolated.7 7. . where sufficient light is available. Add 1 . . 5. 2. circular. Mild astringent. calcium oxalate. Carminative. 5 Pharmacognosy . thickened lignified walls. Wild or Jungle Cinnamon. Uses : 1. 5.5 Chemical constituents : Volatile oil (0. isodiametric.8 7. Powerful germicide. cinnamic aldehyde (55 to 65%).

.... 3. . (Cinnamon bark) MAHARASHTRA STATE BOARD OF TECHNICAL EDUCATION 27 . + Dil.. . HCI (1:l) Pink colour Lignified cells: Pericyclic fibres. Test Observation 1. + Iodine Blue colour Starch 2...S. .. No. . 3.... 8... . .0 OBSERVATIONS : 8. with the section placed exactly in line with the stage window lying above the condenser. .. Fix the slide between the clips.2 Observation Table for Staining : Sr.. backward or sideways above the stage with the help of two screws provided on the mechanical stage.. . Now the slide can be moved forward.. 9.. stone cells.Pharrnacognosy Experiment No.. HCI Soluble Calcium oxalate crystals 8. T..1 Observation Table for Macroscopy Sr..S..S.. Take observations. 1. 7. Colour Odour Taste Fracture Extra features 5... Test Observation Inferences 1. 3. T. T.0 CONCLUSION : The given crude drug is found to be . No. + Phoroglucinol + Conc... . .. +Acetic acid Insoluble Calcium oxalate crystals 4. 2.. T... ... 2. .S.. cork cells. 5 Place the slide prepared on the stage of the microscope at the centre.10 Staining: Subject teacher shall ask student to draw diagrams of staining in the space provided below. 4. ..

Give biological source of Cinnamon bark.. which contain eugenol as main active chemical constituent. Mention four allied drugs of Cinnamon bark. Write three regional names of Cinnamon bark other than title.. . . Draw neat labeled macroscopical diagram of Cinnamon bark... 5 Pharmacognosy 10.(Questions to be allotted by the subject teacher.. Subject teacher shall also add few more relevant questions) .... Give the process of chemical test by which tannins are detected from Cinnamon bark... Why is Cinnamon presented in compound quill form? Give reason. Which microscopic character is detected by Ruthenium Red in case of Cinnamon bark? Write two crude drugs. (Space for answers) 28 + MAHARASHTRA STATE BOARD OF TECHNICAL EDUCATION .Experiment No. Which volatile oil constituents are present in Cinnamon bark? Write four Therapeutic uses of Cinnamon bark.0 QUESTIONS : Write answers to Q Q Q Q ...

Pharmacognosy Experiment No. 5 (Space for answers) MAHARASHTRA STATE BOARD OF TECHNICAL EDUCATION 29 .

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