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BAT THC QUI CU TUNG TRANG CHU

Quang Minh dch

Bat thc qui cu tung Trang chu

MUC LUC

Li noi au Li ta Chng 1: Nam thc trc Chng 2: Thc th sau Chng 3: Thc th bay Chng 4: Thc th tam Phu luc Sach tham khao

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Bat thc qui cu tung Trang chu

LI NOI AU

Bat thc qui cu tung Trang chu c cho la cua ngai Huyen Trang hay e t cua ngai bien tap, la mot trong nhng tac pham thng c xem la pho thong nhat ve Duy thc hoc. Duy thc trong Bat thc qui cu tung mang nang tanh chat luan ly hoc. Cac bai tung co ong nhng nhan thc cua ngai Huyen Trang ve Duy thc, ma trong o chu trong en hnh thai va oi tng cua nhan thc, ngang qua s khi iem t pham tru tam tanh, tam lng va tam canh. Tac pham chia lam 4 oan, moi oan ch von ven 12 cau tung, va nh the toan tac pham ch co 48 cau tung. oan mot, noi ve nam thc trc; oan hai, noi ve y thc, tc thc th sau; oan ba, noi ve thc Mat na, tc thc th bay; oan bon, noi ve thc A lai da, tc thc th tam. Moi oan eu ch ro ve the tanh, hanh tng, hoat dung va qua v cua moi thc. Van phap duy thc, la noi cac phap toan la duy thc: mot la, v cac phap khong co g that ca; hai la, v cac phap eu lien he en 8 thc; ba la, v chu the nhan thc bao gi cung co oi tng nhan thc. Thc A lai da c goi la can ban y v cac phap nhiem tnh c bao quat va phat sanh. Thc mat na va y thc c goi la nhiem tnh y va phan biet y cua cac phap nhiem tnh, v cac phap do y va y thc ma thanh nhiem tnh. Nam thc trc ch nhan thc 5 canh ma khong co phan biet vong chap. Trong s phan biet vong chap, y thc ong vai chnh, 5 thc trc ong vai phu, thc Mat na la ao dien, thc A lai da la nha san xuat. Cot loi cua s tu la lam sao chuyen hoa s vong chap phan biet cua y thc thanh tr vo tran, tc cai tr giac ngo thc tng khong that cua tran canh. Qua trnh chuyen vong qui chan nay oi hoi y thc ma tam s tue lam chnh, cung vi cac tam s biet canh khac va cac tam s thien giang co manh liet chong lai nhng vong tng ien ao do phien nao can ban va phien nao tuy thuoc dan dat. Y thc luon phat trien theo ban nang t nga cua thc Mat na von c xay dng tren can ban kien va ai. Qua o, tu tap la che ng va cat t s phat sanh lien tuc cai y thc t nga hay nga chap. Tin co thc A lai da la tin vao the tng dung cua Tam: the cua Tam la nang tanh huan tap cac phap tap nhiem hay thanh tnh, tng cua Tam la bieu hien cua cac tam vng va cac tam s, dung cua Tam la nhiem o co the huy
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Bat thc qui cu tung Trang chu

diet, thanh tnh co the thch ng. Noi cach khac, tu tap la boi tran hiep giac, la bo nhiem o ma thanh thanh tnh, la chuyen bo 8 thc ma thanh tu 4 tr, ma thuat ng Duy thc goi la chuyen thc. Tac pham nay con co mot gia tr ac thu la 51 tam s c nh ngha mot cach ro rang va chnh xac. ieu nay se giup rat nhieu cho ngi bc au hoc Duy thc. Qui la mot loai thc tron. Cu la mot loai thc vuong. Thc la dung cu o ac, lam ni tac e thiet lap cac vat dung. Hiep ca phap (bat thc) va du (qui cu), nen goi la Bat thc qui cu tung.

Va c Quan The Am Bo Tat 19/9/inh Hi (29/10/2007) Can but Quang Minh

Bat thc qui cu tung Trang chu

LI TA

Bo Bat thc qui cu tung cua ngai Huyen Trang ai s cha tng thay cho nao bien chep rang ngai t chu giai li tung o. Mua ha nam inh Mao, toi ni chua Linh An at Ho Lam. Luc o co ngai am Huyen 1 ng chu, ngi at Tng, la bac hoc rong nghe nhieu. Ngai noi vi toi rang, trong ai tang kinh hien co ban khac bo Bat thc qui cu tang sao, i nha Minh. Trong bo ay chep rang, i nha ng, ngai tam tang phap s Huyen Trang chu giai li tung. i nha Minh, ngai Lo Am phap s, hieu la Pho Thai, bo chu them. i nha Minh, ngai T Ba thien s, hieu la at Quan, giai ro li chu. e t tho gii bo tat la ong Ly Ng Phng lam li tang sao. Ban ong gii cua ong la Ta Phan Lam, hieu la Hu Tho, tham cu va hieu nh them. Nhng li chu giai va bo chu them trung lap lan lon, ro rang la do ngi i nha Minh lam ra. Ch co li chu giai cua ngai Huyen Trang, tc la bo Bat thc qui cu tung Trang chu nay, xet ve danh va kiem lai s that th cau ngha that la gia dan, quyet chang phai la nhng ngi sau i nha ng co the ga mn c. Tuy chang oan chac la ngai Huyen Trang t chu giai, nhng nhng li chu giai o at cung t nhng bac hien o cua ngai Huyen Trang thuat lai. c nh the th rat u lam cua bau vay. Trong bo Bat thc qui cu tang sao, toi thay ni li chu giai cua ngai Huyen Trang va cua ngai Pho Thai co s xen tap lon xon, cau va ch cung co oi luc sai lam. V vay, toi ben
1 am Huyen (?-?): danh tang Trung quoc, ngi Ho Nam. S xuat gia luc tuoi nho, chuyen tam hoc tap, bien
tai vo ngai. S tng i du hoc Nhat ban 2 lan, tu tap Thai mat va ong mat eu c hoc v Truyen phap quan anh. Nam 1935, s mang ve nc nhng kinh sach ve Mat giao do s su tap, khoang 300 loai, hn 2500 quyen, gom cac ban chep tay, ban in chup, ban hoan chnh, ban dch van Phan, van Tay tang, va co nhng ban gom ca 4 th tieng Tay tang, Phan, Anh, Han, cung nhieu sach v khac. Nhng sach nay c trien lam tai Phat hoc th cuc Thng Hai va c cat gi can than th vien Phat hoc vien Vu Xng. Su a thuc ay phong trao nghien cu Phat hoc Trung quoc phat trien manh me. S tng giang day S nghien cu Phat hoc vien Vu Xng, Phat hoc vien the gii.

Bat thc qui cu tung Trang chu

xem xet chnh chan qua mot lt va vang theo li day cua ngai am Huyen ng chu, gan loc sao chep lai, cho ghi vao bo Hai trieu am so 16, trang 8, hang 8 e that chng vay. Thai H ai s 2

2 Thai H (1889-1947): Cao tang Trung quoc, ngi huyen Sung c, tnh Chiet Giang, ho Trng, ten Kiem
Sam, phap danh Duy Tam, hieu la Hoa T, Bi Hoa, Tuyet Sn Lao Tang, Tan Van Lao Nhan. S la ngi e xng phong trao oi mi Phat giao t thi Dan Quoc ve sau. S xuat gia nam 16 tuoi, tho gii Cu tuc nam 18 tuoi vi hoa thng Ky Thien chua Thien ong Ninh Ba. Nam 19 tuoi, nhan oc kinh Bat nha ma co s ngo. Nam 1912, s en Quang Chau tuyen dng giao phap, tru tr chua Song Khe, nui Bach Van. S la ngi sang lap Trung quoc Phat giao Hiep tien hoi tai Nam Kinh, sau sat nhap vao Trung quoc Phat giao Tong hoi. S chu trng 3 cuoc cach mang ln ve giao ly, giao che va giao san, co suy phong trao chan hng Phat giao, kien lap che o Tan tang oan. Nam 1914, nhap that nui Pho a, mot em no, nghe tieng ai hong chung ma co tam niem dt bat, trai qua ngo canh lan th 2. Nam 28 tuoi, s lai trai qua ngo canh lan th 3. Nam 29 tuoi, sau khi ra that, s tham gia ai Loan phap hoi, du lch Nhat ban, sang lap Giac xa tai Thng Hai, lam chu bien Giac xa tung th, nam sau oi thanh Hai Trieu Am nguyet san. Du la ngi co quan iem cach tan Phat giao, nhng s luon phan oi quan iem khao chng lch s cua cac hoc gia Nhat ban cho rang luan ai tha khi tn, kinh Lang nghiem la nguy th. Nam 1924, s tham d ai hoi Nhat ban ong a Phat giao, ong thi khao sat Phat giao Nhat ban. Ngi Nhat ton s la minh chu gii Phat giao Dan quoc. Nam 1927, s tru tr chua Nam Pho a Ha mon, kiem Vien trng vien Phat hoc Man Nam. Nam 1928, s sang lap Hoi Phat hoc Trung quoc tai Nam Kinh, ong thi hoang hoa cac nc: Anh, Phap, c, Ha Lan, B, My, la v tang Trung quoc au tien truyen ba Phat giao en Au My. Nam 44 tuoi, s tru tr chua Tuyet au Phung Hoa. Nam 49 tuoi, s soan Nga ch Phat giao cach mang that bai s, trnh bay nguyen nhan phai oi mi Phat giao. Nam 1947, s th tch tai Trc Ch Hien, chua Ngoc Phat, Thng Hai, tho 59 tuoi. Mot i s khi xng va tan lc oi mi Phat giao, theo chu ngha tam Phat: Phat tang, Phat hoa, Phat quoc. S coi trong giao duc Tang tai, thiet lap nhieu vien Phat hoc, sang tac nhieu tac pham Phat giao co gia tr, ma sau nay c e t la ngai An Thuan gom chep thanh bo Thai H toan th, 64 tap.

Bat thc qui cu tung Trang chu

Chng 1: NAM TH TRC

Tanh canh, hien lng, thong tam tanh (Nam thc trc ch duyen vi tanh canh, hien lng, va gom u 3 tanh) Cau nay noi ve nam thc trc. Nam thc trc, oi vi ba canh ch duyen vi tanh canh; trong ba lng ch duyen vi hien lng; va oi vi ba tanh: thien, ac, vo ky, th gom u ca. Ba canh la tanh canh, i chat canh va oc anh canh. Tanh canh la canh co the tanh va (tac dung) chan that, tc la canh vat co that chat lam oi tng cho nam can, do tam phap nang s 3 hp thanh. Noi cach khac, tanh canh la canh vat co the tanh va co that chat, bao gom tng phan (cua thc th tam, cua nam thc trc va ngu cau y thc), ma trong o, tanh canh co chung t sanh khi, co the tanh va tac dung chan that vi cac phap that co ni hien tai, tc la noi en s duyen duy thc 4. oi vi hai loai bien 5, nam thc trc ch duyen vi nhan duyen bien, ngha la ch duyen vi canh t tng ly ngon; con trong oc anh canh (cua thc th sau) th duyen vi phan biet bien.

3 Tam phap nang s: sac, hng, v, xuc (t vi) va a, thuy, hoa, phong (t ai). 4 S duyen duy thc: la noi oi tng nhan thc la nhan sanh khi cua tam va tam s, va b cac th tam nay 5 Nh bien: nhan duyen bien va phan biet bien. Nhan duyen bien la tam vng va tam s bien hien tng
phan ma chang nh lc phan biet cua nang duyen, do t co nhan duyen phat sanh chung t, t co that the, that dung cua tam sac, tc la trong 3 loai canh, no thuoc ve tanh canh. Phan biet bien la nh lc phan biet cua nang duyen ma tr lai khi tng phan. Phan biet bien co 2 loai: mot la, tuy theo lc phan biet cua nang duyen, chang mang ban chat cua tanh canh, cung khong u kha nang sanh chung t, tc la trong 3 loai canh no thuoc ve tng phan cua oc anh canh, nh khi duyen vi tng phan cua long rua, sng tho; hai la, mang ban chat cua tanh canh, lai co kha nang sanh chung t, cung nh lc phan biet cua nang duyen, nen goi la t tng cua tanh canh, chang mn that dung cua sac tam nen no la i chat canh, nh thc th bay duyen vi kien phan cua thc th tam, nh thc th tam duyen vi tng phan cua cac tam vng, tam s trong moi luc. chap lay. oi tng ay la nhng anh tng trong tam thc va canh oi dien ben ngoai.

Bat thc qui cu tung Trang chu

oi vi ba lng, nam thc trc ch tng ng vi hien lng. V tng ng vi hien lng nen khi duyen canh, nam thc trc nhan thc trc tiep, sang to cac canh, do vay ma noi nam thc trc ch duyen vi tanh canh. Nam thc trc thong ca ba tanh: thien, ac va vo ky, bi v tanh chat cua nam thc th chang phai hang nhat. Muon ro th xem tiep van sau: Nhan, nh, than tam, nh a c ( nh a, tc t s thien ly sanh hy lac a thuoc Sac gii, ch con co 3 thc la nhan thc, nh thc va than thc) Cau nay noi ve gii va a cua nam thc. Gii co ba: Duc gii, Sac gii va Vo sac gii. a co chn: 1. Ngu thu tap c a (thuoc Duc gii); 2. S thien ly sanh hy lac a; 3. Nh thien nh sanh hy lac a; 4. Tam thien ly hy dieu lac a; 5. T thien xa niem thanh tnh a (thuoc Sac gii); 6. Khong vo bien x a; 7. Thc vo bien x a; 8. Vo s hu x a; 9. Phi phi tng x a (thuoc Vo sac gii). Duc gii la coi gii co ba viec la an uong, ngu ngh va tnh duc. Ngu thu tap c a la tri, ngi, suc sanh, nga quy va a nguc. S d noi Ngu thu tap c la v nam loai chung sanh nay chung lan lon nhau trong Duc gii. Nh a c, la ch S thien ly sanh hy lac cua Sac gii. T Nh thien tr len, do khong co tam t 6 nen nam thc trc khong khi tac dung. Noi cach khac, bay a sau khong co s o nhiem cua tam t. Cau tung tren an lc ty thc va thiet thc, ch co trong chung sanh Ngu thu tap c a cua Duc gii, v t coi thien thien (S thien) tr len khong co oan thc. oan thc (, an bang thc pham,) dung ba tran: hng, v, xuc lam the. Sac gii khong co oan thc nen hai thc nay khong phat sanh. V sao khong co oan thc? V oan thc chnh la ieu chan che cac coi thien thien.

6 Tam t: cu dch la giac quan, tan dch la tam t, la 2 tam s trong 4 mon bat nh tam s. Tam co ngha la
anh manh vao, co ac tanh la hng tam, e tam tren oi tng. T la t duy c a len cao o, co ac tanh lien tuc nhan manh vao oi tng, dan chat vao oi tng.

Bat thc qui cu tung Trang chu

Bien hanh, biet canh, thien thap nhat Trung nh, ai bat, tham san si (Nhng tam s cua 5 thc trc gom co: 5 tam s Bien hanh, 5 tam s Biet canh, 11 tam s thien, 2 phien nao trung tuy, 8 phien nao ai tuy va 3 phien nao can ban) Hai cau tung tren noi ve nhng tam s cua nam thc. Nhng tam s nay, trong y ngha tng ng cua Duy thc, ham u ba ngha: mot la, luon luon sanh khi theo tam thc; hai la, cung tng quan vi tam thc; ba la, he thuoc vao tam thc. Th du nh nhng vat thuoc ve ta nen goi la nga s. Nam thc nay oi vi sau loai tam s ch thieu loai Bat nh. Tam s bien hanh: Co 5 tam s la tac y, xuc, tho, tng va t. 1. Tac y (khi niem): ac tanh cua tam s nay la nang lc anh thc tam. Hoat dung cua no la hng dan tam vao canh ma tam thc duyen theo. S tac y co hai cong dung: mot la, khi tam cha sanh khi, th no anh thc khien tam sanh khi; hai la, khi tam sanh khi roi, s tac y dan dat tam hng theo canh. 2. Xuc (tiep xuc): ac tanh cua tam s nay la lam (chat xuc tac) cho tam vng, tam s tiep xuc c vi canh. Hoat dung cua xuc la lam cho nng ta cho cac tam s khac nh tho, tng, t v.v ... 3. Tho (tho dung): ac tanh cua tam s nay la cam nhan nhng canh tng thuan (ang a), nghch (ang ghet) va khong thuan khong nghch (chang ang a ma cung chang ang ghet). Hoat dung cua tho la khi len s ham muon. Lai co cho noi, tam s tho lam cho sanh khi nhng trang thai tam ly nh vui mng hay lo buon, e roi muon tiep nhan hay buong bo. 4. Tng (phan biet): ac tanh cua tam s nay la oi vi canh (sau khi cam tho) no nam gi nhng anh tng, tc la kha nang an lap bang t canh phan ( ni tam thc). Hoat dung cua tng la at bay ra cac th danh ngon. ieu ang chu y la tam s tng an lap t canh phan bang cac anh tng roi sau o tuy theo anh tng ma khi cac th danh ngon.
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Bat thc qui cu tung Trang chu

5. T (suy ngh): ac tanh cua tam s nay la thuc ay tam (tam vng va tam s khac) tao tac (s suy ngh). Hoat dung cua t la sai s tam theo chieu hng thien, ac hay vo ky. Noi tom, tam s t co cong nang nam bat cac canh tng t tong quat en chi tiet roi sai s t tam khien tao tac nhng s ngh ngi theo chieu hng thien, ac hay vo ky. V sao goi la bien hanh? V cac tam s nay i cung khap trong bon lanh vc va co mat trong tat ca tam vng (nh la ieu kien can va u) e tam vng co the van hanh (trong viec nhan thc van phap). Bon lanh vc: mot la, i khap 3 tanh (thien, ac va vo ky); hai la, i khap 8 thc (tam vng); ba la, i khap 9 a (3 coi / tat ca khong gian); bon la, i khap tat ca thi gian (qua kh, hien tai va v lai). Tam s biet canh: Co 5 tam s la: duc, thang giai, niem, nh va tue. 1. Duc (mong muon): ac tanh cua tam s nay la mong muon nhng canh vui thch. Hoat dung cua duc la sieng nang theo uoi (oi tng a thch). Nhng canh vui thch co ba loai: mot la, canh ang a vui (trong hien tai); hai la, canh mong cau co c (trong tng lai); ba la, canh muon quan thay (trong khi tu tap ch quan), ac biet co s hieu biet chan chanh. 2. Thang giai (hieu ro): ac tanh cua tam s nay la ghi nhan va gn gi nhng canh quyet nh (trong ba loai canh vui thch ma tam s duc muon theo uoi). Hoat dung cua thang giai la khong the b dan chuyen (bi cai khac, sau khi no a quyet nh chon la). 3. Niem (ghi nh): ac tanh cua tam s nay la lam cho tam thc nh lai ro rang nhng canh (a qua) tng huan tap (trong tam thc). Hoat dung cua niem la lam cho nng cho tam s nh. 4. nh (chuyen chu): ac tanh cua tam s nay la khien tam chuyen chu, khong cho tam tan loan oi vi canh s quan. Hoat dung cua nh la lam cho nng cho tr (tam s tue). 5. Tue (sang suot): ac tanh cua tam s nay la la chon canh s quan. Hoat dung cua tue la dt nghi ng.
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Bat thc qui cu tung Trang chu

Nam tam s tren, do moi tam s duyen moi canh rieng khac ma phat sanh, nen goi la biet canh. Tam s thien: Noi ve 11 mon tam s thien, Duy thc tam thap tung co bai tung rang: Thien v: tn, tam, qui Vo tham ang tam can Can, an, bat phong dat Hanh xa cap bat hai (Tam s thien gom co: tin, ho then, s nhuc, khong tham lam, khong gian d, khong si me, sieng nang, nhe nhang, khong phong dat, buong tha va khong ton hai) Tat ca 11 tam s nay eu co ac tanh hien lanh nen goi la tam s thien. 1. Tn (tin): ac tanh cua tam s nay la: vi chan ly s that (that) th tin sau, vi gia tr ao c (c) th a muon, vi nang lc cua s that va ao c (nang) th lam cho tam thanh tnh. Hoat dung cua tn la oi tr s bat tn, va a thch ieu thien. Tn co ba mat: mot la, tin vao chan ly: la tin nhan sau sac vao s that (hien tng) va ly that (ban the) cua cac phap; hai la, tin vao gia tr ao c: la tin a sau xa vao tam bao trong y ngha Phat th chan that, phap th thanh tnh va tang th cong c; ba la, tin vao nang lc: la tin chu sau chac vao thien phap the gian co nang lc em en hanh phuc the gian va thien phap xuat the gian co nang lc at thanh Thanh ao xuat the gian, ma khi len y mong cau. Tn oi tr c cai tam bat tn (vao that, c, nang) va em lai s a thch thien phap the gian va s tu chng thien phap xuat the gian. Tin sau la v co tam s thang giai lam nhan cho tn. a muon la v co tam s duc lam qua cua tn. Cong nang cua tn la long trong, co the lam cho tam c thanh tnh, nh thuy thanh chau co cong nang thanh loc nc ban. 2. Tam (ho then): ac tanh cua tam s nay la nng vao sc manh cua ban than (t) va ao ly (phap), sung knh ngi hien, coi trong ieu thien. Hoat dung cua
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Bat thc qui cu tung Trang chu

tam la oi tr tam khong biet ho then va ngan dt lam ieu ac. T la t than, phap la giao phap. Neu t xet toi la ngi nh vay hay sao? va hieu ro ao ly (lam ngi) la the nao?, th th hoi co dam lam ieu ac? 3. Qui (s nhuc): ac tanh cua tam s nay la nng vao sc manh cua the gian e coi nhe ngi d, chong c ieu xau (khinh c bao ac). Hoat dung cua qui la oi tr tam khong biet s nhuc. Sc manh cua the gian la s che trach cua ngi i (d luan). Khinh c bao ac la coi nhe ngi d (bao) nen chang than can, chong c ieu xau (ac) nen chang dam lam. 4. Vo tham (khong tham lam): ac tanh cua tam s nay la oi vi s hien hu (hu) qua moi sac thai (cua qua d thuc) ma khong co cai tam tham am. Hoat dung cua vo tham la oi tr tham am, va a lam viec lanh. 5. Vo san (khong gian d): ac tanh cua tam s nay la oi vi s au kho qua moi hnh thc (kho kho, hanh kho, hoai kho 7) ma khong co cai tam oan gian. Hoat dung cua vo san la oi tr san han, va a lam viec lanh. 6. Vo si (khong si me): ac tanh cua tam s nay la hieu biet ranh ro cac s ly (the gian va xuat the gian). Hoat dung cua vo si la oi tr ngu si, va a lam viec lanh. 7. Can (= tinh tan: sieng nang): ac tanh cua tam s nay la dung manh trong viec dt cac viec d, lam cac viec lanh. Hoat dung cua can la oi tr bieng nhac, lam tron u cac viec lanh. 8. Khinh an (nhe nhang on nh): ac tanh cua tam s nay la xa la nhng g nang ne bc boi, ieu hoa thanh thi than tam, tc noi kha nang buong tha. Hoat dung cua khinh an la oi tr hon tram (than tam nang ne), va c qua chuyen y 8. Xa la nhng g nang ne bc boi la khinh (nhe nhang). ieu hoa thanh thi than tam la an (on nh). S y cua tam s nay la kha nang ganh vac va nhan chu,
7 Kho co 3 loai: mot la, kho kho, kho s v nong lanh, oi khat, bnh tat ; hai la, hanh kho, kho s v s bien ong cua phap hu vi, trong o, la 5 uan bao gom than tam va the gii cua than tam ay; ba la, hoai kho, kho s v cai vui mat i. 8 Chuyen y: y la can ban y, tc la can ban thc. Chuyen y la chuyen can ban thc trong o co 2 trong chng la phien nao chng va s tri chng ma thanh 2 ai qua la ai niet ban va ai bo e. 11

Bat thc qui cu tung Trang chu

lam cho da cho than tam chuyen bo nhng g nang ne bc boi (tap nhiem) e c thanh thi on nh (thanh tnh). 9. Bat phong dat (khong phong tung): ac tanh cua tam s nay la tinh tan e thanh tu ba thien can la: vo tham, vo san va vo si, co kha nang ngan nga va che ng tam trong viec oan ac tu thien. Hoat dung cua bat phong dat la oi tr tam phong tung e thanh tu tron ven nhng ieu thien cua the gian va xuat the gian. Noi tom, tam s bat phong dat la tinh tan co c ba thien can, co c cong nang ngan nga va che ng. La bo s tinh tan co c ba thien can va cong nang ngan nga, che ng o, th the cua bon phap: tinh tan, khinh an, bat phong dat va hanh xa, khong the thanh lap. 10. Hanh xa (buong tha): Tinh tan co c ba thien can lam nhan to cho tanh cach cua tam s nay, o la tam an tru ni bnh ang, chanh trc va vo cong dung 9. Hoat dung cua hanh xa la tam an tru vang lang va oi tr trao c (xao ong). Ch xa ay la xa trong hanh uan 10, ch chang phai xa trong tho uan, v vay goi la hanh xa. Tam an tru ni bnh ang, chanh trc va vo cong dung ngha la khi buong xa tam t th xa la trang thai hon tram (nang ne) va trao c (xao ong) e co c: au tien la tam bnh ang, ke en la tam chanh trc 11 va sau cung la tam vo cong dung. Mot phap hanh xa ay cung tc la bon phap: tinh tan, khinh an, bat phong dat va hanh xa. Bi le, kha nang lam cho tam an tru vang lang la bon phap 12 va bieu hien cho tam an tru vang lang la tam bnh ang, tam chanh trc, tam vo cong dung.

9 Vo cong dung = khong can dung cong = nham van (tien hanh t nhien):ngha la tu tap a thuan thuc, t no thng xuyen dien tien, khong can chu y hay c kch thch. 10 Hanh uan: bao gom tat ca tam s khac ngoai 2 tam s tho va tng. Duy thc cho la bao gom ca bat tng ng hanh phap. Bat tng ng hanh phap co 24: ac, mang can, chung ong phan, d sanh tanh, vo tng nh, diet tan nh, vo tng qua, danh than, cu than, van than, sanh, tru, lao, vo thng, lu chuyen, nh d, tng ng, the toc, th e, phng, thi, so, hoa hiep tanh va bat hoa hiep tanh. Hanh xa ma cho la hanh ong tao tac ma khong chap trc, th qua xa nguyen ngha cua no. Hanh xa la khi cac tam s noi tiep nhau chuyen bien ni tam thc ma khong co s chap trc, nhn dong chay tam thc qua i mot cach than nhien, khong them khong bt thanh kien chu quan. Hanh xa con goi la tru xa. 11 Tam chanh trc = tam ngay thang. Khi tn luan noi la chanh nh chan nh: Tam ngay thang la chnh xac nh thang tam the chan nh. 12 Bon phap: tinh tan, khinh an, bat phong dat va hanh xa co quan he mat thiet va hu c, cho thay tu tap la nh the nao. Cach noi ve 4 phap nh vay that la ac thu, can cu xet ky. 12

Bat thc qui cu tung Trang chu

11. Bat hai (khong lam ton hai): ac tanh cua tam s nay la khong lam ton hai cac loai hu tnh, v luon co tam s vo san i kem. Hoat dung cua bat hai la long bi man, co kha nang oi tr tam ton hai. Cau tung trung nh, ai bat, tham san si la noi ve nhiem tam s (tam s nhiem o). Nhiem tam s gom co 26 loai (trong o co 6 loai la phien nao can ban va 20 loai la phien nao tuy thuoc). Nam thc trc ch co 13 loai nhiem tam s, gom co: 3 trong 6 can ban phien nao va 10 trong 20 tuy phien nao. Tuy phien nao: gom co 20 loai, phan lam 3 bac la tieu, trung va ai. Tieu tuy co 10 loai la: phan, han, phu, nao, tat, xan, cuong, siem, hai va kieu. Trung tuy co 2 loai la: vo tam va vo qui. ai tuy co 8 loai la: trao c, hon tram, bat tn, giai ai, phong dat, that niem, tan loan va bat chanh tri. Tieu tuy khong tng ng cung nam thc trc, ch co trung tuy va ai tuy mi phu thuoc nam thc trc. S d goi la tuy phien nao v 20 loai phien nao nay tuy thuoc vao 6 loai phien nao can ban ma sanh khi trong pham vi tng ng rong hep khac nhau. Co 3 ngha: mot la, t loai cau khi (moi loai cung khi); hai la, bien nhiem nh tanh (khap ca hai tanh bat thien); ba la, bien ch nhiem tam (khap ca cac tam nhiem o). Neu u ca 3 ngha th goi la ai tuy, co 1 ngha hay hn th goi la trung tuy, khong co 3 ngha th goi la tieu tuy. Hai tanh ay la bat thien va hu phu (nhiem o). Mi loai tieu tuy, do moi loai rieng biet sanh khi, nen thieu ngha t loai cau khi. Mi loai tieu tuy nay la bat thien tanh, nen thieu ngha bien nhiem nh tanh. a thieu tanh hu phu va chang co ngha bien ch nhiem tam, nen goi la tieu tuy. Mi loai tieu tuy nay cung thc th sau tng ng, v vay khong giai thch phan nay. Nam thc trc co 10 tuy phien nao: 2 thuoc trung tuy va 8 thuoc ai tuy. Vo tam va vo qui la t loai cau khi (va co mat trong khap ca cac tam bat thien), thuoc ve trung tuy.

13

Bat thc qui cu tung Trang chu

1. Vo tam (khong biet ho vi mnh): ac tanh cua tam s nay la chang oai hoai en ban than (t) va ao ly (phap), coi thng ngi hien, chong c ieu thien. Hoat dung cua vo tam la lam chng ngai tanh xau ho (tam) va sanh ln viec xau ac. 2. Vo qui (khong biet then vi ngi): ac tanh cua tam s nay la chang oai hoai en (d luan) the gian, coi nang ngi d (bao), thoa hiep ieu xau (ac). Hoat dung cua vo qui la lam chng ngai tanh s nhuc (qui) va sanh ln viec xau ac. (Tam loai phien nao sau ay thuoc ve ai tuy. Cac tam s nay bien khap cac tam s bat thien, pham vi hoat ong lai rong hn 2 loai trung tuy, nen goi la ai tuy) 1. Trao c (xao ong): ac tanh cua tam s nay la chang chu yen tnh khi tam oi vi canh. Hoat dung cua trao c la lam chng ngai hanh xa va can tr xa ma tha (tu ch). 2. Hon tram (than tam nang ne): ac tanh cua tam s nay la khong the ganh vac c viec g ca (vo kham nhm) khi tam oi vi canh. Hoat dung cua hon tram la lam chng ngai khinh an va can tr ty bat xa na (tu quan). 3. Bat tn (khong tin): ac tanh cua no la vi chan ly s that (that) th khong tin nhan; vi gia tr ao c (c) th khong a muon; vi nang lc cua s that va ao c (nang) th (v khong tin nen) lam cho tam nhiem o. Hoat dung cua bat tn la lam chng ngai viec tnh tam (tu ch quan) va lam cho nng cho giai ai 13. 4. Giai ai (bieng nhac): ac tanh cua tam s nay la bieng nhac trong viec oan cac ieu ac, tu cac ieu thien. Hoat dung cua giai ai la lam chng ngai tinh tan va tang them tanh nhiem o. 5. Phong dat (phong tung): ac tanh cua tam s nay la buong lung, phong tung, chang the ngan nga tam nhiem o, chang the che ng (tam ay) cho thanh tnh.
13 Hon tram, trao c, nghi (bat tn), tham, san c goi la 5 th ngan che (ngu cai) cho viec tu ch quan. Con
tham va san th khong tu c ch quan. Tam het tham va san, nhng khong co chanh niem, tc co trao c va that niem, th kho tu ch. Tu ch roi ma b hon tram thuy mien va hoai nghi chanh phap th kho tu quan.

14

Bat thc qui cu tung Trang chu

Hoat dung cua phong dat la lam chng ngai bat phong dat va lam nen tang cho viec them len ieu ac, giam bt ieu lanh. 6. That niem (mat chanh niem): ac tanh cua tam s nay la khong the ghi nh ro rang canh s duyen. Hoat dung cua that niem la chng ngai chanh niem va lam ieu kien cho tan loan sanh khi. Ban chat cua that niem cung la ban chat cua tam tan loan. Tam s that niem nay co hai phan: mot la, mot phan nhiep vao tam s niem, nhng la s ghi nh (niem) nao tng ng vi phien nao; hai la, mot phan nhiep vao tam s si, nh luan Du Gia noi, that niem la mot phan cua si me, v si me lam cho that niem. Noi mot cach khac, that niem nhiep vao hai phan: niem va si (= vong niem). 7. Tan loan (khong tap trung): ac tanh cua tam s nay la lam cho tam troi noi, chay nhay trc canh s duyen. Hoat dung cua tan loan la lam chng ngai chanh nh va lam cho nng cho ac tue 14, v tan loan lam phat sanh ac tue. 8. Bat chanh tri (Biet khong chnh xac): ac tanh cua tam s nay la hieu biet sai lam oi vi canh s quan. Hoat dung cua bat chanh tri la lam chng ngai s hieu biet chnh xac (chanh tri) va lam ieu kien huy pham gii luat (do de tao nghiep bat thien). Can ban phien nao: Tham, san, si la 3 trong 6 can ban phien nao (tham, san, si, man, nghi va ac kien). 1. Tham (tham am): ac tanh cua tam s nay la tham nhiem, am trc s ton tai
15 trong moi qua bao d thuc. Hoat dung cua tham la chng ngai thien can vo

tham va lam sanh khi cac kho luan hoi. 2. San (nong gian): ac tanh cua tam s nay la noi gian, ghet bo oi vi canh kho trong moi hnh thai kho au (kho kho, hanh kho, hoai kho). Hoat dung cua san la

14 Ac tue = tr tue ac hai, kien thc sai lam, lay nhiem tue lam tanh, no lam chng ngan kien giai thien. 15 S ton tai: la hu, hu tham hay hu ai, tc y ch muon song, muon ton tai, tai sanh, tng tuc va tang
trng.

15

Bat thc qui cu tung Trang chu

chng ngai thien can vo san, lam cho than tam khong yen on (v khong a thch nghch canh) va lam cho nng cho ac hanh. 3. Si (ngu si): ac tanh cua tam s nay la me muoi, khong nhan nh ro cac s ly (the gian va xuat the gian). Hoat dung cua si la lam chng ngai thien can vo si va lam iem ta cho moi th tap nhiem (luon thch ng vi phien nao va tuy phien nao 16). Ba mon phien nao con lai (man, nghi va ac kien) xin xem phan chu giai ve thc th sau. S d goi cac tam s nay la phien nao can ban la v no (lam coi goc) sanh ra cac chung t tuy mien. Tuy mien khac vi phien nao, v tuy mien la tap kh (chung t) cua phien nao va v tng trang ca hai th trai ngc nhau: phien nao th lo ro de thay, tuy mien th nho nhiem kho biet. Tuy mien va phien nao anh hng lan nhau ma lam ca hai them ln manh. Ngu thc ong y tnh sac can (Nam thc eu nng ni tnh sac can e co tac dung nhan biet) Cau tung nay noi, nam thc lay nam can lam cho s y. Tnh sac can con goi la thang ngha can 17. S d goi nh vay la v the cua no chang phai la nhiem phap va tanh cua no la vo phu, vo ky. Nam thc tuy theo can ma lap danh, gom u 5 ngha: y, phat, thuoc, tr va nh (nng ta, phat sanh, phu thuoc, tr giup va giong nh). Ch y trong cau tung la 1 trong 5 ngha tren. Neu giai rong ra th goi la thc cua y can (thc nng vao can e hieu biet), thc cua thuoc can (thc phu thuoc vao can ma thiet lap danh xng), thc cua tr can (thc tr giup cho can hoat ong), thc cua nh can (thc giong nh can tiep nhan hnh anh), tat ca eu la y chu thch 18. Thc cua phat can: can la ni e thc phat sanh tac dung, la y s thch.
16 Thch ng vi phien nao va tuy phien nao: thch ng vi ao giac (kien phan hu lau) va ao tng (tng phan hu lau).

17 Thang ngha can: la sac can thu thang cua chung sanh, lay tnh sac can hien hanh thanh tnh do 4 ai chung
hp thanh lam the e khi thc, chap canh, ma ngay nay goi la he than kinh cua 5 giac quan; lay phu tran can (nh nhan cau, lo tai, song mui ..) lam cho s y, gn gi va giup thanh. 18 Y chu thch: la mot trong 6 phng phap giai thch cac t phc hp cua tieng Phan, goi la luc hp thch hay luc ly hp thch: au tien chia che ra e giai thch (ly thch), sau o tong hp lai e giai thch (hp thch). Luc hp thch la: tr nghiep thch, y chu thch, hu tai thch, tng vi thch, lan can thch va i so thch. Y chu thch cung goi la y s thch, la t the cua phap s y ma lap danh cua phap nang y. Th du nng vao nhan can ma

16

Bat thc qui cu tung Trang chu

Cu duyen, that, bat hao tng lan (Nhan thc can 9 duyen e sanh khi, ba thc: ty, thiet va than ch can 7 duyen, nh thc ch can 8 duyen, tat ca co quan he qua lai rat tot) ay la noi 9 duyen e nam thc co the phat khi phan biet. Chn duyen la: khong, minh, can, canh, tac y, phan biet y, nhiem tnh y, can ban y va chung t. 1. Khong: la khoang khong gian cach nhau gia can va canh. 2. Minh: la anh sang cua mat tri, mat trang, anh sang cua en. 3. Can: la 5 can lam cho ta cho 5 thc (phat sanh tac dung). 4. Canh: la 5 tran canh lam oi tng cho 5 thc duyen theo. 5. Tac y: ong ngha vi tam s tac y trong 5 mon bien hanh. 6. Phan biet y: la thc th sau. 7. Nhiem tnh y: la thc th bay. 8. Can ban y: la thc th tam. 9. Chung t duyen: la chung t cua 8 thc, moi moi eu nng chung t phat sanh. Xet 9 duyen tren oi chieu vi t duyen th chung t duyen la nhan duyen 19, canh la s duyen duyen 20, 7 duyen con lai la tang thng duyen 21. Con ang vo gian duyen
22 la noi tam thc tam vng, moi loai sanh diet trc sau, khong gian oan, co lc dung

nang dan va s dan (= duy tr hien hanh va duy tr chung t) bang nhau. Cau tung tren tuy an lc, nhng a gom u trong o. Cho nen co bai tung rang: Nhan thc cu duyen sanh Nh thc duy tung bat
sanh ra s nhan biet phan biet nen goi la nhan thc, ngha la thc cua nhan, o la lay nhan lam the s y, thc la phap nang y. Biet phap t phap s y ma lap ra danh nang y, nen goi la y chu. 19 Nhan duyen: cai nhan lam duyen to, nh noi nhan thc do chung t cua no hien hanh ma co. 20 S duyen duyen: oi canh lam duyen to, nh noi phai co sac canh lam oi tng cho nhan thc. 21 Tang thng duyen: d kien them len lam duyen to, nh noi chung t nhan thc hien hanh c la phai co nhan can. 22 ang vo gian duyen: s mat i cua giai oan trc lam duyen to, nh noi chnh ban than nhan thc ma giai oan trc mat i nhng cho cho giai oan sau sanh ra.

17

Bat thc qui cu tung Trang chu

Ty, thiet, than tam: that Hau tam: ngu, tam, t. (Nhan thc can 9 duyen e sanh khi, nh thc ch can 8 duyen, ba thc: ty, thiet va than ch can 7 duyen, thc th 6, 7 va 8 tng ng can 5, 3 va 4 duyen) Neu them ang vo gian duyen th moi thc tang them 1 duyen. Thc th 6 co 5 duyen: 1. Can duyen: la y can (mat na). 2. Canh duyen: la 18 gii. 3. Tac y duyen: la tac y trong 5 mon bien hanh. 4. Can ban duyen: la thc A lai da. 5. Chung t duyen: la thc th 6 t than sanh chung t. Thc th 7 co 3 duyen: 1. Chung t duyen: la thc th 7 t than sanh chung t. 2. Tac y duyen: la tam s tac y trong 5 mon bien hanh. 3. Can canh duyen: can va canh eu la thc th 8. Cho nen Duy thc tam thap tung viet: y b chuyen, duyen b (thc mat na do thc A lai da sanh ra, roi tr lai duyen thc A lai da chap lam t nga). Thc th 8 co 4 duyen: 1. Can duyen: la thc mat na. 2. Canh duyen: la chung t, can than va kh the gii. 3. Tac y duyen: la tac y trong 5 mon bien hanh. 4. Chung t duyen: la thc th 8 t than sanh chung t. ang vo gian duyen ngha la moi thc sau khi diet, lien m hay ong canh gii cua moi thc, dan dat niem sau sanh khi, khoang gia (2 niem) khong co gian oan. Neu them ang vo gian duyen th nhan thc co 10 duyen; nh thc co 9 duyen; ty, thiet, than thc co 8 duyen; y thc co 6 duyen; mat na thc co 4 duyen; A lai da thc co 5 duyen.

18

Bat thc qui cu tung Trang chu

V sao cac thc phai mn duyen mi phat sanh c? V cac thc la hu vi phap nen phai mn nhan ga duyen, thieu duyen th khong phat sanh c. Thc nao nhieu duyen th (hoat ong) ngan ngui, t duyen th (hoat ong) dai lau. khong noi u cac duyen. Hp tam, ly nh, quan tran the (Trong viec quan sat tran the, ty thc, thiet thc va than thc phai tiep xuc vi tran canh, con nhan thc va nh thc th can co khong gian chia cach gia can va canh) Cau tung nay noi nhan thc va nh thc phai cach h (ly) tran canh mi tiep nhan c canh; con ty thc, thiet thc va than thc phai chung ung (hp) tran canh mi tiep nhan c canh. Quan, la quan sat, la kien phan nang duyen 23, o la 5 thc trc va cac tam s. Tran the, la tng phan s duyen 24, o la 5 tran: sac, thanh, hng, v, xuc. Ngu gia nan phan thc d can (Hang tieu tha va ngi thng kho ma co s hieu biet chan xac ve thc va can) Cau tung nay noi hang tieu tha thanh van va ngi thng chap phap nen chang biet rng can va thc, moi cai co chung t va hien hanh, rng can va thc co s ho tng sanh khi. Chung t va hien hanh cua can ch co the hng dan chung t va hien hanh cua thc, cho nen noi can la duyen to sanh ra thc. Can khong the la nhan to sanh ra thc c, v thc t no co chung t nang sanh (sanh ra hien hanh). Hang tieu tha tr thien tam tho, cha dt tr s tri chng 25, oi vi cac phap cha hieu ro tng tan cho nen cha tin c giao ly Duy thc cua ai tha. Bien tng quan khong duy hau ac Cau tung tren an lc 3 thc sau, v

23 Kien phan nang duyen: la chu the nhan thc co cong nang tiep xuc oi tng. 24 Tng phan s duyen: la oi tng nhan thc lam s y cho cac thc duyen theo. 25 S tri chng: chng ngai chan ly, lam cho khong chng ngo. Cac v thanh van, duyen giac an ap c
chng ngai s dung (= phien nao chng lam cho b luan hoi) nen thoat khoi luan hoi, nhng cha nhap chung tanh bo tat v con s tri chng.

19

Bat thc qui cu tung Trang chu

(Ch co hau ac tr mi chuyen oi tng phan s duyen thanh kien phan nang duyen e tiep can vi chan nh) Nam thc nay ( giai oan pham phu) biet ro the tuc (thay co) va thay khong 26. Bien, la chuyen oi. Tng, la tng phan. Quan, la kien phan nang duyen. Khong, la chan nh s duyen. Duy hau ac (ch co tr hau ac 27), la chang phai tr can ban 28, v 5 thc nay da vao sac can (5 nam) ma sanh khi. Tr hau ac (cua 5 thc nay) khong the trc tiep duyen chan nh 29. Tr hau ac la tr con co phan biet, so lng, tnh toan nen khong the trc tiep duyen vi ly vo phan biet. Khong, la that tanh Duy thc 30. Qua trung du t bat thuyen chan ( ngay ni qua Thanh cung khong the noi la nam thc trc trc tiep duyen c chan nh) La noi ve 5 thc tr thanh vo lau (vo lau ngu thc). Khong phai trong luc tu nhan chang the noi chan, ma ngay ni qua v (vo lau) cung khong the trc tiep duyen c chan nh. Nam thc nay da vao sac can, co s phan biet, cho nen khong the trc tiep duyen c chan nh. S d goi la tr hau ac, v no sanh sau tr can ban. Ngoai ao chap rang, 5

26 Chanh van la lieu tuc kien khong, nen dch la thay co thay khong. Kinh Tang A ham giai thch: c The
ton noi vi cac v ty kheo, co 2 s thay la thay co va thay khong. Thay co la the nao? La thay co duc, co sac, co vo sac. Thay co duc la 5 duc: mat thay sac th rat a, qui va nh, cha bao gi ri bo ma c ton th mai; tai nghe tieng, mui ngi hi, li biet mui, than biet xuc, y biet phap (cung nh vay), va o goi la thay co. Thay khong la the nao? La thay co thng, thay khong thng, thay co oan, thay khong oan, thay co bien, thay khong bien, thay co mang, thay khong mang, thay than mang khac nhau, thay than mang la mot, (va) 62 s thay (xuat t cac s thay) nh tren goi la thay khong, va toan la khong phai s thay chnh xac. 27 Tr hau ac: la tr thau at canh y tha nh huyen, con co nang s. 28 Tr can ban: la tr hoi nhap chan nh, khong co nang s. 29 Chan nh: trung that nh the, v chan nh la ban the ma khong phap nao, ngi nao va luc nao ma khong sieu viet khai niem nh bien. Kinh Giai Tham Mat giai thch: Chan nh ni cac phap nhiem tnh goi la tanh nh hu. Chan nh ay co 7: 1. Chan nh ni s lu chuyen: cai tanh khong m au, khong cham het cua cac hanh; 2. Chan nh ni cac tng: cai tanh nhan vo nga va phap vo nga cua cac phap; 3. Chan nh ni s lieu biet: cai tanh duy thc cua cac hanh; 4. Chan nh ni s an lap: thanh e ve kho ma Nh lai noi; 5. Chan nh ni s ta hanh: thanh e ve tap ma Nh lai noi; 6. Chan nh ni s thanh tnh: thanh e ve diet ma Nh lai noi; 7. Chan nh ni s chanh hanh: thanh e ve ao ma Nh lai noi. 30 That tanh Duy thc: that tanh ay ma noi la khong, v cac phap toan la khong that, la toan do y thc gia thiet, la khong the thu ac.

20

Bat thc qui cu tung Trang chu

thc trc khong co tr can ban th lam sao co tr hau ac c. Cau tra li la, tr can ban va tr hau ac eu la tr (vo phan biet 31) ca va cung thong at s (ly). Theo ngai An Hue 32, 5 thc nay sau khi tu nhan roi tr thanh (5 thc ) vo lau, th ban than 5 thc nay se t chuyen oi tng phan cua chung e duyen vi chan nh. Kien phan va tng phan (cua tam thc) thuoc bien ke chap tanh 33. T chng phan 34 thuoc y tha khi tanh 35. en qua v Phat tc la at en t chng phan, th 5 thc trc trc tiep duyen c chan nh, do khong con kien phan va tng phan thuoc bien ke chap ta nh na. Cho nen ngai Ho Phap luan s 36 dung cau nay e pha chap cua cac luan s khac. Vien minh s phat thanh vo lau Tam loai phan than tc kho luan (Thc thc tam va chuyen thanh ai vien canh tr th nam thc trc cung thanh vo lau, ngha la thanh tu Thanh s tac tr. Bay gi, nam thc nay co cong dung hoa hien 3 loai than e hoa o va dt tr cai kho luan hoi cho chung sanh)
31 Tr vo phan biet: tue giac sieu viet khai niem. Theo Nhiep luan: Tr vo phan biet khong nhiem nh h
khong, la v (phan can ban cua no: tr can ban) thoat ly moi s chng ngai, c goi la thch ng vi s c va thch ng vi s thanh. Tr vo phan biet nh h khong, la v (phan hau ac cua no: tr hau ac) thng i trong the gian ma khong b moi s cua the gian lam cho o nhiem. 32 An Hue (Sthiramati, 475-555): luan s An o, ngi nc La la (Phat lap ty) thuoc nam An. Sau khi Phat nhap diet khoang 1100 nam, s la v ai hoc gia cua Phat giao ai tha nam An o. S ke tha ngai c Hue, roi trao truyen cho ngai Chan e. S tinh thong hoc thuyet Nhan minh, Duy thc, ngh luan gioi, la 1 trong 10 v ai luan s cua tong Duy thc. S tong sung va ke tha giao ngha cua bo tat The Than, soan Duy thc tam thap tung thch luan e luan giai Duy thc tam thap tung cua bo tat The Than. Nhng tac pham khac nh: ai tha a ty at ma tap tap luan (16 quyen), ai tha quang ngu uan luan (1 quyen), ai tha trung quan thch luan (9 quyen), Cau xa that ngha s (5 quyen). 33 Bien ke chap tanh: ao giac nga phap do pham phu ngo nhan, vong chap, nh ngo nhan si giay la con ran. 34 T chng phan (t the phan): la t the cua tam thc co kha nang chng biet kien phan (hoat ong nhan thc) va tac dung noi tai chng t chng phan cua chnh mnh. 35 Y tha khi tanh: Y tha la do yeu to ma thanh. Cac phap hu vi do chung t ni A lai da nh cac tr duyen ma hien hanh, nh noi si giay do ch gai va moi duyen to ma thanh. 36 Ho Phap (Dharmapala): cao tang An o, song vao khoang the ky 6, ngi thanh Kien ch bo la, la con cua quan ai than nc at la ty o (Dravida) thuoc mien nam An o, la 1 trong 10 v ai luan s Duy thc. S vang li cha me ket hon vi 1 cong chua, nhng vao ngay hon le th s cao toc xuat gia. S tinh thong giao ly ai tha va tieu tha, tham nhap yeu ch cua Du gia duy thc, tng tranh luan ve ngha hu va vo vi bo tat Thanh Bien, soan luan giai Duy thc tam thap tung cua bo tat The Than. S tng giang day chua Na lan a nc Ma kiet a, ni co hoc tang en may ngan v. Nam 29 tuoi, s ve an tu tai chua ai bo e (Mahabodhi), chuyen viec tr tac, va truyen phap cho luat s Gii Hien. S th tch nam 32 tuoi. Trc khi s tch, tren khong co tien noi rang, ay la v Phat trong ngan v Phat Hien kiep. Tac pham: ai tha quang bach luan thch luan, Thanh duy thc bao sanh luan, Quan s duyen luan thch.

21

Bat thc qui cu tung Trang chu

Khi nhan tu tron ven, thanh tu qua v Phat, th 5 thc trc tng ng vi (ac tanh cua mot trong t tr) tam pham, tc thanh tu Thanh s tac tr. Bay gi 5 thc nay co cong dung hoa hien ra 3 loai than e hoa o va dt tr cac kho sanh t luan hoi cho chung sanh. Noi cach khac, ni qua v Phat, thc th tam, von tng ng vi cac tam s, chuyen t Vo lau bach tnh thc thanh ai vien canh tr. S phat, la bong choc hien tien. Thanh vo lau, ngha la khi thc th tam (vien minh) va chuyen (s phat) thanh ai vien canh tr, th 5 thc trc cung thanh vo lau. Tam loai phan than, ngha la khi tam s cua 5 thc chuyen thanh Thanh s tac tr, th tr o co cong nang hoa hien 3 loai hoa than. Ba loai hoa than nay thuoc hoa than, 1 trong 3 than: phap than, bao than va hoa than. Cac hoa than nay bao trum cac can c, u liet chang ong. Ba loai hoa than la: 1. ai hoa than: cung goi la Thang ng than. Than nay cao 1 ngan trng, e giao hoa hang bo tat ai tha gia hanh v 37. 2. Tieu hoa than: tc la Liet ng than 38. Than nay cao 1 trng 6, e giao hoa hang bo tat ai tha 3 t lng v 39. 3. Tuy loai hoa than: Than nay bieu hien theo than cua 6 loai chung sanh, bao gom tam tha va luc thu. ai vien canh tr, Dieu quan sat tr, Bnh ang tanh tr va Thanh s tac tr la t tr tam pham ma tong nhiep het tat ca cong c hu vi vao Phat a. ay la mot s chuyen hoa cac thc hu lau la thc th 8, thc th 7, thc th 6 va 5 thc trc, tng ng ac tanh cua moi thc, theo th t ma c 4 tr. Tr tuy chang phai thc, nhng y thc chuyen (bo 2 trong chng la phien nao chng va s tri chng) ma co. Thc lam chu, cho nen noi do thc chuyen ma c 4 tr. a v hu lau th tr yeu, thc manh. Trong a v vo lau th tr

37 Gia hanh v: Ch cho bo tat t gia hanh v (noan, anh, nhan, the e nhat) t cho a cha nhom c t lng
phc tr, tien them mot bc gia cong dung hanh e at en kien ao (Hoan hy a) tru v chan nh. Giai v nay co kha nang at en canh gii co 2 vo nga, nhng trong tam van hien tien tng nh, nen cha that tru ni canh gii Duy thc. ay goi la phap ai tha thuan quyet trach phan. 38 Thng goi la cai than Phat trong lch s, bieu hien cho loai ngi, con goi la trng luc ng than. 39 T lng v: Giai v cha nhom cac thien hu lau e at en qua Phat. Ba t lng v la ch cho hang bo tat thap tru, thap hanh, thap hoi hng, lay phc c tr tue lam t lng tr ao. Thap tru nang ve tu tap ly quan, thap hanh nang ve tu tap s quan, thap hoi hng tu ly s bat nh quan. Phap tu hanh nay goi la ai tha thuan giai thoat phan, du a dt tr c hien hanh cua 2 chap phan biet, nhng chung t nang thu, s thu van tiem phuc cha tr.

22

Bat thc qui cu tung Trang chu

manh, thc yeu. V khuyen hu tnh nng ni tr ma buong bo thc, nen noi chuyen 8 thc e c 4 tr, ma thuat ng thng goi la chuyen thc.

23

Bat thc qui cu tung Trang chu

Chng 2: THC TH SAU

Tam tanh, tam lng, thong tam canh (Thc th sau co u 3 tanh, 3 lng va 3 canh) Cau tung nay noi ve thc th sau. Thc th sau u ca 3 tanh, 3 lng va 3 canh. Ba tanh la: thien, bat thien va vo ky. Thien mang y ngha thuan ch: thuan theo ly le chan chanh va li ch cho mnh ngi. Bat thien mang y ngha nghch ton: nghch vi ly le chan chanh va ton hai cho mnh ngi. Vo ky la oi vi ieu thien va ieu ac khong the ghi nh, phan biet (la thien hay ac). Sau ay lay ngha thuan nghch va ton ch e giai thch 3 tanh. Thuan ch 2 i goi la thien tanh. Nghch ton 2 i goi la bat thien tanh. oi vi qua (d thuc) co ai duc 40 va khong co ai duc ma chang the ghi nhan va phan biet, goi la vo ky tanh. Noi cach khac, t the (= sinh the) va qua (= d thuc cua sinh the o), ca hai eu co s lu luyen (ai) va thoa thch (lac), goi la thien tanh. Ngc vi thien tanh la bat thien tanh (= phi ai lac). Khong co ai lac (khong co a thch) va khong co phi ai lac (khong co ghet bo), chang the ghi nhan va phan biet, goi la vo ky. Ngoai ra, co the lay 3 i hu lau va vo lau e giai thch 3 tanh. Ba lng la hien lng, ty lng va phi lng. Hien lng a giai, xin xem chng trc. ay ch giai ty lng va phi lng. Ty lng la hnh thai nhan thc co tnh so sanh, suy oan mot cach chnh xac ve canh (, do y thc y c vao canh a biet). Phi lng la hnh thai nhan thc ma ve tnh cam th co, ve ly tr th khong, do o khi so sanh, suy oan ve canh co s sai lam. Y thc c nhan dien di 5 hnh thai:
40 Chnh ai va duc la can ban cua luan hoi. Goc re luan hoi la ai. Ai c duc ho tr nen lam cho sanh t lien
tuc.

24

Bat thc qui cu tung Trang chu

1. nh trung oc au y thc (nh trung y thc): la y thc duyen vi canh trong nh. Canh trong nh co ly (= nh t tai s sanh sac) va s. S lai co cc lc sac 41 va cc huynh sac 42. Tom lai, trong thien nh, y thc t tai sanh ra cac sac phap thuoc phap x 43 (= phap x s nhiep sac). 2. Tan v oc au y thc 44(oc tan y thc): la y thc duyen vi tho s dan sac 45 (va bien ke s sac 46), ngha la y thc trong s bieu hien bien ke khi ra cac sac phap thuoc phap x. Nh hoa om gia h khong, hnh anh trong gng, mau sac phac hoa eu xep vao loai sac phap nay, tc phap x s nhiep sac. 3. Mong trung oc au y thc (mong trung y thc): la y thc duyen vi canh trong mong. 4. Minh lieu y thc (ngu cau y thc): la y thc khi len mot lt vi 5 thc trc cung duyen vi 5 tran. 5. Loan trung y thc: la y thc tan loan roi khi ra s cuong loan bieu hien qua 5 can. Nh ngi mac bnh hoan nhiet thay mau xanh ra mau vang, chang phai do nhan thc loan ma la y thc cuong loan.

41 Cc lc sac: n v vat chat nho nhat do phan tach thc sac cua 5 canh va 5 can. Tieu tha Hu bo cho no
la vat co thc, va thuoc ve sac x, s duyen cua nhan thc, nhng ai tha Duy thc th cho no co la do phan tch tren mat gia tng, va thuoc ve phap x, s duyen cua y thc. Cc lc sac la 1 trong 5 loai phap x s nhiep sac (sac phap thuoc phap x) do tong Duy thc lap ra. Nam loai phap x s nhiep sac la: cc lc sac, cc huynh sac, tho s dan sac, bien ke s sac, nh t tai s sanh sac.

42 Cc huynh sac: con goi la t ngai sac, ch cho nhng hien sac khong u tanh ngan ngai cua khong gii, nh
mau sac, sang, toi. 43 Phap x s nhiep sac: con goi la phap x sac, la sac phap th 11 trong 11 sac phap trong Duy thc (5 can, 5 canh va phap x sac). X trong phap x la cho nng ta va nuoi ln tam s, chia lam 12 loai goi la thap nh x (6 can va 6 canh). Phap canh trong 12 x la oi canh khach quan cua y can. Phap x bao gom 11 x kia cung lam nhiem vu trng dng tam va tam s. Trong tat ca sac phap, he phap nao b gom vao phap x th goi la phap x s nhiep sac. 44 oc au y thc: la y thc khong cung vi 5 thc trc sanh khi. 45 Tho s dan sac: con goi la vo bieu sac, ch cho nhng sac phap phat sanh t cam tho. Nng ni 2 nghiep thien ac cua than va khau khi phat ong ma sanh ra sac phap vo hnh ni than, ay la hien tng khong the bieu hien ra ben ngoai c, nh tac dung tinh than e phong sai trai, bo ieu xau ac do tam niem tr gii dan khi. 46 Bien ke s sac: y thc duyen vi 5 can, 5 canh ma khi sanh tac dung suy tnh, so lng oi vi tat ca phap h vong phan biet, ngay ni than bien hien ra anh tng sac phap, nh hoa om gia h khong, bong trang trong nc, hnh anh trong gng eu xep vao loai sac phap nay. Loai sac phap nay ban chat cua no ch co u anh tng ma khong co cho nng ga.

25

Bat thc qui cu tung Trang chu

nh trung y thc thuoc hien lng. oc tan y thc i vi ty lng va phi lng. Mong trung y thc va loan trung y thc eu la phi lng. Minh lieu y thc gom ca 3 lng, nhng phan nhieu la hien lng, phan t la ty lng va phi lng. Ba canh la tanh canh, i chat canh va oc anh canh. Tanh canh a giai chng trc, nay giai thch them cung vi i chat canh va oc anh canh. 1. Tanh canh: la can va tran that s do 8 phap nang s tao thanh, (co khi) la nh qua sac 47 that s, eu do chung t that s sanh khi. Tanh canh ch co hien lng: tng phan cua 5 thc trc va tng phan cua thc th 8. Tanh canh la cac canh that sac lam oi tng s duyen cua ngu cau y thc 48. Tanh canh la t than cua that tai khong mang danh ngon (khai niem), khong b bien hnh v tac dung phan biet ty giao cua nhan thc. Tr can ban khi duyen chan nh cung la tanh canh, do cai dung cua tr vo phan biet, nham van the hoi (chan nh). Tanh canh chia thanh 2 loai: a. Vo chat tanh canh: a noi tren. b. Hu chat tanh canh: hoan toan khong co ngha cua vo chat tanh canh, ch la phan huyen tng (khong co ngha that tai), ng tren phng dien y ngha cua sac chat ma tam noi la tanh canh. Do co tnh gia thuyet nen goi la hu chat tanh canh. 2. i chat canh: co 2 loai: a. Chan i chat canh: lay tam duyen tam (nh thc th 7 duyen vi tng kien phan cua thc th 8), gia hai tam, tng phan cua tam nang duyen va tng phan cua tam s duyen cung lien i sanh khi, goi la chan i chat. b. T i chat canh: lay tam duyen sac (nh y thc nh lai cac canh a qua, va canh ay ch la nhng bong dang cua tran canh [phap tran], khong phai t tng cua canh), gia tam va sac, tng phan (cua canh s duyen) ch t kien phan (cua tam nang duyen) sanh khi. Tnh chat va lien i, va chuyen bien (bien i) nen goi la t i chat canh.

47 nh qua sac: con goi la nh t tai s sanh sac, ch cho cac canh sac, thanh, hng, v c bien hien ra 48 Ngu cau y thc = minh lieu y thc: y thc sanh khi cung luc vi bat c mot thc nao cua 5 thc trc. 26
nh sc thien nh. Loai sac phap nay la do nh lc thu thang, co the t tai bien hien tat ca sac.

Bat thc qui cu tung Trang chu

3. oc anh canh: co 2 loai: a. Vo chat oc anh canh: Y thc tao dng the gii anh tng (tng phan) khong that nh hoa om gia h khong, sng tho, cac anh tng d vang, tng lai Cac anh tng o va y thc sanh ra t cung mot chung t. Noi tom, cac anh tng hoa om gia h khong v.v eu khong phai that chat, ch la san pham tng tng cua y thc. b. Hu chat oc anh canh: Y thc tai tao nhng anh tng khi duyen canh qua 5 can, bang chung t va hien hanh (cua A lai da lien tuc ap oi: nang huan va s huan), v vay nhng anh tng sanh khi o co ban chat vay mn. Cac anh tng o (tng phan) va y thc (kien phan) sanh ra t cung mot chung t, nen goi la oc anh. Canh la s duyen. Thc la nang duyen. Canh va thc eu co the tanh rieng. The cua Tanh canh, xem giai thch tren. Thc nang duyen: tr thc Mat na, 7 thc con lai eu s dung ban than tam thc va nhng tam s phu thuoc lam the tanh. The cua oc anh canh la lay kien phan cua y thc t bien hien gia lap lam tng phan; (ro rang) the cua thc nang duyen chnh la t than y thc va nhng tam s phu thuoc. The cua i chat canh la (thc nang duyen) t bien khi, khoang gia (thc va canh) gia lap ra tng phan (co ban chat s y ch khong co t tng cua canh); ( ay) the cua thc nang duyen la y thc, thc Mat na va nhng tam s phu thuoc. V vay, cau tung tren noi thc th sau co oi tng nhan thc gom ca 3 canh. Ngu cau y thc khi trong trng hp tri giac thuan tuy 49, th at ti canh t tng, chnh la Tanh canh. Y thc duyen tam va tam s la i chat canh. Y thc duyen cac phap khong co that the 50 la oc anh canh. Ba trng hp tren ay la ng ve lnh vc pham phu hu lau ma noi. ng ve lnh vc Thanh gia vo lau th 8 thc eu duyen 3 canh. Noi ve 3 canh, ngai Huyen Trang, da theo thuyet cua ngai Ho Phap, co soan ra bai tung rang: Tanh canh bat tuy tam oc anh duy tung kien i chat thong tnh ban Tanh chung ang tuy ng.
49 Chanh van la bat tac giai, ngha la khong co suy t, phan biet. 50 Chanh van la vo the phap, la ch cho anh tng, phap x. 27

Bat thc qui cu tung Trang chu

(Tanh canh la lnh vc t than cua thc tai khong chu tac dung cua tam phan biet [bat tuy tam]. oc anh canh la the gii anh tng do y thc tao dng khi no hoat ong oc lap, v vay oc anh canh lay kien phan cua y thc t bien lam the [duy tung kien]. i chat canh lien he [lien i] vi tnh thc [y thc] va can ban thc [A lai da thc], la lnh vc cua y tng [oi tng cua y thc] ma trong o tng phan s duyen c cau tao tren nen tang kien phan cua tnh thc hay can ban thc [thong tnh ban]. Tanh chung la A lai da thc va cac thc khac, tuy theo hoat dung cua moi thc ma tng ng vi Tanh canh, oc anh canh hay i chat canh [ang tuy ng]). Tam gii luan thi d kha tri (De biet c hanh tng cua thc th sau khi no luan chuyen trong 3 coi) Tam gii, a giai thch chng trc. Luan, la luan chuyen. Cau tung muon noi, thc th sau qua lai ba coi rat de biet, do hanh tng cua no hien bay mot cach ro rang va hn han cac thc khac. Y thc (a con ngi en cac neo ng sanh t hay giai thoat, bi le no) la ong lc ln nhat va chu yeu lam phat sanh hanh ong cua than the va ngon ng: ong than phat ng oc vi toi. Tng ng tam s ngu thap nhat (Thc th sau thch ng vi 51 loai tam s) Trong 8 thc tam vng ch co thc th sau la tng ng ca 51 mon tam s, cung ho tng nhau, khong chong trai nhau. Nam tam s bien hanh, 5 tam s biet canh, 11 tam s thien, 3 phien nao can ban (tham, san, si), 2 phien nao trung tuy, 8 phien nao ai tuy, tat ca a giai chng trc. Chng nay ch giai 3 phien nao can ban con lai (man, nghi, ac kien), 10 phien nao tieu tuy va 4 tam s bat nh. Ba can ban phien nao la: man, nghi va ac kien. 1. Man (kieu ngao): ac tanh cua tam s nay la cay y (tai nang hay the lc) mnh ma to thai o cao ngao, khinh khi. Hoat dung cua man la lam nhan sanh ra cac toi kho va lam chng ngai tam khong kieu ngao. Ngi co tam kieu ngao th tam ly
28

Bat thc qui cu tung Trang chu

cat cao, khong co s khiem ton oi vi tanh c (vo lau cua ban tam) va ngi co ao c; do ay, dong sanh t luan chuyen khong cung, chu cac kho nao. 2. Nghi (hoai nghi): ac tanh cua tam s nay la do d (hoai nghi, hoang mang) oi vi cac chan ly chac that (t e). Hoat dung cua nghi la lam chng ngai thien phap va tr ngai tam khong hoai nghi. Chnh tam ly do d (hoai nghi) ma ieu lanh chang the phat sanh. 3. Ac kien (thay biet sai lam): ac tanh cua tam s nay la hieu biet, suy luan ien ao ve cac chan ly chac that (t e). Hoat dung cua ac kien la lam chng ngai s thay biet thien phap (chan chanh) va gay tao toi kho. Chnh s thay biet ien ao (thac loan) ma kho au (phai chu) cang them nhieu. Ac kien co 5 loai: mot la, than kien (chap co s ton tai cua nga); hai la, bien kien (chap mot ben: thng kien, chet roi van thng con, [hay] oan kien, chet roi th mat han); ba la, ta kien (phu nh ly nhan qua); bon la, kien thu (chap kien giai sai lam cho la chan ly); nam la, gii cam thu (chap gi nhng tuc le co hu, gii luat sai lam). Mi phien nao tieu tuy: (do moi loai t lc sanh khi, pham vi tng ng nho hep, nen goi la tieu) 1. Phan (gian doi): ac tanh cua tam s nay la noi gian vi canh trai nghch trc mat. Hoat dung cua phan la muon chong tra va chng ngai tam khong noi gian. Ngi noi gian th phan nhieu bieu lo qua c ch va net mat hung d. 2. Han (oan hn): ac tanh cua tam s nay la ket oan, do trc o noi gian, sau om long oan ghet khong tha. Hoat dung cua han la nong nay va chng ngai tam khong oan hn. Ngi oan hn th khong the nuot han, chap nhan, thng th hay nong nay. Phan va han thuoc ve tam san. 3. Phu (che giau): ac tanh cua tam s nay la che giau toi loi cua mnh lam v s mat tieng tam va li loc. Hoat dung cua phu la an nan, buon phien va chng ngai tam khong che giau. Ngi che giau toi loi th sau o thng hoi han, phien muon, tam khong an on. Phu thuoc ve tam tham va si.

29

Bat thc qui cu tung Trang chu

4. Nao (bc tc): ac tanh cua tam s nay la bc tc, do trc phan han (gian hn), cham noc thanh hung d. Hoat dung cua nao la cham chch oi phng (qua c ch va li noi) va chng ngai tam khong bc tc. Nao thuoc ve tam san. 5. Tat (ganh ghet): ac tanh cua tam s nay la ganh ghet, tha mnh bo mang chay theo danh li ch chang chu ngi khac c thang tien. Hoat dung cua tat la lo rau va chng ngai tam khong ganh ghet. Ngi co long o k th khi thay, nghe ngi khac c vinh hoa lien om long sau kho, lo buon, tam khong an on. Tat thuoc ve tam san. 6. Xan (keo ban): ac tanh cua tam s nay la bon xen, khong chu xa bo tien tai hay chia se giao phap cho ngi. Hoat dung cua xan la keo kiet, tch cha va chng ngai tam khong bon xen. Ngi bon xen thng co tam ly hep hoi, keo rt, a tch cha tai vat ma khong muon cho ngi. Xan thuoc ve tam tham. 7. Cuong (doi tra): ac tanh cua tam s nay la gia doi, qui quyet bang cach gia bo bieu hien la ngi co c e c li dng va tieng khen. Hoat dung cua cuong la mu sanh bat chanh (= ta mang: cach song khong trong sach) va chng ngai tam khong doi tra. Ngi doi tra th long om ap toan tnh, thng bieu lo nhieu viec khong that va cach song khong trong sach. Cuong thuoc ve tam tham va si. 8. Siem (dua nnh): ac tanh cua tam s nay la dua nnh quanh co ch e la doi ngi bang cai ve be ngoai khac vi noi tam (= la mieng va y t mau thuan nhau, va mau thuan vi ao phap). Hoat dung cua siem khuc la noi nang b , nnh hot va chng ngai tam khong dua nnh (= tam chat trc). Dua nnh quanh co ch e doi tra ngi bang cach doi lap nhng phng cach lam sao lay long ngi khac, biet khi nao th a dua, khi nao th quanh co. Siem khuc con co ngha la kheo (quanh co) che giau lam loi cua mnh, bat chap li khuyen ran chan thanh cua thay ban. Siem thuoc ve tam tham va si. 9. Hai (ton hai): ac tanh cua tam s nay la lam thng ton va roi loan ve mat tam ly cua ngi khac, do thieu long bi man. Hoat dung cua hai la lan hiep khien cho ngi sanh bc tc, va chng ngai tam khong ton hai. Ngi co tam ton hai th a thch thay ngi khac sau kho. Hai thuoc ve tam san.
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Bat thc qui cu tung Trang chu

10. Kieu (kieu ngao): ac tanh cua tam s nay la kieu hanh va cao ngao, v t nhan la thanh cong trong s nghiep (nh c giau sang, quyen the, co tai nang), roi t mnh am sau, me say vao s ton thang ay. Hoat dung cua kieu la cho da cho phap tap nhiem (= phien nao va tuy phien nao), va chng ngai tam khong kieu ngao. Ngi co tam kieu ngao th lan lan sanh trng tat ca (phien nao va nghiep) tap nhiem. Kieu thuoc ve tam tham. Trong 20 mon tuy phien nao, th 10 mon tieu tuy ( tren) va 3 tam s: phong dat, that niem, bat chanh tri (cua ai tuy) thuoc ve phan sai biet cua phien nao can ban (, do khong co biet the nen co mot phan ac tanh cua phien nao can ban). Bay tam s con lai (vo tam, vo qui thuoc trung tuy, va bat tn, giai ai, hon tram, trao c, tan loan cua ai tuy) thuoc ve tanh ang lu (, do co biet the nhng co cung ac tanh vi phien nao can ban). Bon tam s bat nh: Noi ve 4 mon tam s bat nh, Duy thc tam thap tung co ghi: Bat nh v hoi, mien Tam, t, nh cac nh. (Tam s bat nh la: hoi, mien, tam va t; moi mon eu u 2 tanh thien va ac (tnh va nhiem)). Bon mon tam s bat nh nay khong giong vi 5 loai tam s trc (bien hanh, biet canh, thien, phien nao va tuy phien nao). Ch nh (nhat nh), co ngha la bien khap 8 thc, 3 tanh, tat ca thi va 9 a. Bon tam s nay mang ngha bat nh. (ngha la khong nhat nh la thien hay ac). Luan Du gia dung 4 nhat thiet (: thc, tanh, a va thi) e giai thch 5 loai tam s khac nhau: 1. tam s bien hanh co u 4 nhat thiet; 2. tam s biet canh co nhat thiet thc (8 thc tam vng) va nhat thiet tanh (thien, ac va vo ky); 3. tam s thien co nhat thiet a (3 coi, 9 a); 4. can ban va tuy phien nao khong co 4 nhat thiet; 5. tam s bat nh ch co nhat thiet tanh.

31

Bat thc qui cu tung Trang chu

1. Hoi (an nan): Hoi co ngha la o tac 51 (ghet viec a lam). O tac la nhan, hoi la the cua o tac. V the tc la nhan, nen luan noi rang, hoi co ngha la o tac, chnh la da vao ngha nhan qua. ac tanh cua tam s nay la hoi han nghiep ac a lam. Hoat dung cua hoi la chng ngai s tu ch. Ch, xa ma tha, la ngng lai moi ngh tng va ng yen ni chanh niem. 2. Mien (thuy mien): ac tanh cua tam s nay la l ang, me ngu, lam cho than khong t tai, tam rat me muoi. Hoat dung cua mien la chng ngai tu quan. Quan, ty bat xa na, la nhiep canh theo tam, lay quan tr (do van, t, tu) lam the. Van e at ra la, neu khi me ngu la khong co tam thc th lam sao co tac dung lam cho than khong t tai, tam rat me muoi ? a co tac dung th phai co tam thc, v tam s thuy mien la mot that the co tac dung cua no. 3. Tam (tm cau): ac tanh cua tam s nay la chuyen ong vung ve (tho chuyen), lam cho tam thc (y thc) chuyen oi voi vang trong y ngon canh. 4. T (quan sat): ac tanh cua tam s nay la chuyen ong ieu luyen (te chuyen), lam cho tam thc (y thc) chuyen oi cham rai trong y ngon canh. Hoat dung cua 2 tam s nay c can c va phan nh tren tac dung lam cho than tam an hay than tam bat an. The nao la y ngon canh? Canh la oi tng cua y thc, va y thc nam gi oi tng phan nhieu bang danh ngon (= khai niem), cho nen goi la y ngon canh (canh danh ngon cua y thc). Tam va t eu s dung mot phan cua tam s t va tam s tue e lam the tanh. Neu khien tam an la do y thc nhan thc canh qua mot phan cua tam s t. Neu khien tam bat an la do y thc nhan thc canh qua mot phan cua tam s tue. Tam s t mang tanh cham rai (trong viec lo ngh, tao tac) nen co s tinh te. Tam s tue mang tanh mau le (trong viec sang suot la chon) nen co s tho ong. Nh vay, tam an th co cai dung cua tam s t, khong co tam s tue; con tam bat an th co cai dung cua tam s tue, khong co tam s t. tren noi, tam va t eu s dung mot phan cua tam s t va tam s tue lam the tanh, la the nao? Ngai Ho Phap giai thch rang, co s ho tng trong tanh cach phoi hp gia phan phu vi phan chanh. Neu dung tam s t lam chanh, th tam s tue tuy theo tam s t ma co tac dung khien tam an. Neu dung tam s tue lam chanh, th tam s t tuy theo tam s tue ma co tac dung khien tam bat an. Noi cach khac, tam va t eu s dung t va tue
51 ay oc la o tac, khong phai la ac tac = nhng hanh vi ac rat nho cua than, hay cua mieng. 32

Bat thc qui cu tung Trang chu

ma khong co s chong trai nhau. Ngha tng ng (= hoa hp vi nhau) nay co 5 yeu to la: thi, s y, hanh tng, s duyen va s. Th du, tam vng va tam s: ong thi sanh khi, ong mot s y la can ban thc, ong co chung hanh tng la kien phan, ong mot s duyen, ong mot the s, cho nen noi co s tng ng. Thien ac lam thi biet phoi chi (Thc th sau rieng biet phoi hp: khi th vi tam s thien, luc th vi tam s ac) Y thc khi gap canh thien th cung vi tam s thien tng ng. Y thc khi gap canh bat thien hay vo ky th cung tam s bat thien hay vo ky tng ng. Cho nen noi la tuy thi rieng phoi hp. Theo ly luan ban, lay tnh suy xet cung co the biet c ieu nay. Tanh, gii, tho tam hang chuyen dch (Thc th sau thng xuyen chuyen oi gia 3 tanh, gia 3 coi, va gia 5 tho) Cau tung nay noi, thc th sau luc nao cung t chuyen ong lien tuc theo 3 tanh (thien, ac, vo ky), 3 gii (Duc, Sac, Vo sac) va 5 tho (kho, lac, u, hy, xa), do hanh tng cua no de t thay oi, de t vt thoat. Rieng ve 5 tho, luan thuyet co cho khong giong nhau. Thc th bay va thc th tam ch co xa tho. Nam thc trc chuyen bien co kho tho va lac tho. Ve thc th sau, co 2 luan s noi khac nhau. Luan s th nhat noi, neu y a 52 von co kho (= tap nhiem) th thc th sau gom u 5 tho. Luan s th hai noi, neu y a khong co kho th thc th sau ch co 3 tho la u, hy va xa. Noi en 2 hnh thai cam tho: kho qua va vui qua, van e at ra la, khi y thc xuc oi canh kho qua hay canh vui qua, th cai kho ay hay cai vui ay co tac ong vao tam thc khong? Cau tra li la, cai kho a nguc Vo gian hay cai vui coi tri tam thien, trong o, y thc lam sao co the quen mat c canh thuan nghch. (Noi cach khac, y thc co mat trong 3 gii). Than bc bach hay a thch, goi la kho tho hay lac tho. Tam bc bach hay a thch, goi la u tho hay hy tho. Tam khong bc bach, cung khong a thch, goi la xa tho. Lay ly ma suy, v luan s noi, y a von co kho, cho thay ngha rot rao cua y thc la vay.
52 Y a: lnh vc cua y thc: y can, la y thc t nga. Chnh y thc t nga nay ma lam cho tam thc tap nhiem
lam nhan cho kho (va va la ban than cua kho), roi y thc t nga nay chuyen oi i th chnh no lam cho tam thc thanh tnh. Do o y a hay y c goi la nhiem tnh y.

33

Bat thc qui cu tung Trang chu

Can, tuy, tn ang tong tng lien (Can ban phien nao, tuy phien nao, bien hanh, biet canh va bat nh, tc 51 tam s noi tiep nhau chuyen oi theo y thc) Ch ang ch cho cac loai tam s con lai nh: bien hanh, biet canh va bat nh. Cac phap nhiem tnh, tc 51 mon tam s cung noi tiep nhau chuyen oi theo y thc, giong nh 3 tanh, 3 gii, 5 tho a noi tren. ong than, phat ng oc vi toi (Thc th sau vt troi hn cac thc khac trong viec phat ong than nghiep va khau nghiep) Trong 8 thc tam vng, hanh tng cua y thc vt troi hn ca, v tanh chat chu ao trong viec lam cho than the hanh ong va ngon ng phat sanh. ai tha Thanh nghiep luan (do bo tat The Than soan) noi ve y thc nh sau: Ben ngoai than the hanh ong, ngon ng phat sanh, chng to ben trong co cai tam t duy; giong nh ca an nup di ay nc, thay mat nc khua ong, chng to co ca. Hoat dung cua y thc la s t duy. T duy co 3 loai: mot la, t duy xem xet, toan tnh (tham l t); hai la, t duy qua quyet, khang nh (quyet nh t); ba la, t duy khi ong, phat sanh [qua than the va ngon ng] (ong phat t). Cac thc khac khong co hoat dung rong rai nh vay, cho nen noi y thc toi thang hn cac thc khac. Dan man nang chieu nghiep lc khien (Y thc co nang lc tao nhiep: dan nghiep va man nghiep, va chieu qua: tong qua va biet qua) Y thc co the mot mnh tao ra 2 nghiep la dan nghiep va man nghiep. Hai nghiep nay co nang lc chieu cam 2 qua la tong qua va biet qua (tong bao va biet bao), va o la sc manh thu thang cua nghiep. Dan nghiep, la nghiep co cong nang dan keo. Man nghiep, la nghiep lam tron ay tong qua. Th du nh ngi hoa s, trc phac hoa tong the (= dan
34

Bat thc qui cu tung Trang chu

nghiep), sau mi ve ky chi tiet (= man nghiep). Ngha nay nen biet. Trong luan co noi 4 trng hp nghiep dan: mot la, 1 nghiep dan ra 1 qua; hai la, 1 nghiep dan ra nhieu qua; ba la, nhieu nghiep dan ra 1 qua; bon la, nhieu nghiep dan ra nhieu qua. Qua ay cho thay y thc co nang lc tao nghiep, chieu qua. Mot phan thien ac cua 5 thc trc cung co the tao nghiep. Thc th bay va thc th tam, ca hai khong the tao nghiep, v la tanh chat vo ky. Neu ban chung ve 8 thc th: chieu nghiep thanh qua, la thc th 8 va 1 phan cua 6 thc trc; khong co tao nghiep chieu qua, ch co thc th bay. Mot phan cua 6 thc trc, la noi en tanh chat thien va bat thien (cua 6 thc o). Tong bao, la qua bao tong the cua d thuc nh ng lanh, ng d (, tc nhng neo ng sanh t, do dan nghiep cua thc th 8 lam nghiep chu yeu chieu cam). Biet bao, la qua bao sai biet (trong tong bao) nh song lau hay chet yeu, giau sang hay ngheo hen, ep hay xau v.v (, muon ngan sai biet, do man nghiep cua 6 thc trc lam tang thng duyen). Phat khi s tam Hoan hy a ( s tam Hoan hy a, y thc phat khi c cai nang lc thu thang vo lau co the tac thanh moi ngha li cho mnh va ngi) Hoan hy a, s tam cua y thc a chuyen thanh vo lau, bi v 2 chng phan biet nga chap va phap chap (cung nhng s tap nhiem trong ac ao 53) eu a oan tr. Hoi: Ba i oan het (lau) hoac hay sao? Neu hien tai oan het hoac, th hoac va tr chang cung sanh. Qua kh a diet, v lai cha sanh, nh vay giai oan nao? ap: Ch ban luan khi tr khi th hoac tr, cho nen thi v lai, the cua hoac khong the tiep tuc sanh khi, va goi o la oan. Cau sanh du t hien trien mien (Tuy nhien, Hoan hy a, van con co cau sanh nga chap va phap chap cho nen van con co nhng hien hanh va chung t sanh khi)

53 Kinh Giai tham mat: Trong a au tien co 2 th ngu toi, mot la ngu toi v nga chap va phap chap, hai la ngu
toi v nhng s tap nhiem trong ac ao, cung vi s nang ne cua 2 th ngu toi ay, la nhng cai b oi tr ay. (H.T Tr Quang dch)

35

Bat thc qui cu tung Trang chu

Trien la hien hanh (ngu toi). Mien la chung t (nang ne). Khi s tam Hoan hy a, y thc van con co hien hanh va chung t cua cau sanh phien nao chng va s tri chng, do v y thc cha thuan vo lau. Y thc lai khong thng an tru trong s ch quan ve nga khong va phap khong. Vien hanh a hau thuan vo lau (Sau Vien hanh a th y thc mi thuan vo lau) Vien hanh a tc la e that a. Y thc t e that a tr ve trc, chung t hu lau va vo lau chen nhau sanh khi, do y thc cha thng an tru trong ch quan. T e that a tr ve sau th y thc mi thuan vo lau, do chung t cau sanh phien nao chng va s tri chng khong con hien hanh na, ma thng an tru ni ch quan. Tuy nhien, ch quan ve nga khong (sanh khong) th vien man. Ch quan ve phap khong con gian oan (va thieu sot). Lai na, trong 10 a, 5 a au phan nhieu la ch quan hu tng, phan t la ch quan vo tng. a th sau, phan t la ch quan hu tng, phan nhieu la ch quan vo tng. T a th bay tr len la thuan ch quan vo tng. Quan sat vien minh chieu ai thien (Bay gi, y thc that s chuyen thanh Dieu quan sat tr, co hoat dung tron sang chieu soi khap ai thien the gii) Thc th sau s tam Hoan hy a tuy khong con 2 chng phan biet nga chap va phap chap, chuyen thanh vo lau, nhng van con chung t cau sanh phien nao chng va s tri chng hien hanh trong cac a: Ly cau a, Phat quang a, Diem tue a, Nan thang a, Hien tien a. en a th bay, Vien hanh a, th chung t cau sanh cua 2 chng vnh vien b hang phuc, khong con sanh khi na. Bay gi, vo lau tnh thc thng hang sanh khi, y thc von tng ng cac tam s nay chuyen thanh Dieu quan sat tr, luon tron sang (vien minh), chieu khap ai thien the gii. Khong noi chieu soi mot the gii la v Dieu quan sat tr co cong nang chieu soi khap ca vay.

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Bat thc qui cu tung Trang chu

Chng 3: THC TH BAY

i chat, hu phu, thong tnh ban (Thc th bay duyen vi i chat canh, tng ng vi hu phu vo ky tanh, t thong ca y thc va ban thc) Cau tung nay noi ve thc th bay. Trong 3 tanh: thien, ac va vo ky, thc th bay ch tng ng vi vo ky tanh (trung tanh). Trong 4 tanh: thien, ac, hu phu vo ky (trung tanh ma co o nhiem) va vo phu vo ky (trung tanh ma khong o nhiem), thc th bay tng ng vi hu phu vo ky tanh. Trong 3 canh, thc th bay ch duyen vi i chat canh, do lay tam duyen tam. Ch tam trc la kien phan. Ch tam sau la ban chat. (o la thc th bay lay kien phan cua mnh duyen qua kien phan cua thc th tam, nen gia 2 thc nay sanh ra 1 tng phan, goi la chan i chat canh.) Tng phan o mang (i) ban chat (= tanh chat cua can ban thc) ma sanh khi, goi la i chat. Noi khac la, tng phan o mang kien phan cua thc th tam ma sanh khi. V sao chang noi la mang (i) tnh canh (canh cua y thc)? V tnh canh th tran ngap trong oc anh canh (cua y thc), nen khong e cap en trong thc th bay. Tuy duyen 54 chap nga, lng vi phi (Thc th bay do thc A lai da sanh ra, roi tr lai duyen thc A lai da chap lam t nga. Trong 3 lng, thc nay thuoc ve phi lng) Thc th bay theo sat thc th tam, lay kien phan cua thc th tam lam oi tng chap nga. Chap co ngha la om ap, vng mac. Thc th bay ay u cau sanh nga chap va phap chap, cung nhau nham van sanh khi. Thc th bay khong co ranh gii e phan biet

54 Duyen ay la can duyen va canh duyen, eu la ch cho thc A lai da. 37

Bat thc qui cu tung Trang chu

cai nao la nga chap, cai nao la phap chap. V sao? V s sanh khi ve mat t duy, so lng cua thc th bay khong c manh vay. Trong 3 lng, thc nay thuoc ve phi lng. Hnh thai nhan thc cua thc nay la biet sai lam ve nga, la luon co y thc t nga, cho nen goi la phi lng. Bat ai, bien hanh, biet canh tue Tham, si, nga kien, man tng tuy (Thc th bay tng ng vi 8 phien nao ai tuy, 5 tam s bien hanh, 1 tam s tue trong biet canh va 4 phien nao can ban la: tham, si, man va nga kien) Hai cau tung tren noi ve cac mon tam s cua thc th bay. Thc nay khi duyen canh th thch ng vi 8 mon ai tuy phien nao (trao c, hon tram, bat tn, giai ai, phong dat, that niem, tan loan va bat chanh tri), vi 5 mon bien hanh (tac y, xuc, tho, tng va t), vi tam s tue trong 5 mon biet canh (duc, thang giai, niem, nh va tue) va vi 4 mon phien nao can ban (tham, si, man va nga kien). Ngoai 18 mon tam s va neu, cac tam s khac v sao khong tng ng vi thc th bay? Duc la tam mong cau nhng viec cha thanh, cha va y. Thc nay ch nham van (= khong can tac y) vin theo canh a thanh, va y, khong co tam mong cau g na, v vay thc nay khong co tam s duc. Thang giai la ghi nhan va gn gi nhng canh (trong luc) cha i en s quyet nh. Thc nay t vo th luon vin theo canh a quyet nh va ch trai qua s ghi nhan va gn gi nh the, v vay thc nay khong co thang giai. Niem la nh lai nhng s viec tng huan tap. Thc nay luon duyen theo canh hien tai ang tiep nhan, khong co s nh lai (canh qua kh), v vay thc nay khong co niem. nh la buoc tam chuyen chu vao mot oi tng. Thc nay trong tng sat na nham van vin theo nhng oi tng khac nhau, khong co s chuyen nhat (vao mot oi tng nao ca), v vay thc nay khong co nh.

38

Bat thc qui cu tung Trang chu

Tam s tue cung tc la nga kien (= cai thay theo y thc t nga). T nga kien ma trien khai ra 51 mon tam s khac nhau. Y thc t nga (nga kien) cua thc nay can tam s tue lam duyen to quyet nh cho cai y thc lay A lai da lam t nga. Cac thien tam s (11 mon) la ng ve mat thanh tnh ma noi, nen thc nay khong thch ng. Can ban phien nao va tuy phien nao bao gom 26 mon, noi tong quat th eu thch ng vi nga kien. Tuy nhien, i sau chi tiet th thay thc th bay: v tham sat quyet nh chap (A lai da lam) nga nen khong can khi tam s nghi; v tham sat luyen ai ni nga (nga ai) nen chang sanh tam s san. Noi tom, thc th bay ch thch ng vi 4 mon phien nao la: tham, si, man va nga kien. Hanh tng cua 10 mon tieu tuy phien nao nh phan, han, phu, nao v.v th tho ong, con hanh tng cua thc nay lai tham te, cho nen khong co s thch ng vi nhau. Hai mon trung tuy (vo tam, vo qui) thuoc ve bat thien, con thc th bay thuoc ve vo ky tanh, cho nen cung khong co s thch ng vi nhau. Co thuyet cho rang, thc nay khong tng ng vi ai tuy phien nao. Neu khong co tam s hon tram th thc nay phai khong chac co tanh khong kham nham (khong the ganh vac c viec g ca), (nhng s that th thc nay co tanh ay). Neu khong co tam s trao c th thc nay phai khong co tanh nao ong, va nh vay th thc nay han phai mang tanh chat nh cac tam s thien, ngha la chang phai cng v nhiem o. a nh (cho rang thc nay la) tam nhiem o ma khong co tam s tan loan, th (thc nay) phai khong co tanh rong ruoi, nen (thc nay) chang phai la tam thc nhiem o. Neu khong co that niem, bat chanh tri, th thc nay lam sao co kha nang sanh khi phien nao hien tien? Nh vay, thc th bay, con goi la y o nhiem 55, nhat nh cung tng ng vi 8 mon ai tuy phien nao ma sanh khi (hoat dung y thc t nga). Noi ve 4 mon tam s bat nh. O tac la an nan viec lam a qua, con thc nay th nham van (t ong, khong can tac y) luon vin theo canh hien tai, khong phai viec a qua, nen khong thch ng vi tam s hoi. Thuy mien la da vao tnh trang than nang ne, tam me muoi, va co khi tam sanh khi c la nh s giup sc cua cac duyen ben ngoai, con thc nay t vo th ch chap nga ben trong khong nh cac duyen ben ngoai, nen khong thch ng
55 Y o nhiem: la y thc ve t nga, thng tng ng vi 4 phien nao: nga si, nga kien, nga man va nga ai. 39

Bat thc qui cu tung Trang chu

vi tam s thuy mien. Tam va t eu hng vao oi tng ben ngoai ma chuyen van: t duy co can sau, chuyen ong co tho te. Thc th bay nay ch hng vao oi tng ben trong ma chuyen van, y thc A lai da lam t nga, nen khong thch ng vi tam s tam va t. Hang tham t lng nga tng tuy (Thc th bay thng xuyen t y thc ve t nga) Thc th bay thng xuyen suy xet, ngh tng, so o, chap kien phan cua thc th tam lam t nga, cho nen noi hang tham t lng nga tng tuy. Y thc t nga (tham) trong tam thc tam vng c oi chieu theo tanh chat thng hang (lien tuc tiep noi khong gian oan) qua t cu phan biet sau ay: 1. Hang ma khong tham: Thc th tam khong co chap nga, (v A lai da chnh la t nga hang chuyen) khong gian oan (ma chung sanh t y thc chap lay). 2. Tham ma khong hang: Thc th sau lay s chap nga cua thc th bay lam cho da, nhng co luc gian oan. 3. Va hang va tham: Thc th bay chap A lai da lam t nga, khong co luc nao ma khong chap. 4. Khong hang khong tham: Nam thc trc khong co chap nga, (nen van e thng xuyen chap nga khong at ra). Ngai Ho Phap bo tat noi: Ngu, bat vo phap diec vo nhan Luc, that nh thc tham quan bnh (Nam thc trc va thc th tam khong co chap phap va chap nga. Thc th sau va thc th bay rat bang nhau: mot ben chap phap, mot ben chap nga) Hu tnh nhat da tran hon me (Chung sanh hu tnh ngay em b che lap hon me bi s chap nga cua thc th bay)

40

Bat thc qui cu tung Trang chu

Hu tnh lu chuyen trong em dai sanh t ma chang t thc tnh la do luon co cai y thc t nga cua thc th bay. Thc nay thch ng va cung sanh khi vi 4 mon phien nao can ban va 8 mon phien nao ai tuy. T hoac, bat ai tng ng khi (Bon phien nao can ban va 8 phien nao ai tuy tng ng sanh khi vi thc th bay) Cau tung nay giai thch y ngha cua cau tung trc. T hoac, la 4 mon phien nao can ban: nga si, nga kien, nga man, nga ai. Bat ai, la 8 mon phien nao ai tuy: trao c, hon tram, bat tn, giai ai, phong dat, that niem, tan loan, bat chanh tri. T hoac va bat ai eu a c giai thch. Noi chung, phien nao can ban khong phai la y tha khi tanh, con phien nao tuy thuoc la y tha khi tanh. Luc chuyen ho vi nhiem tnh y (Thc th sau chuyen oi theo y thc t nga. Chnh y thc t nga lam cho tam thc tap nhiem hay chuyen oi i ma lam cho tam thc thanh tnh. Do o ma y (o nhiem) c goi la nhiem tnh y) Thc th sau goi thc th bay la nhiem tnh y. Khi thc th bay con a v hu lau (the gian), thng xuyen y thc A lai da lam t nga nen thc th sau theo o moi niem ma thanh nhiem o (= pham phu). Khi thc th bay at en a v vo lau (xuat the gian), thng xuyen ngo nhap vo nga nen thc th sau theo o moi niem ma thanh thanh tnh (= thanh gia). Nh vay, thc th sau thanh nhiem o hay thanh tnh eu do thc th bay ca. Cc hy s tam bnh ang tanh ( s tam cua Cc hy a, thc th bay ang chuyen thanh bnh ang tanh tr) a th nhat goi la Cc hy, s tam cua thc th bay chuyen thanh vo lau. Bay gi thc nay tng ng vi (ac tanh cua mot trong t tr) tam pham, ang trong giai oan chuyen oi thanh tr, va thc th sau cung chuyen thanh vo lau, do thc th sau i vao ch quan ve nga khong (sanh khong) va phap khong. S i vao ch quan ve nga khong cua thc th sau a lam chng ngai cai chap t nga cua thc th bay khong cho sanh khi, tuy nhien,
41

Bat thc qui cu tung Trang chu

(chung t) phap chap cua thc th bay van con, cho nen luan noi rang: n chap Mat na c chung v/ Bnh ang tanh tr bat hien tien (Chung t phap chap cua Mat na van con th Bnh ang tanh tr cha hien tien). Khi thc th sau i vao ch quan ve nga khong va phap khong th chng ngai cho thc th bay sanh khi chung t nga chap va phap chap, cho nen luan noi rang: Song chap Mat na qui chung v/ Bnh ang tanh tr phng hien tien (Chung t nga chap va phap chap khong con th Bnh ang tanh tr mi hien tien). Thc th bay khong co nang lc oan hoac va oan chap, toan nh thc th sau oan dum cho. V vay co cau tung: Phan biet nh chng Cc hy vo Luc that cau sanh a a tr e that tu ao tr chung hien Kim cang ao hau tong giai vo. ( a v Cc hy th co hai chng phan biet (nga chap va phap chap) b oi tr bi s ch quan cua thc th sau cho en khong con. Tuy nhien, cau sanh nga chap va phap chap cua thc th bay phai nh thc th sau (a vo lau) oan tr t t, trai qua cac a. en a v tu ao, tc t Bat ong a tr len th thc th bay mi tr c chung t va hien hanh cua nga chap. Khi chng Kim cang ao th thc nay chuyen thanh tr, cau sanh phap chap bay gi khong con na). Noi tom, thc th bay thanh c vo lau toan la nh thc th sau tu ch quan e oi tr s chng ngai cua hoac tap nhiem (= nga si, nga kien, nga man, nga ai) va chng c s thanh tnh cua y lac tang thng 56. Vo cong dung hanh nga hang toi

56 S thanh tnh cua y lac tang thng: la mot trong nhng ac thu ma moi a eu co, va cap o cua a sau
th hn cap o cua a trc. Kinh Giai tham mat ghi: ai bo tat Quan T Tai tha Phat: Bach c The ton, cac a nh the nay c lap ra bi may th ac thu? c The ton day ai bo tat Quan T Tai: Thien nam t, khai lc co 8 th: mot la, s thanh tnh cua y lac tang thng; hai la, s thanh tnh cua tam tang thng; ba la, s thanh tnh cua bi tang thng; bon la, s thanh tnh cua o tang thng; nam la, s thanh tnh cua s phung s ch Phat tang thng; sau la, s thanh tnh cua s thanh thuc chung sanh tang thng; bay la, s thanh tnh cua s tho sanh tang thng; tam la, s thanh tnh cua uy c tang thng.

42

Bat thc qui cu tung Trang chu

(en a th tam, a ma a c vo cong dung hanh, th nga chap cua thc th bay mi c pha tr) T a th tam tr ve trc, thc th bay van con chap phap, nhng chap nga a co luc gian oan. o la do th th sau khong thng xuyen an tru ni ch quan ve nga khong va phap khong. en a th tam, goi la Bat ong a, (v a c vo cong dung oi vi vo tng va trong cac tng th khong con b phien nao hien hanh lam xao ong), th chung t nga chap cua thc th bay mi b oan tr, nhng chung t phap chap van con sanh khi co gian oan. o la do thc th sau thng an tru ni ch quan ve nga khong. V sao chang oan c chung t phap chap? V chung t phap chap khong lam chng ngai nhan to (va duyen to noi tai ma cac phap sanh, cac phap thanh, cac phap sanh thanh roi tac dung), la luon thch ng vi trien mien 57, nham van 58 sanh khi, the (cua no vo tng rat) vi te, tanh hu phu (nen o nhiem) vay. Nh lai hien khi tha tho dung Thap a bo tat s b c (Khi thc th bay chuyen thanh Bnh ang tanh tr th co nang lc hoa hien tha tho dung than, nh c Nh lai hoa hien tha tho dung than e giao hoa cho cac hang bo tat Thap a) Khi thc th bay tr thanh vo lau th tng ng vi Bnh ang tanh tr. qua v Phat, Bnh ang tanh tr co nang lc hoa hien ra 10 loai than tha tho dung. tc nang lc giao hoa cua Phat, va oi tng c giao hoa ay la bo tat thap a. Bnh ang tanh tr co nang lc hien khi tha tho dung than la da vao ngha thu thang (so vi 3 tr kia) ma noi nh vay, ky that bon tr eu co nang lc hien khi tha tho dung than.

57 Chanh van la toi ha pham, ton nghi, tam dch la trien mien, tc vo minh lp sau chot. 58 Nham van: van chuyen mot cach t nhien, khong tac y. 43

Bat thc qui cu tung Trang chu

Chng 4: THC TH TAM

Tanh duy vo phu, ngu bien hanh (Thc th tam mang tanh chat vo phu vo ky, va tng ng vi 5 tam s Bien hanh) Cau tung nay noi ve thc th tam. Trong 4 tanh: thien, bat thien, hu phu vo ky, vo phu vo ky, thc th tam thuoc vo phu vo ky, v thc nay khong mang tanh o nhiem (nen goi la vo phu), v thc nay la s y cho thanh tnh va tap nhiem mot cach bnh ang khong chong trai nhau (nen goi la vo ky), v thc nay co cai nang tanh tiep nhan huan tap (, tc noi kha nang tiep nhan cac phap tap nhiem huan tap roi lam nhan sanh ra cac phap ay). Khi duyen canh, thc nay cung tng ng vi 5 tam s bien hanh: xuc, tac y, tho, tng, t; nhng khong tng ng vi cac tam s khac. V sao? Tanh chat vo ky (trung tanh) la khong phai thien, khong phai ac. Khong phai thien nen thc nay khong cung tng ng vi tam s thien, va khong phai ac nen thc nay khong cung tng ng vi tam s ac. Gii a tuy tha nghiep lc sanh (Thc th tam tuy theo nghiep lc thien hay ac ma bieu hien trong 3 coi, 9 a) Thc th tam chuyen hien trong 3 coi, 9 a, 5 ng, tuy theo sc cua nghiep thien hay ac ma chieu cam qua bao d thuc. Thc th tam vi ac tanh lam chu the tham d vao tong bao va bao quat tat ca t the ([sanh mang] khac nhau) trong 3 coi, moi ng lanh ng d. ac tanh lam chu the nh vay co 4 ngha: mot la, thc th tam la can ban cua cac phap hien hu, noi khac, no va la chat lieu, va la to hp cho tat ca t the va moi trng trong o t the ton tai; hai la, thc th tam mang ac tanh hang chuyen, ngha la t vo th no thuan nhat 59 lien tuc tiep noi thng hang khong gian oan; ba la, thc th tam
59 Thuan nhat = ban chat vo ky khong thay oi. 44

Bat thc qui cu tung Trang chu

khong mang tanh o nhiem nen la vo phu, do v khong b trum kn bi khach tran phien nao y a; bon la, thc th tam c goi la thc d thuc (= nghiep thc), v no a en ket qua a thanh thuc cua nghiep thien va bat thien trong cac coi, moi ng lanh ng d va trong cac sanh loai khac nhau. Trong tam thc, ch co thc th tam la hoan toan do nghiep lc huan tap. Thc th bay trai lai hoan toan khong do nghiep lc huan tap (, v no luon luon bam sat A lai da va vin chap A lai da lam t nga = y b chuyen, duyen b). Sau thc trc th co mot phan do nghiep lc huan tap va mot phan khong do nghiep lc huan tap. ay la noi ve s huan tap cua nghiep thien va nghiep bat thien (qua 8 thc tam vng). Tanh chat vo ky cua thc th tam c v nh cuc at kho khong the nan thanh vien, do o phai can co nc, keo v.v hoa tron vi at kho mi nan thanh vat c. Cung vay, di tac ong trc tiep cua nghiep lc thien ac (du cho nc, keo) ma thc th tam co the dan ra hien hanh cua no e tham d vao 3 coi va 9 a. Cay, a v.v t no khong the thanh o vat ma khong can lc tac ong, cung vay, thc th tam khong the t chuyen hien va tham d vao gii, a ma khong tuy thuoc vao sc manh huan tap cua nghiep thien, ac. Nh tha bat lieu nhan me chap (Hang nh tha do khong hieu ro ve thc A lai da nen me chap cho rang khong co thc A lai da) Thc th tam rat vi te, kho nhan biet, cho nen hang nh tha thanh van (hieu sai ve cac phap s tri,) khong tin co thc nay, ch chap nhan 6 thc trc co kha nang tho huan va duy tr chung t 60. o la do hang nh tha tam tr can ct ma co ra s me chap nh vay. Do th nang hng luan chu tranh (Bi vay mi co s viec tranh luan ve thc th tam gia cac luan s ai tha va luan s tieu tha)

60 Tc cho 6 thc trc la s huan, ky that 6 thc trc la nang huan. 45

Bat thc qui cu tung Trang chu

Do hang nh tha khong hieu, cho rang khong co thc th tam, cho nen cac luan s ai tha vien dan 3 kinh, 4 tung, 5 giao, 10 ly e chng minh rang co thc th tam. Kinh A ty at ma, kinh Giai tham mat va kinh Lang gia la 3 bo kinh ai tha ma tieu tha bo phai khong chap nhan. ai chung bo co kinh A cap ma, Thng toa bo co luan Phan biet, Hoa a bo va Thuyet nhat thiet hu bo co kinh Tang nhat. Ba kinh luan nay c 4 bo phai tieu tha va ai tha chap nhan. Bai tung Thap chng sau ay neu ra 10 ac tanh chng minh s hien hu cua thc th tam: Tr chung, d thuc tam Thu sanh, hu, tho thc Sanh t, duyen, y thc Diet nh tam, nhiem tnh. (Thc th tam la thc chung t co cong nang duy tr chung t, la thc (tam) d thuc v la a en ket qua a chn muoi (thuc) cua nghiep thien va bat thien trong cac coi, moi ng lanh ng d va trong cac sanh loai khac nhau. a kiet sanh lien tuc roi th chnh thc d thuc chap tho sac can va s y cua cac sac can (= chap tho than the va the gii cua than the). A lai da co ac tanh lam nhan trong s ket sanh lien tuc (sanh) nen goi la thc chung t. A lai da co ac tanh lam qua trong s lanh tho qua d thuc sau khi chet (t) nen goi la thc d thuc. A lai da lam nhan duyen cho cac phap sanh khi nen goi la thc nhan duyen. A lai da lam thc thc cho hu tnh sanh ra trong ba coi, tc noi s duy tr can than cua thc d thuc. Nhap diet tan nh th thc d thuc van khong ri than, v khong do oi tr thc ay ma co diet nh. Tach ri thc chung t d thuc th phien nao tap nhiem va s thanh tnh cua the gian va xuat the gian bat thanh, noi khac, A lai da vi tanh vo ky lam s y cho thanh tnh va tap nhiem mot cach bnh ang) Bai tung tren gom u 10 ngha sau ay: 1. Tr chung tam: a. Nh kinh ai tha A ty at ma cung co bai chnh cu sau ay:
46

Bat thc qui cu tung Trang chu

Vo th thi lai gii Nhat thiet phap ang y Do th hu ch thu Cap niet ban ac chng. (Gii [= thc chung t], t vo th en nay, la s y cua het thay phap. Do o ma co s luan hoi trong moi ng lanh ng d va co s chng ac qua niet ban.) Bai tung nay noi ve t tanh vi te cua thc th tam. Ngang qua tac dung cua thc nay ma co the hien th c t tanh cua no. Hai cau au cua bai tung cho thay tac dung nhan duyen cua thc th tam. Hai cau sau la noi tac dung nng ta va duy tr (y tr) cua tho, noan, thc (th tam) trong s lu chuyen va hoan diet. Vo th thi lai gii (gii t vo th lai), la noi ac tanh lam nhan cua thc th tam, ngha la thc chung t t vo th en nay trien chuyen lien tuc tiep noi lam nhan phat sanh cac phap tap nhiem (, tc chung t sanh hien hanh). Nhat thiet phap ang y (het thay phap eu nng), la noi ac tanh lam duyen cua thc th tam, ngha la thc chap tr t vo th en nay lam cho nng ta cho cac phap tap nhiem, noi khac, thc th tam co nang tanh thau gi chung t nen lam cho nng ta tiep nhan cho cac phap tap nhiem huan tap (, tc hien hanh sanh chung t). Hai cau au cua bai tung giai thch cho tr chung tam. Do th hu ch thu (do o co cac thu), la noi do co thc th tam nay chap tr (chap tho va nam gi) tat ca phap (tap nhiem) thuan vi s lu chuyen, v vay mi co s lu chuyen sanh t (luan hoi) cua cac loai hu tnh. Tuy biet hoac, nghiep la nhan cua s lu chuyen (tap e), nhng ch thu (ng lanh ng d) la qua bao cua s lu chuyen (kho e), nen nhan manh iem nay. Ch thu, cung co the hieu la nang thu (nhan) va s thu (qua), eu cung trong pham vi lu chuyen sanh t, trong tac dung duy tr va nng ta cua thc th tam. Cap niet ban chng ac (va niet ban chng ac), la noi do co thc th tam nay chap tr (chap tho va nam gi) tat ca phap (thanh tnh) thuan vi s hoan diet, v vay mi co s chng ac niet ban cua ngi tu hanh. ay ch noi phan ao nang chng, la con ng a en niet ban (ao e), v niet ban khong da thc nay ma co. Hoac cung noi la niet ban s chng (diet e), la cho mong cau cua ngi tu hanh. Hoac cung noi nang va s, nhng ca hai

47

Bat thc qui cu tung Trang chu

eu nhiep vao s hoan diet niet ban. Nh vay, hai cau tung sau noi ve vo lau phap nhng cung y vao thc th tam ma hien th. b. Kinh ai tha A ty at ma lai co bai tung rang: Do nhiep tang ch phap Nhat thiet chung t thc Co danh A lai da Thang gia 61 nga khai th. (La cai chu thc thau tang chung t cua cac phap, nen menh danh la A lai da, oi vi ngi thang th Nh lai khai th cho o ) Do ban thc th tam ay u cac chung t nen co kha nang thau gi (nhiep tang) cac phap tap nhiem, theo ngha nay ma lap danh A lai da. Thc nay t vo th cho en Bat ong a khong con nga chap, ten goi la A lai da, dch ngha la tang thc. ay la t cong nang ma lap danh. c. Kinh Giai tham mat co bai tung: A a na thc tham tham te Tap kh chung t nh boc lu Nga pham phu bat khai dien Khung b phan biet chap vi nga. (Thc A a na cung cc vi te, tat ca chung t nh dong nc manh. Nh lai khong noi cho ke pham ngu, s ho phan biet chap lam ban nga.) A a na, i ng dch la chap tr, tc la thc th tam (ma an lc mat na thc: cai y thc t nga luc nao cung co). V co kha nang chap tr (nam gi) chung t cac phap tap nhiem, chap tho cac sac can, than the (= s y cua cac sac can) va the gii cua can than ay, chap thu s kiet sanh lien tuc, cho nen thc nay ten la A a na. Noi tom, thc nay co 3 ngha nen goi la A a na: mot la, chap tr chung t cac phap tap nhiem khong cho ri mat; hai la, chap tho sac can (= cac giac quan), sanh mang (y) va i song (x) cua sanh mang ay; ba la, chap thu s kiet sanh lien tuc (, ngha la, A a na la chu the nam lay sanh mang t khi sanh en khi chet, lien tuc nam lay t i song nay en i song khac).
61 Thang gia: ngi thang, ch cho cac v bo tat a vao kien ao, c chan hien quan. 48

Bat thc qui cu tung Trang chu

Hang hu tnh khong co chung tanh giac ngo th khong the nhan thc cung tot can e cua thc A a na, nen noi la rat sau (= tham tham). Hang nh tha dan than i ti niet ban th khong the thong at thang ngha cua thc A a na, nen noi la vi te. ay la noi chung t chan that (= chung t trong 62) co nang tanh tiep nhan huan tap (= tho huan) het thay cac phap tap nhiem, neu co duyen to tac ong th phat sanh cac chuyen thc khac (= thc tho dung, la 6 thc trc, tho dung qua bao kho vui), v nh (co u duyen to lam cho) nhieu cn song (= chuyen thc) noi len, nhng ban than dong nc (= thc A a na) van chay mai, khong t khong het, nen noi nh dong nc chay manh (= boc lu). V s ke pham ngu (= pham phu va nh tha) oi vi thc nay khi tam phan biet, chap lam t nga ma oa vao cac ng ac hay chng ngai s sanh Thanh ao, cho nen c The ton khong giang noi thc nay cho ho. Duy co hang bo tat ai tha th The ton mi v ho ma khai th thc nay. Bai tung nay cung chng minh ngha tr chung tam. Sau chuyen thc trc (va thc mat na c an lc) khong co ngha tr chung tam. d. Trong kinh Lang gia co bai tung rang: Nh hai ngo thuan phong Khi chung chung ba lang Hien tien tac dung chuyen Vo hu gian oan thi. Tang thc hai diec nhien Canh gii phong s kch Dan khi ch thc lang Hien tien tac dung chuyen. (Nh bien gap duyen gio ma khi ra u th song moi, ngay trc mat thay tac dung chuyen ong khong co luc nao gian oan cua song moi. Bien tang thc cung vay, b gio canh gii kch ong nen luc nao cung sanh khi cac song thc ma hien tien thay chung co tac dung chuyen bien lien tuc.) Bai tung nay noi ve ac tanh cua thc th tam; cac chuyen thc khac khong co ac tanh nay. Thc th tam la bien tang thc, va bien tang thc o hang khi cac song thc (6 thc trc) trien chuyen sanh diet, lien tuc khong dt.

62 Chung t trong: chung t ngoai la chung t noi theo ngha en; chung t trong la nang tanh huan tap. Th du nh s a van th nhat thiet phai co s huan tap a van (ky c va tac y ung ly) th mi thanh tu c. 49

Bat thc qui cu tung Trang chu

Tren ay a dan chng 4 bai tung cua kinh luan ai tha e giai thch ngha tr chung tam cua bai tung Thap chng. Kinh A cap ma (= A ham) cua ai chung bo a dung mat y ma noi A lai da vi cai ten thc can ban, do v A lai da la s y cho cac chuyen thc. Kinh ien Thng toa bo va luan Phan biet eu co mat y goi thc nay la thc hu phan. Hu, la tam hu (3 coi). Phan, la ngha nhan to. Ch co thc th tam hang bien 3 coi va lam nhan to (= thc thc) cho hu tnh a sanh ra trong 3 coi. Hoa a bo a dung mat y ma noi A lai da la cai uan cung tan sanh t 63, bi v la A lai da th khong co uan phap nao rieng khac ma co the i en tan cung ngan me sanh t, khong luc nao gian oan. Kinh Tang nhat a ham cua Thuyet nhat thiet hu bo cung mat y noi thc th tam la A lai da, nh noi chung sanh yeu A lai da, thch A lai da, a A lai da, khoai A lai da. Do trong giao ngha cua Nhat thiet hu bo co cai ten A lai da, nen khang nh la thc th tam. Tren ay a dan ra 4 giao ngha cua cac bo phai tieu tha e chng minh co thc th tam. The nhng cac bo phai tieu tha van chap chac rang ch co 6 thc trc thoi (va cho 6 thc trc la s huan). Khe kinh co noi, ni thau gi va phat sanh chung t cua cac phap tap nhiem va thanh tnh la tam. Thc la d danh cua tam. Neu khong co thc th tam th cai tam duy tr chung t kia cung khong co. Cac chuyen thc co s gian oan khi Diet tan nh, bi v cac chuyen thc co can s y, canh s duyen va tac y rieng biet (nen khong ong thi sanh khi va tng ng, do o khong co tanh chat nang huan va s huan), co tam s thien va nhom loai khac nhau (thch ng va hien hanh, nhng trong diet nh lai khong co s thch ng va hien hanh ay). Tom lai, cac chuyen thc (ma cho la tam) eu de sanh khi, de bien mat, khong kien tru, khong co nang tanh huan tap va duy tr chung t, (nen chang phai la cai tam thau gi va phat sanh chung t cua cac phap tap nhiem va thanh tnh). Ch co thc th tam vi ac tanh ong nhat, thng hang, khong gian oan, kien tru, tiep nhan huan tap (, nh me p hoa, me vi hoa cung sanh cung diet, roi me thanh ra co cai hi thm cua hoa,) mi thch ng vi ch tam cua khe kinh. ay la chng minh thc th tam la tam, phu hp vi tr chung tam trong cau au cua thap chng tung. 2. Tam d thuc:
63 Chanh van la cung sanh t uan: hp the i en tan cung sanh t. 50

Bat thc qui cu tung Trang chu

Khe kinh lai noi, co tam d thuc la do nghiep hoac thien ac cam ng. Neu khong co thc th tam th tam d thuc khong the co. Ch co cai tam chan d thuc ap ng s loi keo cua dan nghiep i khap (3 coi) khong co gian oan. Tam d thuc, la thc th tam. Ch tam trong cau tung au thong ngha 4 ch tr chung, d thuc. Tren ay a giai thch xong ngha cau th nhat cua Thap chng tung. 3. Thu va sanh: Khe kinh lai noi, hu tnh lu chuyen trong 5 thu hng, 4 sanh loai. Neu khong co thc nay th the cua thu va sanh ay khong the co c. Hoi u 4 ngha: that co, thng hang, bien khap, khong tap loan, th mi co the goi la the cua thu va sanh chan that va chnh xac. Nhng th chieu cam bi nghiep cua 5 thc trc eu khong bien khap cac thu va sanh, v trong coi Vo sac hoan toan khong co 5 thc trc. Nhng th chieu cam bi nghiep cua y thc tuy bien khap cac thu va sanh, nhng khong hang hu. Ch co tam d thuc cung vi tam s cua no la that co, thng hang, bien khap, khong tap loan. Chanh that thu va sanh von ch la tam d thuc va tam s cua no. Va nh vay, neu tach ri thc th tam, th thu va sanh theo le bat thanh. ay la giai thch 2 ch thu sanh e chng minh thc th tam la the cua thu va sanh. 4. Chap tho thc: Lai na, khe kinh noi, co cai can than hu sac la co s chap tho sac can. Neu khong co thc th tam th s chap tho sac can khong the co c. ay, ch co tam d thuc mi la cai tam co the chap tho (sac can hu lau). Nhng thc khac, nh nhan thc v.v, khong co ngha chap tho sac can (, v chung eu co cai can s y khac nhau, eu khong kien tru, ma cac sac can th khong the tach ri vi tam). 5. Tho, noan, thc: Lai na, khe kinh noi, tho, noan va thc, ba cai nay nng ta va duy tr lan nhau e co the cung ton tai lien tuc tiep noi. Neu cho la khong co thc th tam, th khong mot thc nao khac co the duy tr s ton tai dai lau cua tho va noan (= tho mang va hi am). Bi v, nh am thanh, gio v.v khong co cai dung thng xuyen duy tr (, ngha la luc co luc khong); cung vay, cac chuyen thc co gian oan, co chuyen bien, khong co cai dung thng xuyen duy tr tho va noan, nen khong the xac lap la thc duy tr tho va noan. Ch thc d thuc mi co cai dung thng xuyen duy tr tho va noan, nen c xac lap la thc duy tr tho va noan. oan nay giai thch ngha cua ch thc. Ch thc nay bao gom cac ch ng
51

Bat thc qui cu tung Trang chu

trc: thc the cua thu sanh, thc chap tho hu sac can than, thc duy tr tho noan. en ay a giai thch xong cau: Thu sanh, hu, tho thc. Sau ay giai thch cau tung: sanh t, duyen, y thc. 6. Tam sanh t: Lai na, khe kinh noi, het thay loai hu tnh khi tho sanh, khi mang chung, nhat nh trong trang huong tan tam, khong phai la trang huong vo tam nh. Neu khong co thc th tam, th khi sanh, khi t, cai tam tan loan kia cung phai khong co. Bi v, khi sanh, khi t than tam m mt nh giac ngu khong chiem bao, hay nh khi b me ngat, (bay gi) y thc sang suot chac chan khong hien khi. trang huong vo tam (nh khi ngu say khong chiem bao, khi hon me cc iem) th hanh tng va s duyen cua sau chuyen thc khong c nhan biet (, ngha la y thc khong hoat ong). Trng hp khi tho sanh hay mang chung phai co cai tam tan loan, con goi la tam sanh t. Co bo phai chap rang, trang huong khi sanh, khi t, co mot loai y thc vi te ma hanh tng va s duyen cua no khong the biet ro; nen biet loai y thc vi te o la thc th tam. Lai na, khi sap chet th tuy nghiep thien hay nghiep ac a lam ma ni than the, hoac bat au t di tr len, hoac bat au t tren sap xuong, dan dan phat lanh. Neu khong co thc th tam th s the nh vay khong the co c. Cac chuyen thc th khong the chap tho can than. ay chng minh co cai tam khi sanh, khi t, tam o la thc th tam. 7. Thc duyen danh sac: Lai na, khe kinh noi, thc duyen danh sac, danh sac duyen thc. Hai phap nh vay lan lt nng ta vao nhau, y nh bo lau ta nhau ma ng. Neu khong co thc th tam nay th t the cua thc (trong thc duyen danh sac) khong the co c. Va lai, hoat ong cua cac chuyen thc co tanh gian oan nen khong u nang lc thng xuyen duy tr danh sac, th lam sao noi chung thng xuyen lam duyen cho danh sac. Cho nen, thc trong thc duyen danh sac, ro rang la th th tam. ay la giai thch ch duyen trong bai tung Thap chng. 8. Thc thc: Lai na, khe kinh noi, tat ca hu tnh eu nng vao an ma ton tai. Neu khong co thc th tam th the cua thc thc khong the co c. Do ay biet chac rang ngoai cac chuyen thc con co thc d thuc, la thc thng hang, bien khap, co kha nang duy tr than mang khong cho hoai dt. Nng theo le o, c The ton noi, tat ca hu tnh eu nng vao an ma ton tai. Nen biet ch co thc d thuc la co tanh chat an hn het (trong 4 cach an: oan thc, xuc thc, t thc va thc thc). Thc thc o chnh la thc th tam.
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Bat thc qui cu tung Trang chu

Cau th ba, sanh t, duyen, y thc, cua bai tung Thap chng a giai thch xong. 9. Diet tan nh tam: Lai na, khe kinh noi, ngi tru diet nh th than hanh, ng hanh va tam hanh eu diet, nhng mang song va hi am van con, can khong bien hoai, thc khong ri than. Neu khong co thc th tam th s the thc khong ri than cua ngi tru diet nh khong the co c. Nhan thc v.v co hanh tng tho ong, v vay oi vi canh s duyen y thc phai chu phat moi phan biet lao nhoc. Do nham chan s phan biet lao nhoc cua y thc kia ma ngi tu diet nh tam thi mong cau nh ch no, roi dan dan che phuc, cho en khi diet han y thc. Can c trang huong khong co y thc ma xac lap ngi tru diet nh. Cho nen, trong nh nay, 6 thc eu diet. Neu khong tha nhan ton tai mot loai thc vi te, thng hang, bien khap, co kha nang duy tr mang song va hi am, th can c vao au ma noi thc khong ri than. Neu hoan toan khong co thc nao ca th ong vi ngoi a, ma ngoi a th khong co tnh thc. T ly le nay ma biet ngi tru diet nh bat buoc phai co thc (d thuc). Cai thc khong ri than Vo tng nh, Vo tng thien, can c theo ay ma biet. ay la a giai thch 3 ch diet nh tam. 10. Nhiem tnh tam: Lai na, khe kinh noi, tam tap nhiem nen hu tnh tap nhiem, tam thanh tnh nen hu tnh thanh tnh. Neu khong co thc th tam th tam tap nhiem, tam thanh tnh kia khong co. Cac phap tap nhiem va thanh tnh lay tam lam can ban, nhan ni tam ma sanh, nng ni tam ma tru. ay la giai thch 3 ch tam nhiem tnh. Ch tam ng gia cau tung th t dung chung cho 2 ch trc: diet nh va 2 ch sau: nhiem tnh. Tren ay a lc dan van cua luan Thanh duy thc. Muon hieu ro tng tan ngha ly xin xem van cua luan ay, quyen th 3 va quyen th 4. Viec minh chng co thc th tam ly le vo bien, xem o khong phai ch co 10 ngha chng minh co thc nay ma thoi. Trong luan Du gia cung co 8 ngha chng minh co thc nay, s phien nen khong dan. Nh vay a dan giai xong bai tung Thap chng. Do v hang tieu tha khong tin co thc th tam nay ma ngai Ho Phap luan chu a dan du nhieu lan sao cho sang to, at lai van e roi giang ro, cho nen co cau tung: Do th nang hng luan chu tranh. Hao hao tam tang bat kha cung (Co 3 ac tanh sau rong, noi khong the cung tan ve A lai da, o la: nang tang, s tang va nga ai chap tang)
53

Bat thc qui cu tung Trang chu

Hao hao, la sau rong. Tam tang, la nang tang, s tang va nga ai chap tang. Thc nay co nang tanh duy tr chung t phat sanh cac phap (, lam nhan cho cac phap, tc chung t sanh hien hanh), nen goi la nang tang. Thc nay co nang tanh tiep nhan cac phap huan tap chung t (, lam qua cho cac phap, tc hien hanh sanh chung t), nen goi la s tang. Thc th bay chap kien phan cua thc th tam lam t nga, nen goi la nga ai chap tang. V vay, (kinh ai tha A ty at ma) co bai tung rang: Ch phap thc tang Thc phap diec nh Canh ho vi qua tanh Diec thng vi nhan tanh. (Cac phap (= cac chuyen thc) oi vi tang thc the nao th tang thc oi vi cac phap cung vay, lam qua cho nhau ma cung lam nhan cho nhau.) Y cua bai tung nay noi, thc A lai da cung cac chuyen thc trien chuyen tng sanh, ho tng nhau lam nhan, lam qua trong moi thi gian. Nhiep ai tha luan noi, A lai da vi cac phap tap nhiem ong thi lam nhan duyen cho nhau. Dan luan nay e thay thc th tam co u 3 ngha: nang tang, s tang va nga ai chap tang. The va dung cua A lai da rat sau rong, nen hang pham phu va tieu tha khong thong at c. Kinh giai tham mat cung noi, thc A a na cung cc vi te. Xin xem chu giai van tren. Dan bai tung nay e chng minh danh ngha chap tr cua thc th tam, qua o thay hang pham phu va nh tha khong thong at c. Uyen tham that lang canh vi phong (T ni bien tang thc sau tham, do gio canh gii thoi ti ma 7 cn song chuyen thc hien khi tren mat bien ay) ay la noi A lai da, nh nc, (lam nhan) hien khi cac chuyen thc (tho dung qua bao kho vui). Cac chuyen thc, nh song, hien hanh roi tr lai (lam nhan) huan tap chung t ni A lai da. Bon duyen la, can (Mat na), canh (can than, the gii), tac y va chung t, du nh gio. Neu gio 4 duyen thng xuyen tac ong nc A lai da hien hanh cac chuyen thc (= chung t sanh hien hanh), ong thi song 7 thc thng hien khi tr lai huan tap chung t ni A lai da (= hien hanh sanh chung t). Ve mat du, nhieu gio thoi en th nhieu song ln sanh, t gio thoi en th t song nho khi. Ve mat phap, nhieu duyen th nhieu thc sanh, t duyen th t thc khi. Cho nen kinh Lang gia noi, nh bien gap duyen gio ma khi ra u th song moi v.v, xin xem van tren.
54

Bat thc qui cu tung Trang chu

Tho huan, tr chung, can than kh (A lai da co nang tanh tho huan va tr chung. Chung t, can than va kh the gii eu la canh s duyen cua A lai da) ay la noi thc th tam co nang tanh tiep nhan huan tap t 7 thc trc, cung nh nang tanh duy tr chung t cac phap hu lau va vo lau (= cac phap nhiem tnh). Nang tanh duy tr chung t (tr chung) cua thc th tam cho thay thc nay co cai ac tanh lam chu the nen bao quat moi tong bao (va biet bao trong 3 coi, ng lanh ng d). Nang tanh tiep nhan huan tap (tho huan) cua thc nay can u 4 ngha: mot la, kien tru (= lien tuc on nh); hai la, vo ky (= trung tanh); ba la, kha huan (= kha nang tho huan); bon la, hoa hp vi nang huan (= cung than cung luc vi nang huan). Kien tru, ngha la t ban s vo th en chung cuoc cu canh ch co mot loai (thc) tiep noi lien tuc la thc th tam. Thc th bay cung co ac tanh nh vay, tai sao khong co ngha s huan (= tho huan)? Xet ngha th 2 roi mi chon loc. Vo ky, ngha la nh tanh chat cua me, khong thm khong hoi. Khi p vi hng lieu th me thanh ra co cai hi thm cua hng lieu. Khi xong vi o hoi th me thanh ra co cai mui thui cua o hoi. Mot vat von la co mui thm hay mui hoi, th du cho co dung cai khac xong p vat o cho hoi i hay thm i, trai qua nhieu ngay thang, rot cuoc chang co the bien oi cai mui von co cua no. Cung vay, thc thc bay von co tanh chat hu phu vo ky (trung tanh ma co o nhiem), cho nen khong co ac tanh s huan. Thc th tam va 5 thc trc co u 2 ngha tren nen thch ng ngha s huan. Xet ngha th 3 roi mi chon loc. Kha huan, ngha la co tanh chat t tai. Ni khong t tai th khong phai la ni tiep nhan huan tap. Thc th tam cua ngi khac co u 3 ngha: kien tru, vo ky, kha huan, co phai la co ngha s huan c sao? Xet ngha th 4 roi mi chon loc. Hoa hp vi nang huan, ngha la nang huan va s huan phai ong thi, ong x mi hoa hp c. Th th tam cua ngi khac va thc th tam cua mnh th khac nhau, khong lien quan nhau. Neu nang huan cua mnh ma co the huan tap vao thc th tam cua ngi khac, th cung nh noi mnh an ma oi ngi khac no, c sao? V le thc th tam co u 4 ngha tren nen ch no mi co nang tanh tiep nhan huan tap (= tho huan). Cau tung ch noi tho huan cua thc th tam. Hnh anh bieu hien cua 7 thc trc (trong A lai da) chnh la nang tanh huan tap (nang huan). Trong cac bai tung ve 7 thc trc a an lc t ng nang huan.
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Bat thc qui cu tung Trang chu

Nang huan co 4 ngha: mot la, co sanh diet (= co sanh diet chuyen bien); hai la, co thang dung (= co cng lc t duy va thien ac); ba la, co tang giam (= co khi tang khi giam); bon la, hoa hp vi s huan (= cung than cung luc vi s huan). Co sanh diet, ngha la phap nao co tac dung sanh trng, phap ay co tanh nang huan. Vay th, vo ky, sac phap, tam phap eu co tanh sanh diet, co the la nang huan chang? Xet ngha th 2 roi mi chon loc. Co thang dung, ngha la can c sc manh u thang cua tanh thien ac, hu phu (o nhiem) ma goi la co thang dung. (ieu nay loai ra tam, tam s thuoc d thuc (= b chi phoi bi nghiep qua kh), v the lc yeu kem cua chung.) Vay th, qua v Phat, phap (thien vien man cua Phat chng) la cng thang, sao chang phai la nang huan. Xet ngha th 3 roi mi chon loc. Co tang giam, ngha la co ton ch. qua v Phat (phap thien vien man cua Phat chng) khong co ton ch (= khong tang, khong giam) nen khong the la nang huan. Ton ch la nen cng th cng, hp nhu lien nhu, viec lam co the lam xong. Bay thc trc co u 3 ngha tren, vay ban than chung co kha nang huan tap ni ngi khac khong? Noi cach khac, chung co hoa hp vi s huan khong? Hoa hp vi s huan, ngha la thc th 8 va cac tam s eu co the la oi tng cho s huan tap cua 7 thc trc. Thc th tam th co tanh vo ky; cac tam s th u ca tanh thien, tanh ac. S huan, nh vay, la thc th 8, cac tam s khong d phan vao. Neu cho tam s co the tiep nhan huan tap th mac loi lam rat ln, ch nen hoi van. Chung t, can than va kh the gii eu la canh s duyen cua thc th tam. Khi noi thc th tam co ac tanh duy tr chung t (tr chung) th cung co ngha la noi no co ac tanh tiep nhan huan tap (tho huan). Kh hau, lai tien, tac chu ong (A lai da la chu the cua nhan duyen: hien hanh sanh chung t hay chung t sanh hien hanh, eu la A lai da va cac chuyen thc cua no. A lai da la chu the cua tong bao: i th i sau, en th en trc) Thc th tam la chu the cua tong bao, nen hu tnh khi au thai th no la v chu nhan ong en trc het, khi mang chung no bo i sau cung. Bat ong a tien, tai xa tang
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Bat thc qui cu tung Trang chu

(T Bat ong a tr len, thc th tam mi xa cai ten A lai da hay tang thc) Thc th tam t nhan hu lau en qua vo lau lc co 3 giai oan (= trang thai) phat trien: mot la, hien hanh s chap tang nga ai (Bo tat t that a tr xuong, vi ten A lai da); hai la, ket qua cua nghiep thien ac (t vo th en bo tat Kim cang tam, vi ten thc d thuc); ba la, chap tr dong tng tuc (chap tho sac can, chap thu t the, vi ten thc A a na). Noi cach khac, t vo th en Bat ong a, thc th tam c menh danh la A lai da, co ngha tang thc. Lai na, t vo th en giai thoat ao (= Kim cang ao), co ten Ty ba ca, co ngha la thc d thuc. Do co u 3 ngha sau ma goi la d thuc: mot la, bien d thuc (qua chn do nhan bien oi); hai la, d thi thuc (nhan va qua cach thi mi chn muoi); ba la, d loai thuc (qua khac nhan, nhng do nhan ma qua thanh thuc). Sau qua v Phat en tan v lai vo tan, co ten la thc vo cau. A lai da la noi thc th tam nhiep tang cac phap tap nhiem va hu tnh chap no nh la t nga noi tai. Thc d thuc la noi A lai da do nghiep lc thien ac huan tap ma thanh qua bao. Chap tr dong tng tuc la noi thc A a na chap tho chung t (cua tng, danh va phan biet) va duy tr hien hanh (cua than the va the gii cua than the) khong co gian oan, t giai oan hu lau cho en giai oan vo lau. T Bat ong a tr len, thc th tam mi xa cai ten A lai da hay tang thc, (v khong co phap tap nhiem e chap tang), v xa bo c cac phien nao tho trong, v thc nay khong con b thc Mat na chap lam t nga noi tai. Y c kinh luan, lc noi ve cho thoat ra cua A lai da ni cai than s y co the tom gon trong bai tung sau: Thien nghiep tung ha lanh Ac nghiep tung thng lanh Nh giai ch tam Nhat x ong thi xa. anh thanh, nhan sanh thien Nhan tam, nga quy phuc Bang sanh tat cai ly a nguc cc ban xuat. (Nghiep thien th than the dan dan phat lanh t di tr len, nghiep ac th than the dan dan phat lanh t tren sap xuong, nghiep thien ac eu khong ngoai cai tam khi sanh khi t, en mot cho nao o tren than the th nghiep thien ac cung tam ay ri bo than the. Nong ni nh au la ve coi thanh, ni mat la sanh ve coi tri, ni tim (ngc) la tai sanh lam ngi, ni bung th lam nga quy, t au goi tr xuong la lam suc sanh, ni hai ban chan th oa a nguc.)
57

Bat thc qui cu tung Trang chu

Gia kinh va luan co s sai biet. Kinh th noi co 6 coi khac nhau, luan th noi co 2 ng thien ac. Xet cho cung th 6 coi cung khong ngoai thien ac. Ch tam trong cau th 3 la ch tam sanh t, c giai tren. Kim cang ao hau, d thuc khong (Sau khi vao c Kim cang ao th ten D thuc cung khong con) en Kim cang ao (= Nh lai a) th chung t huan tap cua 2 chng (: phien nao chng va s tri chng) va nhng chung t, hien hanh thuoc hu lau vnh vien c oan tr, v vay xa bo cai ten thc d thuc. Nhan va qua vo lau thap kem cung eu xa het. ai vien, vo cau ong thi phat Pho chieu thap phng tran sat trung (Thc vo cau tng ng vi ai vien canh tr ma ong thi phat sanh, co hoat dung chieu khap 10 phng cac coi nc nhieu nh vi tran) en a v chuyen y Phat qua 64 , thc th tam thanh the vo lau cc ky thanh tnh, goi la thc vo cau. Thc nay cung tng ng vi ai vien canh tr ma ong thi phat khi dieu dung chieu khap 10 phng, tron sang phap gii. Bai tung cua kinh Nh lai cong c trang nghiem: Nh lai vo cau thc Th tnh vo lau gii Giai thoat nhat thiet chng Vien canh tr tng ng. (Thc vo cau cua Nh lai, la phap gii vo lau thanh tnh, giai thoat het moi chng, tng ng ai vien canh tr.) Tong quat ve 4 tr th Bnh ang tanh tr va Dieu quan sat tr, moi tr co 3 pham (chuyen y): ha pham la Kien ao v, trung pham la Tu ao v va thng pham la Cu canh v, con ai vien canh tr va Thanh s tac tr, moi tr ch co thng pham la Cu canh v, v 2 tr nay t trong qua ma chuyen ac.
64 Chuyen bo phien nao chng va s tri chng ma chuyen c ai bo e va ai niet ban. c chuyen y th
oi tng khong con ien ao, oi tng o la thc th tam thanh vo lau (chan nh xuat trien).

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Bat thc qui cu tung Trang chu

PHU LUC

Dch am: (Nam thc trc:) Tanh canh, hien lng, thong tam tanh Nhan, nh, than tam, nh a c Bien hanh, biet canh, thien thap nhat Trung nh, ai bat, tham san si. Ngu thc ong y tnh sac can Cu duyen, that, bat hao tng lan Hp tam, ly nh, quan tran the Ngu gia nan phan thc d can. Bien tng quan khong duy hau ac Qua trung du t bat thuyen chan Vien minh s phat thanh vo lau Tam loai phan than tc kho luan. (Thc th sau:) Tam tanh, tam lng, thong tam canh Tam gii luan thi d kha tri Tng ng tam s ngu thap nhat Thien ac lam thi biet phoi chi. Tanh, gii, tho, tam hang chuyen dch Can, tuy, tn ang tong tng lien ong than, phat ng oc vi toi Dan man nang chieu nghiep lc khien. Phat khi s tam hoan hy a Cau sanh du t hien trien mien Vien hanh a hau thuan vo lau Quan sat vien minh chieu ai thien. (Thc th bay:)
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Bat thc qui cu tung Trang chu

i chat, hu phu, thong tnh ban Tuy duyen chap nga, lng vi phi Bat ai, bien hanh, biet canh tue Tham, si, nga kien, man tng tuy. Hang tham t lng nga tng tuy Hu tnh nhat da tran hon me T hoac, bat ai tng ng khi Luc chuyen ho vi nhiem tnh y. Cc hy s tam bnh ang tanh Vo cong dung hanh nga hang toi Nh lai hien khi tha tho dung Thap a bo tat s b c. (Thc th tam:) Tanh duy vo phu, ngu bien hanh Gii a tuy tha nghiep lc sanh Nh tha bat lieu nhan me chap Do th nang hng luan chu tranh. Hao hao tam tang bat kha cung Uyen tham that lang canh vi phong Tho huan, tr chung, can than kh Kh hau, lai tien, tac chu ong. Bat ong a tien, tai xa tang Kim cang ao hau, d thuc khong ai vien, vo cau ong thi phat Pho chieu thap phng tran sat trung.

Dch ngha: (Nam thc trc:) Tanh canh, hien lng, gom ba tanh Nh a co ba nhan, nh, than Bien hanh, biet canh, mi mot thien Hai trung, tam ai, tham san si. Nam thc cung nng tnh sac can
60

Bat thc qui cu tung Trang chu

Chn, bay, tam duyen quan he tot Ba hp, hai ly, nhn the gianhe Pham ngu kho biet thc cung can. Tr hau ac bien tng, quan khong Trong qua con chang c noi chan Vien minh va phat thanh vo lau Ba loai phan than dt tram luan. (Thc th sau:) Ba tanh, ba lng, gom ba canh Ba coi luan hoi de biet hay Tng ng tam s nam mi mot Thien ac luc nao rieng phoi hp. Tanh, gii, tho: ba thng chuyen oi Can, tuy, tn thay noi tiep nhau Than ong, mieng noi hn het ca Dan man nghiep lc loi chu qua. Hoan hy a s tam phat khi Cau sanh nga phap van day da Sau Vien hanh a thuan vo lau Quan tr tron sang chieu ai thien. (Thc th bay:) i chat, hu phu, gom tnh ban Theo duyen chap nga, luon phi lng Tam ai, bien hanh, tam s tue Tham, si, nga kien, man theo hoai. Thng xet suy lng vin nga tng Ngay em hu tnh chu me m Bon hoac, tam ai tng ng khi Y thc goi rang nhiem tnh y S tam Cc hy t bnh ang Vo cong dung hanh, nga pha roi Nh lai hien than tha tho dung Ch day bo tat Thap a can. (Thc th tam:)
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Bat thc qui cu tung Trang chu

Tanh la vo phu, nam bien hanh Gii a tuy theo nghiep lc sanh Nh tha chang hieu nen me chap Do o co ra viec luan tranh. Menh mang ba tang khong cung tot Bien sau bay song do gio canh Tho huan, tr chung, can than kh en trc, i sau lam chu ong. en Bat ong a bo ten tang Vao Kim cang ao khong d thuc ai vien, vo cau cung luc khi Khap chieu mi phng hang sa coi.

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Bat thc qui cu tung Trang chu

SACH THAM KHAO

H.T Thch Tr Quang dch giai, Nhiep Luan, 1994. H.T Thch Tr Quang dch giai, Kinh Giai Tham Mat, 1994. H.T Thch Thien Hoa bien soan, Luan ai Tha Tram Phap va Bat Thc Qui Cu Tung, Phat Hoc Pho Thong, Khoa IX, Thanh Hoi Phat Giao TP. Ho Ch Minh an hanh, 1992. H.T Thch Thien Sieu dch va chu, Luan Thanh Duy Thc, Nha xuat ban Van hoa Sai goon, 2006. H.T Thch Quang Lien, Duy Thc Hoc, Trung Tam Nghien Cu Van Hoa Triet Hoc ong Phng Quang c, 1972. H.T Thch Thang Hoan, Khao Nghiem Duy Thc Hoc Tam Ly Hoc Thc Nghiem, Tai ban lan th 2, ng Sang Printing, 1998. Ty Kheo Ni Nh Thanh, Duy Thc Hoc, Tap 1 va Tap 2, Thanh Hoi Phat Giao TP. Ho Ch Minh an hanh, 1991. H.T Thch Minh Canh chu bien, T ien Phat Hoc Hue Quang, Cao ban, 1999.

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