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By: Karim M. El Defrawy ICS UCI-2005
What is WiMAX 802.16 Introduction 802.16 MAC Highlights 802.16 Reference Model MAC Convergence Sub-Layer (CS) MAC Common Part Sub-Layer (CPS) MAC Privacy Sub-Layer (PS) Questions
What is WiMAX?
Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access (WiMAX) is the common name associated to the IEEE 802.16a/REVd/e standards. These standards are issued by the IEEE 802.16 subgroup that originally covered the Wireless Local Loop technologies with radio spectrum from 10 to 66 GHz.
IEEE 802.16 -- Introduction
IEEE 802.16 (2001)
Air Interface for Fixed Broadband Wireless Access System MAC and PHY Specifications for 10 ± 66 GHZ (LoS) One PHY: Single Carrier Connection-oriented, TDM/TDMA MAC, QoS, Privacy
IEEE 802.16a (January 2003)
Amendment to 802.16, MAC Modifications and Additional PHY Specifications for 2 ± 11 GHz (NLoS) Three PHYs: OFDM, OFDMA, Single Carrier Additional MAC functions: OFDM and OFDMA PHY support, Mesh topology support, ARQ
IEEE 802.16d (July 2004)
Combines both IEEE 802.16 and 802.16a Some modifications to the MAC and PHY
IEEE 802.16e (2005?)
Amendment to 802.16-2004 MAC Modifications for limited mobility
IEEE 802.Introduction Coverage range up to 50km and speeds up to 70Mbps(shared among users).16 -. .
IEEE 802.16 -.Introduction Source: WiMAX. Alcatel. White Paper. making ubiquitous high-speed data services a reality. .
FDX FDD BS and SS.16 MAC -. nrt-VBR. FDD.Highlights WirelessMAN: Point-to-Multipoint and optional mesh topology Connection-oriented Multiple Access: DL TDM & TDMA.IEEE 802. IP. UL TDMA. DL OFDMA & TDMA (Optional) PHY considerations that affect the MAC Duplex: TDD. HDX FDD SS Adaptive burst profiles (Modulation and FEC) on both DL and UL Protocol-independent core (ATM. rt-VBR.UL OFDMA & TDMA. Ethernet) Flexible QoS offering (CBR. BE) Strong security support .
Reference Model .
Adaptive PHY Source: Understanding WiMAX and 3G for Portable/Mobile Broadband Wireless. Technical White Paper. . Intel.
Adaptive Burst Profiles Burst profile: Modulation and FEC On DL. robustness in real time . multiple SSs can associate the same DL burst On UL. SS transmits in an given time slot with a specific burst Dynamically assigned according to link conditions Burst by burst Trade-off capacity vs.
FCC Time-Division Duplex (TDD) Downlink & Uplink time share the same RF channel Dynamic asymmetry does not transmit & receive simultaneously (low cost) Downlink & Uplink on separate RF channels Full Duplexing (FDX): can Tx and Rx simultaneously. Half-duplexing (HDX) SSs supported (low cost) Frequency-Division Duplex (FDD) ..g. e.Duplex Scheme Support The duplex scheme is Usually specified by regulatory bodies.
UL burst 1 .. Broadcast Conrol msgs .IEEE 802. DL burst n pre. UL burst m DL MAP UL MAP DCD opt. UCD opt.. FCH DL DL burst 1 burst 2 UL subframe UL TDMA ..16 MAC ± OFDM PHY TDD Frame Structure Time Frame n-1 Frame n Adaptive Frame n+1 DL Subframe DL TDM pre. pre..
Broadcast Control Msgs DL UL DCD UCD MAP MAP opt.. DL burst k pre.. DL TDMA FCH DL DL burst 1 burst 2 . DL burst k+1 . DL burst n UL subframe UL MAP for next MAC frame UL bursts UL TDMA pre.. UL burst 1 . opt.. pre.16 MAC ± OFDM PHY FDD Frame Structure Time Frame n-1 Frame n Frame n+1 DL Subframe DL TDM pre.IEEE 802. pre.. UL burst m ..
FDD MAPs Time Relevance DL UL MAP MAP DL UL MAP MAP DOWNLINK UPLINK frame Broadcast Half Duplex T erminal #1 Full Duplex Capable User Half Duplex T erminal #2 .
16 MAC addressing and Identifiers SS has 48-bit IEEE MAC address BS has 48-bit base station ID Not a MAC address 24-bit operator indicator 16-bit connection ID (CID) 32-bit service flow ID (SFID) 16-bit security association ID (SAID) .IEEE 802.
IEEE 802. VLAN. and IPv6 Payload header suppression Full QoS support .16 MAC ± Convergence Sub-Layer (CS) ATM Convergence Sub-Layer: Support for VP/VC switched connections Support for end-to-end signaling of dynamically created connections ATM header suppression Full QoS support Packet Convergence Sub-Layer: Initial support for Ethernet. IPv4.
IP packet..IEEE 802.e. i. Depending on upper layer protocol .16 MAC -. Ethernet Packet) Payload Header Suppression Index Optional.g. formatting MAC SDU = CS PDU PHSI Packet PDU (e. CS PDU.CS ± Packet Convergence Sub-Layer Functions: Classification: mapping the higher layer PDUs (Protocol Data Units) into appropriate MAC connections Payload header suppression (optional) MAC SDU (Service Data Unit).
CPS ± MAC PDU Format msb lsb MAC PDU Generic MAC Header (6 bytes) payload (optional) CRC (optional) Generic MAC Header Format (Header Type (HT) = 0) H E T C Type (6 bits) rs C EKS rs v I (2) v BW Req.16 MAC -. Header Format (Header Type (HT) =1) H E T C Type (6 bits) LEN msb (3) BW Req.IEEE 802. lsb (8) CID lsb (8) HCS (8) CID lsb (8) HCS (8) . msb (8) CID msb (8) LEN lsb (8) CID msb (8) BWS Req.
. data from upper layer (CS PDUs) Transmitted on data connections HT =0 Payloads are MAC management messages or IP packets encapsulated in MAC CS PDUs Transmitted on management connections HT =1.16 MAC -.Three Types of MAC PDUs Data MAC PDUs HT = 0 Payloads are MAC SDUs/segments.IEEE 802.CPS -. just a Header Management MAC PDUs BW Req. i.e. MAC PDUs . i..e. and no payload.
.g...CPS ± Data Packet Encapsulations Packet PDU (e..16 MAC -... FEC block m PHY Burst (e..e. OFDM symbol n . Ethernet) CS PDU (i....IEEE 802... MAC SDU) P H SI Ethernet Packet Ethernet Packet MAC PDU HT MAC PDU Payload CRC FEC FEC block 1 FEC Block 2 FEC Block 3 .g. TDMA burst) Preamble OFDM symbol 1 OFDM symbol 2 ..
IEEE 802. SNMP. e.. DHCP.g.MAC Management Connections Each SS has 3 management connections in each direction: Basic Connection: short and time-urgent MAC management messages MAC mgmt messages as MAC PDU payloads Primary Management connection: longer and more delay tolerant MAC mgmt messages MAC mgmt messages as MAC PDU payloads Secondary Management Connection: Standard based mgmt messages.16 MAC ± CPS -. «etc IP packets based CS PDU as MAC PDU payload .
(type=1. and initial ranging connections 41 MAC mgmt msgs specified in 802. e. length=1. value=3) 64QAM modulation .IEEE 802. in UCD msg for UL burst profiles.g.16 MAC ± CPS ± MAC Management Messages MAC mgmt message format: 8 bits mgmt msg HD MAC mgmt msg payload MAC mgmt msg can be sent on: Basic connections. value=2) 16QAM modulation (type=1.16 The TLV (type/length/value) encoding scheme is used in MAC mgmt msg. length=1.. Broadcast connection. length=1. Primary mgmt connection. value=1) QPSK modulation (type=1.
16 MAC ± CPS ± MAC PDU Transmission MAC PDUs are transmitted in PHY Bursts The PHY burst can contain multiple FEC blocks MAC PDUs may span FEC block boundaries Concatenation Packing Segmentation Sub-headers .IEEE 802.
.IEEE 802.g.. OFDM symbol n . FEC block m PHY Burst (e...... TDMA burst) Preamble OFDM symbol 1 OFDM symbol 2 .. HT MAC PDU Payload CRC FEC FEC block 1 FEC Block 2 FEC Block 3 ......16 MAC ± CPS ± MAC PDU Concatenation Multiple MAC PDUs are concatenated into the same PHY burst MAC PDU 1 HT MAC PDU Payload CRC HT MAC PDU 2 MAC PDU Payload CRC MAC PDU k ....
.. OFDM symbol n1 Pre..... OFDM symbol n2 PHY Burst PHY Burst .. FEC Block m1 FEC block 1 .....IEEE 802.. each segment is encapsulated into one MAC PDU Fragmentation Sub-Header (8 bits) MAC SDU MAC SDU seg-1 HT CRC F S H MAC SDU seg-2 MAC PDU Payload CRC MAC SDU seg-3 HT F S H MAC PDU Payload CRC HT F S H MAC PDU Payload FEC FEC block 1 . OFDM symbol 1 ...... FEC Block m2 Pre..16 MAC ± CPS ± MAC PDU Fragmentation A MAC SDU can be fragmented into multiple segments. OFDM symbol 1 ...
ATM Cells.IEEE 802.g.. e.. e.16 MAC ± CPS ± MAC PDU Packing Packing with fixed size MAC SDUs (no packing sub-header is needed) MAC SDU 1 MAC SDU 2 .g.. PSH .... MAC SDU k Fixed size MSDUs... on the same connection HT MAC PDU Payload CRC Packing with variable size MAC SDUs (Packing Sub-Heade is neeeded) MAC SDU or seg.. IP packets... 1 Packing Sub-Heder (16 bits) MAC SDU or seg 2 MAC SDU or seg n Variable size MSDUs or MSDU segments.. on the same connection CRC HT PSH PSH .
then activate) A unidirectional MAC-layer transport service characterized by a set of QoS parameters.IEEE 802. e. jitter. and throughput assurances Identified by a 32-bit SFID (Service Flow ID) Provisioned: controlled by network management system Admitted: the required resources reserved by BS.. but not active Active: the required resources committed by the BS Service Flow Three types of service flows . latency.g.16 MAC ± CPS QoS Three components of 802.16 QoS Service flow QoS scheduling Dynamic service establishment Two-phase activation model (admit first.
IEEE 802.16 MAC ± CPS ± Uplink Service Classes UGS: Unsolicited Grant Services rtPS: Real-time Polling Services nrtPS: Non-real-time Polling Services BE: Best Effort .
T1/E1.IEEE 802.. The SS does not need to send any explicit UL BW req. e. The BS scheduler offers fixed size UL BW grants on a real-time periodic basis. .g.16 MAC ± CPS ± Uplink Services: UGS UGS: Unsolicited Grant Services For CBR or CBR-like services.
e. The SS uses the offered UL BW req. . UL BW request opportunities. opportunity to specify the desired UL BW grant. The BS scheduler offers real-time.IEEE 802.16 MAC ± CPS ± Uplink Services: rtPS rtPS: Real-time Polling Services For rt-VBR-like services.g. The SS cannot use contention-based BW req. MPEG video. periodic..
IEEE 802. . The SS can use contention-based BW req. opportunities to send BW req.16 MAC ± CPS ± Uplink Services: nrtPS nrtPS: non-real-time polling services For nrt-VBR-like services. bandwidth-intensive file transfer. The BS scheduler shall provide timely (on a order of a second or less) UL BW request opportunities. such as.
. SMTP.16 MAC ± CPS ± Uplink Services: BE BE: Best Effort For best-effort traffic.g.IEEE 802. e. . HTTP. The SS uses the contention-based BW request opportunities.
16 MAC ± CPS ± Bandwidth Grant BW grants are per Subscriber Station: Allows real-time reaction to QoS need...e. i.loading base station¶s work Requires intelligent subscriber station to redistribute the allocated BW among connections .IEEE 802. SS may re-distribute bandwidth among its connections. less UL-MAP entries compare to grant per connection Off. i. maintaining QoS and service-level agreements Lower overhead.e.
header Sends in either a contention-based BW req. as indicated by MAC header± Presented in Grant Management (GM) sub-header in a data MAC PDU of the same UL connection is always incremental Up to 32 KB per request for the CID Presented in the GM sub-header on a UGS connection request a bandwidth req.e.16 MAC ± CPS ± BW Request/Grant Mechanisms Implicit requests (UGS): No actual requests BW request messages.he special B Requests up to 32 KB with a single message Request Incremental or aggregate. slot or a regular UL allocation for the SS..IEEE 802. opportunity for non-UGS services Piggybacked request (for non-UGS services only) Poll-Me bit . BW req. i.
IEEE 802.Contention UL Access Two types of Contention based UL slots Initial Ranging Used for new SS to join the system Requires a long preamble BW Request Used for sending BW req Short preamble Detection: SS does not get the expected response in a given time Resolution: a truncated binary exponential backoff window Collision Detection and Resolution .16 MAC ± CPS -.
16 MAC ± CPS UL Sub-Frame Structure Source: http://www.pdf .com/pdf/WP_PN_Article.cygnuscom.IEEE 802.
. BS performs measurements and feedback. and PHY parameters. etc. SS performs necessary adjustments.IEEE 802. Tx power level. such as.16 MAC ± CPS ± Ranging Ranging is a process of acquiring the correct timing offset. so that the SS can communicate with the BS correctly. Two types of Ranging: Initial ranging: for a new SS to join the system Periodic ranging (also called maintenance ranging): dynamically maintain a good RF link. frequency offset.
Uses CRC-32 checksum of MAC PDU to check data errors. Maintain the same fragmentation structure for Retransmission. Uses a 11-bit sequence number field. Per connection basis. Only effective to non-real-time applications.16 MAC ± CPS ± Automatic Repeat reQuest (ARQ) A Layer-2 sliding-window based flow control mechanism. Optional.IEEE 802. .
16 MAC ± Privacy Sub-layer (PS) Two Major Functions: Secures over-the-air transmissions Protects from theft of service Data encryption protocol A client/server model based Key management protocol (Privacy Key Management.IEEE 802. or PKM) Two component protocols: .
IEEE 802. e.16 MAC ± PS -.Security Associations A set of privacy information.. encryption keys. used encryption algorithm Three types of Security Associations (SAs) Primary SA: established during initial registration Static SA: provisioned within the BS Dynamic SA: dynamically created on the fly Identified by a 16-bit SAID Connections are mapped to SAs .g.
IEEE 802.509 digital certificate Issued by SS manufacturers Used to encrypt AK Provided by BS to SS at authorization Used to derive KEK Derived from AK Used to encrypt TEK Provided by BS to SS at key exchange Used to encrypt traffic data payload Authorization Key (AK) Key Encryption Key (KEK) Traffic Encryption Key (TEK) .Multi-level Keys and Their Usage Public Key Contained in X.16 MAC ± PS -.
Management messages are unencrypted. . and PHY synchronization field in DL-MAP. MAC PDU headers are unencrypted.Data Encryption Use DES (Data Encryption Standard) in CBC (Cipher Block Chaining) mode with IV (Initialization Vector). Only MAC PDU payload (including subheaders) is encrypted. CBC IV is calculated from IV parameter in TEK keying info.16 MAC ± PS -.IEEE 802.
IEEE 802.16 MAC ± one big item is out of scope Scheduler .
Questions ?? .
wikipedia.org/wiki/WiMax .16-2004 Alcatel White Paper: WiMAX.com http://en.wimaxforum. making ubiquitous high-speed data services a reality Intel White Paper: Understanding WiMAX and 3G for Portable/Mobile Broadband Wireless WiMAX Forum: www.References IEEE802.
16 MAC ± commonly used terms BS ± Base Station SS ± Subscriber Station. from SS to BS FDD ± Frequency Division Duplex TDD ± Time Division Duplex TDMA ± Time Division Multiple Access TDM ± Time Division Multiplexing OFDM ± Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing OFDMA . from BS to SS UL ± Uplink. i.Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple Access QoS ± Quality of Service .e. CPE) DL ± Downlink.e. i..IEEE 802.e. (i.
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